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Sample records for inhibits hiv replication

  1. Novel Approaches to Inhibiting HIV-1 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Catherine S.; Freed, Eric O.

    2009-01-01

    Considerable success has been achieved in the treatment of HIV-1 infection, and more than two-dozen antiretroviral drugs are available targeting several distinct steps in the viral replication cycle. However, resistance to these compounds emerges readily, even in the context of combination therapy. Drug toxicity, adverse drug-drug interactions, and accompanying poor patient adherence can also lead to treatment failure. These considerations make continued development of novel antiretroviral therapeutics necessary. In this article, we highlight a number of steps in the HIV-1 replication cycle that represent promising targets for drug discovery. These include lipid raft microdomains, the RNase H activity of the viral enzyme reverse transcriptase, uncoating of the viral core, host cell machinery involved in the integration of the viral DNA into host cell chromatin, virus assembly, maturation, and budding, and the functions of several viral accessory proteins. We discuss the relevant molecular and cell biology, and describe progress to date in developing inhibitors against these novel targets. PMID:19782103

  2. A nucleolar localizing Rev binding element inhibits HIV replication

    PubMed Central

    Michienzi, Alessandro; De Angelis, Fernanda G; Bozzoni, Irene; Rossi, John J

    2006-01-01

    The Rev protein of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) facilitates the nuclear export of intron containing viral mRNAs allowing formation of infectious virions. Rev traffics through the nucleolus and shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Rev multimerization and interaction with the export protein CRM1 takes place in the nucleolus. To test the importance of Rev nucleolar trafficking in the HIV-1 replication cycle, we created a nucleolar localizing Rev Response Element (RRE) decoy and tested this for its anti-HIV activity. The RRE decoy provided marked inhibition of HIV-1 replication in both the CEM T-cell line and in primary CD34+ derived monocytes. These results demonstrate that titration of Rev in the nucleolus impairs HIV-1 replication and supports a functional role for Rev trafficking in this sub-cellular compartment. PMID:16712721

  3. Hili inhibits HIV replication in activated T cells.

    PubMed

    Peterlin, B Matija; Liu, Pingyang; Wang, Xiaoyun; Cary, Daniele; Shao, Wei; Leoz, Marie; Hong, Tian; Pan, Tao; Fujinaga, Koh

    2017-03-22

    Piwil proteins restrict the replication of mobile genetic elements in the germline. They are also expressed in many transformed cell lines. In this report, we discovered that the human piwil 2 (hili) can also inhibit HIV replication, especially in activated CD4+ T cells that are the preferred target cells for this virus in the infected host. Although resting cells did not express hili, it was rapidly induced following T cell activation. In these cells and transformed cell lines, depletion of hili increased levels of viral proteins and new viral particles. Further studies revealed that hili binds to tRNA. Some of them represent rare tRNA species, whose codons are over-represented in the viral genome. Targeting tRNA(Arg)(UCU) with an antisense oligonucleotide replicated effects of hili and also inhibited HIV replication. Finally, hili also inhibited the retrotransposition of the endogenous intracysternal A particle (IAP) by a similar mechanism. Thus, hili joins a list of host proteins that inhibit the replication of HIV and other mobile genetic elements.IMPORTANCE Piwil proteins inhibit the movement of mobile genetic elements in the germline. In their absence, sperm does not form and male mice are sterile. This inhibition is thought to occur via small piRNAs. However, in some species and in human somatic cells, piwil proteins bind primarily to tRNA. In this report, we demonstrate that human piwil proteins, especially hili, not only bind to select tRNA species that include rare tRNAs, but also inhibit HIV replication. Importantly, T cell activation induces the expression of hili in CD4+ T cells. Since hili also inhibited the movement of an endogenous retrovirus (IAP), our finding shed new light on this intracellular resistance to exogenous and endogenous retroviruses as well as other mobile genetic elements.

  4. GADD45 proteins inhibit HIV-1 replication through specific suppression of HIV-1 transcription.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhibin; Liu, Ruikang; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Suzhen; Hu, Xiaomei; Tan, Juan; Liang, Chen; Qiao, Wentao

    2016-06-01

    GADD45 proteins are a group of stress-induced proteins and participate in various cellular pathways including cell cycle regulation, cell survival and death, DNA repair and demethylation. It was recently shown that HIV-1 infection induces the expression of GADD45 proteins. However, the effect of GADD45 on HIV-1 replication has not been studied. Here, we report that overexpression of GADD45 proteins reduces HIV-1 production through suppressing transcription from the HIV-1 LTR promoter. This inhibitory effect is specific to HIV-1, since GADD45 proteins neither inhibit the LTR promoters from other retroviruses nor reduce the production of these viruses. Knockdown of endogenous GADD45 modestly activates HIV-1 in the J-Lat A72 latency cell line, which suggests GADD45 proteins might play a role in maintaining HIV-1 latency.

  5. Short Communication: HIV Controller T Cells Effectively Inhibit Viral Replication in Alveolar Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Walker-Sperling, Victoria E; Merlo, Christian A; Buckheit, Robert W; Lambert, Allison; Tarwater, Patrick; Kirk, Greg D; Drummond, M Bradley; Blankson, Joel N

    Macrophages are targets of HIV-1 infection, and control of viral replication within these cells may be an important component of a T-cell-based vaccine. Although several studies have analyzed the ability of CD8(+) T cells to inhibit viral replication in monocyte-derived macrophages, the effect of T cells on HIV-1-infected tissue macrophages is less clear. We demonstrate here that both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell effectors from HIV controllers are capable of suppressing viral replication in bronchoalveolar lavage-derived alveolar macrophages. These findings have implications for HIV-1 vaccine and eradication strategies.

  6. Long-term inhibition of HIV-1 replication with RNA interference against cellular co-factors.

    PubMed

    Eekels, Julia J M; Geerts, Dirk; Jeeninga, Rienk E; Berkhout, Ben

    2011-01-01

    In this study we tested whether HIV-1 replication could be inhibited by stable RNAi-mediated knockdown of cellular co-factors. Cell lines capable of expressing shRNAs against 30 candidate co-factors implicated at different steps of the viral replication cycle were generated and analyzed for effects on cell viability and inhibition of HIV-1 replication. For half of these candidate co-factors we obtained knockdown cell lines that are less susceptible to virus replication. For three co-factors (ALIX, ATG16 and TRBP) the cell lines were resistant to HIV-1 replication for up to 2 months. With these cells we could test the hypothesis that HIV-1 is not able to escape from RNAi-mediated suppression of cellular co-factors, which was indeed not detected.

  7. Methamphetamine inhibits HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cells by modulating anti-HIV-1 miRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Mantri, Chinmay K; Mantri, Jyoti V; Pandhare, Jui; Dash, Chandravanu

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine is the second most frequently used illicit drug in the United States. Methamphetamine abuse is associated with increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition, higher viral loads, and enhanced HIV-1 pathogenesis. Although a direct link between methamphetamine abuse and HIV-1 pathogenesis remains to be established in patients, methamphetamine has been shown to increase HIV-1 replication in macrophages, dendritic cells, and cells of HIV transgenic mice. Intriguingly, the effects of methamphetamine on HIV-1 replication in human CD4(+) T cells that serve as the primary targets of infection in vivo are not clearly understood. Therefore, we examined HIV-1 replication in primary CD4(+) T cells in the presence of methamphetamine in a dose-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that methamphetamine had a minimal effect on HIV-1 replication at concentrations of 1 to 50 μmol/L. However, at concentrations >100 μmol/L, it inhibited HIV-1 replication in a dose-dependent manner. We also discovered that methamphetamine up-regulated the cellular anti-HIV-1 microRNAs (miR-125b, miR-150, and miR-28-5p) in CD4(+) T cells. Knockdown experiments illustrated that up-regulation of the anti-HIV miRNAs inhibited HIV-1 replication. These results are contrary to the paradigm that methamphetamine accentuates HIV-1 pathogenesis by increasing HIV-1 replication. Therefore, our findings underline the complex interaction between drug use and HIV-1 and necessitate comprehensive understanding of the effects of methamphetamine on HIV-1 pathogenesis.

  8. Methamphetamine Inhibits HIV-1 Replication in CD4+ T Cells by Modulating Anti–HIV-1 miRNA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Mantri, Chinmay K.; Mantri, Jyoti V.; Pandhare, Jui; Dash, Chandravanu

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine is the second most frequently used illicit drug in the United States. Methamphetamine abuse is associated with increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition, higher viral loads, and enhanced HIV-1 pathogenesis. Although a direct link between methamphetamine abuse and HIV-1 pathogenesis remains to be established in patients, methamphetamine has been shown to increase HIV-1 replication in macrophages, dendritic cells, and cells of HIV transgenic mice. Intriguingly, the effects of methamphetamine on HIV-1 replication in human CD4+ T cells that serve as the primary targets of infection in vivo are not clearly understood. Therefore, we examined HIV-1 replication in primary CD4+ T cells in the presence of methamphetamine in a dose-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that methamphetamine had a minimal effect on HIV-1 replication at concentrations of 1 to 50 μmol/L. However, at concentrations >100 μmol/L, it inhibited HIV-1 replication in a dose-dependent manner. We also discovered that methamphetamine up-regulated the cellular anti–HIV-1 microRNAs (miR-125b, miR-150, and miR-28-5p) in CD4+ T cells. Knockdown experiments illustrated that up-regulation of the anti-HIV miRNAs inhibited HIV-1 replication. These results are contrary to the paradigm that methamphetamine accentuates HIV-1 pathogenesis by increasing HIV-1 replication. Therefore, our findings underline the complex interaction between drug use and HIV-1 and necessitate comprehensive understanding of the effects of methamphetamine on HIV-1 pathogenesis. PMID:24434277

  9. Inhibition of HIV replication by pokeweed antiviral protein targeted to CD4+ cells by monoclonal antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarling, Joyce M.; Moran, Patricia A.; Haffar, Omar; Sias, Joan; Richman, Douglas D.; Spina, Celsa A.; Myers, Dorothea E.; Kuebelbeck, Virginia; Ledbetter, Jeffrey A.; Uckun, Fatih M.

    1990-09-01

    FUNCTIONAL impairment and selective depletion of CD4+ T cells, the hallmark of AIDS, are at least partly caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) type 1 binding to the CD4 molecule and infecting CD4+ cells1,2. It may, therefore, be of therapeutic value to target an antiviral agent to CD4+ cells to prevent infection and to inhibit HIV-1 production in patients' CD4+ cells which contain proviral DNA3,4. We report here that HIV-1 replication in normal primary CD4+ T cells can be inhibited by pokeweed antiviral protein, a plant protein of relative molecular mass 30,000 (ref. 5), which inhibits replication of certain plant RNA viruses6-8, and of herpes simplex virus, poliovirus and influenza virus9-11. Targeting pokeweed antiviral protein to CD4+ T cells by conjugating it to monoclonal antibodies reactive with CDS, CD7 or CD4 expressed on CD4+ cells, increased its anti-HIV potency up to 1,000-fold. HIV-1 replication is inhibited at picomolar concentrations of conjugates of pokeweed antiviral protein and monoclonal antibodies, which do not inhibit proliferation of normal CD4+ T cells or CD4-dependent responses. These conjugates inhibit HIV-1 protein synthesis and also strongly inhibit HIV-1 production in activated CD4+ T cells from infected patients.

  10. IL-1β and IL-18 inhibition of HIV-1 replication in Jurkat cells and PBMCs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Mbondji-Wonje, Christelle; Zhao, Jiangqin; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-05-13

    HIV-1 infection-induced apoptosis is able to ensure viral replication. The death of some CD4+ T cells residing in lymphoid tissues can be induced by HIV-1 infection through caspase-1 driven pyroptosis with release of cytokine of IL-1β and IL-18. It is not well known whether IL-1β and IL-18 affect HIV-1 replication in lymphocytic cells. Using susceptible lymphocytic cell line, Jurkat cells, and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), we studied the effects of IL-1β and IL-18 on HIV-1 replication. We found that treatment with exogenous IL-1β protein (rIL-1β) and IL-18 protein (rIL-18), or expression of IL-1β and IL-18 significantly reduced HIV-1 replication. HIV-1 infection enhanced caspase-3 expression and its activation, and had no effects on caspase-1 activity. Treatment with rIL-1β and rIL-18 dramatically lowered caspase-3 activity. IL-1β and IL-18 also played roles in diminishing reactivation of viral replication from latency in J1.1 cells. These results indicate that IL-1β and IL-18 are able to inhibit HIV-1 replication, and their effects may be due to signaling through apoptosis involved in inactivation of caspase-3 activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Soybean-derived Bowman-Birk Inhibitor (BBI) Inhibits HIV Replication in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tong-Cui; Zhou, Run-Hong; Wang, Xu; Li, Jie-Liang; Sang, Ming; Zhou, Li; Zhuang, Ke; Hou, Wei; Guo, De-Yin; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2016-01-01

    The Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI), a soybean-derived protease inhibitor, is known to have anti-inflammatory effect in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Macrophages play a key role in inflammation and immune activation, which is implicated in HIV disease progression. Here, we investigated the effect of BBI on HIV infection of peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages. We demonstrated that BBI could potently inhibit HIV replication in macrophages without cytotoxicity. Investigation of the mechanism(s) of BBI action on HIV showed that BBI induced the expression of IFN-β and multiple IFN stimulated genes (ISGs), including Myxovirus resistance protein 2 (Mx2), 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS-1), Virus inhibitory protein (viperin), ISG15 and ISG56. BBI treatment of macrophages also increased the expression of several known HIV restriction factors, including APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G and tetherin. Furthermore, BBI enhanced the phosphorylation of IRF3, a key regulator of IFN-β. The inhibition of IFN-β pathway by the neutralization antibody to type I IFN receptor (Anti-IFNAR) abolished BBI-mediated induction of the anti-HIV factors and inhibition of HIV in macrophages. These findings that BBI could activate IFN-β-mediated signaling pathway, initialize the intracellular innate immunity in macrophages and potently inhibit HIV at multiple steps of viral replication cycle indicate the necessity to further investigate BBI as an alternative and cost-effective anti-HIV natural product. PMID:27734899

  12. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by newly developed adamantane-containing polyanionic agents.

    PubMed

    Burstein, M E; Serbin, A V; Khakhulina, T V; Alymova, I V; Stotskaya, L L; Bogdan, O P; Manukchina, E E; Jdanov, V V; Sharova, N K; Bukrinskaya, A G

    1999-04-01

    Newly developed antiviral compounds consisting of an adamantane derivative chemically linked to a water-soluble polyanionic matrix were shown to inhibit HIV-1 infection in lymphoblastoid cells, HeLa CD4+ beta-galactosidase (MAGI) cells and macrophages. The effect of the compounds was recorded by measuring viral reverse transcriptase activity and p24 by ELISA in culture supernatant and by immunoblotting of cell lysates. In this paper we describe the data obtained with one of the most promising compounds, Amant. Amant was not toxic for the host cells at concentrations as high as 1 mg/ml. The inhibition of HIV-1 replication in MT-4 and MAGI cells was observed when Amant was added either before infection or with the virus (0 h of infection), and was expressed even when the compound added at 0 h was removed 1.5 h after infection. Its inhibitory concentration (IC50) against HIV-1 and HIV-2 replication was 2-6 and 93 microg/ml, respectively. The anti-HIV-1 effect of the compound was gradually decreased when it was added 1 and 2 h post infection, and no inhibition was observed when the compound was added 4 h after infection, suggesting that the compound as a membranotropic drug blocks an early step of replication. It completely prevented the transport of Gag proteins into the nuclei. Pretreatment of the virus with Amant did not reduce its infectious activity. The classical adamantane derivatives amantadine and rimantadine hydrochloride did not inhibit HIV replication.

  13. Pertussis toxin B-oligomer inhibits HIV infection and replication in hu-PBL-SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Lapenta, Caterina; Spada, Massimo; Santini, Stefano M; Racca, Sara; Dorigatti, Fernanda; Poli, Guido; Belardelli, Filippo; Alfano, Massimo

    2005-04-01

    Bordetella pertussis toxin B-oligomer (PTX-B) has been shown to inhibit HIV infection and replication in vitro. The potential anti-viral effect of PTX-B was tested here in an in vivo surrogate model of HIV infection, i.e. SCID mice reconstituted with human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) (hu-PBL-SCID) and infected with a CCR5-dependent (R5) HIV-1 strain. SCID mice inoculated intra-peritoneal (i.p.) with PTX-B and then infected with the R5 strain SF-162 were sacrificed 7 days later and analyzed for human PBL (hu-PBL) lymphoid tissue reconstitution, infection of hu-PBL, plasma viremia and viral rescue from ex vivo-cultivated i.p. hu-PBL. Unlike mice treated with 500 ng per animal of PTX-B showing no evidence of viral inhibition, daily administration of PTX-B (50 ng per mouse) strongly inhibited virus infection and replication, as determined by undetectable viremia, absence of infected hu-PBL and lack of rescue of infectious HIV in most animals. Furthermore, PTX-B injection 2 h before and twice after infection prevented HIV-1 infection and replication in all (10/10) tested animals. Thus, PTX-B potently inhibited virus infection and replication in hu-PBL-SCID mice, supporting the hypothesis that it may represent a new pharmacological agent against HIV-1 infection.

  14. Some findings of FADD knockdown in inhibition of HIV-1 replication in Jurkat cells and PBMCs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Tan, Jiying; Zhao, Jiangqin; Ragupathy, Viswannath; Haleyurgirisetty, Mohan; Hewlett, Indira

    2014-08-01

    Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) is a key adaptor molecule transmitting the death signal mediated by death receptors, and it is also required for T cell proliferation. A recent study indicated that FADD is able to affect HIV-1 production, but the mechanism is not known. Using the susceptible Jurkat cell line and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we studied the effects of FADD on HIV-1 production. TaqMan RT-PCR was used to quantify HIV-1 viral RNA copies, and Western blot analysis was used to detect protein expression. FADD knockdown decreased HIV-1 replication and inactivated caspase-3 activity in the cells and blocked CD4 translocation to the lipid rafts of the plasma membrane. Reduced expression of FADD suppressed TCR signaling through downregulation of TCR, CD3, and Zap-70 in response to HIV-1 infection and blocked the trafficking of TCR, CD3, CD28, and Zap-70 to lipid rafts, leading to reduced activation of NF-κB and NFAT, which are required for HIV-1 replication. FADD knockdown diminished caspase-8 migration to lipid rafts and its expression in response to HIV-1 infection. These results indicate that FADD, as a host pro-apoptotic protein, plays important roles in regulating HIV-1 replication and production in several ways, and apoptotic pathway inhibition is able to decrease HIV-1 replication and production.

  15. Fullerene Derivatives Strongly Inhibit HIV-1 Replication by Affecting Virus Maturation without Impairing Protease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Zachary S.; Castro, Edison; Seong, Chang-Soo; Cerón, Maira R.

    2016-01-01

    Three compounds (1, 2, and 3) previously reported to inhibit HIV-1 replication and/or in vitro activity of reverse transcriptase were studied, but only fullerene derivatives 1 and 2 showed strong antiviral activity on the replication of HIV-1 in human CD4+ T cells. However, these compounds did not inhibit infection by single-round infection vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G (VSV-G)-pseudotyped viruses, indicating no effect on the early steps of the viral life cycle. In contrast, analysis of single-round infection VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV-1 produced in the presence of compound 1 or 2 showed a complete lack of infectivity in human CD4+ T cells, suggesting that the late stages of the HIV-1 life cycle were affected. Quantification of virion-associated viral RNA and p24 indicates that RNA packaging and viral production were unremarkable in these viruses. However, Gag and Gag-Pol processing was affected, as evidenced by immunoblot analysis with an anti-p24 antibody and the measurement of virion-associated reverse transcriptase activity, ratifying the effect of the fullerene derivatives on virion maturation of the HIV-1 life cycle. Surprisingly, fullerenes 1 and 2 did not inhibit HIV-1 protease in an in vitro assay at the doses that potently blocked viral infectivity, suggesting a protease-independent mechanism of action. Highlighting the potential therapeutic relevance of fullerene derivatives, these compounds block infection by HIV-1 resistant to protease and maturation inhibitors. PMID:27431232

  16. Potent Inhibition of HIV-1 Replication in Resting CD4 T Cells by Resveratrol and Pterostilbene.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chi N; Trinité, Benjamin; Levy, David N

    2017-09-01

    HIV-1 infection of resting CD4 T cells plays a crucial and numerically dominant role during virus transmission at mucosal sites and during subsequent acute replication and T cell depletion. Resveratrol and pterostilbene are plant stilbenoids associated with several health-promoting benefits. Resveratrol has been shown to inhibit the replication of several viruses, including herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, papillomaviruses, severe acute respiratory syndrome virus, and influenza virus. Alone, resveratrol does not inhibit HIV-1 infection of activated T cells, but it does synergize with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in these cells to inhibit reverse transcription. Here, we demonstrate that resveratrol and pterostilbene completely block HIV-1 infection at a low micromolar dose in resting CD4 T cells, primarily at the reverse transcription step. The anti-HIV effect was fully reversed by exogenous deoxynucleosides and Vpx, an HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus protein that increases deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) levels. These findings are consistent with the reported ability of resveratrol to inhibit ribonucleotide reductase and to lower dNTP levels in cells. This study supports the potential use of resveratrol, pterostilbene, or related compounds as adjuvants in anti-HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) formulations. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA-1 (ADAR1) Inhibits HIV-1 Replication in Human Alveolar Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David N.; Li, Yonghua; Kumar, Rajnish; Burke, Sean A.; Dawson, Rodney; Hioe, Catarina E.; Borkowsky, William; Rom, William N.; Hoshino, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    While exploring the effects of aerosol IFN-γ treatment in HIV-1/tuberculosis co-infected patients, we observed A to G mutations in HIV-1 envelope sequences derived from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of aerosol IFN-γ-treated patients and induction of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) in the BAL cells. IFN-γ induced ADAR1 expression in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) but not T cells. ADAR1 siRNA knockdown induced HIV-1 expression in BAL cells of four HIV-1 infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. Similar results were obtained in MDM that were HIV-1 infected in vitro. Over-expression of ADAR1 in transformed macrophages inhibited HIV-1 viral replication but not viral transcription measured by nuclear run-on, suggesting that ADAR1 acts post-transcriptionally. The A to G hyper-mutation pattern observed in ADAR1 over-expressing cells in vitro was similar to that found in the lungs of HIV-1 infected patients treated with aerosol IFN-γ suggesting the model accurately represented alveolar macrophages. Together, these results indicate that ADAR1 restricts HIV-1 replication post-transcriptionally in macrophages harboring HIV-1 provirus. ADAR1 may therefore contribute to viral latency in macrophages. PMID:25272020

  18. Vaginal Lactobacillus Inhibits HIV-1 Replication in Human Tissues Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ñahui Palomino, Rogers A.; Zicari, Sonia; Vanpouille, Christophe; Vitali, Beatrice; Margolis, Leonid

    2017-01-01

    Lactobacillus species, which dominate vaginal microbiota of healthy reproductive-age women, lower the risks of sexually transmitted infections, including the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. The exact mechanisms of this protection remain to be understood. Here, we investigated these mechanisms in the context of human cervico-vaginal and lymphoid tissues ex vivo. We found that all six Lactobacillus strains tested in these systems significantly suppressed HIV type-1 (HIV-1) infection. We identified at least three factors that mediated this suppression: (i) Acidification of the medium. The pH of the undiluted medium conditioned by lactobacilli was between 3.8 and 4.6. Acidification of the culture medium with hydrochloric acid (HCl) to this pH in control experiments was sufficient to abrogate HIV-1 replication. However, the pH of the Lactobacillus-conditioned medium (CM) diluted fivefold, which reached ∼6.9, was also suppressive for HIV-1 infection, while in control experiments HIV-1 infection was not abrogated when the pH of the medium was brought to 6.9 through the use of HCl. This suggested the existence of other factors responsible for HIV-1 inhibition by lactobacilli. (ii) Lactic acid. There was a correlation between the concentration of lactic acid in the Lactobacillus-CM and its ability to suppress HIV-1 infection in human tissues ex vivo. Addition of lactic acid isomers D and L to tissue culture medium at the concentration that corresponded to their amount released by lactobacilli resulted in HIV-1 inhibition. Isomer L was produced in higher quantities than isomer D and was mostly responsible for HIV-1 inhibition. These results indicate that lactic acid, in particular its L-isomer, inhibits HIV-1 independently of lowering of the pH. (iii) Virucidal effect. Incubation of HIV-1 in Lactobacillus-CM significantly suppressed viral infectivity for human tissues ex vivo. Finally, lactobacilli adsorb HIV-1, serving as a sink decreasing the

  19. Dicaffeoyltartaric acid analogues inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase and HIV-1 replication at nontoxic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Reinke, Ryan A; King, Peter J; Victoria, Joseph G; McDougall, Brenda R; Ma, Guoxiang; Mao, Yingqun; Reinecke, Manfred G; Robinson, W Edward

    2002-08-15

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a major health problem worldwide. In this study, 17 analogues of L-chicoric acid, a potent inhibitor of HIV integrase, were studied. Of these analogues, five submicromolar inhibitors of integrase were discovered and 13 compounds with activity against integrase at less than 10 microM were identified. Six demonstrated greater than 10-fold selectivity for HIV replication over cellular toxicity. Ten analogues inhibited HIV replication at nontoxic concentrations. Alteration of the linkages between the two bis-catechol rings, including the use of amides, mixed amide esters, cholate, and alkyl bridges, was explored. Amides were as active as esters but were more toxic in tissue culture. Alkyl and cholate bridges were significantly less potent against HIV-1 integrase in vitro and were inactive against HIV-1 replication. Two amino acid derivates and one digalloylderivative of L-chicoric acid (L-CA) showed improved selectivity over L-CA against integration in cell culture. These data suggest that in addition to the bis-catechols and free carboxylic acid groups reported previously, polar linkages are important constituents for optimal activity against HIV-1 integrase and that new derivatives can be developed with increased specificity for integration over HIV entry in vivo.

  20. Inhibition of HIV replication in vitro by clinical immunosuppressants and chemotherapeutic agents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that a functional cure for HIV-1 infection, purportedly resultant from allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, may be possible. Additionally, the first such patient was treated with whole-body irradiation, immunosuppressants, and the chemotherapeutic, cytarabine. However, the precise role of the coinciding medical interventions in diminishing detectable HIV reservoirs remains unstudied. Findings In this article, we demonstrate that the immunosuppressants, mycophenolic acid and cyclosporine, and the chemotherapeutic, cytarabine, are potent antiretroviral agents at clinically relevant dosages. These drugs strongly inhibit HIV-1 replication in a GFP indicator T cell line and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Conclusions Our study suggests that certain clinical immunosuppressants and chemotherapeutic agents may act combinatorially to inhibit HIV infection. Additionally, chemotherapy-mediated cytotoxicity may also affect the stability of viral reservoirs. Thus, further study is needed to examine potential therapeutic value of these interventions in patients. PMID:23672887

  1. The HIV protease inhibitor nelfinavir inhibits Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gantt, Soren; Carlsson, Jacquelyn; Ikoma, Minako; Gachelet, Eliora; Gray, Matthew; Geballe, Adam P; Corey, Lawrence; Casper, Corey; Lagunoff, Michael; Vieira, Jeffrey

    2011-06-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common HIV-associated cancer worldwide and is associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality in some regions. Antiretroviral (ARV) combination regimens have had mixed results for KS progression and resolution. Anecdotal case reports suggest that protease inhibitors (PIs) may have effects against KS that are independent of their effect on HIV infection. As such, we evaluated whether PIs or other ARVs directly inhibit replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the gammaherpesvirus that causes KS. Among a broad panel of ARVs tested, only the PI nelfinavir consistently displayed potent inhibitory activity against KSHV in vitro as demonstrated by an efficient quantitative assay for infectious KSHV using a recombinant virus, rKSHV.294, which expresses the secreted alkaline phosphatase. This inhibitory activity of nelfinavir against KSHV replication was confirmed using virus derived from a second primary effusion lymphoma cell line. Nelfinavir was similarly found to inhibit in vitro replication of an alphaherpesvirus (herpes simplex virus) and a betaherpesvirus (human cytomegalovirus). No activity was observed with nelfinavir against vaccinia virus or adenovirus. Nelfinavir may provide unique benefits for the prevention or treatment of HIV-associated KS and potentially other human herpesviruses by direct inhibition of replication.

  2. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by balsamin, a ribosome inactivating protein of Momordica balsamina.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Inderdeep; Puri, Munish; Ahmed, Zahra; Blanchet, Fabien P; Mangeat, Bastien; Piguet, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are endowed with several medicinal properties, including antiviral activity. We demonstrate here that the recently identified type I RIP from Momordica balsamina also possesses antiviral activity, as determined by viral growth curve assays and single-round infection experiments. Importantly, this activity is at play even as doses where the RIP has no cytotoxic effect. In addition, balsamin inhibits HIV-1 replication not only in T cell lines but also in human primary CD4(+) T cells. This antiviral compound exerts its activity at a viral replicative step occurring later than reverse-transcription, most likely on viral protein translation, prior to viral budding and release. Finally, we demonstrate that balsamin antiviral activity is broad since it also impedes influenza virus replication. Altogether our results demonstrate that type I RIP can exert a potent anti-HIV-1 activity which paves the way for new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of viral infections.

  3. Inhibition of HIV-1 Replication by Balsamin, a Ribosome Inactivating Protein of Momordica balsamina

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Zahra; Blanchet, Fabien P.; Mangeat, Bastien; Piguet, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are endowed with several medicinal properties, including antiviral activity. We demonstrate here that the recently identified type I RIP from Momordica balsamina also possesses antiviral activity, as determined by viral growth curve assays and single-round infection experiments. Importantly, this activity is at play even as doses where the RIP has no cytotoxic effect. In addition, balsamin inhibits HIV-1 replication not only in T cell lines but also in human primary CD4+ T cells. This antiviral compound exerts its activity at a viral replicative step occurring later than reverse-transcription, most likely on viral protein translation, prior to viral budding and release. Finally, we demonstrate that balsamin antiviral activity is broad since it also impedes influenza virus replication. Altogether our results demonstrate that type I RIP can exert a potent anti-HIV-1 activity which paves the way for new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of viral infections. PMID:24040067

  4. CRISPR-Cas9 Can Inhibit HIV-1 Replication but NHEJ Repair Facilitates Virus Escape.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Zhao, Na; Berkhout, Ben; Das, Atze T

    2016-03-01

    Several recent studies demonstrated that the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated endonuclease Cas9 can be used for guide RNA (gRNA)-directed, sequence-specific cleavage of HIV proviral DNA in infected cells. We here demonstrate profound inhibition of HIV-1 replication by harnessing T cells with Cas9 and antiviral gRNAs. However, the virus rapidly and consistently escaped from this inhibition. Sequencing of the HIV-1 escape variants revealed nucleotide insertions, deletions, and substitutions around the Cas9/gRNA cleavage site that are typical for DNA repair by the nonhomologous end-joining pathway. We thus demonstrate the potency of CRISPR-Cas9 as an antiviral approach, but any therapeutic strategy should consider the viral escape implications.

  5. 2´,3´-Dialdehyde of ATP, ADP, and adenosine inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Schachter, Julieta; Valadao, Ana Luiza Chaves; Aguiar, Renato Santana; Barreto-de-Souza, Victor; Rossi, Atila Duque; Arantes, Pablo Ricardo; Verli, Hugo; Quintana, Paula Gabriela; Heise, Norton; Tanuri, Amilcar; Bou-Habib, Dumith Chequer; Persechini, Pedro Muanis

    2014-01-01

    The 2´3´-dialdehyde of ATP or oxidized ATP (oATP) is a compound known for specifically making covalent bonds with the nucleotide-binding site of several ATP-binding enzymes and receptors. We investigated the effects of oATP and other oxidized purines on HIV-1 infection and we found that this compound inhibits HIV-1 and SIV infection by blocking early steps of virus replication. oATP, oxidized ADP (oADP), and oxidized Adenosine (oADO) impact the natural activity of endogenous reverse transcriptase enzyme (RT) in cell free virus particles and are able to inhibit viral replication in different cell types when added to the cell cultures either before or after infection. We used UFLC-UV to show that both oADO and oATP can be detected in the cell after being added in the extracellular medium. oATP also suppresses RT activity and replication of the HIV-1 resistant variants M184V and T215Y. We conclude that oATP, oADP and oADO display anti HIV-1 activity that is at in least in part due to inhibitory activity on HIV-1 RT.

  6. Fullerene Derivatives Strongly Inhibit HIV-1 Replication by Affecting Virus Maturation without Impairing Protease Activity.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Zachary S; Castro, Edison; Seong, Chang-Soo; Cerón, Maira R; Echegoyen, Luis; Llano, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Three compounds (1, 2, and 3) previously reported to inhibit HIV-1 replication and/or in vitro activity of reverse transcriptase were studied, but only fullerene derivatives 1 and 2 showed strong antiviral activity on the replication of HIV-1 in human CD4(+) T cells. However, these compounds did not inhibit infection by single-round infection vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G (VSV-G)-pseudotyped viruses, indicating no effect on the early steps of the viral life cycle. In contrast, analysis of single-round infection VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV-1 produced in the presence of compound 1 or 2 showed a complete lack of infectivity in human CD4(+) T cells, suggesting that the late stages of the HIV-1 life cycle were affected. Quantification of virion-associated viral RNA and p24 indicates that RNA packaging and viral production were unremarkable in these viruses. However, Gag and Gag-Pol processing was affected, as evidenced by immunoblot analysis with an anti-p24 antibody and the measurement of virion-associated reverse transcriptase activity, ratifying the effect of the fullerene derivatives on virion maturation of the HIV-1 life cycle. Surprisingly, fullerenes 1 and 2 did not inhibit HIV-1 protease in an in vitro assay at the doses that potently blocked viral infectivity, suggesting a protease-independent mechanism of action. Highlighting the potential therapeutic relevance of fullerene derivatives, these compounds block infection by HIV-1 resistant to protease and maturation inhibitors. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Constitutively Active MAVS Inhibits HIV-1 Replication via Type I Interferon Secretion and Induction of HIV-1 Restriction Factors

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sachin; Termini, James M.; Issac, Biju; Guirado, Elizabeth; Stone, Geoffrey W.

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferon is known to inhibit HIV-1 replication through the induction of interferon stimulated genes (ISG), including a number of HIV-1 restriction factors. To better understand interferon-mediated HIV-1 restriction, we constructed a constitutively active form of the RIG-I adapter protein MAVS. Constitutive MAVS was generated by fusion of full length MAVS to a truncated form of the Epstein Barr virus protein LMP1 (ΔLMP1). Supernatant from ΔLMP1-MAVS-transfected 293T cells contained high levels of type I interferons and inhibited HIV replication in both TZM-bl and primary human CD4+ T cells. Supernatant from ΔLMP1-MAVS-transfected 293T cells also inhibited replication of VSV-G pseudotyped single cycle SIV in TZM-bl cells, suggesting restriction was post-entry and common to both HIV and SIV. Gene array analysis of ΔLMP1-MAVS-transfected 293T cells and trans-activated CD4+ T cells showed significant upregulation of ISG, including previously characterized HIV restriction factors Viperin, Tetherin, MxB, and ISG56. Interferon blockade studies implicated interferon-beta in this response. In addition to direct viral inhibition, ΔLMP1-MAVS markedly enhanced secretion of IFN-β and IL-12p70 by dendritic cells and the activation and maturation of dendritic cells. Based on this immunostimulatory activity, an adenoviral vector (Ad5) expressing ΔLMP1-MAVS was tested as a molecular adjuvant in an HIV vaccine mouse model. Ad5-Gag antigen combined with Ad5-ΔLMP1-MAVS enhanced control of vaccinia-gag replication in a mouse challenge model, with 4/5 animals showing undetectable virus following challenge. Overall, ΔLMP1-MAVS is a promising reagent to inhibit HIV-1 replication in infected tissues and enhance vaccine-mediated immune responses, while avoiding toxicity associated with systemic type I interferon administration. PMID:26849062

  8. Imperatorin inhibits HIV-1 replication through an Sp1-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Sancho, Rocío; Márquez, Nieves; Gómez-Gonzalo, Marta; Calzado, Marco A; Bettoni, Giorgio; Coiras, Maria Teresa; Alcamí, José; López-Cabrera, Manuel; Appendino, Giovanni; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2004-09-03

    Coumarins and structurally related compounds have been recently shown to present anti-human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) activity. Among them, the dietary furanocoumarin imperatorin is present in citrus fruits, in culinary herbs, and in some medicinal plants. In this study we report that imperatorin inhibits either vesicular stomatitis virus-pseudotyped or gp160-enveloped recombinant HIV-1 infection in several T cell lines and in HeLa cells. These recombinant viruses express luciferase as a marker of viral replication. Imperatorin did not inhibit the reverse transcription nor the integration steps in the viral cell cycle. Using several 5' long terminal repeat-HIV-1 constructs where critical response elements were either deleted or mutated, we found that the transcription factor Sp1 is critical for the inhibitory activity of imperatorin induced by both phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and HIV-1 Tat. Moreover in transient transfections imperatorin specifically inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced transcriptional activity of the Gal4-Sp1 fusion protein. Since Sp1 is also implicated in cell cycle progression we further studied the effect of imperatorin on cyclin D1 gene transcription and protein expression and in HeLa cell cycle progression. We found that imperatorin strongly inhibited cyclin D1 expression and arrested the cells at the G(1) phase of the cell cycle. These results highlight the potential of Sp1 transcription factor as a target for natural anti-HIV-1 compounds such as furanocoumarins that might have a potential therapeutic role in the management of AIDS.

  9. Inhibition of Acute-, Latent-, and Chronic-Phase Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Replication by a Bistriazoloacridone Analog That Selectively Inhibits HIV-1 Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Turpin, Jim A.; Buckheit, Robert W.; Derse, David; Hollingshead, Melinda; Williamson, Karen; Palamone, Carla; Osterling, M. Clayton; Hill, Shawn A.; Graham, Lisa; Schaeffer, Catherine A.; Bu, Ming; Huang, Mingjun; Cholody, Wieslaw M.; Michejda, Christopher J.; Rice, William G.

    1998-01-01

    Nanomolar concentrations of temacrazine (1,4-bis[3-(6-oxo-6H-v-triazolo[4,5,1-de]acridin-5-yl)amino-propyl]piperazine) were discovered to inhibit acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections and suppress the production of virus from chronically and latently infected cells containing integrated proviral DNA. This bistriazoloacridone derivative exerted its mechanism of antiviral action through selective inhibition of HIV-1 transcription during the postintegrative phase of virus replication. Mechanistic studies revealed that temacrazine blocked HIV-1 RNA formation without interference with the transcription of cellular genes or with events associated with the HIV-1 Tat and Rev regulatory proteins. Although temacrazine inhibited the in vitro 3′ processing and strand transfer activities of HIV-1 integrase, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of approximately 50 nM, no evidence of an inhibitory effect on the intracellular integration of proviral DNA into the cellular genome during the early phase of infection could be detected. Furthermore, temacrazine did not interfere with virus attachment or fusion to host cells or the enzymatic activities of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase or protease, and the compound was not directly virucidal. Demonstration of in vivo anti-HIV-1 activity by temacrazine identifies bistriazoloacridones as a new class of pharmaceuticals that selectively blocks HIV-1 transcription. PMID:9517921

  10. PEGylated poly(ethylene imine) copolymer-delivered siRNA inhibits HIV replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Weber, Nick D; Merkel, Olivia M; Kissel, Thomas; Muñoz-Fernández, María Ángeles

    2012-01-10

    RNA interference is increasingly being utilized for the specific targeting and down-regulation of disease-causing genes, including targeting viral infections such as HIV. T lymphocytes, the primary target for HIV, are very difficult to treat with gene therapy applications such as RNA interference because of issues with drug delivery. To circumvent these problems, we investigated poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) as a method of improving transfection efficiency of siRNA to T lymphocytes. Additionally, polyethylene glycol (PEG) moieties were engrafted to the PEI polymers with the goals of improving stability and reducing cytotoxicity. Initial studies on PEG-PEI/siRNA polyplex formation, size and their interaction with cell membranes demonstrated their feasibility as drug delivery agents. Assays with lymphocytes revealed low cytotoxicity profiles of the polyplexes at pharmacologically relevant concentrations with PEGylated copolymers obtaining the best results. Successful transfection of a T cell line or primary T cells with siRNA was observed via flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Finally, the biological effect of copolymer-delivered siRNA was measured. Of particular significance, siRNA targeted to the HIV gene nef and delivered by one of the PEG-PEI copolymers in repetitive treatments every 2-3 days was observed to inhibit HIV replication to the same extent as azidothymidine over the course of 15 days. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 inhibits antiviral IFN-beta signaling to enhance HIV-1 replication in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Lisa Nowoslawski; Qin, Hongwei; Muldowney, Michelle T; Yanagisawa, Lora L; Kutsch, Olaf; Clements, Janice E; Benveniste, Etty N

    2010-08-15

    HIV-1 replication within macrophages of the CNS often results in cognitive and motor impairment, which is known as HIV-associated dementia (HAD) in its most severe form. IFN-beta suppresses viral replication within these cells during early CNS infection, but the effect is transient. HIV-1 eventually overcomes this protective innate immune response to resume replication through an unknown mechanism, initiating the progression toward HAD. In this article, we show that Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS)3, a molecular inhibitor of IFN signaling, may allow HIV-1 to evade innate immunity within the CNS. We found that SOCS3 is elevated in an in vivo SIV/macaque model of HAD and that the pattern of expression correlates with recurrence of viral replication and onset of CNS disease. In vitro, the HIV-1 regulatory protein transactivator of transcription induces SOCS3 in human and murine macrophages in a NF-kappaB-dependent manner. SOCS3 expression attenuates the response of macrophages to IFN-beta at proximal levels of pathway activation and downstream antiviral gene expression and consequently overcomes the inhibitory effect of IFN-beta on HIV-1 replication. These studies indicate that SOCS3 expression, induced by stimuli present in the HIV-1-infected brain, such as transactivator of transcription, inhibits antiviral IFN-beta signaling to enhance HIV-1 replication in macrophages. This consequence of SOCS3 expression in vitro, supported by a correlation with increased viral load and onset of CNS disease in vivo, suggests that SOCS3 may allow HIV-1 to evade the protective innate immune response within the CNS, allowing the recurrence of viral replication and, ultimately, promoting progression toward HAD.

  12. The MHC-II transactivator CIITA inhibits Tat function and HIV-1 replication in human myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Forlani, Greta; Turrini, Filippo; Ghezzi, Silvia; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Poli, Guido; Accolla, Roberto S; Tosi, Giovanna

    2016-04-18

    We previously demonstrated that the HLA class II transactivator CIITA inhibits HIV-1 replication in T cells by competing with the viral transactivator Tat for the binding to Cyclin T1 subunit of the P-TEFb complex. Here, we analyzed the anti-viral function of CIITA in myeloid cells, another relevant HIV-1 target cell type. We sinvestigated clones of the U937 promonocytic cell line, either permissive (Plus) or non-permissive (Minus) to HIV-1 replication. This different phenotype has been associated with the expression of TRIM22 in U937 Minus but not in Plus cells. U937 Plus cells stably expressing CIITA were generated and HLA-II positive clones were selected by cell sorting and cloning. HLA and CIITA proteins were analyzed by cytofluorometry and western blotting, respectively. HLA-II DR and CIITA mRNAs were quantified by qRT-PCR. Tat-dependent transactivation was assessed by performing the HIV-1 LTR luciferase gene reporter assay. Cells were infected with HIV-1 and viral replication was evaluated by measuring the RT activity in culture supernatants. CIITA was expressed only in HLA-II-positive U937 Minus cells, and this was strictly correlated with inhibition of Tat-dependent HIV-1 LTR transactivation in Minus but not in Plus cells. Overexpression of CIITA in Plus cells restored the suppression of Tat transactivation, confirming the inhibitory role of CIITA. Importantly, HIV-1 replication was significantly reduced in Plus-CIITA cells with respect to Plus parental cells. This effect was independent of TRIM22 as CIITA did not induce TRIM22 expression in Plus-CIITA cells. U937 Plus and Minus cells represent an interesting model to study the role of CIITA in HIV-1 restriction in the monocytic/macrophage cell lineage. The differential expression of CIITA in CIITA-negative Plus and CIITA-positive Minus cells correlated with their capacity to support or not HIV-1 replication, respectively. In Minus cells CIITA targeted the viral transactivator Tat to inhibit HIV-1

  13. Tryptophan dendrimers that inhibit HIV replication, prevent virus entry and bind to the HIV envelope glycoproteins gp120 and gp41.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Buceta, Eva; Doyagüez, Elisa G; Colomer, Ignacio; Quesada, Ernesto; Mathys, Leen; Noppen, Sam; Liekens, Sandra; Camarasa, María-José; Pérez-Pérez, María-Jesús; Balzarini, Jan; San-Félix, Ana

    2015-12-01

    Dendrimers containing from 9 to 18 tryptophan residues at the peryphery have been efficiently synthesized and tested against HIV replication. These compounds inhibit an early step of the replicative cycle of HIV, presumably virus entry into its target cell. Our data suggest that HIV inhibition can be achieved by the preferred interaction of the compounds herein described with glycoproteins gp120 and gp41 of the HIV envelope preventing interaction between HIV and the (co)receptors present on the host cells. The results obtained so far indicate that 9 tryptophan residues on the periphery are sufficient for efficient gp120/gp41 binding and anti-HIV activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Multivalent Binding Oligomers Inhibit HIV Tat-TAR Interaction Critical for Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Deyun; Iera, Jaclyn; Baker, Heather; Hogan, Priscilla; Ptak, Roger; Yang, Lu; Hartman, Tracy; Buckheit, Robert W.; Desjardins, Alexandre; Yang, Ao; Legault, Pascale; Yedavalli, Venkat; Jeang, Kuan-Teh; Appella, Daniel H.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the development of a new type of scaffold to target RNA structures. Multivalent binding oligomers (MBOs) are molecules in which multiple sidechains extend from a polyamine backbone such that favorable RNA binding occurs. We have used this strategy to develop MBO-based inhibitors to prevent the association of a protein-RNA complex, Tat-TAR, that is essential for HIV replication. In vitro binding assays combined with model cell-based assays demonstrate that the optimal MBOs inhibit Tat-TAR binding at low micromolar concentrations. Antiviral studies are also consistent with the in vitro and cell-based assays. MBOs provide a framework for the development of future RNA-targeting molecules. PMID:19896372

  15. Multivalent binding oligomers inhibit HIV Tat-TAR interaction critical for viral replication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deyun; Iera, Jaclyn; Baker, Heather; Hogan, Priscilla; Ptak, Roger; Yang, Lu; Hartman, Tracy; Buckheit, Robert W; Desjardins, Alexandre; Yang, Ao; Legault, Pascale; Yedavalli, Venkat; Jeang, Kuan-Teh; Appella, Daniel H

    2009-12-15

    We describe the development of a new type of scaffold to target RNA structures. Multivalent binding oligomers (MBOs) are molecules in which multiple sidechains extend from a polyamine backbone such that favorable RNA binding occurs. We have used this strategy to develop MBO-based inhibitors to prevent the association of a protein-RNA complex, Tat-TAR, that is essential for HIV replication. In vitro binding assays combined with model cell-based assays demonstrate that the optimal MBOs inhibit Tat-TAR binding at low micromolar concentrations. Antiviral studies are also consistent with the in vitro and cell-based assays. MBOs provide a framework for the development of future RNA-targeting molecules.

  16. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) replication by Warscewiczia coccinea (Vahl) Kl. (Rubiaceae) ethanol extract.

    PubMed

    Quintero, A; Fabbro, R; Maillo, M; Barrios, M; Milano, M B; Fernández, A; Williams, B; Michelangeli, F; Rangel, H R; Pujol, F H

    2011-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to search for natural products capable of inhibiting hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication. The research design, methods and procedures included testing hydro-alcoholic extracts (n = 66) of 31 species from the Venezuelan Amazonian rain forest on the cell line HepG2 2.2.15, which constitutively produces HBV. The main outcomes and results were as follows: the species Euterpe precatoria, Jacaranda copaia, Jacaranda obtusifolia, Senna silvestris, Warscewiczia coccinea and Vochysia glaberrima exerted some degree of inhibition on HBV replication. The leaves of W. coccinea showed a significant antiviral activity: 80% inhibition with 100 µg mL⁻¹ of extract. This extract also exerted inhibition on covalently closed circular deoxyribonucleic acid (cccDNA) production and on HIV-1 replication in MT4 cells (more than 90% inhibition with 50 µg mL⁻¹ of extract). Initial fractionation using organic solvents of increasing polarity and water showed that the ethanol fraction was responsible for most of the antiviral inhibitory activities of both the viruses. It was concluded that Warscewiczia coccinea extract showed inhibition of HBV and HIV-1 replication. Bioassay-guided purification of this fraction may allow the isolation of an antiviral compound with inhibitory activity against both viruses.

  17. Development of benzimidazole derivatives to inhibit HIV-1 replication through protecting APOBEC3G protein.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ting; He, Xin; Chen, Bing; Chen, Hui; Geng, Guannan; Luo, Haihua; Zhang, Hui; Bai, Chuan

    2015-05-05

    Human APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G, A3G) is a potent restriction factor against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by inducing hypermutation of G to A in viral genome after its incorporation into virions. HIV-1 Vif (Virion Infectivity Factor) counteracts A3G by inducing ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of A3G protein. Vif-A3G axis therefore is a promising therapeutic target of HIV-1. Here we report the screening, synthesis and SAR studies of benzimidazole derivatives as potent inhibitors against HIV-1 replication via protecting A3G protein. Based on the steep SAR of the benzimidazole scaffold, we identified compound 14 and 26 which provided the best potency, with IC50 values of 3.45 nM and 58.03 nM respectively in the anti-HIV-1 replication assay in H9 cells. Compound 14 and 26 also afforded protective effects on A3G protein level. Both compounds have been proved to be safe in acute toxicological studies. Taken together, we suggest that these two benzimidazole derivatives can be further developed as a new category of anti-HIV-1 leads.

  18. Endogenous CCL2 neutralization restricts HIV-1 replication in primary human macrophages by inhibiting viral DNA accumulation.

    PubMed

    Sabbatucci, Michela; Covino, Daniela Angela; Purificato, Cristina; Mallano, Alessandra; Federico, Maurizio; Lu, Jing; Rinaldi, Arturo Ottavio; Pellegrini, Matteo; Bona, Roberta; Michelini, Zuleika; Cara, Andrea; Vella, Stefano; Gessani, Sandra; Andreotti, Mauro; Fantuzzi, Laura

    2015-01-22

    Macrophages are key targets of HIV-1 infection. We have previously described that the expression of CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) increases during monocyte differentiation to macrophages and it is further up-modulated by HIV-1 exposure. Moreover, CCL2 acts as an autocrine factor that promotes viral replication in infected macrophages. In this study, we dissected the molecular mechanisms by which CCL2 neutralization inhibits HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), and the potential involvement of the innate restriction factors protein sterile alpha motif (SAM) histidine/aspartic acid (HD) domain containing 1 (SAMHD1) and apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing, enzyme-catalytic, polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) family members. CCL2 neutralization potently reduced the number of p24 Gag+ cells during the course of either productive or single cycle infection with HIV-1. In contrast, CCL2 blocking did not modify entry of HIV-1 based Virus Like Particles, thus demonstrating that the restriction involves post-entry steps of the viral life cycle. Notably, the accumulation of viral DNA, both total, integrated and 2-LTR circles, was strongly impaired by neutralization of CCL2. Looking for correlates of HIV-1 DNA accumulation inhibition, we found that the antiviral effect of CCL2 neutralization was independent of the modulation of SAMHD1 expression or function. Conversely, a strong and selective induction of APOBEC3A expression, to levels comparable to those of freshly isolated monocytes, was associated with the inhibition of HIV-1 replication mediated by CCL2 blocking. Interestingly, the CCL2 neutralization mediated increase of APOBEC3A expression was type I IFN independent. Moreover, the transcriptome analysis of the effect of CCL2 blocking on global gene expression revealed that the neutralization of this chemokine resulted in the upmodulation of additional genes involved in the defence response to viruses. Neutralization of endogenous CCL2 determines a profound

  19. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Inhibits HIV-1 Replication in Macrophages by Targeting Both the Virus and the Cells

    PubMed Central

    Volotskova, Olga; Dubrovsky, Larisa; Keidar, Michael; Bukrinsky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a specific type of partially ionized gas that is less than 104°F at the point of application. It was recently shown that CAP can be used for decontamination and sterilization, as well as anti-cancer treatment. Here, we investigated the effects of CAP on HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). We demonstrate that pre-treatment of MDM with CAP reduced levels of CD4 and CCR5, inhibiting virus-cell fusion, viral reverse transcription and integration. In addition, CAP pre-treatment affected cellular factors required for post-entry events, as replication of VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV-1, which by-passes HIV receptor-mediated fusion at the plasma membrane during entry, was also inhibited. Interestingly, virus particles produced by CAP-treated cells had reduced infectivity, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of CAP extended to the second cycle of infection. These results demonstrate that anti-HIV activity of CAP involves the effects on target cells and the virus, and suggest that CAP may be considered for potential application as an anti-HIV treatment. PMID:27783659

  20. Venom Components of Iranian Scorpion Hemiscorpius lepturus Inhibit the Growth and Replication of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1)

    PubMed Central

    Zabihollahi, Rezvan; Bagheri, Kamran Pooshang; Keshavarz, Zohreh; Motevalli, Fatemeh; Bahramali, Golnaz; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Momen, Seyed Bahman; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: During the recent years, significant progress has been achieved on development of novel anti-viral drugs. Natural products are assumed as the potential sources of novel anti-viral drugs; therefore, there are some previous studies reporting the anti-viral compounds from venomous animals. Based on the significant value for tracing of non-toxic anti-viral agents from natural resources, this study was aimed to investigate the anti-viral activity of some HPLC purified fractions derived from the venom of Iranian scorpion, Hemiscorpius lepturus, against human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Methods: H. Lepturus crude venom was subjected to reverse phase HPLC analysis to determine its active components precisely where four dominant fractions obtained at retention time of 156-160 minutes. The phospholipase A2 and hemolytic activities of the purified fractions were first evaluated. Then the anti-viral activity was measured using single cycle HIV (NL4-3) replication and HSV (KOS) plaque reduction assays. Results: The H. lepturus crude venom inhibited HIV replication by 73% at the concentration of 200 µg/ml, while it did not show significant anti-HSV activity. It also inhibited the cell-free viral particles in a virucidal assay, while it showed no toxicity for the target cells in a proliferation assay. The four HPLC fractions purified from H. lepturus inhibited HIV with IC50 of 20 µg/ml. Conclusion: H. lepturus venom contains components with considerable anti-HIV activity insofar as it has virucidal activity that offers a novel therapeutic approach against HIV infection. Our results suggest a promising pilot for anti-HIV drug discovery with H. lepturus scorpion venom. PMID:27594443

  1. Anti-HIV-1 potency of the CRISPR/Cas9 system insufficient to fully inhibit viral replication.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shuhei; Ebina, Hirotaka; Kanemura, Yuka; Misawa, Naoko; Koyanagi, Yoshio

    2016-07-01

    The range of genome-editing tools has recently been expanded. In particular, an RNA-guided genome-editing tool, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated 9 (Cas9) system, has many applications for human diseases. In this study, guide RNA (gRNA) to target gag, pol and a long terminal repeat of HIV-1 was designed and used to generate gRNA-expressing lentiviral vectors. An HIV-1-specific gRNA and Cas9 were stably dually transduced into a highly HIV-1-susceptible human T-cell line and the inhibitory ability of the anti-HIV-1 CRISPR/Cas9 lentiviral vector assessed. Although clear inhibition of the early phase of HIV-1 infection was observed, as evaluated by a VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV-1 reporter system, the anti-HIV-1 potency in multiple rounds of wild type (WT) viral replication was insufficient, either because of generation of resistant viruses or overcoming of the activity of the WT virus. Thus, there are potential difficulties that must be addressed when considering anti-HIV-1 treatment with the CRISPR/Cas9 system alone.

  2. Initial HIV-1 antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in acute HIV-1 infection inhibit transmitted/founder virus replication.

    PubMed

    Freel, Stephanie A; Picking, Ralph A; Ferrari, Guido; Ding, Haitao; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John C; Kirchherr, Jennifer L; Soderberg, Kelly A; Weinhold, Kent J; Cunningham, Coleen K; Denny, Thomas N; Crump, John A; Cohen, Myron S; McMichael, Andrew J; Haynes, Barton F; Tomaras, Georgia D

    2012-06-01

    CD8-mediated virus inhibition can be detected in HIV-1-positive subjects who naturally control virus replication. Characterizing the inhibitory function of CD8(+) T cells during acute HIV-1 infection (AHI) can elucidate the nature of the CD8(+) responses that can be rapidly elicited and that contribute to virus control. We examined the timing and HIV-1 antigen specificity of antiviral CD8(+) T cells during AHI. Autologous and heterologous CD8(+) T cell antiviral functions were assessed longitudinally during AHI in five donors from the CHAVI 001 cohort using a CD8(+) T cell-mediated virus inhibition assay (CD8 VIA) and transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses. Potent CD8(+) antiviral responses against heterologous T/F viruses appeared during AHI at the first time point sampled in each of the 5 donors (Fiebig stages 1/2 to 5). Inhibition of an autologous T/F virus was durable to 48 weeks; however, inhibition of heterologous responses declined concurrent with the resolution of viremia. HIV-1 viruses from 6 months postinfection were more resistant to CD8(+)-mediated virus inhibition than cognate T/F viruses, demonstrating that the virus escapes early from CD8(+) T cell-mediated inhibition of virus replication. CD8(+) T cell antigen-specific subsets mediated inhibition of T/F virus replication via soluble components, and these soluble responses were stimulated by peptide pools that include epitopes that were shown to drive HIV-1 escape during AHI. These data provide insights into the mechanisms of CD8-mediated virus inhibition and suggest that functional analyses will be important for determining whether similar antigen-specific virus inhibition can be induced by T cell-directed vaccine strategies.

  3. Inhibition of Tat-mediated HIV-1 replication and neurotoxicity by novel GSK3-beta inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Guendel, Irene; Carpio, Lawrence; Skaltsounis, Leandros; Meijer, Laurent; Al-Harthi, Lena; Steiner, Joseph P; Nath, Avindra; Kutsch, Olaf; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2011-06-20

    The HIV-1 protein Tat is a critical regulator of viral transcription and has also been implicated as a mediator of HIV-1 induced neurotoxicity. Here using a high throughput screening assay, we identified the GSK-3 inhibitor 6BIO, as a Tat-dependent HIV-1 transcriptional inhibitor. Its ability to inhibit HIV-1 transcription was confirmed in TZM-bl cells, with an IC(50) of 40nM. Through screening 6BIO derivatives, we identified 6BIOder, which has a lower IC(50) of 4nM in primary macrophages and 0.5nM in astrocytes infected with HIV-1. 6BIOder displayed an IC(50) value of 0.03nM through in vitro GSK-3β kinase inhibition assays. Finally, we demonstrated 6BIO and 6BIOder have neuroprotective effects on Tat induced cell death in rat mixed hippocampal cultures. Therefore 6BIO and its derivatives are unique compounds which, due to their complex mechanisms of action, are able to inhibit HIV-1 transcription as well as to protect against Tat induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibition of Tat-mediated HIV-1 replication and neurotoxicity by novel GSK3-beta inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Guendel, Irene; Carpio, Lawrence; Skaltsounis, Leandros; Meijer, Laurent; Al-Harthi, Lena; Steiner, Joseph P.; Nath, Avindra; Kutsch, Olaf; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2013-01-01

    The HIV-1 protein Tat is a critical regulator of viral transcription and has also been implicated as a mediator of HIV-1 induced neurotoxicity. Here using a high throughput screening assay, we identified the GSK-3 inhibitor 6BIO, as a Tat-dependent HIV-1 transcriptional inhibitor. Its ability to inhibit HIV-1 transcription was confirmed in TZM-bl cells, with an IC50 of 40 nM. Through screening 6BIO derivatives, we identified 6BIOder, which has a lower IC50 of 4 nM in primary macrophages and 0.5 nM in astrocytes infected with HIV-1. 6BIOder displayed an IC50 value of 0.03 nM through in vitro GSK-3β kinase inhibition assays. Finally, we demonstrated 6BIO and 6BIOder have neuroprotective effects on Tat induced cell death in rat mixed hippocampal cultures. Therefore 6BIO and its derivatives are unique compounds which, due to their complex mechanisms of action, are able to inhibit HIV-1 transcription as well as to protect against Tat induced neurotoxicity. PMID:21514616

  5. CRISPR/Cas9-Derived Mutations Both Inhibit HIV-1 Replication and Accelerate Viral Escape.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Pan, Qinghua; Gendron, Patrick; Zhu, Weijun; Guo, Fei; Cen, Shan; Wainberg, Mark A; Liang, Chen

    2016-04-19

    Cas9 cleaves specific DNA sequences with the assistance of a programmable single guide RNA (sgRNA). Repairing this broken DNA by the cell's error-prone non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) machinery leads to insertions and deletions (indels) that often impair DNA function. Using HIV-1, we have now demonstrated that many of these indels are indeed lethal for the virus, but that others lead to the emergence of replication competent viruses that are resistant to Cas9/sgRNA. This unexpected contribution of Cas9 to the development of viral resistance is facilitated by some indels that are not deleterious for viral replication, but that are refractory to recognition by the same sgRNA as a result of changing the target DNA sequences. This observation illustrates two opposite outcomes of Cas9/sgRNA action, i.e., inactivation of HIV-1 and acceleration of viral escape, thereby potentially limiting the use of Cas9/sgRNA in HIV-1 therapy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Celastrol Inhibits Tat-mediated Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Transcription and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Vivek; Kodihalli, Ravindra C.; Chiaro, Chris; Cary, Daniele; Aggarwal, Bharat B.; Henderson, Andrew J.; Prabhu, K. Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Current drugs used for anti-retroviral therapy against HIV have a narrow spectrum of activity, and more often have associated toxicities and severe side effects in addition to developing resistance. Thus, there is a need to develop new therapeutic strategies against HIV/AIDS to complement the already existing ones. Surprisingly, Tat, an early virus encoded protein required for the efficient transcription of the HIV genome, has not been developed as a target for small molecular therapeutics. We have previously described the ability of an endogenous Michael acceptor electrophile (MAE), 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), to inhibit Tat-dependent transcription, by targeting its cysteine (Cys) rich domain. In an effort to identify other MAEs possessing inhibitory activity against HIV-1 Tat, we tested a collection of plant-derived compounds with electrophilic properties, including curcumin, rosmarinic acid, and gambogic acid, for their ability to inhibit Tat. Celastrol (Cel), a triterpenoid MAE isolated from T. wilfordii, exhibited the highest inhibitory activity against Tat. Using biochemical techniques, we demonstrate that Cel by covalently modifying the cysteine thiols inhibits Tat transactivation function. Using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, we show that alklylation of Tat brought about a change in the secondary structure of Tat, which inhibited the transcription elongation of the HIV proviral genome by effecting mechanisms other than Tat-TAR interaction. Our results demonstrate the underlying mechanism of anti-retroviral activity of the plant-derived MAEs, and suggest that Cel could serve as a lead compound to develop novel anti-viral therapeutics. PMID:21763500

  7. Curcumin-Loaded Apotransferrin Nanoparticles Provide Efficient Cellular Uptake and Effectively Inhibit HIV-1 Replication In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gandapu, Upendhar; Chaitanya, R. K.; Kishore, Golla; Reddy, Raju C.; Kondapi, Anand K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) shows significant activity across a wide spectrum of conditions, but its usefulness is rather limited because of its low bioavailability. Use of nanoparticle formulations to enhance curcumin bioavailability is an emerging area of research. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, curcumin-loaded apotransferrin nanoparticles (nano-curcumin) prepared by sol-oil chemistry and were characterized by electron and atomic force microscopy. Confocal studies and fluorimetric analysis revealed that these particles enter T cells through transferrin-mediated endocytosis. Nano-curcumin releases significant quantities of drug gradually over a fairly long period, ∼50% of curcumin still remaining at 6 h of time. In contrast, intracellular soluble curcumin (sol-curcumin) reaches a maximum at 2 h followed by its complete elimination by 4 h. While sol-curcumin (GI50 = 15.6 µM) is twice more toxic than nano-curcumin (GI50 = 32.5 µM), nano-curcumin (IC50<1.75 µM) shows a higher anti-HIV activity compared to sol-curcumin (IC50 = 5.1 µM). Studies in vitro showed that nano-curcumin prominently inhibited the HIV-1 induced expression of Topo II α, IL-1β and COX-2, an effect not seen with sol-curcumin. Nano-curcumin did not affect the expression of Topoisomerase II β and TNF α. This point out that nano-curcumin affects the HIV-1 induced inflammatory responses through pathways downstream or independent of TNF α. Furthermore, nano-curcumin completely blocks the synthesis of viral cDNA in the gag region suggesting that the nano-curcumin mediated inhibition of HIV-1 replication is targeted to viral cDNA synthesis. Conclusion Curcumin-loaded apotransferrin nanoparticles are highly efficacious inhibitors of HIV-1 replication in vitro and promise a high potential for clinical usefulness. PMID:21887247

  8. Stem cell gene therapy for HIV: strategies to inhibit viral entry and replication.

    PubMed

    DiGiusto, David L

    2015-03-01

    Since the demonstration of a cure of an HIV+ patient with an allogeneic stem cell transplant using naturally HIV-resistant cells, significant interest in creating similar autologous products has fueled the development of a variety of "cell engineering" approaches to stem cell therapy for HIV. Among the more well-studied strategies is the inhibition of viral entry through disruption of expression of viral co-receptors or through competitive inhibitors of viral fusion with the cell membrane. Preclinical evaluation of these approaches often starts in vitro but ultimately is tested in animal models prior to clinical implementation. In this review, we trace the development of several key approaches (meganucleases, short hairpin RNA (shRNA), and fusion inhibitors) to modification of hematopoietic stem cells designed to impart resistance to HIV to their T-cell and monocytic progeny. The basic evolution of technologies through in vitro and in vivo testing is discussed as well as the pros and cons of each approach and how the addition of postentry inhibitors may enhance the overall antiviral efficacy of these approaches.

  9. HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Freed, E O

    2001-11-01

    In general terms, the replication cycle of lentiviruses, including HIV-1, closely resembles that of other retroviruses. There are, however, a number of unique aspects of HIV replication; for example, the HIVs and SIVs target receptors and coreceptors distinct from those used by other retroviruses. Lentiviruses encode a number of regulatory and accessory proteins not encoded by the genomes of the prototypical "simple" retroviruses. Of particular interest from the gene therapy perspective, lentiviruses possess the ability to productively infect some types of non-dividing cells. This chapter, while reiterating certain points discussed in Chapter 1, will attempt to focus on issues unique to HIV-1 replication. The HIV-1 genome encodes the major structural and non-structural proteins common to all replication-competent retroviruses (Fig. 1, and Chapter 1). From the 5'- to 3'-ends of the genome are found the gag (for group-specific antigen), pol (for polymerase), and env (for envelope glycoprotein) genes. The gag gene encodes a polyprotein precursor whose name, Pr55Gag, is based on its molecular weight. Pr55Gag is cleaved by the viral protease (PR) to the mature Gag proteins matrix (also known as MA or p17), capsid (CA or p24), nucleocapsid (NC or p7), and p6. Two spacer peptides, p2 and p1, are also generated upon Pr55Gag processing. The pol-encoded enzymes are initially synthesized as part of a large polyprotein precursor, Pr160GagPol, whose synthesis results from a rare frameshifting event during Pr55Gag translation. The individual pol-encoded enzymes, PR, reverse transcriptase (RT), and integrase (IN), are cleaved from Pr160GagPol by the viral PR. The envelope (Env) glycoproteins are also synthesized as a polyprotein precursor (Fig. 1). Unlike the Gag and Pol precursors, which are cleaved by the viral PR, the Env precursor, known as gp160, is processed by a cellular protease during Env trafficking to the cell surface, gp160 processing results in the generation of the

  10. Persistent HIV-1 replication during antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Picado, Javier; Deeks, Steven G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The present review will highlight some of the recent findings regarding the capacity of HIV-1 to replicate during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Recent findings Although ART is highly effective at inhibiting HIV replication, it is not curative. Several mechanisms contribute to HIV persistence during ART, including HIV latency, immune dysfunction, and perhaps persistent low-level spread of the virus to uninfected cells (replication). The success in curing HIV will depend on efficiently targeting these three aspects. The degree to which HIV replicates during ART remains controversial. Most studies have failed to find any evidence of HIV evolution in blood, even with samples collected over many years, although a recent very intensive study of three individuals suggested that the virus population does shift, at least during the first few months of therapy. Stronger but still not definitive evidence for replication comes from a series of studies in which standard regimens were intensified with an integration inhibitor, resulting in changes in episomal DNA (blood) and cell-associated RNA (tissue). Limited drug penetration within tissues and the presence of immune sanctuaries have been argued as potential mechanisms allowing HIV to spread during ART. Mathematical models suggest that HIV replication and evolution is possible even without the selection of fully drug-resistant variants. As persistent HIV replication could have clinical consequences and might limit the efficacy of curative interventions, determining if HIV replicates during ART and why, should remain a key focus of the HIV research community. Summary Residual viral replication likely persists in lymphoid tissues, at least in a subset of individuals. Abnormal levels of immune activation might contribute to sustain virus replication. PMID:27078619

  11. Repression of the HIV-1 5′ LTR promoter and inhibition of HIV-1 replication by using engineered zinc-finger transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Lindsey; Ullman, Christopher; Moore, Michael; Isalan, Mark; West, Michelle J.; Clapham, Paul; Klug, Aaron; Choo, Yen

    2003-01-01

    Zinc finger domains are small DNA-binding modules that can be engineered to bind desired target sequences. Functional transcription factors can be made from these DNA-binding modules, by fusion with an appropriate effector domain. In this study, eight three-zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs) that bound HIV-1 sequences in vitro were engineered into transcription repressors by linking them to the Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) repressor domain (KOX1). One protein, ZFP HIVB-KOX, which bound to a 9-bp region overlapping two Sp1 sites, was found to repress a Tat-activated 5′ LTR cellular HIV-reporter assay to almost basal levels. A related six-finger protein, HIVBA′-KOX, was made to target all three Sp1 sites in the 5′ LTR promoter and efficiently inhibited both basal and Tat-activated transcription in unstimulated and mitogen-stimulated T cells. In contrast, a combination of two unlinked three-finger ZFPs, HIVA′-KOX and HIVB-KOX, which bind over the same region of DNA, resulted in less effective repression. Finally, HIVBA′-KOX was tested for its capacity to block viral replication in a cellular infection assay using the HIV-1 HXB2 strain. This ZFP was found to inhibit HIV-1 replication by 75% compared with control constructs, thus demonstrating the potential of this approach for antiviral therapy. PMID:12574502

  12. Relief of Preintegration Inhibition and Characterization of Additional Blocks for HIV Replication in Primary Mouse T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing-xin; Diehl, Gretchen E.; Littman, Dan R.

    2008-01-01

    Development of a small animal model to study HIV replication and pathogenesis has been hampered by the failure of the virus to replicate in non-primate cells. Most studies aimed at achieving replication in murine cells have been limited to fibroblast cell lines, but generating an appropriate model requires overcoming blocks to viral replication in primary T cells. We have studied HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cells from human CD4/ CCR5/Cyclin T1 transgenic mice. Expression of hCD4 and hCCR5 in mouse CD4+ T cells enabled efficient entry of R5 strain HIV-1. In mouse T cells, HIV-1 underwent reverse transcription and nuclear import as efficiently as in human T cells. In contrast, chromosomal integration of HIV-1 proviral DNA was inefficient in activated mouse T cells. This process was greatly enhanced by providing a secondary T cell receptor (TCR) signal after HIV-1 infection, especially between 12 to 24 h post infection. This effect was specific for primary mouse T cells. The pathways involved in HIV replication appear to be PKCθ−, CARMA1-, and WASp-independent. Treatment with Cyclosporin A (CsA) further relieved the pre-integration block. However, transcription of HIV-1 RNA was still reduced in mouse CD4+ T cells despite expression of the hCyclin T1 transgene. Additional post-transcriptional defects were observed at the levels of Gag expression, Gag processing, Gag release and virus infectivity. Together, these post-integration defects resulted in a dramatically reduced yield of infectious virus (300–500 fold) after a single cycle of HIV-1 replication. This study implies the existence of host factors, in addition to those already identified, that are critical for HIV-1 replication in mouse cells. This study also highlights the differences between primary T cells and cell lines regarding pre-integration steps in the HIV-1 replication cycle. PMID:18446227

  13. Inhibition of replication of primary HIV-1 isolates in huPBL-NOD/Scid mice by antibodies from HIV-1 infected patients.

    PubMed

    Steyaert, Sophia; Heyndrickx, Leo; Verhoye, Lieven; Vermoesen, Tine; Donners, Helen; Fransen, Katrien; Van Wanzeele, Filip; Vandergucht, Beatrijs; Vanham, Guido; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Vanlandschoot, Peter

    2007-08-01

    Although a limited number of HIV-infected patients have broadly neutralizing antibodies, it has not been examined whether these antibodies can protect against infection with primary virus in vivo. Here we screened the plasma of 23 HIV-1-infected patients for broadly neutralizing antibodies. Purified antibodies from subjects with broad and more narrow responses were administered to huPBL-NOD/Scid mice that were subsequently challenged with primary viruses of clade A, B and CRF01_AE. Although we observed a lack of correlation between the data from the in vitro neutralization assay and the results from the passive immunization experiments, we report for the first time that antibodies from HIV-infected persons can inhibit replication of primary virus isolates in an animal model.

  14. Optimization of a Class of Tryptophan Dendrimers That Inhibit HIV Replication Leads to a Selective, Specific, and Low-Nanomolar Inhibitor of Clinical Isolates of Enterovirus A71

    PubMed Central

    Rivero-Buceta, Eva; Sun, Liang; Martínez-Gualda, Belén; Doyagüez, Elisa G.; Donckers, Kim; Quesada, Ernesto; Camarasa, María-José; Delang, Leen; Leyssen, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Tryptophan dendrimers that inhibit HIV replication by binding to the HIV envelope glycoproteins gp120 and gp41 have unexpectedly also proven to be potent, specific, and selective inhibitors of the replication of the unrelated enterovirus A71. Dendrimer 12, a consensus compound that was synthesized on the basis of the structure-activity relationship analysis of this series, is 3-fold more potent against the BrCr lab strain and, surprisingly, inhibits a large panel of clinical isolates in the low-nanomolar/high-picomolar range. PMID:27246775

  15. HIV-1 Replication in Langerhans and Interstitial Dendritic Cells Is Inhibited by Neutralizing and Fc-Mediated Inhibitory Antibodies ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Peressin, M.; Holl, V.; Schmidt, S.; Decoville, T.; Mirisky, D.; Lederle, A.; Delaporte, M.; Xu, K.; Aubertin, A. M.; Moog, C.

    2011-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) and interstitial dendritic cells (IDCs) may be among the first human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) targets after sexual transmission. We generated cells of these types by differentiation of purified CD34+ cord blood cells. After in vitro infection with R5-tropic strains, we obtained similar percentages of infected cells for both dendritic cell (DC) subsets. Moreover, LC infection was not increased by blockage of langerin by antilangerin. These results indicate that, under our experimental conditions, there was no evidence of any preference of HIV replication in LCs versus IDCs. The inhibitory activity of HIV-1-specific IgAs and IgGs against HIV-1 replication in LCs and IDCs was analyzed. We found that neutralizing antibodies inhibit HIV-1 infection of both DC subsets. Interestingly, HIV-1 was inhibited more efficiently by the IgGs than the corresponding IgA, due to an Fcγ receptor-dependent mechanism. Moreover, nonneutralizing inhibitory IgGs were able to inhibit infection of both LCs and IDCs. These results underline the importance of HIV-1 inhibition by the binding of the Fc part of IgGs to Fcγ receptors and suggest that the induction of neutralizing and nonneutralizing inhibitory IgGs in addition to neutralizing IgAs at mucosal sites may contribute to protection against sexual transmission of HIV-1. PMID:21084491

  16. The guanine-quadruplex aptamer 93del inhibits HIV-1 replication ex vivo by interfering with viral entry, reverse transcription and integration.

    PubMed

    Faure-Perraud, Aurélie; Métifiot, Mathieu; Reigadas, Sandrine; Recordon-Pinson, Patricia; Parissi, Vincent; Ventura, Michel; Andréola, Marie-Line

    2011-01-01

    We have previously identified the guanine-rich oligonucleotide (ODN) 93del as a potent inhibitor in vitro of HIV-1 integrase. Moreover, low nanomolar concentrations of ODN 93del have been shown to inhibit HIV-1 replication in infected cells. To investigate the ex vivo mechanism of ODN 93del inhibition, we analysed its antiviral effects on the early steps of HIV-1 replication such as viral entry, reverse transcription and integration using quantitative PCR. In addition to the effect on viral entry previously described for other guanine-quadruplex ODNs, transfection experiments showed that ODN 93del severely affects the proviral integration step independently of the effect on viral entry. Moreover, incubation of viral particles with ODN 93del revealed a potential microbicide activity of the aptamer. Our data point to an original multimodal inhibition of HIV-1 replication by ODN 93del, strongly suggesting that targets of guanine-quartet-forming ODNs involve entry as well as other intracellular early steps of HIV-1 replication.

  17. Lipid-based delivery of combinations of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides for the in vitro inhibition of HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, C; Yelle, J; Sauvé, G; Thierry, A G

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated a new approach to AIDS therapy by using combinations of oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), delivered with a lipid-based carrier system, that target different HIV viral genome sites. We identified some of the factors that seem to influence the effectiveness of a combination strategy in cell cultures including ODN concentrations, type of infection (acute vs chronic), backbone modification of the ODN, and the number of sequences. When delivered by the DLS carrier system, some advantages of using a combination of ODNs over treatment with only one ODN could be observed in acute infection assays but not in the chronic infection model. These results suggest that in the acute infection model, the 3 different antisense ODNs in the "cocktail" might block an early step of virus replication by combined inhibitory effects. Various combinations of phosphorothioate-modified (PS) and unmodified oligonucleotides delivered by the DLS system were compared for their antiviral activity in a long-term acute assay using HIV-1 (IIIB strain)-infected MOLT-3 cells. The most effective combination had 3 phosphorothioate antisense ODNs: Srev, SDIS, and SPac (>99% inhibition at 100 pM). However, the additive effect determined when using ODN combinations was rather low, revealing the high level of nonsequence specificity in HIV-1 cell culture models. Data illustrated the high sequence nonspecific activity of ODNs, especially when comparing activity of antisense ODNs with activity of random control sequence ODNs. The latter exhibited an inhibitory effect similar to that of antisense ODNs under our experimental conditions. Nevertheless, we demonstrated that it is possible to achieve high anti-HIV activity by using, in combination, picomolar range concentrations of antisense oligonucleotides complexed to a lipid-based carrier system such as the DLS system, without increasing cell toxicity.

  18. Hyperthermia stimulates HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Roesch, Ferdinand; Meziane, Oussama; Kula, Anna; Nisole, Sébastien; Porrot, Françoise; Anderson, Ian; Mammano, Fabrizio; Fassati, Ariberto; Marcello, Alessandro; Benkirane, Monsef; Schwartz, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    HIV-infected individuals may experience fever episodes. Fever is an elevation of the body temperature accompanied by inflammation. It is usually beneficial for the host through enhancement of immunological defenses. In cultures, transient non-physiological heat shock (42-45°C) and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) modulate HIV-1 replication, through poorly defined mechanisms. The effect of physiological hyperthermia (38-40°C) on HIV-1 infection has not been extensively investigated. Here, we show that culturing primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and cell lines at a fever-like temperature (39.5°C) increased the efficiency of HIV-1 replication by 2 to 7 fold. Hyperthermia did not facilitate viral entry nor reverse transcription, but increased Tat transactivation of the LTR viral promoter. Hyperthermia also boosted HIV-1 reactivation in a model of latently-infected cells. By imaging HIV-1 transcription, we further show that Hsp90 co-localized with actively transcribing provirus, and this phenomenon was enhanced at 39.5°C. The Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG abrogated the increase of HIV-1 replication in hyperthermic cells. Altogether, our results indicate that fever may directly stimulate HIV-1 replication, in a process involving Hsp90 and facilitation of Tat-mediated LTR activity.

  19. Hyperthermia Stimulates HIV-1 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Roesch, Ferdinand; Meziane, Oussama; Kula, Anna; Nisole, Sébastien; Porrot, Françoise; Anderson, Ian; Mammano, Fabrizio; Fassati, Ariberto; Marcello, Alessandro; Benkirane, Monsef; Schwartz, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    HIV-infected individuals may experience fever episodes. Fever is an elevation of the body temperature accompanied by inflammation. It is usually beneficial for the host through enhancement of immunological defenses. In cultures, transient non-physiological heat shock (42–45°C) and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) modulate HIV-1 replication, through poorly defined mechanisms. The effect of physiological hyperthermia (38–40°C) on HIV-1 infection has not been extensively investigated. Here, we show that culturing primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and cell lines at a fever-like temperature (39.5°C) increased the efficiency of HIV-1 replication by 2 to 7 fold. Hyperthermia did not facilitate viral entry nor reverse transcription, but increased Tat transactivation of the LTR viral promoter. Hyperthermia also boosted HIV-1 reactivation in a model of latently-infected cells. By imaging HIV-1 transcription, we further show that Hsp90 co-localized with actively transcribing provirus, and this phenomenon was enhanced at 39.5°C. The Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG abrogated the increase of HIV-1 replication in hyperthermic cells. Altogether, our results indicate that fever may directly stimulate HIV-1 replication, in a process involving Hsp90 and facilitation of Tat-mediated LTR activity. PMID:22807676

  20. Consistent inhibition of HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cells by acyclovir without detection of human herpesviruses.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Moira A; Parsons, Teresa L; Shen, Lin; Siliciano, Janet D; Siliciano, Robert F

    2011-05-01

    Acyclovir, a nucleoside analog, is thought to be specific for the human herpesviruses because it requires a virally encoded enzyme to phosphorylate it to acyclovir monophosphate. Recently, acyclovir triphosphate was shown to be a direct inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase. Here, we showed that acyclovir is an inhibitor of HIV-1 replication in CD4(+) T cells from cord blood that have undetectable levels of the eight human herpesviruses. Additionally, acyclovir phosphates were detected by reverse-phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and quantified in a primer extension assay from cord blood. The data support acyclovir as an inhibitor of HIV-1 replication in herpesvirus-negative cells.

  1. Replication Competent Molecular Clones of HIV-1 Expressing Renilla Luciferase Facilitate the Analysis of Antibody Inhibition in PBMC

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Tara G.; Ding, Haitao; Yuan, Xing; Wei, Qing; Smith, Kendra S.; Conway, Joan A.; Wieczorek, Lindsay; Brown, Bruce; Polonis, Victoria; West, John T.; Montefiori, David C.; Kappes, John C.; Ochsenbauer, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Effective vaccine development for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will require assays that ascertain the capacity of vaccine immunogens to elicit neutralizing antibodies (NAb) to diverse HIV-1 strains. To facilitate NAb assessment in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-based assays, we developed an assay-adaptable platform based on a Renilla luciferase (LucR) expressing HIV-1 proviral backbone. LucR was inserted into pNL4-3 DNA, preserving all viral open reading frames. The proviral genome was engineered to facilitate expression of diverse HIV-1 env sequences, allowing analysis in an isogenic background. The resulting Env-IMC-LucR viruses are infectious, and LucR is stably expressed over multiple replications in PBMC. HIV-1 neutralization, targeting TZM-bl cells, was highly correlative comparing virus (LucR) and cell (firefly luciferase) readouts. In PBMC, NAb activity can be analyzed either within a single or multiple cycles of replication. These results represent advancement toward a standardizable PBMC-based neutralization assay for assessing HIV-1 vaccine immunogen efficacy. PMID:20863545

  2. Oligoclonal CD8 lymphocytes from persons with asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection inhibit HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Toso, J F; Chen, C H; Mohr, J R; Piglia, L; Oei, C; Ferrari, G; Greenberg, M L; Weinhold, K J

    1995-10-01

    CD8 lymphocytes from asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected patients can suppress virus production from infected CD4 cells. Suppressive activity is separate and distinct from cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) reactivities and is likely mediated by a soluble factor(s). The majority of HIV-1 suppression studies have been done in the context of bulk CD8 cell cultures. In this study, viral suppression was characterized by clonal populations of CD8 cells derived from HIV-1-infected patients. Most of the suppressive clones were devoid of detectable CTL reactivity against env-, gag-, pol-, and nef-expressing targets. Among the suppressive clones derived from an individual patient, a marked heterogeneity was evident with respect to phenotypic markers, cytokine production, and T cell receptor V beta expression. These results suggest that noncytolytic virus suppression is oligoclonal in nature. Clones provide tools for future studies aimed at understanding the mechanism of suppression and identifying the suppressive factor.

  3. Efficient Inhibition of HIV Replication in the Gastrointestinal and Female Reproductive Tracts of Humanized BLT Mice by EFdA

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugasundaram, Uma; Kovarova, Martina; Ho, Phong T.; Schramm, Nathaniel; Wahl, Angela; Parniak, Michael A.; Garcia, J. Victor

    2016-01-01

    Background The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) in preclinical development exhibits improved safety and antiviral activity profiles with minimal drug resistance compared to approved NRTIs. However, the systemic antiviral efficacy of EFdA has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we utilized bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) humanized mice to investigate the systemic effect of EFdA treatment on HIV replication and CD4+ T cell depletion in the peripheral blood (PB) and tissues. In particular, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the female reproductive tract (FRT) and gastrointestinal (GI) tract, major sites of transmission, viral replication, and CD4+ T cell depletion and where some current antiretroviral drugs have a sub-optimal effect. Results EFdA treatment resulted in reduction of HIV-RNA in PB to undetectable levels in the majority of treated mice by 3 weeks post-treatment. HIV-RNA levels in cervicovaginal lavage of EFdA-treated BLT mice also declined to undetectable levels demonstrating strong penetration of EFdA into the FRT. Our results also demonstrate a strong systemic suppression of HIV replication in all tissues analyzed. In particular, we observed more than a 2-log difference in HIV-RNA levels in the GI tract and FRT of EFdA-treated BLT mice compared to untreated HIV-infected control mice. In addition, HIV-RNA was also significantly lower in the lymph nodes, liver, lung, spleen of EFdA-treated BLT mice compared to untreated HIV-infected control mice. Furthermore, EFdA treatment prevented the depletion of CD4+ T cells in the PB, mucosal tissues and lymphoid tissues. Conclusion Our findings indicate that EFdA is highly effective in controlling viral replication and preserving CD4+ T cells in particular with high efficiency in the GI and FRT tract. Thus, EFdA represents a strong potential candidate for further development as a part of antiretroviral therapy regimens. PMID:27438728

  4. HSP70 binding protein 1 (HspBP1) suppresses HIV-1 replication by inhibiting NF-κB mediated activation of viral gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Priyanka; Khan, Sohrab Zafar; Rawat, Pratima; Augustine, Tracy; Raynes, Deborah A.; Guerriero, Vince; Mitra, Debashis

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 efficiently hijacks host cellular machinery and exploits a plethora of host–viral interactions for its successful survival. Identifying host factors that affect susceptibility or resistance to HIV-1 may offer a promising therapeutic strategy against HIV-1. Previously, we have reported that heat shock proteins, HSP40 and HSP70 reciprocally regulate HIV-1 gene-expression and replication. In the present study, we have identified HSP70 binding protein 1 (HspBP1) as a host-intrinsic inhibitor of HIV-1. HspBP1 level was found to be significantly down modulated during HIV-1 infection and virus production inversely co-related with HspBP1 expression. Our results further demonstrate that HspBP1 inhibits HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter activity. Gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that HspBP1 was recruited on HIV-1 LTR at NF-κB enhancer region (κB sites). The binding of HspBP1 to κB sites obliterates the binding of NF-κB hetero-dimer (p50/p65) to the same region, leading to repression in NF-κB mediated activation of LTR-driven gene-expression. HspBP1 also plays an inhibitory role in the reactivation of latently infected cells, corroborating its repressive effect on NF-κB pathway. Thus, our results clearly show that HspBP1 acts as an endogenous negative regulator of HIV-1 gene-expression and replication by suppressing NF-κB-mediated activation of viral transcription. PMID:26538602

  5. C-5-Modified Tetrahydropyrano-Tetrahydofuran-Derived Protease Inhibitors (PIs) Exert Potent Inhibition of the Replication of HIV-1 Variants Highly Resistant to Various PIs, including Darunavir

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Manabu; Hayashi, Hironori; Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Martyr, Cuthbert D.; Takamatsu, Yuki; Aoki-Ogata, Hiromi; Nakamura, Teruya; Nakata, Hirotomo; Das, Debananda; Yamagata, Yuriko; Ghosh, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We identified three nonpeptidic HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs), GRL-015, -085, and -097, containing tetrahydropyrano-tetrahydrofuran (Tp-THF) with a C-5 hydroxyl. The three compounds were potent against a wild-type laboratory HIV-1 strain (HIV-1WT), with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 3.0 to 49 nM, and exhibited minimal cytotoxicity, with 50% cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) for GRL-015, -085, and -097 of 80, >100, and >100 μM, respectively. All the three compounds potently inhibited the replication of highly PI-resistant HIV-1 variants selected with each of the currently available PIs and recombinant clinical HIV-1 isolates obtained from patients harboring multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants (HIVMDR). Importantly, darunavir (DRV) was >1,000 times less active against a highly DRV-resistant HIV-1 variant (HIV-1DRVRP51); the three compounds remained active against HIV-1DRVRP51 with only a 6.8- to 68-fold reduction. Moreover, the emergence of HIV-1 variants resistant to the three compounds was considerably delayed compared to the case of DRV. In particular, HIV-1 variants resistant to GRL-085 and -097 did not emerge even when two different highly DRV-resistant HIV-1 variants were used as a starting population. In the structural analyses, Tp-THF of GRL-015, -085, and -097 showed strong hydrogen bond interactions with the backbone atoms of active-site amino acid residues (Asp29 and Asp30) of HIV-1 protease. A strong hydrogen bonding formation between the hydroxyl moiety of Tp-THF and a carbonyl oxygen atom of Gly48 was newly identified. The present findings indicate that the three compounds warrant further study as possible therapeutic agents for treating individuals harboring wild-type HIV and/or HIVMDR. IMPORTANCE Darunavir (DRV) inhibits the replication of most existing multidrug-resistant HIV-1 strains and has a high genetic barrier. However, the emergence of highly DRV-resistant HIV-1 strains (HIVDRVR) has recently been observed in vivo and in

  6. Potent and selective inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and HIV-2 replication by a class of bicyclams interacting with a viral uncoating event.

    PubMed Central

    De Clercq, E; Yamamoto, N; Pauwels, R; Baba, M; Schols, D; Nakashima, H; Balzarini, J; Debyser, Z; Murrer, B A; Schwartz, D

    1992-01-01

    A series of bicyclams have been shown to be potent and selective inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The compounds are inhibitory to the replication of various HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains in various human T-cell systems, including peripheral blood lymphocytes, at 0.14-1.4 microM, without being toxic to the host cells at 2.2 mM. The bicyclam JM2763 is active against 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (zidovudine; AZT)-resistant HIV-1 strains and acts additively with AZT. Mechanism of action studies revealed that the bicyclams (i.e., JM2763) interact with an early event of the retrovirus replicative cycle, which could be tentatively identified as a viral uncoating event. Images PMID:1608936

  7. Comparative Analysis of the Capacity of Elite Suppressor CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells To Inhibit HIV-1 Replication in Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Walker-Sperling, Victoria E. K.; Buckheit, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Elite controllers or suppressors (ESs) are HIV-1-infected individuals who are able to maintain viral loads below the limit of detection of clinical assays without antiretroviral therapy. The mechanisms of virologic control are not fully understood, but ESs have been shown to have a more effective CD8+ T cell response to infected CD4+ T cells than chronic progressors (CPs). While macrophages are another cell type productively infected by HIV-1, few studies have examined the ability of primary effector T cells to suppress HIV-1 replication in these target cells. Here, we compared the ability of unstimulated primary CD4+ and CD8+ effector T cells to suppress viral replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) in ESs and CPs. While CD4+ effector T cells were capable of inhibiting viral replication in MDMs, the magnitude of this response was not significantly different between ESs and CPs. In contrast, the CD8+ T cells from ESs were significantly more effective than those from CPs at inhibiting viral replication in MDMs. The CD4+ T cell response was partially mediated by soluble factors, while the CD8+ T cell response required cell-to-cell interaction. Our results suggest that the individual contributions of various effector cells should be considered in rational vaccine design and in ongoing eradication efforts. IMPORTANCE Elite suppressors are individuals capable of maintaining low-level viremia in HIV-1 infection without antiretroviral drugs. Their T cell responses have been implicated in eliminating infected CD4+ T cells, and as such, elite suppressors may represent a model of a functional cure of HIV-1 infection. Here, we sought to determine whether the suppressive T cell responses against infected CD4+ T cells also apply to infected macrophages by comparing the responses of elite suppressors and HIV-1-positive individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Our results show that the CD8+ cells but not CD4+ T cells from elite suppressors

  8. Comparative analysis of the capacity of elite suppressor CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to inhibit HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Walker-Sperling, Victoria E K; Buckheit, Robert W; Blankson, Joel N

    2014-09-01

    Elite controllers or suppressors (ESs) are HIV-1-infected individuals who are able to maintain viral loads below the limit of detection of clinical assays without antiretroviral therapy. The mechanisms of virologic control are not fully understood, but ESs have been shown to have a more effective CD8+ T cell response to infected CD4+ T cells than chronic progressors (CPs). While macrophages are another cell type productively infected by HIV-1, few studies have examined the ability of primary effector T cells to suppress HIV-1 replication in these target cells. Here, we compared the ability of unstimulated primary CD4+ and CD8+ effector T cells to suppress viral replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) in ESs and CPs. While CD4+ effector T cells were capable of inhibiting viral replication in MDMs, the magnitude of this response was not significantly different between ESs and CPs. In contrast, the CD8+ T cells from ESs were significantly more effective than those from CPs at inhibiting viral replication in MDMs. The CD4+ T cell response was partially mediated by soluble factors, while the CD8+ T cell response required cell-to-cell interaction. Our results suggest that the individual contributions of various effector cells should be considered in rational vaccine design and in ongoing eradication efforts. Elite suppressors are individuals capable of maintaining low-level viremia in HIV-1 infection without antiretroviral drugs. Their T cell responses have been implicated in eliminating infected CD4+ T cells, and as such, elite suppressors may represent a model of a functional cure of HIV-1 infection. Here, we sought to determine whether the suppressive T cell responses against infected CD4+ T cells also apply to infected macrophages by comparing the responses of elite suppressors and HIV-1-positive individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Our results show that the CD8+ cells but not CD4+ T cells from elite suppressors have a response

  9. Extracts from Acacia catechu suppress HIV-1 replication by inhibiting the activities of the viral protease and Tat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Acacia catechu (Mimosa family) stem bark extracts have been used traditionally as a dietary supplement as well as a folk medicine given its reported anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-microbial and anti-tumor activities. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-HIV-1 activity of the extracts from stem bark of A. catechu. Methods The aqueous and 50% ethanolic extracts of A. catechu stem bark were prepared and 50% ethanolic extract was further fractioned by successively partitioning with petroleum ether, chloroform and n-butanol. All the extracts and fractions were evaluated for cytotoxicity and anti-HIV-1 activity using different in vitro assays. The active n-butanol fraction was evaluated for its inhibition against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, integrase, protease, pro-viral genome integration and viral Tat protein mediated transactivation. The effect of n-butanol fraction on the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion in Vk2/E6E7 cells and transepithelial resistance in Caco-2 and HEC-1A cells was investigated. Results The aqueous and 50% ethanolic extracts of A. catechu showed IC50 values of 1.8 ± 0.18 μg/ml and 3.6 ± 0.31 μg/ml, respectively in cell-free virus based assay using TZM-bl cells and HIV-1NL4.3 (X-4 tropic). In the above assay, n-butanol fraction exhibited anti-HIV-1 activity with an IC50 of 1.7 ± 0.12 μg/ml. The n-butanol fraction showed a dose-dependent inhibition against HIV-1NL4.3 infection of the peripheral blood lymphocytes and against HIV-1BaL(R-5-tropic) as well as two different primary viral isolates of HIV-1 infection of TZM-bl cells. The n-butanol fraction demonstrates a potent inhibitory activity against the viral protease (IC50 = 12.9 μg/ml), but not reverse transcriptase or integrase. Further, in Alu-PCR no effect on viral integration was observed. The n-butanol fraction interfered with the Tat-mediated Long Terminal Repeat transactivation in

  10. Inhibition of replication of HIV-1 at both early and late stages of the viral life cycle by single-chain antibody against viral integrase.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Y; Ishikawa, T; Okui, N; Kobayashi, N; Kanda, T; Shimada, T; Miyake, K; Yoshiike, K

    1999-02-01

    Retroviruses including HIV-1 integrates a DNA copy of their RNA genome into cellular DNA of the infected cell. This reaction, essential and unique to replication of retroviruses, is mediated by the viral enzyme, integrase (IN). We constructed a recombinant gene encoding a single-chain, antigen-binding peptide (scAb2-19), which interacted with a carboxyl terminal part of HIV-1 IN. HeLa CD4 cells expressing scAb2-19 localized in either cytoplasmic or nuclear compartment were resistant to HIV-1 infection at an multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.25 or 0.063, but the resistance was overcome when MOI was increased to 1. To determine whether this resistance was due to inhibition of the early events, transduction experiments were performed with a replication-incompetent HIV-1 vector carrying bacterial lacZ driven by an internal Tat-independent cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter. Both cytoplasmic and nuclear expressions of scAb2-19 resulted in decrease in the transduction efficiency on HeLa CD4 cells. This implies that an early step of replication--before or during integration--was affected by the scAb2-19. Furthermore, cytoplasmic expression of scAb2-19 did not affect the viral amount released from the cells transfected with HIV-1 infectious clone DNA (pLAI). However, infectivity relative to reverse transcriptase activity was lower for virions released from the 293T cells cotransfected with pLAI and the cytoplasmic scAb2-19 expression plasmid than for those released from the 293T cells transfected with pLAI alone. This implies that scAb2-19 reduced infectivity of released virions by interfering a late step of the viral replication. The single-chain, antigen-binding peptide molecule may prove useful not only for studies of the functions of IN and its role in the viral life cycle but also for developing a gene therapy strategy against AIDS.

  11. HIV-1 Vpr Inhibits Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Lytic Replication by Inducing MicroRNA miR-942-5p and Activating NF-κB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qin; Shen, Chenyou; Qin, Jie; Li, Wan; Hu, Minmin; Lu, Hongmei; Qin, Di; Zhu, Jianzhong; Gao, Shou-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection is required for the development of several AIDS-related malignancies, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). The high incidence of AIDS-KS has been ascribed to the interaction of KSHV and HIV-1. We have previously shown that HIV-1-secreted proteins Tat and Nef regulate the KSHV life cycle and synergize with KSHV oncogenes to promote angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. Here, we examined the regulation of KSHV latency by HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr). We found that soluble Vpr inhibits the expression of KSHV lytic transcripts and proteins, as well as viral particle production by activating NF-κB signaling following internalization into PEL cells. By analyzing the expression profiles of microRNAs combined with target search by bioinformatics and luciferase reporter analyses, we identified a Vpr-upregulated cellular microRNA (miRNA), miR-942-5p, that directly targeted IκBα. Suppression of miR-942-5p relieved the expression of IκBα and reduced Vpr inhibition of KSHV lytic replication, while overexpression of miR-942-5p enhanced Vpr inhibition of KSHV lytic replication. Our findings collectively illustrate that, by activating NF-κB signaling through upregulating a cellular miRNA to target IκBα, internalized HIV-1 Vpr inhibits KSHV lytic replication. These results have demonstrated an essential role of Vpr in the life cycle of KSHV. IMPORTANCE Coinfection by HIV-1 promotes the aggressive growth of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-related malignancies, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). In this study, we have shown that soluble HIV-1 Vpr inhibits KSHV lytic replication by activating NF-κB signaling following internalization into PEL cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that a cellular microRNA upregulated by Vpr, miR-942-5p, directly targeted IκBα. Suppression of miR-942-5p relieved IκBα expression and reduced Vpr inhibition

  12. A conditionally replicating HIV-1 vector interferes with wild-type HIV-1 replication and spread.

    PubMed Central

    Dropulić, B; Hĕrmánková, M; Pitha, P M

    1996-01-01

    Defective-interfering viruses are known to modulate virus pathogenicity. We describe conditionally replicating HIV-1 (crHIV) vectors that interfere with wild-type HIV-1 (wt-HIV) replication and spread. crHIV vectors are defective-interfering HIV genomes that do not encode viral proteins and replicate only in the presence of wt-HIV helper virus. In cells that contain both wt-HIV and crHIV genomes, the latter are shown to have a selective advantage for packaging into progeny virions because they contain ribozymes that cleave wt-HIV RNA but not crHIV RNA. A crHIV vector containing a triple anti-U5 ribozyme significantly interferes with wt-HIV replication and spread. crHIV vectors are also shown to undergo the full viral replicative cycle after complementation with wt-HIV helper-virus. The application of defective interfering crHIV vectors may result in competition with wt-HIVs and decrease pathogenic viral loads in vivo. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8855316

  13. 3-Phenylcoumarins as inhibitors of HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Dionisio; Sancho, Rocío; Bedoya, Luis M; López-Pérez, José L; Del Olmo, Esther; Muñoz, Eduardo; Alcamí, José; Gupta, Mahabir P; San Feliciano, Arturo

    2012-08-02

    We have synthesized fourteen 3-phenylcoumarin derivatives and evaluated their anti-HIV activity. Antiviral activity was assessed on MT-2 cells infected with viral clones carrying the luciferase gene as reporter. Inhibition of HIV transcription and Tat function were tested on cells stably transfected with the HIV-LTR and Tat protein. Six compounds displayed NF-κB inhibition, four resulted Tat antagonists and three of them showed both activities. Three compounds inhibited HIV replication with IC₅₀ values < 25 µM. The antiviral effect of the 4-hydroxycoumarin derivative 19 correlates with its specific inhibition of Tat functions, while compound 8, 3-(2-chlorophenyl)coumarin, seems to act through a mechanism unrelated to the molecular targets considered in this research.

  14. Possible applications for replicating HIV 1 vectors

    PubMed Central

    Das, Atze T; Jeeninga, Rienk E; Berkhout, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Since its discovery some 25 years ago, much has been learned about HIV type 1 and the molecular details of its replication cycle. This insight has been used to develop lentiviral vector systems that have advantages over conventional retroviral vector systems. For safety reasons, the lentiviral vector systems are replication incompetent and the risk of generating a replication competent virus has been minimized. Nevertheless, there may be certain applications for replication competent HIV based vector systems, and we will review our activities in this particular field. This includes the generation of a conditionally replicating HIV 1 variant as a safe live attenuated virus vaccine, the construction of mini HIV variants as cancer selective viruses for virotherapy against leukemia, and the use of a conditionally live anti HIV gene therapy vector. Although safety concerns will undoubtedly remain for the use of replication competent HIV based vector systems, some of the results in cell culture systems are very promising and warrant further testing in appropriate animal models. PMID:20582153

  15. Possible applications for replicating HIV 1 vectors.

    PubMed

    Das, Atze T; Jeeninga, Rienk E; Berkhout, Ben

    2010-05-01

    Since its discovery some 25 years ago, much has been learned about HIV type 1 and the molecular details of its replication cycle. This insight has been used to develop lentiviral vector systems that have advantages over conventional retroviral vector systems. For safety reasons, the lentiviral vector systems are replication incompetent and the risk of generating a replication competent virus has been minimized. Nevertheless, there may be certain applications for replication competent HIV based vector systems, and we will review our activities in this particular field. This includes the generation of a conditionally replicating HIV 1 variant as a safe live attenuated virus vaccine, the construction of mini HIV variants as cancer selective viruses for virotherapy against leukemia, and the use of a conditionally live anti HIV gene therapy vector. Although safety concerns will undoubtedly remain for the use of replication competent HIV based vector systems, some of the results in cell culture systems are very promising and warrant further testing in appropriate animal models.

  16. In Vitro Drug Combination Studies of Letermovir (AIC246, MK-8228) with Approved Anti-Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Anti-HIV Compounds in Inhibition of HCMV and HIV Replication

    PubMed Central

    Wildum, Steffen; Zimmermann, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Despite modern prevention and treatment strategies, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) remains a common opportunistic pathogen associated with serious morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals, such as transplant recipients and AIDS patients. All drugs currently licensed for the treatment of HCMV infection target the viral DNA polymerase and are associated with severe toxicity issues and the emergence of drug resistance. Letermovir (AIC246, MK-8228) is a new anti-HCMV agent in clinical development that acts via a novel mode of action and has demonstrated anti-HCMV activity in vitro and in vivo. For the future, drug combination therapies, including letermovir, might be indicated under special medical conditions, such as the emergence of multidrug-resistant virus strains in transplant recipients or in HCMV-HIV-coinfected patients. Accordingly, knowledge of the compatibility of letermovir with other HCMV or HIV antivirals is of medical importance. Here, we evaluated the inhibition of HCMV replication by letermovir in combination with all currently approved HCMV antivirals using cell culture checkerboard assays. In addition, the effects of letermovir on the antiviral activities of selected HIV drugs, and vice versa, were analyzed. Using two different mathematical techniques to analyze the experimental data, (i) additive effects were observed for the combination of letermovir with anti-HCMV drugs and (ii) no interaction was found between letermovir and anti-HIV drugs. Since none of the tested drug combinations significantly antagonized letermovir efficacy (or vice versa), our findings suggest that letermovir may offer the potential for combination therapy with the tested HCMV and HIV drugs. PMID:25779572

  17. Candida albicans Delays HIV-1 Replication in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez Rodrigues, Christian; Remes Lenicov, Federico; Jancic, Carolina; Sabatté, Juan; Cabrini, Mercedes; Ceballos, Ana; Merlotti, Antonela; Gonzalez, Heidi; Ostrowski, Matías; Geffner, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are one of the most important HIV-1 target cells. Unlike CD4+ T cells, macrophages are resistant to the cytophatic effect of HIV-1. They are able to produce and harbor the virus for long periods acting as a viral reservoir. Candida albicans (CA) is a commensal fungus that colonizes the portals of HIV-1 entry, such as the vagina and the rectum, and becomes an aggressive pathogen in AIDS patients. In this study, we analyzed the ability of CA to modulate the course of HIV-1 infection in human monocyte-derived macrophages. We found that CA abrogated HIV-1 replication in macrophages when it was evaluated 7 days after virus inoculation. A similar inhibitory effect was observed in monocyte-derived dendritic cells. The analysis of the mechanisms responsible for the inhibition of HIV-1 production in macrophages revealed that CA efficiently sequesters HIV-1 particles avoiding its infectivity. Moreover, by acting on macrophages themselves, CA diminishes their permissibility to HIV-1 infection by reducing the expression of CD4, enhancing the production of the CCR5-interacting chemokines CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, and CCL5/RANTES, and stimulating the production of interferon-α and the restriction factors APOBEC3G, APOBEC3F, and tetherin. Interestingly, abrogation of HIV-1 replication was overcome when the infection of macrophages was evaluated 2-3 weeks after virus inoculation. However, this reactivation of HIV-1 infection could be silenced by CA when added periodically to HIV-1-challenged macrophages. The induction of a silent HIV-1 infection in macrophages at the periphery, where cells are continuously confronted with CA, might help HIV-1 to evade the immune response and to promote resistance to antiretroviral therapy. PMID:24009706

  18. The Cellular TAR RNA Binding Protein, TRBP, Promotes HIV-1 Replication Primarily by Inhibiting the Activation of Double-Stranded RNA-Dependent Kinase PKR▿

    PubMed Central

    Sanghvi, Viraj R.; Steel, Laura F.

    2011-01-01

    The TAR RNA binding protein, TRBP, is a cellular double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding protein that can promote the replication of HIV-1 through interactions with the viral TAR element as well as with cellular proteins that affect the efficiency of translation of viral transcripts. The structured TAR element, present on all viral transcripts, can impede efficient translation either by sterically blocking access of translation initiation factors to the 5′-cap or by activating the dsRNA-dependent kinase, PKR. Several mechanisms by which TRBP can facilitate translation of viral transcripts have been proposed, including the binding and unwinding of TAR and the suppression of PKR activation. Further, TRBP has been identified as a cofactor of Dicer in the processing of microRNAs (miRNAs), and sequestration of TRBP by TAR in infected cells has been proposed as a viral countermeasure to potential host cell RNA interference-based antiviral activities. Here, we have addressed the relative importance of these various roles for TRBP in HIV-1 replication. Using Jurkat T cells, primary human CD4+ T cells, and additional cultured cell lines, we show that depletion of TRBP has no effect on viral replication when PKR activation is otherwise blocked. Moreover, the presence of TAR-containing mRNAs does not affect the efficacy of cellular miRNA silencing pathways. These results establish that TRBP, when expressed at physiological levels, promotes HIV-1 replication mainly by suppressing the PKR-mediated antiviral response, while its contribution to HIV-1 replication through PKR-independent pathways is minimal. PMID:21937648

  19. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus replication by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Goodchild, J; Agrawal, S; Civeira, M P; Sarin, P S; Sun, D; Zamecnik, P C

    1988-01-01

    Twenty different target sites within human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA were selected for studies of inhibition of HIV replication by antisense oligonucleotides. Target sites were selected based on their potential capacity to block recognition functions during viral replication. Antisense oligomers complementary to sites within or near the sequence repeated at the ends of retrovirus RNA (R region) and to certain splice sites were most effective. The effect of antisense oligomer length on inhibiting virus replication was also investigated, and preliminary toxicity studies in mice show that these compounds are toxic only at high levels. The results indicate potential usefulness for these oligomers in the treatment of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex either alone or in combination with other drugs. PMID:3041414

  20. Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Replication by Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodchild, John; Agrawal, Sudhir; Civeira, Maria P.; Sarin, Prem S.; Sun, Daisy; Zamecnik, Paul C.

    1988-08-01

    Twenty different target sites within human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA were selected for studies of inhibition of HIV replication by antisense oligonucleotides. Target sites were selected based on their potential capacity to block recognition functions during viral replication. Antisense oligomers complementary to sites within or near the sequence repeated at the ends of retrovirus RNA (R region) and to certain splice sites were most effective. The effect of antisense oligomer length on inhibiting virus replication was also investigated, and preliminary toxicity studies in mice show that these compounds are toxic only at high levels. The results indicate potential usefulness for these oligomers in the treatment of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex either alone or in combination with other drugs.

  1. Ring Expanded Nucleoside Analogues Inhibit RNA Helicase and Intracellular Human Immunodeficiency virus type 1 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Yedavalli, Venkat S.R.K; Zhang, Ning; Cai, Hongyi; Zhang, Peng; Starost, Matthew F.; Hosmane, Ramachandra S.; Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2008-01-01

    A series of ring expanded nucleoside (REN) analogues were synthesized and screened for inhibition of cellular RNA helicase activity and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. We identified two compounds 1 and 2 that inhibited the ATP dependent activity of human RNA helicase DDX3. Compounds 1 and 2 also suppressed HIV-1 replication in T cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. Neither compound at therapeutic doses was significantly toxic in ex vivo cell culture or in vivo in mice. Our findings provide proof-of-concept that a cellular factor, an RNA helicase, could be targeted for inhibiting HIV-1 replication. PMID:18680273

  2. Digoxin Suppresses HIV-1 Replication by Altering Viral RNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Raymond W.; Balachandran, Ahalya; Ostrowski, Mario A.; Cochrane, Alan

    2013-01-01

    To develop new approaches to control HIV-1 replication, we examined the capacity of recently described small molecular modulators of RNA splicing for their effects on viral RNA metabolism. Of the drugs tested, digoxin was found to induce a dramatic inhibition of HIV-1 structural protein synthesis, a response due, in part, to reduced accumulation of the corresponding viral mRNAs. In addition, digoxin altered viral RNA splice site use, resulting in loss of the essential viral factor Rev. Digoxin induced changes in activity of the CLK family of SR protein kinases and modification of several SR proteins, including SRp20 and Tra2β, which could account for the effects observed. Consistent with this hypothesis, overexpression of SRp20 elicited changes in HIV-1 RNA processing similar to those observed with digoxin. Importantly, digoxin was also highly active against clinical strains of HIV-1 in vitro, validating this novel approach to treatment of this infection. PMID:23555254

  3. APOBEC4 Enhances the Replication of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Henning; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Mühlebach, Michael D.; Schumann, Gerald G.; König, Renate; Cichutek, Klaus; Häussinger, Dieter; Münk, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    APOBEC4 (A4) is a member of the AID/APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases. In this study we found a high mRNA expression of A4 in human testis. In contrast, there were only low levels of A4 mRNA detectable in 293T, HeLa, Jurkat or A3.01 cells. Ectopic expression of A4 in HeLa cells resulted in mostly cytoplasmic localization of the protein. To test whether A4 has antiviral activity similar to that of proteins of the APOBEC3 (A3) subfamily, A4 was co-expressed in 293T cells with wild type HIV-1 and HIV-1 luciferase reporter viruses. We found that A4 did not inhibit the replication of HIV-1 but instead enhanced the production of HIV-1 in a dose-dependent manner and seemed to act on the viral LTR. A4 did not show detectable cytidine deamination activity in vitro and weakly interacted with single-stranded DNA. The presence of A4 in virus producer cells enhanced HIV-1 replication by transiently transfected A4 or stably expressed A4 in HIV-susceptible cells. APOBEC4 was capable of similarly enhancing transcription from a broad spectrum of promoters, regardless of whether they were viral or mammalian. We hypothesize that A4 may have a natural role in modulating host promoters or endogenous LTR promoters. PMID:27249646

  4. HIV replication: a game of hide and sense.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Daniel; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this review is to summarize recent progress in our understanding of innate sensing of HIV. Furthermore, we present the mechanisms that HIV has evolved to attenuate innate immune responses and discuss open questions. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and various cytosolic sensors induce an antiviral interferon response upon detection of genomic HIV RNA or intermediates of reverse transcription. HIV limits activation of these sensing pathways by interfering with TLR signaling and by cloaking viral nucleic acids in the cytoplasm, before proviral dsDNA translocates into the nucleus. Furthermore, the viral accessory protein Vpu mitigates antiviral gene expression by inhibiting canonical nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling. These evasion mechanisms, however, are imperfect and HIV infection almost inevitably triggers the activation of IRF3, NF-κB and other key transcription factors of antiviral immunity. Notably, the interplay of these processes plays a critical role in the induction of chronic inflammation that drives progression to AIDS. HIV has evolved sophisticated but imperfect mechanisms to evade and counteract innate sensing. Whether virus-induced immune activation represents merely a suboptimal adaptation of HIV to its human host or even facilitates HIV replication, for example by increasing the number of viral target cells, remains to be clarified.

  5. CD8+ Lymphocytes Can Control HIV Infection in vitro by Suppressing Virus Replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Christopher M.; Moody, Dewey J.; Stites, Daniel P.; Levy, Jay A.

    1986-12-01

    Lymphocytes bearing the CD8 marker were shown to suppress replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The effect was dose-dependent and most apparent with autologous lymphocytes; it did not appear to be mediated by a cytotoxic response. This suppression of HIV replication could be demonstrated by the addition of CD8+ cells at the initiation of virus production as well as after several weeks of virus replication by cultured cells. The observations suggest a potential approach to therapy in which autologous CD8 lymphocytes could be administered to individuals to inhibit HIV replication and perhaps progression of disease.

  6. Adenovirus Vectors Block Human Immunodeficiency Virus–1 Replication in Human Alveolar Macrophages by Inhibition of the Long Terminal Repeat

    PubMed Central

    Kaner, Robert J.; Santiago, Francisco; Rahaghi, Franck; Michaels, Elizabeth; Moore, John P.; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    Heterologous viruses may transactivate or suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–1 replication. An adenovirus type 5 gene transfer vector (Ad5) HIV-1 vaccine was recently evaluated in a clinical trial, without efficacy. In this context, it is relevant to ask what effect Ad vectors have on HIV-1 replication, particularly in cells that are part of the innate immune system. Infection of HIV-1–infected human alveolar macrophages (AMs) obtained from HIV-1+ individuals with an Ad vector containing no transgene (AdNull) resulted in dose-responsive inhibition of endogenous HIV-1 replication. HIV-1 replication in normal AMs infected with HIV-1 in vitro was inhibited by AdNull with a similar dose response. Ad reduced AM HIV-1 replication up to 14 days after HIV-1 infection. Fully HIV-1–infected AMs were treated with 3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine, after which Ad infection still inhibited HIV-1 replication, suggesting a postentry step was affected. Substantial HIV-1 DNA was still produced after Ad infection, as quantified by TaqMan real-time PCR, suggesting that the replication block occurred after reverse transcription. AdNull blocked HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) transcription, as assessed by an vesicular stomatitis virus G protein pseudotyped HIV-1 LTR luciferase construct. The formation of HIV-1 DNA integrated into the host chromosome was not inhibited by Ad, as quantified by a two-step TaqMan real-time PCR assay, implying a postintegration block to HIV-1 replication. These data indicate that Ad vectors are inhibitory to HIV-1 replication in human AMs based, in part, on their ability to inhibit LTR-driven transcription. PMID:19805482

  7. Suppression of HIV replication by lymphoid tissue CD8+ cells correlates with the clinical state of HIV-infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Blackbourn, David J.; Mackewicz, Carl E.; Barker, Edward; Hunt, Thomas K.; Herndier, Brian; Haase, Ashley T.; Levy, Jay A.

    1996-01-01

    Lymphoid tissues from asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals, as compared with symptomatic HIV-infected subjects, show limited histopathological changes and lower levels of HIV expression. In this report we correlate the control of HIV replication in lymph nodes to the non-cytolytic anti-HIV activity of lymphoid tissue CD8+ cells. Five subjects at different stages of HIV-related disease were studied and the ability of their CD8+ cells, isolated from both lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood, to inhibit HIV replication was compared. CD8+ cells from lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood of two HIV-infected long-term survivors suppressed HIV replication at a low CD8+:CD4+ cell ratio of 0.1. The CD8+ cells from the lymphoid tissue of a third asymptomatic subject suppressed HIV replication at a CD8+:CD4+ cell ratio of 0.25; the subject’s peripheral blood CD8+ cells showed this antiviral response at a lower ratio of 0.05. The lymphoid tissue CD8+ cells from two AIDS patients were not able to suppress HIV replication, and the peripheral blood CD8+ cells of only one of them suppressed HIV replication. The plasma viremia, cellular HIV load as well as the extent of pathology and virus expression in the lymphoid tissue of the two long-term survivors, were reduced compared with these parameters in the three other subjects. The data suggest that the extent of anti-HIV activity by CD8+ cells from lymphoid tissue relative to peripheral blood correlates best with the clinical state measured by lymphoid tissue pathology and HIV burden in lymphoid tissues and blood. The results add further emphasis to the importance of this cellular immune response in controlling HIV pathogenesis. PMID:8917555

  8. EASY-HIT: HIV Full-Replication Technology for Broad Discovery of Multiple Classes of HIV Inhibitors▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kremb, Stephan; Helfer, Markus; Heller, Werner; Hoffmann, Dieter; Wolff, Horst; Kleinschmidt, Andrea; Cepok, Sabine; Hemmer, Bernhard; Durner, Jörg; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    HIV replication assays are important tools for HIV drug discovery efforts. Here, we present a full HIV replication system (EASY-HIT) for the identification and analysis of HIV inhibitors. This technology is based on adherently growing HIV-susceptible cells, with a stable fluorescent reporter gene activated by HIV Tat and Rev. A fluorescence-based assay was designed that measures HIV infection by two parameters relating to the early and the late phases of HIV replication, respectively. Validation of the assay with a panel of nine reference inhibitors yielded effective inhibitory concentrations consistent with published data and allowed discrimination between inhibitors of early and late phases of HIV replication. Finer resolution of the effects of reference drugs on different steps of HIV replication was achieved in secondary time-of-addition assays. The EASY-HIT assay yielded high Z′ scores (>0.9) and signal stabilities, confirming its robustness. Screening of the LOPAC1280 library identified 10 compounds (0.8%), of which eight were known to inhibit HIV, validating the suitability of this assay for screening applications. Studies evaluating anti-HIV activities of natural products with the EASY-HIT technology led to the identification of three novel inhibitory compounds that apparently act at different steps of HIV-1 replication. Furthermore, we demonstrate successful evaluation of plant extracts for HIV-inhibitory activities, suggesting application of this technology for the surveillance of biological extracts with anti-HIV activities. We conclude that the EASY-HIT technology is a versatile tool for the discovery and characterization of HIV inhibitors. PMID:20876377

  9. Suppression of HIV Replication by Lymphoid Tissue CD8+ Cells Correlates with the Clinical State of HIV-Infected Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackbourn, David J.; Mackewicz, Carl E.; Barker, Edward; Hunt, Thomas K.; Herndier, Brian; Haase, Ashley T.; Levy, Jay A.

    1996-11-01

    Lymphoid tissues from asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals, as compared with symptomatic HIV-infected subjects, show limited histopathological changes and lower levels of HIV expression. In this report we correlate the control of HIV replication in lymph nodes to the non-cytolytic anti-HIV activity of lymphoid tissue CD8+ cells. Five subjects at different stages of HIV-related disease were studied and the ability of their CD8+ cells, isolated from both lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood, to inhibit HIV replication was compared. CD8+ cells from lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood of two HIV-infected long-term survivors suppressed HIV replication at a low CD8+:CD4+ cell ratio of 0.1. The CD8+ cells from the lymphoid tissue of a third asymptomatic subject suppressed HIV replication at a CD8+:CD4+ cell ratio of 0.25; the subject's peripheral blood CD8+ cells showed this antiviral response at a lower ratio of 0.05. The lymphoid tissue CD8+ cells from two AIDS patients were not able to suppress HIV replication, and the peripheral blood CD8+ cells of only one of them suppressed HIV replication. The plasma viremia, cellular HIV load as well as the extent of pathology and virus expression in the lymphoid tissue of the two long-term survivors, were reduced compared with these parameters in the three other subjects. The data suggest that the extent of anti-HIV activity by CD8+ cells from lymphoid tissue relative to peripheral blood correlates best with the clinical state measured by lymphoid tissue pathology and HIV burden in lymphoid tissues and blood. The results and further emphasis to the importance of this cellular immune response in controlling HIV pathogenesis.

  10. EASY-HIT: HIV full-replication technology for broad discovery of multiple classes of HIV inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kremb, Stephan; Helfer, Markus; Heller, Werner; Hoffmann, Dieter; Wolff, Horst; Kleinschmidt, Andrea; Cepok, Sabine; Hemmer, Bernhard; Durner, Jörg; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2010-12-01

    HIV replication assays are important tools for HIV drug discovery efforts. Here, we present a full HIV replication system (EASY-HIT) for the identification and analysis of HIV inhibitors. This technology is based on adherently growing HIV-susceptible cells, with a stable fluorescent reporter gene activated by HIV Tat and Rev. A fluorescence-based assay was designed that measures HIV infection by two parameters relating to the early and the late phases of HIV replication, respectively. Validation of the assay with a panel of nine reference inhibitors yielded effective inhibitory concentrations consistent with published data and allowed discrimination between inhibitors of early and late phases of HIV replication. Finer resolution of the effects of reference drugs on different steps of HIV replication was achieved in secondary time-of-addition assays. The EASY-HIT assay yielded high Z' scores (>0.9) and signal stabilities, confirming its robustness. Screening of the LOPAC(1280) library identified 10 compounds (0.8%), of which eight were known to inhibit HIV, validating the suitability of this assay for screening applications. Studies evaluating anti-HIV activities of natural products with the EASY-HIT technology led to the identification of three novel inhibitory compounds that apparently act at different steps of HIV-1 replication. Furthermore, we demonstrate successful evaluation of plant extracts for HIV-inhibitory activities, suggesting application of this technology for the surveillance of biological extracts with anti-HIV activities. We conclude that the EASY-HIT technology is a versatile tool for the discovery and characterization of HIV inhibitors.

  11. Suppression of HIV-1 replication by microRNA effectors

    PubMed Central

    Chable-Bessia, Christine; Meziane, Oussama; Latreille, Daniel; Triboulet, Robinson; Zamborlini, Alessia; Wagschal, Alexandre; Jacquet, Jean-Marc; Reynes, Jacques; Levy, Yves; Saib, Ali; Bennasser, Yamina; Benkirane, Monsef

    2009-01-01

    The rate of HIV-1 gene expression is a key step that determines the kinetics of virus spread and AIDS progression. Viral entry and gene expression were described to be the key determinants for cell permissiveness to HIV. Recent reports highlighted the involvement of miRNA in regulating HIV-1 replication post-transcriptionally. In this study we explored the role of cellular factors required for miRNA-mediated mRNA translational inhibition in regulating HIV-1 gene expression. Here we show that HIV-1 mRNAs associate and co-localize with components of the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC), and we characterize some of the proteins required for miRNA-mediated silencing (miRNA effectors). RCK/p54, GW182, LSm-1 and XRN1 negatively regulate HIV-1 gene expression by preventing viral mRNA association with polysomes. Interestingly, knockdown of RCK/p54 or DGCR8 resulted in virus reactivation in PBMCs isolated from HIV infected patients treated with suppressive HAART. PMID:19272132

  12. Iron chelators ICL670 and 311 inhibit HIV-1 transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Debebe, Zufan; Ammosova, Tatyana; Jerebtsova, Marina; Kurantsin-Mills, Joseph; Niu, Xiaomei; Charles, Sharroya; Richardson, Des R.; Ray, Patricio E.; Gordeuk, Victor R.; Nekhai, Sergei

    2007-10-25

    HIV-1 replication is induced by an excess of iron and iron chelation by desferrioxamine (DFO) inhibits viral replication by reducing proliferation of infected cells. Treatment of cells with DFO and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (311) inhibit expression of proteins that regulate cell-cycle progression, including cycle-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). Our recent studies showed that CDK2 participates in HIV-1 transcription and viral replication suggesting that inhibition of CDK2 by iron chelators might also affect HIV-1 transcription. Here we evaluated the effect of a clinically approved orally effective iron chelator, 4-[3,5-bis-(hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl]-benzoic acid (ICL670) and 311 on HIV-1 transcription. Both ICL670 and 311 inhibited Tat-induced HIV-1 transcription in CEM-T cells, 293T and HeLa cells. Neither ICL670 nor 311 induced cytotoxicity at concentrations that inhibited HIV-1 transcription. The chelators decreased cellular activity of CDK2 and reduced HIV-1 Tat phosphorylation by CDK2. Neither ICL670A or 311 decreased CDK9 protein level but significantly reduced association of CDK9 with cyclin T1 and reduced phosphorylation of Ser-2 residues of RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain. In conclusion, our findings add to the evidence that iron chelators can inhibit HIV-1 transcription by deregulating CDK2 and CDK9. Further consideration should be given to the development of iron chelators for future anti-retroviral therapeutics.

  13. A Novel Tricyclic Ligand-Containing Nonpeptidic HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor, GRL-0739, Effectively Inhibits the Replication of Multidrug-Resistant HIV-1 Variants and Has a Desirable Central Nervous System Penetration Property In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Amano, Masayuki; Tojo, Yasushi; Salcedo-Gómez, Pedro Miguel; Parham, Garth L.; Nyalapatla, Prasanth R.; Das, Debananda; Ghosh, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    We report here that GRL-0739, a novel nonpeptidic HIV-1 protease inhibitor containing a tricycle (cyclohexyl-bis-tetrahydrofuranylurethane [THF]) and a sulfonamide isostere, is highly active against laboratory HIV-1 strains and primary clinical isolates (50% effective concentration [EC50], 0.0019 to 0.0036 μM), with minimal cytotoxicity (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50], 21.0 μM). GRL-0739 blocked the infectivity and replication of HIV-1NL4-3 variants selected by concentrations of up to 5 μM ritonavir or atazanavir (EC50, 0.035 to 0.058 μM). GRL-0739 was also highly active against multidrug-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants isolated from patients who no longer responded to existing antiviral regimens after long-term antiretroviral therapy, as well as against the HIV-2ROD variant. The development of resistance against GRL-0739 was substantially delayed compared to that of amprenavir (APV). The effects of the nonspecific binding of human serum proteins on the anti-HIV-1 activity of GRL-0739 were insignificant. In addition, GRL-0739 showed a desirable central nervous system (CNS) penetration property, as assessed using a novel in vitro blood-brain barrier model. Molecular modeling demonstrated that the tricyclic ring and methoxybenzene of GRL-0739 have a larger surface and make greater van der Waals contacts with protease than in the case of darunavir. The present data demonstrate that GRL-0739 has desirable features as a compound with good CNS-penetrating capability for treating patients infected with wild-type and/or multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants and that the newly generated cyclohexyl-bis-THF moiety with methoxybenzene confers highly desirable anti-HIV-1 potency in the design of novel protease inhibitors with greater CNS penetration profiles. PMID:25691652

  14. Evaluation of the effect of pyrimethamine, an anti-malarial drug, on HIV-1 replication

    PubMed Central

    Oguariri, Raphael M.; Adelsberger, Joseph W.; Baseler, Michael W.; Imamichi, Tomozumi

    2010-01-01

    Co-infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with malaria is one of the pandemic problems in Africa and parts of Asia. Here we investigated the impact of PYR and two other clinical anti-malarial drugs (chloroquine [CQ] or artemisinin [ART]) on HIV-1 replication. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or MT-2 cells were infected with HIVNL4.3 strain and treated with different concentrations of the anti-malarial drugs. HIV-1 replication was measured using p24 ELISA. We show that 10 μM CQ and ART inhibited HIV-1 replication by 76% and 60% in PBMCs, respectively, but not in MT-2 cells. In contrast, 10 μM PYR enhanced HIV-1 replication in MT-2 cells by >10-fold. A series of molecular mechanism studies revealed that PYR increased intracellular HIV gag proteins without affecting the promoter or the reverse transcriptase activity. The effect of PYR was independent of HTLV-1 produced by MT-2 cells. Of interest, PYR treatment led to S-phase accumulation and increased AZT and d4T antiviral activity by ~4-fold. Taken together, we show that PYR significantly enhances HIV-1 replication by affecting the cellular machinery. Our results could be relevant for the management of malaria and HIV particularly in regions where HIV-1 and malaria epidemics overlap. PMID:20800626

  15. Wnt modulating agents inhibit human cytomegalovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Arun; He, Ran; Venkatadri, Rajkumar; Forman, Michael; Arav-Boger, Ravit

    2013-06-01

    Infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) continues to be a threat for pregnant women and immunocompromised hosts. Although limited anti-HCMV therapies are available, development of new agents is desired. The Wnt signaling pathway plays a critical role in embryonic and cancer stem cell development and is targeted by gammaherpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). HCMV infects stem cells, including neural progenitor cells, during embryogenesis. To investigate the role of Wnt in HCMV replication in vitro, we tested monensin, nigericin, and salinomycin, compounds that inhibit cancer stem cell growth by modulating the Wnt pathway. These compounds inhibited the replication of HCMV Towne and a clinical isolate. Inhibition occurred prior to DNA replication but persisted throughout the full replication cycle. There was a significant decrease in expression of IE2, UL44, and pp65 proteins. HCMV infection resulted in a significant and sustained decrease in expression of phosphorylated and total lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (pLRP6 and LRP6, respectively), Wnt 5a/b, and β-catenin and a modest decrease in Dvl2/3, while levels of the negative regulator axin 1 were increased. Nigericin decreased the expression of pLRP6, LRP6, axin 1, and Wnt 5a/b in noninfected and HCMV-infected cells. For all three compounds, a correlation was found between expression levels of Wnt 5a/b and axin 1 and HCMV inhibition. The decrease in Wnt 5a/b and axin 1 expression was more significant in HCMV-infected cells than noninfected cells. These data illustrate the complex effects of HCMV on the Wnt pathway and the fine balance between Wnt and HCMV, resulting in abrogation of HCMV replication. Additional studies are required to elucidate how HCMV targets Wnt for its benefit.

  16. Wnt Modulating Agents Inhibit Human Cytomegalovirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Arun; He, Ran; Venkatadri, Rajkumar; Forman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) continues to be a threat for pregnant women and immunocompromised hosts. Although limited anti-HCMV therapies are available, development of new agents is desired. The Wnt signaling pathway plays a critical role in embryonic and cancer stem cell development and is targeted by gammaherpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). HCMV infects stem cells, including neural progenitor cells, during embryogenesis. To investigate the role of Wnt in HCMV replication in vitro, we tested monensin, nigericin, and salinomycin, compounds that inhibit cancer stem cell growth by modulating the Wnt pathway. These compounds inhibited the replication of HCMV Towne and a clinical isolate. Inhibition occurred prior to DNA replication but persisted throughout the full replication cycle. There was a significant decrease in expression of IE2, UL44, and pp65 proteins. HCMV infection resulted in a significant and sustained decrease in expression of phosphorylated and total lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (pLRP6 and LRP6, respectively), Wnt 5a/b, and β-catenin and a modest decrease in Dvl2/3, while levels of the negative regulator axin 1 were increased. Nigericin decreased the expression of pLRP6, LRP6, axin 1, and Wnt 5a/b in noninfected and HCMV-infected cells. For all three compounds, a correlation was found between expression levels of Wnt 5a/b and axin 1 and HCMV inhibition. The decrease in Wnt 5a/b and axin 1 expression was more significant in HCMV-infected cells than noninfected cells. These data illustrate the complex effects of HCMV on the Wnt pathway and the fine balance between Wnt and HCMV, resulting in abrogation of HCMV replication. Additional studies are required to elucidate how HCMV targets Wnt for its benefit. PMID:23571549

  17. Inhibitory effect of aqueous dandelion extract on HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is an immunosuppressive disease that results in life-threatening opportunistic infections. The general problems in current therapy include the constant emergence of drug-resistant HIV strains, adverse side effects and the unavailability of treatments in developing countries. Natural products from herbs with the abilities to inhibit HIV-1 life cycle at different stages, have served as excellent sources of new anti-HIV-1 drugs. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-HIV-1 activity of aqueous dandelion extract. Methods The pseudotyped HIV-1 virus has been utilized to explore the anti-HIV-1 activity of dandelion, the level of HIV-1 replication was assessed by the percentage of GFP-positive cells. The inhibitory effect of the dandelion extract on reverse transcriptase activity was assessed by the reverse transcriptase assay kit. Results Compared to control values obtained from cells infected without treatment, the level of HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The data suggest that dandelion extract has a potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity. The identification of HIV-1 antiviral compounds from Taraxacum officinale should be pursued. Conclusions The dandelion extract showed strong activity against HIV-1 RT and inhibited both the HIV-1 vector and the hybrid-MoMuLV/MoMuSV retrovirus replication. These findings provide additional support for the potential therapeutic efficacy of Taraxacum officinale. Extracts from this plant may be regarded as another starting point for the development of an antiretroviral therapy with fewer side effects. PMID:22078030

  18. Quantifying the Antiviral Effect of IFN on HIV-1 Replication in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Hiroki; Godinho-Santos, Ana; Rato, Sylvie; Vanwalscappel, Bénédicte; Clavel, François; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Iwami, Shingo; Mammano, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Type-I interferons (IFNs) induce the expression of hundreds of cellular genes, some of which have direct antiviral activities. Although IFNs restrict different steps of HIV replication cycle, their dominant antiviral effect remains unclear. We first quantified the inhibition of HIV replication by IFN in tissue culture, using viruses with different tropism and growth kinetics. By combining experimental and mathematical analyses, we determined quantitative estimates for key parameters of HIV replication and inhibition, and demonstrate that IFN mainly inhibits de novo infection (33% and 47% for a X4- and a R5-strain, respectively), rather than virus production (15% and 6% for the X4 and R5 strains, respectively). This finding is in agreement with patient-derived data analyses. PMID:26119462

  19. Quantifying the Antiviral Effect of IFN on HIV-1 Replication in Cell Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hiroki; Godinho-Santos, Ana; Rato, Sylvie; Vanwalscappel, Bénédicte; Clavel, François; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Iwami, Shingo; Mammano, Fabrizio

    2015-06-01

    Type-I interferons (IFNs) induce the expression of hundreds of cellular genes, some of which have direct antiviral activities. Although IFNs restrict different steps of HIV replication cycle, their dominant antiviral effect remains unclear. We first quantified the inhibition of HIV replication by IFN in tissue culture, using viruses with different tropism and growth kinetics. By combining experimental and mathematical analyses, we determined quantitative estimates for key parameters of HIV replication and inhibition, and demonstrate that IFN mainly inhibits de novo infection (33% and 47% for a X4- and a R5-strain, respectively), rather than virus production (15% and 6% for the X4 and R5 strains, respectively). This finding is in agreement with patient-derived data analyses.

  20. Effect of antiretroviral HIV therapy on hepatitis B virus replication and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Gürtler, Lutz G

    2014-01-01

    Coinfections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV are very frequent. Although HBV is a DNA virus, it replicates via reverse transcription like HIV. Structural similarities between the enzymatic pocket of the HBV DNA polymerase and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase are the basis that certain drugs inhibit both enzymes and thus the replication of both viruses. HBV components increase the pathogenic action of HIV and vice versa directly by certain proteins like HBsAg in the case of HBV and HIV-encoded Tat and Vpr and by disturbing the cytokine balance in affected cells. Antiretroviral therapy is highly beneficial for HIV/HBV-coinfected patients, but carries the risk of drug-induced resistance development and hepatotoxicity. Even with restoration of the immune capacity, signs of hepatic inflammation may develop even after 10 years of treatment.

  1. SUN2 Overexpression Deforms Nuclear Shape and Inhibits HIV

    PubMed Central

    Amraoui, Sonia; di Nunzio, Francesca; Kieffer, Camille; Porrot, Françoise; Opp, Silvana; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Casartelli, Nicoletta

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In a previous screen of putative interferon-stimulated genes, SUN2 was shown to inhibit HIV-1 infection in an uncharacterized manner. SUN2 is an inner nuclear membrane protein belonging to the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton complex. We have analyzed here the role of SUN2 in HIV infection. We report that in contrast to what was initially thought, SUN2 is not induced by type I interferon, and that SUN2 silencing does not modulate HIV infection. However, SUN2 overexpression in cell lines and in primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells inhibits the replication of HIV but not murine leukemia virus or chikungunya virus. We identified HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains that are unaffected by SUN2, suggesting that the effect is specific to particular viral components or cofactors. Intriguingly, SUN2 overexpression induces a multilobular flower-like nuclear shape that does not impact cell viability and is similar to that of cells isolated from patients with HTLV-I-associated adult T-cell leukemia or with progeria. Nuclear shape changes and HIV inhibition both mapped to the nucleoplasmic domain of SUN2 that interacts with the nuclear lamina. This block to HIV replication occurs between reverse transcription and nuclear entry, and passaging experiments selected for a single-amino-acid change in capsid (CA) that leads to resistance to overexpressed SUN2. Furthermore, using chemical inhibition or silencing of cyclophilin A (CypA), as well as CA mutant viruses, we implicated CypA in the SUN2-imposed block to HIV infection. Our results demonstrate that SUN2 overexpression perturbs both nuclear shape and early events of HIV infection. IMPORTANCE Cells encode proteins that interfere with viral replication, a number of which have been identified in overexpression screens. SUN2 is a nuclear membrane protein that was shown to inhibit HIV infection in such a screen, but how it blocked HIV infection was not known. We show that SUN2 overexpression blocks the infection of certain

  2. Mycobacterium xenopi multiplies within human macrophages and enhances HIV replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Swords, W E; Guenthner, P C; Birkness, K A; Lal, R B; Dezzutti, C S; Quinn, F D

    2006-02-01

    Mycobacterium xenopi can cause opportunistic infections, particularly in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The primary focus of this effort was to determine if M. xenopi isolates could survive and grow in human peripheral blood macrophage (MPhi), and if these isolates could promote the replication of HIV-1 in vitro. M. xenopi bacilli survived and replicated 10-fold within 48 h in human MPhi while avirulent Mycobacterium smegmatis, did not grow within the MPhi. M. xenopi bacilli when cultured with peripheral blood mononuclear cells enhanced HIV-1 replication 30- and 50-fold with the macrophage-tropic HIV-1(Ba-L) and 50- and 75-fold with T-cell-tropic strain HIV-1(LAI) by 6 days post-infection when compared to M. smegmatis. The enhanced HIV replication was associated with increased production of TNF-alpha. Partial inhibition of HIV-1 induction was observed using a neutralizing anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody, pentoxifylline, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor I. Similar mechanisms of pathogenesis among mycobacterial species may help elucidate better treatment approaches in HIV co-infected persons.

  3. Dendritic Cell-Lymphocyte Cross Talk Downregulates Host Restriction Factor SAMHD1 and Stimulates HIV-1 Replication in Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Biedma, Marina Elizabeth; Lederle, Alexandre; Peressin, Maryse; Lambotin, Mélanie; Proust, Alizé; Decoville, Thomas; Schmidt, Sylvie; Laumond, Géraldine

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in dendritic cells (DCs) is restricted by SAMHD1. This factor is counteracted by the viral protein Vpx; Vpx is found in HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from sooty mangabeys (SIVsm) or from macaques (SIVmac) but is absent from HIV-1. We previously observed that HIV-1 replication in immature DCs is stimulated by cocultivation with primary T and B lymphocytes, suggesting that HIV-1 restriction in DCs may be overcome under coculture conditions. Here, we aimed to decipher the mechanism of SAMHD1-mediated restriction in DC-lymphocyte coculture. We found that coculture with lymphocytes downregulated SAMHD1 expression and was associated with increased HIV-1 replication in DCs. Moreover, in infected DC-T lymphocyte cocultures, DCs acquired maturation status and secreted type 1 interferon (alpha interferon [IFN-α]). The blockade of DC-lymphocyte cross talk by anti-ICAM-1 antibody markedly inhibited the stimulation of HIV-1 replication and prevented the downregulation of SAMHD1 expression in cocultured DCs. These results demonstrate that, in contrast to purified DCs, cross talk with lymphocytes downregulates SAMHD1 expression in DCs, triggering HIV-1 replication and an antiviral immune response. Therefore, HIV-1 replication and immune sensing by DCs should be investigated in more physiologically relevant models of DC/lymphocyte coculture. IMPORTANCE SAMHD1 restricts HIV-1 replication in dendritic cells (DCs). Here, we demonstrate that, in a coculture model of DCs and lymphocytes mimicking early mucosal HIV-1 infection, stimulation of HIV-1 replication in DCs is associated with downregulation of SAMHD1 expression and activation of innate immune sensing by DCs. We propose that DC-lymphocyte cross talk occurring in vivo modulates host restriction factor SAMHD1, promoting HIV-1 replication in cellular reservoirs and stimulating immune sensing. PMID:24574390

  4. Host-cell positive transcription elongation factor b kinase activity is essential and limiting for HIV type 1 replication.

    PubMed

    Flores, O; Lee, G; Kessler, J; Miller, M; Schlief, W; Tomassini, J; Hazuda, D

    1999-06-22

    HIV-1 gene expression and viral replication require the viral transactivator protein Tat. The RNA polymerase II transcriptional elongation factor P-TEFb (cyclin-dependent kinase 9/cyclin T) is a cellular protein kinase that has recently been shown to be a key component of the Tat-transactivation process. For this report, we studied the requirement for P-TEFb in HIV-1 infection, and we now show that P-TEFb is both essential and limiting for HIV-1 replication. Attenuation of P-TEFb kinase activity either by expression of a dominant-negative cyclin-dependent kinase 9 transgene or through the use of small-molecule inhibitors suppresses HIV-1 gene expression and HIV-1 replication. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication is affected in a manner consistent with a direct and specific effect on P-TEFb and the known functional role of P-TEFb in Tat-activated transcription. Tat-activated expression of HIV-1 genes seems uniquely dependent on P-TEFb, as inhibition of P-TEFb activity and HIV-1 replication can be achieved without compromising cell viability or RNA polymerase II-dependent cellular gene transcription. Selective inhibition of the P-TEFb kinase may therefore provide a novel approach for developing chemotherapeutic agents against HIV-1.

  5. HIV Replication at Low Copy Number and its Correlation with the HIV Reservoir: A Clinical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Sarmati, Loredana; D'Ettorre, Gabriella; Parisi, Saverio Giuseppe; Andreoni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of combination therapy (antiretroviral therapy--ARV) is demonstrated by the high rates of viral suppression achieved in most treated HIV patients. Whereas contemporary treatments may continuously suppress HIV replication, they do not eliminate the latent reservoir, which can reactivate HIV infection if ARV is discontinued. The persistence of HIV proviral DNA and infectious viruses in CD4+ T cells and others cells has long been considered a major obstacle in eradicating the HIV virus in treated patients. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated the persistence of HIV replication at low copies in most patients on suppressive ARV. The source of this 'residual viraemia' and whether it declines over years of therapy remain unknown. Similarly, little is known regarding the biological relationships between the HIV reservoir and viral replication at low copies. The question of whether this 'residual viraemia' represents active replication or the release of non-productive virus from the reservoir has not been adequately resolved. From a clinical perspective, both the quantification of the HIV reservoir and the detection of low levels of replication in full-responder patients on prolonged ARV may provide important information regarding the effectiveness of treatment and the eradication of HIV. To date, the monitoring of these two parameters has been conducted only for research purposes; the routine use of standardised tests procedure is lacking. This review aims to assess the current data regarding the correlation between HIV replication at low copies and the HIV reservoir and to provide useful information for clinicians.

  6. DYRK1A Controls HIV-1 Replication at a Transcriptional Level in an NFAT Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Booiman, Thijs; Loukachov, Vladimir V.; van Dort, Karel A.; van ’t Wout, Angélique B.; Kootstra, Neeltje A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Transcription of the HIV-1 provirus is regulated by both viral and host proteins and is very important in the context of viral latency. In latently infected cells, viral gene expression is inhibited as a result of the sequestration of host transcription factors and epigenetic modifications. Results In our present study we analyzed the effect of host factor dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) on HIV-1 replication. We show that DYRK1A controls HIV-1 replication by regulating provirus transcription. Downregulation or inhibition of DYRK1A increased LTR-driven transcription and viral replication in cell lines and primary PBMC. Furthermore, inhibition of DYRK1A resulted in reactivation of latent HIV-1 provirus to a similar extent as two commonly used broad-spectrum HDAC inhibitors. We observed that DYRK1A regulates HIV-1 transcription via the Nuclear Factor of Activated T-cells (NFAT) by promoting its translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Therefore, inhibition of DYRK1A results in increased nuclear levels of NFAT and increased NFAT binding to the viral LTR and thus increasing viral transcription. Conclusions Our data indicate that host factor DYRK1A plays a role in the regulation of viral transcription and latency. Therefore, DYRK1A might be an attractive candidate for therapeutic strategies targeting the viral reservoir. PMID:26641855

  7. Neoflavonoids as Inhibitors of HIV-1 Replication by Targeting the Tat and NF-κB Pathways.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Dionisio A; López-Pérez, José Luis; Del Olmo, Esther; Bedoya, Luis M; Sancho, Rocío; Alcamí, José; Muñoz, Eduardo; Feliciano, Arturo San; Gupta, Mahabir P

    2017-02-19

    Twenty-eight neoflavonoids have been prepared and evaluated in vitro against HIV-1. Antiviral activity was assessed on MT-2 cells infected with viral clones carrying the luciferase reporter gene. Inhibition of HIV transcription and Tat function were tested on cells stably transfected with the HIV-LTR and Tat protein. Seven 4-phenylchromen-2-one derivatives showed HIV transcriptional inhibitory activity but only the phenylchrome-2-one 10 inhibited NF-κB and displayed anti-Tat activity simultaneously. Compounds 10, 14, and 25, inhibited HIV replication in both targets at concentrations <25 μM. The assays of these synthetic 4-phenylchromen-2-ones may aid in the investigation of some aspects of the anti-HIV activity of such compounds and could serve as a scaffold for designing better anti-HIV compounds, which may lead to a potential anti-HIV therapeutic drug.

  8. DNA Copy Number Control Through Inhibition of Replication Fork Progression

    PubMed Central

    Nordman, Jared T.; Kozhevnikova, Elena N.; Verrijzer, C. Peter; Pindyurin, Alexey V.; Andreyeva, Evgeniya N.; Shloma, Victor V.; Zhimulev, Igor F.; Orr-Weaver, Terry L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Proper control of DNA replication is essential to ensure faithful transmission of genetic material and to prevent chromosomal aberrations that can drive cancer progression and developmental disorders. DNA replication is regulated primarily at the level of initiation and is under strict cell cycle regulation. Importantly, DNA replication is highly influenced by developmental cues. In Drosophila, specific regions of the genome are repressed for DNA replication during differentiation by the SNF2 domain-containing protein SUUR through an unknown mechanism. We demonstrate that SUUR is recruited to active replication forks and mediates repression of DNA replication by directly inhibiting replication fork progression instead of functioning as a replication fork barrier. Mass-spec identification of SUUR associated proteins identified the replicative helicase member CDC45 as a SUUR-associated protein, supporting a role for SUUR directly at replication forks. Our results reveal that control of eukaryotic DNA copy number can occur through inhibition of replication fork progression. PMID:25437540

  9. TIM-family proteins inhibit HIV-1 release

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minghua; Ablan, Sherimay D.; Miao, Chunhui; Zheng, Yi-Min; Fuller, Matthew S.; Rennert, Paul D.; Maury, Wendy; Johnson, Marc C.; Freed, Eric O.; Liu, Shan-Lu

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that T-cell immunoglobulin (Ig) and mucin domain (TIM) proteins play critical roles in viral infections. Herein, we report that the TIM-family proteins strongly inhibit HIV-1 release, resulting in diminished viral production and replication. Expression of TIM-1 causes HIV-1 Gag and mature viral particles to accumulate on the plasma membrane. Mutation of the phosphatidylserine (PS) binding sites of TIM-1 abolishes its ability to block HIV-1 release. TIM-1, but to a much lesser extent PS-binding deficient mutants, induces PS flipping onto the cell surface; TIM-1 is also found to be incorporated into HIV-1 virions. Importantly, TIM-1 inhibits HIV-1 replication in CD4-positive Jurkat cells, despite its capability of up-regulating CD4 and promoting HIV-1 entry. In addition to TIM-1, TIM-3 and TIM-4 also block the release of HIV-1, as well as that of murine leukemia virus (MLV) and Ebola virus (EBOV); knockdown of TIM-3 in differentiated monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) enhances HIV-1 production. The inhibitory effects of TIM-family proteins on virus release are extended to other PS receptors, such as Axl and RAGE. Overall, our study uncovers a novel ability of TIM-family proteins to block the release of HIV-1 and other viruses by interaction with virion- and cell-associated PS. Our work provides new insights into a virus-cell interaction that is mediated by TIMs and PS receptors. PMID:25136083

  10. Chromatin organization at the nuclear pore favours HIV replication

    PubMed Central

    Lelek, Mickaël; Casartelli, Nicoletta; Pellin, Danilo; Rizzi, Ermanno; Souque, Philippe; Severgnini, Marco; Di Serio, Clelia; Fricke, Thomas; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Zimmer, Christophe; Charneau, Pierre; Di Nunzio, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that allow HIV to integrate into particular sites of the host genome are poorly understood. Here we tested if the nuclear pore complex (NPC) facilitates the targeting of HIV integration by acting on chromatin topology. We show that the integrity of the nuclear side of the NPC, which is mainly composed of Tpr, is not required for HIV nuclear import, but that Nup153 is essential. Depletion of Tpr markedly reduces HIV infectivity, but not the level of integration. HIV integration sites in Tpr-depleted cells are less associated with marks of active genes, consistent with the state of chromatin proximal to the NPC, as analysed by super-resolution microscopy. LEDGF/p75, which promotes viral integration into active genes, stabilizes Tpr at the nuclear periphery and vice versa. Our data support a model in which HIV nuclear import and integration are concerted steps, and where Tpr maintains a chromatin environment favourable for HIV replication. PMID:25744187

  11. Antiviral Activity of Diterpene Esters on Chikungunya Virus and HIV Replication.

    PubMed

    Nothias-Scaglia, Louis-Félix; Pannecouque, Christophe; Renucci, Franck; Delang, Leen; Neyts, Johan; Roussi, Fanny; Costa, Jean; Leyssen, Pieter; Litaudon, Marc; Paolini, Julien

    2015-06-26

    Recently, new daphnane, tigliane, and jatrophane diterpenoids have been isolated from various Euphorbiaceae species, of which some have been shown to be potent inhibitors of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) replication. To further explore this type of compound, the antiviral activity of a series of 29 commercially available natural diterpenoids was evaluated. Phorbol-12,13-didecanoate (11) proved to be the most potent inhibitor, with an EC50 value of 6.0 ± 0.9 nM and a selectivity index (SI) of 686, which is in line with the previously reported anti-CHIKV potency for the structurally related 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (13). Most of the other compounds exhibited low to moderate activity, including an ingenane-type diterpene ester, compound 28, with an EC50 value of 1.2 ± 0.1 μM and SI = 6.4. Diterpene compounds are known also to inhibit HIV replication, so the antiviral activities of compounds 1-29 were evaluated also against HIV-1 and HIV-2. Tigliane- (4β-hydroxyphorbol analogues 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, and 18) and ingenane-type (27 and 28) diterpene esters were shown to inhibit HIV replication in vitro at the nanomolar level. A Pearson analysis performed with the anti-CHIKV and anti-HIV data sets demonstrated a linear relationship, which supported the hypothesis made that PKC may be an important target in CHIKV replication.

  12. Productive replication and evolution of HIV-1 in ferret cells.

    PubMed

    Fadel, Hind J; Saenz, Dyana T; Guevara, Rebekah; von Messling, Veronika; Peretz, Mary; Poeschla, Eric M

    2012-02-01

    A rodent or other small animal model for HIV-1 has not been forthcoming, with the principal obstacles being species-specific restriction mechanisms and deficits in HIV-1 dependency factors. Some Carnivorans may harbor comparatively fewer impediments. For example, in contrast to mice, the domestic cat genome encodes essential nonreceptor HIV-1 dependency factors. All Feliformia species and at least one Caniformia species also lack a major lentiviral restriction mechanism (TRIM5α/TRIMCyp proteins). Here we investigated cells from two species in another carnivore family, the Mustelidae, for permissiveness to the HIV-1 life cycle. Mustela putorius furo (domesticated ferret) primary cells and cell lines did not restrict HIV-1, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), or N-tropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) postentry and supported late HIV-1 life cycle steps comparably to human cells. The ferret TRIM5α gene exon 8, which encodes the B30.2 domain, was found to be pseudogenized. Strikingly, ferret (but not mink) cells engineered to express human HIV-1 entry receptors supported productive spreading replication, amplification, and serial passage of wild-type HIV-1. Nevertheless, produced virions had relatively reduced infectivity and the virus accrued G→A hypermutations, consistent with APOBEC3 protein pressure. Ferret cell-passaged HIV-1 also evolved amino acid changes in the capsid cyclophilin A binding loop. We conclude that the genome of this carnivore can provide essential nonreceptor HIV-1 dependency factors and that ferret APOBEC3 proteins with activity against HIV-1 are likely. Even so, unlike in cat cells, HIV-1 can replicate in ferret cells without vif substitution. The virus evolves in this novel nonprimate cell adaptive landscape. We suggest that further characterization of HIV-1 adaptation in ferret cells and delineation of Mustelidae restriction factor repertoires are warranted, with a view to the potential for an HIV-1

  13. Productive Replication and Evolution of HIV-1 in Ferret Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fadel, Hind J.; Saenz, Dyana T.; Guevara, Rebekah; von Messling, Veronika; Peretz, Mary

    2012-01-01

    A rodent or other small animal model for HIV-1 has not been forthcoming, with the principal obstacles being species-specific restriction mechanisms and deficits in HIV-1 dependency factors. Some Carnivorans may harbor comparatively fewer impediments. For example, in contrast to mice, the domestic cat genome encodes essential nonreceptor HIV-1 dependency factors. All Feliformia species and at least one Caniformia species also lack a major lentiviral restriction mechanism (TRIM5α/TRIMCyp proteins). Here we investigated cells from two species in another carnivore family, the Mustelidae, for permissiveness to the HIV-1 life cycle. Mustela putorius furo (domesticated ferret) primary cells and cell lines did not restrict HIV-1, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), or N-tropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) postentry and supported late HIV-1 life cycle steps comparably to human cells. The ferret TRIM5α gene exon 8, which encodes the B30.2 domain, was found to be pseudogenized. Strikingly, ferret (but not mink) cells engineered to express human HIV-1 entry receptors supported productive spreading replication, amplification, and serial passage of wild-type HIV-1. Nevertheless, produced virions had relatively reduced infectivity and the virus accrued G→A hypermutations, consistent with APOBEC3 protein pressure. Ferret cell-passaged HIV-1 also evolved amino acid changes in the capsid cyclophilin A binding loop. We conclude that the genome of this carnivore can provide essential nonreceptor HIV-1 dependency factors and that ferret APOBEC3 proteins with activity against HIV-1 are likely. Even so, unlike in cat cells, HIV-1 can replicate in ferret cells without vif substitution. The virus evolves in this novel nonprimate cell adaptive landscape. We suggest that further characterization of HIV-1 adaptation in ferret cells and delineation of Mustelidae restriction factor repertoires are warranted, with a view to the potential for an HIV-1

  14. Persistent HIV-1 replication maintains the tissue reservoir during therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bedford, Trevor; Kim, Eun-Young; Archer, John; Pond, Sergei L. Kosakovsky; Chung, Yoon-Seok; Penugonda, Sudhir; Chipman, Jeffrey; Fletcher, Courtney V.; Schacker, Timothy W.; Malim, Michael H.; Rambaut, Andrew; Haase, Ashley T.; McLean, Angela R.; Wolinsky, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphoid tissue is a key reservoir established by HIV-1 during acute infection. It is a site of viral production, storage of viral particles in immune complexes, and viral persistence. Whilst combinations of antiretroviral drugs usually suppress viral replication and reduce viral RNA to undetectable levels in blood, it is unclear whether treatment fully suppresses viral replication in lymphoid tissue reservoirs. Here we show that virus evolution and trafficking between tissue compartments continues in patients with undetectable levels of virus in their bloodstream. A spatial dynamic model of persistent viral replication and spread explains why the development of drug resistance is not a foregone conclusion under conditions where drug concentrations are insufficient to completely block virus replication. These data provide fresh insights into the evolutionary and infection dynamics of the virus population within the host, revealing that HIV-1 can continue to replicate and refill the viral reservoir despite potent antiretroviral therapy. PMID:26814962

  15. Ivermectin is a specific inhibitor of importin α/β-mediated nuclear import able to inhibit replication of HIV-1 and dengue virus

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, Kylie M.; Sivakumaran, Haran; Heaton, Steven M.; Harrich, David; Jans, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The movement of proteins between the cytoplasm and nucleus mediated by the importin superfamily of proteins is essential to many cellular processes, including differentiation and development, and is critical to disease states such as viral disease and oncogenesis. We recently developed a high-throughput screen to identify specific and general inhibitors of protein nuclear import, from which ivermectin was identified as a potential inhibitor of importin α/β-mediated transport. In the present study, we characterized in detail the nuclear transport inhibitory properties of ivermectin, demonstrating that it is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of importin α/β nuclear import, with no effect on a range of other nuclear import pathways, including that mediated by importin β1 alone. Importantly, we establish for the first time that ivermectin has potent antiviral activity towards both HIV-1 and dengue virus, both of which are strongly reliant on importin α/β nuclear import, with respect to the HIV-1 integrase and NS5 (non-structural protein 5) polymerase proteins respectively. Ivermectin would appear to be an invaluable tool for the study of protein nuclear import, as well as the basis for future development of antiviral agents. PMID:22417684

  16. Comparison of antiviral activity of lambda-interferons against HIV replication in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yizhong; Li, Jieliang; Wang, Xu; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Ting; Ho, Wenzhe

    2015-03-01

    Lambda-interferons (IFN-λs) have been demonstrated as having the ability to inhibit HIV replication in macrophages. However, specific differences in signaling transduction and anti-HIV activity in macrophages between different IFN-λs are unclear. Here, we showed that although all 3 members of (IFN-λ1, λ2, and λ3) IFN-λ family induced the expression of a number of genes of janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway in monocyte-derived macrophages, IFN-λ1 or IFN-λ3 induced higher levels of antiviral IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) expression than did IFN-λ2. In addition, IFN-λ1 or IFN-λ3 induced higher levels of several pattern recognition receptors (PPRs) than did IFN-λ2. Incubation of IFN-λs with HIV-infected macrophages showed that IFN-λ1 or IFN-λ3 is more potent in anti-HIV activity than IFN-λ2. We also showed that IFN-λ treatment before HIV infection was more potent in HIV inhibition than that after HIV infection. Further investigations showed that the inductions of ISGs and PPRs expression by IFN-λs were largely compromised by HIV infection. These findings provide further experimental evidence that IFN-λs have therapeutic potential in treatment of HIV infection.

  17. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Suppression of HIV Infectivity and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Benton, Tami; Lynch, Kevin; Dubé, Benoit; Gettes, David R.; Tustin, Nancy B.; Lai, Jian Ping; Metzger, David S.; Blume, Joshua; Douglas, Steven D.; Evans, Dwight L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram would down regulate HIV infectivity and that the greatest effects would be seen in people with depression. Depression is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in HIV/AIDS. Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathobiology of depression, and pharmacologic therapies for depression target this system. The 5-HT transporter and 5-HT receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous and immune systems. Depression has been associated with suppression of natural killer cells (NK) cells and CD8+ lymphocytes, key regulators of HIV infection. Methods Ex-vivo models for acute and chronic HIV infection were used to study the effects of citalopram on HIV viral infection and replication, in 48 depressed and non-depressed women. For both the acute and chronic infection models, HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) activity was measured in the citalopram treatment condition and the control condition. Results The SSRI significantly downregulated the RT response in both the acute and chronic infection models. Specifically, citalopram significantly decreased the acute HIV infectivity of macrophages. Citalopram also significantly decreased HIV viral replication in the latently infected T-cell line and in the latently infected macrophage cell line. There was no difference in down-regulation by depression status. Conclusions These studies suggest that an SSRI enhances NK/CD8 non-cytolytic HIV suppression in HIV/AIDS and decreases HIV viral infectivity of macrophages, ex vivo, suggesting the need for in vivo studies to determine a potential role for agents targeting serotonin in the host defense against HIV. PMID:20947783

  18. Heroin inhibits HIV-restriction miRNAs and enhances HIV infection of macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Ma, Tong-Cui; Li, Jie-Liang; Zhou, Yu; Geller, Ellen B.; Adler, Martin W.; Peng, Jin-Song; Zhou, Wang; Zhou, Dun-Jin; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Although opioids have been extensively studied for their impact on the immune system, limited information is available about the specific actions of opioids on intracellular antiviral innate immunity against HIV infection. Thus, we investigated whether heroin, one of the most abused drugs, inhibits the expression of intracellular HIV restriction microRNA (miRNA) and facilitates HIV replication in macrophages. Heroin treatment of macrophages enhanced HIV replication, which was associated with the downregulation of several HIV restriction miRNAs. These heroin-mediated actions on the miRNAs and HIV could be antagonized by naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist. Furthermore, the in vitro negative impact of heroin on HIV-associated miRNAs was confirmed by the in vivo observation that heroin addicts had significantly lower levels of macrophage-derived HIV restriction miRNAs than those in the control subjects. These in vitro and in vivo findings indicate that heroin use compromises intracellular anti-HIV innate immunity, providing a favorable microenvironment for HIV survival in the target cells. PMID:26583016

  19. Factors secreted by human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected cells can enhance or inhibit replication of HIV-1 in HTLV-I-uninfected cells: implications for in vivo coinfection with HTLV-I and HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Moriuchi, H; Moriuchi, M; Fauci, A S

    1998-05-18

    It remains controversial whether human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) coinfection leads to more rapid progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease in dually infected individuals. To investigate whether HTLV-I infection of certain cells can modulate HIV-1 infection of surrounding cells, primary CD4(+) T cells were treated with cell-free supernatants from HTLV-I-infected MT-2 cell cultures. The primary CD4+ T cells became resistant to macrophage (M)-tropic HIV-1 but highly susceptible to T cell (T)-tropic HIV-1. The CC chemokines RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, and MIP-1beta in the MT-2 cell supernatants were identified as the major suppressive factors for M-tropic HIV-1 as well as the enhancers of T-tropic HIV-1 infection, whereas soluble Tax protein increased susceptibility to both M- and T-tropic HIV-1. The effect of Tax or CC chemokines on T-tropic HIV-1 was mediated, at least in part, by increasing HIV Env-mediated fusogenicity. Our data suggest that the net effect of HTLV-I coinfection in HIV-infected individuals favors the transition from M- to T-tropic HIV phenotype, which is generally indicative of progressive HIV disease.

  20. Macrophages sustain HIV replication in vivo independently of T cells

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Angela; Baker, Caroline; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann; Foster, John; Zakharova, Oksana; Wietgrefe, Stephen; Caro-Vegas, Carolina; Sharpe, Garrett; Haase, Ashley T.; Eron, Joseph J.; Garcia, J. Victor

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages have long been considered to contribute to HIV infection of the CNS; however, a recent study has contradicted this early work and suggests that myeloid cells are not an in vivo source of virus production. Here, we addressed the role of macrophages in HIV infection by first analyzing monocytes isolated from viremic patients and patients undergoing antiretroviral treatment. We were unable to find viral DNA or viral outgrowth in monocytes isolated from peripheral blood. To determine whether tissue macrophages are productively infected, we used 3 different but complementary humanized mouse models. Two of these models (bone marrow/liver/thymus [BLT] mice and T cell–only mice [ToM]) have been previously described, and the third model was generated by reconstituting immunodeficient mice with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells that were devoid of human T cells (myeloid-only mice [MoM]) to specifically evaluate HIV replication in this population. Using MoM, we demonstrated that macrophages can sustain HIV replication in the absence of T cells; HIV-infected macrophages are distributed in various tissues including the brain; replication-competent virus can be rescued ex vivo from infected macrophages; and infected macrophages can establish de novo infection. Together, these results demonstrate that macrophages represent a genuine target for HIV infection in vivo that can sustain and transmit infection. PMID:26950420

  1. Macrophages sustain HIV replication in vivo independently of T cells.

    PubMed

    Honeycutt, Jenna B; Wahl, Angela; Baker, Caroline; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann; Foster, John; Zakharova, Oksana; Wietgrefe, Stephen; Caro-Vegas, Carolina; Madden, Victoria; Sharpe, Garrett; Haase, Ashley T; Eron, Joseph J; Garcia, J Victor

    2016-04-01

    Macrophages have long been considered to contribute to HIV infection of the CNS; however, a recent study has contradicted this early work and suggests that myeloid cells are not an in vivo source of virus production. Here, we addressed the role of macrophages in HIV infection by first analyzing monocytes isolated from viremic patients and patients undergoing antiretroviral treatment. We were unable to find viral DNA or viral outgrowth in monocytes isolated from peripheral blood. To determine whether tissue macrophages are productively infected, we used 3 different but complementary humanized mouse models. Two of these models (bone marrow/liver/thymus [BLT] mice and T cell-only mice [ToM]) have been previously described, and the third model was generated by reconstituting immunodeficient mice with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells that were devoid of human T cells (myeloid-only mice [MoM]) to specifically evaluate HIV replication in this population. Using MoM, we demonstrated that macrophages can sustain HIV replication in the absence of T cells; HIV-infected macrophages are distributed in various tissues including the brain; replication-competent virus can be rescued ex vivo from infected macrophages; and infected macrophages can establish de novo infection. Together, these results demonstrate that macrophages represent a genuine target for HIV infection in vivo that can sustain and transmit infection.

  2. HIV-1 Capsid-Cyclophilin Interactions Determine Nuclear Import Pathway, Integration Targeting and Replication Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, Torsten; Ocwieja, Karen E.; Rasaiyaah, Jane; Price, Amanda J.; Brady, Troy L.; Roth, Shoshannah L.; Hué, Stéphane; Fletcher, Adam J.; Lee, KyeongEun; KewalRamani, Vineet N.; Noursadeghi, Mahdad; Jenner, Richard G.; James, Leo C.; Bushman, Frederic D.; Towers, Greg J.

    2011-01-01

    Lentiviruses such as HIV-1 traverse nuclear pore complexes (NPC) and infect terminally differentiated non-dividing cells, but how they do this is unclear. The cytoplasmic NPC protein Nup358/RanBP2 was identified as an HIV-1 co-factor in previous studies. Here we report that HIV-1 capsid (CA) binds directly to the cyclophilin domain of Nup358/RanBP2. Fusion of the Nup358/RanBP2 cyclophilin (Cyp) domain to the tripartite motif of TRIM5 created a novel inhibitor of HIV-1 replication, consistent with an interaction in vivo. In contrast to CypA binding to HIV-1 CA, Nup358 binding is insensitive to inhibition with cyclosporine, allowing contributions from CypA and Nup358 to be distinguished. Inhibition of CypA reduced dependence on Nup358 and the nuclear basket protein Nup153, suggesting that CypA regulates the choice of the nuclear import machinery that is engaged by the virus. HIV-1 cyclophilin-binding mutants CA G89V and P90A favored integration in genomic regions with a higher density of transcription units and associated features than wild type virus. Integration preference of wild type virus in the presence of cyclosporine was similarly altered to regions of higher transcription density. In contrast, HIV-1 CA alterations in another patch on the capsid surface that render the virus less sensitive to Nup358 or TRN-SR2 depletion (CA N74D, N57A) resulted in integration in genomic regions sparse in transcription units. Both groups of CA mutants are impaired in replication in HeLa cells and human monocyte derived macrophages. Our findings link HIV-1 engagement of cyclophilins with both integration targeting and replication efficiency and provide insight into the conservation of viral cyclophilin recruitment. PMID:22174692

  3. HIV-1 Replication and the Cellular Eukaryotic Translation Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Santiago; Batisse, Julien; Libre, Camille; Bernacchi, Serena; Marquet, Roland; Paillart, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation is a complex process composed of three main steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. During infections by RNA- and DNA-viruses, the eukaryotic translation machinery is used to assure optimal viral protein synthesis. Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) uses several non-canonical pathways to translate its own proteins, such as leaky scanning, frameshifting, shunt, and cap-independent mechanisms. Moreover, HIV-1 modulates the host translation machinery by targeting key translation factors and overcomes different cellular obstacles that affect protein translation. In this review, we describe how HIV-1 proteins target several components of the eukaryotic translation machinery, which consequently improves viral translation and replication. PMID:25606970

  4. The design of a peptide sequence to inhibit HIV replication: a search algorithm combining Monte Carlo and self-consistent mean field techniques.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xingqing; Hall, Carol K; Agris, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    We developed a search algorithm combining Monte Carlo (MC) and self-consistent mean field techniques to evolve a peptide sequence that has good binding capability to the anticodon stem and loop (ASL) of human lysine tRNA species, tRNA(Lys3), with the ultimate purpose of breaking the replication cycle of human immunodeficiency virus-1. The starting point is the 15-amino-acid sequence, RVTHHAFLGAHRTVG, found experimentally by Agris and co-workers to bind selectively to hypermodified tRNA(Lys3). The peptide backbone conformation is determined via atomistic simulation of the peptide-ASL(Lys3) complex and then held fixed throughout the search. The proportion of amino acids of various types (hydrophobic, polar, charged, etc.) is varied to mimic different peptide hydration properties. Three different sets of hydration properties were examined in the search algorithm to see how this affects evolution to the best-binding peptide sequences. Certain amino acids are commonly found at fixed sites for all three hydration states, some necessary for binding affinity and some necessary for binding specificity. Analysis of the binding structure and the various contributions to the binding energy shows that: 1) two hydrophilic residues (asparagine at site 11 and the cysteine at site 12) "recognize" the ASL(Lys3) due to the VDW energy, and thereby contribute to its binding specificity and 2) the positively charged arginines at sites 4 and 13 preferentially attract the negatively charged sugar rings and the phosphate linkages, and thereby contribute to the binding affinity.

  5. The tyrosine kinase Hck is an inhibitor of HIV-1 replication counteracted by the viral vif protein.

    PubMed

    Hassaïne, G; Courcoul, M; Bessou, G; Barthalay, Y; Picard, C; Olive, D; Collette, Y; Vigne, R; Decroly, E

    2001-05-18

    The virus infectivity factor (Vif) protein facilitates the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in primary lymphocytes and macrophages. Its action is strongly dependent on the cellular environment, and it has been proposed that the Vif protein counteracts cellular activities that would otherwise limit HIV-1 replication. Using a glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay, we identified that Vif binds specifically to the Src homology 3 domain of Hck, a tyrosine kinase from the Src family. The interaction between Vif and the full-length Hck was further assessed by co-precipitation assays in vitro and in human cells. The Vif protein repressed the kinase activity of Hck and was not itself a substrate for Hck phosphorylation. Within one single replication cycle of HIV-1, Hck was able to inhibit the production and the infectivity of vif-deleted virus but not that of wild-type virus. Accordingly, HIV-1 vif- replication was delayed in Jurkat T cell clones stably expressing Hck. Our data demonstrate that Hck controls negatively HIV-1 replication and that this inhibition is suppressed by the expression of Vif. Hck, which is present in monocyte-macrophage cells, represents the first identified cellular inhibitor of HIV-1 replication overcome by Vif.

  6. A post-entry role for CD63 in early HIV-1 replication

    SciTech Connect

    Li Guangyu; Dziuba, Natallia; Friedrich, Brian; Murray, James L.; Ferguson, Monique R.

    2011-04-10

    Macrophages and CD4{sup +} lymphocytes are the major reservoirs for HIV-1 infection. CD63 is a tetraspanin transmembrane protein, which has been shown to play an essential role during HIV-1 replication in macrophages. In this study, we further confirm the requirement of CD63 in early HIV-1 replication events in both macrophages and a CD4{sup +} cell line. Further analysis revealed that viral attachment and cell-cell fusion were unaffected by CD63 silencing. However, CD63-depleted macrophages showed a significant decrease in the initiation and completion of HIV-1 reverse transcription, affecting subsequent events of the HIV-1 life cycle. Integration of HIV-1 cDNA as well as the formation of 2-LTR circles was notably reduced. Reporter assays showed that CD63 down regulation reduced production of the early HIV protein Tat. In agreement, CD63 silencing also inhibited production of the late protein p24. These findings suggest that CD63 plays an early post-entry role prior to or at the reverse transcription step.

  7. APOBEC3G-Augmented Stem Cell Therapy to Modulate HIV Replication: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Iraj; Mac Gabhann, Feilim

    2013-01-01

    The interplay between the innate immune system restriction factor APOBEC3G and the HIV protein Vif is a key host-retrovirus interaction. APOBEC3G can counteract HIV infection in at least two ways: by inducing lethal mutations on the viral cDNA; and by blocking steps in reverse transcription and viral integration into the host genome. HIV-Vif blocks these antiviral functions of APOBEC3G by impeding its encapsulation. Nonetheless, it has been shown that overexpression of APOBEC3G, or interfering with APOBEC3G-Vif binding, can efficiently block in vitro HIV replication. Some clinical studies have also suggested that high levels of APOBEC3G expression in HIV patients are correlated with increased CD4+ T cell count and low levels of viral load; however, other studies have reported contradictory results and challenged this observation. Stem cell therapy to replace a patient’s immune cells with cells that are more HIV-resistant is a promising approach. Pre-implantation gene transfection of these stem cells can augment the HIV-resistance of progeny CD4+ T cells. As a protein, APOBEC3G has the advantage that it can be genetically encoded, while small molecules cannot. We have developed a mathematical model to quantitatively study the effects on in vivo HIV replication of therapeutic delivery of CD34+ stem cells transfected to overexpress APOBEC3G. Our model suggests that stem cell therapy resulting in a high fraction of APOBEC3G-overexpressing CD4+ T cells can effectively inhibit in vivo HIV replication. We extended our model to simulate the combination of APOBEC3G therapy with other biological activities, to estimate the likelihood of improved outcomes. PMID:23724012

  8. APOBEC3G-Augmented Stem Cell Therapy to Modulate HIV Replication: A Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Iraj; Mac Gabhann, Feilim

    2013-01-01

    The interplay between the innate immune system restriction factor APOBEC3G and the HIV protein Vif is a key host-retrovirus interaction. APOBEC3G can counteract HIV infection in at least two ways: by inducing lethal mutations on the viral cDNA; and by blocking steps in reverse transcription and viral integration into the host genome. HIV-Vif blocks these antiviral functions of APOBEC3G by impeding its encapsulation. Nonetheless, it has been shown that overexpression of APOBEC3G, or interfering with APOBEC3G-Vif binding, can efficiently block in vitro HIV replication. Some clinical studies have also suggested that high levels of APOBEC3G expression in HIV patients are correlated with increased CD4+ T cell count and low levels of viral load; however, other studies have reported contradictory results and challenged this observation. Stem cell therapy to replace a patient's immune cells with cells that are more HIV-resistant is a promising approach. Pre-implantation gene transfection of these stem cells can augment the HIV-resistance of progeny CD4+ T cells. As a protein, APOBEC3G has the advantage that it can be genetically encoded, while small molecules cannot. We have developed a mathematical model to quantitatively study the effects on in vivo HIV replication of therapeutic delivery of CD34+ stem cells transfected to overexpress APOBEC3G. Our model suggests that stem cell therapy resulting in a high fraction of APOBEC3G-overexpressing CD4+ T cells can effectively inhibit in vivo HIV replication. We extended our model to simulate the combination of APOBEC3G therapy with other biological activities, to estimate the likelihood of improved outcomes.

  9. ATR inhibition rewires cellular signaling networks induced by replication stress.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Sebastian A; Oehler, Hannah; Voigt, Andrea; Dalic, Denis; Freiwald, Anja; Serve, Hubert; Beli, Petra

    2016-02-01

    The slowing down or stalling of replication forks is commonly known as replication stress and arises from multiple causes such as DNA lesions, nucleotide depletion, RNA-DNA hybrids, and oncogene activation. The ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related kinase (ATR) plays an essential role in the cellular response to replication stress and inhibition of ATR has emerged as therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancers that exhibit high levels of replication stress. However, the cellular signaling induced by replication stress and the substrate spectrum of ATR has not been systematically investigated. In this study, we employed quantitative MS-based proteomics to define the cellular signaling after nucleotide depletion-induced replication stress and replication fork collapse following ATR inhibition. We demonstrate that replication stress results in increased phosphorylation of a subset of proteins, many of which are involved in RNA splicing and transcription and have previously not been associated with the cellular replication stress response. Furthermore, our data reveal the ATR-dependent phosphorylation following replication stress and discover novel putative ATR target sites on MCM6, TOPBP1, RAD51AP1, and PSMD4. We establish that ATR inhibition rewires cellular signaling networks induced by replication stress and leads to the activation of the ATM-driven double-strand break repair signaling.

  10. Macrophage derived cystatin B/cathepsin B in HIV replication and neuropathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Linda E; Colón, Krystal; Cantres-Rosario, Yisel M; Zenón, Frances M; Meléndez, Loyda M

    2013-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes including monocytes and macrophages, are important defense components of innate immunity, but can be detrimental in HIV-1 infection by serving as the principal reservoirs of virus in brain and triggering a strong immune response. These viral reservoirs represent a challenge to HIV-1 eradication since they continue producing virus in tissue despite antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) involves alterations to the blood-brain barrier and migration of activated HIV-1 infected monocytes to the brain with subsequent induced immune activation response. Our group recently showed that HIV replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) is associated with increased cystatin B. This cysteine protease inhibitor also inhibits the interferon-induced antiviral response by decreasing levels of tyrosine phosphorylated STAT-1. These recent discoveries reveal novel mechanisms of HIV persistence that could be targeted by new therapeutic approaches to eliminate HIV in macrophage reservoirs. However, cystatin B has been also associated with neuroprotection. Cystatin B is an inhibitor of the cysteine protease cathepsin B, a potent neurotoxin. During HIV-1 infection cystatin B and cathepsin B are upregulated in macrophages, meanwhile there is a reduction in cystatin/cathepsin interactions, leading to increased cathepsin B secretion and activity that induce neuronal apoptosis. Increased intracellular expression of both proteins was recently found in monocytes from Hispanic women with HAND. These findings provide new evidence for the role of cathepsin/cystatin system in the neuropathogenesis induced by HIV-infected macrophages. We summarize recent research on cystatin B and one of its substrates, cathepsin B, in HIV replication in macrophages and neuropathogenesis. PMID:24862331

  11. HIV-1 inhibition by extracts of Clusiaceae species from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Reyes, Maira; Basualdo, Maria del Carmen; Lozada, Lucio; Jimenez-Estrada, Manuel; Soler, Carmen; Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo

    2004-06-01

    The organic plant extracts of 21 species of Clusiaceae from Mexico were screened for anti HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity in a non-radioactive immuno colorimetric assay. The extracts of 5 species (23.8%) exhibited significant inhibition (> or =70%) of HIV-1 RT activity; of these, only 4 extracts showed reduced toxicity to human lymphocytic MT2 cells and were further tested as inhibitors of HIV-1 IIIb/LAV replication in a cellular system. The best extracts were Calophyllum brasiliense (hexane) and Clusia quadrangula (CH(2)Cl(2)-MeOH) which inhibited HIV-1 RT (IC(50)=29.6 microg/ml and 42 microg/ml), and showed an EC(50)=92.5 microg/ml and 91 microg/ml, respectively, on MT2 cells. However, only Calophyllum brasiliense hexane extract showed significant inhibition on viral replication (ED(50)=37.1 microg/ml), while Clusia quadrangula was less active (ED(50)=124 microg/ml). These results support the idea that plant extracts represent a valuable source of potential anti HIV compounds.

  12. Potent and Specific Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication by RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Coburn, Glen A.; Cullen, Bryan R.

    2002-01-01

    Synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been shown to induce the degradation of specific mRNA targets in human cells by inducing RNA interference (RNAi). Here, we demonstrate that siRNA duplexes targeted against the essential Tat and Rev regulatory proteins encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can specifically block Tat and Rev expression and function. More importantly, we show that these same siRNAs can effectively inhibit HIV-1 gene expression and replication in cell cultures, including those of human T-cell lines and primary lymphocytes. These observations demonstrate that RNAi can effectively block virus replication in human cells and raise the possibility that RNAi could provide an important innate protective response, particularly against viruses that express double-stranded RNAs as part of their replication cycle. PMID:12186906

  13. HIV-protease inhibitors block the replication of both vesicular stomatitis and influenza viruses at an early post-entry replication step

    SciTech Connect

    Federico, Maurizio

    2011-08-15

    The inhibitors of HIV-1 protease (PIs) have been designed to block the activity of the viral aspartyl-protease. However, it is now accepted that this family of inhibitors can also affect the activity of cell proteases. Since the replication of many virus species requires the activity of host cell proteases, investigating the effects of PIs on the life cycle of viruses other than HIV would be of interest. Here, the potent inhibition induced by saquinavir and nelfinavir on the replication of both vesicular stomatitis and influenza viruses is described. These are unrelated enveloped RNA viruses infecting target cells upon endocytosis and intracellular fusion. The PI-induced inhibition was apparently a consequence of a block at the level of the fusion between viral envelope and endosomal membranes. These findings would open the way towards the therapeutic use of PIs against enveloped RNA viruses other than HIV.

  14. Inhibition of Heat Shock Protein 90 Prevents HIV Rebound.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Pheroze; Maidji, Ekaterina; Stoddart, Cheryl A

    2016-05-06

    HIV evades eradication because transcriptionally dormant proviral genomes persist in long-lived reservoirs of resting CD4(+) T cells and myeloid cells, which are the source of viral rebound after cessation of antiretroviral therapy. Dormant HIV genomes readily produce infectious virus upon cellular activation because host transcription factors activated specifically by cell stress and heat shock mediate full-length HIV transcription. The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is overexpressed during heat shock and activates inducible cellular transcription factors. Here we show that heat shock accelerates HIV transcription through induction of Hsp90 activity, which activates essential HIV-specific cellular transcription factors (NF-κB, NFAT, and STAT5), and that inhibition of Hsp90 greatly reduces gene expression mediated by these factors. More importantly, we show that Hsp90 controls virus transcription in vivo by specific Hsp90 inhibitors in clinical development, tanespimycin (17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin) and AUY922, which durably prevented viral rebound in HIV-infected humanized NOD scid IL-2Rγ(-/-) bone marrow-liver-thymus mice up to 11 weeks after treatment cessation. Despite the absence of rebound viremia, we were able to recover infectious HIV from PBMC with heat shock. Replication-competent virus was detected in spleen cells from these nonviremic Hsp90 inhibitor-treated mice, indicating the presence of a tissue reservoir of persistent infection. Our novel findings provide in vivo evidence that inhibition of Hsp90 activity prevents HIV gene expression in replication-competent cellular reservoirs that would typically cause rebound in plasma viremia after antiretroviral therapy cessation. Alternating or supplementing Hsp90 inhibitors with current antiretroviral therapy regimens could conceivably suppress rebound viremia from persistent HIV reservoirs. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Newer tetracycline derivatives: synthesis, anti-HIV, antimycobacterial activities and inhibition of HIV-1 integrase.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Dharmarajan; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Senchani, Geetha; Banerjee, Debjani

    2007-04-15

    A series of new tetracycline derivatives has been synthesized by reacting appropriate tetracyclines, formaldehyde and secondary amino (piperazino) function of fluoroquinolones using microwave irradiation with the yield ranging from 41 evaluated for its anti-HIV, antimycobacterial activities and HIV-1 integrase (IN) enzyme inhibition studies. Among the synthesized compounds, compound 10 was found to be the most promising compound active against HIV-1 replication with EC(50) of 5.2 microM and was nontoxic to the CEM cells until 200 microM, and MIC of 0.2 microg/mL against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with moderate inhibition of both 3'-processing and strand transfer steps of HIV-1 IN.

  16. Human cellular restriction factors that target HIV-1 replication

    PubMed Central

    Strebel, Klaus; Luban, Jeremy; Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings have highlighted roles played by innate cellular factors in restricting intracellular viral replication. In this review, we discuss in brief the activities of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme 3G (APOBEC3G), bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST-2), cyclophilin A, tripartite motif protein 5 alpha (Trim5α), and cellular microRNAs as examples of host restriction factors that target HIV-1. We point to countermeasures encoded by HIV-1 for moderating the potency of these cellular restriction functions. PMID:19758442

  17. Investigation of the HIV-1 matrix interactome during virus replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Frederick, Kristin M; Haverland, Nicole A; Ciborowski, Pawel; Belshan, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Like all viruses, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires host cellular factors for productive replication. Identification of these factors may lead to the development of novel cell-based inhibitors. A Strep-tag was inserted into the C-terminus of the matrix (MA) region of the HIV-1 gag gene. The resultant virus was replication competent and used to infect Jurkat T-cells. MA complexes were affinity purified with Strep-Tactin agarose. Protein quantification was performed using sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra (SWATH) MS, data were log2 -transformed, and Student t-tests with Bonferroni correction used to determine statistical significance. Several candidate proteins were validated by immunoblot and investigated for their role in virus infection by siRNA knockdown assays. A total of 17 proteins were found to be statistically different between the infected versus uninfected and untagged control samples. X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 6 (Ku70), X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 5 (Ku80), and Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) were confirmed to interact with MA by immunoblot. Knockdown of two candidates, EZRIN and Y-box binding protein 1, enhanced HIV infection in vitro. The Strep-tag allowed for the capture of viral protein complexes in the context of virus replication. Several previously described factors were identified and at least two candidate proteins were found to play a role in HIV-1 infection. These data further increase our understanding of HIV host -cell interactions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Inhibition of clinical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 isolates in primary CD4+ T lymphocytes by retroviral vectors expressing anti-HIV genes.

    PubMed Central

    Vandendriessche, T; Chuah, M K; Chiang, L; Chang, H K; Ensoli, B; Morgan, R A

    1995-01-01

    Gene therapy may be of benefit in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals by virtue of its ability to inhibit virus replication and prevent viral gene expression. It is not known whether anti-HIV-1 gene therapy strategies based on antisense or transdominant HIV-1 mutant proteins can inhibit the replication and expression of clinical HIV-1 isolates in primary CD4+ T lymphocytes. We therefore transduced CD4+ T lymphocytes from uninfected individuals with retroviral vectors expressing either HIV-1-specific antisense-TAR or antisense-Tat/Rev RNA, transdominant HIV-1 Rev protein, and a combination of antisense-TAR and transdominant Rev. The engineered CD4+ T lymphocytes were then infected with four different clinical HIV-1 isolates. We found that replication of all HIV-1 isolates was inhibited by all the anti-HIV vectors tested. Greater inhibition of HIV-1 was observed with transdominant Rev than with antisense RNA. We hereby demonstrated effective protection by antisense RNA or transdominant mutant proteins against HIV-1 infection in primary CD4+ T lymphocytes using clinical HIV-1 isolates, and this represents an essential step toward clinical anti-HIV-1 gene therapy. PMID:7769662

  19. Optimization of unique, uncharged thioesters as inhibitors of HIV replication.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Pratibha; Schito, Marco; Fattah, Rasem J; Hara, Toshiaki; Hartman, Tracy; Buckheit, Robert W; Turpin, Jim A; Inman, John K; Appella, Ettore

    2004-12-15

    A combinatorial chemistry approach was employed to prepare a restricted library of N-substituted S-acyl-2-mercaptobenzamide thioesters. It was shown that many members of this chemotype display anti-HIV activity via their ability to interact with HIV-1, HIV-2, SIV-infected cells, cell-free virus, and chronically and latently infected cells in a manner consistent with targeting of the highly conserved HIV-1 NCp7 zinc fingers. Compounds were initially screened using two different in vitro antiviral assays and evaluated for stability in neutral buffer containing 10% pooled human serum using a spectrophotometric assay. These data revealed that there was no significant correlation between thioester stability and antiviral activity, however, a slight inverse correlation between serum stability and virucidal activity was noted. Based on the virucidal capability and the ability to select lead compounds to inhibit virus expression from latently infected TNFalpha-induced U1 cells, we next determined if these compounds could prevent HIV cell-to-cell transmission. Several thioesters demonstrated potent inhibition of HIV cell-to-cell transmission with EC50 values in the 80-100 nM range. Thus, we have optimized a series of restricted thioesters and provided evidence that serum stability is not required for antiviral activity. Moreover, selected compounds show potential for development as topical microbicides.

  20. ADAR1 Facilitates HIV-1 Replication in Primary CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    van Hamme, John L.; Jansen, Machiel H.; van Dort, Karel A.; Vanderver, Adeline; Rice, Gillian I.; Crow, Yanick J.; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2015-01-01

    Unlike resting CD4+ T cells, activated CD4+T cells are highly susceptible to infection of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). HIV-1 infects T cells and macrophages without activating the nucleic acid sensors and the anti-viral type I interferon response. Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) is an RNA editing enzyme that displays antiviral activity against several RNA viruses. Mutations in ADAR1 cause the autoimmune disorder Aicardi-Goutieères syndrome (AGS). This disease is characterized by an inappropriate activation of the interferon-stimulated gene response. Here we show that HIV-1 replication, in ADAR1-deficient CD4+T lymphocytes from AGS patients, is blocked at the level of protein translation. Furthermore, viral protein synthesis block is accompanied by an activation of interferon-stimulated genes. RNA silencing of ADAR1 in Jurkat cells also inhibited HIV-1 protein synthesis. Our data support that HIV-1 requires ADAR1 for efficient replication in human CD4+T cells. PMID:26629815

  1. Factors Associated With the Control of Viral Replication and Virologic Breakthrough in a Recently Infected HIV-1 Controller.

    PubMed

    Walker-Sperling, Victoria E; Pohlmeyer, Christopher W; Veenhuis, Rebecca T; May, Megan; Luna, Krystle A; Kirkpatrick, Allison R; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Cox, Andrea L; Carrington, Mary; Bailey, Justin R; Arduino, Roberto C; Blankson, Joel N

    2017-02-01

    HIV-1 controllers are patients who control HIV-1 viral replication without antiretroviral therapy. Control is achieved very early in the course of infection, but the mechanisms through which viral replication is restricted are not fully understood. We describe a patient who presented with acute HIV-1 infection and was found to have an HIV-1 RNA level of <100copies/mL. She did not have any known protective HLA alleles, but significant immune activation of CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells was present, and both cell types inhibited viral replication. Virus cultured from this patient replicated as well in vitro as virus isolated from her partner, a patient with AIDS who was the source of transmission. Virologic breakthrough occurred 9months after her initial presentation and was associated with an increase in CD4+ T cell activation levels and a significant decrease in NK cell inhibitory capacity. Remarkably, CD8+ T cell inhibitory capacity was preserved and there were no new escape mutations in targeted Gag epitopes. These findings suggest that fully replication-competent virus can be controlled in acute HIV-1 infection in some patients without protective HLA alleles and that NK cell responses may contribute to this early control of viral replication.

  2. A novel benzonitrile analogue inhibits rhinovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Céline; Querol-Audí, Jordi; Roche, Manon; Franco, David; Froeyen, Mathy; Guerra, Pablo; Terme, Thierry; Vanelle, Patrice; Verdaguer, Núria; Neyts, Johan; Leyssen, Pieter

    2014-10-01

    To study the characteristics and the mode of action of the anti-rhinovirus compound 4-[1-hydroxy-2-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrophenyl)ethyl]benzonitrile (LPCRW_0005). The antiviral activity of LPCRW_0005 was evaluated in a cytopathic effect reduction assay against a panel of human rhinovirus (HRV) strains. To unravel its precise molecular mechanism of action, a time-of-drug-addition study, resistance selection and thermostability assays were performed. The crystal structure of the HRV14/LPCRW_0005 complex was elucidated as well. LPCRW_0005 proved to be a selective inhibitor of the replication of HRV14 (EC(50) of 2 ± 1 μM). Time-of-drug-addition studies revealed that LPCRW_0005 interferes with the earliest stages of virus replication. Phenotypic drug-resistant virus variants were obtained (≥30-fold decrease in susceptibility to the inhibitory effect of LPCRW_0005), which carried either an A150T or A150V amino acid substitution in the VP1 capsid protein. The link between the mutant genotype and drug-resistant phenotype was confirmed by reverse genetics. Cross-resistance studies and thermostability assays revealed that LPCRW_0005 has a similar mechanism of action to the capsid binder pleconaril. Elucidation of the crystal structure of the HRV14/LPCRW_0005 complex revealed the existence of multiple hydrophobic and polar interactions between the VP1 pocket and LPCRW_0005. LPCRW_0005 is a novel inhibitor of HRV14 replication that acts as a capsid binder. The compound has a chemical structure that is markedly smaller than that of other capsid binders. Structural studies show that LPCRW_0005, in contrast to pleconaril, leaves the toe end of the pocket in VP1 empty. This suggests that extended analogues of LPCRW_0005 that fill the full cavity could be more potent inhibitors of rhinovirus replication. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  3. Suppression of HIV-1 replication by propolis and its immunoregulatory effect.

    PubMed

    Harish, Z; Rubinstein, A; Golodner, M; Elmaliah, M; Mizrachi, Y

    1997-01-01

    In the current study we show that propolis, a non-toxic natural bee-hive product, suppresses HIV-1 replication and modulates in vitro immune responses. CEM cells were treated with propolis at nontoxic concentrations prior to or following infection with HIV-1. Propolis abolished syncytium formation at 4.5 micrograms/ml and inhibited it at lower doses in a concentration-dependent manner. Propolis decreased p24 antigen production by as much as 90-100% in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, modulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) mitogenic responses upon the addition of propolis was noted, reducing the elevated responses to Concanavalin A (Con A) and enhancing suppressed mitogenic responses to pokeweed mitogen (PWM). In summary, propolis may constitute a non-toxic natural product with both anti HIV-1 and immunoregulatory effects.

  4. Ebselen, a Small-Molecule Capsid Inhibitor of HIV-1 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Thenin-Houssier, Suzie; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S.; Pedro-Rosa, Laura; Brady, Angela; Richard, Audrey; Konnick, Briana; Opp, Silvana; Buffone, Cindy; Fuhrmann, Jakob; Kota, Smitha; Billack, Blase; Pietka-Ottlik, Magdalena; Tellinghuisen, Timothy; Choe, Hyeryun; Spicer, Timothy; Scampavia, Louis; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Kojetin, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid plays crucial roles in HIV-1 replication and thus represents an excellent drug target. We developed a high-throughput screening method based on a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (HTS-TR-FRET) assay, using the C-terminal domain (CTD) of HIV-1 capsid to identify inhibitors of capsid dimerization. This assay was used to screen a library of pharmacologically active compounds, composed of 1,280 in vivo-active drugs, and identified ebselen [2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one], an organoselenium compound, as an inhibitor of HIV-1 capsid CTD dimerization. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis confirmed the direct interaction of ebselen with the HIV-1 capsid CTD and dimer dissociation when ebselen is in 2-fold molar excess. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry revealed that ebselen covalently binds the HIV-1 capsid CTD, likely via a selenylsulfide linkage with Cys198 and Cys218. This compound presents anti-HIV activity in single and multiple rounds of infection in permissive cell lines as well as in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Ebselen inhibits early viral postentry events of the HIV-1 life cycle by impairing the incoming capsid uncoating process. This compound also blocks infection of other retroviruses, such as Moloney murine leukemia virus and simian immunodeficiency virus, but displays no inhibitory activity against hepatitis C and influenza viruses. This study reports the use of TR-FRET screening to successfully identify a novel capsid inhibitor, ebselen, validating HIV-1 capsid as a promising target for drug development. PMID:26810656

  5. Knockdown of ERM family member moesin in host cells increases HIV type 1 replication.

    PubMed

    Capalbo, Gianni; Mueller-Kuller, Thea; Markovic, Sandra; Klein, Stefan A; Dietrich, Ursula; Hoelzer, Dieter; Ottmann, Oliver G; Scheuring, Urban J

    2011-12-01

    Moesin is a member of the ERM (ezrin, radixin, moesin) family of cytoskeleton/membrane structure organizing and signal transduction proteins. Previously, we found an increased expression of moesin during HIV-1 infection. Moesin was also reported to be incorporated into HIV-1 virions. To analyze whether moesin is a host factor affecting the replication cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we used small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to evaluate the effect of moesin knockdown on HIV-1 replication in P4-CCR5 cells. Moesin's knockdown did not affect the cell viability or cell phenotype. Interestingly, we observed a marked increase in viral replication, as demonstrated by enhanced HIV-1 RNA, p24 antigen, and ß-galactosidase reporter expression. Moesin-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 replication was confirmed in lymphocytic host cells (Jurkat). These results suggest an overall rather restrictive role of moesin for HIV-1 replication in host cells in vitro.

  6. Bcl2 induces DNA replication stress by inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Xie, Maohua; Yen, Yun; Owonikoko, Taofeek K; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Khuri, Fadlo R; Curran, Walter J; Doetsch, Paul W; Deng, Xingming

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication stress is an inefficient DNA synthesis process that leads replication forks to progress slowly or stall. Two main factors that cause replication stress are alterations in pools of deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) precursors required for DNA synthesis and changes in the activity of proteins required for synthesis of dNTPs. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), containing regulatory hRRM1 and catalytic hRRM2 subunits, is the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleoside diphosphates (NDP) to deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates (dNDP) and thereby provides dNTP precursors needed for the synthesis of DNA. Here, we demonstrate that either endogenous or exogenous expression of Bcl2 results in decreases in RNR activity and intracellular dNTP, retardation of DNA replication fork progression, and increased rate of fork asymmetry leading to DNA replication stress. Bcl2 colocalizes with hRRM1 and hRRM2 in the cytoplasm and directly interacts via its BH4 domain with hRRM2 but not hRRM1. Removal of the BH4 domain of Bcl2 abrogates its inhibitory effects on RNR activity, dNTP pool level, and DNA replication. Intriguingly, Bcl2 directly inhibits RNR activity by disrupting the functional hRRM1/hRRM2 complex via its BH4 domain. Our findings argue that Bcl2 reduces intracellular dNTPs by inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase activity, thereby providing insight into how Bcl2 triggers DNA replication stress.

  7. Ribavirin Inhibits Parrot Bornavirus 4 Replication in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Musser, Jeffrey M. B.; Heatley, J. Jill; Koinis, Anastasia V.; Suchodolski, Paulette F.; Guo, Jianhua; Escandon, Paulina; Tizard, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    Parrot bornavirus 4 is an etiological agent of proventricular dilatation disease, a fatal neurologic and gastrointestinal disease of psittacines and other birds. We tested the ability of ribavirin, an antiviral nucleoside analog with antiviral activity against a range of RNA and DNA viruses, to inhibit parrot bornavirus 4 replication in duck embryonic fibroblast cells. Two analytical methods that evaluate different products of viral replication, indirect immunocytochemistry for viral specific nucleoprotein and qRT-PCR for viral specific phosphoprotein gene mRNA, were used. Ribavirin at concentrations between 2.5 and 25 μg/mL inhibited parrot bornavirus 4 replication, decreasing viral mRNA and viral protein load, in infected duck embryonic fibroblast cells. The addition of guanosine diminished the antiviral activity of ribavirin suggesting that one possible mechanism of action against parrot bornavirus 4 may likely be through inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibition. This study demonstrates parrot bornavirus 4 susceptibility to ribavirin in cell culture. PMID:26222794

  8. Ribavirin Inhibits Parrot Bornavirus 4 Replication in Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Musser, Jeffrey M B; Heatley, J Jill; Koinis, Anastasia V; Suchodolski, Paulette F; Guo, Jianhua; Escandon, Paulina; Tizard, Ian R

    2015-01-01

    Parrot bornavirus 4 is an etiological agent of proventricular dilatation disease, a fatal neurologic and gastrointestinal disease of psittacines and other birds. We tested the ability of ribavirin, an antiviral nucleoside analog with antiviral activity against a range of RNA and DNA viruses, to inhibit parrot bornavirus 4 replication in duck embryonic fibroblast cells. Two analytical methods that evaluate different products of viral replication, indirect immunocytochemistry for viral specific nucleoprotein and qRT-PCR for viral specific phosphoprotein gene mRNA, were used. Ribavirin at concentrations between 2.5 and 25 μg/mL inhibited parrot bornavirus 4 replication, decreasing viral mRNA and viral protein load, in infected duck embryonic fibroblast cells. The addition of guanosine diminished the antiviral activity of ribavirin suggesting that one possible mechanism of action against parrot bornavirus 4 may likely be through inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibition. This study demonstrates parrot bornavirus 4 susceptibility to ribavirin in cell culture.

  9. Novel Polyanions Inhibiting Replication of Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ciejka, Justyna; Milewska, Aleksandra; Wytrwal, Magdalena; Wojarski, Jacek; Golda, Anna; Ochman, Marek; Nowakowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Novel sulfonated derivatives of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (NSPAHs) and N-sulfonated chitosan (NSCH) have been synthesized, and their activity against influenza A and B viruses has been studied and compared with that of a series of carrageenans, marine polysaccharides of well-documented anti-influenza activity. NSPAHs were found to be nontoxic and very soluble in water, in contrast to gel-forming and thus generally poorly soluble carrageenans. In vitro and ex vivo studies using susceptible cells (Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells and fully differentiated human airway epithelial cultures) demonstrated the antiviral effectiveness of NSPAHs. The activity of NSPAHs was proportional to the molecular mass of the chain and the degree of substitution of amino groups with sulfonate groups. Mechanistic studies showed that the NSPAHs and carrageenans inhibit influenza A and B virus assembly in the cell. PMID:26729490

  10. A combinational CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing approach can halt HIV replication and prevent viral escape

    PubMed Central

    Lebbink, Robert Jan; de Jong, Dorien C. M.; Wolters, Femke; Kruse, Elisabeth M.; van Ham, Petra M.; Wiertz, Emmanuel J. H. J.; Nijhuis, Monique

    2017-01-01

    HIV presents one of the highest evolutionary rates ever detected and combination antiretroviral therapy is needed to overcome the plasticity of the virus population and control viral replication. Conventional treatments lack the ability to clear the latent reservoir, which remains the major obstacle towards a cure. Novel strategies, such as CRISPR/Cas9 gRNA-based genome-editing, can permanently disrupt the HIV genome. However, HIV genome-editing may accelerate viral escape, questioning the feasibility of the approach. Here, we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9 targeting of single HIV loci, only partially inhibits HIV replication and facilitates rapid viral escape at the target site. A combinatorial approach of two strong gRNAs targeting different regions of the HIV genome can completely abrogate viral replication and prevent viral escape. Our data shows that the accelerating effect of gene-editing on viral escape can be overcome and as such gene-editing may provide a future alternative for control of HIV-infection. PMID:28176813

  11. A combinational CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing approach can halt HIV replication and prevent viral escape.

    PubMed

    Lebbink, Robert Jan; de Jong, Dorien C M; Wolters, Femke; Kruse, Elisabeth M; van Ham, Petra M; Wiertz, Emmanuel J H J; Nijhuis, Monique

    2017-02-08

    HIV presents one of the highest evolutionary rates ever detected and combination antiretroviral therapy is needed to overcome the plasticity of the virus population and control viral replication. Conventional treatments lack the ability to clear the latent reservoir, which remains the major obstacle towards a cure. Novel strategies, such as CRISPR/Cas9 gRNA-based genome-editing, can permanently disrupt the HIV genome. However, HIV genome-editing may accelerate viral escape, questioning the feasibility of the approach. Here, we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9 targeting of single HIV loci, only partially inhibits HIV replication and facilitates rapid viral escape at the target site. A combinatorial approach of two strong gRNAs targeting different regions of the HIV genome can completely abrogate viral replication and prevent viral escape. Our data shows that the accelerating effect of gene-editing on viral escape can be overcome and as such gene-editing may provide a future alternative for control of HIV-infection.

  12. Nitric oxide inhibition of coxsackievirus replication in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Zaragoza, C; Ocampo, C J; Saura, M; McMillan, A; Lowenstein, C J

    1997-01-01

    Nitric oxide is a radical molecule with antibacterial, -parasitic, and -viral properties. We investigated the mechanism of NO inhibition of Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) replication in vitro by determining the effect of NO upon a single replicative cycle of CVB3 grown in HeLa cells. Transfection of inducible NO synthase cDNA into HeLa cells reduces the number of viral particles produced during a single cycle of growth. Similarly, a noncytotoxic concentration of the NO donor S-nitroso-amino-penicillamine reduces the number of viral particles in a dose-dependent manner. To explore the mechanisms by which NO exerts its antiviral effect, we assayed the attachment, replication, and translation steps of the CVB3 life cycle. NO does not affect the attachment of CVB3 to HeLa cells. However, NO inhibits CVB3 RNA synthesis, as shown by a [3H]uridine incorporation assay, reverse transcription-PCR, and Northern analysis. In addition, NO inhibits CVB3 protein synthesis, as shown by [35S]methionine protein labeling and Western blot analysis of infected cells. Thus, NO inhibits CVB3 replication in part by inhibiting viral RNA synthesis by an unknown mechanism. PMID:9312175

  13. Human cytomegalovirus function inhibits replication of herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Cockley, K.D.; Shiraki, K.; Rapp, F.

    1988-01-01

    Human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 h as well as a consistent, almost 3 log inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 h after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone. Treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells with cycloheximide (100 ..mu..g/ml) for 3 or 24 h was demonstrated effective in blocking HCMV protein synthesis, as shown by immunoprecipitation with HCMV antibody-positive polyvalent serum. Cycloheximide treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells and removal of the cycloheximide block before superinfection inhibited HSV-1 replication more efficiently than non-drug-treated superinfected controls. HCMV DNA-negative temperature-sensitive mutants restricted HSV as efficiently as wild-type HCMV suggesting that immediate-early and/or early events which occur before viral DNA synthesis are sufficient for inhibition of HSV. Inhibition of HSV-1 in HCMV-infected HEL cells was unaffected by elevated temperature (40.5/sup 0/C). However, prior UV irradiation of HCMV removed the block to HSV replication, demonstrating the requirement for an active HCMV genome. HSV-2 replication was similarly inhibited in HCMV-infected HEL cells. Superinfection of HCMV-infected HEL cells with HSV-1 labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine provided evidence that the labeled virus could penetrate to the nucleus of cells after superinfection. Evidence for penetration of superinfecting HSV into HCMV-infected cells was also provided by blot hybridization of HSV DNA synthesized in cells infected with HSV alone versus superinfected cell cultures at 0 and 48 h after superinfection.

  14. A mutant Tat protein inhibits infection of human cells by strains from diverse HIV-1 subtypes.

    PubMed

    Rustanti, Lina; Jin, Hongping; Lor, Mary; Lin, Min Hsuan; Rawle, Daniel J; Harrich, David

    2017-03-14

    Nullbasic is a mutant HIV-1 Tat protein that inhibits HIV-1 replication via three independent mechanisms that disrupts 1) reverse transcription of the viral RNA genome into a DNA copy, 2) HIV-1 Rev protein function required for viral mRNA transport from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and 3) HIV-1 mRNA transcription by RNA Polymerase II. The Nullbasic protein is derived from the subtype B strain HIV-1BH10 and has only been tested against other HIV-1 subtype B strains. However, subtype B strains only account for ~10% of HIV-1 infections globally and HIV-1 Tat sequences vary between subtypes especially for subtype C, which is responsible for ~50% HIV-1 infection worldwide. These differences could influence the ability of Tat to interact with RNA and cellular proteins and thus could affect the antiviral activity of Nullbasic. Therefore, Nullbasic was tested against representative HIV-1 strains from subtypes C, D and A/D recombinant to determine if it can inhibit their replication. Nullbasic was delivered to human cells using a self-inactivating (SIN) γ-retroviral system. We evaluated Nullbasic-mCherry (NB-mCh) fusion protein activity against the HIV-1 strains in TZM-bl cell lines for inhibition of transactivation and virus replication. We also examined antiviral activity of Nullbasic-ZsGreen1 (NB-ZSG1) fusion protein against the same strains in primary CD4(+) T cells. The Nullbasic expression was monitored by western blot and flow cytometry. The effects of Nullbasic on primary CD4(+) T cells cytotoxicity, proliferation and apoptosis were also examined. The results show that Nullbasic inhibits Tat-mediated transactivation and virus replication of all the HIV-1 strains tested in TZM-bl cells. Importantly, Nullbasic inhibits replication of the HIV-1 strains in primary CD4(+) T cells without affecting cell proliferation, cytotoxicity or level of apoptotic cells. A SIN-based γ-retroviral vector used to express Nullbasic fusion proteins improved protein expression

  15. [Mechanisms for inhibition of retrovirus replication by APOBEC3 family].

    PubMed

    Iwatani, Yasumasa

    2011-06-01

    Human cells developed the defense systems against retrovirus infections during the evolutions. These systems include retroviral restrictions by DNA cytidine deaminases of APOBEC3 family (A, B, C, DE, F, G, and H), which are potent factors to block the viral replication by blocking reverse transcription and/or integration and by hypermutating viral cDNA. In case of HIV-1, the viral protein, Vif abrogates the APOBEC3F/G function through specific machinery of ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Without Vif, APOBEC3F/G are incorporated into virus particles and block reverse transcription and/or integration in a newly infected cell. Recent advances in our understanding about biochemical and structure-biological characteristics of the enzymes provide new insights to reveal more detailed molecular mechanisms for anti-retroviral activity by APOBEC3 family. Here I briefly review how APOBEC3 proteins block retrovirus replications, focusing on APOBEC3G.

  16. Cytokines Elevated in HIV Elite Controllers Reduce HIV Replication In Vitro and Modulate HIV Restriction Factor Expression.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Evan S; Keating, Sheila M; Abdel-Mohsen, Mohamed; Gibb, Stuart L; Heitman, John W; Inglis, Heather C; Martin, Jeffrey N; Zhang, Jinbing; Kaidarova, Zhanna; Deng, Xutao; Wu, Shiquan; Anastos, Kathryn; Crystal, Howard; Villacres, Maria C; Young, Mary; Greenblatt, Ruth M; Landay, Alan L; Gange, Stephen J; Deeks, Steven G; Golub, Elizabeth T; Pillai, Satish K; Norris, Philip J

    2017-03-15

    A subset of HIV-infected individuals termed elite controllers (ECs) maintain CD4(+) T cell counts and control viral replication in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Systemic cytokine responses may differentiate ECs from subjects with uncontrolled viral replication or from those who require ART to suppress viral replication. We measured 87 cytokines in four groups of women: 73 ECs, 42 with pharmacologically suppressed viremia (ART), 42 with uncontrolled viral replication (noncontrollers [NCs]), and 48 HIV-uninfected (NEG) subjects. Four cytokines were elevated in ECs but not NCs or ART subjects: CCL14, CCL21, CCL27, and XCL1. In addition, median stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) levels were 43% higher in ECs than in NCs. The combination of the five cytokines suppressed R5 and X4 virus replication in resting CD4(+) T cells, and individually SDF-1β, CCL14, and CCL27 suppressed R5 virus replication, while SDF-1β, CCL21, and CCL14 suppressed X4 virus replication. Functional studies revealed that the combination of the five cytokines upregulated CD69 and CCR5 and downregulated CXCR4 and CCR7 on CD4(+) T cells. The CD69 and CXCR4 effects were driven by SDF-1, while CCL21 downregulated CCR7. The combination of the EC-associated cytokines induced expression of the anti-HIV host restriction factors IFITM1 and IFITM2 and suppressed expression of RNase L and SAMHD1. These results identify a set of cytokines that are elevated in ECs and define their effects on cellular activation, HIV coreceptor expression, and innate restriction factor expression. This cytokine pattern may be a signature characteristic of HIV-1 elite control, potentially important for HIV therapeutic and curative strategies.IMPORTANCE Approximately 1% of people infected with HIV control virus replication without taking antiviral medications. These subjects, termed elite controllers (ECs), are known to have stronger immune responses targeting HIV than the typical HIV-infected subject, but the

  17. Short Communication: High Cellular Iron Levels Are Associated with Increased HIV Infection and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsiang-Chun; Bayeva, Marina; Taiwo, Babafemi; Palella, Frank J.; Hope, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract HIV is a pandemic disease, and many cellular and systemic factors are known to alter its infectivity and replication. Earlier studies had suggested that anemia is common in HIV-infected patients; however, higher iron was also observed in AIDS patients prior to the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therefore, the relationship between iron and viral infection is not well delineated. To address this issue, we altered the levels of cellular iron in primary CD4+ T cells and showed that higher iron is associated with increased HIV infection and replication. In addition, HIV infection alone leads to increased cellular iron, and several ART drugs increase cellular iron independent of HIV infection. Finally, HIV infection is associated with increased serum iron in HIV-positive patients regardless of treatment with ART. These results establish a relationship between iron and HIV infection and suggest that iron homeostasis may be a viable therapeutic target for HIV. PMID:25291189

  18. Short communication: high cellular iron levels are associated with increased HIV infection and replication.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsiang-Chun; Bayeva, Marina; Taiwo, Babafemi; Palella, Frank J; Hope, Thomas J; Ardehali, Hossein

    2015-03-01

    HIV is a pandemic disease, and many cellular and systemic factors are known to alter its infectivity and replication. Earlier studies had suggested that anemia is common in HIV-infected patients; however, higher iron was also observed in AIDS patients prior to the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therefore, the relationship between iron and viral infection is not well delineated. To address this issue, we altered the levels of cellular iron in primary CD4(+) T cells and showed that higher iron is associated with increased HIV infection and replication. In addition, HIV infection alone leads to increased cellular iron, and several ART drugs increase cellular iron independent of HIV infection. Finally, HIV infection is associated with increased serum iron in HIV-positive patients regardless of treatment with ART. These results establish a relationship between iron and HIV infection and suggest that iron homeostasis may be a viable therapeutic target for HIV.

  19. HIV/AIDS Vaccine Candidates Based on Replication-Competent Recombinant Poxvirus NYVAC-C-KC Expressing Trimeric gp140 and Gag-Derived Virus-Like Particles or Lacking the Viral Molecule B19 That Inhibits Type I Interferon Activate Relevant HIV-1-Specific B and T Cell Immune Functions in Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    García-Arriaza, Juan; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Heeney, Jonathan L; Seaman, Michael S; Montefiori, David C; Yates, Nicole L; Tomaras, Georgia D; Ferrari, Guido; Foulds, Kathryn E; Roederer, Mario; Self, Steven G; Borate, Bhavesh; Gottardo, Raphael; Phogat, Sanjay; Tartaglia, Jim; Barnett, Susan W; Burke, Brian; Cristillo, Anthony D; Weiss, Deborah E; Lee, Carter; Kibler, Karen V; Jacobs, Bertram L; Wagner, Ralf; Ding, Song; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Esteban, Mariano

    2017-05-01

    The nonreplicating attenuated poxvirus vector NYVAC expressing clade C(CN54) HIV-1 Env(gp120) and Gag-Pol-Nef antigens (NYVAC-C) showed limited immunogenicity in phase I clinical trials. To enhance the capacity of the NYVAC vector to trigger broad humoral responses and a more balanced activation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, here we compared the HIV-1-specific immunogenicity elicited in nonhuman primates immunized with two replicating NYVAC vectors that have been modified by the insertion of the K1L and C7L vaccinia virus host range genes and express the clade C(ZM96) trimeric HIV-1 gp140 protein or a Gag(ZM96)-Pol-Nef(CN54) polyprotein as Gag-derived virus-like particles (termed NYVAC-C-KC). Additionally, one NYVAC-C-KC vector was generated by deleting the viral gene B19R, an inhibitor of the type I interferon response (NYVAC-C-KC-ΔB19R). An immunization protocol mimicking that of the RV144 phase III clinical trial was used. Two groups of macaques received two doses of the corresponding NYVAC-C-KC vectors (weeks 0 and 4) and booster doses with NYVAC-C-KC vectors plus the clade C HIV-1 gp120 protein (weeks 12 and 24). The two replicating NYVAC-C-KC vectors induced enhanced and similar HIV-1-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses, similar levels of binding IgG antibodies, low levels of IgA antibodies, and high levels of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity responses and HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies. Small differences within the NYVAC-C-KC-ΔB19R group were seen in the magnitude of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, the induction of some cytokines, and the neutralization of some HIV-1 isolates. Thus, replication-competent NYVAC-C-KC vectors acquired relevant immunological properties as vaccine candidates against HIV/AIDS, and the viral B19 molecule exerts some control of immune functions.IMPORTANCE It is of special importance to find a safe and effective HIV/AIDS vaccine that can induce strong and broad T cell and humoral immune responses correlating with HIV-1

  20. Control of HIV-1 replication in vitro by vaccine-induced human CD8+ T cells through conserved subdominant Pol epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tina; Borthwick, Nicola J.; Gilmour, Jill; Hayes, Peter; Dorrell, Lucy; Hanke, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Objective The specificity of CD8+ T cells is critical for early control of founder/transmitted and reactivated HIV-1. To tackle HIV-1 variability and escape, we designed vaccine immunogen HIVconsv assembled from 14 highly conserved regions of mainly Gag and Pol proteins. When administered to HIV-1-negative human volunteers in trial HIV-CORE 002, HIVconsv vaccines elicited CD8+ effector T cells which inhibited replication of up to 8 HIV-1 isolates in autologous CD4+ cells. This inhibition correlated with interferon-γ production in response to Gag and Pol peptide pools, but direct evidence of the inhibitory specificity was missing. Here, we aimed to define through recognition of which epitopes these effectors inhibit HIV-1 replication. Design CD8+ T-cells from the 3 broadest HIV-1 inhibitors out of 23 vaccine recipients were expanded in culture by Gag or Pol peptide restimulation and tested in viral inhibition assay (VIA) using HIV-1 clade B and A isolates. Methods Frozen PBMCs were expanded first using peptide pools from Gag or Pol conserved regions and tested on HIV-1-infected cells in VIA or by individual peptides for their effector functions. Single peptide specificities responsible for inhibition of HIV-1 replication were then confirmed by single-peptide expanded effectors tested on HIV-1-infected cells. Results We formally demonstrated that the vaccine-elicited inhibitory human CD8+ T cells recognized conserved epitopes of both Pol and Gag proteins. We defined 7 minimum epitopes, of which 3 were novel, presumably naturally subdominant. The effectors were oligofunctional producing several cytokines and chemokines and killing peptide-pulsed target cells. Conclusions These results implicate the use of functionally conserved regions of Pol in addition to the widely used Gag for T-cell vaccine design. Proportion of volunteers developing these effectors and their frequency in circulating PBMC are separate issues, which can be addressed, if needed, by more efficient

  1. Nitric Oxide Inhibits Coxiella burnetii Replication and Parasitophorous Vacuole Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Dale; Barrows, Lorraine F.; Lindstrom, Nicole M.; Heinzen, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide is a recognized cytotoxic effector against facultative and obligate intracellular bacteria. This study examined the effect of nitric oxide produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) up-regulated in response to cytokine stimulation, or by a synthetic nitric oxide donor, on replication of obligately intracellular Coxiella burnetii in murine L-929 cells. Immunoblotting and nitrite assays revealed that C. burnetii infection of L-929 cells augments expression of iNOS up-regulated in response to gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Infection in the absence of cytokine stimulation did not result in demonstrable up-regulation of iNOS expression or in increased nitrite production. Nitrite production by cytokine-treated cells was significantly inhibited by the iNOS inhibitor S-methylisothiourea (SMT). Treatment of infected cells with IFN-γ and TNF-α or the synthetic nitric oxide donor 2,2′-(hydroxynitrosohydrazino)bis-ethanamine (DETA/NONOate) had a bacteriostatic effect on C. burnetii replication. Inhibition of replication was reversed upon addition of SMT to the culture medium of cytokine-treated cells. Microscopic analysis of infected cells revealed that nitric oxide (either cytokine induced or donor derived) inhibited formation of the mature (large) parasitophorous vacuole that is characteristic of C. burnetii infection of host cells. Instead, exposure of infected cells to nitric oxide resulted in the formation of multiple small, acidic vacuoles usually containing one C. burnetii cell. Removal of nitrosative stress resulted in the coalescence of small vacuoles to form a large vacuole harboring multiple C. burnetii cells. These experiments demonstrate that nitric oxide reversibly inhibits replication of C. burnetii and formation of the parasitophorous vacuole. PMID:12183564

  2. APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F Act in Concert To Extinguish HIV-1 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Krisko, John F.; Begum, Nurjahan; Baker, Caroline E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The multifunctional HIV-1 accessory protein Vif counters the antiviral activities of APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F), and some Vifs counter stable alleles of APOBEC3H (A3H). Studies in humanized mice have shown that HIV-1 lacking Vif expression is not viable. Here, we look at the relative contributions of the three APOBEC3s to viral extinction. Inoculation of bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) mice with CCR5-tropic HIV-1JRCSF (JRCSF) expressing a vif gene inactive for A3G but not A3F degradation activity (JRCSFvifH42/43D) displayed either no or delayed replication. JRCSF expressing a vif gene mutated to inactivate A3F degradation but not A3G degradation (JRCSFvifW79S) always replicated to high viral loads with variable delays. JRCSF with vif mutated to lack both A3G and A3F degradation activities (JRCSFvifH42/43DW79S) failed to replicate, mimicking JRCSF without Vif expression (JRCSFΔvif). JRCSF and JRCSFvifH42/43D, but not JRCSFvifW79S or JRCSFvifH42/43DW79S, degraded APOBEC3D. With one exception, JRCSFs expressing mutant Vifs that replicated acquired enforced vif mutations. These mutations partially restored A3G or A3F degradation activity and fully replaced JRCSFvifH42/43D or JRCSFvifW79S by 10 weeks. Surprisingly, induced mutations temporally lagged behind high levels of virus in blood. In the exceptional case, JRCSFvifH42/43D replicated after a prolonged delay with no mutations in vif but instead a V27I mutation in the RNase H coding sequence. JRCSFvifH42/43D infections exhibited massive GG/AG mutations in pol viral DNA, but in viral RNA, there were no fixed mutations in the Gag or reverse transcriptase coding sequence. A3H did not contribute to viral extinction but, in combination with A3F, could delay JRCSF replication. A3H was also found to hypermutate viral DNA. IMPORTANCE Vif degradation of A3G and A3F enhances viral fitness, as virus with even a partially restored capacity for degradation outgrows JRCSFvifH42/43D and JRCSFvifW79S. Unexpectedly

  3. Inhibition of AIDS virus replication by acemannan in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kahlon, J B; Kemp, M C; Carpenter, R H; McAnalley, B H; McDaniel, H R; Shannon, W M

    1991-09-01

    Acemannan (ACE-M), a beta-(1,4)-linked acetylated mannan, was evaluated for in vitro activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Castanospermine (CAS), deoxymannojirimycin (DMN), swainsonine (SWS), azidothymidine (AZT), and dideoxythymidine (DDC) were tested in parallel as control compounds. In vitro antiviral efficacy of ACE-M was evaluated in a variety of cell lines including human peripheral mononuclear, CEM-SS1 and MT-2(2) cells. The virus strain, number of infectious units per cell, and target cell line were important factors in determining the degree of inhibition of viral cytopathic effect in the presence of ACE-M and other control compounds tested. Maximum inhibitory effect was observed in CEM-SS cells infected with the RFII strain of HIV-1. This inhibitory effect was determined to be concentration-dependent. Assay design included primary screening to measure cell viabilities of infected target cells in the presence and absence of test compounds. When tested on HIV-1/RFII-infected CEM-SS cells, the 50% inhibitory effect of CAS (IC50 = 28), an inhibitor of alpha-glucosidase I, was determined to be similar to that observed for ACE-M (IC50 = 45). However, DMN and SWS, inhibitors of mannosidase I and II, tested in parallel to CAS and ACE-M, exhibited no IC50 values. Antiviral potential of ACE-M as an inhibitor of syncytia formation was also explored using CEM-SS cells. Suppression of syncytia formation was observed at an ACE-M concentration of 31.25 micrograms/ml, and complete inhibition was observed at 62.5 micrograms/ml. In addition, HIV-1 RNA levels were studied to establish the antiviral potential of ACE-M in vitro.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. A CI-Independent Form of Replicative Inhibition: Turn Off of Early Replication of Bacteriophage Lambda

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Sidney; Horbay, Monique A.; Hayes, Connie

    2012-01-01

    Several earlier studies have described an unusual exclusion phenotype exhibited by cells with plasmids carrying a portion of the replication region of phage lambda. Cells exhibiting this inhibition phenotype (IP) prevent the plating of homo-immune and hybrid hetero-immune lambdoid phages. We have attempted to define aspects of IP, and show that it is directed to repλ phages. IP was observed in cells with plasmids containing a λ DNA fragment including oop, encoding a short OOP micro RNA, and part of the lambda origin of replication, oriλ, defined by iteron sequences ITN1-4 and an adjacent high AT-rich sequence. Transcription of the intact oop sequence from its promoter, pO is required for IP, as are iterons ITN3–4, but not the high AT-rich portion of oriλ. The results suggest that IP silencing is directed to theta mode replication initiation from an infecting repλ genome, or an induced repλ prophage. Phage mutations suppressing IP, i.e., Sip, map within, or adjacent to cro or in O, or both. Our results for plasmid based IP suggest the hypothesis that there is a natural mechanism for silencing early theta-mode replication initiation, i.e. the buildup of λ genomes with oop+ oriλ+ sequence. PMID:22590552

  5. Replication potentials of HIV-1/HSIV in PBMCs from northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina).

    PubMed

    Lei, Ai-Hua; Zhang, Gao-Hong; Tian, Ren-Rong; Zhu, Jia-Wu; Zheng, Hong-Yi; Pang, Wei; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2014-05-01

    The northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina) has been identified as an independent species of Old World monkey, and we previously found that PBMCs from M. leonina were susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), which may be due to the absence of a TRIM5 protein restricting HIV-1 replication. Here we investigated the infection potentials of six laboratory adapted HIV-1 strains and three primary HIV-1 isolates in PBMCs from M. leonina. The results indicate that these strains are characterized by various but low replication levels, and among which, HIV-1NL4-3 shows the highest replication ability. Based on the abundant evidence of species-specific interactions between restriction factors APOBEC3 and HIV/SIV-derived Vif protein, we subsequently examined the replication potentials of vif-substituted HIV-1 (HSIV) in M. leonina PBMCs. Notably, HSIV-vifmac and stHIV-1SV chimeras, two HIV-1NL4-3-derived viruses encoding the viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein from SIVmac239, replicated robustly in cells from M. leonina, which suggests that HSIV could effectively antagonize the antiviral activity of APOBEC3 proteins expressed in cells of M. leonina. Therefore, our data demonstrate that M. leonina has the potential to be developed into a promising animal model for human AIDS.

  6. Replication potentials of HIV-1/HSIV in PBMCs from northern pigtailed macaque (Macaca leonina)

    PubMed Central

    LEI, Ai-Hua; ZHANG, Gao-Hong; TIAN, Ren-Rong; ZHU, Jia-Wu; ZHENG, Hong-Yi; PANG, Wei; ZHENG, Yong-Tang

    2014-01-01

    The northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina) has been identified as an independent species of Old World monkey, and we previously found that PBMCs from M. leonina were susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), which may be due to the absence of a TRIM5 protein restricting HIV-1 replication. Here we investigated the infection potentials of six laboratory adapted HIV-1 strains and three primary HIV-1 isolates in PBMCs from M. leonina. The results indicate that these strains are characterized by various but low replication levels, and among which, HIV-1NL4-3 shows the highest replication ability. Based on the abundant evidence of species-specific interactions between restriction factors APOBEC3 and HIV/SIV-derived Vif protein, we subsequently examined the replication potentials of vif-substituted HIV-1 (HSIV) in M. leonina PBMCs. Notably, HSIV-vifmac and stHIV-1SV chimeras, two HIV-1NL4-3-derived viruses encoding the viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein from SIVmac239, replicated robustly in cells from M. leonina, which suggests that HSIV could effectively antagonize the antiviral activity of APOBEC3 proteins expressed in cells of M. leonina. Therefore, our data demonstrate that M. leonina has the potential to be developed into a promising animal model for human AIDS. PMID:24866489

  7. Characterization of novel inhibitors of HIV-1 replication that function via alteration of viral RNA processing and rev function.

    PubMed

    Wong, Raymond W; Balachandran, Ahalya; Haaland, Matthew; Stoilov, Peter; Cochrane, Alan

    2013-11-01

    Expression of the complete HIV-1 genome depends on the appropriate processing of viral RNA. Altering the balance of viral RNA processing impairs replication of the virus. In this report, we characterize two small molecule modulators of HIV-1 RNA processing, 8-azaguanine and 2-(2-(5-nitro-2-thienyl)vinyl)quinoline (5350150), which function by distinct mechanisms to suppress viral gene expression. Although only 8-Azaguanine dramatically decreased accumulation of HIV-1 unspliced and singly spliced RNAs and altered splice site usage, both compounds blocked Gag and Env expression without affecting production of Tat (p16) and Rev regulatory proteins. Subsequent analyses suggest that these compounds affect Rev-mediated RNA transport by different mechanisms. Both compounds induced cytoplasmic accumulation of Rev, suggesting that they function, in part, by impairing Rev function. This conclusion is supported by the determination that both drugs block the nuclear export of genomic HIV-1 RNA to the cytoplasm. Testing confirmed that these compounds suppress HIV-1 expression in T cells at doses below those previously used in humans for tumour chemotherapy. Together, our observations demonstrate that small molecules can be used to inhibit HIV-1 replication by altering another avenue of viral RNA processing, offering the potential for the development of novel therapeutics for controlling this disease.

  8. T-705 (favipiravir) inhibition of arenavirus replication in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Mendenhall, Michelle; Russell, Andrew; Juelich, Terry; Messina, Emily L; Smee, Donald F; Freiberg, Alexander N; Holbrook, Michael R; Furuta, Yousuke; de la Torre, Juan-Carlos; Nunberg, Jack H; Gowen, Brian B

    2011-02-01

    A number of New World arenaviruses (Junín [JUNV], Machupo [MACV], and Guanarito [GTOV] viruses) can cause human disease ranging from mild febrile illness to a severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever syndrome. These highly pathogenic viruses and the Old World Lassa fever virus pose a significant threat to public health and national security. The only licensed antiviral agent with activity against these viruses, ribavirin, has had mixed success in treating severe arenaviral disease and is associated with significant toxicities. A novel pyrazine derivative currently in clinical trials for the treatment of influenza virus infections, T-705 (favipiravir), has demonstrated broad-spectrum activity against a number of RNA viruses, including arenaviruses. T-705 has also been shown to be effective against Pichinde arenavirus infection in a hamster model. Here, we demonstrate the robust antiviral activity of T-705 against authentic highly pathogenic arenaviruses in cell culture. We show that T-705 disrupts an early or intermediate stage in viral replication, distinct from absorption or release, and that its antiviral activity in cell culture is reversed by the addition of purine bases and nucleosides, but not with pyrimidines. Specific inhibition of viral replication/transcription by T-705 was demonstrated using a lymphocytic choriomeningitis arenavirus replicon system. Our findings indicate that T-705 acts to inhibit arenavirus replication/transcription and may directly target the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

  9. The clinically approved antiviral drug sofosbuvir inhibits Zika virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Sacramento, Carolina Q.; de Melo, Gabrielle R.; de Freitas, Caroline S.; Rocha, Natasha; Hoelz, Lucas Villas Bôas; Miranda, Milene; Fintelman-Rodrigues, Natalia; Marttorelli, Andressa; Ferreira, André C.; Barbosa-Lima, Giselle; Abrantes, Juliana L.; Vieira, Yasmine Rangel; Bastos, Mônica M.; de Mello Volotão, Eduardo; Nunes, Estevão Portela; Tschoeke, Diogo A.; Leomil, Luciana; Loiola, Erick Correia; Trindade, Pablo; Rehen, Stevens K.; Bozza, Fernando A.; Bozza, Patrícia T.; Boechat, Nubia; Thompson, Fabiano L.; de Filippis, Ana M. B.; Brüning, Karin; Souza, Thiago Moreno L.

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family, along with other agents of clinical significance such as dengue (DENV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses. Since ZIKV causes neurological disorders during fetal development and in adulthood, antiviral drugs are necessary. Sofosbuvir is clinically approved for use against HCV and targets the protein that is most conserved among the members of the Flaviviridae family, the viral RNA polymerase. Indeed, we found that sofosbuvir inhibits ZIKV RNA polymerase, targeting conserved amino acid residues. Sofosbuvir inhibited ZIKV replication in different cellular systems, such as hepatoma (Huh-7) cells, neuroblastoma (SH-Sy5y) cells, neural stem cells (NSC) and brain organoids. In addition to the direct inhibition of the viral RNA polymerase, we observed that sofosbuvir also induced an increase in A-to-G mutations in the viral genome. Together, our data highlight a potential secondary use of sofosbuvir, an anti-HCV drug, against ZIKV. PMID:28098253

  10. The clinically approved antiviral drug sofosbuvir inhibits Zika virus replication.

    PubMed

    Sacramento, Carolina Q; de Melo, Gabrielle R; de Freitas, Caroline S; Rocha, Natasha; Hoelz, Lucas Villas Bôas; Miranda, Milene; Fintelman-Rodrigues, Natalia; Marttorelli, Andressa; Ferreira, André C; Barbosa-Lima, Giselle; Abrantes, Juliana L; Vieira, Yasmine Rangel; Bastos, Mônica M; de Mello Volotão, Eduardo; Nunes, Estevão Portela; Tschoeke, Diogo A; Leomil, Luciana; Loiola, Erick Correia; Trindade, Pablo; Rehen, Stevens K; Bozza, Fernando A; Bozza, Patrícia T; Boechat, Nubia; Thompson, Fabiano L; de Filippis, Ana M B; Brüning, Karin; Souza, Thiago Moreno L

    2017-01-18

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family, along with other agents of clinical significance such as dengue (DENV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses. Since ZIKV causes neurological disorders during fetal development and in adulthood, antiviral drugs are necessary. Sofosbuvir is clinically approved for use against HCV and targets the protein that is most conserved among the members of the Flaviviridae family, the viral RNA polymerase. Indeed, we found that sofosbuvir inhibits ZIKV RNA polymerase, targeting conserved amino acid residues. Sofosbuvir inhibited ZIKV replication in different cellular systems, such as hepatoma (Huh-7) cells, neuroblastoma (SH-Sy5y) cells, neural stem cells (NSC) and brain organoids. In addition to the direct inhibition of the viral RNA polymerase, we observed that sofosbuvir also induced an increase in A-to-G mutations in the viral genome. Together, our data highlight a potential secondary use of sofosbuvir, an anti-HCV drug, against ZIKV.

  11. Effects of L- and D-REKR amino acid-containing peptides on HIV and SIV envelope glycoprotein precursor maturation and HIV and SIV replication.

    PubMed Central

    Bahbouhi, Bouchaib; Chazal, Nathalie; Seidah, Nabil Georges; Chiva, Cristina; Kogan, Marcelo; Albericio, Fernando; Giralt, Ernest; Bahraoui, Elmostafa

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of synthetic l- and d-peptides encompassing the HIV-1(BRU) gp160 REKR cleavage site to interfere with HIV and simian immuno-deficiency virus (SIV) replication and maturation of the envelope glycoprotein (Env) precursors. To facilitate their penetration into cells, a decanoyl (dec) group was added at the N-terminus. The sequences synthesized included dec5d or dec5l (decREKRV), dec9d or dec9l (decRVVQREKRV) and dec14d or dec14l (TKAKRRVVQREKRV). The peptide dec14d was also prepared with a chloromethane (cmk) group as C-terminus. Because l-peptides exhibit significant cytotoxicity starting at 35 microM, further characterization was conducted mostly with d-peptides, which exhibited no cytotoxicity at concentrations higher than 70 microM. The data show that only dec14d and dec14dcmk could inhibit HIV-1(BRU), HIV-2(ROD) and SIV(mac251) replication and their syncytium-inducing capacities. Whereas peptides dec5d and dec9d were inactive, dec14dcmk was at least twice as active as peptide dec14d. At the molecular level, our data show a direct correlation between anti-viral activity and the ability of the peptides to interfere with maturation of the Env precursors. Furthermore, we show that when tested in vitro the dec14d peptide inhibited PC7 with an inhibition constant K(i)=4.6 microM, whereas the peptide dec14l preferentially inhibited furin with a K(i)=28 microM. The fact that PC7 and furin are the major prohormone convertases reported to be expressed in T4 lymphocytes, the principal cell targets of HIV, suggests that they are involved in the maturation of HIV and SIV Env precursors. PMID:12071862

  12. Inhibition of cellular activation of retroviral replication by CD8+ T cells derived from non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Powell, J D; Bednarik, D P; Folks, T M; Jehuda-Cohen, T; Villinger, F; Sell, K W; Ansari, A A

    1993-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that CD8+ T cells inhibit viral replication at the level of cellular activation, an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed cell line (FEc1) from a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-seropositive sooty mangabey monkey was transfected with a human CD4 gene and shown to be replication-competent for HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV. Utilizing a dual-chamber culture system, it was found that inhibition of viral replication can be mediated by a soluble factor. The FEc1 cell line was transiently transfected with an LTR-driven CAT reporter gene. It was found that autologous CD8+ T cells markedly inhibited CAT activity. Furthermore, co-transfection of the FEc1 cell line with an LTR-driven tat plasmid and LTR-CAT was able to quantitatively mitigate the suppressive effect. Thus, this inhibition appears to be directed at cellular mechanisms of viral transcription. Control transfections with an LTR-driven CAT plasmid with a mutation at the NFkB binding site yielded no CAT activity, suggesting that most viral replication as measured by CAT activity is dependent, to a large extent, upon cellularly derived NFkB binding proteins.

  13. In Vitro Reactivation of Replication-Competent and Infectious HIV-1 by Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Banga, Riddhima; Procopio, Francesco Andrea; Cavassini, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The existence of long-lived HIV-1-infected resting memory CD4 T cells is thought to be the primary obstacle to HIV-1 eradication. In the search for novel therapeutic approaches that may reverse HIV-1 latency, inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACis) have been tested to reactivate HIV-1 replication with the objective of rendering HIV-1-infected cells susceptible to elimination either by HIV-specific CD8 T cells or through virus-mediated cytopathicity. In the present study, we evaluated the efficiency of HDACis to reactivate HIV-1 replication from resting memory CD4 T cells isolated from aviremic long-term-treated HIV-1-infected subjects. We demonstrate that following prolonged/repeated treatment of resting memory CD4 T cells with HDACis, HIV-1 replication may be induced from primary resting memory CD4 T cells isolated from aviremic long-term-treated HIV-1-infected subjects. More importantly, we demonstrate that HIV-1 reactivated in the cell cultures was not only replication competent but also infectious. Interestingly, givinostat, an HDACi that has not been investigated in clinical trials, was more efficient than vorinostat, panobinostat, and romidepsin in reversing HIV-1 latency in vitro. Taken together, these results support further evaluation of givinostat as a latency-reversing agent (LRA) in aviremic long-term-treated HIV-1-infected subjects. IMPORTANCE The major barrier to HIV cure is the existence of long-lived latently HIV-1-infected resting memory CD4 T cells. Latently HIV-1-infected CD4 T cells are transcriptionally silent and are therefore not targeted by conventional antiretroviral therapy (ART) or the immune system. In this context, one strategy to target latently infected cells is based on pharmacological molecules that may force the virus to replicate and would therefore render HIV-1-infected cells susceptible to elimination either by HIV-specific CD8 T cells or through virus-mediated cytopathicity. In this context, we developed an

  14. Potent inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by an intracellular anti-Rev single-chain antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Duan, L; Bagasra, O; Laughlin, M A; Oakes, J W; Pomerantz, R J

    1994-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has a complex life cycle, which has made it a difficult target for conventional therapeutic modalities. A single-chain antibody moiety, directed against the HIV-1 regulatory protein Rev, which rescues unspliced viral RNA from the nucleus of infected cells, has now been developed. This anti-Rev single-chain construct (SFv) consists of both light and heavy chain variable regions of anti-Rev monoclonal antibody, which, when expressed intracellularly within human cells, potently inhibits HIV-1 replication. This intracellular SFv molecule is demonstrated to specifically antagonize Rev function. Thus, intracellular SFv expression, against a retroviral regulatory protein, may be useful as a gene therapeutic approach to combat HIV-1 infections. Images PMID:8197188

  15. Potent Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication by an Intracellular Anti-Rev Single-Chain Antibody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Lingxun; Bagasra, Omar; Laughlin, Mark A.; Oakes, Joseph W.; Pomerantz, Roger J.

    1994-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has a complex life cycle, which has made it a difficult target for conventional therapeutic modalities. A single-chain antibody moiety, directed against the HIV-1 regulatory protein Rev, which rescues unspliced viral RNA from the nucleus of infected cells, has now been developed. This anti-Rev single-chain construct (SFv) consists of both light and heavy chain variable regions of an anti-Rev monoclonal antibody, which, when expressed intracellularly within human cells, potently inhibits HIV-1 replication. This intracellular SFv molecule is demonstrated to specifically antagonize Rev function. Thus, intracellular SFv expression, against a retroviral regulatory protein, may be useful as a gene therapeutic approach to combat HIV-1 infections.

  16. Interferon lambda inhibits dengue virus replication in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Palma-Ocampo, Helen K; Flores-Alonso, Juan C; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Flores-Mendoza, Lilian; Herrera-Camacho, Irma; Rosas-Murrieta, Nora H; Santos-López, Gerardo

    2015-09-28

    In viral disease, infection is controlled at the cellular level by type I interferon (IFN-I), but dengue virus (DENV) has the ability to inhibit this response. Type III interferon, also known as lambda IFN (IFN-III or IFN-λ), is a complementary pathway to the antiviral response by IFN-I. This work analyzed the IFN-λ (IFN-III) mediated antiviral response against DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2) infection. Dengue fever patients were sampled to determine their IFN-λ levels by ELISA. To study the IFN-λ response during DENV infection we selected the epithelial cell line C33-A, and we demonstrated that it is permissive to DENV-2 infection. The effect of IFN-λ on virus replication was determined in these cells, in parallel to the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), and Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS), genes measured by RT-qPCR. We found increased (~1.8 times) serological IFN-λ in dengue fever patients compared to healthy blood donors. IFN-λ inhibited DENV-2 replication in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. The reduction of viral titer corresponded with increased ISG mRNA levels (MX1 and OAS1), with the highest inhibition occurring at ISG's peak expression. Presence of IFN-negative regulators, SOCS1 and SOCS3, during DENV-2 infection was associated with reduced IFN-λ1 expression. Evidence described here suggests that IFN-λ is a good candidate inhibitor of viral replication in dengue infection. Mechanisms for the cellular and organismal interplay between DENV and IFN- λ need to be further studied as they could provide insights into strategies to treat this disease. Furthermore, we report a novel epithelial model to study dengue infection in vitro.

  17. Amiloride inhibits the initiation of Coxsackievirus and poliovirus RNA replication by inhibiting VPg uridylylation.

    PubMed

    Ogram, Sushma A; Boone, Christopher D; McKenna, Robert; Flanegan, James B

    2014-09-01

    The mechanism of amiloride inhibition of Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and poliovirus type 1 (PV1) RNA replication was investigated using membrane-associated RNA replication complexes. Amiloride was shown to inhibit viral RNA replication and VPgpUpU synthesis. However, the drug had no effect on polymerase elongation activity during either (-) strand or (+) strand synthesis. These findings indicated that amiloride inhibited the initiation of RNA synthesis by inhibiting VPg uridylylation. In addition, in silico binding studies showed that amiloride docks in the VPg binding site on the back of the viral RNA polymerase, 3D(pol). Since VPg binding at this site on PV1 3D(pol) was previously shown to be required for VPg uridylylation, our results suggest that amiloride inhibits VPg binding to 3D(pol). In summary, our findings are consistent with a model in which amiloride inhibits VPgpUpU synthesis and viral RNA replication by competing with VPg for binding to 3D(pol).

  18. Effect of cytokines on HIV replication in CD4+ lymphocytes: lack of identity with the CD8+ cell antiviral factor.

    PubMed

    Mackewicz, C E; Ortega, H; Levy, J A

    1994-02-01

    CD8+ cells from HIV-infected individuals inhibit HIV replication in cultured CD4+ cells by a nonlytic, non-MHC-restricted mechanism. The activity appears to be mediated in part by a soluble antiviral factor (CAF) secreted by the CD8+ cells. In an attempt to identify this factor a large panel of recombinant cytokines was examined for their effect on HIV replication in CD4+ cells. In addition to interferon-alpha and -beta, TNF alpha, TGF beta, and IL-8 reduced virus replication in a dose-dependent fashion. In some cases, the effect of the cytokine was also dependent on the HIV infection assay used to measure it. Antibodies against the inhibitory cytokines, as well as antibodies against TNF beta, IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, IL-4, and IL-6 did not inactivate the antiviral effect of CAF. The data suggest that CAF does not have identity with known antiviral cytokines and therefore CAF may be a novel antiviral factor.

  19. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by Z-100, an immunomodulator extracted from human-type tubercle bacilli, in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Emori, Yutaka; Ikeda, Tamako; Ohashi, Takashi; Masuda, Takao; Kurimoto, Tadashi; Takei, Mineo; Kannagi, Mari

    2004-09-01

    Z-100 is an arabinomannan extracted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis that has various immunomodulatory activities, such as the induction of interleukin 12, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and beta-chemokines. The effects of Z-100 on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) are investigated in this paper. In MDMs, Z-100 markedly suppressed the replication of not only macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) HIV-1 strain (HIV-1JR-CSF), but also HIV-1 pseudotypes that possessed amphotropic Moloney murine leukemia virus or vesicular stomatitis virus G envelopes. Z-100 was found to inhibit HIV-1 expression, even when added 24 h after infection. In addition, it substantially inhibited the expression of the pNL43lucDeltaenv vector (in which the env gene is defective and the nef gene is replaced with the firefly luciferase gene) when this vector was transfected directly into MDMs. These findings suggest that Z-100 inhibits virus replication, mainly at HIV-1 transcription. However, Z-100 also downregulated expression of the cell surface receptors CD4 and CCR5 in MDMs, suggesting some inhibitory effect on HIV-1 entry. Further experiments revealed that Z-100 induced IFN-beta production in these cells, resulting in induction of the 16-kDa CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) beta transcription factor that represses HIV-1 long terminal repeat transcription. These effects were alleviated by SB 203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), indicating that the p38 MAPK signalling pathway was involved in Z-100-induced repression of HIV-1 replication in MDMs. These findings suggest that Z-100 might be a useful immunomodulator for control of HIV-1 infection.

  20. Inhibition of adenovirus replication in vitro by trifluridine.

    PubMed

    Lennette, D A; Eiferman, R A

    1978-09-01

    At present, there is no effective chemotherapeutic agent available for the treatment of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis. Recent evidence suggests that trifluridine (3FT) may effectively inhibit the replication of some adenovirus serotypes known to cause keratoconjunctivitis. The ability of 3FT to inhibit two reference strains of adenoviruses, type 8 and type 19, was examined using cell cultures. Two second-passage isolates of adenoviruses, identified as serotype 13, were also tested. Compared with untreated, virusinfected cell cultures, drug-treated cell cultures developed a lesser degree of cytopathic effect following infection with all three serotypes. Virus production was reduced in the drug-treated cell cultures: approximately tenfold for type 8, more than 1,000-fold for type 19, and 5,000-fold for the type 13 isolates.

  1. Cyclophilin A is required for the replication of group M human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus SIV(CPZ)GAB but not group O HIV-1 or other primate immunodeficiency viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Braaten, D; Franke, E K; Luban, J

    1996-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag polyprotein binds to cyclophilin A and incorporates this cellular peptidyl prolyl-isomerase into virions. Disruption of cyclophilin A incorporation, either by gag mutations or by cyclosporine A, inhibits virion infectivity, indicating that cyclophilin A plays an essential role in the HIV-1 life cycle. Using assays for packaging of cyclophilin A into virions and for viral replication sensitivity to cyclosporine A, as well as information gleaned from the alignment of Gag residues encoded by representative viral isolates, we demonstrate that of the five lineages of primate immunodeficiency viruses, only HIV-1 requires cyclophilin A for replication. Cloned viral isolates from clades A, B, and D of HIV-1 group M, as well as a phylogenetically related isolate from chimpanzee, all require cyclophilin A for replication. In contrast, the replication of two outlier (group O) HIV-1 isolates is unaffected by concentrations of cyclosporine A which disrupt cyclophilin A incorporation into virions, indicating that these viruses are capable of replicating independently of cyclophilin A. These studies identify the first phenotypic difference between HIV-1 group M and group O and are consistent with phylogenetic studies suggesting that the two HIV-1 groups were introduced into human populations via separate zoonotic transmission events. PMID:8676442

  2. Inhibition of HIV-1 entry by the tricyclic coumarin GUT-70 through the modification of membrane fluidity

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Kouki; Hattori, Shinichiro; Kariya, Ryusho; Komizu, Yuji; Kudo, Eriko; Goto, Hiroki; Taura, Manabu; Ueoka, Ryuichi; Kimura, Shinya; Okada, Seiji

    2015-02-13

    Membrane fusion between host cells and HIV-1 is the initial step in HIV-1 infection, and plasma membrane fluidity strongly influences infectivity. In the present study, we demonstrated that GUT-70, a natural product derived from Calophyllum brasiliense, stabilized plasma membrane fluidity, inhibited HIV-1 entry, and down-regulated the expression of CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4. Since GUT-70 also had an inhibitory effect on viral replication through the inhibition of NF-κB, it is expected to be used as a dual functional and viral mutation resistant reagent. Thus, these unique properties of GUT-70 enable the development of novel therapeutic agents against HIV-1 infection.

  3. A monoclonal antibody against lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 decreases HIV-1 replication by inducing the secretion of an antiviral soluble factor.

    PubMed

    Rychert, Jenna; Jones, Lindsay; McGrath, Graham; Bazner, Sue; Rosenberg, Eric S

    2013-04-18

    Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 (LFA-1) likely plays a role in the pathogenesis of against HIV-1 and is known to facilitate cell-to-cell transmission of the virus. A monoclonal antibody specific for LFA-1 (Cytolin®) was evaluated as a potential therapeutic in pilot studies performed in the mid-1990s. These uncontrolled human studies suggested that administration of this anti-LFA-1 antibody to HIV-1 infected individuals could provide a modest benefit by decreasing circulating HIV-1 RNA and increasing CD4+ T cell counts. At the time, it was proposed that when bound to cytolytic T cells, the antibody inhibited lysis of activated CD4+ T cells. Given the renewed interest in monoclonal antibody therapy for HIV-1 infected individuals, we investigated possible mechanisms of action of this antibody in vitro. To assess whether this anti-LFA-1 antibody binds to HIV-1, a virus capture assay was performed. Binding of the antibody to cells was assessed using flow cytometry. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication was determined in culture by measuring the amount of p24 produced by ELISA. After co-culture of the antibody with peripheral blood mononuclear cells, supernatants were assayed for cytokines and chemokines using various immunoassays. Our experiments demonstrate that anti-LFA-1 antibody binds to CCR5 and CXCR4 utilizing strains of HIV-1. It also binds to CD8+ T cells and dendritic cells. When bound to virus prior to infection, there is no decrease in HIV-1 replication, suggesting it does not directly inhibit viral replication via virus binding. When bound to cells, it does not inhibit lysis of CD4+ T cells, as was originally hypothesized. Binding to cells does appear to induce the production of a soluble factor that inhibits HIV-1 replication. We determined that this soluble factor was not any of the cytokines or chemokines with known anti-HIV-1 activity. Further, the antibody does not appear to induce any common immune modulating cytokines or chemokines. These results

  4. Robust Suppression of HIV Replication by Intracellularly Expressed Reverse Transcriptase Aptamers Is Independent of Ribozyme Processing

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Margaret J; Sharma, Tarun K; Whatley, Angela S; Landon, Linda A; Tempesta, Michael A; Johnson, Marc C; Burke, Donald H

    2012-01-01

    RNA aptamers that bind human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) also inhibit viral replication, making them attractive as therapeutic candidates and potential tools for dissecting viral pathogenesis. However, it is not well understood how aptamer-expression context and cellular RNA pathways govern aptamer accumulation and net antiviral bioactivity. Using a previously-described expression cassette in which aptamers were flanked by two “minimal core” hammerhead ribozymes, we observed only weak suppression of pseudotyped HIV. To evaluate the importance of the minimal ribozymes, we replaced them with extended, tertiary-stabilized hammerhead ribozymes with enhanced self-cleavage activity, in addition to noncleaving ribozymes with active site mutations. Both the active and inactive versions of the extended hammerhead ribozymes increased inhibition of pseudotyped virus, indicating that processing is not necessary for bioactivity. Clonal stable cell lines expressing aptamers from these modified constructs strongly suppressed infectious virus, and were more effective than minimal ribozymes at high viral multiplicity of infection (MOI). Tertiary stabilization greatly increased aptamer accumulation in viral and subcellular compartments, again regardless of self-cleavage capability. We therefore propose that the increased accumulation is responsible for increased suppression, that the bioactive form of the aptamer is one of the uncleaved or partially cleaved transcripts, and that tertiary stabilization increases transcript stability by reducing exonuclease degradation. PMID:22948672

  5. Replication of HIV-1 deleted Nef mutants in chronically immune activated human T cells.

    PubMed

    Shapira-Nahor, Orit; Maayan, Shlomo; Peden, Keith W C; Rabinowitz, Ruth; Schlesinger, Michael; Alian, Akram; Panet, Amos

    2002-11-10

    Lymphocytes (PBMC) obtained from blood of HIV-sera negative Ethiopian immigrants (ETH) were highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection in vitro with no need for stimulation by mitogens. As the HIV nef gene product has been shown to enhance viral replication in stimulated primary lymphocytes, we investigated in this work the role of Nef in viral replication in the ETH cells. Lymphocytes obtained from ETH individuals supported high replication of wild-type HIV-1 and low but significant replication level of the two deleted Nef mutants (encode truncated Nef proteins consisting only of either the first 35 or the first 86 amino acids of Nef). In contrast, no replication was observed in nonactivated cells obtained from non-ETH individuals. After activation of the PBMC from ETH individuals with PHA, replication of both wild-type strains and the two deleted Nef mutant viruses further increased. The CD4(+) T cells of ETH individuals exhibited elevated levels of the surface activation markers CD45RO and HLA-DR, compared with T cells derived from non-ETH group. Likewise, expression of the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 on these cells was higher in the ETH group than in the non-ETH group. Replication of HIV-1 wild-type and the isogenic-deleted Nef mutants was significantly correlated with the proportion of ETH cells expressing CD45RO and the chemokine receptors. This study suggests that HIV-1 may respond differently to several activation states characteristic of T cells. One activation state, defined by chronically activated lymphocytes from ETH individuals, is permissive to the wild-type HIV-1 and, to a lesser degree, to the Nef mutants. Further activation of these cells by exogenous stimuli enhances replication of the virus. Our results support the notion that Nef enhances the basal level of T cell activation and consequently, viral replication.

  6. Curcumin inhibits Rift Valley fever virus replication in human cells.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Aarthi; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Senina, Svetlana; Lundberg, Lindsay; Van Duyne, Rachel; Guendel, Irene; Das, Ravi; Baer, Alan; Bethel, Laura; Turell, Michael; Hartman, Amy Lynn; Das, Bhaskar; Bailey, Charles; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2012-09-28

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arbovirus that is classified as a select agent, an emerging infectious virus, and an agricultural pathogen. Understanding RVFV-host interactions is imperative to the design of novel therapeutics. Here, we report that an infection by the MP-12 strain of RVFV induces phosphorylation of the p65 component of the NFκB cascade. We demonstrate that phosphorylation of p65 (serine 536) involves phosphorylation of IκBα and occurs through the classical NFκB cascade. A unique, low molecular weight complex of the IKK-β subunit can be observed in MP-12-infected cells, which we have labeled IKK-β2. The IKK-β2 complex retains kinase activity and phosphorylates an IκBα substrate. Inhibition of the IKK complex using inhibitors impairs viral replication, thus alluding to the requirement of an active IKK complex to the viral life cycle. Curcumin strongly down-regulates levels of extracellular infectious virus. Our data demonstrated that curcumin binds to and inhibits kinase activity of the IKK-β2 complex in infected cells. Curcumin partially exerts its inhibitory influence on RVFV replication by interfering with IKK-β2-mediated phosphorylation of the viral protein NSs and by altering the cell cycle of treated cells. Curcumin also demonstrated efficacy against ZH501, the fully virulent version of RVFV. Curcumin treatment down-regulated viral replication in the liver of infected animals. Our data point to the possibility that RVFV infection may result in the generation of novel versions of host components (such as IKK-β2) that, by virtue of altered protein interaction and function, qualify as unique therapeutic targets.

  7. Curcumin Inhibits Rift Valley Fever Virus Replication in Human Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Aarthi; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Senina, Svetlana; Lundberg, Lindsay; Van Duyne, Rachel; Guendel, Irene; Das, Ravi; Baer, Alan; Bethel, Laura; Turell, Michael; Hartman, Amy Lynn; Das, Bhaskar; Bailey, Charles; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arbovirus that is classified as a select agent, an emerging infectious virus, and an agricultural pathogen. Understanding RVFV-host interactions is imperative to the design of novel therapeutics. Here, we report that an infection by the MP-12 strain of RVFV induces phosphorylation of the p65 component of the NFκB cascade. We demonstrate that phosphorylation of p65 (serine 536) involves phosphorylation of IκBα and occurs through the classical NFκB cascade. A unique, low molecular weight complex of the IKK-β subunit can be observed in MP-12-infected cells, which we have labeled IKK-β2. The IKK-β2 complex retains kinase activity and phosphorylates an IκBα substrate. Inhibition of the IKK complex using inhibitors impairs viral replication, thus alluding to the requirement of an active IKK complex to the viral life cycle. Curcumin strongly down-regulates levels of extracellular infectious virus. Our data demonstrated that curcumin binds to and inhibits kinase activity of the IKK-β2 complex in infected cells. Curcumin partially exerts its inhibitory influence on RVFV replication by interfering with IKK-β2-mediated phosphorylation of the viral protein NSs and by altering the cell cycle of treated cells. Curcumin also demonstrated efficacy against ZH501, the fully virulent version of RVFV. Curcumin treatment down-regulated viral replication in the liver of infected animals. Our data point to the possibility that RVFV infection may result in the generation of novel versions of host components (such as IKK-β2) that, by virtue of altered protein interaction and function, qualify as unique therapeutic targets. PMID:22847000

  8. TNPO3 protects HIV-1 replication from CPSF6-mediated capsid stabilization in the host cell cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    De Iaco, Alberto; Santoni, Federico; Vannier, Anne; Guipponi, Michel; Antonarakis, Stylianos; Luban, Jeremy

    2013-02-15

    Despite intensive investigation the mechanism by which HIV-1 reaches the host cell nucleus is unknown. TNPO3, a karyopherin mediating nuclear entry of SR-proteins, was shown to be required for HIV-1 infectivity. Some investigators have reported that TNPO3 promotes HIV-1 nuclear import, as would be expected for a karyopherin. Yet, an equal number of investigators have failed to obtain evidence that supports this model. Here, a series of experiments were performed to better elucidate the mechanism by which TNPO3 promotes HIV-1 infectivity. To examine the role of TNPO3 in HIV-1 replication, the 2-LTR circles that are commonly used as a marker for HIV-1 nuclear entry were cloned after infection of TNPO3 knockdown cells. Potential explanation for the discrepancy in the literature concerning the effect of TNPO3 was provided by sequencing hundreds of these clones: a significant fraction resulted from autointegration into sites near the LTRs and therefore were not bona fide 2-LTR circles. In response to this finding, new techniques were developed to monitor HIV-1 cDNA, including qPCR reactions that distinguish 2-LTR circles from autointegrants, as well as massive parallel sequencing of HIV-1 cDNA. With these assays, TNPO3 knockdown was found to reduce the levels of 2-LTR circles. This finding was puzzling, though, since previous work has shown that the HIV-1 determinant for TNPO3-dependence is capsid (CA), an HIV-1 protein that forms a mega-dalton protein lattice in the cytoplasm. TNPO3 imports cellular splicing factors via their SR-domain. Attention was therefore directed towards CPSF6, an SR-protein that binds HIV-1 CA and inhibits HIV-1 nuclear import when the C-terminal SR-domain is deleted. The effect of 27 HIV-1 capsid mutants on sensitivity to TNPO3 knockdown was then found to correlate strongly with sensitivity to inhibition by a C-terminal deletion mutant of CPSF6 (R2 = 0.883, p < 0.0001). TNPO3 knockdown was then shown to cause CPSF6 to accumulate in the

  9. Nup153 and Nup98 bind the HIV-1 core and contribute to the early steps of HIV-1 replication

    SciTech Connect

    Di Nunzio, Francesca; Fricke, Thomas; Miccio, Annarita; Valle-Casuso, Jose Carlos; Perez, Patricio; Souque, Philippe; Rizzi, Ermanno; Severgnini, Marco; Mavilio, Fulvio; Charneau, Pierre; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe

    2013-05-25

    The early steps of HIV-1 replication involve the entry of HIV-1 into the nucleus, which is characterized by viral interactions with nuclear pore components. HIV-1 developed an evolutionary strategy to usurp the nuclear pore machinery and chromatin in order to integrate and efficiently express viral genes. In the current work, we studied the role of nucleoporins 153 and 98 (Nup153 and Nup98) in infection of human Jurkat lymphocytes by HIV-1. We showed that Nup153-depleted cells exhibited a defect in nuclear import, while depletion of Nup 98 caused a slight defect in HIV integration. To explore the biochemical viral determinants for the requirement of Nup153 and Nup98 during HIV-1 infection, we tested the ability of these nucleoporins to interact with HIV-1 cores. Our findings showed that both nucleoporins bind HIV-1 cores suggesting that this interaction is important for HIV-1 nuclear import and/or integration. Distribution analysis of integration sites in Nup153-depleted cells revealed a reduced tendency of HIV-1 to integrate in intragenic sites, which in part could account for the large infectivity defect observed in Nup153-depleted cells. Our work strongly supports a role for Nup153 in HIV-1 nuclear import and integration. - Highlights: ► We studied the role of Nup98 and Nup153 in HIV-1 infection. ► Nup98 binds the HIV-1 core and is involved in HIV-1 integration. ► Nup153 binds the HIV-1 core and is involved in HIV-1 nuclear import. ► Depletion of Nup153 decreased the integration of HIV-1 in transcriptionally active sites.

  10. Adipose Tissue: Sanctuary for HIV/SIV Persistence and Replication.

    PubMed

    Pallikkuth, Suresh; Mohan, Mahesh

    2015-12-01

    This commentary highlights new findings from a recent study identifying adipose tissue as a potential HIV reservoir and a major site of inflammation during chronic human/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) infection. A concise discussion about upcoming challenges and new research avenues for reducing chronic adipose inflammation during HIV/SIV infection is presented.

  11. Drugs of abuse and HIV infection/replication: implications for mother-fetus transmission

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) can be modulated by a number of cofactors, including drugs of abuse. Opioids, cocaine, cannabinoids, methamphetamine (METH), alcohol, and other substances of abuse have been implicated as risk factors for HIV infection, as they all have the potential to compromise host immunity and facilitate viral replication. Although epidemiologic evidence regarding the impact of drugs of abuse on HIV disease progression is mixed, in vitro studies as well as studies using in vivo animal models have indicated that drugs of abuse have the ability to enhance HIV infection/replication. Drugs of abuse may also be a risk factor for perinatal transmission of HIV. Because high levels of viral load in maternal blood are associated with increased risk of HIV vertical transmission, it is likely that drugs of abuse play an important role in promoting mother-fetus transmission. Furthermore, because the neonatal immune system differs qualitatively from the adult system, it is possible that maternal exposure to drugs of abuse would exacerbate neonatal immunity defects, facilitating HIV infection of neonate immune cells and promoting HIV vertical transmission. The availability and use of antiretroviral therapy for women infected with HIV increase, there is an increasing interest in determining the impact of drug abuse on efficacy of AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) -standardized treatment regimens for woman infected with HIV in the context of HIV vertical transmission. PMID:21056582

  12. Methamphetamine Inhibits Toll-Like Receptor 9-Mediated Anti-HIV Activity in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Ping; Ye, Li; Su, Qi-Jian; Wang, Xu; Li, Jie-Liang; Lin, Xin-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is one of the key sensors that recognize viral infection/replication in the host cells. Studies have demonstrated that methamphetamine (METH) dysregulated host cell innate immunity and facilitated HIV infection of macrophages. In this study, we present new evidence that METH suppressed TLR9-mediated anti-HIV activity in macrophages. Activation of TLR9 by its agonist CpG-ODN 2216 inhibits HIV replication, which was demonstrated by increased expression of TLR9, interferon (IFN)-α, IFN regulatory factor-7 (IRF-7), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and myxovirus resistance gene A (MxA) in macrophages. However, METH treatment of macrophages greatly compromised the TLR9 signaling-mediated anti-HIV effect and inhibited the expression of TLR9 downstream signaling factors. Dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) antagonists (SCH23390) could block METH-mediated inhibition of anti-HIV activity of TLR9 signaling. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of the METH action showed that METH treatment selectively down-regulated the expression of TLR9 on macrophages, whereas it had little effect on the expression of other TLRs. Collectively, our results provide further evidence that METH suppresses host cell innate immunity against HIV infection by down-regulating TLR9 expression and its signaling-mediated antiviral effect in macrophages. PMID:23751096

  13. Astrocyte Apoptosis and HIV Replication Are Modulated in Host Cells Coinfected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Urquiza, Javier M.; Burgos, Juan M.; Ojeda, Diego S.; Pascuale, Carla A.; Leguizamón, M. Susana; Quarleri, Jorge F.

    2017-01-01

    The protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease. In immunosuppressed individuals, as it occurs in the coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the central nervous system may be affected. In this regard, reactivation of Chagas disease is severe and often lethal, and it accounts for meningoencephalitis. Astrocytes play a crucial role in the environment maintenance of healthy neurons; however, they can host HIV and T. cruzi. In this report, human astrocytes were infected in vitro with both genetically modified-pathogens to express alternative fluorophore. As evidenced by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, HIV and T. cruzi coexist in the same astrocyte, likely favoring reciprocal interactions. In this context, lower rates of cell death were observed in both T. cruzi monoinfected-astrocytes and HIV-T. cruzi coinfection in comparison with those infected only with HIV. The level of HIV replication is significantly diminished under T. cruzi coinfection, but without affecting the infectivity of the HIV progeny. This interference with viral replication appears to be related to the T. cruzi multiplication rate or its increased intracellular presence but does not require their intracellular cohabitation or infected cell-to-cell contact. Among several Th1/Th2/Th17 profile-related cytokines, only IL-6 was overexpressed in HIV-T. cruzi coinfection exhibiting its cytoprotective role. This study demonstrates that T. cruzi and HIV are able to coinfect astrocytes thus altering viral replication and apoptosis. PMID:28824880

  14. Inhibition of highly productive HIV-1 infection in T cells, primary human macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes by Sargassum fusiforme

    PubMed Central

    Paskaleva, Elena E; Lin, Xudong; Li, Wen; Cotter, Robin; Klein, Michael T; Roberge, Emily; Yu, Er K; Clark, Bruce; Veille, Jean-Claude; Liu, Yanze; Lee, David Y-W; Canki, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Background The high rate of HIV-1 mutation and increasing resistance to currently available antiretroviral (ART) therapies highlight the need for new antiviral agents. Products derived from natural sources have been shown to inhibit HIV-1 replication during various stages of the virus life cycle, and therefore represent a potential source of novel therapeutic agents. To expand our arsenal of therapeutics against HIV-1 infection, we investigated aqueous extract from Sargassum fusiforme (S. fusiforme) for ability to inhibit HIV-1 infection in the periphery, in T cells and human macrophages, and for ability to inhibit in the central nervous system (CNS), in microglia and astrocytes. Results S. fusiforme extract blocked HIV-1 infection and replication by over 90% in T cells, human macrophages and microglia, and it also inhibited pseudotyped HIV-1 (VSV/NL4-3) infection in human astrocytes by over 70%. Inhibition was mediated against both CXCR4 (X4) and CCR5 (R5)-tropic HIV-1, was dose dependant and long lasting, did not inhibit cell growth or viability, was not toxic to cells, and was comparable to inhibition by the nucleoside analogue 2', 3'-didoxycytidine (ddC). S. fusiforme treatment blocked direct cell-to-cell infection spread. To investigate at which point of the virus life cycle this inhibition occurs, we infected T cells and CD4-negative primary human astrocytes with HIV-1 pseudotyped with envelope glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), which bypasses the HIV receptor requirements. Infection by pseudotyped HIV-1 (VSV/NL4-3) was also inhibited in a dose dependant manner, although up to 57% less, as compared to inhibition of native NL4-3, indicating post-entry interferences. Conclusion This is the first report demonstrating S. fusiforme to be a potent inhibitor of highly productive HIV-1 infection and replication in T cells, in primary human macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes. Results with VSV/NL4-3 infection, suggest inhibition of both entry and

  15. Inhibition of highly productive HIV-1 infection in T cells, primary human macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes by Sargassum fusiforme.

    PubMed

    Paskaleva, Elena E; Lin, Xudong; Li, Wen; Cotter, Robin; Klein, Michael T; Roberge, Emily; Yu, Er K; Clark, Bruce; Veille, Jean-Claude; Liu, Yanze; Lee, David Y-W; Canki, Mario

    2006-05-25

    The high rate of HIV-1 mutation and increasing resistance to currently available antiretroviral (ART) therapies highlight the need for new antiviral agents. Products derived from natural sources have been shown to inhibit HIV-1 replication during various stages of the virus life cycle, and therefore represent a potential source of novel therapeutic agents. To expand our arsenal of therapeutics against HIV-1 infection, we investigated aqueous extract from Sargassum fusiforme (S. fusiforme) for ability to inhibit HIV-1 infection in the periphery, in T cells and human macrophages, and for ability to inhibit in the central nervous system (CNS), in microglia and astrocytes. S. fusiforme extract blocked HIV-1 infection and replication by over 90% in T cells, human macrophages and microglia, and it also inhibited pseudotyped HIV-1 (VSV/NL4-3) infection in human astrocytes by over 70%. Inhibition was mediated against both CXCR4 (X4) and CCR5 (R5)-tropic HIV-1, was dose dependant and long lasting, did not inhibit cell growth or viability, was not toxic to cells, and was comparable to inhibition by the nucleoside analogue 2', 3'-didoxycytidine (ddC). S. fusiforme treatment blocked direct cell-to-cell infection spread. To investigate at which point of the virus life cycle this inhibition occurs, we infected T cells and CD4-negative primary human astrocytes with HIV-1 pseudotyped with envelope glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), which bypasses the HIV receptor requirements. Infection by pseudotyped HIV-1 (VSV/NL4-3) was also inhibited in a dose dependant manner, although up to 57% less, as compared to inhibition of native NL4-3, indicating post-entry interferences. This is the first report demonstrating S. fusiforme to be a potent inhibitor of highly productive HIV-1 infection and replication in T cells, in primary human macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes. Results with VSV/NL4-3 infection, suggest inhibition of both entry and post-entry events of the virus

  16. Productive replication of Vif-chimeric HIV-1 in feline cells.

    PubMed

    Stern, Melissa A; Hu, Chunling; Saenz, Dyana T; Fadel, Hind J; Sims, Olivia; Peretz, Mary; Poeschla, Eric M

    2010-07-01

    Nonprimate animal models of HIV-1 infection are prevented by missing cellular cofactors and by antiviral actions of species-specific host defense factors. These blocks are profound in rodents but may be less abundant in certain Carnivora. Here, we enabled productive, spreading replication and passage of HIV-1 in feline cells. Feline fibroblasts, T-cell lines, and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells supported early and late HIV-1 life cycle phases in a manner equivalent to that of human cells, except that produced virions had low infectivity. Stable expression of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) Vif-green fluorescent protein (GFP) in HIV-1 entry receptor-complemented feline (CrFK) cells enabled robust spreading HIV-1 replication. FIV Vif colocalized with feline APOBEC3 (fA3) proteins, targeted them for degradation, and prevented G-->A hypermutation of the HIV-1 cDNA by fA3CH and fA3H. HIV-1 Vif was inactive against fA3s as expected and even paradoxically augmented restriction in some assays. In an interesting contrast, simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac Vif had substantial anti-fA3 activities, which were complete against fA3CH and partial against fA3H. Moreover, both primate lentiviral Vifs colocalized with fA3s and could be pulled down from cell lysates by fA3CH. HIV-1 molecular clones that encode FIV Vif or SIVmac Vif (HIV-1(VF) and HIV-1(VS)) were then constructed. These viruses replicated productively in HIV-1 receptor-expressing CrFK cells and could be passaged serially to uninfected cells. Thus, with the exception of entry receptors, the cat genome can supply the dependency factors needed by HIV-1, and a main restriction can be countered by vif chimerism. The results raise the possibility that the domestic cat could yield an animal model of HIV-1 infection.

  17. Allosteric inhibition of HIV-1 integrase activity

    PubMed Central

    Engelman, Alan; Kessl, Jacques J.; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 integrase is an important therapeutic target in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), which target the enzyme active site, have witnessed clinical success over the past 5 years, but the generation of drug resistance poses challenges to INSTI-based therapies moving forward. Integrase is a dynamic protein, and its ordered multimerization is critical to enzyme activity. The integrase tetramer, bound to viral DNA, interacts with host LEDGF/p75 protein to tether integration to active genes. Allosteric integrase inhibitors (ALLINIs) that compete with LEDGF/p75 for binding to integrase disrupt integrase assembly with viral DNA and allosterically inhibit enzyme function. ALLINIs display steep dose response curves and synergize with INSTIs ex vivo, highlighting this novel inhibitor class for clinical development. PMID:23647983

  18. Quercetin inhibits rhinovirus replication in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Shyamala; Faris, Andrea N.; Comstock, Adam T.; Wang, Qiong; Nanua, Suparna; Hershenson, Marc B.; Sajjan, Uma S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Rhinovirus (RV), which is responsible for the majority of common colds, also causes exacerbations in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. So far, there are no drugs available for treatment of rhinovirus infection. We examined the effect of quercetin, a plant flavanol on RV infection in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment of airway epithelial cells with quercetin decreased Akt phosphosphorylation, viral endocytosis and IL-8 responses. Addition of quercetin 6 h after RV infection (after viral endocytosis) reduced viral load, IL-8 and IFN responses in airway epithelial cells. This was associated with decreased levels of negative and positive strand viral RNA, and RV capsid protein, abrogation of RV-induced eIF4GI cleavage and increased phosphorylation of eIF2α. In mice infected with RV, quercetin treatment decreased viral replication as well as expression of chemokines and cytokines. Quercetin treatment also attenuated RV-induced airway cholinergic hyperresponsiveness. Together, our results suggest that quercetin inhibits RV endocytosis and replication in airway epithelial cells at multiple stages of the RV life cycle. Quercetin also decreases expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and improves lung function in RV-infected mice. Based on these observations, further studies examining the potential benefits of quercetin in the prevention and treatment of RV infection are warranted. PMID:22465313

  19. Nitric oxide inhibits viral replication in murine myocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Lowenstein, C J; Hill, S L; Lafond-Walker, A; Wu, J; Allen, G; Landavere, M; Rose, N R; Herskowitz, A

    1996-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a radical molecule that not only serves as a vasodilator and neurotransmitter but also acts as a cytotoxic effector molecule of the immune system. The inducible enzyme making NO, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), is transcriptionally activated by IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, cytokines which are produced during viral infection. We show that iNOS is induced in mice infected with the Coxsackie B3 virus. Macrophages expressing iNOS are identified in the hearts and spleens of infected animals with an antibody raised against iNOS. Infected mice have increased titers of virus and a higher mortality when fed NOS inhibitors. Thus, viral infection induces iNOS in vivo, and NO inhibits viral replication. NO is a novel, nonspecific immune defense against viruses in vivo. PMID:8621766

  20. Cell activation and HIV-1 replication in unstimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes ingesting exosomes from cells expressing defective HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Arenaccio, Claudia; Chiozzini, Chiara; Columba-Cabezas, Sandra; Manfredi, Francesco; Federico, Maurizio

    2014-06-12

    A relevant burden of defective HIV-1 genomes populates PBMCs from HIV-1 infected patients, especially during HAART treatment. These viral genomes, although unable to codify for infectious viral particles, can express viral proteins which may affect functions of host cells as well as bystander ones. Cells expressing defective HIV-1 have a lifespan longer than that of cells producing infectious particles. Hence, their interaction with other cell types, including resting lymphocytes, is expected to occur frequently in tissues where HIV actively replicates. We investigated the effects of the expression of a prototype of functionally defective HIV-1 on bystander, unstimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes. We observed that unstimulated human primary CD4+ T lymphocytes were activated and became permissive for HIV-1 replication when co-cultivated with cells expressing a functionally defective HIV-1 (F12/Hut-78 cells). This effect depended on the presence in F12/Hut-78 supernatants of nanovesicles we identified as exosomes. By inspecting the underlying mechanism, we found that ADAM17, i.e., a disintegrin and metalloprotease converting pro-TNF-α in its mature form, associated with exosomes from F12/Hut-78 cells, and played a key role in the HIV-1 replication in unstimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes. In fact, the treatment with an inhibitor of ADAM17 abolished both activation and HIV-1 replication in unstimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes. TNF-α appeared to be the downstream effector of ADAM17 since the treatment of unstimulated lymphocytes with antibodies against TNF-α or its receptors blocked the HIV-1 replication. Finally, we found that the expression of NefF12 in exosome-producing cells was sufficient to induce the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in unstimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes. Exosomes from cells expressing a functionally defective mutant can induce cell activation and HIV-1 susceptibility in unstimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes. This evidence highlights the relevance for AIDS pathogenesis

  1. Modulation of the splicing regulatory function of SRSF10 by a novel compound that impairs HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Shkreta, Lulzim; Blanchette, Marco; Toutant, Johanne; Wilhelm, Emmanuelle; Bell, Brendan; Story, Benjamin A; Balachandran, Ahalya; Cochrane, Alan; Cheung, Peter K; Harrigan, P Richard; Grierson, David S; Chabot, Benoit

    2017-04-20

    We recently identified the 4-pyridinone-benzisothiazole carboxamide compound 1C8 as displaying strong anti-HIV-1 potency against a variety of clinical strains in vitro. Here we show that 1C8 decreases the expression of HIV-1 and alters splicing events involved in the production of HIV-1 mRNAs. Although 1C8 was designed to be a structural mimic of the fused tetracyclic indole compound IDC16 that targets SRSF1, it did not affect the splice site shifting activity of SRSF1. Instead, 1C8 altered splicing regulation mediated by SRSF10. Depleting SRSF10 by RNA interference affected viral splicing and, like 1C8, decreased expression of Tat, Gag and Env. Incubating cells with 1C8 promoted the dephosphorylation of SRSF10 and increased its interaction with hTra2β, a protein previously implicated in the control of HIV-1 RNA splicing. While 1C8 affects the alternative splicing of cellular transcripts controlled by SRSF10 and hTra2β, concentrations greater than those needed to inhibit HIV-1 replication were required to elicit significant alterations. Thus, the ability of 1C8 to alter the SRSF10-dependent splicing of HIV-1 transcripts, with minor effects on cellular splicing, supports the view that SRSF10 may be used as a target for the development of new anti-viral agents. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Discovery of a small molecule Tat-trans-activation-responsive RNA antagonist that potently inhibits human immunodeficiency virus-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Seongwoo; Tamilarasu, Natarajan; Kibler, Karen; Cao, Hong; Ali, Akbar; Ping, Yueh-Hsin; Jeang, Kuan-Teh; Rana, Tariq M

    2003-10-03

    Antiretroviral therapy to treat AIDS uses molecules that target the reverse transcriptase and protease enzymes of human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1). A major problem associated with these treatments, however, is the emergence of drug-resistant strains. Thus, there is a compelling need to find drugs against other viral targets. One such target is the interaction between Tat, an HIV-1 regulatory protein essential for viral replication, and trans-activation-responsive (TAR) RNA. Here we describe the design and synthesis of an encoded combinatorial library containing 39,304 unnatural small molecules. Using a rapid high through-put screening technology, we identified 59 compounds. Structure-activity relationship studies led to the synthesis of 19 compounds that bind TAR RNA with high affinities. In the presence of a representative Tat-TAR inhibitor (5 microM TR87), we observed potent and sustained suppression of HIV replication in cultured cells over 24 days. The same concentration of this inhibitor did not exhibit any toxicity in cell cultures or in mice. TR87 was also shown to specifically disrupt Tat-TAR binding in vitro and inhibit Tat-mediated transcriptional activation in vitro and in vivo, providing a strong correlation between its activities and inhibition of HIV-1 replication. These results provide a structural scaffold for further development of new drugs, alone or in combination with other drugs, for treatment of HIV-1-infected individuals. Our results also suggest a general strategy for discovering pharmacophores targeting RNA structures that are essential in progression of other infectious, inflammatory, and genetic diseases.

  3. Characterization of HIV replication complexes early after cell-to-cell infection.

    PubMed

    Karageorgos, L; Li, P; Burrell, C

    1993-09-01

    In this study, we have characterized the HIV DNA-containing replication complexes present in cells early after cell-to-cell infection, using sucrose gradient sedimentation and immunoprecipitation. Six hours after cell-to-cell infection, a cytoplasmic HIV replication complex sedimented as a large structure (320S). This replication complex was precipitated by antisera to three virus-coded enzymes (reverse transcriptase, integrase, protease), to the matrix protein (p17), and to cellular histones but not to the major capsid protein (p24). This replication complex was not associated with cell membranes and could not be dissociated into smaller discrete subunits, using detergents. Nuclear extracts from the same cell-to-cell infection contained a smaller (80S) complex that lacked reverse transcriptase and matrix protein (p17). Cytoplasmic replication complexes from a cell-free virus infection sedimented as 160S structures under identical conditions, as previously reported. Our results indicate that, following cell-to-cell transmission of HIV, all the HIV pol gene products, the matrix protein p17, and cellular histones are present in cytoplasmic replication complexes that are taking part in or have completed reverse transcription. Transportation of the cytoplasmic replication complex to the nucleus is associated with structural changes, including a reduction in size and altered protein composition.

  4. Extract of Scutellaria baicalensis inhibits dengue virus replication

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Scutellaria baicalensis (S. baicalensis) is one of the traditional Chinese medicinal herbs that have been shown to possess many health benefits. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro antiviral activity of aqueous extract of the roots of S. baicalensis against all the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes. Methods Aqueous extract of S. baicalensis was prepared by microwave energy steam evaporation method (MEGHE™), and the anti-dengue virus replication activity was evaluated using the foci forming unit reduction assay (FFURA) in Vero cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was used to determine the actual dengue virus RNA copy number. The presence of baicalein, a flavonoid known to inhibit dengue virus replication was determined by mass spectrometry. Results The IC50 values for the S. baicalensis extract on Vero cells following DENV adsorption ranged from 86.59 to 95.19 μg/mL for the different DENV serotypes. The IC50 values decreased to 56.02 to 77.41 μg/mL when cells were treated with the extract at the time of virus adsorption for the different DENV serotypes. The extract showed potent direct virucidal activity against extracellular infectious virus particles with IC50 that ranged from 74.33 to 95.83 μg/mL for all DENV serotypes. Weak prophylactic effects with IC50 values that ranged from 269.9 to 369.8 μg/mL were noticed when the cells were pre-treated 2 hours prior to virus inoculation. The concentration of baicalein in the S. baicalensis extract was ~1% (1.03 μg/gm dried extract). Conclusions Our study demonstrates the in vitro anti-dengue virus replication property of S. baicalensis against all the four DENV serotypes investigated. The extract reduced DENV infectivity and replication in Vero cells. The extract was rich in baicalein, and could be considered for potential development of anti-DENV therapeutics. PMID:23627436

  5. HIVed, a knowledgebase for differentially expressed human genes and proteins during HIV infection, replication and latency

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen; Ramarathinam, Sri H.; Revote, Jerico; Khoury, Georges; Song, Jiangning; Purcell, Anthony W.

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the altered gene expression level and identifying differentially expressed genes/proteins during HIV infection, replication and latency is fundamental for broadening our understanding of the mechanisms of HIV infection and T-cell dysfunction. Such studies are crucial for developing effective strategies for virus eradication from the body. Inspired by the availability and enrichment of gene expression data during HIV infection, replication and latency, in this study, we proposed a novel compendium termed HIVed (HIV expression database; http://hivlatency.erc.monash.edu/) that harbours comprehensive functional annotations of proteins, whose genes have been shown to be dysregulated during HIV infection, replication and latency using different experimental designs and measurements. We manually curated a variety of third-party databases for structural and functional annotations of the protein entries in HIVed. With the goal of benefiting HIV related research, we collected a number of biological annotations for all the entries in HIVed besides their expression profile, including basic protein information, Gene Ontology terms, secondary structure, HIV-1 interaction and pathway information. We hope this comprehensive protein-centric knowledgebase can bridge the gap between the understanding of differentially expressed genes and the functions of their protein products, facilitating the generation of novel hypotheses and treatment strategies to fight against the HIV pandemic. PMID:28358052

  6. HIVed, a knowledgebase for differentially expressed human genes and proteins during HIV infection, replication and latency.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Ramarathinam, Sri H; Revote, Jerico; Khoury, Georges; Song, Jiangning; Purcell, Anthony W

    2017-03-30

    Measuring the altered gene expression level and identifying differentially expressed genes/proteins during HIV infection, replication and latency is fundamental for broadening our understanding of the mechanisms of HIV infection and T-cell dysfunction. Such studies are crucial for developing effective strategies for virus eradication from the body. Inspired by the availability and enrichment of gene expression data during HIV infection, replication and latency, in this study, we proposed a novel compendium termed HIVed (HIV expression database; http://hivlatency.erc.monash.edu/) that harbours comprehensive functional annotations of proteins, whose genes have been shown to be dysregulated during HIV infection, replication and latency using different experimental designs and measurements. We manually curated a variety of third-party databases for structural and functional annotations of the protein entries in HIVed. With the goal of benefiting HIV related research, we collected a number of biological annotations for all the entries in HIVed besides their expression profile, including basic protein information, Gene Ontology terms, secondary structure, HIV-1 interaction and pathway information. We hope this comprehensive protein-centric knowledgebase can bridge the gap between the understanding of differentially expressed genes and the functions of their protein products, facilitating the generation of novel hypotheses and treatment strategies to fight against the HIV pandemic.

  7. HIV integration sites in latently infected cell lines: evidence of ongoing replication.

    PubMed

    Symons, Jori; Chopra, Abha; Malatinkova, Eva; De Spiegelaere, Ward; Leary, Shay; Cooper, Don; Abana, Chike O; Rhodes, Ajantha; Rezaei, Simin D; Vandekerckhove, Linos; Mallal, Simon; Lewin, Sharon R; Cameron, Paul U

    2017-01-13

    Assessing the location and frequency of HIV integration sites in latently infected cells can potentially inform our understanding of how HIV persists during combination antiretroviral therapy. We developed a novel high throughput sequencing method to evaluate HIV integration sites in latently infected cell lines to determine whether there was virus replication or clonal expansion in these cell lines observed as multiple integration events at the same position. We modified a previously reported method using random DNA shearing and PCR to allow for high throughput robotic processing to identify the site and frequency of HIV integration in latently infected cell lines. Latently infected cell lines infected with intact virus demonstrated multiple distinct HIV integration sites (28 different sites in U1, 110 in ACH-2 and 117 in J1.1 per 150,000 cells). In contrast, cell lines infected with replication-incompetent viruses (J-Lat cells) demonstrated single integration sites. Following in vitro passaging of the ACH-2 cell line, we observed a significant increase in the frequency of unique HIV integration sites and there were multiple mutations and large deletions in the proviral DNA. When the ACH-2 cell line was cultured with the integrase inhibitor raltegravir, there was a significant decrease in the number of unique HIV integration sites and a transient increase in the frequency of 2-LTR circles consistent with virus replication in these cells. Cell lines latently infected with intact HIV demonstrated multiple unique HIV integration sites indicating that these cell lines are not clonal and in the ACH-2 cell line there was evidence of low level virus replication. These findings have implications for the use of latently infected cell lines as models of HIV latency and for the use of these cells as standards.

  8. Trans-inhibition of HIV-1 by a long hairpin RNA expressed within the viral genome

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinova, Pavlina; ter Brake, Olivier; Haasnoot, Joost; de Haan, Peter; Berkhout, Ben

    2007-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can be inhibited by means of RNA silencing or interference (RNAi) using synthetic short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or gene constructs encoding short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) or long hairpin RNAs (lhRNAs). The use of siRNA and shRNA as antiviral therapeutic is limited because of the emergence of viral escape mutants. This problem is theoretically prevented by intracellular expression of lhRNAs generating multiple siRNAs that target the virus simultaneously, thus reducing the chance of viral escape. However, gene constructs encoding lhRNA molecules face problems with delivery to the right cells in an infected individual. In order to solve this problem, we constructed an HIV-1 variant with a 300 bp long hairpin structure in the 3' part of the genome corresponding to the Nef gene (HIV-lhNef). Results Intriguingly, HIV-lhNef potently inhibited wild-type HIV-1 production in trans. However, HIV-lhNef demonstrated a severe production and replication defect, which we were able to solve by selecting spontaneous virus variants with truncated hairpin structures. Although these escape variants lost the ability to trans-inhibit HIV-1, they effectively outgrew the wild-type virus in competition experiments in SupT1 cells. Conclusion Expression of the lhNef hairpin within the HIV-1 genome results in potent trans-inhibition of wild-type HIV-1. Although the mechanism of trans-inhibition is currently unknown, it remains of interest to study the molecular details because the observed effect is extremely potent. This may have implications for the development of virus strains to be used as live-attenuated virus vaccines. PMID:17331227

  9. Proviruses with identical sequences comprise a large fraction of the replication-competent HIV reservoir.

    PubMed

    Bui, John K; Sobolewski, Michele D; Keele, Brandon F; Spindler, Jonathan; Musick, Andrew; Wiegand, Ann; Luke, Brian T; Shao, Wei; Hughes, Stephen H; Coffin, John M; Kearney, Mary F; Mellors, John W

    2017-03-01

    The major obstacle to curing HIV infection is the persistence of cells with intact proviruses that can produce replication-competent virus. This HIV reservoir is believed to exist primarily in CD4+ T-cells and is stable despite years of suppressive antiretroviral therapy. A potential mechanism for HIV persistence is clonal expansion of infected cells, but how often such clones carry replication-competent proviruses has been controversial. Here, we used single-genome sequencing to probe for identical HIV sequence matches among viruses recovered in different viral outgrowth cultures and between the sequences of outgrowth viruses and proviral or intracellular HIV RNA sequences in uncultured blood mononuclear cells from eight donors on suppressive ART with diverse proviral populations. All eight donors had viral outgrowth virus that was fully susceptible to their current ART drug regimen. Six of eight donors studied had identical near full-length HIV RNA sequences recovered from different viral outgrowth cultures, and one of the two remaining donors had identical partial viral sequence matches between outgrowth virus and intracellular HIV RNA. These findings provide evidence that clonal expansion of HIV-infected cells is an important mechanism of reservoir persistence that should be targeted to cure HIV infection.

  10. Proviruses with identical sequences comprise a large fraction of the replication-competent HIV reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Sobolewski, Michele D.; Keele, Brandon F.; Spindler, Jonathan; Wiegand, Ann; Shao, Wei; Hughes, Stephen H.; Coffin, John M.; Kearney, Mary F.; Mellors, John W.

    2017-01-01

    The major obstacle to curing HIV infection is the persistence of cells with intact proviruses that can produce replication-competent virus. This HIV reservoir is believed to exist primarily in CD4+ T-cells and is stable despite years of suppressive antiretroviral therapy. A potential mechanism for HIV persistence is clonal expansion of infected cells, but how often such clones carry replication-competent proviruses has been controversial. Here, we used single-genome sequencing to probe for identical HIV sequence matches among viruses recovered in different viral outgrowth cultures and between the sequences of outgrowth viruses and proviral or intracellular HIV RNA sequences in uncultured blood mononuclear cells from eight donors on suppressive ART with diverse proviral populations. All eight donors had viral outgrowth virus that was fully susceptible to their current ART drug regimen. Six of eight donors studied had identical near full-length HIV RNA sequences recovered from different viral outgrowth cultures, and one of the two remaining donors had identical partial viral sequence matches between outgrowth virus and intracellular HIV RNA. These findings provide evidence that clonal expansion of HIV-infected cells is an important mechanism of reservoir persistence that should be targeted to cure HIV infection. PMID:28328934

  11. Analysis of inhibition of DNA replication in irradiated cells using the SV40 based in vitro assay of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Iliakis, George; Mladenov, Emil; Wang, Ya; Wang, Hong Yan

    2012-01-01

    The deleterious effects of DNA damage on DNA replication have been demonstrated in many model systems and the mechanisms of the resulting inhibition have been a research focus for at least 40 years. Moreover, recent studies have identified several major components of the S-phase checkpoint, providing a mechanistic background for understanding the basis of inhibition of the initiation and elongation steps of DNA replication after DNA damage. Yet several aspects of the underlying biochemical mechanisms remain unresolved including the characterization of the enzymatic activities involved in checkpoint activation and the coordination of this process with DNA repair. Helpful for the delineation of the mechanism of the S-phase checkpoint is the observation that factors inhibiting DNA replication in vivo can be found in active form in extracts prepared from irradiated cells, when these are tested using the simian virus 40 (SV40) assay for in vitro DNA replication. In this assay, replication of plasmid DNA carrying the minimal origin of SV40 DNA replication is achieved in vitro using cytoplasmic cell extracts and SV40 large tumor antigen (TAg) as the only noncellular protein. Here, we describe protocols developed to measure in vitro DNA replication with the purpose of analyzing its regulation after exposure to DNA damage. The procedures include the preparation of components of the in vitro DNA replication reaction including cytoplasmic extracts from cells that have sustained DNA damage. The assay provides a powerful tool for investigating the effect of distinct agents acting either by inducing lesions in the DNA, or by inhibiting the functions of checkpoint proteins. Nevertheless, the fact that several steps of DNA replication initiation are carried out in this in vitro assay by TAg and not the corresponding cellular factors, might be considered as a limitation of the approach.

  12. Controlling Multicycle Replication of Live-Attenuated HIV-1 Using an Unnatural Genetic Switch.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhe; Wang, Nanxi; Kang, Guobin; Niu, Wei; Li, Qingsheng; Guo, Jiantao

    2017-04-21

    A safe and effective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine is urgently needed, but remains elusive. While HIV-1 live-attenuated vaccine can provide potent protection as demonstrated in rhesus macaque-simian immunodeficiency virus model, the potential pathogenic consequences associated with the uncontrolled virus replication preclude such vaccine from clinical applications. We investigated a novel approach to address this problem by controlling live-attenuated HIV-1 replication through an unnatural genetic switch that was based on the amber suppression strategy. Here we report the construction of all-in-one live-attenuated HIV-1 mutants that contain genomic copy of the amber suppression system. This genetic modification resulted in viruses that were capable of multicycle replication in vitro and could be switched on and off using an unnatural amino acid as the cue. This stand-alone, replication-controllable attenuated HIV-1 virus represents an important step toward the generation of a safe and efficacious live-attenuated HIV-1 vaccine. The strategy reported in this work can be adopted for the development of other live-attenuated vaccines.

  13. Modulation of HCV replication after combination antiretroviral therapy in HCV/HIV co-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Kenneth E; Guedj, Jeremie; Shata, Mohamed Tarek; Blackard, Jason T; Rouster, Susan D; Castro, Mario; Feinberg, Judith; Sterling, Richard K; Goodman, Zachary; Aronow, Bruce J; Perelson, Alan S

    2014-07-23

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in patients co-infected with HIV. Co-infection results in increased HCV replication and more rapid rates of liver disease progression. The effect of HIV combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on HCV replication has not been studied in depth. To address this issue, we enrolled a small cohort of HCV/HIV co-infected patients into a cART initiation trial and used dynamic modeling combined with evaluation of immune responses and microarray profiles to determine how effective treatment of HIV affects HCV. Treatment with cART resulted in increased HCV replication and increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in a subset of patients. Subjects with evidence of hepatic injury (increased ALT) were more likely to have HCV-specific immune responses directed against HCV epitopes. Over time, HCV viral loads declined. Reproducible and biologically important gene expression changes occurred in co-infected patients who underwent successful cART. The effective suppression of HIV by cART initiated a cascade of early and late events in treated patients. Early events involving down-regulation of interferon-stimulated genes may have led to transiently increased viral replication and hepatic injury. At later time points, HCV viral load declined to levels comparable to those seen in the setting of HCV monoinfection. These findings support early antiretroviral therapy in those with HCV/HIV co-infection.

  14. HIV-1 Continues To Replicate and Evolve in Patients with Natural Control of HIV Infection ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Mens, Helene; Kearney, Mary; Wiegand, Ann; Shao, Wei; Schønning, Kristian; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels; Maldarelli, Frank; Mellors, John W.; Benfield, Thomas; Coffin, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Elucidating mechanisms leading to the natural control of HIV-1 infection is of great importance for vaccine design and for understanding viral pathogenesis. Rare HIV-1-infected individuals, termed HIV-1 controllers, have plasma HIV-1 RNA levels below the limit of detection by standard clinical assays (<50 to 75 copies/ml) without antiretroviral therapy. Although several recent studies have documented persistent low-grade viremia in HIV-1 controllers at a level not significantly different from that in HIV-1-infected individuals undergoing treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), it is unclear if plasma viruses are undergoing full cycles of replication in vivo or if the infection of new cells is completely blocked by host immune mechanisms. We studied a cohort of 21 HIV-1 controllers with a median level of viremia below 1 copy/ml, followed for a median of 11 years. Less than half of the cohort carried known protective HLA types (B*57/27). By isolating HIV-1 RNA from large volumes of plasma, we amplified single genome sequences of both pro-rt and env longitudinally. This study is the first to document that HIV-1 pro-rt and env evolve in this patient group, albeit at rates somewhat lower than in HIV-1 noncontrollers, in HLA B*57/27-positive, as well as HLA B*57/27-negative, individuals. Viral diversity and adaptive events associated with immune escape were found to be restricted in HIV-1 controllers, suggesting that replication occurs in the face of less overall immune selection. PMID:20926564

  15. Silibinin inhibits HIV-1 infection by reducing cellular activation and proliferation.

    PubMed

    McClure, Janela; Lovelace, Erica S; Elahi, Shokrollah; Maurice, Nicholas J; Wagoner, Jessica; Dragavon, Joan; Mittler, John E; Kraft, Zane; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Stamatatos, Leonidis; Horton, Helen; De Rosa, Stephen C; Coombs, Robert W; Polyak, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Purified silymarin-derived natural products from the milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum) block hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and inhibit T cell proliferation in vitro. An intravenous formulation of silibinin (SIL), a major component of silymarin, displays anti-HCV effects in humans and also inhibits T-cell proliferation in vitro. We show that SIL inhibited replication of HIV-1 in TZM-bl cells, PBMCs, and CEM cells in vitro. SIL suppression of HIV-1 coincided with dose-dependent reductions in actively proliferating CD19+, CD4+, and CD8+ cells, resulting in fewer CD4+ T cells expressing the HIV-1 co-receptors CXCR4 and CCR5. SIL inhibition of T-cell growth was not due to cytotoxicity measured by cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or necrosis. SIL also blocked induction of the activation markers CD38, HLA-DR, Ki67, and CCR5 on CD4+ T cells. The data suggest that SIL attenuated cellular functions involved in T-cell activation, proliferation, and HIV-1 infection. Silymarin-derived compounds provide cytoprotection by suppressing virus infection, immune activation, and inflammation, and as such may be relevant for both HIV mono-infected and HIV/HCV co-infected subjects.

  16. cis Expression of the F12 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Nef Allele Transforms the Highly Productive NL4-3 HIV Type 1 to a Replication-Defective Strain: Involvement of both Env gp41 and CD4 Intracytoplasmic Tails

    PubMed Central

    Olivetta, Eleonora; Pugliese, Katherina; Bona, Roberta; D'Aloja, Paola; Ferrantelli, Flavia; Santarcangelo, Anna Claudia; Mattia, Gianfranco; Verani, Paola; Federico, Maurizio

    2000-01-01

    F12 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nef is a naturally occurring nef mutant cloned from the provirus of a nonproductive, nondefective, and interfering HIV-1 variant (F12-HIV). We have already shown that cells stably transfected with a vector expressing the F12-HIV nef allele do not downregulate CD4 receptors and, more peculiarly, become resistant to the replication of wild type (wt) HIV. In order to investigate the mechanism of action of such an HIV inhibition, the F12-HIV nef gene was expressed in the context of the NL4-3 HIV-1 infectious molecular clone by replacing the wt nef gene (NL4-3/chi). Through this experimental approach we established the following. First, NL4-3/chi and nef-defective (Δnef) NL4-3 viral particles behave very similarly in terms of viral entry and HIV protein production during the first replicative cycle. Second, no viral particles were produced from cells infected with NL4-3/chi virions, whatever the multiplicity of infection used. The viral inhibition apparently occurs at level of viral assembling and/or release. Third, this block could not be relieved by in-trans expression of wt nef. Finally, NL4-3/chi reverts to a producer HIV strain when F12-HIV Nef is deprived of its myristoyl residue. Through a CD4 downregulation competition assay, we demonstrated that F12-HIV Nef protein potently inhibits the CD4 downregulation induced by wt Nef. Moreover, we observed a redistribution of CD4 receptors at the cell margin induced by F12-HIV Nef. These observations strongly suggest that F12-HIV Nef maintains the ability to interact with the intracytoplasmic tail of the CD4 receptor molecule. Remarkably, we distinguished the intracytoplasmic tails of Env gp41 and CD4 as, respectively, viral and cellular targets of the F12-HIV Nef-induced viral retention. For the first time, the inhibition of the viral life cycle by means of in-cis expression of a Nef mutant is here reported. Delineation of the F12-HIV Nef mechanism of action may offer

  17. HIV-1 Vpr increases HCV replication through VprBP in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yanling; Huang, Fang; Yuan, Ting; Sun, Binlian; Yang, Rongge

    2016-09-02

    Coinfection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) occurs at a high frequency, in which HIV shows a promotion of HCV-derived liver diseases. However, the mechanism of how this occurs is not well understood. Our previous work has demonstrated that the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr enhances HCV RNA replication in cell culture. Because Vpr performs most of its functions through host protein VprBP (DCAF1), the role of VprBP in the regulation of HCV by Vpr was investigated in this study. We found that the Vpr mutant Q65R, which is deficient in VprBP binding, could not enhance HCV replication. Furthermore, Vpr-mediated enhancement of HCV replication was severely diminished in VprBP knockdown cells. In addition, an inhibitor of Cullin RING E3 ligases, MLN4924, impaired the function of Vpr during HCV replication. Together, these results suggest that Vpr promotes HCV replication in a VprBP-dependent manner, and that the activity of Cullin RING E3 ligases is essential to this process. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that HIV-1 Vpr makes the cellular environment more suitable for HCV replication, which might relate with the host ubiquitination system.

  18. In Vivo validation of a bioinformatics based tool to identify reduced replication capacity in HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Christina M R; Krogstad, Paul; Kitchen, Scott G

    2010-01-01

    Although antiretroviral drug resistance is common in treated HIV infected individuals, it is not a consistent indicator of HIV morbidity and mortality. To the contrary, HIV resistance-associated mutations may lead to changes in viral fitness that are beneficial to infected individuals. Using a bioinformatics-based model to assess the effects of numerous drug resistance mutations, we determined that the D30N mutation in HIV-1 protease had the largest decrease in replication capacity among known protease resistance mutations. To test this in silico result in an in vivo environment, we constructed several drug-resistant mutant HIV-1 strains and compared their relative fitness utilizing the SCID-hu mouse model. We found HIV-1 containing the D30N mutation had a significant defect in vivo, showing impaired replication kinetics and a decreased ability to deplete CD4+ thymocytes, compared to the wild-type or virus without the D30N mutation. In comparison, virus containing the M184V mutation in reverse transcriptase, which shows decreased replication capacity in vitro, did not have an effect on viral fitness in vivo. Thus, in this study we have verified an in silico bioinformatics result with a biological assessment to identify a unique mutation in HIV-1 that has a significant fitness defect in vivo.

  19. In Vivo Validation of a Bioinformatics Based Tool to Identify Reduced Replication Capacity in HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Kitchen, Christina M.R; Krogstad, Paul; Kitchen, Scott G

    2010-01-01

    Although antiretroviral drug resistance is common in treated HIV infected individuals, it is not a consistent indicator of HIV morbidity and mortality. To the contrary, HIV resistance-associated mutations may lead to changes in viral fitness that are beneficial to infected individuals. Using a bioinformatics-based model to assess the effects of numerous drug resistance mutations, we determined that the D30N mutation in HIV-1 protease had the largest decrease in replication capacity among known protease resistance mutations. To test this in silico result in an in vivo environment, we constructed several drug-resistant mutant HIV-1 strains and compared their relative fitness utilizing the SCID-hu mouse model. We found HIV-1 containing the D30N mutation had a significant defect in vivo, showing impaired replication kinetics and a decreased ability to deplete CD4+ thymocytes, compared to the wild-type or virus without the D30N mutation. In comparison, virus containing the M184V mutation in reverse transcriptase, which shows decreased replication capacity in vitro, did not have an effect on viral fitness in vivo. Thus, in this study we have verified an in silico bioinformatics result with a biological assessment to identify a unique mutation in HIV-1 that has a significant fitness defect in vivo. PMID:21603285

  20. Amniotic Fluid Exhibits an Innate Inhibitory Activity Against HIV Type 1 Replication in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Farzin, Azadeh; Boyer, Pamela; Ank, Bonnie; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Indirect evidence suggests that amniotic fluid (AF) may play a role in the pathogenesis of in utero HIV-1 transmission. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential innate inhibitory role of AF on HIV replication, which may contribute to protection of the fetus against intrauterine transmission. AF was collected from term HIV-1-negative women undergoing scheduled cesarean section. The inhibitory effect of AF against HIV-1BA-L replication was tested in vitro with or without the addition of protease inhibitor cocktail (PIC) in PHA-stimulated PBMC cultures. Quantitative measurement of human neutrophil peptides 1-3 (HNP1-3) was performed on all AF samples, using an ELISA assay. AF exhibited a dose-dependent inhibitory activity against HIV-1BA-L replication, with all samples (n=12) reaching significant inhibitory effect using 50% AF. In vitro, this activity decreased over time, but was able to be sustained with the addition of PIC. The HNP1-3 concentration in AF samples (n=12) ranged from undetectable (<41 pg/ml, n=3) to >250,000 pg/ml with a median of 5,146 pg/ml. AF exhibited a significant and dose-dependent innate inhibitory activity against HIV-1 replication, which was present in all AF samples tested. This effect was prolonged in the presence of PIC, suggesting that the inhibitory factor was in the cell-free protein fraction. The HNP1-3 concentration in AF was in the subinhibitory range for HIV with no correlation between its concentration and the HIV-1 inhibitory activity. These data show the presence of a significant innate inhibitory activity against HIV in AF. PMID:22998428

  1. R-848 triggers the expression of TLR7/8 and suppresses HIV replication in monocytes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Toll-like receptors (TLR) 7 and 8 are important in single-stranded viral RNA recognition and may play a role in HIV infection and disease progression. We analyzed TLR7/8 expression and signaling in monocytes from HIV-infected and uninfected subjects to investigate a pathway with new potential for the suppression of HIV replication. Methods Eighty-one HIV-infected and uninfected subjects from Liaoning and Henan provinces in China participated in this study. Monocytes were isolated from subjects' peripheral blood mononuclear cells by magnetic bead selection. TLR7 and TLR8 mRNA was measured using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. R-848 (resiquimod) was used as a ligand for TLR7 and TLR8 in order to 1) assess TLR7/8-mediated monocyte responsiveness as indicated by IL-12 p40 and TNF-α secretion and 2) to examine HIV replication in cultured monocytes in the presence of R-848. Results We found that expression of TLR7/8 mRNA in peripheral blood monocytes decreased with disease progression. TLR7 expression was decreased with stimulation with the TLR7/8 agonist, R-848, in vitro, whereas TLR8 expression was unaffected. Following R-848 stimulation, monocytes from HIV-infected subjects produced significantly less TNF-α than those from uninfected subjects, but trended towards greater production of IL-12 than stimulated monocytes from uninfected subjects. R-848 stimulation also suppressed HIV replication in cultured monocytes. Conclusions Our study provides evidence that the TLR7 and TLR8 triggering can suppress HIV replication in monocytes and lead to postpone HIV disease progression, thereby offering novel targets for immunomodulatory therapy. PMID:22243920

  2. Differential expression of lncRNAs during the HIV replication cycle: an underestimated layer in the HIV-host interplay

    PubMed Central

    Trypsteen, Wim; Mohammadi, Pejman; Van Hecke, Clarissa; Mestdagh, Pieter; Lefever, Steve; Saeys, Yvan; De Bleser, Pieter; Vandesompele, Jo; Ciuffi, Angela; Vandekerckhove, Linos; De Spiegelaere, Ward

    2016-01-01

    Studying the effects of HIV infection on the host transcriptome has typically focused on protein-coding genes. However, recent advances in the field of RNA sequencing revealed that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) add an extensive additional layer to the cell’s molecular network. Here, we performed transcriptome profiling throughout a primary HIV infection in vitro to investigate lncRNA expression at the different HIV replication cycle processes (reverse transcription, integration and particle production). Subsequently, guilt-by-association, transcription factor and co-expression analysis were performed to infer biological roles for the lncRNAs identified in the HIV-host interplay. Many lncRNAs were suggested to play a role in mechanisms relying on proteasomal and ubiquitination pathways, apoptosis, DNA damage responses and cell cycle regulation. Through transcription factor binding analysis, we found that lncRNAs display a distinct transcriptional regulation profile as compared to protein coding mRNAs, suggesting that mRNAs and lncRNAs are independently modulated. In addition, we identified five differentially expressed lncRNA-mRNA pairs with mRNA involvement in HIV pathogenesis with possible cis regulatory lncRNAs that control nearby mRNA expression and function. Altogether, the present study demonstrates that lncRNAs add a new dimension to the HIV-host interplay and should be further investigated as they may represent targets for controlling HIV replication. PMID:27782208

  3. Host Protein Ku70 Binds and Protects HIV-1 Integrase from Proteasomal Degradation and Is Required for HIV Replication*

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yingfeng; Ao, Zhujun; Wang, Binchen; Jayappa, Kallesh Danappa; Yao, Xiaojian

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is a key viral enzymatic protein acting in several viral replication steps, including integration. IN has been shown to be an unstable protein degraded by the N-end rule pathway through the host ubiquitin-proteasome machinery. However, it is still not fully understood how this viral protein is protected from the host ubiquitin-proteasome system within cells during HIV replication. In the present study, we provide evidence that the host protein Ku70 interacts with HIV-1 IN and protects it from the Lys48-linked polyubiquitination proteasomal pathway. Moreover, Ku70 is able to down-regulate the overall protein polyubiquitination level within the host cells and to specifically deubiquitinate IN through their interaction. Mutagenic studies revealed that the C terminus of IN (residues 230–288) is required for IN binding to the N-terminal part of Ku70 (Ku70(1–430)), and their interaction is independent of Ku70/80 heterodimerization. Finally, knockdown of Ku70 expression in both virus-producing and target CD4+ T cells significantly disrupted HIV-1 replication and rendered two-long terminal repeat circles and integration undetectable, indicating that Ku70 is required for both the early and the late stages of the HIV-1 life cycle. Interestingly, Ku70 was incorporated into the progeny virus in an IN-dependent way. We proposed that Ku70 may interact with IN during viral assembly and accompany HIV-1 IN upon entry into the new target cells, acting to 1) protect IN from the host defense system and 2) assist IN integration activity. Overall, this report provides another example of how HIV-1 hijacks host cellular machinery to protect the virus itself and to facilitate its replication. PMID:21454661

  4. Replicating adenovirus vector prime/protein boost strategies for HIV vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, L. Jean; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    Background In the last few years the HIV vaccine field has moved forward a number of promising vaccine candidates into human clinical trials. Objective In this review we briefly discuss the advances made in vaccine development and HIV pathogenesis and give an overview of the body of work our lab has generated in multiple animal models on replication-competent Ad recombinant vaccines. Methods Emphasis is placed on comparative examination of vaccine components, routes of immunization and challenge models using replicating Ad vectors. Results/conclusion The overall findings make the case that replicating Ad vectors are superior in priming multiple arms of the immune system, and in conjunction with protein boosting, have resulted in dramatic protective efficacy leading to their advancement to phase 1 trials. Implications of the recent halting of the Merck Ad5-HIV phase 2b clinical trial for our vaccine approach and other vectored vaccines are discussed. PMID:18694354

  5. Ginkgolic acid inhibits HIV protease activity and HIV infection in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Jian-Ming; Yan, Shaoyu; Jamaluddin, Saha; Weakley, Sarah M.; Liang, Zhengdong; Siwak, Edward B.; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Several HIV protease mutations, which are resistant to clinical HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), have been identified. There is a great need for second-generation PIs with different chemical structures and/or with an alternative mode of inhibition. Ginkgolic acid is a natural herbal substance and a major component of the lipid fraction in the nutshells of the Ginkgo biloba tree. The objective of this study was to determine whether ginkgolic acid could inhibit HIV protease activity in a cell free system and HIV infection in human cells. Material/Methods Purified ginkgolic acid and recombinant HIV-1 HXB2 KIIA protease were used for the HIV protease activity assay. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used for HIV infection (HIV-1SF162 virus), determined by a p24gag ELISA. Cytotoxicity was also determined. Results Ginkgolic acid (31.2 μg/ml) inhibited HIV protease activity by 60%, compared with the negative control, and the effect was concentration-dependent. In addition, ginkgolic acid treatment (50 and 100 μg/ml) effectively inhibited the HIV infection at day 7 in a concentration-dependent manner. Ginkgolic acid at a concentration of up to 150 μg/ml demonstrated very limited cytotoxicity. Conclusions Ginkgolic acid effectively inhibits HIV protease activity in a cell free system and HIV infection in PBMCs without significant cytotoxicity. Ginkgolic acid may inhibit HIV protease through different mechanisms than current FDA-approved HIV PI drugs. These properties of ginkgolic acid make it a promising therapy for HIV infection, especially as the clinical problem of viral resistance to HIV PIs continues to grow. PMID:22847190

  6. Does fluvastatin favour HCV replication in vivo? A pilot study on HIV-HCV coinfected patients.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, L; Meroni, L; Galazzi, M; Cesari, M; Caramma, I; Marchetti, G; Galli, M; Antinori, S

    2009-07-01

    Fluvastatin showed anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) activity in vitro, through the inhibition of geranylgeranylation of cellular proteins, and a synergistic effect with interferon (IFN)-alpha. Nevertheless statins up-regulate low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, required for HCV cell entry, and the closely related scavenger receptors SRBI and CD36; moreover they reduce class II major histocompatibility complex expression on antigen presenting cell, modulating T-cell activation. In vivo LDL levels have been identified as prognostic indicator of sustained viral response to IFN in patients with HCV infection, suggesting that lipid-lowering agents might conversely favour HCV entry into the hepatocytes and translate into higher viral replication. We evaluated the effect of fluvastatin on HCV-RNA levels, CD36 expression and T-cell homeostasis in HCV-RNA positive patients. HCV-RNA was measured at baseline and after 4 weeks in 42 HCV/HIV-1 co-infected patients, randomized to receive either fluvastatin 80 mg qd or no treatment. CD36 expression and markers of T-cell activation were evaluated by means of flow cytometry. Plasma interleukin (IL)-10, IFN-gamma and IL-7 were measured by ELISA. Serum cholesterol and LDL decreased significantly in the treatment group (P = 0.0001 and 0.01, respectively). Surprisingly a significant increase of HCV-RNA levels was seen after 4 weeks of fluvastatin (P = 0.03). The percentages of naive/activated/apoptotic cells and CD36 expression remained unchanged. Fluvastatin did not inhibit HCV-RNA replication in vivo; conversely we observed a significant increase of HCV-RNA levels. CD36 expression on monocytes were not up-regulated by statins as previously reported in vitro. The correlation between HCV infectivity, oxidized-LDL receptor and statins in HCV infection need further evaluation.

  7. Exosomes in human semen restrict HIV-1 transmission by vaginal cells and block intravaginal replication of LP-BM5 murine AIDS virus complex

    PubMed Central

    Madison, Marisa N.; Jones, Philip H.; Okeoma, Chioma M.

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are membranous extracellular nanovesicles secreted by diverse cell types. Exosomes from healthy human semen have been shown to inhibit HIV-1 replication and to impair progeny virus infectivity. In this study, we examined the ability of healthy human semen exosomes to restrict HIV-1 and LP-BM5 murine AIDS virus transmission in three different model systems. We show that vaginal cells internalize exosomes with concomitant transfer of functional mRNA. Semen exosomes blocked the spread of HIV-1 from vaginal epithelial cells to target cells in our cell-to-cell infection model and suppressed transmission of HIV-1 across the vaginal epithelial barrier in our trans-well model. Our in vivo model shows that human semen exosomes restrict intravaginal transmission and propagation of murine AIDS virus. Our study highlights an antiretroviral role for semen exosomes that may be harnessed for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25880110

  8. Control of HIV-1 replication in vitro by vaccine-induced human CD8(+) T cells through conserved subdominant Pol epitopes.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tina; Borthwick, Nicola J; Gilmour, Jill; Hayes, Peter; Dorrell, Lucy; Hanke, Tomáš

    2016-02-24

    The specificity of CD8(+) T cells is critical for early control of founder/transmitted and reactivated HIV-1. To tackle HIV-1 variability and escape, we designed vaccine immunogen HIVconsv assembled from 14 highly conserved regions of mainly Gag and Pol proteins. When administered to HIV-1-negative human volunteers in trial HIV-CORE 002, HIVconsv vaccines elicited CD8(+) effector T cells which inhibited replication of up to 8 HIV-1 isolates in autologous CD4(+) cells. This inhibition correlated with interferon-γ production in response to Gag and Pol peptide pools, but direct evidence of the inhibitory specificity was missing. Here, we aimed to define through recognition of which epitopes these effectors inhibit HIV-1 replication. CD8(+) T-cells from the 3 broadest HIV-1 inhibitors out of 23 vaccine recipients were expanded in culture by Gag or Pol peptide restimulation and tested in viral inhibition assay (VIA) using HIV-1 clade B and A isolates. Frozen PBMCs were expanded first using peptide pools from Gag or Pol conserved regions and tested on HIV-1-infected cells in VIA or by individual peptides for their effector functions. Single peptide specificities responsible for inhibition of HIV-1 replication were then confirmed by single-peptide expanded effectors tested on HIV-1-infected cells. We formally demonstrated that the vaccine-elicited inhibitory human CD8(+) T cells recognized conserved epitopes of both Pol and Gag proteins. We defined 7 minimum epitopes, of which 3 were novel, presumably naturally subdominant. The effectors were oligofunctional producing several cytokines and chemokines and killing peptide-pulsed target cells. These results implicate the use of functionally conserved regions of Pol in addition to the widely used Gag for T-cell vaccine design. Proportion of volunteers developing these effectors and their frequency in circulating PBMC are separate issues, which can be addressed, if needed, by more efficient vector and regimen delivery of

  9. A motif unique to the human DEAD-box protein DDX3 is important for nucleic acid binding, ATP hydrolysis, RNA/DNA unwinding and HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Garbelli, Anna; Beermann, Sandra; Di Cicco, Giulia; Dietrich, Ursula; Maga, Giovanni

    2011-05-12

    DEAD-box proteins are enzymes endowed with nucleic acid-dependent ATPase, RNA translocase and unwinding activities. The human DEAD-box protein DDX3 has been shown to play important roles in tumor proliferation and viral infections. In particular, DDX3 has been identified as an essential cofactor for HIV-1 replication. Here we characterized a set of DDX3 mutants biochemically with respect to nucleic acid binding, ATPase and helicase activity. In particular, we addressed the functional role of a unique insertion between motifs I and Ia of DDX3 and provide evidence for its implication in nucleic acid binding and HIV-1 replication. We show that human DDX3 lacking this domain binds HIV-1 RNA with lower affinity. Furthermore, a specific peptide ligand for this insertion selected by phage display interferes with HIV-1 replication after transduction into HelaP4 cells. Besides broadening our understanding of the structure-function relationships of this important protein, our results identify a specific domain of DDX3 which may be suited as target for antiviral drugs designed to inhibit cellular cofactors for HIV-1 replication.

  10. HIV-1 Adapts To Replicate in Cells Expressing Common Marmoset APOBEC3G and BST2

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Oliva, Alberto; Finzi, Andrés; Haim, Hillel; Menéndez-Arias, Luis; Sodroski, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previous studies have shown that a major block to HIV-1 replication in common marmosets operates at the level of viral entry and that this block can be overcome by adaptation of the virus in tissue-cultured cells. However, our current studies indicate that HIV-1 encounters additional postentry blocks in common marmoset peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Here, we show that the common marmoset APOBEC3G (A3G) and BST2 proteins block HIV-1 in cell cultures. Using a directed-evolution method that takes advantage of the natural ability of HIV-1 to mutate during replication, we have been able to overcome these blocks in tissue-cultured cells. In the adapted viruses, specific changes were observed in gag, vif, env, and nef. The contribution of these changes to virus replication in the presence of the A3G and BST2 restriction factors was studied. We found that certain amino acid changes in Vif and Env that arise during adaptation to marmoset A3G and BST2 allow the virus to replicate in the presence of these restriction factors. The changes in Vif reduce expression levels and encapsidation of marmoset APOBEC3G, while the changes in Env increase viral fitness and discretely favor cell-to-cell transmission of the virus, allowing viral escape from these restriction factors. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 can infect only humans and chimpanzees. The main reason for this narrow tropism is the presence in many species of dominant-acting factors, known as restriction factors, that block viral replication in a species-specific way. We have been exploring the blocks to HIV-1 in common marmosets, with the ultimate goal of developing a new animal model of HIV-1 infection in these monkeys. In this study, we observed that common marmoset APOBEC3G and BST2, two known restriction factors, are able to block HIV-1 in cell cultures. We have adapted HIV-1 to replicate in the presence of these restriction factors and have characterized the mechanisms of escape. These studies can help in the

  11. Modeling HIV-1 Latency in Primary T Cells Using a Replication-Competent Virus.

    PubMed

    Martins, Laura J; Bonczkowski, Pawel; Spivak, Adam M; De Spiegelaere, Ward; Novis, Camille L; DePaula-Silva, Ana Beatriz; Malatinkova, Eva; Typsteen, Wim; Bosque, Alberto; Vanderkerckhove, Linos; Planelles, Vicente

    2016-02-01

    HIV-1 latently infected cells in vivo can be found in extremely low frequencies. Therefore, in vitro cell culture models have been used extensively for the study of HIV-1 latency. Often, these in vitro systems utilize defective viruses. Defective viruses allow for synchronized infections and circumvent the use of antiretrovirals. In addition, replication-defective viruses cause minimal cytopathicity because they fail to spread and usually do not encode env or accessory genes. On the other hand, replication-competent viruses encode all or most viral genes and better recapitulate the nuances of the viral replication cycle. The study of latency with replication-competent viruses requires the use of antiretroviral drugs in culture, and this mirrors the use of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in vivo. We describe a model that utilizes cultured central memory CD4(+) T cells and replication-competent HIV-1. This method generates latently infected cells that can be reactivated using latency reversing agents in the presence of antiretroviral drugs. We also describe a method for the removal of productively infected cells prior to viral reactivation, which takes advantage of the downregulation of CD4 by HIV-1, and the use of a GFP-encoding virus for increased throughput.

  12. Modeling HIV-1 Latency in Primary T Cells Using a Replication-Competent Virus

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Laura J.; Bonczkowski, Pawel; Spivak, Adam M.; De Spiegelaere, Ward; Novis, Camille L.; DePaula-Silva, Ana Beatriz; Malatinkova, Eva; Typsteen, Wim; Vanderkerckhove, Linos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract HIV-1 latently infected cells in vivo can be found in extremely low frequencies. Therefore, in vitro cell culture models have been used extensively for the study of HIV-1 latency. Often, these in vitro systems utilize defective viruses. Defective viruses allow for synchronized infections and circumvent the use of antiretrovirals. In addition, replication-defective viruses cause minimal cytopathicity because they fail to spread and usually do not encode env or accessory genes. On the other hand, replication-competent viruses encode all or most viral genes and better recapitulate the nuances of the viral replication cycle. The study of latency with replication-competent viruses requires the use of antiretroviral drugs in culture, and this mirrors the use of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in vivo. We describe a model that utilizes cultured central memory CD4+ T cells and replication-competent HIV-1. This method generates latently infected cells that can be reactivated using latency reversing agents in the presence of antiretroviral drugs. We also describe a method for the removal of productively infected cells prior to viral reactivation, which takes advantage of the downregulation of CD4 by HIV-1, and the use of a GFP-encoding virus for increased throughput. PMID:26171776

  13. Potent inhibition of HIV type 1 infection of mononuclear phagocytes by synthetic peptide analogs of HIV type 1 protease substrates.

    PubMed

    Dukes, C S; Matthews, T J; Lambert, D M; Dreyer, G B; Petteway, S R; Weinberg, J B

    1996-06-10

    The HIV-1 genome encodes a protease that is required for viral processing of the precursor polyproteins Pr55gag and Pr160gag-pol. Interference with this process in human lymphocytes inhibits production of infectious virus. We tested the ability of several protease inhibitors to decrease replication of HIV-1BaL in human monocytes and peritoneal macrophages. The compounds tested are oligopeptide analogs of HIV-1 protease substrates in which the scissile dipeptide has been replaced by a hydroxyethylene isostere. The protease inhibitors were added only once, 1 hr prior to inoculation with virus. Every 3-5 days, half the medium was replaced with fresh medium. Inhibition of virus production was assessed by measuring reverse transcriptase (RT) activity in supernatant medium 14 days after infection. The concentration of drug required to inhibit infection by 50% (IC50) in monocytes ranged from 0.17 to 2.99 microM; IC50 values for peritoneal macrophages ranged from 0.21 to 1.9 microM. The IC50 values for these compounds were 1.1- to 10-fold higher when tested in monocytes compared to their inhibitory effect in lymphocytes, although still potently effective in the dosage range that appeared nontoxic to cells. Cell toxicity was seen only at concentrations greater than 10 microM, and varied among the drugs tested. Immunoblot analysis of two of the drugs (SB205700 and SB108922) confirmed inhibition of polyprotein processing. In control cells, 22% of viral protein pr55 was processed to p24 by 24 hr, and 51% was processed by 48 hr. In cells treated with the protease inhibitors (2 microM), Pr55 processing was inhibited 77% at 24 hr and 89% at 48 hr. Thus, these synthetic peptide analogs potently inhibit productive infection of mononuclear phagocytes by HIV-1. Drugs of this class may be useful for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in humans.

  14. P2X1 Receptor Antagonists Inhibit HIV-1 Fusion by Blocking Virus-Coreceptor Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Giroud, Charline; Marin, Mariana; Hammonds, Jason; Spearman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 Env glycoprotein-mediated fusion is initiated upon sequential binding of Env to CD4 and the coreceptor CXCR4 or CCR5. Whereas these interactions are thought to be necessary and sufficient to promote HIV-1 fusion, other host factors can modulate this process. Previous studies reported potent inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by selective P2X1 receptor antagonists, including NF279, and suggested that these receptors play a role in HIV-1 entry. Here we investigated the mechanism of antiviral activity of NF279 and found that this compound does not inhibit HIV-1 fusion by preventing the activation of P2X1 channels but effectively blocks the binding of the virus to CXCR4 or CCR5. The notion of an off-target effect of NF279 on HIV-1 fusion is supported by the lack of detectable expression of P2X1 receptors in cells used in fusion experiments and by the fact that the addition of ATP or the enzymatic depletion of ATP in culture medium does not modulate viral fusion. Importantly, NF279 fails to inhibit HIV-1 fusion with cell lines and primary macrophages when added at an intermediate stage downstream of Env-CD4-coreceptor engagement. Conversely, in the presence of NF279, HIV-1 fusion is arrested downstream of CD4 binding but prior to coreceptor engagement. NF279 also antagonizes the signaling function of CCR5, CXCR4, and another chemokine receptor, as evidenced by the suppression of calcium responses elicited by specific ligands and by recombinant gp120. Collectively, our results demonstrate that NF279 is a dual HIV-1 coreceptor inhibitor that interferes with the functional engagement of CCR5 and CXCR4 by Env. IMPORTANCE Inhibition of P2X receptor activity suppresses HIV-1 fusion and replication, suggesting that P2X signaling is involved in HIV-1 entry. However, mechanistic experiments conducted in this study imply that P2X1 receptor is not expressed in target cells or involved in viral fusion. Instead, we found that inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by a specific P2X1

  15. Potent and highly selective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) inhibition by a series of alpha-anilinophenylacetamide derivatives targeted at HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, R; Andries, K; Debyser, Z; Van Daele, P; Schols, D; Stoffels, P; De Vreese, K; Woestenborghs, R; Vandamme, A M; Janssen, C G

    1993-01-01

    In vitro evaluation of a large chemical library of pharmacologically acceptable prototype compounds in a high-capacity, cellular-based screening system has led to the discovery of another family of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) inhibitors. Through optimization of a lead compound, several alpha-anilinophenylacetamide (alpha-APA) derivatives have been identified that inhibit the replication of several HIV-1 strains (IIIB/LAI, RF, NDK, MN, HE) in a variety of host cell types at concentrations that are 10,000- to 100,000-fold lower than their cytotoxic concentrations. The IC50 of the alpha-APA derivative R 89439 for HIV-1 cytopathicity in MT-4 cells was 13 nM. The median 90% inhibitory concentration (IC90) in a variety of host cells was 50-100 nM. Although these alpha-APA derivatives are active against a tetrahydroimidazo [4,5,1-jk][1,4]benzodiazepin-2(1H)-thione-(TIBO)-resistant HIV-1 strain, they do not inhibit replication of HIV-2 (strains ROD and EHO) or simian immunodeficiency virus (strains Mac251, mndGB1, and agm3). An HIV-1 strain containing the Tyr181-->Cys mutation in the reverse transcriptase region displayed reduced sensitivity. alpha-APA derivative R 89439 inhibited virion and recombinant reverse transcriptase of HIV-1 but did not inhibit that of HIV-2. Reverse transcriptase inhibition depended upon the template/primer used. The relatively uncomplicated synthesis of R 89439, its potent anti-HIV-1 activity, and its favorable pharmacokinetic profile make R 89439 a good candidate for clinical studies. PMID:7680476

  16. Zinc-finger antiviral protein inhibits HIV-1 infection by selectively targeting multiply spliced viral mRNAs for degradation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yiping; Chen, Guifang; Lv, Fengxiang; Wang, Xinlu; Ji, Xin; Xu, Yihui; Sun, Jing; Wu, Li; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Gao, Guangxia

    2011-01-01

    The zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP) was originally identified as a host factor that inhibits the replication of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Here we report that ZAP inhibits HIV-1 infection by promoting the degradation of specific viral mRNAs. Overexpression of ZAP rendered cells resistant to HIV-1 infection in a ZAP expression level-dependent manner, whereas depletion of endogenous ZAP enhanced HIV-1 infection. Both human and rat ZAP inhibited the propagation of replication-competent HIV-1. ZAP specifically targeted the multiply spliced but not unspliced or singly spliced HIV-1 mRNAs for degradation. We provide evidence indicating that ZAP selectively recruits cellular poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN) to shorten the poly(A) tail of target viral mRNA and recruits the RNA exosome to degrade the RNA body from the 3′ end. In addition, ZAP recruits cellular decapping complex through its cofactor RNA helicase p72 to initiate degradation of the target viral mRNA from the 5′ end. Depletion of each of these mRNA degradation enzymes reduced ZAP's activity. Our results indicate that ZAP inhibits HIV-1 by recruiting both the 5′ and 3′ mRNA degradation machinery to specifically promote the degradation of multiply spliced HIV-1 mRNAs. PMID:21876179

  17. Chk1 inhibits replication factory activation but allows dormant origin firing in existing factories

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xin Quan

    2010-01-01

    Replication origins are licensed by loading MCM2-7 hexamers before entry into S phase. However, only ∼10% of licensed origins are normally used in S phase, with the others remaining dormant. When fork progression is inhibited, dormant origins initiate nearby to ensure that all of the DNA is eventually replicated. In apparent contrast, replicative stress activates ataxia telangiectasia and rad-3–related (ATR) and Chk1 checkpoint kinases that inhibit origin firing. In this study, we show that at low levels of replication stress, ATR/Chk1 predominantly suppresses origin initiation by inhibiting the activation of new replication factories, thereby reducing the number of active factories. At the same time, inhibition of replication fork progression allows dormant origins to initiate within existing replication factories. The inhibition of new factory activation by ATR/Chk1 therefore redirects replication toward active factories where forks are inhibited and away from regions that have yet to start replication. This minimizes the deleterious consequences of fork stalling and prevents similar problems from arising in unreplicated regions of the genome. PMID:21173116

  18. HIV-1 does not significantly influence Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Andrew; Horner, Patrick; Wills, Gillian; Ling, Alexandra; Carzaniga, Raffaella; McClure, Myra

    2011-06-01

    Individuals with lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2, are commonly co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), for reasons that remain unknown. One hypothesis is that a biological synergy exists between the two pathogens. We tested this by characterising for the first time in vitro C. trachomatis L2 replication in the presence of HIV-1. The human epithelial cell-line, MAGI P4R5 was infected with C. trachomatis L2 and HIV-1 (MN strain). Co-infected cultures contained fewer and larger chlamydial inclusions, but the inclusions did not contain morphologically aberrant organisms. C. trachomatis remained infectious in the presence of HIV-1 and showed neither an alteration in genome accumulation, nor in the acumulation of ompA, euo or unprocessed 16S rRNA transcripts. However, omcB was slightly elevated. Taken together, these data indicate that HIV-1 co-infection did not significantly alter C. trachomatis replication and the association between HIV-1 and LGV is likely due to other factors that require further investigation. The fewer, larger inclusions observed in co-infected cultures probably result from the fusion of multiple inclusions in HIV-1 induced syncytia and indicate that C. trachomatis-host-cell interactions continue to function, despite considerable host-cell re-modelling. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  19. Platinum nanoparticles induce damage to DNA and inhibit DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Nejdl, Lukas; Kudr, Jiri; Moulick, Amitava; Hegerova, Dagmar; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Gumulec, Jaromir; Cihalova, Kristyna; Smerkova, Kristyna; Dostalova, Simona; Krizkova, Sona; Novotna, Marie; Kopel, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Sparsely tested group of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) may have a comparable effect as complex platinum compounds. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of PtNPs in in vitro amplification of DNA fragment of phage λ, on the bacterial cultures (Staphylococcus aureus), human foreskin fibroblasts and erythrocytes. In vitro synthesized PtNPs were characterized by dynamic light scattering (PtNPs size range 4.8–11.7 nm), zeta potential measurements (-15 mV at pH 7.4), X-ray fluorescence, UV/vis spectrophotometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. The PtNPs inhibited the DNA replication and affected the secondary structure of DNA at higher concentrations, which was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing and DNA denaturation experiments. Further, cisplatin (CisPt), as traditional chemotherapy agent, was used in all parallel experiments. Moreover, the encapsulation of PtNPs in liposomes (LipoPtNPs) caused an approximately 2.4x higher of DNA damage in comparison with CisPt, LipoCisPt and PtNPs. The encapsulation of PtNPs in liposomes also increased their antibacterial, cytostatic and cytotoxic effect, which was determined by the method of growth curves on S. aureus and HFF cells. In addition, both the bare and encapsulated PtNPs caused lower oxidative stress (determined by GSH/GSSG ratio) in the human erythrocytes compared to the bare and encapsulated CisPt. CisPt was used in all parallel experiments as traditional chemotherapy agent. PMID:28704436

  20. Early Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Limits Exposure to HIV-1 Replication and Cell-Associated HIV-1 DNA Levels in Infants

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Margaret; Mick, Eric; Hudson, Richard; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Sullivan, John L.; Somasundaran, Mohan; Luzuriaga, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to measure HIV-1 persistence following combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in infants and children. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) HIV-1 DNA was quantified prior to and after 1 year of cART in 30 children, stratified by time of initiation (early, age <3 months, ET; late, age >3 months-2 years, LT). Pre-therapy PBMC HIV-1 DNA levels correlated with pre-therapy plasma HIV-1 levels (r = 0.59, p<0.001), remaining statistically significant (p = 0.002) after adjustment for prior perinatal antiretroviral exposure and age at cART initiation. PBMC HIV-1 DNA declined significantly after 1 year of cART (Overall: -0.91±0.08 log10 copies per million PBMC, p<0.001; ET: -1.04±0.11 log10 DNA copies per million PBMC, p<0.001; LT: -0.74 ±0.13 log10 DNA copies per million PBMC, p<0.001) but rates of decline did not differ significantly between ET and LT. HIV-1 replication exposure over the first 12 months of cART, estimated as area-under-the-curve (AUC) of circulating plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, was significantly associated with PBMC HIV-1 DNA at one year (r = 0.51, p = 0.004). In 21 children with sustained virologic suppression after 1 year of cART, PBMC HIV-1 DNA levels continued to decline between years 1 and 4 (slope -0.21 log10 DNA copies per million PBMC per year); decline slopes did not differ significantly between ET and LT. PBMC HIV-1 DNA levels at 1 year and 4 years of cART correlated with age at cART initiation (1 year: p = 0.04; 4 years: p = 0.03) and age at virologic control (1 and 4 years, p = 0.02). Altogether, these data indicate that reducing exposure to HIV-1 replication and younger age at cART initiation are associated with lower HIV-1 DNA levels at and after one year of age, supporting the concept that HIV-1 diagnosis and cART initiation in infants should occur as early as possible. PMID:27104621

  1. A lectin isolated from bananas is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Michael D; Winter, Harry C; Goldstein, Irwin J; Markovitz, David M

    2010-03-19

    BanLec is a jacalin-related lectin isolated from the fruit of bananas, Musa acuminata. This lectin binds to high mannose carbohydrate structures, including those found on viruses containing glycosylated envelope proteins such as human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Therefore, we hypothesized that BanLec might inhibit HIV-1 through binding of the glycosylated HIV-1 envelope protein, gp120. We determined that BanLec inhibits primary and laboratory-adapted HIV-1 isolates of different tropisms and subtypes. BanLec possesses potent anti-HIV activity, with IC(50) values in the low nanomolar to picomolar range. The mechanism for BanLec-mediated antiviral activity was investigated by determining if this lectin can directly bind the HIV-1 envelope protein and block entry of the virus into the cell. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed direct binding of BanLec to gp120 and indicated that BanLec can recognize the high mannose structures that are recognized by the monoclonal antibody 2G12. Furthermore, BanLec is able to block HIV-1 cellular entry as indicated by temperature-sensitive viral entry studies and by the decreased levels of the strong-stop product of early reverse transcription seen in the presence of BanLec. Thus, our data indicate that BanLec inhibits HIV-1 infection by binding to the glycosylated viral envelope and blocking cellular entry. The relative anti-HIV activity of BanLec compared favorably to other anti-HIV lectins, such as snowdrop lectin and Griffithsin, and to T-20 and maraviroc, two anti-HIV drugs currently in clinical use. Based on these results, BanLec is a potential component for an anti-viral microbicide that could be used to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV-1.

  2. Prepulse inhibition in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Minassian, Arpi; Henry, Brook L; Woods, Steven Paul; Vaida, Florin; Grant, Igor; Geyer, Mark A; Perry, William

    2013-07-01

    Sensorimotor inhibition, or the ability to filter out excessive or irrelevant information, theoretically supports a variety of higher-level cognitive functions. Impaired inhibition may be associated with increased impulsive and risky behavior in everyday life. Individuals infected with HIV frequently show impairment on tests of neurocognitive function, but sensorimotor inhibition in this population has not been studied and may be a contributor to the profile of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Thirty-seven HIV-infected individuals (15 with HAND) and 48 non-infected comparison subjects were assessed for prepulse inhibition (PPI), an eyeblink startle paradigm measuring sensorimotor gating. Although HIV status alone was not associated with PPI deficits, HIV-positive participants meeting criteria for HAND showed impaired PPI compared to cognitively intact HIV-positive subjects. In HIV-positive subjects, PPI was correlated with working memory but was not associated with antiretroviral therapy or illness factors. In conclusion, sensorimotor disinhibition in HIV accompanies deficits in higher-order cognitive functions, although the causal direction of this relationship requires investigation. Subsequent research on the role of sensorimotor gating on decision-making and risk behaviors in HIV may be indicated.

  3. Prepulse Inhibition in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Minassian, Arpi; Henry, Brook L.; Woods, Steven Paul; Vaida, Florin; Grant, Igor; Geyer, Mark A.; Perry, William

    2013-01-01

    Sensorimotor inhibition, or the ability to filter out excessive or irrelevant information, theoretically supports a variety of higher-level cognitive functions. Impaired inhibition may be associated with increased impulsive and risky behavior in everyday life. Individuals infected with HIV frequently show impairment on tests of neurocognitive function, but sensorimotor inhibition in this population has not been studied and may be a contributor to the profile of HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND). 37 HIV-infected individuals (15 with HAND) and 48 non-infected comparison subjects were assessed for prepulse inhibition (PPI), an eyeblink startle paradigm measuring sensorimotor gating. Although HIV status alone was not associated with PPI deficits, HIV-positive participants meeting criteria for HAND showed impaired PPI compared to cognitively intact HIV-positive subjects. In HIV-positive subjects, PPI was correlated with working memory but was not associated with antiretroviral therapy or illness factors. In conclusion, sensorimotor disinhibition in HIV accompanies deficits in higher-order cognitive functions, though the causal direction of this relationship requires investigation. Subsequent research on the role of sensorimotor gating on decision-making and risk behaviors in HIV may be indicated. PMID:23552464

  4. Tetracycline Inhibits Propagation of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Replication and Alters Membrane Properties

    PubMed Central

    Pato, Martin L.

    1977-01-01

    Tetracycline, at concentrations greater than required for inhibition of protein synthesis, rapidly and completely inhibits replication of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. At these concentrations of tetracycline, synthesis of ribonucleic acid is not appreciably altered. In addition to inhibiting DNA replication, tetracycline causes alterations of the cytoplasmic membrane resulting in leakage of intracellular pools of nucleotides, amino acids, and the non-metabolizable sugar analogue, thiomethylgalactoside. As DNA is synthesized at a site on the membrane, alterations of membrane structure by tetracycline may be responsible for the observed inhibition of DNA replication. PMID:403855

  5. HIV-1 vaccines based on replication-competent Tiantan vaccinia protected Chinese rhesus macaques from simian HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Li, Yue; Luo, Zhenwu; Yang, Guibo; Liu, Yong; Liu, Ying; Sun, Maosheng; Dai, Jiejie; Li, Qihan; Qin, Chuan; Shao, Yiming

    2015-03-27

    To assess the efficacy of HIV vaccines constructed from replication-competent Tiantan vaccinia virus (rTV) alone or combined with DNA in protecting Chinese rhesus macaques from homologous Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (SHIV)-CN97001 challenge. The nef, gag, pol, and gp140 genes from strain CRF07_BC HIV-1 CN54 were selected to construct an HIV vaccine using the rTV or rTV/DNA vaccine. After vaccination, the vaccine and control groups were intravenously challenged with SHIV-CN97001 (32 MID50). HIV-specific antibodies and neutralizing antibodies, gp70 V1V2 binding antibodies, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses were measured prospectively after vaccination with an ELISA, a virus infectivity assay in TZM-bl cells, and ELISPOT assays, respectively. Viral RNA was quantified after challenge with real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR), and protection efficacy was determined with an analysis of CD8 lymphocyte depletion in vivo. Both rTV and DNA/rTV vaccine groups developed strong cellular and humoral responses against HIV-1 CN54 antigens, including Gag and Env, and also developed significant and persistent anti-Env antibodies and neutralizing antibodies after immunization. Both the rTV and DNA/rTV groups were significantly protected against SHIV-CN97001 or displayed lower viremia than the controls. After CD8 lymphocyte depletion, no viremia was detectable in the vaccinated monkeys, but rebounded rapidly in the control animals. Protection against infection correlated with vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies specific for homologous HIV-1 viruses. An rTV-based HIV-1 vaccine, with or without a DNA primer, provided protection from SHIV challenge in a macaque model. Replication-competent Tiantan vaccinia is a promising vector and should enable advances in HIV-1 vaccine development.

  6. No Effect of Raltegravir Intensification on Viral Replication Markers in the Blood of HIV-1-infected Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Coombs, Robert W.; Chan, Ellen S.; Bosch, Ronald J.; Zheng, Lu; Margolis, David M.; Read, Sarah; Kallungal, Beatrice; Chang, Ming; Goecker, Erin A.; Wiegand, Ann; Kearney, Mary; Jacobson, Jeffrey M.; D'Aquila, Richard; Lederman, Michael M.; Mellors, John W.; Eron, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Controversy continues regarding the extent of ongoing viral replication in HIV-1-infected patients on effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). Adding an additional potent agent, such as raltegravir, to effective ART in patients with low-level residual viremia may reveal whether there is ongoing HIV-1 replication. Methods We previously reported the outcome of a randomized, placebo-controlled study of raltegravir intensification in patients on ART with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL that showed no effect on residual viremia measured by single copy assay (SCA). We now report the effects of raltegravir intensification in that trial on other potential measures of ongoing HIV-1 replication: 2-LTR HIV-1 circles, total cellular HIV-1 DNA and T cell activation. Results Of 50 patients tested, 12 (24%) had 2-LTR-circles detected at baseline. Patients who were 2-LTR-positive had higher plasma HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 DNA levels than 2-LTR-negative individuals. At week 12 of raltegravir intensification, there was no change from baseline in 2-LTR circles, in total HIV-1 DNA or in the ratio of 2-LTR circles to total HIV-1 DNA. There was also no change in markers of T cell activation. Conclusions In HIV-1-infected individuals on effective antiretroviral therapy, we find no evidence of ongoing viral replication in the blood that is suppressible by raltegravir intensification. The results imply that raltegravir intensification alone will not eradicate HIV-1 infection. PMID:22083073

  7. Replicating a Teen HIV/STD Preventive Intervention in a Multicultural City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Beadnell, Blair A.; Wilsdon, Anthony; Higa, Darrel; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Casey, Erin A.

    2007-01-01

    Although there are now several adolescent HIV and STD preventive interventions of demonstrated efficacy in the literature, little is understood about the portability of these interventions. This study replicated Stanton's Focus on Kids intervention, developed for inner city African American adolescents, in a different population, transferring it…

  8. Replicating Impact of a Primary School HIV Prevention Programme: Primary School Action for Better Health, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maticka-Tyndale, E.; Mungwete, R.; Jayeoba, O.

    2014-01-01

    School-based programmes to combat the spread of HIV have been demonstrated to be effective over the short-term when delivered on a small scale. The question addressed here is whether results obtained with small-scale delivery are replicable in large-scale roll-out. Primary School Action for Better Health (PSABH), a programme to train teachers to…

  9. Replicating Impact of a Primary School HIV Prevention Programme: Primary School Action for Better Health, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maticka-Tyndale, E.; Mungwete, R.; Jayeoba, O.

    2014-01-01

    School-based programmes to combat the spread of HIV have been demonstrated to be effective over the short-term when delivered on a small scale. The question addressed here is whether results obtained with small-scale delivery are replicable in large-scale roll-out. Primary School Action for Better Health (PSABH), a programme to train teachers to…

  10. Unperturbed Posttranscriptional Regulatory Rev Protein Function and HIV-1 Replication in Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes protect neurons, but also evoke proinflammatory responses to injury and viral infections, including HIV. There is a prevailing notion that HIV-1 Rev protein function in astrocytes is perturbed, leading to restricted viral replication. In earlier studies, our finding of restricted viral entry into astrocytes led us to investigate whether there are any intracellular restrictions, including crippled Rev function, in astrocytes. Despite barely detectable levels of DDX3 (Rev-supporting RNA helicase) and TRBP (anti-PKR) in primary astrocytes compared to astrocytic cells, Rev function was unperturbed in wild-type, but not DDX3-ablated astrocytes. As in permissive cells, after HIV-1 entry bypass in astrocytes, viral-encoded Tat and Rev proteins had robust regulatory activities, leading to efficient viral replication. Productive HIV-1 infection in astrocytes persisted for several weeks. Our findings on HIV-1 entry bypass in astrocytes demonstrated that the intracellular environment is conducive to viral replication and that Tat and Rev functions are unperturbed. PMID:25188302

  11. A small circular TAR RNA decoy specifically inhibits Tat-activated HIV-1 transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Bohjanen, P R; Colvin, R A; Puttaraju, M; Been, M D; Garcia-Blanco, M A

    1996-01-01

    Linear TAR RNA has previously been used as a decoy to inhibit HIV-1 transcription in vitro and HIV-1 replication in vivo. A 48 nucleotide circular RNA containing the stem, bulge and loop of the HIV-1 TAR element was synthesized using the self-splicing activity of a group I permuted intron-exon and was tested for its ability to function as a TAR decoy in vitro. This small circular TAR molecule was exceptionally stable in HeLa nuclear extracts, whereas a similar linear TAR molecule was rapidly degraded. The TAR circle bound specifically to Tfr38, a peptide containing the TAR-binding region of Tat. The ability of Tat to trans-activate transcription from the HIV-1 promoter in vitro was efficiently inhibited by circular TAR RNA but not by TAR circles that contained either bulge or loop mutations. TAR circles did not inhibit transactivation exclusively by binding to Tat since this inhibition was not reversed by adding excess Tat to the transcription reaction. Together, these data suggest that TAR circles act as decoys that inhibit transactivation by binding to Tat and at least one cellular factor. These data also demonstrate the utility of small circular RNA molecules as tools for biochemical studies. PMID:8871552

  12. IL-10-secreting T cells from HIV-infected pregnant women downregulate HIV-1 replication: effect enhanced by antiretroviral treatment.

    PubMed

    Bento, Cleonice A M; Hygino, Joana; Andrade, Regis M; Saramago, Carmen S M; Silva, Renato G; Silva, Agostinho A L; Linhares, Ulisses C; Brindeiro, Rodrigo; Tanuri, Amilcar; Rosenzwajg, Michelle; Klatzmann, David; Andrade, Arnaldo F B

    2009-01-02

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of pregnancy-related immune events on the HIV-1 replication and to analyze their relationship with the risk of vertical transmission. The peripheral blood from HIV-1-infected pregnant women who controlled (G1) or not controlled (G2) their plasma viral load was drawn, and the plasma and the T cells were obtained. The T-cell cultures were activated in vitro with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28, and the proliferation and cytokine production profile were evaluated after 3 days of incubation. The in-vitro HIV-1 replication was measured in culture supernatants in the seventh day following stimulation. The cytokines were also analyzed in the plasma. Our results demonstrated a lower T-cell proliferation and a lower interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma production in polyclonally activated T-cell cultures from G1 patients, when compared with G2. Furthermore, high levels of interleukin-10 were produced both systemically and by activated T-cell cultures from G1 patients. Interestingly, the neutralization of endogenous interleukin-10 by anti-interleukin-10 monoclonal antibody elevated both the inflammatory cytokines' release and the HIV-1 replication in the polyclonally activated T-cell cultures from G1 patients. Additionally, the maternal antiretroviral treatment significantly enhanced the systemic interleukin-10 production. Finally, the higher systemic interleukin-10 levels were inversely correlated with vertical virus transmission risk. These results indicate that a high tendency of pregnant women to produce interleukin-10 can help them control the HIV-1 replication, and this can reduce the risk of vertical transmission. Furthermore, our data suggest a role for maternal antiretroviral treatment in enhancing this phenomenon.

  13. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nuclear import via Vpr-Importin {alpha} interactions as a novel HIV-1 therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Tatsunori; Yamamoto, Norio; Nonaka, Mizuho; Hashimoto, Yoshie; Matsuda, Go; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Matsuyama, Megumi; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Miura, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Kato, Shingo; Aida, Yoko

    2009-03-20

    The development of multidrug-resistant viruses compromises the efficacy of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapy and limits treatment options. Therefore, new targets that can be used to develop novel antiviral agents need to be identified. One such target is the interaction between Vpr, one of the accessory gene products of HIV-1 and Importin {alpha}, which is crucial, not only for the nuclear import of Vpr, but also for HIV-1 replication in macrophages. We have identified a potential parent compound, hematoxylin, which suppresses Vpr-Importin {alpha} interaction, thereby inhibiting HIV-1 replication in a Vpr-dependent manner. Analysis by real-time PCR demonstrated that hematoxylin specifically inhibited nuclear import step of pre-integration complex. Thus, hematoxylin is a new anti-HIV-1 inhibitor that targets the nuclear import of HIV-1 via the Vpr-Importin {alpha} interaction, suggesting that a specific inhibitor of the interaction between viral protein and the cellular factor may provide a new strategy for HIV-1 therapy.

  14. Stimulation of HIV-1 Replication in Immature Dendritic Cells in Contact with Primary CD4 T or B Lymphocytes ▿

    PubMed Central

    Holl, Vincent; Xu, Ke; Peressin, Maryse; Lederle, Alexandre; Biedma, Marina Elizabeth; Delaporte, Maryse; Decoville, Thomas; Schmidt, Sylvie; Laumond, Géraldine; Aubertin, Anne-Marie; Moog, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    Sexual transmission is the major route of HIV-1 infection worldwide. Dendritic cells (DCs) from the mucosal layers are considered to be the initial targets of HIV-1 and probably play a crucial role in HIV-1 transmission. We investigated the role of cell-to-cell contact between HIV-1-exposed immature DCs and various lymphocyte subsets in the stimulation of HIV-1 replication. We found that HIV-1 replication and production in DCs were substantially enhanced by the coculture of DCs with primary CD4 T or nonpermissive B lymphocytes but not with primary activated CD8 T lymphocytes or human transformed CD4 T lymphocytes. Most of the new virions released by cocultures of HIV-1-exposed immature DCs and primary B lymphocytes expressed the DC-specific marker CD1a and were infectious for both immature DCs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Cocultured DCs thus produced large numbers of infectious viral particles under these experimental conditions. The soluble factors present in the supernatants of the cocultures were not sufficient to enhance HIV-1 replication in DCs, for which cell-to-cell contact was required. The neutralizing monoclonal antibody IgG1b12 and polyclonal anti-HIV-1 sera efficiently blocked HIV-1 transfer to CD4 T lymphocytes but did not prevent the increase in viral replication in DCs. Neutralizing antibodies thus proved to be more efficient at blocking HIV-1 transfer than previously thought. Our findings show that HIV-1 exploits DC-lymphocyte cross talk to upregulate replication within the DC reservoir. We provide evidence for a novel mechanism that may facilitate HIV-1 replication and transmission. This mechanism may favor HIV-1 pathogenesis, immune evasion, and persistence. PMID:20147388

  15. Consequences of HLA-B*13-Associated Escape Mutations on HIV-1 Replication and Nef Function

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Aniqa; Olvera, Alex; Anmole, Gursev; Kuang, Xiaomei T.; Cotton, Laura A.; Plana, Montserrat; Brander, Christian; Brockman, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT HLA-B*13 is associated with superior in vivo HIV-1 viremia control. Protection is thought to be mediated by sustained targeting of key cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes and viral fitness costs of CTL escape in Gag although additional factors may contribute. We assessed the impact of 10 published B*13-associated polymorphisms in Gag, Pol, and Nef, in 23 biologically relevant combinations, on HIV-1 replication capacity and Nef-mediated reduction of cell surface CD4 and HLA class I expression. Mutations were engineered into HIV-1NL4.3, and replication capacity was measured using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter T cell line. Nef-mediated CD4 and HLA-A*02 downregulation was assessed by flow cytometry, and T cell recognition of infected target cells was measured via coculture with an HIV-specific luciferase reporter cell line. When tested individually, only Gag-I147L and Gag-I437L incurred replicative costs (5% and 17%, respectively), consistent with prior reports. The Gag-I437L-mediated replication defect was rescued to wild-type levels by the adjacent K436R mutation. A novel B*13 epitope, comprising 8 residues and terminating at Gag147, was identified in p24Gag (GQMVHQAIGag140–147). No other single or combination Gag, Pol, or Nef mutant impaired viral replication. Single Nef mutations did not affect CD4 or HLA downregulation; however, the Nef double mutant E24Q-Q107R showed 40% impairment in HLA downregulation with no evidence of Nef stability defects. Moreover, target cells infected with HIV-1-NefE24Q-Q107R were recognized better by HIV-specific T cells than those infected with HIV-1NL4.3 or single Nef mutants. Our results indicate that CTL escape in Gag and Nef can be functionally costly and suggest that these effects may contribute to long-term HIV-1 control by HLA-B*13. IMPORTANCE Protective effects of HLA-B*13 on HIV-1 disease progression are mediated in part by fitness costs of CTL escape mutations in conserved Gag epitopes, but other

  16. Consequences of HLA-B*13-Associated Escape Mutations on HIV-1 Replication and Nef Function.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Aniqa; Olvera, Alex; Anmole, Gursev; Kuang, Xiaomei T; Cotton, Laura A; Plana, Montserrat; Brander, Christian; Brockman, Mark A; Brumme, Zabrina L

    2015-11-01

    HLA-B*13 is associated with superior in vivo HIV-1 viremia control. Protection is thought to be mediated by sustained targeting of key cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes and viral fitness costs of CTL escape in Gag although additional factors may contribute. We assessed the impact of 10 published B*13-associated polymorphisms in Gag, Pol, and Nef, in 23 biologically relevant combinations, on HIV-1 replication capacity and Nef-mediated reduction of cell surface CD4 and HLA class I expression. Mutations were engineered into HIV-1NL4.3, and replication capacity was measured using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter T cell line. Nef-mediated CD4 and HLA-A*02 downregulation was assessed by flow cytometry, and T cell recognition of infected target cells was measured via coculture with an HIV-specific luciferase reporter cell line. When tested individually, only Gag-I147L and Gag-I437L incurred replicative costs (5% and 17%, respectively), consistent with prior reports. The Gag-I437L-mediated replication defect was rescued to wild-type levels by the adjacent K436R mutation. A novel B*13 epitope, comprising 8 residues and terminating at Gag147, was identified in p24(Gag) (GQMVHQAIGag140-147). No other single or combination Gag, Pol, or Nef mutant impaired viral replication. Single Nef mutations did not affect CD4 or HLA downregulation; however, the Nef double mutant E24Q-Q107R showed 40% impairment in HLA downregulation with no evidence of Nef stability defects. Moreover, target cells infected with HIV-1-NefE24Q-Q107R were recognized better by HIV-specific T cells than those infected with HIV-1NL4.3 or single Nef mutants. Our results indicate that CTL escape in Gag and Nef can be functionally costly and suggest that these effects may contribute to long-term HIV-1 control by HLA-B*13. Protective effects of HLA-B*13 on HIV-1 disease progression are mediated in part by fitness costs of CTL escape mutations in conserved Gag epitopes, but other mechanisms remain

  17. gag, vif, and nef Genes Contribute to the Homologous Viral Interference Induced by a Nonproducer Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Variant: Identification of Novel HIV-1-Inhibiting Viral Protein Mutants

    PubMed Central

    D’Aloja, Paola; Olivetta, Eleonora; Bona, Roberta; Nappi, Filomena; Pedacchia, Daniela; Pugliese, Katherina; Ferrari, Giuliana; Verani, Paola; Federico, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that expression of the nonproducer F12-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variant induces a block in the replication of superinfecting HIV that does not depend on the down-regulation of CD4 HIV receptors. In order to individuate the gene(s) involved in F12-HIV-induced interference, vectors expressing each of the nine F12-HIV proteins were transfected in HIV-susceptible HeLa CD4 cells. Pools of cell clones stably producing each viral protein were infected with HIV-1, and virus release was measured in terms of reverse transcriptase activity in supernatants. We hereby demonstrate that HeLa CD4 cells expressing the F12-HIV gag, vif, or nef gene were resistant, to different degrees, to infection with T-cell-line-adapted HIV-1 strains. Conversely, expression of either the tat, rev, or vpu F12-HIV gene increased the rate of HIV release, and no apparent effects on HIV replication were observed in cells expressing either the F12-HIV vpr, pol, or env gene. No variation of CD4 exposure was detected in any of the uninfected HeLa CD4 pools. These data indicate that F12-HIV homologous viral interference is the consequence of the synergistic anti-HIV effects of Gag, Vif, and Nef proteins. Retrovirus vectors expressing F12-HIV vif or nef allowed us to further establish that the expression of each mutated protein (i) inhibits the replication of clinical HIV-1 isolates as well, (ii) impairs the infectivity of the virus released by cells chronically infected with HIV-1, and (iii) limitedly to F12-HIV Vif protein, induces HIV resistance in both vif-permissive and vif-nonpermissive cells. The levels of action of F12-HIV vif and nef anti-HIV effects were also determined. We observed that HIV virions emerging from the first viral cycle on F12-HIV vif-expressing cells, although released in unaltered amounts, had a strongly reduced ability to initiate the retrotranscription process when they reinfected parental HeLa CD4 cells. Differently, we observed

  18. Broad HIV-1 inhibition in vitro by vaccine-elicited CD8+ T cells in African adults

    PubMed Central

    Mutua, Gaudensia; Farah, Bashir; Langat, Robert; Indangasi, Jackton; Ogola, Simon; Onsembe, Brian; Kopycinski, Jakub T; Hayes, Peter; Borthwick, Nicola J; Ashraf, Ambreen; Dally, Len; Barin, Burc; Tillander, Annika; Gilmour, Jill; De Bont, Jan; Crook, Alison; Hannaman, Drew; Cox, Josephine H; Anzala, Omu; Fast, Patricia E; Reilly, Marie; Chinyenze, Kundai; Jaoko, Walter; Hanke, Tomáš; HIV-CORE 004 study group, the

    2016-01-01

    We are developing a pan-clade HIV-1 T-cell vaccine HIVconsv, which could complement Env vaccines for prophylaxis and be a key to HIV cure. Our strategy focuses vaccine-elicited effector T-cells on functionally and structurally conserved regions (not full-length proteins and not only epitopes) of the HIV-1 proteome, which are common to most global variants and which, if mutated, cause a replicative fitness loss. Our first clinical trial in low risk HIV-1-negative adults in Oxford demonstrated the principle that naturally mostly subdominant epitopes, when taken out of the context of full-length proteins/virus and delivered by potent regimens involving combinations of simian adenovirus and poxvirus modified vaccinia virus Ankara, can induce robust CD8+ T cells of broad specificities and functions capable of inhibiting in vitro HIV-1 replication. Here and for the first time, we tested this strategy in low risk HIV-1-negative adults in Africa. We showed that the vaccines were well tolerated and induced high frequencies of broadly HIVconsv-specific plurifunctional T cells, which inhibited in vitro viruses from four major clades A, B, C, and D. Because sub-Saharan Africa is globally the region most affected by HIV-1/AIDS, trial HIV-CORE 004 represents an important stage in the path toward efficacy evaluation of this highly rational and promising vaccine strategy. PMID:27617268

  19. Perturbation of the P-body component Mov10 inhibits HIV-1 infectivity.

    PubMed

    Furtak, Vyacheslav; Mulky, Alok; Rawlings, Stephen A; Kozhaya, Lina; Lee, KyeongEun; Kewalramani, Vineet N; Unutmaz, Derya

    2010-02-05

    Exogenous retroviruses are obligate cellular parasites that co-opt a number of host proteins and functions to enable their replication and spread. Several host factors that restrict HIV and other retroviral infections have also recently been described. Here we demonstrate that Mov10, a protein associated with P-bodies that has a putative RNA-helicase domain, when overexpressed in cells can inhibit the production of infectious retroviruses. Interestingly, reducing the endogenous Mov10 levels in virus-producing cells through siRNA treatment also modestly suppresses HIV infectivity. The actions of Mov10 are not limited to HIV, however, as ectopic expression of Mov10 restricts the production of other lentiviruses as well as the gammaretrovirus, murine leukemia virus. We found that HIV produced in the presence of high levels of Mov10 is restricted at the pre-reverse transcription stage in target cells. Finally, we show that either helicase mutation or truncation of the C-terminal half of Mov10, where a putative RNA-helicase domain is located, maintained most of its HIV inhibition; whereas removing the N-terminal half of Mov10 completely abolished its activity on HIV. Together these results suggest that Mov10 could be required during the lentiviral lifecycle and that its perturbation disrupts generation of infectious viral particles. Because Mov10 is implicated as part of the P-body complex, these findings point to the potential role of cytoplasmic RNA processing machinery in infectious retroviral production.

  20. A Computational Model of Inhibition of HIV-1 by Interferon-Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Edward P.; Letham, Benjamin; Rudin, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 interferons such as interferon-alpha (IFNα) inhibit replication of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) by upregulating the expression of genes that interfere with specific steps in the viral life cycle. This pathway thus represents a potential target for immune-based therapies that can alter the dynamics of host-virus interactions to benefit the host. To obtain a deeper mechanistic understanding of how IFNα impacts spreading HIV-1 infection, we modeled the interaction of HIV-1 with CD4 T cells and IFNα as a dynamical system. This model was then tested using experimental data from a cell culture model of spreading HIV-1 infection. We found that a model in which IFNα induces reversible cellular states that block both early and late stages of HIV-1 infection, combined with a saturating rate of conversion to these states, was able to successfully fit the experimental dataset. Sensitivity analysis showed that the potency of inhibition by IFNα was particularly dependent on specific network parameters and rate constants. This model will be useful for designing new therapies targeting the IFNα network in HIV-1-infected individuals, as well as potentially serving as a template for understanding the interaction of IFNα with other viruses. PMID:27010978

  1. A Computational Model of Inhibition of HIV-1 by Interferon-Alpha.

    PubMed

    Browne, Edward P; Letham, Benjamin; Rudin, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 interferons such as interferon-alpha (IFNα) inhibit replication of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) by upregulating the expression of genes that interfere with specific steps in the viral life cycle. This pathway thus represents a potential target for immune-based therapies that can alter the dynamics of host-virus interactions to benefit the host. To obtain a deeper mechanistic understanding of how IFNα impacts spreading HIV-1 infection, we modeled the interaction of HIV-1 with CD4 T cells and IFNα as a dynamical system. This model was then tested using experimental data from a cell culture model of spreading HIV-1 infection. We found that a model in which IFNα induces reversible cellular states that block both early and late stages of HIV-1 infection, combined with a saturating rate of conversion to these states, was able to successfully fit the experimental dataset. Sensitivity analysis showed that the potency of inhibition by IFNα was particularly dependent on specific network parameters and rate constants. This model will be useful for designing new therapies targeting the IFNα network in HIV-1-infected individuals, as well as potentially serving as a template for understanding the interaction of IFNα with other viruses.

  2. Stem-loop binding protein is a multifaceted cellular regulator of HIV-1 replication

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Lynne D.; Asara, John M.; Cheruiyot, Collins K.; Lu, Huafei; Wu, Zhijin J.; Newstein, Michael C.; Dooner, Mark S.; Friedman, Jennifer; Lally, Michelle A.; Ramratnam, Bharat

    2016-01-01

    A rare subset of HIV-1–infected individuals is able to maintain plasma viral load (VL) at low levels without antiretroviral treatment. Identifying the mechanisms underlying this atypical response to infection may lead to therapeutic advances for treating HIV-1. Here, we developed a proteomic analysis to compare peripheral blood cell proteomes in 20 HIV-1–infected individuals who maintained either high or low VL with the aim of identifying host factors that impact HIV-1 replication. We determined that the levels of multiple histone proteins were markedly decreased in cohorts of individuals with high VL. This reduction was correlated with lower levels of stem-loop binding protein (SLBP), which is known to control histone metabolism. Depletion of cellular SLBP increased promoter engagement with the chromatin structures of the host gene high mobility group protein A1 (HMGA1) and viral long terminal repeat (LTR), which led to higher levels of HIV-1 genomic integration and proviral transcription. Further, we determined that TNF-α regulates expression of SLBP and observed that plasma TNF-α levels in HIV-1–infected individuals correlated directly with VL levels and inversely with cellular SLBP levels. Our findings identify SLBP as a potentially important cellular regulator of HIV-1, thereby establishing a link between histone metabolism, inflammation, and HIV-1 infection. PMID:27454292

  3. A novel mechanism for inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Skillman, A Geoffrey; Maurer, Karl W; Roe, Diana C; Stauber, Margaret J; Eargle, Dolan; Ewing, Todd J A; Muscate, Angelika; Davioud-Charvet, Elisabeth; Medaglia, Maxine V; Fisher, Robert J; Arnold, Edward; Gao, Hong Qiang; Buckheit, Robert; Boyer, Paul L; Hughes, Stephen H; Kuntz, Irwin D; Kenyon, George L

    2002-12-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic is an important medical problem. Although combination drug regimens have produced dramatic decreases in viral load, current therapies do not provide a cure for HIV infection. We have used structure-based design and combinatorial medicinal chemistry to identify potent and selective HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors that may work by a mechanism distinct from that of current HIV drugs. The most potent of these compounds (compound 4, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 4-hydroxy-7-[[[[5-hydroxy-6-[(4-cinnamylphenyl)azo]-7-sulfo-2-naphthalenyl]amino]carbonyl]amino]-3-[(4-cinnamylphenyl)azo], disodium salt) has an IC(50) of 90 nM for inhibition of polymerase chain extension, a K(d) of 40 nM for inhibition of DNA-RT binding, and an IC(50) of 25-100 nM for inhibition of RNaseH cleavage. The parent compound (1) was as effective against 10 nucleoside and non-nucleoside resistant HIV-1 RT mutants as it was against the wild-type enzyme. Compound 4 inhibited HIV-1 RT and murine leukemia virus (MLV) RT, but it did not inhibit T(4) DNA polymerase, T(7) DNA polymerase, or the Klenow fragment at concentrations up to 200 nM. Finally, compound 4 protected cells from HIV-1 infection at a concentration more than 40 times lower than the concentration at which it caused cellular toxicity.

  4. 3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine inhibits the replication of avian leukosis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J C; Furman, P; Fyfe, J A; Swanstrom, R

    1987-01-01

    We tested the ability of the thymidine analog 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (BWA509U) to inhibit the replication of the retrovirus avian leukosis virus. Inhibition was measured with two different assays: inhibition of a single round of virus replication and inhibition of virus spread through a cell culture. With both assays, we detected inhibition of virus growth, although inhibition of a single round of virus replication required a 40-fold higher drug concentration than did inhibition of virus spread. We also detected variations in the concentrations of drug needed to inhibit virus replication in different cell types. Higher concentrations of drug were needed to inhibit virus replication in chicken embryo fibroblasts than in the continuous quail cell line QT6. Viral DNA synthesis in infected cells was shown to be inhibited in the presence of the drug. The triphosphate form of the analog acted as a competitive inhibitor of purified viral reverse transcriptase, with a Ki of 0.09 +/- 0.003 microM, and was incorporated as a chain terminator during reverse transcription of the natural viral RNA substrate in vitro. Images PMID:2441079

  5. LEDGIN-mediated Inhibition of Integrase-LEDGF/p75 Interaction Reduces Reactivation of Residual Latent HIV.

    PubMed

    Vranckx, Lenard S; Demeulemeester, Jonas; Saleh, Suha; Boll, Annegret; Vansant, Gerlinde; Schrijvers, Rik; Weydert, Caroline; Battivelli, Emilie; Verdin, Eric; Cereseto, Anna; Christ, Frauke; Gijsbers, Rik; Debyser, Zeger

    2016-06-01

    Persistence of latent, replication-competent Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) provirus is the main impediment towards a cure for HIV/AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). Therefore, different therapeutic strategies to eliminate the viral reservoirs are currently being explored. We here propose a novel strategy to reduce the replicating HIV reservoir during primary HIV infection by means of drug-induced retargeting of HIV integration. A novel class of integration inhibitors, referred to as LEDGINs, inhibit the interaction between HIV integrase and the LEDGF/p75 host cofactor, the main determinant of lentiviral integration site selection. We show for the first time that LEDGF/p75 depletion hampers HIV-1 reactivation in cell culture. Next we demonstrate that LEDGINs relocate and retarget HIV integration resulting in a HIV reservoir that is refractory to reactivation by different latency-reversing agents. Taken together, these results support the potential of integrase inhibitors that modulate integration site targeting to reduce the likeliness of viral rebound.

  6. Impact of sustained RNAi-mediated suppression of cellular cofactor Tat-SF1 on HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Green, Victoria A; Arbuthnot, Patrick; Weinberg, Marc S

    2012-11-15

    Conventional anti-HIV drug regimens targeting viral enzymes are plagued by the emergence of drug resistance. There is interest in targeting HIV-dependency factors (HDFs), host proteins that the virus requires for replication, as drugs targeting their function may prove protective. Reporter cell lines provide a rapid and convenient method of identifying putative HDFs, but this approach may lead to misleading results and a failure to detect subtle detrimental effects on cells that result from HDF suppression. Thus, alternative methods for HDF validation are required. Cellular Tat-SF1 has long been ascribed a cofactor role in Tat-dependent transactivation of viral transcription elongation. Here we employ sustained RNAi-mediated suppression of Tat-SF1 to validate its requirement for HIV-1 replication in a CD4+ T cell-derived line and its potential as a therapeutic target. shRNA-mediated suppression of Tat-SF1 reduced HIV-1 replication and infectious particle production from TZM-bl reporter cells. This effect was not a result of increased apoptosis, loss of cell viability or an immune response. To validate its requirement for HIV-1 replication in a more relevant cell line, CD4+ SupT1 cell populations were generated that stably expressed shRNAs. HIV-1 replication was significantly reduced for two weeks (~65%) in cells with depleted Tat-SF1, although the inhibition of viral replication was moderate when compared to SupT1 cells expressing a shRNA targeting the integration cofactor LEDGF/p75. Tat-SF1 suppression was attenuated over time, resulting from decreased shRNA guide strand expression, suggesting that there is a selective pressure to restore Tat-SF1 levels. This study validates Tat-SF1 as an HDF in CD4+ T cell-derived SupT1 cells. However, our findings also suggest that Tat-SF1 is not a critical cofactor required for virus replication and its suppression may affect cell growth. Therefore, this study demonstrates the importance of examining HIV-1 replication kinetics

  7. Role of β-catenin/TCF-4 signaling in HIV replication and pathogenesis: insights to informing novel anti-HIV molecular therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Lisa J; Al-Harthi, Lena

    2011-06-01

    A greater understanding of the interaction between HIV and host signaling pathways that restrict virus production may lead to new methods to purge virus from latent reservoirs and enhance survival/function of cells targeted by HIV. This review highlights the role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a host factor that represses HIV replication in multiple targets, especially those relevant to HIV in the central nervous system.

  8. SJ-3366, a Unique and Highly Potent Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) That Also Inhibits HIV-2

    PubMed Central

    Buckheit, Robert W.; Watson, Karen; Fliakas-Boltz, Valerie; Russell, Julie; Loftus, Tracy L.; Osterling, Mark C.; Turpin, Jim A.; Pallansch, Luke A.; White, E. Lucile; Lee, J.-W.; Lee, S.-H.; Oh, J.-W.; Kwon, H.-S.; Chung, S.-G.; Cho, E.-H.

    2001-01-01

    We have identified and characterized a potent new nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NNRTI) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that also is active against HIV-2 and which interferes with virus replication by two distinct mechanisms. 1-(3-Cyclopenten-1-yl)methyl-6-(3,5-dimethylbenzoyl)-5-ethyl-2,4-pyrimidinedione (SJ-3366) inhibits HIV-1 replication at concentrations of approximately 1 nM, with a therapeutic index of greater than 4 × 106. The efficacy and toxicity of SJ-3366 are consistent when evaluated with established or fresh human cells, and the compound is equipotent against all strains of HIV-1 evaluated, including syncytium-inducing, non-syncytium-inducing, monocyte/macrophage-tropic, and subtype virus strains. Distinct from other members of the pharmacologic class of NNRTIs, SJ-3366 inhibited laboratory and clinical strains of HIV-2 at a concentration of approximately 150 nM, yielding a therapeutic index of approximately 20,000. Like most NNRTIs, the compound was less active when challenged with HIV-1 strains possessing the Y181C, K103N, and Y188C amino acid changes in the RT and selected for a virus with a Y181C amino acid change in the RT after five tissue culture passages in the presence of the compound. In combination anti-HIV assays with nucleoside and nonnucleoside RT and protease inhibitors, additive interactions occurred with all compounds tested with the exception of dideoxyinosine, with which a synergistic interaction was found. Biochemically, SJ-3366 exhibited a Ki value of 3.2 nM, with a mixed mechanism of inhibition against HIV-1 RT, but it did not inhibit HIV-2 RT. SJ-3366 also inhibited the entry of both HIV-1 and HIV-2 into target cells. On the basis of its therapeutic index and multiple mechanisms of anti-HIV action, SJ-3366 represents an exciting new compound for use in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:11158731

  9. Chimpanzee GB virus C and GB virus A E2 envelope glycoproteins contain a peptide motif that inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in human CD4⁺ T-cells.

    PubMed

    McLinden, James H; Stapleton, Jack T; Klinzman, Donna; Murthy, Krishna K; Chang, Qing; Kaufman, Thomas M; Bhattarai, Nirjal; Xiang, Jinhua

    2013-04-01

    GB virus type C (GBV-C) is a lymphotropic virus that can cause persistent infection in humans. GBV-C is not associated with any disease, but is associated with reduced mortality in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. Related viruses have been isolated from chimpanzees (GBV-Ccpz) and from New World primates (GB virus type A, GBV-A). These viruses are also capable of establishing persistent infection. We determined the nucleotide sequence encoding the envelope glycoprotein (E2) of two GBV-Ccpz isolates obtained from the sera of captive chimpanzees. The deduced GBV-Ccpz E2 protein differed from human GBV-C by 31 % at the amino acid level. Similar to human GBV-C E2, expression of GBV-Ccpz E2 in a tet-off human CD4(+) Jurkat T-cell line significantly inhibited the replication of diverse HIV-1 isolates. This anti-HIV-replication effect of GBV-Ccpz E2 protein was reversed by maintaining cells in doxycycline to reduce E2 expression. Previously, we found a 17 aa region within human GBV-C E2 that was sufficient to inhibit HIV-1. Although GBV-Ccpz E2 differed by 3 aa differences in this region, the chimpanzee GBV-C 17mer E2 peptide inhibited HIV-1 replication. Similarly, the GBV-A peptide that aligns with this GBV-C E2 region inhibited HIV-1 replication despite sharing only 5 aa with the human GBV-C E2 sequence. Thus, despite amino acid differences, the peptide region on both the GBV-Ccpz and the GBV-A E2 protein inhibit HIV-1 replication similar to human GBV-C. Consequently, GBV-Ccpz or GBV-A infection of non-human primates may provide an animal model to study GB virus-HIV interactions.

  10. Hydroxyurea inhibits the transactivation of the HIV-long-terminal repeat (LTR) promoter

    PubMed Central

    Calzado, M A; Macho, A; Lucena, C; Muñoz, E

    2000-01-01

    HIV-1 gene expression is regulated by the promoter/enhancer located within the U3 region of the proviral 5′ LTR that contains multiple potential cis-acting regulatory sites. Here we describe that the inhibitor of the cellular ribonucleoside reductase, hydroxyurea (HU), inhibited phorbol myristate acetate- or tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced HIV-1-LTR transactivation in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells in a dose-dependent manner within the first 6 h of treatment, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0·5 mm. This inhibition was found to be specific for the HIV-1-LTR since transactivation of either an AP-1-dependent promoter or the CD69 gene promoter was not affected by the presence of HU. Moreover, gel-shift assays in 5.1 cells showed that HU prevented the binding of the NF-κB to the κB sites located in the HIV-1-LTR region, but it did not affect the binding of both the AP-1 and the Sp-1 transcription factors. By Western blots and cell cycle analyses we detected that HU induced a rapid dephosphorylation of the pRB, the product of the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor gene, and the cell cycle arrest was evident after 24 h of treatment. Thus, HU inhibits HIV-1 promoter activity by a novel pathway that implies an inhibition of the NF-κB binding to the LTR promoter. The present study suggests that HU may be useful as a potential therapeutic approach for inhibition of HIV-1 replication through different pathways. PMID:10792382

  11. Inhibition of HIV-1 by fusion inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Eggink, Dirk; Berkhout, Ben; Sanders, Rogier W

    2010-01-01

    The envelope glycoprotein complex (Env) is responsible for entry of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into cells by mediating attachment to target cells and subsequent membrane fusion. Env consists of three gp120 subunits that mediate receptor and co-receptor attachment and three gp41 subunits responsible for membrane fusion. Several steps of the entry process can serve as drug targets. Receptor antagonists prevent attachment of gp120 to the receptor or co-receptor and conformational changes within gp41 required for membrane fusion can be inhibited by fusion inhibitors. Enfuvirtide (T20, Fuzeon) is a peptide based on the gp41 sequence and is the only approved fusion inhibitor. It prevents membrane fusion by competitively binding to gp41 and blocking the formation of the post-fusion structure. New generations of T20-like peptides have been developed with improved potency and stability. Besides T20 and derivatives, other fusion inhibitors have been developed that target different domains of gp41. Here we discuss the development of fusion inhibitors, their mode of action and their potential for incorporation in future drug regimens.

  12. HIV-1 Nef Is Transferred from Expressing T Cells to Hepatocytic Cells through Conduits and Enhances HCV Replication

    PubMed Central

    Park, In-Woo; Fan, Yan; Luo, Xiaoyu; Ryou, Myoung-Gwi; Liu, Jinfeng; Green, Linden; He, Johnny J.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 infection enhances HCV replication and as a consequence accelerates HCV-mediated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the precise molecular mechanism by which this takes place is currently unknown. Our data showed that infectious HIV-1 failed to replicate in human hepatocytic cell lines. No discernible virus replication was observed, even when the cell lines transfected with HIV-1 proviral DNA were co-cultured with Jurkat T cells, indicating that the problem of liver deterioration in the co-infected patient is not due to the replication of HIV-1 in the hepatocytes of the HCV infected host. Instead, HIV-1 Nef protein was transferred from nef-expressing T cells to hepatocytic cells through conduits, wherein up to 16% (average 10%) of the cells harbored the transferred Nef, when the hepatocytic cells were co-cultured with nef-expressing Jurkat cells for 24 h. Further, Nef altered the size and numbers of lipid droplets (LD), and consistently up-regulated HCV replication by 1.5∼2.5 fold in the target subgenomic replicon cells, which is remarkable in relation to the initially indolent viral replication. Nef also dramatically augmented reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and enhanced ethanol-mediated up-regulation of HCV replication so as to accelerate HCC. Taken together, these data indicate that HIV-1 Nef is a critical element in accelerating progression of liver pathogenesis via enhancing HCV replication and coordinating modulation of key intra- and extra-cellular molecules for liver decay. PMID:24911518

  13. Efficient HIV-1 replication can occur in the absence of the viral matrix protein.

    PubMed Central

    Reil, H; Bukovsky, A A; Gelderblom, H R; Göttlinger, H G

    1998-01-01

    Matrix (MA), a major structural protein of retroviruses, is thought to play a critical role in several steps of the HIV-1 replication cycle, including the plasma membrane targeting of Gag, the incorporation of envelope (Env) glycoproteins into nascent particles, and the nuclear import of the viral genome in non-dividing cells. We now show that the entire MA protein is dispensable for the incorporation of HIV-1 Env glycoproteins with a shortened cytoplasmic domain. Furthermore, efficient HIV-1 replication in the absence of up to 90% of MA was observed in a cell line in which the cytoplasmic domain of Env is not required. Additional compensatory changes in Gag permitted efficient virus replication even if all of MA was replaced by a heterologous membrane targeting signal. Viruses which lacked the globular domain of MA but retained its N-terminal myristyl anchor exhibited an increased ability to form both extracellular and intracellular virus particles, consistent with a myristyl switch model of Gag membrane targeting. Pseudotyped HIV-1 particles that lacked the structurally conserved globular head of MA efficiently infected macrophages, indicating that MA is dispensable for nuclear import in terminally differentiated cells. PMID:9564051

  14. Efficient HIV-1 replication can occur in the absence of the viral matrix protein.

    PubMed

    Reil, H; Bukovsky, A A; Gelderblom, H R; Göttlinger, H G

    1998-05-01

    Matrix (MA), a major structural protein of retroviruses, is thought to play a critical role in several steps of the HIV-1 replication cycle, including the plasma membrane targeting of Gag, the incorporation of envelope (Env) glycoproteins into nascent particles, and the nuclear import of the viral genome in non-dividing cells. We now show that the entire MA protein is dispensable for the incorporation of HIV-1 Env glycoproteins with a shortened cytoplasmic domain. Furthermore, efficient HIV-1 replication in the absence of up to 90% of MA was observed in a cell line in which the cytoplasmic domain of Env is not required. Additional compensatory changes in Gag permitted efficient virus replication even if all of MA was replaced by a heterologous membrane targeting signal. Viruses which lacked the globular domain of MA but retained its N-terminal myristyl anchor exhibited an increased ability to form both extracellular and intracellular virus particles, consistent with a myristyl switch model of Gag membrane targeting. Pseudotyped HIV-1 particles that lacked the structurally conserved globular head of MA efficiently infected macrophages, indicating that MA is dispensable for nuclear import in terminally differentiated cells.

  15. Host cell factors in HIV replication: meta-analysis of genome-wide studies.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Frederic D; Malani, Nirav; Fernandes, Jason; D'Orso, Iván; Cagney, Gerard; Diamond, Tracy L; Zhou, Honglin; Hazuda, Daria J; Espeseth, Amy S; König, Renate; Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Ideker, Trey; Goff, Stephen P; Krogan, Nevan J; Frankel, Alan D; Young, John A T; Chanda, Sumit K

    2009-05-01

    We have analyzed host cell genes linked to HIV replication that were identified in nine genome-wide studies, including three independent siRNA screens. Overlaps among the siRNA screens were very modest (<7% for any pairwise combination), and similarly, only modest overlaps were seen in pairwise comparisons with other types of genome-wide studies. Combining all genes from the genome-wide studies together with genes reported in the literature to affect HIV yields 2,410 protein-coding genes, or fully 9.5% of all human genes (though of course some of these are false positive calls). Here we report an "encyclopedia" of all overlaps between studies (available at http://www.hostpathogen.org), which yielded a more extensively corroborated set of host factors assisting HIV replication. We used these genes to calculate refined networks that specify cellular subsystems recruited by HIV to assist in replication, and present additional analysis specifying host cell genes that are attractive as potential therapeutic targets.

  16. Phospholipase D1 Couples CD4+ T Cell Activation to c-Myc-Dependent Deoxyribonucleotide Pool Expansion and HIV-1 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Harry E.; Simmons, Glenn E.; Mathews, Thomas P.; Khatua, Atanu K.; Popik, Waldemar; Lindsley, Craig W.; D’Aquila, Richard T.; Brown, H. Alex

    2015-01-01

    Quiescent CD4+ T cells restrict human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection at early steps of virus replication. Low levels of both deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) and the biosynthetic enzymes required for their de novo synthesis provide one barrier to infection. CD4+ T cell activation induces metabolic reprogramming that reverses this block and facilitates HIV-1 replication. Here, we show that phospholipase D1 (PLD1) links T cell activation signals to increased HIV-1 permissivity by triggering a c-Myc-dependent transcriptional program that coordinates glucose uptake and nucleotide biosynthesis. Decreasing PLD1 activity pharmacologically or by RNA interference diminished c-Myc-dependent expression during T cell activation at the RNA and protein levels. PLD1 inhibition of HIV-1 infection was partially rescued by adding exogenous deoxyribonucleosides that bypass the need for de novo dNTP synthesis. Moreover, the data indicate that low dNTP levels that impact HIV-1 restriction involve decreased synthesis, and not only increased catabolism of these nucleotides. These findings uncover a unique mechanism of action for PLD1 inhibitors and support their further development as part of a therapeutic combination for HIV-1 and other viral infections dependent on host nucleotide biosynthesis. PMID:26020637

  17. AR-12 Inhibits Multiple Chaperones Concomitant With Stimulating Autophagosome Formation Collectively Preventing Virus Replication.

    PubMed

    Booth, Laurence; Roberts, Jane L; Ecroyd, Heath; Tritsch, Sarah R; Bavari, Sina; Reid, St Patrick; Proniuk, Stefan; Zukiwski, Alexander; Jacob, Abraham; Sepúlveda, Claudia S; Giovannoni, Federico; García, Cybele C; Damonte, Elsa; González-Gallego, Javier; Tuñón, María J; Dent, Paul

    2016-10-01

    We have recently demonstrated that AR-12 (OSU-03012) reduces the function and ATPase activities of multiple HSP90 and HSP70 family chaperones. Combined knock down of chaperones or AR-12 treatment acted to reduce the expression of virus receptors and essential glucosidase proteins. Combined knock down of chaperones or AR-12 treatment inactivated mTOR and elevated ATG13 S318 phosphorylation concomitant with inducing an endoplasmic reticulum stress response that in an eIF2α-dependent fashion increased Beclin1 and LC3 expression and autophagosome formation. Over-expression of chaperones prevented the reduction in receptor/glucosidase expression, mTOR inactivation, the ER stress response, and autophagosome formation. AR-12 reduced the reproduction of viruses including Mumps, Influenza, Measles, Junín, Rubella, HIV (wild type and protease resistant), and Ebola, an effect replicated by knock down of multiple chaperone proteins. AR-12-stimulated the co-localization of Influenza, EBV and HIV virus proteins with LC3 in autophagosomes and reduced viral protein association with the chaperones HSP90, HSP70, and GRP78. Knock down of Beclin1 suppressed drug-induced autophagosome formation and reduced the anti-viral protection afforded by AR-12. In an animal model of hemorrhagic fever virus, a transient exposure of animals to low doses of AR-12 doubled animal survival from ∼30% to ∼60% and suppressed liver damage as measured by ATL, GGT and LDH release. Thus through inhibition of chaperone protein functions; reducing the production, stability and processing of viral proteins; and stimulating autophagosome formation/viral protein degradation, AR-12 acts as a broad-specificity anti-viral drug in vitro and in vivo. We argue future patient studies with AR-12 are warranted. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2286-2302, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Interference of replication between hepatitis B and C viruses in patients infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rong-Rong; Gui, Xien; Chen, Xue-Yuan; Zhu, Ying

    2011-07-01

    The clinical and cellular interactions between hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) were investigated in patients co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). One hundred ninety-nine patients followed for 6 years were evaluated to compare the level of HBV DNA and HCV RNA in patients co-infected with HIV and HBV, and patients co-infected with HIV, HBV, and HCV. A full-length HBV genome and HCV JFH1 RNA were co-transfected into HuH-7.5.1 cells in vitro to examine the impact of co-infection and dependence on the HBV PreC mutant for replication interference. Before 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) was initiated, HBV DNA was found in 56/123 (45.4%) patients co-infected with HIV and HBV, and in 19/76 (25.0%) patients co-infected with HIV, HBV, and HCV. After 3TC-based ART was initiated, detectable HBV DNA decreased to 7/76 (9.2%) in patients co-infected with HIV, HBV, and HCV, but HCV RNA increased from 43/76 (56.6%) to 60/76 (78.9%) (P = 0.003). In vitro HBV and HCV co-infection led to decreased replication of both viruses. The primary factors that influenced the decreased replication were the order of the HBV and HCV infection and the HBV PreC mutation.

  19. Modulation of HCV Replication After Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in HCV/HIV Coinfected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Kenneth E.; Guedj, Jeremie; Shata, Mohamed Tarek; Blackard, Jason T.; Rouster, Susan D.; Castro, Mario; Feinberg, Judith; Sterling, Richard K.; Goodman, Zachary; Aronow, Bruce J.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Coinfection results in increased HCV replication and more rapid rates of liver disease progression. The effect of HIV combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on HCV replication has not been studied in depth. To address this issue, we enrolled a small cohort of HCV/HIV coinfected patients into a cART initiation trial, and used dynamic modeling combined with evaluation of immune responses and microarray profiles to determine how effective treatment of HIV affects HCV. Treatment with cART resulted in HCV flare and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increase (2× or more increase from baseline) in a subset of treated patients. Subjects with evidence of hepatic injury (increased ALT) were more likely to have HCV-specific immune responses directed against HCV epitopes. Over time, HCV viral loads declined. Reproducible and biologically important gene expression changes occurred in patients who underwent successful cART, particularly with respect to downregulation of genes with known antiviral roles. Our findings suggest that the effective suppression of HIV by cART initiates a cascade of early and late events in treated patients with HCV. Early events involving downregulation of interferon-stimulated genes may lead to transiently increased viral replication and hepatic injury. At later time points, HCV viral load declines to levels comparable to those seen in the setting of HCV monoinfection. These findings support early antiretroviral therapy in those with HCV/HIV coinfection. PMID:25101888

  20. Replication of CMV in the gut of HIV-infected individuals and epithelial barrier dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Somsouk, Ma; Hunt, Peter W.

    2017-01-01

    Although invasive cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is uncommon in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART), asymptomatic CMV coinfection is nearly ubiquitous in HIV infected individuals. While microbial translocation and gut epithelial barrier dysfunction may promote persistent immune activation in treated HIV infection, potentially contributing to morbidity and mortality, it has been unclear whether CMV replication in individuals with no symptoms of CMV disease might play a role in this process. We hypothesized that persistent CMV replication in the intestinal epithelium of HIV/CMV-coinfected individuals impairs gut epithelial barrier function. Using a combination of state-of-the-art in situ hybridization technology (RNAscope) and immunohistochemistry, we detected CMV DNA and proteins and evidence of intestinal damage in rectosigmoid samples from CMV-positive individuals with both untreated and ART-suppressed HIV infection. Two different model systems, primary human intestinal cells differentiated in vitro to form polarized monolayers and a humanized mouse model of human gut, together demonstrated that intestinal epithelial cells are fully permissive to CMV replication. Independent of HIV, CMV disrupted tight junctions of polarized intestinal cells, significantly reducing transepithelial electrical resistance, a measure of monolayer integrity, and enhancing transepithelial permeability. The effect of CMV infection on the intestinal epithelium is mediated, at least in part, by the CMV-induced proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. Furthermore, letermovir, a novel anti-CMV drug, dampened the effects of CMV on the epithelium. Together, our data strongly suggest that CMV can disrupt epithelial junctions, leading to bacterial translocation and chronic inflammation in the gut and that CMV could serve as a target for therapeutic intervention to prevent or treat gut epithelial barrier dysfunction during HIV infection. PMID:28241080

  1. Nurses' knowledge, attitudes about HIV, AIDS. A replication study.

    PubMed

    Reeder, J M; Hamblet, J L; Killen, A R; King, C A; Uruburu, A

    1994-02-01

    The AIDS epidemic is now in its second decade and shows no sign of relenting. Unfortunately, however, the AORN study shows that perioperative nurses' knowledge regarding HIV and AIDS is not adequate to enable them to provide patient care while maintaining safe practices. Focused educational programs should be made available to perioperative nurses to help them apply universal precautions and OSHA standards to everyday practice. Perioperative nurses must become knowledgeable about the disease and sensitive to the needs of patients who have this illness. All nurses have a special obligation to care for all patients; education and management strategies that enable exploration of values, fears, and prejudices will help nurses understand their own beliefs and those of other individuals. Recommendations from this study may be viewed as a starting point for this perioperative education.

  2. Subtype-associated differences in HIV-1 reverse transcription affect the viral replication.

    PubMed

    Iordanskiy, Sergey; Waltke, Mackenzie; Feng, Yanjun; Wood, Charles

    2010-10-12

    The impact of the products of the pol gene, specifically, reverse transcriptase (RT) on HIV-1 replication, evolution, and acquisition of drug resistance has been thoroughly characterized for subtype B. For subtype C, which accounts of almost 60% of HIV cases worldwide, much less is known. It has been reported that subtype C HIV-1 isolates have a lower replication capacity than B; however, the basis of these differences remains unclear. We analyzed the impact of the pol gene products from HIV-1 B and C subtypes on the maturation of HIV virions, accumulation of reverse transcription products, integration of viral DNA, frequency of point mutations in provirus and overall viral replication. Recombinant HIV-1 viruses of B and C subtypes comprising the pol fragments encoding protease, integrase and either the whole RT or a chimeric RT from different isolates of the C and B subtypes, were used for infection of cells expressing CXCR4 or CCR5 co-receptors. The viruses carrying different fragments of pol from the isolates of B and C subtypes did not reveal differences in Gag and GagPol processing and viral RNA incorporation into the virions. However, the presence of the whole RT from subtype C, or the chimeric RT containing either the polymerase or the connection and RNase H domains from C isolates, caused significantly slower viral replication regardless of B or C viral backbone. Subtype C RT carrying viruses displayed lower levels of accumulation of strong-stop cDNA in permeabilized virions during endogenous reverse transcription, and decreased accumulation of both strong-stop and positive strand reverse transcription products in infected cells and in isolated reverse transcription complexes. This decreased accumulation correlated with lower levels of viral DNA integration in cells infected with viruses carrying the whole RT or RT domains from subtype C isolates. The single viral genome assay analysis did not reveal significant differences in the frequency of point

  3. Slower uncoating is associated with impaired replicative capability of simian-tropic HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Kono, Ken; Takeda, Eri; Tsutsui, Hiromi; Kuroishi, Ayumu; Hulme, Amy E; Hope, Thomas J; Nakayama, Emi E; Shioda, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) productively infects only humans and chimpanzees, but not Old World monkeys, such as rhesus and cynomolgus (CM) monkeys. To establish a monkey model of HIV-1/AIDS, several HIV-1 derivatives have been constructed. We previously generated a simian-tropic HIV-1 that replicates efficiently in CM cells. This virus encodes a capsid protein (CA) with SIVmac239-derived loops between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5) and between α-helices 6 and 7 (L6/7), along with the entire vif from SIVmac239 (NL-4/5S6/7SvifS). These SIVmac239-derived sequences were expected to protect the virus from HIV-1 restriction factors in monkey cells. However, the replicative capability of NL-4/5S6/7SvifS in human cells was severely impaired. By long-term cultivation of human CEM-SS cells infected with NL-4/5S6/7SvifS, we succeeded in partially rescuing the impaired replicative capability of the virus in human cells. This adapted virus encoded a G-to-E substitution at the 116(th) position of the CA (NL-4/5SG116E6/7SvifS). In the work described here, we explored the mechanism by which the replicative capability of NL-4/5S6/7SvifS was impaired in human cells. Quantitative analysis (by real-time PCR) of viral DNA synthesis from infected cells revealed that NL-4/5S6/7SvifS had a major defect in nuclear entry. Mutations in CA are known to affect viral core stability and result in deleterious effects in HIV-1 infection; therefore, we measured the kinetics of uncoating of these viruses. The uncoating of NL-4/5S6/7SvifS was significantly slower than that of wild type HIV-1 (WT), whereas the uncoating of NL-4/5SG116E6/7SvifS was similar to that of WT. Our results suggested that the lower replicative capability of NL-4/5S6/7SvifS in human cells was, at least in part, due to the slower uncoating of this virus.

  4. Optimized Replicating Renilla Luciferase Reporter HIV-1 Utilizing Novel Internal Ribosome Entry Site Elements for Native Nef Expression and Function.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Michael O; Jones, Jennifer J; Miglietta, Riccardo; Ding, Haitao; Bakshi, Rakesh K; Edmonds, Tara G; Kappes, John C; Ochsenbauer, Christina

    2015-12-01

    We previously developed replication-competent reporter HIV-1 (referred to herein as LucR.T2A reporter viruses), utilizing a "ribosome skipping" T2A peptide strategy to link Renilla luciferase (LucR) with Nef expression. The demonstrated utility for HIV-1 vaccine and transmission study applications included measurement of neutralizing antibody (NAb) activity in vaccine sera, improved cell-mediated virus inhibition assays, such as T cell-mediated virus inhibition and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays, and humanized mouse models. Herein, we extend our prior work and introduce reporter virus technology for applications that require fully functional Nef. We demonstrate that in CD4(+) T cells productively infected with LucR.T2A reporter viruses, T2A peptide-driven Nef expression and function, such as down-regulation of surface CD4 and MHC-I, were impaired. We overcame this limitation of LucR.T2A reporter viruses and achieved physiological Nef expression and function by engineering novel LucR reporter HIV-1 comprising 11 different internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements chosen for size and relative activity. A range of Nef expression was observed in 293T cells transfected with the different LucR.IRES reporter virus constructs. Iteratively, we identified IRES reporter genomes that expressed Nef closest to physiological levels and produced virus with infectivity, titers, and replication kinetics similar to nonreporter viruses. Our results demonstrated that LucR reporter activity was stable over multiple replication cycles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Furthermore, we analyzed Nef functionality, i.e., down-modulation of MHC-I and CD4, following infection of T cell lines and PBMCs. Unlike LucR.T2A reporter virus, one of the redesigned LucR.IRES reporter viruses [containing the modified encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) 6ATR IRES element, "6ATRi"] demonstrated Nef expression and function similar to parental "nonreporter" virus

  5. Inhibition of Sterol Biosynthesis Reduces Tombusvirus Replication in Yeast and Plants▿

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Monika; Sasvari, Zsuzsanna; Nagy, Peter D.

    2010-01-01

    The replication of plus-strand RNA viruses depends on subcellular membranes. Recent genome-wide screens have revealed that the sterol biosynthesis genes ERG25 and ERG4 affected the replication of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) in a yeast model host. To further our understanding of the role of sterols in TBSV replication, we demonstrate that the downregulation of ERG25 or the inhibition of the activity of Erg25p with an inhibitor (6-amino-2-n-pentylthiobenzothiazole; APB) leads to a 3- to 5-fold reduction in TBSV replication in yeast. In addition, the sterol biosynthesis inhibitor lovastatin reduced TBSV replication by 4-fold, confirming the importance of sterols in viral replication. We also show reduced stability for the p92pol viral replication protein as well as a decrease in the in vitro activity of the tombusvirus replicase when isolated from APB-treated yeast. Moreover, APB treatment inhibits TBSV RNA accumulation in plant protoplasts and in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. The inhibitory effect of APB on TBSV replication can be complemented by exogenous stigmasterol, the main plant sterol, suggesting that sterols are required for TBSV replication. The silencing of SMO1 and SMO2 genes, which are orthologs of ERG25, in N. benthamiana reduced TBSV RNA accumulation but had a lesser inhibitory effect on the unrelated Tobacco mosaic virus, suggesting that various viruses show different levels of dependence on sterol biosynthesis for their replication. PMID:20015981

  6. Characterization of a Replication-Competent, Integrase-Defective Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Simian Virus 40 Chimera as a Powerful Tool for the Discovery and Validation of HIV Integrase Inhibitors▿

    PubMed Central

    Daelemans, Dirk; Lu, Richard; De Clercq, Erik; Engelman, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Integrase is actively studied as an antiviral target, but many inhibitors selected from biochemical screens fail to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication or primarily affect off-site targets. Here we develop and validate a replication-competent, simian virus 40-HIV integrase mutant chimera as a novel tool to classify the mechanism of action of potential integrase inhibitors. Whereas the mutant was more susceptible than the wild type to entry, reverse transcriptase, and protease inhibitors, it specifically resisted the action of integrase inhibitor L-870,810. We furthermore demonstrate inhibition of integration by GS-9137 and GS-9160 and off-site targeting by the 6-aminoquinolone antibiotic WM-5. PMID:17287285

  7. Inhibition of HIV-1 by curcumin A, a novel curcumin analog

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Namita; Kulkarni, Amol A; Lin, Xionghao; McLean, Charlee; Ammosova, Tatiana; Ivanov, Andrey; Hipolito, Maria; Nekhai, Sergei; Nwulia, Evaristus

    2015-01-01

    Despite the remarkable success of combination antiretroviral therapy at curtailing HIV progression, emergence of drug-resistant viruses, chronic low-grade inflammation, and adverse effects of combination antiretroviral therapy treatments, including metabolic disorders collectively present the impetus for development of newer and safer antiretroviral drugs. Curcumin, a phytochemical compound, was previously reported to have some in vitro anti-HIV and anti-inflammatory activities, but poor bioavailability has limited its clinical utility. To circumvent the bioavailability problem, we derivatized curcumin to sustain retro-aldol decomposition at physiological pH. The lead compound derived, curcumin A, showed increased stability, especially in murine serum where it was stable for up to 25 hours, as compared to curcumin that only had a half-life of 10 hours. Both curcumin and curcumin A showed similar inhibition of one round of HIV-1 infection in cultured lymphoblastoid (also called CEM) T cells (IC50=0.7 μM). But in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells, curcumin A inhibited HIV-1 more potently (IC50=2 μM) compared to curcumin (IC50=12 μM). Analysis of specific steps of HIV-1 replication showed that curcumin A inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcription, but had no effect on HIV-1 long terminal repeat basal or Tat-induced transcription, or NF-κB-driven transcription at low concentrations that affected reverse transcription. Finally, we showed curcumin A induced expression of HO-1 and decreased cell cycle progression of T cells. Our findings thus indicate that altering the core structure of curcumin could yield more stable compounds with potent antiretroviral and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26366056

  8. XTT formazan widely used to detect cell viability inhibits HIV type 1 infection in vitro by targeting gp41.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Ernst, Justin T; Hamilton, Andrew D; Debnath, Asim K; Jiang, Shibo

    2002-09-20

    XTT can be metabolically reduced by mitochondrial dehydrogenase in viable cells to a water-soluble formazan product. Thus XTT has been widely used to evaluate cell viability and to screen anti-HIV agents and the cytotoxicity of these agents. The present studies demonstrated that XTT formazan derived from XTT in cell culture significantly inhibits the fusion of HIV-1-infected cells with uninfected cells. Synthetic XTT formazan effectively inhibited the replication of laboratory-adapted and primary HIV-1 isolates and cell-to-cell fusion with low cytotoxicity. It blocks the six-helix bundle formation between peptides derived from the N- and C-terminal heptad repeat regions of the gp41 ectodomain (designated N- and C-peptides, respectively). Analysis by a computer-aided docking program indicates that XTT formazan may bind to the highly conserved hydrophobic pocket on the surface of the central trimeric coiled coil of gp41. These results suggest that XTT formazan inhibits HIV-1 entry by targeting the alpha-helical coiled-coil domain of gp41. This small molecular nonpeptide antiviral compound can be used as a lead for designing more effective HIV-1 entry inhibitors targeting the fusion stage of HIV-1 infection. But because XTT formazan itself has anti-HIV-1 activity, caution should be exercised when XTT is used to evaluate HIV-1 infectivity.

  9. The interaction of RNA helicase DDX3 with HIV-1 Rev-CRM1-RanGTP complex during the HIV replication cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Mahboobi, Seyed Hanif; Javanpour, Alex A.; Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    2015-02-27

    Molecular traffic between the nucleus and the cytoplasm is regulated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC), which acts as a highly selective channel perforating the nuclear envelope in eukaryotic cells. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exploits the nucleocytoplasmic pathway to export its RNA transcripts across the NPC to the cytoplasm. Despite extensive study on the HIV life cycle and the many drugs developed to target this cycle, no current drugs have been successful in targeting the critical process of viral nuclear export, even though HIV’s reliance on a single host protein, CRM1, to export its unspliced and partially spliced RNA transcripts makes it a tempting target. Due to recent findings implicating a DEAD-box helicase, DDX3, in HIV replication and a member of the export complex, it has become an appealing target for anti-HIV drug inhibition. In the present research, we have applied a hybrid computational protocol to analyze protein-protein interactions in the HIV mRNA export cycle. This method is based on molecular docking followed by molecular dynamics simulation and accompanied by approximate free energy calculation (MM/GBSA), computational alanine scanning, clustering, and evolutionary analysis. We highlight here some of the most likely binding modes and interfacial residues between DDX3 and CRM1 both in the absence and presence of RanGTP. This work shows that although DDX3 can bind to free CRM1, addition of RanGTP leads to more concentrated distribution of binding modes and stronger binding between CRM1 and RanGTP.

  10. The Interaction of RNA Helicase DDX3 with HIV-1 Rev-CRM1-RanGTP Complex during the HIV Replication Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Mahboobi, Seyed Hanif; Javanpour, Alex A.; Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular traffic between the nucleus and the cytoplasm is regulated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC), which acts as a highly selective channel perforating the nuclear envelope in eukaryotic cells. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exploits the nucleocytoplasmic pathway to export its RNA transcripts across the NPC to the cytoplasm. Despite extensive study on the HIV life cycle and the many drugs developed to target this cycle, no current drugs have been successful in targeting the critical process of viral nuclear export, even though HIV’s reliance on a single host protein, CRM1, to export its unspliced and partially spliced RNA transcripts makes it a tempting target. Due to recent findings implicating a DEAD-box helicase, DDX3, in HIV replication and a member of the export complex, it has become an appealing target for anti-HIV drug inhibition. In the present research, we have applied a hybrid computational protocol to analyze protein-protein interactions in the HIV mRNA export cycle. This method is based on molecular docking followed by molecular dynamics simulation and accompanied by approximate free energy calculation (MM/GBSA), computational alanine scanning, clustering, and evolutionary analysis. We highlight here some of the most likely binding modes and interfacial residues between DDX3 and CRM1 both in the absence and presence of RanGTP. This work shows that although DDX3 can bind to free CRM1, addition of RanGTP leads to more concentrated distribution of binding modes and stronger binding between CRM1 and RanGTP. PMID:25723178

  11. The interaction of RNA helicase DDX3 with HIV-1 Rev-CRM1-RanGTP complex during the HIV replication cycle

    DOE PAGES

    Mahboobi, Seyed Hanif; Javanpour, Alex A.; Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    2015-02-27

    Molecular traffic between the nucleus and the cytoplasm is regulated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC), which acts as a highly selective channel perforating the nuclear envelope in eukaryotic cells. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exploits the nucleocytoplasmic pathway to export its RNA transcripts across the NPC to the cytoplasm. Despite extensive study on the HIV life cycle and the many drugs developed to target this cycle, no current drugs have been successful in targeting the critical process of viral nuclear export, even though HIV’s reliance on a single host protein, CRM1, to export its unspliced and partially spliced RNAmore » transcripts makes it a tempting target. Due to recent findings implicating a DEAD-box helicase, DDX3, in HIV replication and a member of the export complex, it has become an appealing target for anti-HIV drug inhibition. In the present research, we have applied a hybrid computational protocol to analyze protein-protein interactions in the HIV mRNA export cycle. This method is based on molecular docking followed by molecular dynamics simulation and accompanied by approximate free energy calculation (MM/GBSA), computational alanine scanning, clustering, and evolutionary analysis. We highlight here some of the most likely binding modes and interfacial residues between DDX3 and CRM1 both in the absence and presence of RanGTP. This work shows that although DDX3 can bind to free CRM1, addition of RanGTP leads to more concentrated distribution of binding modes and stronger binding between CRM1 and RanGTP.« less

  12. Inhibition of the integrase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 by anti-HIV plant proteins MAP30 and GAP31.

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Huang, S; Huang, P L; Huang, P L; Bourinbaiar, A S; Chen, H C; Kung, H F

    1995-01-01

    MAP30 (Momordica anti-HIV protein of 30 kDa) and GAP31 (Gelonium anti-HIV protein of 31 kDa) are anti-HIV plant proteins that we have identified, purified, and cloned from the medicinal plants Momordica charantia and Gelonium multiflorum. These antiviral agents are capable of inhibiting infection of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) in T lymphocytes and monocytes as well as replication of the virus in already-infected cells. They are not toxic to normal uninfected cells because they are unable to enter healthy cells. MAP30 and GAP31 also possess an N-glycosidase activity on 28S ribosomal RNA and a topological activity on plasmid and viral DNAs including HIV-1 long terminal repeats (LTRs). LTRs are essential sites for integration of viral DNA into the host genome by viral integrase. We therefore investigated the effect of MAP30 and GAP31 on HIV-1 integrase. We report that both of these antiviral agents exhibit dose-dependent inhibition of HIV-1 integrase. Inhibition was observed in all of the three specific reactions catalyzed by the integrase, namely, 3' processing (specific cleavage of the dinucleotide GT from the viral substrate), strand transfer (integration), and "disintegration" (the reversal of strand transfer). Inhibition was studied by using oligonucleotide substrates with sequences corresponding to the U3 and U5 regions of HIV LTR. In the presence of 20 ng of viral substrate, 50 ng of target substrate, and 4 microM integrase, total inhibition was achieved at equimolar concentrations of the integrase and the antiviral proteins, with EC50 values of about 1 microM. Integration of viral DNA into the host chromosome is a vital step in the replicative cycle of retroviruses, including the AIDS virus. The inhibition of HIV-1 integrase by MAP30 and GAP31 suggests that impediment of viral DNA integration may play a key role in the anti-HIV activity of these plant proteins. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7568024

  13. High HPgV replication is associated with improved surrogate markers of HIV progression

    PubMed Central

    Ávila-Ríos, Santiago; García-Morales, Claudia; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo; Escobedo, Galileo; Estrada, Gloria; García-Iglesias, Trinidad; Muñoz-Saucedo, Nayeli; Kershenobich, David; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Human Pegivirus (HPgV) may have a beneficial effect on HIV disease progression in co-infected patients; however, the virologic characteristics of this infection are not well defined. In this study, we determined HPgV viremia prevalence in Mexico and provide new insights to understand HPgV infection and HPgV/HIV co-infection. Methods We analyzed and quantified 7,890 serum samples for HPgV viremia by One-Step RT-Real-Time PCR, 6,484 from healthy blood donors and 1,406 from HIV-infected patients. Data on HIV progression were obtained from patients’ records. HPgV genotyping was performed in 445 samples by nested PCR of the 5’URT region. Finite Mixture Models were used to identify clustering patterns of HPgV viremia in blood donors and co-infected antiretroviral (ART)-naïve patients. Results HPgV was detected in 2.98% of blood donors and 33% of HIV patients, with a wide range of viral loads. The most prevalent genotypes were 3 (58.6%)and 2 (33.7%). HPgV viral loads from healthy blood donors and HPgV/HIV+ ART-naïve co-infected patients were clustered into two component distributions, low and high, with a cut-off point of 5.07log10 and 5.06log10, respectively. High HPgV viremia was associated with improved surrogate markers of HIV infection, independent of the estimated duration of HIV infection or HIV treatment. Conclusions HPgV prevalence in Mexico was similar to that reported for other countries. The prevalent genotypes could be related to Mexico’s geographic location and ethnicity, since genotype 2 is frequent in the United States and Europe and genotype 3 in Asia and Amerindian populations. HPgV viral load demonstrated two patterns of replication, low and high. The more pronounced beneficial response observed in co-infected patients with high HPgV viremia may explain discrepancies found between other studies. Mechanisms explaining high and low HPgV replication should be explored to determine whether the persistently elevated replication depends on

  14. Saikosaponin A inhibits influenza A virus replication and lung immunopathology

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yaqin; Ling, Fangfang; Xiao, Kun; Li, Qian; Li, Bin; Lu, Chunni; Qi, Wenbao; Zeng, Zhenling; Liao, Ming; Liu, Yahong; Chen, Weisan

    2015-01-01

    Fatal influenza outcomes result from a combination of rapid virus replication and collateral lung tissue damage caused by exaggerated pro-inflammatory host immune cell responses. There are few therapeutic agents that target both biological processes for the attenuation of influenza-induced lung pathology. We show that Saikosaponin A, a bioactive triterpene saponin with previouslyestablished anti-inflammatory effects, demonstrates both in vitro and in vivo anti-viral activity against influenza A virus infections. Saikosaponin A attenuated the replication of three different influenza A virus strains, including a highly pathogenic H5N1 strain, in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells. This anti-viral activity occurred through both downregulation of NF-κB signaling and caspase 3-dependent virus ribonucleoprotein nuclear export as demonstrated by NF-κB subunit p65 and influenza virus nucleoprotein nuclear translocation studies in influenza virus infected A549 cells. Critically, Saikosaponin A also attenuated viral replication, aberrant pro-inflammatory cytokine production and lung histopathology in the widely established H1N1 PR8 model of influenza A virus lethality in C57BL/6 mice. Flow cytometry studies of mouse bronchoalveolar lavage cells revealed that SSa exerted immunomodulatory effects through a selective attenuation of lung neutrophil and monocyte recruitment during the early peak of the innate immune response to PR8 infection. Altogether, our results indicate that Saikosaponin A possesses novel therapeutic potential for the treatment of pathological influenza virus infections. PMID:26637810

  15. Nuclear Envelope Protein SUN2 Promotes Cyclophilin-A-Dependent Steps of HIV Replication

    PubMed Central

    Lahaye, Xavier; Satoh, Takeshi; Gentili, Matteo; Cerboni, Silvia; Silvin, Aymeric; Conrad, Cécile; Ahmed-Belkacem, Abdelhakim; Rodriguez, Elisa C.; Guichou, Jean-François; Bosquet, Nathalie; Piel, Matthieu; Le Grand, Roger; King, Megan C.; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Manel, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Summary During the early phase of replication, HIV reverse transcribes its RNA and crosses the nuclear envelope while escaping host antiviral defenses. The host factor Cyclophilin A (CypA) is essential for these steps and binds the HIV capsid; however, the mechanism underlying this effect remains elusive. Here, we identify related capsid mutants in HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIVmac that are restricted by CypA. This antiviral restriction of mutated viruses is conserved across species and prevents nuclear import of the viral cDNA. Importantly, the inner nuclear envelope protein SUN2 is required for the antiviral activity of CypA. We show that wild-type HIV exploits SUN2 in primary CD4+ T cells as an essential host factor that is required for the positive effects of CypA on reverse transcription and infection. Altogether, these results establish essential CypA-dependent functions of SUN2 in HIV infection at the nuclear envelope. PMID:27149839

  16. Global analysis of host-pathogen interactions that regulate early stage HIV-1 replication

    PubMed Central

    König, Renate; Zhou, Yingyao; Elleder, Daniel; Diamond, Tracy L.; Bonamy, Ghislain M.C.; Irelan, Jeffrey T.; Chiang, Chih-yuan; Tu, Buu P.; De Jesus, Paul D.; Lilley, Caroline E.; Seidel, Shannon; Opaluch, Amanda M.; Caldwell, Jeremy S.; Weitzman, Matthew D.; Kuhen, Kelli L.; Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Ideker, Trey; Orth, Anthony P.; Miraglia, Loren J.; Bushman, Frederic D.; Young, John A.; Chanda, Sumit K.

    2008-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2) rely upon host-encoded proteins to facilitate their replication. Here we combined genome-wide siRNA analyses with interrogation of human interactome databases to assemble a host-pathogen biochemical network containing 213 confirmed host cellular factors and 11 HIV-1-encoded proteins. Protein complexes that regulate ubiquitin conjugation, proteolysis, DNA damage response and RNA splicing were identified as important modulators of early stage HIV-1 infection. Additionally, over 40 new factors were shown to specifically influence initiation and/or kinetics of HIV-1 DNA synthesis, including cytoskeletal regulatory proteins, modulators of post-translational modification, and nucleic acid binding proteins. Finally, fifteen proteins with diverse functional roles, including nuclear transport, prostaglandin synthesis, ubiquitination, and transcription, were found to influence nuclear import or viral DNA integration. Taken together, the multi-scale approach described here has uncovered multiprotein virus-host interactions that likely act in concert to facilitate early steps of HIV-1 infection. PMID:18854154

  17. HIV-1 cellular and tissue replication patterns in infected humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Araínga, Mariluz; Su, Hang; Poluektova, Larisa Y.; Gorantla, Santhi; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2016-01-01

    Humanized mice have emerged as a testing platform for HIV-1 pathobiology by reflecting natural human disease processes. Their use to study HIV-1 biology, virology, immunology, pathogenesis and therapeutic development has served as a robust alternative to more-well developed animal models for HIV/AIDS. A critical component in reflecting such human pathobiology rests in defining the tissue and cellular sites for HIV-1 infection. To this end, we examined the tissue sites for viral infection in bone marrow, blood, spleens, liver, gut, brain, kidney and lungs of human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell engrafted virus-infected NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ mice. Cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and sorted from species mixtures defined as CD34+ lineage negative progenitor cells, CD14+CD16+ monocyte-macrophages and central, stem cell and effector memory T cells. The cell distribution and viral life cycle were found dependent on the tissue compartment and time of infection. Cell subsets contained HIV-1 total and integrated DNA as well as multi-spliced and unspliced RNA in divergent proportions. The data support the idea that humanized mice can provide a means to examine the multifaceted sites of HIV-1 replication including, but not limited to progenitor cells and monocyte-macrophages previously possible only in macaques and human. PMID:26996968

  18. Host Factors Dictate Control of Viral Replication in two HIV-1 Controller/Chronic Progressor Transmission Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Buckheit, Robert W.; Allen, Tracy G.; Alme, Angela; Salgado, Maria; O’Connell, Karen A.; Huculak, Sarah; Falade-Nwulia, Oluwaseun; Williams, Thomas M.; Gallant, Joel E.; Siliciano, Robert F.; Blankson, Joel N.

    2012-01-01

    Viremic controllers (VC) and elite controllers/suppressors (ES) maintain control over HIV-1 replication. Some studies suggested that control is a result of infection with a defective viral strain while others suggested host immune factors play a key role. Here we document two HIV-1 transmission pairs: one consisting of a patient with progressive disease and an individual who became an ES, and the second consisting of a patient with progressive disease and a VC. In contrast to another ES transmission pair, virus isolated from all patients was fully replication competent. These data suggests that some VC and ES are infected with HIV-1 isolates that replicate vigorously in vitro and are able to cause progressive disease in vivo. These data suggest that host factors play a dominant role in control of HIV-1 infection, thus it may be possible to control fully pathogenic HIV-1 isolates with therapeutic vaccination. PMID:22395607

  19. HIV-1 replication in central nervous system increases over time on only protease inhibitor therapy.

    PubMed

    Donath, Maximilian; Wolf, Timo; Stürmer, Martin; Herrmann, Eva; Bickel, Markus; Khaykin, Pavel; Göpel, Siri; Gute, Peter; Haberl, Annette; de Leuw, Philipp; Schüttfort, Gundolf; Berger, Annemarie; Stephan, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    There are concerns about central nervous system (CNS)-replication of HIV-1 in patients on boosted protease inhibitors. Purpose of this study was to compare HIV-1 viral loads (VLs) from patients treated with only boosted dual protease inhibitor (bdPI), versus combination antiretroviral therapy (cART group), containing two nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and a third partner. All patients from a large German HIV-treatment cohort with available medication, clinical and demographic data, including results from simultaneous HIV-1 viral load (VL) assessments in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood plasma, were retrospectively evaluated as controlled cross-sectional study. CSF had been obtained from patients with variable neurological symptoms during 2005-2014. Statistical analysis comprised nonparametric tests, regression and correlation techniques accounting for undetectable quantifications. Statistical analysis comprised nonparametric tests, regression and correlation techniques accounting for undetectable quantifications. Overall, 155 patients were evaluable (bdPI: 24; cART: 131). At time of CSF-collection, both groups were comparable in age, gender, CD4-cell counts, or primary HIV-transmission risks, though bdPI patients were clinically more advanced. The proportion of patients with undetectable HIV-1 (<50 copies/ml) in CSF was lower for bdPI group (25 vs 49.6 %; p = 0.026), but similar in plasma (46 vs 41 %). Median CSF-VL was higher in bdPI group (600 vs 50 copies/ml; p = 0.027) and similar in plasma. Mean VL CSF/plasma ratio was 342.91 for bdPI- and 54.48 for cART patients (p < 0.001). Pearson's regression analysis revealed a trend for an elevated VL-ratio over time within bdPI group. HIV-1 replication was higher and more frequently detectable in CSF from bdPI patients, indicating a worse CNS penetration effectiveness of used boosted PI. Within bdPI group, measured CNS-viral replication was increasing over time, suggesting an over

  20. Identification of a Cluster of HIV-1 Controllers Infected with Low Replicating Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Casado, Concepción; Pernas, Maria; Sandonis, Virginia; Alvaro-Cifuentes, Tamara; Olivares, Isabel; Fuentes, Rosa; Martínez-Prats, Lorena; Grau, Eulalia; Ruiz, Lidia; Delgado, Rafael; Rodríguez, Carmen; del Romero, Jorge; López-Galíndez, Cecilio

    2013-01-01

    Long term non-progressor patients (LTNPs) are characterized by the natural control of HIV-1 infection. This control is related to host genetic, immunological and virological factors. In this work, phylogenetic analysis of the proviral nucleotide sequences in env gene from a Spanish HIV-1 LTNPs cohort identified a cluster of 6 HIV-1 controllers infected with closely-related viruses. The patients of the cluster showed common clinical and epidemiological features: drug user practices, infection in the same city (Madrid, Spain) and at the same time (late 70’s-early 80’s). All cluster patients displayed distinct host alleles associated with HIV control. Analysis of the virus envelope nucleotide sequences showed ancestral characteristic, lack of evolution and presence of rare amino-acids. Biological characterization of recombinant viruses with the envelope proteins from the cluster viruses showed very low replicative capacity in TZMbl and U87-CD4/CCR5 cells. The lack of clinical progression in the viral cluster patients with distinct combinations of protective host genotypes, but infected by low replicating viruses, indicate the important role of the virus in the non-progressor phenotype in these patients. PMID:24204910

  1. Identification of a cluster of HIV-1 controllers infected with low replicating viruses.

    PubMed

    Casado, Concepción; Pernas, Maria; Sandonis, Virginia; Alvaro-Cifuentes, Tamara; Olivares, Isabel; Fuentes, Rosa; Martínez-Prats, Lorena; Grau, Eulalia; Ruiz, Lidia; Delgado, Rafael; Rodríguez, Carmen; del Romero, Jorge; López-Galíndez, Cecilio

    2013-01-01

    Long term non-progressor patients (LTNPs) are characterized by the natural control of HIV-1 infection. This control is related to host genetic, immunological and virological factors. In this work, phylogenetic analysis of the proviral nucleotide sequences in env gene from a Spanish HIV-1 LTNPs cohort identified a cluster of 6 HIV-1 controllers infected with closely-related viruses. The patients of the cluster showed common clinical and epidemiological features: drug user practices, infection in the same city (Madrid, Spain) and at the same time (late 70's-early 80's). All cluster patients displayed distinct host alleles associated with HIV control. Analysis of the virus envelope nucleotide sequences showed ancestral characteristic, lack of evolution and presence of rare amino-acids. Biological characterization of recombinant viruses with the envelope proteins from the cluster viruses showed very low replicative capacity in TZMbl and U87-CD4/CCR5 cells. The lack of clinical progression in the viral cluster patients with distinct combinations of protective host genotypes, but infected by low replicating viruses, indicate the important role of the virus in the non-progressor phenotype in these patients.

  2. siRNA and shRNA screens advance key understanding of host factors required for HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Kok, Kin-Hang; Lei, Ting; Jin, Dong-Yan

    2009-08-27

    A recent RNAi screen used a genome-wide shRNA library to search for cellular factors required for HIV-1 replication. This work complements three other siRNA-based screening studies and potentially opens the door to the discovery of factors that are important for HIV-1 replication in physiological host cells such as T lymphocytes. shRNA screens can be further improved, and they could promise to unravel new pathways and new facets of virus-cell interactions.

  3. Dolutegravir maintains a durable effect against HIV replication in tissue culture even after drug washout

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Nathan; Mesplède, Thibault; Quashie, Peter K.; Oliveira, Maureen; Zanichelli, Veronica; Wainberg, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Of the currently approved HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), dolutegravir has shown greater efficacy than raltegravir at suppressing HIV-1 replication in treatment-experienced individuals. Biochemical experiments have also shown that dolutegravir has a longer dissociative half-life when bound to HIV integrase than does raltegravir. In order to study the intracellular efficacy of various INSTIs, we asked whether drug removal from INSTI-treated HIV-1-infected cells would result in different times to viral rebound. In addition, we assessed the role of the R263K substitution within the integrase ORF that is associated with low-level resistance to dolutegravir. Methods HIV-infected MT-2 cells were treated with dolutegravir, raltegravir or a third experimental INSTI (MK-2048) and the drugs were washed out after varying times. Viral replication was monitored by measuring reverse transcriptase (RT) activity in the culture fluids. Results We observed a significantly slower increase in RT activity after the removal of dolutegravir compared with raltegravir or MK-2048. The incubation time before the drug was removed also had an impact on the level of RT activity independently of the drug and virus used. The R263K substitution did not significantly impact on levels of RT activity after drug washout, suggesting that dolutegravir remained tightly bound to the integrase enzyme despite the presence of this mutation. Conclusions These results suggest that the residency time of INSTIs on integrase is a key factor in the activity of these drugs and that the anti-HIV activity of dolutegravir persists more effectively than that of other INSTIs after drug washout. PMID:26142476

  4. Dolutegravir maintains a durable effect against HIV replication in tissue culture even after drug washout.

    PubMed

    Osman, Nathan; Mesplède, Thibault; Quashie, Peter K; Oliveira, Maureen; Zanichelli, Veronica; Wainberg, Mark A

    2015-10-01

    Of the currently approved HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), dolutegravir has shown greater efficacy than raltegravir at suppressing HIV-1 replication in treatment-experienced individuals. Biochemical experiments have also shown that dolutegravir has a longer dissociative half-life when bound to HIV integrase than does raltegravir. In order to study the intracellular efficacy of various INSTIs, we asked whether drug removal from INSTI-treated HIV-1-infected cells would result in different times to viral rebound. In addition, we assessed the role of the R263K substitution within the integrase ORF that is associated with low-level resistance to dolutegravir. HIV-infected MT-2 cells were treated with dolutegravir, raltegravir or a third experimental INSTI (MK-2048) and the drugs were washed out after varying times. Viral replication was monitored by measuring reverse transcriptase (RT) activity in the culture fluids. We observed a significantly slower increase in RT activity after the removal of dolutegravir compared with raltegravir or MK-2048. The incubation time before the drug was removed also had an impact on the level of RT activity independently of the drug and virus used. The R263K substitution did not significantly impact on levels of RT activity after drug washout, suggesting that dolutegravir remained tightly bound to the integrase enzyme despite the presence of this mutation. These results suggest that the residency time of INSTIs on integrase is a key factor in the activity of these drugs and that the anti-HIV activity of dolutegravir persists more effectively than that of other INSTIs after drug washout. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Early Low-Titer Neutralizing Antibodies Impede HIV-1 Replication and Select for Virus Escape

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Katharine J.; Tsao, Chun-yen; Iyer, Shilpa S.; Decker, Julie M.; Yang, Yongping; Bonsignori, Mattia; Chen, Xi; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Montefiori, David C.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Hraber, Peter; Fischer, William; Li, Hui; Wang, Shuyi; Sterrett, Sarah; Keele, Brandon F.; Ganusov, Vitaly V.; Perelson, Alan S.; Korber, Bette T.; Georgiev, Ivelin; McLellan, Jason S.; Pavlicek, Jeffrey W.; Gao, Feng; Haynes, Barton F.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Kwong, Peter D.; Shaw, George M.

    2012-01-01

    Single genome sequencing of early HIV-1 genomes provides a sensitive, dynamic assessment of virus evolution and insight into the earliest anti-viral immune responses in vivo. By using this approach, together with deep sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, antibody adsorptions and virus-entry assays, we found evidence in three subjects of neutralizing antibody (Nab) responses as early as 2 weeks post-seroconversion, with Nab titers as low as 1∶20 to 1∶50 (IC50) selecting for virus escape. In each of the subjects, Nabs targeted different regions of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) in a strain-specific, conformationally sensitive manner. In subject CH40, virus escape was first mediated by mutations in the V1 region of the Env, followed by V3. HIV-1 specific monoclonal antibodies from this subject mapped to an immunodominant region at the base of V3 and exhibited neutralizing patterns indistinguishable from polyclonal antibody responses, indicating V1–V3 interactions within the Env trimer. In subject CH77, escape mutations mapped to the V2 region of Env, several of which selected for alterations of glycosylation. And in subject CH58, escape mutations mapped to the Env outer domain. In all three subjects, initial Nab recognition was followed by sequential rounds of virus escape and Nab elicitation, with Nab escape variants exhibiting variable costs to replication fitness. Although delayed in comparison with autologous CD8 T-cell responses, our findings show that Nabs appear earlier in HIV-1 infection than previously recognized, target diverse sites on HIV-1 Env, and impede virus replication at surprisingly low titers. The unexpected in vivo sensitivity of early transmitted/founder virus to Nabs raises the possibility that similarly low concentrations of vaccine-induced Nabs could impair virus acquisition in natural HIV-1 transmission, where the risk of infection is low and the number of viruses responsible for transmission and productive clinical infection is typically

  6. Proteolysis of mature HIV-1 p6 Gag protein by the insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) regulates virus replication in an Env-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Setz, Christian; Friedrich, Melanie; Schlößer, Stefan; Kölle, Julia; Spranger, Robert; Rauch, Pia; Reif, Tatjana; Karius-Fischer, Julia; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Henklein, Petra; Fossen, Torgils; Schubert, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    There is a significantly higher risk for type II diabetes in HIV-1 carriers, albeit the molecular mechanism for this HIV-related pathology remains enigmatic. The 52 amino acid HIV-1 p6 Gag protein is synthesized as the C-terminal part of the Gag polyprotein Pr55. In this context, p6 promotes virus release by its two late (L-) domains, and facilitates the incorporation of the viral accessory protein Vpr. However, the function of p6 in its mature form, after proteolytic release from Gag, has not been investigated yet. We found that the mature p6 represents the first known viral substrate of the ubiquitously expressed cytosolic metalloendopeptidase insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE). IDE is sufficient and required for degradation of p6, and p6 is approximately 100-fold more efficiently degraded by IDE than its eponymous substrate insulin. This observation appears to be specific for HIV-1, as p6 proteins from HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus, as well as the 51 amino acid p9 from equine infectious anaemia virus were insensitive to IDE degradation. The amount of virus-associated p6, as well as the efficiency of release and maturation of progeny viruses does not depend on the presence of IDE in the host cells, as it was shown by CRISPR/Cas9 edited IDE KO cells. However, HIV-1 mutants harboring IDE-insensitive p6 variants exhibit reduced virus replication capacity, a phenomenon that seems to depend on the presence of an X4-tropic Env. Furthermore, competing for IDE by exogenous insulin or inhibiting IDE by the highly specific inhibitor 6bK, also reduced virus replication. This effect could be specifically attributed to IDE since replication of HIV-1 variants coding for an IDE-insensitive p6 were inert towards IDE-inhibition. Our cumulative data support a model in which removal of p6 during viral entry is important for virus replication, at least in the case of X4 tropic HIV-1. PMID:28388673

  7. Blocking CXCL9 Decreases HIV-1 Replication and Enhances the Activity of Prophylactic Antiretrovirals in Human Cervical Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Macura, Sherrill L.; Lathrop, Melissa J.; Gui, Jiang; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Rollenhagen, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The interferon-gamma–induced chemokine CXCL9 is expressed in a wide range of inflammatory conditions including those affecting the female genital tract. CXCL9 promotes immune cell recruitment, activation, and proliferation. The role of CXCL9 in modulating HIV-1 infection of cervicovaginal tissues, a main portal of viral entry, however, has not been established. We report a link between CXCL9 and HIV-1 replication in human cervical tissues and propose CXCL9 as a potential target to enhance the anti–HIV-1 activity of prophylactic antiretrovirals. Design: Using ex vivo infection of human cervical tissues as a model of mucosal HIV-1 acquisition, we described the effect of CXCL9 neutralization on HIV-1 gene expression and mucosal CD4+ T-cell activation. The anti-HIV-1 activity of tenofovir, the leading mucosal pre-exposure prophylactic microbicide, alone or in combination with CXCL9 neutralization was also studied. Methods: HIV-1 replication was evaluated by p24 ELISA. HIV-1 DNA and RNA, and CD4, CCR5, and CD38 transcription were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Frequency of activated cervical CD4+ T cells was quantified using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Results: Antibody blocking of CXCL9 reduced HIV-1 replication by decreasing mucosal CD4+ T-cell activation. CXCL9 neutralization in combination with suboptimal concentrations of tenofovir, possibly present in the cervicovaginal tissues of women using the drug inconsistently, demonstrated an earlier and greater decrease in HIV-1 replication compared with tissues treated with tenofovir alone. Conclusions: CXCL9 neutralization reduces HIV-1 replication and may be an effective target to enhance the efficacy of prophylactic antiretrovirals. PMID:26545124

  8. Inhibition of Mayaro virus replication by prostaglandin A1 and B2 in Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, D; Marcicano, F G; Rebello, M A

    1998-09-01

    The effect of prostaglandins (PGA1 and PGB2) on the replication of Mayaro virus was studied in Vero cells. PGA1 and PGB2 antiviral activity was found to be dose-dependent. However, while 10 micrograms/ml PGB2 inhibited virus yield by 60%, at the same dose PGA1 suppressed virus replication by more than 90%. SDS-PAGE analysis of [35S]-methionine-labelled proteins showed that PGA1 did not alter cellular protein synthesis. In infected cells, PGA1 slightly inhibited the synthesis of protein C, while drastically inhibiting the synthesis of glycoproteins E1 and E2.

  9. Understanding HIV resistance, fitness, replication capacity and compensation: targeting viral fitness as a therapeutic strategy.

    PubMed

    Buckheit, Robert W

    2004-08-01

    The increasingly prevalent emergence of drug-resistant virus strains in patients being treated with highly active antiretroviral regimens and the increasing rates of transmission of drug-resistant virus strains have focused attention on the critical need for additional antiretroviral agents with novel mechanisms of action and enhanced potency. Furthermore, novel means of employing highly active antiretroviral therapy are needed to reduce or eliminate the virological treatment failures that currently occur. Over the past several years, evidence has mounted supporting the fact that the emergence of resistant strains is associated with reductions in viral fitness, yielding decreases in plasma virus load in treated patients harbouring resistant populations of the virus. Additional mutations that serve to modify fitness (compensatory mutations) and mutations that impact the viral replication capacity also emerge under the selective pressure of drug treatment, and have both negative and positive effects on virus growth. Fitness is generally accepted to refer to the ability of HIV to replicate in a defined environment and thus is used to describe the viral replication potential in the absence of the drug. Although viral fitness and replication capacity are related in some ways, it is important to recognise that viral fitness is not the same as viral replication capacity. This review will assess the recent literature on antiviral drug resistance, viral fitness and viral replication capacity, and discuss means by which the adaptability of HIV to respond rapidly to antiviral treatment through mutation may be used against it. This would be done by treating patients with an aim to lock the deleterious mutations into the resistant virus genome, resulting in a positive therapeutic outcome despite the presence of resistance to the selecting agents. The review will specifically discuss the literature on nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease

  10. Inhibition of HIV-1 by multiple siRNAs expressed from a single microRNA polycistron

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying Poi; Haasnoot, Joost; ter Brake, Olivier; Berkhout, Ben; Konstantinova, Pavlina

    2008-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful approach to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. However, HIV-1 can escape from RNAi-mediated antiviral therapy by selection of mutations in the targeted sequence. To prevent viral escape, multiple small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against conserved viral sequences should be combined. Ideally, these RNA inhibitors should be expressed simultaneously from a single transgene transcript. In this study, we tested a multiplex microRNA (miRNA) expression strategy by inserting multiple effective anti-HIV siRNA sequences in the miRNA polycistron mir-17-92. Individual anti-HIV miRNAs that resemble the natural miRNA structures were optimized by varying the siRNA position in the hairpin stem to obtain maximal effectiveness against luciferase reporters and HIV-1. We show that an antiviral miRNA construct can have a greater intrinsic inhibitory activity than a conventional short hairpin (shRNA) construct. When combined in a polycistron setting, the silencing activity of an individual miRNA is strongly boosted. We demonstrate that HIV-1 replication can be efficiently inhibited by simultaneous expression of four antiviral siRNAs from the polycistronic miRNA transcript. These combined results indicate that a multiplex miRNA strategy may be a promising therapeutic approach to attack escape-prone viral pathogens. PMID:18346971

  11. Anti-ulcer agent teprenone inhibits hepatitis C virus replication: potential treatment for hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Masanori; Kawai, Yoshinari; Mori, Kyoko; Yano, Masahiko; Abe, Ken-ichi; Nishimura, Go; Dansako, Hiromichi; Ariumi, Yasuo; Wakita, Takaji; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Kato, Nobuyuki

    2011-07-01

    Previously we reported that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, statins, inhibited hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replication. Furthermore, recent reports revealed that the statins are associated with a reduced risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and lower portal pressure in patients with cirrhosis. The statins exhibited anti-HCV activity by inhibiting geranylgeranylation of host proteins essential for HCV RNA replication. Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) is a substrate for geranylgeranyltransferase. Therefore, we examined the potential of geranyl compounds with chemical structures similar to those of GGPP to inhibit HCV RNA replication. We tested geranyl compounds [geranylgeraniol, geranylgeranoic acid, vitamin K(2) and teprenone (Selbex)] for their effects on HCV RNA replication using genome-length HCV RNA-replicating cells (the OR6 assay system) and a JFH-1 infection cell culture system. Teprenone is the major component of the anti-ulcer agent, Selbex. We also examined the anti-HCV activities of the geranyl compounds in combination with interferon (IFN)-α or statins. Among the geranyl compounds tested, only teprenone exhibited anti-HCV activity at a clinically achievable concentration. However, other anti-ulcer agents tested had no inhibitory effect on HCV RNA replication. The combination of teprenone and IFN-α exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on HCV RNA replication. Although teprenone alone did not inhibit geranylgeranylation, surprisingly, statins' inhibitory action against geranylgeranylation was enhanced by cotreatment with teprenone. The anti-ulcer agent teprenone inhibited HCV RNA replication and enhanced statins' inhibitory action against geranylgeranylation. This newly discovered function of teprenone may improve the treatment of HCV-associated liver diseases as an adjuvant to statins. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Astragalus polysaccharides inhibits PCV2 replication by inhibiting oxidative stress and blocking NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hongxia; Gan, Fang; Zhang, Zheqian; Hu, Junfa; Chen, Xingxiang; Huang, Kehe

    2015-11-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary causative agent of porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD). Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), as one kind of biological macromolecule extracted from Astragalus, has antiviral activities. This study was undertaken to explore the effect of APS on PCV2 replication in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that adding APS before PCV2 infection decreased significantly PCV2 DNA copies, the number of infected cells, MDA level, ROS level and NF-κB activation in PK15 cells and increased significantly GSH contents and SOD activity compared to control without APS. Oxidative stress induced by BSO could eliminate the effect of PCV2 replication inhibition by APS. LPS, as a NF-κB activator, could attenuate the effect of PCV2 replication inhibition by APS. BAY 11-7082, as a NF-κB inhibitor, could increase the effect of PCV2 replication inhibition by APS. In conclusion, APS inhibits PCV2 replication by decreasing oxidative stress and the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway, which suggests that APS might be employed for the prevention of PCV2 infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gyrase B Inhibitor Impairs HIV-1 Replication by Targeting Hsp90 and the Capsid Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Vozzolo, Luciano; Loh, Belinda; Gane, Paul J.; Tribak, Maryame; Zhou, Lihong; Anderson, Ian; Nyakatura, Elisabeth; Jenner, Richard G.; Selwood, David; Fassati, Ariberto

    2010-01-01

    Chemical genetics is an emerging approach to investigate the biology of host-pathogen interactions. We screened several inhibitors of ATP-dependent DNA motors and detected the gyrase B inhibitor coumermycin A1 (C-A1) as a potent antiretroviral. C-A1 inhibited HIV-1 integration and gene expression from acutely infected cell, but the two activities mapped to distinct targets. Target discovery identified Hsp90 as the C-A1 target affecting viral gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that Hsp90 associates with the viral promoter and may directly regulate gene expression. Molecular docking suggested that C-A1 binds to two novel pockets at the C terminal domain of Hsp90. C-A1 inhibited Hsp90 dimer formation, suggesting that it impairs viral gene expression by preventing Hsp90 dimerization at the C terminus. The inhibition of HIV-1 integration imposed by C-A1 was independent of Hsp90 and mapped to the capsid protein, and a point mutation at residue 105 made the virus resistant to this block. HIV-1 susceptibility to the integration block mediated by C-A1 was influenced by cyclophilin A. Our chemical genetic approach revealed an unexpected function of capsid in HIV-1 integration and provided evidence for a role of Hsp90 in regulating gene expression in mammalian cells. Both activities were amenable to inhibition by small molecules and represent novel antiretroviral drug targets. PMID:20937817

  14. HIV-1 conserved-element vaccines: relationship between sequence conservation and replicative capacity.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Morgane; Manocheewa, Siriphan; Swain, J Victor; Lanxon-Cookson, Erinn C; Kim, Moon; Westfall, Dylan H; Larsen, Brendan B; Gilbert, Peter B; Mullins, James I

    2013-05-01

    To overcome the problem of HIV-1 variability, candidate vaccine antigens have been designed to be composed of conserved elements of the HIV-1 proteome. Such candidate vaccines could be improved with a better understanding of both HIV-1 evolutionary constraints and the fitness cost of specific mutations. We evaluated the in vitro fitness cost of 23 mutations engineered in the HIV-1 subtype B Gag-p24 Center-of-Tree (COT) protein through fitness competition assays. While some mutations at conserved sites exacted a high fitness cost, as expected under the assumption that the most conserved residue confers the highest fitness, there was no overall strong relationship between sequence conservation and replicative capacity. By comparing sites that have evolved since the beginning of the epidemic to those that have remain unchanged, we found that sites that have evolved over time were more likely to correspond to HLA-associated sites and that their mutation had limited fitness costs. Our data showed no transcendent link between high conservation and high fitness cost, indicating that merely focusing on conserved segments of HIV-1 would not be sufficient for a successful vaccine strategy. Nonetheless, a subset of sites exacted a high fitness cost upon mutation--these sites have been under selective pressure to change since the beginning of the epidemic but have proved virtually nonmutable and could constitute preferred targets for vaccine design.

  15. HIV-1 replication in human immune cells is independent of TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) expression.

    PubMed

    Nehls, Julia; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Brack-Werner, Ruth; Floss, Thomas; Schindler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) was originally identified as a host cell factor binding to the HIV-1 LTR and thereby suppressing HIV-1 transcription and gene expression (Ou et al., J.Virol. 1995, 69(6):3584). TDP-43 is a global regulator of transcription, can influence RNA metabolism in many different ways and is ubiquitously expressed. Thus, TDP-43 could be a major factor restricting HIV-1 replication at the level of LTR transcription and gene expression. These facts prompted us to revisit the role of TDP-43 for HIV-1 replication. We utilized established HIV-1 cell culture systems as well as primary cell models and performed a comprehensive analysis of TDP-43 function and investigated its putative impact on HIV-1 gene expression. In HIV-1 infected cells TDP-43 was neither degraded nor sequestered from the nucleus. Furthermore, TDP-43 overexpression as well as siRNA mediated knockdown did not affect HIV-1 gene expression and virus production in T cells and macrophages. In summary, our experiments argue against a restricting role of TDP-43 during HIV-1 replication in immune cells.

  16. HIV-1 Replication in Human Immune Cells Is Independent of TAR DNA Binding Protein 43 (TDP-43) Expression

    PubMed Central

    Nehls, Julia; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Brack-Werner, Ruth; Floss, Thomas; Schindler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) was originally identified as a host cell factor binding to the HIV-1 LTR and thereby suppressing HIV-1 transcription and gene expression (Ou et al., J.Virol. 1995, 69(6):3584). TDP-43 is a global regulator of transcription, can influence RNA metabolism in many different ways and is ubiquitously expressed. Thus, TDP-43 could be a major factor restricting HIV-1 replication at the level of LTR transcription and gene expression. These facts prompted us to revisit the role of TDP-43 for HIV-1 replication. We utilized established HIV-1 cell culture systems as well as primary cell models and performed a comprehensive analysis of TDP-43 function and investigated its putative impact on HIV-1 gene expression. In HIV-1 infected cells TDP-43 was neither degraded nor sequestered from the nucleus. Furthermore, TDP-43 overexpression as well as siRNA mediated knockdown did not affect HIV-1 gene expression and virus production in T cells and macrophages. In summary, our experiments argue against a restricting role of TDP-43 during HIV-1 replication in immune cells. PMID:25127017

  17. Role of Transmitted Gag CTL Polymorphisms in Defining Replicative Capacity and Early HIV-1 Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Jonathan M.; Schaefer, Malinda; Yu, Tianwei; Lahki, Shabir; Prentice, Heather A.; Yue, Ling; Vishwanathan, Sundaram A.; Kilembe, William; Goepfert, Paul; Price, Matthew A.; Gilmour, Jill; Mulenga, Joseph; Farmer, Paul; Derdeyn, Cynthia A.; Tang, Jiaming; Heckerman, David; Kaslow, Richard A.; Allen, Susan A.; Hunter, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Initial studies of 88 transmission pairs in the Zambia Emory HIV Research Project cohort demonstrated that the number of transmitted HLA-B associated polymorphisms in Gag, but not Nef, was negatively correlated to set point viral load (VL) in the newly infected partners. These results suggested that accumulation of CTL escape mutations in Gag might attenuate viral replication and provide a clinical benefit during early stages of infection. Using a novel approach, we have cloned gag sequences isolated from the earliest seroconversion plasma sample from the acutely infected recipient of 149 epidemiologically linked Zambian transmission pairs into a primary isolate, subtype C proviral vector, MJ4. We determined the replicative capacity (RC) of these Gag-MJ4 chimeras by infecting the GXR25 cell line and quantifying virion production in supernatants via a radiolabeled reverse transcriptase assay. We observed a statistically significant positive correlation between RC conferred by the transmitted Gag sequence and set point VL in newly infected individuals (p = 0.02). Furthermore, the RC of Gag-MJ4 chimeras also correlated with the VL of chronically infected donors near the estimated date of infection (p = 0.01), demonstrating that virus replication contributes to VL in both acute and chronic infection. These studies also allowed for the elucidation of novel sites in Gag associated with changes in RC, where rare mutations had the greatest effect on fitness. Although we observed both advantageous and deleterious rare mutations, the latter could point to vulnerable targets in the HIV-1 genome. Importantly, RC correlated significantly (p = 0.029) with the rate of CD4+ T cell decline over the first 3 years of infection in a manner that is partially independent of VL, suggesting that the replication capacity of HIV-1 during the earliest stages of infection is a determinant of pathogenesis beyond what might be expected based on set point VL alone. PMID:23209412

  18. Copper inhibits the HIV-1 protease by both oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Karlstroem, A.R.; Levine, R.L. )

    1991-03-11

    The protease encoded by HIV-1 is essential for the processing of the viral polyproteins encoded by the gag and pol genes into mature viral proteins. Mutation or deletion of the protease gene blocks replication of the virus, making the protease an attractive target for antiviral therapy. The authors found that the HIV-1 protease is inhibited by micromolar concentrations of Cu{sup 2+}. Protease was 50% inhibited by exposure to 5 {mu}M copper for 5 min while exposure to 25 {mu}M caused complete inhibition. This inhibition was not oxygen-dependent and was not reversed by treatment with EDTA, presumably due to the slow off-rate of copper from the protease. Consistent with this interpretation, enzyme activity was recovered after denaturation and refolding of the copper exposed protease. Titration of the inactivated enzyme with Ellman's reagent demonstrated a loss of one of the two sulfhydryl groups present in the molecule, suggesting that copper inhibition was mediated through binding to a cysteine. This was confirmed in studies with a chemically synthesize, mutant protease in which the two cysteine residues were replaced by {alpha}-amino butyrate: The mutant protease was not inhibited by copper. However, both the wild-type and mutant protease were inactivated when exposed to copper, oxygen, and dithiothreitol. This inactivation required oxygen. Thus, the protease can also be inactivated by metal catalyzed oxidation (MCO), a presumably irreversible covalent modification.

  19. Compartmentalized Cytomegalovirus Replication and Transmission in the Setting of Maternal HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Slyker, Jennifer; Farquhar, Carey; Atkinson, Claire; Ásbjörnsdóttir, Kristjana; Roxby, Alison; Drake, Alison; Kiarie, James; Wald, Anna; Boeckh, Michael; Richardson, Barbra; Odem-Davis, Katherine; John-Stewart, Grace; Emery, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Background. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with adverse outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–exposed infants. Determinants of vertical CMV transmission in the setting of maternal HIV-1 infection are not well-defined. Methods. CMV and HIV-1 levels were measured in plasma, cervical secretions, and breast milk of 147 HIV-1–infected women to define correlates of maternal CMV replication and infant CMV acquisition. Results. Although few women had detectable CMV in plasma (4.8%), the majority had detectable CMV DNA in cervical secretions (66%) and breast milk (99%). There was a strong association between cervical CMV detection during pregnancy and later breast milk levels (β = 0.47; P = .005). Plasma HIV-1 level and CD4 counts were associated with CMV in the cervix and breast milk. However HIV-1 levels within the cervix and breast milk were not associated with CMV within these compartments. Maternal breast milk CMV levels (hazard ratio [HR], 1.4; P = .003) and maternal CD4 < 450 cells/mm3 (HR, 1.8; P = .008) were independently associated with infant CMV acquisition; each log10 increase in breast milk CMV was associated with a 40% increase in infant infection. The breast milk CMV level required to attain a 50% probability of CMV transmission increased with higher maternal CD4 counts, increasing from 3.55 log10 CMV DNA copies/mL at a CD4 count of 350 cells/mm3 to 5.50 log10 CMV DNA copies/mL at a CD4 count of 1000 cells/mm3. Conclusions. Breast milk CMV levels and maternal CD4 count are major determinants of CMV transmission in the setting of maternal HIV-1. Maternal immune reconstitution or lowering breast milk CMV levels may reduce vertical CMV transmission. PMID:24192386

  20. Compartmentalized cytomegalovirus replication and transmission in the setting of maternal HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Slyker, Jennifer; Farquhar, Carey; Atkinson, Claire; Ásbjörnsdóttir, Kristjana; Roxby, Alison; Drake, Alison; Kiarie, James; Wald, Anna; Boeckh, Michael; Richardson, Barbra; Odem-Davis, Katherine; John-Stewart, Grace; Emery, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with adverse outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infants. Determinants of vertical CMV transmission in the setting of maternal HIV-1 infection are not well-defined. CMV and HIV-1 levels were measured in plasma, cervical secretions, and breast milk of 147 HIV-1-infected women to define correlates of maternal CMV replication and infant CMV acquisition. Although few women had detectable CMV in plasma (4.8%), the majority had detectable CMV DNA in cervical secretions (66%) and breast milk (99%). There was a strong association between cervical CMV detection during pregnancy and later breast milk levels (β = 0.47; P = .005). Plasma HIV-1 level and CD4 counts were associated with CMV in the cervix and breast milk. However HIV-1 levels within the cervix and breast milk were not associated with CMV within these compartments. Maternal breast milk CMV levels (hazard ratio [HR], 1.4; P = .003) and maternal CD4 < 450 cells/mm(3) (HR, 1.8; P = .008) were independently associated with infant CMV acquisition; each log10 increase in breast milk CMV was associated with a 40% increase in infant infection. The breast milk CMV level required to attain a 50% probability of CMV transmission increased with higher maternal CD4 counts, increasing from 3.55 log10 CMV DNA copies/mL at a CD4 count of 350 cells/mm(3) to 5.50 log10 CMV DNA copies/mL at a CD4 count of 1000 cells/mm(3). Breast milk CMV levels and maternal CD4 count are major determinants of CMV transmission in the setting of maternal HIV-1. Maternal immune reconstitution or lowering breast milk CMV levels may reduce vertical CMV transmission.

  1. Amphotericin B Inhibits Enterovirus 71 Replication by Impeding Viral Entry

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fengwen; Zhao, Xiaoxiao; Hu, Siqi; Li, Jian; Yin, Lijuan; Mei, Shan; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Ying; Ren, Lili; Cen, Shan; Zhao, Zhendong; Wang, Jianwei; Jin, Qi; Liang, Chen; Ai, Bin; Guo, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease that leads to cardiopulmonary complications and death in young children. There is thus an urgent need to find new treatments to control EV71 infection. In this study, we report potent inhibition of EV71 by a polyene antibiotic Amphotericin B. Amphotericin B profoundly diminished the expression of EV71 RNA and viral proteins in the RD cells and the HEK293 cells. As a result, EV71 production was inhibited by Amphotericin B with an EC50 (50% effective concentration) of 1.75 μM in RD cells and 0.32 μM in 293 cells. In addition to EV71, EV68 was also strongly inhibited by Amphotericin B. Results of mechanistic studies revealed that Amphotericin B targeted the early stage of EV71 infection through impairing the attachment and internalization of EV71 by host cells. As an effective anti-fungi drug, Amphotericin B thus holds the promise of formulating a novel therapeutic to treat EV71 infection. PMID:27608771

  2. Inhibition of ganciclovir-resistant human cytomegalovirus replication by Kampo (Japanese herbal medicine).

    PubMed

    Murayama, Tsugiya; Yamaguchi, Nobuo; Iwamoto, Kozo; Eizuru, Yoshito

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effect of Kampo on the replication of ganciclovir (GCV)-resistant human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the human embryonic fibroblast cell line MRC-5. Treatment of HCMV-infected cells with Sho-seiryu-to (SST; Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang in Chinese) resulted in the inhibition of viral replication without affecting the cell growth. SST treatment decreased the synthesis of viral DNA, but had no virucidal effect on cell-free HCMV. However, the inhibitory effect of SST on HCMV replication was ablated by anti-interferon-beta (IFN-beta) antibody suggesting that SST inhibits the replication of GCV-resistant HCMV through the induction of IFN-beta. These results suggest that SST is a novel compund with potential as an anti-HCMV.

  3. Induced Packaging of Cellular MicroRNAs into HIV-1 Virions Can Inhibit Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Bogerd, Hal P.; Kennedy, Edward M.; Whisnant, Adam W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Analysis of the incorporation of cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) into highly purified HIV-1 virions revealed that this largely, but not entirely, mirrored the level of miRNA expression in the producer CD4+ T cells. Specifically, of the 58 cellular miRNAs detected at significant levels in the producer cells, only 5 were found in virions at a level 2- to 4-fold higher than that predicted on the basis of random cytoplasmic sampling. Of note, these included two miRNAs, miR-155 and miR-92a, that were reported previously to at least weakly bind HIV-1 transcripts. To test whether miRNA binding to the HIV-1 genome can induce virion incorporation, artificial miRNA target sites were introduced into the viral genome and a 10- to 40-fold increase in the packaging of the cognate miRNAs into virions was then observed, leading to the recruitment of up to 1.6 miRNA copies per virion. Importantly, this high level of incorporation significantly inhibited HIV-1 virion infectivity. These results suggest that target sites for cellular miRNAs can inhibit RNA virus replication at two distinct steps, i.e., during infection and during viral gene expression, thus explaining why a range of different RNA viruses appear to have evolved to avoid cellular miRNA binding to their genome. PMID:28096489

  4. HIV-1 Protease: Structure, Dynamics and Inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, John M.; Ishima, R.; Torchia, D.A.; Weber, Irene T.

    2008-06-03

    The HIV-1 protease is synthesized as part of a large Gag-Pol precursor protein. It is responsible for its own release from the precursor and the processing of the Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins into the mature structural and functional proteins required for virus maturation. Because of its indispensable role, the mature HIV-1 protease dimer has proven to be a successful target for the development of antiviral agents. In the last 5 years, a major emphasis in protease research has been to improve inhibitor design and treatment regimens.

  5. Ribonucleases in HIV type 1 inhibition: effect of recombinant RNases on infection of primary T cells and immune activation-induced RNase gene and protein expression.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, Victoria I; Boasso, Adriano; Hardy, Andrew W; Rybak, Susanna; Shearer, Gene M; Rugeles, Maria T

    2006-09-01

    Ribonucleases (RNases) have therapeutic potential against cancer and viral diseases and have been reported to inhibit replication of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in chronically infected cell lines. The ribonuclease eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) is responsible for the anti-HIV-1 activity of a soluble factor produced in response to human alloantigens (ASF). Four recombinant RNases (EDN; a four amino acid extension of the N-terminus EDN, -4EDN; RNase A; and angiogenin) were tested for inhibition of HIV-1 replication in PHA blasts. All RNases showed anti-HIV-1 activity, irrespective of whether the RNases were added before, during, or 2 h after infection. Polyclonal antibodies against the four RNases blocked the antiviral activity. ASF inhibited HIV-1 replication in vitro if added up to 4 h after infection. We demonstrated that allostimulation induced EDN, RNase A, and angiogenin mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), although only EDN protein was detected. We identified monocytes and dendritic cells, but not macrophages or T cells, as EDN-producing cells. These findings raise the possibilities that multiple naturally occurring RNases may contribute to protection against HIV-1 infection and could be considered for utilization in HIV-1 therapy.

  6. Inhibition of HSV-1 Replication by Gene Editing Strategy.

    PubMed

    Roehm, Pamela C; Shekarabi, Masoud; Wollebo, Hassen S; Bellizzi, Anna; He, Lifan; Salkind, Julian; Khalili, Kamel

    2016-04-11

    HSV-1 induced illness affects greater than 85% of adults worldwide with no permanent curative therapy. We used RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to specifically target for deletion of DNA sequences of the HSV-1 genome that span the region directing expression of ICP0, a key viral protein that stimulates HSV-1 gene expression and replication. We found that CRISPR/Cas9 introduced InDel mutations into exon 2 of the ICP0 gene profoundly reduced HSV-1 infectivity in permissive human cell culture models and protected permissive cells against HSV-1 infection. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated targeting ICP0 prevented HSV-1-induced disintegration of promonocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, an intracellular event critical to productive HSV-1 infection that is initiated by interaction of the ICP0 N-terminus with PML. Combined treatment of cells with CRISPR targeting ICP0 plus the immediate early viral proteins, ICP4 or ICP27, completely abrogated HSV-1 infection. We conclude that RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 can be used to develop a novel, specific and efficacious therapeutic and prophylactic platform for targeted viral genomic ablation to treat HSV-1 diseases.

  7. Structural basis for inhibition of DNA replication by aphidicolin

    DOE PAGES

    Baranovskiy, A. G.; Babayeva, N. D.; Suwa, Y.; ...

    2014-11-27

    Natural tetracyclic diterpenoid aphidicolin is a potent and specific inhibitor of B-family DNA polymerases, haltering replication and possessing a strong antimitotic activity in human cancer cell lines. Clinical trials revealed limitations of aphidicolin as an antitumor drug because of its low solubility and fast clearance from human plasma. The absence of structural information hampered the improvement of aphidicolin-like inhibitors: more than 50 modifications have been generated so far, but all have lost the inhibitory and antitumor properties. Here we report the crystal structure of the catalytic core of human DNA polymerase α (Pol α) in the ternary complex with anmore » RNA-primed DNA template and aphidicolin. The inhibitor blocks binding of dCTP by docking at the Pol α active site and by rotating the template guanine. The structure provides a plausible mechanism for the selectivity of aphidicolin incorporation opposite template guanine and explains why previous modifications of aphidicolin failed to improve its affinity for Pol α. With new structural information, aphidicolin becomes an attractive lead compound for the design of novel derivatives with enhanced inhibitory properties for B-family DNA polymerases.« less

  8. Structural basis for inhibition of DNA replication by aphidicolin

    SciTech Connect

    Baranovskiy, A. G.; Babayeva, N. D.; Suwa, Y.; Gu, J.; Pavlov, Y. I.; Tahirov, T. H.

    2014-11-27

    Natural tetracyclic diterpenoid aphidicolin is a potent and specific inhibitor of B-family DNA polymerases, haltering replication and possessing a strong antimitotic activity in human cancer cell lines. Clinical trials revealed limitations of aphidicolin as an antitumor drug because of its low solubility and fast clearance from human plasma. The absence of structural information hampered the improvement of aphidicolin-like inhibitors: more than 50 modifications have been generated so far, but all have lost the inhibitory and antitumor properties. Here we report the crystal structure of the catalytic core of human DNA polymerase α (Pol α) in the ternary complex with an RNA-primed DNA template and aphidicolin. The inhibitor blocks binding of dCTP by docking at the Pol α active site and by rotating the template guanine. The structure provides a plausible mechanism for the selectivity of aphidicolin incorporation opposite template guanine and explains why previous modifications of aphidicolin failed to improve its affinity for Pol α. With new structural information, aphidicolin becomes an attractive lead compound for the design of novel derivatives with enhanced inhibitory properties for B-family DNA polymerases.

  9. Inhibition of HSV-1 Replication by Gene Editing Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Roehm, Pamela C.; Shekarabi, Masoud; Wollebo, Hassen S.; Bellizzi, Anna; He, Lifan; Salkind, Julian; Khalili, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    HSV-1 induced illness affects greater than 85% of adults worldwide with no permanent curative therapy. We used RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to specifically target for deletion of DNA sequences of the HSV-1 genome that span the region directing expression of ICP0, a key viral protein that stimulates HSV-1 gene expression and replication. We found that CRISPR/Cas9 introduced InDel mutations into exon 2 of the ICP0 gene profoundly reduced HSV-1 infectivity in permissive human cell culture models and protected permissive cells against HSV-1 infection. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated targeting ICP0 prevented HSV-1-induced disintegration of promonocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, an intracellular event critical to productive HSV-1 infection that is initiated by interaction of the ICP0 N-terminus with PML. Combined treatment of cells with CRISPR targeting ICP0 plus the immediate early viral proteins, ICP4 or ICP27, completely abrogated HSV-1 infection. We conclude that RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 can be used to develop a novel, specific and efficacious therapeutic and prophylactic platform for targeted viral genomic ablation to treat HSV-1 diseases. PMID:27064617

  10. Inhibition of the HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases by a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Lescar, J.; Brynda, J.; Rezacova, P.; Stouracova, R.; Riottot, M. M.; Chitarra, V.; Fabry, M.; Horejsi, M.; Sedlacek, J.; Bentley, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody 1696, directed against the HIV-1 protease, displays strong inhibitory effects toward the catalytic activity of the enzyme of both the HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates. This antibody cross-reacts with peptides that include the N-terminus of the enzyme, a region that is well conserved in sequence among different viral strains and which, furthermore, is crucial for homodimerization to the active enzymatic form. This observation, as well as antigen-binding studies in the presence of an active site inhibitor, suggest that 1696 inhibits the HIV protease by destabilizing its active homodimeric form. To characterize further how the antibody 1696 inhibits the HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases, we have solved the crystal structure of its Fab fragment by molecular replacement and refined it at 3.0 A resolution. The antigen binding site has a deep cavity at its center, which is lined mainly by acidic and hydrophobic residues, and is large enough to accommodate several antigen residues. The structure of the Fab 1696 could form a starting basis for the design of alternative HIV protease-inhibiting molecules of broad specificity. PMID:10631984

  11. Estramustine phosphate reversibly inhibits an early stage during adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Everitt, E; Ekstrand, H; Boberg, B; Hartley-Asp, B

    1990-01-01

    Estramustine phosphate, an estradiol-mustard conjugate, was shown to reversibly inhibit a stage during the first hour of productive adenovirus 2 infection of HeLa cells. This drug, employed in the therapy of advanced prostatic cancer, specifically interacts with microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) of the cytoskeleton. The results obtained under physiological conditions in vivo suggest a MAPs-interference with the microtubule-mediated vectorial migration of the virus inoculum to the nucleus. Virus attachment, uncoating kinetics and the appearance of established uncoating intermediates were not affected.

  12. G3BP1 restricts HIV-1 replication in macrophages and T-cells by sequestering viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Cobos Jiménez, Viviana; Martinez, Fernando O; Booiman, Thijs; van Dort, Karel A; van de Klundert, Maarten A A; Gordon, Siamon; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B H; Kootstra, Neeltje A

    2015-12-01

    HIV-1 exploits the cellular machinery for replication and therefore several interactions with cellular factors take place, some of which are yet unknown. We identified GTPase-activating protein-(SH3 domain)-binding protein 1 (G3BP1) as a cellular factor that restricts HIV-1, by analyzing transcriptome profiles of in vitro-cytokine-activated macrophages that are non-permissive to HIV-1 replication. Silencing of G3BP1 by RNA interference resulted in increased HIV-1 replication in primary T-cells and macrophages, but did not affect replication of other retroviruses. G3BP1 specifically interacted with HIV-1 RNA in the cytoplasm, suggesting that it sequesters viral transcripts, thus preventing translation or packaging. G3BP1 was highly expressed in resting naïve or memory T-cells from healthy donors and HIV-1 infected patients, but significantly lower in IL-2-activated T-cells. These results strongly suggest that G3BP1 captures HIV-1 RNA transcripts and thereby restricts mRNA translation, viral protein production and virus particle formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Variable Inhibition of Zika Virus Replication by Different Wolbachia Strains in Mosquito Cell Cultures.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Michaela J; Isern, Sharon; Michael, Scott F; Corley, Ronald B; Connor, John H; Frydman, Horacio M

    2017-07-15

    Mosquito-borne arboviruses are a major source of human disease. One strategy to reduce arbovirus disease is to reduce the mosquito's ability to transmit virus. Mosquito infection with the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis wMel is a novel strategy to reduce Aedes mosquito competency for flavivirus infection. However, experiments investigating cyclic environmental temperatures have shown a reduction in maternal transmission of wMel, potentially weakening the integration of this strain into a mosquito population relative to that of other Wolbachia strains. Consequently, it is important to investigate additional Wolbachia strains. All Zika virus (ZIKV) suppression studies are limited to the wMel Wolbachia strain. Here we show ZIKV inhibition by two different Wolbachia strains: wAlbB (isolated from Aedes albopictus mosquitoes) and wStri (isolated from the planthopper Laodelphax striatellus) in mosquito cells. Wolbachia strain wStri inhibited ZIKV most effectively. Single-cycle infection experiments showed that ZIKV RNA replication and nonstructural protein 5 translation were reduced below the limits of detection in wStri-containing cells, demonstrating early inhibition of virus replication. ZIKV replication was rescued when Wolbachia was inhibited with a bacteriostatic antibiotic. We observed a partial rescue of ZIKV growth when Wolbachia-infected cells were supplemented with cholesterol-lipid concentrate, suggesting competition for nutrients as one of the possible mechanisms of Wolbachia inhibition of ZIKV. Our data show that wAlbB and wStri infection causes inhibition of ZIKV, making them attractive candidates for further in vitro mechanistic and in vivo studies and future vector-centered approaches to limit ZIKV infection and spread.IMPORTANCE Zika virus (ZIKV) has swiftly spread throughout most of the Western Hemisphere. This is due in large part to its replication in and spread by a mosquito vector host. There is an urgent need for approaches that limit

  14. TRAF6 is a novel NS3-interacting protein that inhibits classical swine fever virus replication.

    PubMed

    Lv, Huifang; Dong, Wang; Cao, Zhi; Li, Xiaomeng; Wang, Jie; Qian, Gui; Lv, Qizhuang; Wang, Chengbao; Guo, Kangkang; Zhang, Yanming

    2017-07-27

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) non-structural protein 3 (NS3) is a multifunctional non-structural protein that plays a major role in viral replication. However, how exactly NS3 exerts these functions remains unknown. Here, we identified tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) as a novel NS3-interacting protein via yeast two-hybrid analysis, co-immunoprecipitation, and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays. Furthermore, we observed that TRAF6 overexpression significantly inhibited CSFV replication, and TRAF6 knockdown promoted CSFV replication in porcine alveolar macrophages. Additionally, TRAF6 was degraded during CSFV infection or NS3 expression exclusively, indicating that CSFV and TRAF6 were mutually antagonistic and that TRAF6 degradation might contribute to persistent CSFV replication. Moreover, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity and interferon (IFN)-β and interleukin (IL)-6 expression were increased in TRAF6-overexpressing cells, whereas TRAF6-knockdown cells exhibited decreased NF-κB activity and IFN-β and IL-6 levels. Notably, TRAF6 overexpression did not reduce CSFV replication following inhibition of NF-κB activation by p65 knockdown. Our findings revealed that TRAF6 inhibits CSFV replication via activation of NF-κB-signalling pathways along with increases in the expression of its targets IFN-β and IL-6. This work addresses a novel aspect concerning the regulation of innate antiviral immune response during CSFV infection.

  15. Inhibition of DNA replication and repair by anthralin or danthron in cultured human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.M.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1982-07-01

    The comparative effects of the tumor promoter anthralin and its analog, danthron, on semiconservative DNA replication and DNA repair synthesis were studied in cultured human cells. Bromodeoxyuridine was used as density label together with /sup 3/H-thymidine to distinguish replication from repair synthesis in isopycnic CsCl gradients. Anthralin at 1.1 microgram inhibited replication in T98G cells by 50%. In cells treated with 0.4 or 1.3 microM anthralin and additive effect was observed on the inhibition of replication by ultraviolet light (254 nm). In cells irradiated with 20 J/m2, 2.3 microM anthralin was required to inhibit repair synthesis by 50%. Thus there was no selective inhibitory effect of anthralin on repair synthesis. Danthron exhibited no detectable effect on either semiconservative replication or repair synthesis at concentrations below about 5.0 microM. Neither compound stimulated repair synthesis in the absence of ultraviolet irradiation. Thus, anthralin and danthron do not appear to react with DNA to form adducts that are subject to excision repair. Although both compounds appear to intercalate into supercoiled DNA in vitro to a limited extent, the degree of unwinding introduced by the respective drugs does not correlate with their relative effects on DNA synthesis in vivo. Therefore the inhibitory effect of anthralin on DNA replication and repair synthesis in T98G cells does not appear to result from the direct interaction of the drug with DNA.

  16. Replication Capacity of Viruses from Acute Infection Drives HIV-1 Disease Progression.

    PubMed

    Selhorst, Philippe; Combrinck, Carina; Ndabambi, Nonkululeko; Ismail, Sherazaan D; Abrahams, Melissa-Rose; Lacerda, Miguel; Samsunder, Natasha; Garrett, Nigel; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Williamson, Carolyn

    2017-04-15

    The viral genotype has been shown to play an important role in HIV pathogenesis following transmission. However, the viral phenotypic properties that contribute to disease progression remain unclear. Most studies have been limited to the evaluation of Gag function in the context of a recombinant virus backbone. Using this approach, important biological information may be lost, making the evaluation of viruses obtained during acute infection, representing the transmitted virus, a more biologically relevant model. Here, we evaluate the roles of viral infectivity and the replication capacity of viruses from acute infection in disease progression in women who seroconverted in the CAPRISA 004 tenofovir microbicide trial. We show that viral replication capacity, but not viral infectivity, correlates with the set point viral load (Spearman r = 0.346; P = 0.045) and that replication capacity (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.52; P = 0.01) can predict CD4 decline independently of the viral load (HR = 2.9; P = 0.004) or protective HLA alleles (HR = 0.61; P = 0.36). We further demonstrate that Gag-Pro is not the main driver of this association, suggesting that additional properties of the transmitted virus play a role in disease progression. Finally, we find that although viruses from the tenofovir arm were 2-fold less infectious, they replicated at rates similar to those of viruses from the placebo arm. This indicates that the use of tenofovir gel did not select for viral variants with higher replication capacity. Overall, this study supports a strong influence of the replication capacity in acute infection on disease progression, potentially driven by interaction of multiple genes rather than a dominant role of the major structural gene gagIMPORTANCE HIV disease progression is known to differ between individuals, and defining which fraction of this variation can be attributed to the virus is important both clinically and epidemiologically. In this study, we show that the replication

  17. Replication of Human Herpesviruses Is Associated with Higher HIV DNA Levels during Antiretroviral Therapy Started at Early Phases of HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Christy M.; Var, Susanna R.; Oliveira, Michelli F.; Lada, Steven M.; Vargas, Milenka V.; Little, Susan J.; Richman, Douglas D.; Strain, Matthew C.; Pérez-Santiago, Josué; Smith, Davey M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Asymptomatic replication of human herpesviruses (HHV) is frequent in HIV-infected men and is associated with increased T-cell activation and HIV disease progression. We hypothesized that the presence of replication of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (the most frequently detected HHV) might influence HIV DNA decay during antiretroviral therapy (ART). We investigated 607 peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from 107 CMV-seropositive, HIV-infected men who have sex with men, who started ART within a median of 3 months from their estimated date of infection (EDI) and were monitored for a median of 19 months thereafter. Levels of HIV, CMV, and EBV DNA and cellular HIV RNA were measured by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) for each time point. Using a general linear mixed-effect regression model, we evaluated associations between the presence of detectable CMV DNA and EBV DNA levels and HIV DNA decay and cellular HIV RNA levels, while adjusting for peak HIV RNA, nadir CD4+ count, CD4/CD8 ratio, CMV IgG levels, time from EDI to ART initiation, time from ART initiation to virologic suppression, detectable CMV DNA pre-ART, and age. The presence of intermittent CMV DNA in PBMC during ART was significantly associated with slower decay of HIV DNA (P = 0.011) but not with increased cellular HIV RNA transcription or more detectable 2-long terminal repeat circles. Higher levels of EBV DNA were also associated with higher levels of HIV DNA (P < 0.001) and increased unspliced cellular HIV RNA transcription (P = 0.010). These observations suggest that replication of HHV may help maintain a larger HIV DNA reservoir, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. IMPORTANCE Over three-fourths of HIV-infected men have at least one actively replicating human herpesvirus (HHV) in their mucosal secretions at any one time. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are the most common, and although it is often asymptomatic, such CMV and EBV

  18. A small molecule compound IMB-LA inhibits HIV-1 infection by preventing viral Vpu from antagonizing the host restriction factor BST-2

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Zeyun; Ding, Jiwei; Zhang, Quan; Zhao, Jianyuan; Ma, Ling; Yu, Haisheng; Liu, Zhenlong; Shan, Guangzhi; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Jinming; Wei, Tao; Zhang, Liguo; Guo, Fei; Liang, Chen; Cen, Shan

    2015-01-01

    Human BST-2 inhibits HIV-1 replication by tethering nascent virions to the cell surface. HIV-1 codes Vpu that counteracts BST-2 by down-regulating this restriction factor from the cell surface. This important function makes Vpu a potential therapeutic target. Yet, no agents have been reported to block Vpu from antagonizing BST-2. In this study, we report a small molecule compound IMB-LA that abrogates the function of Vpu and thereby strongly suppresses HIV-1 replication by sensitizing the virus to BST-2 restriction. Further studies revealed that IMB-LA specifically inhibits Vpu-mediated degradation of BST-2 and restores the expression of BST-2 at the cell surface. Although IMB-LA does not prevent Vpu from interacting with BST-2 or β-TrCP2-containing ubiquitin E3 ligase, sorting of BST-2 into lysosomes in Vpu-expressing cells is blocked by IMB-LA. Most importantly, HIV-1 release and infection is inhibited by IMB-LA only in BST-2-expressing cells. In summary, results herein demonstrated that IMB-LA could specifically inhibit the degradation of BST-2 induced by Vpu, and impair HIV-1 replication in a BST-2 dependent manner, suggesting the feasibility of utilizing small molecule compounds to disable the antagonist function of Vpu and thereby expose HIV-1 to the restriction by BST-2. PMID:26669976

  19. Control of HIV-1 in Elite Suppressors despite Ongoing Replication and Evolution in Plasma Virus▿

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Karen A.; Brennan, Timothy P.; Bailey, Justin R.; Ray, Stuart C.; Siliciano, Robert F.; Blankson, Joel N.

    2010-01-01

    A subset of HIV-1-infected patients known as elite controllers or suppressors (ES) control the virus naturally. We have previously demonstrated sequence discordance between proviral and plasma gag clones in ES, much of which can be attributed to selective pressure from the host (J. R. Bailey, T. M. Williams, R. F. Siliciano, and J. N. Blankson, J. Exp. Med. 203:1357-1369, 2006). However, it is not clear whether ongoing viral replication continues in ES once the control of viremia has been established or whether selective pressure impacts this evolution. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response in ES often targets Gag and frequently is superior to that of HIV-1 progressors, partially due to the HLA class I alleles B*57/5801 and B*27, which are overrepresented in ES. We therefore examined longitudinal plasma and proviral gag sequences from HLA-B*57/5801 and -B*27 ES. Despite the highly conserved nature of gag, we observed clear evidence of evolution in the plasma virus, largely due to synonymous substitutions. In contrast, evolution was rare in proviral clones, suggesting that ongoing replication in ES does not permit the significant reseeding of the latent reservoir. Interestingly, there was little continual evolution in CTL epitopes, and we detected de novo CTL responses to autologous viral mutants. Thus, some ES control viremia despite ongoing replication and evolution. PMID:20444904

  20. Efficacy of Tat-Conjugated Ritonavir-Loaded Nanoparticles in Reducing HIV-1 Replication in Monocyte-Derived Macrophages and Cytocompatibility with Macrophages and Human Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Borgmann, Kathleen; Rao, Kavitha S.; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 targets mononuclear phagocytes (MP), which disseminate infection to organs such as brain, spleen and lymph. Thus MP, which include microglia, tissue macrophages and infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), are important target of anti-HIV-1 drug therapy. Most of the currently used antiretroviral drugs are effective in reducing viral loadin the periphery but cannot effectively eradicate infection from tissue reservoirs such as brain MP. HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system can lead to a wide variety of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. In this study, we demonstrate that ritonavir-loaded nanoparticles (RNPs) are effective in inhibiting HIV-1 infection of MDM. Reduced infection is observed in multiple read-out systems including reduction of cytopathic effects, HIV-1 p24 protein secretion and production of progeny virions. Furthermore, the RNPs retained antiretroviral efficacy after being removed from MDM cultures. As HIV-1-infected cells in the brain are likely to survive for a long period of time, both acute and chronic infection paradigms were evaluated. Tat-peptide-conjugated RNPs (Tat-RNP) were effective in both short-term and long-term HIV-1-infected MDM. Importantly, we confirm that delivery of RNPs, both with and without Tat-peptide conjugation, is toxic neither to MDM nor to neural cells, which may be bystander targets of the nanoformulations. In conclusion, Tat-NPs could be a safe and effective way of delivering anti-HIV-1 drugs for controlling viral replication occurring within brain MP. PMID:21175357

  1. Host factors dictate control of viral replication in two HIV-1 controller/chronic progressor transmission pairs.

    PubMed

    Buckheit, Robert W; Allen, Tracy G; Alme, Angela; Salgado, Maria; O'Connell, Karen A; Huculak, Sarah; Falade-Nwulia, Oluwaseun; Williams, Thomas M; Gallant, Joel E; Siliciano, Robert F; Blankson, Joel N

    2012-03-06

    Viremic controllers and elite controllers/suppressors maintain control over HIV-1 replication. Some studies have suggested that control is a result of infection with a defective viral strain, while others suggested host immune factors have a key role. Here we document two HIV-1 transmission pairs: one consisting of a patient with progressive disease and an individual who became an elite suppressor, and the second consisting of a patient with progressive disease and a viremic controller. In contrast to another elite suppressor transmission pair, virus isolated from all patients was fully competent. These data suggest that some viremic controllers and elite suppressors are infected with HIV-1 isolates that replicate vigorously in vitro and are able to cause progressive disease in vivo. These data suggest that host factors have a dominant role in the control of HIV-1 infection, thus it may be possible to control fully pathogenic HIV-1 isolates with therapeutic vaccination.

  2. Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection Increases Apoptosis and HIV-1 Replication in HIV-1 Infected Jurkat Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Tan, Jiying; Biswas, Santanu; Zhao, Jiangqin; Devadas, Krishnakumar; Ye, Zhiping; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-02-02

    Influenza virus infection has a significant impact on public health, since it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. It is not well-known whether influenza virus infection affects cell death and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 replication in HIV-1-infected patients. Using a lymphoma cell line, Jurkat, we examined the in vitro effects of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (pH1N1) infection on cell death and HIV-1 RNA production in infected cells. We found that pH1N1 infection increased apoptotic cell death through Fas and Bax-mediated pathways in HIV-1-infected Jurkat cells. Infection with pH1N1 virus could promote HIV-1 RNA production by activating host transcription factors including nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-ĸB), nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways and T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-related pathways. The replication of HIV-1 latent infection could be reactivated by pH1N1 infection through TCR and apoptotic pathways. These data indicate that HIV-1 replication can be activated by pH1N1 virus in HIV-1-infected cells resulting in induction of cell death through apoptotic pathways.

  3. Sequential steps in DNA replication are inhibited to ensure reduction of ploidy in meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Hui; Namdar, Mandana; Ganier, Olivier; Gregan, Juraj; Méchali, Marcel; Kearsey, Stephen E.

    2013-01-01

    Meiosis involves two successive rounds of chromosome segregation without an intervening S phase. Exit from meiosis I is distinct from mitotic exit, in that replication origins are not licensed by Mcm2-7 chromatin binding, but spindle disassembly occurs during a transient interphase-like state before meiosis II. The absence of licensing is assumed to explain the block to DNA replication, but this has not been formally tested. Here we attempt to subvert this block by expressing the licensing control factors Cdc18 and Cdt1 during the interval between meiotic nuclear divisions. Surprisingly, this leads only to a partial round of DNA replication, even when these factors are overexpressed and effect clear Mcm2-7 chromatin binding. Combining Cdc18 and Cdt1 expression with modulation of cyclin-dependent kinase activity, activation of Dbf4-dependent kinase, or deletion of the Spd1 inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase has little additional effect on the extent of DNA replication. Single-molecule analysis indicates this partial round of replication results from inefficient progression of replication forks, and thus both initiation and elongation replication steps may be inhibited in late meiosis. In addition, DNA replication or damage during the meiosis I–II interval fails to arrest meiotic progress, suggesting absence of checkpoint regulation of meiosis II entry. PMID:23303250

  4. Sequential steps in DNA replication are inhibited to ensure reduction of ploidy in meiosis.

    PubMed

    Hua, Hui; Namdar, Mandana; Ganier, Olivier; Gregan, Juraj; Méchali, Marcel; Kearsey, Stephen E

    2013-03-01

    Meiosis involves two successive rounds of chromosome segregation without an intervening S phase. Exit from meiosis I is distinct from mitotic exit, in that replication origins are not licensed by Mcm2-7 chromatin binding, but spindle disassembly occurs during a transient interphase-like state before meiosis II. The absence of licensing is assumed to explain the block to DNA replication, but this has not been formally tested. Here we attempt to subvert this block by expressing the licensing control factors Cdc18 and Cdt1 during the interval between meiotic nuclear divisions. Surprisingly, this leads only to a partial round of DNA replication, even when these factors are overexpressed and effect clear Mcm2-7 chromatin binding. Combining Cdc18 and Cdt1 expression with modulation of cyclin-dependent kinase activity, activation of Dbf4-dependent kinase, or deletion of the Spd1 inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase has little additional effect on the extent of DNA replication. Single-molecule analysis indicates this partial round of replication results from inefficient progression of replication forks, and thus both initiation and elongation replication steps may be inhibited in late meiosis. In addition, DNA replication or damage during the meiosis I-II interval fails to arrest meiotic progress, suggesting absence of checkpoint regulation of meiosis II entry.

  5. HIV-Enhancing and HIV-Inhibiting Properties of Cationic Peptides and Proteins.

    PubMed

    Cole, Alexander M; Cole, Amy L

    2017-05-15

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides and proteins have historically been ascribed roles in innate immunity that infer killing of microbial and viral pathogens and protection of the host. In the context of sexually transmitted HIV-1, we take an unconventional approach that questions this paradigm. It is becoming increasingly apparent that many of the cationic polypeptides present in the human genital or anorectal mucosa, or human semen, are capable of enhancing HIV-1 infection, often in addition to other reported roles as viral inhibitors. We explore how the in vivo environment may select for or against the HIV-enhancing aspects of these cationic polypeptides by focusing on biological relevance. We stress that the distinction between enhancing and inhibiting HIV-1 infection is not mutually exclusive to specific classes of cationic polypeptides. Understanding how virally enhancing peptides and proteins act to promote sexual transmission of HIV-1 would be important for the design of topical microbicides, mucosal vaccines, and other preventative measures.

  6. APOBEC3G restricts early HIV-1 replication in the cytoplasm of target cells.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jenny L; Hope, Thomas J

    2008-05-25

    Cellular APOBEC3G (A3G) protein is packaged into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions in producer cells yet restricts viral replication in target cells. To characterize this restriction in target cells, the effect of A3G on generating various HIV-1 cDNA products was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. A3G decreased cDNA products from Vif-deficient HIV-1, with minor effects on early reverse transcripts and larger declines in late reverse transcripts. However, the greatest decline was typically observed in nuclear 2-LTR circles. Moreover, the magnitude of these declines varied with A3G dose. Adding integration inhibitor did not stop the A3G-mediated loss in 2-LTR circles. Moreover, obstructing HIV-1 nuclear entry using vesicular stomatitis virus matrix protein did not stop the A3G-mediated decline in late reverse transcripts. Collectively, these data suggest that A3G has important restriction activity in the cytoplasm and progressively diminishes viral cytoplasmic and nuclear cDNA forms with increasing magnitude during restriction.

  7. Replicating impact of a primary school HIV prevention programme: primary school action for better health, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Maticka-Tyndale, E; Mungwete, R; Jayeoba, O

    2014-08-01

    School-based programmes to combat the spread of HIV have been demonstrated to be effective over the short-term when delivered on a small scale. The question addressed here is whether results obtained with small-scale delivery are replicable in large-scale roll-out. Primary School Action for Better Health (PSABH), a programme to train teachers to deliver HIV-prevention education in upper primary-school grades in Kenya demonstrated positive impact when tested in Nyanza Province. This article reports pre-, 10-month post- and 22-month post-training results as PSABH was delivered in five additional regions of the country. A total of 26 461 students from 110 primary schools in urban and rural, middle- and low-income settings participated in this repeated cross-sectional study. Students ranged in age from 11 to 16 years, were predominantly Christian (10% Muslim), and the majority were from five different ethnic groups. Results demonstrated positive gains in knowledge, self-efficacy related to changes in sexual behaviours and condom use, acceptance of HIV+ students, endorsement of HIV-testing and behaviours to post-pone sexual debut or decrease sexual activity. These results are as strong as or stronger than those demonstrated in the original impact evaluation conducted in Nyanza Province. They support the roll-out of the programme across Kenyan primary schools.

  8. APOBEC3G Inhibits HIV-1 RNA Elongation by Inactivating the Viral Trans-Activation Response Element

    PubMed Central

    Nowarski, Roni; Prabhu, Ponnandy; Kenig, Edan; Smith, Yoav; Britan-Rosich, Elena; Kotler, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Deamination of cytidine residues in viral DNA (vDNA) is a major mechanism by which APOBEC3G (A3G) inhibits vif-deficient HIV-1 replication. dC to dU transition following RNase-H activity leads to viral cDNA degradation, production of non-functional proteins, formation of undesired stop codons and decreased viral protein synthesis. Here we demonstrate that A3G provides an additional layer of defence against HIV-1 infection dependent on inhibition of proviral transcription. HIV-1 transcription elongation is regulated by the trans-activation response (TAR) element, a short stem-loop RNA structure required for elongation factors binding. Vif-deficient HIV-1-infected cells accumulate short viral transcripts and produce lower amounts of full-length HIV-1 transcripts due to A3G deamination of the TAR apical loop cytidine, highlighting the requirement for TAR loop integrity in HIV-1 transcription. Finally, we show that free ssDNA termini are not essential for A3G activity and a gap of CCC motif blocked with juxtaposed DNA or RNA on either or 3′+5′ ends is sufficient for A3G deamination, identifying A3G as an efficient mutator, and that deamination of (−)SSDNA results in an early block of HIV-1 transcription. PMID:24859335

  9. APOBEC3G inhibits HIV-1 RNA elongation by inactivating the viral trans-activation response element.

    PubMed

    Nowarski, Roni; Prabhu, Ponnandy; Kenig, Edan; Smith, Yoav; Britan-Rosich, Elena; Kotler, Moshe

    2014-07-29

    Deamination of cytidine residues in viral DNA is a major mechanism by which APOBEC3G (A3G) inhibits vif-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. dC-to-dU transition following RNase-H activity leads to viral cDNA degradation, production of non-functional proteins, formation of undesired stop codons and decreased viral protein synthesis. Here, we demonstrate that A3G provides an additional layer of defense against HIV-1 infection dependent on inhibition of proviral transcription. HIV-1 transcription elongation is regulated by the trans-activation response (TAR) element, a short stem-loop RNA structure required for elongation factors binding. Vif-deficient HIV-1-infected cells accumulate short viral transcripts and produce lower amounts of full-length HIV-1 transcripts due to A3G deamination of the TAR apical loop cytidine, highlighting the requirement for TAR loop integrity in HIV-1 transcription. We further show that free single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) termini are not essential for A3G activity and a gap of CCC motif blocked with juxtaposed DNA or RNA on either or 3'+5' ends is sufficient for A3G deamination. These results identify A3G as an efficient mutator and that deamination of (-)SSDNA results in an early block of HIV-1 transcription. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Potential inhibition of HIV-1 encapsidation by oligoribonucleotide–dendrimer nanoparticle complexes

    PubMed Central

    Parboosing, Raveen; Chonco, Louis; de la Mata, Francisco Javier; Govender, Thavendran; Maguire, Glenn EM; Kruger, Hendrik G

    2017-01-01

    Background Encapsidation, the process during which the genomic RNA of HIV is packaged into viral particles, is an attractive target for antiviral therapy. This study explores a novel nanotechnology-based strategy to inhibit HIV encapsidation by an RNA decoy mechanism. The design of the 16-mer oligoribonucleotide (RNA) decoy is based on the sequence of stem loop 3 (SL3) of the HIV packaging signal (Ψ). Recognition of the packaging signal is essential to the encapsidation process. It is theorized that the decoy RNA, by mimicking the packaging signal, will disrupt HIV packaging if efficiently delivered into lymphocytes by complexation with a carbosilane dendrimer. The aim of the study is to measure the uptake, toxicity, and antiviral activity of the dendrimer–RNA nanocomplex. Materials and methods A dendriplex was formed between cationic carbosilane dendrimers and the RNA decoy. Uptake of the fluorescein-labeled RNA into MT4 lymphocytes was determined by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The cytoprotective effect (50% effective concentration [EC50]) and the effect on HIV replication were determined in vitro by the methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and viral load measurements, respectively. Results Flow cytometry and confocal imaging demonstrated efficient transfection of lymphocytes. The dendriplex containing the Ψ decoy showed some activity (EC50 =3.20 µM, selectivity index =8.4). However, there was no significant suppression of HIV viral load. Conclusion Oligoribonucleotide decoys containing SL3 of the packaging sequence are efficiently delivered into lymphocytes by carbosilane dendrimers where they exhibit a modest cytoprotective effect against HIV infection. PMID:28115849

  11. Genital Cytomegalovirus Replication Predicts Syphilis Acquisition among HIV-1 Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Gianella, Sara; Smith, Davey M.; Daar, Eric S.; Dube, Michael P.; Lisco, Andrea; Vanpouille, Christophe; Margolis, Leonid; Haubrich, Richard H.; Morris, Sheldon R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are common among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). While behavioral factors are important in STI acquisition, other biological factors such as immune modulation due to chronic viral infection may further predispose to STI acquisition. Design Post Hoc analysis including data collected over 12 months of follow-up from 131 HIV-infected MSM receiving antiretroviral therapy and screened for incident bacterial STI every 3 months. Methods Genital secretions collected at baseline were used to measure herpesvirus replication and inflammatory cytokines. Baseline predictors of STI were determined using survival analysis of time to incident STI. Results All participants were seropositive for cytomegalovirus (CMV), and 52% had detectable genital CMV at baseline. Thirty-five individuals acquired STI during follow-up, sometimes with multiple pathogen (17 syphilis, 21 gonorrhea, 14 chlamydia). Syphilis acquisition was associated with genital CMV replication at baseline (19.1% CMV-shedders versus 4.8% non-shedders, p=0.03) and younger age (p=0.02). Lower seminal MCP-1 was associated with higher seminal CMV levels and with syphilis acquisition (p<0.01). For syphilis acquisition, in multivariable Cox-Proportional Hazard model adjusted hazard rates were 3.56 (95%CI:1.00–12.73) for baseline CMV replication and 2.50 (0.92–6.77) for younger age. Conclusions This post hoc analysis suggest that CMV-associated decrease in seminal MCP-1 levels might predispose HIV-infected MSM to syphilis acquisition, but not other STI. Future studies should determine underlying mechanisms and if a causal association exists. PMID:26061824

  12. Garcinol Inhibits GCN5-Mediated Lysine Acetyltransferase Activity and Prevents Replication of the Parasite Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Jeffers, Victoria; Gao, Hongyu; Checkley, Lisa A.; Liu, Yunlong; Ferdig, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a critical posttranslational modification that influences protein activity, stability, and binding properties. The acetylation of histone proteins in particular is a well-characterized feature of gene expression regulation. In the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, a number of lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) contribute to gene expression and are essential for parasite viability. The natural product garcinol was recently reported to inhibit enzymatic activities of GCN5 and p300 family KATs in other species. Here we show that garcinol inhibits TgGCN5b, the only nuclear GCN5 family KAT known to be required for Toxoplasma tachyzoite replication. Treatment of tachyzoites with garcinol led to a reduction of global lysine acetylation, particularly on histone H3 and TgGCN5b itself. We also performed transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), which revealed increasing aberrant gene expression coincident with increasing concentrations of garcinol. The majority of the genes that were most significantly affected by garcinol were also associated with TgGCN5b in a previously reported chromatin immunoprecipitation assay with microarray technology (ChIP-chip) analysis. The dysregulated gene expression induced by garcinol significantly inhibits Toxoplasma tachyzoite replication, and the concentrations used exhibit no overt toxicity on human host cells. Garcinol also inhibits Plasmodium falciparum asexual replication with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) similar to that for Toxoplasma. Together, these data support that pharmacological inhibition of TgGCN5b leads to a catastrophic failure in gene expression control that prevents parasite replication. PMID:26810649

  13. The JAK2 inhibitor AZD1480 inhibits hepatitis A virus replication in Huh7 cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xia; Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakamoto, Shingo; Saito, Kengo; Nakamura, Masato; Wu, Shuang; Haga, Yuki; Sasaki, Reina; Sakamoto, Naoya; Shirasawa, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-03-20

    The JAK2 inhibitor AZD1480 has been reported to inhibit La protein expression. We previously demonstrated that the inhibition of La expression could inhibit hepatitis A virus (HAV) internal ribosomal entry-site (IRES)-mediated translation and HAV replication in vitro. In this study, we analyzed the effects of AZD1480 on HAV IRES-mediated translation and replication. HAV IRES-mediated translation in COS7-HAV-IRES cells was inhibited by 0.1-1 μM AZD1480, a dosage that did not affect cell viability. Results showed a significant reduction in intracellular HAV HA11-1299 genotype IIIA RNA levels in Huh7 cells treated with AZD1480. Furthermore, AZD1480 inhibited the expression of phosphorylated-(Tyr-705)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and La in Huh7 cells. Therefore, we propose that AZD1480 can inhibit HAV IRES activity and HAV replication through the inhibition of the La protein.

  14. Dextran Sulfate Suppression of Viruses in the HIV Family: Inhibition of Virion Binding to CD4+ Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Looney, David J.; Kuno, Sachiko; Ueno, Ryuji; Wong-Staal, Flossie; Broder, Samuel

    1988-04-01

    The first step in the infection of human T lymphocytes by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is attachment to the target cell receptor, the CD4 antigen. This step may be vulnerable to attack by antibodies, chemicals, or small peptides. Dextran sulfate (molecular weight approximately 8000), which has been given to patients as an anticoagulant or antilipemic agent for more than two decades, was found to block the binding of virions to various target T lymphocytes, inhibit syncytia formation, and exert a potent inhibitory effect against HIV-1 in vitro at concentrations that may be clinically attainable in human beings. This drug also suppressed the replication of HIV-2 in vitro. These observations could have theoretical and clinical implications in the strategy to develop drugs against HIV types 1 and 2.

  15. Identification of a novel family of nucleosides that specifically inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, C; Lobatón, E; Bonache, M C; De Clercq, E; Balzarini, J; Velázquez, S; San-Félix, A; Camarasa, M J

    2001-12-03

    N-3-Benzyloxycarbonylmethyl- and N-3-carboxymethyl-TBDMS-substituted nucleosides were synthesized and evaluated for activity against HIV replication. It was found that the N-3-carboxymethyl-TBDMS-substituted nucleosides were specific inhibitors of HIV-1 replication. They should be considered as members of a novel and original class of NNRTIs.

  16. [Replication process of HIV: with a central focus on the viral genome].

    PubMed

    Sakuragi, Jun-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    It has been 30 years passed since the discovery of HIVs as the agents of AIDS. During the period, many energetic research works about this gigantic menace have been performed globally and many outcomes have been applied to intercept the epidemic. Because of a brilliant progress of the therapeutic strategy, it is said that AIDS is no longer the deadly disease, but one of the mere chronic disease nowadays. On the other hand, giving an eye to the virus itself, many dark gaps are found in a superficially good-looking story of the viral replication. Thus, we are still far from fundamental understanding of the virus. In this review, I especially pick up the viral genome RNA as a central player of the story and give an introduction about various steps of viral replication. With several recent reports, I will exposit well-known and/or unclear events around virus.

  17. Inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B activation reduces Coxsackievirus B3 replication in lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Sobotta, Katharina; Wilsky, Steffi; Althof, Nadine; Wiesener, Nadine; Wutzler, Peter; Henke, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Interactions between viral replication machineries and host cell metabolism display interesting information how certain viruses capitalize cellular pathways to support progeny production. Among those pathogens, Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) has been identified to manipulate intracellular signaling very comprehensively. Next to others, this human pathogenic virus causes acute and chronic forms of myocarditis, pancreatitis, and meningitis. Here, activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) signaling appears to be involved in successful infection. Viral replication is not restricted to solid organs but involves susceptible immune cells as well. In the present study, p65 phosphorylation as one aspect of NFκB activation and inhibition via BAY 11-7085 administration was analyzed in the context of CVB3 replication in lymphoid cells. During CVB3 infection, an up-regulation of p65 translation is detectable, which is accompanied by noticeable phosphorylation. Inhibition of NFκB signaling reduces viral replication in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, these results indicate that during CVB3 replication in human and murine lymphoid cells, NFκB signaling is activated and facilitates viral replication. Therefore, antiviral strategies to target such central cellular signaling pathways may represent potential possibilities for the development of new virostatica.

  18. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) inhibits replication and viral morphogenesis of dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Soto-Acosta, Rubén; Bautista-Carbajal, Patricia; Syed, Gulam H; Siddiqui, Aleem; Del Angel, Rosa M

    2014-09-01

    Dengue is the most common mosquito borne viral disease in humans. The infection with any of the 4 dengue virus serotypes (DENV) can either be asymptomatic or manifest in two clinical forms, the mild dengue fever or the more severe dengue hemorrhagic fever that may progress into dengue shock syndrome. A DENV replicative cycle relies on host lipid metabolism; specifically, DENV infection modulates cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis, generating a lipid-enriched cellular environment necessary for viral replication. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the anti-DENV effect of the Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), a hypolipidemic agent with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. A dose-dependent inhibition in viral yield and NS1 secretion was observed in supernatants of infected cells treated for 24 and 48 h with different concentrations of NDGA. To evaluate the effect of NDGA in DENV replication, a DENV4 replicon transfected Vero cells were treated with different concentrations of NDGA. NDGA treatment significantly reduced DENV replication, reiterating the importance of lipids in viral replication. NDGA treatment also led to reduction in number of lipid droplets (LDs), the neutral lipid storage organelles involved in DENV morphogenesis that are known to increase in number during DENV infection. Furthermore, NDGA treatment resulted in dissociation of the C protein from LDs. Overall our results suggest that NDGA inhibits DENV infection by targeting genome replication and viral assembly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cdt1 downregulation by proteolysis and geminin inhibition prevents DNA re-replication in Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Anatoliy; Blow, J Julian

    2005-01-01

    In late mitosis and G1, Mcm2–7 are assembled onto replication origins to ‘license' them for initiation. At other cell cycle stages, licensing is inhibited, thus ensuring that origins fire only once per cell cycle. Three additional factors—the origin recognition complex, Cdc6 and Cdt1—are required for origin licensing. We examine here how licensing is regulated in Xenopus egg extracts. We show that Cdt1 is downregulated late in the cell cycle by two different mechanisms: proteolysis, which occurs in part due to the activity of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C), and inhibition by a protein called geminin. If both these regulatory mechanisms are abrogated, extracts undergo uncontrolled re-licensing and re-replication. The extent of re-replication is limited by checkpoint kinases that are activated as a consequence of re-replication itself. These results allow us to build a comprehensive model of how re-replication of DNA is prevented in Xenopus, with Cdt1 regulation being the key feature. The results also explain the original experiments that led to the proposal of a replication licensing factor. PMID:15616577

  20. Trichomonas vaginalis-Induced Epithelial Monolayer Disruption and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Replication: Implications for the Sexual Transmission of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Guenthner, Patricia C.; Secor, W. Evan; Dezzutti, Charlene S.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate potential mechanisms of Trichomonas vaginalis involvement in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission. Polarized monolayer integrity of primary cervical and prostate epithelial cells or cell lines cultured with T. vaginalis was measured by monitoring transepithelium resistance. The effect of T. vaginalis isolates on HIV-1 passage through polarized epithelial cell monolayers was evaluated for HIV-1 p24gag in the basolateral supernatants. Coincubation with T. vaginalis isolates induced disruption of monolayer integrity and resulted in passage of virus to the basolateral side of the monolayer. Furthermore, there was isolate variability in which two isolates induced greater monolayer damage and increased HIV-1 passage than did the other two isolates. Coincubation of T. vaginalis isolates with acutely HIV-1-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells enhanced HIV-1 replication. This enhancement was associated with cellular proliferation and activation, as well as with tumor necrosis factor alpha production. In contrast to the monolayer disruption, the effect of T. vaginalis on HIV-1 replication was not isolate dependent. Thus, two mechanisms have been identified that could contribute to the epidemiologic association of trichomoniasis with the sexual transmission of HIV-1. (i) T. vaginalis disruption of urogenital epithelial monolayers could facilitate passage of HIV-1 to underlying layers. (ii) Activation of local immune cells by T. vaginalis in the presence of infectious HIV-1 might lead to increased viral replication. Collectively, these data suggest the need for more vigilant efforts in the diagnosis and treatment of T. vaginalis in women and men, especially in countries with a high prevalence of HIV-1. PMID:15972505

  1. Trichomonas vaginalis-induced epithelial monolayer disruption and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication: implications for the sexual transmission of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, Patricia C; Secor, W Evan; Dezzutti, Charlene S

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate potential mechanisms of Trichomonas vaginalis involvement in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission. Polarized monolayer integrity of primary cervical and prostate epithelial cells or cell lines cultured with T. vaginalis was measured by monitoring transepithelium resistance. The effect of T. vaginalis isolates on HIV-1 passage through polarized epithelial cell monolayers was evaluated for HIV-1 p24gag in the basolateral supernatants. Coincubation with T. vaginalis isolates induced disruption of monolayer integrity and resulted in passage of virus to the basolateral side of the monolayer. Furthermore, there was isolate variability in which two isolates induced greater monolayer damage and increased HIV-1 passage than did the other two isolates. Coincubation of T. vaginalis isolates with acutely HIV-1-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells enhanced HIV-1 replication. This enhancement was associated with cellular proliferation and activation, as well as with tumor necrosis factor alpha production. In contrast to the monolayer disruption, the effect of T. vaginalis on HIV-1 replication was not isolate dependent. Thus, two mechanisms have been identified that could contribute to the epidemiologic association of trichomoniasis with the sexual transmission of HIV-1. (i) T. vaginalis disruption of urogenital epithelial monolayers could facilitate passage of HIV-1 to underlying layers. (ii) Activation of local immune cells by T. vaginalis in the presence of infectious HIV-1 might lead to increased viral replication. Collectively, these data suggest the need for more vigilant efforts in the diagnosis and treatment of T. vaginalis in women and men, especially in countries with a high prevalence of HIV-1.

  2. Imipramine Inhibits Chikungunya Virus Replication in Human Skin Fibroblasts through Interference with Intracellular Cholesterol Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Wichit, Sineewanlaya; Hamel, Rodolphe; Bernard, Eric; Talignani, Loïc; Diop, Fodé; Ferraris, Pauline; Liegeois, Florian; Ekchariyawat, Peeraya; Luplertlop, Natthanej; Surasombatpattana, Pornapat; Thomas, Frédéric; Merits, Andres; Choumet, Valérie; Roques, Pierre; Yssel, Hans; Briant, Laurence; Missé, Dorothée

    2017-06-09

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Togaviridae family that poses a present worldwide threat to human in the absence of any licensed vaccine or antiviral treatment to control viral infection. Here, we show that compounds interfering with intracellular cholesterol transport have the capacity to inhibit CHIKV replication in human skin fibroblasts, a major viral entry site in the human host. Pretreatment of these cells with the class II cationic amphiphilic compound U18666A, or treatment with the FDA-approved antidepressant drug imipramine resulted in a near total inhibition of viral replication and production at the highest concentration used without any cytotoxic effects. Imipramine was found to affect both the fusion and replication steps of the viral life cycle. The key contribution of cholesterol availability to the CHIKV life cycle was validated further by the use of fibroblasts from Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) patients in which the virus was unable to replicate. Interestingly, imipramine also strongly inhibited the replication of several Flaviviridae family members, including Zika, West Nile and Dengue virus. Together, these data show that this compound is a potential drug candidate for anti-arboviral treatment.

  3. Replication of many human viruses is refractory to inhibition by endogenous cellular microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Bogerd, Hal P; Skalsky, Rebecca L; Kennedy, Edward M; Furuse, Yuki; Whisnant, Adam W; Flores, Omar; Schultz, Kimberly L W; Putnam, Nicole; Barrows, Nicholas J; Sherry, Barbara; Scholle, Frank; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A; Griffin, Diane E; Cullen, Bryan R

    2014-07-01

    The issue of whether viruses are subject to restriction by endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) and/or by virus-induced small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in infected human somatic cells has been controversial. Here, we address this question in two ways. First, using deep sequencing, we demonstrate that infection of human cells by the RNA virus dengue virus (DENV) or West Nile virus (WNV) does not result in the production of any virus-derived siRNAs or viral miRNAs. Second, to more globally assess the potential of small regulatory RNAs to inhibit virus replication, we used gene editing to derive human cell lines that lack a functional Dicer enzyme and that therefore are unable to produce miRNAs or siRNAs. Infection of these cells with a wide range of viruses, including DENV, WNV, yellow fever virus, Sindbis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, measles virus, influenza A virus, reovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, or herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), failed to reveal any enhancement in the replication of any of these viruses, although HSV-1, which encodes at least eight Dicer-dependent viral miRNAs, did replicate somewhat more slowly in the absence of Dicer. We conclude that most, and perhaps all, human viruses have evolved to be resistant to inhibition by endogenous human miRNAs during productive replication and that dependence on a cellular miRNA, as seen with hepatitis C virus, is rare. How viruses have evolved to avoid inhibition by endogenous cellular miRNAs, which are generally highly conserved during metazoan evolution, remains to be determined. Importance: Eukaryotic cells express a wide range of small regulatory RNAs, including miRNAs, that have the potential to inhibit the expression of mRNAs that show sequence complementarity. Indeed, previous work has suggested that endogenous miRNAs have the potential to inhibit viral gene expression and replication. Here, we demonstrate that the replication of a wide range of

  4. Replication of Many Human Viruses Is Refractory to Inhibition by Endogenous Cellular MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Bogerd, Hal P.; Skalsky, Rebecca L.; Kennedy, Edward M.; Furuse, Yuki; Whisnant, Adam W.; Flores, Omar; Schultz, Kimberly L. W.; Putnam, Nicole; Barrows, Nicholas J.; Sherry, Barbara; Scholle, Frank; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.; Griffin, Diane E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The issue of whether viruses are subject to restriction by endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) and/or by virus-induced small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in infected human somatic cells has been controversial. Here, we address this question in two ways. First, using deep sequencing, we demonstrate that infection of human cells by the RNA virus dengue virus (DENV) or West Nile virus (WNV) does not result in the production of any virus-derived siRNAs or viral miRNAs. Second, to more globally assess the potential of small regulatory RNAs to inhibit virus replication, we used gene editing to derive human cell lines that lack a functional Dicer enzyme and that therefore are unable to produce miRNAs or siRNAs. Infection of these cells with a wide range of viruses, including DENV, WNV, yellow fever virus, Sindbis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, measles virus, influenza A virus, reovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, or herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), failed to reveal any enhancement in the replication of any of these viruses, although HSV-1, which encodes at least eight Dicer-dependent viral miRNAs, did replicate somewhat more slowly in the absence of Dicer. We conclude that most, and perhaps all, human viruses have evolved to be resistant to inhibition by endogenous human miRNAs during productive replication and that dependence on a cellular miRNA, as seen with hepatitis C virus, is rare. How viruses have evolved to avoid inhibition by endogenous cellular miRNAs, which are generally highly conserved during metazoan evolution, remains to be determined. IMPORTANCE Eukaryotic cells express a wide range of small regulatory RNAs, including miRNAs, that have the potential to inhibit the expression of mRNAs that show sequence complementarity. Indeed, previous work has suggested that endogenous miRNAs have the potential to inhibit viral gene expression and replication. Here, we demonstrate that the replication of a wide range of

  5. Relationship between chemokine receptor expression, chemokine levels and HIV-1 replication in the lungs of persons exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kalsdorf, Barbara; Skolimowska, Keira H; Scriba, Thomas J; Dawson, Rod; Dheda, Keertan; Wood, Kathryn; Hofmeister, Jessica; Hanekom, Willem A; Lange, Christoph; Wilkinson, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Increased susceptibility to tuberculosis following HIV-1 seroconversion contributes significantly to the tuberculosis epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Lung-specific mechanisms underlying the interaction between HIV-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection are incompletely understood. Here we address these questions by examining the effect of HIV-1 and latent M. tuberculosis co-infection on the expression of viral-entry receptors and ligands in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of HIV-1-infected and -uninfected patients with and without latent M. tuberculosis infection. Irrespective of HIV-1 status, T cells from BAL expressed higher levels of the beta-chemokine receptor (CCR)5 than peripheral blood T cells, in particular the CD8+ T cells of HIV-1-infected persons showed elevated CCR5 expression. The concentrations of the CCR5 ligands RANTES and MIP-1β were elevated in the BAL of HIV-1-infected persons compared with that in HIV-1-uninfected controls. CCR5 expression and RANTES concentration correlated strongly with HIV-1 viral load in the BAL. In contrast, these alterations were not associated with M. tuberculosis sensitisation in vivo, nor did M. tuberculosis infection of BAL cells ex vivo change RANTES expression. These data suggest ongoing HIV-1 replication predominantly drives local pulmonary CCR5+ T-cell activation in HIV/latent M. tuberculosis co-infection. PMID:23147374

  6. uS10, a novel Npro-interacting protein, inhibits classical swine fever virus replication.

    PubMed

    Lv, Huifang; Dong, Wang; Qian, Gui; Wang, Jie; Li, Xiaomeng; Cao, Zhi; Lv, Qizhuang; Wang, Chengbao; Guo, Kangkang; Zhang, Yanming

    2017-07-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a severe, febrile and highly contagious disease caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV) that has resulted in huge economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. CSFV Npro has been actively studied but remains incompletely understood. Few studies have investigated the cellular proteins that interact with Npro and their participation in viral replication. Here, the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system was employed to screen Npro-interacting proteins from a porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cDNA library, and a blast search of the NCBI database revealed that 15 cellular proteins interact with Npro. The interaction of Npro with ribosomal protein S20, also known as universal S10 (uS10), was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays. Furthermore, uS10 overexpression inhibited CSFV replication, whereas the knockdown of uS10 promoted CSFV replication in PAMs. In addition, Npro or CSFV reduced uS10 expression in PAMs in a proteasome-dependent manner, indicating that Npro-uS10 interaction might contribute to persistent CSFV replication. Our previous research showed that CSFV decreases Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) expression. The results showed that uS10 knockdown reduced TLR3 expression, and that uS10 overexpression increased TLR3 expression. Notably, uS10 knockdown did not promote CSFV replication following TLR3 overexpression. Conversely, uS10 overexpression did not inhibit CSFV replication following TLR3 knockdown. These results revealed that uS10 inhibits CSFV replication by modulating TLR3 expression. This work addresses a novel aspect of the regulation of the innate antiviral immune response during CSFV infection.

  7. Salicylates Inhibit Flavivirus Replication Independently of Blocking Nuclear Factor Kappa B Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Ching-Len; Lin, Yi-Ling; Wu, Bi-Ching; Tsao, Chang-Huei; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Liu, Chiu-I; Huang, Yue-Ling; Chen, Jui-Hui; Wang, Jia-Pey; Chen, Li-Kuang

    2001-01-01

    Flaviviruses comprise a positive-sense RNA genome that replicates exclusively in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Whether flaviviruses require an activated nuclear factor(s) to complete their life cycle and trigger apoptosis in infected cells remains elusive. Flavivirus infections quickly activate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and salicylates have been shown to inhibit NF-κB activation. In this study, we investigated whether salicylates suppress flavivirus replication and virus-induced apoptosis in cultured cells. In a dose-dependent inhibition, we found salicylates within a range of 1 to 5 mM not only restricted flavivirus replication but also abrogated flavivirus-triggered apoptosis. However, flavivirus replication was not affected by a specific NF-κB peptide inhibitor, SN50, and a proteosome inhibitor, lactacystin. Flaviviruses also replicated and triggered apoptosis in cells stably expressing IκBα-ΔN, a dominant-negative mutant that antagonizes NF-κB activation, as readily as in wild-type BHK-21 cells, suggesting that NF-κB activation is not essential for either flavivirus replication or flavivirus-induced apoptosis. Salicylates still diminished flavivirus replication and blocked apoptosis in the same IκBα-ΔN cells. This inhibition of flaviviruses by salicylates could be partially reversed by a specific p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitor, SB203580. Together, these results show that the mechanism by which salicylates suppress flavivirus infection may involve p38 MAP kinase activity but is independent of blocking the NF-κB pathway. PMID:11483726

  8. Aphidicolin inhibition of the production of replicative-form DNA during bovine parvovirus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, A T; Stout, E R; Bates, R C

    1984-01-01

    Since parvoviruses apparently do not possess a DNA polymerase activity, one or more of the host cell DNA polymerases must be responsible for replicating the single-stranded DNA genome. We have focused on determining which polymerase, alpha, beta, or gamma (pol alpha, pol beta, or pol gamma, respectively), is responsible for the first step in bovine parvoviral DNA replication: conversion of the single-stranded DNA genome to a parental replicative form (RF). In this study, we used aphidicolin, a specific inhibitor of DNA pol alpha, to assay for the requirement of pol alpha activity in parental RF formation in vivo. Synchronized cell cultures were infected with bovine parvovirus with or without aphidicolin, and the products of viral replication were separated on agarose gels and identified by Southern blot analysis. We found that complete inhibition of viral DNA synthesis resulted when 20 microM aphidicolin was present throughout the infection. In addition, viral DNA synthesis was inhibited by as little as 1 microM aphidicolin, whereas lower concentrations (0.1 and 0.01 microM) resulted in partial inhibition of the replication process. Using 32P-labeled bovine parvovirus as the input virus we differentiated parental RF from daughter RF and progeny DNA synthesis. We conclude that DNA pol alpha is required for the production of RF during bovine parvovirus replication in vivo and that this requirement is most likely for the conversion of bovine parvovirus input single-stranded DNA to parental RF. These results do not rule out a possible role for DNA pol gamma in the first step, nor do they rule out a role for pol alpha or pol gamma in later stages of the replication cycle. Images PMID:6422050

  9. Inhibition of fatty acid synthase by amentoflavone reduces coxsackievirus B3 replication.

    PubMed

    Wilsky, Steffi; Sobotta, Katharina; Wiesener, Nadine; Pilas, Johanna; Althof, Nadine; Munder, Thomas; Wutzler, Peter; Henke, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is a human pathogen that causes acute and chronic infections, but an antiviral drug to treat these diseases has not yet been developed for clinical use. Several intracellular pathways are altered to assist viral transcription, RNA replication, and progeny release. Among these, fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression is increased. In order to test the potential of FAS inhibition as an anti-CVB3 strategy, several experiments were performed, including studies on the correlation of CVB3 replication and FAS expression in human Raji cells and an analysis of the time and dose dependence of the antiviral effect of FAS inhibition due to treatment with amentoflavone. The results demonstrate that CVB3 infection induces an up-regulation of FAS expression already at 1 h postinfection (p.i.). Incubation with increasing concentrations of amentoflavone inhibited CVB3 replication significantly up to 8 h p.i. In addition, suppression of p38 MAP kinase activity by treatment with SB239063 decreased FAS expression as well as viral replication. These data provide evidence that FAS inhibition via amentoflavone administration might present a target for anti-CVB3 therapy.

  10. Interferon-Inducible Cholesterol-25-Hydroxylase Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Replication via Distinct Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yongzhi; Wang, Shanshan; Yi, Zhaohong; Tian, Huabin; Aliyari, Roghiyh; Li, Yanhua; Chen, Gang; Liu, Ping; Zhong, Jin; Chen, Xinwen; Du, Peishuang; Su, Lishan; Qin, F. Xiao-Feng; Deng, Hongyu; Cheng, Genhong

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) as an interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) has recently been shown to exert broad antiviral activity through the production of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC), which is believed to inhibit the virus-cell membrane fusion during viral entry. However, little is known about the function of CH25H on HCV infection and replication and whether antiviral function of CH25H is exclusively mediated by 25HC. In the present study, we have found that although 25HC produced by CH25H can inhibit HCV replication, CH25H mutants lacking the hydroxylase activity still carry the antiviral activity against HCV but not other viruses such as MHV-68. Further studies have revealed that CH25H can interact with the NS5A protein of HCV and inhibit its dimer formation, which is essential for HCV replication. Thus, our work has uncovered a novel mechanism by which CH25H restricts HCV replication, suggesting that CH25H inhibits viral infection through both 25HC-dependent and independent events. PMID:25467815

  11. Suppression of autophagy by mycophenolic acid contributes to inhibition of HCV replication in human hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shoucai; Su, Jinming; Liang, Bingyu; Li, Xu; Li, Yu; Jiang, Junjun; Huang, Jiegang; Zhou, Bo; Ning, Chuanyi; Li, Jieliang; Ho, Wenzhe; Li, Yiping; Chen, Hui; Liang, Hao; Ye, Li

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that mycophenolic acid (MPA) has an anti-HCV activity. However, the mechanism of MPA-mediated inhibition of HCV replication remains to be determined. This study investigated whether MPA has an effect on autophagy, a cellular machinery required for HCV replication, thereby, inhibits HCV replication in Huh7 cells. MPA treatment of Huh7 cells could suppress autophagy, evidenced by decreased LC3B-II level and conversion of LC3B-I to LC3B-II, decreased autophagosome formation, and increased p62 level compared to MPA-untreated cells. Tunicamycin treatment or HCV infection could induce cellular autophagy, however, MPA also exhibited its inhibitory effect on tunicamycin- or HCV infection-induced autophagy. The expression of three autophagy-related genes, Atg3, Atg5, and Atg7 were identified to be inhibited by MPA treatment. Over-expression of these genes could partly recover HCV replication inhibited by MPA; however, silencing their expression by siRNAs could enhance the inhibitory effect of MPA on HCV. Collectively, these results reveal that suppression of autophagy by MPA plays a role in its anti-HCV activity. Down-regulating the expression of three autophagy-related genes by MPA involves in its antiviral mechanism. PMID:28276509

  12. ACH-806, an NS4A antagonist, inhibits hepatitis C virus replication by altering the composition of viral replication complexes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wengang; Sun, Yongnian; Hou, Xiaohong; Zhao, Yongsen; Fabrycki, Joanne; Chen, Dawei; Wang, Xiangzhu; Agarwal, Atul; Phadke, Avinash; Deshpande, Milind; Huang, Mingjun

    2013-07-01

    Treatment of hepatitis C patients with direct-acting antiviral drugs involves the combination of multiple small-molecule inhibitors of distinctive mechanisms of action. ACH-806 (or GS-9132) is a novel, small-molecule inhibitor specific for hepatitis C virus (HCV). It inhibits viral RNA replication in HCV replicon cells and was active in genotype 1 HCV-infected patients in a proof-of-concept clinical trial (1). Here, we describe a potential mechanism of action (MoA) wherein ACH-806 alters viral replication complex (RC) composition and function. We found that ACH-806 did not affect HCV polyprotein translation and processing, the early events of the formation of HCV RC. Instead, ACH-806 triggered the formation of a homodimeric form of NS4A with a size of 14 kDa (p14) both in replicon cells and in Huh-7 cells where NS4A was expressed alone. p14 production was negatively regulated by NS3, and its appearance in turn was associated with reductions in NS3 and, especially, NS4A content in RCs due to their accelerated degradation. A previously described resistance substitution near the N terminus of NS3, where NS3 interacts with NS4A, attenuated the reduction of NS3 and NS4A conferred by ACH-806 treatment. Taken together, we show that the compositional changes in viral RCs are associated with the antiviral activity of ACH-806. Small molecules, including ACH-806, with this novel MoA hold promise for further development and provide unique tools for clarifying the functions of NS4A in HCV replication.

  13. Cyclosporine Inhibits Flavivirus Replication through Blocking the Interaction between Host Cyclophilins and Viral NS5 Protein▿

    PubMed Central

    Qing, Min; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Bo; Zou, Gang; Robida, John M.; Yuan, Zhiming; Tang, Hengli; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2009-01-01

    Although flaviviruses cause significant human diseases, no effective therapy is currently available. Host factors essential for viral replication are potential targets for antiviral development. Here we report that cyclophilins (CyPs), a family of cellular peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PPIases), play a role in flavivirus replication. Huh-7.5 cells with knockdown of different isoforms of CyP were less efficient than parental cells in supporting flavivirus replication, including West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus, and yellow fever virus. The low viral replication in CyP A (CyPA) knockdown cells could be rescued by trans supplying of a wild-type CyPA but not by trans supplying of a mutant CyPA (defective in the PPIase activity), indicating that the isomerase activity of CyPA is critical for viral replication. Immunoprecipitation and biochemical pulldown analyses showed that CyPA interacts with WNV genomic RNA and viral NS5 protein in the replication complex. Furthermore, antiviral experiments demonstrated that cyclosporine (Cs; an 11-amino-acid cyclic peptide known to block the PPIase activity of CyPA) inhibits flavivirus replication in cell culture at nontoxic concentrations. Time-of-addition and transient replicon results indicated that Cs inhibits flavivirus at the step of viral RNA synthesis. Biochemical analysis showed that Cs directly blocks the interaction between CyPA and WNV NS5 protein. Our results suggest that host CyPA is a component of flavivirus replication complex and could be targeted for potential antiviral development. PMID:19451286

  14. Cyclosporine inhibits flavivirus replication through blocking the interaction between host cyclophilins and viral NS5 protein.

    PubMed

    Qing, Min; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Bo; Zou, Gang; Robida, John M; Yuan, Zhiming; Tang, Hengli; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2009-08-01

    Although flaviviruses cause significant human diseases, no effective therapy is currently available. Host factors essential for viral replication are potential targets for antiviral development. Here we report that cyclophilins (CyPs), a family of cellular peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PPIases), play a role in flavivirus replication. Huh-7.5 cells with knockdown of different isoforms of CyP were less efficient than parental cells in supporting flavivirus replication, including West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus, and yellow fever virus. The low viral replication in CyP A (CyPA) knockdown cells could be rescued by trans supplying of a wild-type CyPA but not by trans supplying of a mutant CyPA (defective in the PPIase activity), indicating that the isomerase activity of CyPA is critical for viral replication. Immunoprecipitation and biochemical pulldown analyses showed that CyPA interacts with WNV genomic RNA and viral NS5 protein in the replication complex. Furthermore, antiviral experiments demonstrated that cyclosporine (Cs; an 11-amino-acid cyclic peptide known to block the PPIase activity of CyPA) inhibits flavivirus replication in cell culture at nontoxic concentrations. Time-of-addition and transient replicon results indicated that Cs inhibits flavivirus at the step of viral RNA synthesis. Biochemical analysis showed that Cs directly blocks the interaction between CyPA and WNV NS5 protein. Our results suggest that host CyPA is a component of flavivirus replication complex and could be targeted for potential antiviral development.

  15. RNase P Ribozymes Inhibit the Replication of Human Cytomegalovirus by Targeting Essential Viral Capsid Proteins.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhu; Reeves, Michael; Ye, Jun; Trang, Phong; Zhu, Li; Sheng, Jingxue; Wang, Yu; Zen, Ke; Wu, Jianguo; Liu, Fenyong

    2015-06-24

    An engineered RNase P-based ribozyme variant, which was generated using the in vitro selection procedure, was used to target the overlapping mRNA region of two proteins essential for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication: capsid assembly protein (AP) and protease (PR). In vitro studies showed that the generated variant, V718-A, cleaved the target AP mRNA sequence efficiently and its activity was about 60-fold higher than that of wild type ribozyme M1-A. Furthermore, we observed a reduction of 98%-99% in AP/PR expression and an inhibition of 50,000 fold in viral growth in cells with V718-A, while a 75% reduction in AP/PR expression and a 500-fold inhibition in viral growth was found in cells with M1-A. Examination of the antiviral effects of the generated ribozyme on the HCMV replication cycle suggested that viral DNA encapsidation was inhibited and as a consequence, viral capsid assembly was blocked when the expression of AP and PR was inhibited by the ribozyme. Thus, our study indicates that the generated ribozyme variant is highly effective in inhibiting HCMV gene expression and blocking viral replication, and suggests that engineered RNase P ribozyme can be potentially developed as a promising gene-targeting agent for anti-HCMV therapy.

  16. Berberine inhibits enterovirus 71 replication by downregulating the MEK/ERK signaling pathway and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiqiang; Li, Ke; Ma, Linlin; Wu, Shuo; Hu, Jin; Yan, Haiyan; Jiang, Jiandong; Li, Yuhuan

    2017-01-11

    The MEK-ERK signaling pathway and autophagy play an important role for enterovirus71(EV71) replication. Inhibition of MEK-ERK signaling pathway and autophagy is shown to impair EV71 replication. Berberine (BBR), an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Berberis vulgaris L., has been reported to have ability to regulate this signaling pathway and autophagy. Herein, we want to determine whether berberine can inhibit EV71 infection by downregulating the MEK/ERK signaling pathway and autophagy. The antiviral effect of berberine was determined by cytopathic effect (CPE) assay, western blotting assay and qRT-PCR assay. The mechanism of BBR anti-virus was determined by western blotting assay and immunofluorescence assay. We showed that berberine does-dependently reduced EV71 RNA and protein synthesis, which was, at least in part, the result of inhibition of activation of MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Furthermore, we found that berberine suppressed the EV71-induced autophagy by activating AKT protein and inhibiting the phosphorylation of JNK and PI3KIII. BBR inhibited EV71 replication by downregulating autophagy and MEK/ERK signaling pathway. These findings suggest that BBR may be a potential agent or supplement against EV71 infection.

  17. Morphine inhibits intrahepatic interferon- alpha expression and enhances complete hepatitis C virus replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Ye, Li; Peng, Jin-Song; Wang, Chuan-Qing; Luo, Guang-Xiang; Zhang, Ting; Wan, Qi; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2007-09-01

    Heroin addicts are a high-risk group for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the development of chronic HCV disease. We thus examined whether morphine, the active metabolite of heroin, has the ability to inhibit intrahepatic interferon (IFN)- alpha expression, facilitating HCV replication in human hepatocytes. Morphine inhibited intrahepatic IFN- alpha expression, which was associated with an increase in HCV replication in hepatocytes. Moreover, morphine compromised the anti-HCV effect of recombinant IFN- alpha . Investigation of the mechanism responsible for the morphine action revealed that morphine inhibited expression of IFN regulatory factor 5 in the hepatocytes. In addition, morphine suppressed the expression of p38, an important signal-transducing molecule involved in IFN- alpha -mediated anti-HCV activity. These findings indicate that morphine plays a cofactor role in facilitating HCV persistence in human hepatocytes.

  18. Inhibition of Feline leukemia virus replication by the integrase inhibitor Raltegravir.

    PubMed

    Cattori, Valentino; Weibel, Beatrice; Lutz, Hans

    2011-08-26

    The oncogenic gammaretrovirus Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) has been the leading cause of death among domestic cats until the introduction of efficient diagnostics and vaccines in the late 1980s. So far, no efficient treatment for viremic animals is available. Hence, use of the FeLV model to evaluate antiretroviral therapies applied to HIV is a timely task. The efficacy of the integrase inhibitor Raltegravir, which is widely used for the treatment of HIV in humans, has been assessed in vitro for the FeLV-A/Glasgow-1 strain. EC(50) values for FeLV-A inhibition in feline cell lines are in the range of that observed for HIV and xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related gammaretrovirus. Therefore, Raltegravir may be a potential therapeutical agent for felids with progressive FeLV infection.

  19. Evidence for antiviral effect of nitric oxide. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 replication.

    PubMed Central

    Croen, K D

    1993-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of infectious pathogens, but an antiviral effect has not been reported. The impact of NO, from endogenous and exogenous sources, on herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1) replication was studied in vitro. HSV 1 replication in RAW 264.7 macrophages was reduced 1,806-fold in monolayers induced to make NO by activation with gamma IFN and LPS. A competitive and a noncompetitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase substantially reduced the antiviral effect of activated RAW macrophages. S-nitroso-L-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) is a donor of NO and was added to the media of infected monolayers to assess the antiviral properties of NO in the absence of gamma IFN and LPS. A single dose of S-nitroso-L-acetyl penicillamine 3 h after infection inhibited HSV 1 replication in Vero, HEp2, and RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Neither virucidal nor cytocidal effects of NO were observed under conditions that inhibited HSV 1 replication. Nitric oxide had inhibitory effects, comparable to that of gamma IFN/LPS, on protein and DNA synthesis as well as on cell replication. This report demonstrates that, among its diverse properties, NO has an antiviral effect. PMID:8390481

  20. A dual-targeting approach to inhibit Brucella abortus replication in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Czyż, Daniel M.; Jain-Gupta, Neeta; Shuman, Howard A.; Crosson, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Brucella abortus is an intracellular bacterial pathogen and an etiological agent of the zoonotic disease known as brucellosis. Brucellosis can be challenging to treat with conventional antibiotic therapies and, in some cases, may develop into a debilitating and life-threatening chronic illness. We used multiple independent assays of in vitro metabolism and intracellular replication to screen a library of 480 known bioactive compounds for novel B. abortus anti-infectives. Eighteen non-cytotoxic compounds specifically inhibited B. abortus replication in the intracellular niche, which suggests these molecules function by targeting host cell processes. Twenty-six compounds inhibited B. abortus metabolism in axenic culture, thirteen of which are non-cytotoxic to human host cells and attenuate B. abortus replication in the intracellular niche. The most potent non-cytotoxic inhibitors of intracellular replication reduce B. abortus metabolism in axenic culture and perturb features of mammalian cellular biology including mitochondrial function and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. The efficacy of these molecules as inhibitors of B. abortus replication in the intracellular niche suggests “dual-target” compounds that coordinately perturb host and pathogen are promising candidates for development of improved therapeutics for intracellular infections. PMID:27767061

  1. HIV Pol Inhibits HIV Budding and Mediates the Severe Budding Defect of Gag-Pol

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Xin; Gould, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    The prevailing hypothesis of HIV budding posits that the viral Gag protein drives budding, and that the Gag p6 peptide plays an essential role by recruiting host-cell budding factors to sites of HIV assembly. HIV also expresses a second Gag protein, p160 Gag-Pol, which lacks p6 and fails to bud from cells, consistent with the prevailing hypothesis of HIV budding. However, we show here that the severe budding defect of Gag-Pol is not caused by the absence of p6, but rather, by the presence of Pol. Specifically, we show that (i) the budding defect of Gag-Pol is unaffected by loss of HIV protease activity and is therefore an intrinsic property of the Gag-Pol polyprotein, (ii) the N-terminal 433 amino acids of Gag and Gag-Pol are sufficient to drive virus budding even though they lack p6, (iii) the severe budding defect of Gag-Pol is caused by a dominant, cis-acting inhibitor of budding in the HIV Pol domain, and (iv) Gag-Pol inhibits Gag and virus budding in trans, even at normal levels of Gag and Gag-Pol expression. These and other data support an alternative hypothesis of HIV budding as a process that is mediated by the normal, non-viral pathway of exosome/microvesicle biogenesis. PMID:22235295

  2. Quantitative Assessment of HIV Replication and Variation in Vivo: Relevance to Disease Pathogenesis and Response to Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-20

    Chamot E, Hirschel B, Perrin LH. Quantitation of human immunodeficiency provirus and circulating virus: relationship with immunologic parameters. J...Science 1986;234:1563-66. 34. Walker CM, Levy JA. A diffusible lymphokine produced by CD8& T lymphocytes suppresses HIV replication. Immunology 1989;66...49. Urdea MS. Synthesis and characterization of branched DNA (bDNA) for the direct and quantitative detection of CMV, HBV, HCV , and HIV. Clin Chem

  3. Aurintricarboxylic Acid Inhibits the Early Stage of Vaccinia Virus Replication by Targeting both Cellular and Viral Factors▿

    PubMed Central

    Myskiw, Chad; Deschambault, Yvon; Jefferies, Kristel; He, Runtao; Cao, Jingxin

    2007-01-01

    Aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) has been shown to inhibit the replication of viruses from several different families, including human immunodeficiency virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and the coronavirus causing severe acute respiratory syndrome. This study characterizes the inhibitory effect of ATA on vaccinia virus replication in HeLa, Huh7, and AD293 cells. Vaccinia virus replication is significantly abrogated upon ATA treatment, which is associated with the inhibition of early viral gene transcription. This inhibitory effect may be attributed to two findings. First, ATA blocks the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, an event shown to be essential for vaccinia virus replication. Second, ATA inhibits the phosphatase activity of the viral enzyme H1L, which is required to initiate viral transcription. Thus, ATA inhibits vaccinia virus replication by targeting both cellular and viral factors essential for the early stage of replication. PMID:17192307

  4. Gamma interferon-induced, nitric oxide-mediated inhibition of vaccinia virus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, N; Buller, R M; Karupiah, G

    1995-01-01

    Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production in the murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells were previously shown to inhibit the replication of the poxviruses vaccinia virus (VV) and ectromelia virus and herpes simplex virus type 1. In the current study, we performed biochemical analyses to determine the stage in the viral life cycle blocked by IFN-gamma-induced NO. Antibodies specific for temporally expressed viral proteins, a VV-specific DNA probe, and transmission electron microscopy were used to show that the cytokine-induced NO inhibited late protein synthesis, DNA replication, and virus particle formation but not expression of the early proteins analyzed. Essentially similar results were obtained with hydroxyurea and cytosine arabinoside, inhibitors of DNA replication. Enzymatically active iNOS was detected in the lysates of IFN-gamma-treated but not in untreated RAW 264.7 cells. The IFN-gamma-treated RAW 264.7 cells which express iNOS not only were resistant to productive infection but also efficiently blocked the replication of VV in infected bystander cells of epithelial origin. This inhibition was arginine dependent, correlated with nitric production in cultures, and was reversible by the NOS inhibitor N omega-monomethyl-L-arginine. PMID:7529336

  5. IFN-λ inhibits HIV-1 integration and post-transcriptional events in vitro, but there is only limited in vivo repression of viral production.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ren-Rong; Guo, Hong-Xiong; Wei, Ji-Fu; Yang, Chuan-Kun; He, Shao-Heng; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2012-07-01

    The lambda interferons (IL-28a, 28b, and IL-29) inhibit the replication of many viruses, but their role in the inhibition of HIV-1 infection remains unclear. During this study, we monitored IL-29 production in HIV-1 infected individuals and analyzed the in vitro and in vivo inhibition of HIV-1 production. Prior treatment with IL-28a or IL-29 induced an antiviral state in cultured primary T-cells, which suppressed HIV-1 integration and post-transcriptional events. The antiviral factors MxA, OAS, and PKR were up-regulated. In HIV-1 infected patients, IL-29 level was increased along with the depletion of CD4⁺ T-cells in peripheral blood, while the elevated IL-29 did not show a significantly negative correlation with viral load. Further analysis of HIV-1 infected individuals showed that IL-29 was positively correlated with IFN-β and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and was negatively correlated with IFN-γ, which might suggest that IFN-λ participates in modulating antiviral immune responses during HIV-1 infection in vivo. Together, although IFN-λ impeded HIV-1 infection of T-cells in vitro, IFN-λ showed only limited in vivo repression of viral production. The modulation of IFN-λ on inflammatory factors might be worthy for further concentrating on for better understanding the host immune response during HIV-1 infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of Chemicals to Inhibit DNA Replication, Transcription, and Protein Synthesis to Study Zygotic Genome Activation.

    PubMed

    Uh, Kyungjun; Lee, Kiho

    2017-01-01

    Maternal-to-zygotic transition is an event that developmental control of early embryos is switched from oocyte-derived factors to the zygotic genome. Ability to inhibit DNA replication, transcription, and translation is an important tool in studying events, such as zygotic genome activation, during embyogenesis. Here, we describe approaches to block DNA replication, transcription, and translation using chemical inhibitors. Then we also demonstrate how the transcript level of a maternally inherited gene, ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 3, responses to the chemical treatments.

  7. Inhibition of Mayaro virus replication by cerulenin in Aedes albopictus cells.

    PubMed

    Pereira, H S; Rebello, M A

    1998-12-01

    The antibiotic cerulenin, an inhibitor of lipid synthesis, was shown to suppress Mayaro virus replication in Aedes albopictus cells at non-cytotoxic doses. Cerulenin blocked the incorporation of [3H]glycerol into lipids when present at any time post infection (p.i.). Cerulenin added at the beginning of infection inhibited the synthesis of virus proteins. However, when this antibiotic was added at later stages of infection, it had only a mild effect on the virus protein synthesis. The possibility that cerulenin acts by blocking an initial step in the Mayaro virus replication after virus entry and before late viral translation is discussed.

  8. Alkaloids from the Sponge Stylissa carteri Present Prospective Scaffolds for the Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1).

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Aubrie; Kremb, Stephan; Bader, Theresa Maria; Helfer, Markus; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Gerwick, William H; Brack-Werner, Ruth; Voolstra, Christian R

    2016-02-04

    The sponge Stylissa carteri is known to produce a number of secondary metabolites displaying anti-fouling, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activity. However, the anti-viral potential of metabolites produced by S. carteri has not been extensively explored. In this study, an S. carteri extract was HPLC fractionated and a cell based assay was used to evaluate the effects of HPLC fractions on parameters of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) infection and cell viability. Candidate HIV-1 inhibitory fractions were then analyzed for the presence of potential HIV-1 inhibitory compounds by mass spectrometry, leading to the identification of three previously characterized compounds, i.e., debromohymenialdisine (DBH), hymenialdisine (HD), and oroidin. Commercially available purified versions of these molecules were re-tested to assess their antiviral potential in greater detail. Specifically, DBH and HD exhibit a 30%-40% inhibition of HIV-1 at 3.1 μM and 13 μM, respectively; however, both exhibited cytotoxicity. Conversely, oroidin displayed a 50% inhibition of viral replication at 50 μM with no associated toxicity. Additional experimentation using a biochemical assay revealed that oroidin inhibited the activity of the HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase up to 90% at 25 μM. Taken together, the chemical search space was narrowed and previously isolated compounds with an unexplored anti-viral potential were found. Our results support exploration of marine natural products for anti-viral drug discovery.

  9. Alkaloids from the Sponge Stylissa carteri Present Prospective Scaffolds for the Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1)

    PubMed Central

    O’Rourke, Aubrie; Kremb, Stephan; Bader, Theresa Maria; Helfer, Markus; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Gerwick, William H.; Brack-Werner, Ruth; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    The sponge Stylissa carteri is known to produce a number of secondary metabolites displaying anti-fouling, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activity. However, the anti-viral potential of metabolites produced by S. carteri has not been extensively explored. In this study, an S. carteri extract was HPLC fractionated and a cell based assay was used to evaluate the effects of HPLC fractions on parameters of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) infection and cell viability. Candidate HIV-1 inhibitory fractions were then analyzed for the presence of potential HIV-1 inhibitory compounds by mass spectrometry, leading to the identification of three previously characterized compounds, i.e., debromohymenialdisine (DBH), hymenialdisine (HD), and oroidin. Commercially available purified versions of these molecules were re-tested to assess their antiviral potential in greater detail. Specifically, DBH and HD exhibit a 30%–40% inhibition of HIV-1 at 3.1 μM and 13 μM, respectively; however, both exhibited cytotoxicity. Conversely, oroidin displayed a 50% inhibition of viral replication at 50 μM with no associated toxicity. Additional experimentation using a biochemical assay revealed that oroidin inhibited the activity of the HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase up to 90% at 25 μM. Taken together, the chemical search space was narrowed and previously isolated compounds with an unexplored anti-viral potential were found. Our results support exploration of marine natural products for anti-viral drug discovery. PMID:26861355

  10. Effective Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Replication by Engineered RNase P Ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Trang, Phong; Vu, Gia-Phong; Lu, Sangwei; Wu, Jianguo; Liu, Fenyong

    2012-01-01

    Using an in vitro selection procedure, we have previously isolated RNase P ribozyme variants that efficiently cleave an mRNA sequence in vitro. In this study, a variant was used to target the HIV RNA sequence in the tat region. The variant cleaved the tat RNA sequence in vitro about 20 times more efficiently than the wild type ribozyme. Our results provide the first direct evidence that combined mutations at nucleotide 83 and 340 of RNase P catalytic RNA from Escherichia coli (G83 -> U83 and G340 -> A340) increase the overall efficiency of the ribozyme in cleaving an HIV RNA sequence. Moreover, the variant is more effective in reducing HIV-1 p24 expression and intracellular viral RNA level in cells than the wild type ribozyme. A reduction of about 90% in viral RNA level and a reduction of 150 fold in viral growth were observed in cells that expressed the variant, while a reduction of less than 10% was observed in cells that either did not express the ribozyme or produced a catalytically inactive ribozyme mutant. Thus, engineered ribozyme variants are effective in inhibiting HIV infection. These results also demonstrate the potential of engineering RNase P ribozymes for anti-HIV application. PMID:23300569

  11. Novel genetic locus implicated for HIV-1 acquisition with putative regulatory links to HIV replication and infectivity: a genome-wide association study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric O; Hancock, Dana B; Gaddis, Nathan C; Levy, Joshua L; Page, Grier; Novak, Scott P; Glasheen, Cristie; Saccone, Nancy L; Rice, John P; Moreau, Michael P; Doheny, Kimberly F; Romm, Jane M; Brooks, Andrew I; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Bierut, Laura J; Kral, Alex H

    2015-01-01

    Fifty percent of variability in HIV-1 susceptibility is attributable to host genetics. Thus identifying genetic associations is essential to understanding pathogenesis of HIV-1 and important for targeting drug development. To date, however, CCR5 remains the only gene conclusively associated with HIV acquisition. To identify novel host genetic determinants of HIV-1 acquisition, we conducted a genome-wide association study among a high-risk sample of 3,136 injection drug users (IDUs) from the Urban Health Study (UHS). In addition to being IDUs, HIV-controls were frequency-matched to cases on environmental exposures to enhance detection of genetic effects. We tested independent replication in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (N=2,533). We also examined publicly available gene expression data to link SNPs associated with HIV acquisition to known mechanisms affecting HIV replication/infectivity. Analysis of the UHS nominated eight genetic regions for replication testing. SNP rs4878712 in FRMPD1 met multiple testing correction for independent replication (P=1.38x10(-4)), although the UHS-WIHS meta-analysis p-value did not reach genome-wide significance (P=4.47x10(-7) vs. P<5.0x10(-8)) Gene expression analyses provided promising biological support for the protective G allele at rs4878712 lowering risk of HIV: (1) the G allele was associated with reduced expression of FBXO10 (r=-0.49, P=6.9x10(-5)); (2) FBXO10 is a component of the Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that targets Bcl-2 protein for degradation; (3) lower FBXO10 expression was associated with higher BCL2 expression (r=-0.49, P=8x10(-5)); (4) higher basal levels of Bcl-2 are known to reduce HIV replication and infectivity in human and animal in vitro studies. These results suggest new potential biological pathways by which host genetics affect susceptibility to HIV upon exposure for follow-up in subsequent studies.

  12. Colorectal mucus binds DC-SIGN and inhibits HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4+ T-lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Stax, Martijn J; Mouser, Emily E I M; van Montfort, Thijs; Sanders, Rogier W; de Vries, Henry J C; Dekker, Henk L; Herrera, Carolina; Speijer, Dave; Pollakis, Georgios; Paxton, William A

    2015-01-01

    Bodily secretions, including breast milk and semen, contain factors that modulate HIV-1 infection. Since anal intercourse caries one of the highest risks for HIV-1 transmission, our aim was to determine whether colorectal mucus (CM) also contains factors interfering with HIV-1 infection and replication. CM from a number of individuals was collected and tested for the capacity to bind DC-SIGN and inhibit HIV-1 cis- or trans-infection of CD4+ T-lymphocytes. To this end, a DC-SIGN binding ELISA, a gp140 trimer competition ELISA and HIV-1 capture/ transfer assays were utilized. Subsequently we aimed to identify the DC-SIGN binding component through biochemical characterization and mass spectrometry analysis. CM was shown to bind DC-SIGN and competes with HIV-1 gp140 trimer for binding. Pre-incubation of Raji-DC-SIGN cells or immature dendritic cells (iDCs) with CM potently inhibits DC-SIGN mediated trans-infection of CD4+ T-lymphocytes with CCR5 and CXCR4 using HIV-1 strains, while no effect on direct infection is observed. Preliminary biochemical characterization demonstrates that the component seems to be large (>100kDa), heat and proteinase K resistant, binds in a α1-3 mannose independent manner and is highly variant between individuals. Immunoprecipitation using DC-SIGN-Fc coated agarose beads followed by mass spectrometry indicated lactoferrin (fragments) and its receptor (intelectin-1) as candidates. Using ELISA we showed that lactoferrin levels within CM correlate with DC-SIGN binding capacity. In conclusion, CM can bind the C-type lectin DC-SIGN and block HIV-1 trans-infection of both CCR5 and CXCR4 using HIV-1 strains. Furthermore, our data indicate that lactoferrin is a DC-SIGN binding component of CM. These results indicate that CM has the potential to interfere with pathogen transmission and modulate immune responses at the colorectal mucosa.

  13. Colorectal Mucus Binds DC-SIGN and Inhibits HIV-1 Trans-Infection of CD4+ T-Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    van Montfort, Thijs; Sanders, Rogier W.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Dekker, Henk L.; Herrera, Carolina; Speijer, Dave; Pollakis, Georgios; Paxton, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily secretions, including breast milk and semen, contain factors that modulate HIV-1 infection. Since anal intercourse caries one of the highest risks for HIV-1 transmission, our aim was to determine whether colorectal mucus (CM) also contains factors interfering with HIV-1 infection and replication. CM from a number of individuals was collected and tested for the capacity to bind DC-SIGN and inhibit HIV-1 cis- or trans-infection of CD4+ T-lymphocytes. To this end, a DC-SIGN binding ELISA, a gp140 trimer competition ELISA and HIV-1 capture/ transfer assays were utilized. Subsequently we aimed to identify the DC-SIGN binding component through biochemical characterization and mass spectrometry analysis. CM was shown to bind DC-SIGN and competes with HIV-1 gp140 trimer for binding. Pre-incubation of Raji-DC-SIGN cells or immature dendritic cells (iDCs) with CM potently inhibits DC-SIGN mediated trans-infection of CD4+ T-lymphocytes with CCR5 and CXCR4 using HIV-1 strains, while no effect on direct infection is observed. Preliminary biochemical characterization demonstrates that the component seems to be large (>100kDa), heat and proteinase K resistant, binds in a α1–3 mannose independent manner and is highly variant between individuals. Immunoprecipitation using DC-SIGN-Fc coated agarose beads followed by mass spectrometry indicated lactoferrin (fragments) and its receptor (intelectin-1) as candidates. Using ELISA we showed that lactoferrin levels within CM correlate with DC-SIGN binding capacity. In conclusion, CM can bind the C-type lectin DC-SIGN and block HIV-1 trans-infection of both CCR5 and CXCR4 using HIV-1 strains. Furthermore, our data indicate that lactoferrin is a DC-SIGN binding component of CM. These results indicate that CM has the potential to interfere with pathogen transmission and modulate immune responses at the colorectal mucosa. PMID:25793526

  14. Cyclophilin A binds to the viral RNA and replication proteins, resulting in inhibition of tombusviral replicase assembly.

    PubMed

    Kovalev, Nikolay; Nagy, Peter D

    2013-12-01

    Replication of plus-stranded RNA viruses is greatly affected by numerous host-encoded proteins that act as restriction factors. Cyclophilins, which are a large family of cellular prolyl isomerases, have been found to inhibit Tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus (TBSV) replication in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae model based on genome-wide screens and global proteomics approaches. In this report, we further characterize single-domain cyclophilins, including the mammalian cyclophilin A and plant Roc1 and Roc2, which are orthologs of the yeast Cpr1p cyclophilin, a known inhibitor of TBSV replication in yeast. We found that recombinant CypA, Roc1, and Roc2 strongly inhibited TBSV replication in a cell-free replication assay. Additional in vitro studies revealed that CypA, Roc1, and Roc2 cyclophilins bound to the viral replication proteins, and CypA and Roc1 also bound to the viral RNA. These interactions led to inhibition of viral RNA recruitment, the assembly of the viral replicase complex, and viral RNA synthesis. A catalytically inactive mutant of CypA was also able to inhibit TBSV replication in vitro due to binding to the replication proteins and the viral RNA. Overexpression of CypA and its mutant in yeast or plant leaves led to inhibition of tombusvirus replication, confirming that CypA is a restriction factor for TBSV. Overall, the current work has revealed a regulatory role for the cytosolic single-domain Cpr1-like cyclophilins in RNA virus replication.

  15. Construction and use of a replication-competent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) that expresses the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Terwilliger, E F; Godin, B; Sodroski, J G; Haseltine, W A

    1989-01-01

    The construction and properties of an infectious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that expresses the bacterial gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase are described. This virus can be used in vitro to screen for drugs that inhibit HIV infection. The marked virus may also be used to trace the routes of infection from the site of inoculation in animal experiments. Images PMID:2726755

  16. Expression of the zinc-finger antiviral protein inhibits alphavirus replication.

    PubMed

    Bick, Matthew J; Carroll, John-William N; Gao, Guangxia; Goff, Stephen P; Rice, Charles M; MacDonald, Margaret R

    2003-11-01

    The rat zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP) was recently identified as a host protein conferring resistance to retroviral infection. We analyzed ZAP's ability to inhibit viruses from other families and found that ZAP potently inhibits the replication of multiple members of the Alphavirus genus within the Togaviridae, including Sindbis virus, Semliki Forest virus, Ross River virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. However, expression of ZAP did not induce a broad-spectrum antiviral state as some viruses, including vesicular stomatitis virus, poliovirus, yellow fever virus, and herpes simplex virus type 1, replicated to normal levels in ZAP-expressing cells. We determined that ZAP expression inhibits Sindbis virus replication after virus penetration and entry, but before the amplification of newly synthesized plus strand genomic RNA. Using a temperature-sensitive Sindbis virus mutant expressing luciferase, we further showed that translation of incoming viral RNA is blocked by ZAP expression. Elucidation of the antiviral mechanism by which ZAP inhibits Sindbis virus translation may lead to the development of agents with broad activity against alphaviruses.

  17. Efficient inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus replication using novel modified microRNA-30a targeting 3′-untranslated region transcripts

    PubMed Central

    NEJATI, AHMAD; SHAHMAHMOODI, SHOHREH; AREFIAN, EHSAN; SHOJA, ZABIHOLLAH; MARASHI, SAYED-MAHDI; TABATABAIE, HAMIDEH; MOLLAEI-KANDELOUS, YAGHOUB; SOLEIMANI, MASOUD; NATEGH, RAKHSHANDEH

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene therapy is currently considered to be a combinatorial anti-human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) therapy. Although artificial polycistronic microRNAs (miRs) can reduce HIV-1 escape mutant variants, this approach may increase the risk of side effects. The present study aimed to optimize the efficiency of anti-HIV RNAi gene therapy in order to reduce the cell toxicity induced by multi-short hairpin RNA expression. An artificial miR-30a-3′-untranslated region (miR-3-UTR) obtained from a single RNA polymerase II was used to simultaneously target all viral transcripts. The results of the present study demonstrated that HIV-1 replication was significantly inhibited in the cells with the miR-3-UTR construct, suggesting that miR-3′-UTR may serve as a promising tool for RNAi-based gene therapy in the treatment of HIV-1. PMID:27168813

  18. [Natural products from the tropical rain forest of Venezuela as inhibitors of HIV-1 replication].

    PubMed

    Walder, R; Kalvatchev, Z; Garzaro, D; Barrios, M

    1995-01-01

    More than 100 plant extracts from the Amazonian rain forest of Venezuela were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and inhibitory activity against the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Aqueous extracts from Fomitella supina (S # 0389-4), Phellinus rhabarbarinus (S # 0389-7), Trichaptum perrottetti (S # 0389-8) and Trametes cubensis (S # 0389-13), Polyporaceae exhibited strong anti-HIV-1 activity, without toxicity for Molt-4 lymphocytic cells. Our results demonstrated, that the compound(s) acted by mechanism of direct virion inactivation and by inhibition of syncytium formation in an in vitro culture system. These results support the suggestion that the test extracts specifically act at the level of CD4-gp120 binding. The active components of these extracts is at present unknown, but anti-AIDS agents, such as those found in this study, individually or in combination, may be of therapeutic relevance.

  19. The multi-targeted kinase inhibitor sorafenib inhibits human cytomegalovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, Martin; Paulus, Christina; Löschmann, Nadine; Dauth, Stephanie; Stange, Elisabeth; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Nevels, Michael; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2011-03-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. Here, non-toxic concentrations of the anti-cancer kinase inhibitor sorafenib were shown to inhibit replication of different HCMV strains (including a ganciclovir-resistant strain) in different cell types. In contrast to established anti-HCMV drugs, sorafenib inhibited HCMV major immediate early promoter activity and HCMV immediate early antigen (IEA) expression. Sorafenib is known to inhibit Raf. Comparison of sorafenib with the MEK inhibitor U0126 suggested that sorafenib inhibits HCMV IEA expression through inhibition of Raf but independently of signaling through the Raf downstream kinase MEK 1/2. In concordance, siRNA-mediated depletion of Raf but not of MEK-reduced IEA expression. In conclusion, sorafenib diminished HCMV replication in clinically relevant concentrations and inhibited HCMV IEA expression, a pathophysiologically relevant event that is not affected by established anti-HCMV drugs. Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time that Raf activation is involved in HCMV IEA expression.

  20. Drug-Eluting Fibers for HIV-1 Inhibition and Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Cameron; Krogstad, Emily; Chaowanachan, Thanyanan; Woodrow, Kim A.

    2012-01-01

    Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) that simultaneously prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy are a global health priority. Combining chemical and physical barriers offers the greatest potential to design effective MPTs, but integrating both functional modalities into a single device has been challenging. Here we show that drug-eluting fiber meshes designed for topical drug delivery can function as a combination chemical and physical barrier MPT. Using FDA-approved polymers, we fabricated nanofiber meshes with tunable fiber size and controlled degradation kinetics that facilitate simultaneous release of multiple agents against HIV-1, HSV-2, and sperm. We observed that drug-loaded meshes inhibited HIV-1 infection in vitro and physically obstructed sperm penetration. Furthermore, we report on a previously unknown activity of glycerol monolaurate (GML) to potently inhibit sperm motility and viability. The application of drug-eluting nanofibers for HIV-1 prevention and sperm inhibition may serve as an innovative platform technology for drug delivery to the lower female reproductive tract. PMID:23209601

  1. Drug-eluting fibers for HIV-1 inhibition and contraception.

    PubMed

    Ball, Cameron; Krogstad, Emily; Chaowanachan, Thanyanan; Woodrow, Kim A

    2012-01-01

    Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) that simultaneously prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy are a global health priority. Combining chemical and physical barriers offers the greatest potential to design effective MPTs, but integrating both functional modalities into a single device has been challenging. Here we show that drug-eluting fiber meshes designed for topical drug delivery can function as a combination chemical and physical barrier MPT. Using FDA-approved polymers, we fabricated nanofiber meshes with tunable fiber size and controlled degradation kinetics that facilitate simultaneous release of multiple agents against HIV-1, HSV-2, and sperm. We observed that drug-loaded meshes inhibited HIV-1 infection in vitro and physically obstructed sperm penetration. Furthermore, we report on a previously unknown activity of glycerol monolaurate (GML) to potently inhibit sperm motility and viability. The application of drug-eluting nanofibers for HIV-1 prevention and sperm inhibition may serve as an innovative platform technology for drug delivery to the lower female reproductive tract.

  2. Mechanism of inhibition of HSV-1 replication by tumor necrosis factor and interferon gamma.

    PubMed

    Feduchi, E; Carrasco, L

    1991-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) synergizes with interferon (IFN gamma) in the blockade of HSV-1 replication. Antibodies against IFN beta block this synergism, implying a role of IFN beta in the antiviral activity of TNF plus IFN gamma. IFN beta 1 added exogenously to Hep-2 cells shows antiviral activity against HSV-1 only at high concentrations, whereas IFN beta 2 (also known as IL-6) alone has no effect on the replication of VSV or HSV-1 even when 1,000 U/ml are present. Our results are in accordance with the idea that TNF induces IFN beta 1 and that both cytokines must be present in the culture medium to synergize with IFN gamma in order to inhibit HSV-1 replication.

  3. [Expression and immunity of multi-HIV B'/C subype genes in replicating DNA vaccines].

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying-ying; Deng, Yao; Qi, Xiang-rong; Zhang, Xiang-min; Meng, Xin; Wang, Hui-juan; Tan, Wen-jie; Ruan, Li

    2010-05-01

    To understand the effect of various gene structures of HIV B'/C subtype on the gene expression and immunity in DNA vaccine, replicating DNA vector pSCK2 was used to construct seven DNA vaccines carrying one or more of HIV B'/C subtype genes: gagpol, gp160 and rtn (rev, tat and nef fusion gene). Immunofluorescence staining indicated that Gag, Gp160, Rev, Tat and Nef could be expressed from the seven DNA vaccines. Stronger expression was observed with the gene in single-gene expression plasmid or with the gene located at upper-IRES in double- or multi-gene expression plasmid. ELISA test showed that Gag induced higher antibody response, but the antibody titers stimulated by Gp160, Pol, or RTN were very low. Both Gag single-gene expression plasmid and Gag-RTN double-gene expression plasmid separately inoculating induced stronger antibody response against Gag than Gag-Gp160 double-gene expression plasmid and Gagpol-Gp160-RTN multi-gene expression plasmid or combined inoculation of Gag and Gp160 single-gene expression plasmids did. ELISPOT detection showed that all the seven DNA vaccines could stimulate cellular immune response against Gag, Pol, Gp160, Tat, and Nef, respectively. Gagpol or Gp160 single-gene expression plasmid separately inoculating stimulated the strongest cellular immune response. Tat and Nef expressed in all the plasmids induced similar immune response. These results indicated that HIV B'/C subtype genes gagpol, gp160 and rtn could be efficiently expressed in the replicating DNA vaccine vector, single-gene expression plasmid had the higher gene expression level and induced stronger immune response; combined immunization of Gagpol and Gp160 had dramatically lower immunity than Gagpol or Gp160 separated immunization did. Immunity of RTN had no difference between combined and separated immunizations. Therefore, in case of immunization with DNA vaccines containing different HIV genes, it is necessary to optimize the combined immunization procedure

  4. T cells detect intracellular DNA but fail to induce type I IFN responses: implications for restriction of HIV replication.

    PubMed

    Berg, Randi K; Rahbek, Stine H; Kofod-Olsen, Emil; Holm, Christian K; Melchjorsen, Jesper; Jensen, David G; Hansen, Anne Louise; Jørgensen, Louise B; Ostergaard, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Larsen, Carsten S; Paludan, Søren R; Jakobsen, Martin R; Mogensen, Trine H

    2014-01-01

    HIV infects key cell types of the immune system, most notably macrophages and CD4+ T cells. Whereas macrophages represent an important viral reservoir, activated CD4+ T cells are the most permissive cell types supporting high levels of viral replication. In recent years, it has been appreciated that the innate immune system plays an important role in controlling HIV replication, e.g. via interferon (IFN)-inducible restriction factors. Moreover, innate immune responses are involved in driving chronic immune activation and the pathogenesis of progressive immunodeficiency. Several pattern recognition receptors detecting HIV have been reported, including Toll-like receptor 7 and Retinoic-inducible gene-I, which detects viral RNA. Here we report that human primary T cells fail to induce strong IFN responses, despite the fact that this cell type does express key molecules involved in DNA signaling pathways. We demonstrate that the DNA sensor IFI16 migrates to sites of foreign DNA localization in the cytoplasm and recruits the signaling molecules stimulator of IFN genes and Tank-binding kinase, but this does not result in expression of IFN and IFN-stimulated genes. Importantly, we show that cytosolic DNA fails to affect HIV replication. However, exogenous treatment of activated T cells with type I IFN has the capacity to induce expression of IFN-stimulated genes and suppress HIV replication. Our data suggest the existence of an impaired DNA signaling machinery in T cells, which may prevent this cell type from activating cell-autonomous anti-HIV responses. This phenomenon could contribute to the high permissiveness of CD4+ T cells for HIV-1.

  5. Preferential replication of HIV-1 in the CD45RO memory cell subset of primary CD4 lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Spina, C A; Prince, H E; Richman, D D

    1997-01-01

    The ability of HIV-1 to establish an infection and replicate to high copy number in CD4 lymphocytes is dependent on both the activation state of the cell and virus-encoded regulatory proteins that modulate viral gene expression. To study these required virus-cell interactions, we have used an in vitro cell model of acute HIV infection of quiescent, primary CD4 lymphocytes and subsequent induction of T cell activation and virus replication by lectin or CD3 receptor cross-linking. Experiments were done to determine if the capacity of HIV to establish infection and complete replication was impacted by the maturational state of the CD4 cell target or the specific signal induction pathway engaged during activation. Primary CD4 cells were FACS-sorted into the major phenotypic subsets representative of memory (CD45RO) and naive (CD45RA) cells. Levels of virus replication were compared between infection with wild-type NL4-3 virus and an isogenic mutant containing a deletion in nef regulatory gene. PHA mitogen stimulation was compared with anti-CD3, with and without anti-CD28 costimulation, for induction of cell proliferation and virus replication. In both infected and uninfected cells, the RA cell subset exhibited significantly greater response to CD3/CD28 stimulation than did the RO cell subset. In contrast, the majority of virus replication occurred consistently in the RO cell subset. Deletion of HIV nef function caused a severe reduction in viral replication, especially in the RA naive cell subset after CD3 induction. PCR analysis of viral DNA formation, during infection of quiescent cells, demonstrated that the observed differences in HIV replication capacity between RO and RA cell subsets were not due to inherent differences in cell susceptibility to infection. Our results indicate that HIV replication is enhanced selectively in CD45RO memory phenotype cells through the probable contribution of specialized cellular factors which are produced during CD3-initiated

  6. Reduced sTWEAK and Increased sCD163 Levels in HIV-Infected Patients: Modulation by Antiretroviral Treatment, HIV Replication and HCV Co-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán, Luis M.; García Morillo, José S.; Egido, Jesús; Noval, Manuel Leal; Ferrando-Martinez, Sara; Blanco-Colio, Luis M.; Genebat, Miguel; Villar, José R.; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Moreno, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to increased inflammation and persistent immune activation. CD163 is a macrophage scavenger receptor that is involved in monocyte-macrophage activation in HIV-infected patients. CD163 interacts with TWEAK, a member of the TNF superfamily. Circulating levels of sTWEAK and sCD163 have been previously associated with cardiovascular disease, but no previous studies have fully analyzed their association with HIV. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze circulating levels of sTWEAK and sCD163 as well as other known markers of inflammation (hsCRP, IL-6 and sTNFRII) and endothelial dysfunction (sVCAM-1 and ADMA) in 26 patients with HIV before and after 48 weeks of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and 23 healthy subjects. Results Patients with HIV had reduced sTWEAK levels and increased sCD163, sVCAM-1, ADMA, hsCRP, IL-6 and sTNFRII plasma concentrations, as well as increased sCD163/sTWEAK ratio, compared with healthy subjects. Antiretroviral treatment significantly reduced the concentrations of sCD163, sVCAM-1, hsCRP and sTNFRII, although they remained elevated when compared with healthy subjects. Antiretroviral treatment had no effect on the concentrations of ADMA and sTWEAK, biomarkers associated with endothelial function. The use of protease inhibitors as part of antiretroviral therapy and the presence of HCV-HIV co-infection and/or active HIV replication attenuated the ART-mediated decrease in sCD163 plasma concentrations. Conclusion HIV-infected patients showed a proatherogenic profile characterized by increased inflammatory, immune-activation and endothelial-dysfunction biomarkers that partially improved after ART. HCV-HIV co-infection and/or active HIV replication enhanced immune activation despite ART. PMID:24594990

  7. Specific inhibition of orthopoxvirus replication by a small interfering RNA targeting the D5R gene.

    PubMed

    Vigne, Solenne; Germi, Raphaële; Duraffour, Sophie; Larrat, Sylvie; Andrei, Graciela; Snoeck, Robert; Garin, Daniel; Crance, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    Concerns about the potential use of smallpox in bioterrorism have stimulated interest in the development of novel antiviral treatments. Currently, there are no effective therapies against smallpox and new treatment strategies are greatly needed. In this study, specifically designed small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), targeting five proteins essential for orthopoxvirus replication, were investigated for their ability to inhibit vaccinia virus strain Western Reserve (VACVWR) replication. Among these siRNAs, 100 nM siD5R-2, an siRNA targeting the D5 protein, decreased VACVWR replication up to 90% when used either prophylactically or therapeutically in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. This siRNA induced a striking concentration-dependent inhibition of VACVWR replication and a prolonged prophylactic antiviral effect that lasted for 72 h, at a concentration of 100 nM. Confocal microscopy of Alexa-siD5R-2-treated VACVWR-infected cells confirmed a decrease in viral replication. Furthermore, siD5R-2 was shown to specifically reduce the D5R mRNA and protein expression using real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR and western blotting analysis, without inducing interferon-13 in A549 cells. We also demonstrated the antiviral potency of siD5R-2 against different pathogenic orthopoxviruses, such as cowpox and monkeypox viruses, which were inhibited up to 70% at the lowest concentration (1 nM) tested. Finally, siD5R-2 showed antiviral effects in VACVWR-infected human keratinocyte and fibroblast cell cultures. These results suggest that siD5R-2 could be a potential candidate to treat poxvirus infections.

  8. Identification and characterization of interferon-induced proteins that inhibit alphavirus replication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yugen; Burke, Crystal W; Ryman, Kate D; Klimstra, William B

    2007-10-01

    Alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) produces antiviral effects through upregulation of many interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) whose protein products are effectors of the antiviral state. Previous data from our laboratory have shown that IFN-alpha/beta can limit Sindbis virus (SB) replication through protein kinase R (PKR)-dependent and PKR-independent mechanisms and that one PKR-independent mechanism inhibits translation of the infecting virus genome (K. D. Ryman et al., J. Virol. 79:1487-1499, 2005). Further, using Affymetrix microarray technology, we identified 44 genes as candidates for PKR/RNase L-independent IFN-induced antiviral activities. In the current studies, we have begun analyzing these gene products for antialphavirus activity using three techniques: (i) overexpression of the protein from SB vectors and assessment of virulence attenuation in mice; (ii) overexpression of the proteins in a stable tetracycline-inducible murine fibroblast culture system and assessment of effects upon SB replication; and (iii) small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of gene mRNA in fibroblast cultures followed by SB replication assessment as above. Tested proteins included those we hypothesized had potential to affect virus genome translation and included murine ISG20, ISG15, the zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP), viperin, p56, p54, and p49. Interestingly, the pattern of antiviral activity for some gene products was different between in vitro and in vivo assays. Viperin and ZAP attenuated virulence most profoundly in mice. However, ISG20 and ZAP potently inhibited SB replication in vitro, whereas and viperin, p56, and ISG15 exhibited modest replication inhibition in vitro. In contrast, p54 and p49 had little to no effect in any assay.

  9. HIV Tat protein inhibits hERG K+ channels: a potential mechanism of HIV infection induced LQTs.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yun-Long; Liu, Hui-Bin; Sun, Bo; Zhang, Ying; Li, Qi; Hu, Chao-Wei; Zhu, Jiu-Xin; Gong, Dong-Mei; Teng, Xue; Zhang, Qin; Yang, Bao-Feng; Dong, De-Li

    2011-11-01

    HIV-infected patients have a high prevalence of long QT syndrome (LQTs). hERG K(+) channel encoded by human ether-a-go-go related gene contributes to IKr K(+) currents responsible for the repolarization of cardiomyocytes. Inhibition of hERG K(+) channels leads to LQTs. HIV Tat protein, the virus transactivator protein, plays a pivotal role in AIDS. The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of HIV Tat protein on hERG K(+) channels stably expressed in HEK293 cells. The hERG K(+) currents were recorded by whole-cell patch-clamp technique and the hERG channel expression was measured by real-time PCR and Western blot techniques. HIV Tat protein at 200 ng/ml concentration showed no acute effect on hERG currents, but HIV Tat protein (200 ng/ml) incubation for 24 h significantly inhibited hERG currents. In HIV Tat incubated cells, the inactivation and the recovery time from inactivation of hERG channels were significantly changed. HIV Tat protein incubation (200 ng/ml) for 24h had no effect on the hERG mRNA expression, but dose-dependently inhibited hERG protein expression. The MTT assay showed that HIV Tat protein at 50 ng/ml and 200 ng/ml had no effect on the cell viability. HIV Tat protein increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and the inhibition of hERG channel protein expression by HIV Tat protein was prevented by antioxidant tempol. HIV Tat protein in vivo treatment reduced IKr currents and prolonged action potential duration of guinea pig cardiomyocytes. We conclude that HIV Tat protein inhibits hERG K(+) currents through the inhibition of hERG protein expression, which might be the potential mechanism of HIV infection induced LQTs.

  10. Oleanane triterpenes from the flowers of Camellia japonica inhibit porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) replication.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-Li; Ha, Thi-Kim-Quy; Dhodary, Basanta; Pyo, Euisun; Nguyen, Ngoc Hieu; Cho, Hyomoon; Kim, Eunhee; Oh, Won Keun

    2015-02-12

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infections have resulted in a severe economic loss in the swine industry in many countries due to no effective treatment approach. Fifteen oleanane triterpenes (1-15), including nine new ones (1-4 and 10-14), were isolated from the flowers of Camellia japonica, and their molecular structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic methods. These compounds were evaluated for their antiviral activity against PEDV replication, and the structure-activity relationships (SARs) were discussed. Compounds 6, 9, 11, and 13 showed most potent inhibitory effects on PEDV replication. They were found to inhibit PEDV genes encoding GP6 nucleocapsid, GP2 spike, and GP5 membrane protein synthesis based on RT-PCR data. Western blot analysis also demonstrated their inhibitory effects on PEDV GP6 nucleocapsid and GP2 spike protein synthesis during viral replication. The present study suggested the potential of compounds 6, 9, 11, and 13 as promising scaffolds for treating PEDV infection via inhibiting viral replication.

  11. Bagaza virus inhibits Japanese encephalitis & West Nile virus replication in Culex tritaeniorhynchus & Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.