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Sample records for inhibits p-glycoprotein mediated

  1. Inhibition of rhodamine 123 secretion by cyclosporin A as a model of P-glycoprotein mediated transport in liver.

    PubMed

    Stapf, V; Thalhammer, T; Huber-Huber, R; Felberbauer, F; Gajdzik, L; Graf, J

    1994-01-01

    The interaction between P-glycoprotein modulators and P-glycoprotein mediated transport was investigated using rhodamine 123 in the isolated perfused rat liver of a mutant (TR-) rat strain. TR- rats, deficient in the canalicular multispecific anion transport system, are unable to extrude organic anions (glucuronides) and therefore excrete solely unconjugated rhodamine 123 via P-glycoprotein. Cyclosporin A, a modulator of multidrug resistance in tumor cells, inhibited the biliary secretion of rhodamine 123 dose dependently in a non-competitive manner. Both cyclosporin A and rhodamine inhibited photoaffinity labeling of immunoprecipitated P-glycoprotein with azidopine, indicating binding to hepatic P-glycoprotein. Our results indicate that monitoring the biliary rhodamine 123 secretion in the isolated perfused liver of TR- rats offers a new system for testing modulators of P-glycoprotein like cyclosporin A.

  2. Inhibition mechanism of P-glycoprotein mediated efflux by mPEG-PLA and influence of PLA chain length on P-glycoprotein inhibition activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjing; Li, Xinru; Gao, Yajie; Zhou, Yanxia; Ma, Shujin; Zhao, Yong; Li, Jinwen; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xinglin; Yin, Dongdong

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(D,L-lactic acid) (mPEG-PLA) on the activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in Caco-2 cells and further unravel the relationship between PLA chain length in mPEG-PLA and influence on P-gp efflux and the action mechanism. The transport results of rhodamine 123 (R123) across Caco-2 cell monolayers suggested that mPEG-PLA unimers were responsible for its P-gp inhibitory effect. Furthermore, transport studies of R123 revealed that the inhibitory potential of P-gp efflux by mPEG-PLA analogues was strongly correlated with their structural features and showed that the hydrophilic mPEG-PLA copolymers with an intermediate PLA chain length and 10.20 of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance were more effective at inhibiting P-gp efflux in Caco-2 cells. The fluorescence polarization measurement results ruled out the plasma membrane fluidization as a contributor for inhibition of P-gp by mPEG-PLA. Concurrently, mPEG-PLA inhibited neither basal P-gp ATPase (ATP is adenosine triphosphate) activity nor substrate stimulated P-gp ATPase activity, suggesting that mPEG-PLA seemed not to be a substrate of P-gp and a competitive inhibitor. No evident alteration in P-gp surface level was detected by flow cytometry upon exposure of the cells to mPEG-PLA. The depletion of intracellular ATP, which was likely to be a result of partial inhibition of cellular metabolism, was directly correlated with inhibitory potential for P-gp mediated efflux by mPEG-PLA analogues. Hence, intracellular ATP-depletion appeared to be possible explanation to the inhibition mechanism of P-gp by mPEG-PLA. Taken together, the establishment of a relationship between PLA chain length and impact on P-gp efflux activity and interpretation of action mechanism of mPEG-PLA on P-gp are of fundamental importance and will facilitate future development of mPEG-PLA in the drug delivery area.

  3. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein-mediated transport by extracts of and monoterpenoids contained in Zanthoxyli fructus.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Naoko; Takagi, Akiyoshi; Kitazawa, Hidenori; Kawakami, Junichi; Adachi, Isao

    2005-12-01

    Citrus (rutaceous) herbs are often used in traditional medicine and Japanese cuisine and can be taken concomitantly with conventional medicine. In this study, the effect of various citrus-herb extracts on P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated transport was examined in vitro to investigate a possible interaction with P-gp substrates. Component monoterpenoids of the essential oil in Zanthoxyli fructus was screened to find novel P-gp inhibitors. LLC-GA5-COL150 cells transfected with human MDR1 cDNA encoding P-gp were used. Cellular accumulation of [3H]digoxin was measured in the presence or absence of P-gp inhibitors or test samples. Aurantii fructus, Evodiae fructus, Aurantii fructus immaturus, Aurantii nobilis pericarpium, Phellodendri cortex, and Zanthoxyli fructus were extracted with hot water (decocted) and then fractionated with ethyl acetate. The cell to medium ratio of [3H]digoxin accumulation increased significantly in the presence of the decoction of Evodiae fructus, Aurantii nobilis pericarpium, and Zanthoxyli fructus, and the ethyl acetate fraction of all citrus herbs used. The ethyl acetate fraction of Zanthoxyli fructus exhibited the strongest inhibition of P-gp among tested samples with an IC50 value of 166 microg/mL. Then its component monoterpenoids, geraniol, geranyl acetate, (R)-(+)-limonene, (R)-(+)-linalool, citronellal, (R)-(+)-citronellal, DL-citronellol, (S)-(-)-beta-citronellol, and cineole, were screened. (R)-(+)-citronellal and (S)-(-)-beta-citronellol inhibited P-gp with IC50 values of 167 microM and 504 microM, respectively. These findings suggest that Zanthoxyli fructus may interact with P-gp substrates and that some monoterpenoids with the relatively lower molecular weight of about 150 such as (R)-(+)-citronellal can be potent inhibitors of P-gp.

  4. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein-mediated transport by extracts of and monoterpenoids contained in Zanthoxyli Fructus

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Naoko; Takagi, Akiyoshi; Kitazawa, Hidenori; Kawakami, Junichi . E-mail: kawakami-tym@umin.ac.jp; Adachi, Isao

    2005-12-01

    Citrus (rutaceous) herbs are often used in traditional medicine and Japanese cuisine and can be taken concomitantly with conventional medicine. In this study, the effect of various citrus-herb extracts on P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated transport was examined in vitro to investigate a possible interaction with P-gp substrates. Component monoterpenoids of the essential oil in Zanthoxyli Fructus was screened to find novel P-gp inhibitors. LLC-GA5-COL150 cells transfected with human MDR1 cDNA encoding P-gp were used. Cellular accumulation of [{sup 3}H]digoxin was measured in the presence or absence of P-gp inhibitors or test samples. Aurantii Fructus, Evodiae Fructus, Aurantii Fructus Immaturus, Aurantii Nobilis Pericarpium, Phellodendri Cortex, and Zanthoxyli Fructus were extracted with hot water (decocted) and then fractionated with ethyl acetate. The cell to medium ratio of [{sup 3}H]digoxin accumulation increased significantly in the presence of the decoction of Evodiae Fructus, Aurantii Nobilis Pericarpium, and Zanthoxyli Fructus, and the ethyl acetate fraction of all citrus herbs used. The ethyl acetate fraction of Zanthoxyli Fructus exhibited the strongest inhibition of P-gp among tested samples with an IC{sub 5} value of 166 {mu}g/mL. Then its component monoterpenoids, geraniol, geranyl acetate (R)-(+)-limonene, (R)-(+)-linalool, citronellal (R)-(+)-citronellal, DL-citronellol (S)-(-)-{beta}-citronellol, and cineole, were screened. (R)-(+)-citronellal and (S)-(-)-{beta}-citronellol inhibited P-gp with IC{sub 5} values of 167 {mu}M and 504 {mu}M, respectively. These findings suggest that Zanthoxyli Fructus may interact with P-gp substrates and that some monoterpenoids with the relatively lower molecular weight of about 150 such as (R)-(+)-citronellal can be potent inhibitors of P-gp.

  5. Inhibition of P-Glycoprotein Mediated Efflux of Paclitaxel by Coumarin Derivatives in Cancer Stem Cells: An In Silico Approach.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Anushree; Misra, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is well known to cause multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. This MDR leads to cancer recurrence which is a major obstacle in cancer treatment. High P-gp expression has been observed in the population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) having self-renewal potential. Early detection and inhibition of these CSCs is directly beneficial to cancer treatment. In this study coumarin derivatives are used to inhibit efflux process and thereby enhance bioavailability of various drugs like paclitaxel (PTX). This drug is most commonly used for the treatment of cancers of breast, ovary, head and neck. Coumarin derivatives can be used to reduce the growth of breast cancer stem cells through P-gp mediated efflux inhibition and paclitaxel bioavailability enhancement. With the use of computational approaches including molecular docking simulation and pharmacophore study, few coumarin derivatives have been found to be more potential inhibitors of P-gp mediated efflux. Based on high affinity inhibitors, new coumarin derivatives have been designed and docked at active site cavity of P-gps. Some newly designed coumarin derivatives were found to be more potent due to their higher binding affinity towards target protein. The finding that newly designed coumarins can be exploited for inhibition of P-gp mediated efflux in order to enhance paclitaxel bioavailability and can inhibit breast cancer stem cell growth is significant for designing potent anticancer drugs.

  6. Demethoxycurcumin modulates human P-glycoprotein function via uncompetitive inhibition of ATPase hydrolysis activity.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yu-Ning; Hsieh, Yow-Wen; Hung, Chin-Chuan; Lin, Hui-Yi

    2015-01-28

    Curcuminoids are major components of Curcuma longa L., which is widely used as spice in food. This study aimed at identifying whether curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin could modulate efflux function of human P-glycoprotein and be used as chemosensitizers in cancer treatments. Without altering P-glycoprotein expression levels and conformation, the purified curcuminoids significantly inhibited P-glycoprotein efflux function. In rhodamine 123 efflux and calcein-AM accumulation assays, demethoxycurcumin demonstrated the highest inhibition potency (inhibitory IC50 = 1.56 ± 0.13 μM) among the purified curcuminoids, as well as in the fold of reversal assays. Demethoxycurcumin inhibited P-glycoprotein-mediated ATP hydrolysis under concentrations of <1 μM and efficiently inhibited 200 μM verapamil-stimulated ATPase activity, indicating a high affinity of demethoxycurcumin for P-glycoprotein. These results suggested that demethoxycurcumin may be a potential additive natural product in combination with chemotherapeutic agents in drug-resistant cancers.

  7. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein-mediated transport by S-adenosylmethionine and cynarin in multidrug-resistant human uterine sarcoma MES-SA/Dx5 cells.

    PubMed

    Angelini, A; Di Pietro, R; Centurione, L; Castellani, M L; Conti, P; Porreca, E; Cuccurullo, F

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) to anticancer chemotherapy is often mediated by the overexpression of the plasma membrane drug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) encoded by multidrug resistance gene (MDR1). Various chemosensitizing agents are able to inhibit Pgp activity but their clinical application is limited by their toxicity. Furthermore, hepatotoxicity related to chemotherapy causes delays of treatment in cancer patients and often requires supplementation of anti-tumour therapy with hepatoprotective agents. In this in vitro study, we investigated the effectiveness of an endogenous hepatoprotective agent, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), and a natural hepatoprotective compound, Cynarin (Cyn), to inhibit Pgp activity in order to evaluate their potential use as chemosensitizing agents. Human doxorubicin (doxo) resistant uterine sarcoma cells (MES-SA/Dx5) expressing high levels of Pgp were treated with two hepatoprotectors at various concentrations (1, 5 and 10 microM) that are clinically achievable, in the presence or absence of three different concentrations of doxo (2, 4 and 8 microM). In order to evaluate the effects of both hepatoprotectors, we measured the intracellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of doxo, the cellular GSH level, ROS production and catalase (CAT) activity. We found that treatment with 2, 4 and 8 microM doxo in the presence of SAMe or Cyn significantly increased the doxo accumulation and cytotoxicity on MES-SA/Dx5 cells, when compared to control cells receiving doxo alone. Moreover, treatment with SAMe or Cyn significantly increased GSH content, greater than 80 percent and 60 percent, respectively) and CAT activity greater than 60 and 150 percent, respectively) in resistant cancer cells, while ROS production was below the values of corresponding untreated control cells. Our in vitro findings provide a rationale for the potential clinical use of these hepatoprotectors both as chemosensitizing agents, to reverse Pgp-mediated MDR, and as antioxidants to

  8. Bile canalicular cationic dye secretion as a model for P-glycoprotein mediated transport.

    PubMed

    Thalhammer, T; Stapf, V; Gajdzik, L; Graf, J

    1994-04-01

    This study explores properties of P-glycoprotein dependent membrane transport in rat liver with the use of acridine orange as the substrate. We studied the biliary secretion of the dye, its binding to canalicular membrane P-glycoprotein, and effects of the inhibitor cyclosporin A: acridine orange is excreted into bile together with less hydrophobic and glucuronidated metabolites. Cyclosporin A inhibited both the secretion of acridine orange and of its metabolites. In TR- animals, a rat strain that is deficient of the canalicular multi-specific organic anion transport system, non-metabolized acridine orange is the predominant species in bile and its secretion is also inhibited by cyclosporin A. Binding of acridine orange to liver P-glycoprotein was analyzed by photoaffinity labeling with azidopine, a substrate of P-glycoprotein dependent transport in multi-drug resistant tumor cells. Labeling of the immunoprecipitated P-glycoprotein was inhibited by acridine orange, verapamil, and by cyclosporin A. The results show that biliary secretion of acridine orange is highly analogous to P-glycoprotein mediated membrane drug transport in tumor cells that exhibit multi-drug resistance.

  9. Co-treatment by docetaxel and vinblastine breaks down P-glycoprotein mediated chemo-resistance

    PubMed Central

    Mohseni, Mahsa; Samadi, Nasser; Ghanbari, Parisa; Yousefi, Bahman; Tabasinezhad, Maryam; Sharifi, Simin; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Chemoresistance remains the main causes of treatment failure and mortality in cancer patients. There is an urgent need to investigate novel approaches to improve current therapeutic modalities and increase cancer patients’ survival. Induction of drug efflux due to overexpression of P-glycoproteins is considered as an important leading cause of multidrug resistance. In this study, we investigated the role of combination treatments of docetaxel and vinblastine in overcoming P-glycoprotein mediated inhibition of apoptosis and induction of cell proliferation in human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. Materials and Methods: Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed using MTT assay and DAPI staining, respectively. P-glycoprotein expression was evaluated in gene and protein levels by Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Results: Combination treatment of the cells with docetaxel and vinblastine decreased the IC50 values for docetaxel from (30±3.1) to (15±2.6) nM and for vinblastine from (30±5.9) to (5±5.6) nM (P≤0.05). P-glycoprotein mRNA expression level showed a significant up-regulation in the cells incubated with each drug alone (P≤0.001). Incubation of the cells with combined concentrations of both agents neutralized P-glycoprotein overexpression (P≤0.05). Adding verapamil, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor caused a further increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells when the cells were treated with both agents. Conclusion: Our results suggest that combination therapy along with P-glycoprotein inhibition can be considered as a novel approach to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutics in cancer patients with high P-glycoprotein expression. PMID:27114800

  10. Progesterone-adenine hybrids as bivalent inhibitors of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug efflux: design, synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zeinyeh, Waël; Mahiout, Zahia; Radix, Sylvie; Lomberget, Thierry; Dumoulin, Axel; Barret, Roland; Grenot, Catherine; Rocheblave, Luc; Matera, Eva-Laure; Dumontet, Charles; Walchshofer, Nadia

    2012-10-01

    Bivalent ligands were designed on the basis of the described close proximity of the ATP-site and the putative steroid-binding site of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1). The syntheses of 19 progesterone-adenine hybrids are described. Their abilities to inhibit P-glycoprotein-mediated daunorubicin efflux in K562/R7 human leukemic cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein were evaluated versus progesterone. The hybrid with a hexamethylene linker chain showed the best inhibitory potency. The efficiency of these progesterone-adenine hybrids depends on two main factors: (i) the nature of the linker and (ii) its attachment point on the steroid skeleton.

  11. Optimization of irinotecan chronotherapy with P-glycoprotein inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Filipski, Elisabeth; Berland, Elodie; Ozturk, Narin; Guettier, Catherine; Horst, Gijsbertus T.J. van der; Lévi, Francis; and others

    2014-02-01

    The relevance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) for irinotecan chronopharmacology was investigated in female B6D2F{sub 1} mice. A three-fold 24 h change in the mRNA expression of Abcb1b was demonstrated in ileum mucosa, with a maximum at Zeitgeber Time (ZT) 15 (p < 0.001). No rhythm was found for abcb1a in ileum mucosa, or for Abcb1a/b in Glasgow osteosarcoma (GOS), a mouse tumor cell line moderately sensitive to irinotecan. Non-tumor-bearing mice received irinotecan (50 mg/kg/day i.v. × 4 days) as a single agent or combined with P-gp inhibitor PSC833 (6.25 mg/kg/day i.p. × 4 days) at ZT3 or ZT15, respectively corresponding to the worst or the best irinotecan tolerability. Endpoints involved survival, body weight change and hematologic toxicity. Antitumor efficacy was studied in GOS-bearing mice receiving irinotecan (25, 30 or 40 mg/kg/day × 4 days) and +/− PSC833 at ZT3 or ZT15, with survival, body weight change, and tumor growth inhibition as endpoints. Non-tumor bearing mice lost an average of 17% or 9% of their body weight according to irinotecan administration at ZT3 or ZT15 respectively (p < 0.001). Dosing at ZT15 rather than ZT3 reduced mean leucopenia (9% vs 53%; p < 0.001). PSC833 aggravated irinotecan lethal toxicity from 4 to ∼ 60%. In tumor-bearing mice, body weight loss was ∼ halved in the mice on irinotecan or irinotecan–PSC833 combination at ZT15 as compared to ZT3 (p < 0.001). PSC833–irinotecan at ZT15 increased tumor inhibition by ∼ 40% as compared to irinotecan only at ZT15. In conclusion, P-gp was an important determinant of the circadian balance between toxicity and efficacy of irinotecan. - Highlights: • Irinotecan chronotolerance and chronoefficacy change as drug was applied with PSC833. • P-glycoprotein is an important player of the toxicity and efficacy of irinotecan. • Timing should be considered if chemotherapy is performed with a MDR1 inhibitor.

  12. Optimization of irinotecan chronotherapy with P-glycoprotein inhibition.

    PubMed

    Filipski, Elisabeth; Berland, Elodie; Ozturk, Narin; Guettier, Catherine; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Lévi, Francis; Okyar, Alper

    2014-02-01

    The relevance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) for irinotecan chronopharmacology was investigated in female B6D2F1 mice. A three-fold 24h change in the mRNA expression of Abcb1b was demonstrated in ileum mucosa, with a maximum at Zeitgeber Time (ZT) 15 (p<0.001). No rhythm was found for abcb1a in ileum mucosa, or for Abcb1a/b in Glasgow osteosarcoma (GOS), a mouse tumor cell line moderately sensitive to irinotecan. Non-tumor-bearing mice received irinotecan (50mg/kg/day i.v.×4days) as a single agent or combined with P-gp inhibitor PSC833 (6.25mg/kg/day i.p.×4 days) at ZT3 or ZT15, respectively corresponding to the worst or the best irinotecan tolerability. Endpoints involved survival, body weight change and hematologic toxicity. Antitumor efficacy was studied in GOS-bearing mice receiving irinotecan (25, 30 or 40mg/kg/day×4days) and +/-PSC833 at ZT3 or ZT15, with survival, body weight change, and tumor growth inhibition as endpoints. Non-tumor bearing mice lost an average of 17% or 9% of their body weight according to irinotecan administration at ZT3 or ZT15 respectively (p<0.001). Dosing at ZT15 rather than ZT3 reduced mean leucopenia (9% vs 53%; p<0.001). PSC833 aggravated irinotecan lethal toxicity from 4 to ~60%. In tumor-bearing mice, body weight loss was ~halved in the mice on irinotecan or irinotecan-PSC833 combination at ZT15 as compared to ZT3 (p<0.001). PSC833-irinotecan at ZT15 increased tumor inhibition by ~40% as compared to irinotecan only at ZT15. In conclusion, P-gp was an important determinant of the circadian balance between toxicity and efficacy of irinotecan.

  13. Grapefruit juice-drug interactions: Grapefruit juice and its components inhibit P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) mediated transport of talinolol in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Whocely Victor; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne; Derendorf, Hartmut; Butterweck, Veronika

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the potential interaction between selected ingredients of grapefruit juice and, the transport of talinolol, a P-gp substrate, across Caco-2 cells monolayers was determined in the absence and presence of distinct concentrations of grapefruit juice, bergamottin, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, 6',7'-epoxybergamottin, naringin, and naringenin. Talinolol permeability was selectively inhibited by grapefruit juice and its components. The furano coumarin, 6',7'-epoxybergamottin, was the most potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 0.7 microM), followed by 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (IC(50) = 34 microM) and bergamottin that did not show any inhibition at concentrations up to 10 microM. The flavonoid aglycone naringenin was around 10-fold more potent than its glycoside naringin with IC(50) values of 236 and 2409 microM, respectively. The flavonoids and furanocoumarins tested in this study are in the same range of concentration they are present in the juice contributing, therefore, for the overall inhibitory effect of GFJ on P-gp activity. The in vitro data suggest that compounds present in grapefruit juice are able to inhibit the P-gp activity modifying the disposition of drugs that are P-gp substrates such as talinolol. PMID:17542018

  14. Identification of key structural characteristics of Schisandra chinensis lignans involved in P-glycoprotein inhibition.

    PubMed

    Slanina, Jiří; Páchniková, Gabriela; Carnecká, Martina; Porubová Koubíková, Ludmila; Adámková, Lenka; Humpa, Otakar; Smejkal, Karel; Slaninová, Iva

    2014-10-24

    The aim of the present study was to determine the structural requirements for dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans essential for P-glycoprotein inhibition. Altogether 15 structurally related lignans isolated from Schisandra chinensis or prepared by modification of their backbone were investigated, including three pairs of enantiomers. P-Glycoprotein inhibition was quantified using a doxorubicin accumulation assay in human promyelotic leukemia HL60/MDR cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein. A preliminary quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis revealed three main structural features involved in P-glycoprotein inhibition: a 1,2,3-trimethoxy moiety, a 6-acyloxy group, and the absence of a 7-hydroxy group. The most effective inhibitors, (-)-gomisin N (1) and (+)-deoxyschizandrin [(+)-2], were selected for further evaluation of their effects. Both these lignans restored the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin in HL60/MDR cells and when combined with a subtoxic concentration of this compound increased the proportion of G2/M cells significantly, which is a usual response to treatment with this anticancer drug.

  15. Reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance by the novel tetrandrine derivative W6.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Qian; Wang, Feng-Peng; Bao, Xiu-Qi; Zhang, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of ATP-dependent efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is the main cause of multidrug resistance (MDR) and chemotherapy failure in cancer treatment. Inhibition of P-gp-mediated drug efflux is an effective way to overcome cancer drug resistance. The present study investigated the reversal effect of the novel tetrandrine derivative W6 on P-gp-mediated MDR. KBv200, MCF-7/adr and their parental sensitive cell lines KB, MCF-7 were used for reversal study. The intracellular accumulation with P-gp substrates of doxorubicin was determined by flow cytometry. The expression of P-gp and ERK1/2 was investigated by western blot and real-time-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis. ATPase activity of P-gp was performed by P-gp-Glo(TM) assay systems. In comparison with P-gp-negative parental cells, W6 produced a favorable reversal effect in the MDR cells, as determined using the MTT assay. W6 significantly and dose-dependently increased intracellular accumulation of P-gp substrate doxorubicin (DOX) in P-gp overexpressing KBv200 cells, and also inhibited the ATPase activity of P-gp. W6 inhibited P-gp expression in KBv200 cells in a time-dependent manner, but it had no effect on MDR1 expression. In addition, W6 significantly decreased the ERK1/2 activation in KBv200 cells. Our results showed that W6 effectively reversed P-gp-mediated MDR by inhibiting the transport function and expression of P-gp, demonstrating the potential clinical utility of W6. PMID:26235354

  16. The Interactions of P-Glycoprotein with Antimalarial Drugs, Including Substrate Affinity, Inhibition and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Senarathna, S M D K Ganga; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Crowe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The combination of passive drug permeability, affinity for uptake and efflux transporters as well as gastrointestinal metabolism defines net drug absorption. Efflux mechanisms are often overlooked when examining the absorption phase of drug bioavailability. Knowing the affinity of antimalarials for efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) may assist in the determination of drug absorption and pharmacokinetic drug interactions during oral absorption in drug combination therapies. Concurrent administration of P-gp inhibitors and P-gp substrate drugs may also result in alterations in the bioavailability of some antimalarials. In-vitro Caco-2 cell monolayers were used here as a model for potential drug absorption related problems and P-gp mediated transport of drugs. Artemisone had the highest permeability at around 50 x 10(-6) cm/sec, followed by amodiaquine around 20 x 10(-6) cm/sec; both mefloquine and artesunate were around 10 x 10(-6) cm/sec. Methylene blue was between 2 and 6 x 10(-6) cm/sec depending on the direction of transport. This 3 fold difference was able to be halved by use of P-gp inhibition. MRP inhibition also assisted the consolidation of the methylene blue transport. Mefloquine was shown to be a P-gp inhibitor affecting our P-gp substrate, Rhodamine 123, although none of the other drugs impacted upon rhodamine123 transport rates. In conclusion, mefloquine is a P-gp inhibitor and methylene blue is a partial substrate; methylene blue may have increased absorption if co-administered with such P-gp inhibitors. An upregulation of P-gp was observed when artemisone and dihydroartemisinin were co-incubated with mefloquine and amodiaquine. PMID:27045516

  17. The Interactions of P-Glycoprotein with Antimalarial Drugs, Including Substrate Affinity, Inhibition and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Senarathna, S M D K Ganga; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Crowe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The combination of passive drug permeability, affinity for uptake and efflux transporters as well as gastrointestinal metabolism defines net drug absorption. Efflux mechanisms are often overlooked when examining the absorption phase of drug bioavailability. Knowing the affinity of antimalarials for efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) may assist in the determination of drug absorption and pharmacokinetic drug interactions during oral absorption in drug combination therapies. Concurrent administration of P-gp inhibitors and P-gp substrate drugs may also result in alterations in the bioavailability of some antimalarials. In-vitro Caco-2 cell monolayers were used here as a model for potential drug absorption related problems and P-gp mediated transport of drugs. Artemisone had the highest permeability at around 50 x 10(-6) cm/sec, followed by amodiaquine around 20 x 10(-6) cm/sec; both mefloquine and artesunate were around 10 x 10(-6) cm/sec. Methylene blue was between 2 and 6 x 10(-6) cm/sec depending on the direction of transport. This 3 fold difference was able to be halved by use of P-gp inhibition. MRP inhibition also assisted the consolidation of the methylene blue transport. Mefloquine was shown to be a P-gp inhibitor affecting our P-gp substrate, Rhodamine 123, although none of the other drugs impacted upon rhodamine123 transport rates. In conclusion, mefloquine is a P-gp inhibitor and methylene blue is a partial substrate; methylene blue may have increased absorption if co-administered with such P-gp inhibitors. An upregulation of P-gp was observed when artemisone and dihydroartemisinin were co-incubated with mefloquine and amodiaquine.

  18. Effects of the inhibition of intestinal P-glycoprotein on aliskiren pharmacokinetics in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Tsukimoto, Mikiko; Ohashi, Rikiya; Torimoto, Nao; Togo, Yoko; Suzuki, Takashi; Maeda, Toshio; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Aliskiren is a substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and is metabolized via cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). The aim of the present study was to assess whether P-gp influenced the pharmacokinetics of aliskiren and also if drug-drug interactions (DDIs) mediated through P-gp could be reproduced in cynomolgus monkeys. The study investigated the pharmacokinetics of aliskiren in mdr1a/1b gene-deficient (P-gp KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) following the oral administration of aliskiren was 6.9-fold higher in P-gp KO mice than in WT mice, while no significant differences were observed in the AUC or total plasma clearance following the intravenous administration of aliskiren to P-gp KO mice. Then the pharmacokinetics of aliskiren were evaluated and DDIs between aliskiren and P-gp inhibitors, such as cyclosporin A (CsA) and zosuquidar, examined in cynomolgus monkeys. The AUC for aliskiren were 8.3- and 42.1-fold higher after the oral administration of aliskiren with the concomitant oral administration of zosuquidar and CsA at doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg, respectively. In contrast, the AUC after the intravenous and oral administration of aliskiren was not significantly affected by the oral administration of zosuquidar or intravenous administration of CsA, respectively. These results indicated that P-gp strictly limited the intestinal absorption of aliskiren in mice and monkeys, and also that the effects of intestinal P-gp inhibition by CsA or zosuquidar on the pharmacokinetics of aliskiren were sensitively reproduced in monkeys. In conclusion, aliskiren can be used as a sensitive substrate to evaluate intestinal P-gp inhibition in monkeys.

  19. The Interactions of P-Glycoprotein with Antimalarial Drugs, Including Substrate Affinity, Inhibition and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Senarathna, S M D K Ganga; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Crowe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The combination of passive drug permeability, affinity for uptake and efflux transporters as well as gastrointestinal metabolism defines net drug absorption. Efflux mechanisms are often overlooked when examining the absorption phase of drug bioavailability. Knowing the affinity of antimalarials for efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) may assist in the determination of drug absorption and pharmacokinetic drug interactions during oral absorption in drug combination therapies. Concurrent administration of P-gp inhibitors and P-gp substrate drugs may also result in alterations in the bioavailability of some antimalarials. In-vitro Caco-2 cell monolayers were used here as a model for potential drug absorption related problems and P-gp mediated transport of drugs. Artemisone had the highest permeability at around 50 x 10−6 cm/sec, followed by amodiaquine around 20 x 10−6 cm/sec; both mefloquine and artesunate were around 10 x 10−6 cm/sec. Methylene blue was between 2 and 6 x 10−6 cm/sec depending on the direction of transport. This 3 fold difference was able to be halved by use of P-gp inhibition. MRP inhibition also assisted the consolidation of the methylene blue transport. Mefloquine was shown to be a P-gp inhibitor affecting our P-gp substrate, Rhodamine 123, although none of the other drugs impacted upon rhodamine123 transport rates. In conclusion, mefloquine is a P-gp inhibitor and methylene blue is a partial substrate; methylene blue may have increased absorption if co-administered with such P-gp inhibitors. An upregulation of P-gp was observed when artemisone and dihydroartemisinin were co-incubated with mefloquine and amodiaquine. PMID:27045516

  20. The novel bis-benzylisoquinoline PY35 reverses P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhonglian; Wright, Meredith; Cheng, Jiekai; Huang, Xiaoxing; Liu, Li; Wu, Lixing; Yang, Ping

    2014-09-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapeutic drugs is the main cause of chemotherapy failure in cancer treatment, and it generally results from expression of ATP-dependent efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp). MDR reversal agents typically act by inhibiting the drug efflux activity of P-gp, thereby increasing intracellular drug levels. PY35 is a novel 5-substituted tetrandrine (Tet) derivative (CN Application No. 201210238709.6). The present study was performed to investigate the ability of PY35 to reverse P-gp-mediated MDR and its mechanism in resistant K562/Adriamycin (ADM), MCF-7/ADM cells and their sensitive cell lines K562 and MCF-7. The ability of PY35 to reverse drug resistance was evaluated by MTT assay. The results showed that PY35 can reverse MDR more effectively than the drug prototype‑Tet. The P-gp function was assessed by the Rhodamine 123 (Rho-123; a P-gp substrate) uptake assay with flow cytometry (FCM) and laser scanning confocal microscopes (LSCM); it showed that the MDR cells pumped Rho-123 out the cells, while their sensitive cells scarcely showed efflux. The presence of PY35 efficiently decreased the efflux of the Rho-123, showing that PY35 can reverse P-gp-mediated MDR by increasing the intracellular concentration of Rho-123. The intracellular accumulation of ADM was analyzed by FCM and showed that the coadministration of PY35 and ADM had clearer accumulation than the treatment of Tet and ADM, and was also more evident than treatment with only ADM. The effect of PY35 on the expression of P-gp was assessed by western blotting. The results indicated that PY35 does not inhibit the expression level of the P-gp. This study indicated that PY35 can effectively reverse P-gp-mediated MDR, not by inhibiting the expression of P-gp, but by the coadministration of PY35 and ADM that could increase the intracellular accumulation of drugs. Thus, PY35 may be a potential inhibitor to overcome drug resistance. PMID:25017650

  1. In vitro and in vivo evaluations of the P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux of dibenzoylhydrazines.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Ken-Ichi; Nakagawa, Yoshiaki; Kimura, Yasuhisa; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Akamatsu, Miki

    2016-05-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family. It actively transports a wide variety of compounds out of cells to protect humans from xenobiotics. Thus, determining whether chemicals are substrates and/or inhibitors of P-gp is important in risk assessments of pharmacokinetic interactions among chemicals because P-gp-mediated transport processes play a significant role in their absorption and disposition. We previously reported that dibenzoylhydrazines (DBHs) such as tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide (agrochemicals) stimulated P-gp ATPase activity. However, it currently remains unclear whether these derivatives are transport substrates of P-gp and inhibit transport of other chemicals by P-gp. In the present study, in order to evaluate the interactions of DBHs with other chemicals in humans, we determined whether DBHs are P-gp transport substrates using both the in vitro bidirectional transport assay and the in vivo study of rats. In the in vivo study, we investigated the influence of P-gp inhibitors on the brain to plasma ratio of methoxyfenozide in rats. We also examined the inhibitory effects of DBHs on quinidine (a P-gp substrate) transport by P-gp in order to ascertain whether these derivatives are inhibitors of P-gp. Based on the results, DBHs were concluded to be weak P-gp transport substrates and moderate P-gp inhibitors. However, the risk of DBHs caused by interaction with other chemicals including drugs was considered to be low by considering the DBHs' potential as the substrates and inhibitors of P-gp as well as their plasma concentrations as long as DBHs are properly used.

  2. Guggulsterone of Commiphora mukul resin reverses drug resistance in imatinib-resistant leukemic cells by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2 and P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Bin; Xu, Lu-Zhong; Mao, Xia-Ping; Fu, Jun

    2014-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of guggulsterone on cyclooxygenase-2 and P-glycoprotein mediated drug resistance in imatinib-resistant K562 cells (K562/IMA). MTT cytotoxicity assay, flow cytometry, western blot analysis, and ELISA were performed to investigate the anti-proliferative effect, the reversal action of drug resistance, and the inhibitory effect on cyclooxygenase-2, P-glycoprotein, BCR/ABL kinase, and PGE2 release in K562/IMA cells by guggulsterone. The results showed that co-administration of guggulsterone resulted in a significant increase in chemo-sensitivity of K562/IMA cells to imatinib, compared with imatinib treatment alone. Rhodamine123 accumulation in K562/IMA cells was significantly enhanced after incubation with guggulsterone (60, 120 μM), compared with untreated K562/IMA cells (p<0.05). When imatinib (1 μM) was combined with guggulsterone (60, 120 μM), the mean apoptotic population of K562/IMA cells was 15.47% and 24.91%. It was increased by 3.82 and 6.79 times, compared with imatinib (1 μM) treatment alone. Furthermore, guggulsterone had significantly inhibitory effects on the levels of cyclooxygenase-2, P-glycoprotein and prostaglandin E2. However, guggulsterone had little inhibitory effect on the activity of BCR/ABL kinase. The present study indicates guggulsterone induces apoptosis by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2 and down-regulating P-glycoprotein expression in K562/IMA cells.

  3. P-glycoprotein Mediated Efflux Modulators of Plant Origin: A Short Review.

    PubMed

    Silva, Nuno; Salgueiro, Lígia; Fortuna, Ana; Cavaleiro, Carlos

    2016-05-01

    Drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) help maintain cellular homeostasis but are also major contributors to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomena. Since P-gp was associated with MDR, several compounds showing potential to inhibit this transporter have been identified. Particular attention has been given to natural products, namely those of plant origin, looking for highly effective and safe P-gp inhibitors with little to no interaction with other cellular or metabolic processes. Here we abridge several examples of plant compounds from distinct classes, polyketides, lignans, anthraquinones, coumarins, alkaloids, mono- and sesqui-terpenes, steroids and limonoids, which have shown the ability to modulate in vitro or in vivo the P-gp activity.

  4. Gambogic acid sensitizes resistant breast cancer cells to doxorubicin through inhibiting P-glycoprotein and suppressing survivin expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengpeng; Wang, Lu; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Yitao

    2015-06-25

    The development of resistance to chemotherapeutic agents remains a major challenge to breast cancer chemotherapy. Overexpression of drug efflux transporters like P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and resistance to apoptosis are the two key factors that confer cancer drug resistance. Gambogic acid (GA), a major component of Gamboge resin, has potent anticancer effects and can inhibit the growth of several types of human cancers. However, the potential and underlying mechanisms of GA in reversing cancer resistance remain poorly understood. In the present study, we found that GA can markedly sensitize doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant breast cancer cells to DOX-mediated cell death. GA increased the intracellular accumulation of DOX by inhibiting both P-gp expression and activity. Meanwhile, the combination effect was associated with the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the suppression of anti-apoptotic protein survivin. Scavenging intracellular ROS or overexpression of survivin blocked the sensitizing effects of GA in DOX-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, ROS-mediated activation of p38 MAPK was revealed in GA-mediated suppression of survivin expression. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying GA as an anticancer agent for the purpose of combating DOX-resistant breast cancer.

  5. Global marine pollutants inhibit P-glycoprotein: Environmental levels, inhibitory effects, and cocrystal structure

    PubMed Central

    Nicklisch, Sascha C. T.; Rees, Steven D.; McGrath, Aaron P.; Gökirmak, Tufan; Bonito, Lindsay T.; Vermeer, Lydia M.; Cregger, Cristina; Loewen, Greg; Sandin, Stuart; Chang, Geoffrey; Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-01-01

    The world’s oceans are a global reservoir of persistent organic pollutants to which humans and other animals are exposed. Although it is well known that these pollutants are potentially hazardous to human and environmental health, their impacts remain incompletely understood. We examined how persistent organic pollutants interact with the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an evolutionarily conserved defense protein that is essential for protection against environmental toxicants. We identified specific congeners of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers that inhibit mouse and human P-gp, and determined their environmental levels in yellowfin tuna from the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, we solved the cocrystal structure of P-gp bound to one of these inhibitory pollutants, PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ether)–100, providing the first view of pollutant binding to a drug transporter. The results demonstrate the potential for specific binding and inhibition of mammalian P-gp by ubiquitous congeners of persistent organic pollutants present in fish and other foods, and argue for further consideration of transporter inhibition in the assessment of the risk of exposure to these chemicals. PMID:27152359

  6. Global marine pollutants inhibit P-glycoprotein: Environmental levels, inhibitory effects, and cocrystal structure.

    PubMed

    Nicklisch, Sascha C T; Rees, Steven D; McGrath, Aaron P; Gökirmak, Tufan; Bonito, Lindsay T; Vermeer, Lydia M; Cregger, Cristina; Loewen, Greg; Sandin, Stuart; Chang, Geoffrey; Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-04-01

    The world's oceans are a global reservoir of persistent organic pollutants to which humans and other animals are exposed. Although it is well known that these pollutants are potentially hazardous to human and environmental health, their impacts remain incompletely understood. We examined how persistent organic pollutants interact with the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an evolutionarily conserved defense protein that is essential for protection against environmental toxicants. We identified specific congeners of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers that inhibit mouse and human P-gp, and determined their environmental levels in yellowfin tuna from the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, we solved the cocrystal structure of P-gp bound to one of these inhibitory pollutants, PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ether)-100, providing the first view of pollutant binding to a drug transporter. The results demonstrate the potential for specific binding and inhibition of mammalian P-gp by ubiquitous congeners of persistent organic pollutants present in fish and other foods, and argue for further consideration of transporter inhibition in the assessment of the risk of exposure to these chemicals. PMID:27152359

  7. Most drugs that reverse multidrug resistance also inhibit photoaffinity labeling of P-glycoprotein by a vinblastine analog

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, S.; Cornwell, M.M.; Kuwano, M.; Pastan, I.; Gottesman, M.M.

    1988-02-01

    Multidrug-resistant human KB carcinoma cells express a 170,000-dalton membrane glycoprotein (P-glycoprotein) that can be photoaffinity labeled with the vinblastine analog N-(p-azido-(3-/sup 125/I)salicyl)-N'-(beta-aminoethyl)vindesine. Several agents that suppress the multidrug-resistant phenotype, including N-solanesyl-N,N'-bis(3,4-dimethylbenzyl)ethylenediamine, cepharanthine, quinidine, and reserpine, were found to inhibit photolabeling of P-glycoprotein at doses comparable to those that reverse multidrug resistance. However, the phenothiazines chlorpromazine and trifluoperazine, which also effectively reverse multidrug resistance, were poor inhibitors of the photoaffinity labeling of P-glycoprotein. Chloroquine, propranolol, or atropine, which only partially reversed the drug resistance, also did not inhibit photolabeling. Naphthalene sulfonamide calmodulin inhibitors, W7 and W5, as well as many other drugs that did not circumvent multidrug resistance, did not inhibit photolabeling. These studies suggest that most, but not all, agents that phenotypically suppress multidrug resistance also inhibit drug binding to a site on P-glycoprotein with which a photoaffinity analog of vinblastine interacts.

  8. Caco-2 cell methodology and inhibition of the P-glycoprotein transport of digoxin by Aloe vera juice.

    PubMed

    Djuv, Ane; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2008-12-01

    The aims of this study were to carry out a thorough quality control setup for essential Caco-2 cell characteristics in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibition studies and to explore if Aloe vera juice (AVJ) inhibits the bidirectional transport of the P-gp substrate digoxin (30 nm). Seven AVJ concentrations (0.00001-1.0 mg/mL), anticipated to cover a clinically relevant range, were tested and digoxin apparent permeability coefficients (Papp), net Papp values (Papp(Net)) and net flux values (J(Net)) were calculated. Relevant validation parameters for P-gp inhibition studies in Caco-2 cells are suggested to include, as a minimum, an assay linearity test with and without a known P-gp inhibitor, cell cytotoxicity testing (MTT-test) for substrates and inhibitors, and cell integrity testing by TEER and mannitol transport measurements. The question is also raised whether a minimum effect of a reference P-gp inhibitor as verapamil should be demanded. Cell cytotoxicity was seen for digoxin at concentrations >or=3 microM and for AVJ at 10 mg/mL. AVJ did not inhibit the P-gp transport of digoxin in any of the concentrations tested. This indicates that AVJ is no inhibitor of the P-gp mediated transport of digoxin in vitro if AVJ is present in clinically relevant concentrations.

  9. Oral and inhaled corticosteroids: Differences in P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) mediated efflux

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, Andrew Tan, Ai May

    2012-05-01

    There is concern that P-glycoprotein mediated efflux contributes to steroid resistance. Therefore, this study examined bidirectional corticosteroid transport and induction capabilities for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to understand which of the systemic and inhaled corticosteroids interacted with P-gp to the greatest extent. Hydrocortisone, prednisolone, prednisone, methylprednisolone, and dexamethasone represented systemically active drugs, while fluticasone propionate, beclomethasone dipropionate, ciclesonide and budesonide represented inhaled corticosteroids. Aldosterone and fludrocortisone represented mineralocorticoids. All drugs were detected using individually optimised HPLC protocols. Transport studies were conducted through Caco-2 monolayers. Hydrocortisone and aldosterone had efflux ratios below 1.5, while prednisone showed a P-gp mediated efflux ratio of only 1.8 compared to its active drug, prednisolone, with an efflux ratio of 4.5. Dexamethasone and beclomethasone had efflux ratios of 2.1 and 3.3 respectively, while this increased to 5.1 for methylprednisolone. Fluticasone showed an efflux ratio of 2.3. Protein expression studies suggested that all of the inhaled corticosteroids were able to induce P-gp expression, from 1.6 to 2 times control levels. Most of the systemic corticosteroids had higher passive permeability (> 20 × 10{sup −6} cm/s) compared to the inhaled corticosteroids (> 5 × 10{sup −6} cm/s), except for budesonide, with permeability similar to the systemic corticosteroids. Inhaled corticosteroids are not transported by P-gp to the same extent as systemic corticosteroids. However, they are able to induce P-gp production. Thus, inhaled corticosteroids may have greater interactions with other P-gp substrates, but P-gp itself is less likely to influence resistance to the drugs. -- Highlights: ► Inhaled corticosteroids are only weak substrates for P-gp, including budesonide. ► Inhaled corticosteroid potent P-gp inducers especially

  10. Optimization by Molecular Fine Tuning of Dihydro-β-agarofuran Sesquiterpenoids as Reversers of P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Multidrug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Callies, Oliver; Sánchez-Cañete, María P; Gamarro, Francisco; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Castanys, Santiago; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2016-03-10

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a crucial role in the development of multidrug resistance (MDR), a major obstacle for successful chemotherapy in cancer. Herein, we report on the development of a natural-product-based library of 81 dihydro-β-agarofuran sesquiterpenes (2-82) by optimization of the lead compound 1. The compound library was evaluated for its ability to inhibit P-gp-mediated daunomycin efflux in MDR cells. Selected analogues were further analyzed for their P-gp inhibition constant, intrinsic toxicity, and potency to reverse daunomycin and vinblastine resistances. Analogues 6, 24, 28, 59, and 66 were identified as having higher potency than compound 1 and verapamil, a first-generation P-gp modulator. SAR analysis revealed the size of the aliphatic chains and presence of nitrogen atoms are important structural characteristics to modulate reversal activity. The present study highlights the potential of these analogues as modulators of P-gp mediated MDR in cancer cells.

  11. Optimization by Molecular Fine Tuning of Dihydro-β-agarofuran Sesquiterpenoids as Reversers of P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Multidrug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Callies, Oliver; Sánchez-Cañete, María P; Gamarro, Francisco; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Castanys, Santiago; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2016-03-10

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a crucial role in the development of multidrug resistance (MDR), a major obstacle for successful chemotherapy in cancer. Herein, we report on the development of a natural-product-based library of 81 dihydro-β-agarofuran sesquiterpenes (2-82) by optimization of the lead compound 1. The compound library was evaluated for its ability to inhibit P-gp-mediated daunomycin efflux in MDR cells. Selected analogues were further analyzed for their P-gp inhibition constant, intrinsic toxicity, and potency to reverse daunomycin and vinblastine resistances. Analogues 6, 24, 28, 59, and 66 were identified as having higher potency than compound 1 and verapamil, a first-generation P-gp modulator. SAR analysis revealed the size of the aliphatic chains and presence of nitrogen atoms are important structural characteristics to modulate reversal activity. The present study highlights the potential of these analogues as modulators of P-gp mediated MDR in cancer cells. PMID:26836364

  12. Sucrose esters increase drug penetration, but do not inhibit p-glycoprotein in caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Lóránd; Hellinger, Éva; Pilbat, Ana-Maria; Kittel, Ágnes; Török, Zsolt; Füredi, András; Szakács, Gergely; Veszelka, Szilvia; Sipos, Péter; Ózsvári, Béla; Puskás, László G; Vastag, Monika; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Deli, Mária A

    2014-10-01

    Sucrose fatty acid esters are increasingly used as excipients in pharmaceutical products, but few data are available on their toxicity profile, mode of action, and efficacy on intestinal epithelial models. Three water-soluble sucrose esters, palmitate (P-1695), myristate (M-1695), laurate (D-1216), and two reference absorption enhancers, Tween 80 and Cremophor RH40, were tested on Caco-2 cells. Caco-2 monolayers formed a good barrier as reflected by high transepithelial resistance and positive immunostaining for junctional proteins claudin-1, ZO-1, and β-catenin. Sucrose esters in nontoxic concentrations significantly reduced resistance and impedance, and increased permeability for atenolol, fluorescein, vinblastine, and rhodamine 123 in Caco-2 monolayers. No visible opening of the tight junctions was induced by sucrose esters assessed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, but some alterations were seen in the structure of filamentous actin microfilaments. Sucrose esters fluidized the plasma membrane and enhanced the accumulation of efflux transporter ligands rhodamine 123 and calcein AM in epithelial cells, but did not inhibit the P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated calcein AM accumulation in MES-SA/Dx5 cell line. These data indicate that in addition to their dissolution-increasing properties sucrose esters can enhance drug permeability through both the transcellular and paracellular routes without inhibiting P-gp.

  13. Tetrandrine potentiates the hypoglycemic efficacy of berberine by inhibiting P-glycoprotein function.

    PubMed

    Shan, Yong-Qiang; Zhu, Yan-Ping; Pang, Jing; Wang, Yan-Xiang; Song, Dan-Qing; Kong, Wei-Jia; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to improve the absorption and hypoglycemic efficacy of berberine (BBR), which is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), by combination with a P-gp inhibitor tetrandrine (Tet). Flow cytometry and LC-MS/MS were used to determine the cellular efflux or retention of chemicals. Pharmacokinetic study was performed in ICR mice following oral administration of the study compounds. The hypoglycemic efficacies of the compounds were evaluated in diabetic KK-Ay mice. In the in vitro experiments, Tet significantly inhibited the efflux and increased the uptake of P-gp substrates rhodamine-123 as well as BBR in MCF7/DOX cells and Caco-2 intestinal cells. Meanwhile, Tet greatly reduced the expression of P-gp in Caco-2 cells. The inhibition of BBR efflux by Tet was translated into improved pharmacokinetics in vivo. When co-administered, Tet dose-dependently increased the average maximum concentration (C(max)) and area under concentration-time curve (AUC₀₋₂₄) of BBR in mice. Tet itself had no impact on glucose metabolism. However, it greatly potentiated the hypoglycemic efficacy of BBR in diabetic KK-Ay mice. In addition, we found that Tet had moderate inhibitory effect on the catalytic activity of CYP3A4, which played a role in the bio-transformation of BBR, and this may also take part in the improvement of the pharmacokinetics of BBR. In summary, combination with P-gp inhibitors such as Tet can improve the pharmacokinetics and hypoglycemic efficacy of BBR greatly; this implicates a feasible strategy for exploring the therapeutic effects of BBR and other pharmaceuticals which are substrates of P-gp. PMID:23924821

  14. Chronic P-glycoprotein inhibition increases the brain concentration of escitalopram: potential implications for treating depression.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Fionn E; Moloney, Gerard M; Scott, Karen A; O'Connor, Richard M; Clarke, Gerard; Dinan, Timothy G; Griffin, Brendan T; Cryan, John F

    2015-12-01

    Recent preclinical studies have revealed a functionally important role for the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood-brain barrier in limiting brain levels and thus antidepressant-like activity of certain antidepressant drugs. Specifically, acute administration of P-gp inhibitors, such as verapamil and cyclosporin A (CsA), has been shown to augment brain concentrations and functional activity of the antidepressant escitalopram in rodents. However, depression is a chronic disorder and current treatments require prolonged administration to elicit their full therapeutic effect. Thus, it is important to investigate whether acute findings in relation to P-gp inhibition translate to chronic paradigms. To this end, the present study investigates whether chronic treatment with the P-gp inhibitor verapamil and the antidepressant escitalopram results in enhanced brain distribution and antidepressant-like effects of escitalopram. Verapamil (10 mg·kg(-1) i.p.) and escitalopram (0.1 mg·kg(-1) i.p.) were administered once daily for 22 days. On the final day of treatment, brain regions and plasma were collected for analysis of cortical and plasma escitalopram concentrations, and to determine the hippocampal expression of genes previously reported to be altered by chronic antidepressant treatment. Verapamil treatment resulted in a greater than twofold increase in brain levels of escitalopram, without altering plasma levels. Neither gene expression analysis nor behavioral testing revealed an augmentation of responses to escitalopram treatment due to verapamil administration. Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time that P-gp inhibition can yield elevated brain concentrations of an antidepressant after chronic treatment. The functional relevance of these increased brain levels requires further elaboration. PMID:27022464

  15. Drug-protein hydrogen bonds govern the inhibition of the ATP hydrolysis of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Chufan, Eduardo E; Kapoor, Khyati; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2016-02-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily. This multidrug transporter utilizes energy from ATP hydrolysis for the efflux of a variety of hydrophobic and amphipathic compounds including anticancer drugs. Most of the substrates and modulators of P-gp stimulate its basal ATPase activity, although some inhibit it. The molecular mechanisms that are in play in either case are unknown. In this report, mutagenesis and molecular modeling studies of P-gp led to the identification of a pair of phenylalanine-tyrosine structural motifs in the transmembrane region that mediate the inhibition of ATP hydrolysis by certain drugs (zosuquidar, elacridar and tariquidar), with high affinity (IC50's ranging from 10 to 30nM). Upon mutation of any of these residues, drugs that inhibit the ATPase activity of P-gp switch to stimulation of the activity. Molecular modeling revealed that the phenylalanine residues F978 and F728 interact with tyrosine residues Y953 and Y310, respectively, in an edge-to-face conformation, which orients the tyrosines in such a way that they establish hydrogen-bond contacts with the inhibitor. Biochemical investigations along with transport studies in intact cells showed that the inhibitors bind at a high affinity site to produce inhibition of ATP hydrolysis and transport function. Upon mutation, they bind at lower affinity sites, stimulating ATP hydrolysis and only poorly inhibiting transport. These results also reveal that screening chemical compounds for their ability to inhibit the basal ATP hydrolysis can be a reliable tool to identify modulators with high affinity for P-gp. PMID:26686578

  16. Drug-protein hydrogen bonds govern the inhibition of the ATP hydrolysis of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Chufan, Eduardo E; Kapoor, Khyati; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2016-02-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily. This multidrug transporter utilizes energy from ATP hydrolysis for the efflux of a variety of hydrophobic and amphipathic compounds including anticancer drugs. Most of the substrates and modulators of P-gp stimulate its basal ATPase activity, although some inhibit it. The molecular mechanisms that are in play in either case are unknown. In this report, mutagenesis and molecular modeling studies of P-gp led to the identification of a pair of phenylalanine-tyrosine structural motifs in the transmembrane region that mediate the inhibition of ATP hydrolysis by certain drugs (zosuquidar, elacridar and tariquidar), with high affinity (IC50's ranging from 10 to 30nM). Upon mutation of any of these residues, drugs that inhibit the ATPase activity of P-gp switch to stimulation of the activity. Molecular modeling revealed that the phenylalanine residues F978 and F728 interact with tyrosine residues Y953 and Y310, respectively, in an edge-to-face conformation, which orients the tyrosines in such a way that they establish hydrogen-bond contacts with the inhibitor. Biochemical investigations along with transport studies in intact cells showed that the inhibitors bind at a high affinity site to produce inhibition of ATP hydrolysis and transport function. Upon mutation, they bind at lower affinity sites, stimulating ATP hydrolysis and only poorly inhibiting transport. These results also reveal that screening chemical compounds for their ability to inhibit the basal ATP hydrolysis can be a reliable tool to identify modulators with high affinity for P-gp.

  17. Genistein modulates the decreased drug accumulation in non-P-glycoprotein mediated multidrug resistant tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Versantvoort, C. H.; Schuurhuis, G. J.; Pinedo, H. M.; Eekman, C. A.; Kuiper, C. M.; Lankelma, J.; Broxterman, H. J.

    1993-01-01

    In tumour cells the pharmacological basis for multidrug resistance (MDR) often appears to be a reduced cellular cytostatic drug accumulation caused by the drug efflux protein, P-glycoprotein (Pgp MDR), or by other drug transporters (non-Pgp MDR). Here we report the reversal of the decreased daunorubicin (DNR) accumulation in five non-Pgp MDR cell lines (GLC4/ADR, SW-1573/2R120, HT1080/DR4, MCF7/Mitox and HL60/ADR) by genistein. Genistein inhibited the enhanced DNR efflux in the GLC4/ADR cells. In these cells the decreased VP-16 accumulation was also reversed by genistein. Three other (iso)flavonoids biochanin A, apigenin and quercetin also increased the DNR accumulation in the GLC4/ADR cells. In contrast to the effects on non-Pgp MDR cells, 200 microM genistein did not increase the reduced DNR accumulation in three Pgp MDR cell lines (SW-1573/2R160, MCF7/DOX40 and KB8-5) or in the parental cell lines. In conclusion the use of genistein provides a means to probe non-Pgp related drug accumulation defects. Images Figure 1 Figure 6 PMID:8105867

  18. P-glycoprotein inhibition by the agricultural pesticide propiconazole and its hydroxylated metabolites: Implications for pesticide-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Christopher S; Marchitti, Satori A; Zastre, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The human efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp, MDR1) functions as an important cellular defense system against a variety of xenobiotics; however, little information exists on whether environmental chemicals interact with P-gp. Conazoles provide a unique challenge to exposure assessment because of their use as both pesticides and drugs. Propiconazole is an agricultural pesticide undergoing evaluation by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. In this study, the P-gp interaction of propiconazole and its hydroxylated metabolites were evaluated using MDR1-expressing membrane vesicles and NIH-3T3/MDR1 cells. Membrane vesicle assays demonstrated propiconazole (IC50,122.9μM) and its metabolites (IC50s, 350.8μM, 366.4μM, and 456.3μM) inhibited P-gp efflux of a probe substrate, with propiconazole demonstrating the strongest interaction. P-gp mediated transport of propiconazole in MDR1-expressed vesicles was not detected indicating propiconazole interacts with P-gp as an inhibitor rather than a substrate. In NIH-3T3/MDR1 cells, propiconazole (1 and 10μM) led to decreased cellular resistance (chemosensitization) to paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic drug and known MDR1 substrate. Collectively, these results have pharmacokinetic and risk assessment implications as P-gp interaction may influence pesticide toxicity and the potential for pesticide-drug interactions.

  19. Oral Cyclosporin A Inhibits CD4 T cell P-glycoprotein Activity in HIV-Infected Adults Initiating Treatment with Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hulgan, Todd; Donahue, John P.; Smeaton, Laura; Pu, Minya; Wang, Hongying; Lederman, Michael M.; Smith, Kimberly; Valdez, Hernan; Pilcher, Christopher; Haas, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose P-glycoprotein limits tissue penetration of many antiretroviral drugs. We characterized effects of the P-glycoprotein substrate cyclosporin A on T cell P-glycoprotein activity in HIV-infected AIDS Clinical Trials Group study A5138 participants. Methods We studied P-glycoprotein activity on CD4 and CD8 T cells in 16 participants randomized to receive oral cyclosporin A (n=9) or not (n=7) during initiation antiretroviral therapy (ART) that did not include protease or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Results CD4 T cell P-glycoprotein activity decreased by a median of 8 percentage points with cyclosporin A/ART (difference between cyclosporin A/ART versus ART only P=0.001). Plasma trough cyclosporin A concentrations correlated with change in P-glycoprotein activity in several T cell subsets. Conclusions Oral cyclosporin A can inhibit peripheral blood CD4 T cell P-glycoprotein activity. Targeted P-glycoprotein inhibition might enhance delivery of ART to T cells. PMID:19779705

  20. Nilotinib reverses ABCB1/P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance but increases cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in a MDR xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi-Yong; Wan, Li-Li; Yang, Quan-Jun; Han, Yong-Long; Li, Dan; Lu, Jin; Guo, Cheng

    2016-09-30

    The BCR-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), nilotinib, was developed to surmount resistance or intolerance to imatinib in patients with Philadelphia-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia. Recent studies have shown that nilotinib induces potent sensitization to anticancer agents by blocking the functions of ABCB1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in multidrug resistance (MDR). However, changes in P-gp expression or function affect the cardiac disposition and prolong the presence of both doxorubicin (DOX) and doxorubicinol (DOXol) in cardiac tissue, thus, enhancing the risk of cardiotoxicity. In this study, we used a MDR xenograft model to evaluate the antitumor activity, tissue distribution and cardiotoxicity of DOX when co-administered with nilotinib. This information will provide more insight into the pharmacological role of nilotinib in MDR reversal and the risk of DOX cardiotoxicity. Our results showed that nilotinib significantly enhanced DOX cytotoxicity and increased intracellular rhodamine 123 accumulation in MG63/DOX cells in vitro and strongly enhanced DOX inhibition of growth of P-gp-overexpressing MG63/DOX cell xenografts in nude mice. Additionally, nilotinib significantly increased DOX and DOXol accumulation in serum, heart, liver and tumor tissues. Importantly, nilotinib induced a disproportionate increase in DOXol in cardiac tissue. In the co-administration group, CBR1 and AKR1A1 protein levels were significantly increased in cardiac tissue, with more severe necrosis and vacuole formation. These results indicate that nilotinib reverses P-gp- mediated MDR by blocking the efflux function and potentiates DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. These findings represent a guide for the design of future clinical trials and studies of pharmacokinetic interactions and may be useful in guiding the use of nilotinib in combination therapy of cancer in clinical practice.

  1. Class III P-glycoproteins mediate the formation of lipoprotein X in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Elferink, R P; Ottenhoff, R; van Marle, J; Frijters, C M; Smith, A J; Groen, A K

    1998-11-01

    Cholestasis is associated with hypercholesterolemia and appearance of the abnormal lipoprotein X (LpX) in plasma. Using mice with a disrupted Mdr2 gene, we tested the hypothesis that LpX originates as a biliary lipid vesicle. Mdr2-deficient mice lack Mdr2 P-glycoprotein, the canalicular translocator for phosphatidylcholine, and secrete virtually no phospholipid and cholesterol in bile. Bile duct ligation of Mdr2(+)/+ mice induced a dramatic increase in the plasma cholesterol and phospholipid concentration. Agarose electrophoresis, density gradient ultracentrifugation, gel permeation, and electron microscopy revealed that the majority of phospholipid and cholesterol was present as LpX, a 40-100 nm vesicle with an aqueous lumen. In contrast, the plasma cholesterol and phospholipid concentration in Mdr2(-)/- mice decreased upon bile duct ligation, and plasma fractionation revealed a complete absence of LpX. In mice with various expression levels of Mdr2 or MDR3, the human homolog of Mdr2, we observed that the plasma level of cholesterol and phospholipid during cholestasis correlated very closely with the expression level of these canalicular P-glycoproteins. These data demonstrate that during cholestasis there is a quantitative shift of lipid secretion from bile to the plasma compartment in the form of LpX. The concentration of this lipoprotein is determined by the activity of the canalicular phospholipid translocator.

  2. The use of amlodipine, but not of P-glycoprotein inhibiting calcium channel blockers is associated with clopidogrel poor-response.

    PubMed

    Harmsze, Ankie M; Robijns, Karen; van Werkum, Jochem W; Breet, Nicoline J; Hackeng, Christian M; Ten Berg, Jurrien M; Ruven, Hendrik J T; Klungel, Olaf H; de Boer, Anthonius; Deneer, Vera H M

    2010-05-01

    Clopidogrel is a prodrug that has to be converted in vivo to its active metabolite by cytochrome (CYP)P450 iso-enzymes. As calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are inhibitors of CYP3A4, concomitant use of these drugs might play a role in the wide inter-individual variability in the response to clopidogrel. However, some CCBs also have strong inhibitory effects on the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp), which mediates clopidogrel's intestinal absorption. It was the aim of this study to evaluate the effect of co-administration of Pgp-inhibiting and non-Pgp-inhibiting CCBs on on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In a total of 623 consecutive patients undergoing elective PCI treated with clopidogrel and aspirin, platelet reactivity to 5 and 20 muM adenosine diphospate (ADP) and clopidogrel poor-response (defined as > 70% platelet aggregation to 20 muM ADP) were evaluated by light transmittance aggregometry. A total of 222 patients (35.6%) were on CCB treatment, of which 98 used Pgp-inhibiting CCBs (verapamil, nifedipine, diltiazem, barnidipine) and 124 patients used the non-Pgp-inhibiting CCB amlodipine. Adjusted mean ADP-induced on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity was significantly higher in both users of Pgp-inhibiting CCBs and amlodipine as compared to CCB non-users (all p<0.05). However, only the use of amlodipine was significantly associated with a 2.3-fold increased risk of clopidogrel poor-response. This study demonstrates that concomitant use of Pgp-inhibiting CCBs and amlodipine increases on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity. Only amlodipine was associated with clopidogrel poor-response. The drug-drug interaction between clopidogrel and amlodipine might be more clinically relevant as compared to P-glycoprotein-inhibiting CCBs. PMID:20352154

  3. Entamoeba histolytica P-glycoprotein (EhPgp) inhibition, induce trophozoite acidification and enhance programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Medel Flores, Olivia; Gómez García, Consuelo; Sánchez Monroy, Virgina; Villalba Magadaleno, José D'Artagnan; Nader García, Elvira; Pérez Ishiwara, D Guillermo

    2013-11-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is induced in Entamoeba histolytica by a variety of stimuli in vitro and in vivo. In mammals, intracellular acidification serves as a global switch for inactivating cellular processes and initiates molecular mechanisms implicated in the destruction of the genome. In contrast, intracellular alkalinization produced by P-glycoprotein overexpression in multidrug-resistant cells has been related to apoptosis resistance. Our previous studies showed that overexpression of E. histolytica P-glycoprotein (PGP) altered chloride-dependent currents and triggered trophozoite swelling, the reverse process of cell shrinkage produced during PCD. Here we showed that antisense inhibition of PGP expression produced a synchronous death of trophozoites and the enhancement of biochemical and morphological characteristics of PCD induced by G418. The nucleus was contracted, and the nuclear membrane was disrupted. Moreover, chromatin was extensively fragmented. Ca(2+) concentration was increased, while the intracellular pH (ipH) was acidified. In contrast, PGP overexpression prevented intracellular acidification and circumvented the apoptotic effect of G418.

  4. P-glycoprotein inhibition of drug resistant cell lines by nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manu Smriti; Lamprecht, Alf

    2016-01-01

    Several pharmaceutical excipients are known for their ability to interact with cell membrane lipids and reverse the phenomenon of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer. Interestingly, many excipients act as stabilizers and are key ingredients in a variety of nano-formulations. In this study, representatives of ionic and non-ionic excipients were used as surface active agents in nanoparticle (NP) formulations to utilize their MDR reversing potential. In-vitro assays were performed to elucidate particle-cell interaction and accumulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates-rhodamine-123 and calcein AM, in highly drug resistant glioma cell lines. Chemosensitization achieved using NPs and their equivalent dose of free excipients was assessed with the co-administered anti-cancer drug doxorubicin. Among the excipients used, non-ionic surfactant, Cremophor® EL, and cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonuium bromide (CTAB), demonstrated highest P-gp modulatory activity in both free solution form (up to 7-fold lower IC50) and as a formulation (up to 4.7-fold lower IC50) as compared to doxorubicin treatment alone. Solutol® HS15 and Tween® 80 exhibited considerable chemosensitization as free solution but not when incorporated into a formulation. Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-based nanocarriers resulted in slightly improved cytotoxicity. Overall, the results highlight and envisage the usage of excipient in nano-formulations in a bid to improve chemosensitization of drug resistant cancer cells towards anti-cancer drugs.

  5. P-glycoprotein-mediated colchicine resistance in different cell lines correlates with the effects of colchicine on P-glycoprotein conformation.

    PubMed

    Druley, T E; Stein, W D; Ruth, A; Roninson, I B

    2001-04-10

    The multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is an ATPase efflux pump for multiple cytotoxic agents, including vinblastine and colchicine. We have found that resistance to vinblastine but not to colchicine in cell lines derived from different types of tissues and expressing the wild-type human Pgp correlates with the Pgp density. Vinblastine induces a conformational change in Pgp, evidenced by increased reactivity with a conformation-sensitive monoclonal antibody UIC2, in all the tested cell lines. In contrast, colchicine increases the UIC2 reactivity in only some of the cell lines. In those lines where colchicine alone did not affect UIC2 reactivity, this drug was, however, able to reverse the vinblastine-induced increase in UIC2 reactivity. The magnitude of the increase in UIC2 reactivity in the presence of saturating concentrations of colchicine correlates with the relative ability of Pgp to confer colchicine resistance in different cell lines, suggesting the existence of some cell-specific factors that have a coordinate effect on the ability of colchicine to induce conformational transitions and to be transported by Pgp. Colchicine, like vinblastine, reverses the decrease in UIC2 reactivity produced by nonhydrolyzable nucleotides, but unlike vinblastine, it does not reverse the effect of ATP at a high concentration. Colchicine, however, decreases the Hill number for the effect of ATP on the UIC2 reactivity from 2 to 1. Colchicine increases the UIC2 reactivity and reverses the effect of ATP in ATPase-deficient Pgp mutants, but not in the wild-type Pgp expressed in the same cellular background, suggesting that ATP hydrolysis counteracts the effects of colchicine on the Pgp conformation.

  6. P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) inhibited network of mitochondrion transport along microtubule and BMP signal-induced cell shape in chimpanzee left cerebrum by systems-theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Wang, Lin; Jiang, Minghu; Huang, Juxiang; Qi, Lianxiu

    2012-10-01

    We constructed the significant low-expression P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) inhibited transport and signal network in chimpanzee compared with high-expression (fold change ≥2) the human left cerebrum in GEO data set, by using integration of gene regulatory activated and inhibited network inference method with gene ontology (GO) analysis. Our result showed that ABCB1 transport and signal upstream network RAB2A inhibited ABCB1, and downstream ABCB1-inhibited SMAD1_2, NCK2, SLC25A46, GDF10, RASGRP1, EGFR, LRPPRC, RASSF2, RASA4, CA2, CBLB, UBR5, SLC25A16, ITGB3BP, DDIT4, PDPN, RAB2A in chimpanzee left cerebrum. We obtained that the different biological processes of ABCB1 inhibited transport and signal network repressed carbon dioxide transport, ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport, folic acid transport, mitochondrion transport along microtubule, water transport, BMP signaling pathway, Ras protein signal transduction, transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway in chimpanzee compared with the inhibited network of the human left cerebrum, as a result of inducing inhibition of mitochondrion transport along microtubule and BMP signal-induced cell shape in chimpanzee left cerebrum. Our hypothesis was verified by the same and different biological processes of ABCB1 inhibited transport and signal network of chimpanzee compared with the corresponding activated network of chimpanzee and the human left cerebrum, respectively.

  7. Tetrandrine and fangchinoline, bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids from Stephania tetrandra can reverse multidrug resistance by inhibiting P-glycoprotein activity in multidrug resistant human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan Fang; Wink, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The overexpression of ABC transporters is a common reason for multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. In this study, we found that the isoquinoline alkaloids tetrandrine and fangchinoline from Stephania tetrandra showed a significant synergistic cytotoxic effect in MDR Caco-2 and CEM/ADR5000 cancer cells in combination with doxorubicin, a common cancer chemotherapeutic agent. Furthermore, tetrandrine and fangchinoline increased the intracellular accumulation of the fluorescent P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate rhodamine 123 (Rho123) and inhibited its efflux in Caco-2 and CEM/ADR5000 cells. In addition, tetrandrine and fangchinoline significantly reduced P-gp expression in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that tetrandrine and fangchinoline can reverse MDR by increasing the intracellular concentration of anticancer drugs, and thus they could serve as a lead for developing new drugs to overcome P-gp mediated drug resistance in clinic cancer therapy. PMID:24856768

  8. P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Transport of Itraconazole across the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Miyama, Tetsuo; Takanaga, Hitomi; Matsuo, Hirotami; Yamano, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Koujirou; Iga, Tatsuji; Naito, Mikihiko; Tsuruo, Takashi; Ishizuka, Hitoshi; Kawahara, Yukinori; Sawada, Yasufumi

    1998-01-01

    The mechanism for the accumulation of itraconazole (ITZ) in its elimination from the brain was studied in rats and mice. The concentration of ITZ in liver tissue declined in parallel with the plasma ITZ concentration until 24 h after intravenous injection of the drug (half-life, 5 h); however, the ITZ in brain tissue rapidly disappeared (half-life, 0.4 h). The time profiles of the brain/plasma ITZ concentration ratio (Kp value) showed a marked overshooting, and the Kp value increased with increasing dose; these phenomena were not observed in the liver tissue. This finding indicates the occurrence of a nonlinear efflux of ITZ from the brain to the blood. Moreover, based on a pharmacokinetic model which hypothesized processes for both nonlinear and linear effluxes of ITZ from the brain to the blood, we found that the efflux rate constant in the saturable process was approximately sevenfold larger than that in the nonsaturable process. The Kp value for the brain tissue was significantly increased in the presence of ketoconazole or verapamil. The brain Kp value for mdr1a knockout mice was also significantly increased compared with that of control mice. Moreover, the uptake of vincristine or vinblastine, both of which are substrates of the P glycoprotein (P-gp), into mouse brain capillary endothelial cells was also significantly increased by ITZ or verapamil. In conclusion, P-gp in the brain capillary endothelial cells participates in a process of active efflux of ITZ from the brain to the blood at the blood-brain barrier, and ITZ can be an inhibitor of various substrates of P-gp. PMID:9661014

  9. Evodiamine Synergizes with Doxorubicin in the Treatment of Chemoresistant Human Breast Cancer without Inhibiting P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhi; Zhong, Zhangfeng; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Yitao

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance is one of the main hurdles for the successful treatment of breast cancer. The synchronous targeting of apoptosis resistance and survival signal transduction pathways may be a promising approach to overcome drug resistance. In this study, we determined that evodiamine (EVO), a major constituent of the Chinese herbal medicine Evodiae Fructus, could induce apoptosis of doxorubicin (DOX)-sensitive MCF-7 and DOX-resistant MCF-7/ADR cells in a caspase-dependent manner, as confirmed by significant increases of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), caspase-7/9, and caspase activities. Notably, the reversed phenomenon of apoptosis resistance by EVO might be attributed to its ability to inhibit the Ras/MEK/ERK pathway and the expression of inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs). Furthermore, our results indicated that EVO enhanced the apoptotic action of DOX by inhibiting the Ras/MEK/ERK cascade and the expression of IAPs without inhibiting the expression and activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Taken together, our data indicate that EVO, a natural product, may be useful applied alone or in combination with DOX for the treatment of resistant breast cancer. PMID:24830744

  10. The functional influences of common ABCB1 genetic variants on the inhibition of P-glycoprotein by Antrodia cinnamomea extracts.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Ming-Jyh; Teng, Yu-Ning; Chen, Ying-Yi; Hung, Chin-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Antrodia cinnamomea is a traditional healthy food that has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and anticacer effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the ethanolic extract of A. cinnamomea (EEAC) can affect the efflux function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and the effect of ABCB1 genetic variants on the interaction between EEAC and P-gp. To investigate the mechanism of this interaction, Flp-In™-293 cells stably transfected with various genotypes of human P-gp were established and the expression of P-gp was confirmed by Western blot. The results of the rhodamine 123 efflux assay demonstrated that EEAC efficiently inhibited wild-type P-gp function at an IC50 concentration of 1.51 ± 0.08 µg/mL through non-competitive inhibition. The IC50 concentrations for variant-type 1236T-2677T-3435T P-gp and variant-type 1236T-2677A-3435T P-gp were 5.56 ± 0.49 µg/mL and 3.33±0.67 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the inhibition kinetics of EEAC also changed to uncompetitive inhibition in variant-type 1236T-2677A-3435T P-gp. The ATPase assay revealed that EEAC was an ATPase stimulator and was capable of reducing verapamil-induced ATPase levels. These results indicate that EEAC may be a potent P-gp inhibitor and higher dosages may be required in subjects carrying variant-types P-gp. Further studies are required to translate this basic knowledge into clinical applications.

  11. Ursodeoxycholic acid inhibits overexpression of P-glycoprotein induced by doxorubicin in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Komori, Yuki; Arisawa, Sakiko; Takai, Miho; Yokoyama, Kunihiro; Honda, Minako; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Katano, Yoshiaki; Goto, Hidemi; Ueyama, Jun; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Wakusawa, Shinya

    2014-02-01

    The hepatoprotective action of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was previously suggested to be partially dependent on its antioxidative effect. Doxorubicin (DOX) and reactive oxygen species have also been implicated in the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which is encoded by the MDR1 gene and causes antitumor multidrug resistance. In the present study, we assessed the effects of UDCA on the expression of MDR1 mRNA, P-gp, and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in DOX-treated HepG2 cells and compared them to those of other bile acids. DOX-induced increases in reactive oxygen species levels and the expression of MDR1 mRNA were inhibited by N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, and the DOX-induced increase in reactive oxygen species levels and DOX-induced overexpression of MDR1 mRNA and P-gp were inhibited by UDCA. Cells treated with UDCA showed improved rhodamine 123 uptake, which was decreased in cells treated with DOX alone. Moreover, cells exposed to DOX for 24h combined with UDCA accumulated more DOX than that of cells treated with DOX alone. Thus, UDCA may have inhibited the overexpression of P-gp by suppressing DOX-induced reactive oxygen species production. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) also exhibited these effects, whereas deoxycholic acid and litocholic acid were ineffective. In conclusion, UDCA and CDCA had an inhibitory effect on the induction of P-gp expression and reactive oxygen species by DOX in HepG2 cells. The administration of UDCA may be beneficial due to its ability to prevent the overexpression of reactive oxygen species and acquisition of multidrug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

  12. An in vitro evaluation of cytochrome P450 inhibition and P-glycoprotein interaction with goldenseal, Ginkgo biloba, grape seed, milk thistle, and ginseng extracts and their constituents.

    PubMed

    Etheridge, Amy S; Black, Sherry R; Patel, Purvi R; So, James; Mathews, James M

    2007-07-01

    Drug-herb interactions can result from the modulation of the activities of cytochrome P450 (P450) and/or drug transporters. The effect of extracts and individual constituents of goldenseal, Ginkgo biloba (and its hydrolyzate), grape seed, milk thistle, and ginseng on the activities of cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes were determined using enzyme-selective probe substrates, and their effect on human P-glycoprotein (Pgp) was determined using a baculovirus expression system by measuring the verapamil-stimulated, vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity. Extracts were analyzed by HPLC to standardize their concentration(s) of constituents associated with the pharmacological activity, and to allow comparison of their effects on P450 and Pgp with literature values. Many of the extracts/constituents exerted > or = 50 % inhibition of P450 activity. These include those from goldenseal (normalized to alkaloid content) inhibiting CYP2C8, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 at 20 microM, ginkgo inhibiting CYP2C8 at 10 microM, grape seed inhibiting CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 at 10 microM, milk thistle inhibiting CYP2C8 at 10 microM, and ginsenosides F1 and Rh1 (but not ginseng extract) inhibiting CYP3A4 at 10 microM. Goldenseal extracts/constituents (20 microM, particularly hydrastine) and ginsenoside Rh1 stimulated ATPase at about half of the activity of the model substrate, verapamil (20 microM). The data suggest that the clearance of a variety of drugs may be diminished by concomitant use of these herbs via inhibition of P450 enzymes, but less so by Pgp-mediated effects.

  13. P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux limits intestinal absorption of the Hsp90 inhibitor SNX-2112 in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongming; Sun, Hua; Wu, Zhufeng; Zhang, Xingwang; Wu, Baojian

    2014-08-01

    1. The promising anticancer agent SNX-2112 (a novel Hsp90 inhibitor) is poorly bioavailable after oral administration. Here, we aim to determine the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the intestinal absorption of SNX-2112. 2. We found that SNX-2112 significantly stimulated P-gp ATPase activity in in vitro ATPase assay with a small EC50 (the half-maximal effective concentration) value of 0.32 µM. 3. In the single-pass perfused rat intestine model, absorption of SNX-2112 was not favored in the small intestine with a [Formula: see text] (the wall permeability) value of 0.38-0.64. By contrast, the compound was well absorbed in the colon with a [Formula: see text] value of 1.19. The P-gp inhibitors cyclosporine and elacridar (i.e. GF120918A) markedly enhanced SNX-2112 absorption in all four intestinal segments (i.e. duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon) and the fold change ranged from 3.1 to 14.1. Pharmacokinetic study revealed that cyclosporine increased the systemic exposure of SNX-2112 by a 2.5-fold after oral administration. 4. This is the first report that P-gp-mediated efflux is a limiting factor for intestinal absorption of SNX-2112 in rats.

  14. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein function by XR9576 in a solid tumour model can restore anticancer drug efficacy.

    PubMed

    Walker, J; Martin, C; Callaghan, R

    2004-03-01

    Resistance to cancer chemotherapy involves both altered drug activity at the designated target and modified intra-tumour pharmacokinetic properties (e.g. uptake, metabolism). The membrane transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a major role in pharmacokinetic resistance by preventing sufficient intracellular accumulation of several anticancer agents. Whilst inhibiting P-gp has great potential to restore chemotherapeutic effectiveness in blood-borne cancers, the situation in solid tumours is less clear. Therefore, the degree of resistance tumours pose to the cytotoxicity of vinblastine and doxorubicin was characterised using the multicellular tumour spheroid model. Tumour spheroids were generated from either drug-sensitive MCF7(WT) breast cancer cells or a resistant P-gp-expressing variant (NCI/ADR(Res)). Drug-induced cytotoxicity in tumour spheroids was measured using an outgrowth assay and compared with that observed in monolayer cultures. As anticipated, the 3-D organisation of MCF7(WT) in tumour spheroids was associated with a reduction in the potency of doxorubicin and vinblastine-i.e. the inherent multicellular resistance phenomenon. In contrast, tumour spheroids from NCI/ADR(Res) cells did not display multicellular resistance. However their constitutive expression of P-gp reduced the potency of both anticancer drugs. Moreover, the highly potent P-gp inhibitor, the anthranilic acid derivative, XR9576, was able to restore the cytotoxic efficacy of both drugs in tumour spheroids comprising NCI/ADR(Res) cells. The results suggest that inhibition of P-gp in solid tumours is achievable and that generation of potent inhibitors will provide a significant benefit towards restoration of chemotherapy in solid tissues. PMID:14962729

  15. The Dual Cyclooxygenase/5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor Licofelone Attenuates P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Drug Resistance in the Injured Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Dulin, Jennifer N.; Moore, Meredith L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract There are currently no proven effective treatments that can improve recovery of function in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Many therapeutic compounds have shown promise in pre-clinical studies, but clinical trials have been largely unsuccessful. P-glycoprotein (Pgp, Abcb1b) is a drug efflux transporter of the blood–spinal cord barrier that limits spinal cord penetration of blood-borne xenobiotics. Pathological Pgp upregulation in diseases such as cancer causes heightened resistance to a broad variety of therapeutic drugs. Importantly, several drugs that have been evaluated for the treatment of SCI, such as riluzole, are known substrates of Pgp. We therefore examined whether Pgp-mediated pharmacoresistance diminishes delivery of riluzole to the injured spinal cord. Following moderate contusion injury at T10 in male Sprague–Dawley rats, we observed a progressive, spatial spread of increased Pgp expression from 3 days to 10 months post-SCI. Spinal cord uptake of i.p.-delivered riluzole was significantly reduced following SCI in wild type but not Abcb1a-knockout rats, highlighting a critical role for Pgp in mediating drug resistance following SCI. Because inflammation can drive Pgp upregulation, we evaluated the ability of the new generation dual anti-inflammatory drug licofelone to promote spinal cord delivery of riluzole following SCI. We found that licofelone both reduced Pgp expression and enhanced riluzole bioavailability within the lesion site at 72 h post-SCI. This work highlights Pgp-mediated drug resistance as an important obstacle to therapeutic drug delivery for SCI, and suggests licofelone as a novel combinatorial treatment strategy to enhance therapeutic drug delivery to the injured spinal cord. PMID:22947335

  16. Rack1 Mediates the Interaction of P-Glycoprotein with Anxa2 and Regulates Migration and Invasion of Multidrug-Resistant Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Wu, Na; Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Fei; Tian, Ran; Ji, Wei; Ren, Xiubao; Niu, Ruifang

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug resistance is always associated with more rapid tumor recurrence and metastasis. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which is a well-known multidrug-efflux transporter, confers enhanced invasion ability in drug-resistant cells. Previous studies have shown that P-gp probably exerts its tumor-promoting function via protein-protein interaction. These interactions were implicated in the activation of intracellular signal transduction. We previously showed that P-gp binds to Anxa2 and promotes the invasiveness of multidrug-resistant (MDR) breast cancer cells through regulation of Anxa2 phosphorylation. However, the accurate mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, a co-immunoprecipitation coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based interactomic approach was performed to screen P-gp binding proteins. We identified Rack1 as a novel P-gp binding protein. Knockdown of Rack1 significantly inhibited proliferation and invasion of MDR cancer cells. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that Rack1 functioned as a scaffold protein that mediated the binding of P-gp to Anxa2 and Src. We showed that Rack1 regulated P-gp activity, which was necessary for adriamycin-induced P-gp-mediated phosphorylation of Anxa2 and Erk1/2. Overall, the findings in this study augment novel insights to the understanding of the mechanism employed by P-gp for promoting migration and invasion of MDR cancer cells. PMID:27754360

  17. P-glycoprotein Inhibition by the Agricultural Pesticide Propiconazole and Its Hydroxylated Metabolites: Implications for Pesticide-Drug Interactions.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The human efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp; MDR1) functions an important cellular defense system against a variety of xenobiotics; however, little information exists on whether environmental chemicals interact with P-gp. Conazoles provide a unique challenge to exposure ass...

  18. P-glycoprotein Inhibition by the Agricultural Pesticide Propiconazole and Its Hydroxylated Metabolites: Implications for Pesticide-Drug Interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The human efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp, MDR1) functions an important cellular defense system against a variety of xenobiotics; however, little information exists on whether environmental chemicals interact with P-gp. Conazoles provide a unique challenge to exposure ass...

  19. Effect of lyophilized grapefruit juice on P-glycoprotein-mediated drug transport in-vitro and in-vivo.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Iman S; Hassan, Mariame A; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    The administration of grapefruit juice (GFJ) has been postulated to inhibit the activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport system and thus can enhance the uptake of substrate drugs. However, for various reasons, the results obtained have been always swaying between confirmation and refutation. This study aims at re-evaluating the effect of lyophilized freshly-prepared grapefruit juice (LGFJ) prepared from the whole peeled fruit on P-gp activity using the model drug doxorubicin (DOX) in-vitro and timolol maleate (TM) in-vivo. Human uterine sarcoma MES-SA/DX5v cells, grown under nanomolar concentration of DOX and highly expressing P-gp, were used as model cells for in-vitro studies whereas white New Zealand male rabbits were used for in-vivo studies. Results showed that the accumulation of DOX in MES-SA/DX5v cells was increased by 18.3 ± 2.0% in presence of LGFJ compared to control experiments. Results from in-vivo absorption studies showed that the relative oral bioavailability of TM ingested with LGFJ was significantly higher by 70% and 43% compared to the oral bioavailability of TM ingested with saline and a commercial GFJ, respectively. This study as such confirms the inhibitory effects of LGFJ on P-gp efflux proteins and highlights the superiority of using lyophilized freshly prepared juices over the commercially available juices in research studies. Also, the results call for further studies to assess the possibility of co-administrating LGFJ with anti-cancer agents to modulate multidrug resistance in their cellular environment or incorporating LGFJ in solid dosage forms to improve oral bioavailability of drugs. PMID:24303901

  20. Usefulness of A Model-Based Approach for Estimating In Vitro P-Glycoprotein Inhibition Potency in a Transcellular Transport Assay.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Wataru; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ludwig-Schwellinger, Eva; Ebner, Thomas; Maeda, Kazuya; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2016-02-01

    In vitro half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is a key parameter for accurately predicting the potential risk for P-glycoprotein (P-gp)--mediated drug--drug interactions. We aimed to compare the IC50 values estimated by different approaches and determine the usefulness of model-based approaches. Transcellular transport of digoxin across Caco-2 monolayer was investigated using various concentrations of P-gp inhibitors, quinidine, verapamil, and zosuquidar. To calculate IC50 values, 3 traditional parameters were used: apical-to-basal (AtoB) and basal-to-apical (BtoA) clearance (CL) with inhibitors (CLAtoB,i and CLBtoA,i) and the difference between the efflux ratios (ERs) with P-gp inhibitors (ERi) and those under complete P-gp inhibition [ER(-P-gp)]. Furthermore, a new model-based approach was applied that uses the difference between the reciprocals of CLAtoB with P-gp inhibitors (1/CLAtoB,i) and those under complete P-gp inhibition [1/CLAtoB(-P-gp)] as parameters. IC50 values obtained from 2 model-based approaches [ERi - ER(-P-gp) and 1/CLAtoB,i - 1/CLAtoB(-P-gp)] were comparable, whereas 2.6- to 6.6-fold larger IC50 values were estimated from empirical approaches (CLAtoB,i and CLBtoA,i). The reason for such difference in IC50 values is that indicators for model-based approaches, but not empirical approaches, directly reflect the P-gp function. Our new approach [1/CLAtoB,i - 1/CLAtoB(-P-gp)] based on only AtoB transcellular transport could substitute for current estimation methods using ER.

  1. In vitro predictability of drug-drug interaction likelihood of P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux of dabigatran etexilate based on [I]2/IC50 threshold.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Wataru; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ludwig-Schwellinger, Eva; Ebner, Thomas; Schaefer, Olaf

    2014-02-01

    Dabigatran etexilate, an oral, reversible, competitive, and direct thrombin inhibitor, is an in vitro and in vivo substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Dabigatran etexilate was proposed as an in vivo probe substrate for intestinal P-gp inhibition in a recent guidance on drug-drug interactions (DDI) from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We conducted transcellular transport studies across Caco-2 cell monolayers with dabigatran etexilate in the presence of various P-gp inhibitors to examine how well in vitro IC50 data, in combination with mathematical equations provided by regulatory guidances, predict DDI likelihood. From a set of potential P-gp inhibitors, clarithromycin, cyclosporin A, itraconazole, ketoconazole, quinidine, and ritonavir inhibited P-gp-mediated transport of dabigatran etexilate over a concentration range that may hypothetically occur in the intestine. IC50 values of P-gp inhibitors for dabigatran etexilate transport were comparable to those of digoxin, a well established in vitro and in vivo P-gp substrate. However, IC50 values varied depending whether they were calculated from efflux ratios or permeability coefficients. Prediction of DDI likelihood of P-gp inhibitors using IC50 values, the hypothetical concentration of P-gp inhibitors, and the cut-off value recommended by both the FDA and EMA were in line with the DDI occurrence in clinical studies with dabigatran etexilate. However, it has to be kept in mind that validity of the cut-off criteria proposed by the FDA and EMA depends on in vitro experimental systems and the IC50-calculation methods that are employed, as IC50 values are substantially influenced by these factors.

  2. Development and validation of RP-HPLC-fluorescence method for quantitative determination of quinidine, a probe substrate for P-glycoprotein inhibition assay using Caco-2 cell monolayer.

    PubMed

    Patil, Anand G; Reddy, Dilip; D'Souza, Russell; Damre, Anagha

    2010-06-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method with fluorescence detection was developed for quantitation of quinidine from HBSS buffer. The method was applicable in the bi-directional transport assay for evaluation of the inhibitory effect of test compounds on P-glycoprotein-mediated quinidine transport; quinidine was used as a probe P-glycoprotein substrate. The calibration curve was linear (correlation coefficient >/=99) in the range 0.30-100.00 nm. The method was validated and is specific and sensitive with limit of quantitation of 300 pm for quinidine. The method was found to be accurate and precise in the working calibration range. Stability studies were carried out at different storage conditions where the analyte was found to be stable. The applicability and reliability of the analytical method was evaluated by successful demonstration of efflux ratio (P(app)B --> A/P(app)A --> B) in the Caco-2 cell monolayer efflux assay. The efflux ratio for quinidine (100 nm) alone was 10.8, which reduced to less than 2 in the presence of the classical P-gp inhibitors verapamil and ketoconazole (100 mum each).

  3. Machine learning-, rule- and pharmacophore-based classification on the inhibition of P-glycoprotein and NorA.

    PubMed

    Ngo, T-D; Tran, T-D; Le, M-T; Thai, K-M

    2016-09-01

    The efflux pumps P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in humans and NorA in Staphylococcus aureus are of great interest for medicinal chemists because of their important roles in multidrug resistance (MDR). The high polyspecificity as well as the unavailability of high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of these transmembrane proteins lead us to combining ligand-based approaches, which in the case of this study were machine learning, perceptual mapping and pharmacophore modelling. For P-gp inhibitory activity, individual models were developed using different machine learning algorithms and subsequently combined into an ensemble model which showed a good discrimination between inhibitors and noninhibitors (acctrain-diverse = 84%; accinternal-test = 92% and accexternal-test = 100%). For ligand promiscuity between P-gp and NorA, perceptual maps and pharmacophore models were generated for the detection of rules and features. Based on these in silico tools, hit compounds for reversing MDR were discovered from the in-house and DrugBank databases through virtual screening in an attempt to restore drug sensitivity in cancer cells and bacteria. PMID:27667641

  4. Machine learning-, rule- and pharmacophore-based classification on the inhibition of P-glycoprotein and NorA.

    PubMed

    Ngo, T-D; Tran, T-D; Le, M-T; Thai, K-M

    2016-09-01

    The efflux pumps P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in humans and NorA in Staphylococcus aureus are of great interest for medicinal chemists because of their important roles in multidrug resistance (MDR). The high polyspecificity as well as the unavailability of high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of these transmembrane proteins lead us to combining ligand-based approaches, which in the case of this study were machine learning, perceptual mapping and pharmacophore modelling. For P-gp inhibitory activity, individual models were developed using different machine learning algorithms and subsequently combined into an ensemble model which showed a good discrimination between inhibitors and noninhibitors (acctrain-diverse = 84%; accinternal-test = 92% and accexternal-test = 100%). For ligand promiscuity between P-gp and NorA, perceptual maps and pharmacophore models were generated for the detection of rules and features. Based on these in silico tools, hit compounds for reversing MDR were discovered from the in-house and DrugBank databases through virtual screening in an attempt to restore drug sensitivity in cancer cells and bacteria.

  5. A pH-Responsive Carrier System that Generates NO Bubbles to Trigger Drug Release and Reverse P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Multidrug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ming-Fan; Liu, Hung-Yi; Lin, Kun-Ju; Chia, Wei-Tso; Sung, Hsing-Wen

    2015-08-17

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) resulting from the overexpression of drug transporters such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp) increases the efflux of drugs and thereby limits the effectiveness of chemotherapy. To address this issue, this work develops an injectable hollow microsphere (HM) system that carries the anticancer agent irinotecan (CPT-11) and a NO-releasing donor (NONOate). Upon injection of this system into acidic tumor tissue, environmental protons infiltrate the shell of the HMs and react with their encapsulated NONOate to form NO bubbles that trigger localized drug release and serve as a Pgp-mediated MDR reversal agent. The site-specific drug release and the NO-reduced Pgp-mediated transport can cause the intracellular accumulation of the drug at a concentration that exceeds the cell-killing threshold, eventually inducing its antitumor activity. These results reveal that this pH-responsive HM carrier system provides a potentially effective method for treating cancers that develop MDR.

  6. Comparison of 99mTc-sestamibi and doxorubicin to monitor inhibition of P-glycoprotein function

    PubMed Central

    Muzzammil, T; Moore, M J; Hedley, D; Ballinger, J R

    2001-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) overexpression is a well-recognized factor in resistance to chemotherapy. Doxorubicin flow cytometry is used to monitor Pgp function in haematological specimens and biopsies from other cancers, and radionuclide imaging with sestamibi has recently shown promise for non-invasive monitoring. In the present study the two methods were directly compared in single-cell suspensions of three variants of the human breast carcinoma cell line MCF7: sensitive MCF7/WT, doxorubicin-selected MCF7/AdrR, and MDR1 -gene-transfected MCF7/BC19 cells with doxorubicin resistance factors of 1, 192, and 14, respectively. Accumulation of sestamibi and mean fluorescence of doxorubicin (5.5 μM) were assessed over 60 min in the presence and absence of Pgp modulators GG918 (0.01 to 0.2 μM) and PSC833 (0.05 to 2.0 μM). Accumulation curves for sestamibi and doxorubicin differed among the cell variants under control conditions, with sestamibi showing a significantly greater difference between WT and resistant cells than doxorubicin. Both GG918 and PSC833 reversed uptake deficits to WT levels for sestamibi in MCF7/BC19 cells and doxorubicin in MCF7/BC19 and MCF7/AdrR cells, but failed to show the same effect for sestamibi in MCF7/AdrR cells (∼30% of MCF7/WT level). Thus, both methods clearly distinguished sensitive from resistant MCF7 variants, with the radionuclide method showing greater sensitivity. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11161402

  7. Cholesterol-mediated activation of P-glycoprotein: distinct effects on basal and drug-induced ATPase activities.

    PubMed

    Belli, Sara; Elsener, Priska M; Wunderli-Allenspach, Heidi; Krämer, Stefanie D

    2009-05-01

    Cholesterol promotes basal and verapamil-induced ATPase activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). We investigated whether these effects are related to each other and to the impact of the sterol on bilayer fluidity and verapamil membrane affinity. P-gp was reconstituted in egg-phosphatidylcholine (PhC) liposomes with or without cholesterol, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) or 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethyl-6-chromanol (PMC). Basal and verapamil-induced ATPase activities were studied with an enzymatic assay. Membrane fluidity was characterized with diphenyl-hexatriene anisotropy measurements and membrane affinity by equilibrium dialysis. DPPC (70% mol/mol) decreased the fluidity of PhC bilayers to the same level as 20% cholesterol. PMC (20%) and alpha-Toc (20%) decreased the fluidity to lesser extents. alpha-Toc and PMC, but not DPPC increased the verapamil membrane affinity. While 20% cholesterol strikingly enhanced the basal ATPase activity, none of the other constituents had a similar effect. In contrast, verapamil stimulation of P-gp ATPase activity was not only enabled by cholesterol but also by alpha-Toc and DPPC. PMC had no effect. In conclusion, cholesterol exerts distinct effects on basal and verapamil-induced ATPase activity. The influence on basal ATPase activity is sterol-specific while its effect on verapamil-induced ATPase activity is unspecific and not related to its influence on membrane fluidity and on verapamil membrane affinity.

  8. Effect of bisphenol A on P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux and ultrastructure of the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Bošnjak, Ivana; Borra, Marco; Iamunno, Franco; Benvenuto, Giovanna; Ujević, Ivana; Bušelić, Ivana; Roje-Busatto, Romana; Mladineo, Ivona

    2014-11-01

    Usage of bisphenol A (BPA) in production of polycarbonate plastics has resulted in global distribution of BPA in the environment. These high concentrations cause numerous negative effects to the aquatic biota, among which the most known is the induction of endocrine disruption. The focus of this research was to determine the effects of two experimentally determined concentrations of BPA (100nM and 4μM) on cellular detoxification mechanisms during the embryonic development (2-cell, pluteus) of the rocky sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), primarily the potential involvement of multidrug efflux transport in the BPA intercellular efflux. The results of transport assay, measurements of the intracellular BPA and gene expression surveys, for the first time indicate the importance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) in defense against BPA. Cytotoxic effects of BPA, validated by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), induced the aberrant karyokinesis, and consequently, the impairment of embryo development through the first cell division and retardation. PMID:25127357

  9. Factors Governing P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Drug-Drug Interactions at the Blood-Brain Barrier Measured with Positron Emission Tomography.

    PubMed

    Wanek, Thomas; Römermann, Kerstin; Mairinger, Severin; Stanek, Johann; Sauberer, Michael; Filip, Thomas; Traxl, Alexander; Kuntner, Claudia; Pahnke, Jens; Bauer, Florian; Erker, Thomas; Löscher, Wolfgang; Müller, Markus; Langer, Oliver

    2015-09-01

    The adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter P-glycoprotein (ABCB1/Abcb1a) restricts at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) brain distribution of many drugs. ABCB1 may be involved in drug-drug interactions (DDIs) at the BBB, which may lead to changes in brain distribution and central nervous system side effects of drugs. Positron emission tomography (PET) with the ABCB1 substrates (R)-[(11)C]verapamil and [(11)C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide and the ABCB1 inhibitor tariquidar has allowed direct comparison of ABCB1-mediated DDIs at the rodent and human BBB. In this work we evaluated different factors which could influence the magnitude of the interaction between tariquidar and (R)-[(11)C]verapamil or [(11)C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide at the BBB and thereby contribute to previously observed species differences between rodents and humans. We performed in vitro transport experiments with [(3)H]verapamil and [(3)H]-N-desmethyl-loperamide in ABCB1 and Abcb1a overexpressing cell lines. Moreover we conducted in vivo PET experiments and biodistribution studies with (R)-[(11)C]verapamil and [(11)C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide in wild-type mice without and with tariquidar pretreatment and in homozygous Abcb1a/1b((-/-)) and heterozygous Abcb1a/1b((+/-)) mice. We found no differences for in vitro transport of [(3)H]verapamil and [(3)H]-N-desmethyl-loperamide by ABCB1 and Abcb1a and its inhibition by tariquidar. [(3)H]-N-Desmethyl-loperamide was transported with a 5 to 9 times higher transport ratio than [(3)H]verapamil in ABCB1- and Abcb1a-transfected cells. In vivo, brain radioactivity concentrations were lower for [(11)C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide than for (R)-[(11)C]verapamil. Both radiotracers showed tariquidar dose dependent increases in brain distribution with tariquidar half-maximum inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 1052 nM (95% confidence interval CI: 930-1189) for (R)-[(11)C]verapamil and 1329 nM (95% CI: 980-1801) for [(11)C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide. In homozygous Abcb1a/1b

  10. Overcoming of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in K562/A02 cells using riccardin F and pakyonol, bisbibenzyl derivatives from liverworts.

    PubMed

    Ji, Mei; Shi, Yanquiu; Lou, Hongxiang

    2011-01-01

    Riccardin F and pakyonol, macrocyclic bisbibenzyls from Plagiochasm intermedium, have been confirmed to possess antifungic activities against Candida albicans. Herein, we evaluated their anti-tumor activity in vitro by employing K562 and K562/A02 cells, the well-known adriamycin (ADR)-induced multidrug resistance (MDR) tumor cell lines over-expressing P-glycoprotein (P-gp). 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays showed that riccardin F and pakyonol ranging from 0 to 6 μg/mL exhibited no inhibitory effects on the growth of the two cell lines. However, in the presence of 3 μg/mL riccardin F or pakyonol (non-cytotoxic concentration), the IC50 of ADR against K562/A02 cells decreased by 2.51- and 4.78-fold, respectively. Flow cytometry showed that riccardin F and pakyonol significantly enhanced the accumulation of ADR in K562/A02 cells. Furthermore, fluorescence intensity detection revealed that the two natural products remarkably increased the retention of rhodamine-123 in K562/A02 cells rather than in K562 cells, indicating that the major cause for riccardin F and pakyonol to reverse P-gp-mediated MDR in K562/A02 cells is probably due to the constrained transport activity of P-gp. This study explores the potential application of bisbibenzyl type compounds as modulators of P-gp-mediated MDR in tumor cells.

  11. Effects of lipid vehicle and P-glycoprotein inhibition on the mesenteric lymphatic transport of paclitaxel in unconscious, lymph duct-cannulated rats.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qingqing; Deng, Xinxian; Li, Zhongdong; An, Dianyun; Shen, Teng; Zhong, Mingkang

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of lipid vehicle and intestinally based efflux processes on intestinal lymphatic transport of paclitaxel (PTX) in the mesenteric lymph duct-cannulated anesthetized rat model. PTX solution alone, PTX solution pretreated with the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor verapamil and/or PTX and a 2:1 (w/w) mixture of linoleic acid:glycerol monooleate were administered intraduodenally to anesthetized rats. Coadministration of a mixture of linoleic acid-monoolein significantly increased the extent of intestinal lymphatic transport of PTX, but it had little impact on the absolute oral bioavailability of PTX. In contrast, pretreatment with verapamil increased both the extent of lymphatic transport (3.5-fold) and absolute oral bioavailability (1.8-fold). Further increase in the lymphatic transport (6.5-fold) and absolute oral bioavailability (1.8-fold) was achieved by the combination of pretreatment with verapamil and coadministration with the linoleic acid-monoolein mixture. These data indicate that the application of lipid vehicle holds promise for selectively targeted lymphatic delivery of PTX. P-gp inhibition can result in both increased intestinal lymphatic levels and absolute oral bioavailability of PTX.

  12. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein expression and function by anti-diabetic drugs gliclazide, metformin, and pioglitazone in vitro and in situ.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Mehran Mesgari; Valizadeh, Hadi; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a trans-membrane drug efflux pump. Several drugs are P-gp substrates. Some drugs may affect the activity of P-gp by inhibiting its function, resulting in significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs). It is critical to understand which drugs are inhibitors of P-gp so that adverse DDIs can be minimized or avoided. This study investigated the effects of gliclazide, metformin, and pioglitazone on the function and expression of P-gp. Rhodamine 123 (Rh 123) efflux assays in Caco-2 cells and western blot testing were used to study in vitro the effect of the drugs on P-gp function and expression. The in situ rat single-pass intestinal permeability model was developed to study the effect of the drugs on P-gp function. Digoxin and verapamil were used as a known substrate and inhibitor of P-gp, respectively. Digoxin levels in intestinal perfusion samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Intestinal effective permeability (Peff) of digoxin in the presence of 0.1, 10, and 500 μM gliclazide, 100 and 7000 μM metformin, and 50 and 300 μM pioglitazone was significantly increased relative to the digoxin treated cells (P < 0.01). P-gp expression was decreased by gliclazide, metformin and pioglitazone. Intracellular accumulation of Rh 123 by the drugs increased, but the differences were not significant relative to the control cells (P > 0.05). It was found that gliclazide, metformin, and pioglitazone inhibited P-gp efflux activity in situ and down-regulated P-gp expression in vitro. Further investigations are necessary to confirm the obtained results and to define the mechanism underlying P-gp inhibition by the drugs. PMID:27499787

  13. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein expression and function by anti-diabetic drugs gliclazide, metformin, and pioglitazone in vitro and in situ

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Mehran Mesgari; Valizadeh, Hadi; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a trans-membrane drug efflux pump. Several drugs are P-gp substrates. Some drugs may affect the activity of P-gp by inhibiting its function, resulting in significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs). It is critical to understand which drugs are inhibitors of P-gp so that adverse DDIs can be minimized or avoided. This study investigated the effects of gliclazide, metformin, and pioglitazone on the function and expression of P-gp. Rhodamine 123 (Rh 123) efflux assays in Caco-2 cells and western blot testing were used to study in vitro the effect of the drugs on P-gp function and expression. The in situ rat single-pass intestinal permeability model was developed to study the effect of the drugs on P-gp function. Digoxin and verapamil were used as a known substrate and inhibitor of P-gp, respectively. Digoxin levels in intestinal perfusion samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Intestinal effective permeability (Peff) of digoxin in the presence of 0.1, 10, and 500 μM gliclazide, 100 and 7000 μM metformin, and 50 and 300 μM pioglitazone was significantly increased relative to the digoxin treated cells (P < 0.01). P-gp expression was decreased by gliclazide, metformin and pioglitazone. Intracellular accumulation of Rh 123 by the drugs increased, but the differences were not significant relative to the control cells (P > 0.05). It was found that gliclazide, metformin, and pioglitazone inhibited P-gp efflux activity in situ and down-regulated P-gp expression in vitro. Further investigations are necessary to confirm the obtained results and to define the mechanism underlying P-gp inhibition by the drugs. PMID:27499787

  14. P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance phenotype of L1210/VCR cells is associated with decreases of oligo- and/or polysaccharide contents.

    PubMed

    Fiala, R; Sulová, Z; El-Saggan, A H; Uhrík, B; Liptaj, T; Dovinová, I; Hanusovská, E; Drobná, Z; Barancík, M; Breier, A

    2003-11-20

    Multidrug resistance of murine leukaemic cell line L1210/VCR (obtained by adaptation of parental drug-sensitive L1210 cells to vincristine) is associated with overexpression of mdr1 gene product P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-the ATP-dependent drug efflux pump. 31P-NMR spectra of L1210 and L1210/VCR cells (the latter in the presence of vincristine) revealed, besides the decrease of ATP level, a considerable lower level of UDP-saccharides in L1210/VCR cells. Histochemical staining of negatively charged cell surface binding sites (mostly sialic acid) by ruthenium red (RR) revealed a compact layer of RR bound to the external coat of sensitive cells. In resistant cells cultivated in the absence or presence of vincristine, the RR layer is either reduced or absent. Consistently, resistant cells were found to be less sensitive to Concanavalin A (ConA). Moreover, differences in the amount and spectrum of glycoproteins interacting with ConA-Sepharose were demonstrated between sensitive and resistant cells. Finally, the content of glycogen in resistant cells is lower than in sensitive cells. All the above facts indicate that multidrug resistance of L1210/VCR cells mediated predominantly by drug efflux activity of Pgp is accompanied by a considerable depression of oligo- and/or polysaccharides biosynthesis.

  15. Adenovirus vector infection of non-small-cell lung cancer cells is a trigger for multi-drug resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Tomono, Takumi; Kajita, Masahiro; Yano, Kentaro; Ogihara, Takuo

    2016-08-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-binding cassette protein involved in cancer multi-drug resistance (MDR). It has been reported that infection with some bacteria and viruses induces changes in the activities of various drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters, including P-gp. Although human adenoviruses (Ad) cause the common cold, the effect of Ad infection on MDR in cancer has not been established. In this study, we investigated whether Ad infection is a cause of MDR in A549, H441 and HCC827 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, using an Ad vector system. We found that Ad vector infection of NSCLC cell lines induced P-gp mRNA expression, and the extent of induction was dependent on the number of Ad vector virus particles and the infection time. Heat-treated Ad vector, which is not infectious, did not alter P-gp mRNA expression. Uptake experiments with doxorubicin (DOX), a P-gp substrate, revealed that DOX accumulation was significantly decreased in Ad vector-infected A549 cells. The decrease of DOX uptake was blocked by verapamil, a P-gp inhibitor. Our results indicated that Ad vector infection of NSCLC cells caused MDR mediated by P-gp overexpression. The Ad vector genome sequence is similar to that of human Ad, and therefore human Ad infection of lung cancer patients may lead to chemoresistance in the clinical environment.

  16. Novel polymer micelle mediated co-delivery of doxorubicin and P-glycoprotein siRNA for reversal of multidrug resistance and synergistic tumor therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chun-ge; Zhu, Wen-jing; Liu, Yang; Yuan, Zhi-qiang; Yang, Shu-di; Chen, Wei-liang; Li, Ji-zhao; Zhou, Xiao-feng; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Xue-nong

    2016-01-01

    Co-delivery of chemotherapeutics and siRNA with different mechanisms in a single system is a promising strategy for effective cancer therapy with synergistic effects. In this study, a triblock copolymer micelle was prepared based on the polymer of N-succinyl chitosan–poly-L-lysine–palmitic acid (NSC–PLL–PA) to co-deliver doxorubicin (Dox) and siRNA–P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (Dox–siRNA-micelle). Dox–siRNA-micelle was unstable in pH 5.3 medium than in pH 7.4 medium, which corresponded with the in vitro rapid release of Dox and siRNA in acidic environments. The antitumor efficacy of Dox–siRNA-micelle in vitro significantly increased, especially in HepG2/ADM cells, which was due to the downregulation of P-gp. Moreover, almost all the Dox–siRNA-micelles accumulated in the tumor region beyond 24 h post-injection, and the co-delivery system significantly inhibited tumor growth with synergistic effects in vivo. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of Dox–siRNA-micelles in tumor-targeting and MDR reversal, and provided a promising strategy to develop a co-delivery system with synergistic effects for combined cancer therapy. PMID:27030638

  17. Borneol Depresses P-Glycoprotein Function by a NF-κB Signaling Mediated Mechanism in a Blood Brain Barrier in Vitro Model.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiang; Chai, Lijuan; Zhang, Han; Wang, Yuefei; Zhang, Boli; Gao, Xiumei

    2015-11-18

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) on brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) that form the blood brain barrier (BBB), influences transportation of substances between blood and brain. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of borneol on P-gp efflux function on BBB and explore the potential mechanisms. We established an in vitro BBB model comprised of rat BMECs and astrocytes to measure the effects of borneol on the known P-gp substrates transport across BBB, and examined the function and expression of P-gp in BMECs and the signaling pathways regulating P-gp expression. Borneol increased intracellular accumulation of Rhodamine 123, enhanced verapamil and digoxin across the BBB in vitro model, and depressed mdr1a mRNA and P-gp expression. Borneol could activate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and inhibition of NF-κB with MG132 (carbobenzoxy-Leu-Leu-leucinal) and SN50 (an inhibitory peptide) obscuring the P-gp decreases induced by borneol. These data suggested that borneol depresses P-gp function in BMECs by a NF-κB signaling medicated mechanism in a BBB in vitro model.

  18. Borneol Depresses P-Glycoprotein Function by a NF-κB Signaling Mediated Mechanism in a Blood Brain Barrier in Vitro Model

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiang; Chai, Lijuan; Zhang, Han; Wang, Yuefei; Zhang, Boli; Gao, Xiumei

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) on brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) that form the blood brain barrier (BBB), influences transportation of substances between blood and brain. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of borneol on P-gp efflux function on BBB and explore the potential mechanisms. We established an in vitro BBB model comprised of rat BMECs and astrocytes to measure the effects of borneol on the known P-gp substrates transport across BBB, and examined the function and expression of P-gp in BMECs and the signaling pathways regulating P-gp expression. Borneol increased intracellular accumulation of Rhodamine 123, enhanced verapamil and digoxin across the BBB in vitro model, and depressed mdr1a mRNA and P-gp expression. Borneol could activate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and inhibition of NF-κB with MG132 (carbobenzoxy-Leu-Leu-leucinal) and SN50 (an inhibitory peptide) obscuring the P-gp decreases induced by borneol. These data suggested that borneol depresses P-gp function in BMECs by a NF-κB signaling medicated mechanism in a BBB in vitro model. PMID:26593909

  19. Role of P-glycoprotein in mediating rivastigmine effect on amyloid-β brain load and related pathology in Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Loqman A; Keller, Jeffrey N; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2016-04-01

    Recently, we showed that rivastigmine decreased amyloid-β (Aβ) brain load in aged rats by enhancing its clearance across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via upregulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). Here, we extend our previous work to clarify P-gp role in mediating rivastigmine effect on Aβ brain levels and neuroprotection in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that expresses different levels of P-gp. APPSWE mice were bred with mdr1a/b knockout mice to produce littermates that were divided into three groups; APP(+)/mdr1(+/+), APP(+)/mdr1(+/-) and APP(+)/mdr1(-/-). Animals received rivastigmine treatment (0.3mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 8weeks using Alzet osmotic mini-pumps. ELISA analysis of brain homogenates for Aβ showed rivastigmine treatment to significantly decrease Aβ brain load in APP(+)/mdr1(+/+) by 25% and in APP(+)/mdr1(+/-) mice by 21% compared to their vehicle treated littermates, but not in APP(+)/mdr1(-/-) mice. In addition, rivastigmine reduced GFAP immunostaining of astrocytes by 50% and IL-1β brain level by 43% in APP(+)/mdr1(+/+) mice, however its effect was less pronounced in P-gp knockout mice. Moreover, rivastigmine demonstrated a P-gp expression dependent neuroprotective effect that was highest in APP(+)/mdr1(+/+)>APP(+)/mdr1(+/-)>APP(+)/mdr1(-/-) as determined by expression of synaptic markers PSD-95 and SNAP-25 using Western blot analysis. Collectively, our results suggest that P-gp plays important role in mediating rivastigmine non-cholinergic beneficial effects, including Aβ brain load reduction, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in the AD mouse models. PMID:26780497

  20. Fullerene inhibits benzo(a)pyrene Efflux from Cyprinus carpio hepatocytes by affecting cell membrane fluidity and P-glycoprotein expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiqing; Hu, Xialin; Wang, Rui; Yuan, Jin; Yin, Daqiang

    2016-05-01

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) can protect cells by pumping out toxic compounds, and has been found widely expressed in fish tissues. Here, we illustrate the P-gp efflux ability for benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the hepatocytes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after exposing to fullerene aqueous suspension (nC60). The results revealed that nC60 increased the membrane fluidity by decreasing the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids, and increased the cholesterol contents. These findings, combined with 10-38% and 70-75% down-regulation of P-gp mRNA and protein respectively, suggested that nC60 caused inhibition on P-gp efflux transport system. Therefore, we further investigated the cellular efflux ability for BaP. Results showed unequivocally that nC60 is a potent P-gp inhibitor. The retaining BaP amounts after efflux were elevated by 1.7-2.8 fold during the 10 day exposure. Meanwhile, 5mg/L humic acid (one of the important fractions of natural organic matter, which is ubiquitous in aquatic environment) alleviated the nC60 damage to hepatocytes in terms of oxidative damage, cholesterol increment, and P-gp content reduction; and finally attenuated the suppressed P-gp efflux ability. Collectively, this study provides the first evidence of nC60 toxicity to P-gp functionality in fish and illustrates the possible mechanism of the suppressed P-gp efflux ability for BaP.

  1. Fullerene inhibits benzo(a)pyrene Efflux from Cyprinus carpio hepatocytes by affecting cell membrane fluidity and P-glycoprotein expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiqing; Hu, Xialin; Wang, Rui; Yuan, Jin; Yin, Daqiang

    2016-05-01

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) can protect cells by pumping out toxic compounds, and has been found widely expressed in fish tissues. Here, we illustrate the P-gp efflux ability for benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the hepatocytes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after exposing to fullerene aqueous suspension (nC60). The results revealed that nC60 increased the membrane fluidity by decreasing the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids, and increased the cholesterol contents. These findings, combined with 10-38% and 70-75% down-regulation of P-gp mRNA and protein respectively, suggested that nC60 caused inhibition on P-gp efflux transport system. Therefore, we further investigated the cellular efflux ability for BaP. Results showed unequivocally that nC60 is a potent P-gp inhibitor. The retaining BaP amounts after efflux were elevated by 1.7-2.8 fold during the 10 day exposure. Meanwhile, 5mg/L humic acid (one of the important fractions of natural organic matter, which is ubiquitous in aquatic environment) alleviated the nC60 damage to hepatocytes in terms of oxidative damage, cholesterol increment, and P-gp content reduction; and finally attenuated the suppressed P-gp efflux ability. Collectively, this study provides the first evidence of nC60 toxicity to P-gp functionality in fish and illustrates the possible mechanism of the suppressed P-gp efflux ability for BaP. PMID:26918948

  2. Inhibition of Multidrug Resistance-Linked P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1) Function by 5′-Fluorosulfonylbenzoyl 5′-Adenosine: Evidence for an ATP Analog That Interacts With Both Drug-Substrate- and Nucleotide-Binding Sites†

    PubMed Central

    Ohnuma, Shinobu; Chufan, Eduardo; Nandigama, Krishnamachary; Miller Jenkins, Lisa M.; Durell, Stewart R.; Appella, Ettore; Sauna, Zuben E.; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2011-01-01

    5′-fluorosulfonylbenzonyl 5′-adenosine (FSBA) is an ATP analog that covalently modifies several residues in the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) of several ATPases, kinases and other proteins. P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that utilizes energy from ATP hydrolysis for the efflux of amphipathic anticancer agents from cancer cells. We investigated the interactions of FSBA with P-gp to study the catalytic cycle of ATP hydrolysis. Incubation of P-gp with FSBA inhibited ATP hydrolysis (IC50= 0.21 mM) and the binding of 8-azido[α–32P]ATP (IC50= 0.68 mM). In addition, 14C-FSBA crosslinks to P-gp, suggesting that FSBA-mediated inhibition of ATP hydrolysis is irreversible due to covalent modification of P-gp. However, when the NBDs were occupied with a saturating concentration of ATP prior to treatment, FSBA stimulated ATP hydrolysis by P-gp. Furthermore, FSBA inhibited the photocrosslinking of P-gp with [125I]-Iodoaryl-azidoprazosin (IAAP; IC50 = 0.17 mM). As IAAP is a transport substrate for P-gp, this suggests that FSBA affects not only the NBDs, but also the transport-substrate site in the transmembrane domains. Consistent with these results, FSBA blocked efflux of rhodamine 123 from P-gp-expressing cells. Additionally, mass spectrometric analysis identified FSBA crosslinks to residues within or nearby the NBDs but not in the transmembrane domains and docking of FSBA in a homology model of human P-gp NBDs supports the biochemical studies. Thus, FSBA is an ATP analog that interacts with both the drug-binding and ATP-binding sites of P-gp, but fluorosulfonyl-mediated crosslinking is observed only at the NBDs. PMID:21452853

  3. The inhibitory and combinative mechanism of HZ08 with P-glycoprotein expressed on the membrane of Caco-2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; Hu, Yahui; Feng, Yidong; Kodithuwakku, Nandani Darshika; Fang, Weirong; Li, Yunman; Huang, Wenlong

    2014-01-15

    Recently, the research and development of agents to reverse the phenomenon of multidrug resistance has been an attractive goal as well as a key approach to elevating the clinical survival of cancer patients. Although three generations of P-glycoprotein modulators have been identified, poor clearance and metabolism render these agents too toxic to be used in clinical application. HZ08, which has been under investigation for several years, shows a dramatic reversal effect with low cytotoxicity. For the first time, we aimed to describe the interaction between HZ08 and P-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cell line in which P-glycoprotein is overexpressed naturally. Cytotoxicity and multidrug resistance reversal assays, together with flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy and siRNA interference as well as Caco-2 monolayer transport model were employed in this study to evaluate the interaction between HZ08 and P-glycoprotein. This study revealed that HZ08 was capable of reversing adriamycin resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein as a result of intracellular enhancement of adriamycin accumulation, which was found to be superior to verapamil. In addition, we confirmed that HZ08 suppressed the transport of Rhodamine123 in the Caco-2 monolayer model but had little effect on P-glycoprotein expression. The transport of HZ08 was diminished by P-glycoprotein inhibitors (verapamil and LY335979) and its accumulation was increased via siRNA targeting MDR1 in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, considering the binding site of P-glycoprotein, verapamil performed as a competitive inhibitor with HZ08. In conclusion, as a P-glycoprotein substrate, HZ08 inhibited P-glycoprotein activity and may share the same binding site of verapamil to P-glycoprotein.

  4. Characterization of multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein transport function with an organotechnetium cation

    SciTech Connect

    Piwnica-Worms, D.; Vallabhaneni, V.R.; Kronauge, J.F.

    1995-09-26

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in mammalian cells and tumors is associated with overexpression of an {approximately}170 integral membrane efflux transporter, the MDR1 P-glycoprotein. Hexakis(2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile) technetium(I) (Tc-SESTAMIBI), a {gamma}-emitting lipophilic cationic metallopharmaceutical, has recently been shown to be a P-glycoprotein transport substrate. Exploiting the negligible lipid membrane adsorption properties of this organometallic substrate, we studied the transport kinetics, pharmacology, drug binding, and modulation of P-glycoprotein in cell preparations derived from a variety of species and selection strategies, including SW-1573, V79, Alex, and CHO drug-sensitive cells and in 77A, LZ-8, and Alex/A.5 MDR cells. Rapid cell accumulation (T{sub 1/2} {approx} 6 min) of the agent to a steady state was observed which was inversely proportional to immunodetectable levels of P-glycoprotein. Many MDR cytotoxic agents inhibited P-glycoprotein-mediated Tc-SESTAMIBI efflux, thereby enhancing organometallic cation accumulation. 70 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. P-glycoprotein mediated efflux limits the transport of the novel anti-Parkinson's disease candidate drug FLZ across the physiological and PD pathological in vitro BBB models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Hou, Jinfeng; Chen, Xiaoguang; Liu, Gengtao; Zhang, Dan; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Jinlan

    2014-01-01

    FLZ, a novel anti-Parkinson's disease (PD) candidate drug, has shown poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration based on the pharmacokinetic study using rat brain. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are two important transporters obstructing substrates entry into the CNS as well as in relation to PD neuropathology. However, it is unclear whether P-gp and BCRP are involved in low BBB permeability of FLZ and what the differences of FLZ brain penetration are between normal and Parkinson's conditions. For this purpose, in vitro BBB models mimicking physiological and PD pathological-related BBB properties were constructed by C6 astroglial cells co-cultured with primary normal or PD rat cerebral microvessel endothelial cells (rCMECs) and in vitro permeability experiments of FLZ were carried out. High transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and low permeability for sodium fluorescein (NaF) confirmed the BBB functionality of the two models. Significantly greater expressions of P-gp and BCRP were detected in PD rCMECs associated with the lower in vitro BBB permeability of FLZ in pathological BBB model compared with physiological model. In transport studies only P-gp blocker effectively inhibited the efflux of FLZ, which was consistent with the in vivo permeability data. This result was also confirmed by ATPase assays, suggesting FLZ is a substrate for P-gp but not BCRP. The present study first established in vitro BBB models reproducing PD-related changes of BBB functions in vivo and demonstrated that poor brain penetration of FLZ and low BBB permeability were due to the P-gp transport. PMID:25036090

  6. Population pharmacokinetic modelling of non-linear brain distribution of morphine: influence of active saturable influx and P-glycoprotein mediated efflux

    PubMed Central

    Groenendaal, D; Freijer, J; de Mik, D; Bouw, M R; Danhof, M; de Lange, E C M

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Biophase equilibration must be considered to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) correlations of opioids. The objective was to characterise in a quantitative manner the non-linear distribution kinetics of morphine in brain. Experimental approach: Male rats received a 10-min infusion of 4 mg kg−1 of morphine, combined with a continuous infusion of the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) inhibitor GF120918 or vehicle, or 40 mg kg−1 morphine alone. Unbound extracellular fluid (ECF) concentrations obtained by intracerebral microdialysis and total blood concentrations were analysed using a population modelling approach. Key results: Blood pharmacokinetics of morphine was best described with a three-compartment model and was not influenced by GF120918. Non-linear distribution kinetics in brain ECF was observed with increasing dose. A one compartment distribution model was developed, with separate expressions for passive diffusion, active saturable influx and active efflux by Pgp. The passive diffusion rate constant was 0.0014 min−1. The active efflux rate constant decreased from 0.0195 min−1 to 0.0113 min−1 in the presence of GF120918. The active influx was insensitive to GF120918 and had a maximum transport (Nmax/Vecf) of 0.66 ng min−1 ml−1 and was saturated at low concentrations of morphine (C50=9.9 ng ml−1). Conclusions and implications: Brain distribution of morphine is determined by three factors: limited passive diffusion; active efflux, reduced by 42% by Pgp inhibition; low capacity active uptake. This implies blood concentration-dependency and sensitivity to drug-drug interactions. These factors should be taken into account in further investigations on PK-PD correlations of morphine. PMID:17471182

  7. Development and characterization of P-glycoprotein 1 (Pgp1, ABCB1)-mediated doxorubicin-resistant PLHC-1 hepatoma fish cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Zaja, Roko; Caminada, Daniel; Loncar, Jovica; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2008-03-01

    The development of the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype in mammals is often mediated by the overexpression of the P-glycoprotein1 (Pgp, ABCB1) or multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)-like ABC transport proteins. A similar phenomenon has also been observed and considered as an important part of the multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) defence system in aquatic organisms. We have recently demonstrated the presence of ABC transporters in the widely used in vitro fish model, the PLHC-1 hepatoma cell line. In the present study we were able to select a highly resistant PLHC-1 sub-clone (PLHC-1/dox) by culturing the wild-type cells in the presence of 1 {mu}M doxorubicin. Using quantitative PCR a 42-fold higher expression of ABCB1 gene was determined in the PLHC-1/dox cells compared to non-selected wild-type cells (PLHC-1/wt). The efflux rates of model fluorescent Pgp1 substrates rhodamine 123 and calcein-AM were 3- to 4-fold higher in the PLHC-1/dox in comparison to the PLHC-1/wt cells. PLHC-1/dox were 45-fold more resistant to doxorubicin cytotoxicity than PLHC-1/wt. Similarly to mammalian cell lines, typical cross-resistance to cytotoxicity of other chemotherapeutics such as daunorubicin, vincristine, vinblastine, etoposide and colchicine, occurred. Furthermore, cyclosporine A, verapamil and PSC833, specific inhibitors of Pgp1 transport activity, completely reversed resistance of PLHC-1/dox cells to all tested drugs, resulting in EC50 values similar to the EC50 values found for PLHC-1/wt. In contrast, MK571, a specific inhibitor of MRP type of efflux transporters, sensitized PLHC-1/dox cells, neither to doxorubicin, nor to any other of the chemotherapeutics used in the study. These data demonstrate for the first time that a specific Pgp1-mediated doxorubicin resistance mechanism is present in the PLHC-1 fish hepatoma cell line. In addition, the fact that low micromolar concentrations of specific inhibitors may completely reverse a highly expressed doxorubicin

  8. Co-amplification of double minute chromosomes, multiple drug resistance, and cell surface P-glycoprotein in DNA-mediated transformants of mouse cells.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, S M; Ling, V; Stanners, C P

    1984-01-01

    A genetic system comprised of mammalian cell mutants which demonstrate concomitant resistance to a number of unrelated drugs has been described previously. The resistance is due to reduced cell membrane permeability and is correlated with the presence of large amounts of a plasma membrane glycoprotein termed P-glycoprotein. This system could represent a model for multiple drug resistance which develops in cancer patients treated with chemotherapeutic drugs. We demonstrate here that the multiple drug resistance phenotype can be transferred to mouse cells with DNA from a drug-resistant mutant and then amplified quantitatively by culture in media containing increasing concentrations of drug. The amount of P-glycoprotein was correlated directly with the degree of drug resistance in the transformants and amplified transformants. In addition, the drug resistance and expression of P-glycoprotein of the transformants were unstable and associated quantitatively with the number of double minute chromosomes. We suggest that the gene for multiple drug resistance and P-glycoprotein is contained in these extrachromosomal particles and is amplified by increases in double minute chromosome number. The potential use of this system for manipulation of mammalian genes in general is discussed. Images PMID:6144041

  9. The inhibitory and combinative mechanism of HZ08 with P-glycoprotein expressed on the membrane of Caco-2 cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanyan; Hu, Yahui; Feng, Yidong; Kodithuwakku, Nandani Darshika; Fang, Weirong; Li, Yunman; Huang, Wenlong

    2014-01-15

    Recently, the research and development of agents to reverse the phenomenon of multidrug resistance has been an attractive goal as well as a key approach to elevating the clinical survival of cancer patients. Although three generations of P-glycoprotein modulators have been identified, poor clearance and metabolism render these agents too toxic to be used in clinical application. HZ08, which has been under investigation for several years, shows a dramatic reversal effect with low cytotoxicity. For the first time, we aimed to describe the interaction between HZ08 and P-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cell line in which P-glycoprotein is overexpressed naturally. Cytotoxicity and multidrug resistance reversal assays, together with flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy and siRNA interference as well as Caco-2 monolayer transport model were employed in this study to evaluate the interaction between HZ08 and P-glycoprotein. This study revealed that HZ08 was capable of reversing adriamycin resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein as a result of intracellular enhancement of adriamycin accumulation, which was found to be superior to verapamil. In addition, we confirmed that HZ08 suppressed the transport of Rhodamine123 in the Caco-2 monolayer model but had little effect on P-glycoprotein expression. The transport of HZ08 was diminished by P-glycoprotein inhibitors (verapamil and LY335979) and its accumulation was increased via siRNA targeting MDR1 in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, considering the binding site of P-glycoprotein, verapamil performed as a competitive inhibitor with HZ08. In conclusion, as a P-glycoprotein substrate, HZ08 inhibited P-glycoprotein activity and may share the same binding site of verapamil to P-glycoprotein. - Highlights: • The cytotoxicity and reversing effect of HZ08 was measured in Caco-2 cell line. • HZ08 inhibited the transport of Rhodamine123 across Caco-2 cell monolayer. • The efflux ratio of HZ08 was dropped when combined with P-glycoprotein

  10. Enhanced oral bioavailability of felodipine by naringenin in Wistar rats and inhibition of P-glycoprotein in everted rat gut sacs in vitro.

    PubMed

    Surya Sandeep, M; Sridhar, V; Puneeth, Y; Ravindra Babu, P; Naveen Babu, K

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of naringenin on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of felodipine in rats and membrane permeability across rat everted gut sacs in vitro. Rats were simultaneously co-administered with felodipine 10 mg/kg, p.o. and naringenin (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) for 15 consecutive days. Rats of the control groups received the corresponding volume of vehicle. Blood samples were withdrawn from retro-orbital plexus on first day in single dose PK study (SDS) and on 15th day in multiple dosing PK study (MDS). The PK parameters were calculated using Thermo kinetica. The co-administration of naringenin significantly elevated the Cmax and increased the AUCtotal of felodipine in dose-dependent manner. The Cmax of felodipine was increased from 173.25 ± 14.65 to 275.61 ± 44.62 and 223.26 ± 26.35 to 561.32 ± 62.53 ng/mL in SDS and MDS, respectively, at the dose of naringenin 100 mg/kg. The AUCtotal of felodipine was significantly (p < 0.001) increased from 2050.48 ± 60.57 to 3650.22 ± 78.61 and 3276.51 ± 325.61 to 7265.25 ± 536.11 (ng/mL/h) in SDS and MDS, respectively. The permeability of felodipine was increased in presence of naringenin and ritonavir (standard P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A4 inhibitor). Felodipine is a substrate of CYP3A4, and naringenin was reported to be a modulator of P-gp and CYP3A4. These results suggest that naringenin significantly increased the Cmax and AUC of felodipine is due to P-gp and CYP3A4 inhibition.

  11. Inhibitory effects of herbal constituents on P-glycoprotein in vitro and in vivo: Herb–drug interactions mediated via P-gp

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xue Hu, Jinping Wang, Baolian Sheng, Li Liu, Zhihao Yang, Shuang Li, Yan

    2014-03-01

    Modulation of drug transporters via herbal medicines which have been widely used in combination with conventional prescription drugs may result in herb–drug interactions in clinical practice. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of 50 major herbal constituents on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro and in vivo as well as related inhibitory mechanisms. Among these herbal medicines, four constituents, including emodin, 18β-glycyrrhetic acid (18β-GA), dehydroandrographolide (DAG), and 20(S)-ginsenoside F{sub 1} [20(S)-GF{sub 1}] exhibited significant inhibition (> 50%) on P-gp in MDR1-MDCKII and Caco-2 cells. Emodin was the strongest inhibitor of P-gp (IC{sub 50} = 9.42 μM), followed by 18β-GA (IC{sub 50} = 21.78 μM), 20(S)-GF{sub 1} (IC{sub 50} = 76.08 μM) and DAG (IC{sub 50} = 77.80 μM). P-gp ATPase activity, which was used to evaluate the affinity of substrates to P-gp, was stimulated by emodin and DAG with K{sub m} and V{sub max} values of 48.61, 29.09 μM and 71.29, 38.45 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. However, 18β-GA and 20(S)-GF{sub 1} exhibited significant inhibition on both basal and verapamil-stimulated P-gp ATPase activities at high concentration. Molecular docking analysis (CDOCKER) further elucidated the mechanism for structure–inhibition relationships of herbal constituents with P-gp. When digoxin was co-administered to male SD rats with emodin or 18β-GA, the AUC{sub 0−t} and Cmax of digoxin were increased by approximately 51% and 58%, respectively. Furthermore, 18β-GA, DAG, 20(S)-GF{sub 1} and Rh{sub 1} at 10 μM significantly inhibited CYP3A4/5 activity, while emodin activated the metabolism of midazolam in human liver microsomes. In conclusion, four herbal constituents demonstrated inhibition of P-gp to specific extents in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our findings provided the basis for the reliable assessment of the potential risks of herb–drug interactions in humans. - Highlights: • Emodin, 18

  12. Co-delivery of Se nanoparticles and pooled SiRNAs for overcoming drug resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein and class III β-tubulin in drug-resistant breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjing; Yin, Tiantian; Chen, Qingchang; Qin, Xiuying; Huang, Xiaoquan; Zhao, Shuang; Xu, Taoyuan; Chen, Lanmei; Liu, Jie

    2016-02-01

    Drug resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and class III β-tubulin (β-tubulin III) is a major barrier in microtubule-targeting cancer chemotherapy. In this study, layered double hydroxide nanoparticles (LDHs) were employed to simultaneously deliver selenium (Se) and pooled small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to achieve therapeutic efficacy. LDH-supported Se nanoparticles (Se@LDH) were compacted with siRNAs (anti-P-gp and anti-β-tubulin III) via electrostatic interactions, which could protect siRNA from degradation. Se@LDH showed excellent abilities to deliver siRNA into cells, including enhancing siRNA internalization, and promoting siRNA escape from endosomes. siRNA transfection experiments further confirmed a higher gene silencing efficiency of Se@LDH than LDH. Interestingly, we found Se@LDH may be a microtubule (MT) stabilizing agent which could inhibit cell proliferation by blocking cell cycle at G2/M phase, disrupting normal mitotic spindle formation and inducing cell apoptosis. When complexed with different specific siRNAs, Se@LDH/siRNA nanoparticles, especially the Se@LDH-pooled siRNAs, exhibit an efficient gene-silencing effect that significantly downregulate the expression of P-gp and β-tubulin III. Moreover, Se@LDH-pooled siRNAs could induce cell apoptosis, change cell morphology and increase cellular ROS levels through change the expression of Bcl-2/Bax, activation of caspase-3, PI3K/AKT/mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways. These results suggested that co-delivery of Se and pooled siRNAs may be a promising strategy for overcoming the drug resistance mediated by P-gp and β-tubulin III in drug-resistant breast cancers. PMID:26612416

  13. Dose-response assessment of tariquidar and elacridar and regional quantification of P-glycoprotein inhibition at the rat blood-brain barrier using (R)-[11C]verapamil PET

    PubMed Central

    Kuntner, Claudia; Bankstahl, Jens P.; Bankstahl, Marion; Stanek, Johann; Wanek, Thomas; Stundner, Gloria; Karch, Rudolf; Brauner, Rebecca; Meier, Martin; Ding, Xiaoqi; Müller, Markus; Löscher, Wolfgang; Langer, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Overactivity of the multidrug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is believed to play an important role in resistance to central nervous system drug treatment. (R)-[11C]verapamil (VPM) PET can be used to measure the function of P-gp at the BBB, but low brain uptake of VPM hampers the mapping of regional differences in cerebral P-gp function and expression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-response relationship of two potent P-gp inhibitors and to investigate if increased brain uptake of VPM mediated by P-gp inhibition can be used to assess regional differences in P-gp activity. Methods Two groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12) underwent single VPM PET scans at 120 min after administration of different doses of the P-gp inhibitors tariquidar and elacridar. In an additional 6 rats, paired VPM PET scans were performed before and after administration of 3 mg/kg tariquidar. Results Inhibitor administration resulted in an up to 11-fold increase in VPM brain distribution volumes (DV) with ED50 values of 3.0±0.2 and 1.2±0.1 mg/kg for tariquidar and elacridar, respectively. In paired PET scans, 3 mg/kg tariquidar resulted in regionally different enhancement of brain activity distribution, with lowest DV in cerebellum and highest DV in thalamus. Conclusion Our data show that tariquidar and elacridar are able to increase VPM brain distribution in rat brain up to 11-fold over baseline at maximum effective doses, with elacridar being about 3 times more potent than tariquidar. Regional differences in tariquidar-induced modulation of VPM brain uptake point to regional differences in cerebral P-gp function and expression in rat brain. PMID:20016890

  14. Grape Seed Procyanidin Reversal of P-glycoprotein Associated Multi-Drug Resistance via Down-regulation of NF-κB and MAPK/ERK Mediated YB-1 Activity in A2780/T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-qi; Duan, Lian; Huo, Qi-lu; Ren, Fei; Li, Guo-feng

    2013-01-01

    The expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is associated with the phenotype of multi-drug resistance (MDR), leading chemotherapy failure of patients suffered with cancer. Grape seed procyanidin(GSP) is a natural polyphenol supplement with anti-inflammatory effect. Present study assessed a new use of GSP on the MDR reversal activity and its possible molecular mechanisms in MDR1-overpressing paclitaxel resistant ovarian cancer cells. Our results showed GSP significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel and adriamycin in paclitaxel resistant A2780/T cells but its parental A2780 cells. Furthermore, GSP strongly inhibited P-gp expression by blocking MDR1 gene transcription, as well as, increased the intracellular accumulation of the P-gp substrate rhodamine-123 in A2780/T cells. Nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) activity, IκB degradation level and NF-κB/p65 nuclear translocation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) were markedly inhibited by pre-treatment with GSP. Meanwhile, GSP inhibited MAPK/ERK pathway by decreasing the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, resulting in reduced the Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) activation with blocking its nuclear translocation. Moreover, the up-regulation of P-gp expression, the activation of AKT/NF-κB and MAPK/ERK pathway induced by LPS was attenuated by GSP administration. Compared with PDTC and U1026, inhibitor of NF-κB and MAPK/ERK respectively, GSP showed the same tendency of down-regulating NF-κB and MAPK/ERK mediated YB-1 activities. Thus, GSP reverses P-gp associated MDR by inhibiting the function and expression of P-gp through down-regulation of NF-κB activity and MAPK/ERK pathway mediated YB-1 nuclear translocation, offering insight into the mechanism of reversing MDR by natural polyphenol supplement compounds. GSP could be a new potential MDR reversal agent used for combination therapy with chemotherapeutics in clinic. PMID:23967153

  15. Down-regulation of the P-glycoprotein relevant for multidrug resistance by intracellular acidification through the crosstalk of MAPK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Jin, Weina; Lu, Ying; Li, Qinghua; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Hongju; Chang, Guoqiang; Lin, Yani; Pang, Tianxiang

    2014-09-01

    In our previous study, we have found that the tumor multidrug resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein could be reversed by sustained intracellular acidification through down-regulating the multidrug resistance gene 1 mRNA and P-glycoprotein expression. However, the molecular events linking the intracellular acidification and the regulation of P-glycoprotein remain unclear. In the present study, the molecular pathways involved in the regulation of P-glycoprotein expression by the intracellular acidification were investigated. We found that the P-glycoprotein expression was down-regulated by the intracellular acidification through inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in the resisitant K562/DOX cells. In the sensitive K562 and HL60 cell lines, the changes of the p38 MAPK expression after the acidification are not as obvious as that of K562/DOX cells, but the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is also observed, which indicates that the down-regulation of p38 MAPK by the intracellular acidification might be the resistant cell line specific. Blockade of ERK and JNK signaling by the inhibitors or RNA interference increased p38MAPK activities suggesting that cross-talk within MAPKs is also important for this response. Our study provides the first direct evidence that the reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance by intracellular acidification is mediated by the crosstalk of MAPK signaling pathways.

  16. β-casein nanovehicles for oral delivery of chemotherapeutic drug combinations overcoming P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in human gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Zeev, Maya; Assaraf, Yehuda G.; Livney, Yoav D.

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a primary obstacle to curative cancer therapy. We have previously demonstrated that β-casein (β-CN) micelles (β-CM) can serve as nanovehicles for oral delivery and target-activated release of hydrophobic drugs in the stomach. Herein we introduce a novel nanosystem based on β-CM, to orally deliver a synergistic combination of a chemotherapeutic drug (Paclitaxel) and a P-glycoprotein-specific transport inhibitor (Tariquidar) individually encapsulated within β-CM, for overcoming MDR in gastric cancer. Light microscopy, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential analyses revealed solubilization of these drugs by β-CN, suppressing drug crystallization. Spectrophotometry demonstrated high loading capacity and good encapsulation efficiency, whereas spectrofluorometry revealed high affinity of these drugs to β-CN. In vitro cytotoxicity assays exhibited remarkable synergistic efficacy against human MDR gastric carcinoma cells with P-glycoprotein overexpression. Oral delivery of β-CN - based nanovehicles carrying synergistic drug combinations to the stomach constitutes a novel efficacious therapeutic system that may overcome MDR in gastric cancer. PMID:26989076

  17. Tariquidar-induced P-glycoprotein inhibition at the rat blood-brain barrier studied with (R)-11C-verapamil and PET

    PubMed Central

    Bankstahl, Jens P.; Kuntner, Claudia; Abrahim, Aiman; Karch, Rudolf; Stanek, Johann; Wanek, Thomas; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Kletter, Kurt; Müller, Markus; Löscher, Wolfgang; Langer, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The multidrug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is expressed in high concentrations at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and believed to be implicated in resistance to central nervous system drugs. We used small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) and (R)-11C-verapamil together with tariquidar, a new-generation P-gp modulator, to study the functional activity of P-gp at the BBB of rats. To enable a comparison with human PET data we performed kinetic modeling to estimate the rate constants of radiotracer transport across the rat BBB. Methods A group of 7 Wistar Unilever rats underwent paired (R)-11C-verapamil PET scans at an interval of 3 h, one baseline scan and one scan after i.v. injection of tariquidar (15 mg/kg, n=5) or vehicle (n=2). Results Following tariquidar administration, the distribution volume DV of (R)-11C-verapamil was 12-fold higher as compared to baseline (3.68±0.81 versus 0.30±0.08; p=0.0007, paired t-test), whereas the DVs were essentially the same when only vehicle was administered. The increase in DV could mainly be attributed to an increased influx rate constant K1 of (R)-11C-verapamil into the brain, which was about 8-fold higher after tariquidar. A dose-response assessment with tariquidar provided an estimated half-maximum effect dose (ED50) of 8.4±9.5 mg/kg. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that (R)-11C-verapamil PET combined with tariquidar administration is a promising approach to measure P-gp function at the BBB. PMID:18632828

  18. Alkamides from Echinacea angustifolia Interact with P-glycoprotein of primary brain capillary endothelial cells isolated from porcine brain blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Mahringer, Anne; Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Bauer, Rudolf; Fricker, Gert; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The blood-brain barrier prevents the passage of toxic compounds from blood circulation into brain tissue. Unfortunately, drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, brain tumors, and other diseases also do not cross the blood-brain barrier. In the present investigation, we used isolated porcine brain capillary endothelial cells and a flow cytometric calcein-AM assay to analyze inhibition of P-glycoprotein, a major constituent of the blood-brain barrier. We tested 8 alkamides isolated from Echinacea angustifolia and found that four of them inhibited P-glycoprotein-mediated calcein transport in porcine brain capillary endothelial cells.

  19. 6,7-Dimethoxy-2-{2-[4-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)phenyl]ethyl}-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines as superior reversal agents for P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baomin; Qiu, Qianqian; Zhao, Tianxiao; Jiao, Lei; Li, Yunman; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2015-02-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle for successful cancer chemotherapy. Based on our previous study, 17 novel compounds with the 6,7-dimethoxy-2-{2-[4-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)phenyl]ethyl}-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline scaffold were designed and synthesized. Among them, 2-[(1-{4-[2-(6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl)ethyl]phenyl}-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methoxy]-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide (compound 7 h) was identified as a potent modulator of P-gp-mediated MDR, with high potency (EC50 =127.5 ± 9.1 nM), low cytotoxicity (TI>784.3), and long duration (>24 h) in reversing doxorubicin (DOX) resistance in K562/A02 cells. Compound 7 h also enhanced the effects of other MDR-related cytotoxic agents (paclitaxel, vinblastine, and daunorubicin), increased the accumulation of DOX and blocked P-gp-mediated rhodamine 123 efflux function in K562/A02 MDR cells. Moreover, 7 h did not have any effect on cytochrome (CYP3A4) activity. These results indicate that 7 h is a relatively safe modulator of P-gp-mediated MDR that has good potential for further development.

  20. Inhibition of P-Glycoprotein and Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 2 Regulates the Hepatobiliary Excretion and Plasma Exposure of Thienorphine and Its Glucuronide Conjugate

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ling-Lei; Shen, Guo-Lin; Wang, Zhi-Yuan; Zhuang, Xiao-Mei; Xiao, Wei-Bin; Yuan, Mei; Gong, Ze-Hui; Li, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Thienorphine (TNP) is a novel partial opioid agonist that has completed phase II clinical evaluation as a promising drug candidate for the treatment of opioid dependence. Previous studies have shown that TNP and its glucuronide conjugate (TNP-G) undergo significant bile excretion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of efflux transporters in regulating biliary excretion and plasma exposure of TNP and TNP-G. An ATPase assay suggested that TNP and TNP-G were substrates of P-gp and MRP2, respectively. The in vitro data from rat hepatocytes showed that bile excretion of TNP and TNP-G was regulated by the P-gp and MRP2 modulators. The accumulation of TNP and TNP-G in HepG2 cells significantly increased by the treatment of mdr1a or MRP2 siRNA for P-gp or MRP2 modulation. In intact rats, the bile excretion, and pharmacokinetic profiles of TNP and TNP-G were remarkably changed with tariquidar and probenecid pretreatment, respectively. Tariquidar increased the Cmax and AUC0-t and decreased MRT and T1/2 of TNP, whereas probenecid decreased the plasma exposure of TNP-G and increased its T1/2. Knockdown P-gp and MRP2 function using siRNA significantly increased the plasma exposure of TNP and TNP-G and reduced their mean retention time in mice. These results indicated the important roles of P-gp and MRP2 in hepatobiliary excretion and plasma exposure of TNP and TNP-G. Inhibition of the efflux transporters may affect the pharmacokinetics of TNP and result in a drug-drug interaction between TNP and the concomitant transporter inhibitor or inducer in clinic. PMID:27555820

  1. Inhibition of P-Glycoprotein and Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 2 Regulates the Hepatobiliary Excretion and Plasma Exposure of Thienorphine and Its Glucuronide Conjugate.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling-Lei; Shen, Guo-Lin; Wang, Zhi-Yuan; Zhuang, Xiao-Mei; Xiao, Wei-Bin; Yuan, Mei; Gong, Ze-Hui; Li, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Thienorphine (TNP) is a novel partial opioid agonist that has completed phase II clinical evaluation as a promising drug candidate for the treatment of opioid dependence. Previous studies have shown that TNP and its glucuronide conjugate (TNP-G) undergo significant bile excretion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of efflux transporters in regulating biliary excretion and plasma exposure of TNP and TNP-G. An ATPase assay suggested that TNP and TNP-G were substrates of P-gp and MRP2, respectively. The in vitro data from rat hepatocytes showed that bile excretion of TNP and TNP-G was regulated by the P-gp and MRP2 modulators. The accumulation of TNP and TNP-G in HepG2 cells significantly increased by the treatment of mdr1a or MRP2 siRNA for P-gp or MRP2 modulation. In intact rats, the bile excretion, and pharmacokinetic profiles of TNP and TNP-G were remarkably changed with tariquidar and probenecid pretreatment, respectively. Tariquidar increased the Cmax and AUC0-t and decreased MRT and T1/2 of TNP, whereas probenecid decreased the plasma exposure of TNP-G and increased its T1/2. Knockdown P-gp and MRP2 function using siRNA significantly increased the plasma exposure of TNP and TNP-G and reduced their mean retention time in mice. These results indicated the important roles of P-gp and MRP2 in hepatobiliary excretion and plasma exposure of TNP and TNP-G. Inhibition of the efflux transporters may affect the pharmacokinetics of TNP and result in a drug-drug interaction between TNP and the concomitant transporter inhibitor or inducer in clinic. PMID:27555820

  2. pH-Responsive therapeutic solid lipid nanoparticles for reducing P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux of multidrug resistant cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Hung; Huang, Wen-Chia; Chiang, Wen-Hsuan; Liu, Te-I; Shen, Ming-Yin; Hsu, Yuan-Hung; Lin, Sung-Chyr; Chiu, Hsin-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a novel pH-responsive cholesterol-PEG adduct-coated solid lipid nanoparticles (C-PEG-SLNs) carrying doxorubicin (DOX) capable of overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR) breast cancer cells is presented. The DOX-loaded SLNs have a mean hydrodynamic diameter of ~100 nm and a low polydispersity index (under 0.20) with a high drug-loading efficiency ranging from 80.8% to 90.6%. The in vitro drug release profiles show that the DOX-loaded SLNs exhibit a pH-controlled drug release behavior with the maximum and minimum unloading percentages of 63.4% at pH 4.7 and 25.2% at pH 7.4, respectively. The DOX-loaded C-PEG-SLNs displayed a superior ability in inhibiting the proliferation of MCF-7/MDR cells. At a DOX concentration of 80 μM, the cell viabilities treated with C-PEG-SLNs were approximately one-third of the group treated with free DOX. The inhibition activity of C-PEG-SLNs could be attributed to the transport of C-PEG to cell membrane, leading to the change of the composition of the cell membrane and thus the inhibition of permeability glycoprotein activity. This hypothesis is supported by the confocal images showing the accumulation of DOX in the nuclei of cancer cells and the localization of C-PEG on the cell membranes. The results of in vivo study further demonstrated that the DOX delivered by the SLNs accumulates predominantly in tumor via enhanced permeability and retention effect, the enhanced passive tumor accumulation due to the loose intercellular junctions of endothelial cells lining inside blood vessels at tumor site, and the lack of lymphatic drainage. The growth of MCF-7/MDR xenografted tumor on Balb/c nude mice was inhibited to ~400 mm(3) in volume as compared with the free DOX treatment group, 1,140 mm(3), and the group treated with 1,2 distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)] solid lipid nanoparticles, 820 mm(3). Analysis of the body weight of nude mice and the histology of organs and tumor after the

  3. pH-Responsive therapeutic solid lipid nanoparticles for reducing P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux of multidrug resistant cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsin-Hung; Huang, Wen-Chia; Chiang, Wen-Hsuan; Liu, Te-I; Shen, Ming-Yin; Hsu, Yuan-Hung; Lin, Sung-Chyr; Chiu, Hsin-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a novel pH-responsive cholesterol-PEG adduct-coated solid lipid nanoparticles (C-PEG-SLNs) carrying doxorubicin (DOX) capable of overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR) breast cancer cells is presented. The DOX-loaded SLNs have a mean hydrodynamic diameter of ~100 nm and a low polydispersity index (under 0.20) with a high drug-loading efficiency ranging from 80.8% to 90.6%. The in vitro drug release profiles show that the DOX-loaded SLNs exhibit a pH-controlled drug release behavior with the maximum and minimum unloading percentages of 63.4% at pH 4.7 and 25.2% at pH 7.4, respectively. The DOX-loaded C-PEG-SLNs displayed a superior ability in inhibiting the proliferation of MCF-7/MDR cells. At a DOX concentration of 80 μM, the cell viabilities treated with C-PEG-SLNs were approximately one-third of the group treated with free DOX. The inhibition activity of C-PEG-SLNs could be attributed to the transport of C-PEG to cell membrane, leading to the change of the composition of the cell membrane and thus the inhibition of permeability glycoprotein activity. This hypothesis is supported by the confocal images showing the accumulation of DOX in the nuclei of cancer cells and the localization of C-PEG on the cell membranes. The results of in vivo study further demonstrated that the DOX delivered by the SLNs accumulates predominantly in tumor via enhanced permeability and retention effect, the enhanced passive tumor accumulation due to the loose intercellular junctions of endothelial cells lining inside blood vessels at tumor site, and the lack of lymphatic drainage. The growth of MCF-7/MDR xenografted tumor on Balb/c nude mice was inhibited to ~400 mm3 in volume as compared with the free DOX treatment group, 1,140 mm3, and the group treated with 1,2 distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)] solid lipid nanoparticles, 820 mm3. Analysis of the body weight of nude mice and the histology of organs and tumor after the

  4. pH-Responsive therapeutic solid lipid nanoparticles for reducing P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux of multidrug resistant cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Hung; Huang, Wen-Chia; Chiang, Wen-Hsuan; Liu, Te-I; Shen, Ming-Yin; Hsu, Yuan-Hung; Lin, Sung-Chyr; Chiu, Hsin-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a novel pH-responsive cholesterol-PEG adduct-coated solid lipid nanoparticles (C-PEG-SLNs) carrying doxorubicin (DOX) capable of overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR) breast cancer cells is presented. The DOX-loaded SLNs have a mean hydrodynamic diameter of ~100 nm and a low polydispersity index (under 0.20) with a high drug-loading efficiency ranging from 80.8% to 90.6%. The in vitro drug release profiles show that the DOX-loaded SLNs exhibit a pH-controlled drug release behavior with the maximum and minimum unloading percentages of 63.4% at pH 4.7 and 25.2% at pH 7.4, respectively. The DOX-loaded C-PEG-SLNs displayed a superior ability in inhibiting the proliferation of MCF-7/MDR cells. At a DOX concentration of 80 μM, the cell viabilities treated with C-PEG-SLNs were approximately one-third of the group treated with free DOX. The inhibition activity of C-PEG-SLNs could be attributed to the transport of C-PEG to cell membrane, leading to the change of the composition of the cell membrane and thus the inhibition of permeability glycoprotein activity. This hypothesis is supported by the confocal images showing the accumulation of DOX in the nuclei of cancer cells and the localization of C-PEG on the cell membranes. The results of in vivo study further demonstrated that the DOX delivered by the SLNs accumulates predominantly in tumor via enhanced permeability and retention effect, the enhanced passive tumor accumulation due to the loose intercellular junctions of endothelial cells lining inside blood vessels at tumor site, and the lack of lymphatic drainage. The growth of MCF-7/MDR xenografted tumor on Balb/c nude mice was inhibited to ~400 mm(3) in volume as compared with the free DOX treatment group, 1,140 mm(3), and the group treated with 1,2 distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)] solid lipid nanoparticles, 820 mm(3). Analysis of the body weight of nude mice and the histology of organs and tumor after the

  5. Synthesis of new steroidal inhibitors of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance and biological evaluation on K562/R7 erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    de Ravel, Marc Rolland; Alameh, Ghina; Melikian, Maxime; Mahiout, Zahia; Emptoz-Bonneton, Agnès; Matera, Eva-Laure; Lomberget, Thierry; Barret, Roland; Rocheblave, Luc; Walchshofer, Nadia; Beltran, Sonia; El Jawad, Lucienne; Mappus, Elisabeth; Grenot, Catherine; Pugeat, Michel; Dumontet, Charles; Le Borgne, Marc; Cuilleron, Claude Yves

    2015-02-26

    A simple route for improving the potency of progesterone as a modulator of P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance was established by esterification or etherification of hydroxylated 5α/β-pregnane-3,20-dione or 5β-cholan-3-one precursors. X-ray crystallography of representative 7α-, 11α-, and 17α-(2'R/S)-O-tetrahydropyranyl ether diastereoisomers revealed different combinations of axial-equatorial configurations of the anomeric oxygen. Substantial stimulation of accumulation and chemosensitization was observed on K562/R7 erythroleukemia cells resistant to doxorubicin, especially using 7α,11α-O-disubstituted derivatives of 5α/β-pregnane-3,20-dione, among which the 5β-H-7α-benzoyloxy-11α-(2'R)-O-tetrahydropyranyl ether 22a revealed promising properties (accumulation index 2.9, IC50 0.5 μM versus 1.2 and 10.6 μM for progesterone), slightly overcoming those of verapamil and cyclosporin A. Several 7α,12α-O-disubstituted derivatives of 5β-cholan-3-one proved even more active, especially the 7α-O-methoxymethyl-12α-benzoate 56 (accumulation index 3.8, IC50 0.2 μM). The panel of modulating effects from different O-substitutions at a same position suggests a structural influence of the substituent completing a simple protection against stimulating effects of hydroxyl groups on P-gp-mediated transport.

  6. Resveratrol and P-glycoprotein Inhibitors Enhance the Anti-skin Cancer Effects of Ursolic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Junco, Jacob J.; Mancha, Anna; Malik, Gunjan; Wei, Sung-Jen; Kim, Dae Joon; Liang, Huiyun; Slaga, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Ursolic acid (UA), present in apples, rosemary, and other sources, is known to inhibit tumor formation and tumor cell viability in multiple systems, including skin. However, various cancers are resistant to UA treatment. Herein, skin carcinoma cells (Ca3/7) as compared to skin papilloma cells (MT1/2) displayed more resistance to UA-induced cytotoxicity. Interestingly, Ca3/7 cells had elevated levels of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-dependent efflux pump that mediates resistance to chemotherapy in pre-clinical and clinical settings, and not only accumulated less but also more rapidly expelled the P-gp substrate Rhodamine 123 (Rh123) indicating UA is transported by P-gp. To determine if P-gp inhibition can enhance UA-mediated cytotoxicity, cells were challenged with P-gp inhibitors verapamil (VRP) or cyclosporin A (CsA). Alternatively, cells were pre-treated with the natural compound resveratrol (RES), a known chemotherapy sensitizer. VRP and RES enhanced the effects of UA in both cell lines, while CsA only did so in Ca3/7 cells. Similarly, VRP inhibited Rh123 efflux in both lines, while CsA only inhibited Rh123 efflux in Ca3/7 cells. RES did not inhibit Rh123 efflux in either line, indicating the synergistic effects of RES and UA are not manifest by inhibition of P-gp-mediated efflux of UA. These results indicate that the anti-skin cancer effects of UA are enhanced with P-gp inhibitors. In addition, RES and UA interact synergistically, but not through inhibition of P-gp. Implications Resveratrol and/or p-glycoprotein inhibitors in combination with ursolic acid are an effective anti-skin cancer regimen. PMID:24072817

  7. P-glycoprotein mediated interaction between (R)-[11C]verapamil and tariquidar at the human blood-brain barrier studied with positron emission tomography, a comparison with rat data

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Martin; Zeitlinger, Markus; Karch, Rudolf; Matzneller, Peter; Stanek, Johann; Jäger, Walter; Böhmdorfer, Michaela; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Mitterhauser, Markus; Bankstahl, Jens P.; Löscher, Wolfgang; Koepp, Matthias; Müller, Markus; Langer, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging we assessed in vivo the interaction between a microdose of (R)-[11C]verapamil, a P-glycoprotein (Pgp) substrate, and escalating doses of the Pgp inhibitor tariquidar (3, 4, 6 and 8 mg/kg) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) of healthy human subjects. We compared the dose-response relationship of tariquidar in humans with data obtained in rats using similar methodology. Tariquidar was equipotent in humans and rats to increase (R)-[11C]verapamil brain uptake, expressed as whole brain volume of distribution (VT), with very similar half-maximum effect concentrations. Both in humans and rats, brain VTs approached plateau levels at tariquidar plasma concentrations >1,000 ng/mL. However, Pgp inhibition in humans only led to 2.7-fold increase in brain VT relative to baseline scans without tariquidar compared to 11.0-fold in rats. The results of this translational study add to the accumulating evidence of marked species-dependent differences in Pgp expression and functionality at the BBB. PMID:22166851

  8. Co-administration strategy to enhance brain accumulation of vandetanib by modulating P-glycoprotein (P-gp/Abcb1) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) mediated efflux with m-TOR inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Minocha, Mukul; Khurana, Varun; Qin, Bin; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2012-09-15

    The objectives of this study were (i) to characterize the interaction of vandetanib with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1) in vitro and in vivo (ii) to study the modulation of P-gp and BCRP mediated efflux of vandetanib with specific transport inhibitors and m-TOR inhibitors, everolimus and temsirolimus. Cellular accumulation and bi-directional transport studies in MDCKII cell monolayers were conducted to delineate the role of efflux transporters on disposition of vandetanib. Brain distribution studies were conducted in male FVB wild-type mice with vandetanib administered intravenously either alone or in the presence of specific inhibitors and m-TOR inhibitors. In vitro studies suggested that vandetanib is a high affinity substrate of Bcrp1 but is not transported by P-gp. Interestingly, in vivo brain distribution studies in FVB wild type mice indicated that vandetanib penetration into the brain is restricted by both Bcrp1 and P-gp mediated active efflux at the blood brain barrier (BBB). Co-administration of elacridar, a dual P-gp/BCRP inhibitor increased the brain to plasma concentration ratio of vandetanib upto 5 fold. Of the two m-TOR pathway inhibitors examined; everolimus showed potent effect on modulating vandetanib brain penetration whereas no significant affect on vandetanib brain uptake was observed following temsirolimus co-administration. This finding could be clinically relevant as everolimus can provide synergistic pharmacological effect in addition to primary role of vandetanib efflux modulation at BBB for the treatment of brain tumors. PMID:22633931

  9. P-glycoprotein is a major determinant of norbuprenorphine brain exposure and antinociception.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sarah M; Campbell, Scott D; Crafford, Amanda; Regina, Karen J; Holtzman, Michael J; Kharasch, Evan D

    2012-10-01

    Norbuprenorphine is a major metabolite of buprenorphine and potent agonist of μ, δ, and κ opioid receptors. Compared with buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine causes minimal antinociception but greater respiratory depression. It is unknown whether the limited antinociception is caused by low efficacy or limited brain exposure. Norbuprenorphine is an in vitro substrate of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Mdr1), but the role of P-glycoprotein in norbuprenorphine transport in vivo is unknown. This investigation tested the hypothesis that limited norbuprenorphine antinociception results from P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux and limited brain access. Human P-glycoprotein-mediated transport in vitro of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and their respective glucuronide conjugates was assessed by using transfected cells. P-glycoprotein-mediated norbuprenorphine transport and consequences in vivo were assessed by using mdr1a(+/+) and mdr1a(-/-) mice. Antinociception was determined by hot-water tail-flick assay, and respiratory effects were determined by unrestrained whole-body plethysmography. Brain and plasma norbuprenorphine and norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide were quantified by mass spectrometry. In vitro, the net P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux ratio for norbuprenorphine was nine, indicating significant efflux. In contrast, the efflux ratio for buprenorphine and the two glucuronide conjugates was unity, indicating absent transport. The norbuprenorphine brain/plasma concentration ratio was significantly greater in mdr1a(-/-) than mdr1a(+/+) mice. The magnitude and duration of norbuprenorphine antinociception were significantly increased in mdr1a(-/-) compared with mdr1a(+/+) mice, whereas the reduction in respiratory rate was similar. Results show that norbuprenorphine is an in vitro and in vivo substrate of P-glycoprotein. P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux influences brain access and antinociceptive, but not the respiratory, effects of norbuprenorphine. PMID:22739506

  10. P-Glycoprotein Is a Major Determinant of Norbuprenorphine Brain Exposure and Antinociception

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sarah M.; Campbell, Scott D.; Crafford, Amanda; Regina, Karen J.; Holtzman, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Norbuprenorphine is a major metabolite of buprenorphine and potent agonist of μ, δ, and κ opioid receptors. Compared with buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine causes minimal antinociception but greater respiratory depression. It is unknown whether the limited antinociception is caused by low efficacy or limited brain exposure. Norbuprenorphine is an in vitro substrate of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Mdr1), but the role of P-glycoprotein in norbuprenorphine transport in vivo is unknown. This investigation tested the hypothesis that limited norbuprenorphine antinociception results from P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux and limited brain access. Human P-glycoprotein-mediated transport in vitro of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and their respective glucuronide conjugates was assessed by using transfected cells. P-glycoprotein-mediated norbuprenorphine transport and consequences in vivo were assessed by using mdr1a(+/+) and mdr1a(−/−) mice. Antinociception was determined by hot-water tail-flick assay, and respiratory effects were determined by unrestrained whole-body plethysmography. Brain and plasma norbuprenorphine and norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide were quantified by mass spectrometry. In vitro, the net P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux ratio for norbuprenorphine was nine, indicating significant efflux. In contrast, the efflux ratio for buprenorphine and the two glucuronide conjugates was unity, indicating absent transport. The norbuprenorphine brain/plasma concentration ratio was significantly greater in mdr1a(−/−) than mdr1a(+/+) mice. The magnitude and duration of norbuprenorphine antinociception were significantly increased in mdr1a(−/−) compared with mdr1a(+/+) mice, whereas the reduction in respiratory rate was similar. Results show that norbuprenorphine is an in vitro and in vivo substrate of P-glycoprotein. P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux influences brain access and antinociceptive, but not the respiratory, effects of norbuprenorphine. PMID

  11. A pilot study to assess the efficacy of tariquidar to inhibit P-glycoprotein at the human blood-brain barrier with (R)–11C-verapamil and PET

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Claudia C; Bauer, Martin; Karch, Rudolf; Feurstein, Thomas; Kopp, Stephan; Chiba, Peter; Kletter, Kurt; Löscher, Wolfgang; Müller, Markus; Zeitlinger, Markus; Langer, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Tariquidar, a potent, nontoxic, third-generation P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, is a possible reversal agent for central nervous system drug resistance. In animal studies, tariquidar has been shown to increase delivery of P-gp substrates into brain by several-fold. The aim of this study was to measure P-gp function at the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) after tariquidar administration using PET and the model P-gp substrate (R)–11C-verapamil. Methods: 5 healthy volunteers underwent paired (R)–11C-verapamil PET scans and arterial blood sampling, before and at 2 h 50 min after i.v. administration of tariquidar (2 mg/kg body weight). Inhibition of P-gp on CD56+ peripheral lymphocytes of each volunteer was determined by means of the rhodamine-123 efflux assay. Tariquidar concentrations in venous plasma were quantified using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results: Tariquidar administration resulted in significant increases (Wilcoxon test for paired samples) in the distribution volume (DV, +24±15%) and influx rate constant (K1, +49±36%) of (R)–11C-verapamil across the BBB (DV=0.65±0.13 and 0.80±0.07, p=0.043, K1=0.034±0.009 and 0.049±0.009, p=0.043, before and after tariquidar, respectively). A strong correlation was observed between change in brain DV after administration of tariquidar and tariquidar exposure in plasma (r=0.90, p=0.037). The mean plasma concentration of tariquidar achieved during the second PET scan (490±166 ng/mL) corresponded to 100% inhibition of P-gp function in peripheral lymphocytes. Conclusion: Tariquidar significantly increased brain penetration of (R)–11C-verapamil-derived activity, due to increased influx. As opposed to peripheral P-gp function, central P-gp inhibition appeared to be far from complete after the administered tariquidar dose. PMID:19910428

  12. P-Glycoprotein Transport of Neurotoxic Pesticides.

    PubMed

    Lacher, Sarah E; Skagen, Kasse; Veit, Joachim; Dalton, Rachel; Woodahl, Erica L

    2015-10-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has been associated with a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Altered transport of neurotoxic pesticides has been proposed in Parkinson's disease, but it is unknown whether these pesticides are P-gp substrates. We used three in vitro transport models, stimulation of ATPase activity, xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity, and inhibition of rhodamine-123 efflux, to evaluate P-gp transport of diazinon, dieldrin, endosulfan, ivermectin, maneb, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)), and rotenone. Diazinon and rotenone stimulated ATPase activity in P-gp-expressing membranes, with Vmax values of 22.4 ± 2.1 and 16.8 ± 1.0 nmol inorganic phosphate/min per mg protein, respectively, and Km values of 9.72 ± 3.91 and 1.62 ± 0.51 µM, respectively, compared with the P-gp substrate verapamil, with a Vmax of 20.8 ± 0.7 nmol inorganic phosphate/min per mg protein and Km of 0.871 ± 0.172 μM. None of the other pesticides stimulated ATPase activity. We observed an increased resistance to MPP(+) and rotenone in LLC-MDR1-WT cells compared with LLC-vector cells, with 15.4- and 2.2-fold increases in EC50 values, respectively. The resistance was reversed in the presence of the P-gp inhibitor verapamil. None of the other pesticides displayed differential cytotoxicity. Ivermectin was the only pesticide to inhibit P-gp transport of rhodamine-123, with an IC50 of 0.249 ± 0.048 μM. Our data demonstrate that dieldrin, endosulfan, and maneb are not P-gp substrates or inhibitors. We identified diazinon, MPP(+), and rotenone as P-gp substrates, although further investigation is needed to understand the role of P-gp transport in their disposition in vivo and associations with Parkinson's disease.

  13. Bypassing P-Glycoprotein Drug Efflux Mechanisms: Possible Applications in Pharmacoresistant Schizophrenia Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hoosain, Famida G.; Choonara, Yahya E.; Tomar, Lomas K.; Kumar, Pradeep; Tyagi, Charu; du Toit, Lisa C.; Pillay, Viness

    2015-01-01

    The efficient noninvasive treatment of neurodegenerative disorders is often constrained by reduced permeation of therapeutic agents into the central nervous system (CNS). A vast majority of bioactive agents do not readily permeate into the brain tissue due to the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the associated P-glycoprotein efflux transporter. The overexpression of the MDR1 P-glycoprotein has been related to the occurrence of multidrug resistance in CNS diseases. Various research outputs have focused on overcoming the P-glycoprotein drug efflux transporter, which mainly involve its inhibition or bypassing mechanisms. Studies into neurodegenerative disorders have shown that the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter plays a vital role in the progression of schizophrenia, with a noted increase in P-glycoprotein function among schizophrenic patients, thereby reducing therapeutic outcomes. In this review, we address the hypothesis that methods employed in overcoming P-glycoprotein in cancer and other disease states at the level of the BBB and intestine may be applied to schizophrenia drug delivery system design to improve clinical efficiency of drug therapies. In addition, the current review explores polymers and drug delivery systems capable of P-gp inhibition and modulation. PMID:26491671

  14. The B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2)-inhibitors, ABT-737 and ABT-263, are substrates for P-glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Vogler, Meike; Dickens, David; Dyer, Martin J.S.; Owen, Andrew; Pirmohamed, Munir; Cohen, Gerald M.

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} The BCL2-inhibitor ABT-263 is a substrate for P-glycoprotein. {yields} Apoptosis is inhibited by P-glycoprotein expression. {yields} Overexpression of P-glycoprotein may contribute to resistance to ABT-263 or ABT-737. -- Abstract: Inhibition of BCL2 proteins is one of the most promising new approaches to targeted cancer therapy resulting in the induction of apoptosis. Amongst the most specific BCL2-inhibitors identified are ABT-737 and ABT-263. However, targeted therapy is often only effective for a limited amount of time because of the occurrence of drug resistance. In this study, the interaction of BCL2-inhibitors with the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein was investigated. Using {sup 3}H labelled ABT-263, we found that cells with high P-glycoprotein activity accumulated less drug. In addition, cells with increased P-glycoprotein expression were more resistant to apoptosis induced by either ABT-737 or ABT-263. Addition of tariquidar or verapamil sensitized the cells to BCL2-inhibitor treatment, resulting in higher apoptosis. Our data suggest that the BCL2-inhibitors ABT-737 and ABT-263 are substrates for P-glycoprotein. Over-expression of P-glycoprotein may be, at least partly, responsible for resistance to these BCL2-inhibitors.

  15. Regulation of P-glycoprotein efflux activity by Z-guggulsterone of Commiphora mukul at the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Bin; Yu, Jing; Xu, Lu-Zhong; Fu, Jun

    2016-04-15

    The present study was to investigate whether Z-guggulsterone had the regulatory effect on the activity and expression of P-glycoprotein in rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (rBMECs) and in rat brain. Inorganic phosphate liberation assay, high performance liquid chromatography, and western blot analysis were performed to assess the P-glycoprotein ATPase activity, the accumulation of NaF and rhodamine 123, and P-glycoprotein and MRP1 expression. The results showed that Z-guggulsterone (0-100 μM) significantly enhanced basal P-glycoprotein ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Tetrandrine (0.1, 0.3, 1 μM) or cyclosporine A (0.1, 0.3, 1 μM) had non-competitively inhibitory manner on Z-guggulsterone-stimulated P-glycoprotein ATPase activity, suggesting that Z-guggulsterone might have unique binding site or regulating site on P-glycoprotein. However, Z-guggulsterone (30, 100 μM) had almost no influence on MRP1 expression in rBMECs. Further results revealed that Z-guggulsterone (50mg/kg) significantly increased the accumulation of rhodamine 123 by down-regulating P-glycoprotein expression in rat brain, as compared with control (P<0.05). Our studies suggested that Z-guggulsterone potentially inhibited the activity and expression of P-glycoprotein in rBMECs and in rat brain.

  16. Regulation of P-glycoprotein efflux activity by Z-guggulsterone of Commiphora mukul at the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Bin; Yu, Jing; Xu, Lu-Zhong; Fu, Jun

    2016-04-15

    The present study was to investigate whether Z-guggulsterone had the regulatory effect on the activity and expression of P-glycoprotein in rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (rBMECs) and in rat brain. Inorganic phosphate liberation assay, high performance liquid chromatography, and western blot analysis were performed to assess the P-glycoprotein ATPase activity, the accumulation of NaF and rhodamine 123, and P-glycoprotein and MRP1 expression. The results showed that Z-guggulsterone (0-100 μM) significantly enhanced basal P-glycoprotein ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Tetrandrine (0.1, 0.3, 1 μM) or cyclosporine A (0.1, 0.3, 1 μM) had non-competitively inhibitory manner on Z-guggulsterone-stimulated P-glycoprotein ATPase activity, suggesting that Z-guggulsterone might have unique binding site or regulating site on P-glycoprotein. However, Z-guggulsterone (30, 100 μM) had almost no influence on MRP1 expression in rBMECs. Further results revealed that Z-guggulsterone (50mg/kg) significantly increased the accumulation of rhodamine 123 by down-regulating P-glycoprotein expression in rat brain, as compared with control (P<0.05). Our studies suggested that Z-guggulsterone potentially inhibited the activity and expression of P-glycoprotein in rBMECs and in rat brain. PMID:27000241

  17. Chemosensitization potential of P-glycoprotein inhibitors in malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Laura M; Kim, Junwon; Moraes, Carolina B; Franco, Caio H; Franzoi, Kathrin D; Lee, Sukjun; Freitas-Junior, Lucio H; Ayong, Lawrence S

    2013-06-01

    Members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-type transporter superfamily have been implicated in multidrug resistance in malaria, and various mechanistic models have been postulated to explain their interaction with diverse antimalarial drugs. To gain insight into the pharmacological benefits of inhibiting ABC-type transporters in malaria chemotherapy, we investigated the in vitro chemosensitization potential of various P-glycoprotein inhibitors. A fluorescent chloroquine derivative was synthesized and used to assess the efflux dynamics of chloroquine in MDR and wild type Plasmodium falciparum parasites. This novel BODIPY-based probe accumulated in the digestive vacuole (DV) of CQ-sensitive parasites but less so in MDR cells. Pre-exposure of the MDR parasites to non-cytocidal concentrations of unlabeled chloroquine resulted in a diffused cytoplasmic retention of the probe whereas a similar treatment with the CQR-reversing agent, chlorpheniramine, resulted in DV accumulation. A diffused cytoplasmic distribution of the probe was also obtained following treatment with the P-gp specific inhibitors zosuquidar and tariquidar, whereas treatments with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib or imatinib produced a partial accumulation within the DV. Isobologram analyses of the interactions between these inhibitors and the antimalarial drugs chloroquine, mefloquine, and artemisinin revealed distinct patterns of drug synergism, additivity and antagonism. Taken together, the data indicate that competitive tyrosine kinase and noncompetitive P-glycoprotein ATPase-specific inhibitors represent two new classes of chemosensitizing agents in malaria parasites, but caution against the indiscriminate use of these agents in antimalarial drug combinations.

  18. Haemonchus contortus P-glycoprotein-2: in situ localisation and characterisation of macrocyclic lactone transport.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Pablo; Lian, Jing; Beech, Robin N; Prichard, Roger K

    2015-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a veterinary nematode that infects small ruminants, causing serious decreases in animal production worldwide. Effective control through anthelmintic treatment has been compromised by the development of resistance to these drugs, including the macrocyclic lactones. The mechanisms of resistance in H. contortus have yet to be established but may involve efflux of the macrocyclic lactones by nematode ATP-binding-cassette transporters such as P-glycoproteins. Here we report the expression and functional activity of H. contortus P-glycoprotein 2 expressed in mammalian cells and characterise its interaction with the macrocyclic lactones, ivermectin, abamectin and moxidectin. The ability of H. contortus P-glycoprotein 2 to transport different fluorophore substrates was markedly inhibited by ivermectin and abamectin in a dose-dependent and saturable way. The profile of transport inhibition by moxidectin was markedly different. H. contortus P-glycoprotein 2 was expressed in the pharynx, the first portion of the worm's intestine and perhaps in adjacent nervous tissue, suggesting a role for this gene in regulating the uptake of avermectins and in protecting nematode tissues from the effects of macrocyclic lactone anthelmintic drugs. H. contortus P-glycoprotein 2 may thus contribute to resistance to these drugs in H. contortus.

  19. Relevance of p-glycoprotein for the enteral absorption of cyclosporin A: in vitro-in vivo correlation.

    PubMed Central

    Fricker, G.; Drewe, J.; Huwyler, J.; Gutmann, H.; Beglinger, C.

    1996-01-01

    1. The interaction of cyclosporin A (CyA) with p-glycoprotein during intestinal uptake was investigated by a combination of in vitro experiments with human Caco-2 cells and an intubation study in healthy volunteers. 2. CyA uptake into the cells was not saturable and exhibited only a low temperature sensitivity, suggesting passive diffusion. When the permeation of CyA across Caco-2 monolayers from the apical to the basolateral side was determined, overall transport had an apparently saturable component up to a concentration of 1 microM. At higher concentrations permeation increased over-proportionally. Calculation of the kinetic parameters of apical to basolateral permeation suggested a diffusional process with a KD of 0.5 microliter min-1 per filter, which was overlayed by an active system in basolateral to apical direction with a KM of 3.8 microM and a Jmax of 6.5 picomol min-1 per filter. 3. CyA permeation was significantly higher when the drug was given from the basolateral side as compared to the permeation from the apical side. Apical to basolateral transport of CyA was increased in the presence of vinblastine, daunomycin and a non-immunosuppressive CyA-derivative. All compounds inhibit p-glycoprotein-mediated transport processes. Basolateral to apical permeation of CyA showed a dose-dependent decrease in the presence of vinblastine. Permeation of daunomycin across Caco-2 cell monolayers was also higher from the basolateral to the apical side than vice versa. Basolateral to apical permeation was decreased in the presence of SDZ PSC 833 and cyclosporin A. 4. Western blot analysis of Caco-2 cells with the monoclonal antibody C219 confirmed the presence of p-glycoprotein in the used cell system. 5. When the absorption of CyA in the gastrointestinal (GI)-tract of healthy volunteers was determined, a remarkable decrease of the plasma AUC could be observed dependent on the location of absorption in the rank order stomach > jejunum/ileum > colon. The decrease in

  20. Stereoselective Modulation of P-Glycoprotein by Chiral Small Molecules.

    PubMed

    Carocci, Alessia; Catalano, Alessia; Turi, Francesco; Lovece, Angelo; Cavalluzzi, Maria M; Bruno, Claudio; Colabufo, Nicola A; Contino, Marialessandra; Perrone, Maria G; Franchini, Carlo; Lentini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of drug efflux pumps such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an approach toward combating multidrug resistance, which is a significant hurdle in current cancer treatments. To address this, N-substituted aryloxymethyl pyrrolidines were designed and synthesized in their homochiral forms in order to investigate the stereochemical requirements for the binding site of P-gp. Our study provides evidence that the chiral property of molecules could be a strategy for improving the capacity for interacting with P-gp, as the most active compounds of the series stereoselectively modulated this efflux pump. The naphthalene-1-yl analogue (R)-2-[(2,3-dichlorophenoxy)methyl]-1-(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)pyrrolidine) [(R)-7 a] emerged foremost for its potency and stereoselectivity toward P-gp, with the S enantiomer being nearly inactive. The modulation of P-gp by (R)-7 a involved consumption of ATP, thus demonstrating that the compound behaves as a P-gp substrate.

  1. P-glycoprotein alters blood–brain barrier penetration of antiepileptic drugs in rats with medically intractable epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Aimei; Wang, Cuicui; Chen, Yinghui; Yuan, Weien

    2013-01-01

    P-glycoprotein is one of the earliest known multidrug transporters and plays an important role in resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. In this study, we detected levels of P-glycoprotein and its mRNA expression in a rat brain model of medically intractable epilepsy established by amygdala kindling and drug selection. We investigated whether inhibition of P-glycoprotein affects the concentration of antiepileptic drugs in cortical extracellular fluid. We found that levels of P-glycoprotein and its mRNA expression were upregulated in epileptic cerebral tissue compared with cerebral tissue from normal rats. The concentrations of two antiepileptic drugs, carbamazepine and phenytoin, were very low in the cortical extracellular fluid of rats with medically intractable epilepsy, and were restored after blockade of P-glycoprotein by verapamil. These results show that increased P-glycoprotein levels alter the ability of carbamazepine and phenytoin to penetrate the blood–brain barrier and reduce the concentrations of these agents in extracellular cortical fluid. High P-glycoprotein levels may be involved in resistance to antiepileptic drugs in medically intractable epilepsy. PMID:24348021

  2. Inhibitory effects of neochamaejasmin B on P-glycoprotein in MDCK-hMDR1 cells and molecular docking of NCB binding in P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lanying; Hu, Haihong; Wang, Xiangjun; Yu, Lushan; Jiang, Huidi; Chen, Jianzhong; Lou, Yan; Zeng, Su

    2015-01-01

    Stellera chamaejasme L. (Thymelaeaceae) is widely distributed in Mongolia, Tibet and the northern parts of China. Its roots are commonly used as "Langdu", which is embodied in the Pharmacopoeia of the P.R. China (2010) as a toxic Traditional Chinese Medicine. It is claimed to have antivirus, antitumor and antibacterial properties in China and other Asian countries. Studies were carried out to characterize the inhibition of neochamaejasmin B (NCB) on P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1, MDR1). Rhodamine-123 (R-123) transport and accumulation studies were performed in MDCK-hMDR1 cells. ABCB1 (MDR1) mRNA gene expression and P-gp protein expression were analyzed. Binding selectivity studies based on molecular docking were explored. R-123 transport and accumulation studies in MDCK-hMDR1 cells indicated that NCB inhibited the P-gp-mediated efflux in a concentration-dependent manner. RT-PCR and Western blot demonstrated that the P-gp expression was suppressed by NCB. To investigate the inhibition type of NCB on P-gp, Ki and Ki' values were determined by double-reciprocal plots in R-123 accumulation studies. Since Ki was greater than Ki', the inhibition of NCB on P-gp was likely a mixed type of competitive and non-competitive inhibition. The results were confirmed by molecular docking in our current work. The docking data indicated that NCB had higher affinity to P-gp than to Lig1 ((S)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)chroman-4-one).

  3. Homology modelling of human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Domicevica, Laura; Biggin, Philip C

    2015-10-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-binding cassette transporter that exports a huge range of compounds out of cells and is thus one of the key proteins in conferring multi-drug resistance in cancer. Understanding how it achieves such a broad specificity and the series of conformational changes that allow export to occur form major, on-going, research objectives around the world. Much of our knowledge to date has been derived from mutagenesis and assay data. However, in recent years, there has also been great progress in structural biology and although the structure of human P-gp has not yet been solved, there are now a handful of related structures on which homology models can be built to aid in the interpretation of the vast amount of experimental data that currently exists. Many models for P-gp have been built with this aim, but the situation is complicated by the apparent flexibility of the system and by the fact that although many potential templates exist, there is large variation in the conformational state in which they have been crystallized. In this review, we summarize how homology modelling has been used in the past, how models are typically selected and finally illustrate how MD simulations can be used as a means to give more confidence about models that have been generated via this approach.

  4. Bifendate-chalcone hybrids: a new class of potential dual inhibitors of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaoke; Ren, Zhiguang; Peng, Hui; Peng, Sixun; Zhang, Yihua

    2014-12-12

    We previously described bifendate-chalcone hybrids as potent P-glycoprotein inhibitors. In the present work, we determine whether these compounds could reverse breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2)-mediated multidrug resistance using HEK293/BCRP cells which was BCRP-transfected stable HEK293 cells. Results indicated that compounds 8d, 8f, 8g and 8h could significantly enhance mitoxantrone accumulation in HEK293/BCRP cells via inhibiting BCRP drug efflux function. The most active compound 8g exhibited little intrinsic cytotoxicity (IC₅₀>100 μM), and could reverse BCRP-mediated drug resistance independent of decreasing BCRP expression level. Notably, 8g had little inhibitory effect on multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1), another drug efflux transporter. The present findings, together with the previous results, suggest that 8g might be act as dual inhibitors of P-gp and BCRP.

  5. Evaluation of P-Glycoprotein Inhibitory Potential Using a Rhodamine 123 Accumulation Assay

    PubMed Central

    Jouan, Elodie; Le Vée, Marc; Mayati, Abdullah; Denizot, Claire; Parmentier, Yannick; Fardel, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    In vitro evaluation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitory potential is now a regulatory issue during drug development, in order to predict clinical inhibition of P-gp and subsequent drug–drug interactions. Assays for this purpose, commonly based on P-gp-expressing cell lines and digoxin as a reference P-gp substrate probe, unfortunately exhibit high variability, raising thus the question of developing alternative or complementary tests for measuring inhibition of P-gp activity. In this context, the present study was designed to investigate the use of the fluorescent dye rhodamine 123 as a reference P-gp substrate probe for characterizing P-gp inhibitory potential of 16 structurally-unrelated drugs known to interact with P-gp. 14/16 of these P-gp inhibitors were found to increase rhodamine 123 accumulation in P-gp-overexpressing MCF7R cells, thus allowing the determination of their P-gp inhibitory potential, i.e., their half maximal inhibitor concentration (IC50) value towards P-gp-mediated transport of the dye. These IC50 values were in the range of variability of previously reported IC50 for P-gp and can be used for the prediction of clinical P-gp inhibition according to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) criteria, with notable sensitivity (80%). Therefore, the data demonstrated the feasibility of the use of rhodamine 123 for evaluating the P-gp inhibitory potential of drugs. PMID:27077878

  6. Evaluation of P-Glycoprotein Inhibitory Potential Using a Rhodamine 123 Accumulation Assay.

    PubMed

    Jouan, Elodie; Le Vée, Marc; Mayati, Abdullah; Denizot, Claire; Parmentier, Yannick; Fardel, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    In vitro evaluation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitory potential is now a regulatory issue during drug development, in order to predict clinical inhibition of P-gp and subsequent drug-drug interactions. Assays for this purpose, commonly based on P-gp-expressing cell lines and digoxin as a reference P-gp substrate probe, unfortunately exhibit high variability, raising thus the question of developing alternative or complementary tests for measuring inhibition of P-gp activity. In this context, the present study was designed to investigate the use of the fluorescent dye rhodamine 123 as a reference P-gp substrate probe for characterizing P-gp inhibitory potential of 16 structurally-unrelated drugs known to interact with P-gp. 14/16 of these P-gp inhibitors were found to increase rhodamine 123 accumulation in P-gp-overexpressing MCF7R cells, thus allowing the determination of their P-gp inhibitory potential, i.e., their half maximal inhibitor concentration (IC50) value towards P-gp-mediated transport of the dye. These IC50 values were in the range of variability of previously reported IC50 for P-gp and can be used for the prediction of clinical P-gp inhibition according to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) criteria, with notable sensitivity (80%). Therefore, the data demonstrated the feasibility of the use of rhodamine 123 for evaluating the P-gp inhibitory potential of drugs. PMID:27077878

  7. P-glycoprotein activity and biological response

    SciTech Connect

    Vaalburg, W. . E-mail: w.vaalburg@pet.umcg.nl; Hendrikse, N.H.; Elsinga, P.H.; Bart, J.; Waarde, A. van

    2005-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a transmembrane drug efflux pump encoded by the MDR-1 gene in humans. Most likely P-gp protects organs against endogenous and exogenous toxins by extruding toxic compounds such as chemotherapeutics and other drugs. Many drugs are substrates for P-gp. Since P-gp is also expressed in the blood-brain barrier, P-gp substrates reach lower concentrations in the brain than in P-gp-negative tissues. Failure of response to chemotherapy of malignancies can be due to intrinsic or acquired drug resistance. Many tumors are multidrug resistant (MDR); resistant to several structurally unrelated chemotherapeutic agents. Several mechanisms are involved in MDR of which P-gp is studied most extensively. P-gp extrudes drugs out of tumor cells resulting in decreased intracellular drug concentrations, leading to the MDR phenotype. Furthermore, the MDR-1 gene exhibits several single nucleotide polymorphisms, some of which result in different transport capabilities. P-gp functionality and the effect of P-gp modulation on the pharmacokinetics of novel and established drugs can be studied in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET) using carbon-11 and fluorine-18-labeled P-gp substrates and modulators. PET may demonstrate the consequences of genetic differences on tissue pharmacokinetics. Inhibitors such as calcium-channel blockers (verapamil), cyclosporin A, ONT-093, and XR9576 can modulate the P-gp functionality. With PET the effect of P-gp modulation on the bioavailability of drugs can be investigated in humans in vivo. PET also allows the measurement of the efficacy of newly developed P-gp modulators.

  8. A novel PET imaging protocol identifies seizure-induced regional overactivity of P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Bankstahl, Jens P.; Bankstahl, Marion; Kuntner, Claudia; Stanek, Johann; Wanek, Thomas; Meier, Martin; Ding, Xiao-Qi; Müller, Markus; Langer, Oliver; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    About one third of epilepsy patients are pharmacoresistant. Overexpression of P-glycoprotein and other multidrug transporters at the blood-brain barrier is thought to play an important role in drug-refractory epilepsy. Thus, quantification of regionally different P-glycoprotein activity in the brain in vivo is essential to identify P-glycoprotein overactivity as the relevant mechanism for drug-resistance in an individual patient. Using the radiolabeled P-glycoprotein substrate (R)-[11C]verapamil and different doses of co-administered tariquidar, which is an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein, we evaluated whether small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) can quantify regional changes in transporter function in the rat brain at baseline and 48 h after a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. P-glycoprotein expression was additionally quantified by immunohistochemistry. To reveal putative seizure-induced changes in blood-brain barrier integrity, we performed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance scans on a 7.0 Tesla small-animal scanner. Before P-glycoprotein modulation, brain uptake of (R)-[11C]verapamil was low in all regions investigated in control and post-status epilepticus rats. After administration of 3 mg/kg tariquidar, which inhibits P-glycoprotein only partially, we observed increased regional differentiation in brain activity uptake in post-status epilepticus versus control rats, which diminished after maximal P-glycoprotein inhibition. Regional increases in the efflux rate constant k2, but not in distribution volume VT or influx rate constant K1, correlated significantly with increases in P-glycoprotein expression measured by immunohistochemistry. This imaging protocol proves to be suitable to detect seizure-induced regional changes in P-glycoprotein activity and is readily applicable to humans, with the aim to detect relevant mechanisms of pharmacoresistance in epilepsy in vivo. PMID:21677164

  9. Allosteric modulation of the human P-glycoprotein involves conformational changes mimicking catalytic transition intermediates.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pratiti; Moitra, Karobi; Maki, Nazli; Dey, Saibal

    2006-06-01

    The drug transport function of human P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1) can be inhibited by a number of pharmacological agents collectively referred to as modulators or reversing agents. In this study, we demonstrate that certain thioxanthene-based Pgp modulators with an allosteric mode of action induce a distinct conformational change in the cytosolic domain of Pgp, which alters susceptibility to proteolytic digestion. Both cis and trans-isomers of the Pgp modulator flupentixol confer considerable protection of an 80 kDa Pgp fragment against trypsin digestion, that is recognized by a polyclonal antibody specific for the NH(2)-terminal half to Pgp. The protection by flupentixol is abolished in the Pgp F983A mutant that is impaired in modulation by flupentixols, indicating involvement of the allosteric site in generating the conformational change. A similar protection to an 80 kDa fragment is conferred by ATP, its nonhydrolyzable analog ATPgammaS, and by trapping of ADP-vanadate at the catalytic domain, but not by transport substrate vinblastine or by the competitive modulator cyclosporin A, suggesting different outcomes from modulator interaction at the allosteric site and at the substrate site. In summary, we demonstrate that allosteric interaction of flupentixols with Pgp generates conformational changes that mimic catalytic transition intermediates induced by nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, which may play a crucial role in allosteric inhibition of Pgp-mediated drug transport.

  10. P-glycoprotein regulates trafficking of CD8(+) T cells to the brain parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Kooij, Gijs; Kroon, Jeffrey; Paul, Debayon; Reijerkerk, Arie; Geerts, Dirk; van der Pol, Susanne M A; van Het Hof, Bert; Drexhage, Joost A; van Vliet, Sandra J; Hekking, Liesbeth H P; van Buul, Jaap D; Pachter, Joel S; de Vries, Helga E

    2014-05-01

    The trafficking of cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes across the lining of the cerebral vasculature is key to the onset of the chronic neuro-inflammatory disorder multiple sclerosis. However, the mechanisms controlling their final transmigration across the brain endothelium remain unknown. Here, we describe that CD8(+) T lymphocyte trafficking into the brain is dependent on the activity of the brain endothelial adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter P-glycoprotein. Silencing P-glycoprotein activity selectively reduced the trafficking of CD8(+) T cells across the brain endothelium in vitro as well as in vivo. In response to formation of the T cell-endothelial synapse, P-glycoprotein was found to regulate secretion of endothelial (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), a chemokine that mediates CD8(+) T cell migration in vitro. Notably, CCL2 levels were significantly enhanced in microvessels isolated from human multiple sclerosis lesions in comparison with non-neurological controls. Endothelial cell-specific elimination of CCL2 in mice subjected to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis also significantly diminished the accumulation of CD8(+) T cells compared to wild-type animals. Collectively, these results highlight a novel (patho)physiological role for P-glycoprotein in CD8(+) T cell trafficking into the central nervous system during neuro-inflammation and illustrate CCL2 secretion as a potential link in this mechanism.

  11. Re-evaluation of the role of P-glycoprotein in in vitro drug permeability studies with the bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, Jenni J; Rilla, Kirsi; Suhonen, Marjukka; Ruponen, Marika; Forsberg, Markus M

    2014-03-01

    1.  Currently available in vitro blood-brain barrier models all have recognized restrictions. In addition to leakiness, inconsistent data about P-glycoprotein mediated efflux limit the attractiveness of the primary bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells (BBMECs). Therefore, we re-evaluated the role of P-glycoprotein mediated efflux with two culture conditions in BBMECs for prediction of drug permeability of potential P-glycoprotein substrates. 2.  BBMECs were monocultured on filters on petri dishes and on filter inserts, and expression and localization of P-glycoprotein were compared by using western blot and confocal microscopy, respectively. The functionality of P-glycoprotein was assessed by using cellular uptake, calcein-AM and bidirectional transport assays. 3.  P-glycoprotein expression was higher in BBMECs cultured on filter inserts decreasing the permeability of digoxin and paclitaxel, but not the permeability of vinblastine. However, the monocultured BBMECs were not able to demonstrate efflux in the bidirectional transport assays. Under certain culture conditions, occludin may not be correctly located, perhaps explaining in part the leakiness of BBMECs. 4.  In conclusion, BBMECs, despite possessing a functional P-glycoprotein, under certain culture conditions may not be a suitable in vitro model for the bidirectional transport assays and for predicting the permeability of drugs and xenobiotics that are potential P-glycoprotein substrates.

  12. Advances in plant-based inhibitors of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Zhou, Peng; Asenso, James; Yang, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Chun; Wei, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) has emerged as the main problem in anti-cancer therapy. Although MDR involves complex factors and processes, the main pivot is the expression of multidrug efflux pumps. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) belongs to the family of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. It functions in cellular detoxification, pumping a wide range of xenobiotic compounds out of the cell. An attractive therapeutic strategy for overcoming MDR is to inhibit the transport function of P-gp and thus, increase intracellular concentration of drugs. Recently, various types of P-gp inhibitors have been found and used in experiments. However, none of them has passed clinical trials due to their high side-effects. Hence, the search for alternatives, such as plant-based P-gp inhibitors have gained attention recently. Therefore, we give an overview of the source, function, structure and mechanism of plant-based P-gp inhibitors and give more attention to cancer-related studies. These products could be the future potential drug candidates for further research as P-gp inhibitors.

  13. Kinetic Validation of the Models for P-Glycoprotein ATP Hydrolysis and Vanadate-Induced Trapping. Proposal for Additional Steps

    PubMed Central

    Lugo, Miguel Ramón; Sharom, Frances Jane

    2014-01-01

    P-Glycoprotein, a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily, is a multidrug transporter responsible for cellular efflux of hundreds of structurally unrelated compounds, including natural products, many clinically used drugs and anti-cancer agents. Expression of P-glycoprotein has been linked to multidrug resistance in human cancers. ABC transporters are driven by ATP hydrolysis at their two cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding domains, which interact to form a closed ATP-bound sandwich dimer. Intimate knowledge of the catalytic cycle of these proteins is clearly essential for understanding their mechanism of action. P-Glycoprotein has been proposed to hydrolyse ATP by an alternating mechanism, for which there is substantial experimental evidence, including inhibition of catalytic activity by trapping of ortho-vanadate at one nucleotide-binding domain, and the observation of an asymmetric occluded state. Despite many studies of P-glycoprotein ATPase activity over the past 20 years, no comprehensive kinetic analysis has yet been carried out, and some puzzling features of its behaviour remain unexplained. In this work, we have built several progressively more complex kinetic models, and then carried out simulations and detailed analysis, to test the validity of the proposed reaction pathway employed by P-glycoprotein for ATP hydrolysis. To establish kinetic parameters for the catalytic cycle, we made use of the large amount of published data on ATP hydrolysis by hamster P-glycoprotein, both purified and in membrane vesicles. The proposed kinetic scheme(s) include a high affinity priming reaction for binding of the first ATP molecule, and an independent pathway for ADP binding outside the main catalytic cycle. They can reproduce to varying degrees the observed behavior of the protein's ATPase activity and its inhibition by ortho-vanadate. The results provide new insights into the mode of action of P-glycoprotein, and some hypotheses about the nature of the

  14. Comparison of steroid substrates and inhibitors of P-glycoprotein by 3D-QSAR analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Yong-Hua; Yang, Ling; Zhang, Shu-Wei; Liu, Chang-Hou; Yang, Sheng-Li

    2005-01-01

    Steroid derivatives show a complex interaction with P-glycoprotein (Pgp). To determine the essential structural requirements of a series of structurally related and functionally diverse steroids for Pgp-mediated transport or inhibition, a three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship study was performed by comparative similarity index analysis modeling. Twelve models have been explored to well correlate the physiochemical features with their biological functions with Pgp on basis of substrate and inhibitor datasets, in which the best predictive model for substrate gave cross-validated q2=0.720, non-cross-validated r2=0.998, standard error of estimate SEE=0.012, F=257.955, and the best predictive model for inhibitor gave q2=0.536, r2=0.950, SEE=1.761 and F=45.800. The predictive ability of all models was validated by a set of compounds that were not included in the training set. The physiochemical similarities and differences of steroids as Pgp substrate and inhibitor, respectively, were analyzed to be helpful in developing new steroid-like compounds.

  15. Effects of natural nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitors on anticancer drug efflux transporter human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Nabekura, Tomohiro; Hiroi, Takashi; Kawasaki, Tatsuya; Uwai, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    Drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein plays an important role in cancer chemotherapy. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factors play critical roles in development and progression of cancer. In this study, the effects of natural compounds that can inhibit NF-κB activation on the function of P-glycoprotein were investigated using human MDR1 gene-transfected KB/MDR1 cells. The accumulation of daunorubicin or rhodamine 123, fluorescent substrates of P-glycoprotein, in KB/MDR1 cells increased in the presence of caffeic acid phenetyl ester (CAPE), licochalcone A, anacardic acid, celastrol, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, lupeol, zerumbone, thymoquinone, emodin, and anethol had no effects. The ATPase activities of P-glycoprotein were stimulated by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, celastrol, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulated NF-κB activation was inhibited by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, and xanthohumol. KB/MDR1 cells were sensitized to vinblastine cytotoxicity by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol, showing that these natural NF-κB inhibitors reverse multidrug resistance. These results suggest that natural compounds, such as CAPE, licochalcone A, and anacardic acid, have dual inhibitory effects on the anticancer drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein and NF-κB activation, and may become useful to enhance the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy.

  16. The isolation of minor-occurring furanocoumarins in grapefruit and analysis of their inhibition of cyp 3a4 and p-glycoprotein transport of talinolol from caco-2 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of grapefruit juice on the disposition of certain prescription drugs in humans have been mainly attributed to the inhibition of intestinal cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP 3A4) by linear furanocoumarins. A number of the main furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice have been identified and analyzed ...

  17. 3-(Benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-ylamino)-N-(4-fluorophenyl)thiophene-2-carboxamide overcomes cancer chemoresistance via inhibition of angiogenesis and P-glycoprotein efflux pump activity.

    PubMed

    Mudududdla, Ramesh; Guru, Santosh K; Wani, Abubakar; Sharma, Sadhana; Joshi, Prashant; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Kumar, Ajay; Bhushan, Shashi; Bharate, Sandip B

    2015-04-14

    3-((Quinolin-4-yl)methylamino)-N-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)thiophene-2-carboxamide (OSI-930, 1) is a potent inhibitor of c-kit and VEGFR2, currently under phase I clinical trials in patients with advanced solid tumors. In order to understand the structure-activity relationship, a series of 3-arylamino N-aryl thiophene 2-carboxamides were synthesized by modifications at both quinoline and amide domains of the OSI-930 scaffold. All the synthesized compounds were screened for in vitro cytotoxicity in a panel of cancer cell lines and for VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 inhibition. Thiophene 2-carboxamides substituted with benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl and 2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxin-6-yl groups 1l and 1m displayed inhibition of VEGFR1 with IC50 values of 2.5 and 1.9 μM, respectively. Compounds 1l and 1m also inhibited the VEGF-induced HUVEC cell migration, indicating its anti-angiogenic activity. OSI-930 along with compounds 1l and 1m showed inhibition of P-gp efflux pumps (MDR1, ABCB1) with EC50 values in the range of 35-74 μM. The combination of these compounds with doxorubicin led to significant enhancement of the anticancer activity of doxorubicin in human colorectal carcinoma LS180 cells, which was evident from the improved IC50 of doxorubicin, the increased activity of caspase-3 and the significant reduction in colony formation ability of LS180 cells after treatment with doxorubicin. Compound 1l showed a 13.8-fold improvement in the IC50 of doxorubicin in LS180 cells. The ability of these compounds to display dual inhibition of VEGFR and P-gp efflux pumps demonstrates the promise of this scaffold for its development as multi-drug resistance-reversal agents.

  18. Evaluation of genipin on human cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and P-glycoprotein in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li-Na; Zhang, Ye; Cui, Yuan-Lu; Yan, Kuo

    2014-10-01

    Genipin is obtained from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis and acts as an herbal medicine or functional food in East Asia. In addition to produce natural colorant, it possesses widely antiinflammatory, antithrombotic, antidepressive and anticarcinogenic activities. However, little research focuses on the potential of genipin for drug-drug interactions. In this study, effects of genipin on mRNA and protein expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 were detected by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively, in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Enzyme activities of which were detected by luminogenic CYP assay in vitro. Moreover, effect of genipin on P-glycoprotein expression was analyzed by Western blot. Results showed that genipin possessed a significant induction on CYP2D6 and a remarkable inhibition on CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 not only from the expression of mRNA and protein (P<0.05 or P<0.01), but the level of enzyme activity. Moreover, a concentration-dependent induction of genipin on P-glycoprotein expression was observed. In conclusion, caution should be exercised with respect to the induction or inhibition of genipin on CYP isoenzymes and the strong induction on P-glycoprotein. PMID:25073096

  19. Multiple Drug Transport Pathways through Human P-Glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    McCormick, James W; Vogel, Pia D; Wise, John G

    2015-07-21

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) is a plasma membrane efflux pump that is commonly associated with therapy resistances in cancers and infectious diseases. P-gp can lower the intracellular concentrations of many drugs to subtherapeutic levels by translocating them out of the cell. Because of the broad range of substrates transported by P-gp, overexpression of P-gp causes multidrug resistance. We reported previously on dynamic transitions of P-gp as it moved through conformations based on crystal structures of homologous ABCB1 proteins using in silico targeted molecular dynamics techniques. We expanded these studies here by docking transport substrates to drug binding sites of P-gp in conformations open to the cytoplasm, followed by cycling the pump through conformations that opened to the extracellular space. We observed reproducible transport of two substrates, daunorubicin and verapamil, by an average of 11-12 Å through the plane of the membrane as P-gp progressed through a catalytic cycle. Methylpyrophosphate, a ligand that should not be transported by P-gp, did not show this movement through P-gp. Drug binding to either of two subsites on P-gp appeared to determine the initial pathway used for drug movement through the membrane. The specific side-chain interactions with drugs within each pathway seemed to be, at least in part, stochastic. The docking and transport properties of a P-gp inhibitor, tariquidar, were also studied. A mechanism of inhibition by tariquidar that involves stabilization of an outward open conformation with tariquidar bound in intracellular loops or at the drug binding domain of P-gp is presented.

  20. P-glycoprotein activity in the blood-brain barrier is affected by virus-induced neuroinflammation and antipsychotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Doorduin, Janine; de Vries, Erik F J; Dierckx, Rudi A; Klein, Hans C

    2014-10-01

    A large percentage of schizophrenic patients respond poorly to antipsychotic treatment. This could be explained by inefficient drug transport across the blood-brain barrier due to P-glycoprotein mediated efflux. P-glycoprotein activity and expression in the blood-brain barrier can be affected by inflammation and pharmacotherapy. We therefore investigated the effect of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) induced neuroinflammation and antipsychotic treatment on P-glycoprotein activity. Rats were inoculated with HSV-1 or PBS (control) on day 0 and treated with saline, clozapine or risperidone from day 0 up until day 4 post-inoculation. Positron emission tomography with the P-glycoprotein substrate [11C]verapamil was used to assess P-glycoprotein activity at day 6 post-inoculation. Disease symptoms in HSV-1 inoculated rats increased over time and were not significantly affected by treatment. The volume of distribution (VT) of [11C]verapamil was significantly lower (10-22%) in HSV-1 inoculated rats than in control rats. In addition, antipsychotic treatment significantly affected the VT of [11C]verapamil in all brain regions, although this effect was drug dependent. In fact, VT of [11C]verapamil was significantly increased (22-39%) in risperidone treated rats in most brain regions when compared to clozapine treated rats and in midbrain when compared to saline treated rats. No interaction between HSV-1 inoculation and antipsychotic treatment on VT of [11C]verapamil was found. In this study we demonstrated that HSV-1 induced neuroinflammation increased and risperidone treatment decreased P-glycoprotein activity. This finding is of importance for the understanding of treatment resistance in schizophrenia, and warrants further investigation of the underlying mechanism and the importance in clinical practice.

  1. Computational classification models for predicting the interaction of drugs with P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein.

    PubMed

    Erić, S; Kalinić, M; Ilić, K; Zloh, M

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) are two members of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette (ABC) family of transporters which function as membrane efflux transporters and display considerable substrate promiscuity. Both are known to significantly influence the absorption, distribution and elimination of drugs, mediate drug-drug interactions and contribute to multiple drug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells. Correspondingly, timely characterization of the interaction of novel leads and drug candidates with these two transporters is of great importance. In this study, several computational classification models for prediction of transport and inhibition of P-gp and BCRP, respectively, were developed based on newly compiled and critically evaluated experimental data. Artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) ensemble based models were explored, as well as knowledge-based approaches to descriptor selection. The average overall classification accuracy of best performing models was 82% for P-gp transport, 88% for BCRP transport, 89% for P-gp inhibition and 87% for BCRP inhibition, determined across an array of different test sets. An analysis of substrate overlap between P-gp and BCRP was also performed. The accuracy, simplicity and interpretability of the proposed models suggest that they could be of significant utility in the drug discovery and development settings.

  2. In vitro and in vivo P-glycoprotein transport characteristics of rivaroxaban.

    PubMed

    Gnoth, Mark Jean; Buetehorn, Ulf; Muenster, Uwe; Schwarz, Thomas; Sandmann, Steffen

    2011-07-01

    Rivaroxaban, an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor, has a dual mode of elimination in humans, with two-thirds metabolized by the liver and one-third renally excreted unchanged. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is known to be involved in the absorption, distribution, and excretion of drugs. To investigate whether rivaroxaban is a substrate of P-gp, the bidirectional flux of rivaroxaban across Caco-2, wild-type, and P-gp-overexpressing LLC-PK1 cells was investigated. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of rivaroxaban toward P-gp was determined. Rivaroxaban exhibited high permeability and polarized transport across Caco-2 cells. Rivaroxaban was shown to be a substrate for, but not an inhibitor of, P-gp. Of a set of potential P-gp inhibitors, ketoconazole and ritonavir, but not clarithromycin or erythromycin, inhibited P-gp-mediated transport of rivaroxaban, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values in the range of therapeutic plasma concentrations. These findings are in line with observed area under the plasma concentration-time curve increases in clinical drug-drug interaction studies indicating a possible involvement of P-gp in the distribution and excretion of rivaroxaban. In vivo studies in wild-type and P-gp double-knockout mice demonstrated that the impact of P-gp alone on the pharmacokinetics of rivaroxaban is minor. However, in P-gp double-knockout mice, a slight increase in brain concentrations and decreased excretion into the gastrointestinal tract were observed compared with wild-type mice. These studies also demonstrated that brain penetration of rivaroxaban is fairly low. In addition to P-gp, a further transport protein might be involved in the secretion of rivaroxaban.

  3. Liposomes Coloaded with Elacridar and Tariquidar To Modulate the P-Glycoprotein at the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    PubMed

    Nieto Montesinos, Rita; Béduneau, Arnaud; Lamprecht, Alf; Pellequer, Yann

    2015-11-01

    This study prepared three liposomal formulations coloaded with elacridar and tariquidar to overcome the P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux at the blood-brain barrier. Their pharmacokinetics, brain distribution, and impact on the model P-glycoprotein substrate, loperamide, were compared to those for the coadministration of free elacridar plus free tariquidar. After intravenous administration in rats, elacridar and tariquidar in conventional liposomes were rapidly cleared from the bloodstream. Their low levels in the brain did not improve the loperamide brain distribution. Although elacridar and tariquidar in PEGylated liposomes exhibited 2.6 and 1.9 longer half-lives than free elacridar and free tariquidar, respectively, neither their Kp for the brain nor the loperamide brain distribution was improved. However, the conjugation of OX26 F(ab')2 fragments to PEGylated liposomes increased the Kps for the brain of elacridar and tariquidar by 1.4- and 2.1-fold, respectively, in comparison to both free P-gp modulators. Consequently, the Kp for the brain of loperamide increased by 2.7-fold. Moreover, the plasma pharmacokinetic parameters and liver distribution of loperamide were not modified by the PEGylated OX26 F(ab')2 immunoliposomes. Thus, this formulation represents a promising tool for modulating the P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux at the blood-brain barrier and could improve the brain uptake of any P-glycoprotein substrate that is intended to treat central nervous system diseases.

  4. MMP2-Sensitive PEG-Lipid Copolymers: A New Type of Tumor-Targeted P-Glycoprotein Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhi; Yao, Qing; Zhu, Lin

    2016-05-25

    Low tumor targetability and multidrug resistance (MDR) are two major impediments to the success of cancer treatments. Nanomaterials which possess high tumor targetability and the ability to reverse the MDR are rare. This report describes a new type of self-assembling polyethylene glycol-phosphoethanolamine-based copolymers (PEG-pp-PE) which showed both the matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2)-sensitive tumor-targeted drug delivery and ability to inhibit the P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated drug efflux. In this study, we synthesized a series of the homologous analogues of PEG-pp-PE copolymers and investigated the influence of their structures, including PEG lengths and peptide linkers, on the drug efflux, and identified the underlying mechanisms. We found that the whole structure (PEG-peptide-lipid) rather than any parts of the copolymers was key for the P-gp inhibition and a delicate balance between the hydrophilic and lipophilic segments of the PEG-pp-PE copolymers was needed for better modulating the P-gp-mediated drug efflux. The best copolymer, PEG2k-pp-PE, showed even higher P-gp inhibition effect than the d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS1k). We also found that the P-gp inhibition capability of PEG-pp-PE copolymers was highly associated with the P-gp down-regulation, the increase in the plasma membrane fluidity, and the inhibition of the P-gp ATPase activity. Besides, the excellent physicochemical properties, high drug loading, MMP2-dependent drug release, and improved drug efficacy in the MDR cancer cells suggested that the PEG-pp-PE copolymers might have great potential for building tumor-targeted drug delivery systems for treating drug-resistant cancers.

  5. MMP2-Sensitive PEG-Lipid Copolymers: A New Type of Tumor-Targeted P-Glycoprotein Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhi; Yao, Qing; Zhu, Lin

    2016-05-25

    Low tumor targetability and multidrug resistance (MDR) are two major impediments to the success of cancer treatments. Nanomaterials which possess high tumor targetability and the ability to reverse the MDR are rare. This report describes a new type of self-assembling polyethylene glycol-phosphoethanolamine-based copolymers (PEG-pp-PE) which showed both the matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2)-sensitive tumor-targeted drug delivery and ability to inhibit the P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated drug efflux. In this study, we synthesized a series of the homologous analogues of PEG-pp-PE copolymers and investigated the influence of their structures, including PEG lengths and peptide linkers, on the drug efflux, and identified the underlying mechanisms. We found that the whole structure (PEG-peptide-lipid) rather than any parts of the copolymers was key for the P-gp inhibition and a delicate balance between the hydrophilic and lipophilic segments of the PEG-pp-PE copolymers was needed for better modulating the P-gp-mediated drug efflux. The best copolymer, PEG2k-pp-PE, showed even higher P-gp inhibition effect than the d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS1k). We also found that the P-gp inhibition capability of PEG-pp-PE copolymers was highly associated with the P-gp down-regulation, the increase in the plasma membrane fluidity, and the inhibition of the P-gp ATPase activity. Besides, the excellent physicochemical properties, high drug loading, MMP2-dependent drug release, and improved drug efficacy in the MDR cancer cells suggested that the PEG-pp-PE copolymers might have great potential for building tumor-targeted drug delivery systems for treating drug-resistant cancers. PMID:27145021

  6. Marine Natural Products with P-Glycoprotein Inhibitor Properties

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Dioxelis; Martinez-Luis, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a protein belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters superfamily that has clinical relevance due to its role in drug metabolism and multi-drug resistance (MDR) in several human pathogens and diseases. P-gp is a major cause of drug resistance in cancer, parasitic diseases, epilepsy and other disorders. This review article aims to summarize the research findings on the marine natural products with P-glycoprotein inhibitor properties. Natural compounds that modulate P-gp offer great possibilities for semi-synthetic modification to create new drugs and are valuable research tools to understand the function of complex ABC transporters. PMID:24451193

  7. New insight into p-glycoprotein as a drug target.

    PubMed

    Breier, Albert; Gibalova, Lenka; Seres, Mario; Barancik, Miroslav; Sulova, Zdenka

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer tissue is a phenomenon in which cancer cells exhibit reduced sensitivity to a large group of unrelated drugs with different mechanisms of pharmacological activity. Mechanisms that reduce cell sensitivity to damage induced by a variety of chemicals were found to be caused by diverse, albeit well-defined, phenotypic alterations. The molecular basis of MDR commonly involves overexpression of the plasma membrane drug efflux pump - P-glycoprotein (P-gp). This glycoprotein is an ABCB1 member of the ABC transporter family. Cells that develop MDR of this type express massive amounts of P-gp that can induce a drug resistance of more than 100 times higher than normal cells to several drugs, which are substrates of P-gp. Expression of P-gp could be inherent to cancer cells with regard to the specialized tissues from which the cells originated. This is often designated as intrinsic Pgp- mediated MDR. However, overexpression of P-gp may be induced by selection and/or adaptation of cells during exposure to anticancer drugs; this particular example is known as acquired P-gp-mediated MDR. Drugs that are potential inducers of P-gp are often substrates of this transporter. However, several substances that have been proven to not be transportable by P-gp (such as cisplatin or alltrans retinoic acid) could induce minor improvements in P-gp overexpression. It is generally accepted that the drug efflux activity of Pgp is a major cause of reduced cell sensitivity to several compounds. However, P-gp may have side effects that are independent of its drug efflux activity. Several authors have described a direct influence of P-gp on the function of proteins involved in regulatory pathways, including apoptotic progression (such as p53, caspase-3 and Pokemon). Moreover, alterations of cell regulatory pathways, including protein expression, glycosylation and phosphorylation, have been demonstrated in cells overexpressing P-gp, which may consequently induce

  8. New insight into p-glycoprotein as a drug target.

    PubMed

    Breier, Albert; Gibalova, Lenka; Seres, Mario; Barancik, Miroslav; Sulova, Zdenka

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer tissue is a phenomenon in which cancer cells exhibit reduced sensitivity to a large group of unrelated drugs with different mechanisms of pharmacological activity. Mechanisms that reduce cell sensitivity to damage induced by a variety of chemicals were found to be caused by diverse, albeit well-defined, phenotypic alterations. The molecular basis of MDR commonly involves overexpression of the plasma membrane drug efflux pump - P-glycoprotein (P-gp). This glycoprotein is an ABCB1 member of the ABC transporter family. Cells that develop MDR of this type express massive amounts of P-gp that can induce a drug resistance of more than 100 times higher than normal cells to several drugs, which are substrates of P-gp. Expression of P-gp could be inherent to cancer cells with regard to the specialized tissues from which the cells originated. This is often designated as intrinsic Pgp- mediated MDR. However, overexpression of P-gp may be induced by selection and/or adaptation of cells during exposure to anticancer drugs; this particular example is known as acquired P-gp-mediated MDR. Drugs that are potential inducers of P-gp are often substrates of this transporter. However, several substances that have been proven to not be transportable by P-gp (such as cisplatin or alltrans retinoic acid) could induce minor improvements in P-gp overexpression. It is generally accepted that the drug efflux activity of Pgp is a major cause of reduced cell sensitivity to several compounds. However, P-gp may have side effects that are independent of its drug efflux activity. Several authors have described a direct influence of P-gp on the function of proteins involved in regulatory pathways, including apoptotic progression (such as p53, caspase-3 and Pokemon). Moreover, alterations of cell regulatory pathways, including protein expression, glycosylation and phosphorylation, have been demonstrated in cells overexpressing P-gp, which may consequently induce

  9. Polyaromatic alkaloids from marine invertebrates as cytotoxic compounds and inhibitors of multidrug resistance caused by P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Quesada, A. R.; García Grávalos, M. D.; Fernández Puentes, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of several members of the family of lamellarins, polyaromatic alkaloids isolated from tunicates belonging to the genus Didemnum, on the growth of several tumour cell lines and on P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR), were investigated. Cytotoxicity experiments of lamellarins were performed on a panel of tumour cell lines, including two multidrug-resistant cell lines. Some lamellarins showed good anti-tumour activity, with similar levels of cytotoxicity against both the resistant and their corresponding parental cell lines. Two lamellarins displayed a high potency against lung carcinoma cells. Studies of the resistance modifier activity of the different lamellarins at non-toxic concentrations were also carried out in cells exhibiting MDR, and lamellarin I was selected for the highest chemosensitising activity. At non-toxic doses, verapamil and lamellarin I effectively increased the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin, vinblastine and daunorubicin in a concentration-dependent manner in multidrug-resistant cells, but the potency of lamellarin I as a MDR modulator was 9- to 16-fold higher than that of verapamil. In vitro measurements of rhodamine 123 accumulation in the multidrug-resistant Lo Vo/Dx cells suggest that lamellarin I reverses MDR by directly inhibiting the P-gp-mediated drug efflux. This work underscores the possibility of using these marine-derived compounds as a potential new source of anti-tumoral drugs active on resistant cells as well as of non-toxic modulators of the MDR phenotype. PMID:8795567

  10. The P-glycoprotein inhibitor GF120918 modulates Ca2+-dependent processes and lipid metabolism in Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Bottova, Iveta; Sauder, Ursula; Olivieri, Vesna; Hehl, Adrian B; Sonda, Sabrina

    2010-01-01

    Up-regulation of the membrane-bound efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is associated with the phenomenon of multidrug-resistance in pathogenic organisms, including protozoan parasites. In addition, P-gp plays a role in normal physiological processes, however our understanding of these P-gp functions remains limited. In this study we investigated the effects of the P-gp inhibitor GF120918 in Toxoplasma gondii, a model apicomplexan parasite and an important human pathogen. We found that GF120918 treatment severely inhibited parasite invasion and replication. Further analyses of the molecular mechanisms involved revealed that the P-gp inhibitor modulated parasite motility, microneme secretion and egress from the host cell, all cellular processes known to depend on Ca2+ signaling in the parasite. In support of a potential role of P-gp in Ca2+-mediated processes, immunoelectron and fluorescence microscopy showed that T. gondii P-gp was localized in acidocalcisomes, the major Ca2+ storage in the parasite, at the plasma membrane, and in the intravacuolar tubular network. In addition, metabolic labeling of extracellular parasites revealed that inhibition or down-regulation of T. gondii P-gp resulted in aberrant lipid synthesis. These results suggest a crucial role of T. gondii P-gp in essential processes of the parasite biology and further validate the potential of P-gp activity as a target for drug development. PMID:20386707

  11. The P-glycoprotein Inhibitor GF120918 Modulates Ca2+-Dependent Processes and Lipid Metabolism in Toxoplasma Gondii

    PubMed Central

    Bottova, Iveta; Sauder, Ursula; Olivieri, Vesna; Hehl, Adrian B.; Sonda, Sabrina

    2010-01-01

    Up-regulation of the membrane-bound efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is associated with the phenomenon of multidrug-resistance in pathogenic organisms, including protozoan parasites. In addition, P-gp plays a role in normal physiological processes, however our understanding of these P-gp functions remains limited. In this study we investigated the effects of the P-gp inhibitor GF120918 in Toxoplasma gondii, a model apicomplexan parasite and an important human pathogen. We found that GF120918 treatment severely inhibited parasite invasion and replication. Further analyses of the molecular mechanisms involved revealed that the P-gp inhibitor modulated parasite motility, microneme secretion and egress from the host cell, all cellular processes known to depend on Ca2+ signaling in the parasite. In support of a potential role of P-gp in Ca2+-mediated processes, immunoelectron and fluorescence microscopy showed that T. gondii P-gp was localized in acidocalcisomes, the major Ca2+ storage in the parasite, at the plasma membrane, and in the intravacuolar tubular network. In addition, metabolic labeling of extracellular parasites revealed that inhibition or down-regulation of T. gondii P-gp resulted in aberrant lipid synthesis. These results suggest a crucial role of T. gondii P-gp in essential processes of the parasite biology and further validate the potential of P-gp activity as a target for drug development. PMID:20386707

  12. Biochemical and pharmacological properties of an allosteric modulator site of the human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1).

    PubMed

    Maki, Nazli; Dey, Saibal

    2006-07-14

    The drug-transport function of the human P-glycoprotein (Pgp or ABCB1) is inhibited by a number of structurally unrelated compounds, known as modulators or reversing agents. Among them, the thioxanthene derivative flupentixol inhibits Pgp-mediated drug transport by an allosteric mechanism. Unlike most other Pgp modulators, the cis isomer of flupentixol [cis-(Z)-flupentixol] facilitates interaction of Pgp with its transport-substrate [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin (or [125I]IAAP), yet inhibits transport. In this study, we show that the flupentixol site acts as a common site of interaction for the tricyclic ring-containing modulators thioxanthenes and phenothiazines. The allosteric stimulation of [125I]IAAP binding to Pgp occurs independent of the phosphorylation status of the transporter. Stimulation is retained in purified Pgp reconstituted into proteoliposomes, suggesting no involvement of any other cellular protein in the phenomenon. However, perturbation of the lipid environment of the reconstituted Pgp by nonionic detergent octylglucoside abolishes stimulation by cis-(Z)-flupentixol of [125I]IAAP binding. Extensive trypsin digestion of the [125I]IAAP-labeled Pgp generates a 5.5 kDa fragment with 80% of the stimulated level of labeling associated with it. Sensitivity to inhibition by transport-substrate vinblastine and competitive modulator cyclosporin A suggests that the elevated level of [125I]IAAP binding to the fragment represents a functionally relevant interaction with the substrate site of Pgp. In summary, we demonstrate that allosteric modulation by cis-(Z)-flupentixol is mediated through its interaction with Pgp at a site specific for tricyclic ring-containing Pgp modulators of thioxanthene and phenothiazine backbone, independent of other cellular components and the phosphorylation status of the protein.

  13. Increased intestinal P-glycoprotein expression and activity with progression of diabetes and its modulation by epigallocatechin-3-gallate: Evidence from pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Dash, Ranjeet Prasad; Ellendula, Bhanuchander; Agarwal, Milee; Nivsarkar, Manish

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in the expression and the activity of intestinal P-glycoprotein (efflux transporter) with progression of diabetes in rats. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats using a combination of low dose streptozotocin along with high fat diet. The expression of intestinal P-glycoprotein significantly increased (P≤0.05) with the progression of diabetes which was inferred from the mRNA analysis of mdr1a and mdr1b genes in the ileum segment of rat intestine. Furthermore, a significant increase (P≤0.05) in Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity was observed in the ileum segment of rat intestine with the progression of diabetes. As a result of this, a significant decrease in the intestinal uptake and peroral bioavailability of the P-glycoprotein substrates (verapamil and atorvastatin) was observed along with the progression of diabetes as compared to normal animals. To address this problem of impaired drug uptake and bioavailability, a reported P-glycoprotein inhibitor, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, was experimentally evaluated. The treatment with epigallocatechin-3-gallate resulted in significant reduction in the expression and activity of P-glycoprotein and subsequent improvement in the intestinal uptake and peroral bioavailability of both verapamil and atorvastatin in normal as well as in diabetic animals. The findings of this study rationalised the use and established the mechanism of action of epigallocatechin-3-gallate to overcome P-glycoprotein mediated drug efflux and will also be helpful in therapeutic drug monitoring in diabetes.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF HIV INFECTION ON THE EXPRESSION OF THE DRUG EFFLUX PROTEINS P-GLYCOPROTEIN AND BREAST CANCER RESISTANCE PROTEIN IN A HUMAN INTESTINE MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Kelstan; Marlin, Jerry; Taylor, Tracey AH; Fitting, Sylvia; Hauser, Kurt F.; Rice, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In HIV infection, decreased penetration of antiretroviral drugs is postulated to contribute to HIV persistence within lymphoid rich regions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, mechanistic explanations for this phenomenon remain unclear. Specifically, investigations of HIV effects on drug efflux proteins within intestinal models are minimal. Methods Using an in vitro co-culture model of the GI tract, effects of HIV infection on drug efflux proteins, P-glycoprotein and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) were evaluated. The influence of the HIV-1 protein, Tat, and oxidative stress on P-glycoprotein and BCRP also was evaluated. Key Findings P-glycoprotein expression demonstrated an HIV-induced upregulation in Caco-2 cells over time for cells grown in co-culture with resting lymphocytes. BCRP overall expression increased with HIV exposure in activated primary human lymphocytes co-cultured with Caco-2 cells. Tat treatment resulted in no significant alterations in P-glycoprotein (43% increase), BCRP expression, or oxidative stress. Conclusions HIV exposure within an in vitro intestinal model resulted in increases in, P-glycoprotein and BCRP in a cell specific manner. Additionally, observed changes were not mediated by Tat. Collectively, these results suggest that alterations in BCRP and P-glycoprotein may contribute, in part, to decreased antiretroviral concentrations within the gastrointestinal tract in HIV infection. PMID:25557407

  15. DUSP1 induces paclitaxel resistance through the regulation of p-glycoprotein expression in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yu-Seon; Seok, Hyun-Jeong; Jeong, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Yuna; Yun, Seok-Joong; Min, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Sun Jin; Kim, Jang-Seong

    2016-09-01

    The heterogeneity and genetic instability of ovarian cancer cells often lead to the development of drug resistance, closely related with the increased cancer-related mortality. In this study, we investigated the role of dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) in the development of the resistance in human ovarian cancer cells against paclitaxel. Overexpression of DUSP1 in HeyA8 human ovarian cancer cells (HeyA8-DUSP1) up-regulated the expression of the drug efflux pump, p-glycoprotein. Consequently, HeyA8-DUSP1 cells are highly resistant to paclitaxel, with the resistance comparable to that of a multi-drug resistance cell line (HeyA8-MDR). Moreover, over expression of DUSP1 significantly increased the activation of p38 MAPK, leaving the activation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 unaffected. Pharmacological suppression of p38 MAPK activity prevents the up-regulation of p-glycoprotein expression and the consequent resistance against paclitaxel in HeyA8-DUSP1 cells. By contrast, HeyA8-MDR cells expressed a significantly higher level of DUSP1, but treatment with small interference RNA against DUSP1 significantly suppressed the expression of p-glycoprotein and the resistance against paclitaxel in HeyA8-MDR cells. Ectopic expression of MKK3, an upstream activator of p38 MAPK, significantly up-regulated the expression of p-glycoprotein and increased the consequent resistance against paclitaxel in HeyA8 cells. Collectively, these data indicated that DUSP1 may induce the resistance against paclitaxel through the p38 MAPK-mediated overexpression of p-glycoprotein in human ovarian cancer cells.

  16. DUSP1 induces paclitaxel resistance through the regulation of p-glycoprotein expression in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yu-Seon; Seok, Hyun-Jeong; Jeong, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Yuna; Yun, Seok-Joong; Min, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Sun Jin; Kim, Jang-Seong

    2016-09-01

    The heterogeneity and genetic instability of ovarian cancer cells often lead to the development of drug resistance, closely related with the increased cancer-related mortality. In this study, we investigated the role of dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) in the development of the resistance in human ovarian cancer cells against paclitaxel. Overexpression of DUSP1 in HeyA8 human ovarian cancer cells (HeyA8-DUSP1) up-regulated the expression of the drug efflux pump, p-glycoprotein. Consequently, HeyA8-DUSP1 cells are highly resistant to paclitaxel, with the resistance comparable to that of a multi-drug resistance cell line (HeyA8-MDR). Moreover, over expression of DUSP1 significantly increased the activation of p38 MAPK, leaving the activation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 unaffected. Pharmacological suppression of p38 MAPK activity prevents the up-regulation of p-glycoprotein expression and the consequent resistance against paclitaxel in HeyA8-DUSP1 cells. By contrast, HeyA8-MDR cells expressed a significantly higher level of DUSP1, but treatment with small interference RNA against DUSP1 significantly suppressed the expression of p-glycoprotein and the resistance against paclitaxel in HeyA8-MDR cells. Ectopic expression of MKK3, an upstream activator of p38 MAPK, significantly up-regulated the expression of p-glycoprotein and increased the consequent resistance against paclitaxel in HeyA8 cells. Collectively, these data indicated that DUSP1 may induce the resistance against paclitaxel through the p38 MAPK-mediated overexpression of p-glycoprotein in human ovarian cancer cells. PMID:27422607

  17. Limited oral bioavailability and active epithelial excretion of paclitaxel (Taxol) caused by P-glycoprotein in the intestine

    PubMed Central

    Sparreboom, Alex; van Asperen, Judith; Mayer, Ulrich; Schinkel, Alfred H.; Smit, Johan W.; Meijer, Dirk K. F.; Borst, Piet; Nooijen, Willem J.; Beijnen, Jos H.; van Tellingen, Olaf

    1997-01-01

    In mice, the mdr1a and mdr1b genes encode drug-transporting proteins that can cause multidrug resistance in tumor cells by lowering intracellular drug levels. These P-glycoproteins are also found in various normal tissues such as the intestine. Because mdr1b P-glycoprotein is not detectable in the intestine, mice with a homozygously disrupted mdr1a gene [mdr1a(−/−) mice] do not contain functional P-glycoprotein in this organ. We have used these mdr1a(−/−) mice to study the effect of gut P-glycoprotein on the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel. The area under the plasma concentration-time curves was 2- and 6-fold higher in mdr1a(−/−) mice than in wild-type (wt) mice after i.v. and oral drug administration, respectively. Consequently, the oral bioavailability in mice receiving 10 mg paclitaxel per kg body weight increased from only 11% in wt mice to 35% in mdr1a(−/−) mice. The cumulative fecal excretion (0–96 hr) was markedly reduced from 40% (after i.v. administration) and 87% (after oral administration) of the administered dose in wt mice to below 3% in mdr1a(−/−) mice. Biliary excretion was not significantly different in wt and mdr1a(−/−) mice. Interestingly, after i.v. drug administration of paclitaxel (10 mg/kg) to mice with a cannulated gall bladder, 11% of the dose was recovered within 90 min in the intestinal contents of wt mice vs. <3% in mdr1a(−/−) mice. We conclude that P-glycoprotein limits the oral uptake of paclitaxel and mediates direct excretion of the drug from the systemic circulation into the intestinal lumen. PMID:9050899

  18. Human P-glycoprotein contains a greasy ball-and-socket joint at the second transmission interface.

    PubMed

    Loo, Tip W; Bartlett, M Claire; Clarke, David M

    2013-07-12

    The P-glycoprotein drug pump protects us from toxins. Drug-binding sites in the transmembrane (TM) domains (TMDs) are connected to the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) by intracellular helices (IHs). TMD-NBD cross-talk is a key step in the transport mechanism because drug binding stimulates ATP hydrolysis followed by drug efflux. Here, we tested whether the IHs are critical for maturation and TMD-NBD coupling by characterizing the effects of mutations to the IH1 and IH2 interfaces. Although IH1 mutations had little effect, most mutations at the IH2-NBD2 interface inhibited maturation or activity. For example, the F1086A mutation at the IH2-NBD2 interface abolished drug-stimulated ATPase activity. The mutant F1086A, however, retained the ability to bind ATP and drug substrates. The mutant was defective in mediating ATP-dependent conformational changes in the TMDs because binding of ATP no longer promoted cross-linking between cysteines located at the extracellular ends of TM segments 6 and 12. Replacement of Phe-1086 (in NBD2) with hydrophobic but not charged residues yielded active mutants. The activity of the F1086A mutant could be restored when the nearby residue Ala-266 (in IH2) was replaced with aromatic residues. These results suggest that Ala-266/Phe-1086 lies in a hydrophobic IH2-NBD2 "ball-and-socket" joint.

  19. Modulation of the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein: Detection with technetium-99m-sestamibi in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Luker, G.D.; Fracasso, P.M.; Dobkin, J.; Piwnica-Worms, D.

    1997-03-01

    Overexpression of the multidrug resistance (MDR1) P-glycoprotein (Pgp) has been documented in nearly all forms of human cancers and increased levels of Pgp in some tumors correlate with poor response to treatment. Technetium-99m-sestamibi has recently been validated as a Pgp transport substrate. Pgp is also normally expressed along the biliary canalicular surface of hepatocytes and the luminal side of proximal tubule cells in the kidney, while not expressed in heart. Focused on these organs with known Pgp status, we present the findings on {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi showed normal, prompt clearance of the radiotracer from the liver and kidneys relative to the heart. After administration of the Pgp modulator, {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi was selectively retained in the liver and kidneys. Hepatobiliary and renal clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi are Pgp-mediated, and inhibition of Pgp transport in these organs can be successfully imaged using {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi in patients. Similar results might be expected with this and related radiopharmaceuticals for functional imaging of Pgp transport and modulation in tumors. 34 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Interactions between P-glycoprotein substrates and other cationic drugs at the hepatic excretory level

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Johan W; Duin, Erik; Steen, Herman; Oosting, Roelof; Roggeveld, Jan; Meijer, Dirk K F

    1998-01-01

    In the present study it was tested whether known P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates/MDR reversal agents interact with small (type 1) and bulky (type 2) cationic drugs at the level of biliary excretion in the rat isolated perfused liver model (IPRL). The studies were performed with model compounds tri-n-butylmethylammonium (TBuMA) (a relatively small type 1 organic cation), rocuronium (Roc) (a bulky type 2 organic cation) and the classical P-gp substrate doxorubicin (Dox).Inhibitors were given in a 4 fold molar excess to the substrate studied. To minimize an interaction of the substrates at the hepatic uptake level, the competing compounds were added when over 55% to 85% of the administered dose of the model compounds had been removed from the perfusate and taken up by the liver.We found a mutual interaction between TBuMA and procainamidethobromide (PAEB), both type 1 cationic compounds during biliary excretion. Interestingly, type 2 compounds, such as rocuronium, clearly inhibited type 1 cationic drugs as well as Dox secretion into bile, whereas type 1 compounds did not significantly inhibit type 2 drug excretion into bile. The type 1 cations PAEB and TBuMA only moderately inhibited Dox biliary excretion. Dox did not inhibit the biliary excretion of the type 2 agent rocuronium whereas rocuronium reduced Dox biliary excretion by 50% compared to controls.MDR substrates/reversal agents like verapamil, quinine, quinidine and vinblastine strongly reduced both type 1 and type 2 organic cation excretion into bile. Dox secretion into bile was also profoundly reduced by these drugs, vinblastine being the most potent inhibitor in general.The lack of mutual inhibition observed in some combinations of substrates may indicate that major differences in affinity of the substrates for a single excretory system exist. Alternatively, multiple organic cation transport systems with separate substrate specificities may be involved in the biliary excretion of amphiphilic drugs

  1. Silencing of P-glycoprotein increases mortality in temephos-treated Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Figueira-Mansur, J; Ferreira-Pereira, A; Mansur, J F; Franco, T A; Alvarenga, E S L; Sorgine, M H F; Neves, B C; Melo, A C A; Leal, W S; Masuda, H; Moreira, M F

    2013-12-01

    Re-emergence of vector-borne diseases such as dengue and yellow fever, which are both transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, has been correlated with insecticide resistance. P-glycoproteins (P-gps) are ATP-dependent efflux pumps that are involved in the transport of substrates across membranes. Some of these proteins have been implicated in multidrug resistance (MDR). In this study, we identified a putative P-glycoprotein in the Ae. aegypti database based on its significantly high identity with Anopheles gambiae, Culex quinquefasciatus, Drosophila melanogaster and human P-gps. The basal ATPase activity of ATP-binding cassette transporters in larvae was significantly increased in the presence of MDR modulators (verapamil and quinidine). An eightfold increase in Ae. aegypti P-gp (AaegP-gp) gene expression was detected in temephos-treated larvae as determined by quantitative PCR. To analyse the potential role of AaegP-gp in insecticide efflux, a temephos larvicide assay was performed in the presence of verapamil. The results showed an increase of 24% in temephos toxicity, which is in agreement with the efflux reversing effect. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of the AaegP-gp gene caused a significant increase in temephos toxicity (57%). In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time in insects that insecticide-induced P-gp expression can be involved in the modulation of insecticide efflux. PMID:23980723

  2. Silencing of P-glycoprotein increases mortality in temephos-treated Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Figueira-Mansur, J; Ferreira-Pereira, A; Mansur, J F; Franco, T A; Alvarenga, E S L; Sorgine, M H F; Neves, B C; Melo, A C A; Leal, W S; Masuda, H; Moreira, M F

    2013-12-01

    Re-emergence of vector-borne diseases such as dengue and yellow fever, which are both transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, has been correlated with insecticide resistance. P-glycoproteins (P-gps) are ATP-dependent efflux pumps that are involved in the transport of substrates across membranes. Some of these proteins have been implicated in multidrug resistance (MDR). In this study, we identified a putative P-glycoprotein in the Ae. aegypti database based on its significantly high identity with Anopheles gambiae, Culex quinquefasciatus, Drosophila melanogaster and human P-gps. The basal ATPase activity of ATP-binding cassette transporters in larvae was significantly increased in the presence of MDR modulators (verapamil and quinidine). An eightfold increase in Ae. aegypti P-gp (AaegP-gp) gene expression was detected in temephos-treated larvae as determined by quantitative PCR. To analyse the potential role of AaegP-gp in insecticide efflux, a temephos larvicide assay was performed in the presence of verapamil. The results showed an increase of 24% in temephos toxicity, which is in agreement with the efflux reversing effect. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of the AaegP-gp gene caused a significant increase in temephos toxicity (57%). In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time in insects that insecticide-induced P-gp expression can be involved in the modulation of insecticide efflux.

  3. Contribution of mdr1b-type P-glycoprotein to okadaic acid resistance in rat pituitary GH3 cells.

    PubMed

    Ritz, V; Marwitz, J; Sieder, S; Ziemann, C; Hirsch-Ernst, K I; Quentin, I; Steinfelder, H J

    1999-08-01

    Okadaic acid as well as other, structurally different, inhibitors of serine/threonine phosphatases 1 and 2A induce apoptosis in pituitary GH3 cells. Incubation with stepwise raised concentrations of okadaic acid resulted in the isolation of cells that were increasingly less sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of this agent. After about 18 months cells were selected that survived at 300 nM okadaic acid, which is about 30 times the initially lethal concentration. This study revealed that a major pharmacokinetic mechanism underlying cell survival was the development of a P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype. The increase in mRNA levels of the mdr1b P-glycoprotein isoform correlated with the extent of drug resistance. Functional assays revealed that increasing drug resistance was paralleled by a decreased accumulation of rhodamine 123, a fluorescent dye which is a substrate of mdr1-mediated efflux activity. Resistance could be abolished by structurally different chemosensitizers of P-glycoprotein function like verapamil and reserpine but not by the leukotriene receptor antagonist MK571 which is a modulator of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP). Okadaic acid resistance included cross-resistance to other cytotoxic agents that are substrates of mdr1-type P-glycoproteins, like doxorubicin and actinomycin D, but not to non-substrates of mdr1, e.g. cytosine arabinoside. Thus, functional as well as biochemical features support the conclusion that okadaic acid is a substrate of the mdr1-mediated efflux activity in rat pituitary GH3 cells. Maintenance of resistance after withdrawal of okadaic acid as well as metaphase spreads of 100 nM okadaic acid-resistant cells suggested a stable MDR genotype without indications for the occurrence of extrachromosomal amplifications, e.g. double minute chromosomes.

  4. Potent galloyl-based selective modulators targeting multidrug resistance associated protein 1 and P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Pellicani, Raffaella Zoe; Stefanachi, Angela; Niso, Mauro; Carotti, Angelo; Leonetti, Francesco; Nicolotti, Orazio; Perrone, Roberto; Berardi, Francesco; Cellamare, Saverio; Colabufo, Nicola Antonio

    2012-01-12

    The multifactorial nature of chemotherapy failure in controlling cancer is often associated with the occurrence of multidrug resistance (MDR), a phenomenon likely related to the increased expression of members of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. In this respect, the most extensively characterized MDR transporters include ABCB1 (also known as MDR1 or P-glycoprotein) and ABCC1 (also known as MRP1) whose inhibition remains a priority to circumvent drug resistance. Herein, we report how the simple galloyl benzamide scaffold can be easily and properly decorated for the preparation of either MRP1 or P-gp highly selective inhibitors. In particular, some gallamides and pyrogallol-1-monomethyl ethers showed remarkable affinity and selectivity toward MRP1. On the other hand, trimethyl ether galloyl anilides, with few exceptions, exhibited moderate to very high and selective P-gp inhibition.

  5. Synthesis and preclinical evaluation of the radiolabeled P-glycoprotein inhibitor [11C]MC113

    PubMed Central

    Mairinger, Severin; Wanek, Thomas; Kuntner, Claudia; Doenmez, Yaprak; Strommer, Sabine; Stanek, Johann; Capparelli, Elena; Chiba, Peter; Müller, Markus; Colabufo, Nicola A.; Langer, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Objectives With the aim to develop a PET tracer to visualize P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression levels in different organs, the Pgp inhibitor MC113 was labeled with 11C and evaluated using small-animal PET. Methods [11C]MC113 was synthesized by reaction of O-desmethyl MC113 with [11C]methyl triflate. Small-animal PET was performed with [11C]MC113 in FVB wild-type and Mdr1a/b(−/−) mice (n=3 per group) and in a mouse model of high (EMT6Ar1.0) and low (EMT6) Pgp expressing tumor grafts (n=5). In the tumor model, PET scans were performed before and after administration of the reference Pgp inhibitor tariquidar (15 mg/kg). Results Brain uptake of [11C]MC113, expressed as area under the time-activity curve from time 0 to 60 min (AUC0-60), was moderately but not significantly increased in Mdr1a/b(−/−) compared with wild-type mice (mean±SD AUC0-60, Mdr1a/b(−/−): 88±7 min, wild-type: 62±6 min, P=0.100, Mann Whitney test). In the tumor model, AUC0-60 values were not significantly different between EMT6Ar1.0 and EMT6 tumors. Neither in brain nor in tumors was activity concentration significantly changed in response to tariquidar administration. Half-maximum effect concentrations (IC50) for inhibition of Pgp-mediated rhodamine 123 efflux from CCRFvcr1000 cells were 375±60 nM for MC113 versus 8.5±2.5 nM for tariquidar. Conclusion [11C]MC113 showed higher brain uptake in mice than previously described Pgp PET tracers, suggesting that [11C]MC113 was only to a low extent effluxed by Pgp. However, [11C]MC113 was found unsuitable to visualize Pgp expression levels presumably due to insufficiently high Pgp binding affinity of MC113 in relation to Pgp densities in brain and tumors. PMID:22981987

  6. Asclepiasterol, a novel C21 steroidal glycoside derived from Asclepias curassavica, reverses tumor multidrug resistance by down-regulating P-glycoprotein expression.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wei-Qi; Zhang, Rong-Rong; Wang, Jun; Ma, Yan; Li, Wen-Xue; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Cai, Shao-Hui

    2016-05-24

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a major cause of cancer therapy failure. In this study, we identified a novel C21 steroidal glycoside, asclepiasterol, capable of reversing P-gp-mediated MDR. Asclepiasterol (2.5 and 5.0μM) enhanced the cytotoxity of P-gp substrate anticancer drugs in MCF-7/ADR and HepG-2/ADM cells. MDR cells were more responsive to paclitaxel in the presence of asclepiasterol, and colony formation of MDR cells was only reduced upon treatment with a combination of asclepiasterol and doxorubicin. Consistent with these findings, asclepiasterol treatment increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123 (Rh123) in MDR cells. Asclepiasterol decreased expression of P-gp protein without stimulating or suppressing MDR1 mRNA levels. Asclepiasterol-mediated P-gp suppression caused inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in two MDR cell types, and EGF, an activator of the MAPK/ERK pathway, reversed the P-gp down-regulation, implicating the MAPK/ERK pathway in asclepiasterol-mediated P-gp down-regulation. These results suggest that asclepiasterol could be developed as a modulator for reversing P-gp-mediated MDR in P-gp-overexpressing cancer variants.

  7. Asclepiasterol, a novel C21 steroidal glycoside derived from Asclepias curassavica, reverses tumor multidrug resistance by down-regulating P-glycoprotein expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Ma, Yan; Li, Wen-Xue; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Cai, Shao-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a major cause of cancer therapy failure. In this study, we identified a novel C21 steroidal glycoside, asclepiasterol, capable of reversing P-gp-mediated MDR. Asclepiasterol (2.5 and 5.0μM) enhanced the cytotoxity of P-gp substrate anticancer drugs in MCF-7/ADR and HepG-2/ADM cells. MDR cells were more responsive to paclitaxel in the presence of asclepiasterol, and colony formation of MDR cells was only reduced upon treatment with a combination of asclepiasterol and doxorubicin. Consistent with these findings, asclepiasterol treatment increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123 (Rh123) in MDR cells. Asclepiasterol decreased expression of P-gp protein without stimulating or suppressing MDR1 mRNA levels. Asclepiasterol-mediated P-gp suppression caused inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in two MDR cell types, and EGF, an activator of the MAPK/ERK pathway, reversed the P-gp down-regulation, implicating the MAPK/ERK pathway in asclepiasterol-mediated P-gp down-regulation. These results suggest that asclepiasterol could be developed as a modulator for reversing P-gp-mediated MDR in P-gp-overexpressing cancer variants. PMID:27129170

  8. MAPK1 of Leishmania donovani modulates antimony susceptibility by downregulating P-glycoprotein efflux pumps.

    PubMed

    Garg, Mansi; Goyal, Neena

    2015-07-01

    Emergence of resistance to pentavalent antimonials has become a severe obstacle in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are well-known mediators of signal transduction of eukaryotes, regulating important processes, like proliferation, differentiation, stress response, and apoptosis. In Leishmania, MAPK1 has been shown to be consistently downregulated in antimony-resistant field isolates, suggesting that it has a role in antimony resistance. The present work investigates the molecular mechanism of MAPK1 in antimony resistance in Leishmania donovani. The L. donovani MAPK1 (LdMAPK1) single-allele replacement mutants exhibited increased resistance to Sb(III) (5.57-fold) compared to wild-type promastigotes, while overexpressing parasites became much more susceptible to antimony. The LdMAPK1-mediated drug sensitivity was directly related to antimony-induced apoptotic death of the parasite, as was evidenced by a 4- to 5-fold decrease in cell death parameters in deletion mutants and a 2- to 3-fold increase in MAPK1-overexpressing cells. LdMAPK1-underexpressing parasites also exhibited increased P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux pump activity, while a significant decrease in pump activity was observed in overexpressing cells. This change in efflux pump activity was directly related to expression levels of P-gp in all cell lines. However, episomal complementation of the gene restored normal growth, drug sensitivity, P-gp expression, and efflux pump activity. The data indicate that LdMAPK1 negatively regulates the expression of P-glycoprotein-type efflux pumps in the parasite. The decrease in efflux pump activity with an increase in LdMAPK1 expression may result in increased antimony accumulation in the parasite, making it more vulnerable to the drug.

  9. Pharmacokinetic Interactions of Herbs with Cytochrome P450 and P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    The concurrent use of drugs and herbal products is becoming increasingly prevalent over the last decade. Several herbal products have been known to modulate cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which are recognized as representative drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporter, respectively. Thus, a summary of knowledge on the modulation of CYP and P-gp by commonly used herbs can provide robust fundamentals for optimizing CYP and/or P-gp substrate drug-based therapy. Herein, we review ten popular medicinal and/or dietary herbs as perpetrators of CYP- and P-gp-mediated pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The main focus is placed on previous works on the ability of herbal extracts and their phytochemicals to modulate the expression and function of CYP and P-gp in several in vitro and in vivo animal and human systems. PMID:25632290

  10. Imaging of P-glycoprotein function and expression to elucidate mechanisms of pharmacoresistance in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Löscher, Wolfgang; Langer, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The issue of pharmacoresistance in epilepsy has received considerable attention in recent years, and a number of plausible hypotheses have been proposed. Of these, the so-called transporter hypothesis is the most extensively researched and documented. This hypothesis assumes that refractory epilepsy is associated with a localised over-expression of drug transporter proteins such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp) in the region of the epileptic focus, which actively extrudes antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) from their intended site of action. However, although this hypothesis has biological plausibility, there is no clinical evidence to support the assertion that AEDs are sufficiently strong substrates for transporter-mediated extrusion from the brain. The use of modern brain imaging techniques to determine Pgp function in patients with refractory epilepsy has started only recently, and may ultimately determine whether increased expression and function of Pgp or other efflux transporters are involved in AED resistance. PMID:20645916

  11. In silico identified targeted inhibitors of P-glycoprotein overcome multidrug resistance in human cancer cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Follit, Courtney A; Brewer, Frances K; Wise, John G; Vogel, Pia D

    2015-10-01

    Failure of cancer chemotherapies is often linked to the over expression of ABC efflux transporters like the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (P-gp). P-gp expression in cells leads to the elimination of a variety of chemically unrelated, mostly cytotoxic compounds. Administration of chemotherapeutics during therapy frequently selects for cells that over express P-gp and are therefore capable of robustly exporting diverse compounds, including chemotherapeutics, from the cells. P-gp thus confers multidrug resistance to a majority of drugs currently available for the treatment of cancers and diseases like HIV/AIDS. The search for P-gp inhibitors for use as co-therapeutics to combat multidrug resistances has had little success to date. In a previous study (Brewer et al., Mol Pharmacol 86: 716-726, 2014), we described how ultrahigh throughput computational searches led to the identification of four drug-like molecules that specifically interfere with the energy harvesting steps of substrate transport and inhibit P-gp catalyzed ATP hydrolysis in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrate that three of these compounds reversed P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance of cultured prostate cancer cells to restore sensitivity comparable to naïve prostate cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic drug, paclitaxel. Potentiation concentrations of the inhibitors were <3 μmol/L. The inhibitors did not exhibit significant toxicity to noncancerous cells at concentrations where they reversed multidrug resistance in cancerous cells. Our results indicate that these compounds with novel mechanisms of P-gp inhibition are excellent leads for the development of co-therapeutics for the treatment of multidrug resistances. PMID:26516582

  12. In silico identified targeted inhibitors of P-glycoprotein overcome multidrug resistance in human cancer cells in culture

    PubMed Central

    Follit, Courtney A; Brewer, Frances K; Wise, John G; Vogel, Pia D

    2015-01-01

    Failure of cancer chemotherapies is often linked to the over expression of ABC efflux transporters like the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (P-gp). P-gp expression in cells leads to the elimination of a variety of chemically unrelated, mostly cytotoxic compounds. Administration of chemotherapeutics during therapy frequently selects for cells that over express P-gp and are therefore capable of robustly exporting diverse compounds, including chemotherapeutics, from the cells. P-gp thus confers multidrug resistance to a majority of drugs currently available for the treatment of cancers and diseases like HIV/AIDS. The search for P-gp inhibitors for use as co-therapeutics to combat multidrug resistances has had little success to date. In a previous study (Brewer et al., Mol Pharmacol 86: 716–726, 2014), we described how ultrahigh throughput computational searches led to the identification of four drug-like molecules that specifically interfere with the energy harvesting steps of substrate transport and inhibit P-gp catalyzed ATP hydrolysis in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrate that three of these compounds reversed P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance of cultured prostate cancer cells to restore sensitivity comparable to naïve prostate cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic drug, paclitaxel. Potentiation concentrations of the inhibitors were <3 μmol/L. The inhibitors did not exhibit significant toxicity to noncancerous cells at concentrations where they reversed multidrug resistance in cancerous cells. Our results indicate that these compounds with novel mechanisms of P-gp inhibition are excellent leads for the development of co-therapeutics for the treatment of multidrug resistances. PMID:26516582

  13. Inhibitory Effects of Green Tea and (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate on Transport by OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OCT1, OCT2, MATE1, MATE2-K and P-Glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Knop, Jana; Misaka, Shingen; Singer, Katrin; Hoier, Eva; Müller, Fabian; Glaeser, Hartmut; König, Jörg; Fromm, Martin F

    2015-01-01

    Green tea catechins inhibit the function of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) that mediate the uptake of a diverse group of drugs and endogenous compounds into cells. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of green tea and its most abundant catechin epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the transport activity of several drug transporters expressed in enterocytes, hepatocytes and renal proximal tubular cells such as OATPs, organic cation transporters (OCTs), multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs), and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Uptake of the typical substrates metformin for OCTs and MATEs and bromosulphophthalein (BSP) and atorvastatin for OATPs was measured in the absence and presence of a commercially available green tea and EGCG. Transcellular transport of digoxin, a typical substrate of P-gp, was measured over 4 hours in the absence and presence of green tea or EGCG in Caco-2 cell monolayers. OCT1-, OCT2-, MATE1- and MATE2-K-mediated metformin uptake was significantly reduced in the presence of green tea and EGCG (P < 0.05). BSP net uptake by OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 was inhibited by green tea [IC50 2.6% (v/v) and 0.39% (v/v), respectively]. Green tea also inhibited OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated atorvastatin net uptake with IC50 values of 1.9% (v/v) and 1.0% (v/v), respectively. Basolateral to apical transport of digoxin was significantly decreased in the presence of green tea and EGCG. These findings indicate that green tea and EGCG inhibit multiple drug transporters in vitro. Further studies are necessary to investigate the effects of green tea on prototoypical substrates of these transporters in humans, in particular on substrates of hepatic uptake transporters (e.g. statins) as well as on P-glycoprotein substrates.

  14. [Classification models of structure - P-glycoprotein activity of drugs].

    PubMed

    Grigorev, V Yu; Solodova, S L; Polianczyk, D E; Raevsky, O A

    2016-01-01

    Thirty three classification models of substrate specificity of 177 drugs to P-glycoprotein have been created using of the linear discriminant analysis, random forest and support vector machine methods. QSAR modeling was carried out using 2 strategies. The first strategy consisted in search of all possible combinations from 1÷5 descriptors on the basis of 7 most significant molecular descriptors with clear physico-chemical interpretation. In the second case forward selection procedure up to 5 descriptors, starting from the best single descriptor was used. This strategy was applied to a set of 387 DRAGON descriptors. It was found that only one of 33 models has necessary statistical parameters. This model was designed by means of the linear discriminant analysis on the basis of a single descriptor of H-bond (ΣC(ad)). The model has good statistical characteristics as evidenced by results to both internal cross-validation, and external validation with application of 44 new chemicals. This confirms an important role of hydrogen bond in the processes connected with penetration of chemical compounds through a blood-brain barrier.

  15. [Classification models of structure - P-glycoprotein activity of drugs].

    PubMed

    Grigorev, V Yu; Solodova, S L; Polianczyk, D E; Raevsky, O A

    2016-01-01

    Thirty three classification models of substrate specificity of 177 drugs to P-glycoprotein have been created using of the linear discriminant analysis, random forest and support vector machine methods. QSAR modeling was carried out using 2 strategies. The first strategy consisted in search of all possible combinations from 1÷5 descriptors on the basis of 7 most significant molecular descriptors with clear physico-chemical interpretation. In the second case forward selection procedure up to 5 descriptors, starting from the best single descriptor was used. This strategy was applied to a set of 387 DRAGON descriptors. It was found that only one of 33 models has necessary statistical parameters. This model was designed by means of the linear discriminant analysis on the basis of a single descriptor of H-bond (ΣC(ad)). The model has good statistical characteristics as evidenced by results to both internal cross-validation, and external validation with application of 44 new chemicals. This confirms an important role of hydrogen bond in the processes connected with penetration of chemical compounds through a blood-brain barrier. PMID:27143376

  16. Impact of endogenous esterase activity on in vitro p-glycoprotein profiling of dabigatran etexilate in Caco-2 monolayers.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Naoki; Kishimoto, Wataru; Volz, Astrid; Ludwig-Schwellinger, Eva; Ebner, Thomas; Schaefer, Olaf

    2014-02-01

    Dabigatran etexilate, a double prodrug of dabigatran, is a reversible, competitive, direct thrombin inhibitor that has been approved for use in many countries. A recent guideline from the European Medicines Agency on drug-drug interactions proposed dabigatran etexilate as a sensitive in vivo and in vitro probe substrate for intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibition. We therefore performed a series of in vitro studies to determine the best experimental conditions for evaluation of P-gp involvement on the transport process of dabigatran etexilate across colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cell monolayers. Experiments using expressed carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) and CES2 bactosomes revealed that dabigatran etexilate was hydrolyzed into BIBR 1087 by CES1 expressed in our Caco-2 cells. The impact of CES1-mediated BIBR 1087 formation during transcellular transport experiments was assessed by comparing several combinations of three experimental approaches: radioactivity detection using [(14)C]dabigatran etexilate as substrate, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) quantification of dabigatran etexilate, and in the presence and absence of a CES inhibitor bis(p-nitrophenyl) phosphate (BNPP). The experimental approach that was based on the use of nonlabeled dabigatran etexilate together with LC-MS/MS quantification and the addition of BNPP was selected as the most favorable condition in which to correctly evaluate the permeability coefficient (Papp) of dabigatran etexilate and its transcellular transport by P-gp. The in vitro Caco-2 study at the selected condition revealed that dabigatran etexilate is a P-gp substrate with an efflux ratio of 13.8 and an intrinsic Papp, which is the Papp under the condition of complete blockage of P-gp by P-gp inhibitor, of 29 × 10(-6) cm/s.

  17. Impact of endogenous esterase activity on in vitro p-glycoprotein profiling of dabigatran etexilate in Caco-2 monolayers.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Naoki; Kishimoto, Wataru; Volz, Astrid; Ludwig-Schwellinger, Eva; Ebner, Thomas; Schaefer, Olaf

    2014-02-01

    Dabigatran etexilate, a double prodrug of dabigatran, is a reversible, competitive, direct thrombin inhibitor that has been approved for use in many countries. A recent guideline from the European Medicines Agency on drug-drug interactions proposed dabigatran etexilate as a sensitive in vivo and in vitro probe substrate for intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibition. We therefore performed a series of in vitro studies to determine the best experimental conditions for evaluation of P-gp involvement on the transport process of dabigatran etexilate across colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cell monolayers. Experiments using expressed carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) and CES2 bactosomes revealed that dabigatran etexilate was hydrolyzed into BIBR 1087 by CES1 expressed in our Caco-2 cells. The impact of CES1-mediated BIBR 1087 formation during transcellular transport experiments was assessed by comparing several combinations of three experimental approaches: radioactivity detection using [(14)C]dabigatran etexilate as substrate, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) quantification of dabigatran etexilate, and in the presence and absence of a CES inhibitor bis(p-nitrophenyl) phosphate (BNPP). The experimental approach that was based on the use of nonlabeled dabigatran etexilate together with LC-MS/MS quantification and the addition of BNPP was selected as the most favorable condition in which to correctly evaluate the permeability coefficient (Papp) of dabigatran etexilate and its transcellular transport by P-gp. The in vitro Caco-2 study at the selected condition revealed that dabigatran etexilate is a P-gp substrate with an efflux ratio of 13.8 and an intrinsic Papp, which is the Papp under the condition of complete blockage of P-gp by P-gp inhibitor, of 29 × 10(-6) cm/s. PMID:24212377

  18. Regulation of Multidrug Resistance P-Glycoprotein in the Developing Blood-Brain Barrier: Interplay between Glucocorticoids and Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Baello, S; Javam, M; Audette, M C; Gibb, W; Matthews, S G

    2016-03-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) encoded by Abcb1 provides protection to the developing brain from xenobiotics. P-gp in brain endothelial cells (BECs) derived from the developing brain microvasculature is up-regulated by glucocorticoids and inhibited by pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro. However, little is known about how prenatal maternal glucocorticoid treatment can affect Abcb1/P-gp function and subsequent cytokine regulation in foetal BECs. We hypothesised that glucocorticoid exposure increases Abcb1/P-gp in the foetal brain microvasculature and enhances the sensitivity of Abcb1/P-gp in BECs to the inhibitory effects of cytokines. BECs isolated from dexamethasone- or vehicle-exposed foetal guinea pigs were cultured and treated with interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 or tumour necrosis factor-α, and Abcb1/P-gp expression and function were assessed. Prenatal dexamethasone exposure significantly increased Abcb1/P-gp expression/activity and cytokine receptor levels in BECs of the foetal brain microvasculature. Foetal dexamethasone exposure in vivo also increased the subsequent responsiveness of BECs to pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro. In conclusion, maternal treatment with synthetic glucocorticoids appears to prematurely mature P-gp mediated drug resistance at the foetal BBB in vivo and profoundly impact the subsequent responsiveness of P-gp to pro-inflammatory cytokines in the foetal BEC. The significance of these findings to foetal brain protection against xenobiotics and other P-gp substrates in vivo requires further elaboration. However, the results of the present study may have implications for human pregnancy and foetal brain protection, particularly in cases of preterm birth combined with infection. PMID:26718627

  19. Hepatic secretion of phospholipid vesicles in the mouse critically depends on mdr2 or MDR3 P-glycoprotein expression. Visualization by electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, A R; Smith, A J; Hatch, V C; Oude Elferink, R P; Borst, P; Crawford, J M

    1997-01-01

    Hepatocellular secretion of bile salts into the biliary space induces phospholipid and cholesterol secretion, but the mechanism for integrated lipid secretion is poorly understood. Knockout mice unable to make the canalicular membrane mdr2 P-glycoprotein exhibit normal rates of bile salt secretion, yet are virtually incapable of secreting biliary phospholipid and cholesterol. As the mdr2 P-glycoprotein is thought to mediate transmembrane movement of phospholipid molecules, this mouse model was used to examine the mechanism for biliary phospholipid secretion. In wild-type mdr2 (+/+) mice, ultrarapid cryofixation of livers in situ revealed abundant unilamellar lipid vesicles within bile canalicular lumina. Although 74% of vesicles were adherent to the external aspect of the canalicular plasma membrane, bilayer exocytosis was not observed. Vesicle numbers in mdr2 (+/-) and (-/-) mice were 55 and 12% of wild-type levels, respectively. In a strain of mdr2 (-/-) mice which had been "rescued" by heterozygous genomic insertion of the MDR3 gene, the human homologue of the murine mdr2 gene, vesicle numbers returned to 95% of wild-type levels. Our findings indicate that biliary phospholipid is secreted as vesicles by a process largely dependent on the action of the murine mdr2 P-glycoprotein or human MDR3 P-glycoprotein. We conclude that mdr2-mediated phospholipid translocation from the internal to external hemileaflet of the canalicular membrane permits exovesiculation of the external hemileaflet, a vesiculation process promoted by the detergent environment of the bile canalicular lumen. PMID:9366571

  20. Hepatic secretion of phospholipid vesicles in the mouse critically depends on mdr2 or MDR3 P-glycoprotein expression. Visualization by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Crawford, A R; Smith, A J; Hatch, V C; Oude Elferink, R P; Borst, P; Crawford, J M

    1997-11-15

    Hepatocellular secretion of bile salts into the biliary space induces phospholipid and cholesterol secretion, but the mechanism for integrated lipid secretion is poorly understood. Knockout mice unable to make the canalicular membrane mdr2 P-glycoprotein exhibit normal rates of bile salt secretion, yet are virtually incapable of secreting biliary phospholipid and cholesterol. As the mdr2 P-glycoprotein is thought to mediate transmembrane movement of phospholipid molecules, this mouse model was used to examine the mechanism for biliary phospholipid secretion. In wild-type mdr2 (+/+) mice, ultrarapid cryofixation of livers in situ revealed abundant unilamellar lipid vesicles within bile canalicular lumina. Although 74% of vesicles were adherent to the external aspect of the canalicular plasma membrane, bilayer exocytosis was not observed. Vesicle numbers in mdr2 (+/-) and (-/-) mice were 55 and 12% of wild-type levels, respectively. In a strain of mdr2 (-/-) mice which had been "rescued" by heterozygous genomic insertion of the MDR3 gene, the human homologue of the murine mdr2 gene, vesicle numbers returned to 95% of wild-type levels. Our findings indicate that biliary phospholipid is secreted as vesicles by a process largely dependent on the action of the murine mdr2 P-glycoprotein or human MDR3 P-glycoprotein. We conclude that mdr2-mediated phospholipid translocation from the internal to external hemileaflet of the canalicular membrane permits exovesiculation of the external hemileaflet, a vesiculation process promoted by the detergent environment of the bile canalicular lumen.

  1. P-glycoprotein expression in normal and reactive bone marrows.

    PubMed Central

    Hegewisch-Becker, S.; Fliegner, M.; Tsuruo, T.; Zander, A.; Zeller, W.; Hossfeld, D. K.

    1993-01-01

    The expression of mdr1 gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was investigated in 53 normal and reactive bone marrows by means of immunocytochemistry, using the monoclonal antibody (mAb) C219 and the alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase method. In a limited number of patients, data were confirmed by using the mAb MRK16 or a polymerase chain reaction assay for mdr1 gene expression. There was no history of prior chemotherapy or any malignancy in this group. Bone marrow aspirates were obtained as part of a routine diagnostic programme in bone marrow donors or in patients presenting with a variety of diagnoses such as unexplained gammopathy, fever, anaemia, other changes in peripheral blood smear, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, or urticaria pigmentosa. Morphologically the bone marrow was normal in 23 patients, a megaloblastic erythropoiesis was seen in two patients and unspecific changes were seen in 28 patients. Twenty-seven of 53 samples were found to be positive for P-gp expression with the percentage of positive cells ranging from 2%-80% (mean = 24%). With a cutoff point of 10%, five of 23 normal (22%) and 13 of 28 reactive bone marrows (46%) were considered positive for P-gp expression. There was no obvious correlation between diagnosis or age and P-gp expression. Additional staining for the early surface marker CD-34 was performed in 12 samples, with none of them revealing more than 1% positivity. Since P-gp expression has so far been described only in CD-34 positive bone marrow cells, data suggest that P-gp expression may be reinduced in CD-34 negative cells under conditions which remain to be determined. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8094974

  2. Synthesis and P-glycoprotein induction activity of colupulone analogs.

    PubMed

    Bharate, Jaideep B; Batarseh, Yazan S; Wani, Abubakar; Sharma, Sadhana; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Kaddoumi, Amal; Kumar, Ajay; Bharate, Sandip B

    2015-05-21

    Brain amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques are one of the primary hallmarks associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Efflux pump proteins located at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) have been reported to play an important role in the clearance of brain Aβ, among which the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter pump has been shown to play a crucial role. Thus, P-gp has been considered as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of AD. Colupulone, a prenylated phloroglucinol isolated from Humulus lupulus, is known to activate pregnane-X-receptor (PXR), which is a nuclear receptor controlling P-gp expression. In the present work, we aimed to synthesize and identify analogs of colupulone that are potent P-gp inducer(s) with an ability to enhance Aβ transport across the BBB. A series of colupulone analogs were synthesized by modifications at both prenyl as well as acyl domains. All compounds were screened for P-gp induction activity using a rhodamine 123 based efflux assay in the P-gp overexpressing human adenocarcinoma LS-180 cells, wherein all compounds showed significant P-gp induction activity at 5 μM. In the western blot studies in LS-180 cells, compounds 3k and 5f were able to induce P-gp as well as LRP1 at 1 μM. The effect of compounds on the Aβ uptake and transport was then evaluated. Among all tested compounds, diprenylated acyl phloroglucinol displayed a significant increase (29%) in Aβ transport across bEnd3 cells grown on inserts as a BBB model. The results presented here suggest the potential of this scaffold to enhance clearance of brain Aβ across the BBB and thus its promise for development as a potential anti-Alzheimer agent.

  3. Molecular insight into conformational transmission of human P-glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Shan-Yan; Liu, Fu-Feng E-mail: ysun@tju.edu.cn; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Yan E-mail: ysun@tju.edu.cn

    2013-12-14

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a kind of ATP-binding cassette transporter, can export candidates through a channel at the two transmembrane domains (TMDs) across the cell membranes using the energy released from ATP hydrolysis at the two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). Considerable evidence has indicated that human P-gp undergoes large-scale conformational changes to export a wide variety of anti-cancer drugs out of the cancer cells. However, molecular mechanism of the conformational transmission of human P-gp from the NBDs to the TMDs is still unclear. Herein, targeted molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the atomic detail of the conformational transmission of human P-gp. It is confirmed that the conformational transition from the inward- to outward-facing is initiated by the movement of the NBDs. It is found that the two NBDs move both on the two directions (x and y). The movement on the x direction leads to the closure of the NBDs, while the movement on the y direction adjusts the conformations of the NBDs to form the correct ATP binding pockets. Six key segments (KSs) protruding from the TMDs to interact with the NBDs are identified. The relative movement of the KSs along the y axis driven by the NBDs can be transmitted through α-helices to the rest of the TMDs, rendering the TMDs to open towards periplasm in the outward-facing conformation. Twenty eight key residue pairs are identified to participate in the interaction network that contributes to the conformational transmission from the NBDs to the TMDs of human P-gp. In addition, 9 key residues in each NBD are also identified. The studies have thus provided clear insight into the conformational transmission from the NBDs to the TMDs in human P-gp.

  4. Molecular insight into conformational transmission of human P-glycoprotein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shan-Yan; Liu, Fu-Feng; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Yan

    2013-12-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a kind of ATP-binding cassette transporter, can export candidates through a channel at the two transmembrane domains (TMDs) across the cell membranes using the energy released from ATP hydrolysis at the two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). Considerable evidence has indicated that human P-gp undergoes large-scale conformational changes to export a wide variety of anti-cancer drugs out of the cancer cells. However, molecular mechanism of the conformational transmission of human P-gp from the NBDs to the TMDs is still unclear. Herein, targeted molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the atomic detail of the conformational transmission of human P-gp. It is confirmed that the conformational transition from the inward- to outward-facing is initiated by the movement of the NBDs. It is found that the two NBDs move both on the two directions (x and y). The movement on the x direction leads to the closure of the NBDs, while the movement on the y direction adjusts the conformations of the NBDs to form the correct ATP binding pockets. Six key segments (KSs) protruding from the TMDs to interact with the NBDs are identified. The relative movement of the KSs along the y axis driven by the NBDs can be transmitted through α-helices to the rest of the TMDs, rendering the TMDs to open towards periplasm in the outward-facing conformation. Twenty eight key residue pairs are identified to participate in the interaction network that contributes to the conformational transmission from the NBDs to the TMDs of human P-gp. In addition, 9 key residues in each NBD are also identified. The studies have thus provided clear insight into the conformational transmission from the NBDs to the TMDs in human P-gp.

  5. Synthesis and P-glycoprotein induction activity of colupulone analogs.

    PubMed

    Bharate, Jaideep B; Batarseh, Yazan S; Wani, Abubakar; Sharma, Sadhana; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Kaddoumi, Amal; Kumar, Ajay; Bharate, Sandip B

    2015-05-21

    Brain amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques are one of the primary hallmarks associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Efflux pump proteins located at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) have been reported to play an important role in the clearance of brain Aβ, among which the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter pump has been shown to play a crucial role. Thus, P-gp has been considered as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of AD. Colupulone, a prenylated phloroglucinol isolated from Humulus lupulus, is known to activate pregnane-X-receptor (PXR), which is a nuclear receptor controlling P-gp expression. In the present work, we aimed to synthesize and identify analogs of colupulone that are potent P-gp inducer(s) with an ability to enhance Aβ transport across the BBB. A series of colupulone analogs were synthesized by modifications at both prenyl as well as acyl domains. All compounds were screened for P-gp induction activity using a rhodamine 123 based efflux assay in the P-gp overexpressing human adenocarcinoma LS-180 cells, wherein all compounds showed significant P-gp induction activity at 5 μM. In the western blot studies in LS-180 cells, compounds 3k and 5f were able to induce P-gp as well as LRP1 at 1 μM. The effect of compounds on the Aβ uptake and transport was then evaluated. Among all tested compounds, diprenylated acyl phloroglucinol displayed a significant increase (29%) in Aβ transport across bEnd3 cells grown on inserts as a BBB model. The results presented here suggest the potential of this scaffold to enhance clearance of brain Aβ across the BBB and thus its promise for development as a potential anti-Alzheimer agent. PMID:25875530

  6. Interaction of the P-Glycoprotein Multidrug Transporter with Sterols.

    PubMed

    Clay, Adam T; Lu, Peihua; Sharom, Frances J

    2015-11-01

    The ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1) actively exports structurally diverse substrates from within the lipid bilayer, leading to multidrug resistance. Many aspects of Pgp function are altered by the phospholipid environment, but its interactions with sterols remain enigmatic. In this work, the functional interaction between purified Pgp and various sterols was investigated in detergent solution and proteoliposomes. Fluorescence studies showed that dehydroergosterol, cholestatrienol, and NBD-cholesterol interact intimately with Pgp, resulting in both quenching of protein Trp fluorescence and enhancement of sterol fluorescence. Kd values indicated binding affinities in the range of 3-9 μM. Collisional quenching experiments showed that Pgp-bound NBD-cholesterol was protected from the external milieu, resonance energy transfer was observed between Pgp Trp residues and the sterol, and the fluorescence emission of bound sterol was enhanced. These observations suggested an intimate interaction of bound sterols with the transporter at a protected nonpolar site. Cholesterol hemisuccinate altered the thermal unfolding of Pgp and greatly stabilized its basal ATPase activity in both a detergent solution and reconstituted proteoliposomes of certain phospholipids. Other sterols, including dehydroergosterol, did not stabilize the basal ATPase activity of detergent-solubilized Pgp, which suggests that this is not a generalized sterol effect. The phospholipid composition and cholesterol hemisuccinate content of Pgp proteoliposomes altered the basal ATPase and drug transport cycles differently. Sterols may interact with Pgp and modulate its structure and function by occupying part of the drug-binding pocket or by binding to putative consensus cholesterol-binding (CRAC/CARC) motifs located within the transmembrane domains.

  7. Thyroid Hormone and P-Glycoprotein in Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Paul J.; Lin, Hung-Yun; Sudha, Thangirala; Mousa, Shaker A.

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp; multidrug resistance pump 1, MDR1; ABCB1) is a plasma membrane efflux pump that when activated in cancer cells exports chemotherapeutic agents. Transcription of the P-gp gene (MDR1) and activity of the P-gp protein are known to be affected by thyroid hormone. A cell surface receptor for thyroid hormone on integrin αvβ3 also binds tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a derivative of L-thyroxine (T4) that blocks nongenomic actions of T4 and of 3,5,3′-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) at αvβ3. Covalently bound to a nanoparticle, tetrac as nanotetrac acts at the integrin to increase intracellular residence time of chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin and etoposide that are substrates of P-gp. This action chemosensitizes cancer cells. In this review, we examine possible molecular mechanisms for the inhibitory effect of nanotetrac on P-gp activity. Mechanisms for consideration include cancer cell acidification via action of tetrac/nanotetrac on the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE1) and hormone analogue effects on calmodulin-dependent processes and on interactions of P-gp with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and osteopontin (OPN), apparently via αvβ3. Intracellular acidification and decreased H+ efflux induced by tetrac/nanotetrac via NHE1 is the most attractive explanation for the actions on P-gp and consequent increase in cancer cell retention of chemotherapeutic agent-ligands of MDR1 protein. PMID:25866761

  8. The human P-glycoprotein transporter enhances the type I interferon response to Listeria monocytogenes infection.

    PubMed

    Sigal, Nadejda; Kaplan Zeevi, Millie; Weinstein, Shiri; Peer, Dan; Herskovits, Anat A

    2015-06-01

    Human multidrug efflux transporters are known for their ability to extrude antibiotics and toxic compounds out of cells, yet accumulating data indicate they have additional functions in diverse physiological processes not related to drug efflux. Here, we show that the human multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (also named MDR1 and ABCB1) is transcriptionally induced in the monocytic cell line THP-1 upon infection with the human intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Notably, we found that P-gp is important for full activation of the type I interferon response elicited against L. monocytogenes bacteria. Both inhibition of P-gp function by verapamil and inhibition of its transcription using mRNA silencing led to a reduction in the magnitude of the type I response in infected cells. This function of P-gp was specific to type I interferon cytokines elicited against cytosolic replicating bacteria and was not observed in response to cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP), a molecule that was shown to be secreted by L. monocytogenes during infection and to trigger type I interferons. Moreover, P-gp was not involved in activation of other proinflammatory cytokines, such as those triggered by vacuolar-restricted L. monocytogenes or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Taken together, these findings demonstrate a role for P-gp in proper development of an innate immune response against intracellular pathogens, highlighting the complexity in employing therapeutic strategies that involve inhibition of multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pumps.

  9. Simultaneous backward conditioned inhibition and mediated conditioning.

    PubMed

    Graham, Steven; Jie, Hans Lee; Chan, Hui-Minn; McLaren, I P L; Wills, Andy J

    2011-04-01

    Demonstrations of retrospective revaluation suggest that remembered stimuli undergo a reduction in association with the unconditioned stimulus (US) present during learning. Conversely, demonstrations of mediated conditioning in flavor-conditioning experiments with rats suggest that remembered stimuli undergo an increase in association with the US present during learning. In a food allergy prediction task with 23 undergraduates, we demonstrated simultaneous backward conditioned inhibition and mediated conditioning effects. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that the direction of change (decrease or increase) in associative strength depends on whether the remembered stimulus was of a different category (conditioned stimulus/antecedent) or the same category (US/outcome) as the presented US. PMID:21319913

  10. Deconvoluting the effects of P-glycoprotein on intestinal CYP3A: a major challenge.

    PubMed

    Knight, Beverly; Troutman, Matthew; Thakker, Dhiren R

    2006-10-01

    Metabolism by cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux are two important biochemical barriers to drug absorption from the intestine. CYP3A, the most important family of drug-metabolizing enzymes, shares many substrates with the efflux transporter P-gp. Although the individual impact of these two systems on drug disposition is routinely assessed, the effect of both systems acting together during intestinal absorption is difficult to ascertain. Pharmacokinetic theory predicts that the effect of efflux on overall metabolism depends on substrate concentrations relative to the respective kinetic parameters of these processes (i.e. affinities for transport and metabolism, as well as the capacities of these processes). Researchers have published conflicting findings on how efflux affects metabolism. Furthermore, the in vitro parameters that have been used to explain or predict this interation are more relevant for describing overall changes in extraction efficiency of the system (intestinal epithelium), rather than deconvoluting the effect of P-gp on CYP3A-mediated metabolism. Developing a more refined way to understand this interplay and its potential relevance to drug absorption is an important goal, as a large proportion of marketed drugs and many modern drug discovery candidates are known to be affected by one or both of these proteins.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of single ascending doses of the P-glycoprotein inhibitor tariquidar in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, M.; Zeitlinger, M.; Todorut, D.; Böhmdorfer, M.; Müller, M.; Langer, O.; Jäger, W.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the pharmacokinetics (PK), tolerability and safety of tariquidar (TQD), a P-glycoprotein (Pgp) inhibitor, after i.v. administration of single ascending doses. Employed doses were up to 4-fold higher than in previous clinical trials in cancer patients and are capable to inhibit Pgp at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). 15 male healthy volunteers were randomised to receive single i.v. doses of TQD at 4, 6 or 8 mg/kg body weight and underwent blood sampling over 24 h. TQD concentrations were determined in plasma samples with high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. No dose limiting toxicities of TQD were observed. Area under the plasma concentration-time curve from start until 24 h after end of infusion (AUC0-n) was positively correlated with administered TQD dose (r=0.8981, p<0.0001). Moreover, we found a positive correlation for volume of distribution at steady state Vss (r=0.7129, p=0.0004) with TQD dose. Dose dependency of Vss points to non-linear PK of TQD, which was in all likelihood caused by transporter saturation at high TQD doses. Acceptable safety and tolerability and dose-linear increases in plasma exposure support future use of TQD at doses up to 8 mg/kg to inhibit Pgp at the human BBB. PMID:23146816

  12. Interactions of human P-glycoprotein transport substrates and inhibitors at the drug binding domain: Functional and molecular docking analyses.

    PubMed

    Kadioglu, Onat; Saeed, Mohamed E M; Valoti, Massimo; Frosini, Maria; Sgaragli, Giampietro; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-03-15

    Rhodamine 123 (R123) transport substrate sensitizes P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to inhibition by compound 2c (cis-cis) N,N-bis(cyclohexanolamine)aryl ester isomer in a concentration-dependent manner in human MDR1-gene transfected mouse T-lymphoma L5178 cells as shown previously. By contrast, epirubicin (EPI) concentration changes left unaltered 2c IC50 values of EPI efflux. To clarify this discrepancy, defined molecular docking (DMD) analyses of 12 N,N-bis(cyclohexanolamine)aryl esters, the highly flexible aryl ester analog 4, and several P-gp substrate/non-substrate inhibitors were performed on human P-gp drug- or nucleotide-binding domains (DBD or NBD). DMD measurements yielded lowest binding energy (LBE, kcal/mol) values (mean ± SD) ranging from -11.8 ± 0.54 (valspodar) to -3.98 ± 0.01 (4). Lys234, Ser952 and Tyr953 residues formed H-bonds with most of the compounds. Only 2c docked also at ATP binding site (LBE value of -6.9 ± 0.30 kcal/mol). Inhibition of P-gp-mediated R123 efflux by 12 N,N-bis(cyclohexanolamine)aryl esters and 4 significantly correlated with LBE values. DMD analysis of EPI, (3)H-1EPI, (3)H-2EPI, (14)C-1EPI, (14)C-2EPI, R123 and 2c before and after previous docking of each of them indicated that pre-docking of either 2c or EPI significantly reduced LBE of both EPI and R123, and that of both (3)H-2EPI and (14)C-2EPI, respectively. Since the clusters of DBD amino acid residues interacting with EPI were different, if EPI docked alone or after pre-docking of EPI or 2c, the existence of alternative secondary binding site for EPI on P-gp is credible. In conclusion, 2c may allocate the drug-binding pocket and reduce strong binding of EPI and R123 in agreement with P-gp inhibition experiments, where 2c reduced efflux of EPI and R123.

  13. Interactions of human P-glycoprotein transport substrates and inhibitors at the drug binding domain: Functional and molecular docking analyses.

    PubMed

    Kadioglu, Onat; Saeed, Mohamed E M; Valoti, Massimo; Frosini, Maria; Sgaragli, Giampietro; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-03-15

    Rhodamine 123 (R123) transport substrate sensitizes P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to inhibition by compound 2c (cis-cis) N,N-bis(cyclohexanolamine)aryl ester isomer in a concentration-dependent manner in human MDR1-gene transfected mouse T-lymphoma L5178 cells as shown previously. By contrast, epirubicin (EPI) concentration changes left unaltered 2c IC50 values of EPI efflux. To clarify this discrepancy, defined molecular docking (DMD) analyses of 12 N,N-bis(cyclohexanolamine)aryl esters, the highly flexible aryl ester analog 4, and several P-gp substrate/non-substrate inhibitors were performed on human P-gp drug- or nucleotide-binding domains (DBD or NBD). DMD measurements yielded lowest binding energy (LBE, kcal/mol) values (mean ± SD) ranging from -11.8 ± 0.54 (valspodar) to -3.98 ± 0.01 (4). Lys234, Ser952 and Tyr953 residues formed H-bonds with most of the compounds. Only 2c docked also at ATP binding site (LBE value of -6.9 ± 0.30 kcal/mol). Inhibition of P-gp-mediated R123 efflux by 12 N,N-bis(cyclohexanolamine)aryl esters and 4 significantly correlated with LBE values. DMD analysis of EPI, (3)H-1EPI, (3)H-2EPI, (14)C-1EPI, (14)C-2EPI, R123 and 2c before and after previous docking of each of them indicated that pre-docking of either 2c or EPI significantly reduced LBE of both EPI and R123, and that of both (3)H-2EPI and (14)C-2EPI, respectively. Since the clusters of DBD amino acid residues interacting with EPI were different, if EPI docked alone or after pre-docking of EPI or 2c, the existence of alternative secondary binding site for EPI on P-gp is credible. In conclusion, 2c may allocate the drug-binding pocket and reduce strong binding of EPI and R123 in agreement with P-gp inhibition experiments, where 2c reduced efflux of EPI and R123. PMID:26807479

  14. Localization of P-glycoprotein at the nuclear envelope of rat brain cells

    SciTech Connect

    Babakhanian, Karlo; Bendayan, Moise; Bendayan, Reina . E-mail: r.bendayan@utoronto.ca

    2007-09-21

    P-Glycoprotein is a plasma membrane drug efflux protein implicated in extrusion of cytotoxic compounds out of a cell. There is now evidence that suggests expression of this transporter at several subcellular sites, including the nucleus, mitochondria, and Golgi apparatus. This study investigated the localization and expression of P-glycoprotein at the nuclear membrane of rat brain microvessel endothelial (RBE4) and microglial (MLS-9) cell lines. Immunocytochemistry at the light and electron microscope levels using P-glycoprotein monoclonals antibodies demonstrated the localization of the protein at the nuclear envelope of RBE4 and MLS-9 cells. Western blot analysis revealed a single band of 170-kDa in purified nuclear membranes prepared from isolated nuclei of RBE4 and MLS-9 cells. These findings indicate that P-glycoprotein is expressed at the nuclear envelope of rat brain cells and suggest a role in multidrug resistance at this subcellular site.

  15. P-glycoprotein inhibitory activity of two phenolic compounds, (-)-syringaresinol and tricin from Sasa borealis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yeon Hee; Chung, Soo Yeon; Han, Ah-Reum; Sung, Min Kyung; Jang, Dae Sik; Lee, Jun; Kwon, Youngjoo; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Seo, Eun-Kyoung

    2007-01-01

    (-)-Syringaresinol and tricin, isolated from the AcOEt-soluble extract of the whole plants of Sasa borealis (Gramineae), showed inhibitory effects on the P-glycoprotein in adriamycin-resistant human breast cancer cells, MCF-7/ADR. PMID:17256728

  16. Interaction of drugs of abuse and maintenance treatments with human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2).

    PubMed

    Tournier, Nicolas; Chevillard, Lucie; Megarbane, Bruno; Pirnay, Stéphane; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Declèves, Xavier

    2010-08-01

    Drug interaction with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) may influence its tissue disposition including blood-brain barrier transport and result in potent drug-drug interactions. The limited data obtained using in-vitro models indicate that methadone, buprenorphine, and cannabinoids may interact with human P-gp; but almost nothing is known about drugs of abuse and BCRP. We used in vitro P-gp and BCRP inhibition flow cytometric assays with hMDR1- and hBCRP-transfected HEK293 cells to test 14 compounds or metabolites frequently involved in addiction, including buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, methadone, ibogaine, cocaine, cocaethylene, amphetamine, N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, nicotine, ketamine, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), naloxone, and morphine. Drugs that in vitro inhibited P-gp or BCRP were tested in hMDR1- and hBCRP-MDCKII bidirectional transport studies. Human P-gp was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by norbuprenorphine>buprenorphine>methadone>ibogaine and THC. Similarly, BCRP was inhibited by buprenorphine>norbuprenorphine>ibogaine and THC. None of the other tested compounds inhibited either transporter, even at high concentration (100 microm). Norbuprenorphine (transport efflux ratio approoximately 11) and methadone (transport efflux ratio approoximately 1.9) transport was P-gp-mediated; however, with no significant stereo-selectivity regarding methadone enantiomers. BCRP did not transport any of the tested compounds. However, the clinical significance of the interaction of norbuprenorphine with P-gp remains to be evaluated. PMID:19887017

  17. Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of NSC23925b, a novel P-glycoprotein inhibitor: preclinical study in mice and rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yan; Shen, Jacson K.; Choy, Edwin; Zhang, Zhan; Mankin, Henry J.; Hornicek, Francis J.; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) increases multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer, which greatly impedes satisfactory clinical treatment and outcomes of cancer patients. Due to unknown pharmacokinetics, the use of Pgp inhibitors to overcome MDR in the clinical setting remains elusive despite promising in vitro results. The purpose of our current preclinical study is to investigate the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of NSC23925b, a novel and potent P-glycoprotein inhibitor, in rodents. Plasma pharmacokinetic studies of single-dose NSC23925b alone or in combination with paclitaxel or doxorubicin were conducted in male BALB/c mice and Sprague-Dawley rats. Additionally, inhibition of human cytochrome P450 (CYP450) by NSC23925b was examined in vitro. Finally, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of NSC23925b was determined. NSC23925b displayed favorable pharmacokinetic profiles after intraperitoneal/intravenous (I.P./I.V.) injection alone or combined with chemotherapeutic drugs. The plasma pharmacokinetic characteristics of the chemotherapy drugs were not affected when co-administered with NSC23925b. All the animals tolerated the I.P./I.V. administration of NSC23925b. Moreover, the enzymatic activity of human CYP450 was not inhibited by NSC23925b. Our results demonstrated that Pgp inhibitor NSC23925b exhibits encouraging preclinical pharmacokinetic characteristics and limited toxicity in vivo. NSC23925b has the potential to treat cancer patients with MDR in the future. PMID:27157103

  18. Expression of P-glycoprotein in high grade osteosarcomas with special emphasis on chondroblastic subtype.

    PubMed

    Radig, K; Häckel, C; Herting, J; Oda, Y; Mittler, U; Neumann, W; Roessner, A

    1997-02-01

    The development of chemoresistance is one of the major clinical problems in the therapy of malignant bone tumors in childhood. The expression of membrane-bound P-glycoprotein turned out to be an essential factor in the evidence of resistant tumor cells. To investigate the significance of multidrug resistance in the prognosis of highly malignant osteosarcomas, the immunohistologic expression of P-glycoprotein was investigated in the tumor tissue of 52 patients under special consideration of the histologic subtype. The data were compared with the histologic regression grade in the resection specimen and correlated with clinical data. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue and, additionally, fresh frozen material taken from the primary biopsy were stained using monoclonal antibody JSB1. 29 (55%) of the tumors investigated were P-glycoprotein positive. Considering the response to chemotherapy, no conclusion could be drawn regarding P-glycoprotein expression, regression grade in the resection specimens, and the clinical follow-up. P-glycoprotein was detected in only 52% of the non-responders. A positive reaction was also evidenced in 59% of the patients with high chemosensitivity. A comparison of the histologic subtypes yielded a significant result in the chondroblastic osteosarcomas. 11 of 12 cases showed a strong expression of P-glycoprotein. Most of the cases were non-responders, and using Kaplan-Meier live tables, an unfavorable clinical outcome could be demonstrated. Possibly, chondroblastic tumors have a special position among osteosarcomas because of their differentiation. PMID:9065577

  19. Locking intracellular helices 2 and 3 together inactivates human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Loo, Tip W; Clarke, David M

    2014-01-01

    The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug pump (ABCB1) has two transmembrane domains and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). Coupling of the drug-binding sites in the transmembrane domains to the NBDs occurs through interaction of the intracellular helices (IHs) with residues in the NBDs (IH1/IH4/NBD1 and IH2/IH3/NBD2). We showed previously that cross-linking of cysteines in IH3 and IH1 with a short cross-linker mimicked drug binding as it activated P-gp ATPase activity. Here we show that residue A259C(IH2) could be directly cross-linked to W803C(IH3). Cross-linking was inhibited by the presence of ATP and adenosine 5'-(β,γ-imino)triphosphate but not by ADP. Cross-linking of mutant A259C/W803C inhibited its verapamil-stimulated ATPase activity mutant, but activity was restored after addition of dithiothreitol. Because these residues are close to the ball-and-socket joint A266C(IH2)/Phe(1086)(NBD2), we mutated the adjacent Tyr(1087)(NBD2) close to IH3. Mutants Y1087A and Y1087L, but not Y1087F, were misprocessed, and all inhibited ATPase activity. Mutation of hydrophobic residues (F793A, L797A, L814A, and L818A) flanking IH3 also inhibited maturation. The results suggest that these residues, together with Trp(803) and Phe(804), form a large hydrophobic pocket. The results show that there is an important hydrophobic network at the IH2/IH3/NBD2 transmission interface that is critical for folding and activity of P-gp.

  20. CEACAM1-Mediated Inhibition of Virus Production.

    PubMed

    Vitenshtein, Alon; Weisblum, Yiska; Hauka, Sebastian; Halenius, Anne; Oiknine-Djian, Esther; Tsukerman, Pinchas; Bauman, Yoav; Bar-On, Yotam; Stern-Ginossar, Noam; Enk, Jonatan; Ortenberg, Rona; Tai, Julie; Markel, Gal; Blumberg, Richard S; Hengel, Hartmut; Jonjic, Stipan; Wolf, Dana G; Adler, Heiko; Kammerer, Robert; Mandelboim, Ofer

    2016-06-14

    Cells in our body can induce hundreds of antiviral genes following virus sensing, many of which remain largely uncharacterized. CEACAM1 has been previously shown to be induced by various innate systems; however, the reason for such tight integration to innate sensing systems was not apparent. Here, we show that CEACAM1 is induced following detection of HCMV and influenza viruses by their respective DNA and RNA innate sensors, IFI16 and RIG-I. This induction is mediated by IRF3, which bound to an ISRE element present in the human, but not mouse, CEACAM1 promoter. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, upon induction, CEACAM1 suppresses both HCMV and influenza viruses in an SHP2-dependent process and achieves this broad antiviral efficacy by suppressing mTOR-mediated protein biosynthesis. Finally, we show that CEACAM1 also inhibits viral spread in ex vivo human decidua organ culture. PMID:27264178

  1. A single active catalytic site is sufficient to promote transport in P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Bársony, Orsolya; Szalóki, Gábor; Türk, Dóra; Tarapcsák, Szabolcs; Gutay-Tóth, Zsuzsanna; Bacsó, Zsolt; Holb, Imre J; Székvölgyi, Lóránt; Szabó, Gábor; Csanády, László; Szakács, Gergely; Goda, Katalin

    2016-04-27

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is an ABC transporter responsible for the ATP-dependent efflux of chemotherapeutic compounds from multidrug resistant cancer cells. Better understanding of the molecular mechanism of Pgp-mediated transport could promote rational drug design to circumvent multidrug resistance. By measuring drug binding affinity and reactivity to a conformation-sensitive antibody we show here that nucleotide binding drives Pgp from a high to a low substrate-affinity state and this switch coincides with the flip from the inward- to the outward-facing conformation. Furthermore, the outward-facing conformation survives ATP hydrolysis: the post-hydrolytic complex is stabilized by vanadate, and the slow recovery from this state requires two functional catalytic sites. The catalytically inactive double Walker A mutant is stabilized in a high substrate affinity inward-open conformation, but mutants with one intact catalytic center preserve their ability to hydrolyze ATP and to promote drug transport, suggesting that the two catalytic sites are randomly recruited for ATP hydrolysis.

  2. A single active catalytic site is sufficient to promote transport in P-glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Bársony, Orsolya; Szalóki, Gábor; Türk, Dóra; Tarapcsák, Szabolcs; Gutay-Tóth, Zsuzsanna; Bacsó, Zsolt; Holb, Imre J.; Székvölgyi, Lóránt; Szabó, Gábor; Csanády, László; Szakács, Gergely; Goda, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is an ABC transporter responsible for the ATP-dependent efflux of chemotherapeutic compounds from multidrug resistant cancer cells. Better understanding of the molecular mechanism of Pgp-mediated transport could promote rational drug design to circumvent multidrug resistance. By measuring drug binding affinity and reactivity to a conformation-sensitive antibody we show here that nucleotide binding drives Pgp from a high to a low substrate-affinity state and this switch coincides with the flip from the inward- to the outward-facing conformation. Furthermore, the outward-facing conformation survives ATP hydrolysis: the post-hydrolytic complex is stabilized by vanadate, and the slow recovery from this state requires two functional catalytic sites. The catalytically inactive double Walker A mutant is stabilized in a high substrate affinity inward-open conformation, but mutants with one intact catalytic center preserve their ability to hydrolyze ATP and to promote drug transport, suggesting that the two catalytic sites are randomly recruited for ATP hydrolysis. PMID:27117502

  3. Megakaryocyte-mediated inhibition of osteoclast development.

    PubMed

    Kacena, Melissa A; Nelson, Tracy; Clough, Mary E; Lee, Sun-Kyeong; Lorenzo, Joseph A; Gundberg, Caren M; Horowitz, Mark C

    2006-11-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that megakaryocytes (MK) or their growth factors play a role in skeletal homeostasis. We previously identified a novel regulatory pathway that controls bone formation, which is mediated by MK. In vivo megakaryocytosis resulted in massive bone formation. The co-culture of MK with osteoblasts (OB) resulted in increased OB proliferation in vitro, by a mechanism that required direct cell-to-cell contact. Here, we examined a second MK-mediated pathway that regulates osteoclast (OC) development. We have begun examining the unique inhibitory effect of MK on OC development. Spleen or bone marrow (BM) cells from C57BL/6 mice, as a source of OC precursors, were cultured with M-CSF and RANKL to induce OC development. MK were prepared by culturing fetal liver cells with thrombopoietin and separating cells into MK and non-MK populations. MK were titrated into spleen cell cultures and OC were identified as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive giant cells with >3 nuclei. There was a significant, P < 0.001, up to 10-fold reduction in OC formed when MK were added to the spleen cell cultures. We determined that 30% (vol:vol) MK conditioned media (CM) were able to completely block OC development from precursors, whereas 3% MK CM resulted in up to a 10-fold reduction in OC development, P < 0.001. These data indicate that a soluble factor(s) was responsible, at least in part, for the inhibition. We examined MK CM for known inhibitors of OC formation, using ELISAs. IL-4 was undetectable in MK CM, whereas IL-10 and IFN-gamma levels were similar in MK and non-MK CM. TGFbeta-1 levels were increased 2-fold in MK CM compared to control CM but were not responsible for the inhibition in OC development. Although, we found a significant increase in the levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) in MK CM, antibody neutralization studies, MK derived from OPG-deficient mice, and tandem mass spectrophotometry, all confirm that OPG was not responsible for the MK-mediated

  4. Extracellular galectin-3 programs multidrug resistance through Na+/K+-ATPase and P-glycoprotein signaling.

    PubMed

    Harazono, Yosuke; Kho, Dhong Hyo; Balan, Vitaly; Nakajima, Kosei; Hogan, Victor; Raz, Avraham

    2015-08-14

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3, LGALS3) is a pleotropic versatile, 29-35 kDa chimeric gene product, and involved in diverse physiological and pathological processes, including cell growth, homeostasis, apoptosis, pre-mRNA splicing, cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, cellular polarity, motility, adhesion, activation, differentiation, transformation, signaling, regulation of innate/adaptive immunity, and angiogenesis. In multiple diseases, it was found that the level of circulating Gal-3 is markedly elevated, suggesting that Gal-3-dependent function is mediated by specific interaction with yet an unknown ubiquitous cell-surface protein. Recently, we showed that Gal-3 attenuated drug-induced apoptosis, which is one of the mechanisms underlying multidrug resistance (MDR). Here, we document that MDR could be mediated by Gal-3 interaction with the house-keeping gene product e.g., Na+/K+-ATPase, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Gal-3 interacts with Na+/K+-ATPase and induces the phosphorylation of P-gp. We also find that Gal-3 binds P-gp and enhances its ATPase activity. Furthermore Gal-3 antagonist suppresses this interaction and results in a decrease of the phosphorylation and the ATPase activity of P-gp, leading to an increased sensitivity to doxorubicin-mediated cell death. Taken together, these findings may explain the reported roles of Gal-3 in diverse diseases and suggest that a combined therapy of inhibitors of Na+/K+-ATPase and Gal-3, and a disease specific drug(s) might be superior to a single therapeutic modality.

  5. P-glycoprotein silencing with siRNA delivered by DOPE-modified PEI overcomes doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Gemma; Sawant, Rupa R; Biswas, Swati; Essex, Sean; Tros de Ilarduya, Conchita; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2012-01-01

    Aims Multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by overexpression of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), is a major problem, limiting successful chemotherapy of breast cancer. The use of siRNA to inhibit P-gp expression in MDR tumors is an attractive strategy to improve the effectiveness of anticancer drugs. Method We have synthesized a novel conjugate between a phospholipid (dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine) and polyethylenimine (PEI) for siRNA delivery, for the purpose of silencing P-gp to overcome doxorubicin resistance in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Results The dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine-PEI conjugate enhanced the transfection efficacy of low-molecular-weight PEI, which was otherwise totally ineffective. In addition, the polyethylene glycol/lipid coating of the new complexes gave rise to small micelle-like nanoparticles with improved biocompatibility properties. Both coated and noncoated formulations delivered P-gp-specific siRNA to MDR cells. Discussion The combination of doxorubicin and P-gp silencing formulations led to a twofold increase of doxorubicin uptake and a significant improvement of the therapeutic effect of doxorubicin in resistant cells. PMID:22191778

  6. The cross-talk between canonical and non-canonical Wnt-dependent pathways regulates P-glycoprotein expression in human blood–brain barrier cells

    PubMed Central

    Pinzón-Daza, Martha L; Salaroglio, Iris C; Kopecka, Joanna; Garzòn, Ruth; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Ghigo, Dario; Riganti, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we investigate if and how transducers of the ‘canonical' Wnt pathway, i.e., Wnt/glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)/β-catenin, and transducers of the ‘non-canonical' Wnt pathway, i.e., Wnt/RhoA/RhoA kinase (RhoAK), cooperate to control the expression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) in blood–brain barrier (BBB) cells. By analyzing human primary brain microvascular endothelial cells constitutively activated for RhoA, silenced for RhoA or treated with the RhoAK inhibitor Y27632, we found that RhoAK phosphorylated and activated the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), which dephosphorylated tyrosine 216 of GSK3, decreasing the GSK3-mediated inhibition of β-catenin. By contrast, the inhibition of RhoA/RhoAK axis prevented the activation of PTP1B, enhanced the GSK3-induced phosphorylation and ubiquitination of β-catenin, and reduced the β-catenin-driven transcription of Pgp. The RhoAK inhibition increased the delivery of Pgp substrates like doxorubicin across the BBB and improved the doxorubicin efficacy against glioblastoma cells co-cultured under a BBB monolayer. Our data demonstrate that in human BBB cells the expression of Pgp is controlled by a cross-talk between canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways. The disruption of this cross-talk, e.g., by inhibiting RhoAK, downregulates Pgp and increases the delivery of Pgp substrates across the BBB. PMID:24896565

  7. Edoxaban transport via P-glycoprotein is a key factor for the drug's disposition.

    PubMed

    Mikkaichi, Tsuyoshi; Yoshigae, Yasushi; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Imaoka, Tomoki; Rozehnal, Veronika; Fischer, Thomas; Okudaira, Noriko; Izumi, Takashi

    2014-04-01

    Edoxaban (the free base of DU-176b), an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, is mainly excreted unchanged into urine and feces. Because active membrane transport processes such as active renal secretion, biliary excretion, and/or intestinal secretion, and the incomplete absorption of edoxaban after oral administration have been observed, the involvement of drug transporters in the disposition of edoxaban was investigated. Using a bidirectional transport assay in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cell monolayers, we observed the vectorial transport of [(14)C]edoxaban, which was completely inhibited by verapamil, a strong P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor. In an in vivo study, an increased distribution of edoxaban to the brain was observed in Mdr1a/1b knockout mice when compared with wild-type mice, indicating that edoxaban is a substrate for P-gp. However, there have been no observations of significant transport of edoxaban by renal or hepatic uptake transporters, organic anion transporter (OAT)1, OAT3, organic cation transporter (OCT)2, or organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1. Edoxaban exhibited no remarkable inhibition of OAT1, OAT3, OCT1, OCT2, OATP1B1, OATP1B3, or P-gp up to 30 μM; therefore, the risk of clinical drug-drug interactions due to any edoxaban-related transporter inhibition seems to be negligible. Our results demonstrate that edoxaban is a substrate of P-gp but not of other major uptake transporters tested. Because metabolism is a minor contributor to the total clearance of edoxaban and strong P-gp inhibitors clearly impact edoxaban transport, the P-gp transport system is a key factor for edoxaban's disposition.

  8. Understanding polyspecificity within the substrate-binding cavity of the human multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Lorena; Arnaud, Ophélie; Henin, Emilie; Tao, Houchao; Chaptal, Vincent; Doshi, Rupak; Andrieu, Thibault; Dussurgey, Sébastien; Tod, Michel; Di Pietro, Attilio; Zhang, Qinghai; Chang, Geoffrey; Falson, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    Human P-glycoprotein (P-gp) controls drugs bioavailability by pumping structurally unrelated drugs out of cells. The X-ray structure of the mouse P-gp ortholog has been solved, with two SSS enantiomers or one RRR enantiomer of the selenohexapeptide inhibitor QZ59, found within the putative drug-binding pocket (Aller SG, Yu J, Ward A, Weng Y, Chittaboina S, Zhuo R, Harrell PM, Trinh YT, Zhang Q, Urbatsch IL et al. (2009). Science 323, 1718-1722). This offered the first opportunity to localize the well-known H and R drug-binding sites with respect to the QZ59 inhibition mechanisms of Hoechst 33342 and daunorubicin transports, characterized here in cellulo. We found that QZ59-SSS competes efficiently with both substrates, with K(I,app) values of 0.15 and 0.3 μM, which are 13 and 2 times lower, respectively, than the corresponding K(m,app) values. In contrast, QZ59-RRR non-competitively inhibited daunorubicin transport with moderate efficacy (K(I,app) = 1.9 μM); it also displayed a mixed-type inhibition of the Hoechst 33342 transport, resulting from a main non-competitive tendency (K(i2,app) = 1.6 μM) and a limited competitive tendency (K(i1,app) = 5 μM). These results suggest a positional overlap of QZ59 and drugs binding sites: full for the SSS enantiomer and partial for the RRR enantiomer. Crystal structure analysis suggests that the H site overlaps both QZ59-SSS locations while the R site overlaps the most embedded location.

  9. Characterization of Haemonchus contortus P-glycoprotein-16 and its interaction with the macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics.

    PubMed

    Godoy, P; Che, H; Beech, R N; Prichard, R K

    2015-11-01

    Anthelmintic resistance in veterinary nematodes, including Haemonchus contortus, has become a limitation to maintaining high standards of animal health. Resistance in this parasite, to all drug families including the macrocyclic lactones (MLs) is a serious issue worldwide. Mechanisms of resistance to the MLs appear to be complex and to include the elimination of these compounds by ABC transporter-like proteins present in nematodes. In order to investigate the potential involvement of ABC transporters in ML resistance in H. contortus, we have characterized the functionality of the ABC transporter H. contortus P-glycoprotein-16 (Hco-PGP-16) expressed in mammalian cells. This has included a study of its interaction with different MLs, including the avermectins, abamectin (ABA) and ivermectin (IVM), and the milbemycin, moxidectin (MOX). Hco-PGP-16 transport activity was studied using the fluorophore Rhodamine 123 (Rho 123). Transfected cells expressing Hco-PGP-16 accumulated less than 50% of Rho 123 than control cells, suggesting an active transport of this tracer dye by Hco-PGP-16. The influence of the MLs on the Rho123 transport by Hco-PGP-16 was then investigated. A marked inhibition of Rho123 transport by ABA and IVM was observed. In contrast, MOX showed less effect on inhibition of Rho123 transport by Hco-PGP-16, and the inhibition was not saturable. The difference in the interaction of the avermectins and MOX with Hco-PGP-16 may help explain the slower rate of development of resistance to MOX compared with the avermectins in H. contortus.

  10. Human P-glycoprotein exhibits reduced affinity for substrates during a catalytic transition state.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, M; Ambudkar, S V; Chen, D; Hrycyna, C A; Dey, S; Gottesman, M M; Pastan, I

    1998-04-01

    Human P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a plasma membrane protein that confers multidrug resistance, functions as an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump. Pgp contains two ATP binding/utilization sites and exhibits ATPase activity that is stimulated in the presence of substrates and modulating agents. The mechanism of coupling of ATP hydrolysis to drug transport is not known. To understand the role of ATP hydrolysis in drug binding, it is necessary to develop methods for purifying and reconstituting Pgp that retains properties including stimulation of ATPase activity by known substrates to an extent similar to that in the native membrane. In this study, (His)6-tagged Pgp was expressed in Trichoplusia ni (High Five) cells using the recombinant baculovirus system and purified by metal affinity chromatography. Upon reconstitution into phospholipid vesicles, purified Pgp exhibited specific binding to analogues of substrates and ATP in affinity labeling experiments and displayed a high level of drug-stimulated ATPase activity (specific activity ranging from 4.5 to 6.5 micromol min-1 mg-1). The ATPase activity was inhibited by ADP in a competitive manner, and by vanadate and N-ethylmaleimide at low concentrations. Vanadate which is known to inhibit ATPase activity by trapping MgADP at the catalytic site inhibited photoaffinity labeling of Pgp with substrate analogues, [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin and [3H]azidopine, only under ATP hydrolysis conditions. Because vanadate-trapped Pgp is known to resemble the ADP and phosphate-bound catalytic transition state, our findings indicate that ATP hydrolysis results in a conformation with reduced affinity for substrates. A catalytic transition conformation with reduced affinity would essentially result in substrate dissociation and supports a model for drug transport in which an ATP hydrolysis-induced conformational change leads to drug release toward the extracellular medium.

  11. Secretion of Sparfloxacin from the Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cell Line Is Altered by P-Glycoprotein Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle; Huneau, Jean-François; Mordrelle, Agnès; Boyaka, Prosper N.; Carbon, Claude; Rubinstein, Ethan; Tomé, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    The mechanism of intestinal secretion of the difluorinated quinolone sparfloxacin was investigated with the epithelial cell line Caco-2 and was compared to that of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate vinblastine. The P-gp inhibitors verapamil and progesterone significantly increased the epithelial cell accumulation of both vinblastine and sparfloxacin. This increase is likely to result from an inhibition of drug secretion since both vinblastine uptake and sparfloxacin uptake are known to proceed through a passive transmembrane diffusion. The unidirectional fluxes across cell monlayers grown on permeable filters indicated that a net secretion of sparfloxacin and vinblastine occurred across Caco-2 cells. These secretions were significantly inhibited by the MDR-reversing agent verapamil. We conclude that the P-gp is likely to be involved in the intestinal elimination of the difluorinated quinolone sparfloxacin. PMID:9756763

  12. P-glycoprotein substrate transport assessed by comparing cellular and vesicular ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Nervi, Pierluigi; Li-Blatter, Xiaochun; Aänismaa, Päivi; Seelig, Anna

    2010-03-01

    We compared the P-glycoprotein ATPase activity in inside-out plasma membrane vesicles and living NIH-MDR1-G185 cells with the aim to detect substrate transport. To this purpose we used six substrates which differ significantly in their passive influx through the plasma membrane. In cells, the cytosolic membrane leaflet harboring the substrate binding site of P-glycoprotein has to be approached by passive diffusion through the lipid membrane, whereas in inside-out plasma membrane vesicles, it is accessible directly from the aqueous phase. Compounds exhibiting fast passive influx compared to active efflux by P-glycoprotein induced similar ATPase activity profiles in cells and inside-out plasma membrane vesicles, because their concentrations in the cytosolic leaflets were similar. Compounds exhibiting similar influx as efflux induced in contrast different ATPase activity profiles in cells and inside-out vesicles. Their concentration was significantly lower in the cytosolic leaflet of cells than in the cytosolic leaflet of inside-out membrane vesicles, indicating that P-glycoprotein could cope with passive influx. P-glycoprotein thus transported all compounds at a rate proportional to ATP hydrolysis (i.e. all compounds were substrates). However, it prevented substrate entry into the cytosol only if passive influx of substrates across the lipid bilayer was in a similar range as active efflux. PMID:20004641

  13. The Effects of Cetirizine on P-glycoprotein Expression and Function In vitro and In situ

    PubMed Central

    Mesgari Abbasi, Mehran; Valizadeh, Hadi; Hamishekar, Hamed; Mohammadnejad, Leila; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a major role in oral absorption of drugs. Induction or inhibition of P-gp by drugs contributes to variability of its transport activity and often results in clinically relevant drug-drug interactions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cetirizine, a second generation H1 antihistamine, on P-gp function and expression in vitro and in situ. Methods: The in-vitro rhodamin-123 (Rho123) efflux assay in Caco-2 cells was used to study the effect of cetirizine on P-gp function. Western blot analysis was used for surveying the effect of cetirizine on expression of P-gp in Caco-2 cells. Rat in situ single-pass intestinal permeability technique was used to calculate the intestinal permeability of a known P-gp substrate (digoxin) in the presence of cetirizine. The amounts of digoxin and cetirizine in intestinal perfusion samples were analyzed using a HPLC method. Results: The results showed significant increase in Rho123 uptake (P < 0.05) and also P-gp band intensity decrease in cetirizine-treated cells in vitro. Furthermore the intestinal permeability of digoxin was also increased significantly in the presence of cetirizine (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Therefore it is concluded that cetirizine is a P-gp inhibitor and this should be considered in co administration of cetrizine with other P-gp substrate drugs. Further investigations are required to confirm our results and to determine the mechanism underlying P-gp inhibition by cetirizine. PMID:27123426

  14. [Effect of cryptotanshinone on imatinib sensitivity and P-glycoprotein expression of chronic myeloid leukemia cells].

    PubMed

    Ge, Yu-qing; Cheng, Ru-bin; Yang, Bo; Huang, Zhen; Chen, Zhe

    2015-06-01

    Cryptotanshinone (CPT), a lipid soluble active compound in Salvia miltiorrhiza, has a significant inhibitory effect on multiple malignant tumors, e. g. chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells and can effectively enhance imatinib's chemotherapeutic effect. However, its functional molecular mechanism remained unclear. In this experiment, the authors conducted a systematic study on the effect of CPT on the imatinib sensitivity and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression in CML cells by using CML cells K562 and imatinib persister K562-R. The MTT assays were performed to determine CPT's impact on the inhibitory effect of imatinib. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining analysis was used to detect the changes in the cell apoptosis rate. The active changes in apoptosis regulatory proteins Caspase-3, Caspase-9 and PARP were determined by Western blot. After the cells were pretreated with the gradient concentration of CPT, the expression of P-gp was analyzed by Western blot and flow cytometry. The changes in intracellular concentrations of imatinib were determined by HPLC analysis. The results indicated that the pretreatment with CPT significantly increased the proliferation inhibiting and apoptosis inducing effects of imatinib on K562 and K562-R cells as well as the degradation product expression of pro-apoptotic proteins Caspase-3, Caspase-9 and PARP, with a significant difference with the control group (P < 0.01). However, CPT showed no impact on the P-gp expression in CML cells and the intracellular concentrations of imatinib. In summary, the findings suggested that CPT enhanced the sensitivity of CML cells to imatinib. Its mechanism is not dependent on the inhibition in P-gp expression and the increase in intracellular drug concentration. PMID:26591531

  15. P-glycoprotein expression in canine mammary gland tumours related with myoepithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, N-H; Hwang, Y-H; Im, K-S; Kim, J-H; Chon, S-K; Kim, H-Y; Sur, J-H

    2012-12-01

    P-glycoprotein is influential in chemotherapy-resistance in numerous cancers and has been widely studied in human breast cancer research, but is less studied in canine mammary gland tumour (MGT). The study was to evaluate P-glycoprotein expression and its localisations related with prognostic factors with monoclonal antibody C219, by immunohistochemistry (IHC) of 68 cases of canine malignant (n=54) and benign (n=14) MGT. Additional immunofluorescence (IF) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were also performed. There was a novel finding that P-glycoprotein expression with C219 localised at two different cell types: epithelial and myoepithelial cells. Myoepithelial localised tumours were 5 benign (35.5%) and 21 malignant (63.6%), while epithelial localised tumours were 12 cases, all malignant (36.5%). Unlike conventional belief, semi-quantitative evaluation of IHC intensity scores of C219 expression in malignant MGT was related with favourable histopathological parameters. PMID:22554937

  16. P-glycoprotein expression in primary breast cancer detected by immunocytochemistry with two monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Wishart, G. C.; Plumb, J. A.; Going, J. J.; McNicol, A. M.; McArdle, C. S.; Tsuruo, T.; Kaye, S. B.

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression in samples of primary breast cancer from 29 patients before therapy. We employed immunohistochemical techniques using two monoclonal antibodies (C219 and MRK16) and an indirect alkaline phosphatase method. Heterogeneous expression in epithelial cells was detected with both C219 (21 of 29) and MRK16 (16 of 29). A surprising finding was P-glycoprotein expression in stromal cells with both C219 (26 of 29) and MRK16 (12 of 29). Our results suggest that significant levels of P-glycoprotein expression may be present in breast cancer before exposure to drugs associated with multidrug resistance. Images Figure 1 PMID:1978783

  17. Tariquidar Is an Inhibitor and Not a Substrate of Human and Mouse P-glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Weidner, Lora D.; Fung, King Leung; Kannan, Pavitra; Moen, Janna K.; Kumar, Jeyan S.; Mulder, Jan; Innis, Robert B.; Gottesman, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Since its development, tariquidar (TQR; XR9576; N-[2-[[4-[2-(6,7-Dimethoxy-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2-yl)ethyl]phenyl]carbamoyl]-4,5-dimethoxyphenyl]quinoline-3-carboxamide) has been widely regarded as one of the more potent inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux transporter of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. A third-generation inhibitor, TQR exhibits high affinity for P-gp, although it is also a substrate of another ABC transporter, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Recently, several studies have questioned the mechanism by which TQR interfaces with P-gp, suggesting that TQR is a substrate for P-gp instead of a noncompetitive inhibitor. We investigated TQR and its interaction with human and mouse P-gp to determine if TQR is a substrate of P-gp in vitro. To address these questions, we used multiple in vitro transporter assays, including cytotoxicity, flow cytometry, accumulation, ATPase, and transwell assays. A newly generated BCRP cell line was used as a positive control that demonstrates TQR-mediated transport. Based on our results, we conclude that TQR is a potent inhibitor of both human and mouse P-gp and shows no signs of being a substrate at the concentrations tested. These in vitro data further support our position that the in vivo uptake of [11C]TQR into the brain can be explained by its high-affinity binding to P-gp and by it being a substrate of BCRP, followed by amplification of the brain signal by ionic trapping in acidic lysosomes. PMID:26658428

  18. Tariquidar Is an Inhibitor and Not a Substrate of Human and Mouse P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Lora D; Fung, King Leung; Kannan, Pavitra; Moen, Janna K; Kumar, Jeyan S; Mulder, Jan; Innis, Robert B; Gottesman, Michael M; Hall, Matthew D

    2016-02-01

    Since its development, tariquidar (TQR; XR9576; N-[2-[[4-[2-(6,7-Dimethoxy-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2-yl)ethyl]phenyl]carbamoyl]-4,5-dimethoxyphenyl]quinoline-3-carboxamide) has been widely regarded as one of the more potent inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux transporter of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. A third-generation inhibitor, TQR exhibits high affinity for P-gp, although it is also a substrate of another ABC transporter, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Recently, several studies have questioned the mechanism by which TQR interfaces with P-gp, suggesting that TQR is a substrate for P-gp instead of a noncompetitive inhibitor. We investigated TQR and its interaction with human and mouse P-gp to determine if TQR is a substrate of P-gp in vitro. To address these questions, we used multiple in vitro transporter assays, including cytotoxicity, flow cytometry, accumulation, ATPase, and transwell assays. A newly generated BCRP cell line was used as a positive control that demonstrates TQR-mediated transport. Based on our results, we conclude that TQR is a potent inhibitor of both human and mouse P-gp and shows no signs of being a substrate at the concentrations tested. These in vitro data further support our position that the in vivo uptake of [(11)C]TQR into the brain can be explained by its high-affinity binding to P-gp and by it being a substrate of BCRP, followed by amplification of the brain signal by ionic trapping in acidic lysosomes.

  19. Enhancing Activity of Anticancer Drugs in Multidrug Resistant Tumors by Modulating P-Glycoprotein through Dietary Nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad; Maryam, Amara; Mehmood, Tahir; Zhang, Yaofang; Ma, Tonghui

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance is a principal mechanism by which tumors become resistant to structurally and functionally unrelated anticancer drugs. Resistance to chemotherapy has been correlated with overexpression of p-glycoprotein (p-gp), a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of membrane transporters. P-gp mediates resistance to a broad-spectrum of anticancer drugs including doxorubicin, taxol, and vinca alkaloids by actively expelling the drugs from cells. Use of specific inhibitors/blocker of p-gp in combination with clinically important anticancer drugs has emerged as a new paradigm for overcoming multidrug resistance. The aim of this paper is to review p-gp regulation by dietary nutraceuticals and to correlate this dietary nutraceutical induced-modulation of p-gp with activity of anticancer drugs. PMID:26514453

  20. In Silico Screening for Inhibitors of P-Glycoprotein That Target the Nucleotide Binding Domains

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Frances K.; Follit, Courtney A.; Vogel, Pia D.

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistances and the failure of chemotherapies are often caused by the expression or overexpression of ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins such as the multidrug resistance protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp). P-gp is expressed in the plasma membrane of many cell types and protects cells from accumulation of toxins. P-gp uses ATP hydrolysis to catalyze the transport of a broad range of mostly hydrophobic compounds across the plasma membrane and out of the cell. During cancer chemotherapy, the administration of therapeutics often selects for cells which overexpress P-gp, thereby creating populations of cancer cells resistant to a variety of chemically unrelated chemotherapeutics. The present study describes extremely high-throughput, massively parallel in silico ligand docking studies aimed at identifying reversible inhibitors of ATP hydrolysis that target the nucleotide-binding domains of P-gp. We used a structural model of human P-gp that we obtained from molecular dynamics experiments as the protein target for ligand docking. We employed a novel approach of subtractive docking experiments that identified ligands that bound predominantly to the nucleotide-binding domains but not the drug-binding domains of P-gp. Four compounds were found that inhibit ATP hydrolysis by P-gp. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy, we showed that at least three of these compounds affected nucleotide binding to the transporter. These studies represent a successful proof of principle demonstrating the potential of targeted approaches for identifying specific inhibitors of P-gp. PMID:25270578

  1. Calcium and P-glycoprotein independent synergism between schweinfurthins and verapamil.

    PubMed

    Sheehy, Ryan M; Kuder, Craig H; Bachman, Zoe; Hohl, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    Schweinfurthins are intriguing natural products with anti-cancer activities and as yet incompletely understood mechanisms of action. We investigated whether inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), in a manner analogous to other natural products, might enhance schweinfurthins' growth inhibitory actions by increasing intracellular schweinfurthin levels. Both the schweinfurthin-sensitive glioblastoma multiforme cell line SF-295 and relatively insensitive lung carcinoma cell line A549 were treated with 2 schweinfurthin analogs: 3-deoxyschweinfurthin B-p-nitro bis-stilbene (3dSB-PNBS) and 5'-methylschweinfurthin G (methyl-G). There was a synergistic enhancement of growth inhibition with the combination of the Pgp inhibitor verapamil and both analogs in SF-295 cells. Methyl-G, verapamil, and the combination did not result in alterations to intracellular calcium concentration. Verapamil increased the intracellular concentration of 3dSB-PNBS in both SF-295 and A549 cells in a Pgp-independent manner. Methyl-G, verapamil, and the combination do not result in increased ER stress. Methyl-G increased the intracellular concentration of a known Pgp substrate, Rhodamine 123 in SF-295 cells. Reduction of cellular cholesterol leads to the accumulation of Pgp substrates, as Pgp requires cholesterol for proper function. Since 3dSB enhances lovastatin-induced upregulation of the cholesterol efflux pump ABCA1, it is intriguing that co-treatment with cholesterol rescued the methyl-G-induced increase in Rhodamine 123 intracellular concentration. These studies support the hypothesis that verapamil potentiates the schweinfurthin growth inhibitory effect by increasing its intracellular concentration. PMID:26046259

  2. Simotinib as a modulator of P-glycoprotein: substrate, inhibitor, or inducer?

    PubMed

    Huang, Lingling; Shen, Cheng; Chen, Yanfen; Yan, Huiwen; Cheng, Zeneng; Zhu, Qubo

    2016-04-01

    As a new antitumor drug, simotinib hydrochloride is prescribed for prolonged periods, often to patients with comorbidities. Therefore, the risk for developing drug resistance and drug-drug interactions between simotinib and other agents has to be taken into consideration. As P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an efflux transporter, which plays a significant role in drug resistance and influences the pharmacological properties and toxicities of the drugs it interacts with, the interactions between simotinib and P-gp were investigated. Cytotoxicity was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. Intracellular drug concentrations were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and using a fluorescence reader. P-gp ATPase activity was measured using the Pgp-Glo assay, and intracellular pH was assessed using the fluorescent probe 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein acetoxymethyl. The expression and transcription of P-gp were detected by western blotting and the luciferase assay. Simotinib has no cross-resistance to P-gp substrates, and its efflux rate was independent of either the P-gp expression or the coadministered P-gp substrate. Simotinib reversed chemotherapeutic agent resistance in a short time by increasing the intracellular concentration of the chemotherapeutic agent and blocked rhodamine 123 efflux. Further studies demonstrated that simotinib inhibited P-gp activity by modulating its ATPase activity and the intracellular pH. Although simotinib induced P-gp expression after extended treatment, the induced expression of P-gp had little impact on drug resistance. Simotinib is not a substrate of P-gp. As a modulator, it functions mainly as an inhibitor of P-gp by modulating the intracellular pH and ATPase activity, although it also induces P-gp expression after extended treatment.

  3. Eletriptan metabolism by human hepatic CYP450 enzymes and transport by human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Evans, David C; O'Connor, Desmond; Lake, Brian G; Evers, Raymond; Allen, Christopher; Hargreaves, Richard

    2003-07-01

    "Reaction phenotyping" studies were performed with eletriptan (ETT) to determine its propensity to interact with coadministered medications. Its ability to serve as a substrate for human P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was also investigated since a central mechanism of action has been proposed for this "triptan" class of drug. In studies with a characterized bank of human liver microsome preparations, a good correlation (r2 = 0.932) was obtained between formation of N-desmethyl eletriptan (DETT) and CYP3A4-catalyzed testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylation. DETT was selected to be monitored in our studies since it represents a significant ETT metabolite in humans, circulating at concentrations 10 to 20% of those observed for parent drug. ETT was metabolized to DETT by recombinant CYP2D6 (rCYP2D6) and rCYP3A4, and to a lesser extent by rCYP2C9 and rCYP2C19. The metabolism of ETT to DETT in human liver microsomes was markedly inhibited by troleandomycin, erythromycin, miconazole, and an inhibitory antibody to CYP3A4, but not by inhibitors of other major P450 enzymes. ETT had little inhibitory effect on any of the P450 enzymes investigated. ETT was determined to be a good substrate for human P-gp in vitro. In bidirectional transport studies across LLC-MDR1 and LLC-Mdr1a cell monolayers, ETT had a BA/AB transport ratio in the range 9 to 11. This finding had significance in vivo since brain exposure to ETT was reduced 40-fold in Mdr1a+/+ relative to Mdr1a-/- mice. ETT metabolism to DETT is therefore catalyzed primarily by CYP3A4, and plasma concentrations are expected to be increased when coadministered with inhibitors of CYP3A4 and P-gp activity. PMID:12814962

  4. Simotinib as a modulator of P-glycoprotein: substrate, inhibitor, or inducer?

    PubMed

    Huang, Lingling; Shen, Cheng; Chen, Yanfen; Yan, Huiwen; Cheng, Zeneng; Zhu, Qubo

    2016-04-01

    As a new antitumor drug, simotinib hydrochloride is prescribed for prolonged periods, often to patients with comorbidities. Therefore, the risk for developing drug resistance and drug-drug interactions between simotinib and other agents has to be taken into consideration. As P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an efflux transporter, which plays a significant role in drug resistance and influences the pharmacological properties and toxicities of the drugs it interacts with, the interactions between simotinib and P-gp were investigated. Cytotoxicity was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. Intracellular drug concentrations were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and using a fluorescence reader. P-gp ATPase activity was measured using the Pgp-Glo assay, and intracellular pH was assessed using the fluorescent probe 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein acetoxymethyl. The expression and transcription of P-gp were detected by western blotting and the luciferase assay. Simotinib has no cross-resistance to P-gp substrates, and its efflux rate was independent of either the P-gp expression or the coadministered P-gp substrate. Simotinib reversed chemotherapeutic agent resistance in a short time by increasing the intracellular concentration of the chemotherapeutic agent and blocked rhodamine 123 efflux. Further studies demonstrated that simotinib inhibited P-gp activity by modulating its ATPase activity and the intracellular pH. Although simotinib induced P-gp expression after extended treatment, the induced expression of P-gp had little impact on drug resistance. Simotinib is not a substrate of P-gp. As a modulator, it functions mainly as an inhibitor of P-gp by modulating the intracellular pH and ATPase activity, although it also induces P-gp expression after extended treatment. PMID:26766493

  5. Calcium and P-glycoprotein independent synergism between schweinfurthins and verapamil

    PubMed Central

    Sheehy, Ryan M; Kuder, Craig H; Bachman, Zoe; Hohl, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    Schweinfurthins are intriguing natural products with anti-cancer activities and as yet incompletely understood mechanisms of action. We investigated whether inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), in a manner analogous to other natural products, might enhance schweinfurthins' growth inhibitory actions by increasing intracellular schweinfurthin levels. Both the schweinfurthin-sensitive glioblastoma multiforme cell line SF-295 and relatively insensitive lung carcinoma cell line A549 were treated with 2 schweinfurthin analogs: 3-deoxyschweinfurthin B-p-nitro bis-stilbene (3dSB-PNBS) and 5′-methylschweinfurthin G (methyl-G). There was a synergistic enhancement of growth inhibition with the combination of the Pgp inhibitor verapamil and both analogs in SF-295 cells. Methyl-G, verapamil, and the combination did not result in alterations to intracellular calcium concentration. Verapamil increased the intracellular concentration of 3dSB-PNBS in both SF-295 and A549 cells in a Pgp-independent manner. Methyl-G, verapamil, and the combination do not result in increased ER stress. Methyl-G increased the intracellular concentration of a known Pgp substrate, Rhodamine 123 in SF-295 cells. Reduction of cellular cholesterol leads to the accumulation of Pgp substrates, as Pgp requires cholesterol for proper function. Since 3dSB enhances lovastatin-induced upregulation of the cholesterol efflux pump ABCA1, it is intriguing that co-treatment with cholesterol rescued the methyl-G-induced increase in Rhodamine 123 intracellular concentration. These studies support the hypothesis that verapamil potentiates the schweinfurthin growth inhibitory effect by increasing its intracellular concentration. PMID:26046259

  6. Downregulation of mdr1 and abcg2 genes is a mechanism of inhibition of efflux pumps mediated by polymeric amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Cuestas, María L; Castillo, Amalia I; Sosnik, Alejandro; Mathet, Verónica L

    2012-11-01

    The ability of cells to acquire resistance to multiple pharmaceuticals, namely multidrug resistance (MDR), is often mediated by the over-expression of efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily; for example P-glycoprotein (P-gp or MDR1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP or ABCG2), and multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP1. ABCs pump drug molecules out of cells against a concentration gradient, reducing their intracellular concentration. The ability of polymeric amphiphiles to inhibit ABCs as well as the cellular pathways involved in the inhibition has been extensively investigated. This work investigated for the first time the effect of branched poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymers (poloxamines) on the levels of mRNA encoding for MDR1, BCRP and MRP1, in a human hepatoma cell line (Huh7). Copolymers with a broad range of molecular weights and hydrophilic-lipophilic balances were assayed. Results confirmed the down-regulation of mdr1 and abcg2 genes. Conversely, the mrp1 gene was not affected. These findings further support the versatility of these temperature- and pH-responsive copolymers to overcome drug resistance in cancer and infectious diseases.

  7. Downregulation of mdr1 and abcg2 genes is a mechanism of inhibition of efflux pumps mediated by polymeric amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Cuestas, María L; Castillo, Amalia I; Sosnik, Alejandro; Mathet, Verónica L

    2012-11-01

    The ability of cells to acquire resistance to multiple pharmaceuticals, namely multidrug resistance (MDR), is often mediated by the over-expression of efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily; for example P-glycoprotein (P-gp or MDR1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP or ABCG2), and multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP1. ABCs pump drug molecules out of cells against a concentration gradient, reducing their intracellular concentration. The ability of polymeric amphiphiles to inhibit ABCs as well as the cellular pathways involved in the inhibition has been extensively investigated. This work investigated for the first time the effect of branched poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymers (poloxamines) on the levels of mRNA encoding for MDR1, BCRP and MRP1, in a human hepatoma cell line (Huh7). Copolymers with a broad range of molecular weights and hydrophilic-lipophilic balances were assayed. Results confirmed the down-regulation of mdr1 and abcg2 genes. Conversely, the mrp1 gene was not affected. These findings further support the versatility of these temperature- and pH-responsive copolymers to overcome drug resistance in cancer and infectious diseases. PMID:23031592

  8. On-line identification of P-glycoprotein substrates by monitoring of extracellular acidification and respiration rates in living cells.

    PubMed

    Seeland, Swen; Treiber, Alexander; Hafner, Mathias; Huwyler, Jörg

    2011-07-01

    The influence of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) in drug resistance as well as drug absorption and disposition is an important factor to be considered during the development of new drugs. Thus, the early identification and exclusion of compounds showing a high affinity towards P-glycoprotein can help to select drug candidates. The aim of our study was to implement a label-free assay for the identification of P-glycoprotein substrates in living cells. For this approach, a multiparametric, chip-based sensor system was used to determine extracellular acidification, cell respiration and adhesion upon stimulation with P-glycoprotein substrates. Using L-MDR1 cells, a human P-glycoprotein overexpressing cell line, the influence of P-glycoprotein activity was determined for seven different compounds, demonstrating the applicability of the system for P-glycoprotein substrate identification. Effects were concentration dependent, as shown for the P-glycoprotein substrate verapamil, and were associated with cellular acidification and respiration. P-glycoprotein ATPase activation by verapamil could be described by a Michaelis-Menten type kinetic profile showing saturation at high substrate concentrations. The Michaelis-Menten constants K(M) were determined to be 0.92μM (calculated based on extracellular acidification) and 4.9μM (calculated based on cellular respiration). Control experiments using 100nM of the P-glycoprotein inhibitor elacridar indicated that the observed effects were related to P-glycoprotein ATPase activity. In contrast, wild-type LLC-PK1 cells not expressing P-glycoprotein were not responsive towards stimulation with different P-glycoprotein substrates. Summarizing these findings, the used microsensor system is a generic system suitable for the identification of P-glycoprotein substrates. In contrast to biochemical P-glycoprotein assays, activation of the drug efflux pump can be monitored on-line in living cells to identify P-glycoprotein substrates and to study the

  9. P-Glycoprotein/MDR1 regulates pokemon gene transcription through p53 expression in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    He, Shengnan; Liu, Feng; Xie, Zhenhua; Zu, Xuyu; Xu, Wei; Jiang, Yuyang

    2010-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp), encoded by the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene, is an efflux transporter and plays an important role in pharmacokinetics. In this study, we demonstrated that the pokemon promoter activity, the pokemon mRNA and protein expression can be significantly inhibited by Pgp. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that Pgp can bind the pokemon prompter to repress pokemon transcription activity. Furthermore, Pgp regulated pokemon transcription activity through expression of p53 as seen by use of p53 siRNA transfected MCF-7 cells or p53 mutated MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, p53 was detected to bind with Pgp in vivo using immunoprecipitation assay. Taken together, we conclude that Pgp can regulate the expression of pokemon through the presence of p53, suggesting that Pgp is a potent regulator and may offer an effective novel target for cancer therapy. PMID:20957096

  10. Relationship between structure and P-glycoprotein inhibitory activity of dimeric peptides related to the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Ambo, Akihiro; Ohkatsu, Hiromichi; Minamizawa, Motoko; Watanabe, Hideko; Sugawara, Shigeki; Nitta, Kazuo; Tsuda, Yuko; Okada, Yoshio; Sasaki, Yusuke

    2012-03-15

    To develop novel inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), dimeric peptides related to an opioid peptide containing the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore were synthesized and their P-gp inhibitory activities were analyzed. Of the 30 analogs synthesized, N(α),N(ε)-[(CH(3))(2)Mle-Tic](2)Lys-NH(2) and its D-Lys analog were found to exhibit potent P-gp inhibitory activity, twice that of verapamil, in doxorubicin-resistant K562 cells. Structure-activity studies indicated that the correct hydrophobicity and spacer length between two aromatic rings are important structural elements in this series of analogs for inhibition of P-gp.

  11. P-Glycoprotein/MDR1 regulates pokemon gene transcription through p53 expression in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    He, Shengnan; Liu, Feng; Xie, Zhenhua; Zu, Xuyu; Xu, Wei; Jiang, Yuyang

    2010-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp), encoded by the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene, is an efflux transporter and plays an important role in pharmacokinetics. In this study, we demonstrated that the pokemon promoter activity, the pokemon mRNA and protein expression can be significantly inhibited by Pgp. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that Pgp can bind the pokemon prompter to repress pokemon transcription activity. Furthermore, Pgp regulated pokemon transcription activity through expression of p53 as seen by use of p53 siRNA transfected MCF-7 cells or p53 mutated MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, p53 was detected to bind with Pgp in vivo using immunoprecipitation assay. Taken together, we conclude that Pgp can regulate the expression of pokemon through the presence of p53, suggesting that Pgp is a potent regulator and may offer an effective novel target for cancer therapy.

  12. Human-Mouse Chimeras with Normal Expression and Function Reveal That Major Domain Swapping Is Tolerated by P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1).

    PubMed

    Pluchino, Kristen M; Hall, Matthew D; Moen, Janna K; Chufan, Eduardo E; Fetsch, Patricia A; Shukla, Suneet; Gill, Deborah R; Hyde, Stephen C; Xia, Di; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Gottesman, Michael M

    2016-02-23

    The efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a vital role in the transport of molecules across cell membranes and has been shown to interact with a panoply of functionally and structurally unrelated compounds. How human P-gp interacts with this large number of drugs has not been well understood, although structural flexibility has been implicated. To gain insight into this transporter's broad substrate specificity and to assess its ability to accommodate a variety of molecular and structural changes, we generated human-mouse P-gp chimeras by the exchange of homologous transmembrane and nucleotide-binding domains. High-level expression of these chimeras by BacMam- and baculovirus-mediated transduction in mammalian (HeLa) and insect cells, respectively, was achieved. There were no detectable differences between wild-type and chimeric P-gp in terms of cell surface expression, ability to efflux the P-gp substrates rhodamine 123, calcein-AM, and JC-1, or to be inhibited by the substrate cyclosporine A and the inhibitors tariquidar and elacridar. Additionally, expression of chimeric P-gp was able to confer a paclitaxel-resistant phenotype to HeLa cells characteristic of P-gp-mediated drug resistance. P-gp ATPase assays and photo-cross-linking with [(125)I]iodoarylazidoprazosin confirmed that transport and biochemical properties of P-gp chimeras were similar to those of wild-type P-gp, although differences in drug binding were detected when human and mouse transmembrane domains were combined. Overall, chimeras with one or two mouse P-gp domains were deemed functionally equivalent to human wild-type P-gp, demonstrating the ability of human P-gp to tolerate major structural changes.

  13. Human-Mouse Chimeras with Normal Expression and Function Reveal That Major Domain Swapping Is Tolerated by P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1).

    PubMed

    Pluchino, Kristen M; Hall, Matthew D; Moen, Janna K; Chufan, Eduardo E; Fetsch, Patricia A; Shukla, Suneet; Gill, Deborah R; Hyde, Stephen C; Xia, Di; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Gottesman, Michael M

    2016-02-23

    The efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a vital role in the transport of molecules across cell membranes and has been shown to interact with a panoply of functionally and structurally unrelated compounds. How human P-gp interacts with this large number of drugs has not been well understood, although structural flexibility has been implicated. To gain insight into this transporter's broad substrate specificity and to assess its ability to accommodate a variety of molecular and structural changes, we generated human-mouse P-gp chimeras by the exchange of homologous transmembrane and nucleotide-binding domains. High-level expression of these chimeras by BacMam- and baculovirus-mediated transduction in mammalian (HeLa) and insect cells, respectively, was achieved. There were no detectable differences between wild-type and chimeric P-gp in terms of cell surface expression, ability to efflux the P-gp substrates rhodamine 123, calcein-AM, and JC-1, or to be inhibited by the substrate cyclosporine A and the inhibitors tariquidar and elacridar. Additionally, expression of chimeric P-gp was able to confer a paclitaxel-resistant phenotype to HeLa cells characteristic of P-gp-mediated drug resistance. P-gp ATPase assays and photo-cross-linking with [(125)I]iodoarylazidoprazosin confirmed that transport and biochemical properties of P-gp chimeras were similar to those of wild-type P-gp, although differences in drug binding were detected when human and mouse transmembrane domains were combined. Overall, chimeras with one or two mouse P-gp domains were deemed functionally equivalent to human wild-type P-gp, demonstrating the ability of human P-gp to tolerate major structural changes. PMID:26820614

  14. Effects of brain IKKβ gene silencing by small interfering RNA on P-glycoprotein expression and brain damage in the rat kainic acid-induced seizure model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nian; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Yan-Fang; Su, Ling-Ying; Liu, Xin-Hong; Li, Le-Chao; Hao, Jin-Bo; Huang, Xian-Jing; Di, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance mediated by over-expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in brain is an important mechanism accounting for the drug-therapy failure in epilepsy. Over-expression of P-gp in epilepsy rat brain may be regulated by inflammation and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Inhibitory κ B kinase subunit β (IKKβ) is an up-stream molecular controlling NF-κB activation. With the small interfering RNA (siRNA) technique and kainic acid (KA)-induced rat epileptic seizure model, the present study was aimed to further evaluate the role of NF-κB inhibition, via blocking IKKβ gene transcription, in the epileptic brain P-gp over-expression, seizure susceptibility, and post-seizure brain damage. siRNA targeting IKKβ was administered to rats via intracerebroventricular injection before seizure induction by KA microinjection; scrambled siRNA was used as control. Brain mRNA and protein levels of IKKβ and P-gp were detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. NF-κB activity was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Latency to grade III or V seizure onset was recorded, brain damage was evaluated by neuronal cell counting and epileptiform activity was monitored by electroencephalography. IKKβ siRNA pre-treatment inhibited NF-κB activation and abolished P-gp over-expression in KA-induced epileptic rat brain, accompanied by decreased seizure susceptibility. These findings suggested that epileptogenic-induced P-gp over-expression could be regulated by IKKβ through the NF-κB pathway. PMID:24040792

  15. Distinct interaction of nilotinib and imatinib with P-Glycoprotein in intracellular accumulation and cytotoxicity in CML Cell Line K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Yuji; Hamada, Akinobu; Uchida, Takashi; Sato, Daisuke; Yuki, Misato; Hayashi, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Saito, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Nilotinib, a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has been approved for first-line chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treatment. The improved clinical response of nilotinib over that of the first generation TKI, imatinib, has been thought to be a result of its high potency of inhibition of BCR-ABL kinase. This study aimed to characterize differences between nilotinib and imatinib in the intracellular accumulation and cytotoxic effect on the CML cell line K562. Accumulation of nilotinib in K562 cells was from 4.7- to 9.0-fold higher than that of imatinib. The cytotoxic effect of nilotinib on K562 cells was 14.2-fold higher than that of imatinib. Inhibition experiments in K562 cells, and examination of the cellular uptake using influx transporter-transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, suggested that the influx transporters OCT1 and OATP1A2, which have been reported to mediate accumulation of imatinib in CML cells, contributed little to the uptake of nilotinib. Nilotinib was found to accumulate in imatinib-resistant K562 (K562/IM) cells overexpressing the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), although cytotoxic assays showed that K562/IM cells displayed 20000-fold greater resistance to nilotinib over the parent K562 cells. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that intracellular accumulation of nilotinib in CML cells contributes to its clinical response and efficacy in CML patients. Although nilotinib has been reported to be effective against imatinib-resistant ABL kinase mutants, the drug could not overcome imatinib resistance acquired by P-gp-overexpression. These results imply that classification of mechanisms of drug resistance is important for suitable strategies to treat imatinib-resistant CML patients.

  16. Effects of Curcuma spp. on P-glycoprotein function.

    PubMed

    Ampasavate, Chadarat; Sotanaphun, Uthai; Phattanawasin, Panadda; Piyapolrungroj, Nusara

    2010-06-01

    The effects of Curcuma longa (khamin chan) and Curcuma sp. "khamin-oi" (khamin-oi), as well as isolated major curcuminoids on intestinal P-gp functions were evaluated in vitro. The accumulation of R123 in Caco-2 cells was increased and the R123 efflux ratios were significantly decreased by both Curcuma longa and Curcuma sp. "khamin-oi" extracts, indicating their roles on efflux transporters. The a-b transport of daunorubicin was increased by curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin while the b-a transport was significantly decreased by curcumin and demethoxycurcumin. However, calcein-AM uptake into the human P-gp overexpression cell line, LLC-GA5-COL300, was increased by curcumin and demethoxycurcumin in a concentration-dependent manner but not affected by bisdemethoxycurcumin. These results show that curcumin and demethoxycurcumin could inhibit P-gp but bisdemethoxycurcumin may modulate the function of other efflux transporters such as MRP. Taken together, the information may indicate the impact of Curcuma longa and Curcuma sp. "khamin-oi" on pharmacokinetics of orally administered drugs that are P-gp substrates.

  17. Correction of defective protein kinesis of human P-glycoprotein mutants by substrates and modulators.

    PubMed

    Loo, T W; Clarke, D M

    1997-01-10

    There is growing evidence that abnormal protein folding or trafficking (protein kinesis) leads to diseases. We have used P-glycoprotein as a model protein to develop strategies to overcome defects in protein kinesis. Misprocessed mutants of the human P-glycoprotein are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum as core-glycosylated biosynthetic intermediates and rapidly degraded. Synthesis of the mutant proteins in the presence of drug substrates or modulators such as capsaicin, cyclosporin, vinblastine, or verapamil, however, resulted in the appearance of a fully glycosylated and functional protein at the cell surface. These effects were dose-dependent and occurred within a few hours after the addition of substrate. The ability to facilitate processing of the misfolded mutants appeared to be independent of the cell lines used and location of the mutation. P-glycoproteins with mutations in transmembrane segments, extracellular or cytoplasmic loops, the nucleotide-binding domains, or the linker region were processed to the fully mature form in the presence of these substrates. These drug substrates or modulators acted as specific chemical chaperones for P-glycoprotein because they were ineffective on the deltaF508 mutant of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. Therefore, one possible strategy to prevent protein misfolding is to carry out synthesis in the presence of specific substrates or modulators of the protein.

  18. Blood-brain barrier P-glycoprotein function in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    van Assema, Daniëlle M E; Lubberink, Mark; Bauer, Martin; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Schuit, Robert C; Windhorst, Albert D; Comans, Emile F I; Hoetjes, Nikie J; Tolboom, Nelleke; Langer, Oliver; Müller, Markus; Scheltens, Philip; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; van Berckel, Bart N M

    2012-01-01

    A major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease is accumulation of amyloid-β in senile plaques in the brain. Evidence is accumulating that decreased clearance of amyloid-β from the brain may lead to these elevated amyloid-β levels. One of the clearance pathways of amyloid-β is transport across the blood-brain barrier via efflux transporters. P-glycoprotein, an efflux pump highly expressed at the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier, has been shown to transport amyloid-β. P-glycoprotein function can be assessed in vivo using (R)-[(11)C]verapamil and positron emission tomography. The aim of this study was to assess blood-brain barrier P-glycoprotein function in patients with Alzheimer's disease compared with age-matched healthy controls using (R)-[(11)C]verapamil and positron emission tomography. In 13 patients with Alzheimer's disease (age 65 ± 7 years, Mini-Mental State Examination 23 ± 3), global (R)-[(11)C]verapamil binding potential values were increased significantly (P = 0.001) compared with 14 healthy controls (aged 62 ± 4 years, Mini-Mental State Examination 30 ± 1). Global (R)-[(11)C]verapamil binding potential values were 2.18 ± 0.25 for patients with Alzheimer's disease and 1.77 ± 0.41 for healthy controls. In patients with Alzheimer's disease, higher (R)-[(11)C]verapamil binding potential values were found for frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortices, and posterior and anterior cingulate. No significant differences between groups were found for medial temporal lobe and cerebellum. These data show altered kinetics of (R)-[(11)C]verapamil in Alzheimer's disease, similar to alterations seen in studies where P-glycoprotein is blocked by a pharmacological agent. As such, these data indicate that P-glycoprotein function is decreased in patients with Alzheimer's disease. This is the first direct evidence that the P-glycoprotein transporter at the blood-brain barrier is compromised in sporadic

  19. In silico Analysis for Predicting Fatty Acids of Black Cumin Oil as Inhibitors of P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Babar; Jamal, Qazi Mohd. Sajid; Mir, Showkat R.; Shams, Saiba; Al-Wabel, Naser A.; Kamal, Mohammad A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Black cumin oil is obtained from the seeds of Nigella sativa L. which belongs to family Ranunculaceae. The seed oil has been reported to possess antitumor, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, central nervous system depressant, antioxidant, and immunostimulatory activities. These bioactivities have been attributed to the fixed oil, volatile oil, or their components. Seed oil consisted of 15 saturated fatty acids (17%) and 17 unsaturated fatty acids (82.9%). Long chain fatty acids and medium chain fatty acids have been reported to increase oral bioavailability of peptides, antibiotics, and other important therapeutic agents. In earlier studies, permeation enhancement and bioenhancement of drugs has been done with black cumin oil. Objective: In order to recognize the mechanism of binding of fatty acids to P-glycoprotein (P-gp), linoleic acid, oleic acid, margaric acid, cis-11, 14-eicosadienoic acid, and stearic acid were selected for in silico studies, which were carried out using AutoDock 4.2, based on the Lamarckian genetic algorithm principle. Materials and Methods: Template search with BLAST and HHblits has been performed against the SWISS-MODEL template library. The target sequence was searched with BLAST against the primary amino acid sequence of P-gp from Rattus norvegicus. Results: The amount of energy needed by linoleic acid, oleic acid, eicosadienoic acid, margaric acid, and stearic acid to bind with P-gp were found to be − 10.60, −10.48, −9.95, −11.92, and − 10.37 kcal/mol, respectively. The obtained data support that all the selected fatty acids have contributed to inhibit P-gp activity thereby enhances the bioavailability of drugs. Conclusion: This study plays a significant role in finding hot spots in P-gp and may offer the further scope of designing potent and specific inhibitors of P-gp. SUMMARY Generation of 3D structure of fatty acid compounds from Black cumin oil and 3D homology modeling of Rat P

  20. Evaluation of the near infrared compound indocyanine green as a probe substrate of p-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, Emma; Gurina, Marina; Magdassi, Shlomo; Eyal, Sara

    2012-12-01

    The efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) affects the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. Currently used methods for characterization of P-gp's functional activity in vivo involve the use of radiolabeled substrates, are costly, and are technically demanding. Our objective was to evaluate whether the FDA-approved near-infrared compound indocyanine green (ICG) can be used as a probe substrate of P-gp. We also characterized the interaction of ICG with another efflux transporter, the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). We evaluated ICG accumulation and transport in MDCK cells overexpressing P-gp or BCRP (MDCK-MDR1 and MDCK-BCRP, respectively) compared to control MDCK cells, in the presence or the absence of transporter inhibitors. In vivo imaging of ICG biodistribution in mice was conducted over 3.5 h using valspodar as the P-gp inhibitor. The EC50 values for ICG accumulation in control MDCK and MDCK-MDR1 cells were 9.0 × 10(-6) ± 5.7 × 10(-7) M and 1.5 × 10(-5) ± 1.1 × 10(-6) M, respectively. The efflux ratio for ICG in MDCK-MDR1 cells was 6.8-fold greater than in control cells. P-gp inhibition attenuated ICG efflux from MDR1-MDCK cells, and their effects in those cells were greater than in control MDCK cells. In contrast, BCRP level of expression or pharmacological inhibition did not significantly affect ICG cellular accumulation. In vivo imaging indicated enhanced cerebral ICG distribution with valspodar (brain - foot area under the concentration-time curves of 3.0 × 10(10), 5.6 × 10(10) and 3.7 × 10(10) h·[p/s/sr]/μW in valspodar-treated mice vs 9.0 × 10(9) and 5.3 × 10(9) h·[p/s/sr]/μW in controls). The findings from this pilot study suggest that near-infrared imaging using ICG as the probe substrate should be further characterized as a methodology for in vivo evaluation of P-gp activity.

  1. P-glycoprotein antibody functionalized carbon nanotube overcomes the multidrug resistance of human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruibin; Wu, Ren'an; Zhao, Liang; Wu, Minghuo; Yang, Ling; Zou, Hanfa

    2010-03-23

    Multidrug resistance (MDR), which is related to cancer chemotherapy, tumor stem cells, and tumor metastasis, is a huge obstacle for the effective cancer therapy. One of the underlying mechanisms of MDR is the increased efflux of anticancer drugs by overexpressed P-glycoprotein (P-gp) of multidrug resistant cells. In this work, the antibody of P-gp (anti-P-gp) functionalized water-soluble single-walled carbon nanotubes (Ap-SWNTs) loaded with doxorubicin (Dox), Dox/Ap-SWNTs, were synthesized for challenging the MDR of K562 human leukemia cells. The resulting Ap-SWNTs could not only specifically recognize the multidrug resistant human leukemia cells (K562R), but also demonstrate the effective loading and controllable release performance for Dox toward the target K562R cells by exposing to near-infrared radiation (NIR). The recognition capability of Ap-SWNTs toward the K562R cells was confirmed by flow cytometry (FCM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The binding affinity of Ap-SWNTs toward drug-resistant K562R cells was ca. 23-fold higher than that toward drug-sensitive K562S cells. Additionally, CLSM indicated that Ap-SWNTs could specifically localize on the cell membrane of K562R cells and the fluorescence of Dox in K562R cells could be significantly enhanced after the employment of Ap-SWNTs as carrier. Moreover, the composite of Dox and Ap-SWNTs (Dox/Ap-SWNTs) expressed 2.4-fold higher cytotoxicity and showed the significant cell proliferation suppression toward K562R leukemia cells (p < 0.05) as compared with free Dox which is popularly employed in clinic trials. These results suggest that the Ap-SWNTs are the promising drug delivery vehicle for overcoming the MDR induced by the overexpression of P-gp on cell membrane. Ap-SWNTs loaded with drug molecules could be used to suppress the proliferation of multidrug resistant cells, destroy the tumor stem cells, and inhibit the metastasis of tumor.

  2. The Pim kinase inhibitor SGI-1776 decreases cell surface expression of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) and drug transport by Pim-1-dependent and -independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Karthika; Bhullar, Jasjeet; Shukla, Suneet; Burcu, Mehmet; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Baer, Maria R.

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug efflux proteins P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) on malignant cells is associated with inferior chemotherapy outcomes. Both, ABCB1 and ABCG2, are substrates of the serine/threonine kinase Pim-1; Pim-1 knockdown decreases their cell surface expression, but SGI-1776, the first clinically tested Pim inhibitor, was shown to reverse drug resistance by directly inhibiting ABCB1-mediated transport. We sought to characterize Pim-1-dependent and -independent effects of SGI-1776 on drug resistance. SGI-1776 at the Pim-1-inhibitory and non-cytotoxic concentration of 1 μM decreased the IC50s of the ABCG2 and ABCB1 substrate drugs in cytotoxicity assays in resistant cells, with no effect on the IC50 of non-substrate drug, nor in parental cells. SGI-1776 also increased apoptosis of cells overexpressing ABCG2 or ABCB1 exposed to substrate chemotherapy drugs and decreased their colony formation in the presence of substrate, but not non-substrate, drugs, with no effect on parental cells. SGI-1776 decreased ABCB1 and ABCG2 surface expression on K562/ABCB1 and K562/ABCG2 cells, respectively, with Pim-1 overexpression, but not HL60/VCR and 8226/MR20 cells, with lower-level Pim-1 expression. Finally, SGI-1776 inhibited uptake of ABCG2 and ABCB1 substrates in a concentration-dependent manner irrespective of Pim-1 expression, inhibited ABCB1 and ABCG2 photoaffinity labeling with the transport substrate [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin ([125I]IAAP) and stimulated ABCB1 and ABCG2 ATPase activity. Thus SGI-1776 decreases cell surface expression of ABCB1 and ABCG2 and inhibits drug transport by Pim-1-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively. Decrease in ABCB1 and ABCG2 cell surface expression mediated by Pim-1 inhibition represents a novel mechanism of chemosensitization. PMID:23261525

  3. Expression of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein is inversely related to that of apoptosis-associated endogenous TRAIL

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Paloma S.; Madigan, James P.; Gillet, Jean-Pierre; Kapoor, Khyati; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Maia, Raquel C.; Gottesman, Michael M.; Fung, King Leung

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) has been associated with expression of ABC transporter genes including P-glycoprotein (Pgp, MDR1, ABCB1). However, deregulation of apoptotic pathways also renders cells resistant to chemotherapy. To discover apoptosis-related genes affected by Pgp expression, we used the HeLa MDR-off system. We found that using doxycycline to control Pgp expression has a significant advantage over tetracycline, in that doxycycline caused less endogenous gene expression modification/perturbation, and was more potent than tetracycline in suppressing Pgp expression. Cells overexpressing Pgp have lower TNFSF10 (TRAIL) expression than their parental cells. Controlled downregulation of Pgp increased endogenous TRAIL protein expression. Also, ectopic overexpression of TRAIL in Pgp-positive cells was associated with a reduction in Pgp levels. However, cells expressing a functionally defective mutant Pgp showed an increase in TRAIL expression, suggesting that Pgp function is required for TRAIL suppression. Cells in which Pgp is knocked down by upregulation of TRAIL expression are less susceptible to TRAIL ligand (sTRAIL)-induced apoptosis. Our findings reveal an inverse correlation between functional Pgp and endogenous TRAIL expression. Pgp function plays an important role in the TRAIL-mediated apoptosis pathway by regulating endogenous TRAIL expression and the TRAIL-mediated apoptosis pathway in MDR cancer cells. PMID:26101157

  4. Opioids and efflux transporters. Part 4: influence of N-substitution on P-glycoprotein substrate activity of noroxymorphone analogues.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Matthew D; Rosicky, Andrew D; Hassan, Hazem E; Eddington, Natalie D; Coop, Andrew; Cunningham, Christopher W; Mercer, Susan L

    2014-08-01

    The efflux transporter protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is capable of affecting the central distribution of diverse neurotherapeutics, including opioid analgesics, through their active removal from the brain. P-gp located at the blood brain barrier has been implicated in the development of tolerance to opioids and demonstrated to be up-regulated in rats tolerant to morphine and oxycodone. We have previously examined the influence of hydrogen-bonding oxo-substitutents on the P-gp-mediated efflux of 4,5-epoxymorphinan analgesics, as well as that of N-substituted analogues of meperidine. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) governing N-substituent effects on opioid efficacy is well-established, however the influence of such structural modifications on P-gp-mediated efflux is unknown. Here, we present SAR describing P-gp recognition of a short series of N-modified 4,5-epoxymorphinans. Oxymorphone, naloxone, naltrexone, and nalmexone all failed to demonstrate P-gp substrate activity, indicating these opioid scaffolds contain structural features that preclude recognition by the transporter. These results are examined using mathematical molecular modeling and discussed in comparison to other opioid scaffolds bearing similar N-substituents. PMID:24915880

  5. Mitochondrial P-glycoprotein ATPase contributes to insecticide resistance in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Akbar, S Md; Aurade, Ravindra M; Sharma, H C; Sreeramulu, K

    2014-09-01

    Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is one of the most damaging polyphagous pests worldwide, which has developed high levels of resistance to commonly applied insecticides. Mitochondrial P-glycoprotein (Pgp) was detected in the insecticide-resistant strain of H. armigera using C219 antibodies, and its possible role was demonstrated in the efflux of xenobiotic compounds using spectrofluorometer. The TMR accumulated in mitochondria in the absence of ATP, and effluxed out in presence of ATP; the process of efflux was inhibited in the presence of ortho-vandate, an inhibitor of Pgp, in insecticide-resistant larvae of H. armigera. The mitochondria isolated from insecticide-resistant larvae were resistant to insecticide-induced inhibition of oxygen consumption and cytochrome c release. Membrane potential decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of higher concentration of insecticides (>50 µM) in mitochondria of insecticide-resistant larvae. In conclusion, mitochondrial Pgp ATPase detected in the insecticide-resistant larvae influenced the efflux of xenobiotic compounds. Pgp might be involved in protecting the mitochondrial DNA and the components of the electron transport chain from damage due to insecticides, and contributing to the resistance to the deleterious effects of insecticides on the growth of insecticide-resistant H. armigera larvae.

  6. In silico structure-based screening of versatile P-glycoprotein inhibitors using polynomial empirical scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Shityakov, Sergey; Förster, Carola

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP (adenosine triphosphate)-binding cassette transporter that causes multidrug resistance of various chemotherapeutic substances by active efflux from mammalian cells. P-gp plays a pivotal role in limiting drug absorption and distribution in different organs, including the intestines and brain. Thus, the prediction of P-gp-drug interactions is of vital importance in assessing drug pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. To find the strongest P-gp blockers, we performed an in silico structure-based screening of P-gp inhibitor library (1,300 molecules) by the gradient optimization method, using polynomial empirical scoring (POLSCORE) functions. We report a strong correlation (r (2)=0.80, F=16.27, n=6, P<0.0157) of inhibition constants (Kiexp or pKiexp; experimental Ki or negative decimal logarithm of Kiexp) converted from experimental IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values with POLSCORE-predicted constants (KiPOLSCORE or pKiPOLSCORE), using a linear regression fitting technique. The hydrophobic interactions between P-gp and selected drug substances were detected as the main forces responsible for the inhibition effect. The results showed that this scoring technique might be useful in the virtual screening and filtering of databases of drug-like compounds at the early stage of drug development processes. PMID:24711707

  7. In silico structure-based screening of versatile P-glycoprotein inhibitors using polynomial empirical scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Shityakov, Sergey; Förster, Carola

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP (adenosine triphosphate)-binding cassette transporter that causes multidrug resistance of various chemotherapeutic substances by active efflux from mammalian cells. P-gp plays a pivotal role in limiting drug absorption and distribution in different organs, including the intestines and brain. Thus, the prediction of P-gp-drug interactions is of vital importance in assessing drug pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. To find the strongest P-gp blockers, we performed an in silico structure-based screening of P-gp inhibitor library (1,300 molecules) by the gradient optimization method, using polynomial empirical scoring (POLSCORE) functions. We report a strong correlation (r (2)=0.80, F=16.27, n=6, P<0.0157) of inhibition constants (Kiexp or pKiexp; experimental Ki or negative decimal logarithm of Kiexp) converted from experimental IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values with POLSCORE-predicted constants (KiPOLSCORE or pKiPOLSCORE), using a linear regression fitting technique. The hydrophobic interactions between P-gp and selected drug substances were detected as the main forces responsible for the inhibition effect. The results showed that this scoring technique might be useful in the virtual screening and filtering of databases of drug-like compounds at the early stage of drug development processes.

  8. In silico structure-based screening of versatile P-glycoprotein inhibitors using polynomial empirical scoring functions

    PubMed Central

    Shityakov, Sergey; Förster, Carola

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP (adenosine triphosphate)-binding cassette transporter that causes multidrug resistance of various chemotherapeutic substances by active efflux from mammalian cells. P-gp plays a pivotal role in limiting drug absorption and distribution in different organs, including the intestines and brain. Thus, the prediction of P-gp–drug interactions is of vital importance in assessing drug pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. To find the strongest P-gp blockers, we performed an in silico structure-based screening of P-gp inhibitor library (1,300 molecules) by the gradient optimization method, using polynomial empirical scoring (POLSCORE) functions. We report a strong correlation (r2=0.80, F=16.27, n=6, P<0.0157) of inhibition constants (Kiexp or pKiexp; experimental Ki or negative decimal logarithm of Kiexp) converted from experimental IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values with POLSCORE-predicted constants (KiPOLSCORE or pKiPOLSCORE), using a linear regression fitting technique. The hydrophobic interactions between P-gp and selected drug substances were detected as the main forces responsible for the inhibition effect. The results showed that this scoring technique might be useful in the virtual screening and filtering of databases of drug-like compounds at the early stage of drug development processes. PMID:24711707

  9. Cyclosporine inhibits macrophage-mediated antigen presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, H.K.; Palay, D.; Wentworth, P.; Cluff, C.

    1986-03-01

    The influence of cyclosporine on antigen-specific, macrophage-dependent T cell activation was analyzed in vitro. Murine T cell activation by antigens derived from Listeria monocytogenes was monitored by the production of interleukin-2. Pretreatment (2 hrs., 37/sup 0/C) of macrophages with cyclosporine resulted in a population of macrophages with a markedly diminished capacity to support the activation of T lymphocytes. When cyclosporine-pretreated macrophages were added to cultures of antigen and untreated T cells, the dose of cyclosporine which produced 50% inhibition was 1.5 ..mu..g/ml. Appropriate control experiments indicated that cyclosporine was indeed inhibiting at the macrophage level. The addition of interleukin-1 or indomethacin to the cultures did not alter the inhibitory effect of cyclosporine. Under conditions which produced >90% inhibition of antigen presentation, macrophage surface Ia expression was not altered, and the uptake and catabolism of radiolabelled antigen was normal. Thus, cyclosporine inhibits antigen presentation by a mechanism which appears unrelated to changes in Il-1 elaboration, prostaglandin production, Ia expression, or antigen uptake and catabolism.

  10. Doxycycline-mediated Inhibition of Choroidal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Samtani, S.; Amaral, J.; Campos, M.; Fariss, R. N.; Becerra, S. P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Doxycycline, a broad spectrum antibiotic, has certain anti-angiogenic properties and can inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs/gelatinases). We investigated the effects of doxycycline on choroidal neovascularization (CNV), and regulation of MMP-2/-9 and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF). Methods Doxycycline was orally administered to rats at 500, 50, 5, and 0.5 mg/kg/day, using non-treated animals as controls. Experimental CNV was induced with laser 7 days after doxycycline treatment started. At seven days post-induction, animals were euthanized, and eyes collected. RPE/choroid flat-mounts were labeled with isolectin IB4 to determine CNV lesion volumes using confocal microscopy and Volocity® software. MMP-2, MMP-9 and PEDF protein levels were determined by ELISA. MMP catalytic activity was determined in solution using fluorogenic gelatin and peptide substrates, by gelatin zymography in SDS-PAGE and by in situ DQ-gelatin zymography in RPE/choroid sections. Results CNV complex lesion volumes decreased with doxycycline in a dose-response relationship. A dosage of 500 mg/kg/day caused a 70% inhibition of CNV complex volume compared to control animals. Doxycycline elevated PEDF levels in plasma, and did not affect the plasma pro- and active MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels. However, the in vitro enzymatic activities of purified MMP-2 and MMP-9 declined significantly with doxycycline. MMP-2, MMP-9 and gelatinolytic activities in situ increased early in CNV lesion development. Doxycycline treatments and exogenous additions inhibited gelatinolytic activities in CNV lesions. Conclusions Doxycycline effectively hampered the progression of experimental CNV. The results suggest that orally administrated doxycycline can reach the choroid to attenuate proteolytic enzymes that remodel Bruch's membrane and promote the anti-angiogenic PEDF to inhibit neovascularization. PMID:19516001

  11. Role of P-glycoprotein in refractoriness of seizures to antiepileptic drugs in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Achal; Tripathi, Deepak; Paliwal, Vimal Kumar; Neyaz, Zafar; Agarwal, Vikas

    2015-02-01

    Mechanism of seizure refractoriness to antiepileptic drugs in children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is not known. Efflux of antiepileptic drugs due to increased expression/function of P-glycoprotein, a multidrug efflux transporter protein on the cell surface is a proposed mechanism. The authors studied the expression/function of P-glycoprotein on peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 29 children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, 23 children with other epilepsies, and 19 healthy children. The authors found a higher P-glycoprotein expression/function in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, a higher percent positive cells as compared to children with other epilepsy (P < 0.001) and to healthy controls (P = 0.012), higher P-glycoprotein expression as compared to healthy controls (P = 0.003), a higher total P-glycoprotein expression (relative florescence intensity × percent positive cells) as compared to children with other epilepsies (P < 0.001) and healthy controls (P < 0.001), and a higher P-glycoprotein function as compared to children with other epilepsies (P = 0.001) and healthy controls (P = 0.002). These findings may explain seizure refractoriness to anti-epileptic drugs in Lennox-Gastaut syndome.

  12. A2A adenosine receptor modulates drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Geun; Bynoe, Margaret S.

    2016-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the brain from toxic substances within the peripheral circulation. It maintains brain homeostasis and is a hurdle for drug delivery to the CNS to treat neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and brain tumors. The drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is highly expressed on brain endothelial cells and blocks the entry of most drugs delivered to the brain. Here, we show that activation of the A2A adenosine receptor (AR) with an FDA-approved A2A AR agonist (Lexiscan) rapidly and potently decreased P-gp expression and function in a time-dependent and reversible manner. We demonstrate that downmodulation of P-gp expression and function coincided with chemotherapeutic drug accumulation in brains of WT mice and in primary mouse and human brain endothelial cells, which serve as in vitro BBB models. Lexiscan also potently downregulated the expression of BCRP1, an efflux transporter that is highly expressed in the CNS vasculature and other tissues. Finally, we determined that multiple pathways, including MMP9 cleavage and ubiquitinylation, mediated P-gp downmodulation. Based on these data, we propose that A2A AR activation on BBB endothelial cells offers a therapeutic window that can be fine-tuned for drug delivery to the brain and has potential as a CNS drug-delivery technology. PMID:27043281

  13. Identification of a Cryptic Bacterial Promoter in Mouse (mdr1a) P-Glycoprotein cDNA.

    PubMed

    Pluchino, Kristen M; Esposito, Dominic; Moen, Janna K; Hall, Matthew D; Madigan, James P; Shukla, Suneet; Procter, Lauren V; Wall, Vanessa E; Schneider, Thomas D; Pringle, Ian; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Gill, Deborah R; Hyde, Steven C; Gottesman, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    The efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an important mediator of various pharmacokinetic parameters, being expressed at numerous physiological barriers and also in multidrug-resistant cancer cells. Molecular cloning of homologous cDNAs is an important tool for the characterization of functional differences in P-gp between species. However, plasmids containing mouse mdr1a cDNA display significant genetic instability during cloning in bacteria, indicating that mdr1a cDNA may be somehow toxic to bacteria, allowing only clones containing mutations that abrogate this toxicity to survive transformation. We demonstrate here the presence of a cryptic promoter in mouse mdr1a cDNA that causes mouse P-gp expression in bacteria. This expression may account for the observed toxicity of mdr1a DNA to bacteria. Sigma 70 binding site analysis and GFP reporter plasmids were used to identify sequences in the first 321 bps of mdr1a cDNA capable of initiating bacterial protein expression. An mdr1a M107L cDNA containing a single residue mutation at the proposed translational start site was shown to allow sub-cloning of mdr1a in E. coli while retaining transport properties similar to wild-type P-gp. This mutant mdr1a cDNA may prove useful for efficient cloning of mdr1a in E. coli.

  14. Cryo-EM Analysis of the Conformational Landscape of Human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) During its Catalytic Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Gabriel A.; Shukla, Suneet; Rao, Prashant; Borgnia, Mario J.; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Merk, Alan; Mobin, Aerfa; Esser, Lothar; Earl, Lesley A.; Gottesman, Michael M.; Xia, Di

    2016-01-01

    The multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) is an ATP-dependent pump that mediates the efflux of structurally diverse drugs and xenobiotics across cell membranes, affecting drug pharmacokinetics and contributing to the development of multidrug resistance. Structural information about the conformational changes in human P-gp during the ATP hydrolysis cycle has not been directly demonstrated, although mechanistic information has been inferred from biochemical and biophysical studies conducted with P-gp and its orthologs, or from structures of other ATP-binding cassette transporters. Using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy, we report the surprising discovery that, in the absence of the transport substrate and nucleotides, human P-gp can exist in both open [nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) apart; inward-facing] and closed (NBDs close; outward-facing) conformations. We also probe conformational states of human P-gp during the catalytic cycle, and demonstrate that, following ATP hydrolysis, P-gp transitions through a complete closed conformation to a complete open conformation in the presence of ADP. PMID:27190212

  15. Cryo-EM Analysis of the Conformational Landscape of Human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) During its Catalytic Cycle.

    PubMed

    Frank, Gabriel A; Shukla, Suneet; Rao, Prashant; Borgnia, Mario J; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Merk, Alan; Mobin, Aerfa; Esser, Lothar; Earl, Lesley A; Gottesman, Michael M; Xia, Di; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2016-07-01

    The multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) is an ATP-dependent pump that mediates the efflux of structurally diverse drugs and xenobiotics across cell membranes, affecting drug pharmacokinetics and contributing to the development of multidrug resistance. Structural information about the conformational changes in human P-gp during the ATP hydrolysis cycle has not been directly demonstrated, although mechanistic information has been inferred from biochemical and biophysical studies conducted with P-gp and its orthologs, or from structures of other ATP-binding cassette transporters. Using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy, we report the surprising discovery that, in the absence of the transport substrate and nucleotides, human P-gp can exist in both open [nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) apart; inward-facing] and closed (NBDs close; outward-facing) conformations. We also probe conformational states of human P-gp during the catalytic cycle, and demonstrate that, following ATP hydrolysis, P-gp transitions through a complete closed conformation to a complete open conformation in the presence of ADP.

  16. Where is it and How Does it Get There – Intracellular Localization and Traffic of P-glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Dong

    2013-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-binding cassette, is able to transport structurally and chemically unrelated substrates. Over-expression of P-gp in cancer cells significantly decreases the intercellular amount of anticancer drugs, and results in multidrug resistance in cancer cells, a major obstacle in cancer chemotherapy. P-gp is mainly localized on the plasma membrane and functions as a drug efflux pump; however, P-gp is also localized in many intracellular compartments, such as endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, endosomes, and lysosomes. P-gp moves between the intracellular compartments and the plasma membrane in a microtubule-actin dependent manner. This review highlights our current understanding of (1) the intracellular localization of P-gp; (2) the traffic and cycling pathways among the cellular compartments as well as between these compartments and the plasma membrane; and (3) the cellular factors regulating P-gp traffic and cycling. This review also presents a potential implication in overcoming P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance by targeting P-gp traffic and cycling pathways and impairing P-gp localization on the plasma membrane. PMID:24416721

  17. Reversal of P-glycoprotein-dependent resistance to vinblastine by newly synthesized bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids in mouse leukemia P388 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Peng; Wang, Li; Yang, Jin-Song; Nomura, Masaaki; Miyamoto, Ken-Ichi

    2005-10-01

    We examined the ability of partially synthesized new compounds from fangchinoline and tetrandrine to reverse P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-dependent multidrug resistance (MDR) in vitro and in vivo. All compound enhanced the in vitro cyctotoxic effect of vinblastin (VBL) at 0.1 microM as potent as 10 microM verapamil against the resistant cell line P388/ADR. The combination effect tended to be strong by substitution of bulky group, resulting 5,14-dibromotetrandrine (compound #9) showed the strongest effect. Compound #9 increased intracellular VBL accumulation in P388/ADR cells, much stronger than verapamil, as well as cytotoxic combined effect. This mechanism seems to inhibit the function of P-gp, but not the expression of P-gp. In combination with VBL, this compound also synergistically prolonged the life-span of P388/ADR-bearing mice. Bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids and their derivatives are possible to be good candidates as modifier of MDR in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:16204959

  18. Evaluation of first-pass cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A) and P-glycoprotein activities using felodipine and hesperetin in combination in Wistar rats and everted rat gut sacs in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, V; Surya Sandeep, M; Ravindra Babu, P; Naveen Babu, K

    2014-05-01

    The effects of hesperetin on the pharmacokinetics and the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the transport of felodipine were investigated in rats and in vitro. Felodipine was administered orally (10 mg/kg) without or with hesperetin (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) to rats for 15 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected at different time intervals on 1(st) day in single dose pharmacokinetic study (SDS) and on 15(th) day in multiple dose pharmacokinetic study (MDS). The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞ ) and the peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) of felodipine were dose-dependently increased in SDS and MDS with hesperetin compared to control ( p < 0.001). The half-life (t1/2 ) and mean residence time was longer than the control group in both studies. The role of P-gp determined using everted rat gut sacs in vitro by incubating felodipine with or without hesperetin and verapamil (typical P-gp and CYP3A4 inhibitor). The in vitro experiments revealed that the verapamil and hesperetin increased the intestinal absorption of felodipine (p < 0.01). Concurrent use of hesperetin dramatically altered the pharmacokinetics of felodipine leading to an increase in systemic exposure. The likely mechanism is inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated first-pass metabolism and P-gp in the intestine and the liver.

  19. BME, a novel compound of anthraquinone, down regulated P-glycoprotein expression in doxorubicin-resistant human myelogenous leukemia (K562/DOX) cells via generation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhong; Liu, Lu; Cen, Juan; Ji, Biansheng

    2015-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumor cells is still a main obstacle for the chemotherapeutic treatment of cancers. Thus, development of effective MDR reversing agents is an important approach in the clinic. The present study revealed that BME, a novel compound of anthraquinone, elevated intracellular accumulation of the P-gp substrates and reduced concentration resulting in 50% inhibition of cell growth (IC50) values for doxorubicin (DOX) in doxorubicin-resistant human myelogenous leukemia (K562/DOX) cells. Further more, BME was also reported to down regulated P-gp expression accompanying with generation of nontoxic low level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS) and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 as well as c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK). However, treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), U0216 and SP600125 almost abolished actions of the BME mentioned above. These results indicated that the effect of the BME on the P-gp may be involved in generation of nontoxic low level of iROS and activation of ERK1/2 or JNK, which suggested valuable clues to screen and develop P-gp reversing agents.

  20. Unravelling the complex drug–drug interactions of the cardiovascular drugs, verapamil and digoxin, with P-glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Ledwitch, Kaitlyn V.; Barnes, Robert W.; Roberts, Arthur G.

    2016-01-01

    Drug–drug interactions (DDIs) and associated toxicity from cardiovascular drugs represents a major problem for effective co-administration of cardiovascular therapeutics. A significant amount of drug toxicity from DDIs occurs because of drug interactions and multiple cardiovascular drug binding to the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp), which is particularly problematic for cardiovascular drugs because of their relatively low therapeutic indexes. The calcium channel antagonist, verapamil and the cardiac glycoside, digoxin, exhibit DDIs with Pgp through non-competitive inhibition of digoxin transport, which leads to elevated digoxin plasma concentrations and digoxin toxicity. In the present study, verapamil-induced ATPase activation kinetics were biphasic implying at least two verapamil-binding sites on Pgp, whereas monophasic digoxin activation of Pgp-coupled ATPase kinetics suggested a single digoxin-binding site. Using intrinsic protein fluorescence and the saturation transfer double difference (STDD) NMR techniques to probe drug–Pgp interactions, verapamil was found to have little effect on digoxin–Pgp interactions at low concentrations of verapamil, which is consistent with simultaneous binding of the drugs and non-competitive inhibition. Higher concentrations of verapamil caused significant disruption of digoxin–Pgp interactions that suggested overlapping and competing drug-binding sites. These interactions correlated to drug-induced conformational changes deduced from acrylamide quenching of Pgp tryptophan fluorescence. Also, Pgp-coupled ATPase activity kinetics measured with a range of verapamil and digoxin concentrations fit well to a DDI model encompassing non-competitive and competitive inhibition of digoxin by verapamil. The results and previous transport studies were combined into a comprehensive model of verapamil–digoxin DDIs encompassing drug binding, ATP hydrolysis, transport and conformational changes. PMID:26823559

  1. Evidence for P-Glycoprotein Involvement in Cell Volume Regulation Using Coulter Sizing in Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Pasquier, Jennifer; Rioult, Damien; Abu-Kaoud, Nadine; Hoarau-Véchot, Jessica; Marin, Matthieu; Le Foll, Frank

    2015-06-24

    The regulation of cell volume is an essential function that is coupled to a variety of physiological processes such as receptor recycling, excitability and contraction, cell proliferation, migration, and programmed cell death. Under stress, cells undergo emergency swelling and respond to such a phenomenon with a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) where they release cellular ions, and other osmolytes as well as a concomitant loss of water. The link between P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane transporter, and cell volume regulation is controversial, and changes in cells volume are measured using microscopy or electrophysiology. For instance, by using the patch-clamp method, our team demonstrated that chloride currents activated in the RVD were more intense and rapid in a breast cancer cell line overexpressing the P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The Cell Lab Quanta SC is a flow cytometry system that simultaneously measures electronic volume, side scatter and three fluorescent colors; altogether this provides unsurpassed population resolution and accurate cell counting. Therefore, here we propose a novel method to follow cellular volume. By using the Coulter-type channel of the cytometer Cell Lab Quanta SC MPL (multi-platform loading), we demonstrated a role for the P-gp during different osmotic treatments, but also a differential activity of the P-gp through the cell cycle. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a role of P-gp in cell volume regulation.

  2. Evidence for P-Glycoprotein Involvement in Cell Volume Regulation Using Coulter Sizing in Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Pasquier, Jennifer; Rioult, Damien; Abu-Kaoud, Nadine; Hoarau-Véchot, Jessica; Marin, Matthieu; Le Foll, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of cell volume is an essential function that is coupled to a variety of physiological processes such as receptor recycling, excitability and contraction, cell proliferation, migration, and programmed cell death. Under stress, cells undergo emergency swelling and respond to such a phenomenon with a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) where they release cellular ions, and other osmolytes as well as a concomitant loss of water. The link between P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane transporter, and cell volume regulation is controversial, and changes in cells volume are measured using microscopy or electrophysiology. For instance, by using the patch-clamp method, our team demonstrated that chloride currents activated in the RVD were more intense and rapid in a breast cancer cell line overexpressing the P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The Cell Lab Quanta SC is a flow cytometry system that simultaneously measures electronic volume, side scatter and three fluorescent colors; altogether this provides unsurpassed population resolution and accurate cell counting. Therefore, here we propose a novel method to follow cellular volume. By using the Coulter-type channel of the cytometer Cell Lab Quanta SC MPL (multi-platform loading), we demonstrated a role for the P-gp during different osmotic treatments, but also a differential activity of the P-gp through the cell cycle. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a role of P-gp in cell volume regulation. PMID:26114386

  3. A Potato cDNA Encoding a Homologue of Mammalian Multidrug Resistant P-Glycoprotein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W.; Takezawa, D.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1996-01-01

    A homologue of the multidrug resistance (MDR) gene was obtained while screening a potato stolon tip cDNA expression library with S-15-labeled calmodulin. The mammalian MDR gene codes for a membrane-bound P-glycoprotein (170-180 kDa) which imparts multidrug resistance to cancerous cells. The potato cDNA (PMDR1) codes for a polypeptide of 1313 amino acid residues (ca. 144 kDa) and its structural features are very similar to the MDR P-glycoprotein. The N-terminal half of the PMDR1-encoded protein shares striking homology with its C-terminal half, and each half contains a conserved ATP-binding site and six putative transmembrane domains. Southern blot analysis indicated that potato has one or two MDR-like genes. PMDR1 mRNA is constitutively expressed in all organs studied with higher expression in the stem and stolon tip. The PMDR1 expression was highest during tuber initiation and decreased during tuber development.

  4. Tumor endothelial expression of P-glycoprotein upon microvesicular transfer of TrpC5 derived from adriamycin-resistant breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, YePing; Pan, QiongXi; Jiang, Li; Chen, Zhen; Zhang, FangFang; Liu, YanJun; Xing, Hui; Shi, Mei; Li, Jiao; Li, XiYuan; Zhu, YaoDan; Chen, Yun; Bruce, Iain C.; Jin, Jian Ma, Xin

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • TrpC5 was mainly accumulated in microvesicles of drug-resistant MCF-7/ADM cells. • Microvesicles from MCF-7/ADM transferred TrpC5 to endothelial cells. • TrpC5 inhibition reduced P-glycoprotein accumulation on tumor blood vessels in vivo. - Abstract: Treatment of carcinoma commonly fails due to chemoresistance. Studies have shown that endothelial cells acquire resistance via the tumor microenvironment. Microvesicle (MV) shedding from the cell membrane to the microenvironment plays an important role in communication between cells. The aim of the present study was to determine whether MCF-7 adriamycin-resistant cells (MCF-7/ADM) shed MVs that alter the characteristics of human microvessel endothelial cells (HMECs). MVs from tumor cells transferred a Ca{sup 2+}-permeable channel TrpC5 to HMECs, inducing the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) by activation of the transcription factor NFATc3 (nuclear factor of activated T cells isoform c3). Expression of the mdr1 gene was blocked by the TrpC5-blocking antibody T5E3, and the production of P-gp in HMECs was reduced by blockade of TrpC5. Thus, we postulate that endothelial cells acquire the resistant protein upon exposure to TrpC5-containg MVs in the microenvironment, and express P-gp in the TrpC5–NFATc3 signal pathway.

  5. Neurexin and neuroligin mediate retrograde synaptic inhibition in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhitao; Hom, Sabrina; Kudze, Tambudzai; Tong, Xia-Jing; Choi, Seungwon; Aramuni, Gayane; Zhang, Weiqi; Kaplan, Joshua M

    2012-08-24

    The synaptic adhesion molecules neurexin and neuroligin alter the development and function of synapses and are linked to autism in humans. Here, we found that Caenorhabditis elegans neurexin (NRX-1) and neuroligin (NLG-1) mediated a retrograde synaptic signal that inhibited neurotransmitter release at neuromuscular junctions. Retrograde signaling was induced in mutants lacking a muscle microRNA (miR-1) and was blocked in mutants lacking NLG-1 or NRX-1. Release was rapid and abbreviated when the retrograde signal was on, whereas release was slow and prolonged when retrograde signaling was blocked. The retrograde signal adjusted release kinetics by inhibiting exocytosis of synaptic vesicles (SVs) that are distal to the site of calcium entry. Inhibition of release was mediated by increased presynaptic levels of tomosyn, an inhibitor of SV fusion.

  6. Is P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) a phase 0 or a phase 3 colchicine transporter depending on colchicine exposure conditions?

    SciTech Connect

    Decleves, Xavier. E-mail: xavier.decleves@univ-paris5.fr; Niel, Elisabeth; Debray, Marcel; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel

    2006-12-01

    This study investigates the P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-mediated transport of its substrates in accumulation or efflux modes under steady-state conditions. The kinetics of colchicine uptake and efflux, a substrate of both Pgp and intracellular tubulin, were studied in HL60 and HL60/DNR cells; HL60/DNR cells contain 25 times more Pgp than do HL60 cells. HL60/DNR cells in a medium containing 6.25 nM colchicine, which mimics therapeutic conditions, reached steady-state twice as rapidly as did HL60 cells, and accumulated 24-times less colchicine than did HL60 cells. The Pgp inhibitor GF120918, increased colchicine uptake by HL60 cells 1.2-fold and that of HL60/DNR cells 17-fold, while it had no effect on colchicine efflux from either cell line that had been incubated with colchicine for 24 h. Colchicine kinetics fitted well a two closed-compartment model, showing that the low intracellular accumulation of colchicine in HL60/DNR cells resulted from a 11-fold decrease in colchicine uptake and a 2.3-fold increase in colchicine efflux, that could be attributed to Pgp-mediated efflux activity in HL60/DNR cells. Intracellular colchicine was mainly and similarly distributed in the cytosol in both cell lines. These data demonstrate that the kinetics of the intracellular colchicine accumulation depend on the density of Pgp and that Pgp is more a phase 0 (preventing cellular uptake) than a phase 3 (effluxing intracellular substrate) transporter under steady-state conditions, although the situation is reversed after a short incubation time (30 min), when intracellular free colchicine concentration is probably high enough for it to be removed from the cell by Pgp.

  7. Selection at a P-glycoprotein gene in ivermectin- and moxidectin-selected strains of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Blackhall, W J; Liu, H Y; Xu, M; Prichard, R K; Beech, R N

    1998-09-15

    Resistance to anthelmintics that are used to control parasite populations in domestic animals has become a serious problem worldwide. The development of resistance is an evolutionary process that leads to genetic changes in parasite populations in response to drug exposure. The anthelmintic ivermectin is known to bind to the human membrane transport protein, P-glycoprotein, and P-glycoprotein-deficient mice treated with ivermectin have shown signs of neurotoxicity. P-glycoprotein is believed to be involved in the multidrug resistance phenotype seen in some human cancers and for drug resistance in some protists. We have examined the genetic variation of a P-glycoprotein homologue from the nematode Haemonchus contortus to see if an association exists between specific alleles of this gene and survival to exposure to ivermectin or moxidectin. Two parasite strains passaged without drug treatment and three strains, subjected to anthelmintic selection and derived from the unselected strains, were examined. Allelic variation in the unselected strains showed this locus to be highly polymorphic. chi 2 analyses of allele frequencies showed significant differences between the unselected and the drug-selected derived strains. In all three drug-selected strains, an apparent selection for the same allele was observed. These findings suggest that P-glycoprotein may be involved in resistance to both ivermectin and moxidectin in H. contortus.

  8. P-glycoprotein is expressed and causes resistance to chemotherapy in EBV-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases.

    PubMed

    Yoshimori, Mayumi; Takada, Honami; Imadome, Ken-Ichi; Kurata, Morito; Yamamoto, Kouhei; Koyama, Takatoshi; Shimizu, Norio; Fujiwara, Shigeyoshi; Miura, Osamu; Arai, Ayako

    2015-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (EBV-T-LPDs) are rare lymphomas with poor prognosis. Although chemotherapeutic strategies such as CHOP have been often selected, they have exhibited only limited efficacy. To clarify the mechanism of chemoresistance, we examined P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression. P-gp acts as an energy-dependent efflux pump that excretes drugs from the cytoplasm, resulting in low-intracellular drug concentrations and poor sensitivity to chemotherapy. We examined P-gp expression in EBV-positive cells by immunohistochemistry staining in three patients of EBV-T-LPDs and the expression was detected in all patients. We also examined mdr1 mRNA expression by reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) in EBV-positive tumor cells from these patients and additional three patients. The expression was detected in all examined patients. In five EBV-T-LPDs patients, P-gp function was detected by Rhodamine-123 efflux assay in these cells. The efflux was inhibited by treatment with a P-gp inhibitor, cyclosporine A (CsA). We also examined and detected P-gp expression in EBV-positive T-cell lines SNT8 and SNT16 established from EBV-T-LPDs patients, by RT-PCR and western blotting. The function was also detected by Rhodamine-123 efflux in these cell lines. Inhibition and knock down of P-gp by CsA and siRNA, respectively, enhanced etoposide- and doxorubicin-induced cell death in the EBV-positive T-cell lines. Finally, we infected the T-cell line MOLT4 with EBV, and found that mdr1 mRNA expression and Rhodamine 123 efflux were upregulated after infection. These results indicated that enhanced P-gp expression contributed to the chemoresistance of EBV-T-LPDs.

  9. Inhibitory effect of clemastine on P-glycoprotein expression and function: an in vitro and in situ study

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Mehran Mesgari; Valizadeh, Hadi; Hamishekar, Hamed; Mohammadnejad, Leila; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Transporters have an important role in pharmacokinetics of drugs. Inhibition or induction of drug transporters activity can affect drug absorption, safety, and efficacy. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is the most important membrane transporter that is responsible for active efflux of drugs. It is important to understand which drugs are substrates, inhibitors, or inducers of P-gp to minimize or avoid unwanted interactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of clemastine on the expression and function of P-gp. Materials and Methods: The effect of clemastine on P-gp function and expression was evaluated in vitro byrhodamine-123 (Rho123) efflux assay in Caco-2 cells and Western blot analysis. Rat in situ single pass intestinal permeability model was used to investigate the clemastine effect on digoxin Peff, as a known P-gp substrate. Digoxin levels in intestinal perfusates were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Results: The Caco-2 intracellular accumulation of Rho123 in clemastine and verapamil treated cells was 90.8 ± 9.8 and 420.6±25.4 pg/mg protein, respectively which was significantly higher than that in control cells (50.2±6.0; P<0.05). Immunoblotting results indicated that clemastine decreased expression of P-gp in Caco-2 cells in vitro. More over effective intestinal permeability (Peff) of digoxin in the presence of clemastine, was significantly increased compare to control group. Conclusion: Findings of our study suggested dose dependent P-gp inhibition activity for clemastine in vitro and in situ. Therefore co-administration of clemastine with P-gp substrates may result in unwanted interactions and side effects. PMID:27279987

  10. Trametenolic acid B reverses multidrug resistance in breast cancer cells through regulating the expression level of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiaoyin; Wang, Junzhi; He, Haibo; Liu, Hongbing; Yan, Ximing; Zou, Kun

    2014-07-01

    Trametenolic acid B (TAB) is the main active composition of Trametes lactinea (Berk.) Pat which possesses antitumor activities. There was no report its antitumor effect through regulating P-glycoprotein (P-gp) so far, due toP-gp over expression is one of the most important mechanisms contributing to the multiple drug resistance phenotype. The present aim was to investigate the effects of TAB on P-gp in multidrug-resistant cells;Paclitaxel-resistant cell line MDA-MB-231/Taxol was established by stepwise exposure for 10 months.MDA-MB-231 cells and MDA-MB-231/Taxol cells were treated with TAB, and their growth was evaluated using MTT assays. Paclitaxel accumulation in the cells was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatogram(HPLC). The activity of P-gp was detected by intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123 (Rho123), and the protein expression of P-gp was evaluated using western blot. Results indicated that the IC50 of MDA-MB-231/Taxol to paclitaxel (Taxol) was 33 times higher than that of nature MDA-MB-231. TAB increased the intracellular concentration of Taxol and inhibited the activity of P-gp and suppressed the expression of P-gp in MDA-MB-231/Taxol cells. Our present results showed that TAB could reverse Taxol resistance in MDA-MB-231/Taxol cells,mainly inhibiting the activity of P-gp and down-regulating the expression level of P-gp, and then enhancing the accumulation of chemotherapy agents.

  11. Mapping the Binding Site of the Inhibitor Tariquidar That Stabilizes the First Transmembrane Domain of P-glycoprotein*

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Tip W.; Clarke, David M.

    2015-01-01

    ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters are clinically important because drug pumps like P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) confer multidrug resistance and mutant ABC proteins are responsible for many protein-folding diseases such as cystic fibrosis. Identification of the tariquidar-binding site has been the subject of intensive molecular modeling studies because it is the most potent inhibitor and corrector of P-gp. Tariquidar is a unique P-gp inhibitor because it locks the pump in a conformation that blocks drug efflux but activates ATPase activity. In silico docking studies have identified several potential tariquidar-binding sites. Here, we show through cross-linking studies that tariquidar most likely binds to sites within the transmembrane (TM) segments located in one wing or at the interface between the two wings (12 TM segments form 2 divergent wings). We then introduced arginine residues at all positions in the 12 TM segments (223 mutants) of P-gp. The rationale was that a charged residue in the drug-binding pocket would disrupt hydrophobic interaction with tariquidar and inhibit its ability to rescue processing mutants or stimulate ATPase activity. Arginines introduced at 30 positions significantly inhibited tariquidar rescue of a processing mutant and activation of ATPase activity. The results suggest that tariquidar binds to a site within the drug-binding pocket at the interface between the TM segments of both structural wings. Tariquidar differed from other drug substrates, however, as it stabilized the first TM domain. Stabilization of the first TM domain appears to be a key mechanism for high efficiency rescue of ABC processing mutants that cause disease. PMID:26507655

  12. Investigating the binding interactions of the anti-Alzheimer's drug donepezil with CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    McEneny-King, Alanna; Edginton, Andrea N; Rao, Praveen P N

    2015-01-15

    The anti-Alzheimer's agent donepezil is known to bind to the hepatic enzyme CYP3A4, but its relationship with the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is not as well elucidated. We conducted in vitro inhibition studies of donepezil using human recombinant CYP3A4 and P-gp. These studies show that donepezil is a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4 (IC50=54.68±1.00μM) whereas the reference agent ketoconazole exhibited potent inhibition (CYP3A4 IC50=0.20±0.01μM). P-gp inhibition studies indicate that donepezil exhibits better inhibition relative to CYP3A4 (P-gp EC50=34.85±4.63μM) although it was less potent compared to ketoconazole (P-gp EC50=9.74±1.23μM). At higher concentrations, donepezil exhibited significant inhibition of CYP3A4 (69%, 84% and 87% inhibition at 100, 250 and 500μM, respectively). This indicates its potential to cause drug-drug interactions with other CYP3A4 substrates upon co-administration; however, this scenario is unlikely in vivo due to the low therapeutic concentrations of donepezil. Similarly, donepezil co-administration with P-gp substrates or inhibitors is unlikely to result in beneficial or adverse drug interactions. The molecular docking studies show that the 5,6-dimethoxyindan-1-one moiety of donepezil was oriented closer to the heme center in CYP3A4 whereas in the P-gp binding site, the protonated benzylpiperidine pharmacophore of donepezil played a major role in its binding ability. Energy parameters indicate that donepezil complex with both CYP3A4 and P-gp was less stable (CDOCKER energies=-15.05 and -4.91kcal/mol, respectively) compared to the ketoconazole-CYP3A4 and P-gp complex (CDOCKER energies=-41.89 and -20.03kcal/mol, respectively).

  13. Multidrug-resistance gene (P-glycoprotein) is expressed by endothelial cells at blood-brain barrier sites

    SciTech Connect

    Cordon-Cardo, C.; O'Brien, J.P.; Casals, D.; Biedler, J.L.; Melamed, M.R.; Bertino, J.R. ); Rittman-Grauer, L. )

    1989-01-01

    Endothelial cells of human capillary blood vessels at the blood-brain and other blood-tissue barrier sites express P-glycoprotein as detected by mouse monoclonal antibodies against the human multidrug-resistance gene product. This pattern of endothelial cell expression may indicate a physiological role for P-glycoprotein in regulating the entry of certain molecules into the central nervous system and other anatomic compartments, such as the testes. These tissues, which limit the access of systemic drugs, are known pharmacologic sanctuaries for metastatic cancer. P-glycoprotein expression in capillary endothelium of brain and testes and not other tissues (i.e., kidney and placenta) may in part explain this phenomenon and could have important implications in cancer chemotherapy.

  14. Insights into the structure and substrate interactions of the P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter from spectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Sharom, F J; Liu, R; Romsicki, Y; Lu, P

    1999-12-01

    The P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter is a 170-kDa efflux pump which exports a diverse group of natural products, chemotherapeutic drugs, and hydrophobic peptides across the plasma membrane, driven by ATP hydrolysis. The transporter has been proposed to interact with its drug substrates within the membrane environment; however, much remains to be learned about the nature and number of the drug binding site(s). The two nucleotide binding domains are responsible for ATP binding and hydrolysis, which is coupled to drug movement across the membrane. In recent years, P-glycoprotein has been purified and functionally reconstituted in amounts large enough to allow biophysical studies. The use of spectroscopic techniques has led to insights into both its secondary and tertiary structure, and its interaction with nucleotides and drugs. In this review, we will summarise what has been learned by application to purified P-glycoprotein of fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy and infra-red spectroscopy.

  15. Regulation of P-glycoprotein and other ABC drug transporters at the blood-brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David S.

    2010-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are important, selective elements of the blood-brain barrier. They line the luminal plasma membrane of the brain capillary endothelium, facing the vascular space, both protecting the CNS from entry of neurotoxicants and limiting access of therapeutic drugs to the brain parenchyma. Recent studies highlight the multiple signaling pathways through which the expression and activity of P-glycoprotein and other ABC transporters are modulated in response to xenobiotics, stress and disease. They show that increased transporter expression occurs in response to signals that activate specific transcription factors including, PXR, CAR, NF-κB and AP-1, and reduced transporter activity occurs rapidly and reversibly in response to signaling through Src kinase, protein kinase C and estrogen receptors. A detailed understanding of such regulation can provide the basis for improved neuroprotection and enhanced therapeutic drug delivery to the brain. PMID:20417575

  16. Simple graph-theoretical model for flavonoid binding to P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Miličević, Ante; Raos, Nenad

    2016-03-01

    Three sets of flavonoid derivatives (N=32, 40, and 74) and logarithms of their dissociation constants (log Kd) that describe flavonoid affinity toward P-glycoprotein were modelled using six connectivity indices. The best results were obtained with the zero-order valence molecular connectivity index (0χv) for all three sets. Standard errors of the calibration models were around 0.3, and of the constants from the test sets even a little lower, 0.22 and 0.24. Despite using only one descriptor, our model proved better in internal (cross-validation) and especially in external (test set) statistics than much more demanding methods used in previous 3D QSAR modelling.

  17. P-glycoprotein and its inducible expression in three bivalve species after exposure to Prorocentrum lima.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Liu, Su-Li; Zheng, Jian-Wei; Li, Hong-Ye; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong

    2015-12-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp or ABCB1) belongs to the family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters responsible for multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) in aquatic organisms. To provide more information of P-gp in shellfish, in this study, complete cDNA of P-gp in three bivalve species including Ruditapes philippinarum, Scapharca subcrenata and Tegillarca granosa were cloned and its expressions in gill, digestive gland, adductor muscle and mantle of the three bivalves were detected after exposure to Prorocentrum lima, a toxogenic dinoflagellate. The complete sequences of R. philippinarum, S. subcrenata and T. granosa P-gp showed high homology with MDR/P-gp/ABCB proteins from other species, having a typical sequence organization as full transporters from the ABCB family. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the amino acid sequences of P-gp from S. subcrenata and T. granosa had a closest relationship, forming an independent branch, then grouping into the other branch with Mytilus californianus, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Crassostrea gigas. However, P-gp sequences from R. philippinarum were more similar to the homologs from the more distantly related Aplysia californica than to homologs from S. subcrenata and T. granosa, suggesting that bivalves P-gp might have different paralogs. P-glycoprotein expressed in all detected tissues but there were large differences between them. After exposure to P. lima, the expression of P-gp changed in the four tissues in varying degrees within the same species and between different species, but the changes in mRNA and protein level were not always synchronous.

  18. Structural Characterization of Two Metastable ATP-Bound States of P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    O’Mara, Megan L.; Mark, Alan E.

    2014-01-01

    ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters couple the binding and hydrolysis of ATP to the transport of substrate molecules across the membrane. The mechanism by which ATP binding and/or hydrolysis drives the conformational changes associated with substrate transport has not yet been characterized fully. Here, changes in the conformation of the ABC export protein P-glycoprotein on ATP binding are examined in a series of molecular dynamics simulations. When one molecule of ATP is placed at the ATP binding site associated with each of the two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs), the membrane-embedded P-glycoprotein crystal structure adopts two distinct metastable conformations. In one, each ATP molecule interacts primarily with the Walker A motif of the corresponding NBD. In the other, the ATP molecules interacts with both Walker A motif of one NBD and the Signature motif of the opposite NBD inducing the partial dimerization of the NBDs. This interaction is more extensive in one of the two ATP binding site, leading to an asymmetric structure. The overall conformation of the transmembrane domains is not altered in either of these metastable states, indicating that the conformational changes associated with ATP binding observed in the simulations in the absence of substrate do not lead to the outward-facing conformation and thus would be insufficient in themselves to drive transport. Nevertheless, the metastable intermediate ATP-bound conformations observed are compatible with a wide range of experimental cross-linking data demonstrating the simulations do capture physiologically important conformations. Analysis of the interaction between ATP and its cofactor Mg2+ with each NBD indicates that the coordination of ATP and Mg2+ differs between the two NBDs. The role structural asymmetry may play in ATP binding and hydrolysis is discussed. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our results are not heavily influenced by the crystal structure chosen for initiation of the simulations

  19. P-glycoprotein and its inducible expression in three bivalve species after exposure to Prorocentrum lima.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Liu, Su-Li; Zheng, Jian-Wei; Li, Hong-Ye; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong

    2015-12-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp or ABCB1) belongs to the family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters responsible for multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) in aquatic organisms. To provide more information of P-gp in shellfish, in this study, complete cDNA of P-gp in three bivalve species including Ruditapes philippinarum, Scapharca subcrenata and Tegillarca granosa were cloned and its expressions in gill, digestive gland, adductor muscle and mantle of the three bivalves were detected after exposure to Prorocentrum lima, a toxogenic dinoflagellate. The complete sequences of R. philippinarum, S. subcrenata and T. granosa P-gp showed high homology with MDR/P-gp/ABCB proteins from other species, having a typical sequence organization as full transporters from the ABCB family. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the amino acid sequences of P-gp from S. subcrenata and T. granosa had a closest relationship, forming an independent branch, then grouping into the other branch with Mytilus californianus, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Crassostrea gigas. However, P-gp sequences from R. philippinarum were more similar to the homologs from the more distantly related Aplysia californica than to homologs from S. subcrenata and T. granosa, suggesting that bivalves P-gp might have different paralogs. P-glycoprotein expressed in all detected tissues but there were large differences between them. After exposure to P. lima, the expression of P-gp changed in the four tissues in varying degrees within the same species and between different species, but the changes in mRNA and protein level were not always synchronous. PMID:26539802

  20. Suppression of NF-κB signaling and P-glycoprotein function by gambogic acid synergistically potentiates adriamycin -induced apoptosis in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Hui; Yang, Jing-Yu; Yang, Sheng-Nan; Li, Yi; Ping, Guan-Fang; Hou, Yue; Cui, Wei; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei; Wu, Chun-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Gambogic acid (GA) has been approved by the Chinese Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of lung cancer in clinical trials. However, whether GA has chemosensitizing properties when combined with other chemotherapy agents in the treatment of lung cancer is not known. Here we investigated the effects of GA combined with adriamycin (ADM), a common chemotherapy agent, in regard to their activities and the possible mechanisms against lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. Cell viability results showed that sequential GA-ADM treatment was synergistic, while the reverse sequence and simultaneous treatments were antagonistic or additive, in lung cancer cells and ADM resistant cells, but not in normal cells. The combined use of GA and ADM synergistically displayed apoptosis-inducing activities in lung cancer cells. Moreover, GA in combination with ADM could promote PARP cleavage, enhance caspases activation and decrease the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins in lung cancer cells. The combined use of GA and ADM decreased the expression of P-glycoprotein and increased the accumulation of ADM in lung cancer cells. Furthermore, it was found that, prior to ADM treatment, GA could inhibit NF-κB signaling pathways, which have been validated to confer ADM resistance. The critical role of NF-κB was further confirmed by using PDTC, a NF-κB inhibitor, which significantly increased apoptosis induction by the combination of GA and ADM and inhibited ADM-induced ABCB1 upregulation. Importantly, our results indicated that the combination of GA and ADM exerted enhanced anti-tumor effects on A549 xenograft models through inhibiting NF-κB and P-glycoprotein, and attenuated ADM-induced cardiotoxicity. Collectively, these findings indicate that GA sensitizes lung cancer cells to ADM in vitro and in vivo, providing a rationale for the combined use of GA and ADM in lung cancer chemotherapy.

  1. Use of cassette dosing approach to examine the effects of P-glycoprotein on the brain and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations in wild-type and P-glycoprotein knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingrong; Cheong, Jonathan; Ding, Xiao; Deshmukh, Gauri

    2014-04-01

    The study objectives were 1) to test the hypothesis that the lack of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and the inhibition of breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) at the blood-brain barrier after cassette dosing of potent P-gp and Bcrp inhibitors were due to low plasma concentrations of those inhibitors and 2) to examine the effects of P-gp on the unbound brain (C(u,brain)) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations (C(u,CSF)) of P-gp substrates in rats. In vitro inhibition of 11 compounds (amprenavir, citalopram, digoxin, elacridar, imatinib, Ko143 [(3S,6S,12aS)-1,2,3,4,6,7,12,12a-octahydro-9-methoxy-6-(2-methylpropyl)-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1',2':1,6]pyrido[3,4-b]indole-3-propanoic acid 1,1-dimethylethyl ester], loperamide, prazosin, quinidine, sulfasalazine, and verapamil) on P-gp and Bcrp was examined in P-gp- and Bcrp-expressing Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, respectively. An in vivo study was conducted in wild-type and Mdr1a(-/-) rats after subcutaneous cassette dosing of the 11 compounds at 1-3 mg/kg, and the brain, CSF, and plasma concentrations of these compounds were determined. At the maximal unbound concentrations observed in rats at 1-3 mg/kg, P-gp and Bcrp were not inhibited by a cassette of the 11 compounds. For non-P-gp/Bcrp substrates, similar C(u,brain), C(u,CSF), and unbound plasma concentrations (C(u,plasma)) were observed in wild-type and P-gp knockout rats. For P-gp/Bcrp substrates, C(u,brain) ≤ C(u,CSF) ≤ C(u,plasma) in wild-type rats, but C(u,brain) and C(u,CSF) increased in the P-gp knockout rats and were within 3-fold of C(u,plasma) for six of the seven P-gp substrates. These results indicate that P-gp and Bcrp inhibition at the blood-brain barrier is unlikely in cassette dosing and also suggest that P-gp and Bcrp activity at the blood-CSF barrier is functionally not important in determination of the CSF concentration for their substrates.

  2. 2'[(18)F]-fluoroethylrhodamine B is a promising radiotracer to measure P-glycoprotein function.

    PubMed

    Trencsényi, György; Kertész, István; Krasznai, Zoárd T; Máté, Gábor; Szalóki, Gábor; Szabó Judit, P; Kárpáti, Levente; Krasznai, Zoltán; Márián, Teréz; Goda, Katalin

    2015-07-10

    In vivo detection of the emergence of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) mediated multidrug resistance in tumors could be beneficial for patients treated with anticancer drugs. PET technique in combination with appropriate radiotracers could be the most convenient method for detection of Pgp function. Rhodamine derivatives are validated fluorescent probes for measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential and also Pgp function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 2'[(18)F]-fluoroethylrhodamine B ((18)FRB) a halogenated rhodamine derivative previously synthesized for PET assessment of myocardial perfusion preserved its Pgp substrate character. ATPase assay as well as accumulation experiments carried out using Pgp(+) and Pgp(-) human gynecologic (A2780/A2780(AD) and KB-3-1/KB-V1) and a mouse fibroblast cell pairs (NIH 3T3 and NIH 3T3 MDR1) were applied to study the interaction of (18)FRB with Pgp. ATPase assay proved that (18)FRB is a high affinity substrate of Pgp. Pgp(-) cells accumulated the (18)FRB rapidly in accordance with its lipophilic character. Dissipation of the mitochondrial proton gradient by a proton ionophore CCCP decreased the accumulation of rhodamine 123 (R123) and (18)FRB into Pgp(-) cells. Pgp(+) cells exhibited very low R123 and (18)FRB accumulation (around 1-8% of the Pgp(-) cell lines) which was not sensitive to the mitochondrial proton gradient; rather it was increased by the Pgp inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA). Based on the above data we conclude that (18)FRB is a high affinity Pgp substrate and consequently a potential PET tracer to detect multidrug resistant tumors as well as the function of physiological barriers expressing Pgp.

  3. Role of P-glycoprotein and permeability upon the brain distribution and pharmacodynamics of etamicastat: a comparison with nepicastat.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Ana I; Bonifácio, Maria João; Fernandes-Lopes, Carlos; Pires, Nuno; Igreja, Bruno; Wright, Lyndon C; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2015-01-01

    1. This study explores the impact of permeability and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux, upon brain exposure to etamicastat, a new dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) inhibitor and consequently brain levels of catecholamines. 2. Brain exposure to etamicastat (10 mg/kg), following intravenous administration to mice, was residual and upon oral administration of the same dose no compound was detected, concurring with the absence of effects upon brain catecholamines. The intravenous co-administration of elacridar (1.0 mg/kg), a known P-gp/BCRP dual modulator, significantly increased brain etamicastat exposure, but the levels attained were very low when compared to those of nepicastat, a centrally active DBH inhibitor. 3. In vitro permeability studies from apical-to-basal direction conducted in Caco-2 cells and MDCK-II cells showed that etamicastat apparent permeability was 1.2 × 10(-5) and 1.1 × 10(-6 )cm/s, respectively, 5- and 50-fold lower as compared to nepicastat. The secretory efflux ratio in MDCK-II cells overexpressing human P-gp showed an efflux ratio greater than 2, for both compounds, which was significantly decreased by elacridar. Despite its lower bioavailability and higher clearance, as compared to nepicastat, etamicastat showed preferential distribution to peripheral tissues and high plasma free fraction (15.5%), which may explain its effects upon peripheral DBH and catecholamine levels. 4. Though P-gp-mediated efflux may contribute to the limited brain penetration of etamicastat, the low permeability along with the pharmacokinetic properties of etamicastat may be perceived as the main contributors for its peripheral selectivity, which is advantageous for a cardiovascular drug candidate. PMID:25915108

  4. Design of Fexofenadine Prodrugs Based on Tissue-Specific Esterase Activity and Their Dissimilar Recognition by P-Glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Ohura, Kayoko; Nakada, Yuichiro; Kotani, Shunsuke; Imai, Teruko

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a suitable prodrug for fexofenadine (FXD), a model parent drug, that is resistant to intestinal esterase but converted to FXD by hepatic esterase. Carboxylesterases (CESs), human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1) and human carboxylesterase 2 (hCE2), are the major esterases in human liver and intestine, respectively. These two CESs show quite different substrate specificities, and especially, hCE2 poorly hydrolyzes prodrugs with large acyl groups. FXD contains a carboxyl group and is poorly absorbed because of low membrane permeability and efflux by P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Therefore, two potential FXD prodrugs, ethyl-FXD and 2-hydroxyethyl-FXD, were synthesized by substitution of the carboxyl group in FXD. Both derivatives were resistant to intestinal hydrolysis, indicating their absorption as intact prodrugs. Ethyl-FXD was hydrolyzed by hepatic hCE1, but 2-hydroxyethyl-FXD was not. Both derivatives showed high membrane permeability in human P-gp-negative LLC-PK1 cells. In LLC-GA5-COL300 cells overexpressing human P-gp, ethyl-FXD was transported by P-gp, but its efflux was easily saturated. Whereas 2-hydroxyethyl-FXD showed more efficient P-gp-mediated transport than FXD. Although the structure of 2-hydroxyethyl-FXD only differs from ethyl-FXD by substitution of a hydroxyl group, 2-hydroxyethyl-FXD is unsuitable as a prodrug. However, ethyl-FXD is a good candidate prodrug because of good intestinal absorption and hepatic conversion by hCE1.

  5. P-glycoprotein expression in Perna viridis after exposure to Prorocentrum lima, a dinoflagellate producing DSP toxins.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Wang, Jie; Chen, Wen-Chang; Li, Hong-Ye; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Tao Jiang; Yang, Wei-Dong

    2014-08-01

    Bivalves naturally exposed to toxic algae have mechanisms to prevent from harmful effects of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins. However, quite few studies have examined the mechanisms associated, and the information currently available is still insufficient. Multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) is ubiquitous in aquatic invertebrates and plays an important role in defense against xenobiotics. Here, to explore the roles of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the DSP toxins resistance in shellfish, complete cDNA of P-gp gene in the mussel Perna viridis was cloned and analyzed. The accumulation of okadaic acid (OA), a main component of DSP toxins, MXR activity and expression of P-gp in gills of P. viridis were detected after exposure to Prorocentrum lima, a dinoflagellate producing DSP toxins in the presence or absence of P-gp inhibitors PGP-4008, verapamil (VER) and cyclosporin A (CsA). The mussel P. viridis P-gp closely matches MDR/P-gp/ABCB protein from various organisms, having a typical sequence organization as full transporters from the ABCB family. After exposure to P. lima, OA accumulation, MXR activity and P-gp expression significantly increased in gills of P. viridis. The addition of P-gp-specific inhibitors PGP-4008 and VER decreased MXR activity induced by P. lima, but had no effect on the OA accumulation in gills of P. viridis. However, CsA, a broad-spectrum inhibitor of ABC transporter not only decreased MXR activity, but also increased OA accumulation in gills of P. viridis. Together with the ubiquitous presence of other ABC transporters such as MRP/ABCC in bivalves and potential compensatory mechanism in P-gp and MRP-mediated resistance, we speculated that besides P-gp, other ABC transporters, especially MRP might be involved in the resistance mechanisms to DSP toxins. PMID:24811006

  6. Inward transport of [3H]-1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium in rat isolated hepatocytes: putative involvement of a P-glycoprotein transporter.

    PubMed Central

    Martel, F.; Martins, M. J.; Hipólito-Reis, C.; Azevedo, I.

    1996-01-01

    1. The liver has an important role in the detoxification of organic cations from the circulation. [3H]-1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ([3H]-MPP+), a low molecular weight organic cation, is efficiently taken up and accumulated by rat hepatocytes through mechanisms partially unknown. 2. The aim of the present work was to characterize further the uptake of MPP+ by rat isolated hepatocytes. The putative interactions of a wide range of drugs, including inhibitors/substrates of P-glycoprotein, were studied. 3. The uptake of MPP+ was investigated in rat freshly isolated hepatocytes (incubated in Krebs-Henseleit medium with 200 nM [3H]-MPP+ for 5 min) and in the rat liver in situ (perfused with Krebs-Henseleit/BSA medium with 200 nM [3H]-MPP+ for 30 min). [3H]-MPP+ accumulation in the cells and in tissue was determined by liquid scintillation counting. 4. Verapamil (100 microM), quinidine (100 microM), amiloride (1 mM), (+)-tubocurarine (100 microM), vecuronium (45 microM), bilirubin (200 microM), progesterone (200 microM), daunomycin (100 microM), vinblastine (100 microM), cyclosporin A (100 microM) and cimetidine (100 microM) had a significant inhibitory effect on the accumulation of [3H]-MPP+ in isolated hepatocytes. Tetraethylammonium (100 microM) had no effect. 5. In the rat perfused liver, both cyclosporin A (100 microM) and verapamil (100 microM) had much less marked inhibitory effects as compared to their effects on isolated hepatocytes (0% against 35% and 45% against 96% of inhibition, respectively). 6. Inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity by increasing or decreasing the pH of the incubation medium or by the presence of vanadate (1 mM) or homoarginine (500 microM) led to a significant increase in the accumulation of [3H]-MPP+ in isolated hepatocytes. 7. It was concluded that, in addition to the type I organic cation hepatic transporter, [3H]-MPP+ is taken up by rat hepatocytes through P-glycoprotein, a canalicular transport system that usually excretes

  7. Multidrug efflux pumps: the structures of prokaryotic ATP-binding cassette transporter efflux pumps and implications for our understanding of eukaryotic P-glycoproteins and homologues.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Ian D; Jones, Peter M; George, Anthony M

    2010-02-01

    One of the Holy Grails of ATP-binding cassette transporter research is a structural understanding of drug binding and transport in a eukaryotic multidrug resistance pump. These transporters are front-line mediators of drug resistance in cancers and represent an important therapeutic target in future chemotherapy. Although there has been intensive biochemical research into the human multidrug pumps, their 3D structure at atomic resolution remains unknown. The recent determination of the structure of a mouse P-glycoprotein at subatomic resolution is complemented by structures for a number of prokaryotic homologues. These structures have provided advances into our knowledge of the ATP-binding cassette exporter structure and mechanism, and have provided the template data for a number of homology modelling studies designed to reconcile biochemical data on these clinically important proteins.

  8. α-Tocopherols modify the membrane dipole potential leading to modulation of ligand binding by P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sterenn; Davis, Benjamin M; Richens, Joanna L; Vere, Kelly-Ann; Petrov, Peter G; Winlove, C Peter; O'Shea, Paul

    2015-08-01

    α-Tocopherol (vitamin E) has attracted considerable attention as a potential protective or palliative agent. In vitro, its free radical-scavenging antioxidant action has been widely demonstrated. In vivo, however, vitamin E treatment exhibits negligible benefits against oxidative stress. α-Tocopherol influences lipid ordering within biological membranes and its derivatives have been suggested to inhibit the multi-drug efflux pump, P-glycoprotein (P-gp). This study employs the fluorescent membrane probe, 1-(3-sulfonatopropyl)-4-[β[2-(di-n-octylamino)-6-naphthyl]vinyl] pyridinium betaine, to investigate whether these effects are connected via influences on the membrane dipole potential (MDP), an intrinsic property of biological membranes previously demonstrated to modulate P-gp activity. α-Tocopherol and its non-free radical-scavenging succinate analog induced similar decreases in the MDP of phosphatidylcholine vesicles. α-Tocopherol succinate also reduced the MDP of T-lymphocytes, subsequently decreasing the binding affinity of saquinavir for P-gp. Additionally, α-tocopherol succinate demonstrated a preference for cholesterol-treated (membrane microdomain enriched) cells over membrane cholesterol-depleted cells. Microdomain disruption via cholesterol depletion decreased saquinavir's affinity for P-gp, potentially implicating these structures in the influence of α-tocopherol succinate on P-gp. This study provides evidence of a microdomain dipole potential-dependent mechanism by which α-tocopherol analogs influence P-gp activity. These findings have implications for the use of α-tocopherol derivatives for drug delivery across biological barriers.

  9. In vitro inhibitory effects of scutellarin on six human/rat cytochrome P450 enzymes and P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong-Long; Li, Dan; Yang, Quan-Jun; Zhou, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Li-Ya; Li, Bin; Lu, Jin; Guo, Cheng

    2014-05-05

    Inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are regarded as the most frequent and clinically important pharmacokinetic causes among the various possible factors for drug-drug interactions. Scutellarin is a flavonoid which is widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, the in vitro inhibitory effects of scutellarin on six major human CYPs (CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4) and six rat CYPs (CYP1A2, CYP2C7, CYP2C11, CYP2C79, CYP2D4, and CYP3A2) activities were examined by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Meanwhile, the inhibitory effects of scutellarin on P-gp activity were examined on a human metastatic malignant melanoma cell line WM-266-4 by calcein-AM fluorometry screening assay. Results demonstrated that scutellarin showed negligible inhibitory effects on the six major CYP isoenzymes in human/rat liver microsomes with almost all of the IC50 values exceeding 100 μM, whereas it showed values of 63.8 μM for CYP2C19 in human liver microsomes, and 63.1 and 85.6 μM for CYP2C7 and CYP2C79 in rat liver microsomes, respectively. Scutellarin also showed weak inhibitory effect on P-gp. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that scutellarin is unlikely to cause any clinically significant herb-drug interactions in humans when co-administered with substrates of the six CYPs (CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4) and P-gp.

  10. Evaluation of memory enhancing clinically available standardized extract of Bacopa monniera on P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajbir; Panduri, Jagadeesh; Kumar, Devendra; Kumar, Deepak; Chandsana, Hardik; Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2013-01-01

    Bacopa monniera is a traditional Ayurvedic herbal medicine used to treat various mental ailments from ancient times. Recently, chemically standardized alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera (BM) has been developed and currently available as over the counter herbal remedy for memory enhancement in children and adults. However, the consumption of herbal drugs has been reported to alter the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and membrane transporters. Present study in male Sprague-Dawley rat was performed to evaluate the effect of memory enhancing standardized extract of BM on hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 3A and P-glycoprotein expression and activity. The BM (31 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for one week in BM pre-treated group while the control group received the same amount of vehicle for the same time period. The BM treatment decreased the cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) mediated testosterone 6β-hydroxylation activity of the liver and intestine by 2 and 1.5 fold, respectively compared to vehicle treated control. Similarly pretreatment with BM extract decreased the expression of intestinal P-glycoprotein (Pgp) as confirmed by Western blot analysis but did not alter the expression of hepatic Pgp. To investigate whether this BM pretreatment mediated decrease in activity of CYP3A and Pgp would account for the alteration of respective substrate or not, pharmacokinetic study with carbamazepine and digoxin was performed in BM pre-treated rats and vehicle treated rats. Carbamazepine and digoxin were used as CYP3A and Pgp probe drugs, respectively. Significant increase in AUC and Cmax of carbamazepine (4 and 1.8 fold) and digoxin (1.3 and 1.2 fold), respectively following the BM pre-treatment confirmed the down regulation of CYP3A and Pgp.

  11. Evaluation of Memory Enhancing Clinically Available Standardized Extract of Bacopa monniera on P-Glycoprotein and Cytochrome P450 3A in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajbir; Panduri, Jagadeesh; Kumar, Devendra; Kumar, Deepak; Chandsana, Hardik; Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2013-01-01

    Bacopa monniera is a traditional Ayurvedic herbal medicine used to treat various mental ailments from ancient times. Recently, chemically standardized alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera (BM) has been developed and currently available as over the counter herbal remedy for memory enhancement in children and adults. However, the consumption of herbal drugs has been reported to alter the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and membrane transporters. Present study in male Sprague-Dawley rat was performed to evaluate the effect of memory enhancing standardized extract of BM on hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 3A and P-glycoprotein expression and activity. The BM (31 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for one week in BM pre-treated group while the control group received the same amount of vehicle for the same time period. The BM treatment decreased the cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) mediated testosterone 6β-hydroxylation activity of the liver and intestine by 2 and 1.5 fold, respectively compared to vehicle treated control. Similarly pretreatment with BM extract decreased the expression of intestinal P-glycoprotein (Pgp) as confirmed by Western blot analysis but did not alter the expression of hepatic Pgp. To investigate whether this BM pretreatment mediated decrease in activity of CYP3A and Pgp would account for the alteration of respective substrate or not, pharmacokinetic study with carbamazepine and digoxin was performed in BM pre-treated rats and vehicle treated rats. Carbamazepine and digoxin were used as CYP3A and Pgp probe drugs, respectively. Significant increase in AUC and Cmax of carbamazepine (4 and 1.8 fold) and digoxin (1.3 and 1.2 fold), respectively following the BM pre-treatment confirmed the down regulation of CYP3A and Pgp. PMID:24015255

  12. Interaction of HM30181 with P-glycoprotein at the murine blood-brain barrier assessed with positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Florian; Wanek, Thomas; Mairinger, Severin; Stanek, Johann; Sauberer, Michael; Kuntner, Claudia; Parveen, Zahida; Chiba, Peter; Müller, Markus; Langer, Oliver; Erker, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    HM30181, a potent and selective inhibitor of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp), was shown to enhance oral bioavailability and improve antitumour efficacy of paclitaxel in mouse tumour models. In search for a positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer to visualise Pgp expression levels at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), we examined the ability of HM30181 to inhibit Pgp at the murine BBB. HM30181 was shown to be approximately equipotent with the reference Pgp inhibitor tariquidar in inhibiting rhodamine 123 efflux from CCRF-CEM T cells (IC50, tariquidar: 8.2±2.0 nM, HM30181: 13.1±2.3 nM). PET scans with the Pgp substrate (R)-[11C]verapamil in FVB wild-type mice pretreated i.v. with HM30181 (10 or 21 mg/kg) failed to show significant increases in (R)-[11C]verapamil brain uptake compared with vehicle treated animals. PET scans with [11C]HM30181 showed low and not significantly different brain uptake of [11C]HM30181 in wild-type, Mdr1a/b(−/−) and Bcrp1(−/−) mice and significantly, i.e. 4.7-fold (P<0.01), higher brain uptake, relative to wild-type animals, in Mdr1a/b(−/−)Bcrp1(−/−) mice. This was consistent with HM30181 being at microdoses a dual substrate of Pgp and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp). In vitro autoradiography on low (EMT6) and high (EMT6Ar1.0) Pgp expressing murine breast tumour sections showed 1.9 times higher binding of [11C]HM30181 in EMT6Ar1.0 tumours (P<0.001) which was displaceable with unlabelled tariquidar, elacridar or HM30181 (1 μM). Our data suggest that HM30181 is not able to inhibit Pgp at the murine BBB at clinically feasible doses and that [11C]HM30181 is not suitable as a PET tracer to visualise cerebral Pgp expression levels. PMID:23022332

  13. Laurus nobilis L. Seed Extract Reveals Collateral Sensitivity in Multidrug-Resistant P-Glycoprotein-Expressing Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Saab, Antoine M; Guerrini, Alessandra; Zeino, Maen; Wiench, Benjamin; Rossi, Damiano; Gambari, Roberto; Sacchetti, Gianni; Greten, Henry Johannes; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The frequent failure of standard cancer chemotherapy requires the development of novel drugs capable of killing otherwise drug-resistant tumors. Here, we have investigated a chloroform extract of Laurus nobilis seeds. Fatty acids and 23 constituents of the volatile fraction were identified by gas chromotography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), in good agreement with (1)H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectrum. Multidrug-resistant P-glycoprotein-expressing CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cells were hypersensitive (collaterally sensitive) toward this extract compared to drug-sensitive CCRF-CEM cells, whereas CEM/ADR5000 cells were 2586-fold resistant to doxorubicin as control drug. Collateral sensitivity was verified by measurement of apoptotic cells by flow cytometry. The log10IC50 values of 3 compounds in the extract (limonene, eucalyptol, oleic acid) did not correlate with mRNA expression of the P-glycoprotein-coding ABCB1/MDR1 gene and accumulation of the P-glycoprotein substrate rhodamine in the NCI panel of tumor cell lines. A microarray-based profile of 20 genes predicted resistance to doxorubicin and 7 other anticancer drugs involved in the multidrug resistance phenotype but not to limonene, eucalyptol and oleic acid. In conclusion, our results show that Laurus nobilis seed extract is suitable to kill multidrug-resistant P-glycoprotein expressing tumor cells.

  14. Ventral pallidum mediates amygdala-evoked deficits in prepulse inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Forcelli, Patrick A.; West, Elizabeth A.; Murnen, Alice T.; Malkova, Ludise

    2012-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is an operational measure of sensorimotor gating. It is defined as a reduction in magnitude of a startle response when a startling stimulus is preceded by a weaker “prepulse”. PPI has been found to be altered in patients with schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders and other neuropsychiatric illnesses. As such, the neural substrates regulating PPI are of particular interest. Previous studies using lesions, selective blockade of NMDA receptors and pharmacological disinhibition have demonstrated that impairment of basolateral amygdala (BLA) function disrupts PPI. However, transient GABA-mediated inactivation of BLA has not been evaluated for effects on PPI. Furthermore, the downstream projection targets that mediate BLA-evoked disruptions of PPI have not been elucidated. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the effect on PPI of bilateral and unilateral inactivation of BLA, by microinfusion of the GABA-A receptor agonist, muscimol. We found that either bilateral or unilateral inactivation impaired PPI. Because unilateral inactivation was sufficient to impair PPI, we hypothesized that this was due to an indirect activation of a downstream target of BLA, the ventral pallidum (VP). Because VP inhibition normalizes PPI deficits evoked from nucleus accumbens (Kodsi & Swerdlow, 1994), we next tested the degree to which VP inhibition would normalize PPI deficits evoked from BLA. We unilaterally inactivated BLA with concurrent inactivation of VP and found that VP inactivation blocked BLA-evoked deficits in PPI. We suggest that BLA inactivation disrupts PPI through disinhibition of VP. PMID:22250771

  15. Up-regulation of P-glycoprotein expression by osmotic stress in rat sugar cataract.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, T; Kubo, E; Takamura, Y; Akagi, Y

    2007-02-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a plasma membrane protein, is thought to function in the export of cytotoxic drugs and to act as a modulator of chloride channels that regulate cell volume in many cell types. P-gp has been shown to play a role in lens volume regulation and initiation of osmotic cataract. We investigated the lenticular expression levels of P-gp in galactose-fed rats, an experimental model of sugar cataract. P-gp was overexpressed in lenses from galactose-fed rats with cortical sugar cataract, and in rat lens epithelial cells cultured in high-glucose medium. However, application of aldose reductase (AR) inhibitor was able to reverse the changes in P-gp levels in the lenses of galactose-fed rats, confirming the role of AR and involvement of the polyol pathway in cataract formation. Our findings suggest that P-gp may be induced by AR over-expression and/or osmotic stress, thus playing a regulatory role in maintaining lenticular osmotic balance in sugar cataract. PMID:17141219

  16. P-glycoprotein inhibitors of natural origin as potential tumor chemo-sensitizers: A review

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Hossam M.; Al-Abd, Ahmed M.; El-Dine, Riham Salah; El-Halawany, Ali M.

    2014-01-01

    Resistance of solid tumors to treatment is significantly attributed to pharmacokinetic reasons at both cellular and multi-cellular levels. Anticancer agent must be bio-available at the site of action in a cytotoxic concentration to exert its proposed activity. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a member of the ATP-dependent membrane transport proteins; it is known to pump substrates out of cells in ATP-dependent mechanism. The over-expression of P-gp in tumor cells reduces the intracellular drug concentrations, which decreases the cytotoxicity of a broad spectrum of antitumor drugs. Accordingly, P-gp inhibitors/blockers are potential enhancer for the cellular bioavailability of several clinically important anticancer drugs such as, anthracyclines, taxanes, vinca alkaloids, and podophyllotoxins. Besides several chemically synthesized P-gp inhibitors/blockers, some naturally occurring compounds and plant extracts were reported for their modulation of multidrug resistance; however, this review will focus only on major classes of naturally occurring inhibitors viz., flavonoids, coumarins, terpenoids, alkaloids and saponins. PMID:25685543

  17. P-glycoprotein induction by breast milk attenuates intestinal inflammation in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Guner, Yigit S.; Franklin, Ashanti L.; Chokshi, Nikunj K.; Castle, Shannon L.; Pontarelli, Elizabeth; Wang, Jin; Wang, Larry; Prasadarao, Nemani V.; Upperman, Jeffrey S.; Grishin, Anatoly V.; Ford, Henri R.

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a product of the multi-drug resistance gene MDR1a, is a broad specificity efflux ATP cassette transmembrane transporter that is predominantly expressed in epithelial tissues. Because mdr1a−/− mice tend to develop spontaneous colitis in bacteria-dependent manner, Pgp is believed to have a role in protection of the intestinal epithelium from luminal bacteria. Here we demonstrate that levels of Pgp in the small intestine of newborn rodents dramatically increase during breastfeeding, but not during formula feeding (FF). In rats and mice, levels of intestinal Pgp peak on days 3–7 and 1–5 of breastfeeding, respectively. The mdr1a−/− neonatal mice subjected to FF, hypoxia, and hypothermia have significantly higher incidence and pathology, as well as significantly earlier onset of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) than congenic wild type mice. Breast-fed mdr1a−/− neonatal mice are also more susceptible to intestinal damage caused by the opportunistic pathogen Cronobacter sakazakii that has been associated with hospital outbreaks of NEC. Breast milk, but not formula, induces Pgp expression in enterocyte cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. High levels of ectopically expressed Pgp protect epithelial cells in vitro from apoptosis induced by C. sakazakii. Taken together, these results show that breast milk-induced expression of Pgp may have a role in the protection of the neonatal intestinal epithelium from injury associated with nascent bacterial colonization. PMID:21788941

  18. Multidrug resistance p-glycoprotein 2 is essential for the biliary excretion of indocyanine green.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Vore, M

    2001-05-01

    Multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein 2 (Mdr2) is a phospholipid translocator in the canalicular membrane that is essential for the formation of biliary phospholipid vesicles and mixed lipid/bile salt micelles. Incorporation into biliary vesicles and micelles is thought to contribute to the hepatobiliary excretion of certain hydrophobic organic anions, such as indocyanine green (ICG). The present studies characterized the biliary excretion of two hydrophobic organic anions, ICG and estradiol-17beta(beta-D-glucuronide) (E(2)17G), in the single-pass isolated perfused liver and the biliary excretion of glutathione (GSH) in vivo in wild-type and Mdr2-/- female mice. The biliary excretion of ICG (0.4 micromol) was reduced by 90%, while the biliary excretion of total GSH was decreased by 65% in Mdr2-/- mice relative to wild-type mice. In contrast, the biliary excretion of E(2)17G (0.1 micromol) was increased by 30% in Mdr2-/- mice. These data indicate that the absence of Mdr2 differentially influences the biliary excretion of these organic anions and suggest that phospholipid vesicles and mixed micelles in bile are essential for the biliary excretion of ICG.

  19. Providing a molecular mechanism for P-glycoprotein; why would I bother?

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Richard

    2015-10-01

    It is almost 40 years since the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (permeability glycoprotein or P-gp) was shown to confer multi-drug resistance in cancer cells. This protein has been one of the most extensively investigated transport proteins due to its intriguing mechanism and its affect in oncology. P-gp is known to interact with over 300 compounds and the ability to achieve this has not yet been revealed. Following the binding of substrate and nucleotide, a complex series of conformational changes in the membrane and cytosolic domains translocates substrate across the membrane. Despite over 30 years of biochemical investigation, the availability of structural data and a plethora of chemical tools to modulate its function, the molecular mechanism remains a mystery. In addition, overcoming its activity in resistant cancer cells has not been achieved in the clinic, thereby garnering some degree of pessimism in the field. This review highlights the progress that has been achieved in understanding this complex protein and the value of undertaking molecular studies.

  20. P-glycoprotein expression and amyloid accumulation in human aging and Alzheimer's disease: preliminary observations.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Catherine; Miller, Miles C; Monahan, Renée; Osgood, Doreen P; Stopa, Edward G; Silverberg, Gerald D

    2015-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), part of the blood-brain barrier, limits drug access to the brain and is the target for therapies designed to improve drug penetration. P-gp also extrudes brain amyloid-beta (Aβ). Accumulation of Aβ is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ accumulates in normal aging and in AD primarily due to decreased Aβ clearance. This is a preliminary report on the relative protein and messenger RNA expression of P-gp in human brains, ages 20-100 years, including AD subjects. In these preliminary studies, cortical endothelial P-gp expression decreased in AD compared with controls (p < 0.001). Trends in P-gp expression in human aging are similar to aging rats. Microvessel P-gp messenger RNA remained unchanged with aging and AD. Aβ plaques were found in 42.8% of normal subjects (54.5% of those older than 50 years). A qualitative analysis showed that P-gp expression is lower than the group mean in subjects older than 75 years but increased if younger. Decreased P-gp expression may be related to Aβ plaques in aging and AD. Downregulating P-gp to allow pharmaceuticals into the central nervous system may increase Aβ accumulation.

  1. Drug transport mechanism of P-glycoprotein monitored by single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, S.; Verhalen, B.; Zarrabi, N.; Wilkens, S.; Börsch, M.

    2011-03-01

    In this work we monitor the catalytic mechanism of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Pgp, a member of the ATP binding cassette family of transport proteins, is found in the plasma membrane of animal cells where it is involved in the ATP hydrolysis driven export of hydrophobic molecules. When expressed in the plasma membrane of cancer cells, the transport activity of Pgp can lead to the failure of chemotherapy by excluding the mostly hydrophobic drugs from the interior of the cell. Despite ongoing effort, the catalytic mechanism by which Pgp couples MgATP binding and hydrolysis to translocation of drug molecules across the lipid bilayer is poorly understood. Using site directed mutagenesis, we have introduced cysteine residues for fluorescence labeling into different regions of the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) of Pgp. Double-labeled single Pgp molecules showed fluctuating FRET efficiencies during drug stimulated ATP hydrolysis suggesting that the NBDs undergo significant movements during catalysis. Duty cycle-optimized alternating laser excitation (DCO-ALEX) is applied to minimize FRET artifacts and to select the appropriate molecules. The data show that Pgp is a highly dynamic enzyme that appears to fluctuate between at least two major conformations during steady state turnover.

  2. Temozolomide competes for P-glycoprotein and contributes to chemoresistance in glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Jessian L; Walker, Nykia D; Scotto, Kathleen W; Rameshwar, Pranela

    2015-10-10

    Chemotherapeutic resistance can occur by P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a 12-transmembrane ATP-dependent drug efflux pump. Glioblastoma (GBM) has poor survival rate and uniformly acquired chemoresistance to its frontline agent, Temozolomide (TMZ). Despite much effort, overcoming TMZ resistance remains a challenge. We reported on autonomous induction of TMZ resistance by increased transcription MDR1, the gene for P-gp. This study investigated how P-gp and TMZ interact to gain resistance. Using an experimental model of Adriamycin-resistant DC3F cells (DC3F/Adx), we showed that increased P-gp caused TMZ resistance. Increasing concentrations of TMZ competed with Calcein for P-gp, resulting in reduced efflux in the DC3F/Adx cells. Three different inhibitors of P-gp reversed the resistance to TMZ in two different GBM cell lines, by increasing active Caspase 3. Molecular modeling predicted the binding sites to be the intracellular region of P-gp and also identified specific amino acids and kinetics of energy for the efflux of TMZ. Taken together, we confirmed P-gp targeting of TMZ, a crucial regulator of TMZ resistance in GBM. This study provides insights on the effectiveness by which TMZ competes with other P-gp substrates, thereby opening the door for combined targeted therapies.

  3. The role of intestinal P-glycoprotein in the interaction of digoxin and rifampin

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Bernd; Eichelbaum, Michel; Fritz, Peter; Kreichgauer, Hans-Peter; von Richter, Oliver; Zundler, Johannes; Kroemer, Heyo K.

    1999-01-01

    Recent data point to the contribution of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to digoxin elimination. On the basis of clinical observations of patients in whom digoxin levels decreased considerably when treated with rifampin, we hypothesized that concomitant rifampin therapy may affect digoxin disposition in humans by induction of P-gp. We compared single-dose (1 mg oral and 1 mg intravenous) pharmacokinetics of digoxin before and after coadministration of rifampin (600 mg/d for 10 days) in 8 healthy volunteers. Duodenal biopsies were obtained from each volunteer before and after administration of rifampin. The area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC) of oral digoxin was significantly lower during rifampin treatment; the effect was less pronounced after intravenous administration of digoxin. Renal clearance and half-life of digoxin were not altered by rifampin. Rifampin treatment increased intestinal P-gp content 3.5 ± 2.1–fold, which correlated with the AUC after oral digoxin but not after intravenous digoxin. P-gp is a determinant of the disposition of digoxin. Concomitant administration of rifampin reduced digoxin plasma concentrations substantially after oral administration but to a lesser extent after intravenous administration. The rifampin-digoxin interaction appears to occur largely at the level of the intestine. Therefore, induction of intestinal P-gp could explain this new type of drug-drug interaction. PMID:10411543

  4. Characterizing the binding interactions between P-glycoprotein and eight known cardiovascular transport substrates

    PubMed Central

    Jagodinsky, Justin C; Akgun, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    The multidrug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is upregulated in cardiomyocytes following chronic ischemia from infarction and hypoxia caused by sleep apnea. This report summarizes the molecular dynamic studies performed on eight cardiovascular drugs to determine their corresponding binding sites on mouse Pgp. Selected Pgp transport ligands include: Amiodarone, Bepridil, Diltiazem, Dipyridamole, Nicardipine, Nifedipine, Propranolol, and Quinidine. Extensive molecular dynamic equilibration simulations were performed to determine drug docking interactions. Distinct binding sites were not observed, but rather a binding belt was seen with multiple residues playing a role in each studied drug's stable docking. Three key drug–protein interactions were identified: hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic packing, and the formation of a “cage” of aromatic residues around the drug. After drug stabilization, water molecules were observed to leak into the binding belt and condense around the drug. Water influx into the binding domain of Pgp may play a role in catalytic transition and drug expulsion. The cytoplasmic recruitment theory was also tested, and the drugs were observed to interact with conserved loops of residues with a strong affinity. A free energy change of astronomical value is required to recruit the drug from the cytoplasm to the binding belt within the transmembrane domain of Pgp. PMID:25729581

  5. Structure of P-Glycoprotein Reveals a Molecular Basis for Poly-Specific Drug Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Aller, Stephen G.; Yu, Jodie; Ward, Andrew; Weng, Yue; Chittaboina, Srinivas; Zhuo, Rupeng; Harrell, Patina M.; Trinh, Yenphuong T.; Zhang, Qinghai; Urbatsch, Ina L.; Chang, Geoffrey

    2009-04-22

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) detoxifies cells by exporting hundreds of chemically unrelated toxins but has been implicated in multidrug resistance (MDR) in the treatment of cancers. Substrate promiscuity is a hallmark of P-gp activity, thus a structural description of poly-specific drug-binding is important for the rational design of anticancer drugs and MDR inhibitors. The x-ray structure of apo P-gp at 3.8 angstroms reveals an internal cavity of -6000 angstroms cubed with a 30 angstrom separation of the two nucleotide-binding domains. Two additional P-gp structures with cyclic peptide inhibitors demonstrate distinct drug-binding sites in the internal cavity capable of stereoselectivity that is based on hydrophobic and aromatic interactions. Apo and drug-bound P-gp structures have portals open to the cytoplasm and the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer for drug entry. The inward-facing conformation represents an initial stage of the transport cycle that is competent for drug binding.

  6. Host Cell P-glycoprotein Is Essential for Cholesterol Uptake and Replication of Toxoplasma gondii*

    PubMed Central

    Bottova, Iveta; Hehl, Adrian B.; Štefanić, Saša; Fabriàs, Gemma; Casas, Josefina; Schraner, Elisabeth; Pieters, Jean; Sonda, Sabrina

    2009-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a membrane-bound efflux pump that actively exports a wide range of compounds from the cell and is associated with the phenomenon of multidrug resistance. However, the role of P-gp in normal physiological processes remains elusive. Using P-gp-deficient fibroblasts, we showed that P-gp was critical for the replication of the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii but was not involved in invasion of host cells by the parasite. Importantly, we found that the protein participated in the transport of host-derived cholesterol to the intracellular parasite. T. gondii replication in P-gp-deficient host cells not only resulted in reduced cholesterol content in the parasite but also altered its sphingolipid metabolism. In addition, we found that different levels of P-gp expression modified the cholesterol metabolism in uninfected fibroblasts. Collectively our findings reveal a key and previously undocumented role of P-gp in host-parasite interaction and suggest a physiological role for P-gp in cholesterol trafficking in mammalian cells. PMID:19389707

  7. Host cell P-glycoprotein is essential for cholesterol uptake and replication of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Bottova, Iveta; Hehl, Adrian B; Stefanić, Sasa; Fabriàs, Gemma; Casas, Josefina; Schraner, Elisabeth; Pieters, Jean; Sonda, Sabrina

    2009-06-26

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a membrane-bound efflux pump that actively exports a wide range of compounds from the cell and is associated with the phenomenon of multidrug resistance. However, the role of P-gp in normal physiological processes remains elusive. Using P-gp-deficient fibroblasts, we showed that P-gp was critical for the replication of the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii but was not involved in invasion of host cells by the parasite. Importantly, we found that the protein participated in the transport of host-derived cholesterol to the intracellular parasite. T. gondii replication in P-gp-deficient host cells not only resulted in reduced cholesterol content in the parasite but also altered its sphingolipid metabolism. In addition, we found that different levels of P-gp expression modified the cholesterol metabolism in uninfected fibroblasts. Collectively our findings reveal a key and previously undocumented role of P-gp in host-parasite interaction and suggest a physiological role for P-gp in cholesterol trafficking in mammalian cells. PMID:19389707

  8. Interaction of mouse intestinal P-glycoprotein with oral antidiabetic drugs and its inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kalsi, Harman; Grewal, Ravneet K

    2015-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a progressive insulin secretory defect accompanied by resistance to insulin, and thereby making glycemic control a major concern in the treatment of these patients. Oral drug administration, though a popular option for its non-invasiveness, suffer from poor bioavailability. It could be related to the efflux transport of intestinal P-glycoprotein (Pgp). In the present study, we explored the binding interactions of antidiabetic drugs i.e., sulfonylurea drugs (glimepiride, glipizide, glyburide) and rapid acting insulin secretagogues viz., nateglinide, repaglinide and rosiglitazone; and Pgp inhibitors i.e., Generation I (verapamil and tamoxifen), III (tetradrine and tariquidar), and natural inhibitors (fumagillin and piperine) in mouse Pgp model. Our results revealed that fumagillin piperine and verapamil possess maximum interaction energies with Pgp compared to antidiabetic drugs. These observations elucidate the role of fumagillin and piperine as potential natural compounds which could intervene in the efflux action of Pgp in extruding the antidiabetic drugs and may have implications for increasing efficacy of oral antidiabetic therapy. PMID:26548081

  9. Geneva cocktail for cytochrome p450 and P-glycoprotein activity assessment using dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Bosilkovska, M; Samer, C F; Déglon, J; Rebsamen, M; Staub, C; Dayer, P; Walder, B; Desmeules, J A; Daali, Y

    2014-09-01

    The suitability of the capillary dried blood spot (DBS) sampling method was assessed for simultaneous phenotyping of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) using a cocktail approach. Ten volunteers received an oral cocktail capsule containing low doses of the probes bupropion (CYP2B6), flurbiprofen (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), midazolam (CYP3A), and fexofenadine (P-gp) with coffee/Coke (CYP1A2) on four occasions. They received the cocktail alone (session 1), and with the CYP inhibitors fluvoxamine and voriconazole (session 2) and quinidine (session 3). In session 4, subjects received the cocktail after a 7-day pretreatment with the inducer rifampicin. The concentrations of probes/metabolites were determined in DBS and plasma using a single liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The pharmacokinetic profiles of the drugs were comparable in DBS and plasma. Important modulation of CYP and P-gp activities was observed in the presence of inhibitors and the inducer. Minimally invasive one- and three-point (at 2, 3, and 6 h) DBS-sampling methods were found to reliably reflect CYP and P-gp activities at each session.

  10. Geneva Cocktail for Cytochrome P450 and P-Glycoprotein Activity Assessment Using Dried Blood Spots

    PubMed Central

    Bosilkovska, M; Samer, C F; Déglon, J; Rebsamen, M; Staub, C; Dayer, P; Walder, B; Desmeules, J A; Daali, Y

    2014-01-01

    The suitability of the capillary dried blood spot (DBS) sampling method was assessed for simultaneous phenotyping of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) using a cocktail approach. Ten volunteers received an oral cocktail capsule containing low doses of the probes bupropion (CYP2B6), flurbiprofen (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), midazolam (CYP3A), and fexofenadine (P-gp) with coffee/Coke (CYP1A2) on four occasions. They received the cocktail alone (session 1), and with the CYP inhibitors fluvoxamine and voriconazole (session 2) and quinidine (session 3). In session 4, subjects received the cocktail after a 7-day pretreatment with the inducer rifampicin. The concentrations of probes/metabolites were determined in DBS and plasma using a single liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method. The pharmacokinetic profiles of the drugs were comparable in DBS and plasma. Important modulation of CYP and P-gp activities was observed in the presence of inhibitors and the inducer. Minimally invasive one- and three-point (at 2, 3, and 6 h) DBS-sampling methods were found to reliably reflect CYP and P-gp activities at each session. PMID:24722393

  11. Beneficial effect of tetrandrine on refractory epilepsy via suppressing P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinghui; Xiao, Xia; Wang, Cuicui; Jiang, Huiyuan; Hong, Zhen; Xu, Guoxiong

    2015-01-01

    Patients with refractory epilepsy are resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The mechanisms of drug resistance are varied, but one of them is the overexpression of multidrug transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), in the brain. Tetrandrine (TTD) is a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the root of Stephania tetrandra (S, Moore) and is found to have a favorable effect against multidrug resistance (MDR) in chemotherapy. However, whether TTD affects AEDs in refractory epilepsy is unknown. In this study, we investigated the change in AED treatment efficacy in doxorubicin-induced drug resistant cells after TTD administration. We also examined the effect of TTD on seizure behaviors in the refractory epileptic rats, specifically the expression of MDR1 mRNA and P-gp protein in the cortex and hippocampus of the refractory epileptic rats. Our results demonstrated that TTD decreased cell resistance to phenytoin and valproate. TTD decreased seizure rate and increased the treatment efficacy of AEDs by reducing the expression of P-gp at mRNA and protein levels in vivo. These data support the use of TTD as an adjuvant drug for treating refractory epilepsy. PMID:25233150

  12. Overcoming MDR by ultrasound-induced hyperthermia and P-glycoprotein modulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Lillehei, K; Cobb, W N; Christians, U; Ng, K Y

    2001-11-23

    We assessed the effects of combining ultrasound-induced hyperthermia (USHT) with the P-glycoprotein modulator PSC 833 on cellular retention and cytotoxicity of rhodamine 123 (R123) and doxorubicin in the parent and multidrug resistance (MDR) variants of two human cancer lines. USHT significantly increased cellular uptake of R123 and doxorubicin. Without PSC 833, release of R123 and doxorubicin from both USHT-treated and untreated cells was rapid. As expected, PSC 833 (0.5 microM) only slowed their release into the MDR lines. Interestingly, despite the differences in their starting amounts, PSC 833 was effective in prolonging R123 and doxorubicin release from both USHT-treated and untreated MDR cells. PSC 833 did not augment the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin in parent lines but did cause a significant increase in cytotoxicity of doxorubicin in the MDR lines. However, the combined effect of USHT and PSC 833 on cytotoxicity of doxorubicin far exceeded that produced by USHT or PSC 833 alone.

  13. Transmembrane aromatic amino acid distribution in P-glycoprotein. A functional role in broad substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Pawagi, A B; Wang, J; Silverman, M; Reithmeier, R A; Deber, C M

    1994-01-14

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells is associated with overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a membrane protein which interacts with structurally diverse hydrophobic molecules of high membrane affinity. In an analysis of the molecular basis for this broad range of substrate specificity, we found that the transmembrane (TM) regions of Pgp are rich in highly conserved aromatic amino acid residues. Computer-generated three-dimensional model structures showed that a typical substrate, rhodamine 123, can intercalate between three to four phenylalanine side-chains in any of several Pgp TM helices with minimal protrusion of the drug into bulk lipid, and that five to six (of the 12 Pgp putative TM segments) helices can facilitate transport through creation of a sterically compatible pore. In contrast to the case for proteins involved in the transport of membrane-impermeable, relatively polar substrates, the "transport path" for Pgp substrates need not be polar, and may involve either an internal channel occupied largely by aromatic side-chains, or external gaps along TM helix-lipid interfaces. Weakly polar interactions between drug cationic sites and Pgp aromatic residues contribute additionally to overall protein/drug binding. The ability of Pgp to recognize and efflux structurally diverse molecules suggests that rather than a unique structure, the Pgp channel may maintain the intrinsic capacity to undergo wide-ranging drug-dependent dynamic reorganization. PMID:7904655

  14. Development of decision tree models for substrates, inhibitors, and inducers of p-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Hammann, Felix; Gutmann, Heike; Jecklin, Ursula; Maunz, Andreas; Helma, Christoph; Drewe, Juergen

    2009-05-01

    In silico classification of new compounds for certain properties is a useful tool to guide further experiments or compound selection. Interaction of new compounds with the efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an important drug property determining tissue distribution and the potential for drug-drug interactions. We present three datasets on substrate, inhibitor, and inducer activities for P-gp (n = 471) obtained from a literature search which we compared to an existing evaluation of the Prestwick Chemical Library with the calcein-AM assay (retrieved from PubMed). Additionally, we present decision tree models of these activities with predictive accuracies of 77.7 % (substrates), 86.9 % (inhibitors), and 90.3 % (inducers) using three algorithms (CHAID, CART, and C4.5). We also present decision tree models of the calcein-AM assay (79.9 %). Apart from a comprehensive dataset of P-gp interacting compounds, our study provides evidence of the efficacy of logD descriptors and of two algorithms not commonly used in pharmacological QSAR studies (CART and CHAID). PMID:19519342

  15. Multidrug resistance in parasites: ABC transporters, P-glycoproteins and molecular modelling.

    PubMed

    Jones, P M; George, A M

    2005-04-30

    Parasitic diseases, caused by protozoa, helminths and arthropods, rank among the most important problems in human and veterinary medicine, and in agriculture, leading to debilitating sicknesses and loss of life. In the absence of vaccines and with the general failure of vector eradication programs, drugs are the main line of defence, but the newest drugs are being tracked by the emergence of resistance in parasites, sharing ominous parallels with multidrug resistance in bacterial pathogens. Any of a number of mechanisms will elicit a drug resistance phenotype in parasites, including: active efflux, reduced uptake, target modification, drug modification, drug sequestration, by-pass shunting, or substrate competition. The role of ABC transporters in parasitic multidrug resistance mechanisms is being subjected to more scrutiny, due in part to the established roles of certain ABC transporters in human diseases, and also to an increasing portfolio of ABC transporters from parasite genome sequencing projects. For example, over 100 ABC transporters have been identified in the Escherichia coli genome, but to date only about 65 in all parasitic genomes. Long established laboratory investigations are now being assisted by molecular biology, bioinformatics, and computational modelling, and it is in these areas that the role of ABC transporters in parasitic multidrug resistance mechanisms may be defined and put in perspective with that of other proteins. We discuss ABC transporters in parasites, and conclude with an example of molecular modelling that identifies a new interaction between the structural domains of a parasite P-glycoprotein. PMID:15826647

  16. Providing a molecular mechanism for P-glycoprotein; why would I bother?

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, Richard

    2015-01-01

    It is almost 40 years since the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (permeability glycoprotein or P-gp) was shown to confer multi-drug resistance in cancer cells. This protein has been one of the most extensively investigated transport proteins due to its intriguing mechanism and its affect in oncology. P-gp is known to interact with over 300 compounds and the ability to achieve this has not yet been revealed. Following the binding of substrate and nucleotide, a complex series of conformational changes in the membrane and cytosolic domains translocates substrate across the membrane. Despite over 30 years of biochemical investigation, the availability of structural data and a plethora of chemical tools to modulate its function, the molecular mechanism remains a mystery. In addition, overcoming its activity in resistant cancer cells has not been achieved in the clinic, thereby garnering some degree of pessimism in the field. This review highlights the progress that has been achieved in understanding this complex protein and the value of undertaking molecular studies. PMID:26517914

  17. Providing a molecular mechanism for P-glycoprotein; why would I bother?

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Richard

    2015-10-01

    It is almost 40 years since the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (permeability glycoprotein or P-gp) was shown to confer multi-drug resistance in cancer cells. This protein has been one of the most extensively investigated transport proteins due to its intriguing mechanism and its affect in oncology. P-gp is known to interact with over 300 compounds and the ability to achieve this has not yet been revealed. Following the binding of substrate and nucleotide, a complex series of conformational changes in the membrane and cytosolic domains translocates substrate across the membrane. Despite over 30 years of biochemical investigation, the availability of structural data and a plethora of chemical tools to modulate its function, the molecular mechanism remains a mystery. In addition, overcoming its activity in resistant cancer cells has not been achieved in the clinic, thereby garnering some degree of pessimism in the field. This review highlights the progress that has been achieved in understanding this complex protein and the value of undertaking molecular studies. PMID:26517914

  18. Regulation of P-glycoprotein expression in brain capillaries in Huntington's disease and its impact on brain availability of antipsychotic agents risperidone and paliperidone.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Han; Chern, Yijuang; Yang, Hui-Ting; Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Chun-Jung

    2016-08-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease marked by an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tract on the huntingtin (HTT) protein that may cause transcriptional dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the regulation and function of P-glycoprotein, an important efflux transporter, in brain capillaries in HD. The results showed that, compared with the littermate controls, R6/2 HD transgenic mice with the human mutant HTT gene had higher levels of P-glycoprotein mRNA and protein and enhanced NF-κB activity in their brain capillaries. Higher P-glycoprotein expression was also observed in the brain capillaries of human HD patients. Consistent with this enhanced P-glycoprotein expression, brain extracellular levels and brain-to-plasma ratios of the antipsychotic agents risperidone and paliperidone were significantly lower in R6/2 mice than in their littermate controls. Exogenous expression of human mutant HTT protein with expanded polyQ (mHTT-109Q) in HEK293T cells enhanced the levels of P-glycoprotein transcripts and NF-κB activity compared with cells expressing normal HTT-25Q. Treatment with the IKK inhibitor, BMS-345541, decreased P-glycoprotein mRNA level in cells transfected with mHTT-109Q or normal HTT-25Q In conclusion, mutant HTT altered the expression of P-glycoprotein through the NF-κB pathway in brain capillaries in HD and markedly affected the availability of P-glycoprotein substrates in the brain.

  19. Synergism between ivermectin and the tyrosine kinase/P-glycoprotein inhibitor crizotinib against Haemonchus contortus larvae in vitro.

    PubMed

    Raza, Ali; Kopp, Steven R; Kotze, Andrew C

    2016-08-30

    Anthelmintic resistance is a major problem in parasitic nematodes of livestock worldwide. One means to counter resistance is to use synergists that specifically inhibit resistance mechanisms in order to restore the toxicity, and hence preserve the usefulness, of currently available anthelmintics. P-glycoproteins (P-gps) eliminate a wide variety of structurally unrelated xenobiotics from cells, and have been implicated in anthelmintic resistance. Crizotinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor under development as a cancer therapeutic. The compound also inhibits P-gps, and has been shown to reverse multidrug resistance in cancer cells. We were therefore interested in determining if the compound was able to increase the sensitivity of Haemonchus contortus larvae to ivermectin, as measured by in vitro larval development and migration assays with a drug-resistant and a -susceptible isolate. In migration assays, co-administration of crizotinib increased the toxicity of ivermectin to resistant larvae (up to 5.7-fold decrease in ivermectin IC50), and rendered the resistant larvae equally or more sensitive to ivermectin than the susceptible isolate. On the other hand, co-administration of crizotinib had no effect on ivermectin sensitivity in the susceptible isolate. In development assays, significant increases in the sensitivity of both the resistant (up to 1.9-fold) and susceptible (up to 1.6-fold) larvae to ivermectin were observed, although the magnitude of the observed synergism was less than seen in migration assays, and the resistant larvae retained significant levels of ivermectin resistance. By highlighting the ability of the P-gp inhibitor crizotinib to increase the sensitivity of H. contortus larvae to ivermectin, this study provides further evidence that P-gp inhibitors are potential tools for modulating the efficacy of anthelmintics. In addition, the differences in the outcomes of the two assays, with 'resistance-breaking' effects being much more marked in migration

  20. Cyanate-mediated inhibition of neutrophil myeloperoxidase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Qian, M; Eaton, J W; Wolff, S P

    1997-01-01

    Cyanate (CNO-) forms spontaneously in solutions containing urea, and is present in urine and the body fluids of uraemic patients. We have explored the possibility that CNO- might be one of the unknown substances responsible for the reported impairment, by urine and uraemic plasma, of neutrophil oxidative metabolism (especially as measured by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence). Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence generated by human neutrophils derives predominantly from the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) which produces hypochlorous acid from H2O2 and Cl-. We hypothesized that CNO- (which resembles the 'pseudohalide' thiocyanate, an alternative substrate for MPO) might somehow interfere with the activity of MPO. In support of this, we find: (i) CNO- inhibits both peroxidative and halogenating activities of MPO and also inhibits the enzyme within intact human neutrophils; (ii) the inhibition is H2O2-dependent, irreversible, accompanied by covalent addition of [14C]CNO- (or a carbon-containing fragment thereof) to the enzyme; (iii) CNO- also inhibits Cl-/H2O2/MPO-mediated bacterial killing. Impairment of this arm of neutrophil bactericidal activity by CNO- formed from urea may be one factor in the risk of urinary-tract infection associated with urinary stasis and perhaps in the generalized increase in susceptibility to infection in uraemic patients. PMID:9337863

  1. Optimization of permethyl ningalin B analogs as P-glycoprotein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Wong, Iris L K; Li, Fu Xing; Yang, Chao; Liu, Zhen; Jiang, Tao; Jiang, Ting Fu; Chow, Larry M C; Wan, Sheng Biao

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a total of 9 novel permethyl ningalin B analogs have been synthesized and evaluated for their P-gp modulating activity in a P-gp overexpressed breast cancer cell line LCC6MDR. Among these derivatives, compound 12 with dimethoxy groups at rings A and B and tri-substitution at ring C with ortho-methoxyethylmorpholine, meta-bromo and para-benzyloxy groups displays the most potent P-gp modulating activity with EC50 of 423 nM to reverse paclitaxel resistance. It is non-toxic towards L929 fibroblast with IC50 greater than 100 μM and with selective index greater than 236. Its mechanism to reverse P-gp mediated drug resistance is by virtue of inhibiting transport activity of P-gp, restoring intracellular drug accumulation and eventually chemosensitizing the cancer cells to anticancer drug again. Moreover, compound 12 showed better solubility (405 ng/mL) than hit compound 1 in phosphate buffer (pH 4.0). In summary, our study demonstrates that permethyl ningalin B derivative 12 is non-toxic and efficient P-gp inhibitor that is a potential candidate to be used clinically to reverse P-gp mediated cancer drug resistance.

  2. Saturable active efflux by p-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein at the blood-brain barrier leads to nonlinear distribution of elacridar to the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Sane, Ramola; Agarwal, Sagar; Mittapalli, Rajendar K; Elmquist, William F

    2013-04-01

    The study objective was to investigate factors that affect the central nervous system (CNS) distribution of elacridar. Elacridar inhibits transport mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) and has been used to study the influence of transporters on brain distribution of chemotherapeutics. Adequate distribution of elacridar across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and into the brain parenchyma is necessary to target tumor cells in the brain that overexpress transporters and reside behind an intact BBB. We examined the role of P-gp and Bcrp on brain penetration of elacridar using Friend leukemia virus strain B wild-type, Mdr1a/b(-/-), Bcrp1(-/-), and Mdr1a/b(-/-)Bcrp1(-/-) mice. Initially, the mice were administered 2.5 mg/kg of elacridar intravenously, and the plasma and brain concentrations were determined. The brain-to-plasma partition coefficient of elacridar in the wild-type mice was 0.82, as compared with 3.5 in Mdr1a/b(-/-) mice, 6.6 in Bcrp1(-/-) mice, and 15 in Mdr1a/b(-/-)Bcrp1(-/-) mice, indicating that both P-gp and Bcrp limit the brain distribution of elacridar. The four genotypes were then administered increasing doses of elacridar, and the CNS distribution of elacridar was determined. The observed and model predicted maximum brain-to-plasma ratios (Emax) at the highest dose were not significantly different in all genotypes. However, the ED50 was lower for Mdr1a/b(-/-) mice compared with Bcrp1(-/-) mice. These findings correlate with the relative expression of P-gp and Bcrp at the BBB in these mice and demonstrate the quantitative enhancement in elacridar CNS distribution as a function of its dose. Overall, this study provides useful concepts for future applications of elacridar as an adjuvant therapy to improve targeting of chemotherapeutic agents to tumor cells in the brain parenchyma. PMID:23397054

  3. Inducibility of the P-glycoprotein transport activity in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Smital, Tvrtko; Sauerborn, Roberta; Hackenberger, Branimir K

    2003-12-10

    Previous investigations directed to the determination of the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression in aquatic organisms have indicated the possibility of the multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR) induction as a response to organic pollution. However, in numerous cases no significant and/or no clear relationship between Pgp contents and pollution level was detected. Concerning these discrepancies the results of an extensive, 3-year study of the Pgp mediated MXR induction in the selected freshwater (Dreissena polymorpha) and marine (Mytilus galloprovincialis) bivalves are presented here. The main goals of the study were to ascertain the rate-dynamic, level, as well as the possible usability of MXR in environmental biomonitoring. Since the primary result of MXR induction should be the decreased intracellular accumulation of xenobiotics, the determination of MXR induction was performed using the measurement of Pgp transport activity. We measured the accumulation or the efflux rate of the model Pgp substrate rhodamine B (RB) in gills of the mussels previously exposed to pollution. The study was performed in several steps: from the exposure experiments in laboratory, using model inducers rhodamine 123 (R123) and water extract of Diesel-2 oil (D2), to the final in situ testing in real environmental conditions. Our results confirmed that Pgp activity is induced/induces according to the level of pollution, and that 4-days period was already long enough for the significant induction and deinduction of MXR activity. However, the inducibility of Pgp transport activity was significantly limited--the maximal level of induction obtained in this study resulted in 50-60% lower RB accumulation in the gills of induced specimens (laboratory or in situ exposed to pollution), when compared to control, non-induced animals. The obtained level of Pgp related MXR induction, resulting in halfway lesser accumulation of a model pollutant (RB), extrapolated to the similar scenario with toxic

  4. Multiple Transport-Active Binding Sites Are Available for a Single Substrate on Human P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1)

    PubMed Central

    Chufan, Eduardo E.; Kapoor, Khyati; Sim, Hong-May; Singh, Satyakam; Talele, Tanaji T.; Durell, Stewart R.; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2013-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1) is an ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter that is associated with the development of multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Pgp transports a variety of chemically dissimilar amphipathic compounds using the energy from ATP hydrolysis. In the present study, to elucidate the binding sites on Pgp for substrates and modulators, we employed site-directed mutagenesis, cell- and membrane-based assays, molecular modeling and docking. We generated single, double and triple mutants with substitutions of the Y307, F343, Q725, F728, F978 and V982 residues at the proposed drug-binding site with cys in a cysless Pgp, and expressed them in insect and mammalian cells using a baculovirus expression system. All the mutant proteins were expressed at the cell surface to the same extent as the cysless wild-type Pgp. With substitution of three residues of the pocket (Y307, Q725 and V982) with cysteine in a cysless Pgp, QZ59S-SSS, cyclosporine A, tariquidar, valinomycin and FSBA lose the ability to inhibit the labeling of Pgp with a transport substrate, [125I]-Iodoarylazidoprazosin, indicating these drugs cannot bind at their primary binding sites. However, the drugs can modulate the ATP hydrolysis of the mutant Pgps, demonstrating that they bind at secondary sites. In addition, the transport of six fluorescent substrates in HeLa cells expressing triple mutant (Y307C/Q725C/V982C) Pgp is also not significantly altered, showing that substrates bound at secondary sites are still transported. The homology modeling of human Pgp and substrate and modulator docking studies support the biochemical and transport data. In aggregate, our results demonstrate that a large flexible pocket in the Pgp transmembrane domains is able to bind chemically diverse compounds. When residues of the primary drug-binding site are mutated, substrates and modulators bind to secondary sites on the transporter and more than one transport-active binding site is available for each substrate

  5. [11C]Flumazenil brain uptake is influenced by the blood-brain barrier efflux transporter P-glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background [11C]Flumazenil and positron emission tomography (PET) are used clinically to assess gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic function and to localize epileptic foci prior to resective surgery. Enhanced P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity has been reported in epilepsy and this may confound interpretation of clinical scans if [11C]flumazenil is a P-gp substrate. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether [11C]flumazenil is a P-gp substrate. Methods [11C]Flumazenil PET scans were performed in wild type (WT) (n = 9) and Mdr1a/1b, (the genes that encode for P-gp) double knockout (dKO) (n = 10) mice, and in naive rats (n = 10). In parallel to PET scanning, [11C]flumazenil plasma concentrations were measured in rats. For 6 of the WT and 6 of the dKO mice a second, [11C]flumazenil scan was acquired after administration of the P-gp inhibitor tariquidar. Cerebral [11C]flumazenil concentrations in WT and Mdr1a/1b dKO mice were compared (genetic disruption model). Furthermore, pre and post P-gp-blocking cerebral [11C]flumazenil concentrations were compared in all animals (pharmacological inhibition model). Results Mdr1a/1b dKO mice had approximately 70% higher [11C]flumazenil uptake in the brain than WT mice. After administration of tariquidar, cerebral [11C]flumazenil uptake in WT mice increased by about 80% in WT mice, while it remained the same in Mdr1a/1b dKO mice. In rats, cerebral [11C]flumazenil uptake increased by about 60% after tariquidar administration. Tariquidar had only a small effect on plasma clearance of flumazenil. Conclusions The present study showed that [11C]flumazenil is a P-gp substrate in rodents. Consequently, altered cerebral [11C]flumazenil uptake, as observed in epilepsy, may not reflect solely GABAA receptor density changes but also changes in P-gp activity. PMID:22455873

  6. MDR1-P-glycoprotein behaves as an oncofetal protein that promotes cell survival in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Alba; Compare, Debora; Liguori, Eleonora; Cianflone, Alessandra; Pirozzi, Giuseppe; Tirino, Virginia; Bertoni, Alessandra; Santoriello, Margherita; Garbi, Corrado; D'Armiento, Maria; Staibano, Stefania; Nardone, Gerardo

    2012-10-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), traditionally linked to cancer poor prognosis and multidrug resistance, is undetectable in normal gastric mucosa and overexpressed in gastric cancer (GC). We propose that P-gp may be involved in Helicobacter pylori (Hp)-related gastric carcinogenesis by inhibiting apoptosis. Aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of P-gp in fetal stomach and in Hp-related gastric carcinogenesis, the epigenetic control of the multi-drug resistance-1 (MDR1) gene, the localization and interaction between P-gp and Bcl-x(L) and the effect of the selective silencing of P-gp on cell survival. P-gp and Bcl-xl expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on 28 spontaneously abortive human fetuses, 66 Hp-negative subjects, 138 Hp-positive chronic gastritis (CG) of whom 28 with intestinal metaplasia (IM) and 45 intestinal type GCs. P-gp/Bcl-x(L) colocalization was investigated by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and protein-protein interaction by co-immunoprecipitation, in basal conditions and after stress-induced apoptosis, in GC cell lines AGS and MKN-28 and hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Hep-G2. The role of P-gp in controlling apoptosis was evaluated by knocking down its expression with a specific small interfering RNAs in stressed AGS and MKN-28 cell lines. P-gp is expressed in the gastric mucosa of all human fetuses while, it is undetectable in adult normal mucosa and re-expressed in 30/110 Hp-positive non-IM-CG, 28/28 IM-CG and 40/45 GCs. P-gp expression directly correlates with that of Bcl-x(L) and with the promoter hypomethylation of the MDR1 gene. In GC cell lines, P-gp is localized on the plasma membrane and mitochondria where it colocalizes with Bcl-x(L). Co-immunoprecipitation confirms the physical interaction between P-gp and Bcl-x(L) in AGS, MKN-28 and Hep-G2, at both basal level and after stress-induced apoptosis. The selective silencing of P-gp sensitizes GC cells to stress-induced apoptosis. P-gp behaves as an oncofetal protein

  7. P-glycoprotein ATPase activity requires lipids to activate a switch at the first transmission interface.

    PubMed

    Loo, Tip W; Clarke, David M

    2016-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) drug pump. A common feature of ABC proteins is that they are organized into two wings. Each wing contains a transmembrane domain (TMD) and a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). Drug substrates and ATP bind at the interface between the TMDs and NBDs, respectively. Drug transport involves ATP-dependent conformational changes between inward- (open, NBDs far apart) and outward-facing (closed, NBDs close together) conformations. P-gps crystallized in the presence of detergent show an open structure. Human P-gp is inactive in detergent but basal ATPase activity is restored upon addition of lipids. The lipids might cause closure of the wings to bring the NBDs close together to allow ATP hydrolysis. We show however, that cross-linking the wings together did not activate ATPase activity when lipids were absent suggesting that lipids may induce other structural changes required for ATPase activity. We then tested the effect of lipids on disulfide cross-linking of mutants at the first transmission interface between intracellular loop 4 (TMD2) and NBD1. Mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C but not G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C were cross-linked with oxidant when in membranes. The mutants were then purified and cross-linked with or without lipids. Mutants G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C cross-linked only in the absence of lipids whereas mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C were cross-linked only in the presence of lipids. The results suggest that lipids activate a switch at the first transmission interface and that the structure of P-gp is different in detergents and lipids. PMID:26944019

  8. Molecular dissection of dual pseudosymmetric solute translocation pathways in human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Zahida; Stockner, Thomas; Bentele, Caterina; Pferschy, Sandra; Kraupp, Martin; Freissmuth, Michael; Ecker, Gerhard F; Chiba, Peter

    2011-03-01

    The human multispecific drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) causes drug resistance and modulates the pharmacological profile of systemically administered medicines. It has arisen from a homodimeric ancestor by gene duplication. Crystal structures of mouse MDR1A indicate that P-gp shares the overall architecture with two homodimeric bacterial exporters, Sav1866 and MsbA, which have complete rotational symmetry. For ATP-binding cassette transporters, nucleotide binding occurs in two symmetric positions in the motor domains. Based on the homology with entirely symmetric half-transporters, the present study addressed the key question: can biochemical evidence for the existence of dual drug translocation pathways in the transmembrane domains of P-gp be found? P-gp was photolabeled with propafenone analogs, purified, and digested proteolytically, and peptide fragments were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Labeling was assigned to two regions in the protein by projecting data into homology models. Subsequently, symmetric residue pairs in the putative translocation pathways were identified and replaced by site-directed mutagenesis. Transport assays corroborated the existence of two pseudosymmetric translocation pathways. Although rhodamine123 has a preference to take one path, verapamil, propafenones, and vinblastine preferentially use the other. Two major findings ensued from this study: the existence of two solute translocation pathways in P-gp as a reflection of evolutionary origin from a homodimeric ancestor and selective but not exclusive use of one of these pathways by different P-gp solutes. The pseudosymmetric behavior reconciles earlier kinetic and thermodynamic data, suggesting an alternative concept of drug transport by P-gp that will aid in understanding the off-target quantitative structure activity relationships of P-gp interacting drugs. PMID:21177413

  9. [Effect of Siwu decoction on function and expression of P-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cells].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Ma, Zeng-chun; Huang, Xian-ju; You, Qing; Tan, Hong-ling; Wang, Yu-guang; Liang, Qian-de; Tang, Xiang-lin; Xiao, Cheng-rong; Gao, Yue

    2015-03-01

    To study the effect of Siwu decoction on the function and expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in Caco-2 cells. The Real-time quantitative poly-merase chain reaction (Q-PCR) was used to analyze the mRNA expression of MDR1 gene in Caco-2 cells. Flow cytometer was used to study the effect of Siwu decoction on the uptake of Rhodamine 123 in Caco-2 cells, in order to evaluate the efflux function of P-gp. Western blotting method was used to detect the effect of Siwu decoction on the P-gp protein expression of Caco-2 cells. Compared with the blank control group, after Caco-2 incubation with Siwu decoction at concentrations of 3.3, 5.0, 10.0 g x L(-1) for 24, 48, 72 h, the mRNA expression of MDR1 was up-regulated, suggesting the effect of Siwu decoction in inducing the expression of MDR1. After the administration with Siwu decoction in Caco-2 cells for 48 h, the uptake of Rhodamine 123 in Caco-2 cells decreased by respectively 16.6%, 22.1% (P < 0.05) and 45.4% (P < 0.01), indicating that the long-term administration of Siwu decoction can enhance the P-gp efflux function of Caco-2 cells. After the incubation of Caco-2 cells with Siwu decoction for 48 h, the P-gp protein expression on Caco-2 cell emebranes, demonstrating the effect of Siwu decoction in inducing the protein expression of P-gp.

  10. P-glycoprotein ATPase activity requires lipids to activate a switch at the first transmission interface.

    PubMed

    Loo, Tip W; Clarke, David M

    2016-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) drug pump. A common feature of ABC proteins is that they are organized into two wings. Each wing contains a transmembrane domain (TMD) and a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). Drug substrates and ATP bind at the interface between the TMDs and NBDs, respectively. Drug transport involves ATP-dependent conformational changes between inward- (open, NBDs far apart) and outward-facing (closed, NBDs close together) conformations. P-gps crystallized in the presence of detergent show an open structure. Human P-gp is inactive in detergent but basal ATPase activity is restored upon addition of lipids. The lipids might cause closure of the wings to bring the NBDs close together to allow ATP hydrolysis. We show however, that cross-linking the wings together did not activate ATPase activity when lipids were absent suggesting that lipids may induce other structural changes required for ATPase activity. We then tested the effect of lipids on disulfide cross-linking of mutants at the first transmission interface between intracellular loop 4 (TMD2) and NBD1. Mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C but not G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C were cross-linked with oxidant when in membranes. The mutants were then purified and cross-linked with or without lipids. Mutants G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C cross-linked only in the absence of lipids whereas mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C were cross-linked only in the presence of lipids. The results suggest that lipids activate a switch at the first transmission interface and that the structure of P-gp is different in detergents and lipids.

  11. Revealing the fate of cell surface human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1): The lysosomal degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Kazuhiro; Kapoor, Khyati; Ohnuma, Shinobu; Patel, Atish; Swaim, William; Ambudkar, Indu S; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2015-10-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transports a variety of chemically dissimilar amphipathic compounds including anticancer drugs. Although mechanisms of P-gp drug transport are widely studied, the pathways involving its internalization are poorly understood. The present study is aimed at elucidating the pathways involved in degradation of cell surface P-gp. The fate of P-gp at the cell surface was determined by biotinylating cell surface proteins followed by flow cytometry and Western blotting. Our data shows that the half-life of endogenously expressed P-gp is 26.7±1.1 h in human colorectal cancer HCT-15 cells. Treatment of cells with Bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) a vacuolar H+ ATPase inhibitor increased the half-life of P-gp at the cell surface to 36.1±0.5 h. Interestingly, treatment with the proteasomal inhibitors MG132, MG115 or lactacystin alone did not alter the half-life of the protein. When cells were treated with both lysosomal and proteasomal inhibitors (BafA1 and MG132), the half-life was further prolonged to 39-50 h. Functional assays done with rhodamine 123 or calcein-AM, fluorescent substrates of P-gp, indicated that the transport function of P-gp was not affected by either biotinylation or treatment with BafA1 or proteasomal inhibitors. Immunofluorescence studies done with the antibody against lysosomal marker LAMP1 and the P-gp-specific antibody UIC2 in permeabilized cells indicated that intracellular P-gp is primarily localized in the lysosomal compartment. Our results suggest that the lysosomal degradation system could be targeted to increase the sensitivity of P-gp- expressing cancer cells towards chemotherapeutic drugs.

  12. Modulation of P-glycoprotein function and multidrug resistance in cancer cells by Thai plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Takano, M; Kakizoe, S; Kawami, M; Nagai, J; Patanasethnont, D; Sripanidkulchai, B; Yumoto, R

    2014-11-01

    The effects of ethanol extracts from Thai plants belonging to the families of Annonaceae, Rutaceae, and Zingiberaceae on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function and multidrug resistance were examined in paclitaxel-resistant HepG2 (PR-HepG2) cells. All the extracts tested, significantly increased the accumulation of [3H]paclitaxel, a P-gp substrate, in the cells. Among nine extracts, Z01 and Z02, extracts from Curcuma comosa and Kaempferia marginata (Zingiberaceae family), respectively, potently increased the accumulation. In addition, Z01 and Z02 increased the accumulation of other P-gp substrates, rhodamine 123 and doxorubicin, in PR-HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Increased accumulation of rhodamine 123 and doxorubicin by Z01 and Z02 was also confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The effect of Z01 and Z02 pretreatment on the expression of MDR1 mRNA was also examined. The expression of MDR1 mRNA was not affected by the treatment of PR-HepG2 cells with these extracts for 48 hours. Cytotoxicity of paclitaxel was examined by XTT and protein assays in the absence and presence of Z02. Z02 potentiated the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel in PR-HepG2 cells. These results suggest that Curcuma comosa and Kaempferia marginata belonging to Zingiberaceae are useful sources to search for new P-gp modulator(s) that can be used to overcome multidrug resistance of cancer cells.

  13. Blonanserin, a novel atypical antipsychotic agent not actively transported as substrate by P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomoko; Osada, Kenichi; Tagawa, Masaaki; Ogawa, Yuriko; Haga, Toshiaki; Sogame, Yoshihisa; Hashizume, Takanori; Watanabe, Takashi; Taguchi, Atsushi; Katsumata, Takashi; Yabuki, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Noboru

    2012-10-01

    Although blonanserin, a novel atypical antipsychotic agent with dopamine D(2)/serotonin 5-HT(2A) antagonistic properties, displays good brain distribution, the mechanism of this distribution has not been clarified. P-glycoprotein [(P-gp) or multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1)] is an efflux transporter expressed in the brain and plays an important role in limiting drug entry into the central nervous system (CNS). In particular, P-gp can affect the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of antipsychotics, and exacerbate or soothe their adverse effects. In this study, we conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments to determine whether blonanserin is a P-gp substrate. Risperidone and its active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone, both of which are P-gp substrates, were used as reference drugs. Affinity of blonanserin, risperidone, and 9-hydroxyrisperidone for P-gp was evaluated by in vitro transcellular transport across LLC-PK1, human MDR1 cDNA-transfected LLC-PK1 (LLC-MDR1), and mouse Mdr1a cDNA-transfected LLC-PK1 (LLC-Mdr1a). In addition, pharmacokinetic parameters in the brain and plasma (B/P ratio) of test compounds were measured in mdr1a/1b knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. The results of in vitro experiments revealed that P-gp does not actively transport blonanserin as a substrate in humans or mice. In addition, blonanserin displayed comparable B/P ratios in KO and WT mice, whereas B/P ratios of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone differed markedly in these animals. Our results indicate that blonanserin is not a P-gp substrate and therefore its brain distribution is unlikely to be affected by this transporter.

  14. P-glycoprotein induction in Caco-2 cells by newly synthetized thioxanthones prevents paraquat cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Silva, Renata; Palmeira, Andreia; Carmo, Helena; Barbosa, Daniel José; Gameiro, Mariline; Gomes, Ana; Paiva, Ana Mafalda; Sousa, Emília; Pinto, Madalena; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Remião, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    The induction of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-dependent efflux pump, has been proposed as a strategy against the toxicity induced by P-gp substrates such as the herbicide paraquat (PQ). The aim of this study was to screen five newly synthetized thioxanthonic derivatives, a group known to interact with P-gp, as potential inducers of the pump's expression and/or activity and to evaluate whether they would afford protection against PQ-induced toxicity in Caco-2 cells. All five thioxanthones (20 µM) caused a significant increase in both P-gp expression and activity as evaluated by flow cytometry using the UIC2 antibody and rhodamine 123, respectively. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the tested compounds, when present only during the efflux of rhodamine 123, rapidly induced an activation of P-gp. The tested compounds also increased P-gp ATPase activity in MDR1-Sf9 membrane vesicles, indicating that all derivatives acted as P-gp substrates. PQ cytotoxicity was significantly reduced in the presence of four thioxanthone derivatives, and this protective effect was reversed upon incubation with a specific P-gp inhibitor. In silico studies showed that all the tested thioxanthones fitted onto a previously described three-feature P-gp induction pharmacophore. Moreover, in silico interactions between thioxanthones and P-gp in the presence of PQ suggested that a co-transport mechanism may be operating. Based on the in vitro activation results, a pharmacophore model for P-gp activation was built, which will be of further use in the screening for new P-gp activators. In conclusion, the study demonstrated the potential of the tested thioxanthonic compounds in protecting against toxic effects induced by P-gp substrates through P-gp induction and activation.

  15. P-glycoprotein induction in Caco-2 cells by newly synthetized thioxanthones prevents paraquat cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Silva, Renata; Palmeira, Andreia; Carmo, Helena; Barbosa, Daniel José; Gameiro, Mariline; Gomes, Ana; Paiva, Ana Mafalda; Sousa, Emília; Pinto, Madalena; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Remião, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    The induction of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-dependent efflux pump, has been proposed as a strategy against the toxicity induced by P-gp substrates such as the herbicide paraquat (PQ). The aim of this study was to screen five newly synthetized thioxanthonic derivatives, a group known to interact with P-gp, as potential inducers of the pump's expression and/or activity and to evaluate whether they would afford protection against PQ-induced toxicity in Caco-2 cells. All five thioxanthones (20 µM) caused a significant increase in both P-gp expression and activity as evaluated by flow cytometry using the UIC2 antibody and rhodamine 123, respectively. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the tested compounds, when present only during the efflux of rhodamine 123, rapidly induced an activation of P-gp. The tested compounds also increased P-gp ATPase activity in MDR1-Sf9 membrane vesicles, indicating that all derivatives acted as P-gp substrates. PQ cytotoxicity was significantly reduced in the presence of four thioxanthone derivatives, and this protective effect was reversed upon incubation with a specific P-gp inhibitor. In silico studies showed that all the tested thioxanthones fitted onto a previously described three-feature P-gp induction pharmacophore. Moreover, in silico interactions between thioxanthones and P-gp in the presence of PQ suggested that a co-transport mechanism may be operating. Based on the in vitro activation results, a pharmacophore model for P-gp activation was built, which will be of further use in the screening for new P-gp activators. In conclusion, the study demonstrated the potential of the tested thioxanthonic compounds in protecting against toxic effects induced by P-gp substrates through P-gp induction and activation. PMID:25234084

  16. The Transmission Interfaces Contribute Asymmetrically to the Assembly and Activity of Human P-glycoprotein*

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Tip W.; Clarke, David M.

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1) is an ABC drug pump that protects us from toxic compounds. It is clinically important because it confers multidrug resistance. The homologous halves of P-gp each contain a transmembrane (TM) domain (TMD) with 6 TM segments followed by a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). The drug- and ATP-binding sites reside at the interface between the TMDs and NBDs, respectively. Each NBD is connected to the TMDs by a transmission interface involving a pair of intracellular loops (ICLs) that form ball-and-socket joints. P-gp is different from CFTR (ABCC7) in that deleting NBD2 causes misprocessing of only P-gp. Therefore, NBD2 might be critical for stabilizing ICLs 2 and 3 that form a tetrahelix bundle at the NBD2 interface. Here we report that the NBD1 and NBD2 transmission interfaces in P-gp are asymmetric. Point mutations to 25 of 60 ICL2/ICL3 residues at the NBD2 transmission interface severely reduced P-gp assembly while changes to the equivalent residues in ICL1/ICL4 at the NBD1 interface had little effect. The hydrophobic nature at the transmission interfaces was also different. Mutation of Phe-1086 or Tyr-1087 to arginine at the NBD2 socket blocked activity or assembly while the equivalent mutations at the NBD1 socket had only modest effects. The results suggest that the NBD transmission interfaces are asymmetric. In contrast to the ICL2/3-NBD2 interface, the ICL1/4-NBD1 transmission interface is more hydrophilic and insensitive to mutations. Therefore the ICL2/3-NBD2 transmission interface forms a precise hydrophobic connection that acts as a linchpin for assembly and trafficking of P-gp. PMID:25987565

  17. P-glycoprotein-dependent resistance of cancer cells toward the extrinsic TRAIL apoptosis signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Galski, Hanan; Oved-Gelber, Tamar; Simanovsky, Masha; Lazarovici, Philip; Gottesman, Michael M; Nagler, Arnon

    2013-09-01

    The TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL or Apo2L) preferentially cause apoptosis of malignant cells in vitro and in vivo without severe toxicity. Therefore, TRAIL or agonist antibodies to the TRAIL DR4 and DR5 receptors are used in cancer therapy. However, many malignant cells are intrinsically resistant or acquire resistance to TRAIL. It has been previously proposed that the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) might play a role in resistance of cells to intrinsic apoptotic pathways by interfering with components of ceramide metabolism or by modulating the electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. In this study we investigated whether Pgp also confers resistance toward extrinsic death ligands of the TNF family. To this end we focused our study on HeLa cells carrying a tetracycline-repressible plasmid system which shuts down Pgp expression in the presence of tetracycline. Our findings demonstrate that expression of Pgp is a significant factor conferring resistance to TRAIL administration, but not to other death ligands such as TNF-α and Fas ligand. Moreover, blocking Pgp transport activity sensitizes the malignant cells toward TRAIL. Therefore, Pgp transport function is required to confer resistance to TRAIL. Although the resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is Pgp specific, TRAIL itself is not a direct substrate of Pgp. Pgp expression has no effect on the level of the TRAIL receptors DR4 and DR5. These findings might have clinical implications since the combination of TRAIL therapy with administration of Pgp modulators might sensitize TRAIL resistant tumors. PMID:23774624

  18. P-glycoprotein expression and pharmacological modulation in larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Nicolao, María Celeste; Denegri, Guillermo M; Cárcamo, Juan Guillermo; Cumino, Andrea C

    2014-02-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is an ATP-dependent transporter involved in the efflux of a wide variety of lipophilic substrates, such as toxins and xenobiotics, out of cells. Pgp expression level is associated with the ineffective therapeutic treatment of cancer cells and microbial pathogens which gives it high clinical importance. Research on these transporters in helminths is limited. This work describes for the first time the Echinococcus granulosus Pgp (Eg-Pgp) expression, in a model cestode parasite and an important human pathogen. Based on calcein efflux assays in the presence of common Pgp modulators, we demonstrated the occurrence of active Eg-Pgp in protoscoleces and metacestodes. Eg-Pgp, which showed a molecular mass of ~130 kDa in western blots, is localized in the suckers and the tegument of control protoscoleces as well as in the subtegument or all parenchymatous cells of protoscoleces treated with Pgp-interfering agents. We also identified five genes encoding Pgp which are constitutively expressed in protoscoleces and metacestodes. We showed that the Eg-pgp1 and Eg-pgp2 transcripts were up-regulated in response to in vitro drug treatment with amiodarone and loperamide, in agreement with the increased polypeptide levels. Finally, in vitro treatment of protoscoleces and metacestodes with trifluoperazine and loperamide was lethal to the parasites. This indicates that both drugs as well as cyclosporine A negatively modulate the E. granulosus Pgp efflux activity, favoring the retention of these drugs in the larval tissue. These events could be associated with the reduction in protoscolex and metacestode viability.

  19. P-glycoprotein in sheep liver and small intestine: gene expression and transport efflux activity.

    PubMed

    Ballent, M; Wilkens, M R; Maté, L; Muscher, A S; Virkel, G; Sallovitz, J; Schröder, B; Lanusse, C; Lifschitz, A

    2013-12-01

    The role of the transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the disposition kinetics of different drugs therapeutically used in veterinary medicine has been demonstrated. Considering the anatomo-physiological features of the ruminant species, the constitutive expression of P-gp (ABCB1) along the sheep gastrointestinal tract was studied. Additionally, the effect of repeated dexamethasone (DEX) administrations on the ABCB1 gene expression in the liver and small intestine was also assessed. The ABCB1 mRNA expression was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. P-gp activity was evaluated in diffusion chambers to determine the efflux of rhodamine 123 (Rho 123) in the ileum from experimental sheep. The constitutive ABCB1 expression was 65-fold higher in the liver than in the intestine (ileum). The highest ABCB1 mRNA expression along the small intestine was observed in the ileum (between 6- and 120-fold higher). The treatment with DEX did not elicit a significant effect on the P-gp gene expression levels in any of the investigated gastrointestinal tissues. Consistently, no significant differences were observed in the intestinal secretion of Rho 123, between untreated control (Peff S-M = 3.99 × 10(-6)  ± 2.07 × 10(-6) ) and DEX-treated animals (Peff S-M = 6.00 × 10(-6)  ± 2.5 × 10(-6) ). The understanding of the efflux transporters expression and activity along the digestive tract may help to elucidate clinical implications emerging from drug interactions in livestock.

  20. P-Glycoprotein Induction Ameliorates Colistin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Cultured Human Proximal Tubular Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-hyo; Kim, Jin-sun; Ravichandran, Kameswaran; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Song, Ho-yeon; Hong, Sae-yong

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of colistin induced nephrotoxicity is poorly understood. Currently there are no effective therapeutic or prophylactic agents available. This study was aimed to determine the mechanism of colistin induced nephrotoxicity and to determine whether P-glycoprotein (P-gp) induction could prevent colistin induced nephrotoxicity. Colistin induced cell toxicity in cultured human proximal tubular cells in both dose and time dependent manner. Colistin provoked ROS in a dose dependent manner as measured by DCF-DA. To investigate apoptosis, caspase 3/7 activity was determined. Caspase 3/7 activity was increased dose dependently (25, 50, 100 μg/ml) at 6 h. Autophagosome formation was assessed by measuring LC3- II/LC3-I ratio. The ratio of LC3-II to LC3- I was increased at 2 h (25 μg/ml). Suppression of autophagosome formation increased colistin induced nephrotoxicity. The expression of P-gp and the cell toxicity was determined in colistin with or without dexamethasone (P-gp inducer) and verapamil (selective P-gp inhibitor). Colistin itself suppressed the expression of P-gp. P-gp expression and activity decreased colistin induced nephrotoxicity with dexamethasone treatment. In addition induced P-gp transporter was shown to improve the efflux effect on colistin treated HK2 cell line, which was demonstrated by calcein-AM fluorescence accumulation assay. The increased activity could be blocked by N-acetylcysteine. In conclusion, colistin induces nephrotoxicity by suppressing P-gp. Induction of P-gp could ameliorate colistin induced nephrotoxicity by decreasing apoptosis.

  1. The Transmission Interfaces Contribute Asymmetrically to the Assembly and Activity of Human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Loo, Tip W; Clarke, David M

    2015-07-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1) is an ABC drug pump that protects us from toxic compounds. It is clinically important because it confers multidrug resistance. The homologous halves of P-gp each contain a transmembrane (TM) domain (TMD) with 6 TM segments followed by a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). The drug- and ATP-binding sites reside at the interface between the TMDs and NBDs, respectively. Each NBD is connected to the TMDs by a transmission interface involving a pair of intracellular loops (ICLs) that form ball-and-socket joints. P-gp is different from CFTR (ABCC7) in that deleting NBD2 causes misprocessing of only P-gp. Therefore, NBD2 might be critical for stabilizing ICLs 2 and 3 that form a tetrahelix bundle at the NBD2 interface. Here we report that the NBD1 and NBD2 transmission interfaces in P-gp are asymmetric. Point mutations to 25 of 60 ICL2/ICL3 residues at the NBD2 transmission interface severely reduced P-gp assembly while changes to the equivalent residues in ICL1/ICL4 at the NBD1 interface had little effect. The hydrophobic nature at the transmission interfaces was also different. Mutation of Phe-1086 or Tyr-1087 to arginine at the NBD2 socket blocked activity or assembly while the equivalent mutations at the NBD1 socket had only modest effects. The results suggest that the NBD transmission interfaces are asymmetric. In contrast to the ICL2/3-NBD2 interface, the ICL1/4-NBD1 transmission interface is more hydrophilic and insensitive to mutations. Therefore the ICL2/3-NBD2 transmission interface forms a precise hydrophobic connection that acts as a linchpin for assembly and trafficking of P-gp.

  2. Enhanced daunomycin accumulation in human intestinal Caco-2 cells from non-ionic food emulsifiers unrelated to the p-glycoprotein inhibitory mechanism.

    PubMed

    Takaishi, Naoki; Satsu, Hideo; Shimizu, Makoto

    2006-11-01

    Some of the non-ionic surfactants used in pharmaceutical formulations inhibit P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the multi-drug transporter. The effect of such food emulsifiers as polyglycerol esters (PGE) and sugar esters (SE) of fatty acids on the P-gp activity was studied by using human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The cellular accumulation of [(3)H]-daunomycin, a P-gp substrate, was markedly enhanced by PGE and SE. This accumulation-enhancing activity varied among the emulsifiers, but was correlated with their surface activity. The uptake of soluble nutrients such as amino acids was only slightly reduced by PGE and SE. These results suggest that these emulsifiers specifically inhibited P-gp. When the basal-to-apical transport of daunomycin across the Caco-2 monolayers was measured, however, the emulsifiers did not decrease the efflux of daunomycin to the apical chamber. The enhanced accumulation of daunomycin would therefore not have been due to P-gp inhibition, but instead to the increased daunomycin permeability of cell membranes caused by the emulsifiers.

  3. P-glycoprotein recognition of substrates and circumvention through rational drug design.

    PubMed

    Raub, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    It is now well recognized that membrane efflux transporters, especially P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1), play a role in determining the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicology behaviors of some drugs and molecules in development. An investment in screening structure-activity relationship (SAR) is warranted in early discovery when exposure and/or target activity in an in vivo efficacy model is not achieved and P-gp efflux is identified as a rate-limiting factor. However, the amount of investment in SAR must be placed into perspective by assessing the risks associated with the intended therapeutic target, the potency and margin of safety of the compound, the intended patient population(s), and the market competition. The task of rationally designing a chemistry strategy for circumventing a limiting P-gp interaction can be daunting. The necessity of retaining biological potency and metabolic stability places restrictions on what can be done, and the factors for P-gp recognition of substrates are complicated and poorly understood. The parameters within the assays that affect overall pump efficiency or net efflux, such as passive diffusion, membrane partitioning, and molecular interaction between pump and substrate, should be understood when interpreting data sets associated with chemistry around a scaffold. No single, functional group alone is often the cause, but one group can accentuate the recognition points existing within a scaffold. This can be likened to a rheostat, rather than an on/off switch, where addition or removal of a key group can increase or decrease the pumping efficiency. The most practical approach to de-emphasize the limiting effects of P-gp on a particular scaffold is to increase passive diffusion. Efflux pumping efficiency may be overcome when passive diffusion is fast enough. Eliminating, or substituting with fewer, groups that solvate in water, or decreasing their hydrogen bonding capacity, and adding halogen groups can

  4. Brain sites mediating corticosteroid feedback inhibition of stimulated ACTH secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, L.

    1989-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that the brain mediates stress-induced and circadian increases in ACTH secretion and that corticosteroid concentrations which normalize basal plasma ACTH are insufficient to normalize ACTH responses to circadian or stressful stimuli in adrenalectomized rats. To identify brain sites mediating corticosteroid inhibition of stimulated ACTH secretion, two approaches were used. The first compared brain ({sup 14}C)-2-deoxyglucose uptake in rats with differential ACTH responses to stress. Relative to sham-adrenalectomized (SHAM) rats, adrenalectomized rats replaced with low, constant corticosterone levels via a subcutaneous corticosterone pellet (B-PELLET) exhibited elevated and prolonged ACTH responses to a variety of stimuli. Adrenalectomized rate given a circadian corticosterone rhythm via corticosterone in their drinking water exhibited elevated ACTH levels immediately after stress, but unlike B-PELLET rats, terminated stress induced ACTH secretion normally relative to SHAMS. Therefore, the abnormal ACTH responses to stress in B-PELLET rats were due to the lack of both circadian variations and stress-induced increases in corticosterone. Hypoxia was selected as a standardized stimulus for correlating brain ({sup 14}C)-2-deoxyglucose uptake with ACTH secretion. In intact rats, increases in plasma ACTH and decreases in arterial PO{sub 2} correlated with the severity of hypoxia at arterial PCO{sub 2} below 60 mm Hg. Hypoxia PELLET vs. SHAM rats. However, in preliminary experiments, although hypoxia increased brain 2-deoxyglucose uptake in most brain regions, plasma ACTH correlated poorly with 2-deoxyglucose uptake at 12% and 10% O{sub 2}.

  5. Synaptotagmin-11 inhibits clathrin-mediated and bulk endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhe; Wang, Yeshi; Hu, Meiqin; Chai, Zuying; Wu, Qihui; Huang, Rong; Han, Weiping; Zhang, Claire Xi; Zhou, Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    Precise and efficient endocytosis is essential for vesicle recycling during a sustained neurotransmission. The regulation of endocytosis has been extensively studied, but inhibitors have rarely been found. Here, we show that synaptotagmin-11 (Syt11), a non-Ca(2+)-binding Syt implicated in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease, inhibits clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and bulk endocytosis in dorsal root ganglion neurons. The frequency of both types of endocytic event increases in Syt11 knockdown neurons, while the sizes of endocytosed vesicles and the kinetics of individual bulk endocytotic events remain unaffected. Specifically, clathrin-coated pits and bulk endocytosis-like structures increase on the plasma membrane in Syt11-knockdown neurons. Structural-functional analysis reveals distinct domain requirements for Syt11 function in CME and bulk endocytosis. Importantly, Syt11 also inhibits endocytosis in hippocampal neurons, implying a general role of Syt11 in neurons. Taken together, we propose that Syt11 functions to ensure precision in vesicle retrieval, mainly by limiting the sites of membrane invagination at the early stage of endocytosis.

  6. Neuroprotection mediated by inhibition of calpain during acute viral encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Charles L.; LaFrance-Corey, Reghann G.; Mirchia, Kanish; Sauer, Brian M.; McGovern, Renee M.; Reid, Joel M.; Buenz, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Neurologic complications associated with viral encephalitis, including seizures and cognitive impairment, are a global health issue, especially in children. We previously showed that hippocampal injury during acute picornavirus infection in mice is associated with calpain activation and is the result of neuronal death triggered by brain-infiltrating inflammatory monocytes. We therefore hypothesized that treatment with a calpain inhibitor would protect neurons from immune-mediated bystander injury. C57BL/6J mice infected with the Daniel’s strain of Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus were treated with the FDA-approved drug ritonavir using a dosing regimen that resulted in plasma concentrations within the therapeutic range for calpain inhibition. Ritonavir treatment significantly reduced calpain activity in the hippocampus, protected hippocampal neurons from death, preserved cognitive performance, and suppressed seizure escalation, even when therapy was initiated 36 hours after disease onset. Calpain inhibition by ritonavir may be a powerful tool for preserving neurons and cognitive function and preventing neural circuit dysregulation in humans with neuroinflammatory disorders. PMID:27345730

  7. RSK1 protects P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 against ubiquitin–proteasomal degradation by downregulating the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 R1

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Kazuhiro; Fujiwara, Chiaki; Noguchi, Kohji; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a critical determinant of multidrug resistance in cancer. We previously reported that MAPK inhibition downregulates P-gp expression and that P-gp undergoes ubiquitin–proteasomal degradation regulated by UBE2R1 and SCFFbx15. Here, we investigated the crosstalk between MAPK inhibition and the ubiquitin–proteasomal degradation of P-gp. Proteasome inhibitors or knockdown of FBXO15 and/or UBE2R1 cancelled MEK inhibitor-induced P-gp downregulation. RSK1 phosphorylated Thr162 on UBE2R1 but did not phosphorylate FBXO15. MEK and RSK inhibitors increased UBE2R1-WT but not UBE2R1-T162D and -T162A expression. UBE2R1-T162D showed higher self-ubiquitination and destabilisation than UBE2R1-WT and -T162A. Unlike UBE2R1-WT and -T162A, UBE2R1-T162D did not induce P-gp ubiquitination. UBE2R1-WT or -T162A downregulated P-gp expression and upregulated rhodamine 123 level and sensitivity to vincristine and doxorubicin. However, UBE2R1-T162D did not confer any change in P-gp expression, rhodamine 123 accumulation and sensitivity to the drugs. These results suggest that RSK1 protects P-gp against ubiquitination by reducing UBE2R1 stability. PMID:27786305

  8. Molecular basis of preferential resistance to colchicine in multidrug-resistant human cells conferred by Gly-185 yields Val-185 substitution in P-glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Safa, A.R.; Stern, R.K.; Choi, Kyunghee; Agresti, M.; Tamai, Ikumi; Mehta, N.D.; Roninson, I.B. )

    1990-09-01

    Expression of P-glycoprotein, encoded by the human MDR1 gene, results in cross-resistance to many lipophilic cytotoxic drugs (multidrug resistance). P-glycoprotein is believed to function as an energy-dependent efflux pump that is responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells. Previous work showed that preferential resistance to colchicine in a colchicine-selected multidrug-resistant cell line was caused by spontaneous mutations in the MDR1 gene that resulted in a Gly-185 {yields} Val-185 substitution in P-glycoprotein. The authors have now compared transfectant cell lines expressing the wild-type Gly-185 or the mutant Val-185 P-glycoprotein with regard to their levels of resistance to and accumulation and binding of different drugs. In cells expressing the mutant protein, increased resistance to colchicine and decreased resistance to vinblastine correlated with a decreased accumulation of colchicine and increased accumulation of vinblastine. Expression of the mutant P-glycoprotein also resulted in significantly increased resistance to epipodophyllotoxin and decreased resistance to vincristine and actinomycin D; smaller changes in resistance were observed for several other drugs. Unexpectedly, the mutant P-glycoprotein showed increased binding of photoactive analogs of vinblastine and verapamil and the photoactive compound azidopine and decreased binding of a photoactive colchicine analog. These results suggest that the Gly-185 {yields} Val-185 substitution affects not the initial drug-binding site of P-glycoprotein but another site, associated with the release of P-glycoprotein-bound drugs to the outside of the cell.

  9. Notch-mediated lateral inhibition regulates proneural wave propagation when combined with EGF-mediated reaction diffusion.

    PubMed

    Sato, Makoto; Yasugi, Tetsuo; Minami, Yoshiaki; Miura, Takashi; Nagayama, Masaharu

    2016-08-30

    Notch-mediated lateral inhibition regulates binary cell fate choice, resulting in salt and pepper patterns during various developmental processes. However, how Notch signaling behaves in combination with other signaling systems remains elusive. The wave of differentiation in the Drosophila visual center or "proneural wave" accompanies Notch activity that is propagated without the formation of a salt and pepper pattern, implying that Notch does not form a feedback loop of lateral inhibition during this process. However, mathematical modeling and genetic analysis clearly showed that Notch-mediated lateral inhibition is implemented within the proneural wave. Because partial reduction in EGF signaling causes the formation of the salt and pepper pattern, it is most likely that EGF diffusion cancels salt and pepper pattern formation in silico and in vivo. Moreover, the combination of Notch-mediated lateral inhibition and EGF-mediated reaction diffusion enables a function of Notch signaling that regulates propagation of the wave of differentiation. PMID:27535937

  10. Notch-mediated lateral inhibition regulates proneural wave propagation when combined with EGF-mediated reaction diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Makoto; Yasugi, Tetsuo; Minami, Yoshiaki; Miura, Takashi; Nagayama, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Notch-mediated lateral inhibition regulates binary cell fate choice, resulting in salt and pepper patterns during various developmental processes. However, how Notch signaling behaves in combination with other signaling systems remains elusive. The wave of differentiation in the Drosophila visual center or “proneural wave” accompanies Notch activity that is propagated without the formation of a salt and pepper pattern, implying that Notch does not form a feedback loop of lateral inhibition during this process. However, mathematical modeling and genetic analysis clearly showed that Notch-mediated lateral inhibition is implemented within the proneural wave. Because partial reduction in EGF signaling causes the formation of the salt and pepper pattern, it is most likely that EGF diffusion cancels salt and pepper pattern formation in silico and in vivo. Moreover, the combination of Notch-mediated lateral inhibition and EGF-mediated reaction diffusion enables a function of Notch signaling that regulates propagation of the wave of differentiation. PMID:27535937

  11. Influence of time to achieve substrate distribution equilibrium between brain tissue and blood on quantitation of the blood-brain barrier P-glycoprotein effect.

    PubMed

    Padowski, Jeannie M; Pollack, Gary M

    2011-12-01

    Active efflux transport processes at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux, can limit brain uptake of therapeutics. Accurate determination of the consequent impact on brain uptake is assumed to require sampling post-attainment of brain-to-blood distribution equilibrium. Because this approach is not always feasible, understanding the relationship between apparent degree of efflux (e.g., calculated BBB P-gp effect) and the fraction of time remaining until distribution equilibrium is achieved (FTDE) would be advantageous. This study employed simulation strategies to explore this relationship in the simplest relevant system (absence of protein binding, saturable uptake, or metabolism at the BBB). Concentration-time profiles were simulated with a 4-compartment system (blood, peripheral tissues, BBB endothelium and brain parenchyma). A unidirectional endothelium-to-blood rate constant, PS(e), represented P-gp-mediated efflux. A parameter space was selected to simulate an 18-fold P-gp effect, (K(p,brain) at distribution equilibrium in the absence [K(p,brain)=82] vs. presence [K(p,brain)=4.5] of P-gp-mediated flux), as observed for paclitaxel in P-gp-deficient vs. P-gp-competent mice. Hypothetical compounds with different P-gp effects, peripheral compartment distribution kinetics, or times to achieve distribution equilibrium were simulated by perturbing the values of relevant model parameters. P-gp effects calculated prior to attainment of distribution equilibrium may be substantially erroneous. However, reasonably accurate estimates can be obtained relatively early in the net distributional phase (under 20% error at FTDE>0.36 or 0.11 for bolus or infusion administration, respectively). Potential errors associated with non-equilibrium calculations are dependent on both P-gp-mediated and P-gp-independent components of flux across the BBB.

  12. St. John's Wort reduces beta-amyloid accumulation in a double transgenic Alzheimer's disease mouse model-role of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Brenn, Anja; Grube, Markus; Jedlitschky, Gabriele; Fischer, Andrea; Strohmeier, Barbara; Eiden, Martin; Keller, Markus; Groschup, Martin H; Vogelgesang, Silke

    2014-01-01

    The adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transport protein P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) is involved in the export of beta-amyloid from the brain into the blood, and there is evidence that age-associated deficits in cerebral P-glycoprotein content may be involved in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. P-glycoprotein function and expression can be pharmacologically induced by a variety of compounds including extracts of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort). To clarify the effect of St. John's Wort on the accumulation of beta-amyloid and P-glycoprotein expression in the brain, St. John's Wort extract (final hyperforin concentration 5%) was fed to 30-day-old male C57BL/6J-APP/PS1(+/-) mice over a period of 60 or 120 days, respectively. Age-matched male C57BL/6J-APP/PS1(+/-) mice receiving a St. John's Wort-free diet served as controls. Mice receiving St. John's Wort extract showed (i) significant reductions of parenchymal beta-amyloid 1-40 and 1-42 accumulation; and (ii) moderate, but statistically significant increases in cerebrovascular P-glycoprotein expression. Thus, the induction of cerebrovascular P-glycoprotein may be a novel therapeutic strategy to protect the brain from beta-amyloid accumulation, and thereby impede the progression of Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Role of Human Breast Cancer Related Protein versus P-Glycoprotein as an Efflux Transporter for Benzylpenicillin: Potential Importance at the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yangfang; Wu, Qian; Li, Chen; Liu, Ling; Du, Kun; Shen, Jin; Wu, Yuqin; Zhao, Xiaofen; Zhao, Mei; Bao, Lingyun; Gao, Jin; Keep, Richard F.; Xiang, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    While the blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the brain by controlling the access of solutes and toxic substances to brain, it also limits drug entry to treat central nervous system disorders. Many drugs are substrates for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters at the BBB that limit their entry into the brain. The role of those transporters in limiting the entry of the widely prescribed therapeutic, benzylpenicillin, has produced conflicting results. This study investigated the possible potential involvement of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), two ABC transporters, in benzylpenicillin transport at BBB in human using MDCKII cells overexpressing those transporters as well as pharmacological inhibition. MDCKII cells overexpressing human BCRP (MDCKII-BCRP) but not those overexpressing human P-gp (MDCKII-MDR cells) had reduced [3H]benzylpenicillin uptake. Similarly, inhibiting BCRP increased [3H]benzylpenicillin uptake in MDCKII-BCRP cells, while inhibiting P-gp in MDCKII-MDR cells had no effect on uptake although there was evidence that benzylpenicillin is a substrate for canine P-gp. While inhibiting BCRP affected [3H]benzylpenicillin cell concentrations it did not affect transepithelial flux in MDCKII-BCRP cells. In summary, the results indicate that human BCRP and not human P-gp is involved in benzylpenicillin transport. However, targeting BCRP alone was not sufficient to alter transepithelial flux in MDCKII cells. Whether it would be sufficient to alter blood-to-brain flux at the human BBB remains to be investigated. PMID:27300692

  14. Molecular mechanism of statin-mediated LOX-1 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Biocca, Silvia; Iacovelli, Federico; Matarazzo, Sara; Vindigni, Giulia; Oteri, Francesco; Desideri, Alessandro; Falconi, Mattia

    2015-01-01

    Statins are largely used in clinics in the treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases for their effect on lowering circulating cholesterol. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LOX-1), the primary receptor for ox-LDL, plays a central role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders. We have recently shown that chronic exposure of cells to lovastatin disrupts LOX-1 receptor cluster distribution in plasma membranes, leading to a marked loss of LOX-1 function. Here we investigated the molecular mechanism of statin-mediated LOX-1 inhibition and we demonstrate that all tested statins are able to displace the binding of fluorescent ox-LDL to LOX-1 by a direct interaction with LOX-1 receptors in a cell-based binding assay. Molecular docking simulations confirm the interaction and indicate that statins completely fill the hydrophobic tunnel that crosses the C-type lectin-like (CTLD) recognition domain of LOX-1. Classical molecular dynamics simulation technique applied to the LOX-1 CTLD, considered in the entire receptor structure with or without a statin ligand inside the tunnel, indicates that the presence of a ligand largely increases the dimer stability. Electrophoretic separation and western blot confirm that different statins binding stabilize the dimer assembly of LOX-1 receptors in vivo. The simulative and experimental results allow us to propose a CTLD clamp motion, which enables the receptor-substrate coupling. These findings reveal a novel and significant functional effect of statins. PMID:25950192

  15. Dentate total molecular layer interneurons mediate cannabinoid-sensitive inhibition.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiandong; Swietek, Bogumila; Proddutur, Archana; Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-08-01

    Activity of the dentate gyrus, which gates information flow to the hippocampus, is under tight inhibitory regulation by interneurons with distinctive axonal projections, intrinsic and synaptic characteristics and neurochemical identities. Total molecular layer cells (TML-Cs), a class of morphologically distinct GABAergic neurons with axonal projections across the molecular layer, are among the most frequent interneuronal type in the dentate subgranular region. However, little is known about their synaptic and neurochemical properties. We demonstrate that synapses from morphologically identified TML-Cs to dentate interneurons are characterized by low release probability, facilitating short-term dynamics and asynchronous release. TML-Cs consistently show somatic and axonal labeling for the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 R) yet fail to express cholecystokinin (CCK) indicating their distinctive neurochemical identity. In paired recordings, the release probability at synapses between TML-Cs was increased by the CB1 R antagonist AM251, demonstrating baseline endocannabinoid regulation of TML-C synapses. Apart from defining the synaptic and neurochemical features of TML-Cs, our findings reveal the morphological identity of a class of dentate CB1 R-positive neurons that do not express CCK. Our findings indicate that TML-Cs can mediate cannabinoid sensitive feed-forward and feedback inhibition of dentate perforant path inputs.

  16. Resveratrol inhibits glycine receptor-mediated ion currents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hwan; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Choi, Sun-Hye; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Jung, Seok-Won; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Joon-Hee; Kim, Hyung-Chun; Rhim, Hyewhon; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is found in grapes, red wine, and berries. Resveratrol has been known to have many beneficial health effects, such as anti-cancer, neuroprotective, anti-nociceptive, and life-prolonging effects. However, the single cellular mechanisms by which resveratrol acts are relatively unknown, especially in terms of possible regulation of receptors involved in synaptic transmission. The glycine receptor is an inhibitory ligand-gated ion channel involved in fast synaptic transmission in spinal cord. In the present study, we investigated the effect of resveratrol on human glycine receptor channel activity. Glycine α1 receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and glycine receptor channel activity was measured using a two-electrode voltage clamp technique. Treatment with resveratrol alone had no effect on oocytes injected with H2O or on oocytes injected with glycine α1 receptor cRNA. In the oocytes injected with glycine α1 receptor cRNA, co- or pre-treatment of resveratrol with glycine inhibited the glycine-induced inward peak current (IGly) in a reversible manner. The inhibitory effect of resveratrol on IGly was also concentration dependent, voltage independent, and non-competitive. These results indicate that resveratrol regulates glycine receptor channel activity and that resveratrol-mediated regulation of glycine receptor channel activity is one of several cellular action mechanisms of resveratrol for pain regulation. PMID:24694604

  17. Chemical modification of paclitaxel (Taxol) reduces P-glycoprotein interactions and increases permeation across the blood-brain barrier in vitro and in situ.

    PubMed

    Rice, Antonie; Liu, Yanbin; Michaelis, Mary Lou; Himes, Richard H; Georg, Gunda I; Audus, Kenneth L

    2005-02-10

    The purpose of this work was to introduce a chemical modification into the paclitaxel (Taxol) structure to reduce interactions with the product of the multidrug resistant type 1 (MDR1) gene, P-glycoprotein (Pgp), resulting in improved blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Specifically, a taxane analogue, Tx-67, with a succinate group added at the C10 position of Taxol, was synthesized and identified as such a candidate. In comparison studies, Tx-67 had no apparent interactions with Pgp, as demonstrated by the lack of enhanced uptake of rhodamine 123 by brain microvessel endothelial cells (BMECs) in the presence of the agent. By contrast, Taxol exposure substantially enhanced rhodamine 123 uptake by BMECs through inhibition of Pgp. The transport across BMEC monolayers was polarized for both Tx-67 and Taxol with permeation in the apical to basolateral direction greater for Tx-67 and substantially reduced for Taxol relative to basolateral to apical permeation. Taxol and cyclosporin A treatments also did not enhance Tx-67 permeation across BMEC monolayers. In an in situ rat brain perfusion study, Tx-67 was demonstrated to permeate across the BBB at a greater rate than Taxol. These results demonstrate that the Taxol analogue Tx-67 had a reduced interaction with Pgp and, as a consequence, enhanced permeation across the blood-brain barrier in vitro and in situ.

  18. Development, validation and utility of an in vitro technique for assessment of potential clinical drug-drug interactions involving P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Keogh, John P; Kunta, Jeevan R

    2006-04-01

    Regulatory interest is increasing for drug transporters generally and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) in particular, primarily in the area of drug-drug interactions. To aid in both identifying and discharging the potential liabilities associated with drug-transporter interactions, the pharmaceutical industry has a growing requirement for routine and robust non-clinical assays. An assay was designed, optimised and validated to determine the in vitro inhibitory potency of new chemical entities (NCEs) towards human Pgp-mediated transport. [3H]-Digoxin was established as a suitable probe substrate by investigating its characteristics in the in vitro system (MDCKII-MDR1 cells grown in 24-multiwell inserts). The inhibitory potencies (apparent IC50) of known Pgp inhibitors astemizole, GF120918, ketoconazole, itraconazole, quinidine, verapamil and quinine were determined over at least a 1000-fold concentration range. Validation was carried out using manual and automatic techniques. [3H]-Digoxin was found to be stable and have good mass balance in the system. In contrast to [A-->B] transport, [3H]-digoxin [B-->A] transport rates were readily measured with good reproducibility. There was no evidence of saturation of transport up to 10 microM digoxin and 30 nM digoxin was selected for routine assay use, reflecting clinical therapeutic concentrations. IC50 values ranged over approximately 100-fold with excellent reproducibility. Results from manual and automated versions were in close agreement. This method is suitable for routine use to assess the in vitro inhibitory potency of NCEs on Pgp-mediated digoxin transport. Comparison of IC50 values against clinical interaction profiles for the probe inhibitors indicated the in vitro assay is predictive of clinical digoxin-drug interactions mediated via Pgp.

  19. Modulation of P-glycoprotein at the Human Blood-Brain Barrier by Quinidine or Rifampin Treatment: A Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Collier, Ann C; Link, Jeanne M; Domino, Karen B; Mankoff, David A; Eary, Janet F; Spiekerman, Charles F; Hsiao, Peng; Deo, Anand K; Unadkat, Jashvant D

    2015-11-01

    Permeability-glycoprotein (P-glycoprotein, P-gp), an efflux transporter at the human blood-brain barrier (BBB), is a significant obstacle to central nervous system (CNS) delivery of P-gp substrate drugs. Using positron emission tomography imaging, we investigated P-gp modulation at the human BBB by an approved P-gp inhibitor, quinidine, or the P-gp inducer, rifampin. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and BBB P-gp activity were respectively measured by administration of (15)O-water followed by (11)C-verapamil. In a crossover design, healthy volunteers received quinidine and 11-29 days of rifampin treatment during different study periods. CBF and P-gp activity was measured in the absence (control; prior to quinidine treatment) and presence of P-gp modulation. At clinically relevant quinidine plasma concentrations, P-gp inhibition resulted in a 60% increase in (11)C-radioactivity distribution across the human BBB as measured by the brain extraction ratio (ER) of (11)C-radioactivity. Furthermore, the magnitude of BBB P-gp inhibition by quinidine was successfully predicted by a combination of in vitro and macaque data, but not by rat data. Although our findings demonstrated that quinidine did not completely inhibit P-gp at the human BBB, it has the potential to produce clinically significant CNS drug interactions with P-gp substrate drugs that exhibit a narrow therapeutic window and are significantly excluded from the brain by P-gp. Rifampin treatment induced systemic CYP3A metabolism of (11)C-verapamil; however, it reduced the ER by 6%. Therefore, we conclude that rifampin, at its usual clinical dose, cannot be used to induce P-gp at the human BBB to a clinically meaningful extent and is unlikely to cause inadvertent BBB-inductive drug interactions. PMID:26354948

  20. Artemisinin induces doxorubicin resistance in human colon cancer cells via calcium-dependent activation of HIF-1α and P-glycoprotein overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Riganti, C; Doublier, S; Viarisio, D; Miraglia, E; Pescarmona, G; Ghigo, D; Bosia, A

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Artemisinin is an antimalarial drug exerting pleiotropic effects, such as the inhibition of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B and of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca++-ATPase (SERCA) of P. falciparum. As the sesquiterpene lactone thapsigargin, a known inhibitor of mammalian SERCA, enhances the expression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) by increasing the intracellular Ca++ ([Ca++]i) level, we investigated whether artemisinin and its structural homologue parthenolide could inhibit SERCA in human colon carcinoma HT29 cells and induce a resistance to doxorubicin. Experimental approach: HT29 cells were incubated with artemisinin or parthenolide and assessed for SERCA activity, [Ca++]i levels, Pgp expression, doxorubicin accumulation and toxicity, and translocation of the hypoxia-inducible factor, HIF-1α. Key results: Artemisinin and parthenolide, like the specific SERCA inhibitors thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid, reduced the activity of SERCA. They also increased intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca++]i) and Pgp expression and decreased doxorubicin accumulation and cytotoxicity. The intracellular Ca++ chelator, 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid, and the inhibitor of calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) KN93 prevented these effects. CaMKII is known to promote the phosphorylation and the activation of HIF-1α, which may induce Pgp. In HT29 cells, artemisinin and parthenolide induced the phosphorylation of HIF-1α, which was inhibited by KN93. Conclusions and implications: Our results suggest that artemisinin and parthenolide may act as SERCA inhibitors and, like other SERCA inhibitors, induce resistance to doxorubicin in human colon cancer cells, via the CaMKII-dependent activation of HIF-1α and the induction of Pgp. PMID:19298255

  1. Doxycycline as an inhibitor of p-glycoprotein in the alpaca for the purpose of maintaining avermectins in the CNS during treatment for parelaphostrongylosis.

    PubMed

    Agbedanu, Prince N; Anderson, Kristi L; Brewer, Matthew T; Carlson, Steve A

    2015-09-15

    Meningeal worms (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) are a common malady of alpacas, often refractory to conventional treatments. Ivermectin is a very effective anthelmintic used against a variety of parasites but this drug is not consistently effective against alpaca meningeal worms once the parasite has gained access to the CNS, even if used in a protracted treatment protocol. Ivermectin is not effective against clinical cases of P. tenuis, raising the possibility that the drug is not sustained at therapeutic concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). A specific protein (designated as p-glycoprotein (PGP)) effluxes ivermectin from the brain at the blood-brain barrier, thus hampering the maintenance of therapeutic concentrations of the drug in the CNS. Minocycline is a synthetic tetracycline antibiotic with an excellent safety profile in all animals tested to date. Minocycline has three unique characteristics that could be useful for treating meningeal worms in conjunction with ivermectin. First, minocycline is an inhibitor of PGP at the blood-brain barrier and this inhibition could maintain effective concentrations of ivermectin in the brain and meninges. Second, minocycline protects neurons in vivo through a number of different mechanisms and this neuroprotection could alleviate the potential untoward neurologic effects of meningeal worms. Third, minocycline is a highly lipid-soluble drug, thus facilitating efficient brain penetration. We thus hypothesized that minocycline will maintain ivermectin, or a related avermectin approved in ruminants (abamectin, doramectin, or eprinomectin), in the alpaca CNS. To test this hypothesis, we cloned the gene encoding the alpaca PGP, expressed the alpaca PGP in a heterologous expression system involving MDCK cells, and measured the ability of minocycline to inhibit the efflux of avermectins from the MDCK cells; doxycycline was used as a putative negative control (based on studies in other species). Our in vitro studies

  2. Inhibitory Effects of Highly Oxygenated Lanostane Derivatives from the Fungus Ganoderma lucidum on P-Glycoprotein and α-Glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi-Run; Huo, Xiao-Kui; Dong, Pei-Pei; Wang, Chao; Huang, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Bao-Jing; Zhang, Hou-Li; Deng, Sa; Liu, Ke-Xin; Ma, Xiao-Chi

    2015-08-28

    Twelve new highly oxygenated lanostane triterpenoids and nine known ganoderic acids were isolated from the fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum. The new compounds were lanostane nortriterpenoids with 27 carbons (1-5 and 8), lanostane nor-triterpenoids with 25 carbons (6 and 7), and lanostane triterpenoids (9-12) based on multiple spectroscopic data analysis, including HRESIMS, 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, and CD. Compounds 1-5 were identified as rare nor-lanostanoids that contain a 17β-pentatomic lactone ring. Compound 13, possessing a lactone ring, had been isolated previously. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitory effects of compounds 1-21 were evaluated at a concentration of 20 μM using an adriamycin (ADM)-resistant human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7/ADR). Compounds 1, 5, 18, and 20 and verapamil increased the accumulation of ADM in MCF-7/ADR cells approximately 3-fold when compared with the negative control. These data support the significant P-glycoprotein inhibitory activities of compounds 1, 5, 18, and 20. In silico docking analysis suggested these compounds had similar P-gp recognition mechanisms compared with those of verapamil (a classical inhibitor). Furthermore, in an in vitro bioassay, compounds 2, 4, 5, 6, and 18 showed moderate inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase compared with those of the positive control acarbose.

  3. Osthole shows the potential to overcome P-glycoprotein‑mediated multidrug resistance in human myelogenous leukemia K562/ADM cells by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Jia, Xiu-Hong; Chen, Jie-Ru; Wang, Jian-Yong; Li, You-Jie

    2016-06-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) has been reported to play a pivotal role in tumor chemotherapy failure. Study after study has illustrated that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling cascade is involved in the MDR phenotype and is correlated with P-gp expression in many human malignancies. In the present study, osthole, an O-methylated coumarin, exhibited potent reversal capability of MDR in myelogenous leukemia K562/ADM cells. Simultaneously, the uptake and efflux of Rhodamine-123 (Rh-123) and the accumulation of doxorubicin assays combined with flow cytometric analysis suggested that osthole could increase intracellular drug accumulation. Furthermore, osthole decreased the expression of multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) at both the mRNA and protein levels. Further experiments elucidated that osthole could suppress P-gp expression by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway which might be the main mechanism accounting for the reversal potential of osthole in the MDR in K562/ADM cells. In conclusion, osthole combats MDR and could be a promising candidate for the development of novel MDR reversal modulators. PMID:27109742

  4. Raman, SERS, and induced circular dichroism techniques as a probe of pharmaceuticals in their interactions with the human serum albumin and p-glycoprotein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Fabrice; Ianoul, Anatoli I.; Baggetto, Loris; Jardillier, Jean-Claude; Alix, Alain J.; Nabiev, Igor R.

    1999-04-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) derivatives are the well known inhibitors of the human DNA topoisomerase (topo) I. Two of them, irinotecan and topotecan, are just in the clinics; 9-amino- CPT is on the stage II of clinical trials, and the active search for new derivatives is now in progress. Stability of the CPT derivatives on their way to the target and resistance of cancer cells to these drugs present the crucial problem of the chemotherapy. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the mediator of transport and metabolism of numerous pharmaceuticals in the blood and P-glycoprotein (P- gp) plays a crucial role of the mediator of the multidrug resistance (MDR) of the cancer cells. This paper present the result of analysis of molecular interactions of some drugs of CPT family with the HSA and P-gp. Induced circular dichroism (CD) and Raman techniques have been applied for monitoring molecular interaction of drugs with HSA as well as to identify the conformational transition of the protein induced by the drug binding. Drug molecular determinants responsible for interaction have been identified and their binding sites within the HSA have been localized. New cancer cells lines exhibiting an extremely high level of MDR resistance have been established and were shown to contain the P-gp overproduced in the quantities of 35 percent from the all membrane proteins. The membrane fractions of these cells with the controls presented by the membranes of the parental membrane proteins. The membrane fractions of these cells with the controls presented by the membranes of the parental sensitive cells may be used as a model system for spectroscopic analysis of the specific pharmaceuticals/P-gp interactions.

  5. P-glycoprotein differentially affects escitalopram, levomilnacipran, vilazodone and vortioxetine transport at the mouse blood-brain barrier in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bundgaard, Christoffer; Eneberg, Elin; Sánchez, Connie

    2016-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated brain efflux of xenobiotics is a well-known process, which may result in suboptimal target engagement and consequently reduced efficacy of drugs exerting their therapeutic effects in the central nervous system. In the present study the role of P-gp in transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was investigated with a series of newer antidepressants (levomilnacipran, vilazodone and vortioxetine) and a control substrate (escitalopram) using P-gp knock-out (KO) and P-gp competent wild-type (WT) mice. Brain and plasma exposure time-courses were measured after an acute subcutaneous dose and at steady-state obtained after subcutaneous drug infusion by osmotic minipumps. Following acute dosing, the brain-to-plasma KO/WT exposure enhancement ratios ((AUCbrain ko/AUCplasma ko)/(AUCbrain WT/AUCplasma WT)) were 5.8 (levomilnacipran), 5.4 (vilazodone), 3.1 (escitalopram) and 0.9 (vortioxetine), respectively. At steady-state, assessment of Kp,uu (unbound brain concentrations/unbound plasma concentrations) revealed a restriction in the brain distribution in WT mice for all compounds except vortioxetine. Levomilnacipran exhibited the most pronounced efflux with a Kp,uu-value of 0.038 in WT mice which was increased to 0.37 in KO mice. Based on both the acute and steady-state distribution data, the results suggest that levomilnacipran, vilazodone and escitalopram are susceptible to P-gp mediated efflux at the BBB in vivo in mice, whereas vortioxetine was practically devoid of being affected by P-gp in vivo. The functional impact of the drug transport-controlling role of P-gp at the BBB was demonstrated by in vivo cortical serotonin transporter occupancy of vilazodone, which exhibited a 20-fold higher plasma EC50 in WT mice compared to KOs. PMID:26700248

  6. Functional regulation of P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier in proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqian; Cabrera, Robert M; Li, Yue; Miller, David S; Finnell, Richard H

    2013-03-01

    Folate deficiency has been associated with many adverse clinical manifestations. The blood-brain barrier (BBB), formed by brain capillary endothelial cells, protects the brain from exposure to neurotoxicants. The function of BBB is modulated by multiple ABC transporters, particularly P-glycoprotein. A proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT)-deficient mouse has been previously described as a model for systemic folate deficiency. Herein, we demonstrate that exposing mouse brain capillaries to the antiepileptic drug, valproic acid (VPA; 5 μM), significantly increased P-glycoprotein transport function in the wild-type animals. A ligand to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), produced a similar induction of P-glycoprotein, which tightened the BBB, thereby increasing the neuroprotection. However, VPA- or TCDD-induced P-glycoprotein transport was blocked in the PCFT-nullizygous mice, indicating that multiple neuroprotective mechanisms are compromised under folate-deficient conditions. Brain capillaries from S-folinic acid (SFA; 40 mg/kg)-treated PCFT-nullizygous mice exhibited increased P-glycoprotein transport following VPA exposure. This suggests that SFA supplementation restored the normal BBB function. In addition, we show that tight-junction proteins are disintegrated in the PCFT mutant mice. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that folate deficiency disrupts the BBB function by targeting the transporter and tight junctions, which may contribute to the development of neurological disorders.

  7. Tunicamycin depresses P-glycoprotein glycosylation without an effect on its membrane localization and drug efflux activity in L1210 cells.

    PubMed

    Sereš, Mário; Cholujová, Dana; Bubenčíkova, Tatiana; Breier, Albert; Sulová, Zdenka

    2011-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), also known as ABCB1, is a member of the ABC transporter family of proteins. P-gp is an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump that is localized to the plasma membrane of mammalian cells and confers multidrug resistance in neoplastic cells. P-gp is a 140-kDa polypeptide that is glycosylated to a final molecular weight of 170 kDa. Our experimental model used two variants of L1210 cells in which overexpression of P-gp was achieved: either by adaptation of parental cells (S) to vincristine (R) or by transfection with the human gene encoding P-gp (T). R and T cells were found to differ from S cells in transglycosylation reactions in our recent studies. The effects of tunicamycin on glycosylation, drug efflux activity and cellular localization of P-gp in R and T cells were examined in the present study. Treatment with tunicamycin caused less concentration-dependent cellular damage to R and T cells compared with S cells. Tunicamycin inhibited P-gp N-glycosylation in both of the P-gp-positive cells. However, tunicamycin treatment did not alter either the P-gp cellular localization to the plasma membrane or the P-gp transport activity. The present paper brings evidence that independently on the mode of P-gp expression (selection with drugs or transfection with a gene encoding P-gp) in L1210 cells, tunicamycin induces inhibition of N-glycosylation of this protein, without altering its function as plasma membrane drug efflux pump.

  8. Digoxin and ouabain induce P-glycoprotein by activating calmodulin kinase II and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Riganti, Chiara

    2009-11-01

    Digoxin and ouabain are cardioactive glycosides, which inhibit the Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase pump and in this way they increase the intracellular concentration of cytosolic calcium ([Ca{sup ++}]{sub i}). They are also strong inducers of the P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a transmembrane transporter which extrudes several drugs, including anticancer agents like doxorubicin. An increased amount of Pgp limits the absorption of drugs through epithelial cells, thus inducing resistance to chemotherapy. The mechanism by which cardioactive glycosides increase Pgp is not known and in this work we investigated whether digoxin and ouabain elicited the expression of Pgp with a calcium-driven mechanism. In human colon cancer HT29 cells both glycosides increased the [Ca{sup ++}]{sub i} and this event was dependent on the calcium influx via the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup ++} exchanger. The increased [Ca{sup ++}]{sub i} enhanced the activity of the calmodulin kinase II enzyme, which in turn activated the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha. This one was responsible for the increased expression of Pgp, which actively extruded doxorubicin from the cells and significantly reduced the pro-apoptotic effect of the drug. All the effects of glycosides were prevented by inhibiting the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup ++} exchanger or the calmodulin kinase II. This work clarified the molecular mechanisms by which digoxin and oubain induce Pgp and pointed out that the administration of cardioactive glycosides may widely affect the absorption of drugs in colon epithelia. Moreover, our results suggest that the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agent substrates of Pgp may be strongly reduced in patients taking digoxin.

  9. Tunicamycin Depresses P-Glycoprotein Glycosylation Without an Effect on Its Membrane Localization and Drug Efflux Activity in L1210 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Šereš, Mário; Cholujová, Dana; Bubenčíkova, Tatiana; Breier, Albert; Sulová, Zdenka

    2011-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), also known as ABCB1, is a member of the ABC transporter family of proteins. P-gp is an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump that is localized to the plasma membrane of mammalian cells and confers multidrug resistance in neoplastic cells. P-gp is a 140-kDa polypeptide that is glycosylated to a final molecular weight of 170 kDa. Our experimental model used two variants of L1210 cells in which overexpression of P-gp was achieved: either by adaptation of parental cells (S) to vincristine (R) or by transfection with the human gene encoding P-gp (T). R and T cells were found to differ from S cells in transglycosylation reactions in our recent studies. The effects of tunicamycin on glycosylation, drug efflux activity and cellular localization of P-gp in R and T cells were examined in the present study. Treatment with tunicamycin caused less concentration-dependent cellular damage to R and T cells compared with S cells. Tunicamycin inhibited P-gp N-glycosylation in both of the P-gp-positive cells. However, tunicamycin treatment did not alter either the P-gp cellular localization to the plasma membrane or the P-gp transport activity. The present paper brings evidence that independently on the mode of P-gp expression (selection with drugs or transfection with a gene encoding P-gp) in L1210 cells, tunicamycin induces inhibition of N-glycosylation of this protein, without altering its function as plasma membrane drug efflux pump. PMID:22174631

  10. In vitro effects of standardized extract of Bacopa monniera and its five individual active constituents on human P-glycoprotein activity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajbir; Rachumallu, Ramakrishna; Bhateria, Manisha; Panduri, Jagadeesh; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2015-01-01

    1. For centuries Bacopa monniera (BM) has been used as an herbal drug for the treatment of various mental ailments. A chemically standardized alcoholic extract of BM is clinically available over the counter herbal remedy for memory enhancement in children and adults. Consumption of herbal preparations has been reported to alter the function of membrane transporters, especially P-glycoprotein (P-gp), ATP-dependent drug efflux transporter responsible for the development of herb-drug interactions. 2. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effect of BM extract and its five individual active constituents (namely, bacopaside I, bacopaside II and bacopasaponin C, bacoside A and bacoside A3) on P-gp function using luminescent P-gp ATPase assay and Rh123 transport assay across human MDR1 gene transfected LLC-GA5-COL150 cell line. 3. It was observed that BM extract and its five individual constituents inhibited both basal activity as well as verapamil-stimulated ATPase activity, suggesting their affinity towards P-gp. Further, BM and its five active constituents inhibited the rhodamine 123 (Rh123) transport across LLC-GA5-COL150 cell monolayer with bacopaside II being the most potent inhibitor of P-gp, which decreased P-gp efflux ratio of Rh123 by fourfold in comparison to control. 4. Our finding may prove beneficial in predicting the potential herb-drug interactions of BM on concomitant medication with P-gp substrate drugs in clinical settings.

  11. Temozolomide Resistance in Glioblastoma Cell Lines: Implication of MGMT, MMR, P-Glycoprotein and CD133 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Prados, Jose; Caba, Octavio; Cabeza, Laura; Berdasco, Maria; Gónzalez, Beatriz; Melguizo, Consolación

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of temozolomide (TMZ) has improved the prognosis for glioblastoma multiforme patients. However, TMZ resistance may be one of the main reasons why treatment fails. Although this resistance has frequently been linked to the expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) it seems that this enzyme is not the only molecular mechanism that may account for the appearance of drug resistance in glioblastoma multiforme patients as the mismatch repair (MMR) complex, P-glycoprotein, and/or the presence of cancer stem cells may also be implicated. Methods Four nervous system tumor cell lines were used to analyze the modulation of MGMT expression and MGMT promoter methylation by TMZ treatment. Furthermore, 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine was used to demethylate the MGMT promoter and O(6)-benzylguanine to block GMT activity. In addition, MMR complex and P-glycoprotein expression were studied before and after TMZ exposure and correlated with MGMT expression. Finally, the effect of TMZ exposure on CD133 expression was analyzed. Results Our results showed two clearly differentiated groups of tumor cells characterized by low (A172 and LN229) and high (SF268 and SK-N-SH) basal MGMT expression. Interestingly, cell lines with no MGMT expression and low TMZ IC50 showed a high MMR complex expression, whereas cell lines with high MGMT expression and high TMZ IC50 did not express the MMR complex. In addition, modulation of MGMT expression in A172 and LN229 cell lines was accompanied by a significant increase in the TMZ IC50, whereas no differences were observed in SF268 and SK-N-SH cell lines. In contrast, P-glycoprotein and CD133 was found to be unrelated to TMZ resistance in these cell lines. Conclusions These results may be relevant in understanding the phenomenon of TMZ resistance, especially in glioblastoma multiforme patients laking MGMT expression, and may also aid in the design of new therapeutic strategies to improve the efficacy of TMZ in glioblastoma

  12. Capsaicin pretreatment increased the bioavailability of cyclosporin in rats: involvement of P-glycoprotein and CYP 3A inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xue-jia; Shi, Fang; Chen, Fen; Lu, Yong-ning

    2013-12-01

    Capsaicin (CAP), the main ingredient responsible for the hot pungent taste of chilli peppers. This study investigated the effect of CAP on the pharmacokinetics of Cyclosporin A (CyA) in rats and the mechanism of this food-drug interaction. The results indicated that after 7 days of low or middle dose of CAP (0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg), the blood concentration of CyA was not significantly changed compared with that of vehicle-treated rats, whereas the blood concentration of CyA in high dose group (3.0 mg/kg) was significantly increased. The total clearance (CL/F) of CyA was decreased, and the bioavailability was significantly increased to about 1.44-fold of that in vehicle-treated rats after 7 days of high dose CAP treatment. At this time, the P-gp and CYP3A1/2 in the liver and intestine were decreased at both the mRNA and protein levels. These results demonstrated that chronic ingestion of high doses of CAP will increase the bioavailability of CyA to a significant extent in rats and the food-drug interaction between CAP and CyA appears to be due to modulation of P-gp and CYP3A gene expression by CAP, with differential dose-dependence.

  13. Identification of Possible Binding Sites for Morphine and Nicardipine on the Multidrug Transporter P-Glycoprotein Using Umbrella Sampling Techniques.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Nandhitha; Condic-Jurkic, Karmen; Mark, Alan E; O'Mara, Megan L

    2015-06-22

    The multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is central to the development of multidrug resistance in cancer. While residues essential for transport and binding have been identified, the location, composition, and specificity of potential drug binding sites are uncertain. Here molecular dynamics simulations are used to calculate the free energy profile for the binding of morphine and nicardipine to P-gp. We show that morphine and nicardipine primarily interact with key residues implicated in binding and transport from mutational studies, binding at different but overlapping sites within the transmembrane pore. Their permeation pathways were distinct but involved overlapping sets of residues. The results indicate that the binding location and permeation pathways of morphine and nicardipine are not well separated and cannot be considered as unique. This has important implications for our understanding of substrate uptake and transport by P-gp. Our results are independent of the choice of starting structure and consistent with a range of experimental studies.

  14. Novel dihydro-beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenes as potent modulators of human P-glycoprotein dependent multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Torres-Romero, David; Muñoz-Martínez, Francisco; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Castanys, Santiago; Gamarro, Francisco; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2009-12-21

    P-Glycoprotein (Pgp) overexpression is one factor contributing to multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells and represents one drawback in the treatment of cancer. In an attempt to find more specific and less toxic anticancer MDR-reversal agents, we report herein the isolation, structure elucidation and biological activity of nine new (, and ) and seven known (, and ) dihydro-beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenes from the leaves of Celastrus vulcanicola. Their stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, CD studies and biogenetic means. All the compounds were assayed on human MDR1-transfected NIH-3T3 cells, in order to determine their ability to reverse the MDR phenotype due to Pgp overexpression. Six compounds from these series (, , , , and ) showed an effectiveness that was similar to (or higher than) the classical Pgp reversal agent verapamil for the reversal of resistance to daunomycin and vinblastine. The structure-activity relationships are discussed. PMID:20024113

  15. Novel dihydro-beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenes as potent modulators of human P-glycoprotein dependent multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Torres-Romero, David; Muñoz-Martínez, Francisco; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Castanys, Santiago; Gamarro, Francisco; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2009-12-21

    P-Glycoprotein (Pgp) overexpression is one factor contributing to multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells and represents one drawback in the treatment of cancer. In an attempt to find more specific and less toxic anticancer MDR-reversal agents, we report herein the isolation, structure elucidation and biological activity of nine new (, and ) and seven known (, and ) dihydro-beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenes from the leaves of Celastrus vulcanicola. Their stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, CD studies and biogenetic means. All the compounds were assayed on human MDR1-transfected NIH-3T3 cells, in order to determine their ability to reverse the MDR phenotype due to Pgp overexpression. Six compounds from these series (, , , , and ) showed an effectiveness that was similar to (or higher than) the classical Pgp reversal agent verapamil for the reversal of resistance to daunomycin and vinblastine. The structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  16. Understanding the accumulation of P-glycoprotein substrates within cells: The effect of cholesterol on membrane partitioning.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Nandhitha; Schumann-Gillett, Alexandra; Mark, Alan E; O'Mara, Megan L

    2016-04-01

    The apparent activity of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is enhanced by the presence of cholesterol. Whether this is due to the direct effect of cholesterol on the activity of P-gp, its effect on the local concentration of substrate in the membrane, or its effect on the rate of entry of the drug into the cell, is unknown. In this study, molecular dynamics simulation techniques coupled with potential of mean force calculations have been used to investigate the role of cholesterol in the movement of four P-gp substrates across a POPC bilayer in the presence or absence of 10% cholesterol. The simulations suggest that the presence of cholesterol lowers the free energy associated with entering the middle of the bilayer in a substrate-specific manner. These findings suggest that P-gp substrates may preferentially accumulate in cholesterol-rich regions of the membrane, which may explain its enhanced transport activity.

  17. Assessment of regional differences in tariquidar-induced P-glycoprotein modulation at the human blood–brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Martin; Karch, Rudolf; Neumann, Friederike; Wagner, Claudia C; Kletter, Kurt; Müller, Markus; Löscher, Wolfgang; Zeitlinger, Markus; Langer, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    We attempted to assess regional differences in cerebral P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function by performing paired positron emission tomography (PET) scans with the P-gp substrate (R)-[11C]verapamil in five healthy subjects before and after i.v. infusion of tariquidar (2 mg/kg). Comparison of tariquidar-induced changes in distribution volumes (DVs) in 42 brain regions of interest (ROIs) failed to detect significant differences among brain ROIs. Statistical parametric mapping analysis of parametric DV images visualized symmetrical bilateral clusters with moderately higher DV increases in response to tariquidar administration in cerebellum, parahippocampal gyrus, olfactory gyrus, and middle temporal lobe and cortex, which might reflect moderately decreased P-gp function and expression. PMID:20010957

  18. Fumonisin toxicity in a transgenic mouse model lacking the mdr1a/1b P-glycoprotein genes.

    PubMed

    Sharma; Bhandari; Tsunoda; Riley; Voss; Meredith

    2000-03-01

    The toxicity of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) was investigated in male mdr1a/1b double knockout (MDRK) mice, lacking the drug-transporting P-glycoproteins. These transgenic animals are deficient in their blood:brain barrier and accumulate different drugs in brain and other tissues. The MDRK and their wild-type counterparts, FVB mice, were injected subcutaneously with 2.25 mg/kg per day of FB(1) for 5 days and sampled one day after the last treatment in a protocol that has resulted in marked hepatic and renal damage in other strains. FB(1) caused liver enlargement in both FVB and MDRK. Hematological parameters were not affected in either strain. Plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, measures of liver damage, were increased by FB(1) in both FVB and MDRK mice. Histopathological evaluation of liver corroborated this finding. Kidney lesions were induced by FB(1) in both types of mice. Concentrations of free sphingosine and sphinganine increased in liver and kidney of both strains after the FB(1) treatment, although the increase in liver sphingoid bases was half as much in MDRK as compared to FVB. The levels of sphinganine-containing complex sphingolipids were increased in kidney. The levels of sphingosine-containing complex sphingolipids in kidney were unaffected by FB(1) treatment but were significantly lower in control MDRK than in FVB mice. The levels of neurotransmitters and their metabolites were similarly affected in both strains by FB(1), suggesting no influence of disrupted blood:brain barrier on FB(1)-induced neurotoxicity. In both strains, the liver mRNA for tumor necrosis factor alpha was increased; however, the increase was statistically significant only in FVB. It was apparent that mice deficient in P-glycoprotein do not exhibit greater sensitivity to FB(1), the cellular or brain transport of FB(1) appears to be independent of this multidrug transporting system.

  19. Natural Products based P-glycoprotein Activators for Improved β-amyloid Clearance in Alzheimer's Disease: An in silico Approach.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Pravin; Vidyasagar, Nikhil; Dhulap, Sivakami; Dhulap, Abhijeet; Hirwani, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is an age related disorder and is defined to be progressive, irreversible neurodegenerative disease. The potential targets which are associated with the Alzheimer's disease are cholinesterases, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, Beta secretase 1, Pregnane X receptor (PXR) and P-glycoprotein (Pgp). P-glycoprotein is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, which is an important integral of the blood-brain, blood-cerebrospinal fluid and the blood-testis barrier. Reports from the literature provide evidences that the up-regulation of the efflux pump is liable for a decrease in β -amyloid intracellular accumulation and is an important hallmark in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, targeting β-amyloid clearance by stimulating Pgp could be a useful strategy to prevent Alzheimer's advancement. Currently available drugs provide limited effectiveness and do not assure to cure Alzheimer's disease completely. On the other hand, the current research is now directed towards the development of synthetic or natural based therapeutics which can delay the onset or progression of Alzheimer's disease. Since ancient time medicinal plants such as Withania somnifera, Bacopa monieri, Nerium indicum have been used to prevent neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Till today around 125 Indian medicinal plants have been screened on the basis of ethnopharmacology for their activity against neurological disorders. In this paper, we report bioactives from natural sources which show binding affinity towards the Pgp receptor using ligand based pharmacophore development, virtual screening, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies for the bioactives possessing acceptable ADME properties. These bioactives can thus be useful to treat Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Comparison of P-glycoprotein expression in cell lines and xenogragraft sections using I-125 MRK-16 monoclonal antibody (MAB)

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, B.M.; Kostakoglu, L.; Levchenko, A.

    1994-05-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is known to be associated with multidrug resistance (MDR). Quantitation of P-glycoprotein expression may permit appropriate therapy depending on Pgp expression in tumors. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the utility of quantitative autoradiography (QAR) in the quantification of MDR using MRK-16, a murine IgG mAb reactive against Pgp. Balb/c mice were xenografted with colchicine resistant BE(2)C/CHC cells. Animals with established tumors were sacrificed, and 8 {mu}m tumor sections were prepared. Mab MRK-16 was labeled with I-125 (150 {mu}Ci/0.625 nmole) by the iodogen method and subsequently purified by size exclusion chromatography. Consecutive tumor sections were incubated overnight at 4{degrees}C with serial dilutions of I-125 MRK-16. Similarly cell suspensions containing 1 X 10{sup 7} cells per ml were also incubated with serial dilutions. QAR analysis of tissue sections of BE(2)C/CHC tumors growing as xenografts in nude mice, determined the binding affinity (K{sub a}) for MRK-16 to be 1 x 10{sup 9} L/M and the number of binding sites (B{sub max}) to be 137, 700 per cell (222 picomols/g); it compared very well with the K{sub a} value of 5 x 10{sup 8} L/M and the B{sub max} value of 130,000 per cell (217 picomols/g) obtained from binding analysis with cell suspensions.

  1. Multidrug resistance proteins: role of P-glycoprotein, MRP1, MRP2, and BCRP (ABCG2) in tissue defense

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie, Elaine M.; Deeley, Roger G.; Cole, Susan P.C. . E-mail: coles@post.queensu.ca

    2005-05-01

    In tumor cell lines, multidrug resistance is often associated with an ATP-dependent decrease in cellular drug accumulation which is attributed to the overexpression of certain ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins. ABC proteins that confer drug resistance include (but are not limited to) P-glycoprotein (gene symbol ABCB1), the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1, gene symbol ABCC1), MRP2 (gene symbol ABCC2), and the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, gene symbol ABCG2). In addition to their role in drug resistance, there is substantial evidence that these efflux pumps have overlapping functions in tissue defense. Collectively, these proteins are capable of transporting a vast and chemically diverse array of toxicants including bulky lipophilic cationic, anionic, and neutrally charged drugs and toxins as well as conjugated organic anions that encompass dietary and environmental carcinogens, pesticides, metals, metalloids, and lipid peroxidation products. P-glycoprotein, MRP1, MRP2, and BCRP/ABCG2 are expressed in tissues important for absorption (e.g., lung and gut) and metabolism and elimination (liver and kidney). In addition, these transporters have an important role in maintaining the barrier function of sanctuary site tissues (e.g., blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebral spinal fluid barrier, blood-testis barrier and the maternal-fetal barrier or placenta). Thus, these ABC transporters are increasingly recognized for their ability to modulate the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity of xenobiotics. In this review, the role of these four ABC transporter proteins in protecting tissues from a variety of toxicants is discussed. Species variations in substrate specificity and tissue distribution of these transporters are also addressed since these properties have implications for in vivo models of toxicity used for drug discovery and development.

  2. Functional regulation of P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier in proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xueqian; Cabrera, Robert M.; Li, Yue; Miller, David S.; Finnell, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    Folate deficiency has been associated with many adverse clinical manifestations. The blood-brain barrier (BBB), formed by brain capillary endothelial cells, protects the brain from exposure to neurotoxicants. The function of BBB is modulated by multiple ABC transporters, particularly P-glycoprotein. A proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT)-deficient mouse has been previously described as a model for systemic folate deficiency. Herein, we demonstrate that exposing mouse brain capillaries to the antiepileptic drug, valproic acid (VPA; 5 μM), significantly increased P-glycoprotein transport function in the wild-type animals. A ligand to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), produced a similar induction of P-glycoprotein, which tightened the BBB, thereby increasing the neuroprotection. However, VPA- or TCDD-induced P-glycoprotein transport was blocked in the PCFT-nullizygous mice, indicating that multiple neuroprotective mechanisms are compromised under folate-deficient conditions. Brain capillaries from S-folinic acid (SFA; 40 mg/kg)-treated PCFT-nullizygous mice exhibited increased P-glycoprotein transport following VPA exposure. This suggests that SFA supplementation restored the normal BBB function. In addition, we show that tight-junction proteins are disintegrated in the PCFT mutant mice. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that folate deficiency disrupts the BBB function by targeting the transporter and tight junctions, which may contribute to the development of neurological disorders.—Wang, X., Cabrera, R. M., Li, Y., Miller, D. S., Finnell, R. H. Functional regulation of P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier in proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) mutant mice. PMID:23212123

  3. Reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in MCF-7/Adr cancer cells by sesquiterpene coumarins.

    PubMed

    Kasaian, Jamal; Mosaffa, Fatemeh; Behravan, Javad; Masullo, Milena; Piacente, Sonia; Ghandadi, Morteza; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, fifteen sesquiterpene coumarins were isolated and purified from different Ferula species, and were tested for their MDR reversal properties. Enhancement of doxorubicin cytotoxicity in MCF-7/Adr cells (doxorubicin resistant derivatives of MCF-7 cells overexpressing P-gp), when combined with very non-toxic concentrations of the sesquiterpene coumarins (50 μM) including umbelliprenin, farnesiferol B, farnesiferol C and lehmferin, proved significant MDR reversal activity of these coumarins. Flow cytometric efflux assay confirmed that the intracellular accumulation of Rho123 was significantly increased in MCF-7/Adr cells when treated with sesquiterpene coumarins. A deeper insight into the structure-activity relationship of sesquiterpene coumarins revealed that ring-opened drimane-type sesquiterpene coumarins including farnesiferol B, farnesiferol C and lehmferin possessed the best inhibitory effects on P-gp pump efflux and they could be considered as lead scaffolds for further structure modifications.

  4. Temozolomide downregulates P-glycoprotein expression in glioblastoma stem cells by interfering with the Wnt3a/glycogen synthase-3 kinase/β-catenin pathway

    PubMed Central

    Riganti, Chiara; Salaroglio, Iris Chiara; Caldera, Valentina; Campia, Ivana; Kopecka, Joanna; Mellai, Marta; Annovazzi, Laura; Bosia, Amalia; Ghigo, Dario; Schiffer, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma multiforme stem cells display a highly chemoresistant phenotype, whose molecular basis is poorly known. We aim to clarify this issue and to investigate the effects of temozolomide on chemoresistant stem cells. Methods A panel of human glioblastoma cultures, grown as stem cells (neurospheres) and adherent cells, was used. Results Neurospheres had a multidrug resistant phenotype compared with adherent cells. Such chemoresistance was overcome by apparently noncytotoxic doses of temozolomide, which chemosensitized glioblastoma cells to doxorubicin, vinblastine, and etoposide. This effect was selective for P-glycoprotein (Pgp) substrates and for stem cells, leading to an investigation of whether there was a correlation between the expression of Pgp and the activity of typical stemness pathways. We found that Wnt3a and ABCB1, which encodes for Pgp, were both highly expressed in glioblastoma stem cells and reduced by temozolomide. Temozolomide-treated cells had increased methylation of the cytosine–phosphate–guanine islands in the Wnt3a gene promoter, decreased expression of Wnt3a, disrupted glycogen synthase-3 kinase/β-catenin axis, reduced transcriptional activation of ABCB1, and a lower amount and activity of Pgp. Wnt3a overexpression was sufficient to transform adherent cells into neurospheres and to simultaneously increase proliferation and ABCB1 expression. On the contrary, glioblastoma stem cells silenced for Wnt3a lost the ability to form neurospheres and reduced at the same time the proliferation rate and ABCB1 levels. Conclusions Our work suggests that Wnt3a is an autocrine mediator of stemness, proliferation, and chemoresistance in human glioblastoma and that temozolomide may chemosensitize the stem cell population by downregulating Wnt3a signaling. PMID:23897632

  5. Acetaminophen Modulates P-Glycoprotein Functional Expression at the Blood-Brain Barrier by a Constitutive Androstane Receptor–Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Brandon J.; Sanchez-Covarrubias, Lucy; Zhang, Yifeng; Laracuente, Mei-Li; Vanderah, Todd W.; Ronaldson, Patrick T.; Davis, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Effective pharmacologic treatment of pain with opioids requires that these drugs attain efficacious concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). A primary determinant of CNS drug permeation is P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an endogenous blood-brain barrier (BBB) efflux transporter that is involved in brain-to-blood transport of opioid analgesics (i.e., morphine). Recently, the nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) has been identified as a regulator of P-gp functional expression at the BBB. This is critical to pharmacotherapy of pain/inflammation, as patients are often administered acetaminophen (APAP), a CAR-activating ligand, in conjunction with an opioid. Our objective was to investigate, in vivo, the role of CAR in regulation of P-gp at the BBB. Following APAP treatment, P-gp protein expression was increased up to 1.4–1.6-fold in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, APAP increased P-gp transport of BODIPY-verapamil in freshly isolated rat brain capillaries. This APAP-induced increase in P-gp expression and activity was attenuated in the presence of CAR pathway inhibitor okadaic acid or transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D, suggesting P-gp regulation is CAR-dependent. Furthermore, morphine brain accumulation was enhanced by P-gp inhibitors in APAP-treated animals, suggesting P-gp–mediated transport. A warm-water (50°C) tail-flick assay revealed a significant decrease in morphine analgesia in animals treated with morphine 3 or 6 hours after APAP treatment, as compared with animals treated concurrently. Taken together, our data imply that inclusion of APAP in a pain treatment regimen activates CAR at the BBB and increases P-gp functional expression, a clinically significant drug-drug interaction that modulates opioid analgesic efficacy. PMID:24019224

  6. The bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids, tetrandine and fangchinoline, enhance the cytotoxicity of multidrug resistance-related drugs via modulation of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Choi, S U; Park, S H; Kim, K H; Choi, E J; Kim, S; Park, W K; Zhang, Y H; Kim, H S; Jung, N P; Lee, C O

    1998-03-01

    The occurrence of resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs is a major problem for successful cancer treatment and reducing drug accumulation by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the major mechanisms of multidrug resistance (MDR). The present study was performed to evaluate the MDR-reversal abilities of two bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids, tetrandine (TET) and fangchinoline (FAN), compared with verapamil (VER), a well-known P-gp modulator. TET (3.0 microM), FAN (3.0 microM) and VER (10.0 microM) reduced the paclitaxel (TAX) concentration required to achieve 50% inhibition of cell growth (EC50) to HCT15 (P-gp-positive) cells about 3100-, 1900- and 410-fold, and these compounds also reduced the EC50 value of actinomycin D (AMD) about 36.0-, 45.9- and 18.2-fold in the cells, respectively. Meanwhile, TET, FAN and VER had no effect on the cytotoxicity of the drugs to SK-OV-3 (P-gp-negative) cells. On the other hand, TET (3.0 microM), FAN (3.0 microM) and VER (10.0 microM) similarly enhanced the accumulation rates of rhodamine 123, a well known P-gp substrate, in HCT15 cells (200-250%). After efflux for 2 h with fresh medium, TET and FAN also enhanced the residual rate of rhodamine 123 about 5.0- and 2.6-fold in comparison with control, respectively. TET, FAN and VER could not affect the accumulation and residual rate of rhodamine 123 in SK-OV-3 cells. From the result, we conclude that TET and FAN enhanced the cytotoxicity of MDR-related drugs via modulation of P-gp. PMID:9625436

  7. P-glycoprotein efflux and other factors limit brain amyloid beta reduction by beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 inhibitors in mice.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Jere E; Thompson, Lorin A; Toyn, Jeremy H; Marcin, Lawrence; Barten, Donna M; Marcinkeviciene, Jovita; Kopcho, Lisa; Kim, Young; Lin, Alan; Guss, Valerie; Burton, Catherine; Iben, Lawrence; Polson, Craig; Cantone, Joe; Ford, Michael; Drexler, Dieter; Fiedler, Tracey; Lentz, Kimberley A; Grace, James E; Kolb, Janet; Corsa, Jason; Pierdomenico, Maria; Jones, Kelli; Olson, Richard E; Macor, John E; Albright, Charles F

    2008-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. Amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides are hypothesized to cause the initiation and progression of AD based on pathologic data from AD patients, genetic analysis of mutations that cause early onset forms of AD, and preclinical studies. Based on this hypothesis, beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) inhibitors are an attractive therapeutic approach for AD because cleavage of the APP by BACE1 is required to form Abeta. In this study, three potent BACE1 inhibitors are characterized. All three inhibitors decrease Abeta formation in cultured cells with IC(50) values less than 10 nM. Analysis of APP C-terminal fragments by immunoblotting and Abeta peptides by mass spectrometry showed that these inhibitors decreased Abeta by inhibiting BACE1. An assay for Abeta1-40 in mice was developed and used to show that these BACE1 inhibitors decreased plasma Abeta1-40, but not brain Abeta1-40, in wild-type mice. Because these BACE1 inhibitors were substrates for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of efflux transporters, these inhibitors were administered to P-gp knockout (KO) mice. These studies showed that all three BACE1 inhibitors decreased brain Abeta1-40 in P-gp KO mice, demonstrating that P-gp is a major limitation for development of BACE1 inhibitors to test the amyloid hypothesis. A comparison of plasma Abeta1-40 and brain Abeta1-40 dose responses for these three compounds revealed differences in relative ED(50) values, indicating that factors other than P-gp can also contribute to poor brain activity by BACE1 inhibitors.

  8. In vitro Effects of Four Native Brazilian Medicinal Plants in CYP3A4 mRNA Gene Expression, Glutathione Levels, and P-Glycoprotein Activity.

    PubMed

    Mazzari, Andre L D A; Milton, Flora; Frangos, Samantha; Carvalho, Ana C B; Silveira, Dâmaris; de Assis Rocha Neves, Francisco; Prieto, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    Erythrina mulungu Benth. (Fabaceae), Cordia verbenacea A. DC. (Boraginaceae), Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae) and Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) are medicinal plant species native to Brazil shortlisted by the Brazilian National Health System for future clinical use. However, nothing is known about their effects in metabolic and transporter proteins, which could potentially lead to herb-drug interactions (HDI). In this work, we assess non-toxic concentrations (100 μg/mL) of the plant infusions for their in vitro ability to modulate CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression and intracellular glutathione levels in HepG2 cells, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity in vincristine-resistant Caco-2 cells (Caco-2 VCR). Their mechanisms of action were further studied by measuring the activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) in transiently co-transfected HeLa cells and the inhibition of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in HepG2 cells. Our results show that P-gp activity was not affected in any case and that only Solanum paniculatum was able to significantly change CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression (twofold decrease, p < 0.05), this being correlated with an antagonist effect upon hPXR (EC50 = 0.38 mg/mL). Total intracellular glutathione levels were significantly depleted by exposure to Solanum paniculatum (-44%, p < 0.001), Lippia sidoides (-12%, p < 0.05) and Cordia verbenacea (-47%, p < 0.001). The latter plant extract was able to decrease GGT activity (-48%, p < 0.01). In conclusion, this preclinical study shows that the administration of some of these herbal medicines may be able to cause disturbances to metabolic mechanisms in vitro. Although Erythrina mulungu appears safe in our tests, active pharmacovigilance is recommended for the other three species, especially in the case of Solanum paniculatum. PMID:27594838

  9. Macrocyclic Lactones Differ in Interaction with Recombinant P-Glycoprotein 9 of the Parasitic Nematode Cylicocylus elongatus and Ketoconazole in a Yeast Growth Assay

    PubMed Central

    Kaschny, Maximiliane; Demeler, Janina; Janssen, I. Jana I.; Kuzmina, Tetiana A.; Besognet, Bruno; Kanellos, Theo; Kerboeuf, Dominique; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Krücken, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are widely used parasiticides against nematodes and arthropods, but resistance is frequently observed in parasitic nematodes of horses and livestock. Reports claiming resistance or decreased susceptibility in human nematodes are increasing. Since no target site directed ML resistance mechanisms have been identified, non-specific mechanisms were frequently implicated in ML resistance, including P-glycoproteins (Pgps, designated ABCB1 in vertebrates). Nematode genomes encode many different Pgps (e.g. 10 in the sheep parasite Haemonchus contortus). ML transport was shown for mammalian Pgps, Pgps on nematode egg shells, and very recently for Pgp-2 of H. contortus. Here, Pgp-9 from the equine parasite Cylicocyclus elongatus (Cyathostominae) was expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain lacking seven endogenous efflux transporters. Pgp was detected on these yeasts by flow cytometry and chemiluminescence using the monoclonal antibody UIC2, which is specific for the active Pgp conformation. In a growth assay, Pgp-9 increased resistance to the fungicides ketoconazole, actinomycin D, valinomycin and daunorubicin, but not to the anthelmintic fungicide thiabendazole. Since no fungicidal activity has been described for MLs, their interaction with Pgp-9 was investigated in an assay involving two drugs: Yeasts were incubated with the highest ketoconazole concentration not affecting growth plus increasing concentrations of MLs to determine competition between or modulation of transport of both drugs. Already equimolar concentrations of ivermectin and eprinomectin inhibited growth, and at fourfold higher ML concentrations growth was virtually abolished. Selamectin and doramectin did not increase susceptibility to ketoconazole at all, although doramectin has been shown previously to strongly interact with human and canine Pgp. An intermediate interaction was observed for moxidectin. This was substantiated by increased binding of UIC2 antibodies in the

  10. In vitro Effects of Four Native Brazilian Medicinal Plants in CYP3A4 mRNA Gene Expression, Glutathione Levels, and P-Glycoprotein Activity.

    PubMed

    Mazzari, Andre L D A; Milton, Flora; Frangos, Samantha; Carvalho, Ana C B; Silveira, Dâmaris; de Assis Rocha Neves, Francisco; Prieto, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    Erythrina mulungu Benth. (Fabaceae), Cordia verbenacea A. DC. (Boraginaceae), Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae) and Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) are medicinal plant species native to Brazil shortlisted by the Brazilian National Health System for future clinical use. However, nothing is known about their effects in metabolic and transporter proteins, which could potentially lead to herb-drug interactions (HDI). In this work, we assess non-toxic concentrations (100 μg/mL) of the plant infusions for their in vitro ability to modulate CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression and intracellular glutathione levels in HepG2 cells, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity in vincristine-resistant Caco-2 cells (Caco-2 VCR). Their mechanisms of action were further studied by measuring the activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) in transiently co-transfected HeLa cells and the inhibition of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in HepG2 cells. Our results show that P-gp activity was not affected in any case and that only Solanum paniculatum was able to significantly change CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression (twofold decrease, p < 0.05), this being correlated with an antagonist effect upon hPXR (EC50 = 0.38 mg/mL). Total intracellular glutathione levels were significantly depleted by exposure to Solanum paniculatum (-44%, p < 0.001), Lippia sidoides (-12%, p < 0.05) and Cordia verbenacea (-47%, p < 0.001). The latter plant extract was able to decrease GGT activity (-48%, p < 0.01). In conclusion, this preclinical study shows that the administration of some of these herbal medicines may be able to cause disturbances to metabolic mechanisms in vitro. Although Erythrina mulungu appears safe in our tests, active pharmacovigilance is recommended for the other three species, especially in the case of Solanum paniculatum.

  11. In vitro Effects of Four Native Brazilian Medicinal Plants in CYP3A4 mRNA Gene Expression, Glutathione Levels, and P-Glycoprotein Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mazzari, Andre L. D. A.; Milton, Flora; Frangos, Samantha; Carvalho, Ana C. B.; Silveira, Dâmaris; de Assis Rocha Neves, Francisco; Prieto, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Erythrina mulungu Benth. (Fabaceae), Cordia verbenacea A. DC. (Boraginaceae), Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae) and Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) are medicinal plant species native to Brazil shortlisted by the Brazilian National Health System for future clinical use. However, nothing is known about their effects in metabolic and transporter proteins, which could potentially lead to herb-drug interactions (HDI). In this work, we assess non-toxic concentrations (100 μg/mL) of the plant infusions for their in vitro ability to modulate CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression and intracellular glutathione levels in HepG2 cells, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity in vincristine-resistant Caco-2 cells (Caco-2 VCR). Their mechanisms of action were further studied by measuring the activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) in transiently co-transfected HeLa cells and the inhibition of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in HepG2 cells. Our results show that P-gp activity was not affected in any case and that only Solanum paniculatum was able to significantly change CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression (twofold decrease, p < 0.05), this being correlated with an antagonist effect upon hPXR (EC50 = 0.38 mg/mL). Total intracellular glutathione levels were significantly depleted by exposure to Solanum paniculatum (-44%, p < 0.001), Lippia sidoides (-12%, p < 0.05) and Cordia verbenacea (-47%, p < 0.001). The latter plant extract was able to decrease GGT activity (-48%, p < 0.01). In conclusion, this preclinical study shows that the administration of some of these herbal medicines may be able to cause disturbances to metabolic mechanisms in vitro. Although Erythrina mulungu appears safe in our tests, active pharmacovigilance is recommended for the other three species, especially in the case of Solanum paniculatum.

  12. P-glycoprotein (MDR1/ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) restrict brain accumulation of the JAK1/2 inhibitor, CYT387.

    PubMed

    Durmus, S; Xu, N; Sparidans, R W; Wagenaar, E; Beijnen, J H; Schinkel, A H

    2013-10-01

    CYT387 is an orally bioavailable, small molecule inhibitor of Janus family of tyrosine kinases (JAK) 1 and 2. It is currently undergoing Phase I/II clinical trials for the treatment of myelofibrosis and myeloproliferative neoplasms. We aimed to establish whether the multidrug efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp; MDR1; ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP;ABCG2) restrict oral availability and brain penetration of CYT387. In vitro, CYT387 was efficiently transported by both human MDR1 and BCRP, and very efficiently by mouse Bcrp1 and its transport could be inhibited by specific MDR1 inhibitor, zosuquidar and/or specific BCRP inhibitor, Ko143. CYT387 (10 mg/kg) was orally administered to wild-type (WT), Bcrp1(-/-), Mdr1a/1b(-/-) and Bcrp1;Mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice and plasma and brain concentrations were analyzed. Over 8h, systemic exposure of CYT387 was similar between all the strains, indicating that these transporters do not substantially limit oral availability of CYT387. Despite the similar systemic exposure, brain accumulation of CYT387 was increased 10.5- and 56-fold in the Bcrp1;Mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice compared to the WT strain at 2 and 8h after CYT387 administration, respectively. In single Bcrp1(-/-) mice, brain accumulation of CYT387 was more substantially increased than in Mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice, suggesting that CYT387 is a slightly better substrate of Bcrp1 than of Mdr1a at the blood-brain barrier. These results indicate a marked and additive role of Bcrp1 and Mdr1a/1b in restricting brain penetration of CYT387, potentially limiting efficacy of this compound against brain (micro) metastases positioned behind a functional blood-brain barrier.

  13. In vitro Effects of Four Native Brazilian Medicinal Plants in CYP3A4 mRNA Gene Expression, Glutathione Levels, and P-Glycoprotein Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mazzari, Andre L. D. A.; Milton, Flora; Frangos, Samantha; Carvalho, Ana C. B.; Silveira, Dâmaris; de Assis Rocha Neves, Francisco; Prieto, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Erythrina mulungu Benth. (Fabaceae), Cordia verbenacea A. DC. (Boraginaceae), Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae) and Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) are medicinal plant species native to Brazil shortlisted by the Brazilian National Health System for future clinical use. However, nothing is known about their effects in metabolic and transporter proteins, which could potentially lead to herb-drug interactions (HDI). In this work, we assess non-toxic concentrations (100 μg/mL) of the plant infusions for their in vitro ability to modulate CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression and intracellular glutathione levels in HepG2 cells, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity in vincristine-resistant Caco-2 cells (Caco-2 VCR). Their mechanisms of action were further studied by measuring the activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) in transiently co-transfected HeLa cells and the inhibition of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in HepG2 cells. Our results show that P-gp activity was not affected in any case and that only Solanum paniculatum was able to significantly change CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression (twofold decrease, p < 0.05), this being correlated with an antagonist effect upon hPXR (EC50 = 0.38 mg/mL). Total intracellular glutathione levels were significantly depleted by exposure to Solanum paniculatum (-44%, p < 0.001), Lippia sidoides (-12%, p < 0.05) and Cordia verbenacea (-47%, p < 0.001). The latter plant extract was able to decrease GGT activity (-48%, p < 0.01). In conclusion, this preclinical study shows that the administration of some of these herbal medicines may be able to cause disturbances to metabolic mechanisms in vitro. Although Erythrina mulungu appears safe in our tests, active pharmacovigilance is recommended for the other three species, especially in the case of Solanum paniculatum. PMID:27594838

  14. Pluronic P85-coated poly(butylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles overcome phenytoin resistance in P-glycoprotein overexpressing rats with lithium-pilocarpine-induced chronic temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ziyan; Chen, Shuda; Qin, Jiaming; Chen, Bao; Ni, Guanzhong; Chen, Ziyi; Zhou, Jueqian; Li, Ze; Ning, Yuping; Wu, Chuanbin; Zhou, Liemin

    2016-08-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) overexpression in the blood brain barrier (BBB) is hypothesized to lower brain drug concentrations and thus inhibit anticonvulsant effects in drug-resistant epilepsy. Recently, the poly(butylcyanoacrylate) (PBCA) nanoparticle system was shown to overcome the obstacle of the BBB to deliver drugs into the brain. To determine whether pluronic P85-coated phenytoin poly(butylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles (P85-PHT-PBCA-NPs) target PHT to the brain, PHT-resistant rats overexpressing Pgp in the BBB were screened by response to PHT treatment after chronic temporal lobe epilepsy induced by lithium-pilocarpine, followed by direct verification of PHT transport via measurement of brain PHT concentrations using microdialysis. Thereafter, the PHT-resistant rats were divided into three groups, which were treated with PHT, PHT + tariquidar (TQD), or P85-PHT-PBCA-NPs. PHT + TQD and P85-PHT-PBCA-NPs showed anticonvulsant activity in the PHT-resistant rats and increased the ratio of the area under the curve of the PHT concentrations in the brain/plasma in comparison with that observed in animals subjected to PHT treatment. However, the ratios of the PHT concentrations in the liver/plasma and kidney/plasma following P85-PHT-PBCA-NPs treatment were much lower than those measured following PHT + TQD treatment. Thus, Pgp overexpression decreases therapeutic drug concentrations in the brains of subjects with drug-resistant epilepsy and P85-PHT-PBCA-NPs could increase these drug concentrations.

  15. Amplification of MDM2 inhibits MyoD-mediated myogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Fiddler, T A; Smith, L; Tapscott, S J; Thayer, M J

    1996-01-01

    One obvious phenotype of tumor cells is the lack of terminal differentiation. We previously classified rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines as having either a recessive or a dominant nondifferentiating phenotype. To study the genetic basis of the dominant nondifferentiating phenotype, we utilized microcell fusion to transfer chromosomes from rhabdomyosarcoma cells into C2C12 myoblasts. Transfer of a derivative chromosome 14 inhibits differentiation. The derivative chromosome 14 contains a DNA amplification. MDM2 is amplified and overexpressed in these nondifferentiating hybrids and in the parental rhabdomyosarcoma. Forced expression of MDM2 inhibits MyoD-dependent transcription. Expression of antisense MDM2 restores MyoD-dependent transcriptional activity. We conclude that amplification and overexpression of MDM2 inhibit MyoD function, resulting in a dominant nondifferentiating phenotype. PMID:8756663

  16. Cetuximab enhanced the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agent in ABCB1/P-glycoprotein-overexpressing cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Chen, Yifan; Huang, Lihua; Liu, Tao; Huang, Yue; Zhao, Jianming; Wang, Xiaokun; Yang, Ke; Ma, Shaolin; Huang, Liyan; To, Kenneth Kin Wah; Gu, Yong; Fu, Liwu

    2015-12-01

    The overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is closely associated with the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in certain types of cancer, which represents a formidable obstacle to the successful cancer chemotherapy. Here, we investigated that cetuximab, an EGFR monoclonal antibody, reversed the chemoresistance mediated by ABCB1, ABCG2 or ABCC1. Our results showed that cetuximab significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of ABCB1 substrate agent in ABCB1-overexpressing MDR cells but had no effect in their parental drug sensitive cells and ABCC1, ABCG2 overexpressing cells. Furthermore, cetuximab markedly increased intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin (DOX) and rhodamine 123 (Rho 123) in ABCB1-overexpressing MDR cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Cetuximab stimulated the ATPase activity but did not alter the expression level of ABCB1 or block phosphorylation of AKT and ERK. Interestingly, cetuximab decreased the cell membrane fluidity which was known to decrease the function of ABCB1. Our findings advocate further clinical investigation of combination chemotherapy of cetuximab and conventional chemotherapeutic drugs in ABCB1 overexpressing cancer patients.

  17. Cetuximab enhanced the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agent in ABCB1/P-glycoprotein-overexpressing cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Huang, Yue; Zhao, Jianming; Wang, Xiaokun; Yang, Ke; Ma, Shaolin; Huang, Liyan; Wah To, Kenneth Kin; Gu, Yong; Fu, Liwu

    2015-01-01

    The overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is closely associated with the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in certain types of cancer, which represents a formidable obstacle to the successful cancer chemotherapy. Here, we investigated that cetuximab, an EGFR monoclonal antibody, reversed the chemoresistance mediated by ABCB1, ABCG2 or ABCC1. Our results showed that cetuximab significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of ABCB1 substrate agent in ABCB1-overexpressing MDR cells but had no effect in their parental drug sensitive cells and ABCC1, ABCG2 overexpressing cells. Furthermore, cetuximab markedly increased intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin (DOX) and rhodamine 123 (Rho 123) in ABCB1-overexpressing MDR cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Cetuximab stimulated the ATPase activity but did not alter the expression level of ABCB1 or block phosphorylation of AKT and ERK. Interestingly, cetuximab decreased the cell membrane fluidity which was known to decrease the function of ABCB1. Our findings advocate further clinical investigation of combination chemotherapy of cetuximab and conventional chemotherapeutic drugs in ABCB1 overexpressing cancer patients. PMID:26506420

  18. Lithium potentiates GSK-3β activity by inhibiting phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mediated Akt phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Nie; Kanno, Takeshi; Jin, Yu; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Lithium suppresses Akt activity by reducing PI3K-mediated Akt phosphorylation. • Lithium enhances GSK-3β activity by reducing Akt-mediated GSK-3β phosphorylation. • Lithium suppresses GSK-3β activity through its direct inhibition. - Abstract: Accumulating evidence has pointed to the direct inhibitory action of lithium, an anti-depressant, on GSK-3β. The present study investigated further insight into lithium signaling pathways. In the cell-free assay Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} significantly inhibited phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 at Ser473, but Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} did not affect PI3K-mediated PI(3,4,5)P{sub 3} production and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 at Thr308. This indicates that lithium could enhance GSK-3β activity by suppressing Akt-mediated Ser9 phosphorylation of GSK-3β in association with inhibition of PI3K-mediated Akt activation. There was no direct effect of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} on Akt1-induced phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser9, but otherwise Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} significantly reduced GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation of β-catenin at Ser33/37 and Thr41. This indicates that lithium directly inhibits GSK-3β in an Akt-independent manner. In rat hippocampal slices Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} significantly inhibited phosphorylation of Akt1/2 at Ser473/474, GSK-3β at Ser9, and β-catenin at Ser33/37 and Thr41. Taken together, these results indicate that lithium exerts its potentiating and inhibiting bidirectional actions on GSK-3β activity.

  19. Protein kinase C regulates tonic GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition in the hippocampus and thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Damian P; Smart, Trevor G

    2013-01-01

    Tonic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) is an important regulator of neuronal excitability. Phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC) provides a key mode of regulation for synaptic GABAARs underlying phasic inhibition; however, less attention has been focused on the plasticity of tonic inhibition and whether this can also be modulated by receptor phosphorylation. To address this issue, we used whole-cell patch clamp recording in acute murine brain slices at both room and physiological temperatures to examine the effects of PKC-mediated phosphorylation on tonic inhibition. Recordings from dentate gyrus granule cells in the hippocampus and dorsal lateral geniculate relay neurons in the thalamus demonstrated that PKC activation caused downregulation of tonic GABAAR-mediated inhibition. Conversely, inhibition of PKC resulted in an increase in tonic GABAAR activity. These findings were corroborated by experiments on human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing recombinant α4β2δ GABAARs, which represent a key extrasynaptic GABAAR isoform in the hippocampus and thalamus. Using bath application of low GABA concentrations to mimic activation by ambient neurotransmitter, we demonstrated a similar inhibition of receptor function following PKC activation at physiological temperature. Live cell imaging revealed that this was correlated with a loss of cell surface GABAARs. The inhibitory effects of PKC activation on α4β2δ GABAAR activity appeared to be mediated by direct phosphorylation at a previously identified site on the β2 subunit, serine 410. These results indicate that PKC-mediated phosphorylation can be an important physiological regulator of tonic GABAAR-mediated inhibition. PMID:24102973

  20. Natural lignans from Arctium lappa modulate P-glycoprotein efflux function in multidrug resistant cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Shan; Cheng, Xinlai; Wink, Michael

    2015-02-15

    Arctium lappa is a well-known traditional medicinal plant in China (TCM) and Europe that has been used for thousands of years to treat arthritis, baldness or cancer. The plant produces lignans as secondary metabolites which have a wide range of bioactivities. Yet, their ability to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells has not been explored. In this study, we isolated six lignans from A. lappa seeds, namely arctigenin, matairesinol, arctiin, (iso)lappaol A, lappaol C, and lappaol F. The MDR reversal potential of the isolated lignans and the underlying mechanism of action were studied using two MDR cancer cell lines, CaCo2 and CEM/ADR 5000 which overexpress P-gp and other ABC transporters. In two-drug combinations of lignans with the cytotoxic doxorubicin, all lignans exhibited synergistic effects in CaCo2 cells and matairesinol, arctiin, lappaol C and lappaol F display synergistic activity in CEM/ADR 5000 cells. Additionally, in three-drug combinations of lignans with the saponin digitonin and doxorubicin MDR reversal activity was even stronger enhanced. The lignans can increase the retention of the P-gp substrate rhodamine 123 in CEM/ADR 5000 cells, indicating that lignans can inhibit the activity of P-gp. Our study provides a first insight into the potential chemosensitizing activity of a series of natural lignans, which might be candidates for developing novel adjuvant anticancer agents.

  1. Natural lignans from Arctium lappa modulate P-glycoprotein efflux function in multidrug resistant cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Shan; Cheng, Xinlai; Wink, Michael

    2015-02-15

    Arctium lappa is a well-known traditional medicinal plant in China (TCM) and Europe that has been used for thousands of years to treat arthritis, baldness or cancer. The plant produces lignans as secondary metabolites which have a wide range of bioactivities. Yet, their ability to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells has not been explored. In this study, we isolated six lignans from A. lappa seeds, namely arctigenin, matairesinol, arctiin, (iso)lappaol A, lappaol C, and lappaol F. The MDR reversal potential of the isolated lignans and the underlying mechanism of action were studied using two MDR cancer cell lines, CaCo2 and CEM/ADR 5000 which overexpress P-gp and other ABC transporters. In two-drug combinations of lignans with the cytotoxic doxorubicin, all lignans exhibited synergistic effects in CaCo2 cells and matairesinol, arctiin, lappaol C and lappaol F display synergistic activity in CEM/ADR 5000 cells. Additionally, in three-drug combinations of lignans with the saponin digitonin and doxorubicin MDR reversal activity was even stronger enhanced. The lignans can increase the retention of the P-gp substrate rhodamine 123 in CEM/ADR 5000 cells, indicating that lignans can inhibit the activity of P-gp. Our study provides a first insight into the potential chemosensitizing activity of a series of natural lignans, which might be candidates for developing novel adjuvant anticancer agents. PMID:25765837

  2. Behavioral Effects and Central Nervous System Levels of the Broadly Available κ-Agonist Hallucinogen Salvinorin A Are Affected by P-Glycoprotein Modulation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Caspers, Michael; Lovell, Kimberly M.; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Prisinzano, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Active blood-brain barrier mechanisms, such as the major efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (mdr1), modulate the in vivo/central nervous system (CNS) effects of many pharmacological agents, whether they are used for nonmedical reasons or in pharmacotherapy. The powerful, widely available hallucinogen salvinorin A (from the plant Salvia divinorum) is a high-efficacy, selective κ-opioid agonist and displays fast-onset behavioral effects (e.g., within 1 min of administration) and relatively short duration of action. In vitro studies suggest that salvinorin A may be a P-glycoprotein substrate; thus, the functional status of P-glycoprotein may influence the behavioral effects of salvinorin A or its residence in CNS after parenteral administration. We therefore studied whether a competing P-glycoprotein substrate (the clinically available agent loperamide; 0.032–0.32 mg/kg) or a selective P-glycoprotein blocker, tariquidar (0.32–3.2 mg/kg) could enhance unconditioned behavioral effects (ptosis and facial relaxation, known to be caused by κ-agonists in nonhuman primates) of salvinorin A, as well as its entry and residence in the CNS, as measured by cerebrospinal fluid sampling. Pretreatment with either loperamide or tariquidar dose-dependently enhanced salvinorin A-induced ptosis, but not facial relaxation. In a control study, loperamide and tariquidar were inactive when given as a pretreatment to ((+)-(5α,7α,8β)-N-methyl-N-[7-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-oxaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]-benzeneacetamide (U69,593), a κ-agonist known to be a very poor P-glycoprotein substrate. Furthermore, pretreatment with tariquidar (3.2 mg/kg) also enhanced peak levels of salvinorin A in cerebrospinal fluid after intravenous administration. These are the first studies in vivo showing the sensitivity of salvinorin A effects to modulation by the P-glycoprotein transporter, a major functional component of the blood-brain barrier. PMID:22434677

  3. The mechanism of OTUB1-mediated inhibition of ubiquitination

    SciTech Connect

    Wiener, Reuven; Zhang, Xiangbin; Wang, Tao; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2013-04-08

    Histones are ubiquitinated in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), promoting recruitment of repair proteins to chromatin. UBC13 (also known as UBE2N) is a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) that heterodimerizes with UEV1A (also known as UBE2V1) and synthesizes K63-linked polyubiquitin (K63Ub) chains at DSB sites in concert with the ubiquitin ligase (E3), RNF168 (ref. 3). K63Ub synthesis is regulated in a non-canonical manner by the deubiquitinating enzyme, OTUB1 (OTU domain-containing ubiquitin aldehyde-binding protein 1), which binds preferentially to the UBC13-Ub thiolester. Residues amino-terminal to the OTU domain, which had been implicated in ubiquitin binding, are required for binding to UBC13-Ub and inhibition of K63Ub synthesis. Here we describe structural and biochemical studies elucidating how OTUB1 inhibits UBC13 and other E2 enzymes. We unexpectedly find that OTUB1 binding to UBC13-Ub is allosterically regulated by free ubiquitin, which binds to a second site in OTUB1 and increases its affinity for UBC13-Ub, while at the same time disrupting interactions with UEV1A in a manner that depends on the OTUB1 N terminus. Crystal structures of an OTUB1-UBC13 complex and of OTUB1 bound to ubiquitin aldehyde and a chemical UBC13-Ub conjugate show that binding of free ubiquitin to OTUB1 triggers conformational changes in the OTU domain and formation of a ubiquitin-binding helix in the N terminus, thus promoting binding of the conjugated donor ubiquitin in UBC13-Ub to OTUB1. The donor ubiquitin thus cannot interact with the E2 enzyme, which has been shown to be important for ubiquitin transfer. The N-terminal helix of OTUB1 is positioned to interfere with UEV1A binding to UBC13, as well as with attack on the thiolester by an acceptor ubiquitin, thereby inhibiting K63Ub synthesis. OTUB1 binding also occludes the RING E3 binding site on UBC13, thus providing a further component of inhibition. The general features of the inhibition mechanism explain how OTUB1

  4. Paeoniflorin inhibits macrophage-mediated lung cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Chen, Gang-Ling; Li, Ya-Juan; Chen, Yang; Lin, Fang-Zhen

    2015-12-01

    Alternatively activated macrophages are more frequently involved in tumor growth, angiogenesis, and immunosuppression. A previous study showed that paeoniflorin, the major active constituent of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, can inhibit tumor growth and lung metastases of Lewis lung tumor-bearing mice. This study tried to investigate whether paeoniflorin inhibited lung cancer metastasis by inhibiting the alternative activation of macrophages (M2 macrophage). Using a viability assay, the cytotoxicity of paeoniflorin on Lewis lung cancer cells and peritoneal macrophages were investigated. In vitro scratch wound and in vivo lung metastasis experiments were used to test the ability to inhibit the migration of paeoniflorin and the function of M2 macrophages. Flow cytometry was performed to test the cell cycle of Lewis lung cancer cells, and to test the M2 macrophages in peritoneal macrophages and subcutaneous transplantable tumor. It was found that paeoniflorin showed no inhibitory effect on the growth of Lewis lung cancer cells and peritoneal macrophages of mouse in vitro. Paeoniflorin could attenuate the migration of LLC stimulated by alternatively activated macrophages (stimulated for 24 h and 48 h, paeoniflorin 1, 3, 10, 30, 100 μmol·L(-1), P < 0.01 or P < 0.05 vs control group). Paeoniflorin could decrease the cell populations at S phases (paeoniflorin 10, 30, 100 μmol·L(-1), P < 0.05 vs control group) and increase the cell populations at G0-G1 phases of Lewis lung cancer cells (paeoniflorin 100 μmol·L(-1), P < 0.05 vs control group) and reduce the numbers of M2 macrophages in peritoneal macrophages induced by IL-4 (paeoniflorin 1, 3, 10, 30, 100 μmol·L(-1), P < 0.01 vs Control group). Paeoniflorin could reduce lung metastasis of Lewis lung cancer cells xenograft and decrease the numbers of M2 macrophages in subcutaneous xenograft tumour in vivo (paeoniflorin 20, 40 mg·kg(-1), P < 0.01 vs control group). These results suggest that paeoniflorin could reduce

  5. Paeoniflorin inhibits macrophage-mediated lung cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Chen, Gang-Ling; Li, Ya-Juan; Chen, Yang; Lin, Fang-Zhen

    2015-12-01

    Alternatively activated macrophages are more frequently involved in tumor growth, angiogenesis, and immunosuppression. A previous study showed that paeoniflorin, the major active constituent of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, can inhibit tumor growth and lung metastases of Lewis lung tumor-bearing mice. This study tried to investigate whether paeoniflorin inhibited lung cancer metastasis by inhibiting the alternative activation of macrophages (M2 macrophage). Using a viability assay, the cytotoxicity of paeoniflorin on Lewis lung cancer cells and peritoneal macrophages were investigated. In vitro scratch wound and in vivo lung metastasis experiments were used to test the ability to inhibit the migration of paeoniflorin and the function of M2 macrophages. Flow cytometry was performed to test the cell cycle of Lewis lung cancer cells, and to test the M2 macrophages in peritoneal macrophages and subcutaneous transplantable tumor. It was found that paeoniflorin showed no inhibitory effect on the growth of Lewis lung cancer cells and peritoneal macrophages of mouse in vitro. Paeoniflorin could attenuate the migration of LLC stimulated by alternatively activated macrophages (stimulated for 24 h and 48 h, paeoniflorin 1, 3, 10, 30, 100 μmol·L(-1), P < 0.01 or P < 0.05 vs control group). Paeoniflorin could decrease the cell populations at S phases (paeoniflorin 10, 30, 100 μmol·L(-1), P < 0.05 vs control group) and increase the cell populations at G0-G1 phases of Lewis lung cancer cells (paeoniflorin 100 μmol·L(-1), P < 0.05 vs control group) and reduce the numbers of M2 macrophages in peritoneal macrophages induced by IL-4 (paeoniflorin 1, 3, 10, 30, 100 μmol·L(-1), P < 0.01 vs Control group). Paeoniflorin could reduce lung metastasis of Lewis lung cancer cells xenograft and decrease the numbers of M2 macrophages in subcutaneous xenograft tumour in vivo (paeoniflorin 20, 40 mg·kg(-1), P < 0.01 vs control group). These results suggest that paeoniflorin could reduce

  6. P-glycoprotein plays a major role in the efflux of fexofenadine in the small intestine and blood-brain barrier, but only a limited role in its biliary excretion.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Harunobu; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Fuse, Eiichi; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2005-07-01

    Fexofenadine is a selective, nonsedating H(1)-receptor antagonist approved for symptoms of allergic conditions, which is mainly excreted into feces via biliary excretion. The purpose of this study is to investigate its pharmacokinetics in mice and rats to determine the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in its biliary excretion. In mice, biliary excretion clearance (17 ml/min/kg) accounted for almost 60% of the total body clearance (30 ml/min/kg). Comparing the pharmacokinetics after intravenous and oral administration indicated that the bioavailability of fexofenadine was at most 2% in mice. Knockout of Mdr1a/1b P-gp did not affect the biliary excretion clearance with regard to both plasma and liver concentrations, whereas the absence of P-gp caused a 6-fold increase in the plasma concentration after oral administration. In addition, the steady-state brain-to-plasma concentration ratio of fexofenadine was approximately 3-fold higher in Mdr1a/1b P-gp knockout mice than in wild-type mice. Together, these results show that P-glycoprotein plays an important role in efflux transport in the brain and small intestine but only a limited role in biliary excretion in mice. In addition, there was no difference in the biliary excretion between normal and hereditarily multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2)-deficient mutant rats (Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats) and between wild-type and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) knockout mice. These results suggest that the biliary excretion of fexofenadine is mediated by unknown transporters distinct from P-gp, Mrp2, and Bcrp.

  7. New uses for old drugs: pharmacophore-based screening for the discovery of P-glycoprotein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Palmeira, Andreia; Rodrigues, Freddy; Sousa, Emília; Pinto, Madalena; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Fernandes, Miguel X

    2011-07-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the best characterized transporters responsible for the multidrug resistance phenotype exhibited by cancer cells. Therefore, there is widespread interest in elucidating whether existing drugs are candidate P-gp substrates or inhibitors. With this aim, a pharmacophore model was created based on known P-gp inhibitors and it was used to screen a database of existing drugs. The P-gp modulatory activity of the best hits was evaluated by several methods such as the rhodamine-123 accumulation assay using K562Dox cell line, and a P-gp ATPase activity assay. The ability of these compounds to enhance the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin was assessed with the sulphorhodamine-B assay. Of the 21 hit compounds selected in silico, 12 were found to significantly increase the intracellular accumulation of Rhodamine-123, a P-gp substrate. In addition, amoxapine and loxapine, two tetracyclic antidepressant drugs, were discovered to be potent non-competitive inhibitors of P-gp, causing a 3.5-fold decrease in the doxorubicin GI(50) in K562Dox cell line. The overall results provide important clues for the non-label use of known drugs as inhibitors of P-gp. Potent inhibitors with a dibenzoxazepine scaffold emerged from this study and they will be further investigated in order to develop new P-gp inhibitors.

  8. Impact of genetic deficiencies of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein on pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole.

    PubMed

    Nagasaka, Yasuhisa; Sano, Tomokazu; Oda, Kazuo; Kawamura, Akio; Usui, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    1. We investigated how deficiencies in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) affect the pharmacokinetics of atypical antipsychotics aripiprazole and its active metabolite (dehydroaripiprazole) using normal Friend leukemia virus strain B (FVB) mice, BCRP knockout (Bcrp[-/-]) mice, and P-gp and BCRP triple knockout (Mdr1a/1b[-/-]Bcrp[-/-]) mice. 2. While plasma concentrations of aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole after oral administration were slightly higher in both Bcrp(-/-) and Mdr1a/1b(-/-)/Bcrp(-/-) mice than in normal FVB mice, the difference was not marked. The increase in absolute bioavailability (F) compared with normal mice (approximately 1.3-fold increase) was comparable between Bcrp(-/-) and Mdr1a/1b(-/-)/Bcrp(-/-) mice. This finding suggests that BCRP may be involved in the intestinal absorption of aripiprazole in mice, albeit with minimal contribution to absorption at best. 3. In contrast, the brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (Kp,brain) for aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole after oral administration was significantly higher in Mdr1a/1b(-/-)/Bcrp(-/-) mice than in normal mice, whereas Bcrp(-/-) mice exhibited Kp,brain values similar to those in normal mice. In addition, the Kp,brain values in Mdr1a/1b(-/-)/Bcrp(-/-) mice were not drastically different from those previously reported in Mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice, suggesting that brain penetration of aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole can be affected by P-gp, but with little synergistic effect of BCRP.

  9. Interactions between P-glycoprotein and drugs used in the supportive care of acute myeloid leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Möllgård, L; Hellberg, E; Smolowicz, A; Paul, C; Tidefelt, U

    2001-06-01

    Multidrug resistance due to overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) leads to reduced intracellular drug accumulation and makes the cells resistant to chemotherapy. In this study we focused on how drugs used in the supportive care of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients interfere with Pgp. The effect on intracellular accumulation of the fluorescent dye Rhodamine 123 (Rh 123) was studied in the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 and two anthracycline resistant, Pgp expressing, sublines. Each drug was used at two different concentrations: plasma peak concentration and half the plasma peak concentration. Drugs which increased the Rh 123 uptake by > 10% were included in the second part of the study where the cytotoxic effect was tested in combination with daunorubicin. In the Rhodamine assay none of the tested drugs had any significant effect on the Rh 123 efflux in the resistant cell lines. Amphotericin B, cefuroxime, erythromycin and dixyrazin had minor effects on Rh 123 uptake but showed a significant additive effect to the toxicity of daunorubicin suggesting other mechanisms of action than reversal of Pgp. In conclusion this in vitro model where Rh 123 uptake was studied in an anthracycline resistant leukemia cell line could not demonstrate any significant interactions with Pgp for the tested drugs.

  10. Disrupting P-glycoprotein function in clinical settings: what can we learn from the fundamental aspects of this transporter?

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Francisco S; Santiago, Jayson S; Jesus, Miguel Francisco M De; Trinidad, Camille V; See, Melvin Floyd E

    2016-01-01

    P-glycoprotein is one of the most well-studied drug transporters, significant for its role in cancer multiple drug resistance. However, using P-gp inhibitors with the aim of enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of anti-cancer drugs has led to disappointing outcomes. Furthermore, several lead compounds suggested by in vitro and pre-clinical studies have shown variable pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacies when applied in the clinical setting. This review will highlight the need to revisit a sound approach to better design and apply P-gp inhibitors in light of safety and efficacy. Challenges confronting the issue hinge upon myriad studies that do not necessarily represent the heterogeneous target population of this therapeutic approach. The application of P-gp modulators has also been complicated by the promiscuous substrate-binding behaviour of P-gp, as well as toxicities related to its intrinsic presence in healthy tissue. This review capitalizes on information spanning genetics, energetics, and pharmacology, bringing to light some fundamental aspects that ought to be reconsidered in order to improve upon and design the next generation of P-gp inhibitors. PMID:27648351

  11. Analyzing conformational dynamics of single P-glycoprotein transporters by Förster resonance energy transfer using hidden Markov models

    PubMed Central

    Zarrabi, Nawid; Ernst, Stefan; Verhalen, Brandy; Wilkens, Stephan; Börsch, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Single-molecule Förster resonance energy (smFRET) transfer has become a powerful tool for observing conformational dynamics of biological macromolecules. Analyzing smFRET time trajectories allows to identify the state transitions occuring on reaction pathways of molecular machines. Previously, we have developed a smFRET approach to monitor movements of the two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) during ATP hydrolysis driven drug transport in solution. One limitation of this initial work was that single-molecule photon bursts were analyzed by visual inspection with manual assignment of individual FRET levels. Here a fully automated analysis of Pgp smFRET data using hidden Markov models (HMM) for transitions up to 9 conformational states is applied. We propose new estimators for HMMs to integrate the information of fluctuating intensities in confocal smFRET measurements of freely diffusing lipid bilayer bound membrane proteins in solution. HMM analysis strongly supports that under conditions of steady state turnover, conformational states with short NBD distances and short dwell times are more populated compared to conditions without nucleotide or transport substrate present. PMID:23891547

  12. Equilibrated Atomic Models of Outward-Facing P-glycoprotein and Effect of ATP Binding on Structural Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Lurong; Aller, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that alternates between inward- and outward-facing conformations to capture and force substrates out of cells like a peristaltic pump. The high degree of similarity in outward-facing structures across evolution of ABC transporters allowed construction of a high-confidence outward-facing Pgp atomic model based on crystal structures of outward-facing Sav1866 and inward-facing Pgp. The model adhered to previous experimentally determined secondary- and tertiary- configurations during all-atom molecular dynamics simulations in the presence or absence of MgATP. Three long lasting (>100 ns) meta-stable states were apparent in the presence of MgATP revealing new insights into alternating access. The two ATP-binding pockets are highly asymmetric resulting in differential control of overall structural dynamics and allosteric regulation of the drug-binding pocket. Equilibrated Pgp has a considerably different electrostatic profile compared to Sav1866 that implicates significant kinetic and thermodynamic differences in transport mechanisms. PMID:25600711

  13. Induction of P-glycoprotein expression and activity by Aconitum alkaloids: Implication for clinical drug–drug interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jinjun; Lin, Na; Li, Fangyuan; Zhang, Guiyu; He, Shugui; Zhu, Yuanfeng; Ou, Rilan; Li, Na; Liu, Shuqiang; Feng, Lizhi; Liu, Liang; Liu, Zhongqiu; Lu, Linlin

    2016-01-01

    The Aconitum species, which mainly contain bioactive Aconitum alkaloids, are frequently administered concomitantly with other herbal medicines or chemical drugs in clinics. The potential risk of drug–drug interactions (DDIs) arising from co-administration of Aconitum alkaloids and other drugs against specific targets such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) must be evaluated. This study focused on the effects of three representative Aconitum alkaloids: aconitine (AC), benzoylaconine (BAC), and aconine, on the expression and activity of P-gp. We observed that Aconitum alkaloids increased P-gp expression in LS174T and Caco-2 cells in the order AC > BAC > aconine. Nuclear receptors were involved in the induction of P-gp. AC and BAC increased the P-gp transport activity. Strikingly, intracellular ATP levels and mitochondrial mass also increased. Furthermore, exposure to AC decreased the toxicity of vincristine and doxorubicin towards the cells. In vivo, AC significantly up-regulated the P-gp protein levels in the jejunum, ileum, and colon of FVB mice, and protected them against acute AC toxicity. Taken together, the findings of our in vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that AC can induce P-gp expression, and that co-administration of AC with P-gp substrate drugs may cause DDIs. Our findings have important implications for Aconitum therapy in clinics. PMID:27139035

  14. Identification of P-glycoprotein co-fractionating proteins and specific binding partners in rat brain microvessels.

    PubMed

    Tome, Margaret E; Schaefer, Charles P; Jacobs, Leigh M; Zhang, Yifeng; Herndon, Joseph M; Matty, Fabian O; Davis, Thomas P

    2015-07-01

    Drug delivery to the brain for the treatment of pathologies with a CNS component is a significant clinical challenge. P-glycoprotein (PgP), a drug efflux pump in the endothelial cell membrane, is a major factor in preventing therapeutics from crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Identifying PgP regulatory mechanisms is key to developing agents to modulate PgP activity. Previously, we found that PgP trafficking was altered concomitant with increased PgP activity and disassembly of high molecular weight PgP-containing complexes during acute peripheral inflammatory pain. These data suggest that PgP activity is post-translationally regulated at the BBB. The goal of the current study was to identify proteins that co-localize with PgP in rat brain microvessel endothelial cell membrane microdomains and use the data to suggest potential regulatory mechanisms. Using new density gradients of microvessel homogenates, we identified two unique pools (1,2) of PgP in membrane fractions. Caveolar constituents, caveolin1, cavin1, and cavin2, co-localized with PgP in these fractions indicating the two pools contained caveolae. A chaperone (Hsc71), protein disulfide isomerase and endosomal/lysosomal sorting proteins (Rab5, Rab11a) also co-fractionated with PgP in the gradients. These data suggest signaling pathways with a potential role in post-translational regulation of PgP activity at the BBB. PMID:25832806

  15. Temozolomide down-regulates P-glycoprotein in human blood-brain barrier cells by disrupting Wnt3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Riganti, Chiara; Salaroglio, Iris C; Pinzòn-Daza, Martha L; Caldera, Valentina; Campia, Ivana; Kopecka, Joanna; Mellai, Marta; Annovazzi, Laura; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Bosia, Amalia; Ghigo, Dario; Schiffer, Davide

    2014-02-01

    Low delivery of many anticancer drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a limitation to the success of chemotherapy in glioblastoma. This is because of the high levels of ATP-binding cassette transporters like P-glycoprotein (Pgp/ABCB1), which effluxes drugs back to the bloodstream. Temozolomide is one of the few agents able to cross the BBB; its effects on BBB cells permeability and Pgp activity are not known. We found that temozolomide, at therapeutic concentration, increased the transport of Pgp substrates across human brain microvascular endothelial cells and decreased the expression of Pgp. By methylating the promoter of Wnt3 gene, temozolomide lowers the endogenous synthesis of Wnt3 in BBB cells, disrupts the Wnt3/glycogen synthase kinase 3/β-catenin signaling, and reduces the binding of β-catenin on the promoter of mdr1 gene, which encodes for Pgp. In co-culture models of BBB cells and human glioblastoma cells, pre-treatment with temozolomide increases the delivery, cytotoxicity, and antiproliferative effects of doxorubicin, vinblastine, and topotecan, three substrates of Pgp that are usually poorly delivered across BBB. Our work suggests that temozolomide increases the BBB permeability of drugs that are normally effluxed by Pgp back to the bloodstream. These findings may pave the way to new combinatorial chemotherapy schemes in glioblastoma.

  16. (11)C- and (18)F-Labeled Radioligands for P-Glycoprotein Imaging by Positron Emission Tomography.

    PubMed

    Cantore, Mariangela; Benadiba, Marcel; Elsinga, Philip H; Kwizera, Chantal; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Colabufo, Nicola Antonio; Luurtsema, Gert

    2016-01-01

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) is an efflux transporter widely expressed at the human blood-brain barrier. It is involved in xenobiotics efflux and in onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders. For these reasons, there is great interest in the assessment of P-gp expression and function by noninvasive techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET). Three radiolabeled aryloxazole derivatives: 2-[2-(2-methyl-((11)C)-5-methoxyphenyl)oxazol-4-ylmethyl]-6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline ([(11)C]-5); 2-[2-(2-fluoromethyl-((18)F)-5-methoxyphenyl)oxazol-4-ylmethyl]-6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetra-hydroisoquinoline ([(18)F]-6); and 2-[2-(2-fluoroethyl-((18)F)-5-methoxyphenyl)oxazol-4-ylmethyl]-6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline ([(18)F]-7), were tested in several in vitro biological assays to assess the effect of the aryl substituent in terms of potency and mechanism of action toward P-gp. Methyl derivative [(11)C]-5 is a potent P-gp substrate, whereas the corresponding fluoroethyl derivative [(18)F]-7 is a P-gp inhibitor. Fluoromethyl compound [(18)F]-6 is classified as a non-transported P-gp substrate, because its efflux increases after cyclosporine A modulation. These studies revealed a promising substrate and inhibitor, [(11)C]-5 and [(18)F]-7, respectively, for in vivo imaging of P-gp by using PET.

  17. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 regulates doxorubicin-inducible P-glycoprotein level by reducing Foxo3 stability.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Taiki; Bamba, Yoshimasa; Kawabe, Yosuke; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Fujimori, Fumihiro; Takahashi, Katsuhiko; Uchida, Chiyoko; Uchida, Takafumi

    2016-03-01

    It has been known that the phosphoSer/Thr-Pro-specific peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1 regulates a variety of intracellular signaling pathways, including the response to the genotoxic drug doxorubicin. Pin1 binds phosphorylated p53 and stabilizes p53 to cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis quickly in response to doxorubicin. Here we show another mechanism of Pin1 to maintain cell sensitivity to genotoxic stress, irrespective of whether p53 is present or not. In response to the genotoxic drug, Pin1 binds and decreases levels of the phosphorylated Foxo3, the positive transcription factor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) gene. Through this mechanism of action, Pin1 decreases the level of P-gp and signals the cell to pump the genotoxic drugs out. This shows that Pin1 is implemented in maintaining the susceptibility to the genotoxic drugs by controlling P-gp level as well as p53-dependent apoptosis and cell cycle signaling pathways.

  18. 3D-QSAR modelling dataset of bioflavonoids for predicting the potential modulatory effect on P-glycoprotein activity.

    PubMed

    Wongrattanakamon, Pathomwat; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Nimmanpipug, Piyarat; Jiranusornkul, Supat

    2016-12-01

    The data is obtained from exploring the modulatory activities of bioflavonoids on P-glycoprotein function by ligand-based approaches. Multivariate Linear-QSAR models for predicting the induced/inhibitory activities of the flavonoids were created. Molecular descriptors were initially used as independent variables and a dependent variable was expressed as pFAR. The variables were then used in MLR analysis by stepwise regression calculation to build the linear QSAR data. The entire dataset consisted of 23 bioflavonoids was used as a training set. Regarding the obtained MLR QSAR model, R of 0.963, R (2)=0.927, [Formula: see text], SEE=0.197, F=33.849 and q (2)=0.927 were achieved. The true predictabilities of QSAR model were justified by evaluation with the external dataset (Table 4). The pFARs of representative flavonoids were predicted by MLR QSAR modelling. The data showed that internal and external validations may generate the same conclusion. PMID:27626051

  19. Factors That Limit Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of P-Glycoprotein Density at the Blood–Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Efflux transporters located at the blood–brain barrier, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), regulate the passage of many drugs in and out of the brain. Changes in the function and density of these proteins, in particular P-gp, may play a role in several neurological disorders. Several radioligands have been developed for measuring P-gp function at the blood–brain barrier of human subjects with positron emission tomography (PET). However, attempts to measure P-gp density with radiolabeled inhibitors that bind to these proteins in vivo have not thus far provided useful, quantifiable PET signals. Herein, we argue that not only the low density of transporters in the brain as a whole but also their very high density in brain capillaries act to lower the concentration of ligand in the plasma and thereby contribute to absent or low signals in PET studies of P-gp density. Our calculations, based on published data and theoretical approximations, estimate that whole brain densities of many efflux transporters at the blood–brain barrier range from 0.04 to 5.19 nM. We conclude that the moderate affinities (>5 nM) of currently labeled inhibitors may not allow measurement of efflux transporter density at the blood–brain barrier, and inhibitors with substantially higher affinity will be needed for density imaging of P-gp and other blood–brain barrier transporters. PMID:23597242

  20. Equilibrated atomic models of outward-facing P-glycoprotein and effect of ATP binding on structural dynamics.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lurong; Aller, Stephen G

    2015-01-20

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that alternates between inward- and outward-facing conformations to capture and force substrates out of cells like a peristaltic pump. The high degree of similarity in outward-facing structures across evolution of ABC transporters allowed construction of a high-confidence outward-facing Pgp atomic model based on crystal structures of outward-facing Sav1866 and inward-facing Pgp. The model adhered to previous experimentally determined secondary- and tertiary- configurations during all-atom molecular dynamics simulations in the presence or absence of MgATP. Three long lasting (>100 ns) meta-stable states were apparent in the presence of MgATP revealing new insights into alternating access. The two ATP-binding pockets are highly asymmetric resulting in differential control of overall structural dynamics and allosteric regulation of the drug-binding pocket. Equilibrated Pgp has a considerably different electrostatic profile compared to Sav1866 that implicates significant kinetic and thermodynamic differences in transport mechanisms.

  1. Three- and four-class classification models for P-glycoprotein inhibitors using counter-propagation neural networks.

    PubMed

    Thai, K-M; Huynh, N-T; Ngo, T-D; Mai, T-T; Nguyen, T-H; Tran, T-D

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter that helps to protect several certain human organs from xenobiotic exposure. This efflux pump is also responsible for multi-drug resistance (MDR), an issue of the chemotherapy approach in the fight against cancer. Therefore, the discovery of P-gp inhibitors is considered one of the most popular strategies to reverse MDR in tumour cells and to improve therapeutic efficacy of commonly used cytotoxic drugs. Until now, several generations of P-gp inhibitors have been developed but they have largely failed in preclinical and clinical studies due to lack of selectivity, poor solubility and severe pharmacokinetic interactions. In this study, three models (SION, SIO, SIN) to classify specific 'true' P-gp inhibitors as well as three other models (CPBN, CPB1, CPN) to distinguish between P-gp inhibitors, CYP 3A inhibitors and co-inhibitors of these proteins with rather high accuracy values for the test set and the external set were generated based on counter-propagation neural networks (CPG-NN). Such three and four-class classification models helped provide more information about the bioactivities of compounds not only on one target (P-gp), but also on a combination of multiple targets (P-gp, CYP 3A).

  2. Interaction of hydrophobic components in female urine before and after childbirth with P-glycoprotein in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yokooji, T; Kameda, Y; Utsumi, M; Mori, N; Murakami, T

    2014-06-01

    The first urine in the morning (total 15 samples) and whole day urine (total 4 days, 17 samples) were collected from a young healthy woman during the pregnancy and lactation period, to examine the possible interactions of urine components (methanol extracts) with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs). The interaction was evaluated by measuring the intracellular accumulation of rhodamine123, a P-gp substrate, in LLC-GA5-COL150 cells, or calcein, an MRP substrate, in Caco-2 cells in the absence and presence of urine components. Four first urine samples out of 12 collected before childbirth and one sample out of three collected after childbirth suppressed P-gp function significantly. The effect of pregnancy and lactation on P-gp inhibitory potencies of urine components was not observed. The whole day urine samples showed a clear circadian rhythm, in which three first urine samples in the morning out of four showed greater P-gp inhibitory potencies than other daytime samples. Interaction of urine components with MRPs was not detected. In conclusion, the concentration of endogenous P-gp inhibitor(s) was higher in the first urine in the morning, showing a clear circadian rhythm. Normal pregnancy and lactation appeared not to significantly affect the P-gp inhibitory potencies of urine components.

  3. 3D-QSAR modelling dataset of bioflavonoids for predicting the potential modulatory effect on P-glycoprotein activity.

    PubMed

    Wongrattanakamon, Pathomwat; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Nimmanpipug, Piyarat; Jiranusornkul, Supat

    2016-12-01

    The data is obtained from exploring the modulatory activities of bioflavonoids on P-glycoprotein function by ligand-based approaches. Multivariate Linear-QSAR models for predicting the induced/inhibitory activities of the flavonoids were created. Molecular descriptors were initially used as independent variables and a dependent variable was expressed as pFAR. The variables were then used in MLR analysis by stepwise regression calculation to build the linear QSAR data. The entire dataset consisted of 23 bioflavonoids was used as a training set. Regarding the obtained MLR QSAR model, R of 0.963, R (2)=0.927, [Formula: see text], SEE=0.197, F=33.849 and q (2)=0.927 were achieved. The true predictabilities of QSAR model were justified by evaluation with the external dataset (Table 4). The pFARs of representative flavonoids were predicted by MLR QSAR modelling. The data showed that internal and external validations may generate the same conclusion.

  4. Schistosoma mansoni P-glycoprotein levels increase in response to praziquantel exposure and correlate with reduced praziquantel susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Messerli, Shanta M; Kasinathan, Ravi S; Morgan, William; Spranger, Stefani; Greenberg, Robert M

    2009-09-01

    One potential physiological target for new antischistosomals is the parasite's system for excretion of wastes and xenobiotics. P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a member of the ATP-binding-cassette superfamily of proteins, is an ATP-dependent efflux pump involved in transport of toxins and xenobiotics from cells. In vertebrates, increased expression of Pgp is associated with multidrug resistance in tumor cells. Pgp may also play a role in drug resistance in helminths. In this report, we examine the relationship between praziquantel (PZQ), the current drug of choice against schistosomiasis, and Pgp expression in Schistosoma mansoni. We show that levels of RNA for SMDR2, a Pgp homolog from S. mansoni, increase transiently in adult male worms following exposure to sub-lethal concentrations (100-500 nM) of PZQ. A corresponding, though delayed, increase in anti-Pgp immunoreactive protein expression occurs in adult males following exposure to PZQ. The level of anti-Pgp immunoreactivity in particular regions of adult worms also increases in response to PZQ. Adult worms from an Egyptian S. mansoni isolate with reduced sensitivity to PZQ express increased levels of SMDR2 RNA and anti-Pgp-immunoreactive protein, perhaps indicating a role for multidrug resistance proteins in development or maintenance of PZQ resistance.

  5. Intercellular transfer of P-glycoprotein in human blood-brain barrier endothelial cells is increased by histone deacetylase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Noack, Andreas; Noack, Sandra; Buettner, Manuela; Naim, Hassan Y.; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) controls the entry of compounds into the brain, thereby regulating brain homeostasis. Efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp) significantly contribute to BBB function. Multiple signaling pathways modulate the expression and activity of Pgp in response to xenobiotics and disease. A non-genetic way of intercellular transfer of Pgp occurs in cancer cells, but whether this also occurs in non-cancer cells such as endothelial cells that form the BBB is not known. A human brain endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3) was used to study whether cell-to-cell Pgp transfer occurs during co-culturing with Pgp-EGFP expressing hCMEC/D3 cells. The Pgp-EGFP fusion protein was transferred from donor to recipient cells by cell-to-cell contact and Pgp-EGFP enriched vesicles, which were exocytosed by donor cells and endocytosed by adherent recipient cells. Flow cytometry experiments with the Pgp substrate eFLUXX-ID Gold demonstrated that the transferred Pgp is functional in the recipient cells. Exposure of the donor cells with inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs) resulted in an enhanced intercellular Pgp transfer. Non-genetic transfer of a resistance phenotype and its regulation by HDACs is a novel mechanism of altering BBB functionality. This mechanism may have important implications for understanding drug-induced alterations in Pgp expression and activity. PMID:27375084

  6. Disrupting P-glycoprotein function in clinical settings: what can we learn from the fundamental aspects of this transporter?

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Francisco S; Santiago, Jayson S; Jesus, Miguel Francisco M De; Trinidad, Camille V; See, Melvin Floyd E

    2016-01-01

    P-glycoprotein is one of the most well-studied drug transporters, significant for its role in cancer multiple drug resistance. However, using P-gp inhibitors with the aim of enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of anti-cancer drugs has led to disappointing outcomes. Furthermore, several lead compounds suggested by in vitro and pre-clinical studies have shown variable pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacies when applied in the clinical setting. This review will highlight the need to revisit a sound approach to better design and apply P-gp inhibitors in light of safety and efficacy. Challenges confronting the issue hinge upon myriad studies that do not necessarily represent the heterogeneous target population of this therapeutic approach. The application of P-gp modulators has also been complicated by the promiscuous substrate-binding behaviour of P-gp, as well as toxicities related to its intrinsic presence in healthy tissue. This review capitalizes on information spanning genetics, energetics, and pharmacology, bringing to light some fundamental aspects that ought to be reconsidered in order to improve upon and design the next generation of P-gp inhibitors.

  7. Contribution of radixin to P-glycoprotein expression and transport activity in mouse small intestine in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yano, Kentaro; Tomono, Takumi; Sakai, Riyo; Kano, Takashi; Morimoto, Kaori; Kato, Yukio; Ogihara, Takuo

    2013-08-01

    The ERM proteins, ezrin, radixin, and moesin, are membrane-cytoskeleton cross-linkers with multiple physiological functions. We previously showed that radixin is involved in posttranslational regulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells. Here, we investigated the physiological role of radixin in regulating P-gp expression and activity in the small intestine by comparing wild-type- and radixin knockout (Rdx) mice. In intestinal tissue homogenates, P-gp protein levels increased markedly from the upper part to the lower part of the small intestine in both wild-type- and Rdx(-/-) mice. In the membrane fractions, a similar pattern was seen in wild-type mice. However, the membrane expression of P-gp protein remained at the same level from the upper to the lower part of the small intestine in Rdx(-/-) mice. When rhodamine123 (Rho123), a substrate of P-gp, was orally administered to Rdx(-/-) and wild-type mice, the absorption phase of Rho123 was greater in Rdx(-/-) than in wild-type mice, whereas the elimination phase in Rdx(-/-) mice was not different from that of wild-type mice. Our results indicate that radixin plays an important role in regulating P-gp localization and P-gp functional activity at the intestinal membrane.

  8. Estimation of the unbound brain concentration of P-glycoprotein substrates or nonsubstrates by a serial cerebrospinal fluid sampling technique in rats.

    PubMed

    Mariappan, T Thanga; Kurawattimath, Vishwanath; Gautam, Shashyendra Singh; Kulkarni, Chetan P; Kallem, Rajareddy; Taskar, Kunal S; Marathe, Punit H; Mandlekar, Sandhya

    2014-02-01

    The unbound concentration in plasma drives the transport of the drug into the brain, and the unbound drug concentration in the central nervous system (CNS) drives the interaction with the target eliciting the pharmacological effect. Delivery of the drug to the CNS is a challenge because of the unique neurovascular unit, which restricts the passage of drugs into the brain. The efflux transporters [especially P-glycoprotein (P-gp)] present at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) act as one of the major detractors for keeping drugs outside the CNS. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drug concentration has been used as a surrogate for unbound brain concentrations and has proven to be a good indicator to relate to CNS activity. Herein, we have established a serial CSF sampling technique in rats, which allowed CSF sampling from a single animal and reduced the number of animals required, as well as the interanimal variance associated with a composite/terminal study design. Concentrations in the CSF sampled from the cisterna magna serially from the same rat were compared with the concentrations obtained from discrete CSF sampling and with brain concentrations. The serial CSF sampling technique was also authenticated by ensuring no change in the barrier without any indication of damage caused by the repeated puncture of cisterna magna. This technique was corroborated using three passively permeable compounds (carbamazepine, theophylline, and propranolol), three P-gp substrates (quinidine, verapamil, and digoxin), and one l-amino acid uptake transporter substrate (gabapentin). The P-gp substrates were also used in separate studies with the P-gp inhibitor elacridar to assess the effect on CSF concentration versus brain concentration on P-gp inhibition. The CSF concentration and unbound brain concentration were comparable (within 3-fold) for all compounds, including P-gp substrates even in the presence of elacridar. Therefore, this technique can prove to be beneficial for predicting the

  9. Gray Matter Volume of the Lingual Gyrus Mediates the Relationship between Inhibition Function and Divergent Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijie; Qiao, Lei; Chen, Qunlin; Yang, Wenjing; Xu, Mengsi; Yao, Xiaonan; Qiu, Jiang; Yang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research provides converging evidence for the role of posterior regions of the brain (including temporal, occipital, and parietal regions) involved in inhibition on creative thinking, it remains unclear as to how these regions influence individual differences in creative thinking. Thus, we explored the relationship between posterior regions (i.e., hippocampal, parahippocampal, lingual gyrus, precuneus, and cuneus), inhibition function, and divergent thinking (DT) in 128 healthy college students. The results revealed that lower inhibition was associated with larger gray matter volume (GMV) in the lingual gyrus, which in turn was associated with higher DT. In addition, GMV in the lingual gyrus mediated the association between inhibition and DT. These results provide new evidence for the role of inhibition in creative thinking. Inhibition may affect the amount of information stored in long-term memory, which, in turn influences DT. PMID:27752250

  10. Inhibition of E2F-mediated transcription by p202.

    PubMed Central

    Choubey, D; Li, S J; Datta, B; Gutterman, J U; Lengyel, P

    1996-01-01

    Many of the antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and cell growth inhibitory activities of the interferons are mediated by interferon-inducible proteins. Earlier we characterized an interferon-inducible murine protein, p202, whose expression in transfected cells inhibits cell proliferation and which can form a complex with retinoblastoma protein (pRb). Here we report that in transfected cells expression of p202 inhibits E2F-stimulated transcription of a reporter gene and of endogenous genes. Inhibition of the transcriptional activity of E2F by p202 does not depend on fully functional pRb and is correlated with inhibition of the sequence-specific DNA binding of E2F. p202 interacts with the transcription factor E2F (E2F-1/DP-1) in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of E2F activity by p202 may contribute to growth inhibition by the interferons. Images PMID:8896460

  11. Calpain inhibition mediates autophagy-dependent protection against polyglutamine toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Menzies, F M; Garcia-Arencibia, M; Imarisio, S; O'Sullivan, N C; Ricketts, T; Kent, B A; Rao, M V; Lam, W; Green-Thompson, Z W; Nixon, R A; Saksida, L M; Bussey, T J; O'Kane, C J; Rubinsztein, D C

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years, accumulated evidence suggests that autophagy induction is protective in animal models of a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Intense research in the field has elucidated different pathways through which autophagy can be upregulated and it is important to establish how modulation of these pathways impacts upon disease progression in vivo and therefore which, if any, may have further therapeutic relevance. In addition, it is important to understand how alterations in these target pathways may affect normal physiology when constitutively modulated over a long time period, as would be required for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Here we evaluate the potential protective effect of downregulation of calpains. We demonstrate, in Drosophila, that calpain knockdown protects against the aggregation and toxicity of proteins, like mutant huntingtin, in an autophagy-dependent fashion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, overexpression of the calpain inhibitor, calpastatin, increases autophagosome levels and is protective in a mouse model of Huntington's disease, improving motor signs and delaying the onset of tremors. Importantly, long-term inhibition of calpains did not result in any overt deleterious phenotypes in mice. Thus, calpain inhibition, or activation of autophagy pathways downstream of calpains, may be suitable therapeutic targets for diseases like Huntington's disease. PMID:25257175

  12. Inhibition of SHP2-mediated dephosphorylation of Ras suppresses oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bunda, Severa; Burrell, Kelly; Heir, Pardeep; Zeng, Lifan; Alamsahebpour, Amir; Kano, Yoshihito; Raught, Brian; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Zadeh, Gelareh; Ohh, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ras is phosphorylated on a conserved tyrosine at position 32 within the switch I region via Src kinase. This phosphorylation inhibits the binding of effector Raf while promoting the engagement of GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and GTP hydrolysis. Here we identify SHP2 as the ubiquitously expressed tyrosine phosphatase that preferentially binds to and dephosphorylates Ras to increase its association with Raf and activate downstream proliferative Ras/ERK/MAPK signalling. In comparison to normal astrocytes, SHP2 activity is elevated in astrocytes isolated from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)-prone H-Ras(12V) knock-in mice as well as in glioma cell lines and patient-derived GBM specimens exhibiting hyperactive Ras. Pharmacologic inhibition of SHP2 activity attenuates cell proliferation, soft-agar colony formation and orthotopic GBM growth in NOD/SCID mice and decelerates the progression of low-grade astrocytoma to GBM in a spontaneous transgenic glioma mouse model. These results identify SHP2 as a direct activator of Ras and a potential therapeutic target for cancers driven by a previously ‘undruggable' oncogenic or hyperactive Ras. PMID:26617336

  13. Serum-Mediated Inhibition of Enzyme Replacement Therapy in Fabry Disease.

    PubMed

    Lenders, Malte; Stypmann, Jörg; Duning, Thomas; Schmitz, Boris; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Brand, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a progressive multisystemic disorder, treatable with recombinant enzyme replacement therapy (agalsidase). However, recent studies suggest an endogenous inhibition of agalsidase in patients with FD, as reported for other lysosomal storage diseases. To assess the clinical consequences of serum-mediated agalsidase inhibition in affected patients, we determined the agalsidase inhibition status of 168 patients (68 male) with FD and compared outcomes of inhibition-positive patients with those of inhibition-negative patients. The assessment included clinical events during time on agalsidase, determination of renal and cardiac function, and evaluation of FD-related symptoms. The frequency of serum-mediated agalsidase inhibition was 40% in agalsidase-treated males. Inhibition did not depend on the compound initially used (agalsidase-α or -β). Agalsidase inhibition was associated with higher lyso-globotriaosylceramide levels and worse disease severity scores in patients. Compared with agalsidase inhibition-negative men, agalsidase inhibition-positive men showed greater left ventricular mass (P=0.02) and substantially lower renal function (difference in eGFR of about -30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2); P=0.04), which was confirmed by a longitudinal 5-year retrospective analysis. Additionally, affected patients presented more often with FD-typical symptoms, such as diarrhea, fatigue, and neuropathic pain, among others. Therefore, patients with poor clinical outcome on agalsidase should be tested for agalsidase inhibition. Future studies are warranted to determine if affected patients with FD benefit from acute reduction of anti-agalsidase antibodies or long-term immune modulation therapies to suppress agalsidase inhibition and to identify mechanisms that minimize antibody generation against agalsidase.

  14. Glycinergic "inhibition" mediates selective excitatory responses to combinations of sounds.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Jason Tait; Gans, Donald; Wenstrup, Jeffrey J

    2008-01-01

    In the mustached bat's inferior colliculus (IC), combination-sensitive neurons display time-sensitive facilitatory interactions between inputs tuned to distinct spectral elements in sonar or social vocalizations. Here we compare roles of ionotropic receptors to glutamate (iGluRs), glycine (GlyRs), and GABA (GABA(A)Rs) in facilitatory combination-sensitive interactions. Facilitatory responses to 36 single IC neurons were recorded before, during, and after local application of antagonists to these receptors. The NMDA receptor antagonist CPP [(+/-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid], alone (n = 14) or combined with AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX (n = 22), significantly reduced or eliminated responses to best frequency (BF) sounds across a broad range of sound levels, but did not eliminate combination-sensitive facilitation. In a subset of neurons, GABA(A)R blockers bicuculline or gabazine were applied in addition to iGluR blockers. GABA(A)R blockers did not "uncover" residual iGluR-mediated excitation, and only rarely eliminated facilitation. In nearly all neurons for which the GlyR antagonist strychnine was applied in addition to iGluR blockade (22 of 23 neurons, with or without GABA(A)R blockade), facilitatory interactions were eliminated. Thus, neither glutamate nor GABA neurotransmission are required for facilitatory combination-sensitive interactions in IC. Instead, facilitation may depend entirely on glycinergic inputs that are presumed to be inhibitory. We propose that glycinergic inputs tuned to two distinct spectral elements in vocal signals each activate postinhibitory rebound excitation. When rebound excitations from two spectral elements coincide, the neuron discharges. Excitation from glutamatergic inputs, tuned to the BF of the neuron, is superimposed onto this facilitatory interaction, presumably mediating responses to a broader range of acoustic signals.

  15. Identification of an elaborate complex mediating postsynaptic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Uezu, Akiyoshi; Kanak, Daniel J; Bradshaw, Tyler W A; Soderblom, Erik J; Catavero, Christina M; Burette, Alain C; Weinberg, Richard J; Soderling, Scott H

    2016-09-01

    Inhibitory synapses dampen neuronal activity through postsynaptic hyperpolarization. The composition of the inhibitory postsynapse and the mechanistic basis of its regulation, however, remain poorly understood. We used an in vivo chemico-genetic proximity-labeling approach to discover inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Quantitative mass spectrometry not only recapitulated known inhibitory postsynaptic proteins but also revealed a large network of new proteins, many of which are either implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders or are of unknown function. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) depletion of one of these previously uncharacterized proteins, InSyn1, led to decreased postsynaptic inhibitory sites, reduced the frequency of miniature inhibitory currents, and increased excitability in the hippocampus. Our findings uncover a rich and functionally diverse assemblage of previously unknown proteins that regulate postsynaptic inhibition and might contribute to developmental brain disorders. PMID:27609886

  16. Studies on the mechanism of acetaldehyde-mediated inhibition of rat liver transaminases.

    PubMed

    Solomon, L R

    1987-09-30

    Incubation of mitochondria-depleted rat liver homogenates with 5 mmol/l acetaldehyde at 37 degrees C for 1 h inhibited both aspartate and alanine aminotransferases by 30%. Inhibition was prevented by decreasing temperature to 4 degrees C or by preincubating homogenates with cyanate but was unaffected by cyanamide and methylpyrazole which block acetaldehyde oxidation and reduction respectively. Cyanate-sensitive acetaldehyde-mediated inhibition of purified porcine heart transaminases was also demonstrated in the presence of rat liver homogenate but not in Tris/sucrose medium. Moreover, porcine transaminases were inhibited by trichloroacetic acid extracts of rat liver homogenates previously incubated with acetaldehyde but not by extracts of homogenates incubated with both acetaldehyde and cyanate. These findings suggest that acetaldehyde-mediated transaminase inhibition requires further non-oxidative metabolism of acetaldehyde. Since transaminase activities were not restored by addition of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate to the assay systems, acetaldehyde-induced transaminase inhibition does not appear to be mediated by displacement or depletion of this B6 coenzyme. PMID:3677417

  17. Type I interferons mediate pancreatic toxicities of PERK inhibition.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiujing; Zhao, Bin; Gui, Jun; Katlinski, Kanstantsin V; Brice, Angela; Gao, Yan; Li, ChangHong; Kushner, Jake A; Koumenis, Constantinos; Diehl, J Alan; Fuchs, Serge Y

    2015-12-15

    The great preclinical promise of the pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) inhibitors in neurodegenerative disorders and cancers is marred by pancreatic injury and diabetic syndrome observed in PERK knockout mice and humans lacking PERK function and suffering from Wolcott-Rallison syndrome. PERK mediates many of the unfolded protein response (UPR)-induced events, including degradation of the type 1 interferon (IFN) receptor IFNAR1 in vitro. Here we report that whole-body or pancreas-specific Perk ablation in mice leads to an increase in IFNAR1 protein levels and signaling in pancreatic tissues. Concurrent IFNAR1 deletion attenuated the loss of PERK-deficient exocrine and endocrine pancreatic tissues and prevented the development of diabetes. Experiments using pancreas-specific Perk knockouts, bone marrow transplantation, and cultured pancreatic islets demonstrated that stabilization of IFNAR1 and the ensuing increased IFN signaling in pancreatic tissues represents a major driver of injury triggered by Perk loss. Neutralization of IFNAR1 prevented pancreatic toxicity of PERK inhibitor, indicating that blocking the IFN pathway can mitigate human genetic disorders associated with PERK deficiency and help the clinical use of PERK inhibitors.

  18. RNAi mediated Tiam1 gene knockdown inhibits invasion of retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Nithya; Navaneethakrishnan, Saranya; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Kanwar, Jagat R; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    T lymphoma invasion and metastasis protein (Tiam1) is up-regulated in variety of cancers and its expression level is related to metastatic potential of the type of cancer. Earlier, Tiam1 was shown to be overexpressed in retinoblastoma (RB) and we hypothesized that it was involved in invasiveness of RB. This was tested by silencing Tiam1 in RB cell lines (Y79 and Weri-Rb1) using siRNA pool, targeting different regions of Tiam1 mRNA. The cDNA microarray of Tiam1 silenced cells showed gene regulations altered by Tiam1 were predominantly on the actin cytoskeleton interacting proteins, apoptotic initiators and tumorogenic potential targets. The silenced phenotype resulted in decreased growth and increased apoptosis with non-invasive characteristics. Transfection of full length and N-terminal truncated construct (C1199) clearly revealed membrane localization of Tiam1 and not in the case of C580 construct. F-actin staining showed the interaction of Tiam1 with actin in the membrane edges that leads to ruffling, and also imparts varying invasive potential to the cell. The results obtained from our study show for the first time that Tiam1 modulates the cell invasion, mediated by actin cytoskeleton remodeling in RB. PMID:23950931

  19. [Hepatitis C virus variability and interferon-mediated pathway inhibition].

    PubMed

    Fernández, B; Basaras, M; Blanco, S; Sánchez, S; Arrese, E; de las Heras, B; Cisterna, R

    2003-09-01

    The most important aim of this study was to describe the hypothetical relationship between the PePHD region variability (related to the synthesis of a cellular enzyme pseudosubstrate) of the hepatitis C virus and the response of patients to interferon therapy. This interaction could be a determining factor in the antiviral effect of interferon. All samples (from 24 patients with chronic hepatitis C infection) were analyzed using a previously described method based on RT-PCR and nested PCR mediated by single-strand conformation polymorphism assay (SSCP). The patients were divided into three groups with respect to the response to therapy: 8 patients with sustained response, 8 patients with transient response and 8 nonresponders. In all samples a low genetic heterogeneity pattern was detected, which was independent of other factors involved in the lack of response to treatment, such as age, sex or viral genotype. This genetic homogeneity is an indirect indication of the importance of the region on viral persistence. However, more studies are needed to evaluate the real role of this sequence on the interaction between cells and the virus.

  20. BET bromodomain inhibition releases the Mediator complex from select cis-regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwat, Anand S.; Roe, Jae-Seok; Mok, Beverly A.; Hohmann, Anja F.; Shi, Junwei; Vakoc, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    The bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) protein BRD4 can physically interact with the Mediator complex, but the relevance of this association to the therapeutic effects of BET inhibitors in cancer is unclear. Here, we show that BET inhibition causes a rapid release of Mediator from a subset of cis-regulatory elements in the genome of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. These sites of Mediator eviction were highly correlated with transcriptional suppression of neighboring genes, which are enriched for targets of the transcription factor MYB and for functions related to leukemogenesis. An shRNA screen of Mediator in AML cells identified the MED12, MED13, MED23, and MED24 subunits as performing a similar regulatory function to BRD4 in this context, including a shared role in sustaining a block in myeloid maturation. These findings suggest that the interaction between BRD4 and Mediator has functional importance for gene-specific transcriptional activation and for AML maintenance. PMID:27068464

  1. Susceptibility of juvenile and adult blood–brain barrier to endothelin-1: regulation of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein expression and transport activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) play a critical role in keeping neurotoxic substances from entering the brain. We and others have previously reported an impact of inflammation on the regulation of adult blood–brain barrier (BBB) efflux transporters. However, studies in children have not been done. From the pediatric clinical perspective, it is important to understand how the central nervous system (CNS) and BBB drug efflux transporters differ in childhood from those of adults under normal and inflammatory conditions. Therefore, we examined and compared the regulation of P-gp and BCRP expression and transport activity in young and adult BBB and investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying inflammatory responses. Methods Rats at postnatal day (P) P21 and P84, corresponding to the juvenile and adult stages of human brain maturation, respectively, were treated with endothelin-1 (ET-1) given by the intracerebroventricular (icv) route. Twenty-four hours later, we measured P-gp and BCRP protein expression in isolated brain capillary by immunoblotting as well as by transport activity in vivo by measuring the unbound drug partitioning coefficient of the brain (Kp,uu,brain) of known efflux transporter substrates administered intravenously. Glial activation was measured by immunohistochemistry. The release of cytokines/chemokines (interleukins-1α, 1-β (IL-1β), -6 (IL-6), -10 (IL-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1/CCL2), fractalkine and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1)) were simultaneously measured in brain and serum samples using the Agilent Technology cytokine microarray. Results We found that juvenile and adult BBBs exhibited similar P-gp and BCRP transport activities in the normal physiological conditions. However, long-term exposure of the juvenile brain to low-dose of ET-1 did not change BBB P-gp transport activity but tended to decrease BCRP transport activity in the juvenile brain, while a

  2. Novel understanding of ABC transporters ABCB1/MDR/P-glycoprotein, ABCC2/MRP2, and ABCG2/BCRP in colorectal pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Vibeke; Svenningsen, Katrine; Knudsen, Lina Almind; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Holmskov, Uffe; Stensballe, Allan; Vogel, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in colonic pathophysiology as they had recently been related to colorectal cancer (CRC) development. METHODS: Literature search was conducted on PubMed using combinations of the following terms: ABC transporters, ATP binding cassette transporter proteins, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative, colitis, Crohns disease, colorectal cancer, colitis, intestinal inflammation, intestinal carcinogenesis, ABCB1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp/CD243/MDR1), ABCC2/multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) and ABCG2/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), Abcb1/Mdr1a, abcc2/Mrp2, abcg2/Bcrp, knock-out mice, tight junction, membrane lipid function. RESULTS: Recently, human studies reported that changes in the levels of ABC transporters were early events in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence leading to CRC. A link between ABCB1, high fat diet and gut microbes in relation to colitis was suggested by the animal studies. The finding that colitis was preceded by altered gut bacterial composition suggests that deletion of Abcb1 leads to fundamental changes of host-microbiota interaction. Also, high fat diet increases the frequency and severity of colitis in specific pathogen-free Abcb1 KO mice. The Abcb1 KO mice might thus serve as a model in which diet/environmental factors and microbes may be controlled and investigated in relation to intestinal inflammation. Potential molecular mechanisms include defective transport of inflammatory mediators and/or phospholipid translocation from one side to the other of the cell membrane lipid bilayer by ABC transporters affecting inflammatory response and/or function of tight junctions, phagocytosis and vesicle trafficking. Also, diet and microbes give rise to molecules which are potential substrates for the ABC transporters and which may additionally affect ABC transporter function through nuclear receptors and transcriptional regulation. Another critical role of ABCB1 was suggested by the finding that

  3. P-glycoprotein is responsible for the poor intestinal absorption and low toxicity of oral aconitine: In vitro, in situ, in vivo and in silico studies

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Cuiping Zhang, Tianhong Li, Zheng Xu, Liang Liu, Fei Ruan, Jinxiu Liu, Keliang Zhang, Zhenqing

    2013-12-15

    Aconitine (AC) is a highly toxic alkaloid from bioactive plants of the genus Aconitum, some of which have been widely used as medicinal herbs for thousands of years. In this study, we systematically evaluated the potential role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the mechanisms underlying the low and variable bioavailability of oral AC. First, the bidirectional transport of AC across Caco-2 and MDCKII-MDR1 cells was investigated. The efflux of AC across monolayers of these two cell lines was greater than its influx. Additionally, the P-gp inhibitors, verapamil and cyclosporin A, significantly decreased the efflux of AC. An in situ intestinal perfusion study in rats showed that verapamil co-perfusion caused a significant increase in the intestinal permeability of AC, from 0.22 × 10{sup −5} to 2.85 × 10{sup −5} cm/s. Then, the pharmacokinetic profile of orally administered AC with or without pre-treatment with verapamil was determined in rats. With pre-treatment of verapamil, the maximum plasma concentration (C{sub max}) of AC increased sharply, from 39.43 to 1490.7 ng/ml. Accordingly, a 6.7-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC{sub 0–12} {sub h}) of AC was observed when co-administered with verapamil. In silico docking analyses suggested that AC and verapamil possess similar P-gp recognition mechanisms. This work demonstrated that P-gp is involved in limiting the intestinal absorption of AC and attenuating its toxicity to humans. Our data indicate that potential P-gp-mediated drug–drug interactions should be considered carefully in the clinical application of aconite and formulations containing AC. - Highlights: • Verapamil and cyclosporin A decreased the efflux of aconitine across Caco-2 cells. • Both inhibitors decreased the efflux of aconitine across MDCKII-MDR1 cells. • Co-perfusion with verapamil increased the intestinal permeability of aconitine. • Co-administration with verapamil sharply increased the C{sub max

  4. Mosla punctulata Inhibits Mast Cell-mediated Allergic Reactions Through the Inhibition of Histamine Release and Inflammatory Cytokine Production

    PubMed Central

    Je, I. G.; Shin, T. Y.; Kim, S. H.

    2013-01-01

    Allergic inflammatory diseases such as food allergy, asthma, sinusitis and atopic dermatitis are increasing worldwide. This study examined the effects of aqueous extract of Mosla punctulata on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation and studied the possible mechanism of action. Aqueous extract of Mosla punctulata inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic and immunoglobulin E-mediated local anaphylaxis and it also reduced intracellular calcium level and down-streamed histamine release from mast cells. In addition, aqueous extract of Mosla punctulata decreased gene expression and secretion of tumour necrosis factor alpha, an important proinflammatory cytokine, in mast cells. The inhibitory effect on tumour necrosis factor alpha expression was nuclear factor kappa B dependent. The results indicate that aqueous extract of Mosla punctulata inhibited mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory reaction by suppressing histamine release and expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha, and involvement of calcium and nuclear factor kappa B in these effects. Hence it can be concluded that, the aqueous extract of Mosla punctulata might be a possible therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammatory disorders. PMID:24591741

  5. Mosla dianthera inhibits mast cell-mediated allergic reactions through the inhibition of histamine release and inflammatory cytokine production

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dong-Hee; Kim, Sang-Hyun . E-mail: shkim72@knu.ac.kr; Eun, Jae-Soon; Shin, Tae-Yong . E-mail: tyshin@woosuk.ac.kr

    2006-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of the aqueous extract of Mosla dianthera (Maxim.) (AEMD) on the mast cell-mediated allergy model and studied the possible mechanism of action. Mast cell-mediated allergic disease is involved in many diseases such as asthma, sinusitis and rheumatoid arthritis. The discovery of drugs for the treatment of allergic disease is an important subject in human health. AEMD inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic reactions in mice. AEMD decreased immunoglobulin E-mediated local allergic reactions, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. AEMD attenuated intracellular calcium level and release of histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells activated by compound 48/80. Furthermore, AEMD attenuated the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated TNF-{alpha}, IL-8 and IL-6 secretion in human mast cells. The inhibitory effect of AEMD on the pro-inflammatory cytokines was nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) dependent. AEMD decreased PMA and A23187-induced degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B. Our findings provide evidence that AEMD inhibits mast cell-derived immediate-type allergic reactions and involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NF-{kappa}B in these effects.

  6. Adiponectin inhibits insulin function in primary trophoblasts by PPARα-mediated ceramide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Aye, Irving L M H; Gao, Xiaoli; Weintraub, Susan T; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2014-04-01

    Maternal adiponectin (ADN) levels are inversely correlated with birth weight, and ADN infusion in pregnant mice down-regulates placental nutrient transporters and decreases fetal growth. In contrast to the insulin-sensitizing effects in adipose tissue and muscle, ADN inhibits insulin signaling in the placenta. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are unknown. We hypothesized that ADN inhibits insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα)-mediated ceramide synthesis. Primary human term trophoblast cells were treated with ADN and/or insulin. ADN increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and PPARα. ADN inhibited insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated amino acid transport. This effect was dependent on PPARα, because activation of PPARα with an agonist (GW7647) inhibited insulin signaling and function, whereas PPARα-small interfering RNA reversed the effects of ADN on the insulin response. ADN increased ceramide synthase expression and stimulated ceramide production. C2-ceramide inhibited insulin signaling and function, whereas inhibition of ceramide synthase (with Fumonisin B1) reversed the effects of ADN on insulin signaling and amino acid transport. These findings are consistent with the model that maternal ADN limits fetal growth mediated by activation of placental PPARα and ceramide synthesis, which inhibits placental insulin signaling and amino acid transport, resulting in reduced fetal nutrient availability.

  7. Exposure of LS-180 Cells to Drugs of Diverse Physicochemical and Therapeutic Properties Up-regulates P-glycoprotein Expression and Activity

    PubMed Central

    Abuznait, Alaa H.; Patrick, Shawn G.; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Drug transporters are increasingly recognized as important determinants of variability in drug disposition and therapeutic response, both in pre-clinical and clinical stages of drug development process. The role P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays in drug interactions via its inhibition is well established. However, much less knowledge is available about drugs effect on P-gp up-regulation. The objective of this work was to in vitro investigate and rank commonly used drugs according to their potencies to up-regulate P-gp activity utilizing the same experimental conditions. Methods The in vitro potencies of several drugs of diverse physicochemical and therapeutic properties including rifampicin, dexamethasone, caffeine, verapamil, pentylenetetrazole, hyperforin, and β-estradiol over broad concentration range to up-regulate P-gp expression and activity were examined. For dose-response studies, LS-180 cells were treated with different concentrations of the selected drugs followed by P-gp protein and gene expressions analyses. P-gp functionality was determined by uptake studies with rhodamine 123 as a P-gp substrate, followed by Emax/EC50 evaluation. Results The results demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in P-gp expression and activity following treatments. At 50 μM concentration (hyperforin, 0.1 μM), examined drugs increased P-gp protein and gene expressions by up to 5.5 and 6.2-fold, respectively, while enhanced P-gp activity by 1.8–4-fold. The rank order of these drugs potencies to up-regulate P-gp activity was as following: hyperforin ⋙ dexamethasone ≈ β-estradiol > caffeine > rifampicin ≈ pentylenetetrazole > verapamil. Conclusions These drugs have the potential to be involved in drug interactions when administered with other drugs that are P-gp substrates. Further studies are needed to in vivo evaluate these drugs and verify the consequences of such induction on P-gp activity for in vitro-in vivo correlation purposes. PMID:21733412

  8. P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) activity decreases raltegravir disposition in primary CD4+P-gphigh cells and correlates with HIV-1 viral load

    PubMed Central

    Minuesa, Gerard; Arimany-Nardi, Cristina; Erkizia, Itziar; Cedeño, Samandhy; Moltó, José; Clotet, Bonaventura; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal; Martinez-Picado, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug-resistant-protein 1 (MRP1) on raltegravir intracellular drug disposition in CD4+ T cells, investigate the effect of HIV-1 infection on P-gp expression and correlate HIV-1 viraemia with P-gp activity in primary CD4+ T cell subsets. Methods The cellular accumulation ratio of [3H]raltegravir was quantified in CD4+ T cell lines overexpressing either P-gp (CEM-P-gp) or MRP1 (CEM-MRP1) and in primary CD3+CD4+ T cells with high (P-gphigh) and low P-gp activity (P-gplow); inhibition of efflux transporters was confirmed by the intracellular retention of calcein-AM. The correlation of P-gp activity with HIV-1 viraemia was assessed in naive and memory T cell subsets from 21 HIV-1-infected treatment-naive subjects. Results [3H]Raltegravir cellular accumulation ratio decreased in CEM-P-gp cells (P < 0.0001). XR9051 (a P-gp inhibitor) and HIV-1 PIs reversed this phenomenon. Primary CD4+P-gphigh cells accumulated less raltegravir (38.4% ± 9.6%) than P-gplow cells, whereas XR9051 also reversed this effect. In vitro HIV-1 infection of PBMCs and stimulation of CD4+ T cells increased P-gp mRNA and P-gp activity, respectively, while primary CD4+P-gphigh T cells sustained a higher HIV-1 replication than P-gplow cells. A significant correlation between HIV-1 viraemia and P-gp activity was found in different CD4+ T cell subsets, particularly memory CD4+ T cells (r = 0.792, P < 0.0001). Conclusions Raltegravir is a substrate of P-gp in CD4+ T cells. Primary CD4+P-gphigh T cells eliminate intracellular raltegravir more readily than P-gplow cells and HIV-1 viraemia correlates with P-gp overall activity. Specific CD4+P-gphigh T cell subsets could facilitate the persistence of viral replication in vivo and ultimately promote the appearance of drug resistance. PMID:27334660

  9. Complex Interplay between the P-Glycoprotein Multidrug Efflux Pump and the Membrane: Its Role in Modulating Protein Function

    PubMed Central

    Sharom, Frances Jane

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance in cancer is linked to expression of the P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter (Pgp, ABCB1), which exports many structurally diverse compounds from cells. Substrates first partition into the bilayer and then interact with a large flexible binding pocket within the transporter’s transmembrane regions. Pgp has been described as a hydrophobic vacuum cleaner or an outwardly directed drug/lipid flippase. Recent X-ray crystal structures have shed some light on the nature of the drug-binding pocket and suggested routes by which substrates can enter it from the membrane. Detergents have profound effects on Pgp function, and several appear to be substrates. Biochemical and biophysical studies in vitro, some using purified reconstituted protein, have explored the effects of the membrane environment. They have demonstrated that Pgp is involved in a complex relationship with its lipid environment, which modulates the behavior of its substrates, as well as various functions of the protein, including ATP hydrolysis, drug binding, and drug transport. Membrane lipid composition and fluidity, phospholipid headgroup and acyl chain length all influence Pgp function. Recent studies focusing on thermodynamics and kinetics have revealed some important principles governing Pgp–lipid and substrate–lipid interactions, and how these affect drug-binding and transport. In some cells, Pgp is associated with cholesterol-rich microdomains, which may modulate its functions. The relationship between Pgp and cholesterol remains an open question; however, it clearly affects several aspects of its function in addition to substrate–membrane partitioning. The action of Pgp modulators appears to depend on their membrane permeability, and membrane fluidizers and surfactants reverse drug resistance, likely via an indirect mechanism. A detailed understanding of how the membrane affects Pgp substrates and Pgp’s catalytic cycle may lead to new strategies to combat clinical drug

  10. Vincristine-induced overexpression of P-glycoprotein in L1210 cells is associated with remodeling of cell surface saccharides.

    PubMed

    Sulová, Zdenka; Mislovicová, Danica; Gibalová, Lenka; Vajcnerová, Zuzana; Poláková, Eva; Uhrík, Branislav; Tylková, Lucia; Kovarova, Annámaria; Sedlák, Ján; Breier, Albert

    2009-02-01

    Multidrug resistance of murine leukemic cell line L1210/VCR (R), obtained by adaptation of parental L1210 cells (S) on vincristine, is associated with overexpression of P glycoprotein (P-gp, the ATP-dependent drug efflux pump). Previously, we found that cytochemical staining of negatively charged cell surface binding sites (probably sialic acid) by ruthenium red (RR) revealed a compact layer of RR bound to the external coat of S cells. This is in contrast to R cells and L1210/VCR cells cultured in the presence of vincristine during the last cultivation prior to the experiment (V cells), where the RR layer was either reduced or absent. In the current paper, we observed differences in the interactions of S, R and V cells with Concanavalin A (ConA) and tomato lectin (lycopersicum esculentum agglutinin, LEA). ConA bound and induced cell damage more effectively in S cells than in R or V cells. Both of these effects could be prevented by methyl-manopyranose, but not by N-acetylglucosamine. In contrast, LEA lectin preferentially bound to R and V cells. While LEA agglutinated cells more effectively than ConA, it did not cause cell damage comparable to ConA. Binding of LEA to the cell surface could be prevented by chitooligosaccharides. Both LEA and ConA failed to identify P-gp in lectin blots. Thus, changes in ConA and LEA interactions are not caused by massive expression of P-gp in the plasma membrane and the consequent exposure of the inner saccharides to the external side of the plasma membrane.Taken together, the above facts suggest that S cells differ from R and V cells in the composition of cell surface glycosides not directly linked to P-gp.

  11. Turning the gun on cancer: Utilizing lysosomal P-glycoprotein as a new strategy to overcome multi-drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Seebacher, Nicole; Lane, Darius J R; Richardson, Des R; Jansson, Patric J

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative stress plays a role in the development of drug resistance in cancer cells. Cancer cells must constantly and rapidly adapt to changes in the tumor microenvironment, due to alterations in the availability of nutrients, such as glucose, oxygen and key transition metals (e.g., iron and copper). This nutrient flux is typically a consequence of rapid growth, poor vascularization and necrosis. It has been demonstrated that stress factors, such as hypoxia and glucose deprivation up-regulate master transcription factors, namely hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which transcriptionally regulate the multi-drug resistance (MDR), transmembrane drug efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein (Pgp). Interestingly, in addition to the established role of plasma membrane Pgp in MDR, a new paradigm of intracellular resistance has emerged that is premised on the ability of lysosomal Pgp to transport cytotoxic agents into this organelle. This mechanism is enabled by the topological inversion of Pgp via endocytosis resulting in the transporter actively pumping agents into the lysosome. In this way, classical Pgp substrates, such as doxorubicin (DOX), can be actively transported into this organelle. Within the lysosome, DOX becomes protonated upon acidification of the lysosomal lumen, causing its accumulation. This mechanism ef