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Sample records for inhibits phosphatidylinositol turnover

  1. Adenosine (ADO) released during orthodromic stimulation of the frog sympathetic ganglion inhibits phosphatidylinositol turnover (PI) associated with synaptic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Curnish, R.; Bencherif, M.; Rubio, R.; Berne, R.M.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have previously demonstrated that /sup 3/H-purine release was enhanced during synaptic activation of the prelabelled frog sympathetic ganglion. In addition, during orthodromic stimulation, there is an increased /sup 3/H-inositol release (an index of PI) that occurs during the poststimulation period and not during the period of stimulation. They hypothesized that endogenous ADO inhibits PI turnover during orthodromic stimulation. To test this hypothesis (1) they performed experiments to directly measure ADO release in the extracellular fluid by placing the ganglion in a 5 ..mu..l drop of Ringer's and let it come to equilibrium with the interstitial fluid, (2) they destroyed endogenous ADO by suffusing adenosine deaminase (ADA) during the stimulation period. Their results show (1) orthodromic stimulation increases release of ADO into the bathing medium, (2) ADA induced an increase of PI during the stimulation period in contrast to an increase seen only during the poststimulation period when ADA was omitted. They conclude that there is dual control of PI during synaptic activity, a stimulatory effect (cause unknown) and a short lived inhibitory effect that is probably caused by adenosine.

  2. Membrane depolarization and carbamoylcholine stimulate phosphatidylinositol turnover in intact nerve terminals

    SciTech Connect

    Audigier, S.M.P.; Wang, J.K.T.; Greengard, P.

    1988-04-01

    Synaptosomes, purified from rat cerebral cortex, were prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)inositol to study phosphatidylinositol turnover in nerve terminals. Labeled synaptosomes were either depolarized with 40 mM K/sup +/ or exposed to carbamoylcholine (carbachol). K/sup +/ depolarization increased the level of inositol phosphates in a time-dependent manner. The inositol bisphosphate level also increased rapidly, but its elevated level was sustained during continued depolarization. The elevated level of inositol bisphosphate was reversed upon repolarization of the synaptosomes. The level of inositol monophosphate increased slowly to 120-130% of control. These effects of K/sup +/ depolarization depended on the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/ in the incubation medium. Carbachol stimulated the turnover of phosphatidylinositol in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The level of inositol bisphosphate increased to 210% of control, and this maximal response was seen from 15 to 60 min. Accumulation of inositol monophosphate was larger than that of inositol bisphosphate, but its time course was slower. Atropine and pirenzepine inhibited the carbachol effect with high affinities. These data show that both Ca/sup 2 +/ influx and M/sub 1/ muscarinic receptor activation stimulate phospholipase C activity in synaptosomes, suggesting that phosphatidylinositol turnover may be involved in regulating neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals.

  3. Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases: Function, structure, and inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Boura, Evzen Nencka, Radim

    2015-10-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4Ks) synthesize phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), a key member of the phosphoinositide family. PI4P defines the membranes of Golgi and trans-Golgi network (TGN) and regulates trafficking to and from the Golgi. Humans have two type II PI4Ks (α and β) and two type III enzymes (α and β). Recently, the crystal structures were solved for both type II and type III kinase revealing atomic details of their function. Importantly, the type III PI4Ks are hijacked by +RNA viruses to create so-called membranous web, an extensively phosphorylated and modified membrane system dedicated to their replication. Therefore, selective and potent inhibitors of PI4Ks have been developed as potential antiviral agents. Here we focus on the structure and function of PI4Ks and their potential in human medicine.

  4. Alpha 1-adrenergic stimulation of phosphatidylinositol turnover and respiration of brown fat cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mohell, N.; Wallace, M.; Fain, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    The alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (in the presence of the beta-adrenergic antagonist alprenolol) stimulated respiration and incorporation of (/sup 3/H)glycerol and (/sup 32/P) P/sub i/ into phosphatidylinositol of hamster brown fat cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Both responses were preferentially inhibited by prazosin as compared with yohimbine, indicating alpha 1 specificity. Uniquely, prazosin inhibition of phenylephrine-stimulated phosphatidylinositol metabolism had two components, since 30% of the response was inhibited by less than 1 nM prazosin, 10 nM gave no further inhibition, and 100 nM prazosin completely inhibited the response. The phosphatidylinositol response was still present in Ca/sup 2/+-free buffer, although reduced in magnitude. The concentration relationships of the effects of agonists and antagonists were compared with those of previous results of (/sup 3/H)prazosin binding and with phenylephrine potency to compete for binding. On the basis of these comparisons, it is suggested that the highly prazosin-sensitive part of the phosphatidylinositol response may be closely associated with receptor occupation.

  5. Evidence for a role of phosphatidylinositol turnover in stimulus–secretion coupling. Studies with rat peritoneal mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, Shamshad; Gomperts, Bastien D.

    1979-01-01

    Histamine secretion and phosphatidylinositol turnover were compared in antigen-sensitized rat peritoneal mast cells stimulated with a number of different ligands. A small and variable increase in the incorporation of [32P]Pi and of [3H]inositol into phosphatidylinositol was observed when the cells were treated with immunoglobulin E-directed ligands (antigens and concanavalin A), and this was accompanied by a low amount of secretion (<10% of total cell histamine). In the presence of added phosphatidylserine, the addition of immunoglobulin E-directed ligands invariably led to an enhanced rate (approx. 4-fold) of labelling of phosphatidylinositol and, in the presence of Ca2+, this was accompanied by the secretion of histamine. The labelling of phosphatidylinositol and histamine secretion were also stimulated by chymotrypsin and compound 48/80. Whereas the phosphatidylinositol response did not require the presence of extracellular Ca2+, the secretion of histamine was either enhanced or dependent on extracellular Ca2+ (depending on the ligand used). The dependence on ligand concentration for the phosphatidylinositol response and histamine secretion were similar. The increased isotopic incorporation into phosphatidylinositol continued for about 1h although histamine secretion (elicited with concanavalin A) stopped within 2min. These results support the proposition that metabolic events involving phosphatidylinositol play a necessary intermediate role in the regulation of Ca2+ channels by ligand-activated receptors. PMID:88219

  6. Kinetic analysis of guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) effects on phosphatidylinositol turnover in NRK cell homogenates

    SciTech Connect

    Chahwala, S.B.; Fleischman, L.F.; Cantley, L.

    1987-01-27

    Addition of the guanine nucleotide analogue guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S) to (/sup 3/H)inositol-labeled NRK cell homogenates resulted in rapid breakdown of cellular polyphosphoinositides. GTP gamma S stimulated phospholipase C, resulting in a more than 4-fold increase in the hydrolysis rates of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bis(phosphate) (PIP2). No significant effect of GTP gamma S on direct phosphatidylinositol (PI) hydrolysis was detected. There was an increase in water-soluble inositols, with inositol tris(phosphate) (IP3) levels increasing at least 10 times over the decrease seen in PIP2, indicating that PIP kinase activity was also accelerated following GTP gamma S addition. Inositol 1,4,5-tris(phosphate) peaked rapidly after GTP gamma S addition (less than 2 min) while inositol 1,3,4-tris-(phosphate) was produced more slowly and leveled off after approximately 10 min. The differential equations describing conversion between intermediates in the PI turnover pathway were solved and fitted to data obtained from both (/sup 3/H)inositol and (/sup 32/P)phosphate fluxes by nonlinear least-squares analysis. GTP gamma S effects on the pseudo-first-order rate constants for the lipase, kinase, and phosphatase steps were determined from the analysis. From these measurements it can be estimated that, in the presence of GTP gamma S and calcium buffered to 130 nM, hydrolysis of PIP2 accounts for at least 10 times as much diacylglycerol as direct PI breakdown despite the 100-fold excess of PI over PIP2. From the kinetic model it is predicted that small changes in the activities of PI and PIP kinases can have large but different effects on the level of IP3 and diacylglycerol following GTP gamma S addition. These results argue that regulation of PI and PIP kinases may be important for determining both cellular IP3 and diacylglycerol levels.

  7. Parathyroid hormone decreases HCO3 reabsorption in the rat proximal tubule by stimulating phosphatidylinositol metabolism and inhibiting base exit.

    PubMed Central

    Pastoriza-Munoz, E; Harrington, R M; Graber, M L

    1992-01-01

    The mechanism of inhibition of HCO3 transport by parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the proximal tubule is not clearly defined. Previous studies in vitro have suggested that this effect is mediated via cAMP generation, which acts to inhibit Na/H exchange, resulting in cell acidification. To examine this question in vivo, intracellular pH (pHi) was measured in the superficial proximal tubule of the rat using the pH-sensitive fluoroprobes 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU) and 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-(5, and 6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). PTH was found to alkalinize the cell. This alkalinization suggested inhibition of basolateral base exit, which was confirmed by in situ microperfusion studies: lowering HCO3 in peritubular capillaries acidified the cell, an effect blunted by PTH. Removal of luminal Na promoted basolateral base entry, alkalinizing the cell. This response was also blunted by PTH. Readdition of luminal Na stimulated the luminal Na/H exchanger, causing an alkalinization overshoot that was partially inhibited by PTH. cAMP inhibited luminal H secretion but did not alkalinize the cell. Stimulation of phosphatidylinositol-bis-phosphate turnover by PTH was suggested by the effect to the hormone to increase cell Ca. Blocking the PTH-induced rise in cell Ca blunted the effect of the hormone to alkalinize the cell, as did inhibition of phosphatidylinositol breakdown. Furthermore, stimulation of protein kinase C by a phorbol ester and a diacylglycerol applied basolaterally alkalinized the cell and inhibited luminal H secretion. The findings indicate that both arms of the phosphatidylinositol-bis-phosphate cascade play a role in mediating the effect of PTH on the cell pH. The results are consistent with the view that PTH inhibits base exit in the proximal tubule by activation of the phosphatidylinositol cascade. The resulting alkalinization may contribute, with cAMP, to inhibit apical Na/H exchange and the PTH-induced depression of proximal HCO3 reabsorption. PMID:1314850

  8. Muscarinic cholinergic ligand binding to intact mouse pituitary tumor cells (AtT-20/D16-16) coupling with two biochemical effectors: adenylate cyclase and phosphatidylinositol turnover.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, K; Vickroy, T W; Watson, M; Roeske, W R; Reisine, T D; Smith, T L; Yamamura, H I

    1986-03-01

    (-)-[3H]Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding to muscarinic receptors on intact mouse pituitary tumor cells (AtT-20/D16-16) was characterized in an attempt to correlate radioligand binding properties with receptor-coupled biochemical responses. Performing rinse time studies for 2 hr produced a remarkably improved ratio of specific/total (+)-[3H]QNB binding (85%). Kinetic experiments yielded association (k+1) and dissociation (k-1) rate constants of 2.2 X 10(8) M-1 min-1 and 6.8 X 10(-3) min-1, respectively. Receptor occupancy curves demonstrated a uniform population of specific, saturable (-)-[3H]QNB binding sites with a Hill coefficient equal to 1.0 and an apparent dissociation constant (Kd) equal to 34 pM under our conditions. Stereoselectivity was observed with the enantiomers (dexetimide and levetimide) of benzetimide (a factor of 4300). Concentrations of carbachol that produced a half-maximal inhibition of cyclic AMP formation and a concentration of carbachol for producing half-maximal stimulation of phosphatidylinositol turnover in the intact cells were 0.45 and 170 microM, respectively. Schild analysis revealed that pirenzepine, a nonclassical muscarinic antagonist, had a 40-fold greater affinity for reversing carbachol-stimulated phosphatidylinositol turnover (inhibition constant or Ki = 7 nM), compared to its antagonism of the carbachol-mediated inhibition of isoproterenol-stimulated cyclic AMP formation (Ki = 280 nM). Interestingly, pirenzepine inhibited (-)-[3H]QNB binding with a Ki value of 72 nM. In contrast, atropine was nearly equipotent (Ki = 0.3-0.5 nM) in binding studies and in both effector systems. PMID:3005550

  9. Targeting type Iγ phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase inhibits breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Wang, X; Xiong, X; Liu, Q; Huang, Y; Xu, Q; Hu, J; Ge, G; Ling, K

    2015-08-27

    Most deaths from breast cancer are caused by metastasis, a complex behavior of cancer cells involving migration, invasion, survival and microenvironment manipulation. Type Iγ phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase (PIPKIγ) regulates focal adhesion assembly and its phosphorylation at Y639 is critical for cell migration induced by EGF. However, the role of this lipid kinase in tumor metastasis remains unclear. Here we report that PIPKIγ is vital for breast cancer metastasis. Y639 of PIPKIγ can be phosphorylated by stimulation of EGF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), two promoting factors for breast cancer progression. Histological analysis revealed elevated Y639 phosphorylation of PIPKIγ in invasive ductal carcinoma lesions and suggested a positive correlation with tumor grade. Orthotopically transplanted PIPKIγ-depleted breast cancer cells showed substantially reduced growth and metastasis, as well as suppressed expression of multiple genes related to cell migration and microenvironment manipulation. Re-expression of wild-type PIPKIγ in PIPKIγ-depleted cells restored tumor growth and metastasis, reinforcing the importance of PIPKIγ in breast cancer progression. Y639-to-F or a kinase-dead mutant of PIPKIγ could not recover the diminished metastasis in PIPKIγ-depleted cancer cells, suggesting that Y639 phosphorylation and lipid kinase activity are both required for development of metastasis. Further analysis with in vitro assays indicated that depleting PIPKIγ inhibited cell proliferation, MMP9 secretion and cell migration and invasion, lending molecular mechanisms for the eliminated cancer progression. These results suggest that PIPKIγ, downstream of EGF and/or HGF receptor, participates in breast cancer progression from multiple aspects and deserves further studies to explore its potential as a therapeutic target.

  10. Characteristics of the norepinephrine-stimulated phosphatidylinositol turnover in rat pineal cell dispersions

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, G.; Smith, T.L.

    1981-10-01

    Dispersed rat pineal cells can be used for the study of the phosphatidylinositol effect. The response to ( - )-norepinephrine of the incorporation of 32Pi into phospholipids is linear with time and cell concentration, stereospecific, and mediated through alpha-1-adrenergic receptors. Na+ in the incubation medium is obligatory for labeling of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine by 32P. In the absence of K+, incorporation of 32P is drastically lowered and no stimulation by norepinephrine occurs. Rb+ can replace K+. Omission of Ca2+ or substitution with Sr2+ preferentially lowers incorporation of radioactivity into phosphatidylcholine. Mg2+ is not required for basal or stimulated labeling.

  11. Mitogenic stimuli and phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover in cultured 3T3 fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, C.; Petersen, R.

    1986-03-01

    The hydrolysis of PI and polyphosphoinositides by phopholipase C is an early and rapid response to cell activation by a variety of neurotransmitters, hormones, growth factors and pharmacological agonists. The authors have examined the role of PI turnover and the generation of second messengers (diacylglycerol and inositol trisphosphate) in the mitogenic response of cultured Balb/c and Swiss 3T3 cells to polypeptide growth factors. Cells were prelabelled with /sup 3/H inositol for 18-20 hours, washed and suspended in Herpes + Li/sup +/ buffer, and stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vasopressin, insulin, and other growth factors. PI turnover was measured as the increase in total inositol phosphate (IP) production. IP1, IP2, and IP3 were characterized by sequential elution from a Dowex column. Partially purified PDGF produced a 2-4 fold stimulation of total IP production. This was seen as early as 30 seconds after stimulation and increased for up to 1-2 hours. Balb/c cells were more sensitive than Swiss cells to the mitogenic and PI effects of PDGF. Other mitogenic stimuli had differential effects on PI turnover. Vasopressin (4-400 ng/ml) markedly stimulated PI turnover (3-6 fold) in Swiss, but not Balb/c cells. Insulin (100 ng/ml - 10 ..mu..g/ml) increased total IP to a greater degree in Balb/c cells. Epidermal growth factor (10 ng/ml - 10 ..mu..g/ml) had no effect on PI turnover and fibroblast growth factor (10 ng/ml - 10 ..mu..g/ml) only stimulated at the higher concentrations in Swiss cells. Thrombin (1U/ml - 10 U/ml) produced a 1.5 - 2 fold stimulation in Balb/c cells. Thus, various polypeptide growth factors have differential effects on PI turnover depending on their mitogenic potential and the effector cell type.

  12. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase causes increased sensitivity to radiation through a PKB-dependent mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschalk, Alexander R. . E-mail: gottschalk@radonc17.ucsf.edu; Doan, Albert; Nakamura, Jean L.; Stokoe, David; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.

    2005-11-15

    Purpose: To identify whether inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) causes increased radiosensitivity through inhibition of protein kinase B (PKB), implicating PKB as an important therapeutic target in prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: The prostate cancer cell line LNCaP was treated with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, radiation, and combinations of the two therapies. Apoptosis and survival were measured by cell cycle analysis, Western blot analysis for cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, and clonogenic survival. To test the hypothesis that inhibition of PKB is responsible for LY294002-induced radiosensitivity, LNCaP cells expressing a constitutively active form of PKB were used. Results: The combination of PI3K inhibition and radiation caused an increase in apoptosis and a decrease in clonogenic survival when compared to either modality alone. The expression of constitutively activated PKB blocked apoptosis induced by combination of PI3K inhibition and radiation and prevented radiosensitization by LY294002. Conclusion: These data indicate that PI3K inhibition increases sensitivity of prostate cancer cell lines to ionizing radiation through inactivation of PKB. Therefore, PTEN mutations, which lead to PKB activation, may play an important role in the resistance of prostate cancer to radiation therapy. Targeted therapy against PKB could be beneficial in the management of prostate cancer patients.

  13. Regulation mechanism of ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) protein/plasma membrane association: possible involvement of phosphatidylinositol turnover and Rho-dependent signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    the insoluble fraction as CD44. Consistent with this binding analysis, in living BHK cells treated with C3 toxin, most insoluble ERM proteins moved to soluble compartments in the cytoplasm, leaving CD44 free from ERM. These findings indicate that Rho regulates the CD44/ERM complex formation in vivo and that the phosphatidylinositol turnover may be involved in this regulation mechanism. PMID:8858161

  14. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate competitively inhibits phorbol ester binding to protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, A.; Cauhan, V.P.S.; Deshmukh, D.S.; Brokerhoff, H. )

    1989-06-13

    Calcium phospholipid dependent protein kinase C (PKC) is activated by diacylglycerol (DG) and by phorbol esters and is recognized to be the phorbol ester receptor of cells; DG displaces phorbol ester competitively from PKC. A phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}), can also activate PKC in the presence of phosphatidylserine (PS) and Ca{sup 2+} with a K{sub PIP{sub 2}} of 0.04 mol %. Preliminary experiments have suggested a common binding site for PIP{sub 2} and DG on PKC. Here, the authors investigate the effect of PIP{sub 2} on phorbol ester binding to PKC in a mixed micellar assay. In the presence of 20 mol % PS, PIP{sub 2} inhibited specific binding of ({sup 3}H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) in a dose-dependent fashion up to 85% at 1 mol %. Inhibition of binding was more pronounced with PIP{sub 2} than with DG. Scatchard analysis indicated that the decrease in binding of PDBu in the presence of PIP{sub 2} is the result of an altered affinity for the phorbol ester rather than of a change in maximal binding. The plot of apparent dissociation constants (K{sub d{prime}}) against PIP{sub 2} concentration was linear over a range of 0.01-1 mol % with a K{sub i} of 0.043 mol % and confirmed the competitive nature of inhibition between PDBu and PIP{sub 2}. Competition between PIP{sub 2} and phorbol ester could be determined in a liposomal assay system also. These results indicate that PIP{sub 2}, DG, and phorbol ester all compete for the same activator-receiving region on the regulatory moiety of protein kinase C, and they lend support to the suggestion that PIP{sub 2} is a primary activator of the enzyme.

  15. Inhibition of endogenous lactate turnover with lactate infusion in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Searle, G.L.; Feingold, K.R.; Hsu, F.S.; Clark, O.H.; Gertz, E.W.; Stanley, W.C. )

    1989-11-01

    The extent to which lactate infusion may inhibit endogenous lactate production, though previously considered, has never been critically assessed. To examine this proposition, single injection tracer methodology (U-{sup 14}C Lactate) has been used for the estimation of lactate kinetics in 12 human subjects under basal conditions and with the infusion of sodium lactate. The basal rate of lactate turnover was measured on a day before the study with lactate infusion, and averaged 63.7 + 5.5 mg/kg/h. Six of these individuals received a stable lactate infusion at an approximate rate of 160 mg/kg/h, while the remaining six individuals were infused at the approximate rate of 100 mg/kg/h. It has been found that stable lactate infused at rates approximating 160 mg/kg/h consistently produced a complete inhibition of endogenous lactate production. Infusion of lactate at 100 mg/kg/h caused a lesser and more variable inhibition of endogenous lactate production (12% to 64%). In conclusion, lactate infusion significantly inhibits endogenous lactate production.

  16. Romidepsin (FK228) and its analogs directly inhibit phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity and potently induce apoptosis as histone deacetylase/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase dual inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Saijo, Ken; Katoh, Tadashi; Shimodaira, Hideki; Oda, Akifumi; Takahashi, Ohgi; Ishioka, Chikashi

    2012-11-01

    Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling is involved in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. The PI3K inhibitors are considered candidate drugs for cancer treatment. Here, we describe a drug screening system for novel PI3K inhibitors using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with deleterious mutations in the ATP-binding cassette transporter genes, because wild-type S. cerevisiae uses drug efflux pumps for reducing intracellular drug concentrations. By screening the chemical library of the Screening Committee of Anticancer Drugs, we identified the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor romidepsin (FK228) and its novel analogs. In vitro PI3K activity assays confirmed that these compounds directly inhibit PI3K activity at μM-range concentrations. FK-A5 analog was the most potent inhibitor. Western blotting revealed that these compounds inhibit phosphorylation of protein kinase B and downstream signaling components. Molecular modeling of the PI3K-FK228 complex indicated that FK228 binds to the ATP-binding pocket of PI3K. At μM-range concentrations, FK228 and FK-A5 show potent cytotoxicity, inducing apoptosis even in HDAC inhibitor-resistant cells. Furthermore, HDAC/PI3K dual inhibition by FK228 and FK-A5 at μM-range concentrations potentiates the apoptosis induction, mimicking the effect of combining specific HDAC and PI3K inhibitors. In this study, we showed that FK228 and its analogs directly inhibit PI3K activity and induce apoptosis at μM-range concentrations, similar to HDAC/PI3K dual inhibition. In future, optimizing the potency of FK228 and its analogs against PI3K may contribute to the development of novel HDAC/PI3K dual inhibitors for cancer treatment.

  17. Foot-and-mouth disease virus genome replication is unaffected by inhibition of type III phosphatidylinositol-4-kinases.

    PubMed

    Loundras, Eleni-Anna; Herod, Morgan R; Harris, Mark; Stonehouse, Nicola J

    2016-09-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes economically damaging infections of cloven-hooved animals, with outbreaks resulting in large financial losses to the agricultural industry. Due to the highly contagious nature of FMDV, research with infectious virus is restricted to a limited number of key facilities worldwide. FMDV sub-genomic replicons are therefore important tools for the study of viral translation and genome replication. The type III phosphatidylinositol-4-kinases (PI4Ks) are a family of enzymes that plays a key role in the production of replication complexes (viral factories) of a number of positive-sense RNA viruses and represents a potential target for novel pan-viral therapeutics. Here, we investigated whether type III PI4Ks also play a role in the FMDV life cycle, using a combination of FMDV sub-genomic replicons and bicistronic internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-containing reporter plasmids. We demonstrated that replication of the FMDV replicon was unaffected by inhibitors of either PI4KIIIα or PI4KIIIβ. However, PIK93, an inhibitor previously demonstrated to target PI4KIIIβ, did inhibit IRES-mediated protein translation. Consistent with this, cells transfected with FMDV replicons did not exhibit elevated levels of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate lipids. These results are therefore supportive of the hypothesis that FMDV genome replication does not require type III PI4K activity and does not activate these kinases. PMID:27323707

  18. LY294002 inhibits glucocorticoid-induced COX-2 gene expression in cardiomyocytes through a phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-independent mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Haipeng; Xu Beibei; Sheveleva, Elena; Chen, Qin M.

    2008-10-01

    Glucocorticoids induce COX-2 expression in rat cardiomyocytes. While investigating whether phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) plays a role in corticosterone (CT)-induced COX-2, we found that LY294002 (LY29) but not wortmannin (WM) attenuates CT from inducing COX-2 gene expression. Expression of a dominant-negative mutant of p85 subunit of PI3K failed to inhibit CT from inducing COX-2 expression. CT did not activate PI3K/AKT signaling pathway whereas LY29 and WM decreased the activity of PI3K. LY303511 (LY30), a structural analogue and a negative control for PI3K inhibitory activity of LY29, also suppressed COX-2 induction. These data suggest PI3K-independent mechanisms in regulating CT-induced COX-2 expression. LY29 and LY30 do not inhibit glucocorticoid receptor transactivity. Both compounds have been reported to inhibit Casein Kinase 2 activity and modulate potassium and calcium levels independent of PI3K, while LY29 has been reported to inhibit mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR), and DNA-dependent Protein Kinase (DNA-PK). Inhibitor of Casein Kinase 2 (CK2), mTOR or DNA-PK failed to prevent CT from inducing COX-2 expression. Tetraethylammonium (TEA), a potassium channel blocker, and nimodipine, a calcium channel blocker, both attenuated CT from inducing COX-2 gene expression. CT was found to increase intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration, which can be inhibited by LY29, TEA or nimodipine. These data suggest a possible role of calcium instead of PI3K in CT-induced COX-2 expression in cardiomyocytes.

  19. Small molecule inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3) binding to pleckstrin homology domains

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Benchun; Skidan, Igor; Yang, Jinsheng; Lugovskoy, Alexey; Reibarkh, Mikhail; Long, Kai; Brazell, Tres; Durugkar, Kulbhushan A.; Maki, Jenny; Ramana, C. V.; Schaffhausen, Brian; Wagner, Gerhard; Torchilin, Vladimir; Yuan, Junying; Degterev, Alexei

    2010-01-01

    The PI3-kinase (PI3K) pathway regulates many cellular processes, especially cell metabolism, cell survival, and apoptosis. Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), the product of PI3K activity and a key signaling molecule, acts by recruiting pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain-containing proteins to cell membranes. Here, we describe a new structural class of nonphosphoinositide small molecule antagonists (PITenins, PITs) of PIP3–PH domain interactions (IC50 ranges from 13.4 to 31 μM in PIP3/Akt PH domain binding assay). PITs inhibit interactions of a number of PIP3-binding PH domains, including those of Akt and PDK1, without affecting several PIP2-selective PH domains. As a result, PITs suppress the PI3K-PDK1-Akt pathway and trigger metabolic stress and apoptosis. A PIT-1 analog displayed significant antitumor activity in vivo, including inhibition of tumor growth and induction of apoptosis. Overall, our studies demonstrate the feasibility of developing specific small molecule antagonists of PIP3 signaling. PMID:21041639

  20. Isoginkgetin inhibits tumor cell invasion by regulating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sang-Oh; Shin, Sejeong; Lee, Ho-Jae; Chun, Hyo-Kon; Chung, An-Sik

    2006-11-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 plays a key role in tumor invasion. Inhibitors of MMP-9 were screened from Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Dawn redwood) and one potent inhibitor, isoginkgetin, a biflavonoid, was identified. Noncytotoxic levels of isoginkgetin decreased MMP-9 production profoundly, but up-regulated the level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, an inhibitor of MMP-9, in HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. The major mechanism of Ras-dependent MMP-9 production in HT1080 cells was phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. Expression of dominant-active H-Ras and p85 (a subunit of PI3K) increased MMP-9 activity, whereas dominant-negative forms of these molecules decreased the level of MMP-9. H-Ras did not increase MMP-9 in the presence of a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, and a NF-kappaB inhibitor, SN50. Further studies showed that isoginkgetin regulated MMP-9 production via PI3K/Akt/NF-kappaB pathway, as evidenced by the findings that isoginkgetin inhibited activities of both Akt and NF-kappaB. PI3K/Akt is a well-known key pathway for cell invasion, and isoginkgetin inhibited HT1080 tumor cell invasion substantially. Isoginkgetin was also quite effective in inhibiting the activities of Akt and MMP-9 in MDA-MB-231 breast carcinomas and B16F10 melanoma. Moreover, isoginkgetin treatment resulted in marked decrease in invasion of these cells. In summary, PI3K/Akt is a major pathway for MMP-9 expression and isoginkgetin markedly decreased MMP-9 expression and invasion through inhibition of this pathway. This suggests that isoginkgetin could be a potential candidate as a therapeutic agent against tumor invasion.

  1. Augmentation of Sodium Butyrate-induced Apoptosis by Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Inhibition in the Human Cervical Cancer Cell-line

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Kyu; Cho, Chi Heum; Ramachandran, Sabarish; Shin, So Jin; Kwon, Sang Hoon; Kwon, Sun Young

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Sodium butyrate (NaBT) is principally a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, and it has the potential to arrest HPV-positive carcinoma cells at the G1 to S phase transition of the cell cycle. The aim of study was to determine whether phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibition can enhance the inhibitory effect of NaBT on a human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). Materials and Methods Cervical cancer cells (HeLa) were treated with NaBT alone or in combination with the PI3K inhibitors wortmannin or LY294002. Cell viability analysis and FACS analysis were carried out. The expressions of the cell cycle related proteins were evaluated by Western-blot analysis. Results Inhibition of PI3K enhanced NaBT-mediated apoptosis and this decreased the HeLa cell viability. Either wortmannin or LY294002, combined with NaBT, enhanced the activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9, and this enhanced the subsequent cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Cervical cancer cells were arrested in the subG1 and G2/M phase, as was detected by FACS analysis. NaBT treatment in combination with PI3K inhibitors showed the increased expression of the CDK inhibitors p21Cip1/Waf1 and p27Kip1, in a p53 dependent manner, and also the increased dephosphorylation of Rb whereas there was a reduction in the expression levels of cyclin A, cyclin D1 and cyclin B1. Conclusion The results demonstrate that inhibition of PI3K enhances NaBT-mediated cervical cancer cell apoptosis through the activation of the caspase pathway. Moreover, these findings will support future investigation using the PI3K inhibitors in combination with adjuvant treatment for treating carcinoma of the cervix. PMID:19771269

  2. Autophagy and endosomal trafficking inhibition by Vibrio cholerae MARTX toxin phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-specific phospholipase A1 activity.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shivani; Kim, Hyunjin; Chan, Robin B; Agarwal, Shivangi; Williamson, Rebecca; Cho, Wonhwa; Paolo, Gilbert Di; Paolo, Gilbert D; Satchell, Karla J F

    2015-10-26

    Vibrio cholerae, responsible for acute gastroenteritis secretes a large multifunctional-autoprocessing repeat-in-toxin (MARTX) toxin linked to evasion of host immune system, facilitating colonization of small intestine. Unlike other effector domains of the multifunctional toxin that target cytoskeleton, the function of alpha-beta hydrolase (ABH) remained elusive. This study demonstrates that ABH is an esterase/lipase with catalytic Ser-His-Asp triad. ABH binds with high affinity to phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) and cleaves the fatty acid in PtdIns3P at the sn1 position in vitro making it the first PtdIns3P-specific phospholipase A1 (PLA1). Expression of ABH in vivo reduces intracellular PtdIns3P levels and its PtdIns3P-specific PLA1 activity blocks endosomal and autophagic pathways. In accordance with recent studies acknowledging the potential of extracellular pathogens to evade or exploit autophagy to prevent their clearance and facilitate survival, this is the first report highlighting the role of ABH in inhibiting autophagy and endosomal trafficking induced by extracellular V. cholerae.

  3. Autophagy and endosomal trafficking inhibition by Vibrio cholerae MARTX toxin phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-specific phospholipase A1 activity

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shivani; Kim, Hyunjin; Chan, Robin B.; Agarwal, Shivangi; Williamson, Rebecca; Cho, Wonhwa; Paolo, Gilbert D.; Satchell, Karla J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, responsible for acute gastroenteritis secretes a large multifunctional-autoprocessing repeat-in-toxin (MARTX) toxin linked to evasion of host immune system, facilitating colonization of small intestine. Unlike other effector domains of the multifunctional toxin that target cytoskeleton, the function of alpha-beta hydrolase (ABH) remained elusive. This study demonstrates that ABH is an esterase/lipase with catalytic Ser–His–Asp triad. ABH binds with high affinity to phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) and cleaves the fatty acid in PtdIns3P at the sn1 position in vitro making it the first PtdIns3P-specific phospholipase A1 (PLA1). Expression of ABH in vivo reduces intracellular PtdIns3P levels and its PtdIns3P-specific PLA1 activity blocks endosomal and autophagic pathways. In accordance with recent studies acknowledging the potential of extracellular pathogens to evade or exploit autophagy to prevent their clearance and facilitate survival, this is the first report highlighting the role of ABH in inhibiting autophagy and endosomal trafficking induced by extracellular V. cholerae. PMID:26498860

  4. Hyperbaric hyperoxia reversibly inhibits erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acid turnover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dise, Craig A.; Clark, James M.; Lambersten, Christian J.; Goodman, David B. P.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of hyperbaric hyperoxia on the acylation of membrane phospholipid was studied by measuring the rates of activation of exogenous tritiated oleic acid to acyl thioester and of transesterification of the thioester into membrane phospholipids in intact human erythrocytes obtained 1 h after an exposure of the subjects to a hyperbaric oxygen atmosphere (3.5 h, 100 pct O2, 3 ATA). Exposure to pure oxygen was found to inhibit both the acylation and transesterification reactions by more than 30 percent, with partial recovery detected 24 h later. On the other hand, no rate changes were observed when isolated membranes from the same batches of cells were used in similar experiments. It is suggested that the decrease in the incorporation of tritiated oleic acid after hyperbaric hyperoxia may reflect an early event in the pathogenesis of oxygen-induced cellular injury and that it may be a useful index for the assessment of the tolerance of tissues to hyperoxia.

  5. Protein turnover and cellular autophagy in growing and growth-inhibited 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, T.; Pfeifer, U. )

    1987-07-01

    The relationship between growth, protein degradation, and cellular autophagy was tested in growing and in growth-inhibited 3T3 cell monolayers. For the biochemical evaluation of DNA and protein metabolism, growth-inhibited 3T3 cell monolayers with high cell density and growing 3T3 cell monolayers with low cell density were labeled simultaneously with ({sup 14}C)thymidine and ({sup 3}H)leucine. The evaluation of the DNA turnover and additional ({sup 3}H)thymidine autoradiography showed that 24 to 5% of 3T3 cells continue to replicate even in the growth-inhibited state, where no accumulation of protein and DNA can be observed. Cell loss, therefore, has to be assumed to compensate for the ongoing cell proliferation. When the data of protein turnover were corrected for cell loss, it was found that the rate constant of protein synthesis in nongrowing monolayers was reduced to half the value found in growing monolayers. Simultaneously, the rate constant of protein degradation in nongrowing monolayers was increased to about 1.5-fold the value of growing monolayers. These data are in agreement with the assumption that cellular autophagy represents a major pathway of regulating protein degradation in 3T3 cells and that the regulation of autophagic protein degradation is of relevance for the transition from a growing to a nongrowing state.

  6. Aluminum fluoride induces phosphatidylinositol turnover, elevation of cytoplasmic free calcium, and phosphorylation of the T cell antigen receptor in murine T cells

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shea, J.J.; Urdahl, K.B.; Luong, H.T.; Chused, T.M.; Samelson, L.E.; Klausner, R.D.

    1987-11-15

    Antigen activation of murine T lymphocytes leads to phosphorylation of three subunits of the murine T cell antigen receptor. Two kinases are activated in this process: protein kinase C which leads to phosphorylation of the ..gamma.. and, to a lesser extent, the epsilon subunits on serine residues and a tyrosine kinase which phosphorylates the p21 subunit. The authors sought to determine whether treatment of these cells with NaF could simulate any of these antigen-induced events. Indeed NaF treatment resulted in breakdown of polyphosphoinositides and production of phosphoinositols. This treatment also resulted in a rise in cytosolic free Ca/sup 2 +/. EGTA failed to block this rise suggesting that NaF liberated intracellular stores of Ca/sup 2 +/. Finally NaF treatment resulted in phosphorylation of the ..gamma.. and epsilon chains of the T cell receptor indistinguishable from the effects of phorbol esters. The NaF effect was potentiated by addition of AlCl/sub 3/ consistent with the view that the active moiety is AlF/sub 4//sup -/. The AlF/sub 4//sup -/-induced phosphorylations were abolished in cells in which protein kinase C was depleted by prior treatment with phorbol myristate acetate. All of these observations are compatible with the interpretation that the AlF/sub 4//sup -/ phosphorylation is mediated by protein kinase C. Antigen and anti-receptor antibody-induced receptor serine phosphorylation and phophatidylinositol turnover are blocked by raising intracellular levels of cyclic adenosin monophosphate. In contrast, AlF/sub 4//sup -/-induced effects were in sensitive to cyclic adenosine monmonophosphate

  7. The antidepressant imipramine inhibits M current by activating a phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2)-dependent pathway in rat sympathetic neurones

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Jania L; Arenas, Maria Isabel; García, David E

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the intracellular actions of imipramine (IMI) in the regulation of ion channels. We tested the action of IMI on the intracellular cascade that regulates M current (IM) in superior cervical ganglion neurones (SCGs). Dialysis of the cells with GDPβS, a G protein signaling blocker, did not disrupt the inhibition of IM. When we incubated the cells with the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122, it prevented the IM inhibition by IMI. Also, when we dialyzed the cells with an intracellular Ca2+ chelator, it did not disrupt IM inhibition by IMI, as occurs in the M1 cascade. When we incubated the cells with the generic kinase inhibitor wortmannin, it prevented the recovery of IM from the inhibition by IMI. Also, when we applied phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) intracellularly, it diminished the inhibition of IM by IMI. Our findings suggest that PLC is the target for IMI, that recovery of IM needs lipid phosphorylation for PIP2 resynthesis, and that IMI inhibits IM by activating a PLC-dependent pathway, likely by decreasing the concentration of PIP2. PMID:15852030

  8. Dehydroglyasperin D Inhibits the Proliferation of HT-29 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Through Direct Interaction With Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Keun; Jeong, Chul-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite recent advances in therapy, colorectal cancer still has a grim prognosis. Although licorice has been used in East Asian traditional medicine, the molecular properties of its constituents including dehydroglyasperin D (DHGA-D) remain unknown. We sought to evaluate the inhibitory effect of DHGA-D on colorectal cancer cell proliferation and identify the primary signaling molecule targeted by DHGA-D. Methods: We evaluated anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth in HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. The target protein of DHGA-D was identified by Western blot analysis with a specific antibody, and direct interaction between DHGA-D and the target protein was confirmed by kinase and pull-down assays. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry and further Western blot analysis was performed to identify the signaling pathway involved. Results: DHGA-D significantly suppressed anchorage-dependent and -independent HT-29 colorectal cancer cell proliferation. DHGA-D directly suppressed phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity and subsequent Akt phosphorylation and bound to the p110 subunit of PI3K. DHGA-D also significantly induced G1 cell cycle arrest, together with the suppression of glycogen synthase kinase 3β and retinoblastoma phosphorylation and cyclin D1 expression. Conclusions: DHGA-D has potent anticancer activity and targets PI3K in human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report to detail the molecular basis of DHGA-D in suppressing colorectal cancer cell growth. PMID:27051646

  9. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase promotes tumor cell resistance to chemotherapeutic agents via a mechanism involving delay in cell cycle progression

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Gail T.; Sullivan, Richard; Pare, Genevieve C.; Graham, Charles H.

    2010-11-15

    Approaches to overcome chemoresistance in cancer cells have involved targeting specific signaling pathways such as the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, a stress response pathway known to be involved in the regulation of cell survival, apoptosis and growth. The present study determined the effect of PI3K inhibition on the clonogenic survival of human cancer cells following exposure to various chemotherapeutic agents. Treatment with the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 or Compound 15e resulted in increased survival of MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells after exposure to doxorubicin, etoposide, 5-fluorouracil, and vincristine. Increased survival following PI3K inhibition was also observed in DU-145 prostate, HCT-116 colon and A-549 lung carcinoma cell lines exposed to doxorubicin. Increased cell survival mediated by LY294002 was correlated with a decrease in cell proliferation, which was linked to an increase in the proportion of cells in the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle. Inhibition of PI3K signaling also resulted in higher levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}; and knockdown of p27{sup kip1} with siRNA attenuated resistance to doxorubicin in cells treated with LY294002. Incubation in the presence of LY294002 after exposure to doxorubicin resulted in decreased cell survival. These findings provide evidence that PI3K inhibition leads to chemoresistance in human cancer cells by causing a delay in cell cycle; however, the timing of PI3K inhibition (either before or after exposure to anti-cancer agents) may be a critical determinant of chemosensitivity.

  10. Inhibition of mast cell degranulation by a chimeric toxin containing a novel phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Shenker, Bruce J.; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen; Zekavat, Ali; Walker, Lisa; Besack, Dave; Ali, Hydar

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that many cell functions are controlled by the PI-3K signaling pathway and the signaling lipid, phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3). This is particularly true for mast cells which play a key regulatory role in allergy and inflammation through activation via high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI ) leading to activation of signaling cascades and subsequent release of histamine and other pro-inflammatory mediators. A pivotal component of this cascade is the activation of PI-3K and a rise in intracellular levels of PIP3. In this study, we developed a novel chimeric toxin that selectively binds to mast cells and which functions as a PIP3 phosphatase. Specifically, the chimeric toxin was composed of the FcεRI binding region of IgE and the active subunit of the cytolethal distending toxin, CdtB, which we have recently demonstrated to function as a PIP3 phosphatase. We demonstrate that the chimeric toxin retains PIP3 phosphatase activity and selectively binds to mast cells. Moreover, the toxin is capable of altering intracellular levels of PIP3, block antigen-induced Akt phosphorylation and degranulation. These studies provide further evidence for the pivotal role of PIP3 in regulating mast cell activation and for this signaling lipid serving as a novel target for therapeutic intervention of mast cell- mediated disease. Moreover, these studies provide evidence for the utilization of CdtB as a novel therapeutic agent for targeting the PI-3K signaling pathway. PMID:20863570

  11. Echinacea purpurea root extract inhibits TNF release in response to Pam3Csk4 in a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Fast, David J; Balles, John A; Scholten, Jeffrey D; Mulder, Timothy; Rana, Jatinder

    2015-10-01

    Polysaccharides derived from Echinacea have historically been shown to be immunostimulatory. We describe in this work however the anti-inflammatory effect of a water extract of Echinacea purpurea roots (EPRW) that inhibited Pam3Csk4 stimulated production of TNFα by human monocytic THP-1 cells. The polyphenols and alkylamides typically found in Echinacea extracts were absent in EPRW suggesting that the anti-inflammatory component(s) was a polysaccharide. This anti-inflammatory activity was shown to be mediated by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway as chemical inhibition of PI3K abolished the EPRW anti-inflammatory effect. Demonstration of phosphorylation of Akt and ribosomal S6 proteins, downstream targets of PI3K confirmed EPRW-mediated activation of this pathway. In conclusion, this observation suggests that non-alkylamide/non-polyphenolic phytochemicals from Echinacea may contribute in part to some of the anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects such as reduced severity of symptoms that have been observed in vivo in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections with Echinacea.

  12. Autophagy inhibition enhances colorectal cancer apoptosis induced by dual phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor NVP-BEZ235

    PubMed Central

    YANG, XIAOYU; NIU, BINGXUAN; WANG, LIBO; CHEN, MEILING; KANG, XIAOCHUN; WANG, LUONAN; JI, YINGHUA; ZHONG, JIATENG

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway performs a central role in tumorigenesis and is constitutively activated in many malignancies. As a novel dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor currently undergoing evaluation in a phase I/II clinical trial, NVP-BEZ235 indicates a significant antitumor efficacy in diverse solid tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Autophagy is a catabolic process that maintains cellular homeostasis and reduces diverse stresses through lysosomal recycling of the unnecessary and damaged cell components. This process is also observed to antagonize the antitumor efficacy of PI3K/mTOR inhibitor agents such as NVP-BEZ235, via apoptosis inhibition. In the present study, we investigated anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing ability of NVP-BEZ235 in SW480 cells and the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis in SW480 cells treated with NVP-BEZ235 in combination with an autophagy inhibitor. The results revealed that, NVP-BEZ235 effectively inhibit the growth of SW480 cells by targeting the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway and induced apoptosis. The inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine or chloroquine inhibitors in combination with NVP-BEZ235 in SW480 cells enhanced the apoptotic rate as componets to NVP-BEZ235 alone. In conclusion, the findings provide a rationale for chemotherapy targeting the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway presenting a potential therapeutic strategy to enhance the efficacy of dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 in combination with an autophagy inhibitor in CRC treatment and treatment of other tumors. PMID:27347108

  13. Effect of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibition on ovotoxicity caused by 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide and 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in neonatal rat ovaries

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, Aileen F.; Mark, Connie J.; Sen, Nivedita; Sipes, I. Glenn; Hoyer, Patricia B.

    2009-12-01

    4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) is an ovotoxicant that specifically destroys primordial and small primary follicles in the ovaries of mice and rats. In contrast, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) is ovotoxic to all ovarian follicle classes. This study investigated phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase signaling involvement in VCD- and DMBA-induced ovotoxicity. Postnatal day (PND) 4 Fischer 344 (F344) rat whole ovaries were cultured for 2-12 days in vehicle control, VCD (30 muM), or DMBA (1 muM), +- PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 (20 muM) or its inactive analog LY303511 (20 muM). Following culture, ovaries were histologically evaluated, and healthy follicles were classified and counted. PI3 kinase inhibition had no effect on primordial follicle number, but reduced (P < 0.05) small primary and larger follicles beginning on day 4. VCD caused primordial and small primary follicle loss (P < 0.05) beginning on day 6. With PI3 kinase inhibition, VCD did not affect primordial follicles (P > 0.05) at any time, but did cause loss (P < 0.05) of small primary follicles. DMBA exposure caused primordial and small primary follicle loss (P < 0.05) on day 6. Further, DMBA-induced primordial and small primary follicle loss was greater with PI3 kinase inhibition (P < 0.05) than with DMBA alone. These results support that (1) PI3 kinase mediates primordial to small primary follicle recruitment, (2) VCD, but not DMBA, enhances ovotoxicity by increasing primordial to small primary follicle recruitment, and (3) in addition to xenobiotic-induced ovotoxicity, VCD is also a useful model chemical with which to elucidate signaling mechanisms involved in primordial follicle recruitment.

  14. Dual inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in human nonsmall cell lung cancer cells by a dietary flavonoid fisetin.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naghma; Afaq, Farrukh; Khusro, Fatima H; Mustafa Adhami, Vaqar; Suh, Yewseok; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2012-04-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most commonly occurring malignancies. It has been reported that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is phosphorylated in lung cancer and its activation was more frequent in tumors with overexpression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt. Therefore, dual inhibitors of PI3K/Akt and mTOR signaling could be valuable agents for treating lung cancer. In the present study, we show that fisetin, a dietary tetrahydroxyflavone inhibits cell growth with the concomitant suppression of PI3K/Akt and mTOR signaling in human nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Using autodock 4, we found that fisetin physically interacts with the mTOR complex at two sites. Fisetin treatment was also found to reduce the formation of A549 cell colonies in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of cells with fisetin caused decrease in the protein expression of PI3K (p85 and p110), inhibition of phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, p70S6K1, eIF-4E and 4E-BP1. Fisetin-treated cells also exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of the constituents of mTOR signaling complex such as Rictor, Raptor, GβL and PRAS40. There was an increase in the phosphorylation of AMPKα and a decrease in the phosphorylation of TSC2 on treatment of cells with fisetin. We also found that treatment of cells with mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and mTOR-siRNA caused decrease in phosphorylation of mTOR and its target proteins which were further downregulated on treatment with fisetin, suggesting that these effects are mediated in part, through mTOR signaling. Our results show that fisetin suppressed PI3K/Akt and mTOR signaling in NSCLC cells and thus, could be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent against human lung cancer.

  15. The action of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipases C on membranes.

    PubMed

    Low, M G; Finean, J B

    1976-01-15

    A phospholipase C prepared from lymphocytes readily hydrolysed pure phosphatidyl-inositol but was relatively ineffective against phosphatidylinositol in erythrocyte "ghosts" and rat liver microsomal fraction and also against sonicated lipid extracts from these membranes. In contrast, a phospholipase C prepared from Staphylcoccus aureus readily hydrolysed phosphatidylinositol in sonicated lipid extracts but had only low activity against purified phosphatidylinositol. Unlike the enzyme from lymphocytes, the S. aureus phospholipase C did not require Ca2+ for its activity and was inhibited by cations. The previously reported specificity of this enzyme was confirmed by our observation of hydrolysis of approx. 75% of the phosphatidylinositol in ox, sheep and cat erythrocyte "ghosts" together with no detectable effect on the major erythrocyte membrane phospholipids. The phosphatidylinositol of rat liver microsomal fraction was hydrolysed only to a maximum of 15%. Some preliminary experiments showed that approx. 60% of the phosphatidylinositol of ox or sheep erythrocytes could be hydrolysed without causing substantial haemolysis.

  16. The hepatocyte growth factor antagonist NK4 inhibits indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase expression via the c-Met-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    WANG, DONGDONG; SAGA, YASUSHI; SATO, NAOTO; NAKAMURA, TOSHIKAZU; TAKIKAWA, OSAMU; MIZUKAMI, HIROAKI; MATSUBARA, SHIGEKI; FUJIWARA, HIROYUKI

    2016-01-01

    Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunosuppressive enzyme involved in tumor malignancy. However, the regulatory mechanism underlying its involvement remains largely uncharacterized. The present study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that NK4, an antagonist of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), can regulate IDO and to characterize the signaling mechanism involved. Following successful transfection of the human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3 (which constitutively expresses IDO) with an NK4 expression vector, we observed that NK4 expression suppressed IDO expression; furthermore, NK4 expression did not suppress cancer cell growth in vitro [in the absence of natural killer (NK) cells], but did influence tumor growth in vivo. In addition, NK4 enhanced the sensitivity of cancer cells to NK cells in vitro and promoted NK cell accumulation in the tumor stroma in vivo. In an effort to clarify the mechanisms by which NK4 interacts with IDO, we performed investigations utilizing various biochemical inhibitors. The results of these investigations were as follows. First, c-Met (a receptor of HGF) tyrosine kinase inhibitor PHA-665752, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 both suppress IDO expression. Second, enhanced expression of PTEN (a known tumor suppressor) via negative regulation within a PI3K-AKT pathway, inhibits IDO expression. Conversely, neither the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 nor the STAT3 inhibitor WP1066 affects IDO expression. These results suggest that NK4 inhibits IDO expression via a c-Met-PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. PMID:27082119

  17. Insulin Receptor Substrate 2-mediated Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Signaling Selectively Inhibits Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β to Regulate Aerobic Glycolysis*

    PubMed Central

    Landis, Justine; Shaw, Leslie M.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and IRS-2 are cytoplasmic adaptor proteins that mediate the activation of signaling pathways in response to ligand stimulation of upstream cell surface receptors. Despite sharing a high level of homology and the ability to activate PI3K, only Irs-2 positively regulates aerobic glycolysis in mammary tumor cells. To determine the contribution of Irs-2-dependent PI3K signaling to this selective regulation, we generated an Irs-2 mutant deficient in the recruitment of PI3K. We identified four tyrosine residues (Tyr-649, Tyr-671, Tyr-734, and Tyr-814) that are essential for the association of PI3K with Irs-2 and demonstrate that combined mutation of these tyrosines inhibits glucose uptake and lactate production, two measures of aerobic glycolysis. Irs-2-dependent activation of PI3K regulates the phosphorylation of specific Akt substrates, most notably glycogen synthase kinase 3β (Gsk-3β). Inhibition of Gsk-3β by Irs-2-dependent PI3K signaling promotes glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis. The regulation of unique subsets of Akt substrates by Irs-1 and Irs-2 may explain their non-redundant roles in mammary tumor biology. Taken together, our study reveals a novel mechanism by which Irs-2 signaling preferentially regulates tumor cell metabolism and adds to our understanding of how this adaptor protein contributes to breast cancer progression. PMID:24811175

  18. Localization of phosphatidylinositol signaling components in rat taste cells: Role in bitter taste transduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, P.M.; Verma, A.; Bredt, D.S.; Snyder, S.H. )

    1990-10-01

    To assess the role of phosphatidylinositol turnover in taste transduction we have visualized, in rat tongue, ATP-dependent endoplasmic reticular accumulation of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+}, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor binding sites, and phosphatidylinositol turnover monitored by autoradiography of ({sup 3}H)cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol formed from ({sup 3}H)cytidine. Accumulated {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+}, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors, and phosphatidylinositol turnover are selectively localized to apical areas of the taste buds of circumvallate papillae, which are associated with bitter taste. Further evidence for a role of phosphatidylinositol turnover in bitter taste is our observation of a rapid, selective increase in mass levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate elicited by low concentrations of denatonium, a potently bitter tastant.

  19. Turnover Begets Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Nicholas G.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between turnover of caregivers and turnover of nursing home top management. The top managers examined were administrators and directors of nursing, and the caregivers examined were registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and nurse aides. Design and Methods: The data came from a survey of 419…

  20. Biotin synthase exhibits burst kinetics and multiple turnovers in the absence of inhibition by products and product-related biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Christine E; Siu, Karen K W; Howell, P Lynne; Jarrett, Joseph T

    2010-11-23

    Biotin synthase (BS) is a member of the "SAM radical" superfamily of enzymes, which catalyze reactions in which the reversible or irreversible oxidation of various substrates is coupled to the reduction of the S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) sulfonium to generate methionine and 5'-deoxyadenosine (dAH). Prior studies have demonstrated that these products are modest inhibitors of BS and other members of this enzyme family. In addition, the in vivo catalytic activity of Escherichia coli BS requires expression of 5'-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine nucleosidase, which hydrolyzes 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA), S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (AdoHcy), and dAH. In the present work, we confirm that dAH is a modest inhibitor of BS (K(i) = 20 μM) and show that cooperative binding of dAH with excess methionine results in a 3-fold enhancement of this inhibition. However, with regard to the other substrates of MTA/AdoHcy nucleosidase, we demonstrate that AdoHcy is a potent inhibitor of BS (K(i) ≤ 650 nM) while MTA is not an inhibitor. Inhibition by both dAH and AdoHcy likely accounts for the in vivo requirement for MTA/AdoHcy nucleosidase and may help to explain some of the experimental disparities between various laboratories studying BS. In addition, we examine possible inhibition by other AdoMet-related biomolecules present as common contaminants in commercial AdoMet preparations and/or generated during an assay, as well as by sinefungin, a natural product that is a known inhibitor of several AdoMet-dependent enzymes. Finally, we examine the catalytic activity of BS with highly purified AdoMet in the presence of MTAN to relieve product inhibition and present evidence suggesting that the enzyme is half-site active and capable of undergoing multiple turnovers in vitro.

  1. The psychoactive compound of Cannabis sativa, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) inhibits the human trophoblast cell turnover.

    PubMed

    Costa, M A; Fonseca, B M; Marques, F; Teixeira, N A; Correia-da-Silva, G

    2015-08-01

    The noxious effects of cannabis consumption for fertility and pregnancy outcome are recognized for years. Its consumption during gestation is associated with alterations in foetal growth, low birth weight and preterm labor. The main psychoactive molecule of cannabis, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) impairs the production of reproductive hormones and is also able to cross the placenta barrier. However, its effect on the main placental cells, the trophoblasts, are unknown. Actually, the role of THC in cell survival/death of primary human cytotrophoblasts (CTs) and syncytiotrophoblasts (STs) and in the syncytialization process remains to be explored. Here, we show that THC has a dual effect, enhancing MTT metabolism at low concentrations, whereas higher doses decreased cell viability, on both trophoblast phenotypes, though the effects on STs were more evident. THC also diminished the generation of oxidative and nitrative stress and the oxidized form of glutathione, whereas the reduced form of this tripeptide was increased, suggesting that THC prevents ST cell death due to an antioxidant effect. Moreover, this compound enhanced the mitochondrial function of STs, as observed by the increased MTT metabolism and intracellular ATP levels. These effects were independent of cannabinoid receptors activation. Besides, THC impaired CT differentiation into STs, since it decreased the expression of biochemical and morphological biomarkers of syncytialization, through a cannabinoid receptor-dependent mechanism. Together, these results suggest that THC interferes with trophoblast turnover, preventing trophoblast cell death and differentiation, and contribute to disclose the cellular mechanisms that lead to pregnancy complications in women that consume cannabis-derived drugs during gestation. PMID:26070387

  2. The psychoactive compound of Cannabis sativa, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) inhibits the human trophoblast cell turnover.

    PubMed

    Costa, M A; Fonseca, B M; Marques, F; Teixeira, N A; Correia-da-Silva, G

    2015-08-01

    The noxious effects of cannabis consumption for fertility and pregnancy outcome are recognized for years. Its consumption during gestation is associated with alterations in foetal growth, low birth weight and preterm labor. The main psychoactive molecule of cannabis, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) impairs the production of reproductive hormones and is also able to cross the placenta barrier. However, its effect on the main placental cells, the trophoblasts, are unknown. Actually, the role of THC in cell survival/death of primary human cytotrophoblasts (CTs) and syncytiotrophoblasts (STs) and in the syncytialization process remains to be explored. Here, we show that THC has a dual effect, enhancing MTT metabolism at low concentrations, whereas higher doses decreased cell viability, on both trophoblast phenotypes, though the effects on STs were more evident. THC also diminished the generation of oxidative and nitrative stress and the oxidized form of glutathione, whereas the reduced form of this tripeptide was increased, suggesting that THC prevents ST cell death due to an antioxidant effect. Moreover, this compound enhanced the mitochondrial function of STs, as observed by the increased MTT metabolism and intracellular ATP levels. These effects were independent of cannabinoid receptors activation. Besides, THC impaired CT differentiation into STs, since it decreased the expression of biochemical and morphological biomarkers of syncytialization, through a cannabinoid receptor-dependent mechanism. Together, these results suggest that THC interferes with trophoblast turnover, preventing trophoblast cell death and differentiation, and contribute to disclose the cellular mechanisms that lead to pregnancy complications in women that consume cannabis-derived drugs during gestation.

  3. Inhibition by oxytocin of methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity related to dopamine turnover in the mesolimbic region in mice.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jia; Yang, Jing-Yu; Song, Ming; Li, Yan; Wang, Fang; Wu, Chun-Fu

    2008-02-01

    Accumulated data have shown the neuroactive properties of oxytocin (OT), a neurohypophyseal neuropeptide, and its capability of reducing the abuse potential of drugs. The present study investigated the effect of OT on methamphetamine (MAP)-induced hyperactivity in mice and its possible mechanism of action. Locomotor activity was measured after administered with MAP using an infrared sensor. High-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) was used to detect the content of monoamines and their metabolites in the striatum and accumbens and prefrontal cortex in mice after the behavioral test. OT (0.1, 0.5, and 2.5 microg/mouse, i.c.v.) had no effect on locomotor activity in naïve mice, but inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the hyperactivity induced by acute administration of MAP. Atosiban (Ato) (2.0 microg/mouse, i.c.v.), the selective inhibitor of OT receptor, attenuated the inhibitory effect of OT on MAP. A marked reduction of the ratios of 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) to dopamine (DA) was observed in the striatum and accumbens of mice after acute administration of MAP. OT (2.5 microg, i.c.v.) significantly inhibited the reduction of DOPAC/DA and HVA/DA ratios. However, Ato decreased the ratio of DOPAC/DA significantly in mice compared with OT (2.5 microg) in combination with MAP. There was no significant change in serotonin (5-HT) metabolism in mice after a single administration of MAP. These results suggested that OT inhibited the MAP-induced hyperactivity by altering the DA turnover in the mesolimbic region of mice.

  4. Negative regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate levels in early-to-late endosome conversion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kai; Jian, Youli; Sun, Xiaojuan; Yang, Chengkui; Gao, Zhiyang; Zhang, Zhili; Liu, Xuezhao; Li, Yang; Xu, Jing; Jing, Yudong; Mitani, Shohei; He, Sudan

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) plays a central role in endosome fusion, recycling, sorting, and early-to-late endosome conversion, but the mechanisms that determine how the correct endosomal PtdIns3P level is achieved remain largely elusive. Here we identify two new factors, SORF-1 and SORF-2, as essential PtdIns3P regulators in Caenorhabditis elegans. Loss of sorf-1 or sorf-2 leads to greatly elevated endosomal PtdIns3P, which drives excessive fusion of early endosomes. sorf-1 and sorf-2 function coordinately with Rab switching genes to inhibit synthesis of PtdIns3P, allowing its turnover for endosome conversion. SORF-1 and SORF-2 act in a complex with BEC-1/Beclin1, and their loss causes elevated activity of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) complex. In mammalian cells, inactivation of WDR91 and WDR81, the homologs of SORF-1 and SORF-2, induces Beclin1-dependent enlargement of PtdIns3P-enriched endosomes and defective degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor. WDR91 and WDR81 interact with Beclin1 and inhibit PI3K complex activity. These findings reveal a conserved mechanism that controls appropriate PtdIns3P levels in early-to-late endosome conversion. PMID:26783301

  5. Systems mechanobiology: tension-inhibited protein turnover is sufficient to physically control gene circuits.

    PubMed

    Dingal, P C Dave P; Discher, Dennis E

    2014-12-01

    Mechanotransduction pathways convert forces that stress and strain structures within cells into gene expression levels that impact development, homeostasis, and disease. The levels of some key structural proteins in the nucleus, cytoskeleton, or extracellular matrix have been recently reported to scale with tissue- and cell-level forces or mechanical properties such as stiffness, and so the mathematics of mechanotransduction becomes important to understand. Here, we show that if a given structural protein positively regulates its own gene expression, then stresses need only inhibit degradation of that protein to achieve stable, mechanosensitive gene expression. This basic use-it-or-lose-it module is illustrated by application to meshworks of nuclear lamin A, minifilaments of myosin II, and extracellular matrix collagen fibers—all of which possess filamentous coiled-coil/supercoiled structures. Past experiments not only suggest that tension suppresses protein degradation mediated and/or initiated by various enzymes but also that transcript levels vary with protein levels because key transcription factors are regulated by these structural proteins. Coupling between modules occurs within single cells and between cells in tissue, as illustrated during embryonic heart development where cardiac fibroblasts make collagen that cardiomyocytes contract. With few additional assumptions, the basic module has sufficient physics to control key structural genes in both development and disease. PMID:25468352

  6. Phospholipid turnover during phagocytosis in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes

    PubMed Central

    García Gil, Merche; Alonso, Fernando; Alvarez Chiva, Vicente; Sánchez Crespo, Mariano; Mato, José M.

    1982-01-01

    We have previously observed that the phagocytosis of zymosan particles coated with complement by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes is accompanied by a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of phosphatidylcholine synthesis by transmethylation [García Gil, Alonso, Sánchez Crespo & Mato (1981) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 101, 740–748]. The present studies show that phosphatidylcholine synthesis by a cholinephosphotransferase reaction is enhanced, up to 3-fold, during phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear cells. This effect was tested by both measuring the incorporation of radioactivity into phosphatidylcholine in cells labelled with [Me-14C]choline, and by assaying the activity of CDP-choline:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase. The time course of CDP-choline:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase activation by zymosan mirrors the inhibition of phospholipid methyltransferase activity previously reported. The extent of incorporation of radioactivity into phosphatidylcholine induced by various doses of zymosan correlates with the physiological response of the cells to this stimulus. This effect was specific for phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine turnover was not affected by zymosan. The purpose of this enhanced phosphatidylcholine synthesis is not to provide phospholipid molecules rich in arachidonic acid. The present studies show that about 80% of the arachidonic acid generated in response to zymosan derives from phosphatidylinositol. A transient accumulation of arachidonoyldiacylglycerol has also been observed, which indicates that a phospholipase C is responsible, at least in part, for the generation of arachidonic acid. Finally, isobutylmethylxanthine and quinacrine, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol turnover, inhibit both arachidonic acid generation and phagocytosis, indicating a function for this pathway during this process. PMID:6181780

  7. 7,3',4'-Trihydroxyisoflavone inhibits epidermal growth factor-induced proliferation and transformation of JB6 P+ mouse epidermal cells by suppressing cyclin-dependent kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Eun; Lee, Ki Won; Song, Nu Ry; Seo, Sang Kwon; Heo, Yong-Seok; Kang, Nam Joo; Bode, Ann M; Lee, Hyong Joo; Dong, Zigang

    2010-07-01

    Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that isoflavones exhibit anti-proliferative activity against epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-positive malignancies of the breast, colon, skin, and prostate. 7,3',4'-Trihydroxyisoflavone (7,3',4'-THIF) is one of the metabolites of daidzein, a well known soy isoflavone, but its chemopreventive activity and the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, 7,3',4'-THIF prevented EGF-induced neoplastic transformation and proliferation of JB6 P+ mouse epidermal cells. It significantly blocked cell cycle progression of EGF-stimulated cells at the G(1) phase. As shown by Western blot, 7,3',4'-THIF suppressed the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein at Ser-795 and Ser-807/Ser-811, which are the specific sites of phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4. It also inhibited the expression of G(1) phase-regulatory proteins, including cyclin D1, CDK4, cyclin E, and CDK2. In addition to regulating the expression of cell cycle-regulatory proteins, 7,3',4'-THIF bound to CDK4 and CDK2 and strongly inhibited their kinase activities. It also bound to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), strongly inhibiting its kinase activity and thereby suppressing the Akt/GSK-3beta/AP-1 pathway and subsequently attenuating the expression of cyclin D1. Collectively, these results suggest that CDKs and PI3K are the primary molecular targets of 7,3',4'-THIF in the suppression of EGF-induced cell proliferation. These insights into the biological actions of 7,3',4'-THIF provide a molecular basis for the possible development of new chemoprotective agents. PMID:20444693

  8. Inhibition of TREK-2 K(+) channels by PI(4,5)P2: an intrinsic mode of regulation by intracellular ATP via phosphatidylinositol kinase.

    PubMed

    Woo, Joohan; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Hyun Jong; Yoo, Hae Young; Zhang, Yin-Hua; Nam, Joo Hyun; Kim, Woo Kyung; Kim, Sung Joon

    2016-08-01

    TWIK-related two-pore domain K(+) channels 1 and 2 (TREKs) are activated under various physicochemical conditions. However, the directions in which they are regulated by PI(4,5)P2 and intracellular ATP are not clearly presented yet. In this study, we investigated the effects of ATP and PI(4,5)P2 on overexpressed TREKs (HEK293T and COS-7) and endogenously expressed TREK-2 (mouse astrocytes and WEHI-231 B cells). In all of these cells, both TREK-1 and TREK-2 currents were spontaneously increased by dialysis with ATP-free pipette solution for whole-cell recording (ITREK-1,w-c and ITREK-2w-c) or by membrane excision for inside-out patch clamping without ATP (ITREK-1,i-o and ITREK-2,i-o). Steady state ITREK-2,i-o was reversibly decreased by 3 mM ATP applied to the cytoplasmic side, and this reduction was prevented by wortmannin, a PI-kinase inhibitor. An exogenous application of PI(4,5)P2 inhibited the spontaneously increased ITREKs,i-o, suggesting that intrinsic PI(4,5)P2 maintained by intracellular ATP and PI kinase may set the basal activity of TREKs in the intact cells. The inhibition of intrinsic TREK-2 by ATP was more prominent in WEHI-231 cells than astrocytes. Interestingly, unspecific screening of negative charges by poly-L-lysine also inhibited ITREK-2,i-o. Application of PI(4,5)P2 after the poly-L-lysine treatment showed dose-dependent dual effects, initial activation and subsequent inhibition of ITREK-2,i-o at low and high concentrations, respectively. In HEK293T cells coexpressing TREK-2 and a voltage-sensitive PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase, sustained depolarization increased ITREK-2,w-c initially (<5 s) but then decreased the current below the control level. In HEK293T cells coexpressing TREK-2 and type 3 muscarinic receptor, application of carbachol induced transient activation and sustained suppression of ITREK-2,w-c and cell-attached ITREK-2. The inhibition of TREK-2 by unspecific electrostatic quenching, extensive dephosphorylation, or sustained hydrolysis

  9. Inhibition of TREK-2 K(+) channels by PI(4,5)P2: an intrinsic mode of regulation by intracellular ATP via phosphatidylinositol kinase.

    PubMed

    Woo, Joohan; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Hyun Jong; Yoo, Hae Young; Zhang, Yin-Hua; Nam, Joo Hyun; Kim, Woo Kyung; Kim, Sung Joon

    2016-08-01

    TWIK-related two-pore domain K(+) channels 1 and 2 (TREKs) are activated under various physicochemical conditions. However, the directions in which they are regulated by PI(4,5)P2 and intracellular ATP are not clearly presented yet. In this study, we investigated the effects of ATP and PI(4,5)P2 on overexpressed TREKs (HEK293T and COS-7) and endogenously expressed TREK-2 (mouse astrocytes and WEHI-231 B cells). In all of these cells, both TREK-1 and TREK-2 currents were spontaneously increased by dialysis with ATP-free pipette solution for whole-cell recording (ITREK-1,w-c and ITREK-2w-c) or by membrane excision for inside-out patch clamping without ATP (ITREK-1,i-o and ITREK-2,i-o). Steady state ITREK-2,i-o was reversibly decreased by 3 mM ATP applied to the cytoplasmic side, and this reduction was prevented by wortmannin, a PI-kinase inhibitor. An exogenous application of PI(4,5)P2 inhibited the spontaneously increased ITREKs,i-o, suggesting that intrinsic PI(4,5)P2 maintained by intracellular ATP and PI kinase may set the basal activity of TREKs in the intact cells. The inhibition of intrinsic TREK-2 by ATP was more prominent in WEHI-231 cells than astrocytes. Interestingly, unspecific screening of negative charges by poly-L-lysine also inhibited ITREK-2,i-o. Application of PI(4,5)P2 after the poly-L-lysine treatment showed dose-dependent dual effects, initial activation and subsequent inhibition of ITREK-2,i-o at low and high concentrations, respectively. In HEK293T cells coexpressing TREK-2 and a voltage-sensitive PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase, sustained depolarization increased ITREK-2,w-c initially (<5 s) but then decreased the current below the control level. In HEK293T cells coexpressing TREK-2 and type 3 muscarinic receptor, application of carbachol induced transient activation and sustained suppression of ITREK-2,w-c and cell-attached ITREK-2. The inhibition of TREK-2 by unspecific electrostatic quenching, extensive dephosphorylation, or sustained hydrolysis

  10. Light-stimulated inositolphospholipid turnover in Samanea saman leaf pulvini

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, M.J.; Crain, R.C.; Satter, R.L.

    1987-10-01

    Leaflets of Samanea saman open and close rhythmically, driven by an endogenous circadian clock. Light has a rapid, direct effect on the movements and also rephases the rhythm. The authors investigated whether light signals might be mediated by increased inositolphospholipid turnover, a mechanism for signal transduction that is widely utilized in animal systems. Samanea motor organs (pulvini) labeled with (/sup 3/H)inositol were irradiated briefly (5-30 sec) with white light, and membrane-localized phosphatidylinositol phosphates and their aqueous breakdown products, the inositol phosphates, were examined. After a 15-sec or longer light pulse, labeled phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate decreased and their labeled metabolic products inositol 1,4-biphosphate and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate increased changes characteristic of inositolphospholipid turnover. The authors conclude that inositolphospholipid turnover may act as a phototransduction mechanism in Samanea pulvini in a manner that is similar to that reported in animal systems.

  11. Inhibition of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/AKT Signaling by NVP-BKM120 Promotes ABT-737–Induced Toxicity in a Caspase-Dependent Manner through Mitochondrial Dysfunction and DNA Damage Response in Established and Primary Cultured Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jane, Esther P.; Premkumar, Daniel R.; Morales, Alejandro; Foster, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of therapeutic strategies that might enhance the efficacy of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) inhibitor ABT-737 [N-{4-[4-(4-chloro-biphenyl-2-ylmethyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-benzoyl}-4-(3-dimethylamino-1-phenylsulfanylmethyl-propylamino)-3-nitro-benzenesulfonamide] is of great interest in many cancers, including glioma. Our recent study suggested that Akt is a crucial mediator of apoptosis sensitivity in response to ABT-737 in glioma cell lines. Inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt are currently being assessed clinically in patients with glioma. Because PI3K/Akt inhibition would be expected to have many proapoptotic effects, we hypothesized that there may be unique synergy between PI3K inhibitors and Bcl-2 homology 3 mimetics. Toward this end, we assessed the combination of the PI3K/Akt inhibitor NVP-BKM120 [5-(2,6-dimorpholinopyrimidin-4-yl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-amine] and the Bcl-2 family inhibitor ABT-737 in established and primary cultured glioma cells. We found that the combined treatment with these agents led to a significant activation of caspase-8 and -3, PARP, and cell death, irrespective of PTEN status. The enhanced lethality observed with this combination also appears dependent on the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c, smac/DIABLO, and apoptosis-inducing factor to the cytosol. Further study revealed that the upregulation of Noxa, truncation of Bid, and activation of Bax and Bak caused by these inhibitors were the key factors for the synergy. In addition, we demonstrated the release of proapoptotic proteins Bim and Bak from Mcl-1. We found defects in chromosome segregation leading to multinuclear cells and loss of colony-forming ability, suggesting the potential use of NVP-BKM120 as a promising agent to improve the anticancer activities of ABT-737. PMID:24741074

  12. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/AKT Pathway Inhibition by Doxazosin Promotes Glioblastoma Cells Death, Upregulation of p53 and Triggers Low Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Gaelzer, Mariana Maier; Coelho, Bárbara Paranhos; de Quadros, Alice Hoffmann; Hoppe, Juliana Bender; Terra, Silvia Resende; Guerra, Maria Cristina Barea; Usach, Vanina; Guma, Fátima Costa Rodrigues; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto Saraiva; Setton-Avruj, Patrícia; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira; Salbego, Christianne Gazzana

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most frequent and malignant brain tumor. Treatment includes chemotherapy with temozolomide concomitant with surgical resection and/or irradiation. However, a number of cases are resistant to temozolomide, as well as the human glioblastoma cell line U138-MG. We investigated doxazosin’s (an antihypertensive drug) activity against glioblastoma cells (C6 and U138-MG) and its neurotoxicity on primary astrocytes and organoptypic hippocampal cultures. For this study, the following methods were used: citotoxicity assays, flow cytometry, western-blotting and confocal microscopy. We showed that doxazosin induces cell death on C6 and U138-MG cells. We observed that doxazosin’s effects on the PI3K/Akt pathway were similar as LY294002 (PI3K specific inhibitor). In glioblastoma cells treated with doxasozin, Akt levels were greatly reduced. Upon examination of activities of proteins downstream of Akt we observed upregulation of GSK-3β and p53. This led to cell proliferation inhibition, cell death induction via caspase-3 activation and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in glioblastoma cells. We used in this study Lapatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as a comparison with doxazosin because they present similar chemical structure. We also tested the neurocitotoxicity of doxazosin in primary astrocytes and organotypic cultures and observed that doxazosin induced cell death on a small percentage of non-tumor cells. Aggressiveness of glioblastoma tumors and dismal prognosis require development of new treatment agents. This includes less toxic drugs, more selective towards tumor cells, causing less damage to the patient. Therefore, our results confirm the potential of doxazosin as an attractive therapeutic antiglioma agent. PMID:27123999

  13. Synthesis and Turnover of Embryonic Sea Urchin Ciliary Proteins during Selective Inhibition of Tubulin Synthesis and Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Raymond E.

    1997-01-01

    When ciliogenesis first occurs in sea urchin embryos, the major building block proteins, tubulin and dynein, exist in substantial pools, but most 9+2 architectural proteins must be synthesized de novo. Pulse-chase labeling with [3H]leucine demonstrates that these proteins are coordinately up-regulated in response to deciliation so that regeneration ensues and the tubulin and dynein pools are replenished. Protein labeling and incorporation into already-assembled cilia is high, indicating constitutive ciliary gene expression and steady-state turnover. To determine whether either the synthesis of tubulin or the size of its available pool is coupled to the synthesis or turnover of the other 9+2 proteins in some feedback manner, fully-ciliated mid- or late-gastrula stage Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis embryos were pulse labeled in the presence of colchicine or taxol at concentrations that block ciliary growth. As a consequence of tubulin autoregulation mediated by increased free tubulin, no labeling of ciliary tubulin occurred in colchicine-treated embryos. However, most other proteins were labeled and incorporated into steady-state cilia at near-control levels in the presence of colchicine or taxol. With taxol, tubulin was labeled as well. An axoneme-associated 78 kDa cognate of the molecular chaperone HSP70 correlated with length during regeneration; neither colchicine nor taxol influenced the association of this protein in steady-state cilia. These data indicate that 1) ciliary protein synthesis and turnover is independent of tubulin synthesis or tubulin pool size; 2) steady-state incorporation of labeled proteins cannot be due to formation or elongation of cilia; 3) substantial tubulin exchange takes place in fully-motile cilia; and 4) chaperone presence and association in steady-state cilia is independent of background ciliogenesis, tubulin synthesis, and tubulin assembly state. PMID:9362062

  14. Androgen inhibits neurotransmitter turnover in the medial prefrontal cortex of the rat following exposure to a novel environment.

    PubMed

    Handa, R J; Hejna, G M; Lorens, S A

    1997-03-14

    Previous studies have demonstrated that gonadal steroid hormones affect the neuroendocrine response to a novel environment and other stressors. Introduction to a novel environment also increases neurotransmitter turnover in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). In this study, we examined the possibility that gonadal steroid hormones could similarly modulate the neurotransmitter response to a novel environment in the MPFC of the male rat. Male Fischer 344 rats at 3 months of age were gonadectomized (GDX'd) and implanted with Silastic capsules containing dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHTP, a non-aromatizable form of androgen), 17 beta-estradiol (E), or placebo. Control animals were left intact. Each of these groups was further divided into a group introduced to a novel environment or a home cage control group. Animals exposed to a novel environment were killed after spending 20 min in a novel open field, whereas control animals were killed immediately upon removal from their home cage. Using high performance liquid chromatography, the MPFC was assayed for tissue levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA); norepinephrine (NE) and its metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG); or serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA). The introduction to a novel environment caused significant increases in turnover of all three neurochemicals examined as estimated by metabolite/precursor ratios. These increases were characterized by increases in DOPAC, HVA, MHPG and 5-HIAA coupled with decreases in DA, NE and 5-HT. There was no effect of GDX on neurotransmitter turnover, however, treatment of GDX animals with DHTP prevented the open field induced increase in DOPAC/DA, MHPG/NE, and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio. Treatment of GDX animals with estrogen had the opposite effect of DHTP, DOPAC/DA and MHPG/NE ratios increased to a greater level following the introduction to a novel environment than

  15. Anti-adaptors use distinct modes of binding to inhibit the RssB-dependent turnover of RpoS (σS) by ClpXP

    PubMed Central

    Micevski, Dimce; Zammit, Jessica E.; Truscott, Kaye N.; Dougan, David A.

    2015-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, σS is the master regulator of the general stress response. The level of σS changes in response to multiple stress conditions and it is regulated at many levels including protein turnover. In the absence of stress, σS is rapidly degraded by the AAA+ protease, ClpXP in a regulated manner that depends on the adaptor protein RssB. This two-component response regulator mediates the recognition of σS and its delivery to ClpXP. The turnover of σS however, can be inhibited in a stress specific manner, by one of three anti-adaptor proteins. Each anti-adaptor binds to RssB and inhibits its activity, but how this is achieved is not fully understood at a molecular level. Here, we describe details of the interaction between each anti-adaptor and RssB that leads to the stabilization of σS. By defining the domains of RssB using partial proteolysis we demonstrate that each anti-adaptor uses a distinct mode of binding to inhibit RssB activity. IraD docks specifically to the N-terminal domain of RssB, IraP interacts primarily with the C-terminal domain, while IraM interacts with both domains. Despite these differences in binding, we propose that docking of each anti-adaptor induces a conformational change in RssB, which resembles the inactive dimer of RssB. This dimer-like state of RssB not only prevents substrate binding but also triggers substrate release from a pre-bound complex. PMID:25988182

  16. Turnover Time

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecosystems contain energy and materials such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and water, and are open to their flow-through. Turnover time refers to the amount of time required for replacement by flow-through of the energy or substance of interest contained in the system, and is ...

  17. Pseudopterosin A inhibits phagocytosis and alters intracellular calcium turnover in a pertussis toxin sensitive site in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Moya, Claudia E; Jacobs, Robert S

    2006-08-01

    The free living ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila was chosen as a cellular model in order to investigate the mode of action of the anti-inflammatory marine natural product Pseudopterosin A (PsA). In this paper we present evidence that PsA inhibits phagosome formation (KD=10.5 microM) and triggers a discrete intracellular calcium release (depletion) from a site in T. thermophila cells (KD=6.4 microM). Pre-treatment with the Gi/o protein inhibitor, pertussis toxin (PTX), inhibits PsA activity of both responses providing pharmacological evidence that the site of action for PsA is at a PTX sensitive G protein or a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR). Addition of extracellular calcium induced a concentration dependent increase in the incidence of phagosome formation (KD=30.3 microM) and was blocked by PsA pre-treatment. This particular effect of PsA on extracellular calcium was not blocked by PTX pre-treatment.

  18. Phosphatidic acid stimulates cardiac KATP channels like phosphatidylinositols, but with novel gating kinetics.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zheng; Gao, Lizhi; Wang, Wenxia

    2003-01-01

    Membrane-bound anionic phospholipids such as phosphatidylinositols have the capacity to modulate ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels through a mechanism involving long-range electrostatic interaction between the lipid headgroup and channel. However, it has not yet been determined whether the multiple effects of phosphatidylinositols reported in the literature all result from this general electrostatic interaction or require a specific headgroup structure. The present study investigated whether phosphatidic acid (PA), an anionic phospholipid substantially different in structure from phosphatidylinositols, evokes effects similar to phosphatidylinositols on native K(ATP) channels of rat heart and heterogeneous Kir6.2/SUR2A channels. Channels treated with PA (0.2-1 mg/ml applied to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane) exhibited higher activity, lower sensitivity to ATP inhibition, less Mg(2+)-dependent nucleotide stimulation, and poor sulfonylurea inhibition. These effects match the spectrum of phosphatidylinositols' effects, but, in addition, PA also induced a novel pattern in gating kinetics, represented by a decreased mean open time (from 12.2 +/- 2.0 to 3.3 +/- 0.7 ms). This impact on gating kinetics clearly distinguishes PA's effects from those of phosphatidylinositols. Results indicate that multiple effects of anionic phospholipids on K(ATP) channels are related phenomena and can likely be attributed to a common mechanism, but additional specific effects due to other mechanisms may also coincide.

  19. Phosphatidylinositol kinase from rabbit reticulocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Tuazon, P.T.; Heng, A.B.W.; Traugh, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase was isolated from the postribosomal supernatant of rabbit reticulocytes. This activity was identified by the formation of a product that comigrated with phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PIP) when purified PI was phosphorylated in the presence of (/sup 32/P)ATP and Mg/sup 2 +/. Three major peaks of PI kinase activity were resolved by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The first peak eluted at 50-100 mM NaCl together with several serine protein kinases, casein kinase (CK) I and protease activated kinase (PAK) I and II. The PI kinase was subsequently separated from the protein kinases by chromatography on phosphocellulose. The second peak eluted at 125-160 mM NaCl and contained another lipid kinase activity that produced a product which comigrated with phosphatidic acid on thin layer chromatography. The third peak, which eluted at 165-200 mM NaCl, partly comigrated with casein kinase (CK) II and an active protein kinase(s) which phosphorylated mixed histone and histone I. CK II and the histone kinase activities were also separated by chromatography on phosphocelluslose. The different forms of PI kinase were characterized and compared with respect to substrate and salt requirements.

  20. Inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandins, but not endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factors, reduces blood flow and aerobic energy turnover in the exercising human leg.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Stefan P; González-Alonso, José; Damsgaard, Rasmus; Saltin, Bengt; Hellsten, Ylva

    2007-06-01

    Prostaglandins, nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs) are substances that have been proposed to be involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow during physical activity. We measured haemodynamics, plasma ATP at rest and during one-legged knee-extensor exercise (19 +/- 1 W) in nine healthy subjects with and without intra-arterial infusion of indomethacin (Indo; 621 +/- 17 microg min(-1)), Indo + N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; 12.4 +/- 0.3 mg min(-1)) (double blockade) and Indo + L-NMMA + tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA; 12.4 +/- 0.3 mg min(-1)) (triple blockade). Double and triple blockade lowered leg blood flow (LBF) at rest (P<0.05), while it remained unchanged with Indo. During exercise, LBF and vascular conductance were 2.54 +/- 0.10 l min(-1) and 25 +/- 1 mmHg, respectively, in control and they were lower with double (33 +/- 3 and 36 +/- 4%, respectively) and triple (26 +/- 4 and 28 +/- 3%, respectively) blockade (P<0.05), while there was no difference with Indo. The lower LBF and vascular conductance with double and triple blockade occurred in parallel with a lower O(2) delivery, cardiac output, heart rate and plasma [noradrenaline] (P<0.05), while blood pressure remained unchanged and O(2) extraction and femoral venous plasma [ATP] increased. Despite the increased O(2) extraction, leg was 13 and 17% (triple and double blockade, respectively) lower than control in parallel to a lower femoral venous temperature and lactate release (P<0.05). These results suggest that NO and prostaglandins play important roles in skeletal muscle blood flow regulation during moderate intensity exercise and that EDHFs do not compensate for the impaired formation of NO and prostaglandins. Moreover, inhibition of NO and prostaglandin formation is associated with a lower aerobic energy turnover and increased concentration of vasoactive ATP in plasma. PMID:17347273

  1. Bimodal lipid substrate dependence of phosphatidylinositol kinase.

    PubMed

    Ganong, B R

    1990-07-24

    Phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase activity was solubilized from rat liver microsomes and partially purified by chromatography on hydroxyapatite and Reactive Green 19-Superose. Examination of the ATP dependence using a mixed micellar assay gave a Km of 120 microM. The dependence of reaction rate on PI was more complicated. PI kinase bound a large amount of Triton X-100, and as expected for a micelle-associated enzyme utilizing a micelle-associated lipid substrate, the reaction rate was dependent on the micellar mole fraction, PI/(PI + Triton X-100), with a Km of 0.02 (unitless). Activity showed an additional dependence on bulk PI concentration at high micelle dilution. These results demonstrated two kinetically distinguishable steps leading to formation of a productive PI/enzyme(/ATP) complex. The rate of the first step, which probably represents exchange of PI from the bulk micellar pool into enzyme-containing micelles, depends on bulk PI concentration. The rate of the second step, association of PI with enzyme within a single micelle, depends on the micellar mole fraction of PI. Depression of the apparent Vmax at low ionic strength suggested that electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged PI/Triton X-100 mixed micelles inhibits PI exchange, consistent with a model in which intermicellar PI exchange depends on micellar collisions.

  2. Structural basis for phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Oliver B.; Tomasek, David; Jorge, Carla D.; Dufrisne, Meagan Belcher; Kim, Minah; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Santos, Helena; Mancia, Filippo

    2015-10-01

    Phosphatidylinositol is critical for intracellular signalling and anchoring of carbohydrates and proteins to outer cellular membranes. The defining step in phosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is catalysed by CDP-alcohol phosphotransferases, transmembrane enzymes that use CDP-diacylglycerol as donor substrate for this reaction, and either inositol in eukaryotes or inositol phosphate in prokaryotes as the acceptor alcohol. Here we report the structures of a related enzyme, the phosphatidylinositol-phosphate synthase from Renibacterium salmoninarum, with and without bound CDP-diacylglycerol to 3.6 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. These structures reveal the location of the acceptor site, and the molecular determinants of substrate specificity and catalysis. Functional characterization of the 40%-identical ortholog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a potential target for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis drugs, supports the proposed mechanism of substrate binding and catalysis. This work therefore provides a structural and functional framework to understand the mechanism of phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis.

  3. Structural basis for phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Oliver B.; Tomasek, David; Jorge, Carla D.; Dufrisne, Meagan Belcher; Kim, Minah; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Santos, Helena; Mancia, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol is critical for intracellular signalling and anchoring of carbohydrates and proteins to outer cellular membranes. The defining step in phosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is catalysed by CDP-alcohol phosphotransferases, transmembrane enzymes that use CDP-diacylglycerol as donor substrate for this reaction, and either inositol in eukaryotes or inositol phosphate in prokaryotes as the acceptor alcohol. Here we report the structures of a related enzyme, the phosphatidylinositol-phosphate synthase from Renibacterium salmoninarum, with and without bound CDP-diacylglycerol to 3.6 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. These structures reveal the location of the acceptor site, and the molecular determinants of substrate specificity and catalysis. Functional characterization of the 40%-identical ortholog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a potential target for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis drugs, supports the proposed mechanism of substrate binding and catalysis. This work therefore provides a structural and functional framework to understand the mechanism of phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis. PMID:26510127

  4. Transient increase in phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate during activation of human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Traynor-Kaplan, A E; Thompson, B L; Harris, A L; Taylor, P; Omann, G M; Sklar, L A

    1989-09-15

    We recently showed that phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate (PIP3) was present in a unique lipid fraction generated in neutrophils during activation. Here, we demonstrate that the band containing this fraction isolated from thin layer chromatography consists primarily of PIP3 and that only small amounts of radiolabeled PIP3 exist prior to activation. In addition, high performance liquid chromatography of deacylated phospholipids from stimulated cells reveals an increase in a fraction eluting ahead of glycerophosphoinositol 4,5-P2. After removal of the glycerol we found that it coeluted with inositol 1,3,4-P3 when resubjected to high performance liquid chromatography. Thus, we have detected a second, novel form of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate in activated neutrophils, PI-(3,4)P2. The elevation of PIP3 through the formyl peptide receptor is blocked by pretreatment with pertussis toxin, implicating mediation of the increase in PIP3 by a guanosine triphosphate-binding (G) protein. The rise in PIP3 is not secondary to calcium elevation. Buffering the rise in intracellular calcium did not diminish the increase in PIP3. The elevation of PIP3 appears to occur during activation with physiological agonists, its level varying with the degree of activation. Leukotriene B4, which elicits many of the same responses as stimulation of the formyl peptide receptor but with minimal oxidant production, stimulates a much attenuated rise in PIP3. Isoproterenol, which inhibits oxidant production also reduces the rise in PIP3. Hence formation of PI(3,4)P2 and PIP3 (presumed to be PI(3,4,5)P3) correlates closely with the early events of neutrophil activation. PMID:2549071

  5. Effects of polyamines and calcium and sodium ions on smooth muscle cytoskeleton-associated phosphatidylinositol (4)-phosphate 5-kinase.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Baron, C B; Griffiths, T; Greeley, P; Coburn, R F

    1998-10-01

    In many different cell types, including smooth muscle cells (Baron et al., 1989, Am. J. Physiol., 256: C375-383; Baron et al., J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 266: 8-15), phosphatidylinositol (4)-phosphate 5-kinase plays a critical role in the regulation of membrane concentrations of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate and formation of inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate. In unstimulated porcine trachealis smooth muscle, 70% of total cellular phosphatidylinositol (4)-phosphate 5-kinase activity was associated with cytoskeletal proteins and only trace activity was detectable in isolated sarcolemma. Using two different preparations, we studied cytoskeleton-associated phosphatidyl inositol (4)-phosphate 5-kinase under conditions that attempted to mimic the ionic and thermal cytoplasmic environment of living cells. The cytoskeleton-associated enzyme, studied using phosphatidylinositol (4)-phosphate substrate concentrations that produced phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate at about 10% of the maximal rate, was sensitive to free [Mg2+], had an absolute requirement for phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid, or phosphatidylinositol, and included type I isoforms. At 0.5 mM free [Mg2+], physiological spermine concentrations, 0.2-0.4 mM, increased phosphatidylinositol (4)-phosphate 5-kinase activity two to four times compared to controls run without spermine. The EC50 for spermine-evoked increases in activity was 0.17 +/- 0.02 mM. Spermine-evoked enzyme activity was a function of both free [Mg2+] and substrate concentration. Cytoskeleton-associated phosphatidylinositol (4)-phosphate 5-kinase was inhibited by free [Ca2+] over a physiological range for cytoplasm--10(-8) to 10(-5) M, an effect independent of the presence of calmodulin. Na+ over the range 20 to 50 mM also inhibited this enzyme activated by 5 mM Mg2+ but had no effect on spermine-activated enzyme. Na+, Ca2+, and spermine appear to be physiological modulators of smooth muscle cytoskeleton-bound phosphatidylinositol (4

  6. A repressor sequence in the juxtamembrane domain of Flt-1 (VEGFR-1) constitutively inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase activation and endothelial cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Gille, Hendrik; Kowalski, Joe; Yu, Lanlan; Chen, Helen; Pisabarro, M.Teresa; Davis-Smyth, Terri; Ferrara, Napoleone

    2000-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has two highly homologous tyrosine kinase receptors: Flt-1 (VEGFR-1) and KDR (VEGFR-2). KDR is strongly phosphorylated on tyrosines and can transmit mitogenic and motogenic signals following VEGF binding, while Flt-1 is markedly less effective in mediating such functions. To dissect the regions that account for the differences between the two receptors, we generated a series of chimeric Flt-1–KDR molecules. We found that the juxtamembrane region of Flt-1 prevents key signaling functions. When the juxtamembrane region of Flt-1 is replaced by that of KDR, Flt-1 becomes competent to mediate endothelial cell migration and phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase activation in response to VEGF. Further mutational analysis shows that a short divergent sequence is responsible for such repressor function. However, mutant Flt-1 receptors lacking this sequence do not transmit effective proliferative signals, suggesting that this receptor function is regulated separately. These results define a novel functional domain that serves to repress Flt-1 activity in endothelial cells. PMID:10921887

  7. Inhibition of either phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt or the mitogen/extracellular-regulated kinase, MEK/ERK, signaling pathways suppress growth of breast cancer cell lines, but MEK/ERK signaling is critical for cell survival.

    PubMed

    Ripple, Maureen O; Kalmadi, Sahana; Eastman, Alan

    2005-09-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways are important integrators of growth and survival signals originating from extracellular stimuli. We assessed the importance of these signaling pathways in the growth and survival of 8 breast cell lines (MCF10A, an immortalized line; and 7 cancer cell lines). The cell lines expressed variable levels of both phosphorylated ERK and phosphorylated Akt, but these were unchanged by incubation in serum-free medium. Despite continued activity of these pathways, the cells arrested growth in the absence of serum demonstrating that additional pathways are required for growth. Incubation with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 suppressed growth of all cell lines, but most remained viable for at least 7-14 days. This long-term survival may be attributable to recovery of phospho-Akt by 24-48 h despite the continued presence of active LY294002, suggesting that alternate pathways may be activating Akt. In contrast, incubation with the MEK inhibitor U0126 not only arrested growth, but also killed all the cell lines within 2-4 days in the absence of serum; the presence of serum only slighted extended viability, except in MCF10A and MDA-MB-468 cells, in which serum provided significantly greater protection. It is likely that these signaling pathways control the level of pro-and anti-apoptotic proteins, yet assessment of Bcl-2 and Bcl-X showed dramatic reduction in level only when large numbers of cells were dead suggesting this may be a consequence rather than cause of death. Overall, the results demonstrate that the MEK/ERK pathway represents the more critical pathway for cell survival of these breast cancer cell lines, and suggest this pathways represents the better target for cancer therapy.

  8. Imaging phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate dynamics in living plant cells.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, Joop E M; Thole, Julie M; Goedhart, Joachim; Nielsen, Erik; Munnik, Teun; Gadella, Theodorus W J

    2009-01-01

    Polyphosphoinositides represent a minor group of phospholipids, accounting for less than 1% of the total. Despite their low abundance, these molecules have been implicated in various signalling and membrane trafficking events. Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) is the most abundant polyphosphoinositide. (32)Pi-labelling studies have shown that the turnover of PtdIns4P is rapid, but little is known about where in the cell or plant this occurs. Here, we describe the use of a lipid biosensor that monitors PtdIns4P dynamics in living plant cells. The biosensor consists of a fusion between a fluorescent protein and a lipid-binding domain that specifically binds PtdIns4P, i.e. the pleckstrin homology domain of the human protein phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate adaptor protein-1 (FAPP1). YFP-PH(FAPP1) was expressed in four plant systems: transiently in cowpea protoplasts, and stably in tobacco BY-2 cells, Medicago truncatula roots and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. All systems allowed YFP-PH(FAPP1) expression without detrimental effects. Two distinct fluorescence patterns were observed: labelling of motile punctate structures and the plasma membrane. Co-expression studies with organelle markers revealed strong co-labelling with the Golgi marker STtmd-CFP, but not with the endocytic/pre-vacuolar marker GFP-AtRABF2b. Co-expression with the Ptdins3P biosensor YFP-2 x FYVE revealed totally different localization patterns. During cell division, YFP-PH(FAPP1) showed strong labelling of the cell plate, but PtdIns3P was completely absent from the newly formed cell membrane. In root hairs of M. truncatula and A. thaliana, a clear PtdIns4P gradient was apparent in the plasma membrane, with the highest concentration in the tip. This only occurred in growing root hairs, indicating a role for PtdIns4P in tip growth.

  9. Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase α activation critically contributes to CD28-dependent signaling responses.

    PubMed

    Muscolini, Michela; Camperio, Cristina; Capuano, Cristina; Caristi, Silvana; Piccolella, Enza; Galandrini, Ricciarda; Tuosto, Loretta

    2013-05-15

    CD28 is one of the most relevant costimulatory receptors that deliver both TCR-dependent and TCR-independent signals regulating a wide range of signaling pathways crucial for cytokine and chemokine gene expressions, T cell survival, and proliferation. Most of the CD28-dependent signaling functions are initiated by the recruitment and activation of class IA PI3Ks, which catalyze the conversion of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2) into phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate, thus generating the docking sites for key signaling proteins. Hence, PIP2 is a crucial substrate in driving the PI3K downstream signaling pathways, and PIP2 turnover may be an essential regulatory step to ensure the activation of PI3K following CD28 engagement. Despite some data evidence that CD28 augments TCR-induced turnover of PIP2, its direct role in regulating PIP2 metabolism has never been assessed. In this study, we show that CD28 regulates PIP2 turnover by recruiting and activating phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinases α (PIP5Kα) in human primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes. This event leads to the neosynthesis of PIP2 and to its consumption by CD28-activated PI3K. We also evidenced that PIP5Kα activation is required for both CD28 unique signals regulating IL-8 gene expression as well as for CD28/TCR-induced Ca(2+) mobilization, NF-AT nuclear translocation, and IL-2 gene transcription. Our findings elucidate a novel mechanism that involves PIP5Kα as a key modulator of CD28 costimulatory signals.

  10. A new chemical probe for phosphatidylinositol kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Sherratt, Allison R; Nasheri, Neda; McKay, Craig S; O'Hara, Shifawn; Hunt, Ashley; Ning, Zhibin; Figeys, Daniel; Goto, Natalie K; Pezacki, John Paul

    2014-06-16

    Phosphatidylinositol kinases (PIKs) are key enzymatic regulators of membrane phospholipids and membrane environments that control many aspects of cellular function, from signal transduction to secretion, through the Golgi apparatus. Here, we have developed a photoreactive "clickable" probe, PIK-BPyne, to report the activity of PIKs. We investigated the selectivity and efficiency of the probe to both inhibit and label PIKs, and we compared PIK-BPyne to a wortmannin activity-based probe also known to target PIKs. We found that PIK-BPyne can act as an effective in situ activity-based probe, and for the first time, report changes in PI4K-IIIβ activity induced by the hepatitis C virus. These results establish the utility of PIK-BPyne for activity-based protein profiling studies of PIK function in native biological systems. PMID:24850173

  11. Altered bone turnover during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. T.; Morey, E. R.; Liu, C.; Baylink, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    Modifications in calcium metabolism during spaceflight were studied, using parameters that reflect bone turnover. Bone formation rate, medullary area, bone length, bone density, pore size distribution, and differential bone cell number were evaluated in growing rate both immediately after and 25 days after orbital spaceflights aboard the Soviet biological satellites Cosmos 782 and 936. The primary effect of space flight on bone turnover was a reversible inhibition of bone formation at the periosteal surface. A simultaneous increase in the length of the periosteal arrest line suggests that bone formation ceased along corresponding portions of that surface. Possible reasons include increased secretion of glucocorticoids and mechanical unloading of the skeleton due to near-weightlessness, while starvation and immobilization are excluded as causes.

  12. Coated vesicles contain a phosphatidylinositol kinase.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C R; Fishman, J B; Fine, R E

    1985-09-15

    When coated vesicles (CVs) are incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP, radioactivity is rapidly incorporated into a compound identified by thin layer chromatography as phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate. This activity has been identified in CVs isolated from bovine brain as well as from rat liver and chick embryo skeletal muscle. Phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase is not separated from CVs during agarose electrophoresis, which produces CVs of greater than 95% purity, indicating that the activity present does not derive from contamination. The specific activity of these highly purified CVs was demonstrated to be approximately twice that of synaptic plasma membranes, further ruling out contamination from this source. The PI kinase remains associated with the vesicle upon removal of clathrin and its associated proteins and is solubilized by nonionic detergents, suggesting it is an integral membrane protein. We have been unable to demonstrate the formation of significant amounts of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in any of our CV preparations. In the presence of exogenous PI, activity is stimulated, with maximal phosphorylation occurring at 0.1 mM. The enzyme appears to be maximally stimulated by 200 mM MgCl2 and 1 mM ATP and is most active at pH 7.25. Calculations indicate that, under optimal conditions, approximately 25 molecules of PIP are produced per CV within 60 s, suggesting that these structures may play an important role in cellular PI metabolism. PMID:2863269

  13. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 promotes amyloid precursor protein (APP) turnover by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) activity: novel mechanism for Pin1 to protect against Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Ma, Suk Ling; Pastorino, Lucia; Zhou, Xiao Zhen; Lu, Kun Ping

    2012-03-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of senile plaques of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP) and neurofibrillary tangles made of hyperphosphorylated Tau. Increasing APP gene dosage or expression has been shown to cause familial early-onset AD. However, whether and how protein stability of APP is regulated is unclear. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) have been shown to have the opposite effects on APP processing and Tau hyperphosphorylation, relevant to the pathogenesis of AD. However, nothing is known about their relationship. In this study, we found that Pin1 binds to the pT330-P motif in GSK3β to inhibit its kinase activity. Furthermore, Pin1 promotes protein turnover of APP by inhibiting GSK3β activity. A point mutation either at Thr-330, the Pin1-binding site in GSK3β, or at Thr-668, the GSK3β phosphorylation site in APP, abolished the regulation of GSK3β activity, Thr-668 phosphorylation, and APP stability by Pin1, resulting in reduced non-amyloidogenic APP processing and increased APP levels. These results uncover a novel role of Pin1 in inhibiting GSK3β kinase activity to reduce APP protein levels, providing a previously unrecognized mechanism by which Pin1 protects against Alzheimer disease.

  14. Release of alkaline phosphatase from membranes by a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Low, M G; Finean, J B

    1977-10-01

    Purified phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Staphylococcus aureus released a substantial proportion of the total alkaline phosphatase activity from a wide range of tissues from several mammalian species. Co-purification of the phospholipase C and alkaline phosphatase-releasing activities and the inhibition of both these activities by iso-osmotic salt solutions suggested that the releasing effect was unlikely to be due to a contaminant.

  15. Phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate and Phosphatidylinositol(4)phosphate in Plant Tissues 1

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, R. F.; Letcher, A. J.; Lander, D. J.; Drøbak, B. K.; Dawson, A. P.; Musgrave, A.

    1989-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) leaf discs or swimming suspensions of Chlamydomonas eugametos were radiolabeled with [3H]myo-inositol or [32P]Pi and the lipids were extracted, deacylated, and their glycerol moieties removed. The resulting inositol trisphosphate and bisphosphate fractions were examined by periodate degradation, reduction and dephosphorylation, or by incubation with human red cell membranes. Their likely structures were identified as d-myo-inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate and d-myo-inositol(1,4,)-bisphosphate. It is concluded that plants contain phosphatidylinositol(4)phosphate and phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate; no other polyphosphoinositides were detected. PMID:16666637

  16. Phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol(4)phosphate in plant tissues. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.F.; Letcher, A.J.; Lander, D.J. ); Dawson, A.P. ); Musgrave, A. ); Drobak, B.K. )

    1989-03-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) leaf discs or swimming suspensions of Chlamydomonas eugametos were radiolabeled with ({sup 3}H)myo-inositol or ({sup 32}P)Pi and the lipids were extracted, deacylated, and their glycerol moieties removed. The resulting inositol trisphosphate and bisphosphate fractions were examined by periodate degradation, reduction and dephosphorylation, or by incubation with human red cell membranes. Their likely structures were identified as D-myo-inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate and D-myo-inositol(1,4,)-bisphosphate. It is concluded that plants contain phosphatidylinositol(4)phosphate and phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate; no other polyphosphoinositides were detected.

  17. Inhibitory effects of ethanol on phosphatidylinositol breakdown in pancreatic acini

    SciTech Connect

    Towner, S.J.; Peppin, J.F.; Tsukamoto, H.

    1986-03-01

    Recently the physiological relationship between the phospholipid effect and secretagogue-induced cellular function has begun to be understood. In this study, the authors investigated acute and chronic effects of ethanol on phosphatidylinositol (PI) synthesis and breakdown in pancreatic acini. Five pairs of male Wistar rats were intragastrically infused for 30 days with high fat diet (25% total calories) plus ethanol or isocaloric dextrose. After intoxication, isolated in HEPES media, followed by 30 min incubation with CCK-8 (0, 100, 300 or 600 pM) and ethanol (0 or 100 mM). Acinar lipids were extracted and counted for labeled PI. Incorporation of /sup 3/H-inositol into alcoholic acinar PI was reduced to 38.2% of that in controls. A percent maximal PI break down by CCK-8 was similar in the two groups (13-24% of basal). However, the magnitude of PI breakdown was markedly lower in alcoholic acini (482 vs 1081 dpm) due to the decreased PI synthesis rate. The presence of 100 mM ethanol in the media further inhibited the breakdown by 50% in this group. These results strongly indicate that chronic ethanol intoxication inhibits PI synthesis and breakdown in pancreatic acini, and that this inhibition can be potentiated by acute ethanol administration.

  18. Inhibition of mRNA turnover in yeast by an xrn1 mutation enhances the requirement for eIF4E binding to eIF4G and for proper capping of transcripts by Ceg1p.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J T; Yang, X; Johnson, A W

    2000-01-01

    Null mutants of XRN1, encoding the major cytoplasmic exoribonuclease in yeast, are viable but accumulate decapped, deadenylated transcripts. A screen for mutations synthetic lethal with xrn1Delta identified a mutation in CDC33, encoding eIF4E. This mutation (glutamate to glycine at position 72) affected a highly conserved residue involved in interaction with eIF4G. Synthetic lethality between xrn1 and cdc33 was not relieved by high-copy expression of eIF4G or by disruption of the yeast eIF4E binding protein Caf20p. High-copy expression of a mutant eIF4G defective for eIF4E binding resulted in a dominant negative phenotype in an xrn1 mutant, indicating the importance of this interaction in an xrn1 mutant. Another allele of CDC33, cdc33-1, along with mutations in CEG1, encoding the nuclear guanylyltransferase, were also synthetic lethal with xrn1Delta, whereas mutations in PRT1, encoding a subunit of eIF3, were not. Mutations in CDC33, CEG1, PRT1, PAB1, and TIF4631, encoding eIF4G1, have been shown to lead to destabilization of mRNAs. Although such destabilization in cdc33, ceg1, and pab1 mutants can be partially suppressed by an xrn1 mutation, we observed synthetic lethality between xrn1 and either cdc33 or ceg1 and no suppression of the inviability of a pab1 null mutation by xrn1Delta. Thus, the inhibition of mRNA turnover by blocking Xrn1p function does not suppress the lethality of defects upstream in the turnover pathway but it does enhance the requirement for (7)mG caps and for proper formation of the eIF4E/eIF4G cap recognition complex. PMID:10790382

  19. Human cardiac phospholipase D activity is tightly controlled by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Thomas; Kemken, Dorit; Mier, Kenneth; Weber, Isabel; Richardt, Gert

    2004-02-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) plays a central role in receptor-mediated breakdown of choline phospholipids and formation of phosphatidic acid (PA), an important regulator of cardiac function. However, specific mechanisms that regulate myocardial PLD activity remain largely unknown, particularly in the human heart. We hypothesized that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), best known as substrate for phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes, plays a critical role in regulating myocardial PLD activity. We examined the effect of PIP2 on human myocardial PLD activity in vitro by utilizing a fluorescence HPLC assay. PIP2 increased 10-fold the maximal activity of a partially solubilized PLD from human atrial myocardium. PIP2-stimulated PLD activity was accompanied by a consecutive increase in diacylglycerol, indicating dephosphorylation of PA by PA phosphohydrolase. Likewise, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, which is produced from PIP2 by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, increased PLD activity with about the same potency but with somewhat lower efficacy. In contrast, other phospholipids were ineffective, indicating that the action of PIP2 on PLD is highly specific. Neomycin, a high-affinity ligand of PIP2, inhibited PLD activity in human atrial myocardium, but had no effect on the activity of partially solubilized enzyme. The addition of PIP2 restored the sensitivity of solubilized PLD to neomycin inhibition, indicating that neomycin inhibits PLD activity by binding to endogenous PIP2. Our results demonstrate a critical role for PIP2 in human cardiac PLD activity and suggest that PIP2 synthesis (by phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase) and hydrolysis (by PIP2-specific PLC) could be important determinants in regulating PLD signal transduction in the human heart. PMID:14871550

  20. Phospholipid turnover and ultrastructural correlates during spontaneous germinal vesicle breakdown of the bovine oocyte: Effects of a cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Homa, S.T.; Webster, S.D.; Russell, R.K. )

    1991-08-01

    The turnover of (32P)orthophosphate in bovine oocyte phospholipids was studied during the early stages of spontaneous meiotic maturation, and during inhibition of this process by the cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (IBMX). Radioactive lipids were separated by TLC and the meiotic stage was determined cytogenetically. Ultrastructure of the nuclear membrane was examined using transmission EM. During the commitment period to meiotic resumption, which precedes germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), small localized convolutions appeared in the intact nuclear membrane. This was accompanied by a decrease in (32P)phosphatidic acid (PA) and an increase in (32P)-phosphatidylcholine (PC). This was followed by extensive convolutions, and subsequent dissociation, of the nuclear membrane, concomitant with a tremendous surge in (32P)PC and (32P)phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The cAMP-mediated maintenance of meiotic arrest involved retention of entire nuclear envelope integrity and total inhibition of the surge in (32P)PC and (32P)PE which accompanied GVBD. The increase in (32P)phosphatidylinositol (PI) associated with all stages of early meiotic resumption was unaffected by IBMX. Microinjection of heparin inhibited GVBD, and injection of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) overrode IBMX-maintained meiotic arrest in almost 40% of the oocytes. The results suggest that there may be several functions for phospholipid turnover in the regulation of spontaneous meiotic resumption in the bovine oocyte. The first precedes the commitment period, and involves IP3 generation to serve as the primary signal for meiotic resumption. The second occurs concomitant with the commitment period, is unaffected by the level of intracellular cAMP, and is associated with the general turnover of phospholipid.

  1. The role of phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway in regulating serotonin-induced oocyte maturation in Mercenaria mercenaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Zhang, Tao

    2011-05-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has been found to stimulate meiotic maturation of oocytes in many molluscs. During maturation, several signaling pathways are involved, especially the phosphatidylinositol and cAMP pathways. In order to examine the possible role of the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway in regulating oocyte maturation in Mercenaria mercenaria, the effects of the activator/inhibitor of phospholipase (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) on serotonin-induced maturation were studied. Results show that high-concentrations of neomycin (inhibitor of PLC) blocked oocyte maturation, while 9, 10-dimethyl-1, 2-benzanthracene (DMBA, activator of PLC) promoted oocyte maturation in the presence of serotonin. It was also found that in the presence of serotonin, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, activator of PKC) inhibited oocyte maturation, while sphingosine (inhibitor of PKC) stimulated oocyte maturation. These results indicate that serotonin-induced oocyte maturation requires the activation of the phosphatidylinositol pathway. Decrease of PLC inhibited serotonin-induced oocyte maturation, whereas a decrease of PKC stimulated the maturation. Thus, our study indicates that serotonin promotes maturation of M. mercenaria oocytes through PLC stimulated increase in calcium ion concentration via inositol-1, 4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3) but not PKC.

  2. Phosphatidylinositol kinase activities in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Alba Marina; Gesumaría, María Celeste; Schoijet, Alejandra C; Alonso, Guillermo D; Flawiá, Mirtha M; Racagni, Graciela E; Machado, Estela E

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) metabolism through phosphatidylinositol kinase (PIKs) activities plays a central role in different signaling pathways. In Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease, PIKs have been proposed as target for drug design in order to combat this pathogen. In this work, we studied the classes of PI4K, PIPK and PI3K that could participate in signaling pathways in T. cruzi epimastigote forms. For this reason, we analyzed their enzymatic parameters and detailed responses to avowed kinase inhibitors (adenosine, sodium deoxycholate, wortmannin and LY294002) and activators (Ca(2+), phosphatidic acid, spermine and heparin). Our results suggest the presence and activity of a class III PI4K, a class I PIPK, a class III PI3K previously described (TcVps34) and a class I PI3K. Class I PI3K enzyme, here named TcPI3K, was cloned and expressed in a bacterial system, and their product was tested for kinase activity. The possible participation of TcPI3K in central cellular events of the parasite is also discussed. PMID:26493613

  3. A collagen-related peptide regulates phospholipase Cgamma2 via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in human platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Pasquet, J M; Bobe, R; Gross, B; Gratacap, M P; Tomlinson, M G; Payrastre, B; Watson, S P

    1999-01-01

    The collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI) induces platelet activation through a similar pathway to that used by immune receptors. In the present study we have investigated the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) in GPVI signalling. Our results show that collagen-related peptide ¿CRP: [GCP*(GPP*)(10)GCP*G](n); P*=hydroxyproline¿, which is selective to GPVI, induces formation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P(3)] and phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3, 4)P(2)] in platelets. The increase in the two 3-phosphorylated lipids is inhibited completely by wortmannin and by LY294002, two structurally unrelated inhibitors of PI 3-kinase. The formation of inositol phosphates and phosphatidic acid (PA), two markers of phospholipase C (PLC) activation, by CRP are inhibited by between 50 and 85% in the presence of wortmannin and LY294002. This is associated with inhibition of elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) and aggregation. Wortmannin and LY294002 also partially inhibit elevation of Ca(2+) by CRP in murine megakaryocytes. Microinjection of the pleckstrin-homology PH domain of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, which binds selectively to PI(3,4, 5)P(3), but not the R28C (Arg(28)-->Cys) mutant which binds to PI(3, 4,5)P(3) with low affinity, also inhibits elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) in megakaryocytes, suggesting that it is this lipid species which mediates the action of the PI 3-kinase pathway. Studies in platelets show that the action of wortmannin and LY294002 is not mediated through an alteration in tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCgamma2. These results demonstrate that PI 3-kinase is required for full activation of PLCgamma2 by GPVI in platelets and megakaryocytes. PMID:10432314

  4. Arachidonic acid-mediated inhibition of a potassium current in the giant neurons of Aplysia

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.O.

    1990-01-01

    Biochemical and electrophysiological approaches were used to investigate the role of arachidonic acid (AA) in the modulation of an inwardly rectifying potassium current (I{sub R}) in the giant neurons of the marine snail, Aplysia californica. Using ({sup 3}H)AA as tracer, the intracellular free AA pool in Aplysia ganglia was found to be in a state of constant and rapid turnover through deacylation and reacylation of phospholipid, primarily phosphatidyl-inositol. This constant turnover was accompanied by a constant release of free AA and eicosanoids into the extracellular medium. The effects of three pharmacological agents were characterized with regard to AA metabolism in Aplysia ganglia. 4-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), an activator of protein kinase C, stimulated liberation of AA from phospholipid, and 4-bromophenacylbromide (BPB), an inhibitor of phospholipate A{sub 2}, inhibited this liberation. Indomethacin at 250 {mu}M was found to inhibit uptake of AA, likely through inhibition of acyl-CoA synthetase. These agents were also found to modulate I{sub R} in ways which were consistent with their biological effects: TPA inhibited I{sub R}, and both BPB and indomethacin stimulated I{sub R} . Modulation of I{sub R} by these substances was found not to involve cAMP metabolism. Acute application of exogenous AA did not affect I{sub R}; however, I{sub R} in giant neurons was found to be inhibited after dialysis with AA or other unsaturated fatty acids. Also, after perfusion with BSA overnight, a treatment which strips the giant neurons of AA in lipid storage, I{sub R} was found to have increased over 2-fold. This perfusion-induced increase was inhibited by the presence of AA or by pretreatment of the giant neurons with BPB. These results suggest AA, provided through constant turnover from phospholipid, mediates constitutive inhibition of I{sub R}.

  5. Phosphatidylinositol 3-monophosphate is involved in toxoplasma apicoplast biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tawk, Lina; Dubremetz, Jean-François; Montcourrier, Philippe; Chicanne, Gaëtan; Merezegue, Fabrice; Richard, Véronique; Payrastre, Bernard; Meissner, Markus; Vial, Henri J; Roy, Christian; Wengelnik, Kai; Lebrun, Maryse

    2011-02-01

    Apicomplexan parasites cause devastating diseases including malaria and toxoplasmosis. They harbour a plastid-like, non-photosynthetic organelle of algal origin, the apicoplast, which fulfils critical functions for parasite survival. Because of its essential and original metabolic pathways, the apicoplast has become a target for the development of new anti-apicomplexan drugs. Here we show that the lipid phosphatidylinositol 3-monophosphate (PI3P) is involved in apicoplast biogenesis in Toxoplasma gondii. In yeast and mammalian cells, PI3P is concentrated on early endosomes and regulates trafficking of endosomal compartments. Imaging of PI3P in T. gondii showed that the lipid was associated with the apicoplast and apicoplast protein-shuttling vesicles. Interference with regular PI3P function by over-expression of a PI3P specific binding module in the parasite led to the accumulation of vesicles containing apicoplast peripheral membrane proteins around the apicoplast and, ultimately, to the loss of the organelle. Accordingly, inhibition of the PI3P-synthesising kinase interfered with apicoplast biogenesis. These findings point to an unexpected implication for this ubiquitous lipid and open new perspectives on how nuclear encoded proteins traffic to the apicoplast. This study also highlights the possibility of developing specific pharmacological inhibitors of the parasite PI3-kinase as novel anti-apicomplexan drugs. PMID:21379336

  6. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase regulates PKCtheta activity in cytotoxic T cells.

    PubMed

    Puente, Lawrence G; Mireau, Laura R; Lysechko, Tara L; Ostergaard, Hanne L

    2005-06-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) theta plays a crucial role in T cell activation. We, therefore, examined the regulation of PKCtheta activity in cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). We demonstrated that PMA did not stimulate PKCtheta activation and phospholipase C inhibition did not block anti-CD3-stimulated PKCtheta activation in a CTL clone. This suggests that diacylglycerol is neither sufficient nor required for PKCtheta activation. Furthermore, PKCtheta was only activated in a CTL clone stimulated with plate-bound anti-CD3 but not soluble anti-CD3. However, PMA or cross-linked anti-CD3 stimulated phosphorylation of PKCtheta as measured by a migratory shift, suggesting that phosphorylation was not sufficient for activity. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity was required for anti-CD3, but not PMA, stimulated phosphorylation and for immobilized anti-CD3-triggered PKCtheta activity. A substantial fraction of PKCtheta was constitutively membrane associated and PMA or CD3 stimulation did not significantly increase membrane association. Our data indicate that phosphorylation of PKCtheta is not a suitable surrogate measurement for PKCtheta activity and that additional, yet to be defined steps, are required for the regulation of PKCtheta enzymatic activity in CTL.

  7. Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase α and Vav1 mutual cooperation in CD28-mediated actin remodeling and signaling functions.

    PubMed

    Muscolini, Michela; Camperio, Cristina; Porciello, Nicla; Caristi, Silvana; Capuano, Cristina; Viola, Antonella; Galandrini, Ricciarda; Tuosto, Loretta

    2015-02-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2) is a cell membrane phosphoinositide crucial for cell signaling and activation. Indeed, PIP2 is a pivotal source for second messenger generation and controlling the activity of several proteins regulating cytoskeleton reorganization. Despite its critical role in T cell activation, the molecular mechanisms regulating PIP2 turnover remain largely unknown. In human primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes, we have recently demonstrated that CD28 costimulatory receptor is crucial for regulating PIP2 turnover by allowing the recruitment and activation of the lipid kinase phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5Kα). We also identified PIP5Kα as a key modulator of CD28 costimulatory signals leading to the efficient T cell activation. In this study, we extend these data by demonstrating that PIP5Kα recruitment and activation is essential for CD28-mediated cytoskeleton rearrangement necessary for organizing a complete signaling compartment leading to downstream signaling functions. We also identified Vav1 as the linker molecule that couples the C-terminal proline-rich motif of CD28 to the recruitment and activation of PIP5Kα, which in turn cooperates with Vav1 in regulating actin polymerization and CD28 signaling functions.

  8. Predicting Turnover Intentions and Turnover Behavior: A Multivariate Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parasuraman, Saroj

    1982-01-01

    Assessed the relative influence of personal, attitudinal, and behavioral variables on behavioral intentions and voluntary turnover among nonsupervisory plant workers. Results show that personal variables have little direct effect on turnover; rather, their influence on turnover is channeled through their effects on behavioral intentions. (Author)

  9. Alpha/sub 1/ receptor stimulated phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis in rat cerebral cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Raulli, R.; Crews, F.T.

    1986-03-05

    The potency of various alpha adrenergic compounds on stimulation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) hydrolysis was determined using (/sup 3/H)-inositol labelled cerebral cortical slices. Norepinephrine-induced PI hydrolysis was inhibited by the alpha/sub 1/ selective antagonist prazosin (1 ..mu..M) but not the beta receptor antagonist propranolol (1 ..mu..M). Tramazoline, (-)-ephedrine, and (+/-)-phenylpropanolamine were all found to be partial agonists at 1 mM concentrations. Clonidine, naphazoline, trazodone, and the novel antidepressant mianserin at concentrations of 100 ..mu..M to 1 mM produced no significant increase in PI hydrolysis above control levels. The relationship between responses and receptor binding will be discussed.

  10. Adjustment of diurnal starch turnover to short days: depletion of sugar during the night leads to a temporary inhibition of carbohydrate utilization, accumulation of sugars and post-translational activation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in the following light period.

    PubMed

    Gibon, Yves; Bläsing, Oliver E; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Pankovic, Dejana; Hendriks, Janneke H M; Fisahn, Joachim; Höhne, Melanie; Günther, Manuela; Stitt, Mark

    2004-09-01

    A larger proportion of the fixed carbon is retained as starch in the leaf in short days, providing a larger store to support metabolism and carbon export during the long night. The mechanisms that facilitate this adjustment of the sink-source balance are unknown. Starchless pgm mutants were analysed to discover responses that are triggered when diurnal starch turnover is disturbed. Sugars accumulated to high levels during the day, and fell to very low levels by the middle of the night. Sugars rose rapidly in the roots and rosette after illumination, and decreased later in the light period. Global transcript profiling revealed only small differences between pgm and Col0 at the end of the day but large differences at the end of the night, when pgm resembled Col0 after a 4-6 h prolongation of the night and many genes required for biosynthesis and growth were repressed [Plant J. 37 (2004) 914]. It is concluded that transient sugar depletion at the end of the night inhibits carbon utilization at the start of the ensuing light period. A second set of experiments investigated the stimulation of starch synthesis in response to short days in wild-type Col0. In short days, sugars were very low in the roots and rosette at the end of the dark period, and after illumination accumulated rapidly in both organs to levels that were higher than in long days. The response resembles pgm, except that carbohydrate accumulated in the leaf as starch instead of sugars. A similar response was found after transfer from long to short days. Inclusion of sugar in the rooting medium attenuated the stimulation of starch synthesis. Post-translational activation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) was increased in pgm, and in Col0 in short days. It is concluded that starch synthesis is stimulated in short day conditions because sugar depletion at the end of the night triggers a temporary inhibition of growth and carbohydrate utilization in the first part of the light period, leading to

  11. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C of Bacillus thuringiensis as a probe for the distribution of phosphatidylinositol in hepatocyte membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, J A; Hitchin, B W; Low, M G

    1989-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) produced by Bacillus thuringiensis has been used as a probe for the distribution of phosphatidylinositol in hepatocyte membranes. Approx. 50% of this phospholipid was hydrolysed in microsomal vesicles (endoplasmic reticulum) with no significant hydrolysis of the remaining membrane phospholipids. Latency of mannose-6-phosphatase was retained during treatment indicating that the vesicles remained impermeable. Stripping of the ribosomes did not increase hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol; however, when the vesicles were opened using dilute sodium carbonate, hydrolysis increased to greater than 90%. Hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol of Golgi membranes was 35% and of plasma membranes was 50%. After treatment with PI-PLC, radiolabelled secretory proteins were retained in Golgi membranes and trapped lactate dehydrogenase was retained in plasma-membrane preparations indicating that the vesicles remained closed. Hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol increased to greater than 90% when the membranes were opened by treatment with dilute sodium carbonate. These observations indicate that PI-PLC of Bacillus thuringiensis is a suitable probe for the distribution of phosphatidylinositol in membranes, and that in liver membranes this phospholipid occurs on each side of the bilayer, a topography consistent with its diverse roles. PMID:2543374

  12. Cloning and characterization of a 92 kDa soluble phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, T; Goto, K; Kondo, H

    1996-01-01

    A phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 4-kinase cDNA cloned from a rat brain cDNA library encoded a protein of 816 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 91654 Da. This molecule contained a lipid-kinase-unique domain and a presumed lipid/ protein kinase homology domain that are found in other PtdIns 4-kinases and PtdIns 3-kinases. Furthermore, this kinase molecule had 43.3% shared identity with the presumed catalytic domain of yeast PtdIns 4-kinase, PtdInsK1, and the two molecules had a region of similarity that is not conserved in other lipid kinases. By examining PtdIns kinase activity in transfected COS-7 cells using epitope tag immunoprecipitation as well as conventional methods, the product PtdIns phosphate was identified as phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P), but not phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P). The PtdIns 4-kinase activity was recovered predominantly from the soluble fraction and the activity was markedly enhanced in the presence of Triton X-100 and was relatively insensitive to inhibition by adenosine. In addition, the PtdIns 4-kinase activity was completely inhibited in the presence of 10 microM wortmannin. When examined by epitope tag immunocytochemistry, the immunoreactivity for the PtdIns 4-kinase molecule was dominantly aggregated in a cytoplasmic region juxtaposed to the nuclei and was faintly but widely dispersed in the cytoplasm. By in situ hybridization analysis, the mRNA for PtdIns 4-kinase was expressed ubiquitously and was detected in most neurons throughout the grey matter of the brain, with higher expression intensity found in fetal than in adult brain. PMID:8973579

  13. Studies of inositol 1-phosphate analogues as inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol phosphate synthase in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Morii, Hiroyuki; Okauchi, Tatsuo; Nomiya, Hiroki; Ogawa, Midori; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2013-03-01

    We previously reported a novel pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol in mycobacteria via phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) [Morii H., Ogawa, M., Fukuda, K., Taniguchi, H., and Koga, Y (2010) J. Biochem. 148, 593-602]. PIP synthase in the pathway is a promising target for the development of new anti-mycobacterium drugs. In the present study, we evaluated the characteristics of the PIP synthase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Four types of compounds were chemically synthesized based on the assumption that structural homologues of inositol 1-phosphate, a PIP synthase substrate, would act as PIP synthase inhibitors, and the results confirmed that all synthesized compounds inhibited PIP synthase activity. The phosphonate analogue of inositol 1-phosphate (Ino-C-P) had the greatest inhibitory effect among the synthesized compounds examined. Kinetic analysis indicated that Ino-C-P acted as a competitive inhibitor of inositol 1-phosphate. The IC(50) value for Ino-C-P inhibition of the PIP synthase activity was estimated to be 2.0 mM. Interestingly, Ino-C-P was utilized in the same manner as the normal PIP synthase substrate, leading to the synthesis of a phosphonate analogue of PIP (PI-C-P), which had a structure similar to that of the natural product, PIP. In addition, PI-C-P had high inhibitory activity against PIP synthase.

  14. Modulation of mitogenic stimuli by angiogenin correlates with in vitro phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, W.F. Jr.; Moore, F.; Bicknell, R.; Vallee, B.L. )

    1989-04-01

    {sup 125}I-labeled angiogenin binds rapidly to the plasma membrane of several cell lines at 37{degree}C but in comparatively small amounts. Competition with unlabeled angiogenin varies markedly with different cell lines, being most effective in vascular smooth muscle and fibroblast cells. Angiogenin modulates mitogenic stimuli in bovine adrenal capillary endothelial (BACE), rat aortic smooth muscle (RASM), and fibroblast (3T3) cells. Thus, it enhances the mitogenic effect of certain conditioned media on RASM and 3T3 cells, but it inhibits the mitogenic effect on BACE cells. In RASM and 3T3 cells, mitogenesis is increased at low and high but not at intermediate concentrations of angiogenin. Plasma membranes from RASM and 3T3 cells that have been treated with angiogenin show an enhanced in vitro synthesis of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PtdInsP{sub 2}) with an angiogenin concentration dependence similar to that of enhanced mitogenesis. PtdInsP{sub 2} synthesis arises by activation of a fatty acid (arachidonyl) coenzyme A synthetase and either a plasma membrane fatty acid acyltransferase or phosphatidylinositol kinase(s), or both. Increased PtdInsP{sub 2} or the derived second messengers (e.g., diacylglycerol) may mediate modulation of the mitogenic stimulus. The differential mitogenic interaction of angiogenin with several cell types, either stimulation or inhibition, probably reflects the multistep nature of angiogenesis.

  15. Short-chain phosphatidylinositol conformation and its relevance to phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Zhou, C; Garigapati, V; Roberts, M F

    1997-12-16

    The solution conformation of chiral diheptanoylphosphatidylinositol (D- and L-inositol isomers) has been characterized by NMR spectroscopy. A positive NOE between the inositol C2 proton and an sn-3 glycerol CH2 proton has been observed in the D- but not in the L-inositol isomer of diheptanoylphosphatidylinositol (PI). Computer modeling using QUANTA constrained by this NOE and ring coupling constants suggests that the inositol ring is nearly parallel to the chain packing direction, leaving the phosphate ester accessible to attack by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C enzymes. In this model, the hydroxyl groups in the 2- and 6-positions of inositol form hydrogen bonds with the pro-R and ester oxygens, respectively. Chemical shifts and 13C spin-lattice relaxation times were also used to assess conformation and lipid dynamics in monomer and micelle states. The 13C T1's of inositol C2 and C6 in monomeric phosphatidylinositol were markedly less than for other inositol ring carbons. These results are consistent with the hydrogen bonds to the phosphate constraining the motions of C2 and C6. Diheptanoylphosphatidyl-2-O-methylinositol is a good inhibitor of PI-specific phospholipase C because it blocks the initial phosphotransferase step in PI hydrolysis. Introduction of the methyl group on the C-2 hydroxyl group lowers the CMC of the derivative compared to diheptanoylphosphatidylinositol. However, an NOE between an sn-3 glycerol proton and the inositol C2 proton constrains the orientation of the inositol ring with respect to the glycerol backbone in a conformation similar to diheptanoylphosphatidylinositol. Modeling of the 2-O-methylinositol derivative suggests that the methyl group blocks one side of the phosphate, consistent with the observation that nonspecific phospholipase C enzymes which are able to hydrolyze PI, albeit poorly, are unable to hydrolyze diheptanoylphosphatidyl-2-O-methylinositol.

  16. Mechanism of protein kinase C activation by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myungho; Bell, R.M. )

    1991-01-29

    The mechanism of protein kinase C (PKC) activation by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}), phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate (PIP), and phosphatidylinositol (PI) was investigated by using Triton X-100 mixed micellar methods. The activation of PKC by PIP{sub 2}, for which maximal activity was 60% of that elicited by sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG), was similar to activation by DAG in several respects: (1) activation by PIP{sub 2} and DAG required phosphatidylserine (PS) as a phospholipid cofactor, (2) PIP{sub 2} and DAG reduced the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} and PS required for activation, (3) the concentration dependences of activation by PIP{sub 2} and DAG depended on the concentration of PS, and (4) PIP{sub 2} and DAG complemented one another to achieve maximal activation. On the other hand, PIP{sub 2} activation of the PKC differed from activation by DAG in several respects. With increasing concentrations of PIP{sub 2}, (1) the optimal concentration of PS required was constant at 12 mol%, (2) the maximal activity at 12 mol% PS increased, and (3) the cooperativity for PS decreased. PIP{sub 2} did not inhibit ({sup 3}H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) binding of PKC at saturating levels of PS; however, at subsaturating levels of PS, PIP{sub 2} enhanced ({sup 3}H)PDBu binding by acting as a phospholipid cofactor. PIP did not function as an activator but served as a phospholipid cofactor in the presence of PS. These data establish that PIP{sub 2}, PIP, and PI can function to spare, in part, the PS phospholipid cofactor requirement of PKC, and they demonstrate that PIP{sub 2} but not PIP and PI can function as a lipid activator of PKC by mechanisms distinct from those of DAG and phorbol esters.

  17. Integrating Turnover Reasons and Shocks with Turnover Decision Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maertz, Carl P., Jr.; Kmitta, Kayla R.

    2012-01-01

    We interviewed and classified 186 quitters from many jobs and organizations via a theoretically-based protocol into five decision process types. We then tested exploratory hypotheses comparing users of these types on their propensity to report certain turnover reasons and turnover shocks. "Impulsive-type quitters," with neither a job offer in hand…

  18. Commitment Profiles and Employee Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Laura; Vandenberghe, Christian; Vandenberg, Robert; Bentein, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    We examined how affective (AC), normative (NC), perceived sacrifice (PS), and few alternatives (FA) commitments combine to form profiles and determine turnover intention and turnover. We theorized that three mechanisms account for how profiles operate, i.e., the degree to which membership is internally regulated, the perceived desirability and…

  19. Breaking the turnover cycle.

    PubMed

    Nakhnikian, Elise

    2005-01-01

    The Paraprofessional Healthcare Institute, Bronx, NY, identifies seven elements which are essential for employers in their creation of a stable, well-qualified direct-care workforce. These "common sense" elements--ranging from paying family-sustaining wages to strengthening the caregiving relationship between the workers and those whom they serve--can make the difference between chronic turnover, on one hand, and employing a dedicated staff large enough to keep pace with the growing need for long-term care and services, on the other. However, implementing the seven elements requires the commitment, coordination, and the cooperation of the entire long-term care system, especially the state and federal reimbursement systems that pay for most care and services. By joining forces with other long-term care stakeholders, through organizations such as the Direct Care Alliance, providers can help stabilize the workforce and, ultimately, help to increase the allocation of public resources. PMID:16350897

  20. West Nile virus replication requires fatty acid synthesis but is independent on phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate lipids.

    PubMed

    Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Jiménez de Oya, Nereida; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurovirulent mosquito-borne flavivirus, which main natural hosts are birds but it also infects equines and humans, among other mammals. As in the case of other plus-stranded RNA viruses, WNV replication is associated to intracellular membrane rearrangements. Based on results obtained with a variety of viruses, different cellular processes have been shown to play important roles on these membrane rearrangements for efficient viral replication. As these processes are related to lipid metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, as well as generation of a specific lipid microenvironment enriched in phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P), has been associated to it in other viral models. In this study, intracellular membrane rearrangements following infection with a highly neurovirulent strain of WNV were addressed by means of electron and confocal microscopy. Infection of WNV, and specifically viral RNA replication, were dependent on fatty acid synthesis, as revealed by the inhibitory effect of cerulenin and C75, two pharmacological inhibitors of fatty acid synthase, a key enzyme of this process. However, WNV infection did not induce redistribution of PI4P lipids, and PI4P did not localize at viral replication complex. Even more, WNV multiplication was not inhibited by the use of the phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase inhibitor PIK93, while infection by the enterovirus Coxsackievirus B5 was reduced. Similar features were found when infection by other flavivirus, the Usutu virus (USUV), was analyzed. These features of WNV replication could help to design specific antiviral approaches against WNV and other related flaviviruses.

  1. Beryllium competitively inhibits brain myo-inositol monophosphatase, but unlike lithium does not enhance agonist-induced inositol phosphate accumulation.

    PubMed Central

    Faraci, W S; Zorn, S H; Bakker, A V; Jackson, E; Pratt, K

    1993-01-01

    Despite limiting side-effects, lithium is the drug of choice for the treatment of bipolar depression. Its action may be due, in part, to its ability to dampen phosphatidylinositol turnover by inhibiting myo-inositol monophosphatase. Beryllium has been identified as a potent inhibitor of partially purified myo-inositol monophosphatase isolated from rat brain (Ki = 150 nM), bovine brain (Ki = 35 nM), and from the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH (Ki = 85 nM). It is over three orders of magnitude more potent than LiCl (Ki = 0.5-1.2 mM). Kinetic analysis reveals that beryllium is a competitive inhibitor of myo-inositol monophosphatase, in contrast with lithium which is an uncompetitive inhibitor. Inhibition of exogenous [3H]inositol phosphate hydrolysis by beryllium (IC50 = 250-300 nM) was observed to the same maximal extent as that seen with lithium in permeabilized SK-N-SH cells, reflecting inhibition of cellular myo-inositol monophosphatase. However, in contrast with that observed with lithium, agonist-induced accumulation of inositol phosphate was not observed with beryllium in permeabilized and non-permeabilized SK-N-SH cells and in rat brain slices. Similar results were obtained in permeabilized SK-N-SH cells when GTP-gamma-S was used as an alternative stimulator of inositol phosphate accumulation. The disparity in the actions of beryllium and lithium suggest that either (1) selective inhibition of myo-inositol monophosphatase does not completely explain the action of lithium on the phosphatidylinositol cycle, or (2) that uncompetitive inhibition of myo-inositol monophosphatase is a necessary requirement to observe functional lithium mimetic activity. PMID:8387266

  2. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus combines intrinsic phosphotransferase and cyclic phosphodiesterase activities: A sup 31 P NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Shashidhar, M.S.; Kuppe, A. ); Volwerk, J.J.; Griffith, O.H.

    1990-09-04

    The inositol phosphate products formed during the cleavage of phosphatidylinositol by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus were analyzed by {sup 31}P NMR. {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy can distinguish between the inositol phosphate species and phosphatidylinositol. Chemical shift values (with reference to phosphoric acid) observed are {minus}0.41, 3.62, 4.45, and 16.30 ppm for phosphatidylinositol, myo-inositol 1-monophosphate, myo-inositol 2-monophosphate, and myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic monophosphate, respectively. It is shown that under a variety of experimental conditions this phospholipase C cleaves phosphatidylinositol via an intramolecular phosphotransfer reaction producing diacylglycerol and D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic monophosphate. The authors also report the new and unexpected observation that the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from B. cereus is able to hydrolyze the inositol cyclic phosphate to form D-myo-inositol 1-monophosphate. The enzyme, therefore, possesses phosphotransferase and cyclic phosphodiesterase activities. The second reaction requires thousandfold higher enzyme concentrations to be observed by {sup 31}P NMR. This reaction was shown to be regiospecific in that only the 1-phosphate was produced and stereospecific in that only D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic monophosphate was hydrolyzed. Inhibition with a monoclonal antibody specific for the B.cereus phospholipase C showed that the cyclic phosphodiesterase activity is intrinsic to the bacterial enzyme. They propose a two-step mechanism for the phosphatidyl-inositol-specific phospholipase C from B. cereus involving sequential phosphotransferase and cyclic phosphodiesterase activities. This mechanism bears a resemblance to the well-known two-step mechanism of pancreatic ribonuclease, RNase A.

  3. Characterization of an antibody to the cross-reacting determinant of the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor of human membrane dipeptidase.

    PubMed

    Broomfield, S J; Hooper, N M

    1993-02-01

    A polyclonal antiserum raised to the phospholipase C-solubilized form of membrane dipeptidase (EC 3.4.13.11) purified from human kidney was found to cross-react with unrelated trypanosomal and porcine glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchored proteins. Those antibodies recognising the cross-reacting determinant (CRD) were isolated by chromatography on a column of immobilized phospholipase C-solubilized porcine aminopeptidase P (EC 3.4.11.9), and the epitopes involved in the recognition were then characterized by immunoelectrophoretic blot analysis and by a competitive ELISA. The phospholipase C-solubilized forms of human and porcine membrane dipeptidase, porcine aminopeptidase P and trypanosome variant surface glycoprotein were recognised by the anti-CRD antiserum, and this recognition was abolished by prior treatment of the proteins with either mild acid or nitrous acid. In contrast, the detergent-solubilized, membrane-forms of human and porcine membrane dipeptidase were not recognised. Of a range of components of the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor, only inositol 1,2-cyclic monophosphate and the insulin-mimetic disaccharide, glucosaminyl-1,6-inositol 1,2-cyclic monophosphate, inhibited in the micromolar range the binding of the anti-CRD antiserum to immobilized porcine aminopeptidase P. These results indicate that the major epitope recognised by this anti-CRD antiserum is the inositol 1,2-cyclic monophosphate formed on phospholipase C cleavage of the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor.

  4. Role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Rab5 effectors in phagosomal biogenesis and mycobacterial phagosome maturation arrest.

    PubMed

    Fratti, R A; Backer, J M; Gruenberg, J; Corvera, S; Deretic, V

    2001-08-01

    Phagosomal biogenesis is a fundamental biological process of particular significance for the function of phagocytic and antigen-presenting cells. The precise mechanisms governing maturation of phagosomes into phagolysosomes are not completely understood. Here, we applied the property of pathogenic mycobacteria to cause phagosome maturation arrest in infected macrophages as a tool to dissect critical steps in phagosomal biogenesis. We report the requirement for 3-phosphoinositides and acquisition of Rab5 effector early endosome autoantigen (EEA1) as essential molecular events necessary for phagosomal maturation. Unlike the model phagosomes containing latex beads, which transiently recruited EEA1, mycobacterial phagosomes excluded this regulator of vesicular trafficking that controls membrane tethering and fusion processes within the endosomal pathway and is recruited to endosomal membranes via binding to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns[3]P). Inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3'(OH)-kinase (PI-3K) activity diminished EEA1 recruitment to newly formed latex bead phagosomes and blocked phagosomal acquisition of late endocytic properties, indicating that generation of PtdIns(3)P plays a role in phagosomal maturation. Microinjection into macrophages of antibodies against EEA1 and the PI-3K hVPS34 reduced acquisition of late endocytic markers by latex bead phagosomes, demonstrating an essential role of these Rab5 effectors in phagosomal biogenesis. The mechanism of EEA1 exclusion from mycobacterial phagosomes was investigated using mycobacterial products. Coating of latex beads with the major mycobacterial cell envelope glycosylated phosphatidylinositol lipoarabinomannan isolated from the virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, inhibited recruitment of EEA1 to latex bead phagosomes, and diminished their maturation. These findings define the generation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and EEA1 recruitment as: (a) important regulatory events in phagosomal

  5. Isolation of virulence genes directing surface glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol synthesis by functional complementation of Leishmania.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, K A; Garraway, L A; Descoteaux, A; Turco, S J; Beverley, S M

    1993-01-01

    Trypanosomatid parasites of the genus Leishmania cause a spectrum of widespread tropical diseases. In the vertebrate host they reside within the macrophage phagolysosome; however, the mechanisms employed in this remarkable survival strategy are not well understood. Recent advances in the molecular genetics of these parasites prompted us to develop methods of functional genetic complementation in Leishmania and apply them to the isolation of genes involved in the biosynthesis of the virulence determinant lipophosphoglycan, an abundant glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored polysaccharide. LPG1, the gene product identified by complementation of the R2D2 mutant, appears to be a glycosyltransferase responsible for the addition of galactofuranosyl residues to the nascent lipophosphoglycan chain. As galactofuranose is not found in mammalian cells, inhibition of the addition of this sugar could be exploited for chemotherapy. Overall, the success of the functional complementation approach opens the way to the identification of a variety of genes involved in pathogenesis and parasitism. Images Fig. 5 PMID:8378337

  6. Inositolphosphoglycan mediators structurally related to glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchors: synthesis, structure and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Martín-Lomas, M; Khiar, N; García, S; Koessler, J L; Nieto, P M; Rademacher, T W

    2000-10-01

    The preparation of the pseudopentasaccharide 1a, an inositol-phosphoglycan (IPG) that contains the conserved linear structure of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchors (GPI anchors), was carried out by using a highly convergent 2+3-block synthesis approach which involves imidate and sulfoxide glycosylation reactions. The preferred solution conformation of this structure was determined by using NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations prior to carrying out quantitative structure--activity relationship studies in connection with the insulin signalling process. The ability of 1a to stimulate lipogenesis in rat adipocytes as well as to inhibit cAMP dependent protein kinase and to activate pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase was investigated. Compound 1a did not show any significant activity, which may be taken as a strong indication that the GPI anchors are not the precursors of the IPG mediators. PMID:11072827

  7. Inositolphosphoglycan mediators structurally related to glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchors: synthesis, structure and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Martín-Lomas, M; Khiar, N; García, S; Koessler, J L; Nieto, P M; Rademacher, T W

    2000-10-01

    The preparation of the pseudopentasaccharide 1a, an inositol-phosphoglycan (IPG) that contains the conserved linear structure of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchors (GPI anchors), was carried out by using a highly convergent 2+3-block synthesis approach which involves imidate and sulfoxide glycosylation reactions. The preferred solution conformation of this structure was determined by using NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations prior to carrying out quantitative structure--activity relationship studies in connection with the insulin signalling process. The ability of 1a to stimulate lipogenesis in rat adipocytes as well as to inhibit cAMP dependent protein kinase and to activate pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase was investigated. Compound 1a did not show any significant activity, which may be taken as a strong indication that the GPI anchors are not the precursors of the IPG mediators.

  8. Ionization properties of phosphatidylinositol polyphosphates in mixed model membranes.

    PubMed

    Kooijman, Edgar E; King, Katrice E; Gangoda, Mahinda; Gericke, Arne

    2009-10-13

    Phosphatidylinositol polyphosphate lipids (phosphoinositides) form only a minor pool of membrane phospholipids but are involved in many intracellular signaling processes, including membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal remodeling, and receptor signal transduction. Phosphoinositide properties are largely determined by the characteristics of their headgroup, which at physiological pH is highly charged but also capable of forming hydrogen bonds. Many proteins have developed special binding domains that facilitate specific binding to particular phosphoinositides, while other proteins interact with phosphoinositides via nonspecific electrostatic interactions. Despite its importance, only limited information is available about the ionization properties of phosphoinositides. We have investigated the pH-dependent ionization behavior of all three naturally occurring phosphatidylinositol bisphosphates as well as of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate in mixed phosphoinositide/phosphatidylcholine vesicles using magic angle spinning (31)P NMR spectroscopy. For phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate, where the two phosphomonoester groups are separated by a hydroxyl group at the 4-position, the pH-dependent chemical shift variation can be fitted with a Henderson-Hasselbalch-type formalism, yielding pK(a)(2) values of 6.96 +/- 0.04 and 6.58 +/- 0.04 for the 3- and 5-phosphates, respectively. In contrast, phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P(2)] as well as phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)] show a biphasic pH-dependent ionization behavior that cannot be explained by a Henderson-Hasselbalch-type formalism. This biphasic behavior can be attributed to the sharing of the last remaining proton between the vicinal phosphomonoester groups. At pH 7.0, the overall charge (including the phosphodiester group charge) is found to be -3.96 +/- 0.10 for PI(3,4)P(2) and -3.99 +/- 0.10 for PI(4,5)P(2). While for PI(3,5)P(2) and PI(4,5)P(2) the charges of the individual

  9. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate formation in rabbit skeletal and heart muscle membranes.

    PubMed

    Varsányi, M; Messer, M; Brandt, N R; Heilmeyer, L M

    1986-08-14

    Incubation of rabbit skeletal muscle microsomes or isolated triads with gamma 32P-ATP/Mg2+ in the absence and in the presence of added phosphatidylinositol resulted in the formation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate catalyzed by phosphatidylinositol kinase. When phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate was added as exogenous substrate, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate was also formed demonstrating the presence of a membrane bound phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate kinase. Triads were broken mechanically in a French press and separated on a continuous sucrose gradient. Incubation of these fractions with gamma 32P-ATP/Mg2+ resulted in a rapid labeling of phospholipid in a membrane fraction banding between transverse tubules and the terminal cisternae. Partial triad breakage and triad reformation experiments indicated that this phosphatidylinositol kinase was associated with T-tubules. When exogenous phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate was employed as substrate phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidic acid were formed, indicating the presence of all the enzymes of the polyphosphoinositide signaling system in this special membrane fraction. In contrast, heart muscle microsomes or plasma membranes can catalyze this reaction sequence from endogenous formed phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate.

  10. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the actin network are not required for the stimulation of glucose transport caused by mitochondrial uncoupling: comparison with insulin action.

    PubMed Central

    Tsakiridis, T; Vranic, M; Klip, A

    1995-01-01

    In L6 myotubes insulin stimulates glucose transport through the translocation of glucose transporters GLUT1, GLUT3 and GLUT4 from intracellular stores to the plasma membrane. An intact actin network and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity are required for this process. Glucose transport is also stimulated by the mitochondrial ATP-production uncoupler dinitrophenol. We show here that, in serum-depleted myotubes, dinitrophenol induced translocation of GLUT1 and GLUT4, but not GLUT3. This response was not affected by inhibiting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or disassembling the actin network. Insulin, but not dinitrophenol, caused tyrosine phosphorylation of several polypeptides, including the insulin-receptor substrate-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Similarly, insulin, but not dinitrophenol, caused actin reorganization, which was inhibited by wortmannin. We conclude that insulin and dinitrophenol stimulate glucose transport by different mechanisms. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7619042

  11. Isolation of insulin-sensitive phosphatidylinositol-glycan from rat adipocytes. Its impaired breakdown in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat.

    PubMed Central

    Macaulay, S L; Larkins, R G

    1990-01-01

    In this study an insulin-sensitive glycophospholipid from rat adipocytes was isolated and partially characterized. A material that activated pyruvate dehydrogenase was extracted from rat adipocyte membrane supernatants. Its release was stimulated by insulin and phosphatidylinositol-specific-phospholipase C and its activity was destroyed by nitrous acid deamination. These findings suggested that insulin might stimulate breakdown of a glycophospholipid containing inositol and glucosamine, as previously reported for some other cell types [Low & Saltiel (1988) Science 239, 268-275]. A lipid that incorporated [3H]glucosamine, [3H]galactose, [3H]inositol, and [3H]myristate and whose turnover was stimulated by insulin was subsequently isolated from intact adipocytes by sequential t.l.c. using an acidic solvent system followed by a basic solvent system. The effects of insulin on turnover of the lipid in these cells were transient, with maximal effects at 1 min, and there was a typical concentration-response curve to insulin (0.07 nM-7 nM), with effects being detected over the physiological range of insulin concentrations. In contrast with studies in other cells, there was appreciable turnover of the sugar labels. The majority of the [3H]glucosamine and [3H]galactose labels were cycled through to triacylglycerol in the adipocyte. However, of that recovered in the glycophospholipid band, a major proportion (less than 40%) was recovered as the native label. Digestion of the purified molecule with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C generated a material that activated both pyruvate dehydrogenase and low-Km cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. Impairment in insulin-stimulated breakdown of the molecule in adipocytes of streptozotocin-diabetic rats was found, consistent with the impaired insulin activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase and glucose utilization seen in this model. These findings suggest that insulin stimulates breakdown of this glycophospholipid by stimulating an

  12. Copper-deficient mice have higher cardiac norepinephrine turnover

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, A.M.; Prohaska, J.R. )

    1989-02-01

    Male Swiss albino mice were studied at 6 weeks of age. Their dams were fed a copper-deficient diet (modified AIN-76A) starting 4 days after birth and given deionized water (-Cu) or water with CuSO{sub 4} added (+Cu) (20 {mu}g Cu/ml). When 3 weeks of age mice were weaned and housed in stainless steel cages on the respective treatment of their dams. Turnover of norepinephrine (NE) was studied in 8 experiments using 2 separate techniques. The first procedure used {alpha}-methyl-p-tyrosine methyl ester (300 mg/kg i.p.) to inhibit tyrosine hydroxlase activity. The loss of residual NE was determined by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Regression lines were constructed and fractional turnover (%/h) and calculated turnover (ng/g/h) were determined for heart, cerebellum and adrenal gland. In 4 experiments loss of NE in cerebellum of -Cu ad +Cu mice was equivalent. Loss of NE from adrenal gland could not be detected in the 8 h time course. Loss of NE, both fractional turnover and calculated turnover, from heart of -Cu mice was 4-5 fold higher compared to +Cu controls. A second method using m- hydroxybenzylhydrazine (NSD-1015) (100 mg/kg i.p.), which inhibits aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, confirmed the results. For all 4 experiments the cardiac accumulation of L-DOPA (measured by HPLC) was faster in -Cu mice compared to controls. The higher turnover rate of NE in heart and perhaps other sympathetic nerves may contribute to the higher urinary NE output observed previously.

  13. Continuous phosphatidylinositol metabolism is required for cleavage of crane fly spermatocytes.

    PubMed

    Saul, Daniel; Fabian, Lacramioara; Forer, Arthur; Brill, Julie A

    2004-08-01

    Successful cleavage of animal cells requires co-ordinated regulation of the actomyosin contractile ring and cleavage furrow ingression. Data from a variety of systems implicate phosphoinositol lipids and calcium release as potential regulators of this fundamental process. Here we examine the requirement for various steps of the phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) cycle in dividing crane fly (Nephrotoma suturalis) spermatocytes. PtdIns cycle inhibitors were added to living cells after cleavage furrows formed and began to ingress. Inhibitors known to block PtdIns recycling (lithium), PtdIns phosphorylation (wortmannin, LY294002) or phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P(2)] hydrolysis [U73122 (U7)] all stopped or slowed furrowing. The effect of these drugs on cytokinesis was quite rapid (within 0-4 minutes), so continuous metabolism of PtdIns appears to be required for continued cleavage furrow ingression. U7 caused cleavage furrow regression concomitant with depletion of F-actin from the contractile ring, whereas the other inhibitors caused neither regression nor depletion of F-actin. That U7 depletes furrow-associated actin seems counterintuitive, as inhibition of phospholipase C would be expected to increase cellular levels of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) and hence increase actin polymerization. Our confocal images suggest, however, that F-actin might accumulate at the poles of U7-treated cells, consistent with the idea that PtdIns(4,5)P(2) hydrolysis may be required for actin filaments formed at the poles to participate in contractile ring assembly at the furrow. PMID:15265984

  14. Lovastatin-Induced Phosphatidylinositol-4-Phosphate 5-Kinase Diffusion from Microvilli Stimulates ROMK Channels

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bing-Chen; Yang, Li-Li; Lu, Xiao-Yu; Song, Xiang; Li, Xue-Chen; Chen, Guangping; Li, Yichao; Yao, Xincheng; Humphrey, Donald R.; Eaton, Douglas C.

    2015-01-01

    We recently showed that lovastatin attenuates cyclosporin A (CsA)-induced damage of cortical collecting duct (CCD) principal cells by reducing intracellular cholesterol. Previous studies showed that, in cell expression models or artificial membranes, exogenous cholesterol directly inhibits inward rectifier potassium channels, including Kir1.1 (Kcnj1; the gene locus for renal outer medullary K+ [ROMK1] channels). Therefore, we hypothesized that lovastatin might stimulate ROMK1 by reducing cholesterol in CCD cells. Western blots showed that mpkCCDc14 cells express ROMK1 channels with molecular masses that approximate the molecular masses of ROMK1 in renal tubules detected before and after treatment with DTT. Confocal microscopy showed that ROMK1 channels were not in the microvilli, where cholesterol-rich lipid rafts are located, but rather, the planar regions of the apical membrane of mpkCCDc14 cells. Furthermore, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], an activator of ROMK channels, was detected mainly in the microvilli under resting conditions along with the kinase responsible for PI(4,5)P2 synthesis, phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type I γ [PI(4)P5K I γ], which may explain the low basal open probability and increased sensitivity to tetraethylammonium observed here for this channel. Notably, lovastatin induced PI(4)P5K I γ diffusion into planar regions and elevated PI(4,5)P2 and ROMK1 open probability in these regions through a cholesterol-associated mechanism. However, exogenous cholesterol alone did not induce these effects. These results suggest that lovastatin stimulates ROMK1 channels, at least in part, by inducing PI(4,5)P2 synthesis in planar regions of the renal CCD cell apical membrane, suggesting that lovastatin could reduce cyclosporin-induced nephropathy and associated hyperkalemia. PMID:25349201

  15. Lovastatin-Induced Phosphatidylinositol-4-Phosphate 5-Kinase Diffusion from Microvilli Stimulates ROMK Channels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing-Chen; Yang, Li-Li; Lu, Xiao-Yu; Song, Xiang; Li, Xue-Chen; Chen, Guangping; Li, Yichao; Yao, Xincheng; Humphrey, Donald R; Eaton, Douglas C; Shen, Bao-Zhong; Ma, He-Ping

    2015-07-01

    We recently showed that lovastatin attenuates cyclosporin A (CsA)-induced damage of cortical collecting duct (CCD) principal cells by reducing intracellular cholesterol. Previous studies showed that, in cell expression models or artificial membranes, exogenous cholesterol directly inhibits inward rectifier potassium channels, including Kir1.1 (Kcnj1; the gene locus for renal outer medullary K(+) [ROMK1] channels). Therefore, we hypothesized that lovastatin might stimulate ROMK1 by reducing cholesterol in CCD cells. Western blots showed that mpkCCDc14 cells express ROMK1 channels with molecular masses that approximate the molecular masses of ROMK1 in renal tubules detected before and after treatment with DTT. Confocal microscopy showed that ROMK1 channels were not in the microvilli, where cholesterol-rich lipid rafts are located, but rather, the planar regions of the apical membrane of mpkCCDc14 cells. Furthermore, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], an activator of ROMK channels, was detected mainly in the microvilli under resting conditions along with the kinase responsible for PI(4,5)P2 synthesis, phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type I γ [PI(4)P5K I γ], which may explain the low basal open probability and increased sensitivity to tetraethylammonium observed here for this channel. Notably, lovastatin induced PI(4)P5K I γ diffusion into planar regions and elevated PI(4,5)P2 and ROMK1 open probability in these regions through a cholesterol-associated mechanism. However, exogenous cholesterol alone did not induce these effects. These results suggest that lovastatin stimulates ROMK1 channels, at least in part, by inducing PI(4,5)P2 synthesis in planar regions of the renal CCD cell apical membrane, suggesting that lovastatin could reduce cyclosporin-induced nephropathy and associated hyperkalemia. PMID:25349201

  16. West Nile Virus Replication Requires Fatty Acid Synthesis but Is Independent on Phosphatidylinositol-4-Phosphate Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Acebes, Miguel A.; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Jiménez de Oya, Nereida; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurovirulent mosquito-borne flavivirus, which main natural hosts are birds but it also infects equines and humans, among other mammals. As in the case of other plus-stranded RNA viruses, WNV replication is associated to intracellular membrane rearrangements. Based on results obtained with a variety of viruses, different cellular processes have been shown to play important roles on these membrane rearrangements for efficient viral replication. As these processes are related to lipid metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, as well as generation of a specific lipid microenvironment enriched in phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P), has been associated to it in other viral models. In this study, intracellular membrane rearrangements following infection with a highly neurovirulent strain of WNV were addressed by means of electron and confocal microscopy. Infection of WNV, and specifically viral RNA replication, were dependent on fatty acid synthesis, as revealed by the inhibitory effect of cerulenin and C75, two pharmacological inhibitors of fatty acid synthase, a key enzyme of this process. However, WNV infection did not induce redistribution of PI4P lipids, and PI4P did not localize at viral replication complex. Even more, WNV multiplication was not inhibited by the use of the phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase inhibitor PIK93, while infection by the enterovirus Coxsackievirus B5 was reduced. Similar features were found when infection by other flavivirus, the Usutu virus (USUV), was analyzed. These features of WNV replication could help to design specific antiviral approaches against WNV and other related flaviviruses. PMID:21949814

  17. Phosphatidylinositol turnover (PI) during synaptic activation results from the release of a stimulatory and in inhibitory agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Bencherif, M.; Rubio, R.; Berne, R.M.

    1986-03-05

    PI has been implicated in the process of synaptic transmission and is increased by agonists. It has been suggested that PI is involved in cellular Ca/sup + +/ mobilization and the process represents a series of hydrolytic reactions with inositol as the final product. Hence, the rate of release of /sup 3/H-inositol (/sup 3/H-Ins) from prelabelled inositol phospholipids can be used as an index of PI. In the /sup 3/H-inositol prelabelled frog sympathetic ganglia, they studied the effect of synaptic activity on PI. PI did not change during orthodromic stimulation (20 Hz, 5 min). However, upon cessation of the stimulation, PI increased rapidly and remained elevated for at least 30 min. This increase in PI was reduced by suffusing the ganglia with either acetylcholine or adenosine. In the presence of atropine (5 ..mu..M), orthodromic stimulation increased PI. They hypothesized that synaptic activation releases a long-lasting stimulatory agonist and a short-lived inhibitory (Ach/adenosine) agonist(s) affecting PI. To test this idea, 2 sympathetic ganglia were used. One was prelabelled with /sup 3/H-inositol and the other was not. The two ganglia were placed together in a 5 ..mu..l drop of Ringers solution containing atropine. Orthodromic stimuli were applied to the non-labelled ganglion and elicited release of /sup 3/H-Ins from the non-stimulated ganglion.

  18. Phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins: sequence motifs in structural and evolutionary analyses

    PubMed Central

    Wyckoff, Gerald J.; Solidar, Ada; Yoden, Marilyn D.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins (PITP) are a family of monomeric proteins that bind and transfer phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine between membrane compartments. They are required for production of inositol and diacylglycerol second messengers, and are found in most metazoan organisms. While PITPs are known to carry out crucial cell-signaling roles in many organisms, the structure, function and evolution of the majority of family members remains unexplored; primarily because the ubiquity and diversity of the family thwarts traditional methods of global alignment. To surmount this obstacle, we instead took a novel approach, using MEME and a parsimony-based analysis to create a cladogram of conserved sequence motifs in 56 PITP family proteins from 26 species. In keeping with previous functional annotations, three clades were supported within our evolutionary analysis; two classes of soluble proteins and a class of membrane-associated proteins. By, focusing on conserved regions, the analysis allowed for in depth queries regarding possible functional roles of PITP proteins in both intra- and extra- cellular signaling. PMID:27429707

  19. Purification of phosphatidylinositol kinase from bovine brain myelin.

    PubMed Central

    Saltiel, A R; Fox, J A; Sherline, P; Sahyoun, N; Cuatrecasas, P

    1987-01-01

    A membrane-bound phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase (EC 2.7.1.67) was purified by affinity chromatography from bovine brain myelin. This enzyme activity was solubilized with non-ionic detergent and chromatographed on an anion-exchange column. Further purification was achieved by affinity chromatography on PI covalently coupled to epoxy-activated Sepharose, which was eluted with a combination of PI and detergent. The final step in the purification was by gel filtration on an Ultrogel AcA44 column. This procedure afforded greater than 5500-fold purification of the enzyme from whole brain myelin. The resulting activity exhibited a major silver-stained band on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with an apparent Mr 45,000. The identity of this band as PI kinase was corroborated by demonstration of enzyme activity in the gel region corresponding to that of the stained protein. The purified enzyme exhibited a non-linear dependence on PI as substrate, with two apparent kinetic components. The lower-affinity component exhibited a Km similar to that observed for the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate by the enzyme. PMID:3036072

  20. Phosphatidylinositol Specific Phospholipase C of Plant Stems 1

    PubMed Central

    Pfaffmann, Helmut; Hartmann, Elmar; Brightman, Andrew O.; Morré, D. James

    1987-01-01

    A phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C of plant stems (EC 3.1.4.10) assayed at pH 6.6 and at 30°C cleaved phosphatidylinositol such that more than 85% of the product was inositol-1-phosphate. Other phospholipids were cleaved 5 to 10% or less under these conditions. The phospholipase had both a soluble and a membrane-associated form. The soluble activity accounted for approximately 85 to 90% of the activity and 15% was associated with membranes. The membrane-associated activity was most concentrated in the plasma membranes of hypocotyl segments of both soybean (Glycine max) and bushbean (Phaseolus vulgaris). The plasma membrane location was verified by analysis of highly purified plasma membranes prepared both by aqueous two-phase partitioning and by preparative free-flow electrophoresis and from the quantitation of the activity in all major cell fractions. Internal membranes also contained phospholipase C activity but at specific activity levels of about 0.1 those present in plasma membranes. Golgi apparatus-enriched fractions from which plasma membrane contaminants were removed by two-phase partition contained the activity at specific activity levels 0.2 those of plasma membrane. Both the soluble and the membrane-associated activity was stimulated by calcium but not by calmodulin, either alone or in the presence of calcium. PMID:16665820

  1. Hexamethylenebisacetamide modulation of thyroglobulin and protein levels in thyroid cells is not mediated by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase: a study with wortmannin.

    PubMed

    Aouani, A; Samih, N; Amphoux-Fazekas, T; Hovsépian, S; Fayet, G

    1999-04-01

    Hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA) induces in murine erythroleukemia cells (MELC) the commitment to terminal differentiation leading to globin gene expression. In the thyroid, HMBA acts as a growth factor and also as a differentiating agent. In the present paper, we studied the effect of HMBA on the very specific thyroid marker thyroglobulin (Tg) in two different thyroid cell systems, i.e., porcine cells in primary culture and ovine cells in long term culture. Using wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, we investigated whether this enzyme is involved in HMBA mode of action. We found that HMBA is a positive modulator of Tg production in porcine cells, but a negative effector in the OVNIS cell line. As all HMBA effects studied in the present paper, i.e., Tg production and total protein levels, are not inhibited by wortmannin, we suggest the non-involvement of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase in HMBA mode of action. PMID:10650339

  2. Productive Entry of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus via Macropinocytosis Independent of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase.

    PubMed

    Han, Shi-Chong; Guo, Hui-Chen; Sun, Shi-Qi; Jin, Ye; Wei, Yan-Quan; Feng, Xia; Yao, Xue-Ping; Cao, Sui-Zhong; Xiang Liu, Ding; Liu, Xiang-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Virus entry is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Here, using a combination of electron microscopy, immunofluorescence assay, siRNA interference, specific pharmacological inhibitors, and dominant negative mutation, we demonstrated that the entry of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) triggered a substantial amount of plasma membrane ruffling. We also found that the internalization of FMDV induced a robust increase in fluid-phase uptake, and virions internalized within macropinosomes colocalized with phase uptake marker dextran. During this stage, the Rac1-Pak1 signaling pathway was activated. After specific inhibition on actin, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, receptor tyrosine kinase, Rac1, Pak1, myosin II, and protein kinase C, the entry and infection of FMDV significantly decreased. However, inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) did not reduce FMDV internalization but increased the viral entry and infection to a certain extent, implying that FMDV entry did not require PI3K activity. Results showed that internalization of FMDV exhibited the main hallmarks of macropinocytosis. Moreover, intracellular trafficking of FMDV involves EEA1/Rab5-positive vesicles. The present study demonstrated macropinocytosis as another endocytic pathway apart from the clathrin-mediated pathway. The findings greatly expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of FMDV entry into cells, as well as provide potential insights into the entry mechanisms of other picornaviruses. PMID:26757826

  3. Selective Sparing of Human Tregs by Pharmacologic Inhibitors of the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase and MEK Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zwang, N. A.; Zhang, R.; Germana, S.; Fan, M. Y.; Hastings, W. D.; Cao, A.; Turka, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated (MEK) signaling are central to the survival and proliferation of many cell types. Multiple lines of investigation in murine models have shown that control of the PI3K pathway is particularly important for regulatory T cell (Treg) stability and function. PI3K and MEK inhibitors are being introduced into the clinic, and we hypothesized that pharmacologic inhibition of PI3K, and possibly MEK, in mixed cultures of human mononuclear cells would preferentially affect CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes compared with Tregs. We tested this hypothesis using four readouts: proliferation, activation, functional suppression, and signaling. Results showed that Tregs were less susceptible to inhibition by both δ and α isoform–specific PI3K inhibitors and by an MEK inhibitor compared with their conventional CD4+ and CD8+ counterparts. These studies suggest less functional reliance on PI3K and MEK signaling in Tregs compared with conventional CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. Therefore, the PI3K and MEK pathways are attractive pharmacologic targets for transplantation and treatment of autoimmunity. PMID:27017850

  4. Selective Sparing of Human Tregs by Pharmacologic Inhibitors of the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase and MEK Pathways.

    PubMed

    Zwang, N A; Zhang, R; Germana, S; Fan, M Y; Hastings, W D; Cao, A; Turka, L A

    2016-09-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated (MEK) signaling are central to the survival and proliferation of many cell types. Multiple lines of investigation in murine models have shown that control of the PI3K pathway is particularly important for regulatory T cell (Treg) stability and function. PI3K and MEK inhibitors are being introduced into the clinic, and we hypothesized that pharmacologic inhibition of PI3K, and possibly MEK, in mixed cultures of human mononuclear cells would preferentially affect CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes compared with Tregs. We tested this hypothesis using four readouts: proliferation, activation, functional suppression, and signaling. Results showed that Tregs were less susceptible to inhibition by both δ and α isoform-specific PI3K inhibitors and by an MEK inhibitor compared with their conventional CD4(+) and CD8(+) counterparts. These studies suggest less functional reliance on PI3K and MEK signaling in Tregs compared with conventional CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes. Therefore, the PI3K and MEK pathways are attractive pharmacologic targets for transplantation and treatment of autoimmunity. PMID:27017850

  5. Estimating Teacher Turnover Costs: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Abigail Jurist; Joy, Lois; Ellis, Pamela; Jablonski, Erica; Karelitz, Tzur M.

    2012-01-01

    High teacher turnover in large U.S. cities is a critical issue for schools and districts, and the students they serve; but surprisingly little work has been done to develop methodologies and standards that districts and schools can use to make reliable estimates of turnover costs. Even less is known about how to detect variations in turnover costs…

  6. Measuring Staff Turnover in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Nicholas G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: In this study the levels of staff turnover reported in the nursing home literature (1990-2003) are reviewed, as well as the definitions of turnover used in these prior studies. With the use of primary data collected from 354 facilities, the study addresses the various degrees of bias that result, depending on how staff turnover is defined…

  7. Using Turnover as a Recruitment Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Teacher turnover is notoriously high in the field of early childhood education with an estimated 33% of staff exiting the workplace each year. Turnover is costly. Not only do high levels of turnover negatively impact children's growth and development, it also erodes the program's economic stability and wherewithal to provide effective operations…

  8. How Teacher Turnover Harms Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronfeldt, Matthew; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers often assume that teacher turnover harms student achievement, though recent studies suggest this may not be the case. Using a unique identification strategy that employs school-by-grade level turnover and two classes of fixed-effects models, this study estimates the effects of teacher turnover on over 850,000 New York…

  9. [Role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and myosin light chain kinase during the activation of thrombin receptors].

    PubMed

    Han, Yue; Gao, Hai-Li; Zhang, Wei; Bai, Xia; Dai, Lan; Sheng, Wen-Hong; Sun, Ai-Ning; Wu, De-Pei; Wang, Zhao-Yue; Ruan, Chang-Geng

    2009-06-01

    The objective of study was to compare the influences of wortmannin on platelet aggregation and platelet membrane surface glycoproteins GPIb expression after thrombin receptor activation, and to investigate the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in the course of thrombin receptor activation. Peptide SFLLRN (PAR1-AP) and AYPGKF (PAR4-AP) were used for stimulating platelet, and the changes of platelet aggregation and GPIb were analyzed with 100 nmol/L wortmannin (inhibitor of PI3-K) and 10 micromol/L wortmannin (inhibitor of MLCK). The results indicated that the platelet activation was influenced by either concentration of wortmannin in response to PAR stimulation. Platelet aggregation was apparently inhibited by 10 micromol/L wortmannin through both PAR peptides, and was slightly inhibited by 100 nmol/L wortmannin only under PAR1-AP activation. In addition, GPIbalpha internalization was partly inhibited by 100 nmol/L wortmannin in response to PAR1 (p < 0.05 at 1, 2, 5 min) and PAR4 (p < 0.05 at 2, 5, 10 min) activation. Meanwhile, 10 micromol/L wortmannin induced little change for GPIbalpha centralisation in the course of PAR activation, with a delayed restoration of surface GPIbalpha observed under PAR1-AP activation, and no change of GPIbalpha redistribution existed under PAR4-AP activation. It is concluded that the different roles of PI3-K and MLCK exist in the course of thrombin receptor activation. PI3-K accelerates the short course of GPIb centralisation for two PAR signal pathways, while MLCK inhibits the restoration of GPIbalpha in PAR1 pathway. PMID:19549383

  10. Polarized deposition of basement membrane proteins depends on Phosphatidylinositol synthase and the levels of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Devergne, Olivier; Tsung, Karen; Barcelo, Gail; Schüpbach, Trudi

    2014-05-27

    The basement membrane (BM), a specialized sheet of the extracellular matrix contacting the basal side of epithelial tissues, plays an important role in the control of the polarized structure of epithelial cells. However, little is known about how BM proteins themselves achieve a polarized distribution. Here, we identify phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) as a critical regulator of the polarized secretion of BM proteins. A decrease of PIP2 levels, in particular through mutations in Phosphatidylinositol synthase (Pis) and other members of the phosphoinositide pathway, leads to the aberrant accumulation of BM components at the apical side of the cell without primarily affecting the distribution of apical and basolateral polarity proteins. In addition, PIP2 controls the apical and lateral localization of Crag (Calmodulin-binding protein related to a Rab3 GDP/GTP exchange protein), a factor specifically required to prevent aberrant apical secretion of BM. We propose that PIP2, through the control of Crag's subcellular localization, restricts the secretion of BM proteins to the basal side.

  11. Targeted Lipidomics Studies Reveal that Linolenic Acid Promotes Cotton Fiber Elongation by Activating Phosphatidylinositol and Phosphatidylinositol Monophosphate Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gao-Jun; Xiao, Guang-Hui; Liu, Ning-Jing; Liu, Dan; Chen, Pei-Shuang; Qin, Yong-Mei; Zhu, Yu-Xian

    2015-06-01

    The membrane lipids from fast-elongating wild-type cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers at 10 days post-anthesis, wild-type ovules with fiber cells removed, and ovules from the fuzzless-lintless mutant harvested at the same age, were extracted, separated, and quantified. Fiber cells contained significantly higher amounts of phosphatidylinositol (PI) than both ovule samples with PI 34:3 being the most predominant species. The genes encoding fatty acid desaturases (Δ(15)GhFAD), PI synthase (PIS) and PI kinase (PIK) were expressed in a fiber-preferential manner. Further analysis of phosphatidylinositol monophosphate (PIP) indicated that elongating fibers contained four- to five-fold higher amounts of PIP 34:3 than the ovules. Exogenously applied linolenic acid (C18:3), soybean L-α-PI, and PIPs containing PIP 34:3 promoted significant fiber growth, whereas a liver PI lacking the C18:3 moiety, linoleic acid, and PIP 36:2 were completely ineffective. The growth inhibitory effects of carbenoxolone, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and wortmannin were reverted by C18:3, PI, or PIP, respectively, suggesting that PIP signaling is essential for fiber cell growth. Furthermore, cotton plants expressing virus-induced gene-silencing constructs that specifically suppressed GhΔ(15)FAD, GhPIS, or GhPIK expression, resulted in significantly short-fibered phenotypes. Our data provide the basis for in-depth studies on the roles of PI and PIP in mediating cotton fiber growth.

  12. Foot-and-mouth disease virus replicates independently of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and type III phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Stephen; Moffat, Katy; Harak, Christian; Lohmann, Volker; Jackson, Terry

    2016-08-01

    Picornaviruses form replication complexes in association with membranes in structures called replication organelles. Common themes to emerge from studies of picornavirus replication are the need for cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P). In infected cells, type III phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4KIIIs) generate elevated levels of PI4P, which is then exchanged for cholesterol at replication organelles. For the enteroviruses, replication organelles form at Golgi membranes in a process that utilizes PI4KIIIβ. Other picornaviruses, for example the cardioviruses, are believed to initiate replication at the endoplasmic reticulum and subvert PI4KIIIα to generate PI4P. Here we investigated the role of PI4KIII in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication. Our results showed that, in contrast to the enteroviruses and the cardioviruses, FMDV replication does not require PI4KIII (PI4KIIIα and PI4KIIIβ), and PI4P levels do not increase in FMDV-infected cells and PI4P is not seen at replication organelles. These results point to a unique requirement towards lipids at the FMDV replication membranes. PMID:27093462

  13. Trypanosoma brucei Bloodstream Forms Depend upon Uptake of myo-Inositol for Golgi Complex Phosphatidylinositol Synthesis and Normal Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    González-Salgado, Amaia; Steinmann, Michael; Major, Louise L; Sigel, Erwin; Reymond, Jean-Louis; Smith, Terry K; Bütikofer, Peter

    2015-06-01

    myo-Inositol is a building block for all inositol-containing phospholipids in eukaryotes. It can be synthesized de novo from glucose-6-phosphate in the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum. Alternatively, it can be taken up from the environment via Na(+)- or H(+)-linked myo-inositol transporters. While Na(+)-coupled myo-inositol transporters are found exclusively in the plasma membrane, H(+)-linked myo-inositol transporters are detected in intracellular organelles. In Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human African sleeping sickness, myo-inositol metabolism is compartmentalized. De novo-synthesized myo-inositol is used for glycosylphosphatidylinositol production in the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas the myo-inositol taken up from the environment is used for bulk phosphatidylinositol synthesis in the Golgi complex. We now provide evidence that the Golgi complex-localized T. brucei H(+)-linked myo-inositol transporter (TbHMIT) is essential in bloodstream-form T. brucei. Downregulation of TbHMIT expression by RNA interference blocked phosphatidylinositol production and inhibited growth of parasites in culture. Characterization of the transporter in a heterologous expression system demonstrated a remarkable selectivity of TbHMIT for myo-inositol. It tolerates only a single modification on the inositol ring, such as the removal of a hydroxyl group or the inversion of stereochemistry at a single hydroxyl group relative to myo-inositol.

  14. Trypanosoma brucei Bloodstream Forms Depend upon Uptake of myo-Inositol for Golgi Complex Phosphatidylinositol Synthesis and Normal Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    González-Salgado, Amaia; Steinmann, Michael; Major, Louise L.; Sigel, Erwin; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    myo-Inositol is a building block for all inositol-containing phospholipids in eukaryotes. It can be synthesized de novo from glucose-6-phosphate in the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum. Alternatively, it can be taken up from the environment via Na+- or H+-linked myo-inositol transporters. While Na+-coupled myo-inositol transporters are found exclusively in the plasma membrane, H+-linked myo-inositol transporters are detected in intracellular organelles. In Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human African sleeping sickness, myo-inositol metabolism is compartmentalized. De novo-synthesized myo-inositol is used for glycosylphosphatidylinositol production in the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas the myo-inositol taken up from the environment is used for bulk phosphatidylinositol synthesis in the Golgi complex. We now provide evidence that the Golgi complex-localized T. brucei H+-linked myo-inositol transporter (TbHMIT) is essential in bloodstream-form T. brucei. Downregulation of TbHMIT expression by RNA interference blocked phosphatidylinositol production and inhibited growth of parasites in culture. Characterization of the transporter in a heterologous expression system demonstrated a remarkable selectivity of TbHMIT for myo-inositol. It tolerates only a single modification on the inositol ring, such as the removal of a hydroxyl group or the inversion of stereochemistry at a single hydroxyl group relative to myo-inositol. PMID:25888554

  15. Physicochemical and biological characterization of synthetic phosphatidylinositol dimannosides and analogues.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Madlen; Compton, Benjamin J; Hayman, Colin M; Larsen, David S; Painter, Gavin F; Rades, Thomas; Hook, Sarah

    2013-05-01

    Native phosphatidylinositol mannosides (PIMs), isolated from the cell wall of Mycobacterium bovis, and synthetic PIM analogues have been reported to offer a variety of immunomodulating properties, including both suppressive and stimulatory activity. While numerous studies have examined the biological activity of these molecules, the aim of this research was to assess the physicochemical properties at a molecular level and correlate these characteristics with biological activity in a mouse model of airway eosinophilia. To accomplish this, we varied the flexibility and lipophilicity of synthetic PIMs by changing the polar headgroup (inositol- vs glycerol-based core) and the length of the acyl chains of the fatty acid residues (C0, C10, C16, and C18). A series of six phosphatidylinositol dimannosides (PIM2s) and phosphatidylglycerol dimannosides (PGM2s) were synthesized and characterized in this study. Langmuir monolayer studies showed that surface pressure-area (π-A) isotherms were greatly influenced by the length of the lipid acyl chains as well as the steric hindrance and volume of the headgroups. In aqueous solution, lipidated PIM2 and PGM2 compounds were observed to self-assemble into circular aggregates, as confirmed by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopic investigations. Removal of the inositol ring but retention of the three-carbon glycerol unit maintained biological activity. We found that the deacylated PGM2, which did not show self-organization, had no effect on the eosinophil numbers but did have an impact on the expansion of OVA-specific CD4(+) Vα2Vβ5 T cells. PMID:23469864

  16. The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor NVP-BKM120 overcomes resistance signals derived from microenvironment by regulating the Akt/FoxO3a/Bim axis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Rosich, Laia; Saborit-Villarroya, Ifigènia; López-Guerra, Mónica; Xargay-Torrent, Sílvia; Montraveta, Arnau; Aymerich, Marta; Villamor, Neus; Campo, Elias; Pérez-Galán, Patricia; Roué, Gaël; Colomer, Dolors

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway is constitutively activated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia mainly due to microenvironment signals, including stromal cell interaction and CXCR4 and B-cell receptor activation. Because of the importance of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, we investigated the activity of the NVP-BKM120, an orally available pan class I phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor. Sensitivity to NVP-BKM120 was analyzed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia primary samples in the context of B-cell receptor and microenvironment stimulation. NVP-BKM120 promoted mitochondrial apoptosis in most primary cells independently of common prognostic markers. NVP-BKM120 activity induced the blockage of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling, decreased Akt and FoxO3a phosphorylation leading to concomitant Mcl-1 downregulation and Bim induction. Accordingly, selective knockdown of BIM rescued cells from NVP-BKM120-induced apoptosis, while the kinase inhibitor synergistically enhanced the apoptosis induced by the BH3-mimetic ABT-263. We also found NVP-BKM120 to inhibit B-cell receptor- and stroma-dependent Akt pathway activation, thus sensitizing chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to bendamustine and fludarabine. Furthermore, NVP-BKM120 down-regulated secretion of chemokines after B-cell receptor stimulation and inhibited cell chemotaxis and actin polymerization upon CXCR4 triggering by CXCL12. Our findings establish that NVP-BKM120 effectively inhibits the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling pathway and disturbs the protective effect of the tumor microenvironment with the subsequent apoptosis induction through the Akt/FoxO3a/Bim axis. We provide here a strong rationale for undertaking clinical trials of NVP-BKM120 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients alone or in combination therapies. PMID:23850807

  17. Changes in phosphoinositide turnover, Ca sup 2+ mobilization, and protein phosphorylation in platelets from NIDDM patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, H.; Umeda, F.; Hashimoto, T.; Nawata, H. )

    1990-12-01

    Enhanced platelet functions have been demonstrated in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). This study evaluated abnormalities in platelet signal transduction in diabetic patients, including turnover of phosphoinositides, mobilization of intracellular Ca2+, and phosphorylation of 20,000- and 47,000-Mr proteins (P20 and P47). Washed platelets were obtained from 6 patients with NIDDM whose platelet aggregation rates were abnormally elevated (DM-A group), 11 NIDDM patients with normal platelet aggregation rates (DM-B group), and 8 age-matched healthy control subjects. The mass and specific radioactivity of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidic acid (PA) in 32P-labeled platelets were not different among the three groups. Hydrolysis of PIP2, PIP, and PI; accumulation of PA; and phosphorylation of P20 in platelets stimulated by 0.05 U/ml thrombin were significantly increased in the DM-A group compared with the control or DM-B group. There was no difference in P47 phosphorylation among the three groups. On the contrary, P20 and P47 phosphorylation induced by 50 nM of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, an activator of protein kinase C, was significantly decreased in the DM-A group. Additionally, the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration (( Ca2+)i) was measured with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fura 2. Although the basal (Ca2+)i value was similar in the three groups, the rise in (Ca2+)i induced by 0.05 U/ml thrombin in the presence and the absence of extracellular Ca2+ was significantly higher in the DM-A group than the other groups.

  18. Enhanced inositide turnover in brain during bicuculline-induced status epilepticus

    SciTech Connect

    Van Rooijen, L.A.; Vadnal, R.; Dobard, P.; Bazan, N.G.

    1986-04-29

    Because brain inositides are enriched in the 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl species, they form a likely source for the tetraenoic free fatty acids (FFA) and diacylglycerols (DG) that are accumulated during seizures. To study inositide turnover during bicuculline-induced seizures, rats were injected intraventricularly and bilaterally with 10-20 microCi /sup 32/P, mechanically ventilated and sacrificed by 6.5 KW head-focused microwave irradiation. Seizure activity was recorded by electroencephalography. Bicuculline-induced seizure activity resulted in: a) almost 50% increase in /sup 32/P labeling of phosphatidic acid (PA); phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) also increased (24% and 36%, respectively); b) no change in other lipids; and c) water-soluble phosphodiesteratic degradation products, analyzed by high voltage paper electrophoresis, increased 24% in the amount of radiotracer recovered as inositol 1,4-bisphosphate (IP2) and by 44% in the amount recovered as inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). These data indicate that during experimental status epilepticus the cerebral inositide cycle is accelerated: PIP2----(IP3----IP2----IP----I) + DG----PA----PI----PIP----PIP2.

  19. Osh4p exchanges sterols for phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate between lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    de Saint-Jean, Maud; Delfosse, Vanessa; Douguet, Dominique; Chicanne, Gaëtan; Payrastre, Bernard; Bourguet, William

    2011-01-01

    Osh/Orp proteins transport sterols between organelles and are involved in phosphoinositide metabolism. The link between these two aspects remains elusive. Using novel assays, we address the influence of membrane composition on the ability of Osh4p/Kes1p to extract, deliver, or transport dehydroergosterol (DHE). Surprisingly, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P) specifically inhibited DHE extraction because PI(4)P was itself efficiently extracted by Osh4p. We solve the structure of the Osh4p–PI(4)P complex and reveal how Osh4p selectively substitutes PI(4)P for sterol. Last, we show that Osh4p quickly exchanges DHE for PI(4)P and, thereby, can transport these two lipids between membranes along opposite routes. These results suggest a model in which Osh4p transports sterol from the ER to late compartments pinpointed by PI(4)P and, in turn, transports PI(4)P backward. Coupled to PI(4)P metabolism, this transport cycle would create sterol gradients. Because the residues that recognize PI(4)P are conserved in Osh4p homologues, other Osh/Orp are potential sterol/phosphoinositol phosphate exchangers. PMID:22162133

  20. Protein turnover, ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Schutz, Yves

    2011-03-01

    The major processes discussed below are protein turnover (degradation and synthesis), degradation into urea, or conversion into glucose (gluconeogenesis, Figure 1). Daily protein turnover is a dynamic process characterized by a double flux of amino acids: the amino acids released by endogenous (body) protein breakdown can be reutilized and reconverted to protein synthesis, with very little loss. Daily rates of protein turnover in humans (300 to 400 g per day) are largely in excess of the level of protein intake (50 to 80 g per day). A fast growing rate, as in premature babies or in children recovering from malnutrition, leads to a high protein turnover rate and a high protein and energy requirement. Protein metabolism (synthesis and breakdown) is an energy-requiring process, dependent upon endogenous ATP supply. The contribution made by whole-body protein turnover to the resting metabolic rate is important: it represents about 20 % in adults and more in growing children. Metabolism of proteins cannot be disconnected from that of energy since energy balance influences net protein utilization, and since protein intake has an important effect on postprandial thermogenesis - more important than that of fats or carbohydrates. The metabolic need for amino acids is essentially to maintain stores of endogenous tissue proteins within an appropriate range, allowing protein homeostasis to be maintained. Thanks to a dynamic, free amino acid pool, this demand for amino acids can be continuously supplied. The size of the free amino acid pool remains limited and is regulated within narrow limits. The supply of amino acids to cover physiological needs can be derived from 3 sources: 1. Exogenous proteins that release amino acids after digestion and absorption 2. Tissue protein breakdown during protein turnover 3. De novo synthesis, including amino acids (as well as ammonia) derived from the process of urea salvage, following hydrolysis and microflora metabolism in the hind gut

  1. Bone turnover in malnourished children.

    PubMed

    Branca, F; Robins, S P; Ferro-Luzzi, A; Golden, M H

    Pyridinoline (PYD) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) are cross-linking aminoacids of collagen that are located mainly in bone and cartilage. When bone matrix is resorbed these cross-links are quantitatively excreted in the urine and therefore represent specific markers. We have measured the urinary excretion rate of PYD and DPD in 46 severely malnourished boys to assess their skeletal turnover and to relate this to their subsequent rate of growth. The children were aged 13 months (SD 6), and height-for-age was -3.6 (1.6) Z-score, and weight-for-height was -2.4 (0.8) Z-score. PYD excretion when malnourished and after "recovery" was 11.2 (4.6) nmol h-1m-2 and 32.2 (10.8) nmol h-1m-2 and DPD excretion was 2.6 (1.3) nmol h-1m-2 and 7.5 (3.0) nmol h-1m-2, respectively. The ratio of the two cross-links did not change with recovery. These data show that cartilage and bone turnover is much lower in the malnourished than in the recovered child. There was no difference in the degree of depression of turnover between the children with marasmus, marasmic-kwashiorkor, or kwashiorkor. The rate of height gain during recovery was significantly related to cross-link excretion, age, and weight-for-height on admission. These three factors accounted for 44% of the variance in the height velocity of the children. PYD and DPD excretion rate could be used to assess therapeutic interventions designed to alleviate stunting. PMID:1361595

  2. Intraflagellar transport balances continuous turnover of outer doublet microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Wallace F.; Rosenbaum, Joel L.

    2001-01-01

    A central question in cell biology is how cells determine the size of their organelles. Flagellar length control is a convenient system for studying organelle size regulation. Mechanistic models proposed for flagellar length regulation have been constrained by the assumption that flagella are static structures once they are assembled. However, recent work has shown that flagella are dynamic and are constantly turning over. We have determined that this turnover occurs at the flagellar tips, and that the assembly portion of the turnover is mediated by intraflagellar transport (IFT). Blocking IFT inhibits the incorporation of tubulin at the flagellar tips and causes the flagella to resorb. These results lead to a simple steady-state model for flagellar length regulation by which a balance of assembly and disassembly can effectively regulate flagellar length. PMID:11684707

  3. Platelet activation by bacterial phospholipase C involves phosphoinositide turnover and phosphorylation of 47,000 dalton but not 20,000 dalton protein

    SciTech Connect

    Huzoor-Akbar; Anwer, K.

    1986-05-01

    This study was conducted to examine the role of phosphoinositides (PIns) and phosphorylation of 47,000 dalton (P47) and 20,000 dalton (P20) proteins in platelet activation by bacterial phospholipase C (PLC). PLC induced serotonin secretion (SS) and platelet aggregation (PA) in a concentration dependent manner. PLC (0.02 U/ml) caused phosphorylation of P47 in a time dependent manner (27% at 0.5 min to 378% at 7 min). PLC did not induce more than 15% phosphorylation of P20 by 7 min. Aspirin (500 ..mu..M) blocked phosphorylation of P20 but did not inhibit SS, PA or phosphorylation of P47. PLC (0.04 U/ml) decreased radioactivity (cpm) in /sup 32/P labeled phosphatidylinositol (PI), PI-4,5-bis-PO4 (PIP2) and PI-4-PO4 (PIP) by 20%, 12% and 7.5% respectively at 15 sec. The level of PI but not that of PIP2 returned to base line in 3 min. PIP level increased above control values within one min. PLC increased phosphatidic acid level (75% at 0.5 min. to 1545% at 3 min). In other experiments PLC produced diacylglycerol (DAG) in a time and concentration dependent manner. However, no DAG was detectable in the first 60 sec. These data suggest that: (a) PIns turnover and phosphorylation of P47 but not that of P20 is involved in platelet activation by PLC; and (b) DAG production from outer membrane phospholipids is not a prerequisite for platelet activation by PLC.

  4. Guide to good practices for operations turnover

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Operations Turnover, Chapter XII of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing operations turnover programs. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Operations Turnover is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for a formal operations turnover program to promote safe and efficient operations.

  5. Modification of erythrocyte membranes by a purified phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (Staphylococcus aureus).

    PubMed

    Low, M G; Finean, J B

    1977-02-15

    A phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Staphylococcus aureus was purified by a three-step procedure. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was approx. 6000 times that of the culture supernatant, with an overall recovery of approx. 10%. Estimation of the molecular weight by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and by gel filtration gave values of 33000 and 20000 respectively. A thiol group appears to be necessary for the activity of the enzyme. The purified enzyme had no detectable delta-haemolytic activity and was unable to hydrolyse S. aureus phospholipids. Phosphatidyl-inositol in erythrocyte 'ghosts' was readily hydrolysed by the purified phospholipase C. However, in contrast with our previous preliminary observations, phosphatidylinositol in intact erythrocytes was not significantly hydrolysed. These results suggest that at least 75-80% of the phosphatidylinositol is located at the inner leaflet of the membrane.

  6. Alcohol, signaling, and ECM turnover.

    PubMed

    Seth, Devanshi; D'Souza El-Guindy, Nympha B; Apte, Minoti; Mari, Montserrat; Dooley, Steven; Neuman, Manuela; Haber, Paul S; Kundu, Gopal C; Darwanto, Agus; de Villiers, Willem J; Vonlaufen, A; Xu, Z; Phillips, P; Yang, S; Goldstein, D; Pirola, R M; Wilson, J S; Moles, Anna; Fernández, Anna; Colell, Anna; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernández-Checa, José C; Meyer, Christoph; Meindl-Beinker, Nadja M

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol is recognized as a direct hepatotoxin, but the precise molecular pathways that are important for the initiation and progression of alcohol-induced tissue injury are not completely understood. The current understanding of alcohol toxicity to organs suggests that alcohol initiates injury by generation of oxidative and nonoxidative ethanol metabolites and via translocation of gut-derived endotoxin. These processes lead to cellular injury and stimulation of the inflammatory responses mediated through a variety of molecules. With continuing alcohol abuse, the injury progresses through impairment of tissue regeneration and extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover, leading to fibrogenesis and cirrhosis. Several cell types are involved in this process, the predominant being stellate cells, macrophages, and parenchymal cells. In response to alcohol, growth factors and cytokines activate many signaling cascades that regulate fibrogenesis. This mini-review brings together research focusing on the underlying mechanisms of alcohol-mediated injury in a number of organs. It highlights the various processes and molecules that are likely involved in inflammation, immune modulation, susceptibility to infection, ECM turnover and fibrogenesis in the liver, pancreas, and lung triggered by alcohol abuse.

  7. Mapping the Hsp90 Genetic Network Reveals Ergosterol Biosynthesis and Phosphatidylinositol-4-Kinase Signaling as Core Circuitry Governing Cellular Stress

    PubMed Central

    O’Meara, Teresa R.; Valaei, Seyedeh Fereshteh; Diezmann, Stephanie; Cowen, Leah E.

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is a leading human fungal pathogen that causes life-threatening systemic infections. A key regulator of C. albicans stress response, drug resistance, morphogenesis, and virulence is the molecular chaperone Hsp90. Targeting Hsp90 provides a powerful strategy to treat fungal infections, however, the therapeutic utility of current inhibitors is compromised by toxicity due to inhibition of host Hsp90. To identify components of the Hsp90-dependent circuitry governing virulence and drug resistance that are sufficiently divergent for selective targeting in the pathogen, we pioneered chemical genomic profiling of the Hsp90 genetic network in C. albicans. Here, we screen mutant collections covering ~10% of the genome for hypersensitivity to Hsp90 inhibition in multiple environmental conditions. We identify 158 HSP90 chemical genetic interactors, most of which are important for growth only in specific environments. We discovered that the sterol C-22 desaturase gene ERG5 and the phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase (PI4K) gene STT4 are HSP90 genetic interactors under multiple conditions, suggesting a function upstream of Hsp90. By systematic analysis of the ergosterol biosynthetic cascade, we demonstrate that defects in ergosterol biosynthesis induce cellular stress that overwhelms Hsp90’s functional capacity. By analysis of the phosphatidylinositol pathway, we demonstrate that there is a genetic interaction between the PI4K Stt4 and Hsp90. We also establish that Stt4 is required for normal actin polarization through regulation of Wal1, and suggest a model in which defects in actin remodeling induces stress that creates a cellular demand for Hsp90 that exceeds its functional capacity. Consistent with this model, actin inhibitors are synergistic with Hsp90 inhibitors. We highlight new connections between Hsp90 and virulence traits, demonstrating that Erg5 and Stt4 enable activation of macrophage pyroptosis. This work uncovers novel circuitry regulating Hsp90

  8. Haloperidol induces the nuclear translocation of phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase to disrupt Akt phosphorylation in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yunxiu; Wei, Zelan; Sephton, Chantelle F.; Zhang, Di; Anderson, Deborah H.; Mousseau, Darrell D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective The antipsychotic drug haloperidol (HAL) has been linked to apoptosis and to inhibition of prosurvival Akt signalling in pheochromocytoma (PC12) and neuronal cell cultures. However, the mechanism involved is unclear. Methods We used HAL to induce cytotoxicity in preneuronal PC12 cells. The expression and the subcellular localization of selected components of the PI3K–Akt survival cascade were monitored with standard biochemical approaches, such as subcellular fractionation, western blot analysis, gene transfer and fluorescence microscopy. Results PC12 cell stimulation with the epidermal growth factor (used as a control) results in normal processing of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)–Akt signalling (e.g., localization of PI3K to the plasma membrane and phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473). Surprisingly, HAL induces PI3K-generated phosphoinositol [phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3), which conflicts with its ability to inhibit Akt. In fact, the production of PIP3s is nuclear, as assessed by the localized concentration of a fluorophore-tagged PIP3-targeting pleckstrin homology protein and a fluorophore-tagged substrate-trapping mutant of the phosphoinositide phosphatase, phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). However, phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1, the activating kinase of Akt) does not colocalize to the nucleus with the PI3K complex. This effectively inactivates both cytoplasmic and nuclear pools of Akt. Conclusion The differential compartmentalization of effectors of the PI3K–PDK1–Akt pathway is a unique means by which HAL disrupts Akt functioning in PC12 cells. PMID:17823648

  9. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-dependent translational regulation of Id1 involves the PPM1G phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kaiming; Wang, Lanfang; Feng, Wei; Feng, Yue; Shu, Hui-Kuo G.

    2016-01-01

    Id1 is a helix-loop-helix transcriptional modulator that increases the aggressiveness of malignant glial neoplasms. Since most glioblastomas (GBMs) show increased phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K) signaling, we sought to determine whether this pathway regulates Id1 expression. Higher basal Id1 expression correlates with dysregulated PI-3K signaling in multiple established GBM cell lines. Further characterization of PI-3K-dependent Id1 regulation reveals that chemical or genetic inhibition of PI-3K signaling reduces Id1 protein but not mRNA expression. Overall, PI-3K signaling appears to enhance Id1 translation with no significant effect on its stability. PI-3K signaling is known to regulate protein translation through mTORC1-dependent phosphorylation of 4E-BP1, which reduces its association with and inhibition of the translation initiation factor eIF4E. Interestingly, while inhibition of PI-3K and AKT lowers 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and expression of Id1 in all cases, inhibition of TORC1 with rapamycin does not consistently have a similar effect suggesting an alternative mechanism for PI-3K-dependent regulation of Id1 translation. We now identify a potential role for the serine-threonine phosphatase PPM1G in translational regulation of Id1 protein expression. PPM1G knockdown by siRNA increase both 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and Id1 expression and PPM1G and 4E-BP1 co-associates in GBM cells. Furthermore, PPM1G is a phosphoprotein and this phosphorylation appears to be regulated by PI-3K activity. Finally, PI-3K inhibition increases PPM1G activity when assessed by an in vitro phosphatase assay. Our findings provide the first evidence that the PI-3K/AKT signaling pathway modulates PPM1G activity resulting in a shift in the balance between hyper- and hypo-phosphorylated 4E-BP1 and translational regulation of Id1 expression. PMID:27065332

  10. Dysregulated phosphatidylinositol signaling promotes endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated intestinal mucosal injury and inflammation in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Prakash C.; Davison, Jon M.; Stuckenholz, Carsten; Lu, Lili; Bahary, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated phosphatidylinositol (PI) signaling has been implicated in human gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies and inflammatory states, underlining the need to study pathophysiological roles of PI in an in vivo genetic model. Here, we study the significance of PI in GI pathophysiology using the zebrafish mutant cdipthi559, which lacks PI synthesis, and unravel a crucial role of PI in intestinal mucosal integrity and inflammation. The cdipthi559 mutants exhibit abnormal villous architecture and disorganized proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), with pathologies reminiscent of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including apoptosis of goblet cells, abnormal mucosecretion, bacterial overgrowth and leukocyte infiltration. The mutant IECs exhibit vacuolation, microvillus atrophy and impaired proliferation. The cdipthi559 gene expression profile shows enrichment of acute phase response signaling, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress factors hspa5 and xbp1 are robustly activated in the mutant GI tissue. Temporal electron micrographic analyses reveal that PI-deficient IECs undergo sequential ER-Golgi disruption, mitochondrial depletion, macroautophagy and cell death, consistent with chronic ER-stress-mediated cytopathology. Furthermore, pharmacological induction of ER stress by inhibiting protein glycosylation or PI synthase inhibition in leukocyte-specific reporter lines replicates the cdipthi559 inflammatory phenotype, suggesting a fundamental role of PI metabolism and ER stress in mucosal inflammation. Antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs resolved the inflammation, but not the autophagic necroapoptosis of IECs, suggesting that bacterial overgrowth can exacerbate ER stress pathology, whereas persistent ER stress is sufficient to trigger inflammation. Interestingly, the intestinal phenotype was partially alleviated by chemical chaperones, suggesting their therapeutic potential. Using zebrafish genetic and pharmacological models, this study

  11. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Couples Localised Calcium Influx to Activation of Akt in Central Nerve Terminals.

    PubMed

    Nicholson-Fish, Jessica C; Cousin, Michael A; Smillie, Karen J

    2016-03-01

    The efficient retrieval of synaptic vesicle membrane and cargo in central nerve terminals is dependent on the efficient recruitment of a series of endocytosis modes by different patterns of neuronal activity. During intense neuronal activity the dominant endocytosis mode is activity-dependent endocytosis (ADBE). Triggering of ADBE is linked to calcineurin-mediated dynamin I dephosphorylation since the same stimulation intensities trigger both. Dynamin I dephosphorylation is maximised by a simultaneous inhibition of its kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) by the protein kinase Akt, however it is unknown how increased neuronal activity is transduced into Akt activation. To address this question we determined how the activity-dependent increases in intracellular free calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) control activation of Akt. This was achieved using either trains of high frequency action potentials to evoke localised [Ca(2+)]i increases at active zones, or a calcium ionophore to raise [Ca(2+)]i uniformly across the nerve terminal. Through the use of either non-specific calcium channel antagonists or intracellular calcium chelators we found that Akt phosphorylation (and subsequent GSK3 phosphorylation) was dependent on localised [Ca(2+)]i increases at the active zone. In an attempt to determine mechanism, we antagonised either phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or calmodulin. Activity-dependent phosphorylation of both Akt and GSK3 was arrested on inhibition of PI3K, but not calmodulin. Thus localised calcium influx in central nerve terminals activates PI3K via an unknown calcium sensor to trigger the activity-dependent phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3.

  12. Antiplatelet drugs in patients with enhanced platelet turnover: biomarkers versus platelet function testing.

    PubMed

    Freynhofer, Matthias K; Gruber, Susanne C; Grove, Erik L; Weiss, Thomas W; Wojta, Johann; Huber, Kurt

    2015-08-31

    Platelets are key players in atherothrombosis. Antiplatelet therapy comprising aspirin alone or with P2Y12-inhibitors are effective for prevention of atherothrombotic complications. However, there is interindividual variability in the response to antiplatelet drugs, leaving some patients at increased risk of recurrent atherothrombotic events. Several risk factors associated with high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR), including elevated platelet turnover, have been identified. Platelet turnover is adequately estimated from the fraction of reticulated platelets. Reticulated platelets are young platelets, characterised by residual messenger RNA. They are larger, haemostatically more active and there is evidence that platelet turnover is a causal and prognostic factor in atherothrombotic disease. Whether platelet turnover per se represents a key factor in pathogenesis, progression and prognosis of atherothrombotic diseases (with focus on acute coronary syndromes) or whether it merely facilitates insufficient platelet inhibition will be discussed in this state-of-the art review. PMID:26272640

  13. Dynamic Aspects of Voluntary Turnover: An Integrated Approach to Curvilinearity in the Performance-Turnover Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, William J.; Cropanzano, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Previous research pertaining to job performance and voluntary turnover has been guided by 2 distinct theoretical perspectives. First, the push-pull model proposes that there is a quadratic or curvilinear relationship existing between these 2 variables. Second, the unfolding model of turnover posits that turnover is a dynamic process and that a…

  14. Protein Kinase D1 regulates focal adhesion dynamics and cell adhesion through Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type-l γ

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Nisha; Bastea, Ligia I.; Long, Jason; Döppler, Heike; Ling, Kun; Storz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Focal adhesions (FAs) are highly dynamic structures that are assembled and disassembled on a continuous basis. The balance between the two processes mediates various aspects of cell behavior, ranging from cell adhesion and spreading to directed cell migration. The turnover of FAs is regulated at multiple levels and involves a variety of signaling molecules and adaptor proteins. In the present study, we show that in response to integrin engagement, a subcellular pool of Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1) localizes to the FAs. PKD1 affects FAs by decreasing turnover and promoting maturation, resulting in enhanced cell adhesion. The effects of PKD1 are mediated through direct phosphorylation of FA-localized phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type-l γ (PIP5Klγ) at serine residue 448. This phosphorylation occurs in response to Fibronectin-RhoA signaling and leads to a decrease in PIP5Klγs’ lipid kinase activity and binding affinity for Talin. Our data reveal a novel function for PKD1 as a regulator of FA dynamics and by identifying PIP5Klγ as a novel PKD1 substrate provide mechanistic insight into this process. PMID:27775029

  15. Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate: metabolism and cellular functions.

    PubMed

    Michell, Robert H; Heath, Victoria L; Lemmon, Mark A; Dove, Stephen K

    2006-01-01

    Polyphosphoinositides (PPIn) are low-abundance membrane phospholipids that each bind to a distinctive set of effector proteins and, thereby, regulate a characteristic suite of cellular processes. Major functions of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P(2)] are in membrane and protein trafficking, and in pH control in the endosome-lysosome axis. Recently identified PtdIns(3,5)P(2) effectors include a family of novel beta-propeller proteins, for which we propose the name PROPPINs [for beta-propeller(s) that binds PPIn], and possibly proteins of the epsin and CHMP (charged multi-vesicular body proteins) families. All eukaryotes, with the exception of some pathogenic protists and microsporidians, possess proteins needed for the formation, metabolism and functions of PtdIns(3,5)P(2). The importance of PtdIns(3,5)P(2) for normal cell function is underscored by recent evidence for its involvement in mammalian cell responses to insulin and for PtdIns(3,5)P(2) dysfunction in the human genetic conditions X-linked myotubular myopathy, Type-4B Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and fleck corneal dystrophy.

  16. Contextual Factors Related to Elementary Principal Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partlow, Michelle C.

    2007-01-01

    The issue of school leadership instability and how it affects schools and student achievement has been studied. The question of how to predict turnover of the principal remains an unknown. The purpose of this research was to search for possible relationships between certain contextual variables and principal turnover and to test the independent…

  17. Employee Turnover: Evidence from a Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borland, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    Patterns of employee turnover from a medium-sized law firm in Australia were examined in regard to theories of worker mobility (matching, sectoral shift, and incentive). Results support a role for matching effects, but personnel practices affect the timing of turnover. Matching and incentive-based theories do not explain the high rates of turnover…

  18. Principal Turnover. Information Capsule. Volume 0914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that school districts are facing increasing rates of principal turnover. Frequent principal changes deprive schools of the leadership stability they need to succeed, disrupt long-term school reform efforts, and may even be linked to increased teacher turnover and lower levels of student achievement. This Information Capsule…

  19. Social Disadvantage and Network Turnover

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Research shows that socially disadvantaged groups—especially African Americans and people of low socioeconomic status (SES)—experience more unstable social environments. I argue that this causes higher rates of turnover within their personal social networks. This is a particularly important issue among disadvantaged older adults, who may benefit from stable networks. This article, therefore, examines whether social disadvantage is related to various aspects of personal network change. Method. Social network change was assessed using longitudinal egocentric network data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a study of older adults conducted between 2005 and 2011. Data collection in Wave 2 included a technique for comparing respondents’ confidant network rosters between waves. Rates of network losses, deaths, and additions were modeled using multivariate Poisson regression. Results. African Americans and low-SES individuals lost more confidants—especially due to death—than did whites and college-educated respondents. African Americans also added more confidants than whites. However, neither African Americans nor low-SES individuals were able to match confidant losses with new additions to the extent that others did, resulting in higher levels of confidant network shrinkage. These trends are partly, but not entirely, explained by disadvantaged individuals’ poorer health and their greater risk of widowhood or marital dissolution. Discussion. Additional work is needed to shed light on the role played by race- and class-based segregation on group differences in social network turnover. Social gerontologists should examine the role these differences play in explaining the link between social disadvantage and important outcomes in later life, such as health decline. PMID:24997286

  20. Regulation of endoplasmic reticulum turnover by selective autophagy.

    PubMed

    Khaminets, Aliaksandr; Heinrich, Theresa; Mari, Muriel; Grumati, Paolo; Huebner, Antje K; Akutsu, Masato; Liebmann, Lutz; Stolz, Alexandra; Nietzsche, Sandor; Koch, Nicole; Mauthe, Mario; Katona, Istvan; Qualmann, Britta; Weis, Joachim; Reggiori, Fulvio; Kurth, Ingo; Hübner, Christian A; Dikic, Ivan

    2015-06-18

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest intracellular endomembrane system, enabling protein and lipid synthesis, ion homeostasis, quality control of newly synthesized proteins and organelle communication. Constant ER turnover and modulation is needed to meet different cellular requirements and autophagy has an important role in this process. However, its underlying regulatory mechanisms remain unexplained. Here we show that members of the FAM134 reticulon protein family are ER-resident receptors that bind to autophagy modifiers LC3 and GABARAP, and facilitate ER degradation by autophagy ('ER-phagy'). Downregulation of FAM134B protein in human cells causes an expansion of the ER, while FAM134B overexpression results in ER fragmentation and lysosomal degradation. Mutant FAM134B proteins that cause sensory neuropathy in humans are unable to act as ER-phagy receptors. Consistently, disruption of Fam134b in mice causes expansion of the ER, inhibits ER turnover, sensitizes cells to stress-induced apoptotic cell death and leads to degeneration of sensory neurons. Therefore, selective ER-phagy via FAM134 proteins is indispensable for mammalian cell homeostasis and controls ER morphology and turnover in mice and humans.

  1. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.

    1987-09-08

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either /sup 3/H-fatty acids or (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the /sup 3/H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from /sup 3/H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The /sup 3/H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase.

  2. Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase Activation Is an Early Response to Salicylic Acid in Arabidopsis Suspension Cells1[W

    PubMed Central

    Krinke, Ondřej; Ruelland, Eric; Valentová, Olga; Vergnolle, Chantal; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Taconnat, Ludivine; Flemr, Matyáš; Burketová, Lenka; Zachowski, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has a central role in defense against pathogen attack. In addition, its role in such diverse processes as germination, flowering, senescence, and thermotolerance acquisition has been documented. However, little is known about the early signaling events triggered by SA. Using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) suspension cells as a model, it was possible to show by in vivo metabolic phospholipid labeling with 33Pi that SA addition induced a rapid and early (in few minutes) decrease in a pool of phosphatidylinositol (PI). This decrease paralleled an increase in PI 4-phosphate and PI 4,5-bisphosphate. These changes could be inhibited by two different inhibitors of type III PI 4-kinases, phenylarsine oxide and 30 μm wortmannin; no inhibitory effect was seen with 1 μm wortmannin, a concentration inhibiting PI 3-kinases but not PI 4-kinases. We therefore undertook a study of the effects of wortmannin on SA-responsive transcriptomes. Using the Complete Arabidopsis Transcriptome MicroArray chip, we could identify 774 genes differentially expressed upon SA treatment. Strikingly, among these genes, the response to SA of 112 of them was inhibited by 30 μm wortmannin, but not by 1 μm wortmannin. PMID:17496105

  3. Choline phosphate potentiates sphingosine-1-phosphate-induced Raf-1 kinase activation dependent of Ras--phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael; Han, Sang Seop

    2002-04-01

    In NIH3T3 cells, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) caused a significant increase of Raf-1 kinase activity as early as 2 min. Interestingly, choline phosphate (ChoP) produced synergistic increase of S1P-stimulated Raf-1 kinase activation in the presence of ATP while showing additive effect in the absence of ATP. However, Raf-1 kinase activation induced by S1P decreased in the presence of ATP when applied alone. The overexpression of N-terminal fragment of Raf-1 (RfI) to inhibit Raf--Ras interaction caused the inhibition of S1P-induced Raf-1 kinase activation. Also, wortmannin, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, exhibited inhibitory effects on S1P-induced activation of Raf-1 kinase. In addition, we demonstrated that the chemical antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine attenuated Raf-1 activation induced by S1P, suggesting that H(2)O(2) may be required for the signalling pathway leading to Raf-1 activation. This H(2)O(2)-induced Raf-1 kinase activation was also blocked by inhibition of Ras--PI3K signalling pathway using alpha-hydroxyfarnesylphosphonic acid and wortmannin. Taken together, these results indicate that S1P-induced Raf-1 kinase activation is mediated by H(2)O(2) stimulation of Ras--PI3K pathway, and is enhanced by ChoP in the presence of ATP.

  4. GTP-dependent hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate by a soluble phospholipase C from adult human epidermis

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, G.J.; Baldassare, J.J.; Voorhees, J.J.

    1987-05-01

    The effects of tumor promoting phorbol esters, which activate protein kinase (C (PK-C), on epidermis suggest that PK-C is important in the regulation of epidermal growth and differentiation. Since in vivo PK-C is activated by the products of phospholipase C (PL-C)-catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP/sub 2/), they have investigated the properties of this reaction. Soluble PL-C from adult human epidermis was incubated with sonicated lipid vesicles containing (/sup 3/H-inositol)PIP/sub 2/, for 10 minutes at 37/sup 0/C. Water soluble reaction products were extracted, chromatographed and quantitated. In the presence of physiological concentrations of Ca/sup + +/ magnesium and GTP PIP/sub 2/, but not phosphatidylinositol, was hydrolyzed by PL-C (11.7 nmol/min/mg). Addition of GTP or GTP..gamma..S stimulated activity greater than 15 fold. Half maximal and maximal activity were observed at 10 ..mu..M and 100 ..mu..M GTP..gamma..S, respectively. ATP was unable to substitute for GTP, and GDP/S inhibited PIP/sub 2/ hydrolysis in a dose dependent manner. Activity was sensitive to pH, and exhibited a sharp optimum at pH 6.5. In addition, the PL-C preparation specifically bound (/sup 35/S)GTP S. These data demonstrate that adult human epidermis contains PL-C activity that specifically hydrolyzes PIP/sub 2/ and suggest the involvement of a GTP-binding regulatory protein in this reaction.

  5. The island-mainland species turnover relationship.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Yoel E; Losos, Jonathan B; Algar, Adam C

    2012-10-01

    Many oceanic islands are notable for their high endemism, suggesting that islands may promote unique assembly processes. However, mainland assemblages sometimes harbour comparable levels of endemism, suggesting that island biotas may not be as unique as is often assumed. Here, we test the uniqueness of island biotic assembly by comparing the rate of species turnover among islands and the mainland, after accounting for distance decay and environmental gradients. We modelled species turnover as a function of geographical and environmental distance for mainland (M-M) communities of Anolis lizards and Terrarana frogs, two clades that have diversified extensively on Caribbean islands and the mainland Neotropics. We compared mainland-island (M-I) and island-island (I-I) species turnover with predictions of the M-M model. If island assembly is not unique, then the M-M model should successfully predict M-I and I-I turnover, given geographical and environmental distance. We found that M-I turnover and, to a lesser extent, I-I turnover were significantly higher than predicted for both clades. Thus, in the first quantitative comparison of mainland-island species turnover, we confirm the long-held but untested assumption that island assemblages accumulate biodiversity differently than their mainland counterparts.

  6. Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate regulates epidermal growth factor receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Michailidis, Ioannis E.; Rusinova, Radda; Georgakopoulos, Anastasios; Chen, Yibang; Iyengar, Ravi; Robakis, Nikolaos K.; Logothetis, Diomedes E.; Baki, Lia

    2012-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2 or PIP2] is a direct modulator of a diverse array of proteins in eukaryotic cells. The functional integrity of transmembrane proteins, such as ion channels and transporters, is critically dependent on specific interactions with PIP2 and other phosphoinositides. Here, we report a novel requirement for PIP2 in the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Down-regulation of PIP2 levels either via pharmacological inhibition of PI kinase activity, or via manipulation of the levels of the lipid kinase PIP5K1α and the lipid phosphatase synaptojanin, reduced EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, whereas up-regulation of PIP2 levels via overexpression of PIP5K1α had the opposite effect. A cluster of positively charged residues in the juxtamembrane domain (basic JD) of EGFR is likely to mediate binding of EGFR to PIP2 and PIP2-dependent regulation of EGFR activation. A peptide mimicking the EGFR juxtamembrane domain that was assayed by surface plasmon resonance displayed strong binding to PIP2. Neutralization of positively charged amino acids abolished EGFR/PIP2 interaction in the context of this peptide and down-regulated epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced EGFR autophosphorylation and EGF-induced EGFR signaling to ion channels in the context of the full-length receptor. These results suggest that EGFR activation and downstream signaling depend on interactions of EGFR with PIP2 and point to the basic JD’s critical involvement in these interactions. The addition of this very different class of membrane proteins to ion channels and transporters suggests that PIP2 may serve as a general modulator of the activity of many diverse eukaryotic transmembrane proteins through their basic JDs. PMID:21107857

  7. Supramolecular nanoparticles that target phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase overcome insulin resistance and exert pronounced antitumor efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Ashish A.; Roy, Bhaskar; Rao, Poornima S.; Wyant, Gregory A.; Mahmoud, Ayaat; Ramachandran, Madhumitha; Sengupta, Poulomi; Goldman, Aaron; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Basu, Sudipta; Mashelkar, Raghunath A; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Dinulescu, Daniela M.; Sengupta, Shiladitya

    2013-01-01

    The centrality of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) in cancer etiology is well established, but clinical translation of PI3K inhibitors has been limited by feedback signaling, suboptimal intra-tumoral concentration and an insulin resistance ‘class effect’. The current study was designed to explore the use of supramolecular nanochemistry for targeting PI3K to enhance antitumor efficacy and potentially overcome these limitations. PI3K inhibitor structures were rationally modified using a cholesterol-based derivative, facilitating supramolecular nanoassembly with L-α-phosphatidylcholine and DSPE-PEG. The supramolecular nanoparticles that were assembled were physicochemically characterized and functionally evaluated in vitro. Antitumor efficacy was quantified in vivo using 4T1 breast cancer and K-RasLSL/+/Ptenfl/fl ovarian cancer models, with effects on glucose homeostasis evaluated using an insulin sensitivity test. The use of PI103 and PI828 as surrogate molecules to engineer the supramolecular nanoparticles highlighted the need to keep design principles in perspective; specifically, potency of the active molecule and the linker chemistry were critical principles for efficacy, similar to antibody-drug conjugates. We found that the supramolecular nanoparticles exerted a temporally-sustained inhibition of phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, S6K and 4EBP in vivo. These effects were associated with increased antitumor efficacy and survival as compared with PI103 and PI828. Efficacy was further increased by decorating the nanoparticle surface with tumor-homing peptides. Notably, the use of supramolecular nanoparticles abrogated the insulin resistance that has been associated widely with other PI3K inhibitors. This study provides a preclinical foundation for the use of supramolecular nanochemistry to overcome current challenges associated with PI3K inhibitors, offering a paradigm for extension to other molecularly targeted therapeutics being explored for cancer treatment

  8. Signal-dependent Hydrolysis of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate without Activation of Phospholipase C

    PubMed Central

    Lev, Shaya; Katz, Ben; Tzarfaty, Vered; Minke, Baruch

    2012-01-01

    In Drosophila, a phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated signaling cascade, couples photo-excitation of rhodopsin to the opening of the transient receptor potential (TRP) and TRP-like (TRPL) channels. A lipid product of PLC, diacylglycerol (DAG), and its metabolites, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may function as second messengers of channel activation. However, how can one separate between the increase in putative second messengers, change in pH, and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) depletion when exploring the TRPL gating mechanism? To answer this question we co-expressed the TRPL channels together with the muscarinic (M1) receptor, enabling the openings of TRPL channels via G-protein activation of PLC. To dissect PLC activation of TRPL into its molecular components, we used a powerful method that reduced plasma membrane-associated PI(4,5)P2 in HEK cells within seconds without activating PLC. Upon the addition of a dimerizing drug, PI(4,5)P2 was selectively hydrolyzed in the cell membrane without producing DAG, inositol trisphosphate, or calcium signals. We show that PI(4,5)P2 is not an inhibitor of TRPL channel activation. PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis combined with either acidification or application of DAG analogs failed to activate the channels, whereas PUFA did activate the channels. Moreover, a reduction in PI(4,5)P2 levels or inhibition of DAG lipase during PLC activity suppressed the PLC-activated TRPL current. This suggests that PI(4,5)P2 is a crucial substrate for PLC-mediated activation of the channels, whereas PUFA may function as the channel activator. Together, this study defines a narrow range of possible mechanisms for TRPL gating. PMID:22065576

  9. Bimodal regulation of an Elk subfamily K+ channel by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaofan; Anishkin, Andriy; Liu, Hansi; van Rossum, Damian B.; Chintapalli, Sree V.; Sassic, Jessica K.; Gallegos, David; Pivaroff-Ward, Kendra

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) regulates Shaker K+ channels and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in a bimodal fashion by inhibiting voltage activation while stabilizing open channels. Bimodal regulation is conserved in hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide–gated (HCN) channels, but voltage activation is enhanced while the open channel state is destabilized. The proposed sites of PIP2 regulation in these channels include the voltage-sensor domain (VSD) and conserved regions of the proximal cytoplasmic C terminus. Relatively little is known about PIP2 regulation of Ether-á-go-go (EAG) channels, a metazoan-specific family of K+ channels that includes three gene subfamilies, Eag (Kv10), Erg (Kv11), and Elk (Kv12). We examined PIP2 regulation of the Elk subfamily potassium channel human Elk1 to determine whether bimodal regulation is conserved within the EAG K+ channel family. Open-state stabilization by PIP2 has been observed in human Erg1, but the proposed site of regulation in the distal C terminus is not conserved among EAG family channels. We show that PIP2 strongly inhibits voltage activation of Elk1 but also stabilizes the open state. This stabilization produces slow deactivation and a mode shift in voltage gating after activation. However, removal of PIP2 has the net effect of enhancing Elk1 activation. R347 in the linker between the VSD and pore (S4–S5 linker) and R479 near the S6 activation gate are required for PIP2 to inhibit voltage activation. The ability of PIP2 to stabilize the open state also requires these residues, suggesting an overlap in sites central to the opposing effects of PIP2 on channel gating. Open-state stabilization in Elk1 requires the N-terminal eag domain (PAS domain + Cap), and PIP2-dependent stabilization is enhanced by a conserved basic residue (K5) in the Cap. Our data shows that PIP2 can bimodally regulate voltage gating in EAG family channels, as has been proposed for Shaker and HCN channels. PIP2 regulation

  10. Regulation of the Putative TRPV1t Salt Taste Receptor by Phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-Bisphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Tam-Hao T.; Ren, ZuoJun; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Melone, Pamela; Mahavadi, Sunila; Murthy, Karnam S.; DeSimone, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Regulation of the putative amiloride and benzamil (Bz)-insensitive TRPV1t salt taste receptor by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) was studied by monitoring chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve responses to 0.1 M NaCl solutions containing Bz (5 × 10−6 M; a specific ENaC blocker) and resiniferatoxin (RTX; 0–10 × 10−6 M; a specific TRPV1 agonist) in Sprague-Dawley rats and in wildtype (WT) and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice. In rats and WT mice, RTX elicited a biphasic effect on the NaCl + Bz CT response, increasing the CT response between 0.25 × 10−6 and 1 × 10−6 M. At concentrations >1 × 10−6 M, RTX inhibited the CT response. An increase in PIP2 by topical lingual application of U73122 (a phospholipase C blocker) or diC8-PIP2 (a short chain synthetic PIP2) inhibited the control NaCl + Bz CT response and decreased its sensitivity to RTX. A decrease in PIP2 by topical lingual application of phenylarsine oxide (a phosphoinositide 4 kinase blocker) enhanced the control NaCl + Bz CT response, increased its sensitivity to RTX stimulation, and inhibited the desensitization of the CT response at RTX concentrations >1 × 10−6 M. The ENaC-dependent NaCl CT responses were not altered by changes in PIP2. An increase in PIP2 enhanced CT responses to sweet (0.3 M sucrose) and bitter (0.01 M quinine) stimuli. RTX produced the same increase in the Bz-insensitive Na+response when present in salt solutions containing 0.1 M NaCl + Bz, 0.1 M monosodium glutamate + Bz, 0.1 M NaCl + Bz + 0.005 M SC45647, or 0.1 M NaCl + Bz + 0.01 M quinine. No effect of RTX was observed on CT responses in WT mice and rats in the presence of the TRPV1 blocker N-(3-methoxyphenyl)-4-chlorocinnamide (1 × 10−6 M) or in TRPV1 KO mice. We conclude that PIP2 is a common intracellular effector for sweet, bitter, umami, and TRPV1t-dependent salt taste, although in the last case, PIP2 seems to directly regulate the taste receptor protein itself, i.e., the TRPV1 ion channel or its taste

  11. Bimodal regulation of an Elk subfamily K+ channel by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofan; Anishkin, Andriy; Liu, Hansi; van Rossum, Damian B; Chintapalli, Sree V; Sassic, Jessica K; Gallegos, David; Pivaroff-Ward, Kendra; Jegla, Timothy

    2015-11-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) regulates Shaker K+ channels and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in a bimodal fashion by inhibiting voltage activation while stabilizing open channels. Bimodal regulation is conserved in hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, but voltage activation is enhanced while the open channel state is destabilized. The proposed sites of PIP2 regulation in these channels include the voltage-sensor domain (VSD) and conserved regions of the proximal cytoplasmic C terminus. Relatively little is known about PIP2 regulation of Ether-á-go-go (EAG) channels, a metazoan-specific family of K+ channels that includes three gene subfamilies, Eag (Kv10), Erg (Kv11), and Elk (Kv12). We examined PIP2 regulation of the Elk subfamily potassium channel human Elk1 to determine whether bimodal regulation is conserved within the EAG K+ channel family. Open-state stabilization by PIP2 has been observed in human Erg1, but the proposed site of regulation in the distal C terminus is not conserved among EAG family channels. We show that PIP2 strongly inhibits voltage activation of Elk1 but also stabilizes the open state. This stabilization produces slow deactivation and a mode shift in voltage gating after activation. However, removal of PIP2 has the net effect of enhancing Elk1 activation. R347 in the linker between the VSD and pore (S4-S5 linker) and R479 near the S6 activation gate are required for PIP2 to inhibit voltage activation. The ability of PIP2 to stabilize the open state also requires these residues, suggesting an overlap in sites central to the opposing effects of PIP2 on channel gating. Open-state stabilization in Elk1 requires the N-terminal eag domain (PAS domain + Cap), and PIP2-dependent stabilization is enhanced by a conserved basic residue (K5) in the Cap. Our data shows that PIP2 can bimodally regulate voltage gating in EAG family channels, as has been proposed for Shaker and HCN channels. PIP2 regulation

  12. Polarized apical distribution of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in a renal epithelial cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Lisanti, M P; Sargiacomo, M; Graeve, L; Saltiel, A R; Rodriguez-Boulan, E

    1988-01-01

    Polarized epithelial cell monolayers contain two distinct plasma membrane domains as delineated by the presence of tight junctions--i.e., an apical surface that faces the external environment and a basolateral surface that functions both in cell-cell contact and cell-substrate attachment. Central to the understanding of epithelial cell polarity is the question of how such cell-surface specializations are generated. A different class of membrane glycoproteins has recently emerged that may yield new insight into the mechanism underlying the biogenesis of this polarity. Members of this class contain a large extracellular protein domain linked to the membrane via glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol. Using a polarized renal epithelial cell line (Madin-Darby canine kidney), we identified endogenous glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins through release by a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. Six glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins of 110, 85, 70, 55, 38, and 35 kDa were identified and appeared to be restricted to the apical surface. Our data are consistent with the notion that the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol membrane anchor may contain the necessary information for "targeting" to the apical surface. Images PMID:2974157

  13. ADP-ribosylation factor 1 controls the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway to regulate epidermal growth factor-dependent growth and migration of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Boulay, Pierre-Luc; Cotton, Mathieu; Melançon, Paul; Claing, Audrey

    2008-12-26

    Activation of intracellular signaling pathways by growth factors is one of the major causes of cancer development and progression. Recent studies have demonstrated that monomeric G proteins of the Ras family are key regulators of cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Using an invasive breast cancer cell lines, we demonstrate that the ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1), a small GTPase classically associated with the Golgi, is an important regulator of the biological effects induced by epidermal growth factor. Here, we show that this ARF isoform is activated following epidermal growth factor stimulation and that, in MDA-MB-231 cells, ARF1 is found in dynamic plasma membrane ruffles. Inhibition of endogenous ARF1 expression results in the inhibition of breast cancer cell migration and proliferation. The underlying mechanism involves the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. Our data demonstrate that depletion of ARF1 markedly impairs the recruitment of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit (p110alpha) to the plasma membrane, and the association of the regulatory subunit (p85alpha) to the activated receptor. These results uncover a novel molecular mechanism by which ARF1 regulates breast cancer cell growth and invasion during cancer progression.

  14. Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase reduces cell surface expression of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in cultured collecting duct cells.

    PubMed

    Weixel, Kelly M; Edinger, Robert S; Kester, Lauren; Guerriero, Christopher J; Wang, Huamin; Fang, Liang; Kleyman, Thomas R; Welling, Paul A; Weisz, Ora A; Johnson, John P

    2007-12-14

    Ubiquitination of ENaC subunits has been shown to negatively regulate the cell surface expression of ENaC channels. We have previously demonstrated that epsin links ubiquitinated ENaC to clathrin adaptors for clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Epsin is thought to directly modify the curvature of membranes upon binding to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) where it recruits clathrin and stimulates lattice assembly. Murine phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase alpha (PI5KIalpha) has been shown to enhance endocytosis in a PIP2-dependent manner. We tested the hypothesis that PI5KIalpha-mediated PIP2 production would negatively regulate ENaC current by enhancing epsin-mediated endocytosis of the channel. Expression of PI5KIalpha decreased ENaC currents in Xenopus oocytes by 80%, entirely because of a decrease in cell surface ENaC levels. Catalytically inactive mutants of PI5Kalpha had no effect on ENaC activity. Expression of the PIP2 binding region of epsin increased ENaC current in oocytes, an effect completely reversed by co-expression of PI5KIalpha. Overexpression of epsin reduced amiloride-sensitive current in CCD cells. Overexpression of PI5KIalpha enhanced membrane PIP2 levels and reduced apical surface expression of ENaC in CCD cells, down-regulating amiloride-sensitive current. Knockdown of PI5KIalpha with isoform-specific siRNA resulted in a 4-fold enhancement of ENaC activity. PI5KIalpha localized exclusively to the apical plasma membrane domain when overexpressed in mouse CCD cells, consistent for a role in regulating PIP2 production at the apical plasma membrane. We conclude that membrane turnover events regulating ENaC surface expression and activity in oocytes and CCD cells can be regulated by PI5KIalpha. PMID:17940289

  15. Prostaglandin F2 alpha stimulates phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis and mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ in bovine luteal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J S; Weakland, L L; Weiland, D A; Farese, R V; West, L A

    1987-01-01

    The present studies were conducted to determine whether prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) stimulates the production of "second messengers" derived from inositol phospholipid hydrolysis and increases intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in isolated bovine luteal cells. PGF2 alpha provoked rapid (10 sec) and sustained (up to 60 min) increases in the levels of inositol mono-, bis-, and trisphosphates (InsP, InsP2, and InsP3, respectively). InsP3 was formed more rapidly than InsP2 or InsP after PGF2 alpha treatment. In addition, PGF2 alpha increased inositol phospholipid turnover, as evidenced by increased 32PO4 incorporation into phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol. LiCl (1-20 mM) enhanced inositol phosphate accumulation in response to PGF2 alpha. Maximal increases in InsP3 occurred at 1 microM PGF2 alpha, with half-maximal stimulation occurring at 36 nM. The acute effects of PGF2 alpha on InsP3 levels were independent of reductions in extracellular calcium. Prostaglandins E1 and E2 also stimulated increases in inositol phosphate levels, albeit to a lesser extent. PGF2 alpha also induced rapid and concentration-dependent increases in [Ca2+]i as measured by quin-2 fluorescence. The PGF2 alpha-induced increases in [Ca2+]i were maximal within 30 sec (approximately 2- to 3-fold), and [Ca2+]i remained elevated for 8-10 min. The PGF2 alpha-induced increases in [Ca2+]i were also independent of extracellular calcium. These findings demonstrate that the action of PGF2 alpha is coupled to the phospholipase C-InsP3 and diacylglycerol second messenger system in the corpus luteum. PMID:3035550

  16. Amyloid precursor protein controls cholesterol turnover needed for neuronal activity

    PubMed Central

    Pierrot, Nathalie; Tyteca, Donatienne; D'auria, Ludovic; Dewachter, Ilse; Gailly, Philippe; Hendrickx, Aurélie; Tasiaux, Bernadette; Haylani, Laetitia El; Muls, Nathalie; N'Kuli, Francisca; Laquerrière, Annie; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste; Campion, Dominique; Brion, Jean-Pierre; Courtoy, Pierre J; Kienlen-Campard, Pascal; Octave, Jean-Noël

    2013-01-01

    Perturbation of lipid metabolism favours progression of Alzheimer disease, in which processing of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) has important implications. APP cleavage is tightly regulated by cholesterol and APP fragments regulate lipid homeostasis. Here, we investigated whether up or down regulation of full-length APP expression affected neuronal lipid metabolism. Expression of APP decreased HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR)-mediated cholesterol biosynthesis and SREBP mRNA levels, while its down regulation had opposite effects. APP and SREBP1 co-immunoprecipitated and co-localized in the Golgi. This interaction prevented Site-2 protease-mediated processing of SREBP1, leading to inhibition of transcription of its target genes. A GXXXG motif in APP sequence was critical for regulation of HMGCR expression. In astrocytes, APP and SREBP1 did not interact nor did APP affect cholesterol biosynthesis. Neuronal expression of APP decreased both HMGCR and cholesterol 24-hydroxylase mRNA levels and consequently cholesterol turnover, leading to inhibition of neuronal activity, which was rescued by geranylgeraniol, generated in the mevalonate pathway, in both APP expressing and mevastatin treated neurons. We conclude that APP controls cholesterol turnover needed for neuronal activity. PMID:23554170

  17. Biomimetic catalysis: Taking on the turnover challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooley, Richard J.

    2016-03-01

    Emulating the efficiency with which enzymes catalyse reactions has often been used as inspiration to develop self-assembled cages. Now two studies present approaches to achieving catalyst turnover -- one of the biggest challenges in achieving truly biomimetic catalysis.

  18. Characterization of the phosphatidylinositol-glycan membrane anchor of human placental alkaline phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, A.D.; Berger, J.; Gerber, L.; Familletti, P.; Udenfriend, S.

    1987-09-01

    Placental alkaline phosphatase (orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (alkaline optimum), EC 3.1.3.1) is a member of a diverse group of membrane proteins whose attachment to the lipid bilayer is mediated by a phosphatidylinositol-glycan. To investigate structural aspects of the glycolipid anchor, cultured WISH cells were used because, they produce the enzyme in abundant quantities. When cell suspensions were incubated with purified phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, most of the placental alkaline phosphatase was released from membranes in a hydrophilic form. On incubation of the cells with (/sup 14/C)ethanolamine, (/sup 14/C)myristic acid, or myo(/sup 3/H)inositol, each was incorporated into the phosphatase near the carboxyl terminus, showing that these components, which are found in other phosphatidylinositol membrane-linked proteins, are also present in placental alkaline phosphatase.

  19. Phosphatidylinositol 4-Phosphate 5-Kinases in the Regulation of T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Porciello, Nicla; Kunkl, Martina; Viola, Antonella; Tuosto, Loretta

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate kinases (PIP5Ks) are critical regulators of T cell activation being the main enzymes involved in the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2). PIP2 is indeed a pivotal regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, thus controlling T cell polarization and migration, stable adhesion to antigen-presenting cells, spatial organization of the immunological synapse, and co-stimulation. Moreover, PIP2 also serves as a precursor for the second messengers inositol triphosphate, diacylglycerol, and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate, which are essential for the activation of signaling pathways regulating cytokine production, cell cycle progression, survival, metabolism, and differentiation. Here, we discuss the impact of PIP5Ks on several T lymphocyte functions with a specific focus on the role of CD28 co-stimulation in PIP5K compartimentalization and activation. PMID:27242793

  20. Phosphatidylinositol 4-Phosphate 5-Kinases in the Regulation of T Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Porciello, Nicla; Kunkl, Martina; Viola, Antonella; Tuosto, Loretta

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate kinases (PIP5Ks) are critical regulators of T cell activation being the main enzymes involved in the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2). PIP2 is indeed a pivotal regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, thus controlling T cell polarization and migration, stable adhesion to antigen-presenting cells, spatial organization of the immunological synapse, and co-stimulation. Moreover, PIP2 also serves as a precursor for the second messengers inositol triphosphate, diacylglycerol, and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate, which are essential for the activation of signaling pathways regulating cytokine production, cell cycle progression, survival, metabolism, and differentiation. Here, we discuss the impact of PIP5Ks on several T lymphocyte functions with a specific focus on the role of CD28 co-stimulation in PIP5K compartimentalization and activation.

  1. Phosphatidylinositol 4-Phosphate 5-Kinases in the Regulation of T Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Porciello, Nicla; Kunkl, Martina; Viola, Antonella; Tuosto, Loretta

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate kinases (PIP5Ks) are critical regulators of T cell activation being the main enzymes involved in the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2). PIP2 is indeed a pivotal regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, thus controlling T cell polarization and migration, stable adhesion to antigen-presenting cells, spatial organization of the immunological synapse, and co-stimulation. Moreover, PIP2 also serves as a precursor for the second messengers inositol triphosphate, diacylglycerol, and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate, which are essential for the activation of signaling pathways regulating cytokine production, cell cycle progression, survival, metabolism, and differentiation. Here, we discuss the impact of PIP5Ks on several T lymphocyte functions with a specific focus on the role of CD28 co-stimulation in PIP5K compartimentalization and activation. PMID:27242793

  2. The costs of nurse turnover, part 2: application of the Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cheryl Bland

    2005-01-01

    This is the second article in a 2-part series focusing on nurse turnover and its costs. Part 1 (December 2004) described nurse turnover costs within the context of human capital theory, and using human resource accounting methods, presented the updated Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology. Part 2 presents an application of this method in an acute care setting and the estimated costs of nurse turnover that were derived. Administrators and researchers can use these methods and cost information to build a business case for nurse retention. PMID:15647669

  3. Spatial turnover in the global avifauna.

    PubMed

    Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Richard G; Orme, C David L; Olson, Valerie A; Thomas, Gavin H; Ding, Tzung-Su; Rasmussen, Pamela C; Lennon, Jack J; Bennett, Peter M; Owens, Ian P F; Blackburn, Tim M

    2007-07-01

    Despite its wide implications for many ecological issues, the global pattern of spatial turnover in the occurrence of species has been little studied, unlike the global pattern of species richness. Here, using a database on the breeding distributions of birds, we present the first global maps of variation in spatial turnover for an entire taxonomic class, a pattern that has to date remained largely a matter of conjecture, based on theoretical expectations and extrapolation of inconsistent patterns from different biogeographic realms. We use these maps to test four predictions from niche theory as to the form that this variation should take, namely that turnover should increase with species richness, towards lower latitudes, and with the steepness of environmental gradients and that variation in turnover is determined principally by rare (restricted) species. Contrary to prediction, we show that turnover is high both in areas of extremely low and high species richness, does not increase strongly towards the tropics, and is related both to average environmental conditions and spatial variation in those conditions. These results are closely associated with a further important and novel finding, namely that global patterns of spatial turnover are driven principally by widespread species rather than the restricted ones. This complements recent demonstrations that spatial patterns of species richness are also driven principally by widespread species, and thus provides an important contribution towards a unified model of how terrestrial biodiversity varies both within and between the Earth's major land masses.

  4. Specific release of plasma membrane enzymes by a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Low, M G; Finean, J B

    1978-04-20

    The release of plasma membrane ecto-enzymes by a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. There was no effect on L-leucyl-beta-naphthylamidase, alkaline phosphodeisterase I and Ca2+- or MG2+-ATPase, but substantial proportions of the alkaline phosphatase and 5-nucleotidase were released. There was no simultaneous release of phospholipid and the solubilized enzymes were not exluded from Sepharose 6-B. It was therefore concluded that release was not a secondary consequence of membrane vesiculation but occurred as a result of the disruption of specific interactions involving the phosphatidylinositol molecule.

  5. Phosphatidylinositol-stimulated phosphorylation of an inhibitory subunit of cGMP phosphodiesterase in vertebrate rod photoreceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, F; Lin, G Y; Matsumoto, H; Yamazaki, A

    1991-01-01

    An inhibitory subunit (P gamma) of cGMP phosphodiesterase from vertebrate rod photoreceptors (frog, toad, and bovine) was phosphorylated by cytosolic protein kinase(s) derived from intact frog rod outer segments. The phosphorylation of frog P gamma was stimulated by phosphatidylinositol but not by cAMP or cGMP. One- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that 70-80% of P gamma was phosphorylated with 1 mol of phosphate per frog P gamma under optimal conditions. A peptide that derived from an active domain of bovine P gamma was also phosphorylated. Phosphorylation of frog P gamma was inhibited by addition of the peptide to the reaction mixture. Phosphorylation of frog P gamma was also inhibited by addition of transducin subunits or active (P gamma-less) cGMP phosphodiesterase. Okadaic acid, on the other hand, enhanced P gamma phosphorylation, suggesting the presence of protein phosphatase(s) in the cytosolic fraction. These data suggest another mechanism for the regulation of cGMP phosphodiesterase in vertebrate rod photoreceptors. Images PMID:1852003

  6. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulation of gastrin-releasing peptide-induced cell cycle progression in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ishola, Titilope A; Kang, JungHee; Qiao, Jingbo; Evers, B Mark; Chung, Dai H

    2007-06-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), the mammalian equivalent of bombesin (BBS), is an autocrine growth factor for neuroblastoma; its receptor is up-regulated in undifferentiated neuroblastomas. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is a critical cell survival pathway; it is negatively regulated by the PTEN tumor suppressor gene. We have recently found that poorly differentiated neuroblastomas express decreased PTEN protein levels. Moreover, overexpression of the GRP receptor, a member of the G-protein coupled receptor family, down-regulates PTEN expression, resulting in increased neuroblastoma cell growth. Therefore, we sought to determine whether GRP or BBS activates PI3K in neuroblastoma cells (BE(2)-C, LAN-1, SK-N-SH). GRP or BBS treatment rapidly increased phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3beta in neuroblastoma cells. Inhibition of GRP receptor, with antagonist GRP-H2756 or siRNA, attenuated BBS-induced phosphorylation of Akt. LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, also abrogated BBS-stimulated phospho-Akt as well as its cell cycle targets. GRP increased G1/S phase progression in SK-N-SH cells. BBS-mediated BrdU incorporation was blocked by LY294002. Our findings identify PI3K as an important signaling pathway for GRP-mediated neuroblastoma cell growth. A novel therapy targeted at GRP/GRP receptor may prove to be an effective treatment option to inhibit PI3K in neuroblastomas.

  7. Definition of the first mannosylation step in phosphatidylinositol mannoside synthesis. PimA is essential for growth of mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Korduláková, Jana; Gilleron, Martine; Mikusova, Katarína; Puzo, Germain; Brennan, Patrick J; Gicquel, Brigitte; Jackson, Mary

    2002-08-30

    We examined the function of the pimA (Rv2610c) gene, located in the vicinity of the phosphatidylinositol synthase gene in the genomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis, which encodes a putative mannosyltransferase involved in the early steps of phosphatidylinositol mannoside synthesis. A cell-free assay was developed in which membranes from M. smegmatis overexpressing the pimA gene incorporate mannose from GDP-[(14)C]Man into di- and tri-acylated phosphatidylinositol mono-mannosides. Moreover, crude extracts from Escherichia coli producing a recombinant PimA protein synthesized diacylated phosphatidylinositol mono-mannoside from GDP-[(14)C]Man and bovine phosphatidylinositol. To determine whether PimA is an essential enzyme of mycobacteria, we constructed a pimA conditional mutant of M. smegmatis. The ability of this mutant to synthesize the PimA mannosyltransferase was dependent on the presence of a functional copy of the pimA gene carried on a temperature-sensitive rescue plasmid. We demonstrate here that the pimA mutant is unable to grow at the higher temperature at which the rescue plasmid is lost. Thus, the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol mono-mannosides and derived higher phosphatidylinositol mannosides in M. smegmatis appears to be dependent on PimA and essential for growth. This work provides the first direct evidence of the essentiality of phosphatidylinositol mannosides for the growth of mycobacteria.

  8. A Trypanosoma cruzi Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (TcVps34) Is Involved in Osmoregulation and Receptor-mediated Endocytosis*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Schoijet, Alejandra C.; Miranda, Kildare; Girard-Dias, Wendell; de Souza, Wanderley; Flawiá, Mirtha M.; Torres, Héctor N.; Docampo, Roberto; Alonso, Guillermo D.

    2008-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, has the ability to respond to a variety of environmental changes during its life cycle both in the insect vector and in the vertebrate host. Because regulation of transcription initiation seems to be nonfunctional in this parasite, it is important to investigate other regulatory mechanisms of adaptation. Regulatory mechanisms at the level of signal transduction pathways involving phosphoinositides are good candidates for this purpose. Here we report the identification of the first phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in T. cruzi, with similarity with its yeast counterpart, Vps34p. TcVps34 specifically phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol to produce phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, thus confirming that it belongs to class III PI3K family. Overexpression of TcVps34 resulted in morphological and functional alterations related to vesicular trafficking. Although inhibition of TcVps34 with specific PI3K inhibitors, such as wortmannin and LY294,000, resulted in reduced regulatory volume decrease after hyposmotic stress, cells overexpressing this enzyme were resistant to these inhibitors. Furthermore, these cells were able to recover their original volume faster than wild type cells when they were submitted to severe hyposmotic stress. In addition, in TcVps34-overexpressing cells, the activities of vacuolar-H+-ATPase and vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase were altered, suggesting defects in the acidification of intracellular compartments. Furthermore, receptor-mediated endocytosis was partially blocked although fluid phase endocytosis was not affected, confirming a function for TcVps34 in membrane trafficking. Taken together, these results strongly support that TcVps34 plays a prominent role in vital processes for T. cruzi survival such as osmoregulation, acidification, and vesicular trafficking. PMID:18801733

  9. Identification of membrane dipeptidase as a major glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored protein of the pancreatic zymogen granule membrane, and evidence for its release by phospholipase A.

    PubMed

    Hooper, N M; Cook, S; Lainé, J; Lebel, D

    1997-05-15

    Membrane dipeptidase (EC 3.4.13.19) enzyme activity that is inhibited by cilastatin has been detected in pancreatic zymogen granule membranes of human, porcine and rat origin. Immunoelectrophoretic blot analysis of human and porcine pancreatic zymogen granule membranes with polyclonal antisera raised against the corresponding kidney membrane dipeptidase revealed that the enzyme is a disulphide-linked homodimer of subunit mass 61 kDa in the human and 45 kDa in the pig. Although membrane dipeptidase was, along with glycoprotein-2, one of the only two major components of carbonate high pH-washed membranes, no enzyme activity or immunoreactivity was detected in the zymogen granule contents. Digestion with bacterial phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), and subsequent recognition by antibodies specific for the cross-reacting determinant, revealed that membrane dipeptidase in human and porcine pancreatic zymogen granule membranes is glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored. Membrane dipeptidase was released from the pancreatic zymogen granule membranes by an endogenous hydrolase, and the released form migrated as a disulphide-linked dimer on SDS/PAGE under non-reducing conditions. Under reducing conditions it migrated with the same apparent molecular mass as the membrane-bound form, and was still a substrate for bacterial PI-PLC. Treatment of kidney microvillar membranes with phospholipase A2 resulted in the release of membrane dipeptidase in a form that demonstrated electrophoretic and cilastatin-Sepharose binding properties identical to those of the endogenously released form of the enzyme from zymogen granule membranes. These results indicate that the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor on the pancreatic membrane dipeptidase is cleaved by an endogenous hydrolase, probably a phospholipase A, and that this cleavage may promote the release of the protein from the membrane.

  10. Ca2+ Influx through Store-operated Calcium Channels Replenishes the Functional Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Pool Used by Cysteinyl Leukotriene Type I Receptors.

    PubMed

    Alswied, Abdullah; Parekh, Anant B

    2015-12-01

    Oscillations in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration are a universal mode of signaling following physiological levels of stimulation with agonists that engage the phospholipase C pathway. Sustained cytoplasmic Ca(2+) oscillations require replenishment of the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), the source of the Ca(2+)-releasing second messenger inositol trisphosphate. Here we show that cytoplasmic Ca(2+) oscillations induced by cysteinyl leukotriene type I receptor activation run down when cells are pretreated with Li(+), an inhibitor of inositol monophosphatases that prevents PIP2 resynthesis. In Li(+)-treated cells, cytoplasmic Ca(2+) signals evoked by an agonist were rescued by addition of exogenous inositol or phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P). Knockdown of the phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5 (PIP5) kinases α and γ resulted in rapid loss of the intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations and also prevented rescue by PI4P. Knockdown of talin1, a protein that helps regulate PIP5 kinases, accelerated rundown of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) oscillations, and these could not be rescued by inositol or PI4P. In Li(+)-treated cells, recovery of the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) oscillations in the presence of inositol or PI4P was suppressed when Ca(2+) influx through store-operated Ca(2+) channels was inhibited. After rundown of the Ca(2+) signals following leukotriene receptor activation, stimulation of P2Y receptors evoked prominent inositol trisphosphate-dependent Ca(2+) release. Therefore, leukotriene and P2Y receptors utilize distinct membrane PIP2 pools. Our findings show that store-operated Ca(2+) entry is needed to sustain cytoplasmic Ca(2+) signaling following leukotriene receptor activation both by refilling the Ca(2+) stores and by helping to replenish the PIP2 pool accessible to leukotriene receptors, ostensibly through control of PIP5 kinase activity.

  11. Ca2+ Influx through Store-operated Calcium Channels Replenishes the Functional Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Pool Used by Cysteinyl Leukotriene Type I Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Alswied, Abdullah; Parekh, Anant B.

    2015-01-01

    Oscillations in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration are a universal mode of signaling following physiological levels of stimulation with agonists that engage the phospholipase C pathway. Sustained cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations require replenishment of the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), the source of the Ca2+-releasing second messenger inositol trisphosphate. Here we show that cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations induced by cysteinyl leukotriene type I receptor activation run down when cells are pretreated with Li+, an inhibitor of inositol monophosphatases that prevents PIP2 resynthesis. In Li+-treated cells, cytoplasmic Ca2+ signals evoked by an agonist were rescued by addition of exogenous inositol or phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P). Knockdown of the phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5 (PIP5) kinases α and γ resulted in rapid loss of the intracellular Ca2+ oscillations and also prevented rescue by PI4P. Knockdown of talin1, a protein that helps regulate PIP5 kinases, accelerated rundown of cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations, and these could not be rescued by inositol or PI4P. In Li+-treated cells, recovery of the cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations in the presence of inositol or PI4P was suppressed when Ca2+ influx through store-operated Ca2+ channels was inhibited. After rundown of the Ca2+ signals following leukotriene receptor activation, stimulation of P2Y receptors evoked prominent inositol trisphosphate-dependent Ca2+ release. Therefore, leukotriene and P2Y receptors utilize distinct membrane PIP2 pools. Our findings show that store-operated Ca2+ entry is needed to sustain cytoplasmic Ca2+ signaling following leukotriene receptor activation both by refilling the Ca2+ stores and by helping to replenish the PIP2 pool accessible to leukotriene receptors, ostensibly through control of PIP5 kinase activity. PMID:26468289

  12. Modulation of NMDA effects on agonist-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover by memantine in neonatal rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, R; Wilke, R; Challiss, R A

    1995-01-01

    1. The ability of memantine (1-amino-3,5-dimethyladamantane) to antagonize the modulatory effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on phosphoinositide turnover stimulated by muscarinic cholinoceptor- and metabotropic glutamate receptor-agonists has been examined in neonatal rat cerebral cortex slices. 2. Memantine antagonized the inhibitory effect of NMDA (100 microM) on both total [3H]-inositol phosphate ([3H]-InsPx) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) mass accumulations stimulated by carbachol (1 mM) with EC50 values of 21 and 16 microM respectively. 3. Memantine concentration-dependently antagonized (IC50 24 microM) the ability of NMDA (10 microM) to potentiate [3H]-InsPx accumulation in response to a sub-maximal concentration of the metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, 1S,3R-ACPD (10 microM). 4. The small (approx. 3 fold), concentration-dependent increase in [3H]-InsPx accumulation stimulated by NMDA was completely antagonized by the prototypic NDMA receptor-channel blocker, MK-801 (1 microM) at all concentrations of NDMA studied (1-1000 microM). In contrast, antagonism by memantine (100 microM) was observed only at low concentrations of NMDA (1-10 microM), whilst [3H]-InsPx accumulation stimulated by high concentrations of NMDA (300-1000 microM) was markedly enhanced by memantine. 5. Assessment of the incorporation of [3H]-inositol into inositol phospholipids revealed that memantine (100 microM) caused an approximate 2 fold increase in the labelling of phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7773540

  13. The costs of nurse turnover: part 1: an economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cheryl Bland

    2004-12-01

    Nurse turnover is costly for healthcare organizations. Administrators and nurse executives need a reliable estimate of nurse turnover costs and the origins of those costs if they are to develop effective measures of reducing nurse turnover and its costs. However, determining how to best capture and quantify nurse turnover costs can be challenging. Part 1 of this series conceptualizes nurse turnover via human capital theory and presents an update of a previously developed method for determining the costs of nurse turnover, the Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Method. Part 2 (January 2005) presents a recent application of the methodology in an acute care hospital. PMID:15632752

  14. Glucose and insulin synergistically activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to trigger oscillations of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate in beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Hagren, Olof Idevall; Tengholm, Anders

    2006-12-22

    In insulin-secreting beta-cells, activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-OH-kinase with resulting formation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3)) has been implicated in the regulation of ion channels, insulin secretion, and gene transcription as well as in cell growth and survival, but the kinetics of PIP(3) signals following physiological stimulation of insulin secretion is unknown. Using evanescent wave microscopy and a green fluorescent protein-tagged PIP(3)-binding protein domain for real-time monitoring of plasma membrane PIP(3) concentration in single MIN6 beta-cells, we now demonstrate that glucose stimulation of insulin secretion results in pronounced PIP(3) oscillations via autocrine stimulation of insulin receptors. Glucose lacked effect when insulin secretion was prevented with the hyperpolarizing agent diazoxide, but the sugar dose dependently enhanced the PIP(3) response to maximal insulin stimulation without affecting the rate of PIP(3) degradation. We conclude that glucose is an important co-activator of phosphatidylinositol-3'-OH-kinase and that the plasma membrane PIP(3) concentration in beta-cells undergoes oscillations due to pulsatile release of insulin.

  15. A monoclonal antibody distinguishes two types of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Endemann, G C; Graziani, A; Cantley, L C

    1991-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody has been developed against the type II PtdIns 4-kinase from bovine brain. This antibody, 4C5G, causes greater than 90% inhibition of the type II PtdIns 4-kinase from bovine brain, rat brain and human erythrocytes. However, it fails to inhibit type III PtdIns 4-kinase from bovine brain or PtdIns 3-kinase from rat liver. These results suggest that type II and type III PtdIns 4-kinases are distinct gene products, and that 4C5G will be useful in studying the function of the type II PtdIns 4-kinase. PMID:1846531

  16. Predictors of Staff Turnover and Turnover Intentions within Addiction Treatment Settings: Change Over Time Matters.

    PubMed

    Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which changes over time in clinicians' responses to measures of work attitude (eg, job satisfaction) and psychological climate (eg, supervisor support) could predict actual turnover and turnover intentions above and beyond absolute levels of these respective measures. Longitudinal data for this study were collected from a sample of clinicians (N = 96) being trained to implement an evidence-based treatment for adolescent substance use disorders. Supporting findings from a recent staff turnover study, we found job satisfaction change was able to predict actual turnover above and beyond average levels of job satisfaction. Representing new contributions to the staff turnover literature, we also found that change over time in several other key measures (eg, job satisfaction, role manageability, role clarity) explained a significant amount of variance in turnover intentions above and beyond the absolute level of each respective measure. A key implication of the current study is that organizations seeking to improve their ability to assess risk for staff turnover may want to consider assessing staff at multiple points in time in order to identify systematic changes in key employee attitudes like turnover intentions and job satisfaction. PMID:25336960

  17. Binding of receptor-recognized forms of alpha2-macroglobulin to the alpha2-macroglobulin signaling receptor activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Misra, U K; Pizzo, S V

    1998-05-29

    Ligation of the alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2M) signaling receptor by receptor-recognized forms of alpha2M (alpha2M*) initiates mitogenesis secondary to increased intracellular Ca2+. We report here that ligation of the alpha2M signaling receptor also causes a 1. 5-2.5-fold increase in wortmannin-sensitive phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity as measured by the quantitation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). PIP3 formation was alpha2M* concentration-dependent with a maximal response at approximately 50 pM ligand concentration. The peak formation of PIP3 occurred at 10 min of incubation. The alpha2M receptor binding fragment mutant K1370R which binds to the alpha2M signaling receptor activating the signaling cascade, increased PIP3 formation by 2-fold. The mutant K1374A, which binds very poorly to the alpha2M signaling receptor, did not cause any increase in PIP3 formation. alpha2M*-induced DNA synthesis was inhibited by wortmannin. 1, 2Bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acetoxymethylester a chelator of intracellular Ca2+, drastically reduced alpha2M*-induced increases in PIP3 formation. We conclude that PI3K is involved in alpha2M*-induced mitogenesis in macrophages and intracellular Ca2+ plays a role in PI3K activation. PMID:9593670

  18. Indoxyl sulfate exacerbates low bone turnover induced by parathyroidectomy in young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Junya; Hirai, Kazuya; Asai, Hirobumi; Matsumoto, Chiho; Inada, Masaki; Miyaura, Chisato; Yamato, Hideyuki; Watanabe-Akanuma, Mie

    2015-10-01

    Low-turnover bone disease is one of the bone abnormalities observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is recognized to be associated with low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level and skeletal resistance to PTH. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a representative uremic toxin that accumulates in the blood as renal dysfunction progresses in CKD patients. A recent in vitro study using an osteoblastic cell culture system suggests that IS has an important role in the pathogenesis of low bone turnover through induction of skeletal resistance to PTH. However, the effects of IS on the progression of low bone turnover have not been elucidated. In the present study, we produced rats with low bone turnover by performing parathyroidectomy (PTX) and fed these rats a diet containing indole, a precursor of IS, to elevate blood IS level from indole metabolism. Bone metabolism was evaluated by measuring histomorphometric parameters of secondary spongiosa of the femur. Histomorphometric analyses revealed significant decreases in both bone formation-related parameters and bone resorption-related parameters in PTX rats. In indole-treated PTX rats, further decreases in bone formation-related parameters were observed. In addition, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, a bone formation marker, and bone mineral density of the tibia tended to decrease in indole-treated PTX rats. These findings strongly suggest that IS exacerbates low bone turnover through inhibition of bone formation by mechanisms unrelated to skeletal resistance to PTH. PMID:26112820

  19. Clinical development of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase pathway inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2010-01-01

    The PI3K pathway is the most commonly altered in human cancer. Several recent phase I studies with therapeutic inhibitors of this pathway have shown that pharmacological inhibition of PI3K in humans is feasible and overall well tolerated. Furthermore, there has already been clinical evidence of anti-tumor activity in patients with advanced cancer. The intensity and duration of PI3K inhibition required for an antitumor effect and the optimal pharmacodynamic biomarker(s) of pathway inactivation remain to be established. Preclinical and early clinical data support focusing on trials with PI3K inhibitors that are at a minimum enriched with patients with alterations in this signaling pathway. These inhibitors are likely to be more effective in combination with established and other novel molecular therapies.

  20. Membrane Ig cross-linking regulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Gold, M R; Chan, V W; Turck, C W; DeFranco, A L

    1992-04-01

    Cross-linking of the B cell AgR results in activation of mature B cells and tolerization of immature B cells. The initial signaling events stimulated by membrane immunoglobulin (mIg) cross-linking are tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of proteins. Among the targets of mIg-induced tyrosine phosphorylation are the tyrosine kinases encoded by the lyn, blk, fyn, and syk genes, the mIg-associated proteins MB-1 and Ig-beta, phospholipase C-gamma 1 and -gamma 2, as well as many unidentified proteins. In this report we show that mIg cross-linking also regulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns 3-kinase), an enzyme that phosphorylates inositol phospholipids and plays a key role in mediating the effects of tyrosine kinases on growth control in fibroblasts. Cross-linking mIg on B lymphocytes greatly increased the amount of PtdIns 3-kinase activity which could be immunoprecipitated with anti-phosphotyrosine (anti-tyr(P) antibodies. This response was observed after mIg cross-linking in mIgM- and mIgG-bearing B cell lines and after cross-linking either mIgM or mIgD in murine splenic B cells. Thus, regulation of PtdIns 3-kinase is a common feature of signaling by several different isotypes of mIg. This response was rapid and peaked 2 to 3 min after the addition of anti-Ig antibodies. The anti-Ig-stimulated increase in PtdIns 3-kinase activity associated with anti-Tyr(P) immunoprecipitates could reflect increased tyrosine phosphorylation of PtdIns 3-kinase, increased activity of the enzyme, or both. In favor of the first possibility, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A blocked the increase in ant-Tyr(P)-immunoprecipitated PtdIns 3-kinase activity as well as the anti-Ig-induced tyrosine phosphorylation. Moreover, this response was not secondary to phospholipase C activation but rather seemed to be a direct consequence of mIg-induced tyrosine phosphorylation. Activation of the phosphoinositide pathway by a transfected M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in

  1. Leptin induces macrophage lipid body formation by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase- and mammalian target of rapamycin-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa M; Almeida, Patricia E; D'Avila, Heloisa; Martins, Aline S; Rezende, Ana Paula; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo; Bozza, Patricia T

    2008-01-25

    Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone/cytokine that links nutritional status with neuroendocrine and immune functions. Lipid bodies (lipid droplets) are emerging as dynamic organelles with roles in lipid metabolism and inflammation. Here we investigated the roles of leptin in signaling pathways involved in cytoplasmic lipid body biogenesis and leukotriene B(4) synthesis in macrophages. Our results demonstrated that leptin directly activated macrophages and induced the formation of adipose differentiation-related protein-enriched lipid bodies. Newly formed lipid bodies were sites of 5-lipoxygenase localization and correlated with an enhanced capacity of leukotriene B(4) production. We demonstrated that leptin-induced macrophage activation was dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, since the lipid body formation was inhibited by LY294002 and was absent in the PI3K knock-out mice. Leptin induces phosphorylation of p70(S6K) and 4EBP1 key downstream signaling intermediates of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in a rapamycin-sensitive mechanism. The mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, inhibited leptin-induced lipid body formation, both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, rapamycin inhibited leptin-induced adipose differentiation-related protein accumulation in macrophages and lipid body-dependent leukotriene synthesis, demonstrating a key role for mTOR in lipid body biogenesis and function. Our results establish PI3K/mTOR as an important signaling pathway for leptin-induced cytoplasmic lipid body biogenesis and adipose differentiation-related protein accumulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate a previously unrecognized link between intracellular (mTOR) and systemic (leptin) nutrient sensors in macrophage lipid metabolism. Leptin-induced increased formation of cytoplasmic lipid bodies and enhanced inflammatory mediator production in macrophages may have implications for obesity-related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:18039669

  2. Salicylates of Intact Salix myrsinifolia Plantlets Do Not Undergo Rapid Metabolic Turnover1

    PubMed Central

    Ruuhola, Teija Marjaana; Julkunen-Tiitto, Maija-Riitta Kristiina

    2000-01-01

    Salicylates, the main phenolic glucosides of northern willow (Salix spp.), play an important role in plant-herbivore interactions. Salicylates are labile metabolites that are thought to undergo metabolic turnover. Salicylates are synthesized from phenylalanine (Phe) via the shikimate pathway. 2-Aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a strong inhibitor of Phe ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.5), was used to block the biosynthesis of salicylates. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term turnover of salicylates in intact micropropagated plantlets of Salix myrsinifolia Salisb. The biosynthesis of salicylates was inhibited efficiently but not completely by 30 μm 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid. Inhibitor treatment, aside from leading to a high accumulation of Phe, also led to an increase in tyrosine and tryptophan, indicating that 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid may also inhibit enzymes other than Phe ammonia-lyase. Salicylates were shown to be unexpectedly stable metabolites that did not undergo marked metabolic turnover in intact plants; in leaves no significant turnover occurred, and in the stems the five salicylates studied were turned over slowly, with half-lives of 11 to 25 d. The total amount of salicylate in mature shoots decreased only 0.6% per day. PMID:10712554

  3. Quantification of isotopic turnover in agricultural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, A.; Auerswald, K.; Schnyder, H.

    2012-04-01

    The isotopic turnover, which is a proxy for the metabolic rate, is gaining scientific importance. It is quantified for an increasing range of organisms, from microorganisms over plants to animals including agricultural livestock. Additionally, the isotopic turnover is analyzed on different scales, from organs to organisms to ecosystems and even to the biosphere. In particular, the quantification of the isotopic turnover of specific tissues within the same organism, e.g. organs like liver and muscle and products like milk and faeces, has brought new insights to improve understanding of nutrient cycles and fluxes, respectively. Thus, the knowledge of isotopic turnover is important in many areas, including physiology, e.g. milk synthesis, ecology, e.g. soil retention time of water, and medical science, e.g. cancer diagnosis. So far, the isotopic turnover is quantified by applying time, cost and expertise intensive tracer experiments. Usually, this comprises two isotopic equilibration periods. A first equilibration period with a constant isotopic input signal is followed by a second equilibration period with a distinct constant isotopic input signal. This yields a smooth signal change from the first to the second signal in the object under consideration. This approach reveals at least three major problems. (i) The input signals must be controlled isotopically, which is almost impossible in many realistic cases like free ranging animals. (ii) Both equilibration periods may be very long, especially when the turnover rate of the object under consideration is very slow, which aggravates the first problem. (iii) The detection of small or slow pools is improved by large isotopic signal changes, but large isotopic changes also involve a considerable change in the input material; e.g. animal studies are usually carried out as diet-switch experiments, where the diet is switched between C3 and C4 plants, since C3 and C4 plants differ strongly in their isotopic signal. The

  4. Selective release of plasma-membrane enzymes from rat hepatocytes by a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Shukla, S D; Coleman, R; Finean, J B; Michell, R H

    1980-04-01

    When isolated hepatocytes are incubated with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, three cell-surface enzymes show markedly different behaviour. Most of the alkaline phosphatase is released at very low values of phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis, whereas further phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis releases only a maximum of about one-third of the 5'-nucleotidase. Alkaline phosphodiesterase I is not released. If cells containing phosphatidyl[3H]inositol are similarly treated, then the released [3H]inositol is in the form of inositol phosphate: no evidence has been obtained for any covalent association between released [3H]inositol and alkaline phosphatase.

  5. Ectoenzymes of the kidney microvillar membrane. Differential solubilization by detergents can predict a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol membrane anchor.

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, N M; Turner, A J

    1988-01-01

    The pattern of solubilization of nine kidney microvillar ectoenzymes by a range of detergents distinguished two classes of membrane proteins: those released from the membrane by bacterial phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C and those not so released. The latter group of transmembrane proteins were solubilized efficiently (greater than 80%) by all the detergents examined. In contrast, proteins released by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C were solubilized effectively only by octyl glucoside, 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulphonate and sodium deoxycholate. Octyl glucoside solubilized the amphipathic forms of the ectoenzymes examined, suggesting that this may be a useful detergent in the purification of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored ectoenzymes. PMID:2839148

  6. Functional control of cold- and menthol-sensitive TRPM8 ion channels by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Beiying; Qin, Feng

    2005-02-16

    Cold is detected by a small subpopulation of peripheral thermoreceptors. TRPM8, a cloned menthol- and cold-sensitive ion channel, has been suggested to mediate cold transduction in the innocuous range. The channel shows a robust response in whole-cell recordings but exhibits markedly reduced activity in excised membrane patches. Here we report that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is an essential regulator of the channel function. The rundown of the channel is prevented by lipid phosphatase inhibitors. Application of exogenous PIP2 both activates the channel directly and restores rundown activity. Whole-cell experiments involving intracellular dialysis with polyvalent cations, inhibition of PIP2 synthesis kinases, and receptor-mediated hydrolysis of PIP2 show that PIP2 also modulates the channel activity in the intact cells. The crucial role of PIP2 on the function of TRPM8 suggests that the membrane PIP2 level may be an important regulator of cold transduction in vivo. The opposite effects of PIP2 on the vanilloid receptor TRPV1 and TRPM8 also implies that the membrane lipid may have dual actions as a bimodal switch to selectively control the heat- and cold-induced responses in nociceptors expressing both channels.

  7. Depolarization and neurotrophins converge on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway to synergistically regulate neuronal survival.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, A R; Mazzoni, I; Tudan, C; Boudreau, M; Kaplan, D R; Miller, F D

    1999-09-01

    In this report, we have examined the mechanisms whereby neurotrophins and neural activity coordinately regulate neuronal survival, focussing on sympathetic neurons, which require target-derived NGF and neural activity for survival during development. When sympathetic neurons were maintained in suboptimal concentrations of NGF, coincident depolarization with concentrations of KCl that on their own had no survival effect, synergistically enhanced survival. Biochemical analysis revealed that depolarization was sufficient to activate a Ras-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway (Ras-PI3-kinase-Akt), and function-blocking experiments using recombinant adenovirus indicated that this pathway was essential for approximately 50% of depolarization-mediated neuronal survival. At concentrations of NGF and KCl that promoted synergistic survival, these two stimuli converged to promote increased PI3-kinase-dependent Akt phosphorylation. This convergent PI3-kinase-Akt pathway was essential for synergistic survival. In contrast, inhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II revealed that, while this molecule was essential for depolarization-induced survival, it had no role in KCl- induced Akt phosphorylation, nor was it important for synergistic survival by NGF and KCl. Thus, NGF and depolarization together mediate survival of sympathetic neurons via intracellular convergence on a Ras-PI3-kinase-Akt pathway. This convergent regulation of Akt may provide a general mechanism for coordinating the effects of growth factors and neural activity on neuronal survival throughout the nervous system.

  8. Insulin-like growth factor-1 delays Fas-mediated apoptosis in human neutrophils through the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Himpe, Eddy; Degaillier, Céline; Coppens, Astrid; Kooijman, Ron

    2008-10-01

    Apoptosis of human neutrophils is a crucial mechanism for the resolution of inflammation. We previously showed that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) delays spontaneous neutrophil apoptosis without influencing the secretion of cytokines by these cells. In the present study, we further addressed the role of IGF1 in regulating neutrophil survival in the presence of other factors present during inflammation, and the mechanism involved in delaying apoptosis. We show that IGF1 delays neutrophil apoptosis triggered by the agonistic anti-Fas antibody CH11 and that the effect of IGF1 is comparable in magnitude to that of the acknowledged anti-apoptotic cytokines interferon-gamma (IFNG) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF; now known as CSF2). Furthermore, IGF1 exerted additional effects on cell survival in the presence of these cytokines. IGF1 did not affect Fas expression or activation by anti-Fas of caspase-8, but inhibited the depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. Inhibitor studies indicate that the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway, but not the MEK-ERK pathway, mediates the effects of IGF1. However, in contrast to CSF2, IGF1 did not induce phosphorylation and translocation to the membrane of AKT, the canonical downstream target of PI3K. We therefore speculate that other downstream targets of PI3K are involved in the delay of neutrophil apoptosis by IGF1, possibly through stabilization of the mitochondrial membrane.

  9. BKM-120 (Buparlisib): A Phosphatidyl-Inositol-3 Kinase Inhibitor with Anti-Invasive Properties in Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Speranza, Maria-Carmela; Nowicki, Michal O; Behera, Prajna; Cho, Choi-Fong; Chiocca, E Antonio; Lawler, Sean E

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is an aggressive, invasive tumor of the central nervous system (CNS). There is a widely acknowledged need for anti-invasive therapeutics to limit glioblastoma invasion. BKM-120 is a CNS-penetrant pan-class I phosphatidyl-inositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor in clinical trials for solid tumors, including glioblastoma. We observed that BKM-120 has potent anti-invasive effects in glioblastoma cell lines and patient-derived glioma cells in vitro. These anti-migratory effects were clearly distinguishable from cytostatic and cytotoxic effects at higher drug concentrations and longer durations of drug exposure. The effects were reversible and accompanied by changes in cell morphology and pronounced reduction in both cell/cell and cell/substrate adhesion. In vivo studies showed that a short period of treatment with BKM-120 slowed tumor spread in an intracranial xenografts. GDC-0941, a similar potent and selective PI3K inhibitor, only caused a moderate reduction in glioblastoma cell migration. The effects of BKM-120 and GDC-0941 were indistinguishable by in vitro kinase selectivity screening and phospho-protein arrays. BKM-120 reduced the numbers of focal adhesions and the velocity of microtubule treadmilling compared with GDC-0941, suggesting that mechanisms in addition to PI3K inhibition contribute to the anti-invasive effects of BKM-120. Our data suggest the CNS-penetrant PI3K inhibitor BKM-120 may have anti-invasive properties in glioblastoma. PMID:26846842

  10. Hepatitis C virus NS5A protein cooperates with phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIα to induce mitochondrial fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Gavin Ka Yu; Zhou, Fan; Yu, Mei Kuen; Zhang, Leiliang; Wang, Tuanlao; Liang, Yongheng; Chen, Yangchao; Chan, Hsiao Chang; Yu, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has long been observed to take advantage of the host mitochondria to support viral replication and assembly. The HCV core protein has been implicated to fragment host mitochondria. In this report, we have discovered that the non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) plays an instructive role in attaching ER with mitochondria, causing mitochondrial fragmentation. Dynamin-related protein 1(Drp1), a host protein essential to mitochondrial membrane fission, does not play a role in NS5A-induced mitochondrial fragmentation. Instead, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIα (PI4KA), which has been demonstrated to bind to NS5A and is required to support HCV life cycle, is required for NS5A to induce mitochondrial fragmentation. Both NS5A and core are required by HCV to fragment the mitochondria, as inhibiting either of their respective downstream proteins, PI4KA or Drp1, resulted in lengthening of mitochondria tubules in HCVcc-infected cells. By fragmenting the mitochondria, NS5A renders the cells more resistant to mitochondria mediated apoptosis. This finding indicates previously-ignored contribution of NS5A in HCV-induced mitochondria dysfunction. PMID:27010100

  11. Icaritin requires Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling to counteract skeletal muscle atrophy following mechanical unloading

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Zong-Kang; LI, Jie; LIU, Jin; GUO, Baosheng; LEUNG, Albert; ZHANG, Ge; ZHANG, Bao-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Counteracting muscle atrophy induced by mechanical unloading/inactivity is of great clinical need and challenge. A therapeutic agent that could counteract muscle atrophy following mechanical unloading in safety is desired. This study showed that natural product Icaritin (ICT) could increase the phosphorylation level of Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) at p110 catalytic subunit and promote PI3K/Akt signaling markers in C2C12 cells. This study further showed that the high dose ICT treatment could significantly attenuate the decreases in the phosphorylation level of PI3K at p110 catalytic subunit and its downstream markers related to protein synthesis, and inhibit the increases in protein degradation markers at mRNA and protein levels in rat soleus muscle following 28-day hindlimb unloading. In addition, the decreases in soleus muscle mass, muscle fiber cross-sectional area, twitch force, specific force, contraction time and half relaxation time could be significantly attenuated by the high dose ICT treatment. The low dose ICT treatment could moderately attenuate the above changes induced by unloading. Wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of PI3K at p110 catalytic subunit, could abolish the above effects of ICT in vitro and in vivo, indicating that PI3K/Akt signaling could be required by ICT to counteract skeletal muscle atrophy following mechanical unloading. PMID:26831566

  12. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signals activation of p70 S6 kinase in situ through site-specific p70 phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Q P; Andrabi, K; Klippel, A; Kozlowski, M T; Williams, L T; Avruch, J

    1995-01-01

    The p70 S6 kinase is activated by insulin and mitogens through multisite phosphorylation of the enzyme. One set of activating phosphorylations occurs in a putative autoinhibitory domain in the noncatalytic carboxyl-terminal tail. Deletion of this tail yields a variant (p70 delta CT104) that nevertheless continues to be mitogen regulated. Coexpression with a recombinant constitutively active phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase (EC 2.7.1.137) gives substantial activation of both full-length p70 and p70 delta CT104 but not Rsk. Activation of p70 delta CT104 by PI 3-kinase and inhibition by wortmannin are each accompanied by parallel and selective changes in the phosphorylation of p70 Thr-252. A Thr or Ser at this site, in subdomain VIII of the catalytic domain just amino-terminal to the APE motif, is necessary for p70 40S kinase activity. The inactive ATP-binding site mutant K123M p70 delta CT104 undergoes phosphorylation of Thr-252 in situ but does not undergo direct phosphorylation by the active PI 3-kinase in vitro. PI 3-kinase provides a signal necessary for the mitogen activation of the p70 S6 kinase, which directs the site-specific phosphorylation of Thr-252 in the p70 catalytic domain, through a distinctive signal transduction pathway. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7777579

  13. Nuclear and nucleolar localization signals and their targeting function in phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase PI4K230

    SciTech Connect

    Kakuk, Annamaria; Friedlaender, Elza; Vereb, Gyoergy; Lisboa, Duarte; Bagossi, Peter; Toth, Gabor; Gergely, Pal; Vereb, Gyoergy

    2008-08-01

    PI4K230, an isoform of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, known primarily as a cytoplasmic membrane-bound enzyme, was detected recently also in the nucleolus of several cells. Here we provide mechanistic insight on the targeting function of its putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequences using molecular modeling, digitonin-permeabilized HeLa cells and binding to various importins. The synthetic sequence {sup 916}NFNHIHKRIRRVADKYLSG{sup 934} comprising a putative monopartite NLS (NLS1), targeted covalently bound fluorescent BSA to the nucleoplasm via classical importin {alpha}/{beta} mechanism employing importins {alpha}1 and {alpha}3 but not {alpha}5. This transport was inhibited by wheat germ agglutinin and GTP{gamma}S. The sequence {sup 1414}SKKTNRGSQLHKYYMKRRTL{sup 1433}, a putative bipartite NLS (NLS2) proved ineffective in nuclear targeting if conjugated to fluorescently labeled BSA. Nonetheless, NLS2 or either of its basic clusters directed to the nucleolus soybean trypsin inhibitor that can pass the nuclear pore complex passively; moreover, an expressed 58 kDa fragment of PI4K230 (AA1166-1667) comprising NLS2 was also imported into the nucleus by import factors of reticulocyte lysate or by importin {alpha}1/{beta} or {alpha}3/{beta} complexes and localized to the nucleolus. We conclude that the putative bipartite NLS itself is a nucleolar targeting signal, and for nuclear import PI4K230 requires a larger sequence around it or, alternatively, the monopartite NLS.

  14. BKM-120 (Buparlisib): A Phosphatidyl-Inositol-3 Kinase Inhibitor with Anti-Invasive Properties in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Speranza, Maria-Carmela; Nowicki, Michal O.; Behera, Prajna; Cho, Choi-Fong; Chiocca, E. Antonio; Lawler, Sean E.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is an aggressive, invasive tumor of the central nervous system (CNS). There is a widely acknowledged need for anti-invasive therapeutics to limit glioblastoma invasion. BKM-120 is a CNS-penetrant pan-class I phosphatidyl-inositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor in clinical trials for solid tumors, including glioblastoma. We observed that BKM-120 has potent anti-invasive effects in glioblastoma cell lines and patient-derived glioma cells in vitro. These anti-migratory effects were clearly distinguishable from cytostatic and cytotoxic effects at higher drug concentrations and longer durations of drug exposure. The effects were reversible and accompanied by changes in cell morphology and pronounced reduction in both cell/cell and cell/substrate adhesion. In vivo studies showed that a short period of treatment with BKM-120 slowed tumor spread in an intracranial xenografts. GDC-0941, a similar potent and selective PI3K inhibitor, only caused a moderate reduction in glioblastoma cell migration. The effects of BKM-120 and GDC-0941 were indistinguishable by in vitro kinase selectivity screening and phospho-protein arrays. BKM-120 reduced the numbers of focal adhesions and the velocity of microtubule treadmilling compared with GDC-0941, suggesting that mechanisms in addition to PI3K inhibition contribute to the anti-invasive effects of BKM-120. Our data suggest the CNS-penetrant PI3K inhibitor BKM-120 may have anti-invasive properties in glioblastoma. PMID:26846842

  15. Uncoupling binding of substrate CO from turnover by vanadium nitrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi Chung; Fay, Aaron W.; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Krest, Courtney M.; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O.; Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W.

    2015-01-01

    Biocatalysis by nitrogenase, particularly the reduction of N2 and CO by this enzyme, has tremendous significance in environment- and energy-related areas. Elucidation of the detailed mechanism of nitrogenase has been hampered by the inability to trap substrates or intermediates in a well-defined state. Here, we report the capture of substrate CO on the resting-state vanadium-nitrogenase in a catalytically competent conformation. The close resemblance of this active CO-bound conformation to the recently described structure of CO-inhibited molybdenum-nitrogenase points to the mechanistic relevance of sulfur displacement to the activation of iron sites in the cofactor for CO binding. Moreover, the ability of vanadium-nitrogenase to bind substrate in the resting-state uncouples substrate binding from subsequent turnover, providing a platform for generation of defined intermediate(s) of both CO and N2 reduction. PMID:26515097

  16. Employee Development and Turnover Intention: Theory Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Wali; Nas, Zekeriya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the pattern of behavior of turnover intentions in developing countries "vis-a-vis" the one in advanced countries through the empirical data from public universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The study provides empirical evidence from academia in Pakistan, thereby enriching the understanding of…

  17. Antecedents of Norwegian Beginning Teachers' Turnover Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiplic, Dijana; Brandmo, Christian; Elstad, Eyvind

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at exploring several individual, organizational, and contextual factors that may affect beginning teachers' turnover intentions during their first years of practice. The sample consists of 227 beginning teachers (69% female and 31% male) from 133 schools in Norway. The results show four important antecedents of beginning teachers'…

  18. Teacher Turnover in Charter Schools. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuit, David; Smith, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to contribute to a deeper understanding of the organizational conditions of charter schools by examining teacher turnover. Using data from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) 2003-04 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) and the Teacher Follow-Up Survey (TFS), researchers from the National Center on School…

  19. Turnover of Public School Superintendents in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Joyce Ntsoaki

    2013-01-01

    This study used a descriptive qualitative design utilizing a phenomenological approach to determine and examine the reasons behind the voluntary or involuntary turnover of Arizona school superintendents. Open-ended questions were used to interview five superintendents who had left their districts between 2008 and 2013 about their perceptions on…

  20. Home Visitor Job Satisfaction and Turnover.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchbinder, Sharon B.; Duggan, Anne K.; Young, Elizabeth; Fuddy, Loretta; Sia, Cal

    This paper summarizes findings of a 3-year study of the job satisfaction and turnover of home visitors, both professional and paraprofessional, in programs which link families-at-risk for impaired functioning to medical home care and other resources. Specifically, the study examined: (1) home visitor personal characteristics that influence…

  1. Identifying Determinants of Commitment and Turnover Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Thomas L.

    A study tested the precursors to vocational teachers' commitment to teaching as suggested by the commitment model proposed by Pierce and Dunham. Important consequences of commitment were examined by identifying relationships between commitment, behavioral intentions, and resulting turnover. The study examined the entire population of teachers…

  2. Job Turnover Intentions Among Pharmacy Faculty

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Mark H.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To determine the primary reasons why pharmacy faculty intend to remain or leave their current institution and why they left their most recent academic institution, and the relative contribution of various organizational and individual characteristics toward explaining variance in turnover intentions. Methods A survey instrument was e-mailed to pharmacy faculty members asking respondents to indicate up to 5 reasons for their intentions and up to 5 reasons why they left a previous institution. The survey also elicited perceptions on quality of work life in addition to demographic and institutional data, upon which turnover intentions were regressed using a forward-conditional procedure. Organizational commitment as a moderator of turnover intentions was regressed over the remaining variables not acting directly on employer intentions. Results Just over 1 in 5 respondents indicated intentions to leave their current academic institution. Excessive workload, seeking a new challenge, poor salary, and poor relationships with college or school administrators were frequently cited as reasons for leaving. Turnover intentions are influenced directly by department chair support and organizational commitment, which moderates various support and satisfaction variables. Conclusions Pharmacy faculty members’ decision to remain or leave an institution is dependent upon developing a sense of commitment toward the institution. Commitment is facilitated by support from the institution and department chair, in addition to a sense of satisfaction with the teaching environment. PMID:17786250

  3. Director Turnover: An Australian Academic Development Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kym; Ryan, Yoni

    2012-01-01

    Although it can be argued that directors of central academic development units (ADUs) are critical to the implementation of university teaching and learning strategies, it would appear there is a high director turnover rate. While research in the USA, the UK, and Australia illustrates that ADUs are frequently closed or restructured, that research…

  4. AtVPS34, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase of Arabidopsis thaliana, is an essential protein with homology to a calcium-dependent lipid binding domain.

    PubMed

    Welters, P; Takegawa, K; Emr, S D; Chrispeels, M J

    1994-11-22

    The cDNA encoding phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase was cloned from Arabidopsis thaliana, and the derived amino acid sequence (AtVPS34) has a significantly higher homology to yeast PI 3-kinase (VPS34) than to the mammalian (p110). The protein has two conserved domains: a catalytic site with the ATP-binding site near the C terminus and a calcium-dependent lipid-binding domain near the N terminus. The plant cDNA does not rescue a yeast vps34 deletion mutant, but a chimeric gene in which the coding sequence for the C-terminal third of VPS34 is replaced by the corresponding sequence from the plant gene does rescue the yeast mutant. PI 3-kinase activity is detectable in extracts from plants that overexpress the plant PI 3-kinase. Expression of antisense constructs gives rise to second-generation transformed plants severely inhibited in growth and development.

  5. Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase type II beta is required for vitamin D receptor-dependent E-cadherin expression in SW480 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kouchi, Zen; Fujiwara, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Hideki; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Fukami, Kiyoko

    2011-05-20

    Highlights: {yields} We analyzed Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate kinase II{beta} (PIPKII{beta}) function in cancer. {yields} PIPKII{beta} is required for vitamin D receptor-mediated E-cadherin upregulation in SW480. {yields} PIPKII{beta} suppresses cellular motility through E-cadherin induction in SW480 cells. {yields} Nuclear PIP{sub 2} but not plasma membrane-localized PIP{sub 2} mediates E-cadherin upregulation. -- Abstract: Numerous epidemiological data indicate that vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling induced by its ligand or active metabolite 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}) has anti-cancer activity in several colon cancers. 1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} induces the epithelial differentiation of SW480 colon cancer cells expressing VDR (SW480-ADH) by upregulating E-cadherin expression; however, its precise mechanism remains unknown. We found that phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase type II beta (PIPKII{beta}) but not PIPKII{alpha} is required for VDR-mediated E-cadherin induction in SW480-ADH cells. The syntenin-2 postsynaptic density protein/disc large/zona occludens (PDZ) domain and pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase C-delta1 (PLC{delta}1 PHD) possess high affinity for phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P{sub 2}) mainly localized to the nucleus and plasma membrane, respectively. The expression of syntenin-2 PDZ but not PLC{delta}1 PHD inhibited 1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}-induced E-cadherin upregulation, suggesting that nuclear PI(4,5)P{sub 2} production mediates E-cadherin expression through PIPKII{beta} in a VDR-dependent manner. PIPKII{beta} is also involved in the suppression of the cell motility induced by 1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}. These results indicate that PIPKII{beta}-mediated PI(4,5)P{sub 2} signaling is important for E-cadherin upregulation and inhibition of cellular motility induced by VDR activation.

  6. Kinetic analysis of histone acetylation turnover and Trichostatin A induced hyper- and hypoacetylation in alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Waterborg, Jakob H; Kapros, Tamás

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic histone acetylation is a characteristic of chromatin transcription. The first estimates for the rate of acetylation turnover of plants are reported, measured in alfalfa cells by pulse, pulse-chase, and steady-state acetylation labeling. Acetylation turnover half-lives of about 0.5 h were observed by all methods used for histones H3, H4, and H2B. This is consistent with the rate at which changes in gene expression occur in plants. Treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) induced hyperacetylation at a similar rate. Replacement histone variant H3.2, preferentially localized in highly acetylated chromatin, displayed faster acetyl turnover. Histone H2A with a low level of acetylation was not subject to rapid turnover or hyperacetylation. Patterns of acetate labeling revealed fundamental differences between histone H3 versus histones H4 and H2B. In H3, acetylation of all molecules, limited by lysine methylation, had similar rates, independent of the level of lysine acetylation. Acetylation of histones H4 and H2B was seen in only a fraction of all molecules and involved multiacetylation. Acetylation turnover rates increased from mono- to penta- and hexaacetylated forms, respectively. TSA was an effective inhibitor of alfalfa histone deacetylases in vivo and caused a doubling in steady-state acetylation levels by 4-6 h after addition. However, hyperacetylation was transient due to loss of TSA inhibition. TSA-induced overexpression of cellular deacetylase activity produced hypoacetylation by 18 h treatment with enhanced acetate turnover labeling of alfalfa histones. Thus, application of TSA to change gene expression in vivo in plants may have unexpected consequences. PMID:12123281

  7. Investing in Leadership: The District's Role in Managing Principal Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascall, Blair; Leithwood, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of research into the impact of principal turnover on schools, and the ability of schools to mitigate the negative effects of frequent turnover by distributing leadership in the schools. The findings from this qualitative and quantitative analysis show that rapid principal turnover does indeed have a negative…

  8. Salary and Ranking and Teacher Turnover: A Statewide Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Cynthia Martinez; Slate, John R.; Delgado, Carmen Tejeda

    2009-01-01

    This study examined three years of data obtained from the Academic Excellence Indicator System of the State of Texas regarding teacher turnover rate and teacher salary. Across all public school districts, teacher salary was consistently negatively related to teacher turnover; that is, where salary was lower, turnover rate was higher When data were…

  9. High School Band Students' Perspectives of Teacher Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloss, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Teacher turnover remains an important issue in education. The least researched perspectives, though, are those of the students who experience teacher turnover. The purpose of this study was to examine how high school band students experience teacher turnover. A total of twelve students were interviewed, representing three schools that experienced…

  10. Superintendent Turnover in Kentucky. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 113

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jerry; Huffman, Tyler; Madden, Karen; Shope, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This study examines superintendent turnover in Kentucky public school districts for 1998/99-2007/08, looking at how turnover varies by rural status, Appalachian and non-Appalachian region, and 2007/08 school district characteristics. Key findings include: (1) Kentucky school districts averaged one superintendent turnover during 1998/99-2007/08;…

  11. A Ministudy of employee turnover in US hospitals.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sandra K; McKinnies, Richard C; Matthews, Eric P; Collins, Kevin S

    2015-01-01

    A ministudy was conducted to collect self-reported employee turnover rates in US hospitals. The results indicate many hospitals are struggling with high employee turnover rates. Widespread variances in ratings were observed across hospitals, which may be due to lack of consistency in how they each calculate their employee turnover. This makes benchmarking for the purposes of performance improvement challenging. PMID:25627851

  12. Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate: regulation of cellular events in space and time.

    PubMed

    Jin, Natsuko; Lang, Michael J; Weisman, Lois S

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol lipids are crucial for most eukaryotes and have diverse cellular functions. The low-abundance signalling lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2] is critical for cellular homoeostasis and adaptation to stimuli. A large complex of proteins that includes the lipid kinase Fab1-PIKfyve, dynamically regulates the levels of PI(3,5)P2. Deficiencies in PI(3,5)P2 are linked to some human diseases, especially those of the nervous system. Future studies will probably determine new, undiscovered regulatory roles of PI(3,5)P2, as well as uncover mechanistic insights into how PI(3,5)P2 contributes to normal human physiology.

  13. Total synthesis of tetraacylated phosphatidylinositol hexamannoside and evaluation of its immunomodulatory activity.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pratap S; Cheng, Ting-Jen Rachel; Zulueta, Medel Manuel L; Yang, Shih-Ting; Lico, Larry S; Hung, Shang-Cheng

    2015-06-03

    Tuberculosis, aggravated by drug-resistant strains and HIV co-infection of the causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a global problem that affects millions of people. With essential immunoregulatory roles, phosphatidylinositol mannosides are among the cell-envelope components critical to the pathogenesis and survival of M. tuberculosis inside its host. Here we report the first synthesis of the highly complex tetraacylated phosphatidylinositol hexamannoside (Ac2PIM6), having stearic and tuberculostearic acids as lipid components. Our effort makes use of stereoelectronic and steric effects to control the regioselective and stereoselective outcomes and minimize the synthetic steps, particularly in the key desymmetrization and functionalization of myo-inositol. A short synthesis of tuberculostearic acid in six steps from the Roche ester is also described. Mice exposed to the synthesized Ac2PIM6 exhibit increased production of interleukin-4 and interferon-γ, and the corresponding adjuvant effect is shown by the induction of ovalbumin- and tetanus toxoid-specific antibodies.

  14. Defining the Interaction of Human Soluble Lectin ZG16p and Mycobacterial Phosphatidylinositol Mannosides.

    PubMed

    Hanashima, Shinya; Götze, Sebastian; Liu, Yan; Ikeda, Akemi; Kojima-Aikawa, Kyoko; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Varón Silva, Daniel; Feizi, Ten; Seeberger, Peter H; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki

    2015-07-01

    ZG16p is a soluble mammalian lectin that interacts with mannose and heparan sulfate. Here we describe detailed analysis of the interaction of human ZG16p with mycobacterial phosphatidylinositol mannosides (PIMs) by glycan microarray and NMR. Pathogen-related glycan microarray analysis identified phosphatidylinositol mono- and di-mannosides (PIM1 and PIM2) as novel ligand candidates of ZG16p. Saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR and transferred NOE experiments with chemically synthesized PIM glycans indicate that PIMs preferentially interact with ZG16p by using the mannose residues. The binding site of PIM was identified by chemical-shift perturbation experiments with uniformly (15)N-labeled ZG16p. NMR results with docking simulations suggest a binding mode of ZG16p and PIM glycan; this will help to elucidate the physiological role of ZG16p. PMID:25919894

  15. Histones Cause Aggregation and Fusion of Lipid Vesicles Containing Phosphatidylinositol-4-Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Lete, Marta G.; Sot, Jesus; Gil, David; Valle, Mikel; Medina, Milagros; Goñi, Felix M.; Alonso, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    In a previous article, we demonstrated that histones (H1 or histone octamers) interact with negatively charged bilayers and induce extensive aggregation of vesicles containing phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PIP) and, to a lesser extent, vesicles containing phosphatidylinositol (PI). Here, we found that vesicles containing PIP, but not those containing PI, can undergo fusion induced by histones. Fusion was demonstrated through the observation of intervesicular mixing of total lipids and inner monolayer lipids, and by ultrastructural and confocal microscopy studies. Moreover, in both PI- and PIP-containing vesicles, histones caused permeabilization and release of vesicular aqueous contents, but the leakage mechanism was different (all-or-none for PI and graded release for PIP vesicles). These results indicate that histones could play a role in the remodeling of the nuclear envelope that takes place during the mitotic cycle. PMID:25692591

  16. Relationship of hormone-sensitive and hormone-insensitive phosphatidylinositol to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in the WRK-1 cell

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-05

    Two distinct pools of phosphatidylinositol (PI) in the WRK-1 rat mammary tumor cell, one whose metabolism is enhanced in response to vasopressin and another which is insensitive to hormonal manipulation have been previously characterized. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between cellular phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP/sub 2/) and each of the two PI pools. In WRK-1 cells, vasopressin induces the rapid loss of PIP/sub 2/ and the accumulation of inositol phosphates. By making use of kinetic differences in /sup 32/P/sub i/ uptake into the two pools of PI and assessing radioactivity levels in the 1-phosphate of PIP/sub 2/, it was determined that hormone-sensitive PI is the precursor of approximately 60% of the cellular PIP/sub 2/; the remainder is synthesized from the hormone-insensitive pool. Additional data indicate that PIP/sub 2/ derived from hormone-sensitive PI is likewise hormone-sensitive, while that synthesized from hormone-insensitive PI remains stable over a long period of time and is not affected by the presence of vasopressin.

  17. The fibrotic role of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt pathway in injured skeletal muscle after acute contusion.

    PubMed

    Li, H-Y; Zhang, Q-G; Chen, J-W; Chen, S-Q; Chen, S-Y

    2013-09-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine with fibrogenic properties. Previous studies demonstrated that Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Akt/ mammalian target of Ramycin (mTOR), a non-Smad TGF-β pathway, plays an important role in the fibrotic pathogenesis of different organs such as the lung, kidney, skin and liver. However, the role of PI3k-Akt pathway in fibrosis in injured skeletal muscle is still unclear. In this study, we determined the fibrotic role of PI3K-Akt pathway in injured skeletal muscle. We established a mouse model for acute muscle contusion. Western blotting analysis showed that TGF-β, phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated mTOR were increased in muscles after acute contusion, which indicated that the PI3K-Akt- mTOR pathway was activated in skeletal muscle after acute contusion. The pathway was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. Moreover, the expression of fibrosis markers vimentin, α SMA and collagen I and the area of scar decreased in injured skeletal muscle after PI3K pathway was blocked. The muscle function improved in terms of both fast-twitch and tetanic strength after PI3K/Akt pathway was inhibited in injured skeletal muscle. In conclusion, activation of PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway might promote collagen production and scar formation in the acute contused skeletal muscle. Blocking of PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway could improve the function of injured skeletal muscle. PMID:23444088

  18. Biochemical characterization of the tomato phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) family and its role in plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Abd-El-Haliem, Ahmed M; Vossen, Jack H; van Zeijl, Arjan; Dezhsetan, Sara; Testerink, Christa; Seidl, Michael F; Beck, Martina; Strutt, James; Robatzek, Silke; Joosten, Matthieu H A J

    2016-09-01

    Plants possess effective mechanisms to quickly respond to biotic and abiotic stresses. The rapid activation of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes occurs early after the stimulation of plant immune-receptors. Genomes of different plant species encode multiple PLC homologs belonging to one class, PLCζ. Here we determined whether all tomato homologs encode active enzymes and whether they can generate signals that are distinct from one another. We searched the recently completed tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genome sequence and identified a total of seven PLCs. Recombinant proteins were produced for all tomato PLCs, except for SlPLC7. The purified proteins showed typical PLC activity, as different PLC substrates were hydrolysed to produce diacylglycerol. We studied SlPLC2, SlPLC4 and SlPLC5 enzymes in more detail and observed distinct requirements for Ca(2+) ions and pH, for both their optimum activity and substrate preference. This indicates that each enzyme could be differentially and specifically regulated in vivo, leading to the generation of PLC homolog-specific signals in response to different stimuli. PLC overexpression and specific inhibition of PLC activity revealed that PLC is required for both specific effector- and more general "pattern"-triggered immunity. For the latter, we found that both the flagellin-triggered response and the internalization of the corresponding receptor, Flagellin Sensing 2 (FLS2) of Arabidopsis thaliana, are suppressed by inhibition of PLC activity. Altogether, our data support an important role for PLC enzymes in plant defence signalling downstream of immune receptors. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.

  19. Phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-Bisphosphate Regulation of N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor Channels in Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Madhuchhanda

    2009-01-01

    The membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2) has been implicated in the regulation of several ion channels and transporters. In this study, we examined the impact of PIP2 on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in cortical neurons. Blocking PIP2 synthesis by inhibiting phosphoinositide-4 kinase, or stimulating PIP2 hydrolysis via activation of phospholipase C (PLC), or blocking PIP2 function with an antibody caused a significant reduction of NMDAR-mediated currents. On the other hand, inhibition of PLC or application of PIP2 caused an enhancement of NMDAR currents. These electrophysiological effects were accompanied by changes in NMDAR surface clusters induced by agents that manipulate PIP2 levels. The PIP2 regulation of NMDAR currents was abolished by the dynamin inhibitory peptide, which blocks receptor internalization. Agents perturbing actin stability prevented PIP2 regulation of NMDAR currents, suggesting the actin-dependence of this effect of PIP2. Cofilin, a major actin depolymerizing factor, which has a common binding sequence for actin and PIP2, was required for PIP2 regulation of NMDAR currents. It is noteworthy that the PIP2 regulation of NMDAR channels was impaired in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, probably because of the amyloid-β disruption of PIP2 metabolism. Taken together, our data suggest that continuous synthesis of PIP2 at the membrane might be important for the maintenance of NMDARs at the cell surface. When PIP2 is lost, cofilin is released from the PIP2 complex and is rendered free to depolymerize actin. With the actin cytoskeleton no longer intact, NMDARs are internalized via a dynamin/clathrin-dependent mechanism, leading to reduced NMDAR currents. PMID:19770351

  20. Biochemical characterization of the tomato phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) family and its role in plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Abd-El-Haliem, Ahmed M; Vossen, Jack H; van Zeijl, Arjan; Dezhsetan, Sara; Testerink, Christa; Seidl, Michael F; Beck, Martina; Strutt, James; Robatzek, Silke; Joosten, Matthieu H A J

    2016-09-01

    Plants possess effective mechanisms to quickly respond to biotic and abiotic stresses. The rapid activation of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes occurs early after the stimulation of plant immune-receptors. Genomes of different plant species encode multiple PLC homologs belonging to one class, PLCζ. Here we determined whether all tomato homologs encode active enzymes and whether they can generate signals that are distinct from one another. We searched the recently completed tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genome sequence and identified a total of seven PLCs. Recombinant proteins were produced for all tomato PLCs, except for SlPLC7. The purified proteins showed typical PLC activity, as different PLC substrates were hydrolysed to produce diacylglycerol. We studied SlPLC2, SlPLC4 and SlPLC5 enzymes in more detail and observed distinct requirements for Ca(2+) ions and pH, for both their optimum activity and substrate preference. This indicates that each enzyme could be differentially and specifically regulated in vivo, leading to the generation of PLC homolog-specific signals in response to different stimuli. PLC overexpression and specific inhibition of PLC activity revealed that PLC is required for both specific effector- and more general "pattern"-triggered immunity. For the latter, we found that both the flagellin-triggered response and the internalization of the corresponding receptor, Flagellin Sensing 2 (FLS2) of Arabidopsis thaliana, are suppressed by inhibition of PLC activity. Altogether, our data support an important role for PLC enzymes in plant defence signalling downstream of immune receptors. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. PMID:26825689

  1. Regulation of Collagen Turnover in Human Skin Fibroblasts Exposed to a Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agent

    PubMed Central

    Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; DaSilva, Marissa; Aslam, Muhammad N.; Dame, Michael K.; Warner, Roscoe L.; Xu, Yiru; Fisher, Gary J.; Johnson, Kent J.; Swartz, Richard; Varani, James

    2010-01-01

    Objective Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a clinical syndrome linked with exposure in renal failure patients to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) during magnetic resonance imaging. Recently, we demonstrated that GBCA exposure led to increased matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) levels in human skin fibroblasts. The goals of the present work were to assess the relationship between altered MMP-1 / TIMP-1 expression and collagen production / deposition, and the intracellular signaling events that lead from GBCA stimulation to altered MMP-1 and TIMP-1 production. Materials and Methods Human dermal fibroblasts were treated with one of the currently used GBCAs (Omniscan). Proliferation was quantified as were levels of MMP-1, TIMP-1, procollagen type I and collagen type I. Signaling events were concomitantly assessed, and signaling inhibitors were used. Results Fibroblasts exposed to Omniscan had increases in both MMP-1 and TIMP-1 levels. Omniscan treatment interfered with collagen turnover, leading to increased type I collagen deposition without an increase in type I procollagen production. U0126, an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, and LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibitor, reduced MMP-1 levels. U0126 also reduced TIMP-1 levels, but LY294002 increased TIMP-1. Conclusion These data provide evidence for complex regulation of collagen deposition in Omniscan-treated skin. They suggest that the major effect of Omniscan exposure is on an enzyme / inhibitor system that regulates collagen breakdown rather than on collagen production, per se. PMID:19561517

  2. Highly Purified Mycobacterial Phosphatidylinositol Mannosides Drive Cell-Mediated Responses and Activate NKT Cells in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Regina; Jones, Gareth J.; Holder, Thomas; Holst, Otto; Vordermeier, H. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterial lipids play an important role in the modulation of the immune response upon contact with the host. Using novel methods, we have isolated highly purified phosphatidylinositol mannoside (PIM) molecules (phosphatidylinositol dimannoside [PIM2], acylphosphatidylinositol dimannoside [AcPIM2], diacyl-phosphatidylinositol dimannoside [Ac2PIM2], acylphosphatidylinositol hexamannoside [AcPIM6], and diacylphosphatidylinositol hexamannoside [Ac2PIM6]) from virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis to assess their potential to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) responses in Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle. Of these molecules, one (AcPIM6) induced significant levels of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in bovine PBMCs. Three PIM molecules (AcPIM6, Ac2PIM2, and Ac2PIM6) were shown to drive significant proliferation in bovine PBMCs. AcPIM6 was subsequently used to phenotype the proliferating cells by flow cytometry. This analysis demonstrated that AcPIM6 was predominantly recognized by CD3+ CD335+ NKT cells. In conclusion, we have identified PIM lipid molecules that interact with bovine lymphocyte populations, and these lipids may be useful as future subunit vaccines or diagnostic reagents. Further, these data demonstrate, for the first time, lipid-specific NKT activation in cattle. PMID:25499010

  3. Phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate is light-regulated and essential for survival in retinal rods

    PubMed Central

    He, Feng; Agosto, Melina A.; Anastassov, Ivan A.; Tse, Dennis Y.; Wu, Samuel M.; Wensel, Theodore G.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoinositides play important roles in numerous intracellular membrane pathways. Little is known about the regulation or function of these lipids in rod photoreceptor cells, which have highly active membrane dynamics. Using new assays with femtomole sensitivity, we determined that whereas levels of phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate were below detection limits, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI(3)P) levels in rod inner/outer segments increased more than 30-fold after light exposure. This increase was blocked in a rod-specific knockout of the PI-3 kinase Vps34, resulting in failure of endosomal and autophagy-related membranes to fuse with lysosomes, and accumulation of abnormal membrane structures. At early ages, rods displayed normal morphology, rhodopsin trafficking, and light responses, but underwent progressive neurodegeneration with eventual loss of both rods and cones by twelve weeks. The degeneration is considerably faster than in rod knockouts of autophagy genes, indicating defects in endosome recycling or other PI(3)P-dependent membrane trafficking pathways are also essential for rod survival. PMID:27245220

  4. Highly purified mycobacterial phosphatidylinositol mannosides drive cell-mediated responses and activate NKT cells in cattle.

    PubMed

    Pirson, Chris; Engel, Regina; Jones, Gareth J; Holder, Thomas; Holst, Otto; Vordermeier, H Martin

    2015-02-01

    Mycobacterial lipids play an important role in the modulation of the immune response upon contact with the host. Using novel methods, we have isolated highly purified phosphatidylinositol mannoside (PIM) molecules (phosphatidylinositol dimannoside [PIM2], acylphosphatidylinositol dimannoside [AcPIM2], diacyl-phosphatidylinositol dimannoside [Ac2PIM2], acylphosphatidylinositol hexamannoside [AcPIM6], and diacylphosphatidylinositol hexamannoside [Ac2PIM6]) from virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis to assess their potential to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) responses in Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle. Of these molecules, one (AcPIM6) induced significant levels of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in bovine PBMCs. Three PIM molecules (AcPIM6, Ac2PIM2, and Ac2PIM6) were shown to drive significant proliferation in bovine PBMCs. AcPIM6 was subsequently used to phenotype the proliferating cells by flow cytometry. This analysis demonstrated that AcPIM6 was predominantly recognized by CD3(+) CD335(+) NKT cells. In conclusion, we have identified PIM lipid molecules that interact with bovine lymphocyte populations, and these lipids may be useful as future subunit vaccines or diagnostic reagents. Further, these data demonstrate, for the first time, lipid-specific NKT activation in cattle. PMID:25499010

  5. Organisation turnover among registered nurses: an exploratory model.

    PubMed

    Bloom, J R; Alexander, J A; Flatt, S

    1988-11-01

    In light of current concerns over nursing shortages and productivity, turnover among hospital nurses has assumed renewed importance as a managerial issue. This study examines the thesis that organisation of hospital work is a determinant of voluntary turnover among registered nurses. This perspective differs from previous work in this area in that both turnover and its determinants are conceptualised at the organisational rather than individual level, thus opening the way for administrative intervention to reduce turnover. The conceptual model is tested using multiple regression techniques on a sample of 310 community hospitals. Results suggest the importance of administrative work structures and the professionalisation of the workforce as contributors to higher turnover.

  6. Replicator dynamics with turnover of players

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juul, Jeppe; Kianercy, Ardeshir; Bernhardsson, Sebastian; Pigolotti, Simone

    2013-08-01

    We study adaptive dynamics in games where players abandon the population at a given rate and are replaced by naive players characterized by a prior distribution over the admitted strategies. We demonstrate how such a process leads macroscopically to a variant of the replicator equation, with an additional term accounting for player turnover. We study how Nash equilibria and the dynamics of the system are modified by this additional term for prototypical examples such as the rock-paper-scissors game and different classes of two-action games played between two distinct populations. We conclude by showing how player turnover can account for nontrivial departures from Nash equilibria observed in data from lowest unique bid auctions.

  7. Occupational turnover intentions among substance abuse counselors.

    PubMed

    Rothrauff, Tanja C; Abraham, Amanda J; Bride, Brian E; Roman, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of occupational turnover intention (OcTI) among substance abuse counselors. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 929 counselors working in 225 private substance abuse treatment (SAT) programs across the United States. Hierarchical multiple regression models were conducted to assess predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of OcTI. OcTI scores were relatively low on a 7-point scale, indicating that very few counselors definitely intended to leave the SAT field. Age, certification, positive perceptions of procedural and distributive justice, and hospital-based status negatively predicted OcTI. Counselors' substance use disorder-impacted history moderated the association between organizational commitment and OcTI. Organizational turnover intention partially mediated the link between organizational commitment and OcTI. Workforce stability might be achieved by promoting perceptions of advantages to working in a particular treatment program, having organizational commitment, showing appreciation for counselors' work, and valuing employees from diverse backgrounds.

  8. Facts about Women's Absenteeism and Labor Turnover.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The average worktime lost in 1967 because of illness or injury for persons 17 years of age or older was 5.6 days for women and 5.3 days for men. Women lost more time because of acute illness, but men were more likely to be absent because of chronic conditions such as heart trouble. Labor turnover rates show that absentee rates of women have been…

  9. Turnover of soil monosaccharides: Recycling versus Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basler, Anna; Dyckmans, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) represents a mixture of differently degradable compounds. Each of these compounds are characterised by different dynamics due to different chemical recalcitrance, transformation or stabilisation processes in soil. Carbohydrates represent one of these compounds and contribute up to 25 % to the soil organic matter. Vascular plants are the main source of pentose sugars (Arabinose and Xylose), whereas hexoses (Galactose and Mannose) are primarily produced by microorganisms. Several studies suggest that the mean turnover times of the carbon in soil sugars are similar to the turnover dynamics of the bulk carbon in soil. The aim of the study is to characterise the influence of stabilisation and turnover of soil carbohydrates. Soil samples are collected from (i) a continuous maize cropping experiment ('Höhere Landbauschule' Rotthalmünster, Bavaria) established 1979 on a Stagnic Luvisol and (ii) from a continuous wheat cropping, established 1969, as reference site. The effect of stabilisation is estimated by the comparison of turnover times of microbial and plant derived soil carbohydrates. As the dynamics of plant derived carbohydrate are solely influenced by stabilisation processes, whereas the dynamics of microbial derived carbohydrates are affected by recycling of organic carbon compounds derived by C3 plant substrate as well as stabilisation processes. The compound specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) of soil carbohydrates was performed using a HPLC/o/IRMS system. The chromatographic and mass spectrometric subunits were coupled with a LC-Isolink interface. Soil sugars were extracted after mild hydrolysis using 4 M trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Chromatographic separation of the sugars was achieved using a low strength 0.25 mM NaOH solution as mobile phase at a ?ow rate of 250 μL min-1 at 10 ° C.

  10. Effects of ATP infusion on glucose turnover and gluconeogenesis in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Agteresch, H J; Leij-Halfwerk, S; Van Den Berg, J W; Hordijk-Luijk, C H; Wilson, J H; Dagnelie, P C

    2000-06-01

    Cancer cachexia is associated with elevated lipolysis, proteolysis and gluconeogenesis. ATP infusion has been found to significantly inhibit loss of body weight, fat mass and fat-free mass in patients with advanced lung cancer. The present study was aimed at exploring the effects of ATP on whole-body glucose turnover, alanine turnover and gluconeogenesis from alanine. Twelve patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were studied 1 week before and during 22-24 h of continuous ATP infusion. After an overnight fast, turnover rates of glucose and alanine, and gluconeogenesis from alanine, were determined using primed constant infusions of ¿6, 6-(2)H(2)ğlucose and ¿3-(13)Călanine. Thirteen NSCLC patients and eleven healthy subjects were studied as control groups without ATP infusion. During high-dose ATP infusion (75 microg.min(-1).kg(-1)), glucose turnover was 0.62+/-0.07 mmol.h(-1).kg(-1), compared with 0. 44+/-0.13 mmol.h(-1).kg(-1) at baseline (P=0.04). For gluconeogenesis a similar, but non-significant, trend was observed ¿baseline, 0.30+/-0.16 mmol.h(-1).kg(-1); during ATP, 0.37+/-0.13 mmol.h(-1).kg(-1) (P=0.08). At lower ATP doses (37-50 microg. min(-1).kg(-1)) these effects were not detected. The relative increase in glucose turnover during ATP infusion compared with baseline showed a significant correlation with the ATP dose (r=0.58, P=0.02). No change in alanine turnover was observed at any ATP dose. The results of this study indicate an increase in glucose turnover during high-dose ATP infusion compared with baseline levels. During high-dose ATP infusion, glucose turnover was similar to that during low-dose ATP infusion and to that in control NSCLC patients. Between ATP infusions, however, glucose turnover in patients treated with high-dose ATP was significantly lower than that in the low-dose and control NSCLC patients (P=0.04 and P=0.03 respectively), and similar to that in healthy subjects. This would suggest that repeated high

  11. Norepinephrine turnover in brown adipose tissue is stimulated by a single meal

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, Z.; Raum, W.J.

    1986-07-01

    A single meal stimulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in rats. In the present study the role of norepinephrine in this thermogenic response was assessed from the rate of its turnover in BAT after a single test meal. For comparison, norepinephrine turnover was determined in the heart and spleen. A total of 48 male Wistar rats (200 g) were trained to eat during two feeding sessions per day. On the experimental day, one group (n = 24) was meal deprived and the other (n = 24) was given a low-protein high-carbohydrate test meal for 2 h. The synthesis inhibition method with ..cap alpha..-methyl-p-tyrosine was employed to determine norepinephrine turnover from its concentration at four hourly time points after the meal. Tissue concentrations of norepinephrine were determined by radioimmunoassay. Norepinephrine concentration and turnover rate were increased more than threefold in BAT of the meal-fed compared with the meal-deprived rats. Neither were significantly altered by the meal in the heart or spleen. The data suggest that norepinephrine mediates a portion of the thermic effect of meals that originate in BAT.

  12. Generational differences in registered nurse turnover.

    PubMed

    LeVasseur, Sandra A; Wang, Chen-Yen; Mathews, Barbara; Boland, Mary

    2009-08-01

    The chronic nature of the nursing workforce shortage in the United States is a continuing concern. As the nationwide gap between supply and demand grows, it remains unknown what impact turnover will have on nursing, access to care, and efforts to improve quality and safety of health care. It also remains unclear whether the recent turnover trends among new graduate registered nurses differ from past generational cohorts of new nurses. The aims of this study were to identify the reasons why registered nurses turnover by generational cohort (Veterans, Baby Boomers, and GenXMs) and to compare the length of time nurses were employed in their first five nursing positions by generational cohort. The findings suggest the three generational cohorts displayed similar reasons for leaving nursing positions with relocation, career advancement, and personal/family reasons reported most frequently. Except for the first nursing position, significant generational effects were found in the length of time Veterans, Baby Boomer, and GenXMs stayed employed in their nursing positions. It remains unknown why the GenXMs displayed a significantly shorter length of employment time in their second, third, fourth, and fifth nursing positions. The decline in length of employment time displayed in both the Baby Boomers and GenXMs may be an issue of concern requiring future research. PMID:20026454

  13. Quantitative analysis of protein turnover in plants.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Clark J; Li, Lei; Millar, A Harvey

    2014-03-01

    Proteins are constantly being synthesised and degraded as plant cells age and as plants grow, develop and adapt the proteome. Given that plants develop through a series of events from germination to fruiting and even undertake whole organ senescence, an understanding of protein turnover as a fundamental part of this process in plants is essential. Both synthesis and degradation processes are spatially separated in a cell across its compartmented structure. The majority of protein synthesis occurs in the cytosol, while synthesis of specific components occurs inside plastids and mitochondria. Degradation of proteins occurs in both the cytosol, through the action of the plant proteasome, and in organelles and lytic structures through different protease classes. Tracking the specific synthesis and degradation rate of individual proteins can be undertaken using stable isotope feeding and the ability of peptide MS to track labelled peptide fractions over time. Mathematical modelling can be used to follow the isotope signature of newly synthesised protein as it accumulates and natural abundance proteins as they are lost through degradation. Different technical and biological constraints govern the potential for the use of (13)C, (15)N, (2)H and (18)O for these experiments in complete labelling and partial labelling strategies. Future development of quantitative protein turnover analysis will involve analysis of protein populations in complexes and subcellular compartments, assessing the effect of PTMs and integrating turnover studies into wider system biology study of plants.

  14. Bone turnover markers: use in osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Kim; Eastell, Richard

    2012-07-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover (bone turnover markers, BTMs) can be used to study changes in bone remodelling in osteoporosis. Investigators and clinicians should be aware of the appropriate sample collection and storage conditions for optimum measurements of these markers. Improvements in the variability of BTM measurements have resulted from the development of assays for automated analysers, and from international consensus regarding their use. Appropriate reference intervals should be used for the optimum interpretation of results. BTMs can provide information that is useful for the management of patients with osteoporosis, for both the initial clinical assessment and for guiding and monitoring of treatment. BTMs are clinically useful to determine possible causes of secondary osteoporosis by identifying patients with high bone turnover and rapid bone loss. In the follow-up of treatment response, BTM levels respond rapidly to both anabolic and antiresorptive treatments. BTM changes can also be used for understanding the mechanism of action of drugs in development and identifying the correct dose; they are also potentially useful as surrogate biomarkers for fracture.

  15. Forest turnover rates follow global and regional patterns of productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, N.L.; van Mantgem, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a global database, we found that forest turnover rates (the average of tree mortality and recruitment rates) parallel broad-scale patterns of net primary productivity. First, forest turnover was higher in tropical than in temperate forests. Second, as recently demonstrated by others, Amazonian forest turnover was higher on fertile than infertile soils. Third, within temperate latitudes, turnover was highest in angiosperm forests, intermediate in mixed forests, and lowest in gymnosperm forests. Finally, within a single forest physiognomic type, turnover declined sharply with elevation (hence with temperature). These patterns of turnover in populations of trees are broadly similar to the patterns of turnover in populations of plant organs (leaves and roots) found in other studies. Our findings suggest a link between forest mass balance and the population dynamics of trees, and have implications for understanding and predicting the effects of environmental changes on forest structure and terrestrial carbon dynamics. ??2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Expression and characterization of an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate binding domain of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C-delta 1.

    PubMed

    Yagisawa, H; Hirata, M; Kanematsu, T; Watanabe, Y; Ozaki, S; Sakuma, K; Tanaka, H; Yabuta, N; Kamata, H; Hirata, H

    1994-08-01

    It was previously found that the 85-kDa protein purified from rat brain using an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3)-immobilized matrix was the delta 1 isoform of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC). We expressed rat PLC-delta 1 in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase, and found that the bacterial lysate shows a significant amount of Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding. The lysate was applied to Ins(1,4,5)P3-immobilized column chromatography and the eluate with 2 M NaCl solution containing only a 100-kDa protein showed high Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding. The lysate was also purified to near homogeneity using a glutathione-Sepharose 4B affinity system. Bacterially-expressed enzyme thus purified showed essentially the same inositol phosphate binding characteristics as the brain-derived enzyme. PLC-delta 1 consists of the amino-terminal nonconserved region and two well-conserved regions among isozymes, designated as X and Y, which are thought to constitute a catalytic core of the enzyme. Using a combination of deletion mutants and proteolytic products of the enzyme, we were able to locate an Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding domain in the molecule. Deletion of 223 residues from the amino terminus completely abolished the binding activity, while deletion of X region only partially inhibited the binding and deletion of Y region did not affect the binding. A 76-kDa proteolytic product of the expressed PLC-delta 1 which lacked 60 amino acids at the amino terminus showed a minimal Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding activity. A peptide consists of 14 amino acids corresponding to residues 30-43 of PLC-delta 1, which contains 6 basic amino acids, binds to an Ins(1,4,5)P3-immobilized matrix. Moreover, Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding was blocked by phospholipid vesicles containing phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. These results, taken together, indicate that the amino-terminal domain of PLC-delta 1 is important for the binding of both Ins(1,4,5)P3 and phosphatidylinositol 4

  17. Mutations in Encephalomyocarditis Virus 3A Protein Uncouple the Dependency of Genome Replication on Host Factors Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase IIIα and Oxysterol-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Dorobantu, Cristina M.; Albulescu, Lucian; Lyoo, Heyrhyoung; van Kampen, Mirjam; De Francesco, Raffaele; Lohmann, Volker; Harak, Christian; van der Schaar, Hilde M.; Strating, Jeroen R. P. M.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] viruses are true masters of reprogramming host lipid trafficking and synthesis to support virus genome replication. Via their membrane-associated 3A protein, picornaviruses of the genus Enterovirus (e.g., poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and rhinovirus) subvert Golgi complex-localized phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIβ (PI4KB) to generate “replication organelles” (ROs) enriched in phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P). PI4P lipids serve to accumulate oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP), which subsequently transfers cholesterol to the ROs in a PI4P-dependent manner. Single-point mutations in 3A render enteroviruses resistant to both PI4KB and OSBP inhibition, indicating coupled dependency on these host factors. Recently, we showed that encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), a picornavirus that belongs to the Cardiovirus genus, also builds PI4P/cholesterol-enriched ROs. Like the hepatitis C virus (HCV) of the Flaviviridae family, it does so by hijacking the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIα (PI4KA). Here we provide genetic evidence for the critical involvement of EMCV protein 3A in this process. Using a genetic screening approach, we selected EMCV mutants with single amino acid substitutions in 3A, which rescued RNA virus replication upon small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of PI4KA. In the presence of PI4KA inhibitors, the mutants no longer induced PI4P, OSBP, or cholesterol accumulation at ROs, which aggregated into large cytoplasmic clusters. In contrast to the enterovirus escape mutants, we observed little if any cross-resistance of EMCV mutants to OSBP inhibitors, indicating an uncoupled level of dependency of their RNA replication on PI4KA and OSBP activities. This report may contribute to a better understanding of the roles of PI4KA and OSBP in membrane modifications induced by (+)RNA viruses. IMPORTANCE Positive-strand RNA viruses modulate lipid

  18. Mutations in Encephalomyocarditis Virus 3A Protein Uncouple the Dependency of Genome Replication on Host Factors Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase IIIα and Oxysterol-Binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Dorobantu, Cristina M; Albulescu, Lucian; Lyoo, Heyrhyoung; van Kampen, Mirjam; De Francesco, Raffaele; Lohmann, Volker; Harak, Christian; van der Schaar, Hilde M; Strating, Jeroen R P M; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2016-01-01

    Positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] viruses are true masters of reprogramming host lipid trafficking and synthesis to support virus genome replication. Via their membrane-associated 3A protein, picornaviruses of the genus Enterovirus (e.g., poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and rhinovirus) subvert Golgi complex-localized phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIβ (PI4KB) to generate "replication organelles" (ROs) enriched in phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P). PI4P lipids serve to accumulate oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP), which subsequently transfers cholesterol to the ROs in a PI4P-dependent manner. Single-point mutations in 3A render enteroviruses resistant to both PI4KB and OSBP inhibition, indicating coupled dependency on these host factors. Recently, we showed that encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), a picornavirus that belongs to the Cardiovirus genus, also builds PI4P/cholesterol-enriched ROs. Like the hepatitis C virus (HCV) of the Flaviviridae family, it does so by hijacking the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIα (PI4KA). Here we provide genetic evidence for the critical involvement of EMCV protein 3A in this process. Using a genetic screening approach, we selected EMCV mutants with single amino acid substitutions in 3A, which rescued RNA virus replication upon small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of PI4KA. In the presence of PI4KA inhibitors, the mutants no longer induced PI4P, OSBP, or cholesterol accumulation at ROs, which aggregated into large cytoplasmic clusters. In contrast to the enterovirus escape mutants, we observed little if any cross-resistance of EMCV mutants to OSBP inhibitors, indicating an uncoupled level of dependency of their RNA replication on PI4KA and OSBP activities. This report may contribute to a better understanding of the roles of PI4KA and OSBP in membrane modifications induced by (+)RNA viruses. IMPORTANCE Positive-strand RNA viruses modulate lipid homeostasis to

  19. A phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-sensitive casein kinase I alpha associates with synaptic vesicles and phosphorylates a subset of vesicle proteins

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    In interphase cells, alpha-casein kinase I (alpha-CKI) is found associated with cytosolic vesicular structures, the centrosome, and within the nucleus. To identify the specific vesicular structures with which alpha-CKI is associated, established cell lines and primary rat neurons were immunofluorescently labeled with an antibody raised to alpha-CKI. In nonneuronal cells, alpha-CKI colocalizes with vesicular structures which align with microtubules and are partially coincident with both Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum markers. In neurons, alpha- CKI colocalizes with synaptic vesicle markers. When synaptic vesicles were purified from rat brain, they were highly enriched in a CKI, based on activity and immunoreactivity. The synaptic vesicle-associated CKI is an extrinsic kinase and was eluted from synaptic vesicles and purified. This purified CKI has properties most similar to alpha-CKI. When the activities of casein kinase I or II were specifically inhibited on isolated synaptic vesicles, CKI was shown to phosphorylate a specific subset of vesicle proteins, one of which was identified as the synaptic vesicle-specific protein SV2. As with alpha-CKI, the synaptic vesicle CKI is inhibited by phosphatidylinositol 4,5- bisphosphate (PIP2). However, synthesis of PIP2 was detected only in plasma membrane-containing fractions. Therefore, PIP2 may spatially regulate CKI. Since PIP2 synthesis is required for secretion, this inhibition of CKI may be important for the regulation of secretion. PMID:7622570

  20. Structure-Based Design of an Organoruthenium Phosphatidyl-inositol-3-Kinase Inhibitor Reveals a Switch Governing Lipid Kinase Potency and Selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Xie,P.; Williams, D.; Atilla-Gokcumen, G.; Milk, L.; Xiao, M.; Smalley, K.; Herlyn, M.; Meggers, E.; Marmorstein, R.

    2008-01-01

    Mutations that constitutively activate the phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway, including alterations in PI3K, PTEN, and AKT, are found in a variety of human cancers, implicating the PI3K lipid kinase as an attractive target for the development of therapeutic agents to treat cancer and other related diseases. In this study, we report on the combination of a novel organometallic kinase inhibitor scaffold with structure-based design to develop a PI3K inhibitor, called E5E2, with an IC50 potency in the mid-low-nanomolar range and selectivity against a panel of protein kinases. We also show that E5E2 inhibits phospho-AKT in human melanoma cells and leads to growth inhibition. Consistent with a role for the PI3K pathway in tumor cell invasion, E5E2 treatment also inhibits the migration of melanoma cells in a 3D spheroid assay. The structure of the PI3K?/E5E2 complex reveals the molecular features that give rise to this potency and selectivity toward lipid kinases with implications for the design of a subsequent generation of PI3K-isoform-specific organometallic inhibitors.

  1. Palladacycle-Catalyzed Carbonylative Suzuki-Miyaura Coupling with High Turnover Number and Turnover Frequency.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Prashant; Bhanage, Bhalchandra M

    2015-08-01

    This work reports the carbonylative Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of aryl iodides catalyzed by palladacycles. More importantly, the palladacycles have been used to generate high turnover numbers (TON's) and turnover frequencies (TOF's). A range of aryl iodides can be coupled with arylboronic acids, generating TON's in the range of 10(6) to 10(7) and TOF's in the range of 10(5) to 10(6) h(-1). Comparison of the palladacycles with a conventional palladium source shows their superiority in generating high TON's and TOF's. PMID:26166246

  2. The Rapid Turnover of RNA Polymerase of Rat Liver Nucleolus, and of Its Messenger RNA

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fu-Li; Feigelson, Philip

    1972-01-01

    Turnover rates of the components of systems for RNA synthesis of rat-liver nucleus, nucleolus, and nucleoplasm were investigated. Cycloheximide administered in vivo selectively diminished nucleolar RNA synthesis in vitro. In contrast to the relatively stable nucleoplasmic RNA polymerase, nucleolar RNA polymerase (polymerase I) from rat liver decays rapidly upon cycloheximide administration, following pseudo-first order kinetics with a half-life of about 1.3 hr. Cycloheximide elicits this effect not through direct interaction with nucleolar RNA polymerase itself, nor by alteration of template function, but rather by inhibition of de novo synthesis of one or more of the protein components of nucleolar RNA polymerase. Similarly, when actinomycin-D was administered in vivo to inhibit RNA synthesis, the rate of decay of nucleolar RNA polymerase, assayed in the presence of exogenous poly d(A-T) template, was similar to that observed after cycloheximide administration. Thus, the messenger RNA(s) that codes for one or more of the catalytically essential polypeptide components of this enzyme turn over very rapidly with a half-life considerably shorter than 1.3 hr. The rapidity of turnover of both the enzyme protein and its messenger RNA(s) renders nucleolar RNA polymerase highly responsive to altered transcriptional, translational, or post-translational modulation. The marked differences in turnover rates of nucleolar and nucleoplasmic RNA polymerases indicate that at least certain of the protomeric components of nucleolar RNA polymerase I are distinct from those of nucleoplasmic RNA polymerases II and III. PMID:4507607

  3. Nrbf2 Protein Suppresses Autophagy by Modulating Atg14L Protein-containing Beclin 1-Vps34 Complex Architecture and Reducing Intracellular Phosphatidylinositol-3 Phosphate Levels*

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yu; Morris, Deanna H.; Jin, Lin; Patel, Mittul S.; Karunakaran, Senthil K.; Fu, You-Jun; Matuszak, Emily A.; Weiss, Heidi L.; Chait, Brian T.; Wang, Qing Jun

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a tightly regulated lysosomal degradation pathway for maintaining cellular homeostasis and responding to stresses. Beclin 1 and its interacting proteins, including the class III phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase Vps34, play crucial roles in autophagy regulation in mammals. We identified nuclear receptor binding factor 2 (Nrbf2) as a Beclin 1-interacting protein from Becn1−/−;Becn1-EGFP/+ mouse liver and brain. We also found that Nrbf2-Beclin 1 interaction required the N terminus of Nrbf2. We next used the human retinal pigment epithelial cell line RPE-1 as a model system and showed that transiently knocking down Nrbf2 by siRNA increased autophagic flux under both nutrient-rich and starvation conditions. To investigate the mechanism by which Nrbf2 regulates autophagy, we demonstrated that Nrbf2 interacted and colocalized with Atg14L, suggesting that Nrbf2 is a component of the Atg14L-containing Beclin 1-Vps34 complex. Moreover, ectopically expressed Nrbf2 formed cytosolic puncta that were positive for isolation membrane markers. These results suggest that Nrbf2 is involved in autophagosome biogenesis. Furthermore, we showed that Nrbf2 deficiency led to increased intracellular phosphatidylinositol-3 phosphate levels and diminished Atg14L-Vps34/Vps15 interactions, suggesting that Nrbf2-mediated Atg14L-Vps34/Vps15 interactions likely inhibit Vps34 activity. Therefore, we propose that Nrbf2 may interact with the Atg14L-containing Beclin 1-Vps34 protein complex to modulate protein-protein interactions within the complex, leading to suppression of Vps34 activity, autophagosome biogenesis, and autophagic flux. This work reveals a novel aspect of the intricate mechanism for the Beclin 1-Vps34 protein-protein interaction network to achieve precise control of autophagy. PMID:25086043

  4. Involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, but not RalGDS, in TC21/R-Ras2-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gretchen A; Graham, Suzanne M; Morita, Staeci; Reks, Sarah E; Rogers-Graham, Kelley; Vojtek, Anne; Kelley, Grant G; Der, Channing J

    2002-03-22

    Oncogenic Ras and activated forms of the Ras-related protein TC21/R-Ras2 share similar abilities to alter cell proliferation. However, in contrast to Ras, we found previously that TC21 fails to activate the Raf-1 serine/threonine kinase. Thus, TC21 must utilize non-Raf effectors to regulate cell function. In this study, we determined that TC21 interacts strongly with some (RalGDS, RGL, RGL2/Rlf, AF6, and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) catalytic subunit p110delta), and weakly with other Ras small middle dotGTP-binding proteins. In addition, library screening identified novel TC21-interacting proteins. We also determined that TC21, similar to Ras, mediates activation of phospholipase Cepsilon. We then examined if RalGDS, a RalA guanine nucleotide exchange factor, or PI3K are effectors for TC21-mediated signaling and cell proliferation in murine fibroblasts. We found that overexpression of full-length RalGDS reduced the focus forming activity of activated TC21. Furthermore, expression of activated Ras, but not TC21, enhanced GTP loading on RalA. In fact, TC21 attenuated insulin-stimulated RalA small middle dotGTP formation. In contrast, like Ras, expression of activated TC21 resulted in membrane translocation and an increase in the PI3K-dependent phosphorylation of Akt, and inhibition of PI3K activity interfered with TC21 focus formation. Finally, unlike Ras, TC21 did not activate the Rac small GTPase, indicating that Ras may not activate Rac by PI3K. Taken together, these results suggest that PI3K, but not RalGDS, is an important mediator of cell proliferation by TC21.

  5. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and 4-kinase have distinct roles in intracellular trafficking of cellulose synthase complexes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Masaru; Suda, Yasuyuki; Vernhettes, Samantha; Nakano, Akihiko; Ueda, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    The oriented deposition of cellulose microfibrils in the plant cell wall plays a crucial role in various plant functions such as cell growth, organ formation and defense responses. Cellulose is synthesized by cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs) embedded in the plasma membrane (PM), which comprise the cellulose synthases (CESAs). The abundance and localization of CSCs at the PM should be strictly controlled for precise regulation of cellulose deposition, which strongly depends on the membrane trafficking system. However, the mechanism of the intracellular transport of CSCs is still poorly understood. In this study, we explored requirements for phosphoinositides (PIs) in CESA trafficking by analyzing the effects of inhibitors of PI synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana expressing green fluorescent protein-tagged CESA3 (GFP-CESA3). We found that a shift to a sucrose-free condition accelerated re-localization of PM-localized GFP-CESA3 into the periphery of the Golgi apparatus via the clathrin-enriched trans-Golgi network (TGN). Treatment with wortmannin (Wm), an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3- (PI3K) and 4- (PI4K) kinases, and phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a more specific inhibitor for PI4K, inhibited internalization of GFP-CESA3 from the PM. In contrast, treatment with LY294002, which impairs the PI3K activity, did not exert such an inhibitory effect on the sequestration of GFP-CESA3, but caused a predominant accumulation of GFP-CESA3 at the ring-shaped periphery of the Golgi apparatus, resulting in the removal of GFP-CESA3 from the PM. These results indicate that PIs are essential elements for localization and intracellular transport of CESA3 and that PI4K and PI3K are required for distinct steps in secretory and/or endocytic trafficking of CESA3. PMID:25516570

  6. Insulin-Stimulated Degradation of Apolipoprotein B100: Roles of Class II Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Chirieac, Doru V.; Tuyama, Ana C.; Montenont, Emilie; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.; Fisher, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Both in humans and animal models, an acute increase in plasma insulin levels, typically following meals, leads to transient depression of hepatic secretion of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). One contributing mechanism for the decrease in VLDL secretion is enhanced degradation of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100), which is required for VLDL formation. Unlike the degradation of nascent apoB100, which occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), insulin-stimulated apoB100 degradation occurs post-ER and is inhibited by pan-phosphatidylinositol (PI)3-kinase inhibitors. It is unclear, however, which of the three classes of PI3-kinases is required for insulin-stimulated apoB100 degradation, as well as the proteolytic machinery underlying this response. Class III PI3-kinase is not activated by insulin, but the other two classes are. By using a class I-specific inhibitor and siRNA to the major class II isoform in liver, we now show that it is class II PI3-kinase that is required for insulin-stimulated apoB100 degradation in primary mouse hepatocytes. Because the insulin-stimulated process resembles other examples of apoB100 post-ER proteolysis mediated by autophagy, we hypothesized that the effects of insulin in autophagy-deficient mouse primary hepatocytes would be attenuated. Indeed, apoB100 degradation in response to insulin was significantly impaired in two types of autophagy-deficient hepatocytes. Together, our data demonstrate that insulin-stimulated apoB100 degradation in the liver requires both class II PI3-kinase activity and autophagy. PMID:23516411

  7. Ganglioside/glycosphingolipid turnover: new concepts.

    PubMed

    Tettamanti, G

    2004-01-01

    In this review focus is given to the metabolic turnover of gangliosides/glycosphingolipids. The metabolism and accompanying intracellular trafficking of gangliosides/glycosphingolipids is illustrated with particular attention to the following events: (a) the de novo biosynthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, followed by vesicular sorting to the plasma membrane; (b) the enzyme-assisted chemical modifications occurring at the plasma membrane level; (c) the internalization via endocytosis and recycling to the plasma membrane; (d) the direct glycosylations taking place after sorting from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus; (e) the degradation at the late endosomal/lysosomal level with formation of fragments of sugar (glucose, galactose, hexosamine, sialic acid) and lipid (ceramide, sphingosine, fatty acid) nature; (f) the metabolic recycling of these fragments for biosynthetic purposes (salvage pathways); and (g) further degradation of fragments to waste products. Noteworthy, the correct course of ganglioside/glycosphingolipid metabolism requires the presence of the vimentin intracellular filament net work, likely to assist intracellular transport of sphingoid molecules. ut of the above events those that can be quantitatively evaluated with acceptable reliability are the processes of de novo biosynthesis, metabolic salvage and direct glycosylation. Depending on the cultured cells employed, the percentage of distribution of de novo biosynthesis, salvage pathways, and direct glycosylation, over total metabolism were reported to be: 35% (range: 10-90%) for de novo biosynthesis, 7% (range: 5-10%) for direct glycosylation, and 58% (range: 10-90%) for salvage pathways. The attempts made to calculate the half-life of overall ganglioside turnover provided data of unsure reliability, especially because in many studies salvage pathways were not taken into consideration. The values of half-life range from 2 to 6.5 h to 3 days depending on the cells used

  8. Phosphoinositide turnover in cell growth and transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    Interaction of cells with various stimuli triggers a common signal transduction pathway involving breakdown and resynthesis of the minor membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP/sub 2/). Hydrolysis of PIP/sub 2/ by phospholipase C generates two key catabolites-inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP/sub 3/) and diacylglycerol (DAG)-which mediate and amplify cellular responses. These studies provide evidence for potential involvement of this pathway in oncogenic transformation and cell cycle progression. Altered levels of PIP/sub 2/ and its breakdown products were found in cells transformed by ras oncogenes, in contrast to untransformed counterparts. Steady-state levels of PIP/sub 2/, DAG and inositol phosphates were measured in NIH 3T3 and NRK cells metabolically labelled with /sup 3/H-glycerol and /sup 3/H-inositol. DAG and inositol phosphate levels were significantly elevated by 2.5-3 fold in the transformed cells while levels of PIP/sub 2/ were decreased. These findings suggest that the ras protein may activate phospholipase C. Elevated DAG content in the transformed cells was also measured by phosphorylation of DAG using a partially purified DAG kinase, indicating that the differences seen could not be attributed to differences in labelling between the cell lines.

  9. Involvement of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in the regulation of proline catabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Leprince, Anne-Sophie; Magalhaes, Nelly; De Vos, Delphine; Bordenave, Marianne; Crilat, Emilie; Clément, Gilles; Meyer, Christian; Munnik, Teun; Savouré, Arnould

    2014-01-01

    Plant adaptation to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity involves complex regulatory processes. Deciphering the signaling components that are involved in stress signal transduction and cellular responses is of importance to understand how plants cope with salt stress. Accumulation of osmolytes such as proline is considered to participate in the osmotic adjustment of plant cells to salinity. Proline accumulation results from a tight regulation between its biosynthesis and catabolism. Lipid signal components such as phospholipases C and D have previously been shown to be involved in the regulation of proline metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we demonstrate that proline metabolism is also regulated by class-III Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), VPS34, which catalyses the formation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) from phosphatidylinositol. Using pharmacological and biochemical approaches, we show that the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, affects PI3P levels in vivo and that it triggers a decrease in proline accumulation in response to salt treatment of A. thaliana seedlings. The lower proline accumulation is correlated with a lower transcript level of Pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1) biosynthetic enzyme and higher transcript and protein levels of Proline dehydrogenase 1 (ProDH1), a key-enzyme in proline catabolism. We also found that the ProDH1 expression is induced in a pi3k-hemizygous mutant, further demonstrating that PI3K is involved in the regulation of proline catabolism through transcriptional regulation of ProDH1. A broader metabolomic analysis indicates that LY294002 also reduced other metabolites, such as hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids and sugars like raffinose.

  10. Genetic and biochemical characterization of a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Flick, J S; Thorner, J

    1993-01-01

    Hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) generates two second messengers, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and 1,2-diacylglycerol. The polymerase chain reaction was used to isolate a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene (PLC1) that encodes a protein of 869 amino acids (designated Plc1p) that bears greatest resemblance to the delta isoforms of mammalian PI-PLC in terms of overall sequence similarity and domain arrangement. Plc1p contains the conserved X and Y domains found in all higher eukaryotic PI-PLCs (51 and 29% identity, respectively, to the corresponding domains of rat delta 1 PI-PLC) and also contains a presumptive Ca(2+)-binding site (an E-F hand motif). Plc1p, modified by in-frame insertion of a His6 tract and a c-myc epitope near its amino terminus, was overexpressed from the GAL1 promoter, partially purified by nickel chelate affinity chromatography, and shown to be an active PLC enzyme in vitro with properties similar to those of its mammalian counterparts. Plc1p activity was strictly Ca2+ dependent: at a high Ca2+ concentration (0.1 mM), the enzyme hydrolyzed PIP2 at a faster rate than phosphatidylinositol, and at a low Ca2+ concentration (0.5 microM), it hydrolyzed PIP2 exclusively. Cells carrying either of two different deletion-insertion mutations (plc1 delta 1::HIS3 and plc1 delta 2::LEU2) were viable but displayed several distinctive phenotypes, including temperature-sensitive growth (inviable above 35 degrees C), osmotic sensitivity, and defects in the utilization of galactose, raffinose, and glycerol at permissive temperatures (23 to 30 degrees C). The findings reported here suggest that hydrolysis of PIP2 in S. cerevisiae is required for a number of nutritional and stress-related responses. Images PMID:8395015

  11. Involvement of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in the regulation of proline catabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Leprince, Anne-Sophie; Magalhaes, Nelly; De Vos, Delphine; Bordenave, Marianne; Crilat, Emilie; Clément, Gilles; Meyer, Christian; Munnik, Teun; Savouré, Arnould

    2015-01-01

    Plant adaptation to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity involves complex regulatory processes. Deciphering the signaling components that are involved in stress signal transduction and cellular responses is of importance to understand how plants cope with salt stress. Accumulation of osmolytes such as proline is considered to participate in the osmotic adjustment of plant cells to salinity. Proline accumulation results from a tight regulation between its biosynthesis and catabolism. Lipid signal components such as phospholipases C and D have previously been shown to be involved in the regulation of proline metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we demonstrate that proline metabolism is also regulated by class-III Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), VPS34, which catalyses the formation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) from phosphatidylinositol. Using pharmacological and biochemical approaches, we show that the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, affects PI3P levels in vivo and that it triggers a decrease in proline accumulation in response to salt treatment of A. thaliana seedlings. The lower proline accumulation is correlated with a lower transcript level of Pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1) biosynthetic enzyme and higher transcript and protein levels of Proline dehydrogenase 1 (ProDH1), a key-enzyme in proline catabolism. We also found that the ProDH1 expression is induced in a pi3k-hemizygous mutant, further demonstrating that PI3K is involved in the regulation of proline catabolism through transcriptional regulation of ProDH1. A broader metabolomic analysis indicates that LY294002 also reduced other metabolites, such as hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids and sugars like raffinose. PMID:25628629

  12. Chronic erythroid hyperplasia and accelerated bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, R S; Lutcher, C L

    Bone atrophy is generally thought to be the etiology of the decreased skeletal mass and fractures found in patients with ineffective hematopoiesis and associated erythroid hyperplasia. A bone biopsy from a patient with chronic erythroid hyperplasia and diffuse cortical osteopenia revealed a normal trabecular bone volume, excess osteoid, numerous osteoblasts, and increased osteoclastic resorptive surface. The increased fractional labeled surfaces and widely spaced double tetracycline labels indicated accelerated bone turnover, despite demonstrable iron deposits at the calcification front and cement lines and a low serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The relationship between the expanded marrow space and trabecular bone suggests that local marrow factors may be responsible for the rapid bone remodeling.

  13. Occupational turnover intentions among substance abuse counselors.

    PubMed

    Rothrauff, Tanja C; Abraham, Amanda J; Bride, Brian E; Roman, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of occupational turnover intention (OcTI) among substance abuse counselors. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 929 counselors working in 225 private substance abuse treatment (SAT) programs across the United States. Hierarchical multiple regression models were conducted to assess predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of OcTI. OcTI scores were relatively low on a 7-point scale, indicating that very few counselors definitely intended to leave the SAT field. Age, certification, positive perceptions of procedural and distributive justice, and hospital-based status negatively predicted OcTI. Counselors' substance use disorder-impacted history moderated the association between organizational commitment and OcTI. Organizational turnover intention partially mediated the link between organizational commitment and OcTI. Workforce stability might be achieved by promoting perceptions of advantages to working in a particular treatment program, having organizational commitment, showing appreciation for counselors' work, and valuing employees from diverse backgrounds. PMID:20947285

  14. Dynamics of Adipocyte Turnover in Humans

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, K; Arner, E; Westermark, P; Bernard, S; Buchholz, B; Bergmann, O; Blomqvist, L; Hoffstedt, J; Naslund, E; Britton, T; Concha, H; Hassan, M; Ryden, M; Frisen, J; Arner, P

    2007-07-16

    Obesity is increasing in an epidemic fashion in most countries and constitutes a public health problem by enhancing the risk for cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. Owing to the increase in obesity, life expectancy may start to decrease in developed countries for the first time in recent history. The factors determining fat mass in adult humans are not fully understood, but increased lipid storage in already developed fat cells is thought to be most important. We show that adipocyte number is a major determinant for the fat mass in adults. However, the number of fat cells stays constant in adulthood in lean and obese and even under extreme conditions, indicating that the number of adipocytes is set during childhood and adolescence. To establish the dynamics within the stable population of adipocytes in adults, we have measured adipocyte turnover by analyzing the integration of {sup 14}C derived from nuclear bomb tests in genomic DNA. Approximately 10% of fat cells are renewed annually at all adult ages and levels of body mass index. Neither adipocyte death nor generation rate is altered in obesity, suggesting a tight regulation of fat cell number that is independent of metabolic profile in adulthood. The high turnover of adipocytes establishes a new therapeutic target for pharmacological intervention in obesity.

  15. Regulation of gene expression by glucose in pancreatic beta -cells (MIN6) via insulin secretion and activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase.

    PubMed

    da Silva Xavier, G; Varadi, A; Ainscow, E K; Rutter, G A

    2000-11-17

    Increases in glucose concentration control the transcription of the preproinsulin (PPI) gene and several other genes in the pancreatic islet beta-cell. Although recent data have demonstrated that secreted insulin may regulate the PPI gene (Leibiger, I. B., Leibiger, B., Moede, T., and Berggren, P. O. (1998) Mol. Cell 1, 933-938), the role of insulin in the control of other beta-cell genes is unexplored. To study the importance of insulin secretion in the regulation of the PPI and liver-type pyruvate kinase (L-PK) genes by glucose, we have used intranuclear microinjection of promoter-luciferase constructs into MIN6 beta-cells and photon-counting imaging. The activity of each promoter was increased either by 30 (versus 3) mm glucose or by 1-20 nm insulin. These effects of insulin were not due to enhanced glucose metabolism since culture with the hormone had no impact on the stimulation of increases in intracellular ATP concentration caused by 30 mm glucose. Furthermore, the islet-specific glucokinase promoter and cellular glucokinase immunoreactivity were unaffected by 30 mm glucose or 20 nm insulin. Inhibition of insulin secretion with the Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil, the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel opener diazoxide, or the alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist clonidine blocked the effects of glucose on L-PK gene transcription. Similarly, 30 mm glucose failed to induce the promoter after inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase activity with LY294002 and the expression of dominant negative-acting phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (Deltap85) or the phosphoinositide 3'-phosphatase PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue). LY294002 also diminished the activation of the L-PK gene caused by inhibition of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase with anti-5'-AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2 antibodies. Conversely, stimulation of insulin secretion with 13 mm KCl or 10 microm tolbutamide strongly activated the PPI and L-PK promoters. These data indicate that, in MIN6 beta

  16. Total synthesis of tetraacylated phosphatidylinositol hexamannoside and evaluation of its immunomodulatory activity

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Pratap S.; Cheng, Ting-Jen Rachel; Zulueta, Medel Manuel L.; Yang, Shih-Ting; Lico, Larry S.; Hung, Shang-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis, aggravated by drug-resistant strains and HIV co-infection of the causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a global problem that affects millions of people. With essential immunoregulatory roles, phosphatidylinositol mannosides are among the cell-envelope components critical to the pathogenesis and survival of M. tuberculosis inside its host. Here we report the first synthesis of the highly complex tetraacylated phosphatidylinositol hexamannoside (Ac2PIM6), having stearic and tuberculostearic acids as lipid components. Our effort makes use of stereoelectronic and steric effects to control the regioselective and stereoselective outcomes and minimize the synthetic steps, particularly in the key desymmetrization and functionalization of myo-inositol. A short synthesis of tuberculostearic acid in six steps from the Roche ester is also described. Mice exposed to the synthesized Ac2PIM6 exhibit increased production of interleukin-4 and interferon-γ, and the corresponding adjuvant effect is shown by the induction of ovalbumin- and tetanus toxoid-specific antibodies. PMID:26037164

  17. Insulin accelerates inter-endosomal GLUT4 traffic via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase B.

    PubMed

    Foster, L J; Li, D; Randhawa, V K; Klip, A

    2001-11-23

    Insulin enhances plasmalemmal-directed traffic of glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4), but it is unknown whether insulin regulates GLUT4 traffic through endosomal compartments. In L6 myoblasts expressing Myc-tagged GLUT4, insulin markedly stimulated the rate of GLUT4myc recycling. In myoblasts stimulated with insulin to maximize surface GLUT4myc levels, we followed the rates of surface-labeled GLUT4myc endocytosis and chased its intracellular distribution in space and time using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Surface-labeled GLUT4myc internalized rapidly (t(12) 3 min), reaching the early endosome by 2 min and the transferrin receptor-rich, perinuclear recycling endosome by 20 min. Upon re-addition of insulin, the t(12) of GLUT4 disappearance from the plasma membrane was unchanged (3 min), but strikingly, GLUT4myc reached the recycling endosome by 10 and left by 20 min. This effect of insulin was blocked by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 or by transiently transfected dominant-negative phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase B mutants. In contrast, insulin did not alter the rate of arrival of rhodamine-labeled transferrin at the recycling endosome. These results reveal a heretofore unknown effect of insulin to accelerate inter-endosomal travel rates of GLUT4 and identify the recycling endosome as an obligatory stage in insulin-dependent GLUT4 recycling.

  18. Differential regulatory functions of three classes of phosphatidylinositol and phosphoinositide 3-kinases in autophagy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinlei; Long, Yun Chau; Shen, Han-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved and exquisitely regulated self-eating cellular process with important biological functions. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PtdIns3Ks) and phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are involved in the autophagic process. Here we aim to recapitulate how 3 classes of these lipid kinases differentially regulate autophagy. Generally, activation of the class I PI3K suppresses autophagy, via the well-established PI3K-AKT-MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) complex 1 (MTORC1) pathway. In contrast, the class III PtdIns3K catalytic subunit PIK3C3/Vps34 forms a protein complex with BECN1 and PIK3R4 and produces phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P), which is required for the initiation and progression of autophagy. The class II enzyme emerged only recently as an alternative source of PtdIns3P and autophagic initiator. However, the orthodox paradigm is challenged by findings that the PIK3CB catalytic subunit of class I PI3K acts as a positive regulator of autophagy, and PIK3C3 was thought to be an amino acid sensor for MTOR, which curbs autophagy. At present, a number of PtdIns3K and PI3K inhibitors, including specific PIK3C3 inhibitors, have been developed for suppression of autophagy and for clinical applications in autophagy-related human diseases.

  19. Differential regulatory functions of three classes of phosphatidylinositol and phosphoinositide 3-kinases in autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xinlei; Long, Yun Chau; Shen, Han-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved and exquisitely regulated self-eating cellular process with important biological functions. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PtdIns3Ks) and phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are involved in the autophagic process. Here we aim to recapitulate how 3 classes of these lipid kinases differentially regulate autophagy. Generally, activation of the class I PI3K suppresses autophagy, via the well-established PI3K-AKT-MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) complex 1 (MTORC1) pathway. In contrast, the class III PtdIns3K catalytic subunit PIK3C3/Vps34 forms a protein complex with BECN1 and PIK3R4 and produces phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P), which is required for the initiation and progression of autophagy. The class II enzyme emerged only recently as an alternative source of PtdIns3P and autophagic initiator. However, the orthodox paradigm is challenged by findings that the PIK3CB catalytic subunit of class I PI3K acts as a positive regulator of autophagy, and PIK3C3 was thought to be an amino acid sensor for MTOR, which curbs autophagy. At present, a number of PtdIns3K and PI3K inhibitors, including specific PIK3C3 inhibitors, have been developed for suppression of autophagy and for clinical applications in autophagy-related human diseases. PMID:26018563

  20. Localization of Drosophila retinal degeneration B, a membrane- associated phosphatidylinositol transfer protein

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The Drosophila retinal degeneration B (rdgB) mutation causes abnormal photoreceptor response and light-enhanced retinal degeneration. Immunoblots using polyclonal anti-rdgB serum showed that rdgB is a 160- kD membrane protein. The antiserum localized the rdgB protein in photoreceptors, antennae, and regions of the Drosophila brain, indicating that the rdgB protein functions in many sensory and neuronal cells. In photoreceptors, the protein localized adjacent to the rhabdomeres, in the vicinity of the subrhabdomeric cisternae. The rdgB protein's amino-terminal 281 residues are > 40% identical to the rat brain phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PI-TP). A truncated rdgB protein, which contains only this amino-terminal domain, possesses a phosphatidylinositol transfer activity in vitro. The remaining 773 carboxyl terminal amino acids have additional functional domains. Nitrocellulose overlay experiments reveal that an acidic amino acid domain, adjacent to the PI transfer domain, binds 45Ca+2. Six hydrophobic segments are found in the middle of the putative translation product and likely function as membrane spanning domains. These results suggest that the rdgB protein, unlike the small soluble PI-TPs, is a membrane-associated PI-TP, which may be directly regulated by light-induced changes in intracellular calcium. PMID:8354691

  1. Phosphatidylinositol 4-Phosphate 5-Kinase β Controls Recruitment of Lipid Rafts into the Immunological Synapse.

    PubMed

    Kallikourdis, Marinos; Trovato, Anna Elisa; Roselli, Giuliana; Muscolini, Michela; Porciello, Nicla; Tuosto, Loretta; Viola, Antonella

    2016-02-15

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2) is critical for T lymphocyte activation serving as a substrate for the generation of second messengers and the remodeling of actin cytoskeleton necessary for the clustering of lipid rafts, TCR, and costimulatory receptors toward the T:APC interface. Spatiotemporal analysis of PIP2 synthesis in T lymphocytes suggested that distinct isoforms of the main PIP2-generating enzyme, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K), play a differential role on the basis of their distinct localization. In this study, we analyze the contribution of PIP5Kβ to T cell activation and show that CD28 induces the recruitment of PIP5Kβ to the immunological synapse, where it regulates filamin A and lipid raft accumulation, as well as T cell activation, in a nonredundant manner. Finally, we found that Vav1 and the C-terminal 83 aa of PIP5Kβ are pivotal for the PIP5Kβ regulatory functions in response to CD28 stimulation.

  2. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phospholipase C and phosphomonoesterase in Dunaliella salina membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Einspahr, K.J.; Peeler, T.C.; Thompson, G.A. Jr. )

    1989-07-01

    In comparison with other cell organelles, the Dunaliella salina plasma membrane was found to be highly enriched in phospholipase C activity toward exogenous ({sup 3}H)phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}). Based on release of ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphates, the plasma membrane exhibited a PIP{sub 2}-phospholipase C activity nearly tenfold higher than the nonplasmalemmal, nonchloroplast bottom phase (BP) membrane fraction and 47 times higher than the chloroplast membrane fraction. The majority of phospholipase activity was clearly of a phospholipase C nature since over 80% of ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphates released were recovered as ({sup 3}H)inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}). These results suggest a plausible mechanism for the rapid breakdown of PIP{sub 2} and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) following hypoosmotic shock. The authors have also examined some of the in vitro characteristics of the plasma membrane phospholipase C activity and have found it to be calcium sensitive, reaching maximal activity at 10 micromolar free (Ca{sup 2+}). They also report here that 100 micromolar GTP{gamma}S stimulates phospholipase C activity over a range of free (Ca{sup 2+}). Together, these results provide evidence that the plasma membrane PIP{sub 2}-phospholipase C of D. salina may be subject to Ca{sup 2+} and G-protein regulation.

  3. ZSTK474, a specific class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, induces G1 arrest and autophagy in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaochen; Liu, Jing; Qiu, Yuling; Jin, Meihua; Chen, Xi; Fan, Guanwei; Wang, Ran; Kong, Dexin

    2016-01-01

    Multifaceted activities of class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor ZSTK474 were investigated on human breast cancer cell MCF-7. ZSTK474 inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 cells potently. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that ZSTK474 induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, but no obvious apoptosis occurred. Western blot analysis suggested that blockade of PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/cyclin D1/p-Rb pathway might contribute to the G1 arrest induced. Moreover, we demonstrated that ZSTK474 induced autophagy in MCF-7 cells by use of various assays including monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tandem mRFP-GFP-LC3 fluorescence microscopy, and western blot detection of the autophagy protein markers of LC3B II, p62 and Atg 5. Inhibition of class I PI3K and the downstream mTOR might be involved in the autophagy-inducing effect. Combinational use of ZSTK474 and autophagy inhibitors enhanced cell viability, suggesting ZSTK474-induced autophagy might contribute to the antitumor activity. Our report supports the application of ZSTK474, which is being evaluated in clinical trials, for breast cancer therapy. PMID:26918351

  4. Grb2-associated binder-1 mediates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation and the promotion of cell survival by nerve growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Holgado-Madruga, Marina; Moscatello, David K.; Emlet, David R.; Dieterich, Rebekka; Wong, Albert J.

    1997-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) prevents apoptosis through stimulation of the TrkA receptor protein tyrosine kinase. The downstream activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) is essential for the inhibition of apoptosis, although this enzyme does not bind to and is not directly activated by TrkA. We have found that the addition of NGF to PC-12 cells resulted in the phosphorylation of the Grb2-associated binder-1 (Gab1) docking protein and induced the association of several SH2 domain-containing proteins, including PI 3-kinase. A substantial fraction of the total cellular PI 3-kinase activity was associated with Gab1. PC-12 cells that overexpressed Gab1 show a decreased requirement for the amount of NGF necessary to inhibit apoptosis. The expression of a Gab1 mutant that lacked the binding sites for PI 3-kinase enhanced apoptosis and diminished the protective effect of NGF. Hence, Gab1 has a major role in connecting TrkA with PI 3-kinase activation and for the promotion of cell survival by NGF. PMID:9356464

  5. Sphingosine-1-phosphate inhibits PDGF-induced chemotaxis of human arterial smooth muscle cells: spatial and temporal modulation of PDGF chemotactic signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Activation of the PDGF receptor on human arterial smooth muscle cells (SMC) induces migration and proliferation via separable signal transduction pathways. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (Sph-1-P) can be formed following PDGF receptor activation and therefore may be implicated in PDGF-receptor signal transduction. Here we show that Sph-1-P does not significantly affect PDGF-induced DNA synthesis, proliferation, or activation of mitogenic signal transduction pathways, such as the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade and PI 3-kinase, in human arterial SMC. On the other hand, Sph-1-P strongly mimics PDGF receptor-induced chemotactic signal transduction favoring actin filament disassembly. Although Sph-1-P mimics PDGF, exogenously added Sph-1-P induces more prolonged and quantitatively greater PIP2 hydrolysis compared to PDGF-BB, a markedly stronger calcium mobilization and a subsequent increase in cyclic AMP levels and activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. This excessive and prolonged signaling favors actin filament disassembly by Sph-1-P, and results in inhibition of actin nucleation, actin filament assembly and formation of focal adhesion sites. Sph-1-P-induced interference with the dynamics of PDGF-stimulated actin filament disassembly and assembly results in a marked inhibition of cell spreading, of extension of the leading lamellae toward PDGF, and of chemotaxis toward PDGF. The results suggest that spatial and temporal changes in phosphatidylinositol turnover, calcium mobilization and actin filament disassembly may be critical to PDGF-induced chemotaxis and suggest a possible role for endogenous Sph-1-P in the regulation of PDGF receptor chemotactic signal transduction. PMID:7790372

  6. Role of protein kinase A and class II phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase C2β in the downregulation of KCa3.1 channel synthesis and membrane surface expression by lyso-globotriaosylceramide.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ju Yeon; Park, Seonghee

    2016-02-19

    The intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (KCa3.1) mediates proliferation of many cell types including fibroblasts, and is a molecular target for intervention in various cell proliferative diseases. Our previous study showed that reduction of KCa3.1 channel expression by lyso-globotriaosylceramide (lyso-Gb3) inhibits differentiation into myofibroblasts and collagen synthesis, which might lead to development of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm secondary to Fabry disease. However, how lyso-Gb3 downregulates KCa3.1 channel expression is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of lyso-Gb3-mediated KCa3.1 channel downregulation, focusing on the cAMP signaling pathway. We found that lyso-Gb3 increased the intracellular cAMP concentration by upregulation of adenylyl cyclase 6 and inhibited ERK 1/2 phosphorylation through the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, leading to the inhibition of KCa3.1 channel synthesis, not the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) pathway. Moreover, lyso-Gb3 suppressed expression of class II phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase C2β (PI3KC2β) by PKA activation, which reduces the production of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P], and the reduced membrane surface expression of KCa3.1 channel was recovered by increasing the intracellular levels of PI(3)P. Consequently, our findings that lyso-Gb3 inhibited both KCa3.1 channel synthesis and surface expression by increasing intracellular cAMP, and controlled surface expression through changes in PI3KC2β-mediated PI(3)P production, suggest that modulation of PKA and PI3KC2β activity to control of KCa3.1 channel expression can be an alternative important target to attenuate ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms in Fabry disease. PMID:26820527

  7. How Multiple Interventions Influenced Employee Turnover: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    A 3-year study of 46 textile industry workers identified causes of employee turnover (supervision, training, organizational communication) using performance analysis. A study of multiple interventions based on the analysis resulted in changes in orientation procedures, organizational leadership, and climate, reducing turnover by 24%. (SK)

  8. Understanding the Impacts of Induction Programs on Beginning Teacher Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Seok

    2010-01-01

    This study examines impacts of mentoring and induction activities on beginning teacher turnover using the School and Staffing Survey (SASS) of 1999-2000 and the Teacher Follow-up Survey (TFS) of 2000-2001. In order to improve understanding of the influence of induction programs on beginning teacher turnover, three models are developed to achieve…

  9. Estimating Cause: Teacher Turnover and School Effectiveness in Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keesler, Venessa; Schneider, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is investigate issues related to within-school teacher supply and school-specific teacher turnover within the state of Michigan using state administrative data on Michigan's teaching force. This paper 1) investigates the key predictors of teacher turnover and mobility, 2) develops a profile of schools that are likely to…

  10. Organizational Characteristics Associated with Staff Turnover in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Nicholas G.; Engberg, John

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The association between certified nurse aide, licensed practical nurse, and registered nurse turnover and the organizational characteristics of nursing homes are examined. Design and Methods: Hypotheses for eight organizational characteristics are examined (staffing levels, top management turnover, resident case mix, facility quality,…

  11. Re-Examining the Relationship between Age and Voluntary Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2009-01-01

    In their quantitative review of the literature, Healy, Lehman, and McDaniel [Healy, M. C., Lehman, M., & McDaniel, M. A. (1995). Age and voluntary turnover: A quantitative review. "Personnel Psychology, 48", 335-345] concluded that age is only weakly related to voluntary turnover (average r = -0.08). However, with the significant changes in…

  12. Analysis of the Educational Personnel System: IV. Teacher Turnover.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Emmett B.

    This report attempts to predict the rates of teacher turnover in the 1970s, which teachers will leave the profession, and what the effects of turnover will be on the educational personnel system. The overall termination rate has varied from six to 11 percent over the last 15 years. An analysis of recent changes in the teaching profession is used…

  13. Predicting Turnover: Validating the Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Claiborne, Nancy; McGowan, Brenda G.

    2014-01-01

    A number of proxies have been used in child welfare workforce research to represent actual turnover; however, there have been no psychometric studies to validate a scale specifically designed for this purpose. The Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale is a proxy for actual turnover that measures workers' intention to leave. This scale was…

  14. Voluntary Turnover and Women Administrators in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Victoria H.

    2008-01-01

    A salient characteristic about the U.S. workforce is the continual process of voluntary employee turnover, which can be problematic for employers who invest a substantial amount of time and money in recruiting and training employees. This paper discusses the effects of workplace policies and practices on the voluntary turnover of women…

  15. The Link between Training Satisfaction, Work Engagement and Turnover Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Mumtaz Ali; Salleh, Rohani; Baharom, Mohamed Noor Rosli

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the casual relationship between training satisfaction, work engagement (WE) and turnover intention and the mediating role of WE between training satisfaction and turnover intention. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from 409 oil and gas professionals using an email survey…

  16. Evidence that phospholipid turnover is the signal transducing system coupled to serotonin-S2 receptor sites

    SciTech Connect

    de Chaffoy de Courcelles, D.; Leysen, J.E.; De Clerck, F.; Van Belle, H.; Janssen, P.A.

    1985-06-25

    Upon stimulation with serotonin of washed human platelets prelabeled with (/sup 32/P)orthophosphate, the authors found an approximately 250% increase in (/sup 32/P)phosphatidic acid (PA) formation, a small decrease in (/sup 32/P)phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, and a concomitant increase in (/sup 32/P)phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate. Using (/sup 3/H)arachidonate for prelabeling, (/sup 3/H)diacylglycerol accumulated transiently at 10 s after addition of the agonist, (/sup 3/H)PA increased but to a lower extent compared to /sup 32/P-labeled lipid, and the formation of both (/sup 3/H)polyphosphoinositides increased. The serotonin-induced dose-dependent changes in (/sup 32/P)PA correlate with its effect on the changes in slope of aggregation of platelets. The potency of 13 drugs to antagonize the serotonin-induced PA formation closely corresponds to both their potency to inhibit platelet aggregation and their binding affinity for serotonin-S2 receptor sites. It is suggested that at least part of the signal transducing system following activation of the serotonin-S2 receptors involves phospholipase C catalyzed inositol lipid breakdown yielding diacylglycerol which is subsequently phosphorylated to PA.

  17. Role of TGF-β in a mouse model of high turnover renal osteodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiguang; Song, Wenping; Boulanger, Joseph H; Tang, Wen; Sabbagh, Yves; Kelley, Brian; Gotschall, Russell; Ryan, Susan; Phillips, Lucy; Malley, Katie; Cao, Xiaohong; Xia, Tai-He; Zhen, Gehua; Cao, Xu; Ling, Hong; Dechow, Paul C; Bellido, Teresita M; Ledbetter, Steven R; Schiavi, Susan C

    2014-01-01

    mice and bone biopsies from CKD patients. Furthermore, our data suggest that elevated TGF-β may contribute to the pathogenesis of high-turnover disease partially through inhibition of β-catenin signaling. PMID:24166835

  18. Role of TGF-β in a Mouse Model of High Turnover Renal Osteodystrophy†

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shiguang; Song, Wenping; Boulanger, Joseph H; Tang, Wen; Sabbagh, Yves; Kelley, Brian; Gotschall, Russell; Ryan, Susan; Phillips, Lucy; Malley, Katie; Cao, Xiaohong; Xia, Tai-He; Zhen, Gehua; Cao, Xu; Ling, Hong; Dechow, Paul C; Bellido, Teresita M; Ledbetter, Steven R; Schiavi, Susan C

    2014-01-01

    , our data suggests that elevated TGF-β may contribute to the pathogenesis of high turnover disease partially through inhibition of β-catenin signaling. PMID:24166835

  19. Does a Corresponding Set of Variables for Explaining Voluntary Organizational Turnover Transfer to Explaining Voluntary Occupational Turnover?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Gary

    2007-01-01

    This study proposed and tested corresponding sets of variables for explaining voluntary organizational versus occupational turnover for a sample of medical technologists. This study is believed to be the first test of the Rhodes and Doering (1983) occupational change model using occupational turnover data. Results showed that corresponding job…

  20. Characterization of the intracellular signalling pathways that underlie growth-factor-stimulated glucose transport in Xenopus oocytes: evidence for ras- and rho-dependent pathways of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, F J; Jess, T J; Moyes, C; Plevin, R; Gould, G W

    1997-01-01

    The stimulation of glucose transport is one of the early cellular responses to growth factors and is essential for cell proliferation, yet the molecular processes that underlie this response are poorly defined. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of the low-molecular-mass G-proteins, Ras and Rho, and their downstream targets, Raf protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, in the regulation of glucose transport in Xenopus oocytes by two distinct growth-factor receptors: the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) tyrosine kinase receptor and the heterotrimeric G-protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor. Microinjection of a neutralizing anti-Ras antibody partially blocked IGF-I-stimulated deoxyglucose uptake but was without effect on LPA-stimulated deoxyglucose uptake. In contrast, microinjection of the C3 coenzyme of botulinum toxin, which selectively ADP-ribosylates and inactivates Rho, inhibited LPA-stimulated, but not IGF-I-stimulated, deoxyglucose uptake. Similarly, LPA- but not IGF-I-stimulated deoxyglucose uptake was attenuated in oocytes expressing a dominant negative rho construct. Cells expressing a dominant negative mutant of Raf protein kinase exhibited markedly reduced sensitivity to both LPA and IGF-I, consistent with a role for endogenous Raf in glucose uptake by both growth factors. Furthermore, expression of a constitutively activated form of raf-1 resulted in a growth-factor-independent increase in deoxyglucose uptake. Measurements of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in microinjected cells support the hypothesis that the IGF-I receptor stimulates glucose transport by a Ras-dependent activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, whereas the G-protein-coupled LPA receptor controls this response by a pathway that involves Rho-dependent activation of a distinct phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Thus we provide evidence for clear differences in the signalling pathways that control glucose transport by G

  1. Stimulatory effects of the putative metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist L-AP3 on phosphoinositide turnover in neonatal rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, R.; Prabhu, G.; Godwin, M.; Challiss, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonist, L-2-amino-3-phosphonopropionate (L-AP3) on phosphoinositide turnover in neonatal rat cerebral cortex slices has been investigated. 2. At concentrations of < or = 300 microM, L-AP3 inhibited total [3H]-inositol phosphate ([3H]-InsPx) and Ins(1,4,5)P3 mass responses stimulated by the selective mGluR agonist, 1-amino-cyclopentane-1S, 3R-dicarboxylic acid (1S, 3R-ACPD). Comparison with the competitive mGluR antagonist (+/-)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine ((+/-)-MCPG) clearly demonstrated that L-AP3 caused inhibition by a mechanism that was not competitive, as L-AP3 decreased the maximal response to 1S, 3R-ACPD (by approximately 40% at 300 microM L-AP3) without significantly affecting the concentration of 1S, 3R-ACPD required to cause half-maximal stimulation of the [3H]-InsPx response. 3. In contrast, at a higher concentration L-AP3 (1 mM) caused a large increase in [3H]-InsPx accumulation which was similar in magnitude in both the absence and presence of 1S, 3R-ACPD (300 microM). D-AP3 (1 mM) had no stimulatory effect alone and did not affect the response evoked by 1S, 3R-ACPD. L-AP3 (1 mM) also caused a large increase in Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulation. The magnitude of the response (4-5 fold increase over basal) approached that evoked by a maximally effective concentration of 1S, 3R-ACPD, but differed substantially in the time-course of the response. The stimulatory effects of 1S, 3R-ACPD and L-AP3 on Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulation were also similarly affected by decreases in extracellular calcium concentration. 4. Detailed analysis of the inositol phospholipid labelling pattern and the inositol (poly)phosphate isomeric species generated following addition of L-AP3 was also performed. In the continued presence of myo-[3H]-inositol, L-AP3 (1 mM) stimulated a significant increase in phosphatidylinositol labelling, but not that of the polyphosphoinositides, and the inositol (poly)phosphate profile

  2. SAMP8 mice have altered hippocampal gene expression in long term potentiation, phosphatidylinositol signaling, and endocytosis pathways.

    PubMed

    Armbrecht, Harvey J; Siddiqui, Akbar M; Green, Michael; Farr, Susan A; Kumar, Vijaya B; Banks, William A; Patrick, Ping; Shah, Gul N; Morley, John E

    2014-01-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAMP8) strain exhibits decreased learning and memory and increased amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide accumulation at 12 months. To detect differences in gene expression in SAMP8 mice, we used a control mouse that was a 50% cross between SAMP8 and CD-1 mice and which showed no memory deficits (50% SAMs). We then compared gene expression in the hippocampus of 4- and 12-month-old SAMP8 and control mice using Affymetrix gene arrays. At 12 months, but not at 4 months, pathway analysis revealed significant differences in the long term potentiation (6 genes), phosphatidylinositol signaling (6 genes), and endocytosis (10 genes) pathways. The changes in long term potentiation included mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling (N-ras, cAMP responsive element binding protein [CREB], protein phosphatase inhibitor 1) and Ca-dependent signaling (inositol triphosphate [ITP] receptors 1 and 2 and phospholipase C). Changes in phosphatidylinositol signaling genes suggested altered signaling through phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, and Western blotting revealed phosphorylation changes in serine/threonine protein kinase AKT and 70S6K. Changes in the endocytosis pathway involved genes related to clathrin-mediated endocytosis (dynamin and clathrin). Endocytosis is required for receptor recycling, is involved in Aβ metabolism, and is regulated by phosphatidylinositol signaling. In summary, these studies demonstrate altered gene expression in 3 SAMP8 hippocampal pathways associated with memory formation and consolidation. These pathways might provide new therapeutic targets in addition to targeting Aβ metabolism itself.

  3. Enhanced resistance in Theobroma cacao against oomycete and fungal pathogens by secretion of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-binding proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The internalization of oomycete and fungal pathogen effectors into host plant cells has been reported to be blocked by proteins that bind to the effectors’ cell entry receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P). This finding suggested a novel strategy for disease control by engineering plants ...

  4. Regulation of Phosphatidylinositol-specific Phospholipase C at the Nuclear Envelope in Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Smrcka, Alan V.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate hydrolysis at the plasma membrane by phospholipase C is one of the major hormone regulated intracellular signaling systems. The system generates the diffusible second messenger IP3 and the membrane bound messenger diacylglycerol. Spatial regulation of this system has been thought to be through specific subcellular distributions of the IP3 receptor or PKC. As is becoming increasingly apparent, receptor-stimulated signaling systems are also found at intracellular membranes. As discussed in this issue, GPCRs have been identified at the nuclear envelope implying intracellular localization of the signaling systems that respond to GPCRs. Here we discuss the evidence for the existence of PLC signals that regulate nuclear processes, as well as the evidence for nuclear and nuclear envelope localization of PLC signaling components, and their implications for cardiac physiology and disease. PMID:25658460

  5. Calcium Promotes the Formation of Syntaxin 1 Mesoscale Domains through Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate*

    PubMed Central

    Platen, Mitja; Junius, Meike; Diederichsen, Ulf; Schaap, Iwan A. T.; Honigmann, Alf; Jahn, Reinhard; van den Bogaart, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) is a minor component of total plasma membrane lipids, but it has a substantial role in the regulation of many cellular functions, including exo- and endocytosis. Recently, it was shown that PI(4,5)P2 and syntaxin 1, a SNARE protein that catalyzes regulated exocytosis, form domains in the plasma membrane that constitute recognition sites for vesicle docking. Also, calcium was shown to promote syntaxin 1 clustering in the plasma membrane, but the molecular mechanism was unknown. Here, using a combination of superresolution stimulated emission depletion microscopy, FRET, and atomic force microscopy, we show that Ca2+ acts as a charge bridge that specifically and reversibly connects multiple syntaxin 1/PI(4,5)P2 complexes into larger mesoscale domains. This transient reorganization of the plasma membrane by physiological Ca2+ concentrations is likely to be important for Ca2+-regulated secretion. PMID:26884341

  6. Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored renal dipeptidase is released by a phospholipase C in vivo.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Wook; Choi, Kyong; Lee, Hwanghee Blaise; Park, Sung Kwang; Turner, Anthony J; Hooper, Nigel M; Park, Haeng Soon

    2002-01-01

    The release mechanism of the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored renal dipeptidase (EC 3.4.13.19) in vivo has been investigated. Triton X-114 phase separation indicated that the dipeptidase is exclusively present as a hydrophilic form in urine from porcine, rat, rabbit and human. Western blot analysis of human and porcine purified dipeptidase and the urine concentrates with anti-(cross-reacting determinant) serum demonstrated the presence of inositol 1,2-cyclic monophosphate indicating that the renal dipeptidase had been released from the membrane by the action of a phospholipase C. This is the first direct evidence for cleavage of a human GPI-anchored protein by a responsible phospholipase C in vivo.

  7. Auxin-induced reactive oxygen species production requires the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jung Hee; Yoo, Ho Jung; Hwang, Inhwan; Lee, June Seung; Nam, Kyoung Hee; Bae, Yun Soo

    2005-02-14

    We recently reported that production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential for auxin-induced gravitropic signaling. Here, we investigated the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and its product, PtdIns(3)P, in auxin-mediated ROS production and the root gravitropic response. Pretreatment with LY294002, an inhibitor of PtdIns 3-kinase activity, blocked auxin-mediated ROS generation, and reduced the sensitivity of root tissue to gravistimulation. The amount of PtdIns(3)P increased in response to auxin, and this effect was abolished by pretreatment with LY294002. In addition, sequestration of PtdIns(3)P by transient expression of the endosome binding domain in protoplasts abrogated IAA-induced ROS accumulation. These results indicate that activation of PtdIns 3-kinase and its product PtdIns(3)P are required for auxin-induced production of ROS and root gravitropism. PMID:15710420

  8. Selective regulation of MAP kinase signaling by an endomembrane phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase.

    PubMed

    Cappell, Steven D; Dohlman, Henrik G

    2011-04-29

    Multiple MAP kinase pathways share components yet initiate distinct biological processes. Signaling fidelity can be maintained by scaffold proteins and restriction of signaling complexes to discreet subcellular locations. For example, the yeast MAP kinase scaffold Ste5 binds to phospholipids produced at the plasma membrane and promotes selective MAP kinase activation. Here we show that Pik1, a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase that localizes primarily to the Golgi, also regulates MAP kinase specificity but does so independently of Ste5. Pik1 is required for full activation of the MAP kinases Fus3 and Hog1 and represses activation of Kss1. Further, we show by genetic epistasis analysis that Pik1 likely regulates Ste11 and Ste50, components shared by all three MAP kinase pathways, through their interaction with the scaffold protein Opy2. These findings reveal a new regulator of signaling specificity functioning at endomembranes rather than at the plasma membrane. PMID:21388955

  9. Increasing Phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-Bisphosphate Biosynthesis Affects Basal Signaling and Chloroplast Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Im, Yang Ju; Smith, Caroline M.; Phillippy, Brian Q.; Strand, Deserah; Kramer, David M.; Grunden, Amy M.; Boss, Wendy F.

    2014-01-01

    One challenge in studying the second messenger inositol(1,4,5)-trisphosphate (InsP3) is that it is present in very low amounts and increases only transiently in response to stimuli. To identify events downstream of InsP3, we generated transgenic plants constitutively expressing the high specific activity, human phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase Iα (HsPIPKIα). PIP5K is the enzyme that synthesizes phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2); this reaction is flux limiting in InsP3 biosynthesis in plants. Plasma membranes from transgenic Arabidopsis expressing HsPIPKIα had 2–3 fold higher PIP5K specific activity, and basal InsP3 levels in seedlings and leaves were >2-fold higher than wild type. Although there was no significant difference in photosynthetic electron transport, HsPIPKIα plants had significantly higher starch (2–4 fold) and 20% higher anthocyanin compared to controls. Starch content was higher both during the day and at the end of dark period. In addition, transcripts of genes involved in starch metabolism such as SEX1 (glucan water dikinase) and SEX4 (phosphoglucan phosphatase), DBE (debranching enzyme), MEX1 (maltose transporter), APL3 (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase) and glucose-6-phosphate transporter (Glc6PT) were up-regulated in the HsPIPKIα plants. Our results reveal that increasing the phosphoinositide (PI) pathway affects chloroplast carbon metabolism and suggest that InsP3 is one component of an inter-organelle signaling network regulating chloroplast metabolism. PMID:27135490

  10. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-dependent regulation of the output in lobster olfactory receptor neurons.

    PubMed

    Bobkov, Yuriy V; Pezier, Adeline; Corey, Elizabeth A; Ache, Barry W

    2010-05-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels often play a role in sensory transduction, including chemosensory transduction. TRP channels, a common downstream target of phosphoinositide (PI) signaling, can be modulated by exogenous phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3] and/or diacylglycerol (DAG). Lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) express a TRP-related, non-selective, calcium/magnesium-permeable, sodium/calcium-gated cation (SGC) channel. Here we report that PIs regulate the function of the calcium-activated form of the lobster channel. Sequestering of endogenous PI(4,5)P2, either with an anti-PI(4,5)P2 antibody or by electrostatic screening with polyvalent cations, blocks the channel. Exogenous PI(3,4,5)P3 activates the channel independently of intracellular sodium and/or calcium. Exogenous non-hydrolysable DAG analogs fail to change the gating parameters of the channel, suggesting the channel is insensitive to DAG. Electrophysiological recording from lobster ORNs in situ using a panel of pharmacological tools targeting the key components of both PI and DAG metabolism (phospholipase C, phosphoinositide 4-kinase and DAG kinase) extend these findings to the intact ORN. PI(4,5)P2 depletion suppresses both the odorant-evoked discharge and whole-cell current of the cells, and does so possibly independently of DAG production. Collectively, our results argue that PIs can regulate output in lobster ORNs, at least in part through their action on the lobster SGC channel.

  11. Phosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoproteins of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells and brain

    SciTech Connect

    Margolis, R.K.; Goossen, B.; Margolis, R.U.

    1988-05-03

    PC12 pheochromocytoma cells and cultures of early postnatal rat cerebellium were labeled with (/sup 3/H)glucosamine, (/sup 3/H)fucose, (/sup 3/H)leucine, (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine, or sodium (/sup 35/S)sulfate and treated with a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. Enzyme treatment of (/sup 3/H) glucosamine- or (/sup 3/H)fucose-labeled PC12 cells led to a 15-fold increase in released glycoproteins. On sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel ectrophoresis, most of the released material migrated as a broad band with an apparent molecular size of 32,000 daltons (Da), which was specifically immunoprecipitated by a monoclonal antibody to the Thy-l glycoprotein. A second glycoprotein, with an apparent molecular size of 158,000 Da, was also released. After treatment with endo-..beta..-galactosidase, 40-45% of the (/sup 3/H)glucosamine of (/sup 3/H)fucose radioactivity in the phospholipase-released glycoproteins was converted to products of disaccharide size, and the molecular size of the 158-kDa glycoprotein decreased to 145 kDa, demonstrating that it contains fucosylated poly-(N-acetyllactosaminyl) oligosaccharides. The phospholipase also released labeled Thy-1 and the 158-kDa glycoprotein from PC12 cells cultured in the presence of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine, which specifically labels this component of the phosphatidylinositol membrane-anchoring sequence,while in the lipid-free protein residue of cells not treated with phospholipase, Thy-1 and a doublet at 46/48 kDa were the only labeled proteins. Sulfated glycoproteins of 155, 132/134, 61, and 21 kDa are the predominant species released by phospholipase, which does not affect a major 44-kDa protein seen in (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled brain cultures. The 44-48- and 155/158-kDa proteins may be common to both PC12 cells and brain.

  12. Chronic alteration in phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate levels regulates capsaicin and mustard oil responses

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Mayur J.; Belugin, Sergei; Akopian, Armen N.

    2011-01-01

    There is an agreement that acute (in minutes) hydrolysis and accumulation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) modulate TRPV1 and TRPA1 activities. Since inflammation results in PIP2 depletion, persisting for long periods (hours-to-days) in pain models and in clinic, we examined whether chronic depletion and accumulation of PIP2 affects capsaicin and mustard oil responses. In addition we also wanted to evaluate whether the effects of PIP2 depend on TRPV1 and TRPA1 co-expression, and whether the PIP2 actions vary in expression cells versus sensory neurons. Chronic PIP2 production was stimulated by over-expression of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase, while PIP2-specific phospholipid 5′-phosphatase was selected to reduce plasma membrane levels of PIP2. Our results demonstrate that capsaicin (100 nM; CAP) responses and receptor tachyphylaxis are not significantly influenced by chronic changes in PIP2 levels in wild-type (WT) or TRPA1 null-mutant sensory neurons, as well as CHO cells expressing TRPV1 alone or with TRPA1. However, low concentrations of CAP (20 nM) produced a higher response after PIP2 depletion in cells containing TRPV1 alone, but not TRPV1 together with TRPA1. Mustard oil (25 μM; MO) responses were also not affected by PIP2 in WT sensory neurons and cells co-expressing TRPA1 and TRPV1. In contrast, PIP2 reduction leads to pronounced tachyphylaxis to MO in cells with both channels. Chronic effect of PIP2 on TRPA1 activity depends on presence of the TRPV1 channel and cell type (CHO vs. sensory neurons). In summary, chronic alterations in PIP2 levels regulate magnitude of CAP and MO responses, as well as MO-tachyphylaxis. This regulation depends on co-expression profile of TRPA1 and TRPV1 and cell type. PMID:21337373

  13. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, a possible virulence factor of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Marques, M B; Weller, P F; Parsonnet, J; Ransil, B J; Nicholson-Weller, A

    1989-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC), an enzyme that can specifically release phosphatidylinositol-linked proteins from host cells, is one of the extracellular enzymes produced by Staphylococcus aureus. To investigate whether PIPLC might be a virulence factor, we assessed PIPLC production by S. aureus strains that had been isolated from healthy carriers and from infected patients with or without toxic shock syndrome. Although none of five vaginal isolates from healthy women was a PIPLC producer, only 10 of 32 selected pathogenic strains that caused significant infections or toxic shock syndrome elaborated PIPLC enzyme activity. Seven of 24 toxic-shock-associated strains, compared with 3 of 8 non-toxic-shock-associated strains, were positive for PIPLC. The majority of strains that produced PIPLC were negative for toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (P less than 0.05); this association between PIPLC production and strains negative for toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 was even stronger among strains isolated only from patients with toxic shock syndrome (P less than 0.01). Among all 32 pathogenic isolates, PIPLC-producing S. aureus strains were isolated from four of four patients developing adult respiratory distress syndrome and four of five patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation, suggesting a significant association between PIPLC production and adult respiratory distress syndrome and/or disseminated intravascular coagulation (P less than 0.002). On the basis of these results, we propose that PIPLC is a virulence factor of S. aureus and is implicated in the development of adult respiratory distress syndrome and disseminated intravascular coagulation. PMID:2808668

  14. Biomass turnover time in terrestrial ecosystems halved by land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Fetzel, Tamara; Plutzar, Christoph; Kastner, Thomas; Lauk, Christian; Mayer, Andreas; Niedertscheider, Maria; Körner, Christian; Haberl, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle is not well quantified. Biomass turnover time is a crucial parameter in the global carbon cycle, and contributes to the feedback between the terrestrial carbon cycle and climate. Biomass turnover time varies substantially in time and space, but its determinants are not well known, making predictions of future global carbon cycle dynamics uncertain. Land use--the sum of activities that aim at enhancing terrestrial ecosystem services--alters plant growth and reduces biomass stocks, and is hence expected to affect biomass turnover. Here we explore land-use-induced alterations of biomass turnover at the global scale by comparing the biomass turnover of the actual vegetation with that of a hypothetical vegetation state with no land use under current climate conditions. We find that, in the global average, biomass turnover is 1.9 times faster with land use. This acceleration affects all biomes roughly equally, but with large differences between land-use types. Land conversion, for example from forests to agricultural fields, is responsible for 59% of the acceleration; the use of forests and natural grazing land accounts for 26% and 15% respectively. Reductions in biomass stocks are partly compensated by reductions in net primary productivity. We conclude that land use significantly and systematically affects the fundamental trade-off between carbon turnover and carbon stocks.

  15. Organizational culture, job satisfaction, and clinician turnover in primary care.

    PubMed

    Hall, Charles B; Brazil, Kevin; Wakefield, Dorothy; Lerer, Trudy; Tennen, Howard

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how organizational culture and job satisfaction affect clinician turnover in primary care pediatric practices. One hundred thirty clinicians from 36 primary care pediatric practices completed the Primary Care Organizational Questionnaire (PCOQ), which evaluates interactions among members of the practice and job-related attributes measuring 8 organizational factors, along with a separate 3-item instrument measuring job satisfaction. Random effects logistic models were used to assess the associations between job satisfaction, the organizational factors from the PCOQ, and clinician turnover over the subsequent year. All 8 measured organizational factors from the PCOQ, particularly perceived effectiveness, were associated with job satisfaction. Five of the 8 organizational factors were also associated with clinician turnover. The effects of the organizational factors on turnover were substantially reduced in a model that included job satisfaction; only 1 organizational factor, communication between clinicians and nonclinicians, remained significant (P = .05). This suggests that organizational culture affects subsequent clinician turnover primarily through its effect on job satisfaction. Organizational culture, in particular perceived effectiveness and communication, affects job satisfaction, which in turn affects clinician turnover in primary care pediatric practices. Strategies to improve job satisfaction through changes in organizational culture could potentially reduce clinician turnover. PMID:23804066

  16. Adhesion-related kinase induction of migration requires phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and ras stimulation of rac activity in immortalized gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Nielsen-Preiss, Sheila M; Allen, Melissa P; Xu, Mei; Linseman, Daniel A; Pawlowski, John E; Bouchard, R J; Varnum, Brian C; Heidenreich, Kim A; Wierman, Margaret E

    2007-06-01

    GnRH neurons migrate into the hypothalamus during development. Although migratory defects may result in disordered activation of the reproductive axis and lead to delayed or absent sexual maturation, specific factors regulating GnRH neuronal migration remain largely unknown. The receptor tyrosine kinase, adhesion-related kinase (Ark) (also known as Axl, UFO, and Tyro7), has been implicated in the migration of GnRH neuronal cells. Binding of its ligand, growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6), promotes cytoskeletal remodeling and migration of NLT GnRH neuronal cells via Rac and p38 MAPK. Here, we examined the Axl effectors proximal to Rac in the signaling pathway. Gas6/Axl-induced lamellipodia formation and migration were blocked after phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibition in GnRH neuronal cells. The p85 subunit of PI3K coimmunoprecipitated with Axl and was phosphorylated in a Gas6-sensitive manner. In addition, PI3K inhibition in GnRH neuronal cells diminished Gas6-induced Rac activation. Exogenous expression of a dominant-negative form of Ras also decreased GnRH neuronal lamellipodia formation, migration, and Rac activation. PI3K inhibition blocked Ras in addition to Rac activation and migration. In contrast, pharmacological blockade of the phospholipase C gamma effectors, protein kinase C or calcium/calmodulin protein kinase II, had no effect on Gas6/Axl signaling to promote Rac activation or stimulate cytoskeletal reorganization and migration. Together, these data show that the PI3K-Ras pathway is a major mediator of Axl actions upstream of Rac to induce GnRH neuronal cell migration. PMID:17332061

  17. Amino Acid Recycling in Relation to Protein Turnover 1

    PubMed Central

    Davies, David D.; Humphrey, Thomas J.

    1978-01-01

    Methods of measuring amino acid recycling in Lemna minor are described. The extent to which the recycling of individual amino acids may underestimate protein turnover has been measured for a number of amino acids. The methods have been used to study the relationship between protein turnover and amino acid recycling during nitrogen starvation. It is concluded that following the removal of nitrate from the environment, protein turnover is enhanced, the partitioning of amino acids between protein synthesis and amino acid metabolism is relatively constant, but the total amount of amino acids recycling is increased. PMID:16660236

  18. Investigating Histone Acetylation Stoichiometry and Turnover Rate.

    PubMed

    Fan, J; Baeza, J; Denu, J M

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetylation is a dynamic epigenetic modification that functions in the regulation of DNA-templated reactions, such as transcription. This lysine modification is reversibly controlled by histone (lysine) acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Here, we present methods employing isotopic labeling and mass spectrometry (MS) to comprehensively investigate histone acetylation dynamics. Turnover rates of histone acetylation are determined by measuring the kinetics of labeling from (13)C-labeled precursors of acetyl-CoA, which incorporates (13)C-carbon onto histones via the acetyltransferase reaction. Overall histone acetylation states are assessed from complete protease digestion to single amino acids, which is followed by MS analysis. Determination of site-specific acetylation stoichiometry is achieved by chemically acetylating endogenous histones with isotopic acetic anhydride, followed by trypsin digestion and LC-MS analysis. Combining metabolic labeling with stoichiometric analysis permits determination of both acetylation level and acetylation dynamics. When comparing genetic, diet, or environmental perturbations, these methods permit both a global and site-specific evaluation of how histone acetylation is dynamically regulated.

  19. Investigating Histone Acetylation Stoichiometry and Turnover Rate.

    PubMed

    Fan, J; Baeza, J; Denu, J M

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetylation is a dynamic epigenetic modification that functions in the regulation of DNA-templated reactions, such as transcription. This lysine modification is reversibly controlled by histone (lysine) acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Here, we present methods employing isotopic labeling and mass spectrometry (MS) to comprehensively investigate histone acetylation dynamics. Turnover rates of histone acetylation are determined by measuring the kinetics of labeling from (13)C-labeled precursors of acetyl-CoA, which incorporates (13)C-carbon onto histones via the acetyltransferase reaction. Overall histone acetylation states are assessed from complete protease digestion to single amino acids, which is followed by MS analysis. Determination of site-specific acetylation stoichiometry is achieved by chemically acetylating endogenous histones with isotopic acetic anhydride, followed by trypsin digestion and LC-MS analysis. Combining metabolic labeling with stoichiometric analysis permits determination of both acetylation level and acetylation dynamics. When comparing genetic, diet, or environmental perturbations, these methods permit both a global and site-specific evaluation of how histone acetylation is dynamically regulated. PMID:27423860

  20. The C-terminal tail inhibitory phosphorylation sites of PTEN regulate its intrinsic catalytic activity and the kinetics of its binding to phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Chia, Yeong-Chit Joel; Catimel, Bruno; Lio, Daisy Sio Seng; Ang, Ching-Seng; Peng, Benjamin; Wu, Hong; Zhu, Hong-Jian; Cheng, Heung-Chin

    2015-12-01

    Dephosphorylation of four major C-terminal tail sites and occupancy of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]-binding site of PTEN cooperate to activate its phospholipid phosphatase activity and facilitate its recruitment to plasma membrane. Our investigation of the mechanism by which phosphorylation of these C-terminal sites controls the PI(4,5)P2-binding affinity and catalytic activity of PTEN resulted in the following findings. First, dephosphorylation of all four sites leads to full activation; and phosphorylation of any one site significantly reduces the intrinsic catalytic activity of PTEN. These findings suggest that coordinated inhibition of the upstream protein kinases and activation of the protein phosphatases targeting the four sites are needed to fully activate PTEN phosphatase activity. Second, PI(4,5)P2 cannot activate the phosphopeptide phosphatase activity of PTEN, suggesting that PI(4,5)P2 can only activate the phospholipid phosphatase activity but not the phosphoprotein phosphatase activity of PTEN. Third, dephosphorylation of all four sites significantly decreases the affinity of PTEN for PI(4,5)P2. Since PI(4,5)P2 is a major phospholipid co-localizing with the phospholipid- and phosphoprotein-substrates in plasma membrane, we hypothesise that the reduced affinity facilitates PTEN to "hop" on the plasma membrane to dephosphorylate these substrates. PMID:26471078

  1. A phosphatidylinositol transfer protein integrates phosphoinositide signaling with lipid droplet metabolism to regulate a developmental program of nutrient stress-induced membrane biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jihui; Pei-Chen Lin, Coney; Pathak, Manish C; Temple, Brenda R S; Nile, Aaron H; Mousley, Carl J; Duncan, Mara C; Eckert, Debra M; Leiker, Thomas J; Ivanova, Pavlina T; Myers, David S; Murphy, Robert C; Brown, H Alex; Verdaasdonk, Jolien; Bloom, Kerry S; Ortlund, Eric A; Neiman, Aaron M; Bankaitis, Vytas A

    2014-03-01

    Lipid droplet (LD) utilization is an important cellular activity that regulates energy balance and release of lipid second messengers. Because fatty acids exhibit both beneficial and toxic properties, their release from LDs must be controlled. Here we demonstrate that yeast Sfh3, an unusual Sec14-like phosphatidylinositol transfer protein, is an LD-associated protein that inhibits lipid mobilization from these particles. We further document a complex biochemical diversification of LDs during sporulation in which Sfh3 and select other LD proteins redistribute into discrete LD subpopulations. The data show that Sfh3 modulates the efficiency with which a neutral lipid hydrolase-rich LD subclass is consumed during biogenesis of specialized membrane envelopes that package replicated haploid meiotic genomes. These results present novel insights into the interface between phosphoinositide signaling and developmental regulation of LD metabolism and unveil meiosis-specific aspects of Sfh3 (and phosphoinositide) biology that are invisible to contemporary haploid-centric cell biological, proteomic, and functional genomics approaches. PMID:24403601

  2. Overexpression of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) transamidase subunits phosphatidylinositol glycan class T and/or GPI anchor attachment 1 induces tumorigenesis and contributes to invasion in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guojun; Guo, Zhongmin; Chatterjee, Aditi; Huang, Xin; Rubin, Ethel; Wu, Feng; Mambo, Elizabeth; Chang, Xiaofei; Osada, Motonobu; Sook Kim, Myoung; Moon, Chulso; Califano, Joseph A; Ratovitski, Edward A; Gollin, Susanne M; Sukumar, Saraswati; Sidransky, David; Trink, Barry

    2006-10-15

    Based on the oncogenic role of phosphatidylinositol glycan (PIG) class U in human tumors, we explored the role of two additional subunits of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) transamidase complex in human breast cancer. We found that PIG class T (PIG-T) and GPI anchor attachment 1 (GPAA1) were overexpressed in breast cancer cell lines and primary tumors. Forced expression of PIG-T and GPAA1 transformed NIH3T3 cells in vitro and increased tumorigenicity and invasion of these cells in vivo. Suppression of PIG-T expression in breast cancer cell lines led to inhibition of anchorage-independent growth. Moreover, we found that PIG-T and GPAA1 expression levels positively correlated with paxillin phosphorylation in invasive breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, suppression of PIG-T and GPAA1 expression led to a decrease in paxillin phosphorylation with a concomitant decrease in invasion ability. These results suggest that the GPI transamidase complex is composed of a group of proto-oncogenes that individually or as a group contribute to breast cancer growth. This aberrant growth is mediated, at least partially, by phosphorylation of paxillin, contributing to invasion and progression of breast cancer.

  3. Lenz-Majewski mutations in PTDSS1 affect phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate metabolism at ER-PM and ER-Golgi junctions.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Mira; Ivanova, Pavlina; Brown, H Alex; Toth, Daniel J; Varnai, Peter; Kim, Yeun Ju; Balla, Tamas

    2016-04-19

    Lenz-Majewski syndrome (LMS) is a rare disease characterized by complex craniofacial, dental, cutaneous, and limb abnormalities combined with intellectual disability. Mutations in thePTDSS1gene coding one of the phosphatidylserine (PS) synthase enzymes, PSS1, were described as causative in LMS patients. Such mutations render PSS1 insensitive to feedback inhibition by PS levels. Here we show that expression of mutant PSS1 enzymes decreased phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) levels both in the Golgi and the plasma membrane (PM) by activating the Sac1 phosphatase and altered PI4P cycling at the PM. Conversely, inhibitors of PI4KA, the enzyme that makes PI4P in the PM, blocked PS synthesis and reduced PS levels by 50% in normal cells. However, mutant PSS1 enzymes alleviated the PI4P dependence of PS synthesis. Oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 8, which was recently identified as a PI4P-PS exchanger between the ER and PM, showed PI4P-dependent membrane association that was significantly decreased by expression of PSS1 mutant enzymes. Our studies reveal that PS synthesis is tightly coupled to PI4P-dependent PS transport from the ER. Consequently, PSS1 mutations not only affect cellular PS levels and distribution but also lead to a more complex imbalance in lipid homeostasis by disturbing PI4P metabolism. PMID:27044099

  4. A phosphatidylinositol transfer protein integrates phosphoinositide signaling with lipid droplet metabolism to regulate a developmental program of nutrient stress-induced membrane biogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Jihui; Lin, Coney Pei-Chen; Pathak, Manish C.; Temple, Brenda R.S.; Nile, Aaron H.; Mousley, Carl J.; Duncan, Mara C.; Eckert, Debra M.; Leiker, Thomas J.; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Myers, David S.; Murphy, Robert C.; Brown, H. Alex; Verdaasdonk, Jolien; Bloom, Kerry S.; Ortlund, Eric A.; Neiman, Aaron M.; Bankaitis, Vytas A.

    2014-07-11

    Lipid droplet (LD) utilization is an important cellular activity that regulates energy balance and release of lipid second messengers. Because fatty acids exhibit both beneficial and toxic properties, their release from LDs must be controlled. Here we demonstrate that yeast Sfh3, an unusual Sec14-like phosphatidylinositol transfer protein, is an LD-associated protein that inhibits lipid mobilization from these particles. We further document a complex biochemical diversification of LDs during sporulation in which Sfh3 and select other LD proteins redistribute into discrete LD subpopulations. The data show that Sfh3 modulates the efficiency with which a neutral lipid hydrolase-rich LD subclass is consumed during biogenesis of specialized membrane envelopes that package replicated haploid meiotic genomes. These results present novel insights into the interface between phosphoinositide signaling and developmental regulation of LD metabolism and unveil meiosis-specific aspects of Sfh3 (and phosphoinositide) biology that are invisible to contemporary haploid-centric cell biological, proteomic, and functional genomics approaches.

  5. Distinct roles for extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in the regulation of Mcl-1 synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, K M; Duronio, V

    2001-01-01

    Alterations in the expression of various Bcl-2 family members may act as one means by which a cell's survival may be regulated. The mechanism by which cytokines regulate expression of Bcl-2 family members was examined in the haemopoietic cell line TF-1. Cytokine-induced Mcl-1 protein expression was shown to be controlled through a pathway dependent upon phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). The cytokine-induced increase in mRNA transcription was not dependent upon PI 3-kinase, thus dissociating the immediate-early transcription factors responsible for Mcl-1 transcription from the PI 3-kinase signalling pathway. In contrast, Mcl-1 mRNA levels were dependent upon MEK [mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase kinase] activation, suggesting a role for the Ras/MEK/MAPK pathway in Mcl-1 transcription. Activation of PI 3-kinase was shown to be necessary to stimulate Mcl-1 protein translation. This was not due to any effect on prolonging the half-life of the protein. Finally, the lipid second messenger ceramide was shown to cause a reduction in Mcl-1 protein translation, probably via its ability to inhibit protein kinase B activation, providing further clues regarding the death-inducing effect of this lipid. PMID:11368774

  6. Lenz-Majewski mutations in PTDSS1 affect phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate metabolism at ER-PM and ER-Golgi junctions

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Mira; Ivanova, Pavlina; Brown, H. Alex; Varnai, Peter; Kim, Yeun Ju; Balla, Tamas

    2016-01-01

    Lenz-Majewski syndrome (LMS) is a rare disease characterized by complex craniofacial, dental, cutaneous, and limb abnormalities combined with intellectual disability. Mutations in the PTDSS1 gene coding one of the phosphatidylserine (PS) synthase enzymes, PSS1, were described as causative in LMS patients. Such mutations render PSS1 insensitive to feedback inhibition by PS levels. Here we show that expression of mutant PSS1 enzymes decreased phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) levels both in the Golgi and the plasma membrane (PM) by activating the Sac1 phosphatase and altered PI4P cycling at the PM. Conversely, inhibitors of PI4KA, the enzyme that makes PI4P in the PM, blocked PS synthesis and reduced PS levels by 50% in normal cells. However, mutant PSS1 enzymes alleviated the PI4P dependence of PS synthesis. Oxysterol-binding protein–related protein 8, which was recently identified as a PI4P-PS exchanger between the ER and PM, showed PI4P-dependent membrane association that was significantly decreased by expression of PSS1 mutant enzymes. Our studies reveal that PS synthesis is tightly coupled to PI4P-dependent PS transport from the ER. Consequently, PSS1 mutations not only affect cellular PS levels and distribution but also lead to a more complex imbalance in lipid homeostasis by disturbing PI4P metabolism. PMID:27044099

  7. Lenz-Majewski mutations in PTDSS1 affect phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate metabolism at ER-PM and ER-Golgi junctions.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Mira; Ivanova, Pavlina; Brown, H Alex; Toth, Daniel J; Varnai, Peter; Kim, Yeun Ju; Balla, Tamas

    2016-04-19

    Lenz-Majewski syndrome (LMS) is a rare disease characterized by complex craniofacial, dental, cutaneous, and limb abnormalities combined with intellectual disability. Mutations in thePTDSS1gene coding one of the phosphatidylserine (PS) synthase enzymes, PSS1, were described as causative in LMS patients. Such mutations render PSS1 insensitive to feedback inhibition by PS levels. Here we show that expression of mutant PSS1 enzymes decreased phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) levels both in the Golgi and the plasma membrane (PM) by activating the Sac1 phosphatase and altered PI4P cycling at the PM. Conversely, inhibitors of PI4KA, the enzyme that makes PI4P in the PM, blocked PS synthesis and reduced PS levels by 50% in normal cells. However, mutant PSS1 enzymes alleviated the PI4P dependence of PS synthesis. Oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 8, which was recently identified as a PI4P-PS exchanger between the ER and PM, showed PI4P-dependent membrane association that was significantly decreased by expression of PSS1 mutant enzymes. Our studies reveal that PS synthesis is tightly coupled to PI4P-dependent PS transport from the ER. Consequently, PSS1 mutations not only affect cellular PS levels and distribution but also lead to a more complex imbalance in lipid homeostasis by disturbing PI4P metabolism.

  8. ADP-Ribosylation Factor 6 Regulates Mammalian Myoblast Fusion through Phospholipase D1 and Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Anne-Sophie; Enjalbert, Sandrine; Comunale, Franck; Bodin, Stéphane; Vitale, Nicolas; Charrasse, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Myoblast fusion is an essential step during myoblast differentiation that remains poorly understood. M-cadherin–dependent pathways that signal through Rac1 GTPase activation via the Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Trio are important for myoblast fusion. The ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)6 GTPase has been shown to bind to Trio and to regulate Rac1 activity. Moreover, Loner/GEP100/BRAG2, a GEF of ARF6, has been involved in mammalian and Drosophila myoblast fusion, but the specific role of ARF6 has been not fully analyzed. Here, we show that ARF6 activity is increased at the time of myoblast fusion and is required for its implementation in mouse C2C12 myoblasts. Specifically, at the onset of myoblast fusion, ARF6 is associated with the multiproteic complex that contains M-cadherin, Trio, and Rac1 and accumulates at sites of myoblast fusion. ARF6 silencing inhibits the association of Trio and Rac1 with M-cadherin. Moreover, we demonstrate that ARF6 regulates myoblast fusion through phospholipase D (PLD) activation and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bis-phosphate production. Together, these data indicate that ARF6 is a critical regulator of C2C12 myoblast fusion and participates in the regulation of PLD activities that trigger both phospholipids production and actin cytoskeleton reorganization at fusion sites. PMID:20505075

  9. Essential role for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in the expression, regulation, and gating of the slow afterhyperpolarization current in the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Claudio; Foehring, Robert C; Lee, Jonathan C; Andrade, Rodrigo

    2011-12-14

    Many neurons of the CNS and peripheral nervous system express a slow afterhyperpolarization that is mediated by a slow calcium-activated potassium current. Previous work has shown that this aftercurrent regulates repetitive firing and is an important target for neuromodulators signaling through receptors coupled to G-proteins of the Gα(q-11) and Gα(s) subtypes. Yet, despite considerable effort, a molecular-level understanding of the potassium current underlying the slow afterhyperpolarization and its modulation has proven elusive. Here, we use a combination of pharmacological and molecular biological approaches in cortical brain slices to show that the functional expression of the slow calcium-activated afterhyperpolarizing current in pyramidal cells is critically dependent on membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P(2)] and that this dependence accounts for its inhibition by 5-HT(2A) receptors. Furthermore, we show that PtdIns(4,5)P(2) regulates the calcium sensitivity of I(sAHP) in a manner that suggests it acts downstream from the rise in intracellular calcium. These results clarify key functional aspects of the slow afterhyperpolarization current and its modulation by 5-HT(2A) receptors and point to a key role for PtdIns(4,5)P(2) in the gating of this current.

  10. 5'-Nucleotidases of chicken gizzard and human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells are anchored to the plasma membrane via a phosphatidylinositol-glycan.

    PubMed Central

    Stochaj, U; Flocke, K; Mathes, W; Mannherz, H G

    1989-01-01

    We have analysed the membrane anchorage of plasma-membrane 5'-nucleotidase, an ectoenzyme which can mediate binding to components of the extracellular matrix. We demonstrated that the purified enzyme obtained from chicken gizzard and a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line were both completely transformed into a hydrophilic form by treatment with phospholipases C and D, cleaving glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). These data indicate the presence of a glycolipid linker employed for membrane anchoring of the 5'-nucleotidase obtained from both sources. Incubation of plasma membranes under identical conditions revealed that about half of the AMPase activity was resistant to GPI-hydrolysing phospholipases. Investigation of the enzymic properties of purified chicken gizzard 5'-nucleotidase revealed only minor changes after removal of the phosphatidylinositol linker. However, cleavage of the membrane anchor resulted in an increased sensitivity towards inhibition by concanavalin A. After tissue fractionation, chicken gizzard 5'-nucleotidase could be obtained as either a membrane-bound or a soluble protein; the latter is suspected to be released from the plasma membrane by endogenous phospholipases. Higher-molecular-mass proteins immuno-cross-reactive with the purified chicken gizzard 5'-nucleotidase were detected as both soluble and membrane-bound forms. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2554891

  11. Proteasome regulates turnover of toxic human amylin in pancreatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sanghamitra; Trikha, Saurabh; Sarkar, Anjali; Jeremic, Aleksandar M.

    2016-01-01

    Toxic human amylin (hA) oligomers and aggregates are implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although recent studies demonstrated a causal connection between hA uptake and toxicity in pancreatic cells, the mechanism of amylin’s clearance following its internalization and its relationship to toxicity is yet to be determined, and hence was investigated here. Using pancreatic rat insulinoma β-cells and human islets as model systems, we show that hA, following its internalization, first accumulates in the cytosol followed by its translocation into nucleus, and to a lesser extent lysosomes, keeping the net cytosolic amylin content low. An increase in hA accumulation in the nucleus of pancreatic cells correlated with its cytotoxicity, suggesting that its excessive accumulation in the nucleus is detrimental. hA interacted with 20S core and 19S lid subunits of the β-cell proteasomal complex, as suggested by immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy studies, which subsequently resulted in a decrease in the proteasome’s proteolytic activity in these cells. In vitro binding and activity assays confirmed an intrinsic and potent ability of amylin to interact with the 20S core complex thereby modulating its proteolytic activity. Interestingly, less toxic and aggregation incapable rat amylin (rA) showed a comparable inhibitory effect on proteasome activity and protein ubiquitination, decoupling amylin aggregation/toxicity and amylin-induced protein stress. In agreement with these studies, inhibition of proteasomal proteolytic activity significantly increased intracellular amylin content and toxicity. Taken together, our results suggest a pivotal role of proteasomes in amylin’s turnover and detoxification in pancreatic cells. PMID:27340132

  12. Comparison of the effects of eleven histamine H1-receptor antagonists on monoamine turnover in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Oishi, R; Shishido, S; Yamori, M; Saeki, K

    1994-02-01

    To compare in vivo effects of eleven compounds of different classes of histamine H1-receptor antagonists (alcoholamines: diphenhydramine, carbinoxamine, and clemastine; ethylenediamines: mepyramine, tripelennamine, and clemizole; alkylamines: triprolidine and chlorpheniramine; piperazines: meclizine and homochlorcyclizine; phenothiazines: promethazine) on neuronal uptake of dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), the effects on the turnover of these monoamines were examined in the mouse brain, based on the alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine-induced depletion of DA and NA or probenecid-induced accumulation of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. The DA turnover was reduced remarkably by diphenhydramine, tripelennamine, and promethazine, and also significantly by chlorpheniramine, mepyramine, clemizole, and homochlorcyclizine, at doses used in the ordinary animal experiments. The 5-HT turnover was reduced markedly by mepyramine, tripelennamine, and chlorpheniramine. In contrast, the NA turnover was increased by promethazine and homochlorcyclizine, possibly due to their antagonistic effects on alpha-adrenoceptors. These results suggest that (1) the degree of inhibition of the uptake of DA and 5-HT by histamine H1-receptor antagonists is considerably different, (2) most H1-antagonists have little influence on NA uptake and some compounds enhance NA release, and that (3) carbinoxamine, clemastine, triprolidine, and meclizine have comparatively weak influences on monoamine metabolism. These effects on brain monoamine systems may be related to some central actions of histamine H1-receptor antagonists, such as an addiction to these compounds combined with opioids. PMID:7513381

  13. Autoradiographic imaging of phosphoinositide turnover in the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, P.M.; Bredt, D.S.; Snyder, S.H. )

    1990-08-17

    With ({sup 3}H)cytidine as a precursor, phosphoinositide turnover can be localized in brain slices by selective autoradiography of the product ({sup 3}H)cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol, which is membrane-bound. In the cerebellum, glutamatergic stimulation elicits an increase of phosphoinositide turnover only in Purkinje cells and the molecular layer. In the hippocampus, both glutamatergic and muscarinic cholinergic stimulation increase phosphoinositide turnover, but with distinct localizations. Cholinergic stimulation affects CA1, CA3, CA4, and subiculum, whereas glutamatergic effects are restricted to the subiculum and CA3. Imaging phosphoinositide turnover in brain slices, which are amenable to electrophysiologic studies, will permit a dynamic localized analysis of regulation of this second messenger in response to synaptic stimulation of specific neuronal pathways.

  14. Cell surface phosphatidylinositol-anchored heparan sulfate proteoglycan initiates mouse melanoma cell adhesion to a fibronectin-derived, heparin-binding synthetic peptide

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) from metastatic mouse melanoma cells initiates cell adhesion to the synthetic peptide FN-C/H II, a heparin-binding peptide from the 33-kD A chain-derived fragment of fibronectin. Mouse melanoma cell adhesion to FN-C/H II was sensitive to soluble heparin and pretreatment of mouse melanoma cells with heparitinase. In contrast, cell adhesion to the fibronectin synthetic peptide CS1 is mediated through an alpha 4 beta 1 integrin and was resistant to heparin or heparitinase treatment. Mouse melanoma cell HSPG was metabolically labeled with [35S]sulfate and extracted with detergent. After HPLC-DEAE purification, 35S-HSPG eluted from a dissociative CL-4B column with a Kav approximately 0.45, while 35S- heparan sulfate (HS) chains eluted with a Kav approximately 0.62. The HSPG contained a major 63-kD core protein after heparitinase digestion. Polyclonal antibodies generated against HSPG purified from mouse melanoma cells grown in vivo also identified a 63-kD core protein. This HSPG is an integral plasma membrane component by virtue of its binding to Octyl Sepharose affinity columns and that anti-HSPG antibody staining exhibited a cell surface localization. The HSPG is anchored to the cell surface through phosphatidylinositol (PI) linkages, as evidenced in part by the ability of PI-specific phospholipase C to eliminate binding of the detergent-extracted HSPG to Octyl Sepharose. Furthermore, the mouse melanoma HSPG core protein could be metabolically labeled with 3H-ethanolamine. The involvement of mouse melanoma cell surface HSPG in cell adhesion to fibronectin was also demonstrated by the ability of anti-HSPG antibodies and anti-HSPG IgG Fab monomers to inhibit mouse melanoma cell adhesion to FN-C/H II. 35S- HSPG and 35S-HS bind to FN-C/H II affinity columns and require 0.25 M NaCl for elution. However, heparitinase-treated 125I-labeled HSPG failed to bind FN-C/H II, suggesting that HS, and not HSPG core protein, binds FN

  15. Examining Teacher Turnover: Past and Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Rob

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation presents a framework for investigating how school level phenomena may influence African-American teacher retention, attrition, and mobility in K-12 contexts. I argue that prevalent assumptions and inadequate data concerning the state of black educators have inhibited thorough investigation of minority employment trends in K-12…

  16. The high-resolution crystal structure of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIβ and the crystal structure of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIα containing a nucleoside analogue provide a structural basis for isoform-specific inhibitor design.

    PubMed

    Klima, Martin; Baumlova, Adriana; Chalupska, Dominika; Hřebabecký, Hubert; Dejmek, Milan; Nencka, Radim; Boura, Evzen

    2015-07-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) is the most abundant monophosphoinositide in eukaryotic cells. Humans have four phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4Ks) that synthesize PI4P, among which are PI4K IIβ and PI4K IIα. In this study, two crystal structures are presented: the structure of human PI4K IIβ and the structure of PI4K IIα containing a nucleoside analogue. The former, a complex with ATP, is the first high-resolution (1.9 Å) structure of a PI4K. These structures reveal new details such as high conformational heterogeneity of the lateral hydrophobic pocket of the C-lobe and together provide a structural basis for isoform-specific inhibitor design.

  17. Warming Effects Enzyme Turnover During Decomposition of Subtropical Peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihi, D.; Inglett, P.; Inglett, K. S.

    2015-12-01

    Extracellular enzymes are the proximate agents for organic matter degradation, but the turnover rate of enzymes is often assumed in most decomposition models without direct observations. Here, we assess turnover rates of C (ß-D-glucosidase), N (Leucine aminopeptidase), and P (Phosphomonoesterase) degrading enzymes by spiking commercially available enzymes to the dissolved organic matter of two subtropical peats incubated at 15°C and 25°C and monitoring of net activity of spiked enzymes (i.e. the difference between the spiked and the non-spiked samples) over time. Turnover rates of all three enzymes were greater in the samples incubated at 25°C (ranged between 0.006 hr-1 to 0.014 hr-1) as compared to those incubated at 15°C (ranged between 0.002 hr-1 to 0.009 hr-1). Concentrations of dissolved organic matter were positively correlated with the turnover rates (R2 ranged between 0.71-0.77) of all enzyme groups. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to evaluate the turnover rates of enzymes in wetland soils as a function of warming and dissolved organic matter concentration. The findings suggest that warming-induced changes in the size of soil enzyme pool due to direct (by increasing protease activity) and indirect (by increasing concentrations of dissolved organic matter) effects on their turnover rates has potential to alter soil C stocks in a warmer world.

  18. Plant species persistence and turnover on small Bahamian islands.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Lloyd W

    2003-06-01

    I conducted surveys of the plant species occupying 136 small islands in the Exuma Cays and 58 small islands near Andros, Bahamas. Most species occurred on relatively few islands, and most islands contained relatively few species. Identities of the most common species differed between the two archipelagos. Comparisons with earlier surveys revealed species extinctions and immigrations. Turnover was relatively low on both a per island and a per species basis on both archipelagos, although significant spatial variation in turnover rates between archipelagos was found. Most islands experienced no turnover; islands on which turnover did occur were larger and had higher species richness. Likewise, most species did not turnover, although much variation existed in turnover rates among those that did. Experimental introductions of two species to very small islands naturally devoid of vegetation revealed that these islands could support plant life. One species survived on eight of ten islands for >9 years, including the effects of a moderate (class 2) hurricane. This hurricane caused substantial damage and loss of plant biomass, but resulted in no species extinctions on 30 small islands. Data for the small islands in this region, now spanning almost a decade, reveal that most populations are persistent over periods of years to decades, rarely going extinct or immigrating. Even moderate hurricanes seem to have little impact on species compositions.

  19. Extracellular proteases modify cell wall turnover in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Jolliffe, L K; Doyle, R J; Streips, U N

    1980-01-01

    The rate of turnover of peptidoglycan in exponentially growing cultures of Bacillus subtilis was observed to be sensitive to extracellular protease. In protease-deficient mutants the rates of cell wall turnover were greater than that of wild-type strain 168, whereas hyperprotease-producing strains exhibited decreased rates of peptidoglycan turnover. The rate of peptidogylcan turnover in a protease-deficient strain was decreased when the mutant was grown in the presence of a hyperprotease-producing strain. The addition of phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, a serine protease inhibitor, to cultures of hyperprotease-producing strains increased their rates of cell wall turnover. Isolated cell walls of all protease mutants contained autolysin levels equal to or greater than that of wild-type strain 168. The presence of filaments, or cells with incomplete septa, was observed in hyperprotease-producing strains or when a protease-deficient strain was grown in the presence of subtilisin. The results suggest that the turnover of cell walls in B. subtilis may be regulated by extracellular proteases. Images PMID:6102558

  20. Explaining the Gap in Charter and Traditional Public School Teacher Turnover Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuit, David A.; Smith, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses national survey data to examine why charter school teachers are more likely to turnover than their traditional public school counterparts. We test whether the turnover gap is explained by different distributions of factors that are empirically and theoretically linked to turnover risk. We find that the turnover rate of charter…

  1. The Cost of Teacher Turnover in Five School Districts: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Gary; Crowe, Edward: Schaefer, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of a pilot study of the cost of teacher turnover in five school districts. We examine the rate of turnover, the relationship between turnover and teacher and school characteristics, and the costs associated with recruiting, hiring, and training replacement teachers. We find evidence that turnover costs,…

  2. Reviewing Employee Turnover: Focusing on Proximal Withdrawal States and an Expanded Criterion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hom, Peter W.; Mitchell, Terence R.; Lee, Thomas W.; Griffeth, Rodger W.

    2012-01-01

    We reconceptualize employee turnover to promote researchers' understanding and prediction of why employees quit or stay in employing institutions. A literature review identifies shortcomings with prevailing turnover dimensions. In response, we expand the conceptual domain of the turnover criterion to include multiple types of turnover (notably,…

  3. Listeria monocytogenes phosphatidylinositol (PI)-specific phospholipase C has low activity on glycosyl-PI-anchored proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, A J; Perussia, B; Goldfine, H

    1993-01-01

    The ability of the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) from Listeria monocytogenes to hydrolyze glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane proteins was compared with the ability of the PI-PLC from Bacillus thuringiensis to hydrolyze such proteins. The L. monocytogenes enzyme produced no detectable release of acetylcholinesterase from bovine, sheep, and human erythrocytes. The cleavage of the GPI anchors of alkaline phosphatase from rat and rabbit kidney slices was less than 10% of the cleavage seen with the PI-PLC from B. thuringiensis. Activity for release of Fc gamma receptor IIIB (CD16) on human granulocytes was also low. Variations in pH and salt concentration had little effect on the release of GPI-anchored proteins. Our data show that L. monocytogenes PI-PLC has low activity on GPI-anchored proteins. PMID:8253689

  4. The function of phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase γ (PI5P4Kγ) explored using a specific inhibitor that targets the PI5P-binding site

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Jonathan H.; Giudici, Maria-Luisa; Burke, John E.; Williams, Roger L.; Maloney, David J.; Marugan, Juan; Irvine, Robin F.

    2014-01-01

    NIH-12848 (NCGC00012848-02), a putative phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase γ (PI5P4Kγ) inhibitor, was explored as a tool for investigating this enigmatic, low activity, lipid kinase. PI5P4K assays in vitro showed that NIH-12848 inhibited PI5P4Kγ with an IC50 of approximately 1 μM but did not inhibit the α and β PI5P4K isoforms at concentrations up to 100 μM. A lack of inhibition of PI5P4Kγ ATPase activity suggested that NIH-12848 does not interact with the enzyme's ATP-binding site and direct exploration of binding using hydrogen–deuterium exchange (HDX)-MS (HDX-MS) revealed the putative PI5P-binding site of PI5P4Kγ to be the likely region of interaction. This was confirmed by a series of mutation experiments which led to the identification of a single PI5P4Kγ amino acid residue that can be mutated to its PI5P4Ks α and β homologue to render PI5P4Kγ resistant NIH-12848 inhibition. NIH-12848 (10 μM) was applied to cultured mouse principal kidney cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells which, we show, express PI5P4Kγ that increases when the cells grow to confluence and polarize. NIH-12848 inhibited the translocation of Na+/K+-ATPase to the plasma membrane that occurs when mpkCCD cells grow to confluence and also prevented reversibly their forming of ‘domes’ on the culture dish. Both these NIH-12848-induced effects were mimicked by specific RNAi knockdown of PI5P4Kγ, but not that of PI5P4Ks α or β. Overall, the data reveal a probable contribution of PI5P4Kγ to the development and maintenance of epithelial cell functional polarity and show that NIH-12848 is a potentially powerful tool for exploring the cell physiology of PI5P4Ks. PMID:25495341

  5. Insulin-Mediated Down-Regulation of Apolipoprotein A5 Gene Expression through the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway: Role of Upstream Stimulatory Factor

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Maxime; Helleboid-Chapman, Audrey; Jakel, Heidelinde; Martin, Geneviève; Duran-Sandoval, Daniel; Staels, Bart; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2005-01-01

    The apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been repeatedly implicated in lowering plasma triglyceride levels. Since several studies have demonstrated that hyperinsulinemia is associated with hypertriglyceridemia, we sought to determine whether APOA5 is regulated by insulin. Here, we show that cell lines and mice treated with insulin down-regulate APOA5 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that insulin decreases human APOA5 promoter activity, and subsequent deletion and mutation analyses uncovered a functional E box in the promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that this APOA5 E box binds upstream stimulatory factors (USFs). Moreover, in transfection studies, USF1 stimulates APOA5 promoter activity, and the treatment with insulin reduced the binding of USF1/USF2 to the APOA5 promoter. The inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway abolished insulin's effect on APOA5 gene expression, while the inhibition of the P70 S6 kinase pathway with rapamycin reversed its effect and increased APOA5 gene expression. Using an oligonucleotide precipitation assay for USF from nuclear extracts, we demonstrate that phosphorylated USF1 fails to bind to the APOA5 promoter. Taken together, these data indicate that insulin-mediated APOA5 gene transrepression could involve a phosphorylation of USFs through the PI3K and P70 S6 kinase pathways that modulate their binding to the APOA5 E box and results in APOA5 down-regulation. The effect of exogenous hyperinsulinemia in men showed a decrease in the plasma ApoAV level. These results suggest a potential contribution of the APOA5 gene in hypertriglyceridemia associated with hyperinsulinemia. PMID:15684402

  6. Basal expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor determines intrinsic resistance of cancer cells to a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor ZSTK474

    PubMed Central

    Isoyama, Sho; Kajiwara, Gensei; Tamaki, Naomi; Okamura, Mutsumi; Yoshimi, Hisashi; Nakamura, Naoki; Kawamura, Kento; Nishimura, Yumiko; Namatame, Nachi; Yamori, Takao; Dan, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    Drug resistance often critically limits the efficacy of molecular targeted drugs. Although pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is an attractive therapeutic strategy for cancer therapy, molecular determinants for efficacy of PI3K inhibitors (PI3Kis) remain unclear. We previously identified that overexpression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) contributed to the development of drug resistance after long-term exposure to PI3Kis. In this study, we examined the involvement of basal IGF1R expression in intrinsic resistance of drug-naïve cancer cells to PI3Kis and whether inhibition of IGF1R overcomes the resistance. We found that cancer cells highly expressing IGF1R showed resistance to dephosphorylation of Akt and subsequent antitumor effect by ZSTK474 treatment. Knockdown of IGF1R by siRNAs facilitated the dephosphorylation and enhanced the drug efficacy. These cells expressed tyrosine-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 at high levels, which was dependent on basal IGF1R expression. In these cells, the efficacy of ZSTK474 in vitro and in vivo was improved by its combination with the IGF1R inhibitor OSI-906. Finally, we found a significant correlation between the basal expression level of IGF1R and the inefficacy of ZSTK474 in an in vivo human cancer panel, as well as in vitro. These results suggest that basal IGF1R expression affects intrinsic resistance of cancer cells to ZSTK474, and IGF1R is a promising target to improve the therapeutic efficacy. The current results provide evidence of combination therapy of PI3Kis with IGF1R inhibitors for treating IGF1R-positive human cancers. PMID:25483727

  7. Rab27a controls HIV-1 assembly by regulating plasma membrane levels of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Pehuén Pereyra; Cabrini, Mercedes; Jancic, Carolina; Paoletti, Luciana; Banchio, Claudia; von Bilderling, Catalina; Sigaut, Lorena; Pietrasanta, Lía I.; Duette, Gabriel; Freed, Eric O.; de Saint Basile, Genevieve; Moita, Catarina Ferreira; Moita, Luis Ferreira; Amigorena, Sebastian; Benaroch, Philippe; Geffner, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    During the late stages of the HIV-1 replication cycle, the viral polyprotein Pr55Gag is recruited to the plasma membrane (PM), where it binds phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) and directs HIV-1 assembly. We show that Rab27a controls the trafficking of late endosomes carrying phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type 2 α (PI4KIIα) toward the PM of CD4+ T cells. Hence, Rab27a promotes high levels of PM phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and the localized production of PI(4,5)P2, therefore controlling Pr55Gag membrane association. Rab27a also controls PI(4,5)P2 levels at the virus-containing compartments of macrophages. By screening Rab27a effectors, we identified that Slp2a, Slp3, and Slac2b are required for the association of Pr55Gag with the PM and that Slp2a cooperates with Rab27a in the recruitment of PI4KIIα to the PM. We conclude that by directing the trafficking of PI4KIIα-positive endosomes toward the PM, Rab27a controls PI(4,5)P2 production and, consequently, HIV-1 replication. PMID:25940347

  8. IRBIT Interacts with the Catalytic Core of Phosphatidylinositol Phosphate Kinase Type Iα and IIα through Conserved Catalytic Aspartate Residues

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Hideaki; Hirose, Matsumi; Gainche, Laura; Kawaai, Katsuhiro; Bonneau, Benjamin; Ijuin, Takeshi; Itoh, Toshiki; Takenawa, Tadaomi; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIPKs) are lipid kinases that generate phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), a critical lipid signaling molecule that regulates diverse cellular functions, including the activities of membrane channels and transporters. IRBIT (IP3R-binding protein released with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate) is a multifunctional protein that regulates diverse target proteins. Here, we report that IRBIT forms signaling complexes with members of the PIPK family. IRBIT bound to all PIPK isoforms in heterologous expression systems and specifically interacted with PIPK type Iα (PIPKIα) and type IIα (PIPKIIα) in mouse cerebellum. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that two conserved catalytic aspartate residues of PIPKIα and PIPKIIα are involved in the interaction with IRBIT. Furthermore, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, Mg2+, and/or ATP interfered with the interaction, suggesting that IRBIT interacts with catalytic cores of PIPKs. Mutations of phosphorylation sites in the serine-rich region of IRBIT affected the selectivity of its interaction with PIPKIα and PIPKIIα. The structural flexibility of the serine-rich region, located in the intrinsically disordered protein region, is assumed to underlie the mechanism of this interaction. Furthermore, in vitro binding experiments and immunocytochemistry suggest that IRBIT and PIPKIα interact with the Na+/HCO3− cotransporter NBCe1-B. These results suggest that IRBIT forms signaling complexes with PIPKIα and NBCe1-B, whose activity is regulated by PI(4,5)P2. PMID:26509711

  9. Effect of phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol on myelin basic protein-mediated binding of actin filaments to lipid bilayers in vitro.

    PubMed

    Boggs, Joan M; Rangaraj, Godha; Dicko, Awa

    2012-09-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) binds to negatively charged lipids on the cytosolic surface of oligodendrocytes and is believed to be responsible for adhesion of these surfaces in the multilayered myelin sheath. It can also assemble actin filaments and tether them to lipid bilayers through electrostatic interactions. Here we investigate the effect of increased negative charge of the lipid bilayer due to phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) on MBP-mediated binding of actin to the lipid bilayer, by substituting phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate or phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate for PI in phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylglycerol lipid vesicles. Phosphorylation of PI caused dissociation of the MBP/actin complex from the lipid vesicles due to repulsion of the negatively charged complex from the negatively charged membrane surface. An effect of phosphorylation could be detected even if the inositol lipid was only 2mol% of the total lipid. Calcium-calmodulin dissociated actin from the MBP-lipid vesicles and phosphorylation of PI increased the amount dissociated. These results show that changes to the lipid composition of myelin, which could occur during signaling or other physiological events, could regulate the ability of MBP to act as a scaffolding protein and bind actin filaments to the lipid bilayer.

  10. Protein turnover methods in single-celled organisms: dynamic SILAC.

    PubMed

    Claydon, Amy J; Beynon, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Early achievements in proteomics were qualitative, typified by the identification of very small quantities of proteins. However, as the subject has developed, there has been a pressure to develop approaches to define the amounts of each protein--whether in a relative or an absolute sense. A further dimension to quantitative proteomics embeds the behavior of each protein in terms of its turnover. Virtually every protein in the cell is in a dynamic state, subject to continuous synthesis and degradation, the relative rates of which control the expansion or the contraction of the protein pool, and the absolute values of which dictate the temporal responsiveness of the protein pool. Strategies must therefore be developed to assess the turnover of individual proteins in the proteome. Because a protein can be turning over rapidly even when the protein pool is in steady state, the only acceptable approach to measure turnover is to use metabolic labels that are incorporated or lost from the protein pool as it is replaced. Using metabolic labeling on a proteome-wide scale in turn requires metabolic labels that contain stable isotopes, the incorporation or loss of which can be assessed by mass spectrometry. A typical turnover experiment is complex. The choice of metabolic label is dictated by several factors, including abundance in the proteome, metabolic redistribution of the label in the precursor pool, and the downstream mass spectrometric analytical protocols. Key issues include the need to control and understand the relative isotope abundance of the precursor, the optimization of label flux into and out of the protein pool, and a sampling strategy that ensures the coverage of the greatest range of turnover rates. Finally, the informatics approaches to data analysis will not be as straightforward as in other areas of proteomics. In this chapter, we will discuss the principles and practice of workflow development for turnover analysis, exemplified by the development of

  11. Endothelin stimulates phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis and DNA synthesis in brain capillary endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Vigne, P; Marsault, R; Breittmayer, J P; Frelin, C

    1990-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a novel vasoconstricting and cardiotonic peptide that is synthesized by the vascular endothelium. Bovine aortic endothelial cells which secrete ET in vitro lack membrane receptor sites for the peptide. Endothelial cells from rat brain microvessels that do not secrete ET in vitro express large amounts of high-affinity receptors for 125I-labelled ET-1 (Kd 0.8 nM). The ET receptor is recognized by sarafotoxin S6b and the different ET peptides with the following order of potency: ET-1 (Kd 0.5 nM) approximately equal to ET-2 (Kd 0.7 nM) greater than sarafotoxin S6b (Kd 27 nM) greater than ET-3 (Kd 450 nM). This structure-activity relationship is different from those found in vascular smooth muscle cells, renal cells and cardiac cells. ET-1 stimulates DNA synthesis in brain capillary endothelial cells. It is more potent than basic fibroblast growth factor. The action of ET on endothelial cells from microvessels involves phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. These observations suggest that brain endothelial cells might be an important target for ET. PMID:2156495

  12. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase activation induced upon Fc gamma RIIIA- ligand interaction

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Induced activation of protein tyrosine kinase(s) is a central event in signal transduction mediated via the low affinity receptor for IgG (Fc gamma RIIIA, CD16) in natural killer (NK) cells. Tyrosine phosphorylation may affect the function of several protein directly, or indirectly by inducing their association with other tyrosine phosphorylated proteins. Here, we report that Fc gamma RIII stimulation induces activation of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3 kinase in NK cells. Phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitates from Fc gamma RIII-stimulated NK cells contain PI-kinase activity and PI-3 kinase can be directly precipitated from them. Conversely, a series of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins is coprecipitated with PI-3 kinase from the stimulated, but not from control cells. Analogous results obtained using Jurkat T cells expressing transfected Fc gamma RIIIA alpha ligand binding chain in association with gamma 2 or zeta 2 homodimers indicate that both complexes transduce this effect, although the Fc gamma RIIIA-zeta 2 complexes do so with greater efficiency. Accumulation of phosphoinositide D3 phosphorylated products in stimulated cells confirms PI-3 kinase activation, indicating the participation of this enzyme in Fc gamma RIIIA-mediated signal transduction. PMID:8294866

  13. Phosphatidylinositol kinase is activated in membranes derived from cells treated with epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, D H; Pike, L J

    1987-01-01

    The ability of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to stimulate phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) kinase activity in A431 cells was examined. The incorporation of 32P from [gamma-32P]ATP into PtdIns by A431 membranes was increased in membranes prepared from cells that had been pretreated with EGF. Demonstration of a stimulation of the PtdIns kinase activity by EGF required the use of subconfluent cultures and was dependent on the inclusion of protease inhibitors in the buffers used to prepare the membranes. Stimulation of the PtdIns kinase activity was rapid. The activation peaked 2 min after the addition of EGF and declined slowly thereafter. Half-maximal stimulation of the PtdIns kinase occurred at 7 nM EGF. Kinetic analyses of the reaction indicated that treatment of the cells with EGF resulted in a decrease in the Km for PtdIns with no change in the Vmax. The kinetic parameters for the utilization of ATP were unchanged in the EGF-treated membranes compared to the control membranes. Pretreatment of the cells with the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate blocked the ability of EGF to stimulate PtdIns kinase activity. These findings demonstrate that a PtdIns kinase activity in A431 cells is regulated by EGF and provide a good system for examining the mechanism by which EGF stimulates the activity of this intracellular enzyme. PMID:2823265

  14. Correlation between phosphatidylinositol labeling and contraction in rabbit aorta: effect of alpha-1 adrenergic activation

    SciTech Connect

    Villalobos-Molina, R.; Uc, M.; Hong, E.; Garcia-Sainz, J.A.

    1982-07-01

    Activation of rabbit aortic strips with alpha adrenergic agonists increased the labeling (with (/sup 32/P)Pi) of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidic acid and contracted the vascular preparations in dose-related fashion. Epinephrine, norepinephrine and methoxamine produced maximal effects, whereas clonidine behaved as partial agonist and B-HT 933 (2-amino-6-ethyl-4,5,7,8-tetrahydro-6H-oxazole-(5,4-d) azepin dihydrochloride) was almost without activity in the two experimental models used. Phenylephrine was a full agonist in producing contraction, but failed to elicit the maximal increase in PI labeling. The EC50 values to produce contraction of aortic strips were lower for all agonists than those required to increase the incorporation of radioactive phosphate into PI, but there was a good correlation between the two sets of data. The increased PI labeling and contraction of aortic strips induced by epinephrine were antagonized by prazosin and yohimbine in dose-related fashion, but the first alpha blocker was about three orders of magnitude more potent than the second in antagonizing the two effects. The present results indicate that both stimulation of PI labeling and contraction are mediated through activation of alpha-1 adrenoceptors in rabbit aorta.

  15. Revealing Transient Interactions between Phosphatidylinositol-specific Phospholipase C and Phosphatidylcholine--Rich Lipid Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Boqian; He, Tao; Grauffel, Cédric; Reuter, Nathalie; Roberts, Mary; Gershenson, Anne

    2013-03-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) enzymes transiently interact with target membranes. Previous fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) experiments showed that Bacillus thuringiensis PI-PLC specifically binds to phosphatidylcholine (PC)-rich membranes and preferentially interacts with unilamellar vesicles that show larger curvature. Mutagenesis studies combined with FCS measurements of binding affinity highlighted the importance of interfacial PI-PLC tyrosines in the PC specificity. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations of PI-PLC performed in the presence of a PC membrane indicate these tyrosines are involved in specific cation-pi interactions with choline headgroups. To further understand those transient interactions between PI-PLC and PC-rich vesicles, we monitor single fluorescently labeled PI-PLC proteins as they cycle on and off surface-tethered small unilamellar vesicles using total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy. The residence times on vesicles along with vesicle size information, based on vesicle fluorescence intensity, reveal the time scales of PI-PLC membrane interactions as well as the curvature dependence. The PC specificity and the vesicle curvature dependence of this PI-PLC/membrane interaction provide insight into how the interface modulates protein-membrane interactions. This work was supported by the National Institute of General Medical Science of the National Institutes of Health (R01GM060418).

  16. Legionella phosphatase hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and inosital triphosphate in human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Dowling, J.N.; Saha, A.K.; Glew, R.H.

    1987-05-01

    Legionella are facultative intracellular bacterial pathogens which multiply in host phagocytes. L. micdadei cells contain an acid phosphatase (ACP) that blocks superoxide anion production by human neutrophils stimulated with the formylated peptide, fMLP. The possibility that ACP acts by interefering with polyphosphoinositide metabolism and the production of the intracellular second messenger, inositol triphosphate (IP3) was explored. When neutrophil phosphoinositides were labeled with TSP, incubation of the cells with ACP caused an 85% loss of the labeled phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) over 2 h. Treatment of (TH)inositol-labeled neutrophils with ACP for 30 min resulted in a 20% decrease of labeled PIP2. Following fMLP stimulation, the fractional reduction in PIP2 and the fractional increase in IP3 was the same in ACP-treated and untreated neutrophils, but the total quantity of IP3 was reduced by ACP pre-treatment. The reduction in IP3 generated following fMLP stimulation seems to be due primarily to the decreased amount of PIP2 available for hydrolysis. However, some loss of IP3 due to direct hydrolysis by ACP cannot be ruled out. The Legionella phosphatase may compromise neutrophil response to the bacteria by hydrolyzing PIP2, the prognitor of IP3, and by hydrolyzing IP3 itself.

  17. Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-dependent membrane traffic is critical for fungal filamentous growth.

    PubMed

    Ghugtyal, Vikram; Garcia-Rodas, Rocio; Seminara, Agnese; Schaub, Sébastien; Bassilana, Martine; Arkowitz, Robert Alan

    2015-07-14

    The phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate [PI(4)P], generated at the Golgi and plasma membrane, has been implicated in many processes, including membrane traffic, yet its role in cell morphology changes, such as the budding to filamentous growth transition, is unknown. We show that Golgi PI(4)P is required for such a transition in the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Quantitative analyses of membrane traffic revealed that PI(4)P is required for late Golgi and secretory vesicle dynamics and targeting and, as a result, is important for the distribution of a multidrug transporter and hence sensitivity to antifungal drugs. We also observed that plasma membrane PI(4)P, which we show is functionally distinct from Golgi PI(4)P, forms a steep gradient concomitant with filamentous growth, despite uniform plasma membrane PI-4-kinase distribution. Mathematical modeling indicates that local PI(4)P generation and hydrolysis by phosphatases are crucial for this gradient. We conclude that PI(4)P-regulated membrane dynamics are critical for morphology changes.

  18. Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-dependent membrane traffic is critical for fungal filamentous growth

    PubMed Central

    Ghugtyal, Vikram; Garcia-Rodas, Rocio; Seminara, Agnese; Schaub, Sébastien; Bassilana, Martine; Arkowitz, Robert Alan

    2015-01-01

    The phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate [PI(4)P], generated at the Golgi and plasma membrane, has been implicated in many processes, including membrane traffic, yet its role in cell morphology changes, such as the budding to filamentous growth transition, is unknown. We show that Golgi PI(4)P is required for such a transition in the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Quantitative analyses of membrane traffic revealed that PI(4)P is required for late Golgi and secretory vesicle dynamics and targeting and, as a result, is important for the distribution of a multidrug transporter and hence sensitivity to antifungal drugs. We also observed that plasma membrane PI(4)P, which we show is functionally distinct from Golgi PI(4)P, forms a steep gradient concomitant with filamentous growth, despite uniform plasma membrane PI-4-kinase distribution. Mathematical modeling indicates that local PI(4)P generation and hydrolysis by phosphatases are crucial for this gradient. We conclude that PI(4)P-regulated membrane dynamics are critical for morphology changes. PMID:26124136

  19. Beclin 1 Forms Two Distinct Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Complexes with Mammalian Atg14 and UVRAG

    PubMed Central

    Itakura, Eisuke; Kishi, Chieko; Inoue, Kinji

    2008-01-01

    Class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) regulates multiple membrane trafficking. In yeast, two distinct PI3-kinase complexes are known: complex I (Vps34, Vps15, Vps30/Atg6, and Atg14) is involved in autophagy, and complex II (Vps34, Vps15, Vps30/Atg6, and Vps38) functions in the vacuolar protein sorting pathway. Atg14 and Vps38 are important in inducing both complexes to exert distinct functions. In mammals, the counterparts of Vps34, Vps15, and Vps30/Atg6 have been identified as Vps34, p150, and Beclin 1, respectively. However, orthologues of Atg14 and Vps38 remain unknown. We identified putative mammalian homologues of Atg14 and Vps38. The Vps38 candidate is identical to UV irradiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), which has been reported as a Beclin 1-interacting protein. Although both human Atg14 and UVRAG interact with Beclin 1 and Vps34, Atg14, and UVRAG are not present in the same complex. Although Atg14 is present on autophagic isolation membranes, UVRAG primarily associates with Rab9-positive endosomes. Silencing of human Atg14 in HeLa cells suppresses autophagosome formation. The coiled-coil region of Atg14 required for binding with Vps34 and Beclin 1 is essential for autophagy. These results suggest that mammalian cells have at least two distinct class III PI3-kinase complexes, which may function in different membrane trafficking pathways. PMID:18843052

  20. Atg38 is required for autophagy-specific phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex integrity

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Yasuhiro; Ku, Wei-Chi; Akioka, Manami; May, Alexander I.; Hayashi, Yu; Arisaka, Fumio; Ishihama, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved eukaryotic process of protein and organelle self-degradation within the vacuole/lysosome. Autophagy is characterized by the formation of an autophagosome, for which Vps34-dervied phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) is essential. In yeast, Vps34 forms two distinct protein complexes: complex I, which functions in autophagy, and complex II, which is involved in protein sorting to the vacuole. Here we identify and characterize Atg38 as a stably associated subunit of complex I. In atg38Δ cells, autophagic activity was significantly reduced and PI3-kinase complex I dissociated into the Vps15–Vps34 and Atg14–Vps30 subcomplexes. We find that Atg38 physically interacted with Atg14 and Vps34 via its N terminus. Further biochemical analyses revealed that Atg38 homodimerizes through its C terminus and that this homodimer formation is indispensable for the integrity of complex I. These data suggest that the homodimer of Atg38 functions as a physical linkage between the Vps15–Vps34 and Atg14–Vps30 subcomplexes to facilitate complex I formation. PMID:24165940

  1. Identification of nuclear phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-interacting proteins by neomycin extraction.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Aurélia E; Sommer, Lilly; Arntzen, Magnus Ø; Strahm, Yvan; Morrice, Nicholas A; Divecha, Nullin; D'Santos, Clive S

    2011-02-01

    Considerable insight into phosphoinositide-regulated cytoplasmic functions has been gained by identifying phosphoinositide-effector proteins. Phosphoinositide-regulated nuclear functions however are fewer and less clear. To address this, we established a proteomic method based on neomycin extraction of intact nuclei to enrich for nuclear phosphoinositide-effector proteins. We identified 168 proteins harboring phosphoinositide-binding domains. Although the vast majority of these contained lysine/arginine-rich patches with the following motif, K/R-(X(n= 3-7)-K-X-K/R-K/R, we also identified a smaller subset of known phosphoinositide-binding proteins containing pleckstrin homology or plant homeodomain modules. Proteins with no prior history of phosphoinositide interaction were identified, some of which have functional roles in RNA splicing and processing and chromatin assembly. The remaining proteins represent potentially other novel nuclear phosphoinositide-effector proteins and as such strengthen our appreciation of phosphoinositide-regulated nuclear functions. DNA topology was exemplar among these: Biochemical assays validated our proteomic data supporting a direct interaction between phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and DNA Topoisomerase IIα. In addition, a subset of neomycin extracted proteins were further validated as phosphatidyl 4,5-bisphosphate-interacting proteins by quantitative lipid pull downs. In summary, data sets such as this serve as a resource for a global view of phosphoinositide-regulated nuclear functions.

  2. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate alters pharmacological selectivity for epilepsy-causing KCNQ potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pingzheng; Yu, Haibo; Gu, Min; Nan, Fa-jun; Gao, Zhaobing; Li, Min

    2013-05-21

    Pharmacological augmentation of neuronal KCNQ muscarinic (M) currents by drugs such as retigabine (RTG) represents a first-in-class therapeutic to treat certain hyperexcitatory diseases by dampening neuronal firing. Whereas all five potassium channel subtypes (KCNQ1-KCNQ5) are found in the nervous system, KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 are the primary players that mediate M currents. We investigated the plasticity of subtype selectivity by two M current effective drugs, retigabine and zinc pyrithione (ZnPy). Retigabine is more effective on KCNQ3 than KCNQ2, whereas ZnPy is more effective on KCNQ2 with no detectable effect on KCNQ3. In neurons, activation of muscarinic receptor signaling desensitizes effects by retigabine but not ZnPy. Importantly, reduction of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) causes KCNQ3 to become sensitive to ZnPy but lose sensitivity to retigabine. The dynamic shift of pharmacological selectivity caused by PIP2 may be induced orthogonally by voltage-sensitive phosphatase, or conversely, abolished by mutating a PIP2 site within the S4-S5 linker of KCNQ3. Therefore, whereas drug-channel binding is a prerequisite, the drug selectivity on M current is dynamic and may be regulated by receptor signaling pathways via PIP2. PMID:23650395

  3. The ML1Nx2 Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate Probe Shows Poor Selectivity in Cells.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Gerald R V; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Takehiko; Balla, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) is a quantitatively minor phospholipid in eukaryotic cells that plays a fundamental role in regulating endocytic membrane traffic. Despite its clear importance for cellular function and organism physiology, mechanistic details of its biology have so far not been fully elucidated. In part, this is due to a lack of experimental tools that specifically probe for PtdIns(3,5)P2 in cells to unambiguously identify its dynamics and site(s) of action. In this study, we have evaluated a recently reported PtdIns(3,5)P2 biosensor, GFP-ML1Nx2, for its veracity as such a probe. We report that, in live cells, the localization of this biosensor to sub-cellular compartments is largely independent of PtdIns(3,5)P2, as assessed after pharmacological, chemical genetic or genomic interventions that block the lipid's synthesis. We therefore conclude that it is unwise to interpret the localization of ML1Nx2 as a true and unbiased biosensor for PtdIns(3,5)P2.

  4. Identification and chromosome assignment of a human gene encoding a novel phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase.

    PubMed

    Seki, N; Nimura, Y; Ohira, M; Saito, T; Ichimiya, S; Nomura, N; Nakagawara, A

    1997-10-31

    We identified a novel phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase by screening human brain cDNA libraries with probes designed from the conserved kinase-domain sequence. Analysis of cDNAs indicated that two different forms of transcripts are present: one is the full-length form composed of 1,044 amino acid residues and the other is the short form that the N-terminal 216 amino acid residues including a putative p85 binding domain has been truncated (828 amino acid residues). Database search revealed the sequence of the full-length form to be identical to that recently registered by D. Chantry et al. (Accession No. U86453 in GenBank release, August 1997). Northern blot analysis showed this mRNA to be ubiquitously expressed in various tissues, with relatively higher expression was observed in spleen, thymus and leukocytes. Based on fluorescence in situ hybridization and PCR-based analyses with both human/rodent mono-chromosomal hybrid cell panels and radiation hybrid mapping panels, this gene was localized to chromosome region 1p36.2. This region is frequently lost in a variety of human malignancies, including neuroblastoma. The novel PI3K could be a candidate target of the 1p36 alteration that occurs in neuroendocrine tumors.

  5. Mycobacterial phosphatidylinositol mannoside is a natural antigen for CD1d-restricted T cells

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Karsten; Scotet, Emmanuel; Niemeyer, Marcus; Koebernick, Heidrun; Zerrahn, Jens; Maillet, Sophie; Hurwitz, Robert; Kursar, Mischo; Bonneville, Marc; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; Schaible, Ulrich E.

    2004-01-01

    A group of T cells recognizes glycolipids presented by molecules of the CD1 family. The CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells (NKT cells) are primarily considered to be self-reactive. By employing CD1d-binding and T cell assays, the following structural parameters for presentation by CD1d were defined for a number of mycobacterial and mammalian lipids: two acyl chains facilitated binding, and a polar head group was essential for T cell recognition. Of the mycobacterial lipids tested, only a phosphatidylinositol mannoside (PIM) fulfilled the requirements for CD1d binding and NKT cell stimulation. This PIM activated human and murine NKT cells via CD1d, thereby triggering antigen-specific IFN-γ production and cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and PIM-loaded CD1d tetramers identified a subpopulation of murine and human NKT cells. This phospholipid, therefore, represents a mycobacterial antigen recognized by T cells in the context of CD1d. PMID:15243159

  6. Design and Structural Characterization of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Phosphatidylinositol 4 Kinase IIIβ.

    PubMed

    Rutaganira, Florentine U; Fowler, Melissa L; McPhail, Jacob A; Gelman, Michael A; Nguyen, Khanh; Xiong, Anming; Dornan, Gillian L; Tavshanjian, Brandon; Glenn, Jeffrey S; Shokat, Kevan M; Burke, John E

    2016-03-10

    Type III phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4KIIIβ) is an essential enzyme in mediating membrane trafficking and is implicated in a variety of pathogenic processes. It is a key host factor mediating replication of RNA viruses. The design of potent and specific inhibitors of this enzyme will be essential to define its cellular roles and may lead to novel antiviral therapeutics. We previously reported the PI4K inhibitor PIK93, and this compound has defined key functions of PI4KIIIβ. However, this compound showed high cross reactivity with class I and III PI3Ks. Using structure-based drug design, we have designed novel potent and selective (>1000-fold over class I and class III PI3Ks) PI4KIIIβ inhibitors. These compounds showed antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus. The co-crystal structure of PI4KIIIβ bound to one of the most potent compounds reveals the molecular basis of specificity. This work will be vital in the design of novel PI4KIIIβ inhibitors, which may play significant roles as antiviral therapeutics. PMID:26885694

  7. The Salmonella effector SteA binds phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate for subcellular targeting within host cells.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Lia; Ismail, Ahmad; Charro, Nuno; Rodríguez-Escudero, Isabel; Holden, David W; Molina, María; Cid, Víctor J; Mota, Luís Jaime

    2016-07-01

    Many bacterial pathogens use specialized secretion systems to deliver virulence effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The function of these effectors depends on their localization within infected cells, but the mechanisms determining subcellular targeting of each effector are mostly elusive. Here, we show that the Salmonella type III secretion effector SteA binds specifically to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P]. Ectopically expressed SteA localized at the plasma membrane (PM) of eukaryotic cells. However, SteA was displaced from the PM of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in mutants unable to synthesize the local pool of PI(4)P and from the PM of HeLa cells after localized depletion of PI(4)P. Moreover, in infected cells, bacterially translocated or ectopically expressed SteA localized at the membrane of the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) and to Salmonella-induced tubules; using the PI(4)P-binding domain of the Legionella type IV secretion effector SidC as probe, we found PI(4)P at the SCV membrane and associated tubules throughout Salmonella infection of HeLa cells. Both binding of SteA to PI(4)P and the subcellular localization of ectopically expressed or bacterially translocated SteA were dependent on a lysine residue near the N-terminus of the protein. Overall, this indicates that binding of SteA to PI(4)P is necessary for its localization within host cells.

  8. Modeling the self-organized phosphatidylinositol lipid signaling system in chemotactic cells using quantitative image analysis.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Tatsuo; Nishikawa, Masatoshi; Matsuoka, Satomi; Ueda, Masahiro

    2012-11-01

    A key signaling event that is responsible for gradient sensing in eukaryotic cell chemotaxis is a phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) lipid reaction system. The self-organization activity of this PtdIns lipid system induces an inherent polarity, even in the absence of an external chemoattractant gradient, by producing a localized PtdIns (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)]-enriched domain on the membrane. Experimentally, we found that such a domain could exhibit two types of behavior: (1) it could be persistent and travel on the membrane, or (2) be stochastic and transient. Taking advantage of the simultaneous visualization of PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) and the enzyme phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), for which PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) is a substrate, we statistically demonstrated the inter-dependence of their spatiotemporal dynamics. On the basis of this statistical analysis, we developed a theoretical model for the self-organization of PtdIns lipid signaling that can accurately reproduce both persistent and transient domain formation; these types of formations can be explained by the oscillatory and excitability properties of the system, respectively. PMID:22899720

  9. INTRACELLULAR TRANSPORT. Phosphatidylserine transport by ORP/Osh proteins is driven by phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Moser von Filseck, Joachim; Čopič, Alenka; Delfosse, Vanessa; Vanni, Stefano; Jackson, Catherine L; Bourguet, William; Drin, Guillaume

    2015-07-24

    In eukaryotic cells, phosphatidylserine (PS) is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but is highly enriched in the plasma membrane (PM), where it contributes negative charge and to specific recruitment of signaling proteins. This distribution relies on transport mechanisms whose nature remains elusive. Here, we found that the PS transporter Osh6p extracted phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) and exchanged PS for PI4P between two membranes. We solved the crystal structure of Osh6p:PI4P complex and demonstrated that the transport of PS by Osh6p depends on PI4P recognition in vivo. Finally, we showed that the PI4P-phosphatase Sac1p, by maintaining a PI4P gradient at the ER/PM interface, drove PS transport. Thus, PS transport by oxysterol-binding protein-related protein (ORP)/oxysterol-binding homology (Osh) proteins is fueled by PI4P metabolism through PS/PI4P exchange cycles.

  10. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate rescues TRPM4 channels from desensitization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Okawa, Haruhisa; Wang, Yuanyuan; Liman, Emily R

    2005-11-25

    TRPM4 is a Ca(2+)-activated nonselective cation channel that regulates membrane potential in response to intracellular Ca(2+) signaling. In lymphocytes it plays an essential role in shaping the pattern of intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations that lead to cytokine secretion. To better understand its role in this and other physiological processes, we investigated mechanisms by which TRPM4 is regulated. TRPM4 was expressed in ChoK1 cells, and currents were measured in excised patches. Under these conditions, TRPM4 currents were activated by micromolar concentrations of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) and progressively desensitized. Here we show that desensitization can be explained by a loss of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P(2)) from the channels. Poly-l-lysine, a PI(4,5)P(2) scavenger, caused rapid desensitization, whereas MgATP, at concentrations that activate lipid kinases, promoted recovery of TRPM4 currents. Application of exogenous PI(4,5)P(2) to the intracellular surface of the patch restored the properties of TRPM4 currents. Our results suggest that PI(4,5)P(2) acts to uncouple channel opening from changes in the transmembrane potential, allowing current activation at physiological voltages. These data argue that hydrolysis of PI(4,5)P(2) underlies desensitization of TRPM4 and support the idea that PI(4,5)P(2) is a general regulator for the gating of TRPM ion channels. PMID:16186107

  11. Lipidomic profiling in Crohn's disease: Abnormalities in phosphatidylinositols, with preservation of ceramide, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine composition

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, Gavin W.; Hannun, Yusuf A.; Han, Xianlin; Koster, Grielof; Bielawski, Jacek; Goss, Victoria; Smith, Philip J.; Rahman, Farooq Z.; Vega, Roser; Bloom, Stuart L.; Walker, Ann P.; Postle, Anthony D.; Segal, Anthony W.

    2012-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory condition largely affecting the terminal ileum and large bowel. A contributing cause is the failure of an adequate acute inflammatory response as a result of impaired secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by macrophages. This defective secretion arises from aberrant vesicle trafficking, misdirecting the cytokines to lysosomal degradation. Aberrant intestinal permeability is also well-established in Crohn's disease. Both the disordered vesicle trafficking and increased bowel permeability could result from abnormal lipid composition. We thus measured the sphingo- and phospholipid composition of macrophages, using mass spectrometry and stable isotope labelling approaches. Stimulation of macrophages with heat-killed Escherichia coli resulted in three main changes; a significant reduction in the amount of individual ceramide species, an altered composition of phosphatidylcholine, and an increased rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis in macrophages. These changes were observed in macrophages from both healthy control individuals and patients with Crohn's disease. The only difference detected between control and Crohn's disease macrophages was a reduced proportion of newly-synthesised phosphatidylinositol 16:0/18:1 over a defined time period. Shotgun lipidomics analysis of macroscopically non-inflamed ileal biopsies showed a significant decrease in this same lipid species with overall preservation of sphingolipid, phospholipid and cholesterol composition. PMID:22728312

  12. The glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchor is critical for Ly-6A/E- mediated T cell activation

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Ly-6E, a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored murine alloantigen that can activate T cells upon antibody cross-linking, has been converted into an integral membrane protein by gene fusion. This fusion product, designated Ly-6EDb, was characterized in transiently transfected COS cells and demonstrated to be an integral cell surface membrane protein. Furthermore, the fusion antigen can be expressed on the surface of the BW5147 class "E" mutant cell line, which only expresses integral membrane proteins but not GPI-anchored proteins. The capability of this fusion antigen to activate T cells was examined by gene transfer studies in D10G4.1, a type 2 T cell helper clones. When transfected into D10 cells, the GPI-anchored Ly-6E antigen, as well as the endogenous GPI-anchored Ly-6A antigen, can initiate T cell activation upon antibody cross-linking. In contrast, the transmembrane anchored Ly-6EDb antigen was unable to mediate T cell activation. Our results demonstrate that the GPI-anchor is critical to Ly-6A/E-mediated T cell activation. PMID:1825084

  13. RhoG regulates anoikis through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaki, Nao; Negishi, Manabu; Katoh, Hironori . E-mail: hirokato@pharm.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2007-08-01

    In normal epithelial cells, cell-matrix interaction is required for cell survival and proliferation, whereas disruption of this interaction causes epithelial cells to undergo apoptosis called anoikis. Here we show that the small GTPase RhoG plays an important role in the regulation of anoikis. HeLa cells are capable of anchorage-independent cell growth and acquire resistance to anoikis. We found that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of RhoG promoted anoikis in HeLa cells. Previous studies have shown that RhoG activates Rac1 and induces several cellular functions including promotion of cell migration through its effector ELMO and the ELMO-binding protein Dock180 that function as a Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor. However, RhoG-induced suppression of anoikis was independent of the ELMO- and Dock180-mediated activation of Rac1. On the other hand, the regulation of anoikis by RhoG required phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, and constitutively active RhoG bound to the PI3K regulatory subunit p85{alpha} and induced the PI3K-dependent phosphorylation of Akt. Taken together, these results suggest that RhoG protects cells from apoptosis caused by the loss of anchorage through a PI3K-dependent mechanism, independent of its activation of Rac1.

  14. Accumulation of arachidonic acid-containing phosphatidylinositol at the outer edge of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hiraide, Takanori; Ikegami, Koji; Sakaguchi, Takanori; Morita, Yoshifumi; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Masaki, Noritaka; Waki, Michihiko; Sugiyama, Eiji; Shinriki, Satoru; Takeda, Makoto; Shibasaki, Yasushi; Miyazaki, Shinichiro; Kikuchi, Hirotoshi; Okuyama, Hiroaki; Inoue, Masahiro; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Konno, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that cancer cells show specific alterations in phospholipid metabolism that contribute to tumour progression in several types of cancer, including colorectal cancer. Questions still remain as to what lipids characterize the outer edge of cancer tissues and whether those cancer outer edge-specific lipid compositions emerge autonomously in cancer cells. Cancer tissue-originated spheroids (CTOSs) that are composed of pure primary cancer cells have been developed. In this study, we aimed to seek out the cancer cell-autonomous acquisition of cancer outer edge-characterizing lipids in colorectal cancer by analysing phospholipids in CTOSs derived from colorectal cancer patients with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). A signal at m/z 885.5 in negative ion mode was detected specifically at the surface regions. The signal was identified as an arachidonic acid (AA)-containing phosphatidylinositol (PI), PI(18:0/20:4), by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Quantitative analysis revealed that the amount of PI(18:0/20:4) in the surface region of CTOSs was two-fold higher than that in the medial region. Finally, PI(18:0/20:4) was enriched at the cancer cells/stromal interface in colorectal cancer patients. These data imply a possible importance of AA-containing PI for colorectal cancer progression, and suggest cells expressing AA-containing PI as potential targets for anti-cancer therapy. PMID:27435310

  15. LPIAT1 regulates arachidonic acid content in phosphatidylinositol and is required for cortical lamination in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeon-Cheol; Inoue, Takao; Sasaki, Junko; Kubo, Takuya; Matsuda, Shinji; Nakasaki, Yasuko; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Tanaka, Fumiharu; Udagawa, Osamu; Kono, Nozomu; Itoh, Toshiki; Ogiso, Hideo; Taguchi, Ryo; Arita, Makoto; Sasaki, Takehiko; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Dietary arachidonic acid (AA) has roles in growth, neuronal development, and cognitive function in infants. AA is remarkably enriched in phosphatidylinositol (PI), an important constituent of biological membranes in mammals; however, the physiological significance of AA-containing PI remains unknown. In an RNA interference–based genetic screen using Caenorhabditis elegans, we recently cloned mboa-7 as an acyltransferase that selectively incorporates AA into PI. Here we show that lysophosphatidylinositol acyltransferase 1 (LPIAT1, also known as MBOAT7), the closest mammalian homologue, plays a crucial role in brain development in mice. Lpiat1−/− mice show almost no LPIAT activity with arachidonoyl-CoA as an acyl donor and show reduced AA contents in PI and PI phosphates. Lpiat1−/− mice die within a month and show atrophy of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Immunohistochemical analysis reveals disordered cortical lamination and delayed neuronal migration in the cortex of E18.5 Lpiat1−/− mice. LPIAT1 deficiency also causes disordered neuronal processes in the cortex and reduced neurite outgrowth in vitro. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AA-containing PI/PI phosphates play an important role in normal cortical lamination during brain development in mice. PMID:23097495

  16. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C activity of chromaffin granule-binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, C.E.; Dowling, L.G.; Kyger, E.M.; Franson, R.C.

    1985-06-25

    Using (U-/sup 14/C)phosphatidylinositol as substrate, Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent phospholipase C activity was detected in a group of bovine adrenal medullary proteins that bind to chromaffin granule membranes in the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/. The activity was maximal at neutral pH and represented an 80- to 240-fold enrichment of adrenal medullary cytosol phospholipase C activity measured at pH 7.3. The stimulation of activity by Ca/sup 2 +/ was complex; no activity was present in the absence of Ca/sup 2 +/, 25% activation occurred at 1 microM Ca/sup 2 +/, and full activation at 5 mM Ca/sup 2 +/. The enzyme bound to chromaffin granule membranes in the presence of 2 mM Ca/sup 2 +/ but was released at 40 microM Ca/sup 2 +/, suggesting that intrinsic enzyme activity may be regulated by (Ca/sup 2 +/) at 1 microM, but additional activation at higher concentrations of Ca/sup 2 +/ is seen in vitro as a result of Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent binding of the active enzyme to substrate-containing membranes. This enzyme may generate diacylglycerol and phosphorylated inositol to act as intracellular messengers in the vicinity of the chromaffin granule membrane during the process of exocytosis.

  17. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase γ is required for the development of experimental cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Lacerda-Queiroz, Norinne; Brant, Fatima; Rodrigues, David Henrique; Vago, Juliana Priscila; Rachid, Milene Alvarenga; Sousa, Lirlândia Pires; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) is characterized by a strong immune response, with leukocyte recruitment, blood-brain barrier breakdown and hemorrhage in the central nervous system. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) is central in signaling diverse cellular functions. Using PI3Kγ-deficient mice (PI3Kγ-/-) and a specific PI3Kγ inhibitor, we investigated the relevance of PI3Kγ for the outcome and the neuroinflammatory process triggered by Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection. Infected PI3Kγ-/- mice had greater survival despite similar parasitemia levels in comparison with infected wild type mice. Histopathological analysis demonstrated reduced hemorrhage, leukocyte accumulation and vascular obstruction in the brain of infected PI3Kγ-/- mice. PI3Kγ deficiency also presented lower microglial activation (Iba-1+ reactive microglia) and T cell cytotoxicity (Granzyme B expression) in the brain. Additionally, on day 6 post-infection, CD3+CD8+ T cells were significantly reduced in the brain of infected PI3Kγ-/- mice when compared to infected wild type mice. Furthermore, expression of CD44 in CD8+ T cell population in the brain tissue and levels of phospho-IkB-α in the whole brain were also markedly lower in infected PI3Kγ-/- mice when compared with infected wild type mice. Finally, AS605240, a specific PI3Kγ inhibitor, significantly delayed lethality in infected wild type mice. In brief, our results indicate a pivotal role for PI3Kγ in the pathogenesis of ECM. PMID:25775137

  18. Human platelets produce 14,15-oxido-5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid from phosphatidylinositol

    SciTech Connect

    Ballou, L.R.; Lam, B.K.; Wong, P.Y.K.; Cheung, W.Y.

    1987-05-01

    Human platelets contain a soluble enzyme or enzyme system which catalyzes the formation of a compound more polar than arachidonate from 2-arachidonyl-sn-phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns). The C-value and mass spectrum of the compound appears similar to the reported values of 14,15-oxido-5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid (EET). 2-Arachidonyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine, 2-arachidonyl-sn-phosphatidylethanolamine and arachidonic acid were not substrates for EET production. The reaction was Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent and insensitive to aspirin, mepacrin and indomethacin. EET formation was greatly reduced under nitrogen or carbon monoxide, however, exposure to atmospheric air rapidly restored EET production to a rate comparable to that under air. Further, neither NADPH nor cyanide affected EET formation, suggesting that a cytochrome P-450 system was not involved. Intact platelets prelabeled with (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid generated at least 0.5 nmole of EET/10/sup 9/ platelets in response to thrombin; other agonists such as collagen, epinephrine, ADP or ionophore A23187 were not effective. Collectively, these data suggest that human platelets possess an enzyme system which appears to catalyze epoxidation of the arachidonyl moiety of PtdIns and its subsequent hydrolysis to yield EET.

  19. Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-dependent membrane traffic is critical for fungal filamentous growth.

    PubMed

    Ghugtyal, Vikram; Garcia-Rodas, Rocio; Seminara, Agnese; Schaub, Sébastien; Bassilana, Martine; Arkowitz, Robert Alan

    2015-07-14

    The phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate [PI(4)P], generated at the Golgi and plasma membrane, has been implicated in many processes, including membrane traffic, yet its role in cell morphology changes, such as the budding to filamentous growth transition, is unknown. We show that Golgi PI(4)P is required for such a transition in the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Quantitative analyses of membrane traffic revealed that PI(4)P is required for late Golgi and secretory vesicle dynamics and targeting and, as a result, is important for the distribution of a multidrug transporter and hence sensitivity to antifungal drugs. We also observed that plasma membrane PI(4)P, which we show is functionally distinct from Golgi PI(4)P, forms a steep gradient concomitant with filamentous growth, despite uniform plasma membrane PI-4-kinase distribution. Mathematical modeling indicates that local PI(4)P generation and hydrolysis by phosphatases are crucial for this gradient. We conclude that PI(4)P-regulated membrane dynamics are critical for morphology changes. PMID:26124136

  20. The Clathrin Adaptor Gga2p Is a Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate Effector at the Golgi Exit

    PubMed Central

    Demmel, Lars; Gravert, Maike; Ercan, Ebru; Habermann, Bianca; Müller-Reichert, Thomas; Kukhtina, Viktoria; Haucke, Volker; Baust, Thorsten; Sohrmann, Marc; Kalaidzidis, Yannis; Klose, Christian; Beck, Mike; Peter, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P) is a key regulator of membrane transport required for the formation of transport carriers from the trans-Golgi network (TGN). The molecular mechanisms of PI(4)P signaling in this process are still poorly understood. In a search for PI(4)P effector molecules, we performed a screen for synthetic lethals in a background of reduced PI(4)P and found the gene GGA2. Our analysis uncovered a PI(4)P-dependent recruitment of the clathrin adaptor Gga2p to the TGN during Golgi-to-endosome trafficking. Gga2p recruitment to liposomes is stimulated both by PI(4)P and the small GTPase Arf1p in its active conformation, implicating these two molecules in the recruitment of Gga2p to the TGN, which ultimately controls the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles. PI(4)P binding occurs through a phosphoinositide-binding signature within the N-terminal VHS domain of Gga2p resembling a motif found in other clathrin interacting proteins. These data provide an explanation for the TGN-specific membrane recruitment of Gga2p. PMID:18287542

  1. An electrostatic switch displaces phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases from the membrane during phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Fairn, Gregory D.; Ogata, Koji; Botelho, Roberto J.; Stahl, Philip D.; Anderson, Richard A.; De Camilli, Pietro; Meyer, Tobias; Wodak, Shoshana

    2009-01-01

    Plasmalemmal phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4,5-bisphosphate (PI4,5P2) synthesized by PI 4-phosphate (PI4P) 5-kinase (PIP5K) is key to the polymerization of actin that drives chemotaxis and phagocytosis. We investigated the means whereby PIP5K is targeted to the membrane and its fate during phagosome formation. Homology modeling revealed that all PIP5K isoforms feature a positively charged face. Together with the substrate-binding loop, this polycationic surface is proposed to constitute a coincidence detector that targets PIP5Ks to the plasmalemma. Accordingly, manipulation of the surface charge displaced PIP5Ks from the plasma membrane. During particle engulfment, PIP5Ks detached from forming phagosomes as the surface charge at these sites decreased. Precluding the change in surface charge caused the PIP5Ks to remain associated with the phagosomal cup. Chemically induced retention of PIP5K-γ prevented the disappearance of PI4,5P2 and aborted phagosome formation. We conclude that a bistable electrostatic switch mechanism regulates the association/dissociation of PIP5Ks from the membrane during phagocytosis and likely other processes. PMID:19951917

  2. Turnover of fatty acids in the 1-position of phosphatidylethanolamine in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rock, C O

    1984-05-25

    Phosphatidylethanolamine is the major membrane phospholipid of Escherichia coli, and two experimental approaches were used to investigate the metabolic activity of the fatty acids occupying the 1-position of this phospholipid. [3H]Acetate pulse-chase experiments with logarithmically growing cells indicated that 3-5% of the acyl groups were removed from the phosphatidylethanolamine pool/generation. The reacylation aspect of the turnover cycle was demonstrated by the incorporation of fatty acids into the 1-position of pre-existing phosphatidylethanolamine when de novo phospholipid biosynthesis was inhibited using the plsB acyltransferase mutant. 2- Acylglycerophosphoethanolamine would be the intermediate in a 1-position turnover cycle, and this lysophospholipid was identified as a membrane component that could re-esterified by a membrane-bound acyltransferase. The acyltransferase either utilized acyl-acyl carrier protein directly as an acyl donor or activated fatty acids for acyl transfer in the presence of ATP and Mg2+. Acyl-acyl carrier protein was also indicated as an intermediate in the latter reacylation reaction by the complete inhibition of phosphatidylethanolamine formation from fatty acids by acyl carrier protein-specific antibodies and by the observation that the inhibition of the acyltransferase by LiCl was reversed by the addition of acyl carrier protein. Coenzyme A thioesters were not substrates for this acyltransferase. These results suggest the existence of a metabolic cycle for the utilization of 1-position acyl moieties of phosphatidylethanolamine followed by the resynthesis of this membrane phospholipid from 2- acylglycerophosphoethanolamine by an acyl carrier protein-dependent 1-position acyltransferase.

  3. Climate change creates rapid species turnover in montane communities.

    PubMed

    Gibson-Reinemer, Daniel K; Sheldon, Kimberly S; Rahel, Frank J

    2015-06-01

    Recent decades have seen substantial changes in patterns of biodiversity worldwide. Simultaneously, climate change is producing a widespread pattern of species' range shifts to higher latitudes and higher elevations, potentially creating novel assemblages as species shift at different rates. However, the direct link between species' turnover as a result of climate-induced range shifts has not yet been empirically evaluated. We measured rates of species turnover associated with species' range shifts in relatively undisturbed montane areas in Asia, Europe, North America, South America, and the Indo-Pacific. We show that species turnover is rapidly creating novel assemblages, and this can be explained by variable changes in species' range limits following warming. Across all the areas we analyzed, mean species' turnover was 12% per decade, which was nearly balanced between the loss of existing co-occurrences and the gain of novel co-occurrences. Turnover appears to be more rapid among ectothermic assemblages, and some evidence suggests tropical assemblages may be responding at more rapid rates than temperate assemblages.

  4. Health insurance, cost expectations, and adverse job turnover.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Randall P; Albert Ma, Ching-To

    2011-01-01

    Because less healthy employees value health insurance more than the healthy ones, when health insurance is newly offered job turnover rates for healthier employees decline less than turnover rates for the less healthy. We call this adverse job turnover, and it implies that a firm's expected health costs will increase when health insurance is first offered. Health insurance premiums may fail to adjust sufficiently fast because state regulations restrict annual premium changes, or insurers are reluctant to change premiums rapidly. Even with premiums set at the long run expected costs, some firms may be charged premiums higher than their current expected costs and choose not to offer insurance. High administrative costs at small firms exacerbate this dynamic selection problem. Using 1998-1999 MEDSTAT MarketScan and 1997 Employer Health Insurance Survey data, we find that expected employee health expenditures at firms that offer insurance have lower within-firm and higher between-firm variance than at firms that do not. Turnover rates are systematically higher in industries in which firms are less likely to offer insurance. Simulations of the offer decision capturing between-firm health-cost heterogeneity and expected turnover rates match the observed pattern across firm sizes well.

  5. Climate change creates rapid species turnover in montane communities

    PubMed Central

    Gibson-Reinemer, Daniel K; Sheldon, Kimberly S; Rahel, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    Recent decades have seen substantial changes in patterns of biodiversity worldwide. Simultaneously, climate change is producing a widespread pattern of species’ range shifts to higher latitudes and higher elevations, potentially creating novel assemblages as species shift at different rates. However, the direct link between species’ turnover as a result of climate-induced range shifts has not yet been empirically evaluated. We measured rates of species turnover associated with species’ range shifts in relatively undisturbed montane areas in Asia, Europe, North America, South America, and the Indo-Pacific. We show that species turnover is rapidly creating novel assemblages, and this can be explained by variable changes in species’ range limits following warming. Across all the areas we analyzed, mean species’ turnover was 12% per decade, which was nearly balanced between the loss of existing co-occurrences and the gain of novel co-occurrences. Turnover appears to be more rapid among ectothermic assemblages, and some evidence suggests tropical assemblages may be responding at more rapid rates than temperate assemblages. PMID:26120424

  6. Turnover of recently assimilated carbon in arctic bryophytes.

    PubMed

    Street, L E; Subke, J A; Sommerkorn, M; Heinemeyer, A; Williams, M

    2011-10-01

    Carbon (C) allocation and turnover in arctic bryophytes is largely unknown, but their response to climatic change has potentially significant impacts on arctic ecosystem C budgets. Using a combination of pulse-chase experiments and a newly developed model of C turnover in bryophytes, we show significant differences in C turnover between two contrasting arctic moss species (Polytrichum piliferum and Sphagnum fuscum). (13)C abundance in moss tissues (measured up to 1 year) and respired CO(2) (traced over 5 days) were used to parameterise the bryophyte C model with four pools representing labile and structural C in photosynthetic and stem tissue. The model was optimised using an Ensemble Kalman Filter to ensure a focus on estimating the confidence intervals (CI) on model parameters and outputs. The ratio of aboveground NPP:GPP in Polytrichum piliferum was 23% (CI 9-35%), with an average turnover time of 1.7 days (CI 1.1-2.5 days). The aboveground NPP:GPP ratio in Sphagnum fuscum was 43% (CI 19-65%) with an average turnover time of 3.1 days (CI 1.6-6.1 days). These results are the first to show differences in C partitioning between arctic bryophyte species in situ and highlight the importance of modelling C dynamics of this group separately from vascular plants for a realistic representation of vegetation in arctic C models.

  7. Counselor emotional exhaustion and turnover intention in therapeutic communities.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Ducharme, Lori J; Roman, Paul M

    2006-09-01

    Counselor turnover is a significant problem facing substance abuse treatment agencies. Understanding the role of organizational culture in predicting burnout and turnover intention may yield important information on how to address turnover in treatment organizations. Using data collected from 817 counselors employed in a national sample of 253 therapeutic communities (TCs), structural equation modeling was used to estimate the associations between emotional exhaustion, turnover intention, and three measures of organizational culture: centralized decision making, distributive justice, and procedural justice. The model controlled for counselor demographics, credentials, and earnings. Counselors' emotional exhaustion scores were higher in TCs with greater centralized decision making (p < .01) but lower in TCs where greater distributive justice (p < .05) and procedural justice (p < .001) were reported. Likewise, turnover intention was positively associated with centralized decision making (p < .05) and inversely associated with the workplace justice measures (p < .001). These data suggest that management practices in TCs and perhaps in other types of substance abuse treatment facilities likely play a substantial role in counselors' well-being and in their decisions to leave their jobs. Because these practices are not structural features of organizations, they may be targeted for intervention and change.

  8. Anaerobic Nitrogen Turnover by Sinking Diatom Aggregates at Varying Ambient Oxygen Levels

    PubMed Central

    Stief, Peter; Kamp, Anja; Thamdrup, Bo; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2016-01-01

    In the world’s oceans, even relatively low oxygen levels inhibit anaerobic nitrogen cycling by free-living microbes. Sinking organic aggregates, however, might provide oxygen-depleted microbial hotspots in otherwise oxygenated surface waters. Here, we show that sinking diatom aggregates can host anaerobic nitrogen cycling at ambient oxygen levels well above the hypoxic threshold. Aggregates were produced from the ubiquitous diatom Skeletonema marinoi and the natural microbial community of seawater. Microsensor profiling through the center of sinking aggregates revealed internal anoxia at ambient 40% air saturation (∼100 μmol O2 L-1) and below. Accordingly, anaerobic nitrate turnover inside the aggregates was evident within this range of ambient oxygen levels. In incubations with 15N-labeled nitrate, individual Skeletonema aggregates produced NO2- (up to 10.7 nmol N h-1 per aggregate), N2 (up to 7.1 nmol N h-1), NH4+ (up to 2.0 nmol N h-1), and N2O (up to 0.2 nmol N h-1). Intriguingly, nitrate stored inside the diatom cells served as an additional, internal nitrate source for dinitrogen production, which may partially uncouple anaerobic nitrate turnover by diatom aggregates from direct ambient nitrate supply. Sinking diatom aggregates can contribute directly to fixed-nitrogen loss in low-oxygen environments in the ocean and vastly expand the ocean volume in which anaerobic nitrogen turnover is possible, despite relatively high ambient oxygen levels. Depending on the extent of intracellular nitrate consumption during the sinking process, diatom aggregates may also be involved in the long-distance export of nitrate to the deep ocean. PMID:26903977

  9. Anaerobic Nitrogen Turnover by Sinking Diatom Aggregates at Varying Ambient Oxygen Levels.

    PubMed

    Stief, Peter; Kamp, Anja; Thamdrup, Bo; Glud, Ronnie N

    2016-01-01

    In the world's oceans, even relatively low oxygen levels inhibit anaerobic nitrogen cycling by free-living microbes. Sinking organic aggregates, however, might provide oxygen-depleted microbial hotspots in otherwise oxygenated surface waters. Here, we show that sinking diatom aggregates can host anaerobic nitrogen cycling at ambient oxygen levels well above the hypoxic threshold. Aggregates were produced from the ubiquitous diatom Skeletonema marinoi and the natural microbial community of seawater. Microsensor profiling through the center of sinking aggregates revealed internal anoxia at ambient 40% air saturation (∼100 μmol O2 L(-1)) and below. Accordingly, anaerobic nitrate turnover inside the aggregates was evident within this range of ambient oxygen levels. In incubations with (15)N-labeled nitrate, individual Skeletonema aggregates produced NO2 (-) (up to 10.7 nmol N h(-1) per aggregate), N2 (up to 7.1 nmol N h(-1)), NH4 (+) (up to 2.0 nmol N h(-1)), and N2O (up to 0.2 nmol N h(-1)). Intriguingly, nitrate stored inside the diatom cells served as an additional, internal nitrate source for dinitrogen production, which may partially uncouple anaerobic nitrate turnover by diatom aggregates from direct ambient nitrate supply. Sinking diatom aggregates can contribute directly to fixed-nitrogen loss in low-oxygen environments in the ocean and vastly expand the ocean volume in which anaerobic nitrogen turnover is possible, despite relatively high ambient oxygen levels. Depending on the extent of intracellular nitrate consumption during the sinking process, diatom aggregates may also be involved in the long-distance export of nitrate to the deep ocean. PMID:26903977

  10. Quality of Working Life: An Antecedent to Employee Turnover Intention

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to measure the level of quality of work life (QWL) among hospital employees in Iran. Additionally, it aimed to identify the factors that are critical to employees’ QWL. It also aimed to test a theoretical model of the relationship between employees’ QWL and their intention to leave the organization. Methods: A survey study was conducted based on a sample of 608 hospital employees using a validated questionnaire. Face, content and construct validity were conducted on the survey instrument. Results: Hospital employees reported low QWL. Employees were least satisfied with pay, benefits, job promotion, and management support. The most important predictor of QWL was management support, followed by job proud, job security and job stress. An inverse relationship was found between employees QWL and their turnover intention. Conclusion: This study empirically examined the relationships between employees’ QWL and their turnover intention. Managers can take appropriate actions to improve employees’ QWL and subsequently reduce employees’ turnover. PMID:24596835

  11. Dynamics of Cell Generation and Turnover in the Human Heart.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Olaf; Zdunek, Sofia; Felker, Anastasia; Salehpour, Mehran; Alkass, Kanar; Bernard, Samuel; Sjostrom, Staffan L; Szewczykowska, Mirosława; Jackowska, Teresa; Dos Remedios, Cris; Malm, Torsten; Andrä, Michaela; Jashari, Ramadan; Nyengaard, Jens R; Possnert, Göran; Jovinge, Stefan; Druid, Henrik; Frisén, Jonas

    2015-06-18

    The contribution of cell generation to physiological heart growth and maintenance in humans has been difficult to establish and has remained controversial. We report that the full complement of cardiomyocytes is established perinataly and remains stable over the human lifespan, whereas the numbers of both endothelial and mesenchymal cells increase substantially from birth to early adulthood. Analysis of the integration of nuclear bomb test-derived (14)C revealed a high turnover rate of endothelial cells throughout life (>15% per year) and more limited renewal of mesenchymal cells (<4% per year in adulthood). Cardiomyocyte exchange is highest in early childhood and decreases gradually throughout life to <1% per year in adulthood, with similar turnover rates in the major subdivisions of the myocardium. We provide an integrated model of cell generation and turnover in the human heart.

  12. No turnover in lens lipids for the entire human lifespan.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jessica R; Levchenko, Vladimir A; Blanksby, Stephen J; Mitchell, Todd W; Williams, Alan; Truscott, Roger J W

    2015-01-01

    Lipids are critical to cellular function and it is generally accepted that lipid turnover is rapid and dysregulation in turnover results in disease (Dawidowicz 1987; Phillips et al., 2009; Liu et al., 2013). In this study, we present an intriguing counter-example by demonstrating that in the center of the human ocular lens, there is no lipid turnover in fiber cells during the entire human lifespan. This discovery, combined with prior demonstration of pronounced changes in the lens lipid composition over a lifetime (Hughes et al., 2012), suggests that some lipid classes break down in the body over several decades, whereas others are stable. Such substantial changes in lens cell membranes may play a role in the genesis of age-related eye disorders. Whether long-lived lipids are present in other tissues is not yet known, but this may prove to be important in understanding the development of age-related diseases. PMID:25760082

  13. 'Memory and molecular turnover,' 30 years after inception.

    PubMed

    Meagher, Richard B

    2014-01-01

    In 1984 Sir Francis Crick hypothesized that memory is recorded in the brain as reversible modifications to DNA and protein, but acknowledged that most biomolecules turn over too rapidly to account for long-term memories. To accommodate this possible paradox he modeled an enzymatic mechanism to maintain modifications on hemi-modified multimeric symmetrical molecules. While studies on the turnover of chromatin modifications that may be involved in memory are in their infancy, an exploration of his model in the light of modern epigenetics produced somewhat surprising results. The molecular turnover rates for two classes of chromatin modifications believed to record and store durable memories were approximated from experiments using diverse approaches and were found to be remarkably short. The half-lives of DNA cytosine methylation and post-translationally modified nucleosomal histones are measured in hours and minutes, respectively, for a subset of sites on chromatin controlling gene expression. It appears likely that the turnover of DNA methylation in the brain and in neurons, in particular, is even more rapid than in other cell types and organs, perhaps accommodating neuronal plasticity, learning, and memory. The machinery responsible for the rapid turnover of DNA methylation and nucleosomal histone modifications is highly complex, partially redundant, and appears to act in a sequence specific manner. Molecular symmetry plays an important part in maintaining site-specific turnover, but its particular role in memory maintenance is unknown. Elucidating Crick's paradox, the contradiction between rapid molecular turnover of modified biomolecules and long-term memory storage, appears fundamental to understanding cognitive function and neurodegenerative disease.

  14. Human turnover dynamics during sleep: Statistical behavior and its modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Okuma, Yasuyuki; Utsumi, Hiroya; Terashi, Hiroo; Mitoma, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Turnover is a typical intermittent body movement while asleep. Exploring its behavior may provide insights into the mechanisms and management of sleep. However, little is understood about the dynamic nature of turnover in healthy humans and how it can be modified in disease. Here we present a detailed analysis of turnover signals that are collected by accelerometry from healthy elderly subjects and age-matched patients with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. In healthy subjects, the time intervals between consecutive turnover events exhibit a well-separated bimodal distribution with one mode at ⩽10 s and the other at ⩾100 s, whereas such bimodality tends to disappear in neurodegenerative patients. The discovery of bimodality and fine temporal structures (⩽10 s) is a contribution that is not revealed by conventional sleep recordings with less time resolution (≈30 s). Moreover, we estimate the scaling exponent of the interval fluctuations, which also shows a clear difference between healthy subjects and patients. We incorporate these experimental results into a computational model of human decision making. A decision is to be made at each simulation step between two choices: to keep on sleeping or to make a turnover, the selection of which is determined dynamically by comparing a pair of random numbers assigned to each choice. This decision is weighted by a single parameter that reflects the depth of sleep. The resulting simulated behavior accurately replicates many aspects of observed turnover patterns, including the appearance or disappearance of bimodality and leads to several predictions, suggesting that the depth parameter may be useful as a quantitative measure for differentiating between normal and pathological sleep. These findings have significant clinical implications and may pave the way for the development of practical sleep assessment technologies.

  15. Human turnover dynamics during sleep: statistical behavior and its modeling.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Okuma, Yasuyuki; Utsumi, Hiroya; Terashi, Hiroo; Mitoma, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Turnover is a typical intermittent body movement while asleep. Exploring its behavior may provide insights into the mechanisms and management of sleep. However, little is understood about the dynamic nature of turnover in healthy humans and how it can be modified in disease. Here we present a detailed analysis of turnover signals that are collected by accelerometry from healthy elderly subjects and age-matched patients with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. In healthy subjects, the time intervals between consecutive turnover events exhibit a well-separated bimodal distribution with one mode at ⩽10 s and the other at ⩾100 s, whereas such bimodality tends to disappear in neurodegenerative patients. The discovery of bimodality and fine temporal structures (⩽10 s) is a contribution that is not revealed by conventional sleep recordings with less time resolution (≈30 s). Moreover, we estimate the scaling exponent of the interval fluctuations, which also shows a clear difference between healthy subjects and patients. We incorporate these experimental results into a computational model of human decision making. A decision is to be made at each simulation step between two choices: to keep on sleeping or to make a turnover, the selection of which is determined dynamically by comparing a pair of random numbers assigned to each choice. This decision is weighted by a single parameter that reflects the depth of sleep. The resulting simulated behavior accurately replicates many aspects of observed turnover patterns, including the appearance or disappearance of bimodality and leads to several predictions, suggesting that the depth parameter may be useful as a quantitative measure for differentiating between normal and pathological sleep. These findings have significant clinical implications and may pave the way for the development of practical sleep assessment technologies.

  16. Biogenesis, Turnover, and Mode of Action of Plant MicroRNAs[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Kestrel; Chen, Xuemei

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that control gene expression through silencing of target mRNAs. Mature miRNAs are processed from primary miRNA transcripts by the endonuclease activity of the DICER-LIKE1 (DCL1) protein complex. Mechanisms exist that allow the DCL1 complex to precisely excise the miRNA from its precursor. Our understanding of miRNA biogenesis, particularly its intersection with transcription and other aspects of RNA metabolism such as splicing, is still evolving. Mature miRNAs are incorporated into an ARGONAUTE (AGO) effector complex competent for target gene silencing but are also subjected to turnover through a degradation mechanism that is beginning to be understood. The mechanisms of miRNA target silencing in plants are no longer limited to AGO-catalyzed slicing, and the contribution of translational inhibition is increasingly appreciated. Here, we review the mechanisms underlying the biogenesis, turnover, and activities of plant miRNAs. PMID:23881412

  17. Phosphorylation in vitro of the 85 kDa subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and its possible activation by insulin receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, H; Miyake, N; Kanai, F; Shibasaki, F; Takenawa, T; Ebina, Y

    1991-01-01

    Insulin causes a dramatic and rapid increase in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in the anti-phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitates of cells overexpressing the human insulin receptor. This enzyme may therefore be a mediator of insulin signal transduction [Endemann, Yonezawa & Roth (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 396-400; Ruderman, Kapeller, White & Cantley (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 1411-1415]. At least two questions remain to be elucidated. Firstly, does the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase directly, or does it phosphorylate a protein associated with the 3-kinase? Second, if the enzyme is a direct substrate for the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase, does tyrosine phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase by the kinase alter the specific enzyme activity, or does the amount of the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase increase, with no change in the specific activity? We report here evidence that the 85 kDa subunit of highly purified phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is phosphorylated on the tyrosine residue by the activated normal insulin receptor in vitro, but not by a mutant insulin receptor which lacks tyrosine kinase activity. We found that an increase in enzyme activity was detected in response to insulin not only in the anti-phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitates of the cytosol, but also in the cytosolic fraction before immunoprecipitation. In addition, we partially separated the tyrosine-phosphorylated form from the unphosphorylated form of the enzyme, by using a f.p.l.c. Mono Q column. The insulin-stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity was mainly detected in the fraction containing almost all of the tyrosine-phosphorylated form. This result suggests that tyrosine phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase by the insulin receptor kinase may increase the specific activity of the former enzyme in vivo. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:1722393

  18. Nonlicensed employee turnover in a long-term care facility.

    PubMed

    Gaddy, T; Bechtel, G A

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze nonlicensed employee turnover in a long-term care facility using Maslow's hierarchy of needs as a framework. During exit interviews, a convenience sample of 34 employees completed an attitudes and beliefs survey regarding their work environment. Findings were mixed; 39.6 percent of the employees stated positive personal relationships were a strength of the organization, although 24.3 percent resigned because of personal/staff conflicts. Financial concerns were not a major factor in their resignations. The study suggests that decreasing nonlicensed employee stress and increasing their personal satisfaction with patient care may decrease employee turnover.

  19. Fermentation temperature modulates phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol levels in the cell membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Clark M; Zeno, Wade F; Lerno, Larry A; Longo, Marjorie L; Block, David E

    2013-09-01

    During alcoholic fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to a host of environmental and physiological stresses. Extremes of fermentation temperature have previously been demonstrated to induce fermentation arrest under growth conditions that would otherwise result in complete sugar utilization at "normal" temperatures and nutrient levels. Fermentations were carried out at 15°C, 25°C, and 35°C in a defined high-sugar medium using three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with diverse fermentation characteristics. The lipid composition of these strains was analyzed at two fermentation stages, when ethanol levels were low early in stationary phase and in late stationary phase at high ethanol concentrations. Several lipids exhibited dramatic differences in membrane concentration in a temperature-dependent manner. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used as a tool to elucidate correlations between specific lipid species and fermentation temperature for each yeast strain. Fermentations carried out at 35°C exhibited very high concentrations of several phosphatidylinositol species, whereas at 15°C these yeast strains exhibited higher levels of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine species with medium-chain fatty acids. Furthermore, membrane concentrations of ergosterol were highest in the yeast strain that experienced stuck fermentations at all three temperatures. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements of yeast cell membrane fluidity during fermentation were carried out using the lipophilic fluorophore diphenylhexatriene. These measurements demonstrate that the changes in the lipid composition of these yeast strains across the range of fermentation temperatures used in this study did not significantly affect cell membrane fluidity. However, the results from this study indicate that fermenting S. cerevisiae modulates its membrane lipid composition in a temperature-dependent manner.

  20. Class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p110α regulates phagosome maturation.

    PubMed

    Thi, Emily P; Lambertz, Ulrike; Reiner, Neil E

    2012-01-01

    Of the various phosphatidylinositol 3- kinases (PI3Ks), only the class III enzyme Vps34 has been shown to regulate phagosome maturation. During studies of phagosome maturation in THP-1 cells deficient in class IA PI3K p110α, we discovered that this PI3K isoform is required for vacuole maturation to progress beyond acquisition of Rab7 leading to delivery of lysosomal markers. Bead phagosomes from THP-1 cells acquired p110α and contained PI3P and PI(3,4,5)P3; however, p110α and PI(3,4,5)P3 levels in phagosomes from p110α knockdown cells were decreased. Phagosomes from p110α knock down cells showed normal acquisition of both Rab5 and EEA-1, but were markedly deficient in the lysosomal markers LAMP-1 and LAMP-2, and the lysosomal hydrolase, β-galactosidase. Phagosomes from p110α deficient cells also displayed impaired fusion with Texas Red dextran-loaded lysosomes. Despite lacking lysosomal components, phagosomes from p110α deficient cells recruited normal levels of Rab7, Rab-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP) and homotypic vacuole fusion and protein sorting (HOPs) components Vps41 and Vps16. The latter observations demonstrated that phagosomal Rab7 was active and capable of recruiting effectors involved in membrane fusion. Nevertheless, active Rab7 was not sufficient to bring about the delivery of lysosomal proteins to the maturing vacuole, which is shown for the first time to be dependent on a class I PI3K. PMID:22928013

  1. Role of class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase during programmed nuclear death of Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Akematsu, Takahiko; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Attiq, Rizwan; Pearlman, Ronald E

    2014-02-01

    Programmed nuclear death (PND) in the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila is a novel type of autophagy that occurs during conjugation, in which only the parental somatic macronucleus is destined to die and is then eliminated from the progeny cytoplasm. Other coexisting nuclei, however, such as new micro- and macronuclei are unaffected. PND starts with condensation in the nucleus followed by apoptotic DNA fragmentation, lysosomal acidification, and final resorption. Because of the peculiarity in the process and the absence of some ATG genes in this organism, the mechanism of PND has remained unclear. In this study, we focus on the role of class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K, corresponding to yeast Vps34) in order to identify central regulators of PND. We identified the sole Tetrahymena thermophila ortholog (TtVPS34) to yeast Vps34 and human PIK3C3 (the catalytic subunit of PtdIns3K), through phylogenetic analysis, and generated the gene knockdown mutant for functional analysis. Loss of TtVPS34 activity prevents autophagosome formation on the parental macronucleus, and this nucleus escapes from the lysosomal pathway. In turn, DNA fragmentation and final resorption of the nucleus are drastically impaired. These phenotypes are similar to the situation in the ATG8Δ mutants of Tetrahymena, implying an inextricable link between TtVPS34 and TtATG8s in controlling PND as well as general macroautophagy. On the other hand, TtVPS34 does not appear responsible for the nuclear condensation and does not affect the progeny nuclear development. These results demonstrate that TtVPS34 is critically involved in the nuclear degradation events of PND in autophagosome formation rather than with an involvement in commitment to the death program.

  2. Dimer Structure of an Interfacially Impaired Phosphatidylinositol-Specific Pholpholipase C

    SciTech Connect

    Shao,C.; Shi, X.; Wehbi, H.; Zambonelli, C.; Head, J.; Seaton, B.; Roberts, M,.

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structure of the W47A/W242A mutant of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) from Bacillus thuringiensis has been solved to 1.8{angstrom} resolution. The W47A/W242A mutant is an interfacially challenged enzyme, and it has been proposed that one or both tryptophan side chains serve as membrane interfacial anchors (Feng, J., Wehbi, H., and Roberts, M. F. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 19867-19875). The crystal structure supports this hypothesis. Relative to the crystal structure of the closely related (97% identity) wild-type PI-PLC from Bacillus cereus, significant conformational differences occur at the membrane-binding interfacial region rather than the active site. The Trp {yields} Ala mutations not only remove the membrane-partitioning aromatic side chains but also perturb the conformations of the so-called helix B and rim loop regions, both of which are implicated in interfacial binding. The crystal structure also reveals a homodimer, the first such observation for a bacterial PI-PLC, with pseudo-2-fold symmetry. The symmetric dimer interface is stabilized by hydrophobic and hydrogen-bonding interactions, contributed primarily by a central swath of aromatic residues arranged in a quasiherringbone pattern. Evidence that interfacially active wild-type PI-PLC enzymes may dimerize in the presence of phosphatidylcholine vesicles is provided by fluorescence quenching of PI-PLC mutants with pyrene-labeled cysteine residues. The combined data suggest that wild-type PI-PLC can form similar homodimers, anchored to the interface by the tryptophan and neighboring membrane-partitioning residues.

  3. Enhancement of morphological plasticity in hippocampal neurons by a physically modified saline via phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase.

    PubMed

    Roy, Avik; Modi, Khushbu K; Khasnavis, Saurabh; Ghosh, Supurna; Watson, Richard; Pahan, Kalipada

    2014-01-01

    Increase of the density of dendritic spines and enhancement of synaptic transmission through ionotropic glutamate receptors are important events, leading to synaptic plasticity and eventually hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory formation. Here we have undertaken an innovative approach to upregulate hippocampal plasticity. RNS60 is a 0.9% saline solution containing charge-stabilized nanobubbles that are generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille (TCP) flow under elevated oxygen pressure. RNS60, but not NS (normal saline), PNS60 (saline containing a comparable level of oxygen without the TCP modification), or RNS10.3 (TCP-modified normal saline without excess oxygen), stimulated morphological plasticity and synaptic transmission via NMDA- and AMPA-sensitive calcium influx in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons. Using mRNA-based targeted gene array, real-time PCR, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence analyses, we further demonstrate that RNS60 stimulated the expression of many plasticity-associated genes in cultured hippocampal neurons. Activation of type IA, but not type IB, phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase by RNS60 together with abrogation of RNS60-mediated upregulation of plasticity-related proteins (NR2A and GluR1) and increase in spine density, neuronal size, and calcium influx by LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI-3 kinase, suggest that RNS60 upregulates hippocampal plasticity via activation of PI-3 kinase. Finally, in the 5XFAD transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), RNS60 treatment upregulated expression of plasticity-related proteins PSD95 and NR2A and increased AMPA- and NMDA-dependent hippocampal calcium influx. These results describe a novel property of RNS60 in stimulating hippocampal plasticity, which may help AD and other dementias.

  4. Enhancement of Morphological Plasticity in Hippocampal Neurons by a Physically Modified Saline via Phosphatidylinositol-3 Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Avik; Modi, Khushbu K.; Khasnavis, Saurabh; Ghosh, Supurna; Watson, Richard; Pahan, Kalipada

    2014-01-01

    Increase of the density of dendritic spines and enhancement of synaptic transmission through ionotropic glutamate receptors are important events, leading to synaptic plasticity and eventually hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory formation. Here we have undertaken an innovative approach to upregulate hippocampal plasticity. RNS60 is a 0.9% saline solution containing charge-stabilized nanobubbles that are generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille (TCP) flow under elevated oxygen pressure. RNS60, but not NS (normal saline), PNS60 (saline containing a comparable level of oxygen without the TCP modification), or RNS10.3 (TCP-modified normal saline without excess oxygen), stimulated morphological plasticity and synaptic transmission via NMDA- and AMPA-sensitive calcium influx in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons. Using mRNA-based targeted gene array, real-time PCR, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence analyses, we further demonstrate that RNS60 stimulated the expression of many plasticity-associated genes in cultured hippocampal neurons. Activation of type IA, but not type IB, phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase by RNS60 together with abrogation of RNS60-mediated upregulation of plasticity-related proteins (NR2A and GluR1) and increase in spine density, neuronal size, and calcium influx by LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI-3 kinase, suggest that RNS60 upregulates hippocampal plasticity via activation of PI-3 kinase. Finally, in the 5XFAD transgenic model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), RNS60 treatment upregulated expression of plasticity-related proteins PSD95 and NR2A and increased AMPA- and NMDA-dependent hippocampal calcium influx. These results describe a novel property of RNS60 in stimulating hippocampal plasticity, which may help AD and other dementias. PMID:25007337

  5. Light- and GTP-activated hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate in squid photoreceptor membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, K.M.; Saibil, H.R.

    1988-01-05

    Light stimulates the hydrolysis of exogenous, (/sup 3/H)inositol-labeled phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PtdInsP2) added to squid photoreceptor membranes, releasing inositol trisphosphate (InsP3). At free calcium levels of 0.05 microM or greater, hydrolysis of the labeled lipid is stimulated up to 4-fold by GTP and light together, but not separately. This activity is the biochemical counterpart of observations on intact retina showing that a rhodopsin-activated GTP-binding protein is involved in visual transduction in invertebrates, and that InsP3 release is correlated with visual excitation and adaptation. Using an in vitro assay, we investigated the calcium and GTP dependence of the phospholipase activity. At calcium concentrations between 0.1 and 0.5 microM, some hydrolysis occurs independently of GTP and light, with a light- and GTP-activated component superimposed. At 1 microM calcium there is no background activity, and hydrolysis absolutely requires both GTP and light. Ion exchange chromatography on Dowex 1 (formate form) of the water-soluble products released at 1 microM calcium reveals that the product is almost entirely InsP3. Invertebrate rhodopsin is homologous in sequence and function to vertebrate visual pigment, which modulates the concentration of cyclic GMP through the mediation of the GTP-binding protein transducin. While there is some evidence that light also modulates PtdInsP2 content in vertebrate photoreceptors, the case for its involvement in phototransduction is stronger for the invertebrate systems. The results reported here support the scheme of rhodopsin----GTP-binding protein----phospholipase C activation in invertebrate photoreceptors.

  6. Aging modulates calcium-dependent phosphatidylinositol degradation by cerebral cortex synaptic plasma membrane phospholipases.

    PubMed

    Strosznajder, J; Samochocki, M; Wikieł, H; Małecki, A

    1994-01-01

    The synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) and cytosol fractions from cerebral cortex of adult (4-mo-old) and aged (27-mo-old) rats were used as a source of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and phospholipase C (PLC). The activity of PLC acting on [3H-inositol]phosphatidylinositol ([3H]PtdIns) was investigated in the presence of endogenous and 2 mM Ca2+. Arachidonic acid (AA) release was studied in the same conditions, using 1-stearoyl-[2-14C]arachidonyl-sn-glycerophosphoinositol ([14C]PtdIns) as a substrate. In the presence of endogenous Ca2+ (i.e., no added Ca2+) SPM-bound PLC and PLA2 or diacylglycerol (DAG) lipase of aged brain exert significantly higher activity in degradation of PtdIns as compared to their activities in adult brain. Moreover, these enzymes of aged brain are less or not further activated by 2 mM Ca2+, contrary to the enzymes isolated from adult brain. The activity of cytosolic enzymes involved in degradation [3H]PtdIns and [14C]PtdIns and their regulation by Ca2+ ions are not significantly changed in senescent cerebral cortex as compared to the adult. The intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), measured with fura-2, is lower in aged brain compared to adult brain, which may suggest the modification in Ca2+ ion redistribution in aged brain and probably its higher concentration in membranes. These results indicate that aging modifies significantly the activity of membrane-bound, Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipase(s) degrading PtdIns, which may be connected with alteration of Ca2+ ion redistribution and may influence the formation and accumulation of very potent lipid messengers as diacylglycerol, lysophospholipid, and arachidonic acid, known to be involved in neurotransmission processes. PMID:8179775

  7. Fermentation Temperature Modulates Phosphatidylethanolamine and Phosphatidylinositol Levels in the Cell Membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Clark M.; Zeno, Wade F.; Lerno, Larry A.; Longo, Marjorie L.

    2013-01-01

    During alcoholic fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to a host of environmental and physiological stresses. Extremes of fermentation temperature have previously been demonstrated to induce fermentation arrest under growth conditions that would otherwise result in complete sugar utilization at “normal” temperatures and nutrient levels. Fermentations were carried out at 15°C, 25°C, and 35°C in a defined high-sugar medium using three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with diverse fermentation characteristics. The lipid composition of these strains was analyzed at two fermentation stages, when ethanol levels were low early in stationary phase and in late stationary phase at high ethanol concentrations. Several lipids exhibited dramatic differences in membrane concentration in a temperature-dependent manner. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used as a tool to elucidate correlations between specific lipid species and fermentation temperature for each yeast strain. Fermentations carried out at 35°C exhibited very high concentrations of several phosphatidylinositol species, whereas at 15°C these yeast strains exhibited higher levels of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine species with medium-chain fatty acids. Furthermore, membrane concentrations of ergosterol were highest in the yeast strain that experienced stuck fermentations at all three temperatures. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements of yeast cell membrane fluidity during fermentation were carried out using the lipophilic fluorophore diphenylhexatriene. These measurements demonstrate that the changes in the lipid composition of these yeast strains across the range of fermentation temperatures used in this study did not significantly affect cell membrane fluidity. However, the results from this study indicate that fermenting S. cerevisiae modulates its membrane lipid composition in a temperature-dependent manner. PMID:23811519

  8. Properties of bovine erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase solubilized by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C1.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, R; Ikezawa, H

    1987-10-01

    The properties of acetylcholinesterase solubilized from bovine erythrocyte membrane by phosphatidylinositol (PI)-specific phospholipase C of Bacillus thuringiensis or with a detergent, Lubrol-PX, were studied. The activity of Lubrol-PX-solubilized acetylcholinesterase was broadly distributed in the fractions having Ve/Vo = 1.0-2.0 in gel filtration on a Sepharose 6B column. The intermediary fractions (Ve/Vo = 1.3-1.7) were collected as "the middle active Sepharose 6B eluate" and characterized on the basis of enzymology and protein chemistry. When this eluate was treated with PI-specific phospholipase C, the major activity peak was obtained in the later fractions with Ve/Vo = 1.75-2.0 on the same column chromatography. Lubrol-solubilized and phospholipase C-treated acetylcholinesterase preparations were different in the thermostability, the elution profiles of chromatography on Mono Q, butyl-Toyopearl and phenyl-Sepharose columns, and the affinity to phospholipid micelles. On treatment with PI-specific phospholipase C, Lubrol-solubilized acetylcholinesterase became more thermostable. The phospholipase C-treated enzyme was eluted at lower NaCl concentration from the Mono Q column than the Lubrol-solubilized enzyme. The most important difference was observed in the hydrophobicity of these two enzyme preparations. The Lubrol-solubilized enzyme shows high affinity to phospholipid micelles and hydrophobic adsorbents such as butyl-Toyopearl and phenyl-Sepharose. However, this hydrophobicity was lost when acetylcholinesterase was solubilized from bovine erythrocyte membrane by PI-specific phospholipase C. The presence of myo-inositol was confirmed in the purified preparation of acetylcholinesterase by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. 600 ns pulse electric field-induced phosphatidylinositol4,5-bisphosphate depletion.

    PubMed

    Tolstykh, Gleb P; Beier, Hope T; Roth, Caleb C; Thompson, Gary L; Ibey, Bennett L

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between nsPEF-induced Ca(2+) release and nsPEF-induced phosphatidylinositol4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) hydrolysis is not well understood. To better understand this interrelation we monitored intracellular calcium changes, in cells loaded with Calcium Green-1 AM, and generation of PIP2 hydrolysis byproducts (inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG)) in cells transfected with one of two fluorescent reporter genes: PLCδ-PH-EGFP or GFP-C1-PKCγ-C1a. The percentage fluorescence differences (ΔF %) after exposures were determined. Upon nsPEF impact, we found that in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) the population of IP3 liberated during nsPEF exposure (ΔF 6%±3, n=22), is diminished compared to the response in the presence of calcium (ΔF 84%±15, n=20). The production of DAG in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) (ΔF 29%±5, n=25), as well as in cells exposed to thapsigargin (ΔF 40%±12, n=15), was not statistically different from cells exposed in the presence of extracellular calcium (ΔF 22±6%, n=18). This finding suggests that the change in intracellular calcium concentration is not solely driving the observed response. Interestingly, the DAG produced in the absence of Ca(2+) is the strongest near the membrane regions facing the electrodes, whereas the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) leads to a whole cell response. The reported observations of Ca(2+) dynamics combined with IP3 and DAG production suggest that nsPEF may cause a direct effect on the phospholipids within the plasma membrane.

  10. Phosphatidylinositol induces fluid phase formation and packing defects in phosphatidylcholine model membranes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Aaron; Pisal, Dipak S; Doty, Amy; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V

    2012-01-01

    Liposomes consisted of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) have been utilized as delivery vehicle for drugs and proteins. In the present work, we studied the effect of soy PI on physical properties of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) liposomes such as phase state of lipid bilayer, lipid packing and phase properties using multiple orthogonal biophysical techniques. The 6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethylamino naphthalene (Laurdan) fluorescence studies showed that presence of PI induces the formation of fluid phases in DMPC. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), temperature dependent fluorescence anisotropy measurements, and generalized polarization values for Laurdan showed that the presence of as low as 10mol% of PI induces substantial broadening and shift to lower temperature of phase transition of DMPC. The fluorescence emission intensity of DPH labeled, PI containing DMPC lipid bilayer decreased possibly due to deeper penetration of water molecules in lipid bilayer. In order to further delineate the effect of PI on the physico chemical properties of DMPC is due to either significant hydrophobic mismatch between the acyl chains of the DMPC and that of soy PI or due to the inositol head group, we systematically replaced soy PI with PC species of similar acyl chain composition (DPPC and 18:2 (Cis) PC) or with diacylglycerol (DAG), respectively. The anisotropy of PC membrane containing soy PI showed largest fluidity change compared to other compositions. The data suggests that addition of PI alters structure and dynamics of DMPC bilayer in that it promotes deeper water penetration in the bilayer, induces fluid phase characteristics and causes lipid packing defects that involve its inositol head group.

  11. Bone turnover in passive smoking female rat: relationships to change in bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many studies have identified smoking as a risk factor for osteoporosis, but it is unclear whether passive smoking has an effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover and if such an effect could cause osteoporosis.The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of passive smoking on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover and the relationship between BMD and bone turnover in female rat. Methods Forty-eight female Wistar rats were randomized into six groups: 2-month, 3-month,4-month smoke-exposed rats and their controls. A rat model of passive cigarette smoking was prepared by breeding female rats in a cigarette-smoking box for 2, 3 or 4 months. Serums were analyzed for levels of osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP) and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b). BMD was assessed at lumbar vertebrae and femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in passive smoking rats and in control rats. Results BMD of lumbar spine and femur was lower in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats than that in controls. However, there was no significant difference in serum osteocalcin levels between smoke-exposed rats and controls. Significantly lower b-ALP and higher TRACP 5b were found in the 3-month or 4-month smoke-exposed rats compared to controls. Subsequent analysis showed that b-ALP positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar vertebrae(r = 0.764, P = 0.027) and femur(r = 0.899, P = 0.002) in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Furthermore, TRACP 5b levels negatively correlated with BMD of lumbar vertebrae (r = -0.871, P = 0.005) and femur (r = -0.715, P = 0.046) in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Conclusion Our data suggest that smoke exposure can inhibit bone formation and increase bone resorption. The hazardous effects of passive smoking on bone status are associated with increased bone turnover in female rat. PMID:21663694

  12. The effect of chemical agents on the turnover of the bound phosphate associated with the sodium-and-potassium ion-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase in ox brain microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Rodnight, R.

    1970-01-01

    1. The effect of chemical agents on the turnover of the Na+-dependent bound phosphate and the simultaneous Na+-dependent hydrolysis of ATP by a membrane preparation from ox brain was studied at an ATP/protein ratio of 12.5pmol/μg. 2. The agents were added immediately after phosphorylation of the preparation in a medium containing 50mm-sodium chloride and 2.5μm-[γ-32P]ATP. 3. Concentrations of sodium chloride above 150mm, calcium chloride to 20mm and suramin to 1.4mm inhibited both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation and concomitantly slowed ATP hydrolysis. At 125mm-sodium chloride dephosphorylation and hydrolysis were slightly slowed without affecting phosphorylation. 4. Ethanol to 1.6m concentration inhibited dephosphorylation without affecting phosphorylation; the bound phosphate was increased and ATP hydrolysis slowed. 5. Ouabain to 4mm concentration partially inhibited ATP hydrolysis and caused a transient (1–2s) rise in bound phosphate followed by a rapid fall to a lower plateau value, which eventually declined to zero by the time ATP hydrolysis was complete. 6. Of the detergents examined Lubrol W, Triton X-100 and sodium deoxycholate had no significant effect on turnover. Sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium decyl sulphate to 3.5mm and 20mm respectively completely inhibited turnover and ATP hydrolysis and stabilized the bound phosphate. PMID:4250238

  13. The EphA8 Receptor Regulates Integrin Activity through p110γ Phosphatidylinositol-3 Kinase in a Tyrosine Kinase Activity-Independent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Changkyu; Park, Soochul

    2001-01-01

    Recent genetic studies suggest that ephrins may function in a kinase-independent Eph receptor pathway. Here we report that expression of EphA8 in either NIH 3T3 or HEK293 cells enhanced cell adhesion to fibronectin via α5β1- or β3 integrins. Interestingly, a kinase-inactive EphA8 mutant also markedly promoted cell attachment to fibronectin in these cell lines. Using a panel of EphA8 point mutants, we have demonstrated that EphA8 kinase activity does not correlate with its ability to promote cell attachment to fibronectin. Analysis using EphA8 extracellular and intracellular domain mutants has revealed that enhanced cell adhesion is dependent on ephrin A binding to the extracellular domain and the juxtamembrane segment of the cytoplasmic domain of the receptor. EphA8-promoted adhesion was efficiently inhibited by wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) inhibitor. Additionally, we found that EphA8 had associated PI 3-kinase activity and that the p110γ isoform of PI 3-kinase is associated with EphA8. In vitro binding experiments revealed that the EphA8 juxtamembrane segment was sufficient for the formation of a stable complex with p110γ. Similar results were obtained in assay using cells stripped of endogenous ephrin A ligands by treatment with preclustered ephrin A5-Fc proteins. In addition, a membrane-targeted lipid kinase-inactive p110γ mutant was demonstrated to stably associate with EphA8 and suppress EphA8-promoted cell adhesion to fibronectin. Taken together, these results suggest the presence of a novel mechanism by which the EphA8 receptor localizes p110γ PI 3-kinase to the plasma membrane in a tyrosine kinase-independent fashion, thereby allowing access to lipid substrates to enable the signals required for integrin-mediated cell adhesion. PMID:11416136

  14. Campylobacter jejuni induces an anti-inflammatory response in human intestinal epithelial cells through activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Ping; Vegge, Christina S; Brøndsted, Lone; Madsen, Mogens; Ingmer, Hanne; Bang, Dang Duong

    2011-02-24

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is the most common cause of human acute bacterial gastroenteritis. Poultry is a major reservoir of C. jejuni and considered an important source of human infections, thus, it is important to understand the host response to C. jejuni from chicken origin. In this study, we demonstrated firstly that a chicken isolate SC11 colonized chicks faster than clinical isolate NCTC11168. Using the SC11, we further studied the host responds to C. jejuni in terms of inflammatory response and involvement of cellular signaling pathways. Infection of C. jejuni SC11 was able to activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway and induce pro-inflammatory interleukin-8 (IL-8) as well as anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in human intestinal epithelial cell line Colo 205. The signalling pathways PI3K/Akt and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases ERK and p38 were involved in C. jejuni-induced IL-8 and IL-10 expression. Inhibition of PI3K resulted in augmentation of C. jejuni-induced IL-8 production, concomitant with down-regulation of IL-10 mRNA, indicating an anti-inflammatory response was activated and associated with the activation of P13K/Akt. Similar effect was observed for cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) deficient mutants. Moreover, we demonstrated that heat-killed bacteria were able to induce IL-8 and IL-10 expression to a lower level than live bacteria. We therefore conclude that C. jejuni activate a PI3K/Akt-dependent anti-inflammatory pathway in human intestinal epithelial cells which may benefit the intracellular survival of C. jejuni during infection.

  15. Qualitative and Quantitative In Vitro Analysis of Phosphatidylinositol Phosphatase Substrate Specificity.

    PubMed

    Ip, Laura Ren Huey; Gewinner, Christina Anja

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoinositides compromise a family of eight membrane lipids which play important roles in many cellular signaling pathways. Signaling through phosphoinositides has been shown in a variety of cellular functions such cell proliferation, cell growth, apoptosis, and vesicle trafficking. Phospholipid phosphatases regulate cell signaling by modifying the concentration of phosphoinositides and their dephosphorylated products. To understand the role of individual lipid phosphatases in phosphoinositide turnover and functional signaling, it is crucial to determine the substrate specificity of the lipid phosphatase of interest. In this chapter we describe how the substrate specificity of an individual lipid phosphatase can be qualitatively and quantitatively measured in an in vitro radiometric assay. In addition, we specify the different expression systems and purification methods required to produce the necessary yield and functionality in order to further characterize these enzymes. The outstanding versatility and sensitivity of this assay system are yet unmatched and are therefore currently considered the standard of the field.

  16. Mitotic Membrane Turnover Coordinates Differential Induction of the Heart Progenitor Lineage.

    PubMed

    Cota, Christina D; Davidson, Brad

    2015-09-14

    In response to microenvironmental cues, embryonic cells form adhesive signaling compartments that influence survival and patterning. Dividing cells detach from the surrounding matrix and initiate extensive membrane remodeling, but the in vivo impact of mitosis on adhesion-dependent signaling remains poorly characterized. We investigate in vivo signaling dynamics using the invertebrate chordate, Ciona intestinalis. In Ciona, matrix adhesion polarizes fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-dependent heart progenitor induction. Here, we show that adhesion inhibits mitotic FGF receptor internalization, leading to receptor enrichment along adherent membranes. Targeted disruption of matrix adhesion promotes uniform FGF receptor internalization and degradation while enhanced adhesion suppresses degradation. Chimeric analysis indicates that integrin β chain-specific impacts on induction are dictated by distinct internalization motifs. We also found that matrix adhesion impacts receptor enrichment through Caveolin-rich membrane domains. These results redefine the relationship between cell division and adhesive signaling, revealing how mitotic membrane turnover orchestrates adhesion-dependent signal polarization. PMID:26300448

  17. Differences in Bone Quality between High versus Low Turnover Renal Osteodystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Daniel S.; Pienkowski, David; Faugere, Marie-Claude; Malluche, Hartmut H.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal bone turnover is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), but its effects on bone quality remain unclear. This study sought to quantify the relationship between abnormal bone turnover and bone quality. Iliac crest bone biopsies were obtained from CKD-5 patients on dialysis with low (n=18) or high (n=17) turnover, and from volunteers (n=12) with normal turnover and normal kidney function. Histomorphometric methods were used to quantify the microstructural parameters; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nanoindentation were used to quantify the material and mechanical properties in bone. Reduced mineral-to-matrix ratio, mineral crystal size, stiffness and hardness were observed in bone with high turnover compared to bone with normal or low turnover. Decreased cancellous bone volume and trabecular thickness were seen in bone with low turnover compared to bone with normal or high turnover. Bone quality, as defined by its microstructural, material, and mechanical properties, is related to bone turnover. These data suggest that turnover related alterations in bone quality may contribute to the known diminished mechanical competence of bone in CKD patients, albeit from different mechanisms for bone with high (material abnormality) vs. low (microstructural alteration) turnover. The present findings suggest that improved treatments for renal osteodystrophy should seek to avoid low or high bone turnover and aim for turnover rates as close to normal as possible.

  18. Ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelia turnover in a longleaf pine forest.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Joseph J; Mitchell, Robert J; Kuehn, Kevin A; Pecot, Stephen D

    2016-03-01

    Elucidation of the patterns and controls of carbon (C) flow and nitrogen (N) cycling in forests has been hindered by a poor understanding of ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelia (EFM) dynamics. In this study, EFM standing biomass (based on soil ergosterol concentrations), production (based on ergosterol accrual in ingrowth cores), and turnover rate (the quotient of annual production and average standing biomass estimates) were assessed in a 25-yr-old longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) plantation where C flow was manipulated by foliar scorching and N fertilization for 5 yr before study initiation. In the controls, EFM standing biomass was 30 ± 7 g m(-2) , production was 279 ± 63 g m(-2)  yr(-1) , and turnover rate was 10 ± 3 times yr(-1) . The scorched × fertilized treatment had significantly higher EFM standing biomass (38 ± 8 g m(-2) ), significantly lower production (205 ± 28 g m(-2)  yr(-1) ), and a trend of decreased turnover rate (6 ± 1 times yr(-1) ). The EFM turnover estimates, which are among the first reported for natural systems, indicate that EFM are a dynamic component of ecosystems, and that conventional assessments have probably underestimated the role of EFM in C flow and nutrient cycling.

  19. Quantifying Assemblage Turnover and Species Contributions at Ecologic Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Hayek, Lee-Ann C.; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Not all boundaries, whether stratigraphical or geographical, are marked by species-level changes in community composition. For example, paleodata for some sites do not show readily discernible glacial-interglacial contrasts. Rather, the proportional abundances of species can vary subtly between glacials and interglacials. This paper presents a simple quantitative measure of assemblage turnover (assemblage turnover index, ATI) that uses changes in species' proportional abundances to identify intervals of community change. A second, functionally-related index (conditioned-on-boundary index, CoBI) identifies species contributions to the total assemblage turnover. With these measures we examine benthonic foraminiferal assemblages to assess glacial/interglacial contrasts at abyssal depths. Our results indicate that these measures, ATI and CoBI, have potential as sequence stratigraphic tools in abyssal depth deposits. Many peaks in the set of values of ATI coincide with terminations at the end of glaciations and delineate peak-bounded ATI intervals (PATIs) separated by boundaries that approximate to glacial terminations and to transgressions at neritic depths. These measures, however, can be used to evaluate the assemblage turnover and composition at any defined ecological or paleoecological boundary. The section used is from Ocean Drilling Program (OPD) Hole 994C, drilled on the Blake Ridge, offshore SE USA. PMID:24130679

  20. Teachers' Perceptions of Administrative Support and Antecedents of Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Elizabeth Morgan; Williams, Sue W.; Gleason-Gomez, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the degree to which teachers' age, perceptions of fair pay, receipt of employer-sponsored health insurance, and administrative support, as operationalized by the Competing Values Framework, predicted antecedents of turnover. Teachers' thoughts of leaving their current job and commitment to a center…

  1. Faculty Turnover: Discipline-Specific Attention Is Warranted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yonghong Jade

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the importance of discipline variations in understanding faculty turnover behaviors. A representative sample of university faculty in Research and Doctoral universities was obtained from a national database. Faculty members, self-identified into a primary academic area, were grouped into eight discipline clusters according…

  2. Bone Turnover Markers and Osteoprotegerin in Uncomplicated Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Styczynska, Hanna; Sobanska, Izabela; Pater, Agnieszka; Pollak, Joanna; Mankowska, Aneta

    2009-01-01

    Although calcium metabolism during pregnancy is well described the mechanisms involved in bone metabolism are not quite clear. Increase of osteoprotegerin (OPG) with elevated bone turnover is supposed to be a homeostatic mechanism limiting bone loss. The aim of the study was to assess bone turnover in pregnancy in relation to serum osteoprotegerin level. Osteocalcin (OC), beta-crosslaps (CTx), OPG, vitamin 25 OH D3, parathormone (PTH), and calcium (Ca) were determined in 30 healthy women at 1st and at 3rd trimester of pregnancy and 27 healthy age-matched non pregnant women. In pregnant women average OPG, CTx and serum calcium concentrations were found to be highly elevated. During pregnancy OPG and bone resorption significantly rised whereas only slight increase in OC level was found with concomitant decrease in serum calcium. OPG correlated positively with OC and Ca only at 1st trimester. Serum CTx and OPG at 1st trimester seemed to be the only parameters to differentiate between elevated and normal bone turnover among pregnant women. In pregnancy bone turnover increases mainly due to enhanced bone resorption. The determination of osteocalcin at the beginning of pregnancy seems to be of limited clinical use, whereas measuring bone resorption markers such as CTx and/or osteoprotegerin may have a good predictive value for later pregnancy-associated bone loss.

  3. An Investigation of Chief Administrator Turnover in International Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, John

    2011-01-01

    This article explores chief administrator turnover in international schools. Quantitative and qualitative data from the 83 chief administrators who participated in the study suggests that the average tenure of an international school chief administrator is 3.7 years and that the main reason chief administrators leave international schools is…

  4. Chinese Teachers' Work Stress and Their Turnover Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shujie; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    This survey study employed qualitative dominant mixed research to explore the sources of teacher stress in China and the possible reasons for Chinese teachers' turnover intention. The data were collected in Jilin Province of China, and 510 teachers participated in the survey. Quantitatively, 40.4% of the surveyed teachers reported that they…

  5. The Effects of Turnover: What We Know about Teacher Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeAngelis, Karen

    2012-01-01

    School business officials are likely to know better than anyone else about the financial costs to districts and schools associated with teacher attrition. Perhaps less well-known, though, is what else has been learned about this issue in recent years--information that may affect how one thinks about teacher turnover. Here is some of that research:…

  6. 41 CFR 109-27.5002 - Stores inventory turnover ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stores inventory turnover ratio. 109-27.5002 Section 109-27.5002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY...

  7. 41 CFR 109-27.5002 - Stores inventory turnover ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stores inventory turnover ratio. 109-27.5002 Section 109-27.5002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY...

  8. 41 CFR 109-27.5002 - Stores inventory turnover ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stores inventory turnover ratio. 109-27.5002 Section 109-27.5002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY...

  9. 41 CFR 109-27.5002 - Stores inventory turnover ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stores inventory turnover ratio. 109-27.5002 Section 109-27.5002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.50-Inventory Management Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines §...

  10. Turnover at the Top: Superintendent Vacancies and the Urban School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    The leadership turnover in America's largest school districts has increased so rapidly that the average urban superintendent tenure is only about two years. In fact, many urban superintendents are hired knowing that they will either be terminated or forced to resign in a short period of time. This cycle has created a class of superintendents who…

  11. Teacher Turnover in Malawi's Ministry of Education: Realities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayuni, Happy; Tambulasi, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The teaching profession is no longer a concern of academicians but the public in general who yearn for positive results. Internationally, the profession is continuously beset by several serious problems. One of the most serious problems in the teaching profession is teacher turnover. Governments are finding it difficult to retain teachers in…

  12. The Prediction of Teacher Turnover Employing Time Series Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Crist H.

    The purpose of this study was to combine knowledge of teacher demographic data with time-series forecasting methods to predict teacher turnover. Moving averages and exponential smoothing were used to forecast discrete time series. The study used data collected from the 22 largest school districts in Iowa, designated as FACT schools. Predictions…

  13. Organizational Career Growth, Affective Occupational Commitment and Turnover Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Qingxiong; McElroy, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Survey data, collected from the People's Republic of China, were used to test Weng's (2010) four facet model of career growth and to examine its effect on occupational commitment and turnover intentions. Weng conceptualized career growth as consisting of four factors: career goal progress, professional ability development, promotion speed, and…

  14. Sex-chromosome turnovers induced by deleterious mutation load.

    PubMed

    Blaser, Olivier; Grossen, Christine; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Perrin, Nicolas

    2013-03-01

    In sharp contrast with mammals and birds, many cold-blooded vertebrates present homomorphic sex chromosomes. Empirical evidence supports a role for frequent turnovers, which replace nonrecombining sex chromosomes before they have time to decay. Three main mechanisms have been proposed for such turnovers, relying either on neutral processes, sex-ratio selection, or intrinsic benefits of the new sex-determining genes (due, e.g., to linkage with sexually antagonistic mutations). Here, we suggest an additional mechanism, arising from the load of deleterious mutations that accumulate on nonrecombining sex chromosomes. In the absence of dosage compensation, this load should progressively lower survival rate in the heterogametic sex. Turnovers should occur when this cost outweighs the benefits gained from any sexually antagonistic genes carried by the nonrecombining sex chromosome. We use individual-based simulations of a Muller's ratchet process to test this prediction, and investigate how the relevant parameters (effective population size, strength and dominance of deleterious mutations, size of nonrecombining segment, and strength of sexually antagonistic selection) are expected to affect the rate of turnovers. PMID:23461315

  15. Relationships between Emotional Labor, Job Performance, and Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Robyn E.; Groth, Markus; Frenkel, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between the emotional labor strategies surface acting and deep acting and organizational outcomes, specifically, employees' overall job performance and turnover. Call center employees from two large financial service organizations completed an online survey about their use of surface and deep acting.…

  16. Ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelia turnover in a longleaf pine forest.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Joseph J; Mitchell, Robert J; Kuehn, Kevin A; Pecot, Stephen D

    2016-03-01

    Elucidation of the patterns and controls of carbon (C) flow and nitrogen (N) cycling in forests has been hindered by a poor understanding of ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelia (EFM) dynamics. In this study, EFM standing biomass (based on soil ergosterol concentrations), production (based on ergosterol accrual in ingrowth cores), and turnover rate (the quotient of annual production and average standing biomass estimates) were assessed in a 25-yr-old longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) plantation where C flow was manipulated by foliar scorching and N fertilization for 5 yr before study initiation. In the controls, EFM standing biomass was 30 ± 7 g m(-2) , production was 279 ± 63 g m(-2)  yr(-1) , and turnover rate was 10 ± 3 times yr(-1) . The scorched × fertilized treatment had significantly higher EFM standing biomass (38 ± 8 g m(-2) ), significantly lower production (205 ± 28 g m(-2)  yr(-1) ), and a trend of decreased turnover rate (6 ± 1 times yr(-1) ). The EFM turnover estimates, which are among the first reported for natural systems, indicate that EFM are a dynamic component of ecosystems, and that conventional assessments have probably underestimated the role of EFM in C flow and nutrient cycling. PMID:26537020

  17. Consistent assignment of nurse aides: association with turnover and absenteeism.

    PubMed

    Castle, Nicholas G

    2013-01-01

    Consistent assignment refers to the same caregivers consistently caring for the same residents almost every time caregivers are on duty. This article examines the association of consistent assignment of nurse aides with turnover and absenteeism. Data came from a survey of nursing home administrators, the Online Survey Certification and Reporting data, and the Area Resource File. The measures were from 2007 and came from 3,941 nursing homes. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine turnover and absenteeism. An average of 68% of nursing homes reported using consistent assignment, with 28% of nursing homes using nurse aides consistent assignment at the often recommended level of 85% (or more). Nursing homes using recommended levels of consistent assignment had significantly lower rates of turnover and of absenteeism. In the multivariate analyses, consistent assignment was significantly associated with both lower turnover and lower absenteeism (p < .01). Consistent assignment is a practice recommended by many policy makers, government agencies, and industry advocates. The findings presented here provide some evidence that the use of this staffing practice can be beneficial.

  18. Quantifying assemblage turnover and species contributions at ecologic boundaries.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Not all boundaries, whether stratigraphical or geographical, are marked by species-level changes in community composition. For example, paleodata for some sites do not show readily discernible glacial-interglacial contrasts. Rather, the proportional abundances of species can vary subtly between glacials and interglacials. This paper presents a simple quantitative measure of assemblage turnover (assemblage turnover index, ATI) that uses changes in species' proportional abundances to identify intervals of community change. A second, functionally-related index (conditioned-on-boundary index, CoBI) identifies species contributions to the total assemblage turnover. With these measures we examine benthonic foraminiferal assemblages to assess glacial/interglacial contrasts at abyssal depths. Our results indicate that these measures, ATI and CoBI, have potential as sequence stratigraphic tools in abyssal depth deposits. Many peaks in the set of values of ATI coincide with terminations at the end of glaciations and delineate peak-bounded ATI intervals (PATIs) separated by boundaries that approximate to glacial terminations and to transgressions at neritic depths. These measures, however, can be used to evaluate the assemblage turnover and composition at any defined ecological or paleoecological boundary. The section used is from Ocean Drilling Program (OPD) Hole 994C, drilled on the Blake Ridge, offshore SE USA.

  19. Principal Turnover: Upheaval and Uncertainty in Charter Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni, Yongmei; Sun, Min; Rorrer, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Informed by literature on labor market and school choice, this study aims to examine the dynamics of principal career movements in charter schools by comparing principal turnover rates and patterns between charter schools and traditional public schools. Research Methods/Approach: This study uses longitudinal data on Utah principals and…

  20. Sustaining Effective Practices in the Face of Principal Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen; McIntosh, Kent; Horner, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    In the face of principal turnover, a common approach taken by staff is to simply wait until the new school year begins and hope that the new administrator will continue to support current programs. It is our experience that this passive strategy is not as helpful, because there are proactive approaches that are more likely to be successful. The…

  1. Type I IFN regulate DC turnover in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Fabrizio; Bracci, Laura; Tough, David F; Belardelli, Filippo; Schiavoni, Giovanna

    2009-07-01

    DC are the most potent antigen-presenting cells that recognise signs of infection and serve as the main activators of naïve T cells. We have previously shown that type I IFN (IFN-I) are produced by DC and can act in an autocrine manner to activate DC. In the present study, we have investigated the role of IFN-I in regulating the turnover and lifespan of DC. We found that DC, especially the CD8alpha(+) subset, from type I IFN receptor knock out (IFNAR KO) mice, display a reduced turnover rate when compared with DC from WT mice, as revealed by BrdU labelling kinetics. In vitro, IFNAR KO BM precursor cells cultured in the presence of GM-CSF generated CD11c(+) DC less efficiently than WT BM, and the IFNAR KO DC that arose displayed reduced migratory ability. Interestingly, splenic DC from IFNAR KO mice exhibited a higher survival rate in short-term culture compared with control DC. Exposure to IFN-I in vivo markedly increased the turnover rate of splenic DC, particularly CD8alpha(+) DC, which was preceded by a transient induction of apoptosis. In accordance with this, IFN-I stimulated the apoptosis of splenic DC in vitro. Overall, our data indicate that IFN-I are important regulators of DC turnover in vivo and suggest that these cytokines may exert this function through the modulation of multiple processes involving DC apoptosis, proliferation and migration. PMID:19544312

  2. Faculty Turnover: An Analysis by Rank, Gender, Ethnicity and Reason.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeyman, David S., Jr.; Summers, Susan Robinson

    In spring 1992, a study was conducted to determine factors associated with the attrition of faculty at the University of Florida (UF) from fiscal year (FY) 1989 through FY 1990. Specifically, the study sought to determine the relative level of turnover at UF compared to other institutions, the demographics of and motives given by leaving faculty,…

  3. Factors Affecting Principal Turnover: A Study of Three Midwestern Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belt, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. This dissertation addresses the problem of principal turnover. Using state and city level administrative data, a study of principals and their schools in greater Kansas City, Missouri, St. Louis, Missouri, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, was conducted with the goal of discovering themes that emerge regarding the factors associated with turnover…

  4. Quantifying assemblage turnover and species contributions at ecologic boundaries.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Not all boundaries, whether stratigraphical or geographical, are marked by species-level changes in community composition. For example, paleodata for some sites do not show readily discernible glacial-interglacial contrasts. Rather, the proportional abundances of species can vary subtly between glacials and interglacials. This paper presents a simple quantitative measure of assemblage turnover (assemblage turnover index, ATI) that uses changes in species' proportional abundances to identify intervals of community change. A second, functionally-related index (conditioned-on-boundary index, CoBI) identifies species contributions to the total assemblage turnover. With these measures we examine benthonic foraminiferal assemblages to assess glacial/interglacial contrasts at abyssal depths. Our results indicate that these measures, ATI and CoBI, have potential as sequence stratigraphic tools in abyssal depth deposits. Many peaks in the set of values of ATI coincide with terminations at the end of glaciations and delineate peak-bounded ATI intervals (PATIs) separated by boundaries that approximate to glacial terminations and to transgressions at neritic depths. These measures, however, can be used to evaluate the assemblage turnover and composition at any defined ecological or paleoecological boundary. The section used is from Ocean Drilling Program (OPD) Hole 994C, drilled on the Blake Ridge, offshore SE USA. PMID:24130679

  5. Employees as Customers: Exploring Service Climate, Employee Patronage, and Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abston, Kristie A.; Kupritz, Virginia W.

    2011-01-01

    The role of retail employees as customers was explored by quantitatively examining the influence of service climate and employee patronage on employee turnover intentions. Employees representing all shifts in two stores of a national retailer participated. Results indicated that employee patronage partially mediates the effects of service climate…

  6. Phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid transport between the ER and plasma membrane during PLC activation requires the Nir2 protein.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeun Ju; Guzman-Hernandez, Maria Luisa; Wisniewski, Eva; Echeverria, Nicolas; Balla, Tamas

    2016-02-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated hydrolysis of the limited pool of plasma membrane (PM) phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] requires replenishment from a larger pool of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) via sequential phosphorylation by PtdIns 4-kinases and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) 5-kinases. Since PtdIns is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and PtdIns(4,5)P2 is generated in the PM, it has been postulated that PtdIns transfer proteins (PITPs) provide the means for this lipid transfer function. Recent studies identified the large PITP protein, Nir2 as important for PtdIns transfer from the ER to the PM. It was also found that Nir2 was required for the transfer of phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) from the PM to the ER. In Nir2-depleted cells, activation of PLC leads to PtdOH accumulation in the PM and PtdIns synthesis becomes severely impaired. In quiescent cells, Nir2 is localized to the ER via interaction of its FFAT domain with ER-bound VAMP-associated proteins VAP-A and-B. After PLC activation, Nir2 also binds to the PM via interaction of its C-terminal domains with diacylglycerol (DAG) and PtdOH. Through these interactions, Nir2 functions in ER-PM contact zones. Mutations in VAP-B that have been identified in familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou-Gehrig's disease) cause aggregation of the VAP-B protein, which then impairs its binding to several proteins, including Nir2. These findings have shed new lights on the importance of non-vesicular lipid transfer of PtdIns and PtdOH in ER-PM contact zones with a possible link to a devastating human disease.

  7. Increased loss and decreased synthesis of hepatic glutathione after acute ethanol administration. Turnover studies.

    PubMed Central

    Speisky, H; MacDonald, A; Giles, G; Orrego, H; Israel, Y

    1985-01-01

    The effect of acute ethanol administration on rates of synthesis and utilization of hepatic glutathione (GSH) was studied in rats after a pulse of [35S]cysteine. A 35% decrease in hepatic GSH content 5h after administration of 4 g of ethanol/kg body wt. was accompanied by a 33% increase in the rate of GSH utilization. The decrease occurred without increases in hepatic oxidized glutathione (GSSG) or in the GSH/GSSG ratio. The rate of non-enzymic condensation of GSH with acetaldehyde could account for only 6% of the rate of hepatic GSH disappearance. The increased loss of [35S]GSH induced by ethanol was not accompanied by an increased turnover; rather, a 30% inhibition of GSH synthesis balanced the increased rate of loss, leaving the turnover rate unchanged. The rate of acetaldehyde condensation with cysteine in vitro occurred at about one-third of the rate of GSH loss in ethanol-treated animals. However, ethanol induced only a minor decrease in liver cysteine content, which did not precede, but followed, the decrease in GSH. The characteristics of 2-methylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, the condensation product between acetaldehyde and cysteine, were studied and methodologies were developed to determine its presence in tissues. It was not found in the liver of ethanol-treated animals. Ethanol administration led to a marked increase (47%) in plasma GSH in the post-hepatic inferior vena cava, but not in its pre-hepatic segment. Data suggest that an increased loss of GSH from the liver constitutes an important mechanism for the decrease in GSH induced by ethanol. In addition, an inhibition of GSH synthesis is observed. PMID:3977847

  8. Increased Intake of Selected Vegetables, Herbs and Fruit may Reduce Bone Turnover in Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Caroline Ann; Weber, Janet Louise; McGill, Anne-Thea; Kruger, Marlena Cathorina

    2015-01-01

    Increased consumption of vegetables/herbs/fruit may reduce bone turnover and urinary calcium loss in post-menopausal women because of increased intake of polyphenols and potassium, but comparative human studies are lacking. The main aim was to compare bone turnover markers and urinary calcium excretion in two randomised groups (n = 50) of healthy post-menopausal women consuming ≥9 servings of different vegetables/herbs/fruit combinations (three months). Group A emphasised a generic range of vegetables/herbs/fruit, whereas Group B emphasised specific vegetables/herbs/fruit with bone resorption-inhibiting properties (Scarborough Fair Diet), with both diets controlled for potential renal acid load (PRAL). Group C consumed their usual diet. Plasma bone markers, urinary electrolytes (24 h) and estimated dietary PRAL were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP) decreased (−3.2 μg/L, p < 0.01) in the B group only, as did C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) (−0.065 μg/L, p < 0.01) in women with osteopenia compared to those with normal bone mineral density (BMD) within this group. Intervention Groups A and B had decreased PRAL, increased urine pH and significantly decreased urinary calcium loss. Urinary potassium increased in all groups, reflecting a dietary change. In conclusion, Group B demonstrated positive changes in both turnover markers and calcium conservation. PMID:25856221

  9. OPTIMIZING MINIRHIZOTRON SAMPLE FREQUENCY FOR ESTIMATING FINE ROOT PRODUCTION AND TURNOVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most frequent reason for using minirhizotrons in natural ecosystems is the determination of fine root production and turnover. Our objective is to determine the optimum sampling frequency for estimating fine root production and turnover using data from evergreen (Pseudotsuga ...

  10. Whole body and tissue cholesterol turnover in the baboon

    SciTech Connect

    Dell, R.B.; Mott, G.E.; Jackson, E.M.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Carey, K.D.; McGill, H.C. Jr.; Goodman, D.S.

    1985-03-01

    Cholesterol turnover was studied in four baboons by injecting (/sup 14/C)cholesterol 186 days and (/sup 3/H)cholesterol 4 days before necropsy, and fitting a two- or three-pool model to the resulting specific activity-time data. At necropsy, cholesterol mass and specific activity were determined for the total body and for many tissues. The principal aim of this study was to estimate the extent of cholesterol synthesis in the side pools of the model, by computing the amount of side pool synthesis needed to equal the measured total body cholesterol. Central pool synthesis varied from 61 to 89% of the total cholesterol production rate. Moreover, the finding that the measured total body cholesterol fell within the range obtained from the kinetic analysis by using reasonable assumptions, provides evidence for the physiological validity of the model. A second aim of this study was to explore cholesterol turnover in various tissues. A pool model predicts that rapidly turning over tissues will have higher specific activities at early times and lower specific activities at later times after injection of tracer relative to slowly turning over tissues, except where significant synthesis occurs. Results in all four baboons were similar. Turnover rates for the different tissues loosely fell into three groups which were turning over at fast, intermediate, and slow rates. Finally, the magnitude of variation of cholesterol specific activity was moderate for several distributed tissues (fat, muscle, arteries, and the alimentary tract), but was small for liver. Cholesterol turnover in serial biopsies of skin, muscle, and fat could, however, be fitted with a single pool to estimate tissue turnover rates.

  11. Biotic turnover rates during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stivrins, Normunds; Soininen, Janne; Amon, Leeli; Fontana, Sonia L.; Gryguc, Gražyna; Heikkilä, Maija; Heiri, Oliver; Kisielienė, Dalia; Reitalu, Triin; Stančikaitė, Miglė; Veski, Siim; Seppä, Heikki

    2016-11-01

    The Northern Hemisphere is currently warming at the rate which is unprecedented during the Holocene. Quantitative palaeoclimatic records show that the most recent time in the geological history with comparable warming rates was during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition (PHT) about 14,000 to 11,000 years ago. To better understand the biotic response to rapid temperature change, we explore the community turnover rates during the PHT by focusing on the Baltic region in the southeastern sector of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet, where an exceptionally dense network on microfossil and macrofossil data that reflect the biotic community history are available. We further use a composite chironomid-based summer temperature reconstruction compiled specifically for our study region to calculate the rate of temperature change during the PHT. The fastest biotic turnover in the terrestrial and aquatic communities occurred during the Younger Dryas-Holocene shift at 11,700 years ago. This general shift in species composition was accompanied by regional extinctions, including disappearance of mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and many arctic-alpine plant taxa, such as Dryas octopetala, Salix polaris and Saxifraga aizoides, from the region. This rapid biotic turnover rate occurred when the rate of warming was 0.17 °C/decade, thus slightly lower than the current Northern Hemisphere warming of 0.2 °C/decade. We therefore conclude that the Younger Dryas-Holocene shift with its rapid turnover rates and associated regional extinctions represents an important palaeoanalogue to the current high latitude warming and gives insights about the probable future turnover rates and patterns of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem change.

  12. Hypoxic cell turnover in different solid tumor lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ljungkvist, Anna S.E. . E-mail: a.ljungkvist@rther.umcn.nl; Bussink, Johan; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Rijken, Paulus F.J.W.; Begg, Adrian C.; Raleigh, James A.; Kogel, Albert J. van der

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: Most solid tumors contain hypoxic cells, and the amount of tumor hypoxia has been shown to have a negative impact on the outcome of radiotherapy. The efficacy of combined modality treatments depends both on the sequence and timing of the treatments. Hypoxic cell turnover in tumors may be important for optimal scheduling of combined modality treatments, especially when hypoxic cell targeting is involved. Methods and Materials: Previously we have shown that a double bioreductive hypoxic marker assay could be used to detect changes of tumor hypoxia in relation to the tumor vasculature after carbogen and hydralazine treatments. This assay was used in the current study to establish the turnover rate of hypoxic cells in three different tumor models. The first hypoxic marker, pimonidazole, was administered at variable times before tumor harvest, and the second hypoxic marker, CCI-103F, was injected at a fixed time before harvest. Hypoxic cell turnover was defined as loss of pimonidazole (first marker) relative to CCI-103F (second marker). Results: The half-life of hypoxic cell turnover was 17 h in the murine C38 colon carcinoma line, 23 h and 49 h in the human xenograft lines MEC82 and SCCNij3, respectively. Within 24 h, loss of pimonidazole-stained areas in C38 and MEC82 occurred concurrent with the appearance of pimonidazole positive cell debris in necrotic regions. In C38 and MEC82, most of the hypoxic cells had disappeared after 48 h, whereas in SCCNij3, viable cells that had been labeled with pimonidazole were still observed after 5 days. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that the double hypoxia marker assay can be used to study changes in both the proportion of hypoxic tumor cells and their lifespan at the same time. The present study shows that large differences in hypoxic cell turnover rates may exist among tumor lines, with half-lives ranging from 17-49 h.

  13. Pooled Analysis of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Pathway Variants and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koutros, Stella; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Hayes, Richard B.; Ma, Jing; Huang, Wen-Yi; Albanes, Demetrius; Canzian, Federico; Chanock, Stephen J.; Crawford, E. David; Diver, W. Ryan; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Giovanucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hunter, David J.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kraft, Peter; Le Marchand, Loïc; Riboli, Elio; Siddiq, Afshan; Stampfer, Mier J.; Stram, Daniel O.; Thomas, Gilles; Travis, Ruth C.; Thun, Michael J.; Yeager, Meredith; Berndt, Sonja I.

    2010-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway regulates various cellular processes, including cellular proliferation and intracellular trafficking and may impact prostate carcinogenesis. Thus, we explored the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PI3K genes and prostate cancer. Pooled data from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium were examined for associations between 89 SNPs in PI3K genes (PIK3C2B, PIK3AP1, PIK3C2A, PIK3CD, and PIK3R3) and prostate cancer risk in 8,309 cases and 9,286 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression. SNP rs7556371 in PIK3C2B was significantly associated with prostate cancer risk (ORper allele=1.08 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.14), p-trend = 0.0017) after adjustment for multiple testing (Padj=0.024). Simultaneous adjustment of rs7556371 for nearby SNPs strengthened the association (ORper allele=1.21 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.34); p-trend =0.0003). The adjusted association was stronger for men who were diagnosed before 65 years (ORper allele= 1.47 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.79), p-trend = 0.0001) or had a family history (ORper allele= 1.57 (95% CI: 1.11, 2.23), p-trend = 0.0114), and was strongest in those with both characteristics (ORper allele= 2.31 (95% CI: 1.07, 5.07), p-interaction = 0.005). Increased risks were observed among men in the top tertile of circulating insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels (ORper allele= 1.46 (95% CI: 1.04, 2.06), p-trend=0.075). No differences were observed with disease aggressiveness (≥8/stage T3/T4/fatal). In conclusion, we observed a significant association between PIK3C2B and prostate cancer risk, especially for familial, early onset disease, which may be attributable to IGF-dependent PI3K signaling. PMID:20197460

  14. Examining the job search-turnover relationship: the role of embeddedness, job satisfaction, and available alternatives.

    PubMed

    Swider, Brian W; Boswell, Wendy R; Zimmerman, Ryan D

    2011-03-01

    This study examined factors that may help explain under what conditions employee job search effort may most strongly (or weakly) predict subsequent turnover. As predicted, the job search-turnover relationship was stronger when employees had lower levels of job embeddedness and job satisfaction and higher levels of available alternatives. These findings suggest that there may be a number of factors interacting to influence employees' turnover decisions, indicating greater complexity to the process than described in prominent sequential turnover models. PMID:21142342

  15. Turnover of mitochondrial steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein by Lon protease: the unexpected effect of proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Granot, Zvi; Kobiler, Oren; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Eimerl, Sarah; Bahat, Assaf; Lu, Bin; Braun, Sergei; Maurizi, Michael R; Suzuki, Carolyn K; Oppenheim, Amos B; Orly, Joseph

    2007-09-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is a vital mitochondrial protein promoting transfer of cholesterol into steroid making mitochondria in specialized cells of the adrenal cortex and gonads. Our previous work has demonstrated that StAR is rapidly degraded upon import into the mitochondrial matrix. To identify the protease(s) responsible for this rapid turnover, murine StAR was expressed in wild-type Escherichia coli or in mutant strains lacking one of the four ATP-dependent proteolytic systems, three of which are conserved in mammalian mitochondria-ClpP, FtsH, and Lon. StAR was rapidly degraded in wild-type bacteria and stabilized only in lon (-)mutants; in such cells, StAR turnover was fully restored upon coexpression of human mitochondrial Lon. In mammalian cells, the rate of StAR turnover was proportional to the cell content of Lon protease after expression of a Lon-targeted small interfering RNA, or overexpression of the protein. In vitro assays using purified proteins showed that Lon-mediated degradation of StAR was ATP-dependent and blocked by the proteasome inhibitors MG132 (IC(50) = 20 microm) and clasto-lactacystin beta-lactone (cLbetaL, IC(50) = 3 microm); by contrast, epoxomicin, representing a different class of proteasome inhibitors, had no effect. Such inhibition is consistent with results in cultured rat ovarian granulosa cells demonstrating that degradation of StAR in the mitochondrial matrix is blocked by MG132 and cLbetaL but not by epoxomicin. Both inhibitors also blocked Lon-mediated cleavage of the model substrate fluorescein isothiocyanate-casein. Taken together, our former studies and the present results suggest that Lon is the primary ATP-dependent protease responsible for StAR turnover in mitochondria of steroidogenic cells.

  16. Comparison of Acetate Turnover in Methanogenic and Sulfate-Reducing Sediments by Radiolabeling and Stable Isotope Labeling and by Use of Specific Inhibitors: Evidence for Isotopic Exchange

    PubMed Central

    de Graaf, W.; Wellsbury, P.; Parkes, R. J.; Cappenberg, T. E.

    1996-01-01

    Acetate turnover in the methanogenic freshwater anoxic sediments of Lake Vechten, The Netherlands, and in anoxic sediments from the Tamar Estuary, United Kingdom, and the Grosser Jasmunder Bodden, Germany, the latter two dominated by sulfate reduction, was determined. Stable isotopes and radioisotopes, inhibitors (chloroform and fluoroacetate), and methane flux were used to provide independent estimates of acetate turnover. Pore water acetate pool sizes were determined by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector, and stable isotope-labeled acetate was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The appearance of acetates with a different isotope labeling pattern from that initially added demonstrated that isotopic exchange occurred during methanogenic acetate metabolism. The predominant exchange processes were (i) D-H exchange in the methyl group and (ii) (sup13)C-(sup12)C exchange at the carboxyl carbon. These exchanges are most probably caused by the activity of the enzyme complex carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and subsequent methyl group dehydrogenation by tetrahydromethanopterine or a related enzyme. The methyl carbon was not subject to exchange during transformation to methane, and hence acetate with the methyl carbon labeled will provide the most reliable estimate of acetate turnover to methane. Acetate turnover rate estimates with these labels were consistent with independent estimates of acetate turnover (acetate accumulation after inhibition and methane flux). Turnover rates from either radioisotope- or stable isotope-labeled methyl carbon isotopes are, however, dependent on accurate determination of the acetate pool size. The additions of large amounts of stable isotope-labeled acetate elevate the acetate pool size, stimulating acetate consumption and causing deviation from steady-state kinetics. This can, however, be overcome by the application of a non-steady-state model. Isotopic exchange in sediments dominated by sulfate reduction

  17. Blind Spots: Small Rural Communities and High Turnover in the Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamrath, Barry; Brunner, C. Cryss

    2014-01-01

    This article examines high superintendency turnover through rural community members' perceptions of such attrition in their districts. Findings indicate that community members perceived high turnover as negative and believed that turnover was created by financial pressures, rural community resistance to educational trends, and bias against…

  18. Superintendent Turnover in Kentucky. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 113

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jerry; Huffman, Tyler; Madden, Karen; Shope, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This study examines superintendent turnover in Kentucky public school districts for 1998/99-2007/08, looking at how turnover varies by rural status, Appalachian and non-Appalachian region, and 2007/08 school district characteristics. Key findings include: (1) Kentucky school districts averaged one superintendent turnover during 1998/99-2007/08;…

  19. How Teacher Turnover Harms Student Achievement. NBER Working Paper No. 17176

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronfeldt, Matthew; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2011-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers often assume that teacher turnover harms student achievement, but recent evidence calls into question this assumption. Using a unique identification strategy that employs grade-level turnover and two classes of fixed-effects models, this study estimates the effects of teacher turnover on over 600,000 New York City 4th…

  20. When the Going Gets Tough: Direct, Buffering and Indirect Effects of Social Support on Turnover Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomaki, Georgia; DeLongis, Anita; Frey, Daniela; Short, Kathy; Woehrle, Trish

    2010-01-01

    We examined the role of social support in turnover intention among new teachers. First, we tested and found evidence for a direct negative relationship between social support and turnover intention. Second, we tested the social support buffer hypothesis, and found that teachers with higher social support had lower turnover intention in the face of…

  1. Measuring Worker Turnover in Long-Term Care: Lessons from the Better Jobs Better Care Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercy, Kathleen Walsh, Ed.; Barry, Theresa; Kemper, Peter; Brannon, S. Diane

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Turnover among direct-care workers (DCWs) continues to be a challenge in long-term care. Both policy makers and provider organizations recognize this issue as a major concern and are designing efforts to reduce turnover among these workers. However, there is currently no standardized method of measuring turnover to define the scope of the…

  2. Synthesis and SAR study of modulators inhibiting tRXRα-dependent AKT activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Liqun; Chen, Jiebo; Zheng, Jian-Feng; Gao, Weiwei; Zeng, Zhiping; Zhou, Hu; Zhang, Xiao-kun; Huang, Pei-Qiang; Su, Ying

    2013-01-01

    RXRα represents an intriguing and unique target for pharmacologic interventions. We recently showed that Sulindac and a designed analog could bind to RXRα and modulate its biological activity, including inhibition of the interaction of an N-terminally truncated RXRα (tRXRα) with the p85α regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K). Here we report the synthesis, testing and SAR of a series of novel analogs of Sulindac as potential modulators for inhibiting tRXRα-dependent AKT activation. A new compound 30 was identified to have improved biological activity. PMID:23434637

  3. Regulation of the Tumor-Suppressor Function of the Class III Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Complex by Ubiquitin and SUMO

    PubMed Central

    Reidick, Christina; El Magraoui, Fouzi; Meyer, Helmut E.; Stenmark, Harald; Platta, Harald W.

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of cancer is often associated with a dysfunction in one of the three central membrane-involution processes—autophagy, endocytosis or cytokinesis. Interestingly, all three pathways are controlled by the same central signaling module: the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-III) complex and its catalytic product, the phosphorylated lipid phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P). The activity of the catalytic subunit of the PI3K-III complex, the lipid-kinase VPS34, requires the presence of the membrane-targeting factor VPS15 as well as the adaptor protein Beclin 1. Furthermore, a growing list of regulatory proteins associates with VPS34 via Beclin 1. These accessory factors define distinct subunit compositions and thereby guide the PI3K-III complex to its different cellular and physiological roles. Here we discuss the regulation of the PI3K-III complex components by ubiquitination and SUMOylation. Especially Beclin 1 has emerged as a highly regulated protein, which can be modified with Lys11-, Lys48- or Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains catalyzed by distinct E3 ligases from the RING-, HECT-, RBR- or Cullin-type. We also point out other cross-links of these ligases with autophagy in order to discuss how these data might be merged into a general concept. PMID:25545884

  4. Two distinct intracytoplasmic regions of the T-cell adhesion molecule CD28 participate in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase association.

    PubMed

    Pagès, F; Ragueneau, M; Klasen, S; Battifora, M; Couez, D; Sweet, R; Truneh, A; Ward, S G; Olive, D

    1996-04-19

    Through the interaction with its ligands, CD80/B7-1 and CD86/B7-2 or B70, the human CD28 molecule plays a major functional role as a costimulator of T cells along with the CD3-TcR complex. We and others have previously reported that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inducibly associates with CD28. This association is mediated by the SH2 domains of the p85 adaptor subunit interacting with a cytoplasmic YMNM consensus motif present in CD28 at position 173-176. Disruption of this binding site by site-directed mutagenesis abolishes CD28-induced activation events in a murine T-cell hybridoma transfected with human CD28 gene. Here we show that the last 10 residues of the intracytoplasmic domain of CD28 (residues 193-202) are required for its costimulatory function. These residues are involved in interleukin-2 secretion, p85 binding, and CD28-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. In contrast, the CD28/CD8O interaction is unaffected by this deletion, as is the induction of other second messengers such as the rise in intracellular calcium and tyrosine phosphorylation of CD28-specific substrates. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that, within these residues, the tyrosine at position 200 is involved in p85 binding, probably together with the short proline-rich motif present between residues 190 and 194 (PYAPP).

  5. Rapid structural changes and acidification of guard cell vacuoles during stomatal closure require phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Bak, Gwangbae; Lee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Yuree; Kato, Mariko; Segami, Shoji; Sze, Heven; Maeshima, Masayoshi; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Lee, Youngsook

    2013-06-01

    Rapid stomatal closure is essential for water conservation in plants and is thus critical for survival under water deficiency. To close stomata rapidly, guard cells reduce their volume by converting a large central vacuole into a highly convoluted structure. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this change are poorly understood. In this study, we used pH-indicator dyes to demonstrate that vacuolar convolution is accompanied by acidification of the vacuole in fava bean (Vicia faba) guard cells during abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure. Vacuolar acidification is necessary for the rapid stomatal closure induced by ABA, since a double mutant of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase vha-a2 vha-a3 and vacuolar H(+)-PPase mutant vhp1 showed delayed stomatal closure. Furthermore, we provide evidence for the critical role of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2] in changes in pH and morphology of the vacuole. Single and double Arabidopsis thaliana null mutants of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinases (PI3P5Ks) exhibited slow stomatal closure upon ABA treatment compared with the wild type. Moreover, an inhibitor of PI3P5K reduced vacuolar acidification and convolution and delayed stomatal closure in response to ABA. Taken together, these results suggest that rapid ABA-induced stomatal closure requires PtdIns(3,5)P2, which is essential for vacuolar acidification and convolution. PMID:23757398

  6. A novel imaging method revealed phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate-rich domains in the endosome/lysosome membrane

    PubMed Central

    Takatori, Sho; Fujimoto, Toyoshi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We developed a new method to observe distribution of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2] using electron microscopy. In freeze-fracture replicas of quick-frozen samples, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was labeled specifically using recombinant ATG18 tagged with glutathione S-transferase and 4×FLAG, which was mixed with an excess of recombinant PX domain to suppress binding of ATG18 to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Using this method, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was found to be enriched in limited domains in the yeast vacuole and mammalian endosomes. In the yeast vacuole exposed to hyperosmolar stress, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was distributed at a significantly higher density in the intramembrane particle (IMP)-deficient liquid-ordered domains than in the surrounding IMP-rich domains. In mammalian cells, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was observed in endosomes of tubulo-vesicular morphology labeled for RAB5 or RAB7. Notably, distribution density of PtdIns(3,5)P2 in the endosome was significantly higher in the vesicular portion than in the tubular portion. The nano-scale distribution of PtdIns(3,5)P2 revealed in the present study is important to understand its functional roles in the vacuole and endosomes. PMID:27195064

  7. Rapid structural changes and acidification of guard cell vacuoles during stomatal closure require phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Bak, Gwangbae; Lee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Yuree; Kato, Mariko; Segami, Shoji; Sze, Heven; Maeshima, Masayoshi; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Lee, Youngsook

    2013-06-01

    Rapid stomatal closure is essential for water conservation in plants and is thus critical for survival under water deficiency. To close stomata rapidly, guard cells reduce their volume by converting a large central vacuole into a highly convoluted structure. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this change are poorly understood. In this study, we used pH-indicator dyes to demonstrate that vacuolar convolution is accompanied by acidification of the vacuole in fava bean (Vicia faba) guard cells during abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure. Vacuolar acidification is necessary for the rapid stomatal closure induced by ABA, since a double mutant of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase vha-a2 vha-a3 and vacuolar H(+)-PPase mutant vhp1 showed delayed stomatal closure. Furthermore, we provide evidence for the critical role of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2] in changes in pH and morphology of the vacuole. Single and double Arabidopsis thaliana null mutants of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinases (PI3P5Ks) exhibited slow stomatal closure upon ABA treatment compared with the wild type. Moreover, an inhibitor of PI3P5K reduced vacuolar acidification and convolution and delayed stomatal closure in response to ABA. Taken together, these results suggest that rapid ABA-induced stomatal closure requires PtdIns(3,5)P2, which is essential for vacuolar acidification and convolution.

  8. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate triggers activation of focal adhesion kinase by inducing clustering and conformational changes

    PubMed Central

    Goñi, Guillermina M.; Epifano, Carolina; Boskovic, Jasminka; Camacho-Artacho, Marta; Zhou, Jing; Bronowska, Agnieszka; Martín, M. Teresa; Eck, Michael J.; Kremer, Leonor; Gräter, Frauke; Gervasio, Francesco Luigi; Perez-Moreno, Mirna; Lietha, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase (NRTK) with key roles in integrating growth and cell matrix adhesion signals, and FAK is a major driver of invasion and metastasis in cancer. Cell adhesion via integrin receptors is well known to trigger FAK signaling, and many of the players involved are known; however, mechanistically, FAK activation is not understood. Here, using a multidisciplinary approach, including biochemical, biophysical, structural, computational, and cell biology approaches, we provide a detailed view of a multistep activation mechanism of FAK initiated by phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. Interestingly, the mechanism differs from canonical NRTK activation and is tailored to the dual catalytic and scaffolding function of FAK. We find PI(4,5)P2 induces clustering of FAK on the lipid bilayer by binding a basic region in the regulatory 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin homology (FERM) domain. In these clusters, PI(4,5)P2 induces a partially open FAK conformation where the autophosphorylation site is exposed, facilitating efficient autophosphorylation and subsequent Src recruitment. However, PI(4,5)P2 does not release autoinhibitory interactions; rather, Src phosphorylation of the activation loop in FAK results in release of the FERM/kinase tether and full catalytic activation. We propose that PI(4,5)P2 and its generation in focal adhesions by the enzyme phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase type Iγ are important in linking integrin signaling to FAK activation. PMID:25049397

  9. Complementary DNA for the folate binding protein correctly predicts anchoring to the membrane by glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol.

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, S W; Sanders, J M; Rothberg, K G; Anderson, R G; Kamen, B A

    1989-01-01

    Membrane bound and soluble forms of a high-affinity folate binding protein have been found in kidney, placenta, serum, milk, and in several cell lines. The two forms have similar binding characteristics for folates, are immunologically cross-reactive and based upon limited amino acid sequence data, are nearly identical. Based upon pulse-chase experiments, a precursor-product relationship has been suggested. The membrane form has been shown to mediate the transport of folate in cells grown in physiological concentrations of folate. A function for the soluble form has not yet been identified. We constructed a cDNA library from a human carcinoma cell line, Caco-2, which expresses the membrane form abundantly. The library was screened and a near full-length cDNA for the folate binder was isolated. Transfection of COS cells with the cDNA inserted in an expression vector resulted in marked overexpression of a membrane-associated folate binder as assessed by direct binding of radiolabeled folate and by indirect immunofluorescence. The deduced amino acid sequence is not consistent with a typical membrane spanning domain but rather with a signal for anchoring via a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol linkage. Release of the binder with a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C strongly supports this hypothesis. Images PMID:2527252

  10. Reduced phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate synthesis impairs inner ear Ca2+ signaling and high-frequency hearing acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Laura; Simeonato, Elena; Scimemi, Pietro; Anselmi, Fabio; Calì, Bianca; Crispino, Giulia; Ciubotaru, Catalin D.; Bortolozzi, Mario; Ramirez, Fabian Galindo; Majumder, Paromita; Arslan, Edoardo; De Camilli, Pietro; Pozzan, Tullio; Mammano, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase type 1γ (PIPKIγ) is a key enzyme in the generation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and is expressed at high levels in the nervous system. Homozygous knockout mice lacking this enzyme die postnatally within 24 h, whereas PIPKIγ+/− siblings breed normally and have no reported phenotype. Here we show that adult PIPKIγ+/− mice have dramatically elevated hearing thresholds for high-frequency sounds. During the first postnatal week we observed a reduction of ATP-dependent Ca2+ signaling activity in cochlear nonsensory cells. Because Ca2+ signaling under these conditions depends on inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate generation from phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent hydrolysis of PI(4,5)P2, we conclude that (i) PIPKIγ is primarily responsible for the synthesis of the receptor-regulated PLC-sensitive PI(4,5)P2 pool in the cell syncytia that supports auditory hair cells; (ii) spatially graded impairment of this signaling pathway in cochlear nonsensory cells causes a selective alteration in the acquisition of hearing in PIPKIγ+/− mice. This mouse model also suggests that PIPKIγ may determine the level of gap junction contribution to cochlear development. PMID:22891314

  11. Disruption of pioneer growth cone guidance in vivo by removal of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored cell surface proteins.

    PubMed

    Chang, W S; Serikawa, K; Allen, K; Bentley, D

    1992-02-01

    Cell surface proteins anchored to membranes via covalently attached glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) have been implicated in neuronal adhesion, promotion of neurite outgrowth and directed cell migration. Treatment of grasshopper embryos with bacterial phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), an enzyme that cleaves the GPI anchor, often induced disruptions in the highly stereotyped migrations of peripheral pioneer growth cones and afferent neuron cell bodies. In distal limb regions of embryos treated with PI-PLC at early stages of pioneer axon outgrowth, growth cones lost their proximal orientation toward the central nervous system (CNS) and turned distally. Pioneer growth cones in treated limbs also failed to make a characteristic ventral turn along the trochanter-coxa (Tr-Cx) segment boundary, and instead continued to grow proximally across the boundary. Treatment at an earlier stage of development caused pre-axonogenesis Cx1 neurons to abandon their normal circumferential migration and reorient toward the CNS. None of these abnormal phenotypes were observed in limbs of untreated embryos or embryos exposed to other phospholipases that do not release GPI-anchored proteins. Incubation of embryos with PI-PLC effectively removed immunoreactivity for fasciclin I, a GPI-anchored protein expressed on a subset of neuronal surfaces. These results suggest that cell surface GPI-anchored proteins are involved in pioneer growth cone guidance and in pre-axonogenesis migration of neurons in the grasshopper limb bud in vivo.

  12. Microbial carbon turnover in the plant-rhizosphere-soil continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Ashish; Dannert, Helena; Griffiths, Robert; Thomson, Bruce; Gleixner, Gerd

    2014-05-01

    Soil microbial biomass contributes significantly to maintenance of soil organic matter (SOM). It is well known that biochemical fractions of soil microorganisms have varying turnover and therefore contribute differentially to soil C storage. Here we compare the turnover rates of different microbial biochemical fractions using a pulse chase 13CO2 plant labelling experiment. The isotope signal was temporally traced into rhizosphere soil microorganisms using the following biomarkers: DNA, RNA, fatty acids and chloroform fumigation extraction derived microbial biomass size classes. C flow into soil microbial functional groups was assessed through phospholipid and neutral lipid fatty acid (PLFA/NLFA) analyses. Highest 13C enrichment was seen in the low molecular weight (LMW) size class of microbial biomass (Δδ13C =151) and in nucleic acids (DNA: 38o RNA: 66) immediately after the pulse followed by a sharp drop. The amount of 13C in the high molecular weight (HMW) microbial biomass (17-81) and total fatty acids (32-54) was lower initially and stayed relatively steady over the 4 weeks experimental period. We found significant differences in turnover rates of different microbial biochemical and size fractions. We infer that LMW cytosolic soluble compounds are rapidly metabolized and linked to respiratory C fluxes, whereas mid-sized products of microbial degradation and HMW polymeric compounds have lower renewal rate in that order. The turnover of cell wall fatty acids was also very slow. DNA and RNA showed faster turnover rate; and as expected RNA renewal was the fastest due to its rapid production by active microorganisms independent of cell replication. 13C incorporation into different functional groups confirmed that mutualistic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi rely on root C and are important in the initial plant C flux. We substantiated through measurements of isotope incorporation into bacterial RNA that rhizosphere bacteria are also important in the initial C conduit

  13. Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent and Ca/sup 2 +/-independent pathways for release of arachidonic acid from phosphatidylinositol in endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, T.W.; Wysolmerski, R.B.

    1987-09-25

    The pathways for degradation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) were investigated in sonicated suspensions prepared from confluent cultures of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells. The time courses of formation of /sup 3/H-labeled and /sup 14/C-labeled metabolites of phosphatidyl-(/sup 3/H)inositol ((/sup 3/H)Ins-PI) and 1-stearoyl-2-(/sup 14/C) arachidonoyl-PI were determined at 37/sup 0/C and pH 7.5 in the presence of 2 mM EDTA with or without a 2 mM excess of Ca/sup 2 +/. The rates of formation of lysophosphatidyl-(/sup 3/H)inositol ((/sup 3/H)Ins-lyso-PI) and 1-lyso-2-(/sup 14/C) arachidonoyl-PI were similar in the presence and absence of Ca/sup 2 +/, and the absolute amounts of the two radiolabeled lyso-PI products formed were nearly identical. This indicated that lyso-PI was formed by phospholipase A1, and phospholipase A2 was not measurable. In the presence of EDTA, (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid release from 1-stearoyl-2-(/sup 14/C)arachidonoyl-PI paralleled release of glycerophospho-(/sup 3/H)inositol ((/sup 3/H)GPI) from (/sup 3/H)Ins-PI. Formation of (/sup 3/H)GPI was inhibited by treatment with the specific sulfhydryl reagent, 2,2'-dithiodipyridine, and this was accompanied by an increase in (/sup 3/H)Ins-lyso-PI. In the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/, (/sup 14/C) arachidonic acid release from 1-stearoyl-2-(/sup 14/C)arachidonoyl-PI was increased 2-fold and was associated with Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent phospholipase C activity. Under these conditions, (/sup 3/H)inositol monophosphate production exceeded formation of (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid-labeled phospholipase C products, diacylglycerol plus monoacylglycerol, by an amount that was equal to the amount of (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid formed in excess of (/sup 3/H)GPI. Low concentrations of phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (15-125 microM) inhibited Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid release, and the decrease in (/sup 14/C) arachidonic acid formed was matched by an equivalent increase in /sup 14/C label

  14. Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III beta is the target of oxoglaucine and pachypodol (Ro 09-0179) for their anti-poliovirus activities, and is located at upstream of the target step of brefeldin A.

    PubMed

    Arita, Minetaro; Philipov, Stefan; Galabov, Angel S

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III beta (PI4KB) has emerged as a conserved target of anti-picornavirus compounds. In the present study, PI4KB was identified as the direct target of the plant-derived anti-picornavirus compounds, oxoglaucine and pachypodol (also known as Ro 09-0179). PI4KB was also identified as the target via which pachypodol interferes with brefeldin A (BFA)-induced Golgi disassembly in non-infected cells. Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) inhibitor also has interfering activity against BFA. It seems that this interference is not essential for the anti-poliovirus (PV) activities of BFA and PI4KB/OSBP inhibitors. BFA inhibited early to late phase PV replication (0 to 6 hr postinfection) as well as PI4KB inhibitor, but with some delay compared to guanidine hydrochloride treatment. In contrast with PI4KB/OSBP inhibitors, BFA inhibited viral nascent RNA synthesis, suggesting that BFA targets some step of viral RNA synthesis located downstream of the PI4KB/OSBP pathway in PV replication. Our results suggest that PI4KB is a major target of anti-picornavirus compounds identified in vitro for their anti-picornavirus activities and for some uncharacterized biological phenomena caused by these compounds, and that BFA and PI4KB/OSBP inhibitors synergistically repress PV replication by targeting distinct steps in viral RNA replication.

  15. Oxytocin Increases Invasive Properties of Endometrial Cancer Cells Through Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/AKT-Dependent Up-Regulation of Cyclooxygenase-1, -2, and X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein1

    PubMed Central

    Déry, Marie-Claude; Chaudhry, Parvesh; Leblanc, Valérie; Parent, Sophie; Fortier, Anne-Marie; Asselin, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, oxytocin (OT) is well known to play a crucial role in the regulation of cyclic changes in the uterus, implantation of the embryo, and parturition. Recently, an additional role for OT has been identified in several types of cancer cells in which OT acts as a growth regulator. In endometrial cancer cells, OT is known to efficiently inhibit cellular proliferation. In the present study, we show that OT increases invasiveness of human endometrial carcinoma (HEC) cells, which are otherwise resistant to the growth-inhibiting effects of OT. Using pharmacological inhibitors, invasion assay, RNA interference, and immunofluorescence, we found that OT enhances the invasive properties of HEC cells through up-regulation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), matrix-metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), and matrix-metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14). In addition, we show that OT-mediated invasion is both cyclooxygenase 1 (PTGS1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2) dependent via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT (PIK3/AKT) pathway. PTGS2 knockdown by shRNA resulted in XIAP down-regulation. We also show that OT receptor is overexpressed in grade I to III endometrial cancer. Taken together, our results describe for the first time a novel role for OT in endometrial cancer cell invasion. PMID:21816851

  16. The effects of autonomy and empowerment on employee turnover: test of a multilevel model in teams.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Lei; Lee, Thomas W

    2011-11-01

    Extending research on voluntary turnover in the team setting, this study adopts a multilevel self-determination theoretical approach to examine the unique roles of individual and social-contextual motivational precursors, autonomy orientation and autonomy support, in reducing team member voluntary turnover. Analysis of multilevel time-lagged data collected from 817 employees on 115 teams indicates that psychological empowerment mediates the main effect of autonomy orientation and the interactive effect of autonomy support and its differentiation on a team member's voluntary turnover. The findings have meaningful implications for the turnover and self-determination literatures as well as for managers who endeavor to prevent voluntary turnover in teams. PMID:21744939

  17. The effects of autonomy and empowerment on employee turnover: test of a multilevel model in teams.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Lei; Lee, Thomas W

    2011-11-01

    Extending research on voluntary turnover in the team setting, this study adopts a multilevel self-determination theoretical approach to examine the unique roles of individual and social-contextual motivational precursors, autonomy orientation and autonomy support, in reducing team member voluntary turnover. Analysis of multilevel time-lagged data collected from 817 employees on 115 teams indicates that psychological empowerment mediates the main effect of autonomy orientation and the interactive effect of autonomy support and its differentiation on a team member's voluntary turnover. The findings have meaningful implications for the turnover and self-determination literatures as well as for managers who endeavor to prevent voluntary turnover in teams.

  18. Signaling Pathways That Control mRNA Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Roopa; Denmon, Andria P.

    2013-01-01

    Cells regulate their genomes mainly at the level of transcription and at the level of mRNA decay. While regulation at the level of transcription is clearly important, the regulation of mRNA turnover by signaling networks is essential for a rapid response to external stimuli. Signaling pathways result in posttranslational modification of RNA binding proteins by phosphorylation, ubiquitination, methylation, acetylation etc. These modifications are important for rapid remodeling of dynamic ribonucleoprotein complexes and triggering mRNA decay. Understanding how these posttranslational modifications alter gene expression is therefore a fundamental question in biology. In this review we highlight recent findings on how signaling pathways and cell cycle checkpoints involving phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and arginine methylation affect mRNA turnover. PMID:23602935

  19. Keratin dynamics: modeling the interplay between turnover and transport.

    PubMed

    Portet, Stéphanie; Madzvamuse, Anotida; Chung, Andy; Leube, Rudolf E; Windoffer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Keratin are among the most abundant proteins in epithelial cells. Functions of the keratin network in cells are shaped by their dynamical organization. Using a collection of experimentally-driven mathematical models, different hypotheses for the turnover and transport of the keratin material in epithelial cells are tested. The interplay between turnover and transport and their effects on the keratin organization in cells are hence investigated by combining mathematical modeling and experimental data. Amongst the collection of mathematical models considered, a best model strongly supported by experimental data is identified. Fundamental to this approach is the fact that optimal parameter values associated with the best fit for each model are established. The best candidate among the best fits is characterized by the disassembly of the assembled keratin material in the perinuclear region and an active transport of the assembled keratin. Our study shows that an active transport of the assembled keratin is required to explain the experimentally observed keratin organization.

  20. [Bone turnover and mineralization in patients with kidney failure].

    PubMed

    James, Junichiro

    2016-09-01

    Bone remodeling is a device to accomplish "the buffering of the extracellular fluid mineral", which is one of the two major physiological functions of bone. Bone turnover is a term to express the frequency of bone remodeling, and its last step is calcification. When remodeling is induced, at first a large amount of mineral is released from bone to extracellular fluid transiently, and thereafter mineral is slowly and steadily drawn into bone. The extracellular minerals, especially calcium, are maintained by this repetition. When kidney is injured, bone turnover takes a wide spectrum from remarkably high cases to low cases. Primary calcification also shows marked individual differences. The classic renal bone diseases 5 classification clearly categorizes these disease condition, which is synonymous with renal osteodystrophy today. PMID:27561340

  1. Biosynthesis, Turnover, and Functions of Chitin in Insects.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kun Yan; Merzendorfer, Hans; Zhang, Wenqing; Zhang, Jianzhen; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam

    2016-01-01

    Chitin is a major component of the exoskeleton and the peritrophic matrix of insects. It forms complex structures in association with different assortments of cuticle and peritrophic matrix proteins to yield biocomposites with a wide range of physicochemical and mechanical properties. The growth and development of insects are intimately coupled with the biosynthesis, turnover, and modification of chitin. The genes encoding numerous enzymes of chitin metabolism and proteins that associate with and organize chitin have been uncovered by bioinformatics analyses. Many of these proteins are encoded by sets of large gene families. There is specialization among members within each family, which function in particular tissues or developmental stages. Chitin-containing matrices are dynamically modified at every developmental stage and are under developmental and/or physiological control. A thorough understanding of the diverse processes associated with the assembly and turnover of these chitinous matrices offers many strategies to achieve selective pest control. PMID:26982439

  2. Assembly and Turnover of Caveolae: What Do We Really Know?

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bing; Copeland, Courtney A.; Tiwari, Ajit; Kenworthy, Anne K.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to containing highly dynamic nanoscale domains, the plasma membranes of many cell types are decorated with caveolae, flask-shaped domains enriched in the structural protein caveolin-1 (Cav1). The importance of caveolae in numerous cellular functions and processes has become well-recognized, and recent years have seen dramatic advances in our understanding of how caveolae assemble and the mechanisms control the turnover of Cav1. At the same time, work from our lab and others have revealed that commonly utilized strategies such as overexpression and tagging of Cav1 have unexpectedly complex consequences on the trafficking and fate of Cav1. Here, we discuss the implications of these findings for current models of caveolae biogenesis and Cav1 turnover. In addition, we discuss how disease-associated mutants of Cav1 impact caveolae assembly and outline open questions in this still-emerging area. PMID:27446919

  3. Nursing assistant turnover in nursing homes and need satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Caudill, M; Patrick, M

    1989-06-01

    1. Level of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is basic physiological needs measured by salary, adequate housing, and food. Attainment of these needs increased the length of stay of nursing assistants in nursing homes. 2. Safety and security (level 2) influenced length of stay of nursing assistants. Those with benefits of retirement, vacation, and holiday pay tended to have less turnover. 3. Praise by the patient and family was most important to nursing assistants. Belonging to a peer group and praise by charge nurse also decreased turnover of nursing assistants (level 3). 4. Level 4, self-esteem measured by input into decisions and being able to criticize, increased length of stay of nursing assistants.

  4. Regulation of protein turnover by heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Bozaykut, Perinur; Ozer, Nesrin Kartal; Karademir, Betul

    2014-12-01

    Protein turnover reflects the balance between synthesis and degradation of proteins, and it is a crucial process for the maintenance of the cellular protein pool. The folding of proteins, refolding of misfolded proteins, and also degradation of misfolded and damaged proteins are involved in the protein quality control (PQC) system. Correct protein folding and degradation are controlled by many different factors, one of the most important of which is the heat shock protein family. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are in the class of molecular chaperones, which may prevent the inappropriate interaction of proteins and induce correct folding. On the other hand, these proteins play significant roles in the degradation pathways, including endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and autophagy. This review focuses on the emerging role of HSPs in the regulation of protein turnover; the effects of HSPs on the degradation machineries ERAD, autophagy, and proteasome; as well as the role of posttranslational modifications in the PQC system.

  5. Matrix metalloproteinases in fish biology and matrix turnover.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Mona E; Vuong, Tram T; Rønning, Sissel B; Kolset, Svein O

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases have important functions for tissue turnover in fish, with relevance both for the fish industry and molecular and cellular research on embryology, inflammation and tissue repair. These metalloproteinases have been studied in different fish types, subjected to both aquaculture and experimental conditions. This review highlights studies on these metalloproteinases in relation to both fish quality and health and further, the future importance of fish for basic research studies.

  6. Pattern and process in Amazon tree turnover, 1976-2001.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, O L; Baker, T R; Arroyo, L; Higuchi, N; Killeen, T J; Laurance, W F; Lewis, S L; Lloyd, J; Malhi, Y; Monteagudo, A; Neill, D A; Vargas, P Núñez; Silva, J N M; Terborgh, J; Martínez, R Vásquez; Alexiades, M; Almeida, S; Brown, S; Chave, J; Comiskey, J A; Czimczik, C I; Di Fiore, A; Erwin, T; Kuebler, C; Laurance, S G; Nascimento, H E M; Olivier, J; Palacios, W; Patiño, S; Pitman, N C A; Quesada, C A; Saldias, M; Lezama, A Torres; Vinceti, B

    2004-01-01

    Previous work has shown that tree turnover, tree biomass and large liana densities have increased in mature tropical forest plots in the late twentieth century. These results point to a concerted shift in forest ecological processes that may already be having significant impacts on terrestrial carbon stocks, fluxes and biodiversity. However, the findings have proved controversial, partly because a rather limited number of permanent plots have been monitored for rather short periods. The aim of this paper is to characterize regional-scale patterns of 'tree turnover' (the rate with which trees die and recruit into a population) by using improved datasets now available for Amazonia that span the past 25 years. Specifically, we assess whether concerted changes in turnover are occurring, and if so whether they are general throughout the Amazon or restricted to one region or environmental zone. In addition, we ask whether they are driven by changes in recruitment, mortality or both. We find that: (i) trees 10 cm or more in diameter recruit and die twice as fast on the richer soils of southern and western Amazonia than on the poorer soils of eastern and central Amazonia; (ii) turnover rates have increased throughout Amazonia over the past two decades; (iii) mortality and recruitment rates have both increased significantly in every region and environmental zone, with the exception of mortality in eastern Amazonia; (iv) recruitment rates have consistently exceeded mortality rates; (v) absolute increases in recruitment and mortality rates are greatest in western Amazonian sites; and (vi) mortality appears to be lagging recruitment at regional scales. These spatial patterns and temporal trends are not caused by obvious artefacts in the data or the analyses. The trends cannot be directly driven by a mortality driver (such as increased drought or fragmentation-related death) because the biomass in these forests has simultaneously increased. Our findings therefore indicate that

  7. Pattern and process in Amazon tree turnover, 1976-2001.

    PubMed

    Phillips, O L; Baker, T R; Arroyo, L; Higuchi, N; Killeen, T J; Laurance, W F; Lewis, S L; Lloyd, J; Malhi, Y; Monteagudo, A; Neill, D A; Vargas, P Núñez; Silva, J N M; Terborgh, J; Martínez, R Vásquez; Alexiades, M; Almeida, S; Brown, S; Chave, J; Comiskey, J A; Czimczik, C I; Di Fiore, A; Erwin, T; Kuebler, C; Laurance, S G; Nascimento, H E M; Olivier, J; Palacios, W; Patiño, S; Pitman, N C A; Quesada, C A; Saldias, M; Lezama, A Torres; Vinceti, B

    2004-03-29

    Previous work has shown that tree turnover, tree biomass and large liana densities have increased in mature tropical forest plots in the late twentieth century. These results point to a concerted shift in forest ecological processes that may already be having significant impacts on terrestrial carbon stocks, fluxes and biodiversity. However, the findings have proved controversial, partly because a rather limited number of permanent plots have been monitored for rather short periods. The aim of this paper is to characterize regional-scale patterns of 'tree turnover' (the rate with which trees die and recruit into a population) by using improved datasets now available for Amazonia that span the past 25 years. Specifically, we assess whether concerted changes in turnover are occurring, and if so whether they are general throughout the Amazon or restricted to one region or environmental zone. In addition, we ask whether they are driven by changes in recruitment, mortality or both. We find that: (i) trees 10 cm or more in diameter recruit and die twice as fast on the richer soils of southern and western Amazonia than on the poorer soils of eastern and central Amazonia; (ii) turnover rates have increased throughout Amazonia over the past two decades; (iii) mortality and recruitment rates have both increased significantly in every region and environmental zone, with the exception of mortality in eastern Amazonia; (iv) recruitment rates have consistently exceeded mortality rates; (v) absolute increases in recruitment and mortality rates are greatest in western Amazonian sites; and (vi) mortality appears to be lagging recruitment at regional scales. These spatial patterns and temporal trends are not caused by obvious artefacts in the data or the analyses. The trends cannot be directly driven by a mortality driver (such as increased drought or fragmentation-related death) because the biomass in these forests has simultaneously increased. Our findings therefore indicate that

  8. Lithium protection of phencyclidine-induced neurotoxicity in developing brain: the role of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yan; Wang, Cheng Z; Liu, Jie; Anastasio, Noelle C; Johnson, Kenneth M

    2008-09-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) and other N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists have been shown to be neurotoxic to developing brains and to result in schizophrenia-like behaviors later in development. Prevention of both effects by antischizophrenic drugs suggests the validity of PCP neurodevelopmental toxicity as a heuristic model of schizophrenia. Lithium is used for the treatment of bipolar and schizoaffective disorders and has recently been shown to have neuroprotective properties. The present study used organotypic corticostriatal slices taken from postnatal day 2 rat pups to investigate the protective effect of lithium and the role of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K)/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK) pathways in PCP-induced cell death. Lithium pretreatment dose-dependently reduced PCP-induced caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation in layers II to IV of the cortex. PCP elicited time-dependent inhibition of the MEK/ERK and PI-3K/Akt pathways, as indicated by dephosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt. The proapoptotic factor glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta was also dephosphorylated at serine 9 and thus activated. Lithium prevented PCP-induced inhibition of the two pathways and activation of GSK-3beta. Furthermore, blocking either PI-3K/Akt or MEK/ERK pathway abolished the protective effect of lithium, whereas inhibiting GSK-3beta activity mimicked the protective effect of lithium. However, no cross-talk between the two pathways was found. Finally, specific GSK-3beta inhibition did not prevent PCP-induced dephosphorylation of Akt and ERK. These data strongly suggest that the protective effect of lithium against PCP-induced neuroapoptosis is mediated through independent stimulation of the PI-3K/Akt and ERK pathways and suppression of GSK-3beta activity.

  9. Selection and Characterization of [alpha]-Methyltryptophan-Resistant Lines of Lemna gibba Showing a Rapid Rate of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Turnover.

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Y. Y.; Slovin, J. P.; Cohen, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Turnover rate is an important aspect of the regulation of plant processes by plant growth substances. To study turnover of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), two [alpha]-methyltryptophan-resistant lines (MTR1 and MTR2) of Lemna gibba were generated by nitrosomethyl urea treatment of an inbred line derived from L. gibba G-3. In this report we describe: (a) the development of a selection system using this near isogenic line of L. gibba; (b) techniques for chemical mutation of the lines and selection for [alpha]-methyltryptophan resistance; and (c) the partial characterization of the selected lines. MTR lines contained 3-fold higher levels of anthranilate synthase activity. The enzyme in the MTR lines required higher levels of tryptophan for feedback inhibition. MTR lines also contained 8-fold higher levels of tryptophan, 3-fold higher levels of free IAA, and similar levels of total IAA compared to the inbred line. Turnover rates in the inbred and selected lines were calculated, using the first-order rate equation, based on the decrease over time in isotopic enrichment of I3C6-IAA introduced into L. gibba during a 1-h pulse period. Isotope enrichment in IAA was determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both MTR lines had an approximately 10-fold higher rate of IAA turnover than the parent inbred line. PMID:12228344

  10. Cellular response to low dose radiation: Role of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase like kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Balajee, A.S.; Meador, J.A.; Su, Y.

    2011-03-24

    It is increasingly realized that human exposure either to an acute low dose or multiple chronic low doses of low LET radiation has the potential to cause different types of cancer. Therefore, the central theme of research for DOE and NASA is focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms and pathways responsible for the cellular response to low dose radiation which would not only improve the accuracy of estimating health risks but also help in the development of predictive assays for low dose radiation risks associated with tissue degeneration and cancer. The working hypothesis for this proposal is that the cellular mechanisms in terms of DNA damage signaling, repair and cell cycle checkpoint regulation are different for low and high doses of low LET radiation and that the mode of action of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase like kinases (PIKK: ATM, ATR and DNA-PK) determines the dose dependent cellular responses. The hypothesis will be tested at two levels: (I) Evaluation of the role of ATM, ATR and DNA-PK in cellular response to low and high doses of low LET radiation in simple in vitro human cell systems and (II) Determination of radiation responses in complex cell microenvironments such as human EpiDerm tissue constructs. Cellular responses to low and high doses of low LET radiation will be assessed from the view points of DNA damage signaling, DNA double strand break repair and cell cycle checkpoint regulation by analyzing the activities (i.e. post-translational modifications and kinetics of protein-protein interactions) of the key target proteins for PI-3 kinase like kinases both at the intra-cellular and molecular levels. The proteins chosen for this proposal are placed under three categories: (I) sensors/initiators include ATM ser1981, ATR, 53BP1, gamma-H2AX, MDC1, MRE11, Rad50 and Nbs1; (II) signal transducers include Chk1, Chk2, FANCD2 and SMC1; and (III) effectors include p53, CDC25A and CDC25C. The primary goal of this proposal is to elucidate the

  11. Episodic Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racsmany, Mihaly; Conway, Martin A.

    2006-01-01

    Six experiments examined the proposal that an item of long-term knowledge can be simultaneously inhibited and activated. In 2 directed forgetting experiments items to-be-forgotten were found to be inhibited in list-cued recall but activated in lexical decision tasks. In 3 retrieval practice experiments, unpracticed items from practiced categories…

  12. Rapid Skeletal Turnover In A Radiographic Mimic Of Osteopetrosis

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Michael P.; Madson, Katherine L.; Mumm, Steven; McAlister, William H.; Novack, Deborah V.; Blair, Jo C.; Helliwell, Timothy R.; Stolina, Marina; Abernethy, Laurence J.; Shaw, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Among the high bone mass disorders, the osteopetroses reflect osteoclast failure that prevents skeletal resorption and turnover leading to reduced bone growth and modeling and characteristic histopathological and radiographic findings. We report an 11-year-old boy with a new syndrome that radiographically mimics osteopetrosis but features rapid skeletal turnover. He presented at age 21 months with a parasellar, osteoclast-rich giant cell granuloma. Radiographs showed a dense skull, generalized osteosclerosis, and cortical thickening, medullary cavity narrowing, and diminished modeling of tubular bones. His serum alkaline phosphatase was > 5,000 IU/L (normal < 850). After partial resection, the granuloma re-grew but then regressed and stabilized during three years of uncomplicated pamidronate treatment. His hyperphosphatasemia transiently diminished but all bone turnover markers, especially those of apposition, remained elevated. Two years after pamidronate therapy stopped, BMD z-scores reached + 9.1 and + 5.8 in the lumbar spine and hip, respectively, and iliac crest histopathology confirmed rapid bone remodeling. Serum multiplex biomarker profiling was striking for low sclerostin. Mutation analysis was negative for activation of LRP4, LRP5, or TGFβ1 and for defective SOST, OPG, RANKL, RANK, SQSTM1, or sFRP1. Microarray showed no notable copy number variation. Studies of his non-consanguineous parents were unremarkable. The etiology and pathogenesis of this unique syndrome are unknown. PMID:24919763

  13. Species Turnover through Time: Colonization and Extinction Dynamics across Metacommunities.

    PubMed

    Nuvoloni, Felipe Micali; Feres, Reinaldo José Fazzio; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    Island biogeography and metacommunity theory often use equilibrium assumptions to predict local diversity, yet nonequilibrium dynamics are common in nature. In nonequilibrium communities, local diversity fluctuates through time as the relative importance of colonization and extinction change. Here, we test the prevalence and causes of nonequilibrium dynamics in metacommunities of mites associated with rubber trees distributed over large spatial (>1,000 km) and temporal (>30-60 generations) scales in Brazil. We measured colonization and extinction rates to test species turnover and nonequilibrium dynamics over a growing season. Mite metacommunities exhibited nonequilibrium dynamics for most months of the year, and these dynamics tracked climatic conditions. Monthly shifts in temperature of more than 1°C resulted in nonequilibrium dynamics, as did mean temperatures outside of two critical ranges. Nonequilibrium dynamics were caused by a change in colonization with temperature change and changes in both colonization and extinction with absolute temperature. Species turnover showed different trends; high relative humidity increased both colonization and extinction rates, increasing turnover but not nonequilibrium dynamics. Our study illustrates that testing nonequilibrium dynamics can provide new insights into the drivers of colonization, extinction, and diversity fluctuations in metacommunities. PMID:27172597

  14. No turnover in lens lipids for the entire human lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jessica R; Levchenko, Vladimir A; Blanksby, Stephen J; Mitchell, Todd W; Williams, Alan; Truscott, Roger JW

    2015-01-01

    Lipids are critical to cellular function and it is generally accepted that lipid turnover is rapid and dysregulation in turnover results in disease (Dawidowicz 1987; Phillips et al., 2009; Liu et al., 2013). In this study, we present an intriguing counter-example by demonstrating that in the center of the human ocular lens, there is no lipid turnover in fiber cells during the entire human lifespan. This discovery, combined with prior demonstration of pronounced changes in the lens lipid composition over a lifetime (Hughes et al., 2012), suggests that some lipid classes break down in the body over several decades, whereas others are stable. Such substantial changes in lens cell membranes may play a role in the genesis of age-related eye disorders. Whether long-lived lipids are present in other tissues is not yet known, but this may prove to be important in understanding the development of age-related diseases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06003.001 PMID:25760082

  15. Turnover and dispersal of prairie falcons in southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehman, Robert N.; Steenhof, Karen; Carpenter, L.B.; Kochert, Michael N.

    2000-01-01

    We studied Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus) breeding dispersal, natal dispersal, and turnover at nesting areas in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) from 1971- 95. Of 61 nesting areas where falcons identified one year were known to be present or absent the following year, 57% had a different falcon. This turnover rate was 2-3 times higher than that reported elsewhere for large falcons, and may have been related to high nesting densities in the NCA. Turnover at nesting areas was independent of nesting success in the previous year, but was significantly higher for females nesting on large cliffs. Mean distance between natal and breeding locations for 26 falcons banded as nestlings and later encountered as nesting adults was 8.9 km. Natal dispersal distances were similar for males and females, but more than twice as many males marked as nestlings were later encountered nesting in the NCA. Fourteen adult falcons found on different nesting areas in successive years moved an average of 1.5 km between nesting areas; males dispersed significantly farther than females. Natal and breeding dispersal distances in the NCA were lower than those reported for Prairie Falcons in other study areas. Only four falcons banded as nestlings were found outside NCA boundaries during the breeding period, and only one of these birds was known to be occupying a nesting area. We encountered no falcons banded outside the NCA occupying nesting areas in the NCA during this study.

  16. New Insights into the Protein Turnover Regulation in Ethylene Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Gyeong Mee

    2015-07-01

    Biosynthesis of the phytohormone ethylene is under tight regulation to satisfy the need for appropriate levels of ethylene in plants in response to exogenous and endogenous stimuli. The enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of ethylene biosynthesis, plays a central role to regulate ethylene production through changes in ACS gene expression levels and the activity of the enzyme. Together with molecular genetic studies suggesting the roles of post-translational modification of the ACS, newly emerging evidence strongly suggests that the regulation of ACS protein stability is an alternative mechanism that controls ethylene production, in addition to the transcriptional regulation of ACS genes. In this review, recent new insight into the regulation of ACS protein turnover is highlighted, with a special focus on the roles of phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and novel components that regulate the turnover of ACS proteins. The prospect of cross-talk between ethylene biosynthesis and other signaling pathways to control turnover of the ACS protein is also considered.

  17. Piribedil affects dopamine turnover in cochleas stimulated by white noise.

    PubMed

    Gil-Loyzaga, P; Vicente-Torres, M A; Fernández-Mateos, P; Arce, A; Esquifino, A

    1994-09-01

    The presence of dopamine (DA) within the cochlea has been previously reported, indicating that its turnover increases under noise stimulation. In the present report, piribedil, a dopaminergic D2 agonist, was used in order to provide evidence of the activity of D2 receptors in the turnover of DA under noise stimulation. Long-Evans rats were intraperitoneally injected with distilled water or with a solution of piribedil one hour previously to either noise or silence exposure. Noise stimulation was performed in an anechoic chamber at 70, 90 or 110 dB SPL for one hour. The animals were then sacrificed and the cochlear contents of DA and its metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were quantified by HPLC with electrochemical detection. The administration of piribedil to animals kept in silence did not modify the cochlear DA, DOPAC and HVA content. Noise stimulation resulted in a decrease of the cochlear DA content and an increase of the cochlear DOPAC and HVA contents in vehicle treated animals. The administration of piribedil resulted in a blockade of this noise induced cochlear DA turnover. These results suggest that piribedil stimulates cochlear D2 receptors controlling the cochlear DA release. Piribedil action on D2 receptors could explain the improvement observed in some cochleo-vestibular diseases signs after piribedil treatment. PMID:7806480

  18. Causes and consequences of collective turnover: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Heavey, Angela L; Holwerda, Jacob A; Hausknecht, John P

    2013-05-01

    Given growing interest in collective turnover (i.e., employee turnover at unit and organizational levels), the authors propose an organizing framework for its antecedents and consequences and test it using meta-analysis. Based on analysis of 694 effect sizes drawn from 82 studies, results generally support expected relationships across the 6 categories of collective turnover antecedents, with somewhat stronger and more consistent results for 2 categories: human resource management inducements/investments and job embeddedness signals. Turnover was negatively related to numerous performance outcomes, more strongly so for proximal rather than distal outcomes. Several theoretically grounded moderators help to explain average effect-size heterogeneity for both antecedents and consequences of turnover. Relationships generally did not vary according to turnover type (e.g., total or voluntary), although the relative absence of collective-level involuntary turnover studies is noted and remains an important avenue for future research. PMID:23668597

  19. Examining the temporal relationship between psychological climate, work attitude, and staff turnover

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Bryan R.; Hunter, Brooke D.

    2012-01-01

    Relative to the broader industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology field, research on the turnover of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment staff is in its infancy. Despite its long and rich history, recent reviews of the turnover literature within I-O psychology have noted there remains considerable room for improvement. In particular, recommendations have been made for research that considers time in the turnover process and explores more distal causes of staff turnover. Addressing these gaps, this paper examined the temporal relationship between latent measures of psychological climate, work attitude, and staff turnover. Using data from 95 SUD treatment staff clustered within 29 treatment organizations, multilevel discrete-time survival analyses revealed that a latent measure of work attitude (e.g., job satisfaction, pay satisfaction, turnover intentions) fully mediated the temporal relationship between latent measures of psychological climate (e.g., supervisor support, coworker support, role conflict) and subsequent staff turnover. PMID:22658290

  20. The effect of culture on the curvilinear relationship between performance and turnover.

    PubMed

    Sturman, Michael C; Shao, Lian; Katz, Jan H

    2012-01-01

    Although researchers have theorized that there exists a curvilinear relationship between job performance and voluntary turnover, their research has been tested in the United States or culturally similar Switzerland. Through a study of the performance-turnover relationship from a multinational service-oriented organization in 24 countries, we demonstrate that the general relationship between performance and turnover is similar across countries but the details of that relationship change across countries. Using 4 cultural dimensions--in-group collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and performance orientation--we find that cultural factors alter the overall probability of voluntary turnover and influence the degree of curvilinearity in the performance-turnover relationship. Our findings have implications for research on the performance-turnover relationship, turnover research, and practice. PMID:22023074