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Sample records for inhibits rankl-induced expression

  1. AG490 inhibits NFATc1 expression and STAT3 activation during RANKL induced osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chang-hong; Zhao, Jin-xia; Sun, Lin; Yao, Zhong-qiang; Deng, Xiao-li; Liu, Rui; Liu, Xiang-yuan

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •AG490 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. •AG490 affects cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution. •AG490 reduces NFATc1 expression during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. •AG490 disrupts the activation of RANKL-mediated JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. •STAT3 depletion partly mimics the effect of AG490 on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. -- Abstract: Commonly, JAK/STAT relays cytokine signals for cell activation and proliferation, and recent studies have shown that the elevated expression of JAK/STAT is associated with the immune rejection of allografts and the inflammatory processes of autoimmune disease. However, the role which JAK2/STAT3 signaling plays in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclastogenesis is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of AG490, specific JAK2 inhibitor, on osteoclast differentiation in vitro. AG490 significantly inhibited osteoclastogenesis in murine osteoclast precursor cell line RAW264.7 induced by RANKL. AG490 suppressed cell proliferation and delayed the G1 to S cell cycle transition. Furthermore, AG490 also suppressed the expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) c1 but not c-Fos in RAW264.7. Subsequently, we investigated various intracellular signaling components associated with osteoclastogenesis. AG490 had no effects on RANKL-induced activation of Akt, ERK1/2. Interestingly, AG490 partly inhibited RANKL-induced phosphorylation of Ser{sup 727} in STAT3. Additionally, down-regulation of STAT3 using siRNA resulted in suppression of TRAP, RANK and NFATc1 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that AG490 inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing NFATc1 production and cell proliferation via the STAT3 pathway. These results suggest that inhibition of JAK2 may be useful for the treatment of bone diseases characterized by excessive osteoclastogenesis.

  2. IL-33 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation through the regulation of Blimp-1 and IRF-8 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kiyomiya, Hiroyasu; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Okinaga, Toshinori; Kaneuji, Takeshi; Mitsugi, Sho; Sakurai, Takuma; Habu, Manabu; Yoshioka, Izumi; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; and others

    2015-05-01

    Interleukin (IL)-33 is a recently discovered proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the IL-1 family. Several studies have reported that IL-33 inhibits osteoclast differentiation. However, the mechanism of IL-33 regulation of osteoclastogenesis remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of IL-33 on osteoclast formation in vitro. IL-33 suppressed osteoclast formation in both mouse bone marrow cells and monocyte/macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells induced by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and/or macrophage stimulating factor (M-CSF). IL-33 also inhibited the expression of RANKL-induced nuclear factor of activated T-cell cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), thereby decreasing the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related marker genes, including Cathepsin K, Osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (Oc-stamp) and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (Trap). Blockage of IL-33-ST2 binding suppressed the IL-33-mediated inhibition of NFATc1. RANKL-induced B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1) expression was also suppressed by IL-33, which was followed by the stimulation of anti-osteoclastic genes such as interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF-8). These results suggest that IL-33-ST2 interactions down-regulate both RANKL-induced NFATc1 activation and osteoclast differentiation via the regulation of Blimp-1 and IRF-8 expression. - Highlights: • IL-33 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation. • IL-33 has inhibitory effect on the RANKL-induced NFATc1 expression. • IL-33-induced NFATc1 suppression depends on the regulation of Blimp-1 and IRF-8.

  3. Aconine inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing NF-κB and NFATc1 activation and DC-STAMP expression

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiang-zhou; He, Long-gang; Wang, Song; Wang, Keng; Zhang, Yue-yang; Tao, Lei; Li, Xiao-juan; Liu, Shu-wen

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat chronic arthritis and is highly effective against rheumatoid arthritis. However, the effects of aconine, a derivative of aconitum alkaloids, on osteoclasts, which can absorb bone, remain unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of aconine on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro. Methods: The viability of mouse leukemic monocyte/macrophage cell line RAW264.7 was measured using CCK-8 assays. Osteoclast differentiation was induced by incubation of RAW264.7 cells in the presence of RANKL, and assessed with TRAP staining assay. Bone resorption was examined with bone resorption pits assay. The expression of relevant genes and proteins was analyzed using RT-PCR and Western blots. The activation of NF-κB and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) was examined using stable NF-κB and NFATc1 luciferase reporter gene systems, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results: Aconine (0.125, 0.25 μmol/L) did not affect the viability of RAW264.7 cells, but dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorptive activity. Furthermore, aconine dose-dependently inhibited the RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB and NFATc1 in RAW264.7 cells, and subsequently reduced the expression of osteoclast-specific genes (c-Src, β3-Integrin, cathepsin K and MMP-9) and the expression of dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), which played an important role in cell-cell fusion. Conclusion: These findings suggest that aconine inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the activation of NF-κB and NFATc1 and the expression of the cell-cell fusion molecule DC-STAMP. PMID:26592521

  4. Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption by rotenone, through down-regulation of RANKL-induced c-Fos and NFATc1 expression.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Han Bok; Lee, Byeong Ki; Oh, Jaemin; Yeon, Jeong-Tae; Choi, Sik-Won; Cho, Hae Joong; Lee, Myeung Su; Kim, Jeong-Joong; Bae, Ji-Myung; Kim, Seong Hwan; Kim, Hun Soo

    2010-03-01

    Osteoclasts are responsible for bone erosion in diseases as diverse as osteoporosis, periodontitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Natural plant-derived products have received recent attention as potential therapeutic and preventative drugs in human disease. The effect of rotenone in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation was examined in this study. Rotenone inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) in a dose-dependent manner without any evidence of cytotoxicity. The mRNA expression of c-Fos, NFATc1, TRAP, and OSCAR in RANKL-treated BMMs was inhibited by rotenone treatment. Rotenone strongly inhibited p38 and ERK phosphorylation and I-kappaB degradation in RANKL-stimulated BMMs, and did not inhibit JNK phosphorylation. Further, RANKL-induced c-Fos and NFATc1 protein expression was suppressed by rotenone. Rotenone additionally inhibited the bone resorptive activity of differentiated osteoclasts. A lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone erosion study was also performed to assess the effects of rotenone in vivo. Mice treated with rotenone demonstrated marked attenuation of bone erosion based on Micro CT and histologic analysis of femurs. These results collectively suggested that rotenone demonstrated inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation in vitro and suppressed inflammatory bone loss in vivo. Rotenone may therefore serve as a useful drug in the prevention of bone loss.

  5. STAT5 is a key transcription factor for IL-3-mediated inhibition of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jongwon; Seong, Semun; Kim, Jung Ha; Kim, Kabsun; Kim, Inyoung; Jeong, Byung-chul; Nam, Kwang-Il; Kim, Kyung Keun; Hennighausen, Lothar; Kim, Nacksung

    2016-01-01

    Among the diverse cytokines involved in osteoclast differentiation, interleukin (IL)-3 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. However, the mechanism underlying IL-3-mediated inhibition of osteoclast differentiation is not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that the activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 (STAT5) by IL-3 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through the induction of the expression of Id genes. We found that STAT5 overexpression inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. However, RANKL did not regulate the expression or activation of STAT5 during osteoclast differentiation. STAT5 deficiency prevented IL-3-mediated inhibition of osteoclastogenesis, suggesting a key role of STAT5 in IL-3-mediated inhibition of osteoclast differentiation. In addition, IL-3-induced STAT5 activation upregulated the expression of Id1 and Id2, which are negative regulators of osteoclastogenesis. Overexpression of ID1 or ID2 in STAT5-deficient cells reversed osteoclast development recovered from IL-3-mediated inhibition. Importantly, microcomputed tomography and histomorphometric analysis revealed that STAT5 conditional knockout mice showed reduced bone mass, with an increased number of osteoclasts. Furthermore, IL-3 inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation less effectively in the STAT5 conditional knockout mice than in the wild-type mice after RANKL injection. Taken together, our findings indicate that STAT5 contributes to the remarkable IL-3-mediated inhibition of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by activating Id genes and their associated pathways. PMID:27485735

  6. Artesunate Inhibits RANKL-induced Osteoclastogenesis and Bone Resorption In Vitro and Prevents LPS-induced Bone Loss In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Wei, Cheng-Ming; Liu, Qian; Song, Fang-Ming; Lin, Xi-Xi; Su, Yi-Ji; Xu, Jiake; Huang, Lin; Zong, Shao-Hui; Zhao, Jin-Min

    2017-03-15

    Osteoclasts are multinuclear giant cells responsible for bone resorption in lytic bone diseases such as osteoporosis, arthritis, periodontitis, and bone tumors. Due to the severe side-effects caused by the currently available drugs, a continuous search for novel bone-protective therapies is essential. Artesunate (Art), the water-soluble derivative of artemisinin has been investigated owing to its anti-malarial properties. However, its effects in osteoclastogenesis have not yet been reported. In this study, Art was shown to inhibit the nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis, the mRNA expression of osteoclastic-specific genes, and resorption pit formation in a dose-dependent manner in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages cells (BMMs). Furthermore, Art markedly blocked the RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by attenuating the degradation of IκB and phosphorylation of NF-κB p65. Consistent with the in vitro results, Art inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone resorption by suppressing the osteoclastogenesis. Together our data demonstrated that Art inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway and that it is a promising agent for the treatment of osteolytic diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Alpha-1 antitrypsin inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and functions.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Mohammad Ahsanul; Nardo, David; Chen, Mong-Jen; Elshikha, Ahmed S; Ahamed, Rubina; Elsayed, Eslam M; Bigot, Claire; Holliday, Lexie Shannon; Song, Sihong

    2017-03-21

    Osteoporosis is a global public health problem affecting more than 200 million people worldwide. We previously showed that treatment with alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT), a multifunctional protein with anti-inflammatory properties, mitigated bone loss in an ovariectomized mouse model. However, the underlying mechanisms of the protective effect of AAT on bone tissue are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of AAT on osteoclast formation and function in vitro. Our results showed that AAT dose-dependently inhibited the formation of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand) induced osteoclasts derived from mouse bone marrow macrophages/monocyte (BMM) lineage cells and the murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 cells. In order to elucidate the possible mechanisms underlying this inhibition, we tested the effect of AAT on the gene expression of cell surface molecules, transcription factors, and cytokines associated with osteoclast formation. We showed that AAT inhibited M-CSF (macrophage colony-stimulating factor) induced cell surface RANK expression in osteoclast precursor cells. In addition, AAT inhibited RANKL-induced TNF-α production, cell surface CD9 expression, and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) gene expression. Importantly, AAT treatment significantly inhibited osteoclast-associated mineral resorption. Together, these results uncovered new mechanisms for the protective effects of AAT and strongly support the notion that AAT has therapeutic potential for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  8. Alliin Attenuated RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis by Scavenging Reactive Oxygen Species through Inhibiting Nox1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yueqi; Sun, Jingjing; Dou, Ce; Li, Nan; Kang, Fei; Wang, Yuan; Cao, Zhen; Yang, Xiaochao; Dong, Shiwu

    2016-01-01

    The healthy skeleton requires a perfect coordination of the formation and degradation of bone. Metabolic bone disease like osteoporosis is resulted from the imbalance of bone formation and/or bone resorption. Osteoporosis also reflects lower level of bone matrix, which is contributed by up-regulated osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. It is reported that monocytes/macrophage progenitor cells or either hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) gave rise to multinucleated osteoclasts. Thus, inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption generally seems to be a predominant therapy for treating osteoporosis. Recently, more and more natural compounds have been discovered, which have the ability of inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and fusion. Alliin (S-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxides, SACSO) is the major component of aged garlic extract (AGE), bearing broad-spectrum natural antioxidant properties. However, its effects on bone health have not yet been explored. Hence, we designed the current study to explore its effects and role in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast fusion and differentiation. It was revealed that alliin had an inhibitory effect in osteoclasteogenesis with a dose-dependent manner via blocking the c-Fos-NFATc1 signaling pathway. In addition, alliin decreased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and down-regulated the expression of NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1). The overall results revealed that alliin could be a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:27657047

  9. A novel PPAR{gamma} agonist, KR62776, suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and activity by inhibiting MAP kinase pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Ju-Young; Bae, Myung-Ae; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong; Kim, Sung Soo; Hong, Jung-Min; Kim, Tae-Ho; Choi, Je-Yong; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Lim, Jiwon; Choi, Chang-Hyuk; Shin, Hong-In; Kim, Shin-Yoon Park, Eui Kyun

    2009-01-16

    We investigated the effects of a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonist, KR62776, on osteoclast differentiation and function, and on the underlying signaling pathways. KR62776 markedly suppressed differentiation into osteoclasts in various osteoclast model systems, including bone marrow mononuclear (BMM) cells and a co-culture of calvarial osteoblasts and BMM cells. KR62776 suppressed the activation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and the expression of genes associated with osteoclast differentiation, such as TRAP, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), and osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR). Furthermore, KR62776 reduced resorption pit formation in osteoclasts, and down-regulated genes essential for osteoclast activity, such as Src and {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin. An analysis of a signaling pathway showed that KR62776 inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL)-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). Together, these results demonstrate that KR62776 negatively affects osteoclast differentiation and activity by inhibiting the RANKL-induced activation of MAP kinases and NF-{kappa}B.

  10. Celastrol attenuates bone erosion in collagen-Induced arthritis mice and inhibits osteoclast differentiation and function in RANKL-induced RAW264.7.

    PubMed

    Gan, Ke; Xu, Lingxiao; Feng, Xiaoke; Zhang, Qiande; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Miaojia; Tan, Wenfeng

    2015-02-01

    Recently, the traditional Chinese medicine Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f (TwHF) of the Celastraceae family has attracted increasing attention for its potential therapeutic application in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is well accepted that TwHF exerts the antirheumatic activity and mainly depends on its potent anti-inflammatory property. To further explore the therapeutic potential of the well-defined TwHF-derived single compound - celastrol in RA, we study the therapeutic efficacy of celastrol on bone erosion in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice and delineate its effects on osteoclast differentiation and functions in RANKL-induced osteoclast precursors RAW264.7 cell line. In CIA mice, daily injection of celastrol (beginning on day 28 after arthritis induction) markedly suppressed arthritis, and reduced bone damage in the joints as demonstrated by histology and bone micro-computed tomography (CT). The effects were accompanied by reductions of osteoclast cells in joints, serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) 5b, and expression of osteoclastic genes (Trap, Ctsk, Ctr, Mmp-9) and transcriptional factors (c-Fos, c-Jun and NFATc1). When RAW264.7 cells were treated with RANKL, celastrol inhibited the formation of TRAP+ multinucleated cells and the bone-resorbing activity in dose-dependent manners. Furthermore, celastrol reduced the RANKL-induced expression of osteoclastic genes and transcriptional factors, as well as phosphorylation of NF-kB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). These findings show that celastrol could directly inhibit osteoclast formation and function, suggesting a novel therapeutic strategy of celastrol for managing RA, especially in preventing bone destruction.

  11. Treatment with hydrogen molecules prevents RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation associated with inhibition of ROS formation and inactivation of MAPK, AKT and NF-kappa B pathways in murine RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Zhu; Zhang, Qing-Xiang; Dong, Xiao-Xian; Li, Huai-Dong; Ma, Xin

    2014-09-01

    The bone protective effects of the hydrogen molecule (H2) have been demonstrated in several osteoporosis models while the underlying molecular mechanism has remained unclear. Osteoclast differentiation is an important factor related to the pathogenesis of bone-loss related diseases. In this work, we evaluated the effects of incubation with H2 on receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation. We found that treatment with H2 prevented RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells and BMMs. Treatment with H2 inhibits the ability to form resorption pits of BMMs stimulated by RANKL. Treatment with H2 reduced mRNA levels of osteoclast-specific markers including tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, calcitonin receptor, cathepsin K, metalloproteinase-9, carbonic anhydrase typeII, and vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase. Treatment with H2 decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, suppressed NADPH oxidase activity, down-regulated Rac1 activity and Nox1 expression, reduced mitochondrial ROS formation, and enhanced nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 nuclear translocation and heme oxygenase-1 activity. In addition, treatment with H2 suppressed RANKL-induced expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 and c-Fos. Furthermore, treatment with H2 suppressed NF-κB activation and reduced phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase, and protein kinases B (AKT) stimulated with RANKL. In conclusion, hydrogen molecules prevented RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation associated with inhibition of reactive oxygen species formation and inactivation of NF-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinase and AKT pathways.

  12. Fisetin inhibits osteoclastogenesis through prevention of RANKL-induced ROS production by Nrf2-mediated up-regulation of phase II antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Eiko; Shimada-Sugawara, Megumi; Yamaguchi, Yu; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Fumimoto, Reiko; Fukuma, Yutaka; Nishishita, Kazuhisa; Okamoto, Kuniaki; Tsukuba, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    Osteoclasts (OCLs) are multinucleated bone-resorbing cells that are differentiated by stimulation with receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor. We recently demonstrated that regulation of heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1), a stress-induced cytoprotective enzyme, also functions in OCL differentiation. In this study, we investigated effects of fisetin, a natural bioactive flavonoid that has been reported to induce HO-1 expression, on the differentiation of macrophages into OCLs. Fisetin inhibited the formation of OCLs in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed the bone-resorbing activity of OCLs. Moreover, fisetin-treated OCLs showed markedly decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, Akt, and Jun N-terminal kinase, but fisetin did not inhibit p38 phosphorylation. Fisetin up-regulated mRNA expression of phase II antioxidant enzymes including HO-1 and interfered with RANKL-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Studies with RNA interference showed that suppression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key transcription factor for phase II antioxidant enzymes, rescued fisetin-mediated inhibition of OCL differentiation. Furthermore, fisetin significantly decreased RANKL-induced nuclear translocation of cFos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic-1 (NFATc1), which is a transcription factor critical for osteoclastogenic gene regulation. Therefore, fisetin inhibits OCL differentiation through blocking RANKL-mediated ROS production by Nrf2-mediated up-regulation of phase II antioxidant enzymes.

  13. The plant limonoid 7-oxo-deacetoxygedunin inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing activation of the NF-{kappa}B and MAPK pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Wisutsitthiwong, Chonnaree; Buranaruk, Chayanit; Pudhom, Khanitha; Palaga, Tanapat

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A gedunin type limonoid from seeds of mangroves, 7-oxo-7-deacetoxygedunin, exhibits strong anti-osteoclastogenic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment with this limonoid results in significant decrease in expression of NFATc1 and osteoclast-related genes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mode of action of this limonoid is by inhibiting activation of the NF-{kappa}B and MAPK pathways which are activated by RANKL. -- Abstract: Osteoclasts together with osteoblasts play pivotal roles in bone remodeling. Aberrations in osteoclast differentiation and activity contribute to osteopenic disease. Osteoclasts differentiate from monocyte/macrophage progenitors, a process that is initiated by the interaction between receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B (RANK) and its ligand, RANKL. In this study, we identified 7-oxo-7-deacetoxygedunin (7-OG), a gedunin type limonoid from seeds of the mangrove Xylocarpus moluccensis, as a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis. Additionally, 7-OG showed strong anti-osteoclastogenic activity with low cytotoxicity against the monocyte/macrophage progenitor cell line, RAW264.7. The IC50 for anti-osteoclastogenic activity was 4.14 {mu}M. Treatment with 7-OG completely abolished the appearance of multinucleated giant cells with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with RANKL. When the expression of genes related to osteoclastogenesis was investigated, a complete downregulation of NFATc1 and cathepsin K and a delayed downregulation of irf8 were observed upon 7-OG treatment in the presence of RANKL. Furthermore, treatment with this limonoid suppressed RANKL-induced activation of p38, MAPK and Erk and nuclear localization of NF-{kappa}B p65. Taken together, we present evidence indicating a plant limonoid as a novel osteoclastogenic inhibitor that could be used for osteoporosis and related conditions.

  14. Inhibitory effects of eugenol on RANKL-induced osteoclast formation via attenuation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Deepak, Vishwa; Kasonga, Abe; Kruger, Marlena C; Coetzee, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Bone loss diseases are often associated with increased receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation. Compounds that can attenuate RANKL-mediated osteoclast formation are of great biomedical interest. Eugenol, a phenolic constituent of clove oil possesses medicinal properties; however, its anti-osteoclastogenic potential is unexplored hitherto. Here, we found that eugenol dose-dependently inhibited the RANKL-induced multinucleated osteoclast formation and TRAP activity in RAW264.7 macrophages. The underlying molecular mechanisms included the attenuation of RANKL-mediated degradation of IκBα and subsequent activation of NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, increase in phosphorylation and activation of RANKL-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways (MAPK) was perturbed by eugenol. RANKL-induced expression of osteoclast-specific marker genes such as TRAP, cathepsin K (CtsK) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was remarkably downregulated by eugenol. These findings provide the first line of evidence that eugenol mediated attenuation of RANKL-induced NF-κB and MAPK pathways could synergistically contribute to the inhibition of osteoclast formation. Eugenol could be developed as therapeutic agent against diseases with excessive osteoclast activity.

  15. Harpagoside Inhibits RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis via Syk-Btk-PLCγ2-Ca(2+) Signaling Pathway and Prevents Inflammation-Mediated Bone Loss.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Sun-Hyang; Baek, Jong Min; Erkhembaatar, Munkhsoyol; Kim, Min Seuk; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Oh, Jaemin; Lee, Myeung Su

    2015-09-25

    Harpagoside (HAR) is a natural compound isolated from Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw) that is reported to have anti-inflammatory effects; however, these effects have not been investigated in the context of bone development. The current study describes for the first time that HAR inhibits receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and suppresses inflammation-induced bone loss in a mouse model. HAR also inhibited the formation of osteoclasts from mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) in a dose-dependent manner as well as the activity of mature osteoclasts, including filamentous actin (F-actin) ring formation and bone matrix breakdown. This involved a HAR-induced decrease in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, leading to the inhibition of Syk-Btk-PLCγ2-Ca(2+) in RANKL-dependent early signaling, as well as the activation of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), which resulted in the down-regulation of various target genes. Consistent with these in vitro results, HAR blocked lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone loss in an inflammatory osteoporosis model. However, HAR did not prevent ovariectomy-mediated bone erosion in a postmenopausal osteoporosis model. These results suggest that HAR is a valuable agent against inflammation-related bone disorders but not osteoporosis induced by hormonal abnormalities.

  16. Curcumol suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast formation by attenuating the JNK signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Mingxiang; Chen, Xianying; Lv, Chaoyang; Yi, Xilu; Zhang, Yao; Xue, Mengjuan; He, Shunmei; Zhu, Guoying; Wang, Hongfu

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Curcumol suppresses osteoclasts differentiation in vitro. • Curcumol impairs JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway. • Curcumol may be used for treating osteoclast related diseases. - Abstract: Osteoclasts, derived from hemopoietic progenitors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, have a unique role in bone resorption, and are considered a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of such pathologic bone diseases as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis. In the present study, we demonstrate that curcumol, one of the major components of the essential oil of Rhizoma Curcumae, exhibits an inhibitory effect on receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation with both bone marrow-derived macrophages and RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, RANKL-induced mRNA expression of osteoclast-specific genes, such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, calcitonin receptor, and cathepsin K, is prominently reduced in the presence of curcumol. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism of action was investigated, and curcumol inhibited osteoclastogenesis by specifically impairing RANKL-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/activator protein-1 (AP-1) signaling, which was further identified in rescue studies by means of anisomycin, a JNK signaling-specific activator. Taken together, these findings suggest that curcumol suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation through the JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway, and may be useful as a therapeutic treatment for bone resorption-associated diseases.

  17. A medium-chain fatty acid, capric acid, inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation via the suppression of NF-κB signaling and blocks cytoskeletal organization and survival in mature osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Ju; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Yoon, Young-Ran

    2014-08-01

    Fatty acids, important components of a normal diet, have been reported to play a role in bone metabolism. Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells that are responsible for many bone-destructive diseases such as osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the impact of a medium-chain fatty acid, capric acid, on the osteoclast differentiation, function, and survival induced by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF). Capric acid inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow-derived macrophages and suppressed RANKL-induced IκBα phosphorylation, p65 nuclear translocation, and NF-κB transcriptional activity. Capric acid further blocked the RANKL-stimulated activation of ERK without affecting JNK or p38. The induction of NFATc1 in response to RANKL was also attenuated by capric acid. In addition, capric acid abrogated M-CSF and RANKL-mediated cytoskeleton reorganization, which is crucial for the efficient bone resorption of osteoclasts. Capric acid also increased apoptosis in mature osteoclasts through the induction of Bim expression and the suppression of ERK activation by M-CSF. Together, our results reveal that capric acid has inhibitory effects on osteoclast development. We therefore suggest that capric acid may have potential therapeutic implications for the treatment of bone resorption-associated disorders.

  18. Scoparone attenuates RANKL-induced osteoclastic differentiation through controlling reactive oxygen species production and scavenging

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jang, Hae-Dong

    2015-02-15

    Scoparone, one of the bioactive components of Artemisia capillaris Thunb, has various biological properties including immunosuppressive, hepatoprotective, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. This study aims at evaluating the anti-osteoporotic effect of scoparone and its underlying mechanism in vitro. Scoparone demonstrated potent cellular antioxidant capacity. It was also found that scoparone inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and suppressed cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression via c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38-mediated c-Fos–nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) signaling pathway. During osteoclast differentiation, the production of general reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide anions was dose-dependently attenuated by scoparone. In addition, scoparone diminished NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 1 (Nox1) expression and activation via the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)–cSrc–phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k) signaling pathway and prevented the disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain system. Furthermore, scoparone augmented the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and catalase (CAT). The overall results indicate that the inhibitory effect of scoparone on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation is attributed to the suppressive effect on ROS and superoxide anion production by inhibiting Nox1 expression and activation and protecting the mitochondrial electron transport chain system and the scavenging effect of ROS resulting from elevated SOD1 and CAT expression. - Highlights: • Scoparone dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. • Scoparone diminished general ROS and superoxide anions in a dose-dependent manner. • Scoparone inhibited Nox1 expression and

  19. The inhibitory effect of vitamin K on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Jie; Kim, Min Seuk; Ahn, Byung-Yong

    2015-10-01

    To further understand the correlation between vitamin K and bone metabolism, the effects of vitamins K1, menaquinone-4 (MK-4), and menaquinone-7 (MK-7) on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption were comparatively investigated. Vitamin K2 groups (MK-4 and MK-7) were found to significantly inhibit RANKL-medicated osteoclast cell formation of bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) in a dose-dependent manner, without any evidence of cytotoxicity. The mRNA expression of specific osteoclast differentiation markers, such as c-Fos, NFATc1, OSCAR, and TRAP, as well as NFATc1 protein expression and TRAP activity in RANKL-treated BMMs were inhibited by vitamin K2, although MK-4 exhibited a significantly greater efficiency compared to MK-7. In contrast, the same dose of vitamin K1 had no inhibitory effect on RANKL-induced osteoclast cell formation, but increased the expression of major osteoclastogenic genes. Interestingly, vitamins K1, MK-4 and MK-7 all strongly inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption (p < 0.01) in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that vitamins K1, MK-4 and MK-7 have anti-osteoporotic properties, while their regulation effects on osteoclastogenesis are somewhat different.

  20. Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction: inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by abrogation of the RANKL-induced NFATc1 and NF-κB signaling pathways via selective estrogen receptor α

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Qiu, Xue-Min; Gui, Yu-Yan; Xu, Ying-Ping; Gober, Hans-Jürgen; Li, Da-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction (BSNXD) is a traditional Chinese medicinal composition that has been used as a remedy for postmenopausal osteoporosis, but the mechanisms affecting bone metabolism are not fully understood. Purpose We investigated the molecular mechanism and signaling pathway underlying the effect of BSNXD on osteoclastogenesis. Materials and methods A postmenopausal osteoporosis animal model generated by ovariectomy was administered BSNXD and drug-derived serum was prepared. An enzyme immunoassay was conducted to measure the 17-β-estradiol (E2) concentration in the drug-derived serum. Bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage precursor cells were treated with drug-derived serum, and tartrate-resistance acid phosphatase staining was conducted to observe osteoclastogenesis. A bone resorption assay was performed to analyze the effect on osteoclastic resorptive function. Real-time PCR, flow cytometry, Western blotting, transfection, and luciferase assays were conducted to explore the related mechanism. Results E2 was not elevated in BSNXD-derived serum. BSNXD-derived serum suppressed receptor activation of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-activated osteoclastogenesis in a dose-dependent manner; this effect could be reversed by estrogen receptor α antagonist methyl-piperidino-pyrazole. The serum suppressed RANKL-induced NF-κB transcription and inhibited the accumulation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 in osteoclast precursor cells; the inhibitory effect was abolished by methyl-piperidino-pyrazole but not the estrogen receptor β antagonist or androgen receptor antagonist. Conclusion These results collectively suggest that administration of BSNXD presents inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation by abrogating the RANKL-induced nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 and NF-κB signaling pathways downstream of estrogen receptor α, thereby contributing to the inhibitory effect on bone resorption. PMID

  1. Overexpression of prohibitin-1 inhibits RANKL-induced activation of p38-Elk-1-SRE signaling axis blocking MKK6 activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Hoon; Choi, Sik-Won; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Seong Hwan; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Oh, Jaemin; Lee, Myeung Su

    2015-08-07

    Prohibitin-1 (PHB) regulates diverse cellular processes by controlling several signaling pathways. In this study, we investigated the functional involvement of PHB in osteoclast differentiation. PHB expression was time-dependently increased by RANKL in BMMs. However, the retroviral over-expression of PHB strongly inhibited the expression of c-Fos and NFATc1, and activation of p38-Elk-1-SRE signaling pathway. Anti-osteoclastogenic action of PHB was significantly inhibited by constitutively active forms of MKK6, but not Elk-1. Collectively, PHB negatively regulates the formation of mature osteoclasts via inhibition of MKK6 activity that affects the activation of the p38-Elk-1 signaling axis required for the expression of c-Fos and NFATc1.

  2. Decursin from Angelica gigas suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone loss.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Zheng, Ting; Kang, Ju-Hee; Li, Hua; Cho, Hyewon; Jeon, Raok; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Yim, Mijung

    2016-03-05

    Osteoclasts are the only cells capable of breaking down bone matrix, and excessive activation of osteoclasts is responsible for bone-destructive diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of decursin from extract of Angelica gigas root on receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation using mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). Decursin inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation without cytotoxicity. In particular, decursin maintains the characteristics of macrophages by blocking osteoclast differentiation by RANKL. Furthermore, the RANKL-stimulated bone resorption was diminished by decursin. Mechanistically, decursin blocked the RANKL-triggered ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) phosphorylation, which results in suppression of c-Fos and the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc1) expression. In accordance with the in vitro study, decursin reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in vivo. Therefore, decursin exerted an inhibitory effect on osteoclast formation and bone loss in vitro and in vivo. Decursin could be useful for the treatment of bone diseases associated with excessive bone resorption.

  3. Thymoquinone prevents RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis activation and osteolysis in an in vivo model of inflammation by suppressing NF-KB and MAPK Signalling.

    PubMed

    Thummuri, Dinesh; Jeengar, Manish Kumar; Shrivastava, Shweta; Nemani, Harishankar; Ramavat, Ravindar Naik; Chaudhari, Pradip; Naidu, V G M

    2015-09-01

    Osteoclasts are multinuclear giant cells responsible for bone resorption in inflammatory bone diseases such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. Because of deleterious side effects with currently available drugs the search continues for novel effective and safe therapies. Thymoquinone (TQ), the major bioactive component of Nigella sativa has been investigated for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer activities. However, its effects in osteoclastogenesis have not been reported. In the present study we show for the first time that TQ inhibits nuclear factor-KB ligand (RANKL) induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264.7 and primary bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs) cells. RANKL induced osteoclastogenesis is associated with increased expression of multiple transcription factors via activation of NF-KB, MAPKs signalling and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mechanistically TQ blocked the RANKL induced NF-KB activation by attenuating the phosphorylation of IkB kinase (IKKα/β). Interestingly, in RAW 264.7 cells TQ inhibited the RANKL induced phosphorylation of MAPKs and mRNA expression of osteoclastic specific genes such as TRAP, DC-STAMP, NFATc1 and c-Fos. In addition, TQ also decreased the RANKL stimulated ROS generation in macropahges (RAW 264.7) and H2O2 induced ROS generation in osteoblasts (MC-3T3-E1). Consistent with in vitro results, TQ inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced bone resorption by suppressing the osteoclastogenesis. Indeed, micro-CT analysis showed that bone mineral density (BMD) and bone architecture parameters were positively modulated by TQ. Taken together our data demonstrate that TQ has antiosteoclastogenic effect by inhibiting inflammation induced activation of MAPKs, NF-KB and ROS generation followed by suppressing the gene expression of c-Fos and NFATc1 in osteoclast precursors.

  4. Geraniin suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and ameliorates wear particle-induced osteolysis in mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Fei; Zhai, Zanjing; Jiang, Chuan; Liu, Xuqiang; Li, Haowei; Qu, Xinhua; Ouyang, Zhengxiao; Fan, Qiming; Tang, Tingting; Qin, An; Gu, Dongyun

    2015-01-01

    Wear particle-induced osteolysis and subsequent aseptic loosening remains the most common complication that limits the longevity of prostheses. Wear particle-induced osteoclastogenesis is known to be responsible for extensive bone erosion that leads to prosthesis failure. Thus, inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption may serve as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of wear particle induced osteolysis. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that geraniin, an active natural compound derived from Geranium thunbergii, ameliorated particle-induced osteolysis in a Ti particle-induced mouse calvaria model in vivo. We also investigated the mechanism by which geraniin exerts inhibitory effects on osteoclasts. Geraniin inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in a dose-dependent manner, evidenced by reduced osteoclast formation and suppressed osteoclast specific gene expression. Specially, geraniin inhibited actin ring formation and bone resorption in vitro. Further molecular investigation demonstrated geraniin impaired osteoclast differentiation via the inhibition of the RANKL-induced NF-κB and ERK signaling pathways, as well as suppressed the expression of key osteoclast transcriptional factors NFATc1 and c-Fos. Collectively, our data suggested that geraniin exerts inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation in vitro and suppresses Ti particle-induced osteolysis in vivo. Geraniin is therefore a potential natural compound for the treatment of wear particle induced osteolysis in prostheses failure. - Highlights: • Geraniin suppresses osteoclasts formation and function in vitro. • Geraniin impairs RANKL-induced nuclear factor-κB and ERK signaling pathway. • Geraniin suppresses osteolysis in vivo. • Geraniin may be used for treating osteoclast related diseases.

  5. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity by doxycycline ameliorates RANK ligand-induced osteoclast differentiation in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, Gilson C.N.; Nakanishi, Tadashi; Ohta, Kouji; Rosalen, Pedro L.; Groppo, Francisco C.; Bartlett, John D.; Stashenko, Philip; Taubman, Martin A.; Kawai, Toshihisa

    2011-06-10

    Tetracycline antibiotics, including doxycycli/e (DOX), have been used to treat bone resorptive diseases, partially because of their activity to suppress osteoclastogenesis induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL). However, their precise inhibitory mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, the present study examined the effect of Dox on osteoclastogenesis signaling induced by RANKL, both in vitro and in vivo. Although Dox inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and down-modulated the mRNA expression of functional osteoclast markers, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K, Dox neither affected RANKL-induced MAPKs phosphorylation nor NFATc1 gene expression in RAW264.7 murine monocytic cells. Gelatin zymography and Western blot analyses showed that Dox down-regulated the enzyme activity of RANKL-induced MMP-9, but without affecting its protein expression. Furthermore, MMP-9 enzyme inhibitor also attenuated both RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and up-regulation of TRAP and cathepsin K mRNA expression, indicating that MMP-9 enzyme action is engaged in the promotion of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Finally, Dox treatment abrogated RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and TRAP activity in mouse calvaria along with the suppression of MMP9 enzyme activity, again without affecting the expression of MMP9 protein. These findings suggested that Dox inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by its inhibitory effect on MMP-9 enzyme activity independent of the MAPK-NFATc1 signaling cascade.

  6. Berberine Sulfate Attenuates Osteoclast Differentiation through RANKL Induced NF-κB and NFAT Pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Song, Fangming; Liu, Qian; Yang, Mingli; Zhao, Jinmin; Tan, Renxiang; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Ge; Quinn, Julian M W; Tickner, Jennifer; Xu, Jiake

    2015-11-13

    Osteoporosis, a metabolic bone disease, is characterized by an excessive formation and activation of osteoclasts. Anti-catabolic treatment using natural compounds has been proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy against the osteoclast related osteolytic diseases. In this study, the activity of berberine sulfate (an orally available form of berberine) on osteoclast differentiation and its underlying molecular mechanisms of action were investigated. Using bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) derived osteoclast culture system, we showed that berberine sulfate at the dose of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 μM significantly inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. Notably, berberine sulfate at these doses did not affect the BMM viability. In addition, we observed that berberine sulfate inhibited the expression of osteoclast marker genes, including cathepsin K (Ctsk), nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP, Acp5) and Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase V0 subunit D2 (V-ATPase d2). Luciferase reporter gene assay and Western blot analysis further revealed that berberine sulfate inhibits receptor for activation of nuclear factor ligand (RANKL)-induced NF-κB and NFAT activity. Taken together, our results suggest that berberine sulfate is a natural compound potentially useful for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  7. KMUP-1 Suppresses RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis and Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss: Roles of MAPKs, Akt, NF-κB and Calcium/Calcineurin/NFATc1 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Ling; Ho, Mei-Ling; Hsu, Pei-Chuan; Chen, Li-Wen; Chen, Ing-Jun; Yeh, Jwu-Lai

    2013-01-01

    Background KMUP-1 is a xanthine derivative with inhibitory activities on the phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3,4 and 5 isoenzymes to suppress the degradation of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. However, the effects of KMUP-1 on osteoclast differentiation are still unclear. In this study, we investigated whether KMUP-1 inhibits osteoclastogenesis induced by RANKL in RAW 264.7 cells and bone loss induced by ovariectomy in mice, and the underlying mechanisms. Principal Findings In vitro, KMUP-1 inhibited RANKL-induced TRAP activity, the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts and resorption-pit formation. It also inhibited key mediators of osteoclastogenesis including IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and HMGB1. In addition, KMUP-1 inhibited RANKL-induced activation of signaling molecules (Akt, MAPKs, calcium and NF-κB), mRNA expression of osteoclastogensis-associated genes (TRAP, MMP-9, Fra-1, and cathepsin K) and transcription factors (c-Fos and NFATc1). Furthermore, most inhibitory effects of KMUP-1 on RANKL-mediated signal activations were reversed by a protein kinase A inhibitor (H89) and a protein kinase G inhibitor (KT5823). In vivo, KMUP-1 prevented loss of bone mineral content, preserved serum alkaline phosphate and reduced serum osteocalcin in ovariectomized mice. Conclusions KMUP-1 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and protects against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo. These effects are mediated, at least in part, by cAMP and cGMP pathways. Therefore, KMUP-1 may have a role in pharmacologic therapy of osteoporosis. PMID:23936022

  8. Identification of Nedd9 as a TGF-β-Smad2/3 Target Gene Involved in RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis by Comprehensive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Tetsuro; Hirose, Jun; Izawa, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Takumi; Imai, Yuuki; Seo, Sachiko; Kurokawa, Mineo; Tsutsumi, Shuichi; Kadono, Yuho; Morimoto, Chikao; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    TGF-ß is a multifunctional cytokine that is involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and function. We previously reported an essential role of the TGF-ß -Smad2/3 pathways in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing, we comprehensively identified Smad2/3 target genes in bone marrow macrophages. These genes were enriched in the gene population upregulated by TGF-ß and downregulated by RANKL. Recent studies have revealed that histone modifications, such as trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and lysine 27 (H3K27me3), critically regulate key developmental steps. We identified Nedd9 as a Smad2/3 target gene whose histone modification pattern was converted from H3K4me3(+)/H3K4me27(+) to H3K4me3(+)/H3K4me27(-) by TGF-ß. Nedd9 expression was increased by TGF-ß and suppressed by RANKL. Overexpression of Nedd9 partially rescued an inhibitory effect of a TGF-ß inhibitor, while gene silencing of Nedd9 suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis were reduced and stimulatory effects of TGF-ß on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis were partially abrogated in cells from Nedd9-deficient mice although knockout mice did not show abnormal skeletal phenotypes. These results suggest that Nedd9 is a Smad2/3 target gene implicated in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. PMID:27336669

  9. Attenuation of RANKL-induced Osteoclast Formation via p38-mediated NFATc1 Signaling Pathways by Extract of Euphorbia Lathyris L

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ju-Hee; Lim, Hyojung; Jeong, Ji-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoclasts are the only cell type capable of breaking down bone matrix, and its excessive activation is responsible for the development of bone-destructive diseases. Euphorbia lathyris L. (ELL) is an herbal plant that belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family. This study investigated the effects of the methanol extract of the aerial part of ELL on receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation and signaling pathways. Methods Osteoclasts were formed by co-culturing mouse bone marrow with osteoblasts or by culturing mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and RANKL. Bone resorption assays were performed using dentine slices. The expression level of mRNA was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Western blotting assays were performed to detect the expression or activation level of proteins. Results ELL inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation without cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the RANKL-stimulated bone resorption was diminished by ELL. Mechanistically, ELL blocked the RANKL-triggered p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, which resulted in the suppression of the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc1). In osteoblasts, ELL had little effect on the mRNA expression of RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG). Conclusions The present data suggest that ELL has an inhibitory effect on osteoclast differentiation and function via downregulation of the p38/c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling pathways. Thus, ELL could be useful for the treatment of bone diseases associated with excessive bone resorption. PMID:27965942

  10. Amyloid β Peptide Enhances RANKL-Induced Osteoclast Activation through NF-κB, ERK, and Calcium Oscillation Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shangfu; Yang, Bu; Teguh, Dian; Zhou, Lin; Xu, Jiake; Rong, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are common chronic degenerative disorders which are strongly associated with advanced age. We have previously demonstrated that amyloid beta peptide (Aβ), one of the pathological hallmarks of AD, accumulated abnormally in osteoporotic bone specimens in addition to having an activation effect on osteoclast (Bone 2014,61:164-75). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Activation of NF-κB, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylates, and calcium oscillation signaling pathways by receptor activator NF-κB ligand (RANKL) plays a pivotal role in osteoclast activation. Targeting this signaling to modulate osteoclast function has been a promising strategy for osteoclast-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of Aβ on RANKL-induced osteoclast signaling pathways in vitro. In mouse bone marrow monocytes (BMMs), Aβ exerted no effect on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis but promoted osteoclastic bone resorption. In molecular levels, Aβ enhanced NF-κB activity and IκB-α degradation, activated ERK phosphorylation and stimulated calcium oscillation, thus leading to upregulation of NFAT-c1 expression during osteoclast activation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Aβ enhances RANKL-induced osteoclast activation through IκB-α degradation, ERK phosphorylation, and calcium oscillation signaling pathways and that Aβ may be a promising agent in the treatment of osteoclast-related disease such as osteoporosis. PMID:27735865

  11. The effects of Lycii Radicis Cortex on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and activation in RAW 264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    KIM, JAE-HYUN; KIM, EUN-YOUNG; LEE, BINA; MIN, JU-HEE; SONG, DEA-UK; LIM, JEONG-MIN; EOM, JI WHAN; YEOM, MIJUNG; JUNG, HYUK-SANG; SOHN, YOUNGJOO

    2016-01-01

    Post-menopausal osteoporosis is a serious age-related disease. After the menopause, estrogen deficiency is common, and excessive osteoclast activity causes osteoporosis. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells generated from the differentiation of monocyte/macrophage precursor cells such as RAW 264.7 cells. The water extract of Lycii Radicis Cortex (LRC) is made from the dried root bark of Lycium chinense Mill. and is termed 'Jigolpi' in Korea. Its effects on osteoclastogenesis and post-menopausal osteoporosis had not previously been tested. In the present study, the effect of LRC on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation was demonstrated using a tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) assay and pit formation assay. Moreover, in order to analyze molecular mechanisms, we studied osteoclastogenesis-related markers such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), c-Fos, receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK), TRAP, cathepsin K (CTK), matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9), calcitonin receptor (CTR) and carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) using RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. Additionally, we also determined the effect of LRC on an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model. We noted that LRC inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation via suppressing osteoclastogenesis-related markers. It also inhibited osteoporosis in the OVX rat model by decreasing loss of bone density and trabecular area. These results suggest that LRC exerts a positive effect on menopausal osteoporosis. PMID:26848104

  12. 25-hydroxycholesterol promotes RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through coordinating NFATc1 and Sp1 complex in the transcription of miR-139-5p.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lishan; Lv, Yinping; Xian, Guozhe; Lin, Yanliang

    2017-04-15

    25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) is implicated in many processes, including lipid metabolism and the immune response. However, the role of 25-HC in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis remains largely unknown. Our results showed that 25-HC inhibited miR-139-5p expression in mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) cultured in receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and monocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Further investigation suggested that 25-HC promoted the expression of nuclear factor of activated T cell cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) and Sp1, especially in the presence of RANKL and M-CSF. Meanwhile, 25-HC induced nuclear translocation of NFATc1, resulting in the interaction between NFATc1 and Sp1 that was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that Sp1 could bind to miR-139-5p promoter, but NFATc1 had no binding capacity. Although forming NFATc1/Sp1 complex increased its binding to miR-139-5p promoter, the complex inhibited the transcriptional activity of Sp1. Inhibition of NFATc1 increase the expression of miR-139-5p, which might be due to the release of free Sp1 that could bind to the promoter of miR-139-5p. Enforced expression of miR-139-5p impaired osteoclastogenesis induced by co-treatment with 25-HC and RANKL. These results suggested that 25-HC induced the interaction between NFATc1 and Sp1, reducing the level of free Sp1 to inhibit miR-139-5p expression and promote osteoclastogenesis.

  13. Beta-glycerophosphate accelerates RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in the presence of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Noh, A Long Sae Mi; Yim, Mijung

    2011-03-01

    Despite numerous reports of the synergistic effects of beta-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid in inducing the differentiation of osteoblasts, little is known about their roles in osteoclastic differentiation. Therefore, we investigated the effect of beta-glycerophosphate on osteoclastogenesis in the presence of ascorbic acid using primary mouse bone marrow cultures treated with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB ligand (RANKL). Beta-Glycerophosphate dose-dependently increased RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in the presence of ascorbic acid. This stimulatory effect was apparent when beta-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid were only added during the late stages of the culture period, indicating that they influence later events in osteoclastic differentiation. While the combination of beta-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid inhibited RANKL-stimulated activation of ERK and p38, and degradation of IkappaB, it increased the induction of c-Fos and NFATc1. In addition, beta-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid together enhanced the induction of COX-2 following RANKL stimulation. Taken together, our data suggest that beta-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid have synergistic effects on osteoclast formation, increasing RANKL-mediated induction of c-Fos, NFATc1 and COX-2 in osteoclast precursors.

  14. Regulation of RANKL-induced osteoclastic differentiation by vascular cells.

    PubMed

    Tintut, Yin; Abedin, Moeen; Cho, John; Choe, Andrea; Lim, Jina; Demer, Linda L

    2005-08-01

    Vascular calcification is a regulated process of biomineralization resembling osteogenesis. Many bone-related factors, including resorptive osteoclast-like cells, although in low abundance, have been found in calcified atherosclerotic lesions. The regulatory mechanisms governing them in the vasculature, however, are not clear. Previously, we found that calcifying vascular cells (CVC), a subpopulation of bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (BASMC), undergo osteoblastic differentiation and form mineralized nodules. Since osteoblasts and marrow stromal preosteoblasts regulate osteoclastic differentiation in bone, we hypothesized that vascular cells also regulate differentiation of osteoclastic precursors in the artery wall. Peripheral blood monocytes, which are osteoclast precursors, were co-cultured with CVC or BASMC. Results showed that monocytes co-cultured with both of the vascular cells yielded fewer resorption pits than monocytes cultured alone. Furthermore, monocytes co-cultured with CVC had fewer resorption pits than those co-cultured with BASMC. Conditioned media from the vascular cells also inhibited resorptive activity of monocytes suggesting that the inhibitory effect was mediated in part by soluble factors. Compared with BASMC, CVC had lower mRNA expression for osteopontin, which promotes osteoclast attachment, but greater mRNA expression for the soluble inhibitory cytokine, IL-18. Increased osteoclastic differentiation was observed when neutralizing antibody to IL-18 receptor was added to the cultures of preosteoclasts with CVC conditioned media. Osteoprotegerin, another osteoclast inhibitory cytokine, was expressed at similar levels in both cultures. These results suggest that vascular cells inhibit osteoclastic differentiation, and that CVC have greater inhibitory effects than BASMC.

  15. NADPH oxidase gp91phox contributes to RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation by upregulating NFATc1

    PubMed Central

    Kang, In Soon; Kim, Chaekyun

    2016-01-01

    Bone-marrow derived monocyte-macrophages (BMMs) differentiate into osteoclasts by M-CSF along subsequent RANKL stimulation possibly in collaboration with many other unknown cytokines released by pre- or mature osteoblasts. The differentiation process requires receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/RANK signaling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion (O2•−). Gp91phox, a plasma membrane subunit of NADPH oxidase (Nox), is constitutively expressed in BMMs and plays a major role in superoxide anion production. In this study, we found that mice deficient in gp91phox (gp91phox−/−) showed defects in osteoclast differentiation. Femurs of these mice produced osteoclasts at about 70% of the levels seen in femurs from wild-type mice, and accordingly exhibited excessive bone density. This abnormal bone growth in the femurs of gp91phox−/− mice resulted from impaired osteoclast differentiation. In addition, gp91phox−/− mice were defective for RANKL-induced expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1). However, H2O2 treatment compensated for gp91phox deficiency in BMMs, almost completely rescuing osteoclast differentiation. Treating wild-type BMMs with antioxidants and superoxide inhibitors resulted in a differentiation defect resembling the phenotype of gp91phox−/− BMMs. Therefore, our results demonstrate that gp91phox-derived superoxide is important for promoting efficient osteoclast differentiation by inducing NFATc1 as a downstream signaling mediator of RANK. PMID:27897222

  16. Trapidil, a platelet-derived growth factor antagonist, inhibits osteoclastogenesis by down-regulating NFATc1 and suppresses bone loss in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Don; Kim, Ha-Neui; Lee, Jong-Ho; Jin, Won Jong; Hwang, Soon Jung; Kim, Hong-Hee; Ha, Hyunil; Lee, Zang Hee

    2013-09-15

    Trapidil, a platelet-derived growth factor antagonist, was originally developed as a vasodilator and anti-platelet agent and has been used to treat patients with ischemic coronary heart, liver, and kidney disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of trapidil on osteoclastogenesis and elucidated the possible mechanism of action of trapidil. Trapidil strongly inhibited osteoclast formation in co-cultures of bone marrow cells and osteoblasts without affecting receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) or osteoprotegerin expression in osteoblasts. In addition, trapidil suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast formation from osteoclast precursors. Trapidil reduced RANKL-induced expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), a master transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis, without affecting the expression of c-Fos that functions as a key upstream activator of NFATc1 during osteoclastogenesis. Ectopic expression of a constitutively active form of NFATc1 reversed the anti-osteoclastogenic effect of trapidil, indicating that NFATc1 is a critical target of the anti-osteoclastogenic action of trapidil. RANKL-induced calcium oscillation and Pim-1 expression, which are required for NFATc1 induction and osteoclastogenesis, were abrogated by trapidil. Consistent with the in vitro results, trapidil had a potent inhibitory effect on osteoclast formation and bone resorption induced by interleukin-1 in an animal model. Taken together, our data demonstrate that trapidil abrogates RANKL-induced calcium oscillation and Pim-1 expression required for NFATc1 induction, thereby inhibiting osteoclastogenesis.

  17. Xanthohumol modulates the expression of osteoclast-specific genes during osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Suh, Kwang Sik; Rhee, Sang Youl; Kim, Young Seol; Lee, Young Soon; Choi, Eun Mi

    2013-12-01

    RANKL has been shown to play a critical role in osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Thus, agents that suppress RANKL signaling have a potential to suppress bone loss. In this study, we examined the ability of xanthohumol, a structurally simple prenylated chalcone, to suppress RANKL signaling during osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. Xanthohumol markedly inhibited RANKL-induced TRAP activity, multinucleated osteoclasts formation, and resorption-pit formation. In experiments to elucidate its mechanism of action, xanthohumol was found to suppress RANKL-induced expression of TRAF6, GAB2, ERK, c-Src, PI3K, and Akt genes. Moreover, RANKL-induced expressions of c-Fos and NFATc1, which are crucial transcription factors for osteoclastogenesis, were reduced by treatment with xanthohumol. Xanthohumol also inhibited RANKL-induced expression of bone-resorption related osteoclast-specific genes (carbonic anhydrase II, TCIRG, CLCN7, OSTM1, cathepsin K, and MMP-9). These data demonstrate that xanthohumol inhibits osteoclastogenesis by modulating RANKL signaling and may be useful for the prevention of bone-destructive diseases such as osteoporosis, arthritis and periodontitis.

  18. Alternative NF-κB Regulates RANKL-induced Osteoclast Differentiation and Mitochondrial Biogenesis via Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Rong; Faccio, Roberta; Novack, Deborah V

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis, the generation of new mitochondrial DNA and proteins, has been linked to osteoclast (OC) differentiation and function. In this study we used mice with mutations in key alternative NF-κB pathway proteins, RelB and NIK, to dissect the complex relationship between mitochondrial biogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. OC precursors lacking either NIK or RelB, RANKL were unable to increase mitochondrial DNA or OxPhos protein expression, associated with lower oxygen consumption rates. Transgenic OC precursors expressing constitutively active NIK showed normal RANKL-induced mitochondrial biogenesis (OxPhos expression and mitochondria copy number) compared to controls, but larger mitochondrial dimensions and increased oxygen consumption rates, suggesting increased mitochondrial function. To deduce the mechanism for mitochondrial biogenesis defects in NIK- and RelB-deficient precursors, we examined expression of genes known to control this process. PGC-1β (Ppargc1b) expression, but not PGC-1α, PPRC1 or ERRα, was significantly reduced in RelB−/− and NIK−/− OCs. Because PGC-1β has been reported to positively regulate both mitochondrial biogenesis and differentiation in OCs, we retrovirally overexpressed PGC-1β in RelB−/− cells, but surprisingly found that it did not affect differentiation, nor restore RANKL-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. To determine whether the blockade in osteoclastogenesis in RelB-deficient cells precludes mitochondrial biogenesis, we rescued RelB−/− differentiation via overexpression of NFATc1. Mitochondrial parameters in neither WT nor RelB-deficient cultures were affected by NFATc1 overexpression, and bone resorption in RelB −/− was not restored. Furthermore, NFATc1 co-overexpression with PGC-1β, while allowing OC differentiation, did not rescue mitochondrial biogenesis or bone resorption in RelB−/− OCs, by CTX-I levels. Thus, our results indicate that the alternative NF-κB pathway plays dual, but

  19. α-Tocotrienol inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption by suppressing RANKL expression and signaling and bone resorbing activity.

    PubMed

    Ha, Hyunil; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Ha-Neui; Lee, Zang Hee

    2011-03-25

    Vitamin E, an essential nutrient with powerful antioxidant activity, is the mixture of two classes of compounds, tocopherols (TPs) and tocotrienols (TTs). Although TTs exhibit better bone protective activity than α-TP, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether α-TT and α-TP can modulate osteoclastic bone resorption. We found that α-TT but not α-TP inhibits osteoclastogenesis in coculture of osteoblasts and bone marrow cells induced by either IL-1 or combined treatment with 1α,25(OH)(2) vitamin D(3) and prostaglandin E(2). In accordance with this, only α-TT inhibited receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in osteoblasts. In addition, α-TT but not α-TP inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation from precursors by suppression of c-Fos expression, possibly through inhibiting ERK and NF-κB activation. This anti-osteoclastogenic effect was reversed when c-Fos or an active form of NFATc1, a critical downstream of c-Fos during osteoclastogenesis, was overexpressed. Furthermore, only α-TT reduced bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts without affecting their survival. Overall, our results demonstrate that α-TT but not α-TP has anti-bone resorptive properties by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and activation, suggesting that α-TT may have therapeutic value for treating and preventing bone diseases characterized by excessive bone destruction.

  20. Effect of amorphous silica nanoparticles on in vitro RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Amorphous silica nanoparticles (nSP) have been used as a polishing agent and/or as a remineralization promoter for teeth in the oral care field. The present study investigates the effects of nSP on osteoclast differentiation and the relationship between particle size and these effects. Our results revealed that nSP exerted higher cytotoxicity in macrophage cells compared with submicron-sized silica particles. However, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and the number of osteoclast cells (TRAP-positive multinucleated cells) were not changed by nSP treatment in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) at doses that did not induce cytotoxicity by silica particles. These results indicated that nSP did not cause differentiation of osteoclasts. Collectively, the results suggested that nanosilica exerts no effect on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells, although a detailed mechanistic examination of the nSP70-mediated cytotoxic effect is needed. PMID:21777482

  1. Combination of IL-6 and sIL-6R differentially regulate varying levels of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through NF-κB, ERK and JNK signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Wei; Liu, Hongrui; Luo, Tingting; Liu, Di; Du, Juan; Sun, Jing; Wang, Wei; Han, Xiuchun; Yang, Kaiyun; Guo, Jie; Amizuka, Norio; Li, Minqi

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 is known to indirectly enhance osteoclast formation by promoting receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) production by osteoblastic/stromal cells. However, little is known about the direct effect of IL-6 on osteoclastogenesis. Here, we determined the direct effects of IL-6 and its soluble receptor (sIL-6R) on RANKL-induced osteoclast formation by osteoclast precursors in vitro. We found IL-6/sIL-6R significantly promoted and suppressed osteoclast differentiation induced by low- (10 ng/ml) and high-level (50 ng/ml) RANKL, respectively. Using a bone resorption pit formation assay, expression of osteoclastic marker genes and transcription factors confirmed differential regulation of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by IL-6/sIL-6R. Intracellular signaling transduction analysis revealed IL-6/sIL-6R specifically upregulated and downregulated the phosphorylation of NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells), ERK (extracellular signal–regulated kinase) and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) induced by low- and high level RANKL, respectively. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that IL-6/sIL-6R differentially regulate RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and activity through modulation of NF-κB, ERK and JNK signaling pathways. Thus, IL-6 likely plays a dual role in osteoclastogenesis either as a pro-resorption factor or as a protector of bone, depending on the level of RANKL within the local microenvironment. PMID:28128332

  2. Stimulation of Osteoclast Formation by RANKL Requires Interferon Regulatory Factor-4 and Is Inhibited by Simvastatin in a Mouse Model of Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Yoshiki; Haneji, Tatsuji

    2013-01-01

    Diseases of bone loss are a major public health problem. Here, we report the novel therapeutic action of simvastatin in osteoclastogenesis and osteoprotection, demonstrated by the ability of simvastatin to suppress osteoclast formation in vitro and in vivo. We found that in vitro, IRF4 expression is upregulated during osteoclast differentiation induced by RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand), while simvastatin blocks RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and decreases expression of NFATc1 (nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1), IRF4 and osteoclast markers. We also show that IRF4 acts in cooperation with NFATc2 and NF-κB on the promoter region of NFATc1 to accelerate its initial transcription during the early stage of osteoclastogenesis. Moreover, our study using IRF4 siRNA knockdown directly demonstrates the requirement for IRF4 in NFATc1 mRNA transcription and its necessity in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. Our results suggest that the reduction in osteoclastogenesis is partly due to the inhibition of IRF4 production in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. To investigate the in vivo effects of simvastatin in RANKL-treated mice, we examined the bone mineral density (BMD) of a mouse model of bone loss, and found that simvastatin significantly reduced bone loss by suppressing osteoclast numbers in vivo, even in the presence of high concentrations of RANKL. These results suggest that the depletion of osteoclasts is not due to the reduction in RANKL produced by osteoblasts in vivo. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that simvastatin blocks RANKL-induced IRF4 expression in osteoclastogenesis. We propose that the expression of IRF4 by osteoclasts could be a promising new therapeutic target in bone-loss diseases. PMID:24039733

  3. The natural flavonoid galangin inhibits osteoclastic bone destruction and osteoclastogenesis by suppressing NF-κB in collagen-induced arthritis and bone marrow-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jeong-Eun; Jung, In-Tae; Choi, Junyoung; Baek, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Jae-Dong; Park, Dong-Suk; Choi, Do-Young

    2013-01-05

    We investigated the effect of galangin, a natural flavonoid, on osteoclastic bone destruction in collagen-induced arthritis and examined the molecular mechanisms by which galangin affects osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow derived macrophages. In mice with collagen-induced arthritis, administration of galangin significantly reduced the arthritis clinical score, edema and severity of disease without toxicity. Interestingly, galangin treatment during a later stage of collagen-induced arthritis, using mice with a higher clinical arthritis score, still significantly slowed the progression of the disease. Extensive cartilage and bone erosive changes as well as synovial inflammation, synovial hyperplasia and pannus formation were dramatically inhibited in arthritic mice treated with galangin. Furthermore, galangin-treated arthritic mice showed a significant reduction in the concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-17. We found that galangin inhibited osteoclastogenic factors and osteoclast formation in bone marrow-derived macrophages and osteoblast co-cultured cells, and increased osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels in osteoblasts. Galangin and NF-κB siRNA suppressed RANKL-induced phosphorylation of the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), but not AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Also, the JNK inhibitor SP600125 and p38 inhibitor SB203580 reduced RANKL-induced expressions of phospho-c-Jun, c-fos and NFATc1 genes during osteoclast development. In addition, galangin suppressed RANKL-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB, phospho-IκBα, inflammatory cytokines and osteoclast formation in bone marrow-derived macrophages. Our data suggest that galangin prevented osteoclastic bone destruction and osteoclastogenesis in osteoclast precursors as well as in collagen-induced arthritis mice without toxicity via attenuation of RANKL-induced activation of JNK, p38 and NF-κB pathways.

  4. Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) Attenuates TNF-induced Pathologic Bone Resorption and Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis by Inducing A20 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Sehwan; Bae, Seyeon; Murata, Koichi; Ivashkiv, Lionel B.; Park-Min, Kyung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Investigations on the therapeutic effects of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) have focused on the suppression of autoantibody- and immune complex-mediated inflammatory pathogenesis. Inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis are often accompanied by excessive bone erosion but the effect of IVIG on osteoclasts, bone-resorbing cells, has not been studied. Here, we investigate whether IVIG directly regulates osteoclast differentiation and has therapeutic potential for suppressing osteoclast-mediated pathologic bone resorption. IVIG or cross-linking of Fcγ receptors with plate-bound IgG suppressed receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and expression of osteoclast-related genes such as integrin β3 and cathepsin K in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, IVIG or plate-bound IgG suppressed osteoclastogenesis by downregulating RANKL-induced expression of NFATC1, the master regulator of osteoclastogenesis. IVIG suppressed NFATC1 expression by attenuating RANKL-induced NF-κB signaling, explained in part by induction of the inflammatory signaling inhibitor A20. IVIG administration attenuated in vivo osteoclastogenesis and suppressed bone resorption in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced calvarial osteolysis model. Our findings show that, in addition to suppressing inflammation, IVIG directly inhibits osteoclastogenesis through a mechanism involving suppression of RANK signaling. Direct suppression of osteoclast differentiation may provide beneficial effects on preserving bone mass when IVIG is used to treat rheumatic disorders. PMID:26189496

  5. Resveratrol-mediated SIRT-1 interactions with p300 modulate receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) activation of NF-kappaB signaling and inhibit osteoclastogenesis in bone-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Buhrmann, Constanze; Mobasheri, Ali

    2011-04-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenolic phytoestrogen that has been shown to exhibit potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-catabolic properties. Increased osteoclastic and decreased osteoblastic activities result in bone resorption and loss of bone mass. These changes have been implicated in pathological processes in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), a member of the TNF superfamily, is a major mediator of bone loss. In this study, we investigated the effects of resveratrol on RANKL during bone morphogenesis in high density bone cultures in vitro. Untreated bone-derived cell cultures produced well organized bone-like structures with a bone-specific matrix. Treatment with RANKL induced formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated cells that exhibited morphological features of osteoclasts. RANKL induced NF-κB activation, whereas pretreatment with resveratrol completely inhibited this activation and suppressed the activation of IκBα kinase and IκBα phosphorylation and degradation. RANKL up-regulated p300 (a histone acetyltransferase) expression, which, in turn, promoted acetylation of NF-κB. Resveratrol inhibited RANKL-induced acetylation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, activation of Sirt-1 (a histone deacetylase) by resveratrol induced Sirt-1-p300 association in bone-derived and preosteoblastic cells, leading to deacetylation of RANKL-induced NF-κB, inhibition of NF-κB transcriptional activation, and osteoclastogenesis. Co-treatment with resveratrol activated the bone transcription factors Cbfa-1 and Sirt-1 and induced the formation of Sirt-1-Cbfa-1 complexes. Overall, these results demonstrate that resveratrol-activated Sirt-1 plays pivotal roles in regulating the balance between the osteoclastic versus osteoblastic activity result in bone formation in vitro thereby highlighting its therapeutic potential for treating

  6. Inhibition of differentiation and function of osteoclasts by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO).

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunxi; Madhu, Vedavathi; Thomas, Candace; Yang, Xinlin; Du, Xeujun; Dighe, Abhijit S; Cui, Quanjun

    2015-12-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an FDA-approved organosulfur solvent that is reported to have therapeutic value in osteoarthritis and osteopenia. DMSO is used as a cryoprotectant for the cryopreservation of bone grafts and mesenchymal stem cells which are later used for bone repair. It is also used as a solvent in the preparation of various scaffolds used for bone tissue engineering purposes. DMSO has been reported to inhibit osteoclast formation in vitro but the mechanism involved has remained elusive. We investigated the effect of DMSO on osteoclast differentiation and function using a conventional model system of RAW 264.7 cells. The differentiation of RAW 264.7 cells was induced by adding 50 ng/ml RANKL and the effect of DMSO (0.01 and 1% v/v) on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis was investigated. Addition of 1% DMSO significantly inhibited RANKL-induced formation of TRAP+, multinucleated, mature osteoclasts and osteoclast late-stage precursors (c-Kit(-) c-Fms(+) Mac-1(+) RANK(+)). While DMSO did not inhibit proliferation per se, it did inhibit the effect of RANKL on proliferation of RAW 264.7 cells. Key genes related to osteoclast function (TRAP, Integrin αVβ3, Cathepsin K and MMP9) were significantly down-regulated by DMSO. RANKL-induced expression of RANK gene was significantly reduced in the presence of DMSO. Our data, and reports from other investigators, that DMSO enhances osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and also prevents bone loss in ovarietcomized rats, suggest that DMSO has tremendous potential in the treatment of osteoporosis and bone diseases arising from uncontrolled activities of the osteoclasts.

  7. Lipocalin-2 inhibits osteoclast formation by suppressing the proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast lineage cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun-Ju; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Yoon, Kyung-Ae; Gwon, Mi-Ri; Jin Seong, Sook; Suk, Kyoungho; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Yoon, Young-Ran

    2015-06-10

    Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is a member of the lipocalin superfamily and plays a critical role in the regulation of various physiological processes, such as inflammation and obesity. In this study, we report that LCN2 negatively modulates the proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast precursors, resulting in impaired osteoclast formation. The overexpression of LCN2 in bone marrow-derived macrophages or the addition of recombinant LCN2 protein inhibits the formation of multinuclear osteoclasts. LCN2 suppresses macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-induced proliferation of osteoclast precursor cells without affecting their apoptotic cell death. Interestingly, LCN2 decreases the expression of the M-CSF receptor, c-Fms, and subsequently blocks its downstream signaling cascades. In addition, LCN2 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and attenuates the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1), which are important modulators in osteoclastogenesis. Mechanistically, LCN2 inhibits NF-κB signaling pathways, as demonstrated by the suppression of IκBα phosphorylation, nuclear translocation of p65, and NF-κB transcriptional activity. Thus, LCN2 is an anti-osteoclastogenic molecule that exerts its effects by retarding the proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast lineage cells. - Highlights: • LCN2 expression is regulated during osteoclast development. • LCN2 suppresses M-CSF-mediated osteoclast precursor proliferation. • LCN2 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation.

  8. Tributyltin and triphenyltin inhibit osteoclast differentiation through a retinoic acid receptor-dependent signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Yonezawa, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Shin-ichi; Ahn, Jae-Yong; Cha, Byung-Yoon; Teruya, Toshiaki; Hagiwara, Hiromi; Nagai, Kazuo; Woo, Je-Tae; E-mail: jwoo@isc.chubu.ac.jp

    2007-03-30

    Organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT), have been widely used in agriculture and industry. Although these compounds are known to have many toxic effects, including endocrine-disrupting effects, their effects on bone resorption are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of organotin compounds, such as monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), TBT, and TPT, on osteoclast differentiation using mouse monocytic RAW264.7 cells. MBT and DBT had no effects, whereas TBT and TPT dose-dependently inhibited osteoclast differentiation at concentrations of 3-30 nM. Treatment with a retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-specific antagonist, Ro41-5253, restored the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by TBT and TPT. TBT and TPT reduced receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) induced nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) c1 expression, and the reduction in NFATc1 expression was recovered by Ro41-5253. Our results suggest that TBT and TPT suppress osteoclastogenesis by inhibiting RANKL-induced NFATc1 expression via an RAR-dependent signaling pathway.

  9. Betulinic acid, a bioactive pentacyclic triterpenoid, inhibits skeletal-related events induced by breast cancer bone metastases and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Se Young; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Ki Rim; Lee, Sun Kyoung; Lee, Chang Ki; Park, Kwang-Kyun Chung, Won-Yoon

    2014-03-01

    Many breast cancer patients experience bone metastases and suffer skeletal complications. The present study provides evidence on the protective and therapeutic potential of betulinic acid on cancer-associated bone diseases. Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring triterpenoid with the beneficial activity to limit the progression and severity of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, and obesity. We first investigated its effect on breast cancer cells, osteoblastic cells, and osteoclasts in the vicious cycle of osteolytic bone metastasis. Betulinic acid reduced cell viability and the production of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), a major osteolytic factor, in MDA-MB-231 human metastatic breast cancer cells stimulated with or without tumor growth factor-β. Betulinic acid blocked an increase in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin ratio by downregulating RANKL protein expression in PTHrP-treated human osteoblastic cells. In addition, betulinic acid inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in murine bone marrow macrophages and decreased the production of resorbed area in plates with a bone biomimetic synthetic surface by suppressing the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and cathepsin K in RANKL-induced osteoclasts. Furthermore, oral administration of betulinic acid inhibited bone loss in mice intra-tibially inoculated with breast cancer cells and in ovariectomized mice causing estrogen deprivation, as supported by the restored bone morphometric parameters and serum bone turnover markers. Taken together, these findings suggest that betulinic acid may have the potential to prevent bone loss in patients with bone metastases and cancer treatment-induced estrogen deficiency. - Highlights: • Betulinic acid reduced PTHrP production in human metastatic breast cancer cells. • Betulinic acid blocked RANKL/OPG ratio in PTHrP-stimulated human osteoblastic cells. • Betulinic

  10. Inhibition of osteoporosis by the αvβ3 integrin antagonist of rhodostomin variants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Hung; Yang, Rong-Sen; Tu, Huang-Ju; Liou, Houng-Chi; Lin, Yen-Ming; Chuang, Woie-Jer; Fu, Wen-Mei

    2017-03-14

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface receptors that mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction. The vitronectin and osteopontin receptor αvβ3 integrin has increased expression levels and is implicated in the adhesion, activation, and migration of osteoclasts on the bone surface as well as osteoclast polarization. αvβ3 integrin plays an important role in osteoclast differentiation and resorption. In addition, Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing peptides, small molecular inhibitors, and antibodies to αvβ3 integrin have been shown to inhibit bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. Here we examined the effects of a disintegrin HSA-ARLDDL a genetically modified mutant of rhodostomin conjugated with human serum albumin, which is highly selective of αvβ3, on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis. In RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, HSA-ARLDDL significantly inhibited osteoclast formation, and IC50 was at nM range. Post-treatment HSA-ARLDDL also inhibits osteoclast formation. Furthermore, weekly administration of HSA-ARLDDL significantly inhibits the increase in serum bone resorption marker levels and decrease in cancellous bone loss in tibia and femur induced by OVX. On the other hand, HSA-ARLDDL did not affect the differentiation and calcium deposition of osteoblasts. These results indicate that the highly selective and long-acting αvβ3 integrin antagonists could be developed as effective drugs for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  11. Relationship between fluoride exposure and osteoclast markers during RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Junrui, Pei; Bingyun, Li; Yanhui, Gao; Xu, Jiaxun; Darko, Gottfried M; Dianjun, Sun

    2016-09-01

    Skeletal fluorosis is a metabolic bone disease caused by excessive accumulation of fluoride. Although the cause of this disease is known, the mechanism by which fluoride accumulates on the bone has not been clearly defined, thus there are no markers that can be used for screening skeletal fluorosis in epidemiology. In this study, osteoclasts were formed from bone marrow cells of C57BL/6 mice-treated with macrophage colony stimulating factor and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand. The mRNA expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b), osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR), calcitonin receptor (CTR), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and cathepsin K (CK) were detected using real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Results showed that fluoride between 0.5 and 8mg/l had no effect on osteoclast formation. However fluoride at 0.5mg/l level significantly decreased the activity of osteoclast bone resorption. Fluoride concentration was negatively correlated with the activity of osteoclast bone resorption. On day 5 of osteoclast differentiation maturity, MMP9 and CK mRNA expression were not only negatively correlated with fluoride concentration, but directly correlated with the activity of osteoclast bone resorption. TRAP5b, CTR and OSCAR mRNA expression were positively correlated with the number of osteoclast and they had no correlation with the activity of osteoclast bone resorption. Thus, it can be seen that MMP9 and CK may reflect the change of activity of bone resorption as well the degree of fluoride exposure. TRAP5b, CTR and OSCAR can represent the change of number of osteoclast formed.

  12. RANKL-induced down-regulation of CX3CR1 via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway suppresses Fractalkine/CX3CL1-induced cellular responses in RAW264.7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, Yurika; Koizumi, Keiichi Sakurai, Hiroaki; Minami, Takayuki; Saiki, Ikuo

    2007-12-21

    The receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) is essential for osteoclast differentiation. In this study, we examined the effects of RANKL on chemokine receptor expression in osteoclast precursor cells, RAW264.7 cells. CX3CL1 (also called Fractalkine) receptor, CX3CR1 mRNA expression, was rapidly reduced by treatment with RANKL in contrast to the increased expression of CCR1 and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). This reduction occurred within 12 h and was maintained for 5 days during osteoclastogenesis. Inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt, but not mitogen-activated protein kinases, restored the RANKL-induced reduction of CX3CR1 mRNA. The stability of CX3CR1 mRNA was not changed, suggesting transcriptional repression by RANKL. The down-regulation of CX3CR1 mRNA correlated with the suppression of CX3CL1-induced activation of Akt and ERK as well as chemotaxis. These results suggest a potential role for decreased CX3CL1-CX3CR1 interaction in osteoclastogenesis.

  13. The Paired-box Homeodomain Transcription Factor Pax6 Binds to the Upstream Region of the TRAP Gene Promoter and Suppresses Receptor Activator of NF-κB Ligand (RANKL)-induced Osteoclast Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Kogawa, Masakazu; Hisatake, Koji; Atkins, Gerald J.; Findlay, David M.; Enoki, Yuichiro; Sato, Tsuyoshi; Gray, Peter C.; Kanesaki-Yatsuka, Yukiko; Anderson, Paul H.; Wada, Seiki; Kato, Naoki; Fukuda, Aya; Katayama, Shigehiro; Tsujimoto, Masafumi; Yoda, Tetsuya; Suda, Tatsuo; Okazaki, Yasushi; Matsumoto, Masahito

    2013-01-01

    Osteoclast formation is regulated by balancing between the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) expressed in osteoblasts and extracellular negative regulatory cytokines such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interferon-β (IFN-β), which can suppress excessive bone destruction. However, relatively little is known about intrinsic negative regulatory factors in RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation. Here, we show the paired-box homeodomain transcription factor Pax6 acts as a negative regulator of RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation. Electrophoretic mobility shift and reporter assays found that Pax6 binds endogenously to the proximal region of the tartrate acid phosphatase (TRAP) gene promoter and suppresses nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1)-induced TRAP gene expression. Introduction of Pax6 retrovirally into bone marrow macrophages attenuates RANKL-induced osteoclast formation. Moreover, we found that the Groucho family member co-repressor Grg6 contributes to Pax6-mediated suppression of the TRAP gene expression induced by NFATc1. These results suggest that Pax6 interferes with RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation together with Grg6. Our results demonstrate that the Pax6 pathway constitutes a new aspect of the negative regulatory circuit of RANKL-RANK signaling in osteoclastogenesis and that the augmentation of Pax6 might therefore represent a novel target to block pathological bone resorption. PMID:23990468

  14. Dioscin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption though down-regulating the Akt signaling cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Xinhua; Zhai, Zanjing; Liu, Xuqiang; Li, Haowei; Ouyang, Zhengxiao; Wu, Chuanlong; Liu, Guangwang; Fan, Qiming; Tang, Tingting; Qin, An; Dai, Kerong

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •A natural-derived compound, dioscin, suppresses osteoclast formation and bone resorption. •Dioscin inhibits osteolytic bone loss in vivo. •Dioscin impairs the Akt signaling cascades pathways during osteoclastogenesis. •Dioscin have therapeutic value in treating osteoclast-related diseases. -- Abstract: Bone resorption is the unique function of osteoclasts (OCs) and is critical for both bone homeostasis and pathologic bone diseases including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and tumor bone metastasis. Thus, searching for natural compounds that may suppress osteoclast formation and/or function is promising for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases. In this study, we for the first time demonstrated that dioscin suppressed RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The suppressive effect of dioscin is supported by the reduced expression of osteoclast-specific markers. Further molecular analysis revealed that dioscin abrogated AKT phosphorylation, which subsequently impaired RANKL-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway and inhibited NFATc1 transcriptional activity. Moreover, in vivo studies further verified the bone protection activity of dioscin in osteolytic animal model. Together our data demonstrate that dioscin suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and function through Akt signaling cascades. Therefore, dioscin is a potential natural agent for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases.

  15. Gastrodin inhibits osteoclastogenesis via down-regulating the NFATc1 signaling pathway and stimulates osseointegration in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feng; Shen, Yi; Liu, Bo; Chen, Xia; Wan, Lu; Peng, Dan

    2017-03-18

    Bone is a rigid yet dynamic organ, and this dynamism is mediated by the delicate balance between osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation. However, excessive activation of osteoclasts is responsible for many bone diseases such as osteoporosis, Paget disease, and tumor bone metastasis. Agents that could inhibit osteoclast formation or function are regarded as promising alternatives to treat osteoclast-related diseases. Recently, traditional Chinese medicine has attracted attention because of its multiple activities in bone metabolism. Among them, gastrodin has been reported as an anti-osteoporosis agent that reduces reactive oxygen species. However, the direct action of gastrodin on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, and its underlying molecular mechanism, remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of gastrodin on receptor activator NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-activated osteoclasts formation and bone resorption. Our results showed that gastrodin retarded RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation efficiently by downregulating transcriptional and translational expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells cl (NFATc1), a major factor in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis. Meanwhile, gastrodin prevented osteoclast maturation and migration by inhibiting the gene expression of dendrocyte expressed seven transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), an osteoclastic-specific gene that controls cells fusion and movement. And gastrodin prevented RANKL-induced osteoclastic bone erosion in vitro. In addition, gastrodin also stimulated bone mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) spreading and osseointegration in titanium plate. In summary, gastrodin could prevent osteoclasts formation and bone resorption via blockage of NFATc1 activity, and stimulate osseointegration in vitro. Gastrodin could be developed as a potent phytochemical candidate to treat osteolytic diseases.

  16. Chlorogenic acid inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption by down-regulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand-induced nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 expression.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Sung Chul; Lee, Cheol; Kim, Ju-Young; Oh, Hyun Mee; So, Hong-Seob; Lee, Myeung Su; Rho, Mun Chual; Oh, Jaemin

    2013-01-01

    Excessive osteoclastic bone resorption plays a critical role in inflammation-induced bone loss such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal bone erosion. Therefore, identification of osteoclast targeted-agents may be a therapeutic approach to the treatment of pathological bone loss. In this study, we isolated chlorogenic acid (CGA) from fructus of Gardenia jasminoides to discover anti-bone resorptive agents. CGA is a polyphenol with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities, however, its effects on osteoclast differentiation is unknown. Thus, we investigated the effect of CGA in receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and RANKL signaling. CGA dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) without any evidence of cytotoxicity. CGA inhibited the phosphorylation of p38, Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B (IκB), and IκB degradation by RANKL treatment. CGA suppressed the mRNA expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1), TRAP and OSCAR in RANKL-treated bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). Also, overexpression of NFATc1 in BMMs blocked the inhibitory effect of CGA on RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation. Furthermore, to evaluate the effects of CGA in vivo, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone erosion study was carried out. CGA remarkably attenuated LPS-induced bone loss based on micro-computed tomography and histologic analysis of femurs. Taken together, our findings suggest that CGA may be a potential treatment option for osteoclast-related diseases with inflammatory bone destruction.

  17. The Hemoglobin Receptor Protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis Inhibits Receptor Activator NF-κB Ligand-Induced Osteoclastogenesis from Bone Marrow Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Yuji; Hotokezaka, Hitoshi; Ohara, Naoya; Naito, Mariko; Sakai, Eiko; Yoshimura, Mamiko; Narita, Yuka; Kitaura, Hideki; Yoshida, Noriaki; Nakayama, Koji

    2006-01-01

    Extracellular proteinaceous factors of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, that influence receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow macrophages were investigated. The culture supernatant of P. gingivalis had the ability to inhibit RANKL-induced in vitro osteoclastogenesis. A major protein of the culture supernatant, hemoglobin receptor protein (HbR), suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in a dose-dependent fashion. HbR markedly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis when present in the culture for the first 24 h after addition of RANKL, whereas no significant inhibition was observed when HbR was added after 24 h or later, implying that HbR might interfere with only the initial stage of RANKL-mediated differentiation. HbR tightly bound to bone marrow macrophages and had the ability to induce phosphorylation of ERK, p38, NF-κB, and Akt. RANKL-induced phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and NF-κB was not suppressed by HbR, but that of Akt was markedly suppressed. HbR inhibited RANKL-mediated induction of c-Fos and NFATc1. HbR could induce beta interferon (IFN-β) from bone marrow macrophages, but the induction level of IFN-β might not be sufficient to suppress RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis, implying presence of an IFN-β-independent pathway in HbR-mediated inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Since rapid and extensive destruction of the alveolar bone causes tooth loss, resulting in loss of the gingival crevice that is an anatomical niche for periodontal pathogens such as P. gingivalis, the suppressive effect of HbR on osteoclastogenesis may help the microorganism exist long in the niche. PMID:16622189

  18. Plumbagin inhibits breast tumor bone metastasis and osteolysis by modulating the tumor-bone microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Xiao, J; Wu, X; Li, W; Yang, Z; Xie, J; Xu, L; Cai, X; Lin, Z; Guo, W; Luo, J; Liu, M

    2012-09-01

    Bone metastasis is a common and serious consequence of breast cancer. Bidirectional interaction between tumor cells and the bone marrow microenvironment drives a so-called 'vicious cycle' that promotes tumor cell malignancy and stimulates osteolysis. Targeting these interactions and pathways in the tumor-bone microenvironment has been an encouraging strategy for bone metastasis therapy. In the present study, we examined the effects of plumbagin on breast cancer bone metastasis. Our data indicated that plumbagin inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion, suppressed the expression of osteoclast-activating factors, altered the cancer cell induced RANKL/OPG ratio in osteoblasts, and blocked both cancer cell- and RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis. In mouse model of bone metastasis, we further demonstrated that plumbagin significantly repressed breast cancer cell metastasis and osteolysis, inhibited cancer cell induced-osteoclastogenesis and the secretion of osteoclast-activating factors in vivo. At the molecular level, we found that plumbagin abrogated RANKL-induced NF-κB and MAPK pathways by blocking RANK association with TRAF6 in osteoclastogenesis, and by inhibiting the expression of osteoclast-activating factors through the suppression of NF-κB activity in breast cancer cells. Taken together, our data demonstrate that plumbagin inhibits breast tumor bone metastasis and osteolysis by modulating the tumor-bone microenvironment and that plumbagin may serve as a novel agent in the treatment of tumor bone metastasis.

  19. A hammerhead ribozyme inhibits ADE1 gene expression in yeast.

    PubMed

    Ferbeyre, G; Bratty, J; Chen, H; Cedergren, R

    1995-03-21

    To study factors that affect in vivo ribozyme (Rz) activity, a model system has been devised in Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on the inhibition of ADE1 gene expression. This gene was chosen because Rz action can be evaluated visually by the Red phenotype produced when the activity of the gene product is inhibited. Different plasmid constructs allowed the expression of the Rz either in cis or in trans with respect to ADE1. Rz-related inhibition of ADE1 expression was correlated with a Red phenotype and a diminution of ADE1 mRNA levels only when the Rz gene was linked 5' to ADE1. The presence of the expected 3' cleavage fragment was demonstrated using a technique combining RNA ligation and PCR. This yeast system and detection technique are suited to the investigation of general factors affecting Rz-catalyzed inhibition of gene expression under in vivo conditions.

  20. Arctigenin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and function by suppressing both calcineurin-dependent and osteoblastic cell-dependent NFATc1 pathways.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Teruhito; Uehara, Shunsuke; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Li, Feng; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Arctigenin, a lignan-derived compound, is a constituent of the seeds of Arctium lappa. Arctigenin was previously shown to inhibit osteoclastogenesis; however, this inhibitory mechanism has yet to be elucidated. Here, we showed that arctigenin inhibited the action of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), a key transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis. NFATc1 in osteoclast precursors was activated through two distinct pathways: the calcineurin-dependent and osteoblastic cell-dependent pathways. Among the several lignan-derived compounds examined, arctigenin most strongly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast-like cell formation in mouse bone marrow macrophage (BMM) cultures, in which the calcineurin-dependent NFATc1 pathway was activated. Arctigenin suppressed neither the activation of nuclear factor κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases nor the up-regulation of c-Fos expression in BMMs treated with RANKL. However, arctigenin suppressed RANKL-induced NFATc1 expression. Interestingly, the treatment of osteoclast-like cells with arctigenin converted NFATc1 into a lower molecular weight species, which was translocated into the nucleus even in the absence of RANKL. Nevertheless, arctigenin as well as cyclosporin A (CsA), a calcineurin inhibitor, suppressed the NFAT-luciferase reporter activity induced by ionomycin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in BMMs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed that arctigenin inhibited the recruitment of NFATc1 to the promoter region of the NFATc1 target gene. Arctigenin, but not CsA suppressed osteoclast-like cell formation in co-cultures of osteoblastic cells and bone marrow cells, in which the osteoblastic cell-dependent NFATc1 pathway was activated. The forced expression of constitutively active NFATc1 rescued osteoclastogenesis in BMM cultures treated with CsA, but not that treated with arctigenin. Arctigenin also suppressed the pit

  1. Atorvastatin inhibits myocardin expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Jiang, Jixin; Yin, Hao; Wang, Lifeng; Tian, Ruijuan; Li, Haijie; Wang, Zengyong; Li, Dong; Wang, Yuebing; Gui, Yu; Walsh, Michael P; Zheng, Xi-Long

    2012-07-01

    Atorvastatin (ATV), an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, is widely prescribed as a lipid-lowering drug. It also inhibits the RhoA-Rho-associated kinase pathway in vascular smooth muscle (SM) cells and critically inhibits SM function. Myocardin is a coactivator of serum response factor, which upregulates SM contractile proteins. The RhoA-Rho-associated kinase pathway, which directly triggers SM contraction, also increases myocardin gene expression. Therefore, we investigated whether ATV inhibits myocardin gene expression in SM cells. In mice injected with ATV (IP 20 μg/g per day) for 5 days, myocardin gene expression was significantly downregulated in aortic and carotid arterial tissues with decreased expression of myocardin target genes SM α-actin and SM22. Correspondingly, the contractility of aortic rings in mice treated with ATV or the Rho-associated kinase inhibitor Y-27632 was reduced in response to treatment with either KCl or phenylephrine. In cultured mouse and human aortic SM cells, KCl treatment stimulated the expression of myocardin, SM α-actin, and SM22. These stimulatory effects were prevented by ATV treatment. ATV-induced inhibition of myocardin expression was prevented by pretreatment with either mevalonate or geranylgeranylpyrophosphate but not farnesylpyrophosphate. Treatment with Y-27632 mimicked ATV effects on the gene expression of myocardin, SM α-actin, and SM22, further suggesting a role for the RhoA-Rho-associated kinase pathway in ATV effects. Furthermore, ATV treatment inhibited RhoA membrane translocation and activation; these effects were prevented by pretreatment with mevalonate. We conclude that ATV inhibits myocardin gene expression in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a novel mechanism for ATV inhibition of vascular contraction.

  2. Malonate inhibits virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Minato, Yusuke; Fassio, Sara R; Häse, Claudia C

    2013-01-01

    We previously found that inhibition of the TCA cycle, either through mutations or chemical inhibition, increased toxT transcription in Vibrio cholerae. In this study, we found that the addition of malonate, an inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), decreased toxT transcription in V. cholerae, an observation inconsistent with the previous pattern observed. Unlike another SDH inhibitor, 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA), which increased toxT transcription and slightly inhibited V. cholerae growth, malonate inhibited toxT transcription in both the wild-type strain and TCA cycle mutants, suggesting malonate-mediated inhibition of virulence gene expression is independent to TCA cycle activity. Addition of malonate also inhibited ctxB and tcpA expressions but did not affect aphA, aphB, tcpP and toxR expressions. Malonate inhibited cholera toxin (CT) production in both V. cholerae classical biotype strains O395N1 and CA401, and El Tor biotype strain, N16961. Consistent with previous reports, we confirmed that these strains of V. cholerae did not utilize malonate as a primary carbon source. However, we found that the addition of malonate to the growth medium stimulated V. cholerae growth. All together, these results suggest that metabolizing malonate as a nutrient source negatively affects virulence gene expression in V. cholerae.

  3. Inhibition of human papillomavirus expression using DNAzymes.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Hess, María Luisa; Reyes-Gutiérrez, Pablo; Alvarez-Salas, Luis Marat

    2011-01-01

    Deoxyribozymes (DXZs) are catalytic oligodeoxynucleotides capable of performing diverse functions including the specific cleavage of a target RNA. These molecules represent a new type of therapeutic oligonucleotides combining the efficiency of ribozymes and the intracellular endurance and simplicity of modified antisense oligonucleotides. Commonly used DXZs include the 8-17 and 10-23 motifs, which have been engineered to destroy disease-associated genes with remarkable efficiency. Targeting DXZs to disease-associated transcripts requires extensive biochemical testing to establish target RNA accessibility, catalytic efficiency, and nuclease sensibility. The usage of modified nucleotides to render nuclease-resistance DXZs must be counterweighted against deleterious consequences on catalytic activity. Further intracellular testing is required to establish the effect of microenvironmental conditions on DXZ activity and off-target issues. Application of modified DXZs to cervical cancer results in specific growth inhibition, cell death, and apoptosis. Thus, DXZs represent a highly effective antisense moiety with minimal secondary effects.

  4. Inhibition of Osteoclastogenesis and Bone Resorption in vitro and in vivo by a prenylflavonoid xanthohumol from hops.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zeng, Li; Xie, Juan; Yue, Zhiying; Deng, Huayun; Ma, Xueyun; Zheng, Chunbing; Wu, Xiushan; Luo, Jian; Liu, Mingyao

    2015-12-01

    Excessive RANKL signaling leads to superfluous osteoclast formation and bone resorption, is widespread in the pathologic bone loss and destruction. Therefore, targeting RANKL or its signaling pathway has been a promising and successful strategy for this osteoclast-related diseases. In this study, we examined the effects of xanthohumol (XN), an abundant prenylflavonoid from hops plant, on osteoclastogenesis, osteoclast resorption, and RANKL-induced signaling pathway using both in vitro and in vivo assay systems. In mouse and human, XN inhibited osteoclast differentiation and osteoclast formation at the early stage. Furthermore, XN inhibited osteoclast actin-ring formation and bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner. In ovariectomized-induced bone loss mouse model and RANKL-injection-induced bone resorption model, we found that administration of XN markedly inhibited bone loss and resorption by suppressing osteoclast activity. At the molecular level, XN disrupted the association of RANK and TRAF6, resulted in the inhibition of NF-κB and Ca(2+)/NFATc1 signaling pathway during osteoclastogenesis. As a results, XN suppressed the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related marker genes, including CtsK, Nfatc1, Trap, Ctr. Therefore, our data demonstrated that XN inhibits osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption through RANK/TRAF6 signaling pathways. XN could be a promising drug candidate in the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  5. Inhibition of Osteoclastogenesis and Bone Resorption in vitro and in vivo by a prenylflavonoid xanthohumol from hops

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Zeng, Li; Xie, Juan; Yue, Zhiying; Deng, Huayun; Ma, Xueyun; Zheng, Chunbing; Wu, Xiushan; Luo, Jian; Liu, Mingyao

    2015-01-01

    Excessive RANKL signaling leads to superfluous osteoclast formation and bone resorption, is widespread in the pathologic bone loss and destruction. Therefore, targeting RANKL or its signaling pathway has been a promising and successful strategy for this osteoclast-related diseases. In this study, we examined the effects of xanthohumol (XN), an abundant prenylflavonoid from hops plant, on osteoclastogenesis, osteoclast resorption, and RANKL-induced signaling pathway using both in vitro and in vivo assay systems. In mouse and human, XN inhibited osteoclast differentiation and osteoclast formation at the early stage. Furthermore, XN inhibited osteoclast actin-ring formation and bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner. In ovariectomized-induced bone loss mouse model and RANKL-injection-induced bone resorption model, we found that administration of XN markedly inhibited bone loss and resorption by suppressing osteoclast activity. At the molecular level, XN disrupted the association of RANK and TRAF6, resulted in the inhibition of NF-κB and Ca2+/NFATc1 signaling pathway during osteoclastogenesis. As a results, XN suppressed the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related marker genes, including CtsK, Nfatc1, Trap, Ctr. Therefore, our data demonstrated that XN inhibits osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption through RANK/TRAF6 signaling pathways. XN could be a promising drug candidate in the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:26620037

  6. Estrogen suppresses adipogenesis by inhibiting S100A16 expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rihua; Su, Dongming; Zhu, Weidong; Huang, Qiong; Liu, Menglan; Xue, Yi; Zhang, Yuanyuan; li, Dong; Zhao, Allan; Liu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of E2 on metabolic syndrome and the molecular mechanisms involving S100A16. Ovariectomized (OVX) rat models and mouse embryonic fibroblasts cell models were used. E2 loss in OVX rats induced body weight gain and central abdominal fat accumulation, which were ameliorated by E2 treatment under chow and high-fat diet (HFD) conditions. E2 decreased the expression of the adipocyte marker genes PPAR γ, aP2, C/EBP α, and S100A16. E2 inhibited adipogenesis. Overexpression of S100A16 reversed the E2-induced adipogenesis effect. A luciferase assay showed that E2 inhibited the expression of S100A16. E2 treatment decreased body weight gain and central abdominal fat accumulation under both chow and HFD conditions. Also, E2 suppressed adipogenesis by inhibiting S100A16 expression. PMID:24501224

  7. Strontium inhibits titanium particle-induced osteoclast activation and chronic inflammation via suppression of NF-κB pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shijun; Hu, Xuanyang; Tao, Yunxia; Ping, Zichuan; Wang, Liangliang; Shi, Jiawei; Wu, Xiexing; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Huilin; Nie, Zhikui; Xu, Yaozeng; Wang, Zhirong; Geng, Dechun

    2016-01-01

    Wear-particle-induced chronic inflammation and osteoclastogenesis have been identified as critical factors of aseptic loosening. Although strontium is known to be involved in osteoclast differentiation, its effect on particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the potential impact and underling mechanism of strontium on particle-induced osteoclast activation and chronic inflammation in vivo and in vitro. As expected, strontium significantly inhibited titanium particle-induced inflammatory infiltration and prevented bone loss in a murine calvarial osteolysis model. Interestingly, the number of mature osteoclasts decreased after treatment with strontium in vivo, suggesting osteoclast formation might be inhibited by strontium. Additionally, low receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and p65 immunochemistry staining were observed in strontium-treatment groups. In vitro, strontium obviously decreased osteoclast formation, osteoclastogenesis-related gene expression, osteoclastic bone resorption and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in bone-marrow-derived macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrated that strontium impaired osteoclastogenesis by blocking RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that strontium can significantly inhibit particle-induced osteoclast activation and inflammatory bone loss by disturbing the NF-κB pathway, and is an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of wear particle-induced aseptic loosening. PMID:27796351

  8. Lithium inhibits tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastasis through the inhibition of TGFBIp expression in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Yong-Sun; Lee, Rina; Lee, Boram; Choi, Seung-Il; Kim, Eung Kweon

    2016-02-09

    Metastasis is the main cause of mortality in cancer patients. Although there are many anti-cancer drugs targeting tumor growth, anti-metastatic agents are rarely developed. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are crucial for cancer progression; in particular, lymphangiogenesis is pivotal for metastasis in cancer. Here we report that lithium inhibits colon cancer metastasis by blocking lymphangiogenesis. Lithium reduces the expression of transforming growth factor-β-induced protein (TGFBIp) in colon cancer cells by inhibiting Smad3 phosphorylation via GSK3β inactivation. Moreover, lithium inhibits lymphatic endothelial cell migration, which is increased upon TGFBIp expression in tumor cells. Lithium had no significant effect on SW620 tumor growth in vitro and in vivo; however, it inhibited lymphangiogenesis in tumors. In tumor xenografts model, lithium was found to prevent metastasis to the lungs, liver, and lymph nodes by inhibiting TGFBIp-induced tumor lymphangiogenesis. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a novel role of lithium in the inhibition of colon cancer metastasis by blocking TGFBIp expression, and thereby TGFBIp-induced lymphangiogenesis, in primary tumors.

  9. ATF3 represses PPARγ expression and inhibits adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Min-Kyung; Jung, Myeong Ho

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • ATF3 decrease the expression of PPARγ and its target gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • ATF3 represses the promoter activity of PPARγ2 gene. • ATF/CRE (−1537/−1530) is critical for ATF3-mediated downregulation of PPARγ. • ATF3 binds to the promoter region containing the ATF/CRE. • ER stress inhibits adipocyte differentiation through downregulation of PPARγ by ATF3. - Abstract: Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a stress-adaptive transcription factor that mediates cellular stress response signaling. We previously reported that ATF3 represses CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) expression and inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. In this study, we explored potential role of ATF3 in negatively regulating peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). ATF3 decreased the expression of PPARγ and its target gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ATF3 also repressed the activity of −2.6 Kb promoter of mouse PPARγ2. Overexpression of PPARγ significantly prevented the ATF3-mediated inhibition of 3T3-L1 differentiation. Transfection studies with 5′ deleted-reporters showed that ATF3 repressed the activity of −2037 bp promoter, whereas it did not affect the activity of −1458 bp promoter, suggesting that ATF3 responsive element is located between the −2037 and −1458. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that ATF3 binds to ATF/CRE site (5′-TGACGTTT-3′) between −1537 and −1530. Mutation of the ATF/CRE site abrogated ATF3-mediated transrepression of the PPARγ2 promoter. Treatment with thapsigargin, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer, increased ATF3 expression, whereas it decreased PPARγ expression. ATF3 knockdown significantly blocked the thapsigargin-mediated downregulation of PPARγ expression. Furthermore, overexpression of PPARγ prevented inhibition of 3T3-L1 differentiation by thapsigargin. Collectively, these results suggest that ATF3-mediated

  10. Anti-Osteoclastogenic Activity of Praeruptorin A via Inhibition of p38/Akt-c-Fos-NFATc1 Signaling and PLCγ-Independent Ca2+ Oscillation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sik-Won; Moon, Seong-Hee; Park, Young Sik; Ryu, Byung Jun; Oh, Jaemin; Kim, Min Seuk; Erkhembaatar, Munkhsoyol; Son, Young-Jin; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Background A decrease of bone mass is a major risk factor for fracture. Several natural products have traditionally been used as herbal medicines to prevent and/or treat bone disorders including osteoporosis. Praeruptorin A is isolated from the dry root extract of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn and has several biological activities, but its anti-osteoporotic activity has not been studied yet. Materials and Methods The effect of praeruptorin A on the differentiation of bone marrow–derived macrophages into osteoclasts was examined by phenotype assay and confirmed by real-time PCR and immunoblotting. The involvement of NFATc1 in the anti-osteoclastogenic action of praeruptorin A was evaluated by its lentiviral ectopic expression. Intracellular Ca2+ levels were also measured. Results Praeruptorin A inhibited the RANKL-stimulated osteoclast differentiation accompanied by inhibition of p38 and Akt signaling, which could be the reason for praeruptorin A-downregulated expression levels of c-Fos and NFATc1, transcription factors that regulate osteoclast-specific genes, as well as osteoclast fusion-related molecules. The anti-osteoclastogenic effect of praeruptorin A was rescued by overexpression of NFATc1. Praeruptorin A strongly prevented the RANKL-induced Ca2+ oscillation without any changes in the phosphorylation of PLCγ. Conclusion Praeruptorin A could exhibit its anti-osteoclastogenic activity by inhibiting p38/Akt-c-Fos-NFATc1 signaling and PLCγ-independent Ca2+ oscillation. PMID:24586466

  11. CRM1 inhibition induces tumor cell cytotoxicity and impairs osteoclastogenesis in multiple myeloma: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Y-T; Landesman, Y; Acharya, C; Calle, Y; Zhong, MY; Cea, M; Tannenbaum, D; Cagnetta, A; Reagan, M; Munshi, AA; Senapedis, W; Saint-Martin, J-R; Kashyap, T; Shacham, S; Kauffman, M; Gu, Y; Wu, L; Ghobrial, I; Zhan, F; Kung, AL; Schey, SA; Richardson, P; Munshi, NC; Anderson, KC

    2013-01-01

    The key nuclear export protein CRM1/XPO1 may represent a promising novel therapeutic target in human multiple myeloma (MM). Here we showed that chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) is highly expressed in patients with MM, plasma cell leukemia cells and increased in patient cells resistant to bortezomib treatment. CRM1 expression also correlates with increased lytic bone and shorter survival. Importantly, CRM1 knockdown inhibits MM cell viability. Novel, oral, irreversible selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINEs) targeting CRM1 (KPT-185, KPT-330) induce cytotoxicity against MM cells (ED50<200 nM), alone and cocultured with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) or osteoclasts (OC). SINEs trigger nuclear accumulation of multiple CRM1 cargo tumor suppressor proteins followed by growth arrest and apoptosis in MM cells. They further block c-myc, Mcl-1, and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity. SINEs induce proteasome-dependent CRM1 protein degradation; concurrently, they upregulate CRM1, p53-targeted, apoptosis-related, anti-inflammatory and stress-related gene transcripts in MM cells. In SCID mice with diffuse human MM bone lesions, SINEs show strong anti-MM activity, inhibit MM-induced bone lysis and prolong survival. Moreover, SINEs directly impair osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption via blockade of RANKL-induced NF-κB and NFATc1, with minimal impact on osteoblasts and BMSCs. These results support clinical development of SINE CRM1 antagonists to improve patient outcome in MM. PMID:23588715

  12. The study of mechanisms of protective effect of Rg1 against arthritis by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and maturation in CIA mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yanqing; Fan, Weimin; Yin, Guoyong

    2014-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 is a natural product extracted from Panax ginseng C.A. Although Rg1 protects tissue structure and functions by inhibiting local inflammatory reaction, the mechanism remains poorly understood. In vitro, Rg1 dose-dependently inhibited TRAP activity in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand- (RANKL-) induced osteoclasts and decreased the number of osteoclasts and osteoclast resorption area. Rg1 also significantly inhibited the RANK signaling pathway, including suppressing the expression of Trap, cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), and calcitonin receptor (CTR). In vivo, Rg1 dramatically decreased arthritis scores in CIA mice and effectively controlled symptoms of inflammatory arthritis. Pathologic analysis demonstrated that Rg1 significantly attenuated pathological changes in CIA mice. Pronounced reduction in synovial hyperplasia and inflammatory cell invasion were observed in CIA mice after Rg1 therapy. Alcian blue staining results illustrated that mice treated with Rg1 had significantly reduced destruction in the articular cartilage. TRAP and cathepsin K staining results demonstrated a significant reduction of numbers of OCs in the articular cartilage in proximal interphalangeal joints and ankle joints in Rg1-treated mice. In summary, this study revealed that Rg1 reduced the inflammatory destruction of periarticular bone by inhibiting differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts in CIA mice.

  13. Adrenaline inhibits osteogenesis via repressing miR-21 expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Danying; Wang, Zuolin

    2017-01-01

    Sympathetic signaling is involved in bone homeostasis; however, the cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we found that the psychological stress mediator adrenaline inhibited osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived stem cells (hMSC) by reducing microRNA-21 (miR-21) expression. Briefly, adrenaline significantly inhibited the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, as observed with both Alizarin red staining and maker gene expression (RUNX2, OSX, OCN, and OPN). During this process, miR-21 was suppressed by adrenaline via inhibition of histone acetylation, as verified by H3K9Ac chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. MiR-21 was confirmed to promote hMSC osteogenic differentiation, and overexpression of miR-21 reversed the impeditive effect of adrenaline on hMSC osteogenic differentiation. Our results demonstrate that down-regulation of miR-21 is responsible for the adrenaline-mediated inhibition of hMSC osteogenic differentiation. These findings indicate a regulation of bone metabolism by psychological stress and also provide a molecular basis for psychological stress-associated bone diseases.

  14. Repression of PES1 expression inhibits growth of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Jieping; Zhou, Xiaodong; Lan, Xiaopeng; Zeng, Guobin; Jiang, Xuping; Huang, Zongming

    2016-03-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. However, precise molecular mechanisms underlining its development are far from clear. We recently reported that PES1 promoted development of breast cancer and ovarian cancer as an oncogene. In this study, we reported that ablation of endogenous PES1 resulted in significant suppression of cell proliferation and growth and led to cell cycle arrest in G2 or G1 phase, respectively, in two gastric cancer cell lines (AGS and N87) in vitro. Meanwhile, silencing of PES1 obviously decreased expressions of cyclin D1, HIF-1α, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions and increased p21WAF1 expression. Re-expression of PES1 in these two kinds of PES1 knockdown cells rescued these effects. In vivo, repression of endogenous PES1 expression suppressed gastric tumor growth in nude mice. In addition, 40.7 % (24/59) of gastric cancer tissues showed PES1 expression via immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. However, there were not any positive PES1 stainings in matched adjacent tissues. Our results demonstrated that repression of PES1 changed expressions of some cell proliferation- and angiogenesis-related genes and inhibited gastric cancer growth, and PES1 expression increased in gastric cancer tissues. These results suggest that PES1 may play an important role in development of gastric cancer. PES1 may be a potential target for gastric cancer therapy.

  15. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 inhibits adipogenic gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Jianbei; Hua Kunjie; Caveney, Erica J.; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Harp, Joyce B. . E-mail: jharp@unc.edu

    2006-01-20

    Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3), a cytokine-induced repressor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and a modulator of a broad array of nuclear proteins, is expressed in white adipose tissue, but its role in adipogenesis is not known. Here, we determined that PIAS3 was constitutively expressed in 3T3-L1 cells at all stages of adipogenesis. However, it translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm 4 days after induction of differentiation by isobutylmethylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI). In ob/ob mice, PIAS3 expression was increased in white adipose tissue depots compared to lean mice and was found in the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Overexpression of PIAS3 in differentiating preadipocytes, which localized primarily to the nucleus, inhibited mRNA level gene expression of adipogenic transcription factors C/EBP{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}, as well as their downstream target genes aP2 and adiponectin. PIAS3 also inhibited C/EBP{alpha} promoter activation mediated specifically by insulin, but not dexamethasone or isobutylmethylxanthine. Taken together, these data suggest that PIAS3 may play an inhibitory role in adipogenesis by modulating insulin-activated transcriptional activation events. Increased PIAS3 expression in adipose tissue may play a role in the metabolic disturbances of obesity.

  16. Erythropoietin's inhibiting impact on hepcidin expression occurs indirectly.

    PubMed

    Gammella, Elena; Diaz, Victor; Recalcati, Stefania; Buratti, Paolo; Samaja, Michele; Dey, Soumyadeep; Noguchi, Constance Tom; Gassmann, Max; Cairo, Gaetano

    2015-02-15

    Under conditions of accelerated erythropoiesis, elevated erythropoietin (Epo) levels are associated with inhibition of hepcidin synthesis, a response that ultimately increases iron availability to meet the enhanced iron needs of erythropoietic cells. In the search for erythroid regulators of hepcidin, many candidates have been proposed, including Epo itself. We aimed to test whether direct interaction between Epo and the liver is required to regulate hepcidin. We found that prolonged administration of high doses of Epo in mice leads to great inhibition of liver hepcidin mRNA levels, and concomitant induction of the hepcidin inhibitor erythroferrone (ERFE). Epo treatment also resulted in liver iron mobilization, mediated by increased ferroportin activity and accompanied by reduced ferritin levels and increased TfR1 expression. The same inhibitory effect was observed in mice that do not express the homodimeric Epo receptor (EpoR) in liver cells because EpoR expression is restricted to erythroid cells. Similarly, liver signaling pathways involved in hepcidin regulation were not influenced by the presence or absence of hepatic EpoR. Moreover, Epo analogs, possibly interacting with the postulated heterodimeric β common EpoR, did not affect hepcidin expression. These findings were supported by the lack of inhibition on hepcidin found in hepatoma cells exposed to various concentrations of Epo for different periods of times. Our results demonstrate that hepcidin suppression does not require the direct binding of Epo to its liver receptors and rather suggest that the role of Epo is to stimulate the synthesis of the erythroid regulator ERFE in erythroblasts, which ultimately downregulates hepcidin.

  17. p27{sup Kip1} inhibits tissue factor expression

    SciTech Connect

    Breitenstein, Alexander; Akhmedov, Alexander; Camici, Giovanni G.; Lüscher, Thomas F.; Tanner, Felix C.

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •p27{sup Kip1}regulates the expression of tissue factor at the transcriptional level. •This inhibitory effect of p27{sup Kip1} is independently of its cell regulatory action. •The current study provides new insights into a pleiotrophic function of p27{sup Kip1}. -- Abstract: Background: The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) p27{sup Kip1} regulates cell proliferation and thus inhibits atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling. Expression of tissue factor (TF), the key initator of the coagulation cascade, is associated with atherosclerosis. Yet, it has not been studied whether p27{sup Kip1} influences the expression of TF. Methods and results: p27{sup Kip1} overexpression in human aortic endothelial cells was achieved by adenoviral transfection. Cells were rendered quiescent for 24 h in 0.5% fetal-calf serum. After stimulation with TNF-α (5 ng/ml), TF protein expression and activity was significantly reduced (n = 4; P < 0.001) in cells transfected with p27{sup Kip1}. In line with this, p27{sup Kip1} overexpression reduced cytokine-induced TF mRNA expression (n = 4; P < 0.01) and TF promotor activity (n = 4; P < 0.05). In contrast, activation of the MAP kinases p38, ERK and JNK was not affected by p27{sup Kip1} overexpression. Conclusion: This in vitro study suggests that p27{sup Kip1} inhibits TF expression at the transcriptional level. These data indicate an interaction between p27{sup Kip1} and TF in important pathological alterations such as atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling.

  18. Constitutive nitrate reductase expression and inhibition in winged bean

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shenchuan; Harper, J.E. )

    1990-05-01

    It was found that NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} had no effect on winged bean nitrate reductase activity (NRA). Similar NRA was expressed in plants grown on NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, urea, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and nil N. This indicated that the primary NR expressed in winged bean was constitutive, rather than substrate-inducible. Maximum NRA in winged bean was obtained in the light. KClO{sub 3} was capable of inhibiting NRA of leaves if added to the root growth medium or to the NR assay medium, indicating possible competition with NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} at the reduction site. While it has previously been shown that either cycloheximide alone, or both cycloheximide and chloramphenicol impair the synthesis of NR protein, our data unexpectedly demonstrated that cycloheximide had little effect on NRA, whereas chloramphenicol greatly inhibited the expression of NRA in winged bean. One interpretation is that chloroplasts may influence the activity and/or synthesis of constitutive NR proteins.

  19. MiR-125a TNF receptor-associated factor 6 to inhibit osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Li-Juan; Liao, Lan; Yang, Li; Li, Yu; Jiang, Tie-Jian

    2014-02-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. In the present study, we found that miR-125a was dramatically down-regulated during macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) induced osteoclastogenesis of circulating CD14+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Overexpression of miR-125a in CD14+ PBMCs inhibited osteoclastogenesis, while inhibition of miR-125a promoted osteoclastogenesis. TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), a transduction factor for RANKL/RANK/NFATc1 signal, was confirmed to be a target of miR-125a. EMSA and ChIP assays confirmed that NFATc1 bound to the promoter of the miR-125a. Overexpression of NFATc1 inhibited miR-125a transcription, and block of NFATc1 expression attenuated RANKL-regulated miR-125a transcription. Here, we reported that miR-125a played a biological function in osteoclastogenesis through a novel TRAF6/ NFATc1/miR-125a regulatory feedback loop. It suggests that regulation of miR-125a expression may be a potential strategy for ameliorating metabolic disease. - Highlights: • MiR-125a was significantly down-regulated in osteoclastogenesis of CD14+ PBMCs. • MiR-125a inhibited osteoclast differentiation by targeting TRAF6. • NFATc1 inhibited miR-125a transciption by binding to the promoter of miR-125a. • TRAF6/NFATc1 and miR-125a form a regulatory feedback loop in osteoclastogenesis.

  20. Insulin enhances RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis via ERK1/2 activation and induction of NFATc1 and Atp6v0d2.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ju Hee; Lee, Jae Yoon; Joung, Seung Hee; Oh, Yoon Taek; Kim, Hong Sung; Lee, Na Kyung

    2015-12-01

    Insulin is one of the main factors affecting bone and energy metabolism, however, the direct effect of insulin on osteoclast differentiation remains unclear. Thus, in order to help elucidate that puzzle, the authors investigated the roles and regulatory mechanisms of insulin on osteoclasts differentiation. Co-stimulation with insulin and RANKL significantly enhanced the number of larger (>100 μm) osteoclastic cells and of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells compared with treatment by RANKL alone. Conversely, the insulin receptor shRNA markedly decreased osteoclast differentiation induced by insulin and RANKL. Insulin treatment significantly activated ERK1/2 MAP kinase as well as markedly induced the expression of NFATc1, an osteoclast marker gene, and Atp6v0d2, an osteoclast fusion-related gene. The pretreatment of PD98059, an ERK1/2 inhibitor, or insulin receptor shRNA effectively suppressed osteoclast differentiation and, in addition, blocked the expression of NFATc1 and Atp6vod2 induced by insulin stimulation. These data reveal insights into the regulation of osteoclast differentiation and fusion through ERK1/2 activation and the induction of NFATc1 and Atp6v0d2 by insulin.

  1. Grape seed extract inhibits VEGF expression via reducing HIF-1α protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianming; Zhang, Keqiang; Chen, Shiuan; Wen, Wei

    2009-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is a widely consumed dietary supplement that has antitumor activity. Here, we have investigated the inhibitory effect of GSE on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the mechanism underlying this action. We found that GSE inhibited VEGF messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in U251 human glioma cells and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. GSE inhibited transcriptional activation of the VEGF gene through reducing protein but not mRNA expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1α. The inhibitory effect of GSE on HIF-1α expression was mainly through inhibiting HIF-1α protein synthesis rather than promoting protein degradation. Consistent with this result, GSE-suppressed phosphorylation of several important components involved in HIF-1α protein synthesis, such as Akt, S6 kinase and S6 protein. Furthermore, in the MDA-MB-231 tumor, we found that GSE treatment inhibited the expression of VEGF and HIF-1α and the phosphorylation of S6 kinase without altering the subcellular localization of HIF-1α, correlating with reduced vessel density and tumor size. Depletion of polyphenol with polyvinylpyrrolidone abolished the inhibitory activity of GSE, suggesting a water-soluble fraction of polyphenol in GSE is responsible for the inhibitory activity. Taken together, our results indicate that GSE inhibits VEGF expression by reducing HIF-1α protein synthesis through blocking Akt activation. This finding provides new insight into the mechanisms of anticancer activity of GSE and reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the antiangiogenic action of GSE. PMID:19131542

  2. Strontium promotes cementoblasts differentiation through inhibiting sclerostin expression in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xingfu; Liu, Xianjun; Zhang, Yi; Cui, Yue; Yao, Jindan; Hu, Min

    2014-01-01

    Cementogenesis, performed by cementoblasts, is important for the repair of root resorption caused by orthodontic treatment. Based on recent studies, strontium has been applied for osteoporosis treatment due to its positive effect on osteoblasts. Although promising, the effect of strontium on cementoblasts is still unclear. So the aim of this research was to clarify and investigate the effect of strontium on cementogenesis via employing cementoblasts as model. A series of experiments including MTT, alkaline phosphatase activity, gene analysis, alizarin red staining, and western blot were carried out to evaluate the proliferation and differentiation of cementoblasts. In addition, expression of sclerostin was checked to analyze the possible mechanism. Our results show that strontium inhibits the proliferation of cementoblasts with a dose dependent manner; however, it can promote the differentiation of cementoblasts via downregulating sclerostin expression. Taking together, strontium may facilitate cementogenesis and benefit the treatment of root resorption at a low dose.

  3. Inhibition of the classical NF-kappaB pathway prevents osteoclast bone-resorbing activity.

    PubMed

    Soysa, Niroshani S; Alles, Neil; Shimokawa, Hitoyata; Jimi, Eijiro; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Ohya, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    The classical NF-kappaB pathway plays an important role in osteoclast formation and differentiation; however, the role of NF-kappaB in osteoclast bone-resorbing activity is not well understood. To elucidate whether NF-kappaB is important for osteoclast bone-resorbing activity, we used a selective peptide inhibitor of the classical NF-kappaB pathway named the NBD peptide. Osteoclasts were generated using bone marrow macrophages in the presence of M-CSF and RANKL. The NBD peptide dose-dependently blocked the bone-resorbing activity of osteoclasts by reducing area, volume (p < 0.001) and depths (p < 0.05) of pits. The reduced resorption by the peptide was due to reduced osteoclast bone-resorbing activity, but not reduced differentiation as the number of osteoclasts was similar in all groups. The peptide inhibited bone resorption by reducing TRAP activity, disrupting actin rings and preventing osteoclast migration. Gene expressions of a panel of bone resorption markers were significantly reduced. The NBD peptide dose-dependently reduced the RANKL-induced c-Src kinase activity, which is important for actin ring formation and osteoclast bone resorption. Therefore, these data suggest that the classical NF-kappaB pathway plays a pivotal role in osteoclast bone-resorbing activity.

  4. Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide inhibits osteoporosis by promoting osteoblast formation and blocking osteoclastogenesis through Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Du, Li; Nong, Meng-Ni; Zhao, Jin-Min; Peng, Xiao-Ming; Zong, Shao-Hui; Zeng, Gao-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bone homeostasis is maintained by a balance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts. Osteoporosis occurs when osteoclast activity surpasses osteoblast activity. Our previous studies showed the plant-derived natural polysaccharide (Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide or PSP) had significant anti-ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis effects in vivo, but the mechanisms of PSP’s anti-osteoporosis effect remains unclear. In this study, we assessed PSP’s effect on the generation of osteoblast and osteoclast in vitro. This study showed that PSP promoted the osteogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) without affecting BMPs signaling pathway. This effect was due to the increased nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, resulting in a higher expression of osteoblast-related genes. Furthermore, the study showed PSP could inhibit the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and exert prophylatic protection against LPS-induced osteolysis in vivo. This effect was also related to the increased nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, resulting in the decreased expression of osteoclast-related genes. In conclusion, our results showed that PSP effectively promoted the osteogenic differentiation of mouse BMSCs and suppressed osteoclastogenesis; therefore, it could be used to treat osteoporosis. PMID:27554324

  5. EHMT1 and EHMT2 inhibition induces fetal hemoglobin expression

    PubMed Central

    Renneville, Aline; Van Galen, Peter; Canver, Matthew C.; McConkey, Marie; Krill-Burger, John M.; Dorfman, David M.; Holson, Edward B.; Bernstein, Bradley E.; Orkin, Stuart H.; Bauer, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    Fetal hemoglobin (HbF, α2γ2) induction is a well-validated strategy for sickle cell disease (SCD) treatment. Using a small-molecule screen, we found that UNC0638, a selective inhibitor of EHMT1 and EHMT2 histone methyltransferases, induces γ-globin expression. EHMT1/2 catalyze mono- and dimethylation of lysine 9 on histone 3 (H3K9), raising the possibility that H3K9Me2, a repressive chromatin mark, plays a role in silencing γ-globin expression. In primary human adult erythroid cells, UNC0638 and EHMT1 or EHMT2 short hairpin RNA–mediated knockdown significantly increased γ-globin expression, HbF synthesis, and the percentage of cells expressing HbF. At effective concentrations, UNC0638 did not alter cell morphology, proliferation, or erythroid differentiation of primary human CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in culture ex vivo. In murine erythroleukemia cells, UNC0638 and Ehmt2 CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout both led to a marked increase in expression of embryonic β-globin genes Hbb-εy and Hbb-βh1. In primary human adult erythroblasts, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing analysis revealed that UNC0638 treatment leads to genome-wide depletion in H3K9Me2 and a concomitant increase in the activating mark H3K9Ac, which was especially pronounced at the γ-globin gene region. In RNA-sequencing analysis of erythroblasts, γ-globin genes were among the most significantly upregulated genes by UNC0638. Further increase in γ-globin expression in primary human adult erythroid cells was achieved by combining EHMT1/2 inhibition with the histone deacetylase inhibitor entinostat or hypomethylating agent decitabine. Our data provide genetic and pharmacologic evidence that EHMT1 and EHMT2 are epigenetic regulators involved in γ-globin repression and represent a novel therapeutic target for SCD. PMID:26320100

  6. EHMT1 and EHMT2 inhibition induces fetal hemoglobin expression.

    PubMed

    Renneville, Aline; Van Galen, Peter; Canver, Matthew C; McConkey, Marie; Krill-Burger, John M; Dorfman, David M; Holson, Edward B; Bernstein, Bradley E; Orkin, Stuart H; Bauer, Daniel E; Ebert, Benjamin L

    2015-10-15

    Fetal hemoglobin (HbF, α2γ2) induction is a well-validated strategy for sickle cell disease (SCD) treatment. Using a small-molecule screen, we found that UNC0638, a selective inhibitor of EHMT1 and EHMT2 histone methyltransferases, induces γ-globin expression. EHMT1/2 catalyze mono- and dimethylation of lysine 9 on histone 3 (H3K9), raising the possibility that H3K9Me2, a repressive chromatin mark, plays a role in silencing γ-globin expression. In primary human adult erythroid cells, UNC0638 and EHMT1 or EHMT2 short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown significantly increased γ-globin expression, HbF synthesis, and the percentage of cells expressing HbF. At effective concentrations, UNC0638 did not alter cell morphology, proliferation, or erythroid differentiation of primary human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in culture ex vivo. In murine erythroleukemia cells, UNC0638 and Ehmt2 CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout both led to a marked increase in expression of embryonic β-globin genes Hbb-εy and Hbb-βh1. In primary human adult erythroblasts, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing analysis revealed that UNC0638 treatment leads to genome-wide depletion in H3K9Me2 and a concomitant increase in the activating mark H3K9Ac, which was especially pronounced at the γ-globin gene region. In RNA-sequencing analysis of erythroblasts, γ-globin genes were among the most significantly upregulated genes by UNC0638. Further increase in γ-globin expression in primary human adult erythroid cells was achieved by combining EHMT1/2 inhibition with the histone deacetylase inhibitor entinostat or hypomethylating agent decitabine. Our data provide genetic and pharmacologic evidence that EHMT1 and EHMT2 are epigenetic regulators involved in γ-globin repression and represent a novel therapeutic target for SCD.

  7. Inhibition of hypothalamic MCT1 expression increases food intake and alters orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptide expression

    PubMed Central

    Elizondo-Vega, Roberto; Cortés-Campos, Christian; Barahona, María José; Carril, Claudio; Ordenes, Patricio; Salgado, Magdiel; Oyarce, Karina; García-Robles, María de los Angeles

    2016-01-01

    Hypothalamic glucosensing, which involves the detection of glucose concentration changes by brain cells and subsequent release of orexigenic or anorexigenic neuropeptides, is a crucial process that regulates feeding behavior. Arcuate nucleus (AN) neurons are classically thought to be responsible for hypothalamic glucosensing through a direct sensing mechanism; however, recent data has shown a metabolic interaction between tanycytes and AN neurons through lactate that may also be contributing to this process. Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) is the main isoform expressed by tanycytes, which could facilitate lactate release to hypothalamic AN neurons. We hypothesize that MCT1 inhibition could alter the metabolic coupling between tanycytes and AN neurons, altering feeding behavior. To test this, we inhibited MCT1 expression using adenovirus-mediated transfection of a shRNA into the third ventricle, transducing ependymal wall cells and tanycytes. Neuropeptide expression and feeding behavior were measured in MCT1-inhibited animals after intracerebroventricular glucose administration following a fasting period. Results showed a loss in glucose regulation of orexigenic neuropeptides and an abnormal expression of anorexigenic neuropeptides in response to fasting. This was accompanied by an increase in food intake and in body weight gain. Taken together, these results indicate that MCT1 expression in tanycytes plays a role in feeding behavior regulation. PMID:27677351

  8. Ezrin Inhibition Up-regulates Stress Response Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Haydar; Bulut, Gülay; Han, Jenny; Graham, Garrett T; Minas, Tsion Z; Conn, Erin J; Hong, Sung-Hyeok; Pauly, Gary T; Hayran, Mutlu; Li, Xin; Özdemirli, Metin; Ayhan, Ayşe; Rudek, Michelle A; Toretsky, Jeffrey A; Üren, Aykut

    2016-06-17

    Ezrin is a member of the ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) family of proteins that links cortical cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane. High expression of ezrin correlates with poor prognosis and metastasis in osteosarcoma. In this study, to uncover specific cellular responses evoked by ezrin inhibition that can be used as a specific pharmacodynamic marker(s), we profiled global gene expression in osteosarcoma cells after treatment with small molecule ezrin inhibitors, NSC305787 and NSC668394. We identified and validated several up-regulated integrated stress response genes including PTGS2, ATF3, DDIT3, DDIT4, TRIB3, and ATF4 as novel ezrin-regulated transcripts. Analysis of transcriptional response in skin and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from NSC305787-treated mice compared with a control group revealed that, among those genes, the stress gene DDIT4/REDD1 may be used as a surrogate pharmacodynamic marker of ezrin inhibitor compound activity. In addition, we validated the anti-metastatic effects of NSC305787 in reducing the incidence of lung metastasis in a genetically engineered mouse model of osteosarcoma and evaluated the pharmacokinetics of NSC305787 and NSC668394 in mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that cytoplasmic ezrin, previously considered a dormant and inactive protein, has important functions in regulating gene expression that may result in down-regulation of stress response genes.

  9. Triterpenoid Saponin W3 from Anemone flaccida Suppresses Osteoclast Differentiation through Inhibiting Activation of MAPKs and NF-κB Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangying; Yang, Yue; Wu, Wenbin; Wan, Hongye; Li, Xiaomin; Zhong, Michun; Su, Xiaohui; Jia, Shiwei; Lin, Na

    2015-01-01

    Excessive bone resorption by osteoclasts within inflamed joints is the most specific hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis. A. flaccida has long been used for the treatment of arthritis in folk medicine of China; however, the active ingredients responsible for the anti-arthritis effects of A. flaccida are still elusive. In this study, W3, a saponin isolated from the extract of A. flaccida was identified as the major active ingredient by using an osteoclast formation model induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). W3 dose-dependently suppressed the actin ring formation and lacunar resorption. Mechanistic investigation revealed that W3 inhibited the RANKL-induced TRAF6 expression, decreased phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and IκB-α, and suppressed NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity. Furthermore, W3 almost abrogated the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc1). Therefore, our results suggest that W3 is a potential agent for treating lytic bone diseases although further evaluation in vivo and in clinical trials is needed. PMID:26327814

  10. Loss of HSulf-1 expression enhances tumorigenicity by inhibiting Bim expression in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoping; Khurana, Ashwani; Roy, Debarshi; Kaufmann, Scott; Shridhar, Viji

    2014-10-15

    The expression of human Sulfatase1 (HSulf-1) is downregulated in the majority of primary ovarian cancer tumors, but the functional consequence of this downregulation remains unclear. Using two different shRNAs (Sh1 and Sh2), HSulf-1 expression was stably downregulated in ovarian cancer OV202 cells. We found that HSulf-1-deficient OV202 Sh1 and Sh2 cells formed colonies in soft agar. In contrast, nontargeting control (NTC) shRNA-transduced OV202 cells did not form any colonies. Moreover, subcutaneous injection of OV202 HSulf-1-deficient cells resulted in tumor formation in nude mice, whereas OV202 NTC cells did not. Also, ectopic expression of HSulf-1 in ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells significantly suppressed tumor growth in nude mice. Here, we show that HSulf-1-deficient OV202 cells have markedly decreased expression of proapoptotic Bim protein, which can be rescued by restoring HSulf-1 expression in OV202 Sh1 cells. Enhanced expression of HSulf-1 in HSulf-1-deficient SKOV3 cells resulted in increased Bim expression. Decreased Bim levels after loss of HSulf-1 were due to increased p-ERK, because inhibition of ERK activity with PD98059 resulted in increased Bim expression. However, treatment with a PI3 kinase/AKT inhibitor, LY294002, failed to show any change in Bim protein level. Importantly, rescuing Bim expression in HSulf-1 knockdown cells significantly retarded tumor growth in nude mice. Collectively, these results suggest that loss of HSulf-1 expression promotes tumorigenicity in ovarian cancer through regulating Bim expression.

  11. Transgenic Expression of Dentin Phosphoprotein Inhibits Skeletal Development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H.; Liu, P.; Wang, S.; Liu, C.; Jani, P.; Lu, Y.; Qin, C.

    2016-01-01

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is proteolytically processed into an NH2-terminal fragment called dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and a COOH-terminal fragment known as dentin phosphoprotein (DPP). These two fragments are believed to perform distinct roles in formation of bone and dentin. To investigate the functions of DPP in skeletal development, we generated transgenic mice to overexpress hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged DPP under the control of a 3.6 kb type I collagen (Col1a1) promoter (designated as Col1a1-HA-DPP). The Col1a1-HA-DPP transgenic mice were significantly smaller by weight, had smaller skeletons and shorter long bones than their wild type littermates, as demonstrated by X-ray radiography. They displayed reduced trabecular bone formation and narrower zones of proliferative and hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plates of the long bones. Histological analyses showed that the transgenic mice had reduced cell proliferation in the proliferating zone, but lacked obvious defects in the chondrocyte differentiation. In addition, the transgenic mice with a high level of transgene expression developed spontaneous long bone fractures. In conclusion, overexpressing DPP inhibited skeletal development, suggesting that the balanced actions between the NH2- and COOH-terminal fragments of DSPP may be required for normal skeletal development. PMID:26972716

  12. Local anesthetics inhibit tissue factor expression in activated monocytes via inhibition of tissue factor mRNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Ki Jun; Ahn, Wonsik; Han, Kyou-Sup; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Local anesthetics have been reported to have anticoagulant properties, but the mechanisms responsible for this action are poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the in vitro effects of 3 local anesthetics--lidocaine, ropivacaine, and bupivacaine--on the tissue factor expression by monocytes. Monocytes from peripheral blood were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of local anesthetics. All 3 local anesthetics inhibited the expression of tissue factor antigen and tissue factor activity in LPS-stimulated monocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner and reduced tissue factor messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in endothelial cells and a monocytic cell line. None of the 3 drugs induced apoptosis or affected the viability of monocytes. Our findings that local anesthetics inhibited the tissue factor induction in activated monocytes by inhibiting tissue factor mRNA level may demonstrate the feasibility of using local anesthetics in hypercoagulable and inflammatory conditions.

  13. Effect of heparin and alendronate coating on titanium surfaces on inhibition of osteoclast and enhancement of osteoblast function

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Ho-Jin; Yun, Young-Pil; Han, Choong-Wan; Kim, Min Sung; Kim, Sung Eun; Bae, Min Soo; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Choi, Yong-Suk; Hwang, Eui-Hwan; Lee, Joon Woo; Lee, Jin-Moo; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Duck-Su; Kwon, Il Keun

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} We examine bone metabolism of engineered alendronate attached to Ti surfaces. {yields} Alendronate-immobilized Ti enhances activation of osteoblast differentiation. {yields} Alendronate-immobilized Ti inhibits osteoclast differentiation. {yields} Alendronate-immobilized Ti may be a bioactive implant with dual functions. -- Abstract: The failure of orthopedic and dental implants has been attributed mainly to loosening of the implant from host bone, which may be due to weak bonding of the implant material to bone tissue. Titanium (Ti) is used in the field of orthopedic and dental implants because of its excellent biocompatibility and outstanding mechanical properties. Therefore, in the field of materials science and tissue engineering, there has been extensive research to immobilize bioactive molecules on the surface of implant materials in order to provide the implants with improved adhesion to the host bone tissue. In this study, chemically active functional groups were introduced on the surface of Ti by a grafting reaction with heparin and then the Ti was functionalized by immobilizing alendronate onto the heparin-grafted surface. In the MC3T3-E1 cell osteogenic differentiation study, the alendronate-immobilized Ti substrates significantly enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and calcium content. Additionally, nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells was inhibited with the alendronate-immobilized Ti as confirmed by TRAP analysis. Real time PCR analysis showed that mRNA expressions of osteocalcin and osteopontin, which are markers for osteogenesis, were upregulated in MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on alendronate-immobilized Ti. The mRNA expressions of TRAP and Cathepsin K, markers for osteoclastogenesis, in RAW264.7 cells cultured on alendronate-immobilized Ti were down-regulated. Our study suggests that alendronate-immobilized Ti may be a bioactive implant with dual functions to enhance

  14. A novel HSP90 inhibitor delays castrate resistant prostate cancer without altering serum PSA levels and inhibits osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lamoureux, Francois; Thomas, Christian; Yin, Min-Jean; Kuruma, Hidetoshi; Fazli, Ladan; Gleave, Martin E; Zoubeidi, Amina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Prostate cancer responds initially to anti-androgen therapies, however, progression to castration resistant disease frequently occurs. Therefore there is an urgent need for novel therapeutic agents that can prevent the emergence of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone involved in the stability of many client proteins including Akt and androgen receptor (AR). 17-AAG have been reported to inhibit tumor growth in various cancers, however induces tumor progression in the bone microenvironment. Methods Cell growth, apoptosis, and AR transactivation were examined by crystal violet assay, flow cytometry and luciferase assays respectively. The consequence of HSP90 therapy in vivo was evaluated in LNCaP xenograft model. The consequence of PF-04928473 therapy on bone metastasis was studied using an osteoclastogenesis in vitro assay. Results PF-04928473 inhibits cell growth in a panel of prostate cancer cells, induces cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 and leads to apoptosis and increased caspase-3 activity. These biologic events were accompanied by decreased activation of Akt and Erk as well as decreased expression of Her2, and decreased AR expression and activation in vitro. In contrast to 17-AAG, PF-04928473 abrogates RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation by affecting NF-kB activation and Src phosphorylation. Finally, PF-04929113 inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival compared to controls. Surprisingly, PF-04929113 did not reduce serum PSA levels in vivo in parallel these decreases in tumor volume. Conclusion These data identify significant anti-cancer activity of PF-04929113 in CRPC but suggest that serum PSA may not prove useful as pharmaco-dynamic tool for this drug. PMID:21349995

  15. Osteoactivin inhibition of osteoclastogenesis is mediated through CD44-ERK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sondag, Gregory R; Mbimba, Thomas S; Moussa, Fouad M; Novak, Kimberly; Yu, Bing; Jaber, Fatima A; Abdelmagid, Samir M; Geldenhuys, Werner J; Safadi, Fayez F

    2016-01-01

    Osteoactivin is a heavily glycosylated protein shown to have a role in bone remodeling. Previous studies from our lab have shown that mutation in Osteoactivin enhances osteoclast differentiation but inhibits their function. To date, a classical receptor and a signaling pathway for Osteoactivin-mediated osteoclast inhibition has not yet been characterized. In this study, we examined the role of Osteoactivin treatment on osteoclastogenesis using bone marrow-derived osteoclast progenitor cells and identify a signaling pathway relating to Osteoactivin function. We reveal that recombinant Osteoactivin treatment inhibited osteoclast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner shown by qPCR, TRAP staining, activity and count. Using several approaches, we show that Osteoactivin binds CD44 in osteoclasts. Furthermore, recombinant Osteoactivin treatment inhibited ERK phosphorylation in a CD44-dependent manner. Finally, we examined the role of Osteoactivin on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κ B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteolysis in vivo. Our data indicate that recombinant Osteoactivin inhibits RANKL-induced osteolysis in vivo and this effect is CD44-dependent. Overall, our data indicate that Osteoactivin is a negative regulator of osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo and that this process is regulated through CD44 and ERK activation. PMID:27585719

  16. Celastrol inhibits TGF-β1-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition by inhibiting Snail and regulating E-cadherin expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Hyereen; Lee, Minjae; Jang, Sung-Wuk

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •We investigated the effects of celastrol on TGF-β1-induced EMT in epithelial cells. •Celastrol regulates TGF-β1-induced morphological changes and E-cadherin expression. •Celastrol inhibits TGF-β1-induced Snail expression. •Celastrol strongly suppresses TGF-β1-induced invasion in MDCK and A549 cells. -- Abstract: The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a pivotal event in the invasive and metastatic potentials of cancer progression. Celastrol inhibits the proliferation of a variety of tumor cells including leukemia, glioma, prostate, and breast cancer; however, the possible role of celastrol in the EMT is unclear. We investigated the effect of celastrol on the EMT. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) induced EMT-like morphologic changes and upregulation of Snail expression. The downregulation of E-cadherin expression and upregulation of Snail in Madin–Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) and A549 cell lines show that TGF-β1-mediated the EMT in epithelial cells; however, celastrol markedly inhibited TGF-β1-induced morphologic changes, Snail upregulation, and E-cadherin expression. Migration and invasion assays revealed that celastrol completely inhibited TGF-β1-mediated cellular migration in both cell lines. These findings indicate that celastrol downregulates Snail expression, thereby inhibiting TGF-β1-induced EMT in MDCK and A549 cells. Thus, our findings provide new evidence that celastrol suppresses lung cancer invasion and migration by inhibiting TGF-β1-induced EMT.

  17. Inhibition of Kv channel expression by NSAIDs depolarizes membrane potential and inhibits cell migration by disrupting calpain signaling.

    PubMed

    Silver, Kristopher; Littlejohn, Alaina; Thomas, Laurel; Marsh, Elizabeth; Lillich, James D

    2015-12-15

    Clinical use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is well known to cause gastrointestinal ulcer formation via several mechanisms that include inhibiting epithelial cell migration and mucosal restitution. The drug-affected signaling pathways that contribute to inhibition of migration by NSAIDs are poorly understood, though previous studies have shown that NSAIDs depolarize membrane potential and suppress expression of calpain proteases and voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel subunits. Kv channels play significant roles in cell migration and are targets of NSAID activity in white blood cells, but the specific functional effects of NSAID-induced changes in Kv channel expression, particularly on cell migration, are unknown in intestinal epithelial cells. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of NSAIDs on expression of Kv1.3, 1.4, and 1.6 in vitro and/or in vivo and evaluated the functional significance of loss of Kv subunit expression. Indomethacin or NS-398 reduced total and plasma membrane protein expression of Kv1.3 in cultured intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6). Additionally, depolarization of membrane potential with margatoxin (MgTx), 40mM K(+), or silencing of Kv channel expression with siRNA significantly reduced IEC-6 cell migration and disrupted calpain activity. Furthermore, in rat small intestinal epithelia, indomethacin and NS-398 had significant, yet distinct, effects on gene and protein expression of Kv1.3, 1.4, or 1.6, suggesting that these may be clinically relevant targets. Our results show that inhibition of epithelial cell migration by NSAIDs is associated with decreased expression of Kv channel subunits, and provide a mechanism through which NSAIDs inhibit cell migration and may contribute to NSAID-induced gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity.

  18. Inhibition of Kv channel expression by NSAIDs depolarizes membrane potential and inhibits cell migration by disrupting calpain signaling

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Kristopher; Littlejohn, Alaina; Thomas, Laurel; Marsh, Elizabeth; Lillich, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is well known to cause gastrointestinal ulcer formation via several mechanisms that include inhibiting epithelial cell migration and mucosal restitution. The drug-affected signaling pathways that contribute to inhibition of migration by NSAIDs are poorly understood, though previous studies have shown that NSAIDs depolarize membrane potential and suppress expression of calpain proteases and voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel subunits. Kv channels play significant roles in cell migration and are targets of NSAID activity in white blood cells, but the specific functional effects of NSAID-induced changes in Kv channel expression, particularly on cell migration, are unknown in intestinal epithelial cells. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of NSAIDs on expression of Kv1.3, 1.4, and 1.6 in vitro and/or in vivo and evaluated the functional significance of loss of Kv subunit expression. Indomethacin or NS-398 reduced total and plasma membrane protein expression of Kv1.3 in cultured intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6). Additionally, depolarization of membrane potential with margatoxin (MgTx), 40 mM K+, or silencing of Kv channel expression with siRNA significantly reduced IEC-6 cell migration and disrupted calpain activity. Furthermore, in rat small intestinal epithelia, indomethacin and NS-398 had significant, yet distinct, effects on gene and protein expression of Kv1.3, 1.4, or 1.6, suggesting that these may be clinically relevant targets. Our results show that inhibition of epithelial cell migration by NSAIDs is associated with decreased expression of Kv channel subunits, and provide a mechanism through which NSAIDs inhibit cell migration and may contribute to NSAID-induced gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. PMID:26549367

  19. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 signaling regulates receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) expression in rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, Harunori; Kitano, Masayasu; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sato, Chieri; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Azuma, Naoto; Miyazawa, Keiji; Hla, Timothy; Sano, Hajime

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of S1P in MH7A cells was inhibited by specific Gi/Go inhibitors. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) signaling plays an important role in synovial cell proliferation and inflammatory gene expression by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synoviocytes. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of S1P/S1P1 signaling in the expression of receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) in RA synoviocytes and CD4{sup +} T cells. We demonstrated MH7A cells, a human RA synovial cell line, and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Surprisingly, S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, S1P enhanced RANKL expression induced by stimulation with TNF-{alpha} in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. These effects of S1P in MH7A cells were inhibited by pretreatment with PTX, a specific Gi/Go inhibitor. These findings suggest that S1P/S1P1 signaling may play an important role in RANKL expression by MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. S1P/S1P1 signaling of RA synoviocytes is closely connected with synovial hyperplasia, inflammation, and RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RA. Thus, regulation of S1P/S1P1 signaling may become a novel therapeutic target for RA.

  20. Herbacetin inhibits RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis in vitro and prevents inflammatory bone loss in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Sapkota, Mahesh; Kim, Se-woong; Soh, Yunjo

    2016-04-15

    Herbacetin is an active flavonol (a type of flavonoid) that has various biologic effects such as antioxidant, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, one of its novel effects remains to be investigated, that is, the induction of osteoclastogenesis by the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). In this study, we examined the effects and mechanisms of action of herbacetin on osteoclastogenesis in RANKL-treated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) and murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells in vitro and on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone destruction in vivo. Herbacetin significantly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and differentiation in BMMs and RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the suppressive effect of herbacetin resulted in a decrease in osteoclast-related genes, including RANK, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, cathepsin K, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-9). Consistent with mRNA results, we confirmed that herbacetin treatment downregulated protein expression of MMP-9 and cathepsin K. Herbacetin also decreased induction of the osteoclastogenic transcription factor c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) and blocked RANKL-mediated activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-κB. Herbacetin clearly inhibited the bone resorption activity of osteoclasts on plates coated with fluorescein-labeled calcium phosphate. More importantly, the application of herbacetin significantly reduced LPS-induced inflammatory bone loss in mice in vivo. Taken together, our results indicate that herbacetin has potential for use as a therapeutic agent in disorders associated with bone loss.

  1. RUNX3 inhibits survivin expression and induces cell apoptosis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhifang; Zhang, Xinchao; Xu, Xia; Chen, Long; Li, Wenjuan; Yu, Han; Sun, Yundong; Zeng, Jiping; Jia, Jihui

    2014-03-01

    Transcription factor RUNX3 is associated with gastric tumorigenesis and progression through regulating the expression of its target genes. Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family and has been shown to inhibit cell apoptosis and promote cell proliferation. Increased survivin expression has been found in various cancer types, including gastric cancer. In this study, we found that restoration of RUNX3 promotes cell apoptosis through inhibiting the survivin expression, while RUNX3 inhibition increases the expression of survivin in gastric cancer cell lines. Moreover, RUNX3 over-expression inhibits,whereas its inhibition increases, the promoter activity of survivin gene, respectively. RUNX3-R122C, a mutation located in the conserved Runt domain, has no effect on the promoter activity of survivin gene. We further identified a RUNX3-binding site in the promoter of survivin gene and the binding of RUNX3 on survivin promoter leads to significantly inhibition of survivin expression. Finally, we confirmed the negative correlation of RUNX3 and survivin expression in clinical specimens of gastric cancer. These findings reveal a novel mechanism of RUNX3 for the induction of cell apoptosis in human gastric cancer.

  2. Differences in antiproliferative effect of STAT3 inhibition in HCC cells with versus without HBV expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Yun; Zhou, Lin; Xie, Haiyang; Wang, Weilin; Zheng, Shusen

    2015-06-05

    Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) plays an important role in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inactivation could inhibit the tumor growth of HCC. In this study, differential antiproliferative effect of STAT3 inhibition was observed with HBV-related HCC cells being more resistant than non-HBV-related HCC cells. Resistance of HBV-related HCC cells to STAT3 inhibition was positively correlated to the expression of HBV. Enhanced ERK activation after STAT3 blockade was detected in HBV-related HCC cells but not in non-HBV-related HCC cells. Combined ERK and STAT3 inhibition eliminates the discrepancy between the two types of HCC cells. Moderate reduced HBV expression was found after STAT3 inhibition. These findings disclose a discrepancy in cellular response to STAT3 inhibition between non-HBV-related and HBV-related HCC cells and underscore the complexity of antiproliferative effect of STAT3 inactivation in HBV-related HCC cells. - Highlights: • HBV endows HCC cells with resistance to STAT3 inactivation on proliferation. • Abnormal ERK activation after STAT3 inhibition in HBV-related HCC cells. • Combined ERK and STAT3 inhibition eliminates the discrepancy. • STAT3 inhibition moderately reduces HBV expression.

  3. Baicalin and geniposide inhibit the development of atherosclerosis by increasing Wnt1 and inhibiting dickkopf-related protein-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Liao, Ping-Ping; Liu, Li-Hua; Fang, Xin; Li, Wei; Guan, Si-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Our previous study showed that the combined Chinese herbs containing scutellaria baicalensis georgi and gardenia jasminoids ellis inhibited atherosclerosis. In this study, we sought to determine if baicalin and geniposide could inhibit atherosclerosis through Wnt1 and dickkopf-related protein-1 (DKK1). Methods The wild-type and ApoE−/− mice were treated with baicalin, geniposide, and baicalin plus geniposide daily by gavage for 12 weeks. Blood lipid levels were measured with an automatic biochemistry analyzer. Aortic atherosclerotic lesion areas were analyzed with Image-ProPlus software. The mRNA and protein expression of DKK1, Wnt1 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were measured with RT-PCR and Western Blot. Serum levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12) were quantified with ELISA. Results The baicalin or geniposide monotherapy as well as combination therapy inhibited the development of atherosclerotic lesions, increased Wnt1 and decreased DKK1 expression and elevated the ratio of Wnt1/DKK1 compared with high-lipid diet group. However, only baicalin or geniposide monotherapy decreased NF-κB expression. Moreover, baicalin and geniposide mono- or combination therapy lowered IL-12 levels. Geniposide reduced both serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels, while baicalin either alone or in combination with geniposide did not affect serum lipid levels. In human, umbilical vein endothelial cells stimulated by oxidized low density lipoprotein, baicalin and geniposide also increased Wnt1 and decreased DKK1 expression and elevated the ratio of Wnt1/DKK1. Conclusions Baicalin and geniposide exert inflammation-regulatory effects and may prevent atherosclerotic lesions through enhancing Wnt1 and inhibiting DKK1 expression. PMID:27928227

  4. Suppression of Calpain Expression by NSAIDs is Associated with Inhibition of Cell Migration in Rat Duodenum.

    PubMed

    Silver, Kristopher; Littlejohn, A; Thomas, Laurel; Bawa, Bhupinder; Lillich, James D

    2017-03-22

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for the alleviation of pain and inflammation, but these drugs are also associated with a suite of negative side effects. Gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is particularly concerning since it affects an estimated 70% of individuals taking NSAIDs routinely, and evidence suggests the majority of toxicity is occurring in the small intestine. Traditionally, NSAID-induced GI toxicity has been associated with indiscriminate inhibition of cyclooxygenase isoforms, but other mechanisms, including inhibition of cell migration, intestinal restitution, and wound healing, are likely to contribute to toxicity. Previous efforts demonstrated that treatment of cultured intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) with NSAIDs inhibits expression and activity of calpain proteases, but the effects of specific inhibition of calpain expression in vitro or the effects of NSAIDs on intestinal cell migration in vivo remain to be determined. Accordingly, we examined the effect of suppression of calpain protease expression with siRNA on cell migration in cultured IECs and evaluated the effects of NSAID treatment on epithelial cell migration and calpain protease expression in rat duodenum. Our results show that calpain siRNA inhibits protease expression and slows migration in cultured IECs. Additionally, NSAID treatment of rats slowed migration up the villus axis and suppressed calpain expression in duodenal epithelial cells. Our results are supportive of the hypothesis that suppression of calpain expression leading to slowing of cell migration is a potential mechanism through which NSAIDs cause GI toxicity.

  5. SREBP inhibits VEGF expression in human smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Motoyama, Koka; Fukumoto, Shinya . E-mail: sfukumoto@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp; Koyama, Hidenori; Emoto, Masanori; Shimano, Hitoshi; Maemura, Koji; Nishizawa, Yoshiki

    2006-03-31

    Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors that regulate expression of genes encoding enzymes for lipid biosynthesis. SREBPs are activated by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins). Statins have been also reported to suppress vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Therefore, we hypothesized that SREBPs are involved in statin-mediated regulation of VEGF production in VSMCs. SREBP1 was robustly expressed, and was activated by atorvastatin in VSMCs, as demonstrated by increased levels of the mature nuclear form of SREBP1, and increased promoter activities of a reporter containing sterol regulatory elements by atorvastatin. Moreover, overexpression of SREBP1a dose-dependently suppressed VEGF promoter activity. Site-specific mutation or deletion of the proximal Sp1 sites reduced the inhibitory effects of SREBP1a on VEGF promoter activity. These data demonstrated that SREBP1, activated by atorvastatin, suppressed VEGF expression through the indirect interaction with the proximal tandem Sp1 sites in VSMCs.

  6. FAK and HAS Inhibition Synergistically Decrease Colon Cancer Cell Viability and Affect Expression of Critical Genes

    PubMed Central

    Heffler, Melissa; Golubovskaya, Vita; Conroy, Jeffrey; Liu, Song; Wang, Dan; Cance, William; Dunn, Kelli B.

    2013-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), hyaluronan (HA), and hyaluronan synthase-3 (HAS3) have been implicated in cancer growth and progression. FAK inhibition with the small molecule inhibitor Y15 decreases colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. HAS3 inhibition in colon cancer cells decreases FAK expression and activation, and exogenous HA increases FAK activation. We sought to determine the genes affected by HAS and FAK inhibition and hypothesized that dual inhibition would synergistically inhibit viability. Y15 (FAK inhibitor) and the HAS inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) decreased viability in a dose dependent manner; viability was further inhibited by treatment with Y15 and 4-MU in colon cancer cells. HAS inhibited cells treated with 2μM of Y15 showed significantly decreased viability compared to HAS scrambled cells treated with the same dose (p<0.05) demonstrating synergistic inhibition of viability with dual FAK/HAS inhibition. Microarray analysis showed more than 2-fold up- or down-regulation of 121 genes by HAS inhibition, and 696 genes by FAK inhibition (p<0.05) and revealed 29 common genes affected by both signaling. Among the genes affected by FAK or HAS3 inhibition were genes, playing role in apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, adhesion, transcription, heat-shock and WNT pathways. Thus, FAK or HAS inhibition decreases SW620 viability and affects several similar genes, which are involved in the regulation of tumor survival. Dual inhibition of FAK and HAS3 decreases viability to a greater degree than with either agent alone, and suggests that synergistic inhibition of colon cancer cell growth can result from affecting similar genetic pathways. PMID:22934709

  7. FAK and HAS inhibition synergistically decrease colon cancer cell viability and affect expression of critical genes.

    PubMed

    Heffler, Melissa; Golubovskaya, Vita M; Conroy, Jeffrey; Liu, Song; Wang, Dan; Cance, William G; Dunn, Kelli B

    2013-05-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), hyaluronan (HA), and hyaluronan synthase-3 (HAS3) have been implicated in cancer growth and progression. FAK inhibition with the small molecule inhibitor Y15 decreases colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. HAS3 inhibition in colon cancer cells decreases FAK expression and activation, and exogenous HA increases FAK activation. We sought to determine the genes affected by HAS and FAK inhibition and hypothesized that dual inhibition would synergistically inhibit viability. Y15 (FAK inhibitor) and the HAS inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) decreased viability in a dose dependent manner; viability was further inhibited by treatment with Y15 and 4-MU in colon cancer cells. HAS inhibited cells treated with 2 μM of Y15 showed significantly decreased viability compared to HAS scrambled cells treated with the same dose (p < 0.05) demonstrating synergistic inhibition of viability with dual FAK/HAS inhibition. Microarray analysis showed more than 2-fold up- or down-regulation of 121 genes by HAS inhibition, and 696 genes by FAK inhibition (p < 0.05) and revealed 29 common genes affected by both signaling. Among the genes affected by FAK or HAS3 inhibition were genes, playing role in apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, adhesion, transcription, heatshock and WNT pathways. Thus, FAK or HAS inhibition decreases SW620 viability and affects several similar genes, which are involved in the regulation of tumor survival. Dual inhibition of FAK and HAS3 decreases viability to a greater degree than with either agent alone, and suggests that synergistic inhibition of colon cancer cell growth can result from affecting similar genetic pathways.

  8. Atorvastatin protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress by inhibiting LOX-1 expression and cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Cheng, Linfang; Wang, Qiqi; Zhou, Dongchen; Wu, Zhigang; Shen, Ling; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Jianhua

    2015-03-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major health problem worldwide. The most severe form of CAD is acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Recent studies have demonstrated the beneficial role of atorvastatin in ACS; however, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been fully clarified. Growing evidence indicates that activation of the lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis during ACS. In this study, we examined whether atorvastatin inhibits H2O2-induced LOX-1 expression and H9c2 cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and investigated the underlying signaling pathway. Treatment of H9c2 cardiomyocytes with H2O2 resulted in elevated expression of LOX-1 mRNA and protein, as well as increased caspase-3 and -9 protein expression and cell apoptosis. H2O2-induced LOX-1 expression, caspase protein expression, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were attenuated by pretreatment with atorvastatin. Atorvastatin activated H2O2-inhibited phosphorylation of Akt in a concentration-dependent manner. The Akt inhibitor, LY294002, inhibited the effect of atorvastatin on inducing Akt phosphorylation and on suppressing H2O2-mediated caspase up-regulation and cell apoptosis. These findings indicate that atorvastatin protects cardiomyocyte from oxidative stress via inhibition of LOX-1 expression and apoptosis, and that activation of H2O2-inhibited phosphorylation of Akt may play an important role in the protective function of atorvastatin.

  9. Grepafloxacin inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced interleukin-8 expression in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, S; Matsumoto, K; Gon, Y; Maruoka, S; Hayashi, S; Asai, Y; Machino, T; Horie, T

    2000-01-01

    We examined the effect of grepafloxacin (GPFX), a new fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent, on interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-stimulated human airway epithelial cells (AEC). GPFX inhibited IL-8 protein production as well as mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner (2.5 - 25 micro g/ml), but the inhibition of IL-8 expression by corresponding concentrations of GPFX to serum and airway lining fluids was not complete. We discuss the modulatory effect of GPFX on IL-8 production in the context of its efficacy on controlling chronic airway inflammatory diseases.

  10. Morphine inhibits intrahepatic interferon- alpha expression and enhances complete hepatitis C virus replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Ye, Li; Peng, Jin-Song; Wang, Chuan-Qing; Luo, Guang-Xiang; Zhang, Ting; Wan, Qi; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2007-09-01

    Heroin addicts are a high-risk group for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the development of chronic HCV disease. We thus examined whether morphine, the active metabolite of heroin, has the ability to inhibit intrahepatic interferon (IFN)- alpha expression, facilitating HCV replication in human hepatocytes. Morphine inhibited intrahepatic IFN- alpha expression, which was associated with an increase in HCV replication in hepatocytes. Moreover, morphine compromised the anti-HCV effect of recombinant IFN- alpha . Investigation of the mechanism responsible for the morphine action revealed that morphine inhibited expression of IFN regulatory factor 5 in the hepatocytes. In addition, morphine suppressed the expression of p38, an important signal-transducing molecule involved in IFN- alpha -mediated anti-HCV activity. These findings indicate that morphine plays a cofactor role in facilitating HCV persistence in human hepatocytes.

  11. Carvacrol Inhibits Osteoclastogenesis and Negatively Regulates the Survival of Mature Osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Deepak, Vishwa; Kasonga, Abe; Kruger, Marlena Cathorina; Coetzee, Magdalena

    2016-07-01

    Bone is a dynamic tissue that undergoes continuous remodeling coupled with the action of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Osteoclast activity is elevated during osteoporosis and periodontitis resulting in excessive loss of trabecular and alveolar bone. Osteoclasts are formed in an inflammatory response to cytokine production receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL) and bacterial challenge lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Carvacrol, a monoterpenic phenol present in Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris, is a natural compound with known medicinal properties. We investigated the effects of carvacrol on osteoclast formation induced by RANKL and LPS. Carvacrol suppressed RANKL-induced formation of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells in RAW264.7 macrophages and human CD14(+) monocytes. Furthermore, carvacrol inhibited LPS-induced osteoclast formation in RAW264.7 macrophages. Investigation of the underlying molecular mechanisms revealed that carvacrol downregulated RANKL-induced NF-κB activation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the suppression of NF-κB activation correlated with inhibition of inhibitor of kappaB (IκB) kinase (IKK) activation and attenuation of inhibitor of NF-κB (IκBa) degradation. Carvacrol potentiated apoptosis in mature osteoclasts by caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation. Moreover, carvacrol did not affect the viability of proliferating MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that carvacrol mitigates osteoclastogenesis by impairing the NF-κB pathway and induction of apoptosis in mature osteoclasts.

  12. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate inhibition of osteoclastic differentiation via NF-{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, R.-W.; Chen, C.-H.; Wang, Y.-H.; Ho, M.-L.; Hung, S.-H.; Chen, I.-S. Wang, G.-J.

    2009-02-20

    People who regularly drink tea have been found to have a higher bone mineral density (BMD) and to be at less risk of hip fractures than those who do not drink it. Green tea catechins such as (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) have been reported to increase osteogenic functioning in mesenchymal stem cells. However, its effect on osteoclastogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of EGCG on RANKL-activation osteoclastogenesis and NF-{kappa}B in RAW 264.7, a murine preosteoclast cell line. EGCG (10-100 {mu}M) significantly suppressed the RANKL-induced differentiation of osteoclasts and the formation of pits in murine RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). EGCG appeared to target osteoclastic differentiation at an early stage but had no cytotoxic effect on osteoclast precursors. In addition, it significantly inhibited RANKL-induced NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity and nuclear translocation. We conclude that EGCG inhibits osteoclastogenesis through its activation of NF-{kappa}B.

  13. Fitness of anopheline mosquitoes expressing transgenes that inhibit Plasmodium development.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Luciano A; Wang, Jing; Collins, Frank H; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2004-03-01

    One potential strategy for the control of malaria and other vector-borne diseases is the introduction into wild vector populations of genetic constructs that reduce vectorial capacity. An important caveat of this approach is that the genetic construct should have minimal fitness cost to the transformed vector. Previously, we produced transgenic Anopheles stephensi expressing either of two effector genes, a tetramer of the SM1 dodecapeptide or the phospholipase A2 gene (PLA2) from honeybee venom. Mosquitoes carrying either of these transgenes were impaired for Plasmodium berghei transmission. We have investigated the role of two effector genes for malaria parasite blockage in terms of the fitness imposed to the mosquito vector that expresses either molecule. By measuring mosquito survival, fecundity, fertility, and by running population cage experiments, we found that mosquitoes transformed with the SM1 construct showed no significant reduction in these fitness parameters relative to nontransgenic controls. The PLA2 transgenics, however, had reduced fitness that seemed to be independent of the insertion site of the transgene. We conclude that the fitness load imposed by refractory gene(s)-expressing mosquitoes depends on the effect of the transgenic protein produced in that mosquito. These results have important implications for implementation of malaria control via genetic modification of mosquitoes.

  14. Anti-oxidant inhibition of hyaluronan fragment-induced inflammatory gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Eberlein, Michael; Scheibner, Kara A; Black, Katharine E; Collins, Samuel L; Chan-Li, Yee; Powell, Jonathan D; Horton, Maureen R

    2008-01-01

    Background The balance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and endogenous anti-oxidants is important in maintaining healthy tissues. Excessive ROS states occur in diseases such as ARDS and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. Redox imbalance breaks down the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan (HA) into fragments that activate innate immune responses and perpetuate tissue injury. HA fragments, via a TLR and NF-κB pathway, induce inflammatory gene expression in macrophages and epithelial cells. NAC and DMSO are potent anti-oxidants which may help balance excess ROS states. Methods We evaluated the effect of H2O2, NAC and DMSO on HA fragment induced inflammatory gene expression in alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. Results NAC and DMSO inhibit HA fragment-induced expression of TNF-α and KC protein in alveolar and peritoneal macrophages. NAC and DMSO also show a dose dependent inhibition of IP-10 protein expression, but not IL-8 protein, in alveolar epithelial cells. In addition, H2O2 synergizes with HA fragments to induce inflammatory genes, which are inhibited by NAC. Mechanistically, NAC and DMSO inhibit HA induced gene expression by inhibiting NF-κB activation, but NAC had no influence on HA-fragment-AP-1 mediated gene expression. Conclusion ROS play a central role in a pathophysiologic "vicious cycle" of inflammation: tissue injury generates ROS, which fragment the extracellular matrix HA, which in turn synergize with ROS to activate the innate immune system and further promote ROS, HA fragment generation, inflammation, tissue injury and ultimately fibrosis. The anti-oxidants NAC and DMSO, by inhibiting the HA induced inflammatory gene expression, may help re-balance excessive ROS induced inflammation. PMID:18986521

  15. Inhibition of HIV-1 gp41 expression with hammerhead ribozymes.

    PubMed

    Fedoruk-Wyszomirska, Agnieszka; Szymański, Maciej; Głodowicz, Paweł; Gabryelska, Marta; Wyszko, Eliza; Estrin, William J; Barciszewski, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Despite great progress in the treatment of AIDS, HIV-1 remains one of the major concerns as a human pathogen. One of the therapeutic strategies against viral infections is the application of catalytic ribonucleic acids (ribozymes) that can significantly reduce expression of a target gene by site-specific hydrolysis of its mRNA. In the present paper, we report a study on the activity of several variants of hammerhead ribozymes targeting a conserved region within mRNA encoding HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp41. On the basis of the data from in vitro assays and gene silencing in the cultured cells, we propose a new hammerhead ribozyme targeting the gp41-encoding sequence that can be potentially used as a therapeutic agent in AIDS treatment. Moreover, we demonstrate that the hydrolytic activity of the ribozyme in the intracellular environment cannot be inferred solely from the results of in vitro experiments.

  16. MIF family members cooperatively inhibit p53 expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Brock, Stephanie E; Rendon, Beatriz E; Xin, Dan; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha; Mitchell, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 is induced by genotoxic stress in both normal and transformed cells and serves to transcriptionally coordinate cell cycle checkpoint control and programmed cell death responses. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an autocrine and paracrine acting cytokine/growth factor that promotes lung adenocarcinoma cell motility, anchorage-independence and neo-angiogenic potential. Several recent studies indicate that the only known homolog of MIF, D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT - also referred to as MIF-2), has functionally redundant activities with MIF and cooperatively promotes MIF-dependent pro-tumorigenic phenotypes. We now report that MIF and D-DT synergistically inhibit steady state p53 phosphorylation, stabilization and transcriptional activity in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. The combined loss of MIF and D-DT by siRNA leads to dramatically reduced cell cycle progression, anchorage independence, focus formation and increased programmed cell death when compared to individual loss of MIF or D-DT. Importantly, p53 mutant and p53 null lung adenocarcinoma cell lines were only nominally rescued from the cell growth effects of MIF/D-DT combined deficiency suggesting only a minor role for p53 in these transformed cell growth phenotypes. Finally, increased p53 activation was found to be independent of aberrantly activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that occurs in response to MIF/D-DT-deficiency but is dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) that mediate aberrant AMPK activation in these cells. Combined, these findings suggest that both p53 wildtype and mutant human lung adenocarcinoma tumors rely on MIF family members for maximal cell growth and survival.

  17. Estradiol rapidly inhibits soluble guanylyl cyclase expression in rat uterus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krumenacker, J. S.; Hyder, S. M.; Murad, F.

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports that investigated the regulation of the NO/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway by estrogenic compounds have focused primarily on the levels of NO, NO-producing enzymes, and cGMP in various tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that 17beta-estradiol (E2) regulates the alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits of the NO receptor, sGC, at the mRNA and protein levels in rat uterus. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we found that within 1 h of in vivo E2 administration to rats, sGC mRNA levels begin to diminish. After 3 h, there is a maximal diminution of sGC mRNA expression (sGC alpha(1) 10% and sGC beta(1) 33% of untreated). This effect was blocked by the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780, indicating that estrogen receptor is required. The effect of E2 also was observed in vitro with incubations of uterine tissue, indicating that the response does not depend on the secondary release of other hormones or factors from other tissues. Puromycin did not block the effect, suggesting the effects occur because of preexisting factors in uterine tissues and do not require new protein synthesis. Using immunoblot analysis, we found that sGC protein levels also were reduced by E2 over a similar time course as the sGC mRNA. We conclude that sGC plays a vital role in the NO/sGC/cGMP regulatory pathway during conditions of elevated estrogen levels in the rat uterus as a result of the reduction of sGC expression.

  18. Estradiol rapidly inhibits soluble guanylyl cyclase expression in rat uterus

    PubMed Central

    Krumenacker, Joshua S.; Hyder, Salman M.; Murad, Ferid

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports that investigated the regulation of the NO/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway by estrogenic compounds have focused primarily on the levels of NO, NO-producing enzymes, and cGMP in various tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that 17β-estradiol (E2) regulates the α1 and β1 subunits of the NO receptor, sGC, at the mRNA and protein levels in rat uterus. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we found that within 1 h of in vivo E2 administration to rats, sGC mRNA levels begin to diminish. After 3 h, there is a maximal diminution of sGC mRNA expression (sGC α1 10% and sGC β1 33% of untreated). This effect was blocked by the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780, indicating that estrogen receptor is required. The effect of E2 also was observed in vitro with incubations of uterine tissue, indicating that the response does not depend on the secondary release of other hormones or factors from other tissues. Puromycin did not block the effect, suggesting the effects occur because of preexisting factors in uterine tissues and do not require new protein synthesis. Using immunoblot analysis, we found that sGC protein levels also were reduced by E2 over a similar time course as the sGC mRNA. We conclude that sGC plays a vital role in the NO/sGC/cGMP regulatory pathway during conditions of elevated estrogen levels in the rat uterus as a result of the reduction of sGC expression. PMID:11209068

  19. [Inhibition of NHE1 down-regulates IL-8 expression and enhances p38 phosphorylation].

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Zhang, Yu-Juan; Zhang, Hai-Rui; Jin, Wei-Na; Chang, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Hong-Ju; Ma, Li; Lin, Ya-Ni; Li, Qing-Hua; Ru, Rong-Xin; Pang, Tian-Xiang

    2013-02-01

    This study was purposed to explore the changes of possible angiogenetic factors other than VEGF after inhibition of NHE1 and their related mechanisms. The K562 cells were treated by NHE1 specific inhibitor cariporide, the angiogenesis factors after inhibition of NHE1 were screened by using protein chip, the IL-8 expression level after cariporide treatment was detected by real-time quantitative PCR; the K562 cells with stable interference of NHE1 were constructed, the IL-8 expression level after interference of NHE1 was detected by real-time quantitative PCR; the p38 phosphorylation level in K562 cells treated with cariporide was detected by Western blot. After treatment of K562 cells with p38 inhibitor SB203580, the IL-8 expression level was decreased by real-time quantitative PCR. The results of protein chip showed that IL-8 expression decreased after cariporide treatment. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed this inhibitory effect. The p38 phosphorylation level increased after cariporide treatment. The down-regulation of IL-8 expression induced by cariporide treatment was partially restored after K562 cells were treated with p38 inhibitor SB203580. It is concluded that the inhibition of NHE1 can inhibit IL-8 expression through up-regulation of p38 phosphorylation.

  20. Dopamine inhibits somatolactin gene expression in tilapia pituitary cells through the dopamine D2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Quan; Lian, Anji; He, Qi

    2016-07-01

    Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of vertebrates and possesses key hypophysiotropic functions. Early studies have shown that DA has a potent inhibitory effect on somatolactin (SL) release in fish. However, the mechanisms responsible for DA inhibition of SL gene expression are largely unknown. To this end, tilapia DA type-1 (D1) and type-2 (D2) receptor transcripts were examined in the neurointermediate lobe (NIL) of the tilapia pituitary by real-time PCR. In tilapia, DA not only was effective in inhibiting SL mRNA levels in vivo and in vitro, but also could abolish pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)- and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH)-stimulated SL gene expression at the pituitary level. In parallel studies, the specific D2 receptor agonists quinpirole and bromocriptine could mimic the DA-inhibited SL gene expression. Furthermore, the D2 receptor antagonists domperidone and (-)-sulpiride could abolish the SL response to DA or the D2 agonist quinpirole, whereas D1 receptor antagonists SCH23390 and SKF83566 were not effective in this respect. In primary cultures of tilapia NIL cells, D2 agonist quinpirole-inhibited cAMP production could be blocked by co-treatment with the D2 antagonist domperidone and the ability of forskolin to increase cAMP production was also inhibited by quinpirole. Using a pharmacological approach, the AC/cAMP pathway was shown to be involved in quinpirole-inhibited SL mRNA expression. These results provide evidence that DA can directly inhibit SL gene expression at the tilapia pituitary level via D2 receptor through the AC/cAMP-dependent mechanism.

  1. Inhibition of luciferase expression by synthetic hammerhead ribozymes and their cellular uptake.

    PubMed Central

    Bramlage, B; Alefelder, S; Marschall, P; Eckstein, F

    1999-01-01

    Two synthetic hammerhead ribozymes, one unmodified and the other with 2"-modifications and four phosphorothioate groups, targeting a single GUA site in the luciferase mRNA, were compared for their inhibition of gene expression in cell cultureand their cellular uptake was also analysed. A HeLa X1/5 cell line stably expressing luciferase, under an inducible promoter, was treated with these ribozymes by liposome-mediated transfection to determine their activity.Luciferase expression in cells was inhibited to approximately 50% with little difference between the unmodified and the 2"-modified ribozyme. A similar degree of inhibition was observed with two catalytically inactive ribozymes, indicating that inhibition was mainly due to an antisense effect. A ribozyme carrying a cholesterol moiety, applied to the cells without carrier, showed no inhibition. Northern blotting indicated a similar amount of cellular uptake of all ribozymes. The unmodified ribozyme was essentially evenly distributed between cytoplasm and nucleus, whereas a higher proportion of the phosphorothioate-containing ribozyme was observed in the nucleus. Fluorescence microscopy, including confocal microscopy using 5"-fluorescein-labelled ribozymes, showed that the unmodified and 2"-modified ribozymes were present in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus to a similar extent, whereas the fluorescence of the phosphorothioate-containing ribozyme was much stronger in the nucleus. Both ribozymes inhibited luciferase expression to a comparable degree, suggesting that the ribozyme in the nucleus did not contribute significantly to the inhibition. Ribozymes with a cholesterol moiety were predominantly trapped in the cell membrane, explaining their inability to interfere with gene expression. PMID:10454613

  2. [Inhibiting GDF-8 expression by retrovirus-based RNAi stably].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaowu; Yang, Zhuo; Zhao, Bin; Liu, Changmei

    2008-02-01

    We cloned human U6 promoter from pAVU6 + 27 vector into pXSN to transcripe small RNA. Meanwhile, a shRNA targeting GDF-8 was cloned down-stream of the hU6 promoter to construct recombinant vector. Then the packing cell GP-293 was co-transfected the recombinant with pVSV-G to gernarate virus particle. Resistant C2C12 cell pools were screened using G418. Levels of mRNA and protein of GDF-8 were tested by Real-Time PCR and western blotting. Cell proliferation and cell cycle were analyzed using MTT and FACS. The expression of GDF-8 was dramatically decreased by the retrovirus-based system in C2C12 cells. Cells proliferated effectively after integrating the recombinant. The cells in G0/G1 phase decreased by 13.7%, while cells in S phase increased by 14.9%. In conclusion, the retrovirus-based RNAi could be used to stably silence GDF-8. It can be a powerful tool in curing muscle atrophy.

  3. Melittin inhibits osteoclast formation through the downregulation of the RANKL-RANK signaling pathway and the inhibition of interleukin-1β in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Seong-Kyu

    2017-03-01

    Melittin is a major toxic component of bee venom (Apis mellifera). It is not known whether melittin is involved in bone metabolism and osteoclastogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the role of melittin in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis. In vitro osteoclastogenesis assays were performed using mouse RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) treated with receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Morphologic and functional analyses for osteoclast-like multinucleated cells (MNCs) were performed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, F-actin staining and pit formation methods. The gene expression of TRAP, cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and carbonic anhydrase II was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. The protein expression levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), the p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), c-Fos, c-Jun, nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), TNF receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were assessed by western blot analysis. Melittin inhibited the mRNA expression of TRAP, cathepsin K, MMP-9 and carbonic anhydrase II in RANKL-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The increased protein expression of TRAF6, p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p-JNK, p-p65, p-c-Fos and NFATc1 induced by RANKL was significantly suppressed in the RAW 264.7 cells treated with melittin. A synergistic effect of IL-1β on the formation of RANKL-induced osteoclast-like MNCs was found in two experimental cells. The increased expression of IL-1β following the stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells with RANKL activated TRAF6, p-ERK, p-JNK, p-p65, p-c-Fos and NFATc1. These effects were attenuated by the downregulation of IL-1β using siRNA against IL-1β, and also by treatment with melittin. On the whole, the findings of this study demonstrate that melittin

  4. Melittin inhibits osteoclast formation through the downregulation of the RANKL-RANK signaling pathway and the inhibition of interleukin-1β in murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Seong-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    Melittin is a major toxic component of bee venom (Apis mellifera). It is not known whether melittin is involved in bone metabolism and osteoclastogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the role of melittin in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis. In vitro osteoclastogenesis assays were performed using mouse RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) treated with receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Morphologic and functional analyses for osteoclast-like multinucleated cells (MNCs) were performed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, F-actin staining and pit formation methods. The gene expression of TRAP, cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and carbonic anhydrase II was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. The protein expression levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), the p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), c-Fos, c-Jun, nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), TNF receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were assessed by western blot analysis. Melittin inhibited the mRNA expression of TRAP, cathepsin K, MMP-9 and carbonic anhydrase II in RANKL-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The increased protein expression of TRAF6, p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p-JNK, p-p65, p-c-Fos and NFATc1 induced by RANKL was significantly suppressed in the RAW 264.7 cells treated with melittin. A synergistic effect of IL-1β on the formation of RANKL-induced osteoclast-like MNCs was found in two experimental cells. The increased expression of IL-1β following the stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells with RANKL activated TRAF6, p-ERK, p-JNK, p-p65, p-c-Fos and NFATc1. These effects were attenuated by the downregulation of IL-1β using siRNA against IL-1β, and also by treatment with melittin. On the whole, the findings of this study demonstrate that melittin inhibits the formation

  5. IL-1β inhibits β-Klotho expression and FGF19 signaling in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yueshui; Meng, Chenling; Wang, Yang; Huang, Huihui; Liu, Wenjing; Zhang, Jin-Fang; Zhao, Hui; Feng, Bo; Leung, Po Sing; Xia, Yin

    2016-02-15

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 is a member of the FGF15/19 subfamily of FGFs that includes FGF15/19, FGF21, and FGF23. FGF19 has been shown to have profound effects on liver metabolism and regeneration. FGF19 binds to FGFR4 and its coreceptor β-Klotho to activate intracellular kinases, including Erk1/2. Studies have shown that proinflammatory cytokines such as TNFα impair FGF21 signaling in adipose cells by repressing β-Klotho expression. However, little is known about the effects of inflammation on the FGF19 pathway in the liver. In the present study, we found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibited β-Klotho and Fgfr4 expression in livers in mice, whereas LPS had no effects on the two FGF19 receptors in Huh-7 and HepG2 cells. Of the three inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6, IL-1β drastically inhibited β-Klotho expression, whereas TNFα and IL-6 had no or minor effects. None of the three cytokines had any effects on FGFR4 expression. IL-1β directly inhibited β-Klotho transcription, and this inhibition required both the JNK and NF-κB pathways. In addition, IL-1β inhibited FGF19-induced Erk1/2 activation and cell proliferation. These results suggest that inflammation and IL-1β play an important role in regulating FGF19 signaling and function in the liver.

  6. Expressive inhibition in response to stress: Implications for emotional processing following trauma

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Joshua D.; Patton, Samantha C.; Beck, J. Gayle

    2015-01-01

    Expressive inhibition - the willful restriction of expressed emotion - is documented in individuals reporting trauma-related distress, but its impact on global affective functioning remains unclear. Theoretical models propose that chronic activation of negative emotion and deliberate restriction of affect operate synergistically to produce trauma-related emotional deficits. The current project examined the impact of these factors on subjective experience and physiological activation following exposure to an analog trauma. University students (N = 192; Mage = 20, 57% female, 42% White/Non-Hispanic) viewed a graphic film depicting scenes of a televised suicide. Participants then viewed either a sadness- or humor-eliciting film under instructions to inhibit [nsadness = 45, nhumor = 52] or naturally express emotion [nsadness = 48, nhumor = 47]. Expressive inhibition was associated with restricted amusement specifically among participants viewing the humor film. Inhibition also produced attenuated sympathetic and parasympathetic recovery, irrespective of film assignment. Evidence of disruptions in emotional processing supports models identifying inhibition as a possible mechanism in post-trauma affect dysregulation. PMID:25576773

  7. The inhibition of Escherichia coli lac operon gene expression by antigene oligonucleotides-mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Cheng, B; Fournier, R L; Relue, P A

    2000-11-20

    Gene transcription is regulated by transcription factors that can bind to specific regions on DNA. Antigene oligonucleotides (oligos) can bind to specific regions on DNA and form a triplex with the double-stranded DNA. The triplex can competitively inhibit the binding of transcription factors and, as a result, transcription can be inhibited. A genetically structured model has been developed to quantitatively describe the inhibition of the Escherichia coli lac operon gene expression by triplex-forming oligos. The model predicts that the effect of triplex-forming oligos on the lac operon gene expression depends on their target sites. Oligonucleotides targeted to the operator are much more effective than those targeted to other regulatory sites on the lac operon. In some cases, the effect of oligo binding is similar to that of a mutation in the lac operon. The model provides insight as to the specific binding site to be targeted to achieve the most effective inhibition of gene expression. The model is also capable of predicting the oligo concentration needed to inhibit gene expression, which is in general agreement with results reported by other investigators.

  8. MiRNA203 suppresses the expression of protumorigenic STAT1 in glioblastoma to inhibit tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chuan He; Wang, Yinan; Sims, Michelle; Cai, Chun; He, Ping; Yue, Junming; Cheng, Jinjun; Boop, Frederick A.; Pfeffer, Susan R.; Pfeffer, Lawrence M.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in regulating cancer cell proliferation, migration, survival and sensitivity to chemotherapy. The potential application of using miRNAs for cancer prognosis holds great promise but miRNAs with predictive value remain to be identified and underlying mechanisms of how they promote or suppress tumorigenesis are not completely understood. Here, we show a strong correlation between miR203 expression and brain cancer patient survival. Low miR203 expression is found in subsets of brain cancer patients, especially glioblastoma. Ectopic miR203 expression in glioblastoma cell lines inhibited cell proliferation and migration, increased sensitivity to apoptosis induced by interferon or temozolomide in vitro, and inhibited tumorigenesis in vivo. We further show that STAT1 is a direct functional target of miR203, and miR203 level is negatively correlated with STAT1 expression in brain cancer patients. Knockdown of STAT1 expression mimicked the effect of overexpression of miR203 in glioblastoma cell lines, and inhibited cell proliferation and migration, increased sensitivity to apoptosis induced by IFN or temozolomide in vitro, and inhibited glioblastoma tumorigenesis in vivo. High STAT1 expression significantly correlated with poor survival in brain cancer patients. Mechanistically, we found that enforced miR203 expression in glioblastoma suppressed STAT1 expression directly, as well as that of a number of STAT1 regulated genes. Taken together, our data suggest that miR203 acts as a tumor suppressor in glioblastoma by suppressing the pro-tumorigenic action of STAT1. MiR203 may serve as a predictive biomarker and potential therapeutic target in subsets of cancer patients with low miR203 expression. PMID:27705947

  9. Efficient shRNA-Mediated Inhibition of Gene Expression in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    De Rienzo, Gianluca; Gutzman, Jennifer H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Despite the broad repertoire of loss of function (LOF) tools available for use in the zebrafish, there remains a need for a simple and rapid method that can inhibit expression of genes at later stages. RNAi would fulfill that role, and a previous report (Dong et al. 2009) provided encouraging data. The goal of this study was to further address the ability of expressed shRNAs to inhibit gene expression. This included quantifying RNA knockdown, testing specificity of shRNA effects, and determining whether tissue-specific LOF could be achieved. Using an F0 transgenic approach, this report demonstrates that for two genes, wnt5b and zDisc1, each with described mutant and morphant phenotypes, shRNAs efficiently decrease endogenous RNA levels. Phenotypes elicited by shRNA resemble those of mutants and morphants, and are reversed by expression of cognate RNA, further demonstrating specificity. Tissue-specific expression of zDisc1 shRNAs in F0 transgenics demonstrates that conditional LOF can be readily obtained. These results suggest that shRNA expression presents a viable approach for rapid inhibition of zebrafish gene expression. PMID:22788660

  10. JAZF1 can regulate the expression of lipid metabolic genes and inhibit lipid accumulation in adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ming, Guang-feng; Xiao, Di; Gong, Wei-jing; Liu, Hui-xia; Liu, Jun; Zhou, Hong-hao; Liu, Zhao-qian

    2014-03-14

    Highlights: • JAZF1 was significantly upregulated during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. • JAZF1 overexpression inhibited lipid accumulation in differentiated mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • JAZF1 overexpression inhibited the expression of SREBP1, ACC, and FAS. • JAZF1 overexpression upregulated the expression of HSL and ATGL. • SREBP1 and JAZF1 could regulate each other in adipocytes. - Abstract: JAZF1 is a newly identified gene with unknown functions. A recent genome-wide association study showed that JAZF1 is associated with type 2 diabetes and is highly expressed in liver and adipose tissue. Studies have demonstrated that JAZF1 is the co-repressor for nuclear orphan receptor TAK1, whereas most nuclear orphan receptor family members are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Therefore, JAZF1 could be closely related to glycolipid metabolism. In this study, JAZF1 was significantly upregulated during the induced differentiation process of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The overexpression of JAZF1 inhibited lipid accumulation in differentiated mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes and significantly inhibited the expression of SREBPl, ACC, and FAS, which were important in lipid synthesis, while upregulating the expression of key enzyme hormone-sensitive lipase in lipoclasis. Moreover, SREBPl exhibited an inhibitory function on the expression of JAZF1. SREBP1 reversed the inhibitory action on lipid accumulation of JAZF1. SREBP1 and JAZF1 were observed to regulate each other in adipocytes. Therefore, JAZF1 could regulate the expression of particular genes related to lipid metabolism and inhibit lipid accumulation in adipocytes. This result suggests that JAZF1 may be a potential target for the treatment of diseases, such as obesity and lipid metabolism disorders.

  11. Sinomenine inhibits proliferation of SGC-7901 gastric adenocarcinoma cells via suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 expression

    PubMed Central

    LV, YIFEI; LI, CHANGSHUN; LI, SHUANG; HAO, ZHIMING

    2011-01-01

    Sinomenine (SIN) is a bioactive alkaloid extracted from the Chinese medicinal plant Sinomenium acutum. Results of studies have shown that the anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and anti-arthritic effects of SIN are partially attributed to the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. COX-2 overexpression is associated with enhanced proliferation and angiogenesis of gastric cancer (GC). SGC-7901 cells were treated with different concentrations of SIN in order to observe its effect on the proliferation of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and to explore the potential underlying molecular mechanism via the detection of COX-2 expression. Celecoxib was used as the positive control. Morphological alterations of the cells were observed microscopically. Cell proliferation was evaluated using MTT assay. COX-2 expression was detected using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed that SIN inhibited the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In the presence of SIN or celecoxib, SGC-7901 cells became round and detached morphologically, indicating cell apoptosis. The expression of COX-2 was inhibited by SIN in a dose-dependent manner at both the mRNA and protein levels. Our findings indicate that the protective effects of SIN are mediated through the inhibition of COX-2 expression. These findings suggest a novel therapy to treat inflammation-mediated gastric adenocarcinomata. PMID:22848259

  12. Resveratrol inhibits mucus overproduction and MUC5AC expression in a murine model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Ni, Zhen-Hua; Tang, Ji-Hong; Chen, Guo; Lai, Yi-Min; Chen, Qing-Ge; Li, Zao; Yang, Wei; Luo, Xu-Min; Wang, Xiong-Biao

    2016-01-01

    Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that resveratrol is able to significantly inhibit the upregulation of mucin 5AC (MUC5AC), a major component of mucus; thus indicating that resveratrol may have potential in regulating mucus overproduction. However, there have been few studies regarding the resveratrol‑mediated prevention of MUC5AC overproduction in vivo, and the mechanisms by which resveratrol regulates MUC5AC expression have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, an ovalbumin (OVA)‑challenged murine model of asthma was used to assess the effects of resveratrol treatment on mucus production in vivo. The results demonstrated that resveratrol significantly inhibited OVA‑induced airway inflammation and mucus production. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of MUC5AC were increased in the OVA‑challenged mice, whereas treatment with resveratrol significantly inhibited this effect. The expression levels of murine calcium‑activated chloride channel (mCLCA)3, an important key mediator of MUC5AC production, were also reduced following resveratrol treatment. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrated that resveratrol significantly inhibited human (h)CLCA1 and MUC5AC expression in a dose‑dependent manner. These results indicated that resveratrol was effective in preventing mucus overproduction and MUC5AC expression in vivo, and its underlying mechanism may be associated with regulation of the mCLCA3/hCLCA1 signaling pathway.

  13. Expression of the zinc-finger antiviral protein inhibits alphavirus replication.

    PubMed

    Bick, Matthew J; Carroll, John-William N; Gao, Guangxia; Goff, Stephen P; Rice, Charles M; MacDonald, Margaret R

    2003-11-01

    The rat zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP) was recently identified as a host protein conferring resistance to retroviral infection. We analyzed ZAP's ability to inhibit viruses from other families and found that ZAP potently inhibits the replication of multiple members of the Alphavirus genus within the Togaviridae, including Sindbis virus, Semliki Forest virus, Ross River virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. However, expression of ZAP did not induce a broad-spectrum antiviral state as some viruses, including vesicular stomatitis virus, poliovirus, yellow fever virus, and herpes simplex virus type 1, replicated to normal levels in ZAP-expressing cells. We determined that ZAP expression inhibits Sindbis virus replication after virus penetration and entry, but before the amplification of newly synthesized plus strand genomic RNA. Using a temperature-sensitive Sindbis virus mutant expressing luciferase, we further showed that translation of incoming viral RNA is blocked by ZAP expression. Elucidation of the antiviral mechanism by which ZAP inhibits Sindbis virus translation may lead to the development of agents with broad activity against alphaviruses.

  14. Protein kinase B/Akt1 inhibits autophagy by down-regulating UVRAG expression

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wonseok; Ju, Ji-hyun; Lee, Kyung-min; Nam, KeeSoo; Oh, Sunhwa; Shin, Incheol

    2013-02-01

    Autophagy, or autophagocytosis, is a selective intracellular degradative process involving the cell's own lysosomal apparatus. An essential component in cell development, homeostasis, repair and resistance to stress, autophagy may result in either cell death or survival. The targeted region of the cell is sequestered within a membrane structure, the autophagosome, for regulation of the catabolic process. A key factor in both autophagosome formation and autophagosome maturation is a protein encoded by the ultraviolet irradiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG). Conversely, the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt), which regulates survival in various cancers, inhibits autophagy through mTOR activation. We found that Akt1 may also directly inhibit autophagy by down-regulating UVRAG both in a 293T transient transfection system and breast cancer cells stably expressing Akt1. The UVRAG with mutations at putative Akt1-phosphorylation sites were still inhibited by Akt1, and dominant-negative Akt1 also inhibited UVRAG expression, suggesting that Akt1 down-regulates UVRAG by a kinase activity-independent mechanism. We showed that Akt1 overexpression in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells down-regulated UVRAG transcription. Cells over-expressing Akt1 were more resistant than control cells to ultraviolet light-induced autophagy and exhibited the associated reduction in cell viability. Levels of the autophagosome indicator protein LC3B-II and mRFP-GFP-LC3 were reduced in cells that over-expressing Akt1. Inhibiting Akt1 by siRNA or reintroducing UVRAG gene rescued the level of LC3B-II in UV-irradiation. Altogether, these data suggest that Akt1 may inhibit autophagy by decreasing UVRAG expression, which also sensitizes cancer cells to UV irradiation.

  15. Curcumin and resveratrol inhibit nuclear factor-kappaB-mediated cytokine expression in adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Amanda M; Orlando, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Background Adipocytes express inflammatory mediators that contribute to the low-level, chronic inflammation found in obese subjects and have been linked to the onset of cardiovascular disorders and insulin resistance associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A reduction in inflammatory gene expression in adipocytes would be expected to reverse this low-level, inflammatory state and improve cardiovascular function and insulin sensitivity. The natural products, curcumin and resveratrol, are established anti-inflammatory compounds that mediate their effects by inhibiting activation of NF-κB signaling. In the present study, we examined if these natural products can inhibit NF-κB activation in adipocytes and in doing so reduce cytokine expression. Methods Cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) and COX-2 gene expression in 3T3-L1-derived adipocytes was measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) with or without TNFα-stimulation. Cytokine protein and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) expression were measured by ELISA. Effects of curcumin and resveratrol were evaluated by treating TNFα-stimulated adipocytes with each compound and 1) assessing the activation state of the NF-κB signaling pathway and 2) measuring inflammatory gene expression by qRT-PCR and ELISA. Results Both preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes express the genes for TNF-α, IL-6, and COX-2, key mediators of the inflammatory response. Preadipocytes were also found to express IL-1β; however, IL-1β expression was absent in differentiated adipocytes. TNF-α treatment activated NF-κB signaling in differentiated adipocytes by inducing IκB degradation and NF-κB translocation to the nucleus, and as a result increased IL-6 (6-fold) and COX-2 (2.5-fold) mRNA levels. TNF-α also activated IL-1β gene expression in differentiated adipocytes, but had no effect on endogenous TNF-α mRNA levels. No detectable TNFα or IL-1β was secreted by adipocytes. Curcumin and resveratrol treatment inhibited NF-κB activation and

  16. CaMKII inhibition promotes neuronal apoptosis by transcriptionally upregulating Bim expression.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yiwei; Zhu, Lin; Yu, Shaojun; Zhu, Jing; Wang, Chong

    2016-09-28

    The effects of Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) on neuronal apoptosis are complex and contradictory, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death (Bim) is an important proapoptotic protein under many physiological and pathophysiological conditions. However, there is no evidence that CaMKII and Bim are mechanistically linked in neuronal apoptosis. In this study, we showed that CaMKII inhibition by the inhibitors KN-62 and myristoylated autocamtide-2-related inhibitory peptide promoted apoptosis in cerebellar granule neurons in a dose-dependent manner. CaMKII inhibition increased Bim protein and messenger RNA levels. The expression of early growth response factor-1, a transcription factor of Bim, was also induced by CaMKII inhibitors. These data suggested that CaMKII repressed the transcriptional expression of Bim. Moreover, knockdown of Bim using small interfering RNAs attenuated the proapoptotic effects of CaMKII inhibition. Taken together, this is the first report to show that CaMKII inhibition transcriptionally upregulates Bim expression to promote neuronal apoptosis, providing new insights into the proapoptotic mechanism of CaMKII inhibition.

  17. Polyphenol oxidase expression in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers inhibited to sprouting by treatment with iodine atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Eolini, Francesco; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Credi, Andrea; Rodríguez, Antonio Gonzàlez Vara Y; Poggi, Valeria

    2004-08-01

    Iodine-saturated atmosphere was found to inhibit the sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. The iodine concentration in tuber tissues increased as a function of exposure length, and the onset of inhibition of sprouting was found to depend on tubers genotype. During the time-course of the treatment, the transcription of polyphenol oxidases (EC 1.10.3.1 and EC 1.14.18.1) was undetectable in tuber peel, whereas in bud tissues featured an increase, followed by a decrease occurring simultaneously with the suppression of sprouting. The treatment of tubers with iodine strongly affected the expression of polyphenol oxidases at the transcriptional level. Polyphenol oxidase activity in buds poorly reflected the corresponding level of transcription; similarly, little differences were found among the enzyme isoforms expressed in buds as a function of length of exposure to iodine. These findings suggest that the induction of polyphenol oxidases mRNAs transcription could probe the inhibition of sprouting by iodine.

  18. Myostatin inhibits myoblast differentiation by down-regulating MyoD expression.

    PubMed

    Langley, Brett; Thomas, Mark; Bishop, Amy; Sharma, Mridula; Gilmour, Stewart; Kambadur, Ravi

    2002-12-20

    Myostatin, a negative regulator of myogenesis, is shown to function by controlling the proliferation of myoblasts. In this study we show that myostatin is an inhibitor of myoblast differentiation and that this inhibition is mediated through Smad 3. In vitro, increasing concentrations of recombinant mature myostatin reversibly blocked the myogenic differentiation of myoblasts, cultured in low serum media. Western and Northern blot analysis indicated that addition of myostatin to the low serum culture media repressed the levels of MyoD, Myf5, myogenin, and p21 leading to the inhibition of myogenic differentiation. The transient transfection of C(2)C(12) myoblasts with MyoD expressing constructs did not rescue myostatin-inhibited myogenic differentiation. Myostatin signaling specifically induced Smad 3 phosphorylation and increased Smad 3.MyoD association, suggesting that Smad 3 may mediate the myostatin signal by interfering with MyoD activity and expression. Consistent with this, the expression of dominant-negative Smad3 rescued the activity of a MyoD promoter-reporter in C(2)C(12) myoblasts treated with myostatin. Taken together, these results suggest that myostatin inhibits MyoD activity and expression via Smad 3 resulting in the failure of the myoblasts to differentiate into myotubes. Thus we propose that myostatin plays a critical role in myogenic differentiation and that the muscular hyperplasia and hypertrophy seen in animals that lack functional myostatin is because of deregulated proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts.

  19. ROCK inhibition enhances neurite outgrowth in neural stem cells by upregulating YAP expression in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xu-feng; Ye, Fei; Wang, Yan-bo; Feng, Da-xiong

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous axonal regeneration of neurons does not occur after spinal cord injury because of inhibition by myelin and other inhibitory factors. Studies have demonstrated that blocking the Rho/Rho-kinase (ROCK) pathway can promote neurite outgrowth in spinal cord injury models. In the present study, we investigated neurite outgrowth and neuronal differentiation in neural stem cells from the mouse subventricular zone after inhibition of ROCK in vitro. Inhibition of ROCK with Y-27632 increased neurite length, enhanced neuronal differentiation, and upregulated the expression of two major signaling pathway effectors, phospho-Akt and phospho-mitogen-activated protein kinase, and the Hippo pathway effector YAP. These results suggest that inhibition of ROCK mediates neurite outgrowth in neural stem cells by activating the Hippo signaling pathway. PMID:27482229

  20. c-Myc inhibits TP53INP1 expression via promoter methylation in esophageal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Wenhao; Yang, Qinyuan; Huang, Miaolong; Qiao, Yongxia; Xie, Yuan; Yu, Yongchun; Jing, An; Li, Zhi

    2011-02-11

    Research highlights: {yields} TP53INP1 expression is down-regulated in esophageal carcinoma and is associated with CGI-131 methylation. {yields} Inhibition of CGI-131 methylation upregulates TP53INP1 expression in ESCC cell lines. {yields} Ectopic expression of TP53INP1 inhibits growth of ESCC cells by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting cell cycle progression. {yields} c-Myc binds to the promoter of TP53INP1 in vivo and vitro and recruits DNMT3A to TP53INP1 promoter for CGI-131 methylation. -- Abstract: Tumor protein p53-induced nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1) is a well known stress-induced protein that plays a role in both cell cycle arrest and p53-mediated apoptosis. Loss of TP53INP1 expression has been reported in human melanoma, breast carcinoma, and gastric cancer. However, TP53INP1 expression and its regulatory mechanism in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain unclear. Our findings are in agreement with previous reports in that the expression of TP53INP1 was downregulated in 28% (10/36 cases) of ESCC lesions, and this was accompanied by significant promoter methylation. Overexpression of TP53INP1 induced G1 cell cycle arrest and increased apoptosis in ESCC cell lines (EC-1, EC-109, EC-9706). Furthermore, our study showed that the oncoprotein c-Myc bound to the core promoter of TP53INP1 and recruited DNA methyltransferase 3A to methylate the local promoter region, leading to the inhibition of TP53INP1 expression. Our findings revealed that TP53INP1 is a tumor suppressor in ESCC and that c-Myc-mediated DNA methylation-associated silencing of TP53INP1 contributed to the pathogenesis of human ESCC.

  1. ER Stress Mediates TiAl6V4 Particle-Induced Peri-Implant Osteolysis by Promoting RANKL Expression in Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenheng; Liu, Naicheng; Shi, Tongguo; Zhou, Gang; Wang, Zhenzhen; Gan, Jingjing; Guo, Ting; Qian, Hongbo; Bao, Nirong; Zhao, Jianning

    2015-01-01

    Wear particle-induced osteolysis is a major cause of aseptic loosening, which is one of the most common reasons for total hip arthroplasty (THA) failure. Previous studies have shown that the synovial fibroblasts present in the periprosthetic membrane are important targets of wear debris during osteolysis. However, the interaction mechanisms between the wear debris and fibroblasts remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress induced by TiAl6V4 particles (TiPs) in human synovial fibroblasts and calvarial resorption animal models. The expression of ER stress markers, including IRE1-α, GRP78/Bip and CHOP, were determined by western blot in fibroblasts that had been treated with TiPs for various times and concentration. To address whether ER stress was involved in the expression of RANKL, the effects of ER stress blockers (including 4-PBA and TUDCA) on the expression of RANKL in TiPs-treated fibroblasts were examined by real-time PCR, western blot and ELISA. Osteoclastogenesis was assessed by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Our study demonstrated that ER stress markers were markedly upregulated in TiPs-treated fibroblasts. Blocking ER stress significantly reduced the TiPs-induced expression of RANKL both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the inhibition of ER stress ameliorated wear particle-induced osteolysis in animal models. Taken together, these results suggested that the expression of RANKL induced by TiPs was mediated by ER stress in fibroblasts. Therefore, down regulating the ER stress of fibroblasts represents a potential therapeutic approach for wear particle-induced periprosthetic osteolysis. PMID:26366858

  2. Fibroblast growth factor 7 inhibits cholesterol 7{alpha}-hydroxylase gene expression in hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Zhichao; Yu, Xuemei; Wu, Weibin; Jia, Dongwei; Chen, Yinle; Ji, Lingling; Liu, Xijun; Peng, Xiaomin; Li, Yintao; Yang, Lili; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Gu, Jianxin; Ren, Shifang; Zhang, Songwen

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF7 strongly and rapidly down-regulates the expression of CYP7A1 in hepatocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF7 suppresses the expression of CYP7A1 via FGFR2 and downstream JNK activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blocking FGF7 abrogates HSC-induced inhibition of CYP7A1 expression in hepatocytes. -- Abstract: Cholesterol 7{alpha}-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. Transcription of the CYP7A1 gene is regulated by bile acids, nuclear receptors and cytokines. Fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) secreted from activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) during chronic liver fibrosis regulates hepatocyte survival and liver regeneration. In the carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced fibrotic mouse liver, we demonstrated that the expression of CYP7A1 was largely decreased while the expression of FGF7 was significantly increased. We further demonstrated that FGF7 inhibited CYP7A1 gene expression in hepatocytes. Knockdown study by short interfering RNA, kinase inhibition and phosphorylation assays revealed that the suppression of CYP7A1 expression by FGF7 was mediated by FGFR2 and its downstream JNK signaling cascade. The FGF7 neutralizing antibody restored CYP7A1 expression in Hep3B cells treated with conditioned medium from HSC. In summary, the data suggest that FGF7 is a novel regulator of CYP7A1 expression in hepatocytes and may prevent hepatocytes from accumulating toxic bile acids during liver injury and fibrosis.

  3. Targeting receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) expression induces apoptosis and inhibits prostate tumor growth

    SciTech Connect

    Elangovan, Indira; Thirugnanam, Sivasakthivel; Chen, Aoshuang; Zheng, Guoxing; Bosland, Maarten C.; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Gnanasekar, Munirathinam

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Targeting RAGE by RNAi induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing RAGE expression abrogates rHMGB1 mediated cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Down regulation of RAGE by RNAi inhibits PSA secretion of prostate cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knock down of RAGE abrogates prostate tumor growth in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Disruption of RAGE expression in prostate tumor activates death receptors. -- Abstract: Expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays a key role in the progression of prostate cancer. However, the therapeutic potential of targeting RAGE expression in prostate cancer is not yet evaluated. Therefore in this study, we have investigated the effects of silencing the expression of RAGE by RNAi approach both in vitro and in vivo. The results of this study showed that down regulation of RAGE expression by RNAi inhibited the cell proliferation of androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (DU-145) prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, targeting RAGE expression resulted in apoptotic elimination of these prostate cancer cells by activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 death signaling. Of note, the levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) were also reduced in LNCaP cells transfected with RAGE RNAi constructs. Importantly, the RAGE RNAi constructs when administered in nude mice bearing prostate tumors, inhibited the tumor growth by targeting the expression of RAGE, and its physiological ligand, HMGB1 and by up regulating death receptors DR4 and DR5 expression. Collectively, the results of this study for the first time show that targeting RAGE by RNAi may be a promising alternative therapeutic strategy for treating prostate cancer.

  4. The Free Fatty Acid Receptor G Protein-coupled Receptor 40 (GPR40) Protects from Bone Loss through Inhibition of Osteoclast Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Wauquier, Fabien; Philippe, Claire; Léotoing, Laurent; Mercier, Sylvie; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Lebecque, Patrice; Guicheux, Jérôme; Pilet, Paul; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Poitout, Vincent; Alquier, Thierry; Coxam, Véronique; Wittrant, Yohann

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms linking fat intake to bone loss remain unclear. By demonstrating the expression of the free fatty acid receptor G-coupled protein receptor 40 (GPR40) in bone cells, we hypothesized that this receptor may play a role in mediating the effects of fatty acids on bone remodeling. Using micro-CT analysis, we showed that GPR40−/− mice exhibit osteoporotic features suggesting a positive role of GPR40 on bone density. In primary cultures of bone marrow, we showed that GW9508, a GRP40 agonist, abolished bone-resorbing cell differentiation. This alteration of the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation occurred via the inhibition of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway as demonstrated by decrease in gene reporter activity, inhibitor of κB kinase (IKKα/β) activation, inhibitor of κB (IkBα) phosphorylation, and nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1) expression. The GPR40-dependent effect of GW9508 was confirmed using shRNA interference in osteoclast precursors and GPR40−/− primary cell cultures. In addition, in vivo administration of GW9508 counteracted ovariectomy-induced bone loss in wild-type but not GPR40−/− mice, enlightening the obligatory role of the GPR40 receptor. Then, in a context of growing prevalence of metabolic and age-related bone disorders, our results demonstrate for the first time in translational approaches that GPR40 is a relevant target for the design of new nutritional and therapeutic strategies to counter bone complications. PMID:23335512

  5. RANKL downregulates cell surface CXCR6 expression through JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway during osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Changhong; Zhao, Jinxia; Sun, Lin; Yao, Zhongqiang; Liu, Rui; Huang, Jiansheng; Liu, Xiangyuan

    2012-12-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCR6 is down-regulated during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCR6 reduction was nearly reversed by inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL16 alone does not positively regulate osteoclastogenesis. -- Abstract: The receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL), as a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, plays an essential role in osteoclast differentiation and function. Chemokines and their receptors have recently been shown to play critical roles in osteoclastogenesis, however, whether CXCL16-CXCR6 plays role in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis is unknown. In this study, we first reported that RANKL decreased CXCR6 in a dose-dependent manner, which may be through deactivation of Akt and STAT3 signaling induced by CXCL16. Interestingly, RANKL-mediated CXCR6 reduction may be associated to the activation of STAT3 by phosphorylation. When STAT3 activation was blocked by JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor AG490, RANKL failed to shut down CXCR6 expression during osteoclastogenesis. However, CXCL16 alone did not augment RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and did not alter RANKL-receptor RANK mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that reduction of CXCL16-CXCR6 is critical in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis, which is mainly through the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling. CXCL16-CXCR6 axis may become a novel target for the therapeutic intervention of bone resorbing diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis.

  6. Genomic targets, and histone acetylation and gene expression profiling of neural HDAC inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Atalaya, Jose P; Ito, Satomi; Valor, Luis M; Benito, Eva; Barco, Angel

    2013-09-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) have been shown to potentiate hippocampal-dependent memory and synaptic plasticity and to ameliorate cognitive deficits and degeneration in animal models for different neuropsychiatric conditions. However, the impact of these drugs on hippocampal histone acetylation and gene expression profiles at the genomic level, and the molecular mechanisms that underlie their specificity and beneficial effects in neural tissue, remains obscure. Here, we mapped four relevant histone marks (H3K4me3, AcH3K9,14, AcH4K12 and pan-AcH2B) in hippocampal chromatin and investigated at the whole-genome level the impact of HDAC inhibition on acetylation profiles and basal and activity-driven gene expression. HDAC inhibition caused a dramatic histone hyperacetylation that was largely restricted to active loci pre-marked with H3K4me3 and AcH3K9,14. In addition, the comparison of Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and gene expression profiles indicated that Trichostatin A-induced histone hyperacetylation, like histone hypoacetylation induced by histone acetyltransferase deficiency, had a modest impact on hippocampal gene expression and did not affect the transient transcriptional response to novelty exposure. However, HDAC inhibition caused the rapid induction of a homeostatic gene program related to chromatin deacetylation. These results illuminate both the relationship between hippocampal gene expression and histone acetylation and the mechanism of action of these important neuropsychiatric drugs.

  7. Salmonella overcomes tumor immune tolerance by inhibition of tumor indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 expression.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Yu-Diao; Lee, Che-Hsin

    2016-01-05

    Over the past decades, Salmonella has been proven capable of inhibiting tumor growth. It can specifically target tumors and due to its facultative anaerobic property, can be more penetrative than other drug therapies. However, the molecular mechanism by which Salmonella inhibits tumor growth is still incompletely known. The antitumor therapeutic effect mediated by Salmonella is associated with an inflammatory immune response at the tumor site and a T cell-dependent immune response. Many tumors have been proven to have a high expression of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO), which is a rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes tryptophan to kynurenine, thus causing immune tolerance within the tumor microenvironment. With decreased expression of IDO, increased immune response can be observed, which might be helpful when developing cancer immunotherapy. The expression of IDO was decreased after tumor cells were infected with Salmonella. In addition, Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of phospho-protein kinase B (P-AKT), phospho-mammalian targets of rapamycin (P-mTOR), and phospho-p70 ribosomal s6 kinase (P-p70s6K) in tumor cells were decreased after Salmonella infection. In conclusion, our results indicate that Salmonella inhibits IDO expression and plays a crucial role in anti-tumor therapy, which might be a promising strategy combined with other cancer treatments.

  8. Chicoric acid suppresses BAFF expression in B lymphocytes by inhibiting NF-κB activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingxi; Huang, Gang; Gao, Min; Shen, Xiaodong; Gong, Wei; Xu, Zhizhen; Zeng, Yijun; He, Fengtian

    2017-03-01

    B cell activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. The inhibition of BAFF expression is an emerging therapeutic approach for these disorders. Chicoric acid (CA), a bioactive phytochemical found in several widely used traditional medicinal plants, has significant anti-inflammatory activity and anti-arthritic effects. However, the role of CA in modulation of BAFF expression remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that CA reduced BAFF expression in human B lymphocyte cell lines and decreased the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the BAFF promoter region. Furthermore, CA inhibited both the nuclear translocation of p65 (the subunit of NF-κB) and the phosphorylation of IκBα (inhibitor of NF-κB). These results suggest that CA suppresses BAFF expression by inhibiting NF-κB activity, and CA may serve as a novel therapeutic agent to down-regulate excessive BAFF expression in autoimmune diseases.

  9. Salmonella overcomes tumor immune tolerance by inhibition of tumor indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Yu-Diao; Lee, Che-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, Salmonella has been proven capable of inhibiting tumor growth. It can specifically target tumors and due to its facultative anaerobic property, can be more penetrative than other drug therapies. However, the molecular mechanism by which Salmonella inhibits tumor growth is still incompletely known. The antitumor therapeutic effect mediated by Salmonella is associated with an inflammatory immune response at the tumor site and a T cell-dependent immune response. Many tumors have been proven to have a high expression of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO), which is a rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes tryptophan to kynurenine, thus causing immune tolerance within the tumor microenvironment. With decreased expression of IDO, increased immune response can be observed, which might be helpful when developing cancer immunotherapy. The expression of IDO was decreased after tumor cells were infected with Salmonella. In addition, Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of phospho-protein kinase B (P-AKT), phospho-mammalian targets of rapamycin (P-mTOR), and phospho-p70 ribosomal s6 kinase (P-p70s6K) in tumor cells were decreased after Salmonella infection. In conclusion, our results indicate that Salmonella inhibits IDO expression and plays a crucial role in anti-tumor therapy, which might be a promising strategy combined with other cancer treatments. PMID:26517244

  10. Regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human mesangial cells--transcriptional inhibition by IL-13.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Cazorla, M; Pérez-Sala, D; Ros, J; Jiménez, W; Fresno, M; Lamas, S

    1999-02-01

    Activated mesangial cells may play an important part in glomerulonephritis. Cytokines can modulate the release of prostanoids by human mesangial cells (HMC). We have investigated the effects of pro-inflammatory stimuli on COX-2 expression in HMC and its potential modulation by interleukin (IL)-13. HMC released increased amounts of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) after treatment with several combinations of IL-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and/or lipopolysaccharide. Increases in PGE2 correlated with the induction of COX-2 protein expression. The accumulation of PGE2 elicited by a combination of IL-1 beta/TNF-alpha correlated closely with the temporal pattern of COX-2 protein expression, which reflected the induction of COX-2 mRNA. IL-13 inhibited IL-1 beta/TNF-alpha-elicited PGE2 production, as well as COX-2 protein and mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent fashion. With 50 ng.mL-1 IL-13 these parameters were inhibited by 90, 80 and 84%, respectively. In HMC transfected with the 5' regulatory region of the COX-2 gene, IL-13 suppressed cytokine-induced promoter activation. Our results suggest that COX-2 expression is a major target for IL-13-mediated abrogation of prostaglandin release by HMC and support that this process takes place by transcriptional inhibition of the COX-2 gene.

  11. Inhibiting histone deacetylases suppresses glucose metabolism and hepatocellular carcinoma growth by restoring FBP1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Jin, Xin; Yan, Yuqian; Shao, Yingjie; Pan, Yunqian; Roberts, Lewis R.; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Haojie; Jiang, Jingting

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the world. Elevated glucose metabolism in the availability of oxygen, a phenomenon called the Warburg effect, is important for cancer cell growth. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1) is a rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis and is frequently lost in various types of cancer. Here, we demonstrated that expression of FBP1 was downregulated in HCC patient specimens and decreased expression of FBP1 associated with poor prognosis. Low expression of FBP1 correlated with high levels of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and HDAC2 proteins in HCC patient tissues. Treatment of HCC cells with HDAC inhibitors or knockdown of HDAC1 and/or HDAC2 restored FBP1 expression and inhibited HCC cell growth. HDAC-mediated suppression of FBP1 expression correlated with decreased histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27Ac) in the FBP1 enhancer. Restored expression of FBP1 decreased glucose reduction and lactate secretion and inhibited HCC cell growth in vitro and tumor growth in mice. Our data reveal that loss of FBP1 due to histone deacetylation associates with poor prognosis of HCC and restored FBP1 expression by HDAC inhibitors suppresses HCC growth. Our findings suggest that repression of FBP1 by HDACs has important implications for HCC prognosis and treatment. PMID:28262837

  12. Protein Expression Signatures for Inhibition of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-mediated Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Matthew V.; Manning, H. Charles; Coffey, Robert J.; Liebler, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of cellular signaling networks typically involves targeted measurements of phosphorylated protein intermediates. However, phosphoproteomic analyses usually require affinity enrichment of phosphopeptides and can be complicated by artifactual changes in phosphorylation caused by uncontrolled preanalytical variables, particularly in the analysis of tissue specimens. We asked whether changes in protein expression, which are more stable and easily analyzed, could reflect network stimulation and inhibition. We employed this approach to analyze stimulation and inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by EGF and selective EGFR inhibitors. Shotgun analysis of proteomes from proliferating A431 cells, EGF-stimulated cells, and cells co-treated with the EGFR inhibitors cetuximab or gefitinib identified groups of differentially expressed proteins. Comparisons of these protein groups identified 13 proteins whose EGF-induced expression changes were reversed by both EGFR inhibitors. Targeted multiple reaction monitoring analysis verified differential expression of 12 of these proteins, which comprise a candidate EGFR inhibition signature. We then tested these 12 proteins by multiple reaction monitoring analysis in three other models: 1) a comparison of DiFi (EGFR inhibitor-sensitive) and HCT116 (EGFR-insensitive) cell lines, 2) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded mouse xenograft DiFi and HCT116 tumors, and 3) in tissue biopsies from a patient with the gastric hyperproliferative disorder Ménétrier's disease who was treated with cetuximab. Of the proteins in the candidate signature, a core group, including c-Jun, Jagged-1, and Claudin 4, were decreased by EGFR inhibitors in all three models. Although the goal of these studies was not to validate a clinically useful EGFR inhibition signature, the results confirm the hypothesis that clinically used EGFR inhibitors generate characteristic protein expression changes. This work further outlines a prototypical

  13. Downregulation of HOTAIR Expression Mediated Anti-Metastatic Effect of Artesunate on Cervical Cancer by Inhibiting COX-2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lixin; Qian, Hua; Sha, Min; Luan, Zhengyun; Lin, Mei; Yuan, Donglan; Li, Xiaokang; Huang, Junxing; Ye, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Artesunate (ART) has anti-cancer activities for a variety of solid tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-metastatic effect of ART on cervical cancer cells. In vivo anti-metastatic effect of ART was investigated in mice with the lung metastasis model by the subcutaneous injection of ART. The interaction of HOTAIR and COX-2 was measured by RNA immunoprecipitation and RNA pull-down assay. The effect of ART on metastasis of CaSki and Hela cells was evaluated by invasion and migration assay. We found that ART inhibited cervical cancer metastasis and HOTAIR expression. HOTAIR overexpression partially abolished the anti-metastatic effect of ART on cervical cancer cells. In addition, HOTAIR can interact with COX-2 to positively regulate COX-2 expression and catalytic activity. Finally, overexpression of COX-2 reversed the effect of HOTAIR knockdown on Hela cell migration and invasion. Taken together, our data revealed that ART may elicit anti-metastatic effect against cervical cancer by inhibition of HOTAIR expression, which resulted in the decrease of COX-2 expression. PMID:27736969

  14. Artemisia princeps Inhibits Biofilm Formation and Virulence-Factor Expression of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Na-Young; Kang, Sun-Young; Kim, Kang-Ju

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used ethanol extract of A. princeps and investigated its antibacterial effects against MRSA. Ethanol extract of A. princeps significantly inhibited MRSA growth and organic acid production during glucose metabolism at concentrations greater than 1 mg/mL (P < 0.05). MRSA biofilm formation was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and safranin staining. A. princeps extract was found to inhibit MRSA biofilm formation at concentrations higher than 2 mg/mL significantly (P < 0.05). Bactericidal effects of the A. princeps were observed using confocal laser microscopy, which showed that A. princeps was bactericidal in a dose-dependent manner. Using real-time PCR, expression of mecA, an antibiotic-resistance gene of MRSA, was observed, along with that of sea, agrA, and sarA. A. princeps significantly inhibited mecA, sea, agrA, and sarA, mRNA expression at the concentrations greater than 1 mg/mL (P < 0.05). The phytochemical analysis of A. princeps showed a relatively high content of organic acids and glycosides. The results of this study suggest that the ethanol extract of A. princeps may inhibit proliferation, acid production, biofilm formation, and virulence gene expressions of MRSA, which may be related to organic acids and glycosides, the major components in the extract. PMID:26247012

  15. Histone deacetylase 3 inhibits expression of PUMA in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lifeng; Pan, Min; Sun, Jie; Lu, Haiqi; Shen, Qi; Zhang, Shengjie; Jiang, Tingting; Liu, Liangyi; Jin, Wei; Chen, Yan; Wang, Xian; Jin, Hongchuan

    2013-01-01

    During cancer development, tumor suppressor genes were silenced by promoter methylation or histone deacetylation. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important to maintain histone deacetylation. HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) were thus proposed as a new therapeutic approach to cancer. The current study aims to understand the effect and molecular mechanisms of HDACis on gastric cancer cells. Trichostatin A (TSA) significantly inhibited the growth of gastric cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. Gene profiling results showed PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) as one of 122 genes upregulated in TSA-treated gastric cancer cells. PUMA was downregulated in gastric cancer cell lines and primary gastric carcinoma tissues. Patients with low PUMA expression had significant decreases in overall survival (HR, 2.04; p = 0.047). Ectopic PUMA expression inhibited the growth of gastric cancer cells while PUMA depletion promoted cellular growth. The knockdown of HDAC3 but not other HDACs upregulated PUMA expression. HDAC3 could bind to PUMA promoter, which was abrogated after TSA treatment. In contrast to TSA and SB, HDAC3 siRNA failed to upregulate p53 expression but promoted the interaction of p53 with PUMA promoter. In summary, proapoptotic PUMA was downregulated in gastric cancer and its mRNA expression level is a valuable prognosis factor for gastric cancer. HDAC3 is important to downregulate PUMA expression in gastric cancer and HDACis, like TSA, promoted PUMA expression through stabilizing p53 in addition to HDAC3 inhibition. In combination with chemotherapy, targeting HDAC3 might be a promising strategy to induce apoptosis of gastric cancer cells.

  16. The conditional inhibition of gene expression in cultured Drosophila cells by antisense RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Bunch, T A; Goldstein, L S

    1989-01-01

    Genes producing antisense RNA are becoming important tools for the selective inhibition of gene expression. Experiments in different biological systems, targeting different mRNAs have yielded diverse results with respect to the success of the technique and its mechanism of action. We have examined the potential of three antisense genes, whose transcription is driven by a Drosophila metallothionein promoter, to inhibit the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) or a microtubule associated protein (205K MAP) in cultured Drosophila cells. Expression of ADH was significantly reduced upon induction of the anti-ADH genes. The ADH mRNA does not appear to be destabilized by the presence of antisense RNA but rather exists at similar levels in hybrid form. Hybrids are detected with both spliced and unspliced ADH RNA. In contrast to these results, antisense genes producing antisense RNA in great excess to 205K MAP mRNA, which is itself far less abundant than the ADH mRNA, failed to show any inhibition of 205K MAP expression. Images PMID:2481266

  17. Induction of type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase expression inhibits proliferation and migration of renal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Poplawski, Piotr; Rybicka, Beata; Boguslawska, Joanna; Rodzik, Katarzyna; Visser, Theo J; Nauman, Alicja; Piekielko-Witkowska, Agnieszka

    2017-02-15

    Type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO1) regulates peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones that control cellular proliferation, differentiation and metabolism. The significance of DIO1 in cancer is unknown. In this study we hypothesized that diminished expression of DIO1, observed in renal cancer, contributes to the carcinogenic process in the kidney. Here, we demonstrate that ectopic expression of DIO1 in renal cancer cells changes the expression of genes controlling cell cycle, including cyclin E1 and E2F5, and results in inhibition of proliferation. The expression of genes encoding collagens (COL1A1, COL4A2, COL5A1), integrins (ITGA4, ITGA5, ITGB3) and transforming growth factor-β-induced (TGFBI) is significantly altered in renal cancer cells with induced expression of DIO1. Finally, we show that overexpression of DIO1 inhibits migration of renal cancer cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that loss of DIO1 contributes to renal carcinogenesis and that its induced expression protects cells against cancerous proliferation and migration.

  18. Inhibition of Nischarin Expression Promotes Neurite Outgrowth through Regulation of PAK Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yuemin; Li, Yuying; Lu, Lingchao; Zhang, Ruyi; Zeng, Linghui; Wang, Linlin; Zhang, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Nischarin is a cytoplasmic protein expressed in various organs that plays an inhibitory role in cell migration and invasion and the carcinogenesis of breast cancer cells. We previously reported that Nischarin is highly expressed in neuronal cell lines and is differentially expressed in the brain tissue of adult rats. However, the physiological function of Nischarin in neural cells remains unknown. Here, we show that Nischarin is expressed in rat primary cortical neurons but not in astrocytes. Nischarin is localized around the nucleus and dendrites. Using shRNA to knockdown the expression of endogenous Nischarin significantly increases the percentage of neurite-bearing cells, remarkably increases neurite length, and accelerates neurite extension in neuronal cells. Silencing Nischarin expression also promotes dendrite elongation in rat cortical neurons where Nischarin interacts with p21-activated kinase 1/2 (PAK1/2) and negatively regulates phosphorylation of both PAK1 and PAK2. The stimulation of neurite growth observed in cells with decreased levels of Nischarin is partially abolished by IPA3-mediated inhibition of PAK1 activity. Our findings indicate that endogenous Nischarin inhibits neurite outgrowth by blocking PAK1 activation in neurons. PMID:26670864

  19. CB₂ cannabinoid receptors inhibit synaptic transmission when expressed in cultured autaptic neurons.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Brady K; Straiker, Alex; Mackie, Ken

    2012-09-01

    The role of CB₂ in the central nervous system, particularly in neurons, has generated much controversy. Fueling the controversy are imperfect tools, which have made conclusive identification of CB₂ expressing neurons problematic. Imprecise localization of CB₂ has made it difficult to determine its function in neurons. Here we avoid the localization controversy and directly address the question if CB₂ can modulate neurotransmission. CB₂ was expressed in excitatory hippocampal autaptic neurons obtained from CB₁ null mice. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were made from these neurons to determine the effects of CB₂ on short-term synaptic plasticity. CB₂ expression restored depolarization induced suppression of excitation to these neurons, which was lost following genetic ablation of CB₁. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) mimicked the effects of depolarization in CB₂ expressing neurons. Interestingly, ongoing basal production of 2-AG resulted in constitutive activation of CB₂, causing a tonic inhibition of neurotransmission that was relieved by the CB₂ antagonist AM630 or the diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor RHC80267. Through immunocytochemistry and analysis of spontaneous EPSCs, paired pulse ratios and coefficients of variation we determined that CB₂ exerts its function at a presynaptic site of action, likely through inhibition of voltage gated calcium channels. Therefore CB₂ expressed in neurons effectively mimics the actions of CB₁. Thus neuronal CB₂ is well suited to integrate into conventional neuronal endocannabinoid signaling processes, with its specific role determined by its unique and highly inducible expression profile.

  20. Apigenin prevents UVB-induced cyclooxygenase 2 expression: coupled mRNA stabilization and translational inhibition.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xin; Van Dross, Rukiyah T; Abu-Yousif, Adnan; Morrison, Aubrey R; Pelling, Jill C

    2007-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is a key enzyme in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, and COX-2 overexpression plays an important role in carcinogenesis. Exposure to UVB strongly increased COX-2 protein expression in mouse 308 keratinocytes, and this induction was inhibited by apigenin, a nonmutagenic bioflavonoid that has been shown to prevent mouse skin carcinogenesis induced by both chemical carcinogens and UV exposure. Our previous study suggested that one pathway by which apigenin inhibits UV-induced and basal COX-2 expression is through modulation of USF transcriptional activity in the 5' upstream region of the COX-2 gene. Here, we found that apigenin treatment also increased COX-2 mRNA stability, and the inhibitory effect of apigenin on UVB-induced luciferase reporter gene activity was dependent on the AU-rich element of the COX-2 3'-untranslated region. Furthermore, we identified two RNA-binding proteins, HuR and the T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen 1-related protein (TIAR), which were associated with endogenous COX-2 mRNA in 308 keratinocytes, and apigenin treatment increased their localization to cell cytoplasm. More importantly, reduction of HuR levels by small interfering RNA inhibited apigenin-mediated stabilization of COX-2 mRNA. Cells expressing reduced TIAR showed marked resistance to apigenin's ability to inhibit UVB-induced COX-2 expression. Taken together, these results indicate that in addition to transcriptional regulation, another mechanism by which apigenin prevents COX-2 expression is through mediating TIAR suppression of translation.

  1. Cyclic strain inhibits acute pro-inflammatory gene expression in aortic valve interstitial cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kathryn E; Metzler, Scott A; Warnock, James N

    2010-02-01

    Mechanical in vitro preconditioning of tissue engineered heart valves is viewed as an essential process for tissue development prior to in vivo implantation. However, a number of pro-inflammatory genes are mechanosensitive and their elaboration could elicit an adverse response in the host. We hypothesized that the application of normal physiological levels of strain to isolated valve interstitial cells would inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Cells were subjected to 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% strain. Expression of VCAM-1, MCP-1, GM-CSF and OPN was then measured using qRT-PCR. With the exception of OPN, all genes were significantly up regulated when no strain was applied. MCP-1 expression was significantly lower in the presence of strain, although strain magnitude did not affect the expression level. VCAM-1 and GM-CSF had the lowest expression levels at 15% strain, which represent normal physiological conditions. These findings were confirmed using confocal microscopy. Additionally, pSMAD 2/3 and IkappaBalpha expression were imaged to elucidate potential mechanisms of gene expression. Data showed that 15% strain increased pSMAD 2/3 expression and prevented phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha. In conclusion, cyclic strain reduces expression of pro-inflammatory genes, which may be beneficial for the in vitro pre-conditioning of tissue engineered heart valves.

  2. Sulfonylurea receptors inhibit the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) by reducing surface expression.

    PubMed

    Konstas, A A; Bielfeld-Ackermann, A; Korbmacher, C

    2001-08-01

    In the kidney the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) is co-expressed with the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR), an ABC protein that shares a high degree of homology with the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and reportedly modifies ENaC in various preparations. To investigate a possible regulatory relationship between SUR and ENaC, we performed co-expression studies on Xenopus laevis oocytes, which were assayed for amiloride-sensitive currents (DeltaIami). Moreover, a chemiluminescence assay was used to investigate the surface expression of extracellular hemagglutinin-tagged SUR1 (SUR1-HA) or HA-tagged ENaC (ENaC-HA). In oocytes co-injected with SUR1/ENaC (or SUR2B/ENaC) DeltaIami was reduced by congruent with 53% (or congruent with 45%) compared to DeltaIami measured in matched control oocytes injected with ENaC alone. The inhibitory effect of SUR on DeltaIami was preserved in oocytes expressing ENaC with C-terminally truncated subunits. Co-expression of SURs did not confer sensitivity of DeltaIami to diazoxide, pinacidil, tolbutamide, or glibenclamide. ENaC does not facilitate the surface expression of SUR1-HA, which is known to be retained in the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) by an ER-retention/retrieval signal. SUR1-HAAAA, a mutant that lacks this signal, still inhibits ENaC currents. Chemiluminescence was reduced by congruent with 49% in oocytes co-expressing ENaC-HA/SUR1 compared to that in control oocytes expressing ENaC-HA alone. We conclude that SUR does not interact with ENaC at the level of the plasma membrane but that it inhibits DeltaIami by reducing surface expression of the channel.

  3. Inhibition and gene expression of Nitrosomonas europaea biofilms exposed to phenol and toluene.

    PubMed

    Lauchnor, Ellen G; Radniecki, Tyler S; Semprini, Lewis

    2011-04-01

    Pure culture biofilms of the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea were grown in a Drip Flow Biofilm Reactor and exposed to the aromatic hydrocarbons phenol and toluene. Ammonia oxidation rates, as measured by nitrite production in the biofilms, were inhibited 50% when exposed to 56 µM phenol or 100 µM toluene, while 50% inhibition of suspended cells occurred at 8 µM phenol or 20 µM toluene. Biofilm-grown cells dispersed into liquid medium and immediately exposed to phenol or toluene experienced similar inhibition levels as batch grown cells, indicating that mass transfer may be a factor in N. europaea biofilm resistance. Whole genome microarray analysis of gene expression was used to detect genes up-regulated in biofilms during toluene and phenol exposure. Two genes, a putative pirin protein (NE1545) and a putative inner membrane protein (NE1546) were up-regulated during phenol exposure, but no genes were up-regulated during toluene exposure. Using qRT-PCR, up-regulation of NE1545 was detected in biofilms and suspended cells exposed to a range of phenol concentrations and levels of inhibition. In the biofilms, NE1545 expression was up-regulated an average of 13-fold over the range of phenol concentrations tested, and was essentially independent of phenol concentration. However, the expression of NE1545 in suspended cells increased from 20-fold at 7 µM phenol up to 80-fold at 30 µM phenol. This study demonstrates that biofilms of N. europaea are more resistant than suspended cells to inhibition of ammonia oxidation by phenol and toluene, even though the global transcriptional responses to the inhibitors do not differ in N. europaea between the suspended and attached growth states.

  4. PAX3 inhibits β-Tubulin-III expression and neuronal differentiation of neural stem cell.

    PubMed

    Cao, Sixian; Du, Jinfeng; Lv, Yan; Lin, Hengrong; Mao, Zuming; Xu, Man; Liu, Mei; Liu, Yan

    2017-02-20

    PAX3 functions at the nodal point in neural stem cell maintenance and differentiation. Using bioinformatics methods, we identified PAX3 as a potential regulator of β-Tubulin-III (TUBB3) gene transcription, and the results indicated that PAX3 might be involved in neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation by orchestrating the expression of cytoskeletal proteins. In the present study, we reported that PAX3 could inhibit the differentiation of NSCs and the expression of TUBB3. Further, using luciferase and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we demonstrated that PAX3 could bind to the promoter region of TUBB3 and inhibit TUBB3 transcription. Finally, we confirmed that PAX3 could bind to the promoter region of endogenous TUBB3 in the native chromatin of NSCs. These findings indicated that PAX3 is a pivotal factor targeting various molecules during differentiation of NSCs in vitro.

  5. Proteomic analysis of MG132-treated germinating pollen reveals expression signatures associated with proteasome inhibition.

    PubMed

    Vannini, Candida; Bracale, Marcella; Crinelli, Rita; Marconi, Valerio; Campomenosi, Paola; Marsoni, Milena; Scoccianti, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Chemical inhibition of the proteasome has been previously found to effectively impair pollen germination and tube growth in vitro. However, the mediators of these effects at the molecular level are unknown. By performing 2DE proteomic analysis, 24 differentially expressed protein spots, representing 14 unique candidate proteins, were identified in the pollen of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) germinated in the presence of the MG132 proteasome inhibitor. qPCR analysis revealed that 11 of these proteins are not up-regulated at the mRNA level, but are most likely stabilized by proteasome inhibition. These differentially expressed proteins are predicted to function in various pathways including energy and lipid metabolism, cell wall synthesis, protein synthesis/degradation and stress responses. In line with this evidence, the MG132-induced changes in the proteome were accompanied by an increase in ATP and ROS content and by an alteration in fatty acid composition.

  6. Hyperglycaemia inhibits REG3A expression to exacerbate TLR3-mediated skin inflammation in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yelin; Quan, Yanchun; Liu, Yuanqi; Liu, Keiwei; Li, Hongquan; Jiang, Ziwei; Zhang, Tian; Lei, Hu; Radek, Katherine A.; Li, Dongqing; Wang, Zhenhua; Lu, Jilong; Wang, Wang; Ji, Shizhao; Xia, Zhaofan; Lai, Yuping

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulated inflammatory responses are known to impair wound healing in diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we show that the antimicrobial protein REG3A controls TLR3-mediated inflammation after skin injury. This control is mediated by REG3A-induced SHP-1 protein, and acts selectively on TLR3-activated JNK2. In diabetic mouse skin, hyperglycaemia inhibits the expression of IL-17-induced IL-33 via glucose glycation. The decrease in cutaneous IL-33 reduces REG3A expression in epidermal keratinocytes. The reduction in REG3A is associated with lower levels of SHP-1, which normally inhibits TLR3-induced JNK2 phosphorylation, thereby increasing inflammation in skin wounds. To our knowledge, these findings show for the first time that REG3A can modulate specific cutaneous inflammatory responses and that the decrease in cutaneous REG3A exacerbates inflammation in diabetic skin wounds. PMID:27830702

  7. Matricaria chamomilla extract inhibits both development of morphine dependence and expression of abstinence syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Adel; Hashem, Tahia; Mohamed, Mahmoud; Ashry, Esraa

    2003-05-01

    The effect of Matricaria chamomilla (M. chamomilla) on the development of morphine dependence and expression of abstinence was investigated in rats. The frequencies of withdrawal behavioral signs (paw tremor, rearing, teeth chattering, body shakes, ptosis, diarrhea, and urination) and weight loss induced by naloxone challenge were demonstrated in morphine-dependent rats receiving M. chamomilla extract or saline. The withdrawal behavioral manifestations and weight loss were inhibited significantly by chronic co-administration of M. chamomilla extract with morphine. Administration of a single dose of M. chamomilla before the naloxone challenge in morphine-dependent animals abolished the withdrawal behavioral manifestations. The dramatic increase of plasma cAMP induced by naloxone-precipitated abstinence was prevented by chronic co-administration of M. chamomilla extract with morphine. These results suggest that M. chamomilla extract inhibits the development of morphine dependence and expression of abstinence syndrome.

  8. Flos Farfarae Inhibits Enterovirus 71-Induced Cell Injury by Preventing Viral Replication and Structural Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ya Wen; Yeh, Chia Feng; Yen, Ming Hong; Lu, Chi Yu; Chiang, Lien Chai; Shieh, Den En; Chang, Jung San

    2017-02-23

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can cause airway symptoms, brainstem encephalitis, neurogenic shock, and neurogenic pulmonary edema with high morbidity and mortality. There is no proven therapeutic modality. Flos Farfarae is the dried flower bud of Tussilago farfara L. that has been used to manage airway illnesses for thousands of years. It has neuro-protective activity and has been used to manage neuro-inflammatory diseases. However, it is unknown whether Flos Farfarae has activity against EV71-induced neuropathy. The current study used both human foreskin fibroblast (CCFS-1/KMC) and human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell lines to test the hypothesis that a hot water extract of Flos Farfarae could effectively inhibit EV71 infection. The authenticity of Flos Farfarae was confirmed by HPLC-UV fingerprint. Through plaque reduction assays and flow cytometry, Flos Farfarae was found to inhibit EV71 infection ([Formula: see text]). Inhibition of viral replication and protein expression were further confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and western blot, respectively. The estimated IC[Formula: see text]s were 106.3[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL in CCFS-1/KMC, and 15.0[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL in RD cells. Therefore, Flos Farfarae could be beneficial to inhibit EV71 infection by preventing viral replication and structural protein expression.

  9. Irradiation selectively inhibits expression from the androgen-dependent Pem homeobox gene promoter in sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Maiti, S; Meistrich, M L; Wilson, G; Shetty, G; Marcelli, M; McPhaul, M J; Morris, P L; Wilkinson, M F

    2001-04-01

    How radiation blocks spermatogenesis in certain strains of rats, such as LBNF(1), is not known. Because the block depends on androgen, we propose that androgen affects Sertoli cell function in irradiated LBNF(1) rats, resulting in the failure of spermatogonial differentiation. To begin to identify genes that may participate in this irradiation-induced blockade of spermatogenesis, we investigated the expression of several Sertoli genes in response to irradiation. The expression of the PEM: homeobox gene from its androgen-dependent Sertoli-specific proximal promoter (Pp) was dramatically reduced more than 100-fold in response to irradiation. In contrast, most other genes and gene products reported to be localized to the Sertoli cell, including FSH receptor (FSHR), androgen receptor (AR), SGP1, and the transcription factor CREB, did not exhibit significant changes in expression, whereas transferrin messenger RNA (mRNA) expression dramatically increased in response to irradiation. Irradiation also decreased Pp-driven PEM: mRNA levels in mouse testes (approximately 10-fold), although higher doses of irradiation than in rats were required to inhibit PEM: gene expression in testes of mice, consistent with their greater radioresistance. The decrease in Pem gene expression in mouse testis was also selective, as the expression of CREB, GATA-1, and SGP1 were little affected by irradiation. We conclude that the dramatic irradiation-triggered reduction of Pem expression in Sertoli cells is a conserved response that may be a marker for functional changes in response to irradiation.

  10. Inhibition of Adhesion Molecule Gene Expression and Cell Adhesion by the Metabolic Regulator PGC-1α.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Neri; Roeder, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    Cell adhesion plays an important role in determining cell shape and function in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological conditions. While links between metabolism and cell adhesion were previously suggested, the exact context and molecular details of such a cross-talk remain incompletely understood. Here we show that PGC-1α, a pivotal transcriptional co-activator of metabolic gene expression, acts to inhibit expression of cell adhesion genes. Using cell lines, primary cells and mice, we show that both endogenous and exogenous PGC-1α down-regulate expression of a variety of cell adhesion molecules. Furthermore, results obtained using mRNA stability measurements as well as intronic RNA expression are consistent with a transcriptional effect of PGC-1α on cell adhesion gene expression. Interestingly, the L2/L3 motifs of PGC-1α, necessary for nuclear hormone receptor activation, are only partly required for inhibition of several cell adhesion genes by PGC-1α. Finally, PGC-1α is able to modulate adhesion of primary fibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells to extracellular matrix proteins. Our results delineate a cross talk between a central pathway controlling metabolic regulation and cell adhesion, and identify PGC-1α as a molecular link between these two major cellular networks.

  11. Targeting Chromatin Regulators Inhibits Leukemogenic Gene Expression in NPM1 Mutant Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Michael W M; Song, Evelyn; Feng, Zhaohui; Sinha, Amit; Chen, Chun-Wei; Deshpande, Aniruddha J; Cusan, Monica; Farnoud, Noushin; Mupo, Annalisa; Grove, Carolyn; Koche, Richard; Bradner, James E; de Stanchina, Elisa; Vassiliou, George S; Hoshii, Takayuki; Armstrong, Scott A

    2016-10-01

    Homeobox (HOX) proteins and the receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3 are frequently highly expressed and mutated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Aberrant HOX expression is found in nearly all AMLs that harbor a mutation in the Nucleophosmin (NPM1) gene, and FLT3 is concomitantly mutated in approximately 60% of these cases. Little is known about how mutant NPM1 (NPM1(mut)) cells maintain aberrant gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that the histone modifiers MLL1 and DOT1L control HOX and FLT3 expression and differentiation in NPM1(mut) AML. Using a CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing domain screen, we show NPM1(mut) AML to be exceptionally dependent on the menin binding site in MLL1. Pharmacologic small-molecule inhibition of the menin-MLL1 protein interaction had profound antileukemic activity in human and murine models of NPM1(mut) AML. Combined pharmacologic inhibition of menin-MLL1 and DOT1L resulted in dramatic suppression of HOX and FLT3 expression, induction of differentiation, and superior activity against NPM1(mut) leukemia.

  12. Inhibition of Adhesion Molecule Gene Expression and Cell Adhesion by the Metabolic Regulator PGC-1α

    PubMed Central

    Minsky, Neri; Roeder, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Cell adhesion plays an important role in determining cell shape and function in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological conditions. While links between metabolism and cell adhesion were previously suggested, the exact context and molecular details of such a cross-talk remain incompletely understood. Here we show that PGC-1α, a pivotal transcriptional co-activator of metabolic gene expression, acts to inhibit expression of cell adhesion genes. Using cell lines, primary cells and mice, we show that both endogenous and exogenous PGC-1α down-regulate expression of a variety of cell adhesion molecules. Furthermore, results obtained using mRNA stability measurements as well as intronic RNA expression are consistent with a transcriptional effect of PGC-1α on cell adhesion gene expression. Interestingly, the L2/L3 motifs of PGC-1α, necessary for nuclear hormone receptor activation, are only partly required for inhibition of several cell adhesion genes by PGC-1α. Finally, PGC-1α is able to modulate adhesion of primary fibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells to extracellular matrix proteins. Our results delineate a cross talk between a central pathway controlling metabolic regulation and cell adhesion, and identify PGC-1α as a molecular link between these two major cellular networks. PMID:27984584

  13. Nutlin-3 down-regulates retinoblastoma protein expression and inhibits muscle cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Erica M.; Niu, MengMeng; Bergholz, Johann; Jim Xiao, Zhi-Xiong

    2015-05-29

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene plays a critical role in regulation of proliferation, cell death and differentiation. The MDM2 oncoprotein is a major negative regulator for p53 by binding to and targeting p53 for proteasome-mediated degradation. The small molecule inhibitor, nutlin-3, disrupts MDM2-p53 interaction resulting in stabilization and activation of p53 protein. We have previously shown that nutlin-3 activates p53, leading to MDM2 accumulation as concomitant of reduced retinoblastoma (Rb) protein stability. It is well known that Rb is important in muscle development and myoblast differentiation and that rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), or cancer of the skeletal muscle, typically harbors MDM2 amplification. In this study, we show that nutlin-3 inhibited myoblast proliferation and effectively prevented myoblast differentiation, as evidenced by lack of expression of muscle differentiation markers including myogenin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC), as well as a failure to form multinucleated myotubes, which were associated with dramatic increases in MDM2 expression and decrease in Rb protein levels. These results indicate that nutlin-3 can effectively inhibit muscle cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Nutlin-3 inhibits myoblast proliferation and prevents differentiation into myotubes. • Nutlin-3 increases MDM2 expression and down-regulates Rb protein levels. • This study has implication in nutlin-3 treatment of rhabdomyosarcomas.

  14. Metformin inhibits prostate cancer cell proliferation, migration, and tumor growth through upregulation of PEDF expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaowan; Li, Chenli; He, Tiantian; Mao, Jiating; Li, Chunmei; Lyu, Jianxin; Meng, Qing H

    2016-05-03

    Metformin has been reported to inhibit the growth of various types of cancers, including prostate cancer. Yet the mode of anti-cancer action of metformin and the underlying mechanisms remain not fully elucidated. We hypothesized that the antitumorigenic effects of metformin are mediated through upregulation of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) expression in prostate cancer cells. In this report, metformin treatment significantly inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of prostate cancer cells, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, Metformin markedly suppressed migration and invasion and induced apoptosis of both LNCaP and PC3 cancer cells. Metformin also reduced PC3 tumor growth in BALB/c nude mice in vivo. Furthermore, metformin treatment was associated with higher PEDF expression in both prostate cancer cells and tumor tissue. Taken together, metformin inhibits prostate cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion and tumor growth, and these activities are mediated by upregulation of PEDF expression. These findings provide a novel insight into the molecular functions of metformin as an anticancer agent.

  15. Expression of lysozymes from Erwinia amylovora phages and Erwinia genomes and inhibition by a bacterial protein.

    PubMed

    Müller, Ina; Gernold, Marina; Schneider, Bernd; Geider, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Genes coding for lysozyme-inhibiting proteins (Ivy) were cloned from the chromosomes of the plant pathogens Erwinia amylovora and Erwinia pyrifoliae. The product interfered not only with activity of hen egg white lysozyme, but also with an enzyme from E. amylovora phage ΦEa1h. We have expressed lysozyme genes from the genomes of three Erwinia species in Escherichia coli. The lysozymes expressed from genes of the E. amylovora phages ΦEa104 and ΦEa116, Erwinia chromosomes and Arabidopsis thaliana were not affected by Ivy. The enzyme from bacteriophage ΦEa1h was fused at the N- or C-terminus to other peptides. Compared to the intact lysozyme, a His-tag reduced its lytic activity about 10-fold and larger fusion proteins abolished activity completely. Specific protease cleavage restored lysozyme activity of a GST-fusion. The bacteriophage-encoded lysozymes were more active than the enzymes from bacterial chromosomes. Viral lyz genes were inserted into a broad-host range vector, and transfer to E. amylovora inhibited cell growth. Inserted in the yeast Pichia pastoris, the ΦEa1h-lysozyme was secreted and also inhibited by Ivy. Here we describe expression of unrelated cloned 'silent' lyz genes from Erwinia chromosomes and a novel interference of bacterial Ivy proteins with a viral lysozyme.

  16. Sodium Methyldithiocarbamate Exerts Broad Inhibition of Cellular Signaling and Expression of Effector Molecules of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Pruett, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    Sodium methyldithiocarbamate (SMD) is one of the most abundantly used conventional pesticides in the United States. At dosages relevant to occupational exposure, it causes major effects on the immune system in mice, including a decreased resistance to sepsis. This lab has identified some of the mechanisms of action of this compound and some of the immunological parameters affected, but the global effects have not previously been assessed. The purpose of the present study was to conduct transcriptomic analysis of the effects of SMD on lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of mediators important in innate immunity and inflammation. The results revealed broad effects on expression of transcription factors in both branches of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling (MyD88 and TRIF). However, TLR3 and interferon signaling pathways were decreased to a greater extent, and assessment of the effects of SMD on polyinosinic polycytidylic acid–induced cytokine and chemokine production revealed that these responses mediated by TLR3 were indeed sensitive to the effects of SMD, with inhibition occurring at lower dosages than required to inhibit responses to other immunological stimuli tested in our previous studies. In the downstream signaling pathways of these TLRs, functional analysis also revealed that NF-κB activation was inhibited by SMD, as indicated by gene expression analysis and a reporter construct in mice. A previously unreported effect on luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone pathways was also observed. PMID:24056979

  17. Dihydroavenanthramide D inhibits human breast cancer cell invasion through suppression of MMP-9 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young-Rae; Noh, Eun-Mi; Oh, Hyun Ju; Hur, Hyun; Kim, Jeong-Mi; Han, Ji-Hey; Hwang, Jin-Ki; Park, Byung-Hyun; Park, Jin-Woo; Youn, Hyun Jo; Jung, Sung Hoo; Kim, Byeong-Soo; Jung, Ji-Youn; Lee, Sung-Ho; Park, Chang-Sik; Kim, Jong-Suk

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} MMP-9 plays a pivotal role in the invasion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. {yields} TPA stimulates MMP-9 expression through activation of MAPK/NF-{kappa}B and MAPK/AP-1 pathways. {yields} Dihydroavenanthramide D suppresses MMP-9 expression via inhibition of TPA-induced MAPK/NF-{kappa}B and MAPK/AP-1 activations. {yields} Dihydroavenanthramide D blocks cell invasion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. -- Abstract: Dihydroavenanthramide D (DHAvD) is a synthetic analog to naturally occurring avenanthramide, which is the active component of oat. Previous study demonstrates that DHAvD strongly inhibits activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B), which is a major component in cancer cell invasion. The present study investigated whether DHAvD can modulate MMP-9 expression and cell invasion in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. MMP-9 expression and cell invasion in response to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was increased, whereas these inductions were muted by DHAvD. DHAvD also suppressed activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and MAPK-mediated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activations in TPA-treated MCF-7 cells. The results indicate that DHAvD-mediated inhibition of TPA-induced MMP-9 expression and cell invasion involves the suppression of the MAPK/NF-{kappa}B and MAPK/AP-1 pathways in MCF-7 cells. DHAvD may have potential value in breast cancer metastasis.

  18. Expression of Mutant Dynamin Inhibits Toxicity and Transport of Endocytosed Ricin to the Golgi Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Llorente, Alicia; Rapak, Andrzej; Schmid, Sandra L.; van Deurs, Bo; Sandvig, Kirsten

    1998-01-01

    Endocytosis and intracellular transport of ricin were studied in stable transfected HeLa cells where overexpression of wild-type (WT) or mutant dynamin is regulated by tetracycline. Overexpression of the temperature-sensitive mutant dynG273D at the nonpermissive temperature or the dynK44A mutant inhibits clathrin-dependent endocytosis (Damke, H., T. Baba, A.M. van der Blieck, and S.L. Schmid. 1995. J. Cell Biol. 131: 69–80; Damke, H., T. Baba, D.E. Warnock, and S.L. Schmid. 1994. J. Cell Biol. 127:915–934). Under these conditions, ricin was endocytosed at a normal level. Surprisingly, overexpression of both mutants made the cells less sensitive to ricin. Butyric acid and trichostatin A treatment enhanced dynamin overexpression and increased the difference in toxin sensitivity between cells with normal and mutant dynamin. Intoxication with ricin seems to require toxin transport to the Golgi apparatus (Sandirg, K., and B. van Deurs. 1996. Physiol. Rev. 76:949–966), and this process was monitored by measuring the incorporation of radioactive sulfate into a modified ricin molecule containing a tyrosine sulfation site. The sulfation of ricin was much greater in cells expressing dynWT than in cells expressing dynK44A. Ultrastructural analysis using a ricin-HRP conjugate confirmed that transport to the Golgi apparatus was severely inhibited in cells expressing dynK44A. In contrast, ricin transport to lysosomes as measured by degradation of 125I-ricin was essentially unchanged in cells expressing dynK44A. These data demonstrate that although ricin is internalized by clathrin-independent endocytosis in cells expressing mutant dynamin, there is a strong and apparently selective inhibition of ricin transport to the Golgi apparatus. Also, in cells with mutant dynamin, there is a redistribution of the mannose-6-phosphate receptor. PMID:9456316

  19. Inhibition of Cervical Cancer by Promoting IGFBP7 Expression Using Ellagic Acid from Pomegranate Peel

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongjun; Zhang, Dongya; Fu, Qingrui

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism by which cervical cancer is inhibited by promoting IGFBP7 expression using ellagic acid from pomegranate peel extract. Material/Methods HeLa cells were divided into 6 groups: control group (NC), blank control group (BL), and IGFBP7 overexpression group (IGFBP7), and 2.5 uM, 5. 0 uM, and 10.0 uM ellagic acid-treated groups. The cell proliferation ability was detected and the degree of invasion in the 6 groups was measured by Transwell assay. The expression levels of IGFBP7 and AKT/mTOR in the 6 groups of cells were detected by RT-PCR technique. Results Compared with NC and BL groups, The IGFBP7 gene expressions of the IGFPB7 and ellagic acid-treated groups were significantly increased (P<0.05). There was a dose-effect dependence in the ellagic acid-treated groups. The invasion ability of the IGFBP7 group and ellagic acid-treated groups was significantly lower than that of NC and BL groups in HeLa cells (P<0.05). The apoptosis rate of the IGFBP7 group and ellagic acid-treated groups was significantly higher than that of the NC and BL groups in HeLa cells (P<0.05). AKT and mTOR mRNA and protein expressions of the IGFBP7 group and ellagic acid-treated groups were significantly lower than that of the NC and BL groups (P<0.05). There was a dose-effect dependence in the ellagic acid-treated groups. Conclusions The ellagic acid in pomegranate peel extract can inhibit the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway by enhancing the expression level of IGFBP7, which can inhibit the HeLa cells in cervical cancer. PMID:27941714

  20. Vasohibin-1 expression inhibits advancement of ovarian cancer producing various angiogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshifumi; Saga, Yasushi; Koyanagi, Takahiro; Takei, Yuji; Machida, Shizuo; Taneichi, Akiyo; Mizukami, Hiroaki; Sato, Yasufumi; Matsubara, Shigeki; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) is a negative feedback regulator of angiogenesis, the first to be discovered, and was identified in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated vascular endothelial cells. Vasohibin-1 inhibits abnormal vascularization induced by various angiogenic factors including fibroblast growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), in addition to VEGF. By focusing on this characteristic of VASH1, we investigated the antitumor effects of VASH1 expression on ovarian cancer cells that produce different angiogenic factors. By using a high VEGF-producing ovarian cancer cell line, SHIN-3, and a high PDGF-producing ovarian cancer cell line, KOC-2S, the cells were transfected with either a VEGF antagonist, soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1, or sFlt-1), or VASH1 genes to establish their respective cellular expression. The characteristics of these transfectants were compared with controls. We previously reported that the expression of sFlt-1 inhibited tumor vascularization and growth of high VEGF-producing ovarian cancer cells, reduced peritoneal dissemination and ascites development, and prolonged the survival time of the host. However, in the current study, the expression of sFlt-1 had no such effect on the high PDGF-producing ovarian cancer cells used here, whereas VASH1 expression inhibited tumor vascularization and growth, not only in high VEGF-producing cells, but also in high PDGF-producing cells, reduced their peritoneal dissemination and ascites, and prolonged the survival time of the host. These results suggest that VASH1 is an effective treatment for ovarian cancer cells that produce different angiogenic factors.

  1. Ginsenoside Re Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation in Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages and Zebrafish Scale Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan-Mi; Kim, Hye-Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Han, Ho-Jin; Noh, Haneul; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Park, Soo-Hyun; Chae, Han-Jung; Chae, Soo-Wan; Ryu, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Sangku; Liu, Kangdong; Liu, Haidan; Ahn, Jong-Seog; Kim, Young Ock; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Soung, Nak-Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenosides, which are the active materials of ginseng, have biological functions that include anti-osteoporotic effects. Aqueous ginseng extract inhibits osteoclast differentiation induced by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). Aqueous ginseng extract produces chromatography peaks characteristic of ginsenosides. Among these peaks, ginsenoside Re is a major component. However, the preventive effects of ginsenoside Re against osteoclast differentiation are not known. We studied the effect of ginsenoside Re on osteoclast differentiation, RANKL-induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, and formation of multinucleated osteoclasts in vitro. Ginsenoside Re hampered osteoclast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. In an in vivo zebrafish model, aqueous ginseng extract and ginsenoside Re had anti-osteoclastogenesis effects. These findings suggest that both aqueous ginseng extract and ginsenoside Re prevent bone resorption by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation. Ginsenoside Re could be important for promoting bone health. PMID:27927007

  2. Prominin-2 expression increases protrusions, decreases caveolae and inhibits Cdc42 dependent fluid phase endocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Raman Deep Schroeder, Andreas S.; Scheffer, Luana; Holicky, Eileen L.; Wheatley, Christine L.; Marks, David L. Pagano, Richard E.

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Prominin-2 expression induced protrusions that co-localized with lipid raft markers. •Prominin-2 expression decreased caveolae, caveolar endocytosis and increased pCav1. •Prominin-2 expression inhibited fluid phase endocytosis by inactivation of Cdc42. •These endocytic effects can be reversed by adding exogenous cholesterol. •Caveolin1 knockdown restored fluid phase endocytosis in Prominin2 expressing cells. -- Abstract: Background: Membrane protrusions play important roles in biological processes such as cell adhesion, wound healing, migration, and sensing of the external environment. Cell protrusions are a subtype of membrane microdomains composed of cholesterol and sphingolipids, and can be disrupted by cholesterol depletion. Prominins are pentaspan membrane proteins that bind cholesterol and localize to plasma membrane (PM) protrusions. Prominin-1 is of great interest as a marker for stem and cancer cells, while Prominin-2 (Prom2) is reportedly restricted to epithelial cells. Aim: To characterize the effects of Prom-2 expression on PM microdomain organization. Methods: Prom2-fluorescent protein was transfected in human skin fibroblasts (HSF) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells for PM raft and endocytic studies. Caveolae at PM were visualized using transmission electron microscopy. Cdc42 activation was measured and caveolin-1 knockdown was performed using siRNAs. Results: Prom2 expression in HSF and CHO cells caused extensive Prom2-positive protrusions that co-localized with lipid raft markers. Prom2 expression significantly decreased caveolae at the PM, reduced caveolar endocytosis and increased caveolin-1 phosphorylation. Prom2 expression also inhibited Cdc42-dependent fluid phase endocytosis via decreased Cdc42 activation. Effects on endocytosis were reversed by addition of cholesterol. Knockdown of caveolin-1 by siRNA restored Cdc42 dependent fluid phase endocytosis in Prom2-expressing cells. Conclusions: Prom2 protrusions primarily

  3. Sustained endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibits hepatocyte proliferation via downregulation of c-Met expression.

    PubMed

    He, Yihuai; Long, Jun; Zhong, Weiwei; Fu, Yu; Li, Ying; Lin, Shide

    2014-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms of impaired liver regeneration in several liver diseases remain poorly understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been observed in a variety of liver diseases. The aims of this study were to explore the impacts of ER stress on hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced proliferation and c-Met expression in human hepatocyte L02 cells. Human hepatocyte L02 cells were incubated with thapsigargin (TG) to induce ER stress. 4-Phenylbutyric acid (PBA) was used to rescue ER stress. Activation of glucose-regulated protein 78, phosphorylation of PKR-like ER kinase and eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α, and the expression of c-Met were determined by western blotting. The expression of c-Met mRNA was observed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. L02 cell proliferation was determined by the MTS assay. L02 cell proliferation was significantly impaired in TG-treated L02 cells from 24 to 48 h, while PBA partly restored the proliferation of L02 cells. In addition, TG treatment significantly decreased the sensitivity of L02 cells to HGF-induced proliferation. PBA partly resumed the sensitivity of L02 cells to HGF-induced proliferation. The expression of c-Met protein in L02 cells was downregulated from 6 h after TG treatment, and PBA partly restored c-Met expression inhibited by TG. The expression of c-Met mRNA was also significantly downregulated from 24 to 48 h after TG treatment. Our results strongly suggest that sustained ER stress inhibits hepatocyte proliferation via downregulation of both c-Met mRNA and protein expression in human hepatocyte L02 cells.

  4. Glutathione peroxidase-1 inhibits UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression in human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Lei; Venkataraman, Sujatha; Coleman, Mitchell C.; Spitz, Douglas R.; Wertz, Philip W.; Domann, Frederick E. . E-mail: frederick-domann@uiowa.edu

    2006-12-29

    In this study, we found a role for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression in the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. UVA irradiation not only increased AP-2{alpha}, but also caused accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the cell culture media, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by itself could induce the expression of AP-2{alpha}. By catalyzing the removal of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} from cells through over-expression of GPx-1, induction of AP-2{alpha} expression by UVA was abolished. Induction of transcription factor AP-2{alpha} by UVA had been previously shown to be mediated through the second messenger ceramide. We found that not only UVA irradiation, but also H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by itself caused increases of ceramide in HaCaT cells, and C2-ceramide added to cells induced the AP-2{alpha} signaling pathway. Finally, forced expression of GPx-1 eliminated UVA-induced ceramide accumulation as well as AP-2{alpha} expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that GPx-1 inhibits UVA-induced AP-2{alpha} expression by suppressing the accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  5. Vitamin D Inhibits Expression and Activity of Matrix Metalloproteinase in Human Lung Fibroblasts (HFL-1) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seo Hwa; Baek, Moon Seong; Yoon, Dong Sik; Park, Jong Seol; Yoon, Byoung Wook; Oh, Byoung Su; Park, Jinkyeong

    2014-01-01

    Background Low levels of serum vitamin D is associated with several lung diseases. The production and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may play an important role in the pathogenesis of emphysema. The aim of the current study therefore is to investigate if vitamin D modulates the expression and activation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human lung fibroblasts (HFL-1) cells. Methods HFL-1 cells were cast into three-dimensional collagen gels and stimulated with or without interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the presence or absence of 100 nM 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) for 48 hours. Trypsin was then added into the culture medium in order to activate MMPs. To investigate the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9, gelatin zymography was performed. The expression of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1, TIMP-2) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of MMP-9 mRNA and TIMP-1, TIMP-2 mRNA was quantified by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results IL-1β significantly stimulated MMP-9 production and mRNA expression. Trypsin converted latent MMP-2 and MMP-9 into their active forms of MMP-2 (66 kDa) and MMP-9 (82 kDa) within 24 hours. This conversion was significantly inhibited by 25(OH)D (100 nM) and 1,25(OH)2D (100 nM). The expression of MMP-9 mRNA was also significantly inhibited by 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D. Conclusion Vitamin D, 25(OH)D, and 1,25(OH)2D play a role in regulating human lung fibroblast functions in wound repair and tissue remodeling through not only inhibiting IL-1β stimulated MMP-9 production and conversion to its active form but also inhibiting IL-1β inhibition on TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 production. PMID:25237378

  6. The 18-kDa Translocator Protein Inhibits Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression via Inhibition of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Yu Ran; Kang, Gun; Choi, Sunga; Kim, Cuk-Seong; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Park, Jin Bong; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein and is abundantly expressed in a variety of organ and tissues. To date, the functional role of TSPO on vascular endothelial cell activation has yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 250 nM), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), was used to induce vascular endothelial activation. Adenoviral TSPO overexpression (10–100 MOI) inhibited PMA-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in a dose dependent manner. PMA-induced VCAM-1 expressions were inhibited by Mito-TEMPO (0.1–0.5 μM), a specific mitochondrial antioxidants, and cyclosporin A (1–5 μM), a mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor, implying on an important role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the endothelial activation. Moreover, adenoviral TSPO overexpression inhibited mitochondrial ROS production and manganese superoxide dismutase expression. On contrasts, gene silencing of TSPO with siRNA increased PMA-induced VCAM-1 expression and mitochondrial ROS production. Midazolam (1–50 μM), TSPO ligands, inhibited PMA-induced VCAM-1 and mitochondrial ROS production in endothelial cells. These results suggest that mitochondrial TSPO can inhibit PMA-induced endothelial inflammation via suppression of VCAM-1 and mitochondrial ROS production in endothelial cells. PMID:26608360

  7. Consecutive Inhibition of ISG15 Expression and ISGylation by Cytomegalovirus Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Eui; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Kwon, Ki Mun; Kim, Keun Il; Stamminger, Thomas; Ahn, Jin-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) encodes an ubiquitin-like protein that covalently conjugates protein. Protein modification by ISG15 (ISGylation) is known to inhibit the replication of many viruses. However, studies on the viral targets and viral strategies to regulate ISGylation-mediated antiviral responses are limited. In this study, we show that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication is inhibited by ISGylation, but the virus has evolved multiple countermeasures. HCMV-induced ISG15 expression was mitigated by IE1, a viral inhibitor of interferon signaling, however, ISGylation was still strongly upregulated during virus infection. RNA interference of UBE1L (E1), UbcH8 (E2), Herc5 (E3), and UBP43 (ISG15 protease) revealed that ISGylation inhibits HCMV growth by downregulating viral gene expression and virion release in a manner that is more prominent at low multiplicity of infection. A viral regulator pUL26 was found to interact with ISG15, UBE1L, and Herc5, and be ISGylated. ISGylation of pUL26 regulated its stability and inhibited its activities to suppress NF-κB signaling and complement the growth of UL26-null mutant virus. Moreover, pUL26 reciprocally suppressed virus-induced ISGylation independent of its own ISGylation. Consistently, ISGylation was more pronounced in infections with the UL26-deleted mutant virus, whose growth was more sensitive to IFNβ treatment than that of the wild-type virus. Therefore, pUL26 is a viral ISG15 target that also counteracts ISGylation. Our results demonstrate that ISGylation inhibits HCMV growth at multiple steps and that HCMV has evolved countermeasures to suppress ISG15 transcription and protein ISGylation, highlighting the importance of the interplay between virus and ISGylation in productive viral infection. PMID:27564865

  8. Inhibition of pds gene expression via the RNA interference approach in Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Sun, Guohua; Zhang, Xuecheng; Sui, Zhenghong; Mao, Yunxiang

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the potential of double-stranded RNA interferencing with gene expression in Dunaliella salina, a plasmid pBIRNAI-Dsa was constructed to express hairpin RNA (hpRNA) containing sequences homologous to phytoene desaturase gene (pds), a key gene in carotenoid biosynthesis, and transformed into D. salina by electroporation. The relative transcription level of pds in pBIRNAI-Dsa-treated cells to nontreated cells was quantitated and the gene silencing efficiency by RNAi was evaluated via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The transcriptions of pds of the pBIRNAI-Dsa-treated group changed compared to those of the control group, and the 2(-delta deltaC)(T) was lowest on the 7th day, corresponding to 0.281265-fold of the relative pds control transcript; a relatively strong gene inhibition effect was therefore deduced. The transcript of pds may be modulated in a wide range, and a reduced transcription even to 28% of the normal level may be tolerated for its survival. This study shows that dsRNA-mediated genetic interference can induce sequence-specific inhibition of gene expression and pBIRNAI-Dsa can be used for transient suppression of gene expression in D. salina. The aim of this study was to exploit dsRNA-mediated gene silencing and to provide a foundation for gene function research in D. salina.

  9. VCC-1 over-expression inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Zhitao; Lu, Xiao; Zhu, Ping; Zhu, Wei; Mu, Xia; Qu, Rongmei; Li, Ming

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VCC-1 is hypothesized to be associated with carcinogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Levels of VCC-1 are increased significantly in HCC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Over-expression of VCC-1 could promotes cellular proliferation rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Over-expression of VCC-1 inhibit the cisplatin-provoked apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VCC-1 plays an important role in control the tumor growth and apoptosis. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor-correlated chemokine 1 (VCC-1), a recently described chemokine, is hypothesized to be associated with carcinogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which aberrant VCC-1 expression determines poor outcomes of cancers are unknown. In this study, we found that VCC-1 was highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue. It was also associated with proliferation of HepG2 cells, and inhibition of cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Conversely, down-regulation of VCC-1 in HepG2 cells increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. In summary, these results suggest that VCC-1 is involved in cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells, and also provides some evidence for VCC-1 as a potential cellular target for chemotherapy.

  10. Inhibition of allogeneic T-cell response by Kupffer cells expressing indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Mao-Lin; Wang, Yao-Dong; Tian, Yi-Feng; Lai, Zhi-De; Yan, Lv-Nan

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possibility and mechanism of inhibiting allogeneic T-cell responses by Kupffer cells (KC) pretreated with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in vitro. METHODS: The expressions of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) mRNA and FasL mRNA in KC pretreated with IFN-γ were studied with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The catabolism of tryptophan by IDO from KC was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Allogeneic T-cell response was used to confirm the inhibition of KC in vitro. The proliferation of lymphocytes was detected using [3H] thymidine incorporation. Cell cycle and lymphocyte apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometric assay. RESULTS: Real-time PCR revealed IDO mRNA and FasL mRNA expressions in KC pretreated with IFN-γ, and IDO catabolic effect was confirmed by a decrease in tryptophan and increase in kynurenine concentration. KC expressing IDO and FasL in BABL/c mice acquired the ability to suppress the proliferation of T-cells from C57BL/6, which could be blocked by addition of 1-methyl-tryptophan and anti-FasL antibody. KC expressing IDO could induce allogeneic T-cell apoptosis. CONCLUSION: In addition to Fas/FasL pathway, IDO may be another mechanism for KC to induce immune tolerance. PMID:20128035

  11. Microarray expression analysis of MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells after inhibition of CDK2.

    PubMed

    Song, H; Wu, F; Li, S; Wang, Z; Liu, X; Cui, Y; Lin, C

    2017-03-03

    The study was aimed to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of CDK2 inhibition in neuroblastoma by bioinformatics analysis. Gene expression profile GSE16480 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from IMR32 between each time point and average expression of all time points. Gene significance was calculated using dSVDsig algorithm of dnet package. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was built. Then, integrated with gene significance, a core PPI network was detected by dNetPipeline algorithm in dnet package. Finally, pathway enrichment analysis was performed for genes in network. Total 1524 DEGs were identified. CCNA2 (cyclin A2), EXO1 (exonuclease 1), RAD51AP1 (RAD51 associated protein 1), TOP2A (topoisomerase (DNA) II alpha) and CDK1 (cyclin-dependent kinase 1) were selected as DEGs with higher connectivity after PPI network analysis. In the network, CCNA2, CDK1, BUB1B (BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase B) and CCNB1 (cyclin B1) were involved in cell cycle pathway. Additionally, CCNB1, CDK1, CCNE2 (Cyclin E2), and RRM2B (ribonucleotide reductase subunit M2B) were involved in p53 signaling pathway. Cell cycle and p53 signaling pathway were closely associated with neuroblastoma after CDK2 inhibition. The DEGs, such as CCNA2, CCNB1, CDK1 and RRM2B may be the potential targets for neuroblastoma.

  12. Meteorin-Like Shows Unique Expression Pattern in Bone and Its Overexpression Inhibits Osteoblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Weiyan; Liu, Yong; Wu, Zhihong; Wang, Shaohai; Qiu, Guixing; Lin, Shouqing

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to identify and characterize genes involved in osteoblasts function. Firstly, we constructed and sequenced a human osteoblast full-length cDNA library to screen for genes whose functions have not been reported and further identify these candidate genes through detecting the relationship with the activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor complex using a dual luciferase reporter system. Only one gene, namely METRNL (Meteorin, glial cell differentiation regulator-like) has been screened out. We performed immunohistochemistry to analyze expression patterns in bone and established a stable transfection MG63 cell line of METRNL-EGFP fusion protein overexpression to analyze the function of METRNL in mineralized nodule formation. Immunohistochemistry showed METRNL expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteoblasts lining trabecular bone surfaces. Overexpression of METRNL inhibited mineralized nodule formation by the MG63 osteosarcoma cell line. Thus, the identified gene, METRNL, which is associated with AP-1 transcription factor complex activity, has a unique expression pattern in bone. In addition, the anomalous expression of METRNL may inhibit bone cell differentiation. PMID:27716826

  13. Silibinin inhibits triple negative breast cancer cell motility by suppressing TGF-β2 expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangmin; Han, Jeonghun; Jeon, Myeongjin; You, Daeun; Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Hee Jung; Bae, Sarang; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon

    2016-08-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates many biological events including cell motility and angiogenesis. Here, we investigated the role of elevated TGF-β2 level in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells and the inhibitory effect of silibinin on TGF-β2 action in TNBC cells. Breast cancer patients with high TGF-β2 expression have a poor prognosis. The levels of TGF-β2 expression increased significantly in TNBC cells compared with those in non-TNBC cells. In addition, cell motility-related genes such as fibronectin (FN) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression also increased in TNBC cells. Basal FN, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expression levels decreased in response to LY2109761, a dual TGF-β receptor I/II inhibitor, in TNBC cells. TNBC cell migration also decreased in response to LY2109761. Furthermore, we observed that TGF-β2 augmented the FN, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expression levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In contrast, TGF-β2-induced FN, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expression levels decreased significantly in response to LY2109761. Interestingly, we found that silibinin decreased TGF-β2 mRNA expression level but not that of TGF-β1 in TNBC cells. Cell migration as well as basal FN and MMP-2 expression levels decreased in response to silibinin. Furthermore, silibinin significantly decreased TGF-β2-induced FN, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expression levels and suppressed the lung metastasis of TNBC cells. Taken together, these results suggest that silibinin suppresses metastatic potential of TNBC cells by inhibiting TGF-β2 expression in TNBC cells. Thus, silibinin may be a promising therapeutic drug to treat TNBC.

  14. Store-Operated Ca2+ Channels in Mesangial Cells Inhibit Matrix Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peiwen; Wang, Yanxia; Davis, Mark E; Zuckerman, Jonathan E; Chaudhari, Sarika; Begg, Malcolm; Ma, Rong

    2015-11-01

    Accumulation of extracellular matrix derived from glomerular mesangial cells is an early feature of diabetic nephropathy. Ca(2+) signals mediated by store-operated Ca(2+) channels regulate protein production in a variety of cell types. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of store-operated Ca(2+) channels in mesangial cells on extracellular matrix protein expression. In cultured human mesangial cells, activation of store-operated Ca(2+) channels by thapsigargin significantly decreased fibronectin protein expression and collagen IV mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, inhibition of the channels by 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate significantly increased the expression of fibronectin and collagen IV. Similarly, overexpression of stromal interacting molecule 1 reduced, but knockdown of calcium release-activated calcium channel protein 1 (Orai1) increased fibronectin protein expression. Furthermore, 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate significantly augmented angiotensin II-induced fibronectin protein expression, whereas thapsigargin abrogated high glucose- and TGF-β1-stimulated matrix protein expression. In vivo knockdown of Orai1 in mesangial cells of mice using a targeted nanoparticle siRNA delivery system resulted in increased expression of glomerular fibronectin and collagen IV, and mice showed significant mesangial expansion compared with controls. Similarly, in vivo knockdown of stromal interacting molecule 1 in mesangial cells by recombinant adeno-associated virus-encoded shRNA markedly increased collagen IV protein expression in renal cortex and caused mesangial expansion in rats. These results suggest that store-operated Ca(2+) channels in mesangial cells negatively regulate extracellular matrix protein expression in the kidney, which may serve as an endogenous renoprotective mechanism in diabetes.

  15. Tomatidine inhibits invasion of human lung adenocarcinoma cell A549 by reducing matrix metalloproteinases expression.

    PubMed

    Yan, Kun-Huang; Lee, Liang-Ming; Yan, Shao-Han; Huang, Hsiang-Ching; Li, Chia-Chen; Lin, Hui-Ting; Chen, Pin-Shern

    2013-05-25

    Tomatidine is an aglycone of glycoalkaloid tomatine in tomato. Tomatidine is found to possess anti-inflammatory properties and may serve as a chemosensitizer in multidrug-resistant tumor cells. However, the effect of tomatidine on cancer cell metastasis remains unclear. This study examines the effect of tomatidine on the migration and invasion of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell in vitro. The data demonstrates that tomatidine does not effectively inhibit the viability of A549 cells. When treated with non-toxic doses of tomatidine, cell invasion is markedly suppressed by Boyden chamber invasion assay, while cell migration is not affected. Tomatidine reduces the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9 and increases the expression of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK), as well as tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). The immunoblotting assays indicate that tomatidine is very effective in suppressing the phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal regulating kinase (ERK). In addition, tomatidine significantly decreases the nuclear level of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), which suggests that tomatidine inhibits NF-κB activity. Furthermore, the treatment of inhibitors specific for PI3K/Akt (LY294002), ERK (U0126), or NF-κB (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate) to A549 cells reduced cell invasion and MMP-2/9 expression. The results suggest that tomatidine inhibits the invasion of A549 cells by reducing the expression of MMPs. It also inhibits ERK and Akt signaling pathways and NF-κB activity. These findings demonstrate a new therapeutic potential for tomatidine in anti-metastatic therapy.

  16. Inhibition of REV3 Expression Induces Persistent DNA Damage and Growth Arrest in Cancer Cells12

    PubMed Central

    Knobel, Philip A; Kotov, Ilya N; Felley-Bosco, Emanuela; Stahel, Rolf A; Marti, Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    REV3 is the catalytic subunit of DNA translesion synthesis polymerase ζ. Inhibition of REV3 expression increases the sensitivity of human cells to a variety of DNA-damaging agents and reduces the formation of resistant cells. Surprisingly, we found that short hairpin RNA-mediated depletion of REV3 per se suppresses colony formation of lung (A549, Calu-3), breast (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231), mesothelioma (IL45 and ZL55), and colon (HCT116 +/-p53) tumor cell lines, whereas control cell lines (AD293, LP9-hTERT) and the normal mesothelial primary culture (SDM104) are less affected. Inhibition of REV3 expression in cancer cells leads to an accumulation of persistent DNA damage as indicated by an increase in phospho-ATM, 53BP1, and phospho-H2AX foci formation, subsequently leading to the activation of the ATM-dependent DNA damage response cascade. REV3 depletion in p53-proficient cancer cell lines results in a G1 arrest and induction of senescence as indicated by the accumulation of p21 and an increase in senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. In contrast, inhibition of REV3 expression in p53-deficient cells results in growth inhibition and a G2/M arrest. A small fraction of the p53-deficient cancer cells can overcome the G2/M arrest, which results in mitotic slippage and aneuploidy. Our findings reveal that REV3 depletion per se suppresses growth of cancer cell lines from different origin, whereas control cell lines and a mesothelial primary culture were less affected. Thus, our findings indicate that depletion of REV3 not only can amend cisplatin-based cancer therapy but also can be applied for susceptible cancers as a potential monotherapy. PMID:22028621

  17. A Modified Glycosaminoglycan, GM-0111, Inhibits Molecular Signaling Involved in Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Justin R.; Pulsipher, Abigail; Rao, Narayanam V.; Kennedy, Thomas P.; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Ryan, Maria E.; Lee, Won Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Periodontitis is characterized by microbial infection, inflammation, tissue breakdown, and accelerated loss of alveolar bone matrix. Treatment targeting these multiple stages of the disease provides ways to treat or prevent periodontitis. Certain glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) block multiple inflammatory mediators as well as suppress bacterial growth, suggesting that these GAGs may be exploited as a therapeutic for periodontitis. Methods We investigated the effects of a synthetic GAG, GM-0111, on various molecular events associated with periodontitis: growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans) pathogenic bacteria associated with periodontitis; activation of pro-inflammatory signaling through TLR2 and TLR4 in mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and heterologously expressed HEK 293 cells; osteoclast formation and bone matrix resorption in cultured mouse pre-osteoclasts. Results (1) GM-0111 suppressed the growth of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans even at 1% (w/v) solution. The antibacterial effects of GM-0111 were stronger than hyaluronic acid (HA) or xylitol in P. gingivalis at all concentrations and comparable to xylitol in A. actinomycetemcomitans at ≥2% (w/v) solution. We also observed that GM-0111 suppressed biofilm formation of P. gingivalis and these effects were much stronger than HA. (2) GM-0111 inhibited TLR-mediated pro-inflammatory cellular signaling both in macrophage and HEK 293 cells with higher selectivity for TLR2 than TLR4 (IC50 of 1–10 ng/mL vs. > 100 μg/mL, respectively). (3) GM-0111 blocked RANKL-induced osteoclast formation (as low as 300 ng/mL) and bone matrix resorption. While GM-0111 showed high affinity binding to RANKL, it did not interfere with RANKL/RANK/NF-κB signaling, suggesting that GM-0111 inhibits osteoclast formation by a RANKL-RANK-independent mechanism. Conclusions We report that GM-0111 inhibits multiple molecular events involved in

  18. Methylation of coding region alone inhibits gene expression in plant protoplasts.

    PubMed Central

    Hohn, T; Corsten, S; Rieke, S; Müller, M; Rothnie, H

    1996-01-01

    Derivatives of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter lacking CG and CNG methylation targets were constructed and used to direct transcription of reporter gene constructs in transiently transformed protoplasts. Such methylation-target-free (MTF) promoters, although weaker than the 35S promoter, retain significant activity despite mutation of the as-1 element. The effect of methylation on gene expression in MTF- and 35S-promoter driven constructs was examined. Even when the promoter region was free of methylation targets, reporter gene expression was markedly reduced when cytosine residues in CG dinucleotides were methylated in vitro prior to transformation. Mosaic methylation experiments, in which only specific parts of the plasmids were methylated, revealed that methylation of the coding region alone has a negative effect on reporter gene expression. Methylation nearer the 5' end of the coding region was more inhibitory, consistent with inhibition of transcription elongation. Images Fig. 5 PMID:8710871

  19. Loss of RUNX3 expression inhibits bone invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Junhee; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Ki Rim; Lee, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Hyungkeun; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Chung, Won-Yoon

    2017-02-07

    High recurrence and lower survival rates in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are associated with its bone invasion. We identified the oncogenic role of RUNX3 during bone invasion by OSCC. Tumor growth and the generation of osteolytic lesions were significantly inhibited in mice that were subcutaneously inoculated with RUNX3-knockdown human OSCC cells. RUNX3 knockdown enhanced TGF-β-induced growth arrest and inhibited OSCC cell migration and invasion in the absence or presence of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), a major growth factor abundant in the bone microenvironment. RUNX3 knockdown induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 and G2 phases and promoted G2 arrest by TGF-β in Ca9.22 OSCC cells. RUNX3 knockdown also inhibited both the basal and TGF-β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by increasing E-cadherin expression and suppressing the nuclear translocation of β-catenin. In addition, the expression and TGF-β-mediated induction of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), one of key osteolytic factors, was blocked in RUNX3-knockdown OSCC cells. Furthermore, treating human osteoblastic cells with conditioned medium derived from RUNX3-knockdown OSCC cells reduced the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin ratio compared with treatment with conditioned medium from RUNX3-expressing cells. These findings indicate that RUNX3 expression in OSCC cells contributes to their bone invasion and the resulting osteolysis by inducing their malignant behaviors and production of osteolytic factors. RUNX3 alone or in combination with TGF-β and PTHrP may be a useful predictive biomarker and therapeutic target for bone invasion by oral cancer.

  20. Hypertonic saline reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced mouse brain edema through inhibiting aquaporin 4 expression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Three percent sodium chloride (NaCl) treatment has been shown to reduce brain edema and inhibited brain aquaporin 4 (AQP4) expression in bacterial meningitis induced by Escherichia coli. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the main pathogenic component of E. coli. We aimed to explore the effect of 3% NaCl in mouse brain edema induced by LPS, as well as to elucidate the potential mechanisms of action. Methods Three percent NaCl was used to treat cerebral edema induced by LPS in mice in vivo. Brain water content, IL-1β, TNFα, immunoglobulin G (IgG), AQP4 mRNA and protein were measured in brain tissues. IL-1β, 3% NaCl and calphostin C (a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C) were used to treat the primary astrocytes in vitro. AQP4 mRNA and protein were measured in astrocytes. Differences in various groups were determined by one-way analysis of variance. Results Three percent NaCl attenuated the increase of brain water content, IL-1β, TNFα, IgG, AQP4 mRNA and protein in brain tissues induced by LPS. Three percent NaCl inhibited the increase of AQP4 mRNA and protein in astrocytes induced by IL-1β in vitro. Calphostin C blocked the decrease of AQP4 mRNA and protein in astrocytes induced by 3% NaCl in vitro. Conclusions Osmotherapy with 3% NaCl ameliorated LPS-induced cerebral edema in vivo. In addition to its osmotic force, 3% NaCl exerted anti-edema effects possibly through down-regulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNFα) and inhibiting the expression of AQP4 induced by proinflammatory cytokines. Three percent NaCl attenuated the expression of AQP4 through activation of protein kinase C in astrocytes. PMID:23036239

  1. Inhibition of apolipoprotein A-I gene expression by obesity-associated endocannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Haas, Michael J; Mazza, Angela D; Wong, Norman C W; Mooradian, Arshag D

    2012-04-01

    Obesity is associated with increased serum endocannabinoid (EC) levels and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc). Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the primary protein component of HDL is expressed primarily in the liver and small intestine. To determine whether ECs regulate apo A-I gene expression directly, the effect of the obesity-associated ECs anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol on apo A-I gene expression was examined in the hepatocyte cell line HepG2 and the intestinal cell line Caco-2. Apo A-I protein secretion was suppressed nearly 50% by anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in a dose-dependent manner in both cell lines. Anandamide treatment suppressed both apo A-I mRNA and apo A-I gene promoter activity in both cell lines. Studies using apo A-I promoter deletion constructs indicated that repression of apo A-I promoter activity by anandamide requires a previously identified nuclear receptor binding site designated as site A. Furthermore, anandamide-treatment inhibited protein-DNA complex formation with the site A probe. Exogenous over expression of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CBR1) in HepG2 cells suppressed apo A-I promoter activity, while in Caco-2 cells, exogenous expression of both CBR1 and CBR2 could repress apo A-I promoter activity. The suppressive effect of anandamide on apo A-I promoter activity in Hep G2 cells could be inhibited by CBR1 antagonist AM251 but not by AM630, a selective and potent CBR2 inhibitor. These results indicate that ECs directly suppress apo A-I gene expression in both hepatocytes and intestinal cells, contributing to the decrease in serum HDLc in obese individuals.

  2. Expression of a dominant allele of human ARF1 inhibits membrane traffic in vivo

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) proteins and inhibitory peptides derived from ARFs have demonstrated activities in a number of in vitro assays that measure ER-to-Golgi and intra-Golgi transport and endosome fusion. To better understand the roles of ARF proteins in vivo, stable cell lines were obtained from normal rat kidney (NRK) cells transfected with either wild-type or a dominant activating allele ([Q71L]) of the human ARF1 gene under the control of the interferon-inducible mouse Mx1 promoter. Upon addition of interferon, expression of ARF1 proteins increased with a half-time of 7-8 h, as determined by immunoblot analysis. Induction of mutant ARF1, but not wild-type ARF1, led to an inhibition of protein secretion with kinetics similar to that observed for induction of protein expression. Examination of the Golgi apparatus and the ER by indirect immunofluorescence or transmission electron microscopy revealed that expression of low levels of mutant ARF1 protein correlated with a dramatic increase in vesiculation of the Golgi apparatus and expansion of the ER lumen, while expression of substantially higher levels of wild-type ARF1 had no discernible effect. Endocytosis was also inhibited by expression of mutant ARF1, but not by the wild-type protein. Finally, the expression of [Q71L]ARF1, but not wild-type ARF1, antagonized the actions of brefeldin A, as determined by the delayed loss of ARF and beta-COP from Golgi membranes and disruption of the Golgi apparatus. General models for the actions of ARF1 in membrane traffic events are discussed. PMID:8294513

  3. Insulin Inhibits Nrf2 Gene Expression via Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein F/K in Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anindya; Abdo, Shaaban; Zhao, Shuiling; Wu, Chin-Han; Shi, Yixuan; Lo, Chao-Sheng; Chenier, Isabelle; Alquier, Thierry; Filep, Janos G; Ingelfinger, Julie R; Zhang, Shao-Ling; Chan, John S D

    2017-01-23

    Oxidative stress induces endogenous antioxidants via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), potentially preventing tissue injury. We investigated whether insulin affects renal Nrf2 expression in type 1 diabetes (T1D) and studied its underlying mechanism. Insulin normalized hyperglycemia, hypertension, oxidative stress and renal injury, inhibited renal Nrf2 and angiotensinogen (Agt) gene expression and up-regulated heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F (hnRNP F) and hnRNP K expression in Akita mice with T1D. In immortalized rat renal proximal tubular cells, insulin suppressed Nrf2 and Agt but stimulated hnRNP F and hnRNP K gene transcription in high glucose via p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling. Transfection with small interfering RNAs of p44/42 MAPK, hnRNP F or hnRNP K blocked insulin inhibition of Nrf2 gene transcription. Insulin curbed Nrf2 promoter activity via a specific DNA-responsive element that binds hnRNP F/K, and hnRNP F/K overexpression curtailed Nrf2 promoter activity. In hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic mice, renal Nrf2 and Agt expression was down-regulated, whereas hnRNP F/K expression was up-regulated. Thus, the beneficial actions of insulin in diabetic nephropathy appear to be mediated, in part, by suppressing renal Nrf2 and Agt gene transcription and preventing Nrf2 stimulation of Agt expression via hnRNP F/K. These findings identify hnRNP F/K and Nrf2 as potential therapeutic targets in diabetes.

  4. Aspirin inhibits interleukin 1-induced prostaglandin H synthase expression in cultured endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.K.; Sanduja, R.; Tsai, A.L.; Ferhanoglu, B.; Loose-Mitchell, D.S. )

    1991-03-15

    Prostaglandin H (PGH) synthase is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxane, and prostacyclin. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, interleukin 1 (IL-1) is known to induce the synthesis of this enzyme, thereby raising the level of PGH synthase protein severalfold over the basal level. Pretreatment with aspirin at low concentrations inhibited more than 60% of the enzyme mass and also the cyclooxygenase activity in IL-1-induced cells with only minimal effects on the basal level of the synthase enzyme in cells without IL-1. Sodium salicylate exhibited a similar inhibitory action whereas indomethacin had no apparent effect. Similarly low levels of aspirin inhibited the increased L-({sup 35}S)methionine incorporation into PGH synthase that was induced by IL0-1 and also suppressed expression of the 2.7-kilobase PGH synthase mRNA. These results suggest that in cultured endothelial cells a potent inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthetic capacity can be effected by aspirin or salicylate at the level of PGH synthase gene expression. The aspirin effect may well be due to degradation of salicylate.

  5. Inflammation inhibits the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in liver and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Feingold, Kenneth R; Moser, Arthur; Shigenaga, Judy K; Grunfeld, Carl

    2012-04-01

    Inhibition of adipocyte triglyceride biosynthesis is required for fatty acid mobilization during inflammation. Triglyceride biosynthesis requires glycerol 3-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) plays a key role. We demonstrate that LPS, zymosan, and TNF-α decrease PEPCK in liver and fat. Turpentine decreases PEPCK in liver, but not in fat. The LPS-induced decrease in PEPCK does not occur in TLR4 deficient animals, indicating that this receptor is required. The LPS-induced decrease in hepatic PEPCK does not occur in TNF receptor/IL-1 receptor knockout mice, but occurs in fat, indicating that TNF-α/IL-1 is essential for the decrease in liver but not fat. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and IFNγ inhibit PEPCK indicating that there are multiple pathways by which PEPCK is decreased in adipocytes. The binding of PPARγ and RXRα to the PPARγ response element in the PEPCK promoter is markedly decreased in adipose tissue nuclear extracts from LPS treated animals. Lipopolysaccharide and zymosan reduce PPARγ and RXRα expression in fat, suggesting that a decrease in PPARγ and RXRα accounts for the decrease in PEPCK. Thus, there are multiple cytokine pathways by which inflammation inhibits PEPCK expression in adipose tissue which could contribute to the increased mobilization of fatty acids during inflammation.

  6. Lactobacilli Reduce Helicobacter pylori Attachment to Host Gastric Epithelial Cells by Inhibiting Adhesion Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    de Klerk, Nele; Maudsdotter, Lisa; Gebreegziabher, Hanna; Saroj, Sunil D.; Eriksson, Beatrice; Eriksson, Olaspers Sara; Roos, Stefan; Lindén, Sara; Sjölinder, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract, including the harsh environment of the stomach, harbors a large variety of bacteria, of which Lactobacillus species are prominent members. The molecular mechanisms by which species of lactobacilli interfere with pathogen colonization are not fully characterized. In this study, we aimed to study the effect of lactobacillus strains upon the initial attachment of Helicobacter pylori to host cells. Here we report a novel mechanism by which lactobacilli inhibit adherence of the gastric pathogen H. pylori. In a screen with Lactobacillus isolates, we found that only a few could reduce adherence of H. pylori to gastric epithelial cells. Decreased attachment was not due to competition for space or to lactobacillus-mediated killing of the pathogen. Instead, we show that lactobacilli act on H. pylori directly by an effector molecule that is released into the medium. This effector molecule acts on H. pylori by inhibiting expression of the adhesin-encoding gene sabA. Finally, we verified that inhibitory lactobacilli reduced H. pylori colonization in an in vivo model. In conclusion, certain Lactobacillus strains affect pathogen adherence by inhibiting sabA expression and thereby reducing H. pylori binding capacity. PMID:26930708

  7. Diosgenin inhibits IL-1β-induced expression of inflammatory mediators in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Leisheng; Ma, Tian; Zheng, Yanpin; Lv, Shiqiao; Li, Yu; Liu, Shaoxian

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the inflammatory cytokines play important roles in osteoarthritis (OA). Diosgenin is a steroidal saponin found in several plants including Solanum and Dioscorea species and possesses diverse biological activities including anti-inflammatory properties. However, the role of diosgenin in inflammatory responses in OA chondrocytes is still unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of diosgenin in human OA chondrocytes. We found that diosgenin inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced by interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β). Diosgenin significantly inhibited the IL-1β-stimulated expression of metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), MMP-13, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in human OA chondrocytes. In addition, diosgenin suppressed the degradation of IκB-α in IL-1β-induced human OA chondrocytes. Taken together, this study showed that diosgenin can effectively inhibit the IL-1β-induced expression of inflammatory mediators, suggesting that diosgenin may be a potential agent in the treatment of OA. PMID:26191174

  8. Up-regulated miR-145 Expression Inhibits Porcine Preadipocytes Differentiation by Targeting IRS1

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yunxue; Chen, Yaosheng; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Yue; Chen, Luxi; Mo, Delin

    2012-01-01

    Generally, most miRNAs that were up-regulated during differentiation promoted adipogenesis, but our research indicated that up-regulation of miR-145 in porcine preadipocytes did not promote but inhibit adipogenesis. In this study, miR-145 was significantly up-regulated during porcine dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells differentiation. In miR-145 overexpressed DFAT cells, adipogenesis was inhibited and triglycerides accumulation was decreased after hormone stimulation (P<0.05). Furthermore, up-regulation of miR-145 expression repressed induction of mRNA levels of adipogenic markers, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2). These effects caused by miR-145 overexpression were mediated by Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) as a mechanism. These data suggested that induced miR-145 expression during differentiation could inhibit adipogenesis by targeting IRS1, and miR-145 may be novel agent for adipose tissue engineering. PMID:23197937

  9. Up-regulated miR-145 expression inhibits porcine preadipocytes differentiation by targeting IRS1.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yunxue; Chen, Yaosheng; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Yue; Chen, Luxi; Mo, Delin

    2012-01-01

    Generally, most miRNAs that were up-regulated during differentiation promoted adipogenesis, but our research indicated that up-regulation of miR-145 in porcine preadipocytes did not promote but inhibit adipogenesis. In this study, miR-145 was significantly up-regulated during porcine dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells differentiation. In miR-145 overexpressed DFAT cells, adipogenesis was inhibited and triglycerides accumulation was decreased after hormone stimulation (P<0.05). Furthermore, up-regulation of miR-145 expression repressed induction of mRNA levels of adipogenic markers, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2). These effects caused by miR-145 overexpression were mediated by Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) as a mechanism. These data suggested that induced miR-145 expression during differentiation could inhibit adipogenesis by targeting IRS1, and miR-145 may be novel agent for adipose tissue engineering.

  10. Imaging Synaptic Inhibition in Transgenic Mice Expressing the Chloride Indicator, Clomeleon

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, K.; Schleich, W.; Krieger, P.; Loo, L.S.; Wang, D.; Cant, N.B.; Feng, G.; Augustine, G.J.; Kuner, T.

    2009-01-01

    We describe here a molecular genetic approach for imaging synaptic inhibition. The thy-1 promoter was used to express high levels of Clomeleon, a ratiometric fluorescent indicator for chloride ions, in discrete populations of neurons in the brains of transgenic mice. Clomeleon was functional after chronic expression and provided non-invasive readouts of intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl−]i) in brain slices, allowing us to quantify age-dependent declines in resting [Cl−]i during neuronal development. Activation of hippocampal interneurons caused [Cl−]i to rise transiently in individual postsynaptic pyramidal neurons. [Cl−]i increased in direct proportion to the amount of inhibitory transmission, with peak changes as large as 4 mM. Integrating responses over populations of pyramidal neurons allowed sensitive detection of synaptic inhibition. Thus, Clomeleon imaging permits non-invasive, spatiotemporally resolved recordings of [Cl−]i in a large variety of neurons, opening up new opportunities for imaging synaptic inhibition and other forms of chloride signaling. PMID:18398684

  11. Magnetic fluid hyperthermia inhibits the growth of breast carcinoma and downregulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guihua; Xu, Derong; Chai, Qin; Tan, Xiaolang; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning; Tang, Jintian

    2014-05-01

    The application of magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) with nanoparticles has been shown to inhibit tumor growth in several animal models. However, the feasibility of using MFH in vivo to treat breast cancer is uncertain, and the mechanism is unclear. In the present study, it was observed that the intratumoral administration of MFH induced hyperthermia significantly in rats with Walker-265 breast carcinomas. The hyperthermia treatment with magnetic nanoparticles inhibited tumor growth in vivo and promoted the survival of the tumor-bearing rats. Furthermore, it was found that MFH treatment downregulated the protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the tumor tissue, as observed by immunohistochemistry. MFH treatment also decreased the gene expression of VEGF and its receptors, VEGF receptor 1 and 2, and inhibited angiogenesis in the tumor tissues. Taken together, these results indicate that the application of MFH with nanoparticles is feasible for the treatment of breast carcinoma. The MFH-induced downregulation of angiogenesis may also contribute to the induction of an anti-tumor effect.

  12. Lactobacilli Reduce Helicobacter pylori Attachment to Host Gastric Epithelial Cells by Inhibiting Adhesion Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    de Klerk, Nele; Maudsdotter, Lisa; Gebreegziabher, Hanna; Saroj, Sunil D; Eriksson, Beatrice; Eriksson, Olaspers Sara; Roos, Stefan; Lindén, Sara; Sjölinder, Hong; Jonsson, Ann-Beth

    2016-05-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract, including the harsh environment of the stomach, harbors a large variety of bacteria, of which Lactobacillus species are prominent members. The molecular mechanisms by which species of lactobacilli interfere with pathogen colonization are not fully characterized. In this study, we aimed to study the effect of lactobacillus strains upon the initial attachment of Helicobacter pylori to host cells. Here we report a novel mechanism by which lactobacilli inhibit adherence of the gastric pathogen H. pylori In a screen with Lactobacillus isolates, we found that only a few could reduce adherence of H. pylori to gastric epithelial cells. Decreased attachment was not due to competition for space or to lactobacillus-mediated killing of the pathogen. Instead, we show that lactobacilli act on H. pylori directly by an effector molecule that is released into the medium. This effector molecule acts on H. pylori by inhibiting expression of the adhesin-encoding gene sabA Finally, we verified that inhibitory lactobacilli reduced H. pylori colonization in an in vivo model. In conclusion, certain Lactobacillus strains affect pathogen adherence by inhibiting sabA expression and thereby reducing H. pylori binding capacity.

  13. Orphan nuclear receptor SHP regulates iron metabolism through inhibition of BMP6-mediated hepcidin expression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Don-Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Jung, Yoon Seok; Kim, Ki-Sun; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Lee, Yong-Soo; Yuk, Jae-Min; Oh, Byung-Chul; Choy, Hyon E.; Dooley, Steven; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Lee, Chul-Ho; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Small heterodimer partner (SHP) is a transcriptional corepressor regulating diverse metabolic processes. Here, we show that SHP acts as an intrinsic negative regulator of iron homeostasis. SHP-deficient mice maintained on a high-iron diet showed increased serum hepcidin levels, decreased expression of the iron exporter ferroportin as well as iron accumulation compared to WT mice. Conversely, overexpression of either SHP or AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a metabolic sensor inducing SHP expression, suppressed BMP6-induced hepcidin expression. In addition, an inhibitory effect of AMPK activators metformin and AICAR on BMP6-mediated hepcidin gene expression was significantly attenuated by ablation of SHP expression. Interestingly, SHP physically interacted with SMAD1 and suppressed BMP6-mediated recruitment of the SMAD complex to the hepcidin gene promoter by inhibiting the formation of SMAD1 and SMAD4 complex. Finally, overexpression of SHP and metformin treatment of BMP6 stimulated mice substantially restored hepcidin expression and serum iron to baseline levels. These results reveal a previously unrecognized role for SHP in the transcriptional control of iron homeostasis. PMID:27688041

  14. Carbon Ion Irradiation Inhibits Glioma Cell Migration Through Downregulation of Integrin Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Rieken, Stefan; Habermehl, Daniel; Wuerth, Lena; Brons, Stephan; Mohr, Angela; Lindel, Katja; Weber, Klaus; Haberer, Thomas; Debus, Juergen; Combs, Stephanie E.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of carbon ion irradiation on glioma cell migration. Methods and Materials: U87 and Ln229 glioma cells were irradiated with photons and carbon ions. Migration was analyzed 24 h after irradiation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis was performed in order to quantify surface expression of integrins. Results: Single photon doses of 2 Gy and 10 Gy enhanced {alpha}{sub {nu}}{beta}{sub 3} and {alpha}{sub {nu}}{beta}{sub 5} integrin expression and caused tumor cell hypermigration on both vitronectin (Vn) and fibronectin (Fn). Compared to integrin expression in unirradiated cells, carbon ion irradiation caused decreased integrin expression and inhibited cell migration on both Vn and Fn. Conclusion: Photon radiotherapy (RT) enhances the risk of tumor cell migration and subsequently promotes locoregional spread via photon induction of integrin expression. In contrast to photon RT, carbon ion RT causes decreased integrin expression and suppresses glioma cell migration on both Vn and Fn, thus promising improved local control.

  15. miR-25 modulates NSCLC cell radio-sensitivity through directly inhibiting BTG2 expression

    SciTech Connect

    He, Zhiwei Liu, Yi Xiao, Bing Qian, Xiaosen

    2015-02-13

    A large proportion of the NSCLC patients were insensitive to radiotherapy, but the exact mechanism is still unclear. This study explored the role of miR-25 in regulating sensitivity of NSCLC cells to ionizing radiation (IR) and its downstream targets. Based on measurement in tumor samples from NSCLC patients, this study found that miR-25 expression is upregulated in both NSCLC and radio-resistant NSCLC patients compared the healthy and radio-sensitive controls. In addition, BTG expression was found negatively correlated with miR-25a expression in the both tissues and cells. By applying luciferase reporter assay, we verified two putative binding sites between miR-25 and BTG2. Therefore, BTG2 is a directly target of miR-25 in NSCLC cancer. By applying loss-and-gain function analysis in NSCLC cell lines, we demonstrated that miR-25-BTG2 axis could directly regulated BTG2 expression and affect radiotherapy sensitivity of NSCLC cells. - Highlights: • miR-25 is upregulated, while BTG2 is downregulated in radioresistant NSCLC patients. • miR-25 modulates sensitivity to radiation induced apoptosis. • miR-25 directly targets BTG2 and suppresses its expression. • miR-25 modulates sensitivity to radiotherapy through inhibiting BTG2 expression.

  16. Parvalbumin- and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-expressing neocortical interneurons impose differential inhibition on Martinotti cells

    PubMed Central

    Walker, F.; Möck, M.; Feyerabend, M.; Guy, J.; Wagener, R. J.; Schubert, D.; Staiger, J. F.; Witte, M.

    2016-01-01

    Disinhibition of cortical excitatory cell gate information flow through and between cortical columns. The major contribution of Martinotti cells (MC) is providing dendritic inhibition to excitatory neurons and therefore they are a main component of disinhibitory connections. Here we show by means of optogenetics that MC in layers II/III of the mouse primary somatosensory cortex are inhibited by both parvalbumin (PV)- and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-expressing cells. Paired recordings revealed stronger synaptic input onto MC from PV cells than from VIP cells. Moreover, PV cell input showed frequency-independent depression, whereas VIP cell input facilitated at high frequencies. These differences in the properties of the two unitary connections enable disinhibition with distinct temporal features. PMID:27897179

  17. N-Nicotinoyl tyramine, a novel niacinamide derivative, inhibits melanogenesis by suppressing MITF gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bora; Lee, Soung-Hoon; Choi, Kang-Yell; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-10-05

    We synthesized and investigated the inhibitory effects of a novel niacinamide derivative, N-nicotinoyltyramine (NNT) on melanogenesis. NNT inhibited melanin production in B16F10 murine melanoma cells stimulated with α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), in human melanocyte and in three-dimensional cultured human skin model. NNT did not affect the catalytic activity of tyrosinase, but acted as an inhibitor of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase expressions in B16F10 cells. These findings suggest that the hypopigmentary effect of NNT results from the down-regulation of MITF and subsequently of tyrosinase, although NNT did not directly inhibit tyrosinase activity. In addition, safety of NNT was verified through performing neural stem cell morphology assay and Human repeated insult patch test as whitening agent. Our findings indicate that NNT may be a potential and non-skin irritant whitening agent for use in cosmetics and in the medical treatment of pigmentary disorders.

  18. Prediction on the inhibition ratio of pyrrolidine derivatives on matrix metalloproteinase based on gene expression programming.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuqin; You, Guirong; Jia, Baoxiu; Si, Hongzong; Yao, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) were developed to predict the inhibition ratio of pyrrolidine derivatives on matrix metalloproteinase via heuristic method (HM) and gene expression programming (GEP). The descriptors of 33 pyrrolidine derivatives were calculated by the software CODESSA, which can calculate quantum chemical, topological, geometrical, constitutional, and electrostatic descriptors. HM was also used for the preselection of 5 appropriate molecular descriptors. Linear and nonlinear QSAR models were developed based on the HM and GEP separately and two prediction models lead to a good correlation coefficient (R (2)) of 0.93 and 0.94. The two QSAR models are useful in predicting the inhibition ratio of pyrrolidine derivatives on matrix metalloproteinase during the discovery of new anticancer drugs and providing theory information for studying the new drugs.

  19. Chemical constituents of Tilia taquetii leaves and their inhibition of MMP-1 expression and elastase activities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Kim, Jung Eun; Bu, Hee Jung; Hyun, Chang-Gu; Lee, Nam Ho

    2014-12-01

    The ethanol extract of Tilia taquetii Schneider leaves was investigated for its anti-wrinkle properties and for the relevant chemical constituents. Phytochemical studies led to the identification of five known compounds, viz. phytol (1), isoquercitrin (2), oleanderolide (3), arjunolic acid (4) and maslinic acid (5) from the extract. Of these, compounds 4 and 5 inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), an enzyme responsible for the breakdown of collagen fiber. Moreover, compound 5 showed inhibition activity on elastase, a protease enzyme capable of degrading elastin. These results suggest that the extract of T. taquetii containing the triterpenes 4 and 5 could be applied as anti-wrinkle ingredients in cosmetic preparations.

  20. Ascorbate inhibits NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox expression in microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng; Schuster, David P; Tyml, Karel; Wilson, John X

    2007-01-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is central to the etiology of endothelial dysfunction in sepsis. Endothelial cells respond to infection by activating NADPH oxidases that are sources of intracellular ROS and potential targets for therapeutic administration of antioxidants. Ascorbate is an antioxidant that accumulates in these cells and improves capillary blood flow, vascular reactivity, arterial blood pressure, and survival in experimental sepsis. Therefore, the present study tested the hypothesis that ascorbate regulates NADPH oxidases in microvascular endothelial cells exposed to septic insult. We observed that incubation with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) increased NADPH oxidase activity and expression of the enzyme subunit p47phox in mouse microvascular endothelial cells of skeletal muscle origin. Pretreatment of the cells with ascorbate prevented these increases. Polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase and selective inhibitors of Jak2 also abrogated induction of p47phox. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide induced p47phox expression that was prevented by pretreatment of the cells with ascorbate. LPS+IFNgamma or hydrogen peroxide activated the Jak2/Stat1/IRF1 pathway and this effect was also inhibited by ascorbate. In conclusion, ascorbate blocks the stimulation by septic insult of redox-sensitive Jak2/Stat1/IRF1 signaling, p47phox expression, and NADPH oxidase activity in microvascular endothelial cells. Because endothelial NADPH oxidases produce ROS that can cause endothelial dysfunction, their inhibition by ascorbate may represent a new strategy for sepsis therapy.

  1. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) inhibits cancer cell growth and expression of key molecules in inflammatory breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Montemayor, Michelle M; Acevedo, Raysa Rosario; Otero-Franqui, Elisa; Cubano, Luis A; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie F

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most lethal and least understood form of advanced breast cancer. Its lethality originates from its nature of invading the lymphatic system and absence of a palpable tumor mass. Different from other metastatic breast cancer cells, IBC cells invade by forming tumor spheroids that retain E-cadherin-based cell-cell adhesions. Herein we describe the potential of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) as an attractive candidate for anti-IBC therapy. Reishi contains biological compounds that are cytotoxic against cancer cells. We report the effects of Reishi on viability, apoptosis, invasion, and its mechanism of action in IBC cells (SUM-149). Results show that Reishi selectively inhibits cancer cell viability although it does not affect the viability of noncancerous mammary epithelial cells. Apoptosis induction is consistent with decreased cell viability. Reishi inhibits cell invasion and disrupts the cell spheroids that are characteristic of the IBC invasive pathology. Reishi decreases the expression of genes involved in cancer cell survival and proliferation (BCL-2, TERT, PDGFB), and invasion and metastasis (MMP-9), whereas it increases the expression of IL8. Reishi reduces BCL-2, BCL-XL, E-cadherin, eIF4G, p120-catenin, and c-Myc protein expression and gelatinase activity. These findings suggest that Reishi is an effective anti-IBC therapeutic.

  2. Melittin inhibits the invasion of MCF-7 cells by downregulating CD147 and MMP-9 expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianjun; Li, Fengyu; Tan, Jiang; Peng, Xuewei; Sun, Lili; Wang, Ping; Jia, Shengnan; Yu, Qingmiao; Huo, Hongliang; Zhao, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Tumor invasion and metastasis are the critical steps in determining the aggressive phenotype of human cancers. Melittin, a major component of bee venom, has been reported to induce apoptosis in several cancer cells. However, the mechanisms of melittin involvement in cancer invasion and metastasis remain unclear. Our previous study indicated that melittin inhibits cyclophilin A (CypA), a ubiquitously distributed peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase, in macrophage cells. In the present study, the Transwell assay results showed that melittin may downregulate the invasion level of MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, it was also found, using flow cytometry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, that melittin decreased the expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)147 and matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9), whereas CypA upregulated the expression of CD147 and MMP-9. Overall, the present study indicated that melittin decreased the invasion level of MCF-7 cells by downregulating CD147 and MMP-9 by inhibiting CypA expression. The results of the present study provide an evidence for melittin in anticancer therapy and mechanisms. PMID:28356935

  3. Inhibition of Rho protein stimulates iNOS expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Muniyappa, R; Xu, R; Ram, J L; Sowers, J R

    2000-06-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is upregulated in arterial injury and plays a role in regulating VSMC proliferation and restenosis. Inflammatory cytokines [e.g., interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)] released during vascular injury induce iNOS. Small GTP-binding proteins of the Ras superfamily play a major role in IL-1beta-dependent signaling pathways. In this study, we examined the role of Rho GTPases in regulating iNOS expression in VSMCs. Treatment of VSMCs with mevastatin, which inhibits isoprenylation of Rho and other small GTP-binding proteins, produced significantly higher amounts of IL-1beta-evoked NO and iNOS protein compared with control. Similarly, bacterial toxins [Toxin B from Clostridium difficile and C3 ADP-ribosyl transferase (C3) toxin from Clostridium botulinium] that specifically inactivate Rho proteins increased NOS products (NO and citrulline) and iNOS expression. Toxin B increased the activity of iNOS promoter-reporter construct in VSMCs. Both toxins enhanced IL-1beta-stimulated iNOS expression and NO production. These data demonstrate for the first time that inhibition of Rho induces iNOS and suggest a role for Rho protein in IL-1beta-stimulated NO production in VSMCs.

  4. Compensatory induction of MYC expression by sustained CDK9 inhibition via a BRD4-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huasong; Xue, Yuhua; Yu, Guoying K; Arias, Carolina; Lin, Julie; Fong, Susan; Faure, Michel; Weisburd, Ben; Ji, Xiaodan; Mercier, Alexandre; Sutton, James; Luo, Kunxin; Gao, Zhenhai; Zhou, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    CDK9 is the kinase subunit of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) that enables RNA polymerase (Pol) II's transition from promoter-proximal pausing to productive elongation. Although considerable interest exists in CDK9 as a therapeutic target, little progress has been made due to lack of highly selective inhibitors. Here, we describe the development of i-CDK9 as such an inhibitor that potently suppresses CDK9 phosphorylation of substrates and causes genome-wide Pol II pausing. While most genes experience reduced expression, MYC and other primary response genes increase expression upon sustained i-CDK9 treatment. Essential for this increase, the bromodomain protein BRD4 captures P-TEFb from 7SK snRNP to deliver to target genes and also enhances CDK9's activity and resistance to inhibition. Because the i-CDK9-induced MYC expression and binding to P-TEFb compensate for P-TEFb's loss of activity, only simultaneously inhibiting CDK9 and MYC/BRD4 can efficiently induce growth arrest and apoptosis of cancer cells, suggesting the potential of a combinatorial treatment strategy. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06535.001 PMID:26083714

  5. EGCG inhibits CTGF expression via blocking NF-κB activation in cardiac fibroblast.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yi; Yu, Shan-Shan; Chen, Ting-Ting; Gao, Si; Geng, Biao; Yu, Yang; Ye, Jian-Tao; Liu, Pei-Qing

    2013-01-15

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been reported to play an important role in tissue fibrosis and presents a promising therapeutic target for fibrotic diseases. In heart, inappropriate increase in level of CTGF promotes fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation, thereby exacerbating cardiac hypertrophy and subsequent failure. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol found in green tea, possesses multiple protective effects on the cardiovascular system including cardiac fibrosis. However, the molecular mechanism by which EGCG exerts its anti-fibrotic effects has not been well investigated. In this study, we found that EGCG could significantly reduce collagen synthesis, fibronectin (FN) expression and cell proliferation in rat cardiac fibroblasts stimulated with angiotensinII (AngII). It also ameliorated cardiac fibrosis in rats submitted to abdominal aortic constriction (AAC). Moreover, EGCG attenuated the excessive expression of CTGF induced by AAC or AngII, and reduced the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit and degradation of IκB-α. Subsequently, we demonstrated that in cardiac fibroblasts NF-κB inhibition could suppress AngII-induced CTGF expression. Taken together, these findings provide the first evidence that the effect of EGCG against cardiac fibrosis may be attributed to its inhibition on NF-κB activation and subsequent CTGF overexpression, suggesting the therapeutic potential of EGCG on the prevention of cardiac remodeling in patients with pressure overload hypertrophy.

  6. Inhibition of corticosteroid-binding globulin gene expression by glucocorticoids involves C/EBPβ.

    PubMed

    Verhoog, Nicolette; Allie-Reid, Fatima; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Smith, Carine; Haegeman, Guy; Hapgood, Janet; Louw, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), a negative acute phase protein produced primarily in the liver, is responsible for the transport of glucocorticoids (GCs). It also modulates the bioavailability of GCs, as only free or unbound steroids are biologically active. Fluctuations in CBG levels therefore can directly affect GC bioavailability. This study investigates the molecular mechanism whereby GCs inhibit the expression of CBG. GCs regulate gene expression via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which either directly binds to DNA or acts indirectly via tethering to other DNA-bound transcription factors. Although no GC-response elements (GRE) are present in the Cbg promoter, putative binding sites for C/EBPβ, able to tether to the GR, as well as HNF3α involved in GR signaling, are present. C/EBPβ, but not HNF3α, was identified as an important mediator of DEX-mediated inhibition of Cbg promoter activity by using specific deletion and mutant promoter reporter constructs of Cbg. Furthermore, knockdown of C/EBPβ protein expression reduced DEX-induced repression of CBG mRNA, confirming C/EBPβ's involvement in GC-mediated CBG repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) after DEX treatment indicated increased co-recruitment of C/EBPβ and GR to the Cbg promoter, while C/EBPβ knockdown prevented GR recruitment. Together, the results suggest that DEX repression of CBG involves tethering of the GR to C/EBPβ.

  7. NGF regulates the expression of axonal LINGO-1 to inhibit oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xinhua; Yang, Zhongshu; Shao, Zhaohui; Rosenberg, Sheila S; Levesque, Melissa; Pepinsky, R Blake; Qiu, Mengsheng; Miller, Robert H; Chan, Jonah R; Mi, Sha

    2007-01-03

    Neurons and glia share a mutual dependence in establishing a functional relationship, and none is more evident than the process by which axons control myelination. Here, we identify LRR and Ig domain-containing, Nogo receptor-interacting protein (LINGO-1) as a potent axonal inhibitor of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination that is regulated by nerve growth factor and its cognate receptor TrkA in a dose-dependent manner. Whereas LINGO-1 expressed by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells was previously identified as an inhibitor of differentiation, we demonstrate that axonal expression of LINGO-1 inhibits differentiation with equal potency. Disruption of LINGO-1 on either cell type is sufficient to overcome the inhibitory action and promote differentiation and myelination, independent of axon diameter. Furthermore, these results were recapitulated in transgenic mice overexpressing the full length LINGO-1 under the neuronal promoter synapsin. Myelination was greatly inhibited in the presence of enforced axonal LINGO-1. The implications of these results relate specifically to the development of potential therapeutics targeting extrinsic growth factors that may regulate the axonal expression of modulators of oligodendrocyte development.

  8. Ethacrynic and alpha-lipoic acids inhibit vaccinia virus late gene expression.

    PubMed

    Spisakova, Martina; Cizek, Zdenek; Melkova, Zora

    2009-02-01

    Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980. However recently, the need of agents effective against poxvirus infection has emerged again. In this paper, we report an original finding that two redox-modulating agents, the ethacrynic and alpha-lipoic acids (EA, LA), inhibit growth of vaccinia virus (VACV) in vitro. The effect of EA and LA was compared with those of beta-mercaptoethanol, DTT and ascorbic acid, but these agents increased VACV growth in HeLa G cells. The inhibitory effects of EA and LA on the growth of VACV were further confirmed in several cell lines of different embryonic origin, in epithelial cells, fibroblasts, macrophages and T-lymphocytes. Finally, we have analyzed the mechanism of action of the two agents. They both decreased expression of VACV late genes, as demonstrated by western blot analysis and activity of luciferase expressed under control of different VACV promoters. In contrast, they did not inhibit virus entry into the cell, expression of VACV early genes or VACV DNA synthesis. The results suggest new directions in development of drugs effective against poxvirus infection.

  9. Che-1 gene silencing induces osteosarcoma cell apoptosis by inhibiting mutant p53 expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Wang, Dan; Li, Ning

    2016-04-22

    The transcriptional cofactor Che-1 is an RNA polymerase II (Pol II) which is involved in tumorigenesis, such as breast cancer and multiple myeloma. Che-1 can also regulate mutant p53 expression, which plays roles in many types of cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects and specific mechanism of Che-1 in the regulation of osteosarcoma (OS) cell growth. We found that Che-1 is highly expressed in several kinds of OS cells compared with osteoblast hFOB1.19 cells. MTT and flow cytometry assays showed that Che-1 depletion by siRNA markedly suppressed MG-63 and U2OS cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis. The chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay verified the presence of Che-1 on the p53 promoter in MG-63 and U2OS cells carrying mutant p53. Further studies showed that Che-1 depletion inhibited mutant p53 expression. Notably, our study showed that the loss of Che-1 inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis in MG-63 cells by decreasing the level of mutant p53. Therefore, these findings open the possibility that silencing of Che-1 will have therapeutic benefit in OS.

  10. SupraMolecular BioVectors (SMBV) improve antisense inhibition of erbB-2 expression.

    PubMed Central

    Allal, C.; Sixou, S.; Kravtzoff, R.; Soulet, N.; Soula, G.; Favre, G.

    1998-01-01

    New therapeutic strategies are now being developed against adenocarcinoma associated with erbB-2 amplification, particularly by inhibiting p185erbB-2 expression. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides seem promising for this purpose as long as they are efficiently protected against degradation and targeted into the cells. We present antisense oligonucleotide carriers, the supramolecular biovectors (SMBVs), for which we have already demonstrated the ability to improve both cellular uptake and protection of oligodeoxynucleotide. The present work demonstrates that SMBVs elicit a specific and non-toxic action of antisense compounds in a cell model, irrespective of their sensitivity to nucleases. This is a major point, considering the specificity problems associated with the use of nuclease-resistant phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide. SMBVs improve antisense efficiency of oligodeoxynucleotide designed against p185erbB-2, with a complete growth arrest of SK-Br-3, human adenocarcinoma mammary cells that overexpress p185erbB-2 and no effect on MCF-7 cells that normally express p185erbB-2. The comparison of SMBVs with DOTAP reveals the statistically higher efficiency of SMBVs, which allows the antisense inhibition of p185erbB-2 expression in 65-75% of SK-Br-3 cells (P < 0.05). The efficiency and controlled synthesis of SMBVs underline their potentialities as oligodeoxynucleotide carriers for in vivo experiments. PMID:9652760

  11. Allitridi Inhibits Multiple Cardiac Potassium Channels Expressed in HEK 293 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Hui; Wu, Wei; Chen, Kui-Hao; Liu, Yi; Deng, Chun-Yu; Yu, Xi-Yong; Jin, Man-Wen; Li, Gui-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Allitridi (diallyl trisulfide) is an active compound (volatile oil) from garlic. The previous studies reported that allitridi had anti-arrhythmic effect. The potential ionic mechanisms are, however, not understood. The present study was designed to determine the effects of allitridi on cardiac potassium channels expressed in HEK 293 cells using a whole-cell patch voltage-clamp technique and mutagenesis. It was found that allitridi inhibited hKv4.3 channels (IC50 = 11.4 µM) by binding to the open channel, shifting availability potential to hyperpolarization, and accelerating closed-state inactivation of the channel. The hKv4.3 mutants T366A, T367A, V392A, and I395A showed a reduced response to allitridi with IC50s of 35.5 µM, 44.7 µM, 23.7 µM, and 42.4 µM. In addition, allitridi decreased hKv1.5, hERG, hKCNQ1/hKCNE1 channels stably expressed in HEK 293 cells with IC50s of 40.2 µM, 19.6 µM and 17.7 µM. However, it slightly inhibited hKir2.1 current (100 µM, inhibited by 9.8% at −120 mV). Our results demonstrate for the first time that allitridi preferably blocks hKv4.3 current by binding to the open channel at T366 and T367 of P-loop helix, and at V392 and I395 of S6 domain. It has a weak inhibition of hKv1.5, hERG, and hKCNQ1/hKCNE1 currents. These effects may account for its anti-arrhythmic effect observed in experimental animal models. PMID:23272117

  12. Inhibition of c-myc expression induces apoptosis of WEHI 231 murine B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, M; Arsura, M; Bellas, R E; FitzGerald, M J; Lee, H; Schauer, S L; Sherr, D H; Sonenshein, G E

    1996-01-01

    Treatment of WEHI 231 immature B-lymphoma cells with an antibody against their surface immunoglobulin (anti-Ig) induces apoptosis and has been studied extensively as a model of B-cell tolerance. Anti-Ig treatment of exponentially growing WEHI 231 cells results in an early transient increase in c-myc expression that is followed by a decline to below basal levels; this decrease in c-myc expression immediately precedes the induction of cell death. Here we have modulated NF-kappaB/Rel factor activity, which regulates the rate of c-myc gene transcription, to determine whether the increase or decrease in c-Myc-levels mediates apoptosis in WEHI 231 cells. Addition of the serine/threonine protease inhibitor N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK), which blocks the normally rapid turnover of the specific inhibitor of NF-kappaB/Rel IkappaBalpha in these cells, caused a drop in Rel-related factor binding. TPCK treatment resulted in decreased c-myc expression, preventing the usual increase seen following anti-Ig treatment. Whereas inhibition of the induction of c-myc expression mediated by anti-Ig failed to block apoptosis, reduction of c-myc expression in exponentially growing WEHI 231 cells induced apoptosis even in the absence of anti-Ig treatment. In WEHI 231 clones ectopically expressing c-Myc, apoptosis induced by treatment with TPCK or anti-Ig was significantly diminished and cells continued to proliferate. Furthermore, apoptosis of WEHI 231 cells ensued following enhanced expression of Mad1, which has been found to reduce functional c-Myc levels. These results indicate that the decline in c-myc expression resulting from the drop in NF-kappaB/Rel binding leads to activation of apoptosis of WEHI 231 B cells. PMID:8756660

  13. Black soyabean seed coat extract regulates iron metabolism by inhibiting the expression of hepcidin.

    PubMed

    Mu, Mingdao; Wu, Aimin; An, Peng; Du, Xiaoli; Wu, Qian; Shen, Xiaoyun; Wang, Fudi

    2014-04-14

    Hepcidin, a key regulator of Fe homeostasis, is an ideal drug target for treating patients with Fe disorders such as haemochromatosis, anaemia of chronic inflammation and Fe-deficiency anaemia. However, whether (and how) traditional Chinese black foods (e.g., black soyabeans) target hepcidin and improve Fe-deficiency anaemia remains unclear. Herein, we report that black soyabean seed coat extract (BSSCE) can potently inhibit the in vitro and in vivo expression of hepcidin. In the present study, in cells treated with 200 μg/ml BSSCE, hepcidin expression was found to be reduced to only 6% of the control levels (P<0.01). An AIN-76A diet containing 2% BSSCE was fed to 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice for 0, 1, 7, 15 or 30 d; importantly, compared with the day 0 group, the day 7 group exhibited nearly a 50% decrease in hepatic hepcidin expression (P<0.01), a 35% decrease in splenic Fe concentrations (P<0.05) and a 135% increase in serum Fe concentrations (P<0.05). Mechanistically, the effect of BSSCE on hepcidin expression was mediated via a reduction in the phosphorylation levels of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog proteins (Smad)1/5/8. Consequently, the mice in the day 30 group exhibited large increases in erythrocyte counts (111% v. day 0, P<0.01), Hb concentrations (109%, P<0.01) and haematocrit values (108%, P<0.01). In conclusion, these results indicate that black soyabean extract regulates Fe metabolism by inhibiting the expression of hepcidin. This finding can be used to optimise the intervention of patients with hepcidin-related diseases, including Fe-deficiency anaemia.

  14. Interleukin 12 inhibits antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and Th2 cytokine expression in mice

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Allergic asthma is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary eosinophilia, and may be mediated by T helper (Th) lymphocytes expressing a Th2 cytokine pattern. Interleukin (IL) 12 suppresses the expression of Th2 cytokines and their associated responses, including eosinophilia, serum immunoglobulin E, and mucosal mastocytosis. We have previously shown in a murine model that antigen- induced increases in airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary eosinophilia are CD4+ T cell dependent. We used this model to determine the ability of IL-12 to prevent antigen-induced increases in airway hyperresponsiveness, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophils, and lung Th2 cytokine expression. Sensitized A/J mice developed airway hyperresponsiveness and increased numbers of BAL eosinophils and other inflammatory cells after single or repeated intratracheal challenges with sheep red blood cell antigen. Pulmonary mRNA and protein levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 were increased after antigen challenge. Administration of IL-12 (1 microgram/d x 5 d) at the time of a single antigen challenge abolished the airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary eosinophilia and promoted an increase in interferon (IFN) gamma and decreases in IL-4 and IL-5 expression. The effects of IL-12 were partially dependent on IFN-gamma, because concurrent treatment with IL-12 and anti-IFN-gamma monoclonal antibody partially reversed the inhibition of airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilia by IL-12. Treatment of mice with IL-12 at the time of a second antigen challenge also prevented airway hyperresponsiveness and significantly reduced numbers of BAL inflammatory cells, reflecting the ability of IL-12 to inhibit responses associated with ongoing antigen-induced pulmonary inflammation. These data show that antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation can be blocked by IL-12, which suppresses Th2 cytokine expression. Local administration of IL-12 may provide a novel

  15. Inhibition of spermidine synthase gene expression by transforming growth factor-beta 1 in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Y; Kar, S; Wiest, L; Pegg, A E; Carr, B I

    1997-01-01

    We screened genes responsive to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta 1) protein in a human hepatoma cell line (Hep3B) using a PCR-mediated differential display technique, in order to investigate the mechanisms involved in TGF-beta-induced growth suppression. We found a gene that was down-regulated by TGF-beta 1 to be completely identical in an approx. 620 bp segment to the gene for the enzyme spermidine synthase, which mediates the conversion of putrescine into spermidine. Both spermidine synthase mRNA expression and its enzyme activity were decreased after TGF-beta 1 treatment of Hep3B cells. The inhibition of spermidine synthase gene expression by TGF-beta 1 protein was also observed in other hepatoma cell lines. The expression of genes for other biosynthetic enzymes in polyamine metabolism (ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase) was also inhibited to the same extent as for spermidine synthase, while the gene expression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase, a catabolic enzyme, was relatively resistant to TGF-beta 1. Spermine levels in Hep3B cells were decreased by TGF-beta 1 treatment, although the levels of spermidine and putrescine were unchanged, probably due to compensation by remaining spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase activity. Exogenously added spermidine or spermine, but not putrescine, partially antagonized the growth-inhibitor effects of TGF-beta 1 on Hep3B cells. Our data suggest that down-regulation of gene expression of the enzymes involved in polyamine metabolism, including spermidine synthase, may be associated with the mechanism of TGF-beta-induced growth suppression. PMID:9020892

  16. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyeon Ho; Lee, Youngae; Eun, Hee Chul Chung, Jin Ho

    2008-04-04

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an omega-3 ({omega}-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), which has anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Some reports have demonstrated that EPA inhibits NF-{kappa}B activation induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha} or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in various cells. However, its detailed mode of action is unclear. In this report, we investigated whether EPA inhibits the expression of TNF-{alpha}-induced matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9 in human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT). TNF-{alpha} induced MMP-9 expression by NF-{kappa}B-dependent pathway. Pretreatment of EPA inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression and p65 phosphorylation. However, EPA could not affect I{kappa}B-{alpha} phosphorylation, nuclear translocation of p65, and DNA binding activity of NF-{kappa}B. EPA inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced p65 phosphorylation through p38 and Akt inhibition and this inhibition was IKK{alpha}-dependent event. Taken together, we demonstrate that EPA inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression through inhibition of p38 and Akt activation.

  17. Chemical Inhibition of Kynureninase Reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum Sensing and Virulence Factor Expression.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Stephen H; Bonocora, Richard P; Wade, Joseph T; Musah, Rabi Ann; Cady, Nathaniel C

    2016-04-15

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes multiple quorum sensing (QS) pathways to coordinate an arsenal of virulence factors. We previously identified several cysteine-based compounds inspired by natural products from the plant Petiveria alliacea which are capable of antagonizing multiple QS circuits as well as reducing P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. To understand the global effects of such compounds on virulence factor production and elucidate their mechanism of action, RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis was performed on P. aeruginosa PAO1 exposed to S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, the most potent inhibitor from the prior study. Exposure to this inhibitor down-regulated expression of several QS-regulated virulence operons (e.g., phenazine biosynthesis, type VI secretion systems). Interestingly, many genes that were differentially regulated pertain to the related metabolic pathways that yield precursors of pyochelin, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, phenazines, and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS). Activation of the MexT-regulon was also indicated, including the multidrug efflux pump encoded by mexEF-oprN, which has previously been shown to inhibit QS and pathogenicity. Deeper investigation of the metabolites involved in these systems revealed that S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide has structural similarity to kynurenine, a precursor of anthranilate, which is critical for P. aeruginosa virulence. By supplementing exogenous anthranilate, the QS-inhibitory effect was reversed. Finally, it was shown that S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide competitively inhibits P. aeruginosa kynureninase (KynU) activity in vitro and reduces PQS production in vivo. The kynurenine pathway has been implicated in P. aeruginosa QS and virulence factor expression; however, this is the first study to show that targeted inhibition of KynU affects P. aeruginosa gene expression and QS, suggesting a potential antivirulence strategy.

  18. Interleukin-13 inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in human mesangial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Saura, M; Martínez-Dalmau, R; Minty, A; Pérez-Sala, D; Lamas, S

    1996-01-01

    The synthesis of nitric oxide in inflammatory situations requires the expression of an inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Human mesangial cells (HMC) express an iNOS enzyme after exposure to multiple co-stimuli. In this study we have observed that while tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1 beta, interferon-gamma and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were unable to significantly induce NO synthesis when used alone, they induced an evident stimulation of NO synthesis when used in various combinations. A mixture of the three cytokines (CM) and LPS resulted in a 10-15-fold stimulation of NO synthesis over control values which started to be significant after 16 h. The addition of IL-13, a cytokine with anti-inflammatory properties, inhibited CM/LPS-induced NO synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner. A marked inhibitory effect (60-65%) could be observed when HMC were treated with IL-13 (10 ng/ml) 24 h before, at the same time as, or even 4 h after the addition of CM/LPS. This inhibitory effect was still significant (25%) when IL-13 was added 16 h after CM/LPS. Northern analysis showed that IL-13-mediated iNOS inhibition was closely correlated with the suppression of iNOS mRNA expression. These results identify IL-13 as a powerful regulatory tool for the inhibition of NO synthesis in human cells, a property which may be pathophysiologically relevant in NO-related inflammatory processes. PMID:8573104

  19. Oxymatrine inhibits the proliferation of CaSki cells via downregulating HPV16E7 expression.

    PubMed

    Pei, Zhijun; Zeng, Jing; Gao, Yan; Li, Fuyan; Li, Wei; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Yi; Wu, Ruimin; Chen, Yijia; Liu, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Treatment of recurrent and metastatic cervical cancer remains a challenge, especially in developing countries, which lack efficient screening programs. HPV16E7 has been reported to play an important role in the development of cervical cancer. In recent years, oxymatrine, which was traditionally used as anti-malarial agent, has been shown to inhibit tumor growth with low toxicity to normal cells. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the antitumor effect of oxymatrine in cervical cancer. The CCK-8 assay was used to compare the proliferation of untreated and oxymatrine-treated cervical cancer CaSki cells. Flow cytometry was applied to observe the effect of oxymatrine on apoptosis and the cell cycle distribution of CaSki cells. We used qRT-PCR and western blot analysis to determine the mRNA level and protein level of HPV16E7. The HPV16E7 siRNA inhibition was also performed to confirm the effect of downregulating HPV16E7 on the proliferation in CaSki cells. Our results revealed that oxymatrine-treated cells showed time-dependent and dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation and a significant increase in apoptosis. Oxymatrine arrested CaSki cells in G0/G1 phase and S phase while decreased the cells in G2/M phase. The expression of HPV16E7 was significantly downregulated in oxymatrine-treated cells compared with control cells. Knock-down of HPV16E7 effectively inhibited the proliferation of CaSki cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that oxymatrine inhibits cervical cancer growth via downregulation of HPV16E7. Oxymatrine can be considered to be a potential preventive and therapeutic target for cervical cancer.

  20. Properdistatin inhibits angiogenesis and improves vascular function in human melanoma xenografts with low thrombospondin-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Gaustad, Jon-Vidar; Simonsen, Trude G.; Andersen, Lise Mari K.; Rofstad, Einar K.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of properdistatin, a novel peptide derived from the thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) domain of properdin, was investigated in three melanoma xenograft models with different TSP-1 expression. The tumors were grown in dorsal window chambers and were treated with 80 mg/kg/day properdistatin or vehicle. Morphological parameters of the tumor vasculature were assessed from high resolution transillumination images. Blood supply time (i.e., the time required for arterial blood to flow from a supplying artery to downstream microvessels) and plasma velocities were assessed from first-pass imaging movies recorded after a bolus of fluorescence-labeled dextran had been administered intravenously. Gene and protein expression of TSP-1 were assessed with quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Properdistatin treatment inhibited angiogenesis in low TSP-1 expressing tumors but did not alter the vasculature in high TSP-1 expressing tumors. In low TSP-1 expressing tumors, properdistatin selectively removed small-diameter capillaries, but did not change the morphology of tumor arterioles or tumor venules. Properdistatin also reduced blood supply times and increased plasma velocities, implying that the treatment reduced the geometric resistance to blood flow and improved vascular function. PMID:27756886

  1. Sodium arsenite-induced inhibition of cell proliferation is related to inhibition of IL-2 mRNA expression in mouse activated T cells.

    PubMed

    Conde, Patricia; Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C; Goytia-Acevedo, Raquel C; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S

    2007-04-01

    A proposed mechanism for the As-induced inhibition of cell proliferation is the inhibition of IL-2 secretion. However, the effects of arsenite on IL-2 mRNA expression or on the ERK pathway in activated-T cells have not yet been described. We examined the effect of arsenite on IL-2 mRNA expression, cell activation and proliferation in PHA-stimulated murine lymphocytes. Arsenite (1 and 10 microM) decreased IL-2 mRNA expression, IL-2 secretion and cell proliferation. Arsenite (10 microM) strongly inhibited ERK-phosphorylation. However, the partial inhibition (50%) of IL-2 mRNA produced by 1 microM, consistent with the effects on IL-2 secretion and cell proliferation, could not be explained by the inhibition of ERK-phosphorylation, which was not affected at this concentration. The inhibition of IL-2 mRNA expression caused by 1 microM could be associated to effects on pathways located downstream or parallel to ERK. Arsenite also decreased early activation (surface CD69+ expression) in both CD4+ and CD8+, and decreased total CD8+ count without significantly affecting CD4+, supporting that the cellular immune response mediated by cytotoxic T cells is an arsenic target. Thus, our results suggest that arsenite decreases IL-2 mRNA levels and T-cell activation and proliferation. However, further studies on the effects of arsenite on IL-2 gene transcription and IL-2 mRNA stability are needed.

  2. Carbimazole inhibits TNF-α expression in Fat-induced hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Yamani Bhusan; Pandey, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the carbimazole on expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) in liver, was investigated in an experimental model of high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity. The HFD (orally given for 4 months) induced TNF-α in liver tissue along with raised serum triglyceride (TG), cholesterol and high TSH (62%). In carbimazole (1 mg/100 gbw) treatment, the induction of TNF-α was significantly inhibited, without affecting other parameters. It also improved the liver function, which was raised due to HFD in experimental control rats.

  3. Ethynylbenzenoid metabolites of Antrodia camphorata: synthesis and inhibition of TNF expression.

    PubMed

    Buccini, Marco; Punch, Kathryn A; Kaskow, Belinda; Flematti, Gavin R; Skelton, Brian W; Abraham, Lawrence J; Piggott, Matthew J

    2014-02-21

    An improved synthesis of the anti-inflammatory natural product antrocamphin A (2), involving a key Castro-Stephens reaction, is presented, along with the first total synthesis of its congener antrocamphin B (3). Approaches towards the more complex co-metabolite antrodioxolanone (4) were unsuccessful, but a samarium diiodide-mediated pinacol coupling of antrocamphin B did provide the chiral epimers (51). Antrocamphin A (2) inhibits Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) reporter gene expression, but its development as an anti-inflammatory agent may be limited by cytotoxicity.

  4. Mechanical vibration inhibits osteoclast formation by reducing DC-STAMP receptor expression in osteoclast precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh N; Voglewede, Philip A; Liu, Dawei

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that physical inactivity leads to loss of muscle mass, but it also causes bone loss. Mechanistically, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption have recently been shown to be regulated by vibration. However, the underlying mechanism behind the inhibition of osteoclast formation is yet unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells affects osteoclast formation by the involvement of fusion-related molecules such as dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). RAW264.7 (a murine osteoclastic-like cell line) cells were treated with 20ng/ml receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). For 3 consecutive days, the cells were subjected to 1h of mechanical vibration with 20μm displacement at a frequency of 4Hz and compared to the control cells that were treated under the same condition but without the vibration. After 5days of culture, osteoclast formation was determined. Gene expression of DC-STAMP and P2X7R by RAW264.7 cells was determined after 1h of mechanical vibration, while protein production of the DC-STAMP was determined after 6h of postincubation after vibration. As a result, mechanical vibration of RAW264.7 cells inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. Vibration down-regulated DC-STAMP gene expression by 1.6-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.4-fold in the absence of RANKL. Additionally, DC-STAMP protein production was also down-regulated by 1.4-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.2-fold in the absence of RANKL in RAW264.7 cells in response to mechanical vibration. However, vibration did not affect P2X7R gene expression. Mouse anti-DC-STAMP antibody inhibited osteoclast formation in the absence of vibration. Our results suggest that mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells reduces DC-STAMP expression in osteoclast precursor cells leading to the inhibition of osteoclast formation.

  5. Met/HGF receptor modulates bcl-w expression and inhibits apoptosis in human colorectal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, S; Kondo, S; Shinomura, Y; Kanayama, S; Miyazaki, Y; Kiyohara, T; Hiraoka, S; Matsuzawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    The met proto-oncogene is the tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor for hepatocyte growth factor. In the present study, we investigated the role of met expression on the modulation of apoptosis in colorectal tumours. The gene expressions of c- met and the anti-apoptotic bcl -2 family, including bcl -2, bcl -x L and bcl-w, were analysed in human colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas by using a quantitative polymerase chain-reaction combined with reverse transcription. In seven of 12 adenomas and seven of 11 carcinomas, the c- met gene was overexpressed. The bcl -w, bcl -2 and bcl -x L genes were over-expressed in nine, five and six of 12 adenomas and in five, two and seven of 11 carcinomas, respectively. The c- met mRNA level in human colorectal adenomas and carcinomas was correlated with bcl -w but not with bcl -2 or with bcl -x L mRNA level. The administration of c- met -antisense oligonucleotides decreased Met protein levels in the LoVo human colon cancer cell line. In the case of c- met -antisense-treated cells, apoptotic cell death induced by serum deprivation was more prominent, compared to control or c- met -nonsense-treated cells. Treatment with c- met -antisense oligonucleotides inhibits the gene expression of bcl -w in LoVo cells. On the other hand, the gene expression of bcl -2 or bcl -x L was not affected by treatment with c- met -antisense oligonucleotides. These findings suggest that Met expression modulates apoptosis through bcl -w expression in colorectal tumours. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10944610

  6. Cranberries inhibit LDL oxidation and induce LDL receptor expression in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yi-Fang; Liu, Rui Hai

    2005-08-26

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in most industrialized countries. Cranberries were evaluated for their potential roles in dietary prevention of CVD. Cranberry extracts were found to have potent antioxidant capacity preventing in vitro LDL oxidation with increasing delay and suppression of LDL oxidation in a dose-dependent manner. The antioxidant activity of 100 g cranberries against LDL oxidation was equivalent to 1000 mg vitamin C or 3700 mg vitamin E. Cranberry extracts also significantly induced expression of hepatic LDL receptors and increased intracellular uptake of cholesterol in HepG2 cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. This suggests that cranberries could enhance clearance of excessive plasma cholesterol in circulation. We propose that additive or synergistic effects of phytochemicals in cranberries are responsible for the inhibition of LDL oxidation, the induced expression of LDL receptors, and the increased uptake of cholesterol in hepatocytes.

  7. B7x: A widely expressed B7 family member that inhibits T cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Xingxing; Loke, P'ng; Kim, Jayon; Murphy, Kenneth; Waitz, Rebecca; Allison, James P.

    2003-01-01

    B7 family proteins provide costimulatory signals that regulate T cell responses. Here we report the third set of B7 family-related T cell inhibitory molecules with the identification of a homolog of the B7 family, B7x. It is expressed in immune cells, nonlymphoid tissues, and some tumor cell lines. B7x inhibits cell-cycle progression, proliferation, and cytokine production of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. B7x binds a receptor that is expressed on activated, but not resting T cells that is distinct from known CD28 family members. Its receptor may be a recently identified inhibitory molecule, B and T lymphocyte attenuator. These studies identify a costimulatory pathway that may have a unique function in downregulation of tissue-specific autoimmunity and antitumor responses. PMID:12920180

  8. All-trans retinoic acid inhibits HOXA7 expression in leukemia cell NB4.

    PubMed

    Guo, Q; Jiang, Q; Liu, W; Bai, Y

    2016-01-22

    Leukemia is a malignant proliferative disease of blood system, which is caused by hyperplasia of white blood cells and infiltration into other tissues and organs with blood flow, leading to a series of clinical manifestations. In this study, we detected the expression of HOXA7 gene in human acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line NB4. The expression level of HOXA7 decreased in the presence of ATRA, which was able to inhibit the proliferation of NB4 cells. Furthermore, ATRA altered the morphology of NB4 cells. The study suggested that HOXA7 might be a new gene candidate that influences the maturation of acute myeloid leukemia, and provided the molecular basis for the treatment for acute promyelocyticleukemia.

  9. RANK ligand signaling modulates the matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene expression during osteoclast differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaram, Kumaran; Nishimura, Riko; Senn, Joseph; Youssef, Rimon F.; London, Steven D.; Reddy, Sakamuri V. . E-mail: reddysv@musc.edu

    2007-01-01

    Osteoclast differentiation is tightly regulated by receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) signaling. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a type IV collagenase is highly expressed in osteoclast cells and plays an important role in degradation of extracellular matrix; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate MMP-9 gene expression are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that RANKL signaling induces MMP-9 gene expression in osteoclast precursor cells. We further show that RANKL regulates MMP-9 gene expression through TRAF6 but not TRAF2. Interestingly, blockade of p38 MAPK activity by pharmacological inhibitor, SB203580 increases MMP-9 activity whereas ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059 decreases RANKL induced MMP-9 activity in RAW264.7 cells. These data suggest that RANKL differentially regulates MMP-9 expression through p38 and ERK signaling pathways during osteoclast differentiation. Transient expression of MMP-9 gene (+ 1 to - 1174 bp relative to ATG start codon) promoter-luciferase reporter plasmids in RAW264.7 cells and RANKL stimulation showed significant increase (20-fold) of MMP-9 gene promoter activity; however, there is no significant change with respect to + 1 bp to - 446 bp promoter region and empty vector transfected cells. These results indicated that MMP-9 promoter sequence from - 446 bp to - 1174 bp relative to start codon is responsive to RANKL stimulation. Sequence analysis of the mouse MMP-9 gene promoter region further identified the presence of binding motif (- 1123 bp to - 1153 bp) for the nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1) transcription factor. Inhibition of NFATc1 using siRNA and VIVIT peptide inhibitor significantly decreased RANKL stimulation of MMP-9 activity. We further confirm by oligonucleotide pull-down assay that RANKL stimuli enhanced NFATc1 binding to MMP-9 gene promoter element. In addition, over-expression of constitutively active NFAT in RAW264.7 cells markedly increased (5-fold) MMP-9 gene promoter activity

  10. Mangiferin inhibits macrophage classical activation via downregulating interferon regulatory factor 5 expression

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhiquan; Yan, Li; Chen, Yixin; Bao, Chuanhong; Deng, Jing; Deng, Jiagang

    2016-01-01

    Mangiferin is a natural polyphenol and the predominant effective component of Mangifera indica Linn. leaves. For hundreds of years, Mangifera indica Linn. leaf has been used as an ingredient in numerous traditional Chinese medicine preparations for the treatment of bronchitis. However, the pharmacological mechanism of mangiferin in the treatment of bronchitis remains to be elucidated. Macrophage classical activation is important role in the process of bronchial airway inflammation, and interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) has been identified as a key regulatory factor for macrophage classical activation. The present study used the THP-1 human monocyte cell line to investigate whether mangiferin inhibits macrophage classical activation via suppressing IRF5 expression in vitro. THP-1 cells were differentiated to macrophages by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Macrophages were polarized to M1 macrophages following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Flow cytometric analysis was conducted to detect the M1 macrophages. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate cellular IRF5 gene expression. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines and IRF5 were assessed following cell culture and cellular homogenization using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IRF5 protein and nuclei co-localization was performed in macrophages with laser scanning confocal microscope immunofluorescence analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that mangiferin significantly inhibits LPS/IFN-γ stimulation-induced classical activation of macrophages in vitro and markedly decreases proinflammatory cytokine release. In addition, cellular IRF5 expression was markedly downregulated. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of mangiferin on classical activation of macrophages may be exerted via downregulation of cellular IRF5 expression levels. PMID:27277156

  11. Histone deacetylase inhibition enhances antimicrobial peptide but not inflammatory cytokine expression upon bacterial challenge

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Natalie; Sechet, Emmanuel; Friedman, Robin; Amiot, Aurélien; Sobhani, Iradj; Nigro, Giulia; Sansonetti, Philippe J.; Sperandio, Brice

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) are defense effectors of the innate immunity playing a crucial role in the intestinal homeostasis with commensals and protection against pathogens. Herein we aimed to investigate AMP gene regulation by deciphering specific characteristics allowing their enhanced expression among innate immune genes, particularly those encoding proinflammatory mediators. Our emphasis was on epigenetic regulation of the gene encoding the AMP β-defensin 2 (HBD2), taken as a model of possibly specific induction, upon challenge with a commensal bacterium, compared with the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8. Using an in vitro model of colonic epithelial cells challenged with Escherichia coli K12, we showed that inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDAC) by trichostatin A dramatically enhanced induction of HBD2 expression, without affecting expression of IL-8. This mechanism was supported by an increased phosphorylation of histone H3 on serine S10, preferentially at the HBD2 promoter. This process occurred through activation of the IκB kinase complex, which also led to activation of NF-κB. Moreover, we demonstrated that NF-κB was modified by acetylation upon HDAC inhibition, partly by the histone acetyltransferase p300, and that both NF-κB and p300 supported enhanced induction of HBD2 expression. Furthermore, we identified additional genes belonging to antimicrobial defense and epithelial restitution pathways that showed a similar pattern of epigenetic control. Finally, we confirmed our finding in human colonic primary cells using an ex vivo organoid model. This work opens the way to use epigenetic pharmacology to achieve induction of epithelial antimicrobial defenses, while limiting the deleterious risk of an inflammatory response. PMID:27162363

  12. Estradiol inhibits ongoing autoimmune neuroinflammation and NFκB-dependent CCL2 expression in reactive astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Giraud, Sébastien N.; Caron, Cécile M.; Pham-Dinh, Danielle; Kitabgi, Patrick; Nicot, Arnaud B.

    2010-01-01

    Astroglial reactivity associated with increased production of NFκB-dependent proinflammatory molecules is an important component of the pathophysiology of chronic neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The use of estrogens as potential anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective drugs is a matter of debate. Using mouse experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model of chronic neuroinflammation, we report that implants reproducing pregnancy levels of 17β-estradiol (E2) alleviate ongoing disease and decrease astrocytic production of CCL2, a proinflammatory chemokine that drives the local recruitment of inflammatory myeloid cells. Immunohistochemistry and confocal imaging reveal that, in spinal cord white matter EAE lesions, reactive astrocytes express estrogen receptor (ER)α (and to a lesser extent ERβ) with a preferential nuclear localization, whereas other cells including infiltrated leukocytes express ERs only in their membranes or cytosol. In cultured rodent astrocytes, E2 or an ERα agonist, but not an ERβ agonist, inhibits TNFα-induced CCL2 expression at nanomolar concentrations, and the ER antagonist ICI 182,170 blocks this effect. We show that this anti-inflammatory action is not associated with inhibition of NFκB nuclear translocation but rather involves direct repression of NFκB-dependent transcription. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further indicate that estrogen suppresses TNFα-induced NFκB recruitment to the CCL2 enhancer. These data uncover reactive astrocytes as an important target for nuclear ERα inhibitory action on chemokine expression and suggest that targeting astrocytic nuclear NFκB activation with estrogen receptor α modulators may improve therapies of chronic neurodegenerative disorders involving astroglial neuroinflammation. PMID:20404154

  13. Bilirubin inhibits iNOS expression and NO production in response to endotoxin in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weizheng W; Smith, Darcey L H; Zucker, Stephen D

    2004-08-01

    The inducible isoform of heme oxygenase (HO), HO-1, has been shown to play an important role in attenuating tissue injury. Because HO-1 catalyzes the rate-limiting step in bilirubin synthesis, we examined the hypothesis that bilirubin is a key mediator of HO-1 cytoprotection, employing a rat model of endotoxemia. Bilirubin treatment resulted in improved survival and attenuated liver injury in response to lipopolysaccharide infusion. Serum levels of NO and tumor necrosis factor alpha, key mediators of endotoxemia, and hepatic inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression were significantly lower in bilirubin-treated rodents versus control animals. Both intraperitoneal and local administration of bilirubin also was found to ameliorate hindpaw inflammation induced by the injection of lambda-carrageenan. Consistent with in vivo results, bilirubin significantly inhibited iNOS expression and suppressed NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. In contrast, bilirubin treatment induced a threefold increase in LPS-mediated prostaglandin synthesis in the absence of significant changes in cyclooxygenase expression or activity, suggesting that bilirubin enhances substrate availability for eicosanoid synthesis. Bilirubin had no effect on LPS-mediated activation of nuclear factor kappaB or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, consistent with a nuclear factor kappaB-independent mechanism of action. Taken together, these data support a cytoprotective role for bilirubin that is mediated, at least in part, through the inhibition of iNOS expression and, potentially, through stimulation of local prostaglandin E2 production. In conclusion, our findings suggest a role for bilirubin in mollifying tissue injury in response to inflammatory stimuli and support the possibility that the phenomenon of "jaundice of sepsis" represents an adaptive physiological response to endotoxemia. Supplementary material for this article can be found on the

  14. Tangshen formula attenuates diabetic renal injuries by upregulating autophagy via inhibition of PLZF expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tingting; Zhang, Haojun; Yan, Meihua; Dong, Xi; Chen, Pengmin; Ma, Liang; Li, Ping

    2017-01-01

    The Chinese herbal granule Tangshen Formula (TSF) has been proven to decrease proteinuria and improve estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in diabetic kidney disease (DKD) patients. However, the underlying mechanism of TSF on treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains unclear. The present study aimed to identify the therapeutic target of TSF in diabetic renal injuries through microarray-based gene expression profiling and establish its underlying mechanism. TSF treatment significantly attenuated diabetic renal injuries by inhibiting urinary excretion of albumin and renal histological injuries in diabetic (db/db) mice. We found that PLZF might be the molecular target of TSF in DN. In vivo, the db/db mice showed a significant increase in renal protein expression of PLZF and collagen III, and decrease in renal autophagy levels (downregulated LC3 II and upregulated p62/SQSTM1) compared to db/m mice. The application of TSF resulted in the downregulation of PLZF and collagen III and upregulation of autophagy level in the kidneys of db/db mice. In vitro, TSF reduced high glucose (HG)-induced cell proliferation for NRK52E cells. Further studies indicated that the exposure of NRK52E cells to high levels of glucose resulted in the downregulation of cellular autophagy and upregulation of collagen III protein, which was reversed by TSF treatment by decreasing PLZF expression. In conclusion, TSF might have induced cellular autophagy by inhibiting PLZF expression, which in turn resulted in an increase in autophagic degradation of collagen III that attenuated diabetic renal injuries. PMID:28182710

  15. Inhibition of tobacco mosaic virus movement by expression of an actin-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Christina; Niehl, Annette; Sambade, Adrian; Steinmetz, André; Heinlein, Manfred

    2009-04-01

    The tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) movement protein (MP) required for the cell-to-cell spread of viral RNA interacts with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as well as with the cytoskeleton during infection. Whereas associations of MP with ER and microtubules have been intensely investigated, research on the role of actin has been rather scarce. We demonstrate that Nicotiana benthamiana plants transgenic for the actin-binding domain 2 of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) fimbrin (AtFIM1) fused to green fluorescent protein (ABD2:GFP) exhibit a dynamic ABD2:GFP-labeled actin cytoskeleton and myosin-dependent Golgi trafficking. These plants also support the movement of TMV. In contrast, both myosin-dependent Golgi trafficking and TMV movement are dominantly inhibited when ABD2:GFP is expressed transiently. Inhibition is mediated through binding of ABD2:GFP to actin filaments, since TMV movement is restored upon disruption of the ABD2:GFP-labeled actin network with latrunculin B. Latrunculin B shows no significant effect on the spread of TMV infection in either wild-type plants or ABD2:GFP transgenic plants under our treatment conditions. We did not observe any binding of MP along the length of actin filaments. Collectively, these observations demonstrate that TMV movement does not require an intact actomyosin system. Nevertheless, actin-binding proteins appear to have the potential to exert control over TMV movement through the inhibition of myosin-associated protein trafficking along the ER membrane.

  16. APP modulates KCC2 expression and function in hippocampal GABAergic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Jinzhao; Jiang, Jinxiang; Zheng, Xingzhi; Justice, Nicholas J; Wang, Kun; Ran, Xiangqian; Li, Yi; Huo, Qingwei; Zhang, Jiajia; Li, Hongmei; Lu, Nannan; Wang, Ying; Zheng, Hui; Long, Cheng; Yang, Li

    2017-01-05

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is enriched at the synapse, but its synaptic function is still poorly understood. We previously showed that GABAergic short-term plasticity is impaired in App knock-out (App(-/-)) animals, but the precise mechanism by which APP regulates GABAergic synaptic transmission has remained elusive. Using electrophysiological, biochemical, moleculobiological, and pharmacological analysis, here we show that APP can physically interact with KCC2, a neuron-specific K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter that is essential for Cl(-) homeostasis and fast GABAergic inhibition. APP deficiency results in significant reductions in both total and membrane KCC2 levels, leading to a depolarizing shift in the GABA reversal potential (EGABA). Simultaneous measurement of presynaptic action potentials and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in hippocampal neurons reveals impaired unitary IPSC amplitudes attributable to a reduction in α1 subunit levels of GABAAR. Importantly, restoration of normal KCC2 expression and function in App(-/-) mice rescues EGABA, GABAAR α1 levels and GABAAR mediated phasic inhibition. We show that APP functions to limit tyrosine-phosphorylation and ubiquitination and thus subsequent degradation of KCC2, providing a mechanism by which APP influences KCC2 abundance. Together, these experiments elucidate a novel molecular pathway in which APP regulates, via protein-protein interaction with KCC2, GABAAR mediated inhibition in the hippocampus.

  17. Inhibition of Nod2 Signaling and Target Gene Expression by Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shurong; Zhao, Ling; Kim, Kihoon; Lee, Dong Seok; Hwang, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Nod2 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor that detects a conserved moiety of bacterial peptidoglycan and subsequently activates proinflammatory signaling pathways. Mutations in Nod2 have been implicated to be linked to inflammatory granulomatous disorders, such as Crohn's disease and Blau syndrome. Many phytochemicals possess anti-inflammatory properties. However, it is not known whether any of these phytochemicals might modulate Nod2-mediated immune responses and thus might be of therapeutic value for the intervention of these inflammatory diseases. In this report, we demonstrate that curcumin, a polyphenol found in the plant Curcuma longa, and parthenolide, a sesquiterpene lactone, suppress both ligand-induced and lauric acid-induced Nod2 signaling, leading to the suppression of nuclear factor-κB activation and target gene interleukin-8 expression. We provide molecular and biochemical evidence that the suppression is mediated through the inhibition of Nod2 oligomerization and subsequent inhibition of downstream signaling. These results demonstrate for the first time that curcumin and parthenolide can directly inhibit Nod2-mediated signaling pathways at the receptor level and suggest that Nod2-mediated inflammatory responses can be modulated by these phytochemicals. It remains to be determined whether these phytochemicals possess protective or therapeutic efficacy against Nod2-mediated inflammatory disorders. PMID:18413660

  18. PAAn-1b and PAAn-E: two phosphorothioate antisense oligodeoxynucleotides inhibit human aromatase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Auvray, P; Sourdaine, P; Séralini, G E

    1998-12-09

    Estrogen-dependent diseases, especially breast cancers, are frequently treated with aromatase inhibitors. Another more recent strategy is the antisense technology. In this study, after predicting aromatase mRNA secondary structure, we describe the design, the efficiency, and the toxicity of two antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (PAAn-1b and PAAn-E) directed toward aromatase mRNA. Indeed, 2 microM PAAn-1b and PAAn-E encapsulated with 54 microM polyethylenimine inhibit aromatase activity by 71 and 79%, respectively, in transfected 293 cells, with IC50 values of 0.2 and 0.6 microM. The mechanism of inhibition appears to be specific after using sense and scramble oligodeoxynucleotides as controls and largely decreases aromatase mRNA and protein amounts. Moreover, PAAn-1b and PAAn-E are not cytotoxic for 293 cells. This study finally provides a new strategy for aromatase inhibition. It offers new tools for studying aromatase gene expression and its role in cancer for instance, and this could be of help for the therapy of estrogen-dependent diseases.

  19. APP modulates KCC2 expression and function in hippocampal GABAergic inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Jinzhao; Jiang, Jinxiang; Zheng, Xingzhi; Justice, Nicholas J; Wang, Kun; Ran, Xiangqian; Li, Yi; Huo, Qingwei; Zhang, Jiajia; Li, Hongmei; Lu, Nannan; Wang, Ying; Zheng, Hui; Long, Cheng; Yang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is enriched at the synapse, but its synaptic function is still poorly understood. We previously showed that GABAergic short-term plasticity is impaired in App knock-out (App-/-) animals, but the precise mechanism by which APP regulates GABAergic synaptic transmission has remained elusive. Using electrophysiological, biochemical, moleculobiological, and pharmacological analysis, here we show that APP can physically interact with KCC2, a neuron-specific K+-Cl- cotransporter that is essential for Cl- homeostasis and fast GABAergic inhibition. APP deficiency results in significant reductions in both total and membrane KCC2 levels, leading to a depolarizing shift in the GABA reversal potential (EGABA). Simultaneous measurement of presynaptic action potentials and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in hippocampal neurons reveals impaired unitary IPSC amplitudes attributable to a reduction in α1 subunit levels of GABAAR. Importantly, restoration of normal KCC2 expression and function in App-/- mice rescues EGABA, GABAAR α1 levels and GABAAR mediated phasic inhibition. We show that APP functions to limit tyrosine-phosphorylation and ubiquitination and thus subsequent degradation of KCC2, providing a mechanism by which APP influences KCC2 abundance. Together, these experiments elucidate a novel molecular pathway in which APP regulates, via protein-protein interaction with KCC2, GABAAR mediated inhibition in the hippocampus. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20142.001 PMID:28054918

  20. Increase in E-selectin expression in umbilical vein endothelial cells by anticancer drugs and inhibition by cimetidine.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Jin; Ozawa, Soji; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Imaeda, Yoshihiro; Umemoto, Shunji; Matsumoto, Sumio; Ueda, Masakazu

    2009-12-01

    E-selectin is expressed on the surfaces of stimulated vascular endothelial cells and is sometimes involved in cancer cell metastasis. The H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine inhibits the increase in E-selectin expression on vascular endothelial cells that is induced by interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and cimetidine. It also inhibits the adhesion of sialyl-Lewis-antigen-positive cancer cells to vascular endothelial cells, ultimately inhibiting hematogenous metastasis. Anticancer drugs are essential to cancer therapy, but whether they can alter the expression of E-selectin in vascular endothelial cells remains unclear. Whether cimetidine inhibits the expression of E-selectin in the same manner in the presence or absence of anticancer drugs also remains unknown. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), doxorubicin (DXR), cisplatin (CDDP), or IL-1beta and with or without cimetidine. The expression of E-selectin at the mRNA and protein levels was then determined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. The E-selectin mRNA level increased in cells exposed to 5-FU, DXR, or CDDP, but the addition of cimetidine had no effect on the E-selectin mRNA level. The expression of E-selectin protein was also significantly higher after the addition of 5-FU, DXR, or CDDP, compared with that of a negative control. However, when cimetidine was added prior to the addition of 5-FU, DXR, or CDDP, the expression of E-selectin was significantly suppressed. Thus, cimetidine significantly inhibited the expression of E-selectin at the protein level without affecting its expression at the mRNA level in cells treated with anticancer drugs. In conclusion, anticancer drugs increased the expression of E-selectin and this increase was inhibited by cimetidine. These findings suggest that the administration of cimetidine during treatment with anticancer drugs might be useful for preventing

  1. Ubenimex inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion by inhibiting the expression of APN and inducing autophagic cell death in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Niu, Zhihong; Jia, Yang; Cui, Meng; Han, Liping; Zhang, Yongfei; Liu, Zheng; Bi, Dongbin; Liu, Shuai

    2016-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in males worldwide and is commonly associated with metastasis. Moreover, in prostate cancer, aminopeptidase N (APN) expression is closely correlated with metastasis. Ubenimex, an APN inhibitor, is widely used as an adjunct therapy for cancer, enhancing the function of immunocompetent cells and conferring antitumor effects. However, due to the low expression of APN, it is rarely used to treat prostate cancer. Recently, the induction of autophagy as a molecular mechanism has been strongly connected with tumor cell death. Thus, we investigated whether ubenimex could inhibit cell proliferation, migration and invasion by downregulating APN expression to induce autophagic cell death in prostate cancer cells. The LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines were treated with different doses of ubenimex. Cell viability was measured using growth curve analysis and WST-8 proliferation assay. Autophagic cell death was assessed using fluorescence microscopy and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining. Protein expression was assessed by immunofluorescence and western blot analyses. Autophagosomes were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Wound-healing migration assays were performed to determine the migratory ability of the PC-3 cells. In addition, nude mice were used in the present study to examine PC-3 cell proliferation in vivo. The results revealed that APN expression differed between the metastatic and non-metastatic prostate cancer cells. In addition, ubenimex inhibited APN expression in the prostate cancer cells. Ubenimex increased prostate cancer cell death, as determined using the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxicity assay. This effect was accompanied by increased levels of LC3B. Furthermore, ubenimex inhibited PC-3 cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Ubenimex inhibited the cell migration and invasion in prostate cancer cells by downregulating APN expression. Finally, ubenimex induced

  2. Emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein inhibit migration and invasion in human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells through the inhibition of gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Yin; Chiang, Su-Yin; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Ma, Yi-Shih; Liao, Ching-Lung; Weng, Shu-Wen; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2010-05-01

    Emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein are major compounds in rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.), used in Chinese herbal medicine, and found to have antitumor properties including cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in many human cancer cells. Our previous studies also showed that emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein induced apoptosis in human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells. However, the detail regarding emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein affecting migration and invasion in SCC-4 cells are not clear. In the present study, we investigated whether or not emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein inhibited migration and invasion of SCC-4 cells. Herein, we demonstrate that emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein inhibit the protein levels and activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) but did not affect gene expression of MMP-2, however, they inhibited the gene expression of MMP-9 and all also inhibited the migration and invasion of human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells. MMP-9 (gelatinase-B) plays an important role and is the most associated with tumor migration, invasion and metastasis in various human cancers. Results from zymography and Western blotting showed that emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein treatment decrease the levels of MMP-2, urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) in a concentration-dependent manner. The order of inhibition of associated protein levels and gene expression of migration and invasion in SCC-4 cells are emodin >aloe-emodin >rhein. Our results provide new insight into the mechanisms by which emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein inhibit tongue cancers. In conclusion, these findings suggest that molecular targeting of MMP-9 mRNA expression by emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein might be a useful strategy for chemo-prevention and/or chemo-therapeutics of tongue cancers.

  3. Curcumin inhibits cancer progression through regulating expression of microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Siying; Zhang, Sijie; Shen, Hongyu; Chen, Wei; Xu, Hanzi; Chen, Xiu; Sun, Dawei; Zhong, Shanliang; Zhao, Jianhua; Tang, Jinhai

    2017-02-01

    Curcumin, a major yellow pigment and spice in turmeric and curry, is a powerful anti-cancer agent. The anti-tumor activities of curcumin include inhibition of tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, induction of tumor apoptosis, increase of chemotherapy sensitivity, and regulation of cell cycle and cancer stem cell, indicating that curcumin maybe a strong therapeutic potential through modulating various cancer progression. It has been reported that microRNAs as small noncoding RNA molecules are related to cancer progression, which can be regulated by curcumin. Dysregulated microRNAs play vital roles in tumor biology via regulating expressions of target genes and then influencing multiple cancer-related signaling pathways. In this review, we focused on the inhibition effect of curcumin on various cancer progression by regulating expression of multiple microRNAs. Curcumin-induced dysregulation of microRNAs may activate or inactivate a set of signaling pathways, such as Akt, Bcl-2, PTEN, p53, Notch, and Erbb signaling pathways. A better understanding of the relation between curcumin and microRNAs may provide a potential therapeutic target for various cancers.

  4. Targeted depletion of lymphotoxin-alpha-expressing TH1 and TH17 cells inhibits autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Eugene Y; Kolumam, Ganesh A; Yu, Xin; Francesco, Michelle; Ivelja, Sinisa; Peng, Ivan; Gribling, Peter; Shu, Jean; Lee, Wyne P; Refino, Canio J; Balazs, Mercedesz; Paler-Martinez, Andres; Nguyen, Allen; Young, Judy; Barck, Kai H; Carano, Richard A D; Ferrando, Ron; Diehl, Lauri; Chatterjea, Devavani; Grogan, Jane L

    2009-07-01

    Uncontrolled T helper type 1 (T(H)1) and T(H)17 cells are associated with autoimmune responses. We identify surface lymphotoxin-alpha (LT-alpha) as common to T(H)0, T(H)1 and T(H)17 cells and employ a unique strategy to target these subsets using a depleting monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed to surface LT-alpha. Depleting LT-alpha-specific mAb inhibited T cell-mediated models of delayed-type hypersensitivity and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), preventive and therapeutic administration of LT-alpha-specific mAb inhibited disease, and immunoablated T cells expressing interleukin-17 (IL-17), interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), whereas decoy lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LT-betaR) fusion protein had no effect. A mutation in the Fc tail, rendering the antibody incapable of Fcgamma receptor binding and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity activity, abolished all in vivo effects. Efficacy in CIA was preceded by a loss of rheumatoid-associated cytokines IL-6, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha within joints. These data indicate that depleting LT-alpha-expressing lymphocytes with LT-alpha-specific mAb may be beneficial in the treatment of autoimmune disease.

  5. Silencing cathepsin S gene expression inhibits growth, invasion and angiogenesis of human hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Qi; Wang, Xuedi; Zhang, Hanguang; Li, Chuanwei; Fan, Junhua; Xu, Jing

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cat S is highly expressed in HCC cells with high metastatic potential. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of Cat S inhibits growth and invasion of HCC cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of Cat S inhibits HCC-associated angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cat S might be a potential target for HCC therapy. -- Abstract: Cathepsin S (Cat S) plays an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis by its ability to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM). Our previous study suggested there could be a potential association between Cat S and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis. The present study was designed to determine the role of Cat S in HCC cell growth, invasion and angiogenesis, using RNA interference technology. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) sequences for the Cat S gene were synthesized and transfected into human HCC cell line MHCC97-H. The Cat S gene targeted siRNA-mediated knockdown of Cat S expression, leading to potent suppression of MHCC97-H cell proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis. These data suggest that Cat S might be a potential target for HCC therapy.

  6. A-62176, a potent topoisomerase inhibitor, inhibits the expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Lin; Jeon, Kyung-Hwa; Jun, Kyu-Yeon; Choi, Yongmun; Kim, Dae-Kee; Na, Younghwa; Kwon, Youngjoo

    2012-12-01

    HER2 overexpression is observed in ∼6-35% of all gastric cancers, while co-amplification of topoisomerase IIα occurs in ∼32-90% of all cancers with HER2 amplification. The present study reports that HER2 expression is down-regulated by A-62176, a fluoroquinophenoxazine derivative that we previously demonstrated to inhibit topoisomerase I and IIα. The results suggest that A-62176 inhibits the interaction between the ESX, an ets transcription factor, and its co-activator Sur2, leading to the attenuation of HER2-mediated phosphorylation of MAPK/Akt. A-62176 arrests the cell cycle in the G1 phase via the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and the up-regulation of p27(Kip1) in NCI-N87 gastric cancer cells. The combination of A-62176 with doxorubicin provides a strong synergistic activity. We propose that A-62176 is a dual inhibitor that impairs the expression of HER2 and restrains the activity of topoisomerase IIα. Our results may lead to the rational design of anticancer molecules targeting a subgroup of gastric cancer cells overexpressing both HER2 and topoisomerase IIα.

  7. FGF Signaling Pathway in the Developing Chick Lung: Expression and Inhibition Studies

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Rute S.; Coutinho-Borges, José P.; Pacheco, Ana P.; daMota, Paulo O.; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) are essential key players during embryonic development. Through their specific cognate receptors (FGFR) they activate intracellular cascades, finely regulated by modulators such as Sprouty. Several FGF ligands (FGF1, 2, 7, 9, 10 and 18) signaling through the four known FGFRs, have been implicated in lung morphogenesis. Although much is known about mammalian lung, so far, the avian model has not been explored for lung studies. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we provide the first description of fgf10, fgfr1-4 and spry2 expression patterns in early stages of chick lung development by in situ hybridization and observe that they are expressed similarly to their mammalian counterparts. Furthermore, aiming to determine a role for FGF signaling in chick lung development, in vitro FGFR inhibition studies were performed. Lung explants treated with an FGF receptor antagonist (SU5402) presented an impairment of secondary branch formation after 48 h of culture; moreover, abnormal lung growth with a cystic appearance of secondary bronchi and reduction of the mesenchymal tissue was observed. Branching and morphometric analysis of lung explants confirmed that FGFR inhibition impaired branching morphogenesis and induced a significant reduction of the mesenchyme. Conclusions/Significance This work demonstrates that FGFRs are essential for the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that determine epithelial branching and mesenchymal growth and validate the avian embryo as a good model for pulmonary studies, namely to explore the FGF pathway as a therapeutic target. PMID:21412430

  8. CXCL5 knockdown expression inhibits human bladder cancer T24 cells proliferation and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jiajia; Zhu, Xi; Zhang, Jie

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • We first demonstrated CXCL5 is highly expressed in human bladder tumor tissues and cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits proliferation, migration and promotes apoptosis in T24 cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in T24 cells. • CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression. - Abstract: CXCL5 (epithelial neutrophil activating peptide-78) which acts as a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophil function was reported to play a multifaceted role in tumorigenesis. To investigate the role of CXCL5 in bladder cancer progression, we examined the CXCL5 expression in bladder cancer tissues by real-time PCR and Western blot, additionally, we used shRNA-mediated silencing to generate stable CXCL5 silenced bladder cancer T24 cells and defined its biological functions. Our results demonstrated that mRNA and protein of CXCL5 is increased in human bladder tumor tissues and cell lines, down-regulation of CXCL5 in T24 cells resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and increased cell apoptosis in vitro through Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. These data suggest that CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression, it may represent a potential application in cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  9. Trichostatin A Inhibits β-Casein Expression in Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pujuguet, Philippe; Radisky, Derek; Levy, Dinah; Lacza, Charlemagne; Bissell, Mina J.

    2010-01-01

    Many aspects of cellular behavior are defined by the content of information provided by association of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and with cell membrane receptors. When cultured in the presence of laminin-containing ECM and prolactin (Prl), normal mammary epithelial cells express the milk protein β-casein. We have previously found that the minimal ECM- and Prl-responsive enhancer element BCE-1 was only active when stably integrated into chromatin, and that trichostatin A (TSA), a reagent that leads to alterations in chromatin structure, was able to activate the integrated enhancer element. We now show that endogenous β-casein gene, which is controlled by a genetic assembly that is highly similar to that of BCE-1 and which is also activated by incubation in ECM and Prl, is instead inhibited by TSA. We provide evidence that the differing response of β-casein and BCE-1 to TSA is neither due to an unusual effect of TSA on mammary epithelial cells, nor to secondary consequences from the expression of a separate gene, nor to a particular property of the BCE-1 construct. As a component of this investigation, we also showed that ECM mediated rapid histone deacetylation in mammary epithelial cells. These results are discussed in combination with previous work showing that TSA mediates the differentiation of many types of cancer cells but inhibits differentiation of some nonmalignant cell types. PMID:11746508

  10. Retinoic acid inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeong-Yeh; Koo, Bon-Sun; Kang, Mi-Kyung; Rho, Hye-Won; Sohn, Hee-Sook; Jhee, Eun-Chung; Park, Jin-Woo

    2002-11-30

    The present study was undertaken to explore whether retinoids, which are known to have immunomodulatory actions, could attenuate tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocytes incubated with TNF induced dose- and time-dependent accumulation of nitrite in the culture medium through the iNOS induction as confirmed by Western blotting. Treatment of cells with TNF in the presence of all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) significantly decreased their ability to produce nitrite and iNOS induction. Both 13-cis- and all- trans-RA-induced suppression was dose-dependent, and all-trans-RA was somewhat potent than 13-cis-RA. The inhibitory effect of RA on TNF-induced iNOS induction was reversible, completely recovered after 2 days, and was exerted through the inhibition of NF-kappaB activation. TNF also suppressed the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. RA could not reverse the TNF- induced LPL suppression at RA levels causing near complete inhibition of the TNF-induced NO production. These results indicate that RAs attenuate iNOS expression reversibly in TNF-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and that the TNF-induced LPL suppression is not the result of NO overproduction.

  11. Nobiletin inhibits human osteosarcoma cells metastasis by blocking ERK and JNK-mediated MMPs expression

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hsin-Lin; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Yang, Jia-Sin; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Lue, Ko-Haung; Lu, Ko-Hsiu; Yang, Shun-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Nobiletin, a polymethoxyflavone, has a few pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammation and anti-cancer effects. However, its effect on human osteosarcoma progression remains uninvestigated. Therefore, we examined the effectiveness of nobiletin against cellular metastasis of human osteosarcoma and the underlying mechanisms. Nobiletin, up to 100 μM without cytotoxicity, significantly decreased motility, migration and invasion as well as enzymatic activities, protein levels and mRNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in U2OS and HOS cells. In addition to inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), the inhibitory effect of nobiletin on the DNA-binding activity of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and specificity protein 1 (SP-1) in U2OS and HOS cells. Co-treatment with ERK and JNK inhibitors and nobiletin further reduced U2OS cells migration and invasion. These results indicated that nobiletin inhibits human osteosarcoma U2OS and HOS cells motility, migration and invasion by down-regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions via ERK and JNK pathways and through the inactivation of downstream NF-κB, CREB, and SP-1. Nobiletin has the potential to serve as an anti-metastatic agent for treating osteosarcoma. PMID:27144433

  12. Arsenic trioxide inhibits cell proliferation and human papillomavirus oncogene expression in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongtao; Gao, Peng; Zheng, Jie

    2014-09-05

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has shown therapeutic effects in some leukemias and solid cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms of its anticancer efficacy have not been clearly elucidated, particularly in solid cancers. Our previous data showed that As2O3 induced apoptosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 DNA-immortalized human cervical epithelial cells and cervical cancer cells and inhibited the expression of HPV oncogenes in these cells. In the present study, we systemically examined the effects of As2O3 on five human cervical cancer cell lines and explored the possible molecular mechanisms. MTT assay showed that HPV-negative C33A cells were more sensitive to growth inhibition induced by As2O3 than HPV-positive cervical cancer cells, and HPV 18-positive HeLa and C4-I cells were more sensitive to As2O3 than HPV 16-positive CaSki and SiHa cells. After As2O3 treatment, both mRNA and protein levels of HPV E6 and E7 obviously decreased in all HPV positive cell lines. In contrast, p53 and Rb protein levels increased in all tested cell lines. Transcription factor AP-1 protein expression decreased significantly in HeLa, CaSki and C33A cells with ELISA method. These results suggest that As2O3 is a potential anticancer drug for cervical cancer.

  13. Trichostatin A inhibits beta-casein expression in mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pujuguet, Philippe; Radisky, Derek; Levy, Dinah; Lacza, Charlemagne; Bissell, Mina J.

    2002-02-22

    Many aspects of cellular behavior are affected by information derived from association of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and with cell membrane receptors. When cultured in the presence of laminin-containing ECM and prolactin (Prl), normal mammary epithelial cells express the milk protein beta-casein. Previously, we defined the minimal ECM- and Prl-responsive enhancer element BCE-1 from the upstream region of the beta-casein gene. We also found that BCE-1 was only active when stably integrated into chromatin, and that trichostatin A (TSA), a reagent that leads to alterations in chromatin structure, was able to activate the integrated enhancer element. We now show that endogenous b-casein gene, which is controlled by a genetic assembly that is highly similar to that of BCE-1 and which is also activated by incubation in ECM and Prl, is instead inhibited by TSA. We provide evidence that the differing response of b-casein and BCE-1 to TSA is neither due to an unusual effect of TSA on mammary epithelial cells, nor to secondary consequences from the expression of a separate gene, nor to a particular property of the BCE-1 construct. As a component of this investigation, we also showed that ECM could mediate rapid histone deacetylation in mammary epithelial cells. These results are discussed in combination with previous work showing that TSA mediates the differentiation of many types of cancer cells but inhibits differentiation of some nonmalignant cell types.

  14. Paeoniflorin inhibits doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by downregulating microRNA-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    LI, JIAN-ZHE; TANG, XIU-NENG; LI, TING-TING; LIU, LI-JUAN; YU, SHU-YI; ZHOU, GUANG-YU; SHAO, QING-RUI; SUN, HUI-PING; WU, CHENG; YANG, YANG

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective anthracycline anti-tumor antibiotic. Because of its cardiotoxicity, the clinical application of DOX is limited. Paeoniflorin (PEF), a monoterpene glucoside extracted from the dry root of Paeonia, is reported to exert multiple beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. The present study was designed to explore the protective effect of PEF against DOX-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the underlying mechanism. In cultured H9c2 cells, PEF (100 µmol/l) was added for 2 h prior to exposure to DOX (5 µmol/l) for 24 h. Cell viability, creatine kinase activity, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and the expression of microRNA-1 (miR-1) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) were measured following treatment with PEF and/or DOX. The results showed that treatment with DOX notably induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, concomitantly with enhanced ROS generation, upregulated miR-1 expression and downregulated Bcl-2 expression. These effects of DOX were significantly inhibited by pretreatment of the cells with PEF. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of PEF on DOX-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis may be associated with downregulation of miR-1 expression via a reduction in ROS generation. PMID:27284328

  15. PML/RARa inhibits PTEN expression in hematopoietic cells by competing with PU.1 transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    Noguera, Nélida Inés; Piredda, Maria Liliana; Taulli, Riccardo; Catalano, Gianfranco; Angelini, Giulia; Gaur, Girish; Nervi, Clara; Voso, Maria Teresa; Lunardi, Andrea; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Lo-Coco, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Acute promyelocitic leukemia (APL) is characterized by the pathognomonic presence in leukemic blasts of the hybrid protein PML/RARA, that acts as a transcriptional repressor impairing the expression of genes that are critical to myeloid differentiation. Here, we show that primary blasts from APL patients express lower levels of the oncosuppressor protein PTEN, as compared to blast cells from other AML subtypes or normal bone marrow, and demonstrate that PML-RARA directly inhibits PTEN expression. We show that All-Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA) triggers in APL cells an active chromatin status at the core regulatory region of the PTEN promoter, that allows the binding of the myeloid-regulating transcription factor PU.1, and, in turn, the transcriptional induction of PTEN. ATRA, via PML/RARA degradation, also promotes PTEN nuclear re-localization and decreases expression of the PTEN target Aurora A kinase. In conclusion, our findings support the notion that PTEN is one of the primary targets of PML/RARA in APL PMID:27626703

  16. Hepatic steatosis inhibits autophagic proteolysis via impairment of autophagosomal acidification and cathepsin expression

    SciTech Connect

    Inami, Yoshihiro; Yamashina, Shunhei; Izumi, Kousuke; Ueno, Takashi; Tanida, Isei; Ikejima, Kenichi; Watanabe, Sumio

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Acidification of autophagosome was blunted in steatotic hepatocytes. {yields} Hepatic steatosis did not disturb fusion of isolated autophagosome and lysosome. {yields} Proteinase activity of cathepsin B and L in autolysosomes was inhibited by steatosis. {yields} Hepatic expression of cathepsin B and L was suppressed by steatosis. -- Abstract: Autophagy, one of protein degradation system, contributes to maintain cellular homeostasis and cell defense. Recently, some evidences indicated that autophagy and lipid metabolism are interrelated. Here, we demonstrate that hepatic steatosis impairs autophagic proteolysis. Though accumulation of autophagosome is observed in hepatocytes from ob/ob mice, expression of p62 was augmented in liver from ob/ob mice more than control mice. Moreover, degradation of the long-lived protein leucine was significantly suppressed in hepatocytes isolated from ob/ob mice. More than 80% of autophagosomes were stained by LysoTracker Red (LTR) in hepatocytes from control mice; however, rate of LTR-stained autophagosomes in hepatocytes were suppressed in ob/ob mice. On the other hand, clearance of autolysosomes loaded with LTR was blunted in hepatocytes from ob/ob mice. Although fusion of isolated autophagosome and lysosome was not disturbed, proteinase activity of cathepsin B and L in autolysosomes and cathepsin B and L expression of liver were suppressed in ob/ob mice. These results indicate that lipid accumulation blunts autophagic proteolysis via impairment of autophagosomal acidification and cathepsin expression.

  17. Fisetin induces Sirt1 expression while inhibiting early adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Chon; Kim, Yoo Hoon; Son, Sung Wook; Moon, Eun-Yi; Pyo, Suhkneung; Um, Sung Hee

    2015-11-27

    Fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a naturally found flavonol in many fruits and vegetables and is known to have anti-aging, anti-cancer and anti-viral effects. However, the effects of fisetin on early adipocyte differentiation and the epigenetic regulator controlling adipogenic transcription factors remain unclear. Here, we show that fisetin inhibits lipid accumulation and suppresses the expression of PPARγ in 3T3-L1 cells. Fisetin suppressed early stages of preadipocyte differentiation, and induced expression of Sirt1. Depletion of Sirt1 abolished the inhibitory effects of fisetin on intracellular lipid accumulation and on PPARγ expression. Mechanistically, fisetin facilitated Sirt1-mediated deacetylation of PPARγ and FoxO1, and enhanced the association of Sirt1 with the PPARγ promoter, leading to suppression of PPARγ transcriptional activity, thereby repressing adipogenesis. Lowering Sirt1 levels reversed the effects of fisetin on deacetylation of PPARγ and increased PPARγ transactivation. Collectively, our results suggest the effects of fisetin in increasing Sirt1 expression and in epigenetic control of early adipogenesis.

  18. Chlorpromazine inhibits mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via increasing expression of tissue factor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Li, Aimei; Li, Yujun; Li, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Qingmeng; Song, Wuqi; Wang, Yao; Ogutu, James O; Wang, Jindong; Li, Jianbo; Tang, Renkuan; Zhang, Fengmin

    2016-01-01

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ) is a widely used antipsychotic drug with antagonistic effect on dopamine receptors. Accumulating evidence has shown that CPZ plays a neuroprotective role in various models of toxicity and apoptosis. However, the underlying mechanism contributing to this protective effect remains unclear. Here, we evaluate the effect of CPZ on mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in the neuron system. Higher levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and tissue factor (TF) but lower apoptotic rate were found in hippocampus of CPZ-treated schizophrenic patients compared with non-antipsychotic treated controls. Additionally, both short-term and long-term treatment of CPZ in rats could up-regulate the levels of Bcl-2 and TF with no cytotoxic effects. In the in vitro experiment, expression of Bcl-2 was up-regulated in the C6 glioma cells transfected with pEGFP-N1-TF recombinant plasmid. Furthermore, in another independent rat model of apoptosis, compared with the group administrated with alcohol only, the brains of the CPZ-pretreated rats showed lower expression of cleaved caspase-3, cytochrome c and Bax, but higher expression of Bcl-2 and TF. Our data demonstrate that CPZ exerts its neuronal protective effects through inhibiting the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by up-regulating TF expression, thus providing new insight into CPZ function and application.

  19. Goat mammary gland expression of Cecropin B to inhibit bacterial pathogens causing mastitis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chao-chao; Yin, De-yun; Gao, Xue-jun; Li, Qing-zhang; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial peptide Cecropin B (CB), isolated from the giant silk moth, has been shown to effectively eliminate bacteria. In this study, the effects of transgenic CB on dairy goat mammary epithelial cells (DGMECs) and dairy goat mammary gland were investigated. The DNA of CB from silkworm was amplified by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and then fused to the eukaryotic expression vector pECFP-C1. The recombinant plasmid pECFP-Cecropin B (pECFP-CB) was used for the transfection of DGMECs, and the expression of transgenic CB and the antibacterial activity of it were confirmed by western blot and agar diffusion reaction respectively. The stable DGMEC line transfected by pECFP-CB was obtained by screening with G418. In vivo experiment, pECFP-CB was injected into dairy goat mammary gland, and also the expression and antibacterial activity of transgenic CB were confirmed. Results of this study: transgenic CB can be expressed in DGMECs and dairy goat mammary gland, and inhibit the mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

  20. The tobacco smoke component acrolein induces glucocorticoid resistant gene expression via inhibition of histone deacetylase

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Matthew J.; Haenen, Guido R.M.M.; Bouwman, Freek G.; van der Vliet, Albert; Bast, Aalt

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of cigarette smoke-related death worldwide. Acrolein, a crucial reactive electrophile found in cigarette smoke mimics many of the toxic effects of cigarette smoke-exposure in the lung. In macrophages, cigarette smoke is known to hinder histone deacetylases (HDACs), glucocorticoid-regulated enzymes that play an important role in the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid resistant inflammation, a common feature of COPD. Thus, we hypothesize that acrolein plays a role in COPD-associated glucocorticoid resistance. To examine the role of acrolein on glucocorticoid resistance, U937 monocytes, differentiated with PMA to macrophage-like cells were treated with acrolein for 0.5 h followed by stimulation with hydrocortisone for 8 h, or treated simultaneously with LPS and hydrocortisone for 8 h without acrolein. GSH and nuclear HDAC activity were measured, or gene expression was analyzed by qPCR. Acrolein-mediated TNFα gene expression was not suppressed by hydrocortisone whereas LPS-induced TNFα expression was suppressed. Acrolein also significantly inhibited nuclear HDAC activity in macrophage-like cells. Incubation of recombinant HDAC2 with acrolein led to the formation of an HDAC2-acrolein adduct identified by mass spectrometry. Therefore, these results suggest that acrolein-induced inflammatory gene expression is resistant to suppression by the endogenous glucocorticoid, hydrocortisone. PMID:26481333

  1. Decreased Expression of SRSF2 Splicing Factor Inhibits Apoptotic Pathways in Renal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kędzierska, Hanna; Popławski, Piotr; Hoser, Grażyna; Rybicka, Beata; Rodzik, Katarzyna; Sokół, Elżbieta; Bogusławska, Joanna; Tański, Zbigniew; Fogtman, Anna; Koblowska, Marta; Piekiełko-Witkowska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Serine and arginine rich splicing factor 2(SRSF2) belongs to the serine/arginine (SR)-rich family of proteins that regulate alternative splicing. Previous studies suggested that SRSF2 can contribute to carcinogenic processes. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype of kidney cancer, highly aggressive and difficult to treat, mainly due to resistance to apoptosis. In this study we hypothesized that SRSF2 contributes to the regulation of apoptosis in ccRCC. Using tissue samples obtained from ccRCC patients, as well as independent validation on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data, we demonstrate for the first time that expression of SRSF2 is decreased in ccRCC tumours when compared to non-tumorous control tissues. Furthermore, by employing a panel of ccRCC-derived cell lines with silenced SRSF2 expression and qPCR arrays we show that SRSF2 contributes not only to splicing patterns but also to expression of multiple apoptotic genes, including new SRSF2 targets: DIABLO, BIRC5/survivin, TRAIL, BIM, MCL1, TNFRSF9, TNFRSF1B, CRADD, BCL2L2, BCL2A1, and TP53. We also identified a new splice variant of CFLAR, an inhibitor of caspase activity. These changes culminate in diminished caspase-9 activity and inhibition of apoptosis. In summary, we show for the first time that decreased expression of SRSF2 in ccRCC contributes to protection of cancer cells viability. PMID:27690003

  2. HOX gene expression predicts response to BCL-2 inhibition in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kontro, M; Kumar, A; Majumder, M M; Eldfors, S; Parsons, A; Pemovska, T; Saarela, J; Yadav, B; Malani, D; Fløisand, Y; Höglund, M; Remes, K; Gjertsen, B T; Kallioniemi, O; Wennerberg, K; Heckman, C A; Porkka, K

    2017-02-01

    Inhibitors of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) such as venetoclax (ABT-199) and navitoclax (ABT-263) are clinically explored in several cancer types, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. To identify robust biomarkers for BCL-2 inhibitor sensitivity, we evaluated the ex vivo sensitivity of fresh leukemic cells from 73 diagnosed and relapsed/refractory AML patients, and then comprehensively assessed whether the responses correlated to specific mutations or gene expression signatures. Compared with samples from healthy donor controls (nonsensitive) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients (highly sensitive), AML samples exhibited variable responses to BCL-2 inhibition. Strongest CLL-like responses were observed in 15% of the AML patient samples, whereas 32% were resistant, and the remaining exhibited intermediate responses to venetoclax. BCL-2 inhibitor sensitivity was associated with genetic aberrations in chromatin modifiers, WT1 and IDH1/IDH2. A striking selective overexpression of specific HOXA and HOXB gene transcripts were detected in highly BCL-2 inhibitor sensitive samples. Ex vivo responses to venetoclax showed significant inverse correlation to β2-microglobulin expression and to a lesser degree to BCL-XL and BAX expression. As new therapy options for AML are urgently needed, the specific HOX gene expression pattern can potentially be used as a biomarker to identify venetoclax-sensitive AML patients for clinical trials.

  3. The tobacco smoke component acrolein induces glucocorticoid resistant gene expression via inhibition of histone deacetylase.

    PubMed

    Randall, Matthew J; Haenen, Guido R M M; Bouwman, Freek G; van der Vliet, Albert; Bast, Aalt

    2016-01-05

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of cigarette smoke-related death worldwide. Acrolein, a crucial reactive electrophile found in cigarette smoke mimics many of the toxic effects of cigarette smoke-exposure in the lung. In macrophages, cigarette smoke is known to hinder histone deacetylases (HDACs), glucocorticoid-regulated enzymes that play an important role in the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid resistant inflammation, a common feature of COPD. Thus, we hypothesize that acrolein plays a role in COPD-associated glucocorticoid resistance. To examine the role of acrolein on glucocorticoid resistance, U937 monocytes, differentiated with PMA to macrophage-like cells were treated with acrolein for 0.5h followed by stimulation with hydrocortisone for 8h, or treated simultaneously with LPS and hydrocortisone for 8h without acrolein. GSH and nuclear HDAC activity were measured, or gene expression was analyzed by qPCR. Acrolein-mediated TNFα gene expression was not suppressed by hydrocortisone whereas LPS-induced TNFα expression was suppressed. Acrolein also significantly inhibited nuclear HDAC activity in macrophage-like cells. Incubation of recombinant HDAC2 with acrolein led to the formation of an HDAC2-acrolein adduct identified by mass spectrometry. Therefore, these results suggest that acrolein-induced inflammatory gene expression is resistant to suppression by the endogenous glucocorticoid, hydrocortisone.

  4. Autophagy-dependent PELI3 degradation inhibits proinflammatory IL1B expression.

    PubMed

    Giegerich, Annika Klara; Kuchler, Laura; Sha, Lisa Katharina; Knape, Tilo; Heide, Heinrich; Wittig, Ilka; Behrends, Christian; Brüne, Bernhard; von Knethen, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of TLR4 (toll-like receptor 4) is followed by a subsequent overwhelming inflammatory response, a hallmark of the first phase of sepsis. Therefore, counteracting excessive innate immunity by autophagy is important to contribute to the termination of inflammation. However, the exact molecular details of this interplay are only poorly understood. Here, we show that PELI3/Pellino3 (pellino E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3), which is an E3 ubiquitin ligase and scaffold protein in TLR4-signaling, is impacted by autophagy in macrophages (MΦ) after LPS stimulation. We noticed an attenuated mRNA expression of proinflammatory Il1b (interleukin 1, β) in Peli3 knockdown murine MΦ in response to LPS treatment. The autophagy adaptor protein SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) emerged as a potential PELI3 binding partner in TLR4-signaling. siRNA targeting Sqstm1 and Atg7 (autophagy related 7), pharmacological inhibition of autophagy by wortmannin as well as blocking the lysosomal vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase by bafilomycin A1 augmented PELI3 protein levels, while inhibition of the proteasome had no effect. Consistently, treatment to induce autophagy by MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin (serine/threonine kinase)) inhibition or starvation enhanced PELI3 degradation and reduced proinflammatory Il1b expression. PELI3 was found to be ubiquitinated upon LPS stimulation and point mutation of PELI3-lysine residue 316 (Lys316Arg) attenuated Torin2-dependent degradation of PELI3. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that PELI3 colocalized with the typical autophagy markers MAP1LC3B/LC3B (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 β) and LAMP2 (lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2). Our observations suggest that autophagy causes PELI3 degradation during TLR4-signaling, thereby impairing the hyperinflammatory phase during sepsis.

  5. ERβ regulates miR-21 expression and inhibits invasion and metastasis in cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Junmei; Tu, Zhenzhen; Chen, Wei R.; Gu, Yueqing

    2012-03-01

    In human, estrogens play important roles in many physiological processes, and is also found to be connected with numerous cancers. In these diseases, estrogen mediates its effects through the estrogen receptor (ER), which serves as the basis for many current clinical diagnosis. Two forms of the estrogen receptor have been identified, ERα and ERβ, and show different and specific functions. The two estrogen receptors belong to a family of ligand-regulated transcription factors. Estrogen via ERα stimulates proliferation in the breast, uterus, and developing prostate, while estrogen via ERβ inhibits proliferation and promotes differentiation in the prostate, mammary gland, colon, lung, and bone marrow stem cells. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that occur naturally and downregulate protein expression by translational blockade of the target mRNA or by promoting mRNA decay. MiR-21 is one of the most studied miRNAs in cancers. MiR-21 is overexpressed in the most solid tumors, promoting progression and metastasis. The miR-21 gene is located on the chromosome 17, in the 10th intron of a protein-coding gene, TMEM49. While, the function of TMEM49 is currently unknown. Our experiment is designed to identity the relationship between miR-21 and ERβ in cancer progression. The human cancer cells were transfected with ERβ. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression level of miR-21 was significantly inhibited down by ERβ treatment. As MTT assay showed the tumor cell survival rate was also inhibited significantly. Go/Gl phase cell cycle arrest was founded and tumor cell apoptosis was induced in ERβ group.

  6. The RNAPII-CTD Maintains Genome Integrity through Inhibition of Retrotransposon Gene Expression and Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Aristizabal, Maria J.; Negri, Gian Luca; Kobor, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) contains a unique C-terminal domain that is composed of heptapeptide repeats and which plays important regulatory roles during gene expression. RNAPII is responsible for the transcription of most protein-coding genes, a subset of non-coding genes, and retrotransposons. Retrotransposon transcription is the first step in their multiplication cycle, given that the RNA intermediate is required for the synthesis of cDNA, the material that is ultimately incorporated into a new genomic location. Retrotransposition can have grave consequences to genome integrity, as integration events can change the gene expression landscape or lead to alteration or loss of genetic information. Given that RNAPII transcribes retrotransposons, we sought to investigate if the RNAPII-CTD played a role in the regulation of retrotransposon gene expression. Importantly, we found that the RNAPII-CTD functioned to maintaining genome integrity through inhibition of retrotransposon gene expression, as reducing CTD length significantly increased expression and transposition rates of Ty1 elements. Mechanistically, the increased Ty1 mRNA levels in the rpb1-CTD11 mutant were partly due to Cdk8-dependent alterations to the RNAPII-CTD phosphorylation status. In addition, Cdk8 alone contributed to Ty1 gene expression regulation by altering the occupancy of the gene-specific transcription factor Ste12. Loss of STE12 and TEC1 suppressed growth phenotypes of the RNAPII-CTD truncation mutant. Collectively, our results implicate Ste12 and Tec1 as general and important contributors to the Cdk8, RNAPII-CTD regulatory circuitry as it relates to the maintenance of genome integrity. PMID:26496706

  7. Wnt7a Inhibits IL-1β Induced Catabolic Gene Expression and Prevents Articular Cartilage Damage in Experimental Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Averi L.; Hui Mingalone, Carrie K.; Foote, Andrea T.; Uchimura, Tomoya; Zhang, Ming; Zeng, Li

    2017-01-01

    Wnt7a is a protein that plays a critical role in skeletal development. However, its effect on cartilage homeostasis under pathological conditions is not known. In this study, we found a unique inverse correlation between Wnt7a gene expression and that of MMP and IL-1β in individual human OA cartilage specimens. Upon ectopic expression in primary human articular chondrocytes, Wnt7a inhibited IL-1β-induced MMP and iNOS gene expression. Western blot analysis indicated that Wnt7a induced both canonical Wnt signaling and NFAT and Akt non-canonical signaling. Interestingly, inhibiting the canonical and Akt pathway did not affect Wnt7a activity. However, inhibiting the NFAT pathway impaired Wnt7a’s ability to inhibit MMP expression, suggesting that Wnt7a requires NFAT signaling to exert this function. In vivo, intraarticular injection of lentiviral Wnt7a strongly attenuated articular cartilage damage induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) OA-inducing surgery in mice. Consistently, Wnt7a also inhibited the progressive increase of joint MMP activity in DMM animals. These results indicate that Wnt7a signaling inhibits inflammatory stimuli-induced catabolic gene expression in human articular chondrocytes and is sufficient to attenuate MMP activities and promote joint cartilage integrity in mouse experimental OA, demonstrating a novel effect of Wnt7a on regulating OA pathogenesis. PMID:28165497

  8. GDF11 decreases bone mass by stimulating osteoclastogenesis and inhibiting osteoblast differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weiqing; Zhou, Liyan; Zhou, Chenchen; Zhang, Shiwen; Jing, Junjun; Xie, Liang; Sun, Ningyuan; Duan, Xiaobo; Jing, Wei; Liang, Xing; Zhao, Hu; Ye, Ling; Chen, Qianming; Yuan, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is an age-related disease that affects millions of people. Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a secreted member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily. Deletion of Gdf11 has been shown to result in a skeletal anterior–posterior patterning disorder. Here we show a role for GDF11 in bone remodelling. GDF11 treatment leads to bone loss in both young and aged mice. GDF11 inhibits osteoblast differentiation and also stimulates RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through Smad2/3 and c-Fos-dependent induction of Nfatc1. Injection of GDF11 impairs bone regeneration in mice and blocking GDF11 function prevents oestrogen-deficiency-induced bone loss and ameliorates age-related osteoporosis. Our data demonstrate that GDF11 is a previously unrecognized regulator of bone remodelling and suggest that GDF11 is a potential target for treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:27653144

  9. Inhibition of pathological brain angiogenesis through systemic delivery of AAV vector expressing soluble FLT1.

    PubMed

    Shen, F; Mao, L; Zhu, W; Lawton, M T; Pechan, P; Colosi, P; Wu, Z; Scaria, A; Su, H

    2015-11-01

    The soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFLT1) has been tested in both animals and humans for anti-angiogenic therapies, for example, age-related macular degeneration. We hypothesized that adeno-associated viral vector (AAV)-mediated sFLT1 expression could be used to inhibit abnormal brain angiogenesis. We tested the anti-angiogenic effect of sFLT1 and the feasibility of using AAV serotype 9 to deliver sFLT1 through intravenous injection (IV) to the brain angiogenic region. AAVs were packaged in AAV serotypes 1 and 2 (stereotactic injection) and 9 (IV injection). Brain angiogenesis was induced in adult mice through stereotactic injection of AAV1-VEGF. AAV2-sFLT02 containing sFLT1 VEGF-binding domain (domain 2) was injected into the brain angiogenic region, and AAV9-sFLT1 was injected into the jugular vein at the time of or 4 weeks after AAV1-VEGF injection. We showed that AAV2-sFLT02 inhibited brain angiogenesis at both time points. IV injection of AAV9-sFLT1 inhibited angiogenesis only when the vector was injected 4 weeks after angiogenic induction. Neither lymphocyte infiltration nor neuron loss was observed in AAV9-sFLT1-treated mice. Our data show that systemically delivered AAV9-sFLT1 inhibits angiogenesis in the mouse brain, which could be utilized to treat brain angiogenic diseases such as brain arteriovenous malformation.

  10. Inhibition of pathological brain angiogenesis through systemic delivery of AAV vector expressing soluble FLT1

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Fanxia; Mao, Lei; Zhu, Wan; Lawton, Michael T.; Pechan, Peter; Colosi, Peter; Wu, Zhijian; Scaria, Abraham; Su, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFLT1) has been tested in both animals and humans for anti-angiogenic therapies, e.g., age-related macular degeneration. We hypothesized that adeno-associated viral vector (AAV)-mediated sFLT1 expression could be used to inhibit abnormal brain angiogenesis. We tested the anti-angiogenic effect of sFLT1 and the feasibility of using AAV serotype 9 to deliver sFLT1 through intravenous injection (IV) to the brain angiogenic region. AAV vectors were packaged in AAV serotypes 1 and 2 (stereotactic injection) and 9 (IV-injection). Brain angiogenesis was induced in adult mice through stereotactic injection of AAV1-VEGF. AAV2-sFLT02 containing sFLT1 VEGF-binding domain (domain 2) was injected into the brain angiogenic region, and AAV9-sFLT1 was injected into the jugular vein at the time of or 4 weeks after AAV1-VEGF injection. We showed that AAV2-sFLT02 inhibited brain angiogenesis at both time points. Intravenous injection of AAV9-sFLT1 inhibited angiogenesis only when the vector was injected 4 weeks after angiogenic induction. Neither lymphocyte infiltration nor neuron loss was observed in AAV9-sFLT1-treated mice. Our data show that systemically delivered AAV9-sFLT1 inhibits angiogenesis in the mouse brain, which could be utilized to treat brain angiogenic diseases such as brain arteriovenous malformation. PMID:26090874

  11. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) Inhibits Podocyte uPAR Expression and Reduces Proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuangxin; Xie, Shaoting; Yang, Yun; Ma, Juan; Deng, Yujun; Wang, Wenjian; Xu, Lixia; Li, Ruizhao; Zhang, Li; Yu, Chunping; Shi, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Accumulating studies have demonstrated that 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)2D3) reduces proteinuria and protects podocytes from injury. Recently, urokinase receptor (uPAR) and its soluble form have been shown to cause podocyte injury and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Here, our findings showed that 1,25(OH)2D3 did inhibit podocyte uPAR expression and attenuate proteinuria and podocyte injury. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, the antiproteinuric effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 was examined in the lipopolysaccharide mice model of transient proteinuria (LPS mice) and in the 5/6 nephrectomy rat FSGS model(NTX rats). uPAR protein expression were tested by flow cytometry, immune cytochemistry and western blot analysis, and uPAR mRNA expression by real-time quantitative PCR in cultured podocytes and kidney glomeruli isolated from mice and rats. Podocyte motility was observed by transwell migration assay and wound healing assay. Podocyte foot processes effacement was identified by transmission electron microscopy. We found that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited podocyte uPAR mRNA and protein synthesis in LPS-treated podocytes, LPS mice and NTX rats, along with 1,25(OH)2D3 reducing proteinuria in NTX rats and LPS mice.1,25(OH)2D3 reduced glomerulosclerosis in NTX rats and alleviated podocyte foot processes effacement in LPS mice. Transwell migration assay and wound healing assay showed that LPS-induced podocyte motility, irrespective of random or directed motility, were substantially reduced by 1,25(OH)2D3. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrated that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited podocyte uPAR expression in vitro and in vivo, which may be an unanticipated off target effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 and explain its antiproteinuric effect in the 5/6 nephrectomy rat FSGS model and the LPS mouse model of transient proteinuria. PMID:23741418

  12. Methanolic extract of adlay seed suppresses COX-2 expression of human lung cancer cells via inhibition of gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wen-Chun; Chang, Hui-Chiu

    2003-12-03

    Previous results demonstrated that the methanolic extract of adlay seed exerted an antiproliferative effect on human lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and might prevent tobacco carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis. In this study, the methanolic extract of adlay seed was tested for its regulation of COX-2 expression of human lung cancer cells. Western blot analysis showed that the methanolic extract of adlay seed inhibited basal and TPA-induced COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent fashion, whereas COX-1 expression was not affected. By using a promoter activity assay, it was found that the methanolic extract inhibited basal and TPA-stimulated COX-2 expression at the transcription level. The effect of the methanolic extract on COX-2 expression in vivo was then investigated. The data demonstrated that treatment of the methanolic extract reduced the PGE(2) level in serum and inhibited COX-2 expression of tumor tissues in nude mice. Taken together, these results suggest that inhibition of COX-2 is one of the mechanisms by which the methanolic extract of adlay seed inhibits cancer growth and prevents lung tumorigenesis.

  13. SPARC expression in CML is associated to imatinib treatment and to inhibition of leukemia cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background SPARC is a matricellular glycoprotein with growth-inhibitory and antiangiogenic activity in some cell types. The study of this protein in hematopoietic malignancies led to conflicting reports about its role as a tumor suppressor or promoter, depending on its different functions in the tumor microenvironment. In this study we investigated the variations in SPARC production by peripheral blood cells from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients at diagnosis and after treatment and we identified the subpopulation of cells that are the prevalent source of SPARC. Methods We evaluated SPARC expression using real-time PCR and western blotting. SPARC serum levels were detected by ELISA assay. Finally we analyzed the interaction between exogenous SPARC and imatinib (IM), in vitro, using ATP-lite and cell cycle analysis. Results Our study shows that the CML cells of patients at diagnosis have a low mRNA and protein expression of SPARC. Low serum levels of this protein are also recorded in CML patients at diagnosis. However, after IM treatment we observed an increase of SPARC mRNA, protein, and serum level in the peripheral blood of these patients that had already started at 3 months and was maintained for at least the 18 months of observation. This SPARC increase was predominantly due to monocyte production. In addition, exogenous SPARC protein reduced the growth of K562 cell line and synergized in vitro with IM by inhibiting cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase. Conclusion Our results suggest that low endogenous SPARC expression is a constant feature of BCR/ABL positive cells and that IM treatment induces SPARC overproduction by normal cells. This exogenous SPARC may inhibit CML cell proliferation and may synergize with IM activity against CML. PMID:23383963

  14. Flavonoids inhibit hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor expression by a HIF-1 independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ansó, Elena; Zuazo, Alicia; Irigoyen, Marta; Urdaci, María C; Rouzaut, Ana; Martínez-Irujo, Juan J

    2010-06-01

    Flavonoids are a group of polyphenolic dietary compounds that have been proposed to possess chemopreventive properties against lung cancer. In this work we analyzed the effect of a group of 20 structurally related flavonoids, including flavones, flavonols and isoflavones, on the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced by hypoxia in NCI-H157 cells. VEGF is the main regulator of physiological and pathological angiogenesis and is highly stimulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). We found that apigenin, luteolin, fisetin and quercetin inhibited hypoxia-induced VEGF expression in the low micromolar range. Structure-activity relationships demonstrated that flavone derivatives were the most active compounds and that hydroxylation of the A ring at the positions 5 and 7 and of the B ring at the 4' position were important for this activity. Interestingly, only a group of VEGF inhibitors, including apigenin, flavone and 4',7-dihydroxiflavone, reduced the expression of HIF-1alpha under these conditions, whereas others, such as fisetin, luteolin, galangin or quercetin, induced HIF-1alpha expression while reducing those of VEGF. When cells were exposed to hypoxia in the presence of these flavonoids, HIF-1alpha translocated to the nucleus and interacted with p300/CBP, but this complex was transcriptionally inactive. Taken together these findings indicate that flavonoids impair VEGF transcription by an alternative mechanism that did not depend on nuclear HIF levels. We also found that flavonoids suppressed hypoxia-induced STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation and that this activity correlated with their potency as VEGF inhibitors, suggesting that inhibition of STAT3 function may play a role in this process.

  15. Gene expression profiling in equine polysaccharide storage myopathy revealed inflammation, glycogenesis inhibition, hypoxia and mitochondrial dysfunctions

    PubMed Central

    Barrey, Eric; Mucher, Elodie; Jeansoule, Nicolas; Larcher, Thibaut; Guigand, Lydie; Herszberg, Bérénice; Chaffaux, Stéphane; Guérin, Gérard; Mata, Xavier; Benech, Philippe; Canale, Marielle; Alibert, Olivier; Maltere, Péguy; Gidrol, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Background Several cases of myopathies have been observed in the horse Norman Cob breed. Muscle histology examinations revealed that some families suffer from a polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM). It is assumed that a gene expression signature related to PSSM should be observed at the transcriptional level because the glycogen storage disease could also be linked to other dysfunctions in gene regulation. Thus, the functional genomic approach could be conducted in order to provide new knowledge about the metabolic disorders related to PSSM. We propose exploring the PSSM muscle fiber metabolic disorders by measuring gene expression in relationship with the histological phenotype. Results Genotypying analysis of GYS1 mutation revealed 2 homozygous (AA) and 5 heterozygous (GA) PSSM horses. In the PSSM muscles, histological data revealed PAS positive amylase resistant abnormal polysaccharides, inflammation, necrosis, and lipomatosis and active regeneration of fibers. Ultrastructural evaluation revealed a decrease of mitochondrial number and structural disorders. Extensive accumulation of an abnormal polysaccharide displaced and partially replaced mitochondria and myofibrils. The severity of the disease was higher in the two homozygous PSSM horses. Gene expression analysis revealed 129 genes significantly modulated (p < 0.05). The following genes were up-regulated over 2 fold: IL18, CTSS, LUM, CD44, FN1, GST01. The most down-regulated genes were the following: mitochondrial tRNA, SLC2A2, PRKCα, VEGFα. Data mining analysis showed that protein synthesis, apoptosis, cellular movement, growth and proliferation were the main cellular functions significantly associated with the modulated genes (p < 0.05). Several up-regulated genes, especially IL18, revealed a severe muscular inflammation in PSSM muscles. The up-regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3β) under its active form could be responsible for glycogen synthase (GYS1) inhibition and hypoxia-inducible factor

  16. Eupatilin Inhibits Gastric Cancer Cell Growth by Blocking STAT3-Mediated VEGF Expression

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sung Yi; Zheng, Yanjun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Eupatilin is an antioxidative flavone and a phytopharmaceutical derived from Artemisia asiatica. It has been reported to possess anti-tumor activity in some types of cancer including gastric cancer. Eupatilin may modulate the angiogenesis pathway which is part of anti-inflammatory effect demonstrated in gastric mucosal injury models. Here we investigated the anti-tumor effects of eupatilin on gastric cancer cells and elucidated the potential underlying mechanism whereby eupatilin suppresses angiogenesis and tumor growth. Materials and Methods The impact of eupatilin on the expression of angiogenesis pathway proteins was assessed using western blots in MKN45 cells. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we tested whether eupatilin affects the recruitment of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) to the human VEGF promoter. To investigate the effect of eupatilin on vasculogenesis, tube formation assays were conducted using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The effect of eupatilin on tumor suppression in mouse xenografts was assessed. Results Eupatilin significantly reduced VEGF, ARNT and STAT3 expression prominently under hypoxic conditions. The recruitment of STAT3, ARNT and HIF-1α to the VEGF promoter was inhibited by eupatilin treatment. HUVECs produced much foreshortened and severely broken tubes with eupatilin treatment. In addition, eupatilin effectively reduced tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model. Conclusions Our results indicate that eupatilin inhibits angiogenesis in gastric cancer cells by blocking STAT3 and VEGF expression, suggesting its therapeutic potential in the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:22076197

  17. Oncogenic Ras promotes butyrate-induced apoptosis through inhibition of gelsolin expression.

    PubMed

    Klampfer, Lidija; Huang, Jie; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji; Augenlicht, Leonard

    2004-08-27

    Activation of Ras promotes oncogenesis by altering a multiple of cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, differentiation, and apoptosis. Oncogenic Ras can either promote or inhibit apoptosis, depending on the cell type and the nature of the apoptotic stimuli. The response of normal and transformed colonic epithelial cells to the short chain fatty acid butyrate, a physiological regulator of epithelial cell maturation, is also divergent: normal epithelial cells proliferate, and transformed cells undergo apoptosis in response to butyrate. To investigate the role of k-ras mutations in butyrate-induced apoptosis, we utilized HCT116 cells, which harbor an oncogenic k-ras mutation and two isogenic clones with targeted inactivation of the mutant k-ras allele, Hkh2, and Hke-3. We demonstrated that the targeted deletion of the mutant k-ras allele is sufficient to protect epithelial cells from butyrate-induced apoptosis. Consistent with this, we showed that apigenin, a dietary flavonoid that has been shown to inhibit Ras signaling and to reverse transformation of cancer cell lines, prevented butyrate-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells. To investigate the mechanism whereby activated k-ras sensitizes colonic cells to butyrate, we performed a genome-wide analysis of Ras target genes in the isogenic cell lines HCT116, Hkh2, and Hke-3. The gene exhibiting the greatest down-regulation by the activating k-ras mutation was gelsolin, an actin-binding protein whose expression is frequently reduced or absent in colorectal cancer cell lines and primary tumors. We demonstrated that silencing of gelsolin expression by small interfering RNA sensitized cells to butyrate-induced apoptosis through amplification of the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-7. These data therefore demonstrate that gelsolin protects cells from butyrate-induced apoptosis and suggest that Ras promotes apoptosis, at least in part, through its ability to down-regulate the expression of gelsolin.

  18. Wnt/β-catenin pathway regulates MGMT gene expression in cancer and inhibition of Wnt signalling prevents chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Wickström, Malin; Dyberg, Cecilia; Milosevic, Jelena; Einvik, Christer; Calero, Raul; Sveinbjörnsson, Baldur; Sandén, Emma; Darabi, Anna; Siesjö, Peter; Kool, Marcel; Kogner, Per; Baryawno, Ninib; Johnsen, John Inge

    2015-11-25

    The DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is commonly overexpressed in cancers and is implicated in the development of chemoresistance. The use of drugs inhibiting MGMT has been hindered by their haematologic toxicity and inefficiency. As a different strategy to inhibit MGMT we investigated cellular regulators of MGMT expression in multiple cancers. Here we show a significant correlation between Wnt signalling and MGMT expression in cancers with different origin and confirm the findings by bioinformatic analysis and immunofluorescence. We demonstrate Wnt-dependent MGMT gene expression and cellular co-localization between active β-catenin and MGMT. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of Wnt activity downregulates MGMT expression and restores chemosensitivity of DNA-alkylating drugs in mouse models. These findings have potential therapeutic implications for chemoresistant cancers, especially of brain tumours where the use of temozolomide is frequently used in treatment.

  19. Wnt/β-catenin pathway regulates MGMT gene expression in cancer and inhibition of Wnt signalling prevents chemoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Wickström, Malin; Dyberg, Cecilia; Milosevic, Jelena; Einvik, Christer; Calero, Raul; Sveinbjörnsson, Baldur; Sandén, Emma; Darabi, Anna; Siesjö, Peter; Kool, Marcel; Kogner, Per; Baryawno, Ninib; Johnsen, John Inge

    2015-01-01

    The DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is commonly overexpressed in cancers and is implicated in the development of chemoresistance. The use of drugs inhibiting MGMT has been hindered by their haematologic toxicity and inefficiency. As a different strategy to inhibit MGMT we investigated cellular regulators of MGMT expression in multiple cancers. Here we show a significant correlation between Wnt signalling and MGMT expression in cancers with different origin and confirm the findings by bioinformatic analysis and immunofluorescence. We demonstrate Wnt-dependent MGMT gene expression and cellular co-localization between active β-catenin and MGMT. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of Wnt activity downregulates MGMT expression and restores chemosensitivity of DNA-alkylating drugs in mouse models. These findings have potential therapeutic implications for chemoresistant cancers, especially of brain tumours where the use of temozolomide is frequently used in treatment. PMID:26603103

  20. Inhibition of the Expression of the Small Heat Shock Protein αB-Crystallin Inhibits Exosome Secretion in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells in Culture.

    PubMed

    Gangalum, Rajendra K; Bhat, Ankur M; Kohan, Sirus A; Bhat, Suraj P

    2016-06-17

    Exosomes carry cell type-specific molecular cargo to extracellular destinations and therefore act as lateral vectors of intercellular communication and transfer of genetic information from one cell to the other. We have shown previously that the small heat shock protein αB-crystallin (αB) is exported out of the adult human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE19) packaged in exosomes. Here, we demonstrate that inhibition of the expression of αB via shRNA inhibits exosome secretion from ARPE19 cells indicating that exosomal cargo may have a role in exosome biogenesis (synthesis and/or secretion). Sucrose density gradient fractionation of the culture medium and cellular extracts suggests continued synthesis of exosomes but an inhibition of exosome secretion. In cells where αB expression was inhibited, the distribution of CD63 (LAMP3), an exosome marker, is markedly altered from the normal dispersed pattern to a stacked perinuclear presence. Interestingly, the total anti-CD63(LAMP3) immunofluorescence in the native and αB-inhibited cells remains unchanged suggesting continued exosome synthesis under conditions of impaired exosome secretion. Importantly, inhibition of the expression of αB results in a phenotype of the RPE cell that contains an increased number of vacuoles and enlarged (fused) vesicles that show increased presence of CD63(LAMP3) and LAMP1 indicating enhancement of the endolysosomal compartment. This is further corroborated by increased Rab7 labeling of this compartment (RabGTPase 7 is known to be associated with late endosome maturation). These data collectively point to a regulatory role for αB in exosome biogenesis possibly via its involvement at a branch point in the endocytic pathway that facilitates secretion of exosomes.

  1. Expression of osterix inhibits bone morphogenetic protein-induced chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Shingo; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Miyazono, Kohei; Komiya, Setsuro; Imamura, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    Osteoblasts and chondrocytes arise from common bipotential mesenchymal progenitor cells. Although the differentiation of these two cell lineages can be induced by treatment with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), the responses of mesenchymal progenitors to BMP differ from cell line to cell line. Here we demonstrate that C3H/10T1/2 cells preferred chondrogenic differentiation, primary bone marrow stroma cells (MSCs) tended to convert to osteoblasts, and ST-2 cells differentiated into both the osteoblastic and chondrocytic lineages simultaneously, suggesting that a molecular switch functions to select cell fate. Osterix, the secondary master regulator of osteoblastogenesis, was induced by BMP at high and low levels in MSCs and ST-2 cells, respectively; in contrast, C3H/10T1/2 cells demonstrated only faint expression. As osterix has been suggested as a negative regulator of chondrogenesis, we hypothesized that the intense chondrocyte differentiation of C3H/10T1/2 cells may have resulted from an absence of osterix. We therefore restored osterix gene expression in C3H/10T1/2 cells using an adenovirus vector. Following BMP treatment, infection with an osterix-encoding virus dramatically inhibited the chondrocytic differentiation of C3H/10T1/2 cells, resulting instead in prominent osteoblast differentiation. These results indicate the chondrogenic potential of C3H/10T1/2 cells was abrogated by osterix expression. Chondrocyte differentiation of MSCs, however, was not enhanced by silencing the osterix gene using lentivirus-mediated shRNA, despite successful suppression of osteoblast differentiation. These results suggest that the low levels of osterix expression remaining after knockdown are sufficient to block chondrogenesis, whereas higher expression may be required to promote osteoblastic differentiation.

  2. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by yuccaol C from Yucca schidigera roezl.

    PubMed

    Marzocco, Stefania; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna; Pinto, Aldo; Sorrentino, Raffaella; Autore, Giuseppina

    2004-08-06

    Yucca schidigera extract finds wide commercial application in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. In a previous paper we have found as the main constituents of yucca bark, yuccaol A, B and C, new and very unusual spiro-derivatives made up of a C15 unit and a stilbenic portion closely related to resveratrol. This study was performed to examine whether yuccaol A, B or C (0.01-100 microM) could affect cytosolic inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression and nitric oxide (NO) generation in vitro in Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated J774.A1 macrophage cell line. NO production, detected as NO2-, increased significantly in LPS treated J774.A1 cells from 0.05 +/- 0.03 microM to 16.64 +/- 0.58 microM (P < 0.001). Yuccaol C (0.01-100 microM), added to the culture medium 1 h before LPS-stimulation, significantly (P < 0.001) and in a concentration related manner reduced NO release (P < 0.001) and iNOS protein expression (P < 0.05). In contrast, no inhibitory effect either on iNOS protein expression or on NO release was observed when yuccaol C was added after LPS stimulation. In contrast yuccaol A inhibited significantly (P < 0.001) only NO release at the highest concentration tested (100 microM) while yuccaol B did not reduce either NO release or iNOS expression. Yuccaol C was demonstrated to reduce iNOS protein expression via the transcription factor NF-kappaB. These results indicated that the empirical use of Y. schidigera as anti-inflammatory remedy could be addressed not only to the resveratrol content but also to the presence of yuccaol C.

  3. Lidocaine inhibits the invasion and migration of TRPV6-expressing cancer cells by TRPV6 downregulation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuan; Gou, Hui; Zhu, Jiang; Tian, Si; Yu, Lehua

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that local anesthetics have a broad spectrum of pharmacological actions, acting as nerve blocks, and treating pain and cardiac arrhythmias via blocking of the sodium channel. The use of local anesthetics could reduce the possibility of cancer metastasis and recurrence following surgical tumor excision. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of lidocaine upon the invasion and migration of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 6 (TRPV6)-expressing cancer cells. Human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, prostatic cancer PC-3 cells and ovarian cancer ES-2 cells were treated with lidocaine. Cell viability was quantitatively determined by MTT assay. The migration of the cells was evaluated using the wound healing assay, and the invasion of the cells was assessed using a Transwell assay. Calcium (Ca2+) measurements were performed using a Fluo-3 AM fluorescence kit. The expression of TRPV6 mRNA and protein in the cells was determined by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. The results suggested that lidocaine inhibits the cell invasion and migration of MDA-MB-231, PC-3 and ES-2 cells at lower than clinical concentrations. The inhibitory effect of lidocaine on TRPV6-expressing cancer cells was associated with a reduced rate of calcium influx, and could occur partly as a result of the downregulation of TRPV6 expression. The use of appropriate local anesthetics may confer potential benefits in clinical practice for the treatment of patients with TRPV6-expressing cancer. PMID:27446413

  4. Berberine increases expression of GATA-2 and GATA-3 during inhibition of adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Davies, G E

    2009-09-01

    It is known that a number of transcription factors are key regulators in the complex process of adipocyte differentiation including peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and the CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha). Studies have demonstrated that in pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 cells constitutive expression of the DNA binding proteins GATA-2 and GATA-3 results in protein/protein interactions with C/EBPalpha resulting in down regulation of PPARgamma and subsequent suppressed adipocyte differentiation with cells trapped at the pre-adipocyte stage. Thus it appears that GATA-2 and GATA-3 are of critical importance in regulating adipocyte differentiation through molecular interactions with PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha. Recent reports suggest that berberine, an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid isolated from many medicinal herbs prevents differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells via a down regulation of PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha expression. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of berberine on GATA-2 and 3 gene and protein expression levels during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. MTT (Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) was used to detect the cytotoxic effects of berberine on the viability of 3T3-L1 cells during proliferation and differentiation. Differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells was monitored by Oil Red O staining and RT-PCR of PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha and the expression of GATA-2 and 3 was determined by RT-PCR and Western Blot. Results show that following treatment with 8microM berberine the mRNA and protein expression levels of GATA-2 and 3 were elevated and accompanied by inhibited adipocyte differentiation. These results may lead to the use of berberine to target the induction of specific genes such as GATA-2 and GATA-3 which affect adipocyte differentiation.

  5. Inhibition of keratin 17 expression with antisense and RNAi strategies: exploring novel therapy for psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ting; Sun, Linchao; Wang, Yan; Wang, Datai; Li, Wei; Li, Chunying; Gao, Tianwen; Liu, Yufeng; Wang, Gang

    2011-07-01

    Psoriasis is now considered to be a chronic, immune-mediated and inflammatory skin disease. As the precise cause of psoriasis remains unknown, its treatment is challenging for dermatologists. Keratin 17 (K17), an intermediate filament protein, is highly expressed in psoriatic lesions, while not normally expressed in healthy epidermis. Studies have suggested that K17 plays a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. However, no study has been performed to determine the potential application of K17 down-regulation as a treatment option for psoriatic lesions. We hypothesized that anti-K17 interference may suppress the development and progression of psoriasis and potentially serve as a novel strategy for the treatment of psoriasis. Therefore, we down-regulated and silenced K17 gene expression in keratinocytes (KCs) using antisense and RNA interference (RNAi) techniques. We found that K17-specific antisense oligonucleotides (ASODN) or siRNAs inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in KCs as well as down-regulated K17 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. For our in vivo study, we constructed the SCID-hu xenogeneic transplantation psoriasis mouse model by grafting psoriatic lesions onto SCID mice and topically applied K17-specific ASODN and liposome-encapsulated siRNA to the grafts. We observed morphological and histological improvement in the treated psoriatic grafts. As a result, K17 mRNA and protein expression was significantly decreased in the grafts of the mouse model. Taken together, we conclude that anti-K17 therapy is an effective treatment option for psoriasis, and the K17 molecule, as a new target, may hold tremendous potential for the treatment of psoriasis in the future.

  6. Estrogen receptors in the medial amygdala inhibit the expression of male prosocial behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cushing, Bruce S.; Perry, Adam; Musatov, Sergei; Ogawa, Sonoko; Papademetriou, Eros

    2008-01-01

    Studies using estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) knockout mice indicate that ERα masculinizes male behavior. Recent studies of ERα and male prosocial behavior have shown an inverse relationship between ERα expression in regions of the brain that regulate social behavior, including the medial amygdala (MeA), and the expression of male prosocial behavior. These studies have lead to the hypothesis that low levels of ERα are necessary to “permit” the expression of high levels of male prosocial behavior. To test this, viral vectors were used to enhance ERα in male prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), which display high levels of prosocial behavior and low levels of MeA ERα. Adult male prairie voles were transfected with ERα in the MeA or the caudate putamen (ERα control) or luciferase (MeA - site-specific control), and three weeks later tested for spontaneous alloparental behavior and partner preference. Enhancing ERα in the MeA altered/reduced male prosocial behavior. Only a third of ERα-MeA males, compared to all control males, were alloparental. ERα-MeA males also displayed a significant a preference for a novel female. This is a critical finding as the manipulations of neuropeptides, oxytocin and vasopressin, can inhibit the formation of a partner preference, but do not lead to the formation of a preference for a novel female. The results support the hypothesis that low levels of ERα are necessary for high levels of male prosocial behavior, and provide the first direct evidence that site-specific ERα expression plays a critical role in the expression of male prosocial behavior. PMID:18842899

  7. Estrogen receptors in the medial amygdala inhibit the expression of male prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Cushing, Bruce S; Perry, Adam; Musatov, Sergei; Ogawa, Sonoko; Papademetriou, Eros

    2008-10-08

    Studies using estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) knock-out mice indicate that ERalpha masculinizes male behavior. Recent studies of ERalpha and male prosocial behavior have shown an inverse relationship between ERalpha expression in regions of the brain that regulate social behavior, including the medial amygdala (MeA), and the expression of male prosocial behavior. These studies have lead to the hypothesis that low levels of ERalpha are necessary to "permit" the expression of high levels of male prosocial behavior. To test this, viral vectors were used to enhance ERalpha in male prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), which display high levels of prosocial behavior and low levels of MeA ERalpha. Adult male prairie voles were transfected with ERalpha in the MeA (MeA-ERalpha) or the caudate-putamen (ERalpha control) or luciferase (MeA-site-specific control), and 3 weeks later tested for spontaneous alloparental behavior and partner preference. Enhancing ERalpha in the MeA altered/reduced male prosocial behavior. Only one-third of MeA-ERalpha males, compared with all control males, were alloparental. MeA-ERalpha males also displayed a significant preference for a novel female. This is a critical finding because the manipulations of neuropeptides, oxytocin and vasopressin, can inhibit the formation of a partner preference, but do not lead to the formation of a preference for a novel female. The results support the hypothesis that low levels of ERalpha are necessary for high levels of male prosocial behavior, and provide the first direct evidence that site-specific ERalpha expression plays a critical role in the expression of male prosocial behavior.

  8. [Baicalein promotes the apoptosis of HeLa cells by inhibiting ERK1/2 expression].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongzhou; Xia, Jiyi; Tang, Xiaoping; Tang, Li; Mao, Xiguang; Zhang, Yujiao; Yu, Xiaolan

    2016-11-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of baicalein and U0126 treatment on the apoptosis of human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells and the potential mechanism. Methods HeLa cells were subjected to (1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 300) μmol/L baicalein or (1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30) μmol/L U0126 treatment for 24 hours. The optimal concentrations of baicalein and U0126 for HeLa inhibition was determined by a cell counting Kit-8 assay. HeLa cells were then treated with these inhibitory concentrations for 24 hours separately or in combination. The cell cycle and the degree of apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. The cell apoptosis index was evaluated by the TUNEL assay. The expressions of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), Bax, and Bcl-2 at the mRNA and protein levels were examined by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Results Optimal inhibitory concentrations of baicalein and U0126 for HeLa cells were 200 μmol/L and 10 μmol/L, respectively. Compared with the control group, baicalein treatment increased the growth rate of cells in the G0/G1 phase but decreased the S phase. Combination treatment of 200 μmol/L baicalein and 10 μmol/L U0126 for 24 hours further reduced the S phase growth rate. Treatment with 10 μmol/L U0126 or 200 μmol/L baicalein for 24 hours induced cell apoptosis, and the combination treatment induced more apoptosis. Treatment by baicalein alone or in combination with U0126 for 24 hours significantly decreased ERK1/2 and Bcl-2 mRNA expressions, and upregulated Bax mRNA expression. It also downregulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation and Bcl-2 protein expression, while increasing Bax protein expression. Conclusion Both baicalein and U012 appear to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, and increase the growth rate in the G0/G1 phase but reduce the S phase of HeLa cells. This effect is enhanced when they are used synergistically.

  9. Thymoquinone Inhibition of Acquisition and Expression of Alcohol-Induced Behavioral Sensitization.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Sona; Gohar, Aneela; Abbas, Ghulam; Mahmood, Wajahat; Rauf, Khalid; Sewell, Robert D E

    2015-10-01

    Repeated low doses of alcohol have been shown to progressively enhance locomotor activity in mice, and this phenomenon is designated as behavioral sensitization. Thymoquinone, a major active component of Nigella sativa oil has been investigated in a number of studies for its neuroprotective effects against a variety of ailments. This study was conducted to explore the therapeutic potential of thymoquinone on the acquisition and expression of alcohol-induced behavioral sensitization. Mice treated with alcohol (2.2 g/kg/day) or saline for 13 days and subsequently challenged with an acute alcohol dose (2.2 g/kg) 5 days later were orally administered acute doses of thymoquinone (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg). Thymoquinone subacute treatment with all doses throughout alcohol exposure significantly inhibited both the development and expression phases of alcohol behavioral sensitization in a dose-dependent manner. However, acute treatment with thymoquinone (30 mg/kg) only reversed the expression phase of sensitization. These findings are explained in terms of the known GABA promoting action of thymoquinone in relation to the motive circuit within the limbic component of the basal ganglia. It is concluded that thymoquinone may be a potential therapeutic option for the treatment and prevention of alcohol induced behavioral sensitization.

  10. MiR-433 inhibits retinoblastoma malignancy by suppressing Notch1 and PAX6 expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohua; Yang, Lan; Shuai, Tianjiao; Piao, Tianhua; Wang, Rui

    2016-08-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most frequent primary intraocular cancer. It has been demonstrated by previous studies that retinoblastoma is initiated primarily by the inactivation of the retinoblastoma Rb1 gene in retinal cells. However, additional genetic alterations than Rb1 mutation could play important roles in the process of transforming benign retinal cells into retinoblastoma tumor cells. In this study, we identified that microRNA miR-433 is one of such genetic factors. We found that the expression levels of miR-433 were downregulated in RB tissues. We also determined that miR-433 negatively regulated RB cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of RB cells. We used bioinformatics method to predict and confirmed that Notch1 and PAX6 were miR-433 target genes in RB cells. Importantly, we demonstrated that restoration of Notch1 and PAX6 expression partially rescued the inhibition of cell proliferation and metastasis induced by miR-433 overexpression, suggesting that miR-433 regulates RB cell proliferation and metastasis through suppressing the expression of Notch1 and PAX6.

  11. Involvement of CNOT3 in mitotic progression through inhibition of MAD1 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Akinori; Kikuguchi, Chisato; Morita, Masahiro; Shimodaira, Tetsuhiro; Tokai-Nishizumi, Noriko; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Ohsugi, Miho; Suzuki, Toru; Yamamoto, Tadashi

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNOT3 depletion increases the mitotic index. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNOT3 inhibits the expression of MAD1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNOT3 destabilizes the MAD1 mRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAD1 knockdown attenuates the CNOT3 depletion-induced mitotic arrest. -- Abstract: The stability of mRNA influences the dynamics of gene expression. The CCR4-NOT complex, the major deadenylase in mammalian cells, shortens the mRNA poly(A) tail and contributes to the destabilization of mRNAs. The CCR4-NOT complex plays pivotal roles in various physiological functions, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Here, we show that CNOT3, a subunit of the CCR4-NOT complex, is involved in the regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint, suggesting that the CCR4-NOT complex also plays a part in the regulation of mitosis. CNOT3 depletion increases the population of mitotic-arrested cells and specifically increases the expression of MAD1 mRNA and its protein product that plays a part in the spindle assembly checkpoint. We showed that CNOT3 depletion stabilizes the MAD1 mRNA, and that MAD1 knockdown attenuates the CNOT3 depletion-induced increase of the mitotic index. Basing on these observations, we propose that CNOT3 is involved in the regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint through its ability to regulate the stability of MAD1 mRNA.

  12. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication with linear DNA sequences expressing antiviral micro-RNA shuttles

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, Saket; Ely, Abdullah; Bloom, Kristie; Weinberg, Marc S.; Arbuthnot, Patrick

    2009-11-20

    RNA interference (RNAi) may be harnessed to inhibit viral gene expression and this approach is being developed to counter chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Compared to synthetic RNAi activators, DNA expression cassettes that generate silencing sequences have advantages of sustained efficacy and ease of propagation in plasmid DNA (pDNA). However, the large size of pDNAs and inclusion of sequences conferring antibiotic resistance and immunostimulation limit delivery efficiency and safety. To develop use of alternative DNA templates that may be applied for therapeutic gene silencing, we assessed the usefulness of PCR-generated linear expression cassettes that produce anti-HBV micro-RNA (miR) shuttles. We found that silencing of HBV markers of replication was efficient (>75%) in cell culture and in vivo. miR shuttles were processed to form anti-HBV guide strands and there was no evidence of induction of the interferon response. Modification of terminal sequences to include flanking human adenoviral type-5 inverted terminal repeats was easily achieved and did not compromise silencing efficacy. These linear DNA sequences should have utility in the development of gene silencing applications where modifications of terminal elements with elimination of potentially harmful and non-essential sequences are required.

  13. Efficient inhibition of fibroblast proliferation and collagen expression by ERK2 siRNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Fengfeng; Fan, Cunyi; Cheng, Tao; Jiang, Chaoyin; Zeng, Bingfang

    2009-05-01

    Transforming growth factor-{beta}1 and fibroblast growth factor-2 play very important roles in fibroblast proliferation and collagen expression. These processes lead to the formation of joint adhesions through the SMAD and MAPK pathways, in which ERK2 is supposed to be crucial. Based on these assumptions, lentivirus (LV)-mediated small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting ERK2 were used to suppress the proliferation and collagen expression of rat joint adhesion tissue fibroblasts (RJATFs). Among four siRNAs examined, siRNA1 caused an 84% reduction in ERK2 expression (p < 0.01) and was selected as the most efficient siRNA for use in this study. In subsequent experiments, significant downregulation of types I and III collagen were observed by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. MTT assays and flow cytometry revealed marked inhibition of RJATF proliferation, but no apoptosis. In conclusion, LV-mediated ERK2 siRNAs may represent novel therapies or drug targets for preventing joint adhesion formation.

  14. Inhibition of Virulence Gene Expression in Staphylococcus aureus by Novel Depsipeptides from a Marine Photobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Mansson, Maria; Nielsen, Anita; Kjærulff, Louise; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H.; Wietz, Matthias; Ingmer, Hanne; Gram, Lone; Larsen, Thomas O.

    2011-01-01

    During a global research expedition, more than five hundred marine bacterial strains capable of inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria were collected. The purpose of the present study was to determine if these marine bacteria are also a source of compounds that interfere with the agr quorum sensing system that controls virulence gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus. Using a gene reporter fusion bioassay, we recorded agr interference as enhanced expression of spa, encoding Protein A, concomitantly with reduced expression of hla, encoding α-hemolysin, and rnaIII encoding RNAIII, the effector molecule of agr. A marine Photobacterium produced compounds interfering with agr in S. aureus strain 8325-4, and bioassay-guided fractionation of crude extracts led to the isolation of two novel cyclodepsipeptides, designated solonamide A and B. Northern blot analysis confirmed the agr interfering activity of pure solonamides in both S. aureus strain 8325-4 and the highly virulent, community-acquired strain USA300 (CA-MRSA). To our knowledge, this is the first report of inhibitors of the agr system by a marine bacterium. PMID:22363239

  15. Arsenic trioxide inhibits cell proliferation and human papillomavirus oncogene expression in cervical cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hongtao; Gao, Peng; Zheng, Jie

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • As{sub 2}O{sub 3} inhibits growth of cervical cancer cells and expression of HPV oncogenes in these cells. • HPV-negative cervical cancer cells are more sensitive to As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. • HPV-18 positive cervical cancer cells are more sensitive to As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV-16 positive cancer cells. • Down-regulation of HPV oncogenes by As{sub 2}O{sub 3} is partially due to the diminished AP-1 binding. - Abstract: Arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has shown therapeutic effects in some leukemias and solid cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms of its anticancer efficacy have not been clearly elucidated, particularly in solid cancers. Our previous data showed that As{sub 2}O{sub 3} induced apoptosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 DNA-immortalized human cervical epithelial cells and cervical cancer cells and inhibited the expression of HPV oncogenes in these cells. In the present study, we systemically examined the effects of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} on five human cervical cancer cell lines and explored the possible molecular mechanisms. MTT assay showed that HPV-negative C33A cells were more sensitive to growth inhibition induced by As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV-positive cervical cancer cells, and HPV 18-positive HeLa and C4-I cells were more sensitive to As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV 16-positive CaSki and SiHa cells. After As{sub 2}O{sub 3} treatment, both mRNA and protein levels of HPV E6 and E7 obviously decreased in all HPV positive cell lines. In contrast, p53 and Rb protein levels increased in all tested cell lines. Transcription factor AP-1 protein expression decreased significantly in HeLa, CaSki and C33A cells with ELISA method. These results suggest that As{sub 2}O{sub 3} is a potential anticancer drug for cervical cancer.

  16. Fisetin suppresses ADAM9 expression and inhibits invasion of glioma cancer cells through increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Min; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien; Hwang, Jin-Ming; Jan, Hsun-Jin; Hsieh, Shu-Ching; Lin, Shin-Huey; Lai, Chung-Yu

    2015-05-01

    Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a naturally occurring flavonoid which is widely distributed in plants. It has been reported to possess some anticancer and anti-invasive capabilities. We set out to explore the effects of fisetin on antimetastatic and its mechanism of action in GBM8401 cells. The results indicated that fisetin exhibited effective inhibition of cell migration and inhibited the invasion of GBM8401 cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. To identify the potential targets of fisetin, human proteinase antibody array analysis was performed, and the results indicated that the fisetin treatment inhibited the expression of ADAM9 protein and mRNA, which are known to contribute to the progression of glioma cancer. Our results showed that fisetin phosphorylated ERK1/2 in a sustained way that contributed to the inhibited ADAM9 protein and mRNA expression determined by Western blot and RT-PCR. Moreover, inhibition of ERK1/2 by U0126 or transfection with the siERK plasmid significantly abolished the fisetin-inhibited migration and invasion through activation of the ERK1/2 pathway. In summary, our results suggest that fisetin might be a potential therapeutic agent against human glioma cells based on its capacity to activate ERK1/2 and to inhibit ADAM9 expression.

  17. Nanobiopolymer for Direct Targeting and Inhibition of EGFR Expression in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Satoshi; Patil, Rameshwar; Portilla-Arias, Jose; Ding, Hui; Konda, Bindu; Espinoza, Andres; Mongayt, Dmitriy; Markman, Janet L.; Elramsisy, Adam; Phillips, H. Westley; Black, Keith L.; Holler, Eggehard; Ljubimova, Julia Y.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment options for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) are generally limited to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Recently, anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy has been introduced for TNBC patients. We engineered a novel nanobioconjugate based on a poly(β-L-malic acid) (PMLA) nanoplatform for TNBC treatment. The nanobioconjugate carries anti-tumor nucleosome-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2C5 to target breast cancer cells, anti-mouse transferrin receptor (TfR) antibody for drug delivery through the host endothelial system, and Morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (AON) to inhibit EGFR synthesis. The nanobioconjugates variants were: (1) P (BioPolymer) with AON, 2C5 and anti-TfR for tumor endothelial and cancer cell targeting, and EGFR suppression (P/AON/2C5/TfR), and (2) P with AON and 2C5 (P/AON/2C5). Controls included (3) P with 2C5 but without AON (P/2C5), (4) PBS, and (5) P with PEG and leucine ester (LOEt) for endosomal escape (P/mPEG/LOEt). Drugs were injected intravenously to MDA-MB-468 TNBC bearing mice. Tissue accumulation of injected nanobioconjugates labeled with Alexa Fluor 680 was examined by Xenogen IVIS 200 (live imaging) and confocal microscopy of tissue sections. Levels of EGFR, phosphorylated and total Akt in tumor samples were detected by western blotting. In vitro western blot showed that the leading nanobioconjugate P/AON/2C5/TfR inhibited EGFR synthesis significantly better than naked AON. In vivo imaging revealed that 2C5 increased drug-tumor accumulation. Significant tumor growth inhibition was observed in mice treated with the lead nanobioconjugate (1) [P = 0.03 vs. controls; P<0.05 vs. nanobioconjugate variant (2)]. Lead nanobioconjugate (1) also showed stronger inhibition of EGFR expression and Akt phosphorylation than other treatments. Treatment of TNBC with the new nanobioconjugate results in tumor growth arrest by inhibiting EGFR and its downstream signaling intermediate, phosphorylated Akt. The nanobioconjugate

  18. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits intestinal β-carotene absorption by downregulation of lipid transporter expression via PPAR-α dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mashurabad, Purna Chandra; Kondaiah, Palsa; Palika, Ravindranadh; Ghosh, Sudip; Nair, Madhavan K; Raghu, Pullakhandam

    2016-01-15

    The involvement of lipid transporters, the scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) and Niemann-Pick type C1 Like 1 protein (NPC1L1) in carotenoid absorption is demonstrated in intestinal cells and animal models. Dietary ω-3 fatty acids are known to possess antilipidemic properties, which could be mediated by activation of PPAR family transcription factors. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), on intestinal β-carotene absorption. β-carotene uptake in Caco-2/TC7 cells was inhibited by EPA (p < 0.01) and PPARα agonist (P < 0.01), but not by DHA, PPARγ or PPARδ agonists. Despite unaltered β-carotene uptake, both DHA and PPARδ agonists inhibited the NPC1L1 expression. Further, EPA also induced the expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A (CPT1A) expression, a PPARα target gene. Interestingly, EPA induced inhibition of β-carotene uptake and SR B1 expression were abrogated by specific PPARα antagonist, but not by PPARδ antagonist. EPA and PPARα agonist also inhibited the basolateral secretion of β-carotene from Caco-2 cells grown on permeable supports. These results suggest that EPA inhibits intestinal β-carotene absorption by down regulation of SR B1 expression via PPARα dependent mechanism and provide an evidence for dietary modulation of intestinal β-carotene absorption.

  19. Activation of Nrf2/ARE pathway protects endothelial cells from oxidant injury and inhibits inflammatory gene expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi-Lin; Dodd, Geraldine; Thomas, Suzanne; Zhang, Xiaolan; Wasserman, Martin A; Rovin, Brad H; Kunsch, Charles

    2006-05-01

    The antioxidant response element (ARE) is a transcriptional control element that mediates expression of a set of antioxidant proteins. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that activates ARE-containing genes. In endothelial cells, the ARE-mediated genes are upregulated by atheroprotective laminar flow through a Nrf2-dependent mechanism. We tested the hypothesis that activation of ARE-regulated genes via adenovirus-mediated expression of Nrf2 may suppress redox-sensitive inflammatory gene expression. Expression of Nrf2 in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) resulted in a marked increase in ARE-driven transcriptional activity and protected HAECs from H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity. Nrf2 suppressed TNF-alpha-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expression in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited TNF-alpha-induced monocytic U937 cell adhesion to HAECs. Nrf2 also inhibited IL-1beta-induced MCP-1 gene expression in human mesangial cells. Expression of Nrf2 inhibited TNF-alpha-induced activation of p38 MAP kinase. Furthermore, expression of a constitutively active form of MKK6 (an upstream kinase for p38 MAP kinase) partially reversed Nrf2-mediated inhibition of VCAM-1 expression, suggesting that p38 MAP kinase, at least in part, mediates Nrf2's anti-inflammatory action. In contrast, Nrf2 did not inhibit TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation. These data identify the Nrf2/ARE pathway as an endogenous atheroprotective system for antioxidant protection and suppression of redox-sensitive inflammatory genes, suggesting that targeting the Nrf2/ARE pathway may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis.

  20. Niclosamide inhibits androgen receptor variants expression and overcomes enzalutamide resistance in castration resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yezi; Nadiminty, Nagalakshmi; Schwartz, Chad T.; Evans, Christopher P.; Gao, Allen C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Enzalutamide, a second-generation antiandrogen, was recently approved for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in patients who no longer respond to docetaxel. Despite these advances that provide temporary respite, resistance to enzalutamide occurs frequently. AR splice variants such as AR-V7 have recently been shown to drive castration resistant growth and resistance to enzalutamide. This study was designed to identify inhibitors of AR variants and test its ability to overcome resistance to enzalutamide. Experimental Design The drug screening was conducted using luciferase activity assay to determine the activity of AR-V7 after treatment with the compounds in the Prestwick Chemical Library, which contains about 1120 FDA-approved drugs. The effects of the identified inhibitors on AR-V7 activity and enzalutamide sensitivity were characterized in CRPC and enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Results Niclosamide, an FDA-approved anti-helminthic drug, was identified as a potent AR-V7 inhibitor in prostate cancer cells. Niclosamide significantly downregulated AR-V7 protein expression by protein degradation through a proteasome dependent pathway. Niclosamide also inhibited AR-V7 transcription activity and reduced the recruitment of AR-V7 to the PSA promoter. Niclosamide inhibited prostate cancer cell growth in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, the combination of niclosamide and enzalutamide resulted in significantly inhibition of enzalutamide-resistant tumor growth, suggesting that Niclosamide enhances enzalutamide therapy and overcomes enzalutamide resistance in castration resistant prostate cancer cells. Conclusions Niclosamide was identified as a novel inhibitor of AR variants. Our findings offer preclinical validation of niclosamide as a promising inhibitor of androgen receptor variants to treat, either alone or in combination with current antiandrogen therapies, advanced prostate cancer patients

  1. Wolbachia Stimulates Immune Gene Expression and Inhibits Plasmodium Development in Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Kambris, Zakaria; Blagborough, Andrew M.; Pinto, Sofia B.; Blagrove, Marcus S. C.; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Sinden, Robert E.; Sinkins, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    The over-replicating wMelPop strain of the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis has recently been shown to be capable of inducing immune upregulation and inhibition of pathogen transmission in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. In order to examine whether comparable effects would be seen in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, transient somatic infections of wMelPop were created by intrathoracic inoculation. Upregulation of six selected immune genes was observed compared to controls, at least two of which (LRIM1 and TEP1) influence the development of malaria parasites. A stably infected An. gambiae cell line also showed increased expression of malaria-related immune genes. Highly significant reductions in Plasmodium infection intensity were observed in the wMelPop-infected cohort, and using gene knockdown, evidence for the role of TEP1 in this phenotype was obtained. Comparing the levels of upregulation in somatic and stably inherited wMelPop infections in Ae. aegypti revealed that levels of upregulation were lower in the somatic infections than in the stably transinfected line; inhibition of development of Brugia filarial nematodes was nevertheless observed in the somatic wMelPop infected females. Thus we consider that the effects observed in An. gambiae are also likely to be more pronounced if stably inherited wMelPop transinfections can be created, and that somatic infections of Wolbachia provide a useful model for examining effects on pathogen development or dissemination. The data are discussed with respect to the comparative effects on malaria vectorial capacity of life shortening and direct inhibition of Plasmodium development that can be produced by Wolbachia. PMID:20949079

  2. Tryptophan inhibits Proteus vulgaris TnaC leader peptide elongation, activating tna operon expression.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Vera, Luis R; Yang, Rui; Yanofsky, Charles

    2009-11-01

    Expression of the tna operon of Escherichia coli and of Proteus vulgaris is induced by L-tryptophan. In E. coli, tryptophan action is dependent on the presence of several critical residues (underlined) in the newly synthesized TnaC leader peptide, WFNIDXXL/IXXXXP. These residues are conserved in TnaC of P. vulgaris and of other bacterial species. TnaC of P. vulgaris has one additional feature, distinguishing it from TnaC of E. coli; it contains two C-terminal lysine residues following the conserved proline residue. In the present study, we investigated L-tryptophan induction of the P. vulgaris tna operon, transferred on a plasmid into E. coli. Induction was shown to be L-tryptophan dependent; however, the range of induction was less than that observed for the E. coli tna operon. We compared the genetic organization of both operons and predicted similar folding patterns for their respective leader mRNA segments. However, additional analyses revealed that L-tryptophan action in the P. vulgaris tna operon involves inhibition of TnaC elongation, following addition of proline, rather than inhibition of leader peptide termination. Our findings also establish that the conserved residues in TnaC of P. vulgaris are essential for L-tryptophan induction, and for inhibition of peptide elongation. TnaC synthesis is thus an excellent model system for studies of regulation of both peptide termination and peptide elongation, and for studies of ribosome recognition of the features of a nascent peptide.

  3. CXCR4-targeted Therapy Inhibits VEGF Expression and Chondrosarcoma Angiogenesis and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaojuan; Charbonneau, Cherie; Wei, Lei; Yang, Wentian; Chen, Qian; Terek, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is notable for its lack of response to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, propensity for developing lung metastases, and poor survival. Therefore, a better understanding of angiogenic and metastatic pathways is needed. Multiple pathways regulate angiogenesis and metastasis, including chemokines and their receptors. In this study, we investigated CHEMOKINE (C-X-C MOTIF) RECEPTOR 4 (CXCR4) signaling in chondrosarcoma and tested the hypotheses that CXCR4 inhibition suppresses tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. CXCR4 expression, analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blot, was increased in human chondrosarcoma cell line JJ compared to normal chondrocytes, and was further increased in JJ by hypoxia (2% O2), VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A (VEGFA) (10ng/ml), and in xenograft tumors in nude mice. The CXCR4 ligand CHEMOKINE (C-X-C MOTIF) LIGAND 12 (CXCL12) (10 ng/ml) doubled secreted VEGFA, measured with ELISA, under hypoxic conditions and this conditioned media increased HUVEC tube formation. These effects were inhibited by CXCR4 siRNA or AMD3100 (5 μg/mL). In a xenograft mouse model, four weeks of AMD3100 treatment (1.25 mg/kg, ip, bid) inhibited tumor angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. VEGFA content in tumor extracts was decreased (7.19 ± 0.52 ng/mL control vs. 3.96 ± 0.66 treatment) and bioimaging of angiogenesis was decreased by 56%. Tumor volumes averaged 4.44 ± 0.68 cm3 in control compared to 2.48 ± 0.61 cm3 in the treatment group. The number of lung metastatic nodules was 23 ± 9 in control compared to 10 ± 6 in the treatment group (N=8/group). Therefore, CXCR4 targeted therapy may be a treatment strategy for chondrosarcoma. PMID:23686836

  4. Isorhamnetin Attenuates Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Lung Cell Injury by Inhibiting Alpha-Hemolysin Expression.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lanxiang; Li, Hongen; Wang, Laiying; Song, Zexin; Shi, Lei; Li, Wenhua; Deng, Xuming; Wang, Jianfeng

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, like other gram-positive pathogens, has evolved a large repertoire of virulence factors as a powerful weapon to subvert the host immune system, among which alpha-hemolysin (Hla), a secreted pore-forming cytotoxin, plays a preeminent role. We observed a concentration-dependent reduction in Hla production by S. aureus in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of isorhamnetin, a flavonoid from the fruits of Hippophae rhamnoides L., which has little antibacterial activity. We further evaluate the effect of isorhamnetin on the transcription of the Hla-encoding gene hla and RNAIII, an effector molecule in the agr system. Isorhamnetin significantly down-regulated RNAIII expression and subsequently inhibited hla transcription. In a co-culture of S. aureus and lung cells, topical isorhamnetin treatment protected against S. aureus-induced cell injury. Isorhamnetin may represent a leading compound for the development of anti-virulence drugs against S. aureus infections.

  5. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles inhibit angiogenesis via down regulation of VEGFR2 expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hongyuan; Wang, Wenbo; Zhao, Ping; Qi, Zhongtian; Zhao, Shihong

    2014-02-01

    Angiogenesis is a process that forms new blood capillaries from existing vessels, which is of great physiological and pathological significance. Although recent studies provide evidence that cuprous oxide nanoparticles (CO-NPs) may have biomedical potential, the mechanisms of CO-NPs in angiogenesis have not been investigated to date. We have studied the anti-angiogenic properties of CO-NPs on primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that CO-NPs were able to induce cell morphology changes and suppress cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in vitro and in vivo dose dependently. Furthermore, CO-NPs could induce cell apoptosis both at the early and late apoptotic stage and induce cell cycle arrest at S phase in a dose dependent manner. As signalling via the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) is critical for angiogenic responses, we further explored the expression of VEGFR2 after the treatment of CO-NPs. They were found to inhibit VEGFR2 expression dose and time dependently both at the protein and mRNA level while had no effect on VEGF and VEGFR1 expression. Together, we report for the first time that CO-NPs can act as an anti-angiogenic agent by suppressing VEGFR2 expression, which may be a potential nanomedicine for angiogenesis therapy.Angiogenesis is a process that forms new blood capillaries from existing vessels, which is of great physiological and pathological significance. Although recent studies provide evidence that cuprous oxide nanoparticles (CO-NPs) may have biomedical potential, the mechanisms of CO-NPs in angiogenesis have not been investigated to date. We have studied the anti-angiogenic properties of CO-NPs on primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that CO-NPs were able to induce cell morphology changes and suppress cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in vitro and in vivo dose dependently. Furthermore, CO-NPs could induce cell apoptosis both at the early and

  6. Genistein inhibits vitamin D hydroxylases CYP24 and CYP27B1 expression in prostate cells.

    PubMed

    Farhan, Hesso; Wähälä, Kristiina; Cross, Heide S

    2003-03-01

    In human prostate cancer cells, the availability of the steroid hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) for antimitotic action is determined through the activity of the two enzymes CYP24 and CYP27B1, viz. 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of [(3)H]25(OH)D(3) metabolism in human prostate cancer DU-145 cells revealed that genistein and other isoflavonoids, such as dihydrogenistein and daidzein, as well as the antiestrogenic compound ICI 182,780, inhibited Vitamin D-metabolizing enzyme activities. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that only in case of genistein this was due to transcriptional inhibition of CYP24 and CYP27B1 gene expressions. In case of CYP27B1, reduction of gene activity involves histone deacetylation because genistein was inactive in the presence of the histone deactylase inhibitor trichostatin A. In contrast, under the same condition, CYP24 gene activity was largely suppressed. In summary, our results suggest that a combined effect of genistein and trichostatin A could increase the responsiveness of human prostate cancer cells to the antiproliferative action of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3).

  7. PEDF-derived peptide inhibits corneal angiogenesis by suppressing VEGF expression.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Takanori; Nishino, Yuri; Maeda, Sayaka; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi

    2012-07-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) a glycoprotein that belongs to the superfamily of serine protease inhibitors, has been recently shown to be the most potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in the mammalian eye. However, which active domain of PEDF protein could be involved in its anti-angiogenic properties remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, we examined which PEDF-derived synthetic peptides could inhibit corneal neovascularization induced by chemical cauterization in vivo. Rats treated with topical application of PEDF protein had 31% less corneal neovascularization at day 7 after the injury than phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated rats. P5-2 and P5-3 peptides (residues 388-393 and 394-400 of PEDF protein, respectively) significantly suppressed the corneal neovascularization after chemical cauterization at day 7, and its anti-angiogenic potential was almost equal to that of full-length PEDF protein. Further, full-length PEDF protein and P5-3 peptide significantly decreased 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in the corneal. Our present study suggests that PEDF-derived synthetic peptide, P5-3 could inhibit the corneal neovascularization induced by chemical cauterization in rats by suppressing VEGF expression via its anti-oxidative properties.

  8. Ethyl pyruvate inhibits retinal pathogenic neovascularization by downregulating HMGB1 expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Mi; Kim, Junghyun; Jo, Kyuhyung; Shin, So Dam; Kim, Chan-Sik; Sohn, Eun Jin; Kim, Seon Gi; Kim, Jin Sook

    2013-01-01

    Retinal pathogenic angiogenesis in the eyes is a causative factor in retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. This study was designed to examine the pathogenic role of the high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein and the inhibitory effect of ethyl pyruvate (EP), a well-known antioxidant substance, in retinal pathogenic angiogenesis in mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), one of the animal models of proliferative ischemic retinopathy. The OIR mouse model was used for our in vivo studies. The mice were exposed to 75% oxygen from postnatal day 7 (P7) to P11, after which the mice were brought to room air and intraperitoneally injected with EP (50 mg/kg, or 100 mg/kg) for five days. At P17, the mice were perfused with fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran, and flat-mounted retinas were used to measure nonperfused and neovascular tufts. In OIR mice, an intraperitoneal injection of EP reduced the nonperfused retinal area in the treatment group and significantly reduced the retinal neovascular tufts. In addition, EP inhibited the overexpression of HMGB1 in the retinas of OIR mice. These data suggest that EP could serve as an innovative pharmaceutical agent to prevent retinal neovascularization through inhibiting HMGB1 expression.

  9. The plant polyphenol butein inhibits testosterone-induced proliferation in breast cancer cells expressing aromatase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Chan, Franky L; Chen, Shiuan; Leung, Lai K

    2005-05-20

    Chalcones are precursor compounds for flavonoid synthesis in plants, and they can also be synthesized in laboratory. Previous study has documented some of the pharmacological applications of these compounds. Estrogen has long been associated with the initiation and promotion of breast cancer. Inhibiting estrogen synthesis can be effective in the prevention and treatment of the disease. Since most breast cancers received estrogen supplied from local tissues, we employed a breast cancer cell line expressing aromatase to screen for the inhibitory potentials of five hydroxychalcones, i.e. 2-hydroxychalcone, 2'-hydroxychalcone, 4-hydroxychalcone, 4,2',4'-trihydroxy-chalcone (isoquiritigenin), 3,4,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone (butein). In the preliminary results, butein was found to be the strongest inhibitor among the tested compounds, and its IC(50) value was 3.75 microM. Subsequent enzyme kinetic study revealed that butein acted on aromatase with a mixed type of inhibition and the K(i) value was determined to be 0.32 microM. Cell proliferation assay indicated that the cell number increased by 10 nM-testosterone treatment was significantly reduced by 5 microM butein, and the administration of flutamide could not reverse the effect. The present study illustrated that butein was an aromatase inhibitor and a potential natural alternative for the chemoprevention or therapy of breast cancer.

  10. Plumbagin inhibits invasion and migration of breast and gastric cancer cells by downregulating the expression of chemokine receptor CXCR4

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence indicates that the interaction between the CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) and its ligand CXCL12 is critical in the process of metastasis that accounts for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. Thus, novel agents that can downregulate the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis have therapeutic potential in inhibiting cancer metastasis. Methods In this report, we investigated the potential of an agent, plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone), for its ability to modulate CXCR4 expression and function in various tumor cells using Western blot analysis, DNA binding assay, transient transfection, real time PCR analysis, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and cellular migration and invasion assays. Results We found that plumbagin downregulated the expression of CXCR4 in breast cancer cells irrespective of their HER2 status. The decrease in CXCR4 expression induced by plumbagin was not cell type-specific as the inhibition also occurred in gastric, lung, renal, oral, and hepatocellular tumor cell lines. Neither proteasome inhibition nor lysosomal stabilization had any effect on plumbagin-induced decrease in CXCR4 expression. Detailed study of the underlying molecular mechanism(s) revealed that the regulation of the downregulation of CXCR4 was at the transcriptional level, as indicated by downregulation of mRNA expression, inhibition of NF-κB activation, and suppression of chromatin immunoprecipitation activity. In addition, using a virtual, predictive, functional proteomics-based tumor pathway platform, we tested the hypothesis that NF-κB inhibition by plumbagin causes the decrease in CXCR4 and other metastatic genes. Suppression of CXCR4 expression by plumbagin was found to correlate with the inhibition of CXCL12-induced migration and invasion of both breast and gastric cancer cells. Conclusions Overall, our results indicate, for the first time, that plumbagin is a novel blocker of CXCR4 expression and thus has the potential to suppress metastasis of

  11. Exposure to Synthetic Gray Water Inhibits Amoeba Encystation and Alters Expression of Legionella pneumophila Virulence Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jingrang; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Water conservation efforts have focused on gray water (GW) usage, especially for applications that do not require potable water quality. However, there is a need to better understand environmental pathogens and their free-living amoeba (FLA) hosts within GW, given their growth potential in stored gray water. Using synthetic gray water (sGW) we examined three strains of the water-based pathogen Legionella pneumophila and its FLA hosts Acanthamoeba polyphaga, A. castellanii, and Vermamoeba vermiformis. Exposure to sGW for 72 h resulted in significant inhibition (P < 0.0001) of amoebal encystation versus control-treated cells, with the following percentages of cysts in sGW versus controls: A. polyphaga (0.6 versus 6%), A. castellanii (2 versus 62%), and V. vermiformis (1 versus 92%), suggesting sGW induced maintenance of the actively feeding trophozoite form. During sGW exposure, L. pneumophila culturability decreased as early as 5 h (1.3 to 2.9 log10 CFU, P < 0.001) compared to controls (Δ0 to 0.1 log10 CFU) with flow cytometric analysis revealing immediate changes in membrane permeability. Furthermore, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR was performed on total RNA isolated from L. pneumophila cells at 0 to 48 h after sGW incubation, and genes associated with virulence (gacA, lirR, csrA, pla, and sidF), the type IV secretion system (lvrB and lvrE), and metabolism (ccmF and lolA) were all shown to be differentially expressed. These results suggest that conditions within GW may promote interactions between water-based pathogens and FLA hosts, through amoebal encystment inhibition and alteration of bacterial gene expression, thus warranting further exploration into FLA and L. pneumophila behavior in GW systems. PMID:25381242

  12. Exposure to synthetic gray water inhibits amoeba encystation and alters expression of Legionella pneumophila virulence genes.

    PubMed

    Buse, Helen Y; Lu, Jingrang; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    Water conservation efforts have focused on gray water (GW) usage, especially for applications that do not require potable water quality. However, there is a need to better understand environmental pathogens and their free-living amoeba (FLA) hosts within GW, given their growth potential in stored gray water. Using synthetic gray water (sGW) we examined three strains of the water-based pathogen Legionella pneumophila and its FLA hosts Acanthamoeba polyphaga, A. castellanii, and Vermamoeba vermiformis. Exposure to sGW for 72 h resulted in significant inhibition (P < 0.0001) of amoebal encystation versus control-treated cells, with the following percentages of cysts in sGW versus controls: A. polyphaga (0.6 versus 6%), A. castellanii (2 versus 62%), and V. vermiformis (1 versus 92%), suggesting sGW induced maintenance of the actively feeding trophozoite form. During sGW exposure, L. pneumophila culturability decreased as early as 5 h (1.3 to 2.9 log10 CFU, P < 0.001) compared to controls (Δ0 to 0.1 log10 CFU) with flow cytometric analysis revealing immediate changes in membrane permeability. Furthermore, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR was performed on total RNA isolated from L. pneumophila cells at 0 to 48 h after sGW incubation, and genes associated with virulence (gacA, lirR, csrA, pla, and sidF), the type IV secretion system (lvrB and lvrE), and metabolism (ccmF and lolA) were all shown to be differentially expressed. These results suggest that conditions within GW may promote interactions between water-based pathogens and FLA hosts, through amoebal encystment inhibition and alteration of bacterial gene expression, thus warranting further exploration into FLA and L. pneumophila behavior in GW systems.

  13. Measles virus hemagglutinin triggers intracellular signaling in CD150-expressing dendritic cells and inhibits immune response

    PubMed Central

    Romanets-Korbut, Olga; Kovalevska, Larysa M.; Seya, Tsukasa; Sidorenko, Svetlana P.; Horvat, Branka

    2016-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) is highly contagious pathogen, which causes a profound immunosuppression, resulting in high infant mortality. This virus infects dendritic cells (DCs) following the binding of MV hemagglutinin (MV-H) to CD150 receptor and alters DC functions by a mechanism that is not completely understood. We have analyzed the effect of MV-H interaction with CD150-expressing DCs on the DC signaling pathways and consequent phenotypic and functional changes in the absence of infectious context. We demonstrated that contact between CD150 on human DCs and MV-H expressed on membrane of transfected CHO cells was sufficient to modulate the activity of two major regulatory pathways of DC differentiation and function: to stimulate Akt and inhibit p38 MAPK phosphorylation, without concomitant ERK1/2 activation. Furthermore, interaction with MV-H decreased the expression level of DC activation markers CD80, CD83, CD86, and HLA-DR and strongly downregulated IL-12 production but did not modulate IL-10 secretion. Moreover, contact with MV-H suppressed DC-mediated T-cell alloproliferation, demonstrating profound alteration of DC maturation and functions. Finally, engagement of CD150 by MV-H in mice transgenic for human CD150 decreased inflammatory responses, showing the immunosuppressive effect of CD150–MV-H interaction in vivo. Altogether, these results uncover novel mechanism of MV-induced immunosuppression, implicating modulation of cell signaling pathways following MV-H interaction with CD150-expressing DCs and reveal anti-inflammatory effects of CD150 stimulation. PMID:26073466

  14. Palmitoylethanolamide inhibits rMCP-5 expression by regulating MITF activation in rat chronic granulomatous inflammation.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Daniele; Russo, Annapina; De Stefano, Daniela; Cipriano, Mariateresa; Esposito, Davide; Grassia, Gianluca; Carnuccio, Rosa; Russo, Giulia; Iuvone, Teresa

    2014-02-15

    Chronic inflammation, a condition frequently associated with several pathologies, is characterized by angiogenic and fibrogenic responses that may account for the development of granulomatous tissue. We previously demonstrated that the chymase, rat mast cell protease-5 (rMCP-5), exhibits pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic properties in a model of chronic inflammation sustained by mast cells (MCs), granuloma induced by the subcutaneous carrageenan-soaked sponge implant in rat. In this study, we investigated the effects of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an anti-inflammatory and analgesic endogenous compound, on rMCP-5 mRNA expression and Microphtalmia-associated Transcription Factor (MITF) activation in the same model of chronic inflammation. The levels of rMCP-5 mRNA were detected using semi-quantitative RT-PCR; the protein expression of chymase and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) were analyzed by western blot; MITF/DNA binding activity and MITF phosphorylation were assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and immunoprecipitation, respectively. The administration of PEA (200, 400 and 800 µg/ml) significantly decreased rMCP-5 mRNA and chymase protein expression induced by λ-carrageenan. These effects were associated with a significant decrease of MITF/DNA binding activity and phosphorylated MITF as well as phosphorylated ERK levels. In conclusion, our results, showing the ability of PEA to inhibit MITF activation and chymase expression in granulomatous tissue, may yield new insights into the understanding of the signaling pathways leading to MITF activation controlled by PEA.

  15. Inhibition of a novel specific neuroglial integrin signaling pathway increases STAT3-mediated CNTF expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) expression is repressed in astrocytes by neuronal contact in the CNS and is rapidly induced by injury. Here, we defined an inhibitory integrin signaling pathway. Results The integrin substrates laminin, fibronectin and vitronectin, but not collagen, thrombospondin or fibrinogen, reduced CNTF expression in C6 astroglioma cells. Antibodies against αv and β5, but not α6 or β1, integrin induced CNTF. Together, the ligand and antibody specificity suggests that CNTF is repressed by αvβ5 integrin. Antibodies against Thy1, an abundant neuronal surface protein whose function is unclear, induced CNTF in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures indicating that it is a neuroglial CNTF repressor. Inhibition of the integrin signaling molecule Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) or the downstream c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) or p38 MAPK, greatly induced CNTF mRNA and protein expression within 4 hours. This selective inhibitory pathway phosphorylated STAT3 on its inhibitory ser-727 residue interfering with activity of the pro-transcription Tyr-705 residue. STAT3 can activate CNTF transcription because it bound to its promoter and FAK antagonist-induced CNTF was reduced by blocking STAT3. Microinjection of FAK inhibitor directly into the brain or spinal cord in adult mice rapidly induced CNTF mRNA and protein expression. Importantly, systemic treatment with FAK inhibitors over 3 days induced CNTF in the subventricular zone and increased neurogenesis. Conclusions Neuron-astroglia contact mediated by integrins serves as a sensor to enable rapid neurotrophic responses and provides a new pharmacological avenue to exploit the neuroprotective properties of endogenous CNTF. PMID:23693126

  16. Kaempferol inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell migration by modulating BMP-mediated miR-21 expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangho; Kim, Sunghwan; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kang, Hara

    2015-09-01

    Bioflavonoids are known to induce cardioprotective effects by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration. Kaempferol has been shown to inhibit VSMC proliferation. However, little is known about the effect of kaempferol on VSMC migration and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our studies provide the first evidence that kaempferol inhibits VSMC migration by modulating the BMP4 signaling pathway and microRNA expression levels. Kaempferol activates the BMP signaling pathway, induces miR-21 expression and downregulates DOCK4, 5, and 7, leading to inhibition of cell migration. Moreover, kaempferol antagonizes the PDGF-mediated pro-migratory effect. Therefore, our study uncovers a novel regulatory mechanism of VSMC migration by kaempferol and suggests that miRNA modulation by kaempferol is a potential therapy for cardiovascular diseases.

  17. AP-2γ Induces p21 Expression, Arrests Cell Cycle, and Inhibits the Tumor Growth of Human Carcinoma Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hualei; Goswami, Prabhat C; Domann, Frederick E

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Activating enhancer-binding protein 2γ (AP-2γ) is a member of the developmentally regulated AP-2 transcription factor family that regulates the expression of many downstream genes. Whereas the effects of AP-2α overexpression on cell growth are fairly well established, the cellular effects of AP-2γ overexpression are less well studied. Our new findings show that AP-2γ significantly upregulates p21 mRNA and proteins, inhibits cell growth, and decreases clonogenic survival. Cell cycle analysis revealed that forced AP-2γ expression induced G1-phase arrest, decreased DNA synthesis, and decreased the fraction of cells in S phase. AP-2γ expression also led to cyclin D1 repression, decreased Rb phosphorylation, and decreased E2F activity in breast carcinoma cells. AP-2γ binding to the p21 promoter was observed in vivo, and the absence of growth inhibition in response to AP-2γ expression in p21 (-/-) cells demonstrated that p21 caused, at least in part, AP-2-induced cell cycle arrest. Finally, the tumor growth of human breast carcinoma cells in vivo was inhibited by the expression of AP-2γ relative to empty vector-infected cells, suggesting that AP-2γ acts as a tumor suppressor. In summary, expression of either AP-2γ or AP-2α inhibited breast carcinoma cell growth; thus, these genes may be therapeutic targets for breast cancer. PMID:16867219

  18. Ca2+ channel inhibition by endomorphins via the cloned mu-opioid receptor expressed in NG108-15 cells.

    PubMed

    Mima, H; Morikawa, H; Fukuda, K; Kato, S; Shoda, T; Mori, K

    1997-12-11

    Endomorphin-1 and -2, recently isolated endogenous peptides specific for the mu-opioid receptor, inhibited Ca2+ channel currents with EC50 of 6 and 9 nM, respectively, in NG108-15 cells transformed to express the cloned rat mu-opioid receptor. On the other hand, they elicited no response in nontransfected NG108-15 cells. It is concluded that endomorphin-1 and -2 induce Ca2+ channel inhibition by selectively activating the mu-opioid receptor.

  19. Inhibition of LINE-1 retrotransposon-encoded reverse transcriptase modulates the expression of cell differentiation genes in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Patnala, Radhika; Lee, Sung-Hun; Dahlstrom, Jane E; Ohms, Stephen; Chen, Long; Dheen, S Thameem; Rangasamy, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Long Interspersed Elements (L1 elements) are biologically active retrotransposons that are capable of autonomous replication using their own reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme. Expression of the normally repressed RT has been implicated in cancer cell growth. However, at present, little is known about the expression of L1-encoded RT activity or the molecular changes that are associated with RT activity in the development of breast cancer. Here, we report that RT activity is widespread in breast cancer cells. The expression of RT protein decreased markedly in breast cancer cells after treatment with the antiretroviral drug, efavirenz. While the majority of cells showed a significant reduction in proliferation, inhibition of RT was also accompanied by cell-specific differences in morphology. MCF7 cells displayed elongated microtubule extensions that adhered tightly to their substrate, while a large fraction of the T47D cells that we studied formed long filopodia projections. These morphological changes were reversible upon cessation of RT inhibition, confirming their dependence on RT activity. We also carried out gene expression profiling with microarrays and determined the genes that were differentially expressed during the process of cellular differentiation. Genes involved in proliferation, cell migration, and invasive activity were repressed in RT-inhibited cells. Concomitantly, genes involved in cell projection, formation of vacuolar membranes, and cell-to-cell junctions were significantly upregulated in RT-inhibited cells. qRT-PCR examination of the mRNA expression of these genes in additional cell lines yielded close correlation between their differential expression and the degree of cellular differentiation. Our study demonstrates that the inhibition of L1-encoded RT can reduce the rate of proliferation and promote differentiation of breast cancer cells. Together, these results provide a direct functional link between the expression of L1 retrotransposons and

  20. Overexpression of Transcription Factor Sp1 Leads to Gene Expression Perturbations and Cell Cycle Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Deniaud, Emmanuelle; Baguet, Joël; Chalard, Roxane; Blanquier, Bariza; Brinza, Lilia; Meunier, Julien; Michallet, Marie-Cécile; Laugraud, Aurélie; Ah-Soon, Claudette; Wierinckx, Anne; Castellazzi, Marc; Lachuer, Joël; Gautier, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background The ubiquitous transcription factor Sp1 regulates the expression of a vast number of genes involved in many cellular functions ranging from differentiation to proliferation and apoptosis. Sp1 expression levels show a dramatic increase during transformation and this could play a critical role for tumour development or maintenance. Although Sp1 deregulation might be beneficial for tumour cells, its overexpression induces apoptosis of untransformed cells. Here we further characterised the functional and transcriptional responses of untransformed cells following Sp1 overexpression. Methodology and Principal Findings We made use of wild-type and DNA-binding-deficient Sp1 to demonstrate that the induction of apoptosis by Sp1 is dependent on its capacity to bind DNA. Genome-wide expression profiling identified genes involved in cancer, cell death and cell cycle as being enriched among differentially expressed genes following Sp1 overexpression. In silico search to determine the presence of Sp1 binding sites in the promoter region of modulated genes was conducted. Genes that contained Sp1 binding sites in their promoters were enriched among down-regulated genes. The endogenous sp1 gene is one of the most down-regulated suggesting a negative feedback loop induced by overexpressed Sp1. In contrast, genes containing Sp1 binding sites in their promoters were not enriched among up-regulated genes. These results suggest that the transcriptional response involves both direct Sp1-driven transcription and indirect mechanisms. Finally, we show that Sp1 overexpression led to a modified expression of G1/S transition regulatory genes such as the down-regulation of cyclin D2 and the up-regulation of cyclin G2 and cdkn2c/p18 expression. The biological significance of these modifications was confirmed by showing that the cells accumulated in the G1 phase of the cell cycle before the onset of apoptosis. Conclusion This study shows that the binding to DNA of overexpressed Sp1

  1. Triptolide inhibits COX-2 expression by regulating mRNA stability in TNF-{alpha}-treated A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Lixin; Zhang, Shuang; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Huang, Xin; Wang, Tao; Huang, Xiao; Li, Han; Zhang, Luyong

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Triptolide inhibited COX-2 expression and the half-life of COX-2 mRNA is decreased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HuR protein shuttling from nucleus to cytoplasm is inhibited by triptolide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Triptolide inhibited 3 Prime -UTR fluorescence reporter gene activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer COX-2 mRNA binding to HuR is decreased by triptolide in pull-down experiments. -- Abstract: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) over-expression is frequently associated with human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and involved in tumor proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and resistance to apoptosis. In the present study, the effects of triptolide on COX-2 expression in A549 cells were investigated and triptolide was found to inhibit TNF-{alpha}-induced COX-2 expression. In our further studies, it was found that triptolide decreased the half-life of COX-2 mRNA dramatically and that it inhibited 3 Prime -untranslated region (3 Prime -UTR) fluorescence reporter gene activity. Meanwhile, triptolide inhibited the HuR shuttling from nucleus to cytoplasm. After triptolide treatment, decreased COX-2 mRNA in pull-down experiments with anti-HuR antibodies was observed, indicating that the decreased cytoplasmic HuR is responsible for the decreased COX-2 mRNA. Taken together, our results provided evidence for the first time that triptolide inhibited COX-2 expression by COX-2 mRNA stability modulation and post-transcriptional regulation. These results provide a novel mechanism of action for triptolide which may be important in the treatment of lung cancer.

  2. 2-(Allylthio)pyrazine, a cancer chemopreventive agent, inhibits liver fibrosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine in rats: role of inhibition of transforming growth factor-beta1 expression.

    PubMed

    Kang, K W; Ha, J R; Kim, C W; Kim, N D; Kim, S G

    2001-07-01

    Exposure to nitrosamines may be the occupational risk factor for liver cirrhosis. 2-(Allylthio)pyrazine, a chemopreventive agent, inhibits CYP2E1 and induces phase II enzymes. We examined the effects of 2-(allylthio)pyrazine on hepatic fibrosis, a prepathologic state of cirrhosis, and on the expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 induced by dimethylnitrosamine. Treatment of rats with dimethylnitrosamine for 4 weeks increased plasma alanine/aspartate amino-transferase and y-glutamyl transpeptidase activities, and bilirubin content, whereas the total plasma protein and albumin levels were decreased. 2-(Allylthio)pyrazine inhibited dimethylnitrosamine-induced increases in the enzyme activities and bilirubin, and restored the plasma protein and albumin contents. Masson's trichrome staining showed that dimethylnitrosamine induced liver fibrosis, the extent of which was reduced by 2-(allylthio)pyrazine treatments. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that 2-(allylthio)pyrazine inhibited production of transforming growth factor-beta1 mRNA by dimethylnitrosamine. These results demonstrated that 2-(allylthio)pyrazine might inhibit dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis due to suppression of CYP2E1 expression and transforming growth factor-beta1 production.

  3. Pioglitazone Suppresses CXCR7 Expression To Inhibit Human Macrophage Chemotaxis through Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Duo; Zhu, Zhicheng; Li, Dan; Xu, Rihao; Wang, Tiance; Liu, Kexiang

    2015-11-17

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Pioglitazone, the widely used thiazolidinedione, is shown to be efficient in the prevention of cardiovascular complications of T2DM. In this study, we report that pioglitazone inhibits CXCR7 expression and thus blocks chemotaxis in differentiated macrophage without perturbing cell viability or macrophage differentiation. In addition, pioglitazone-mediated CXCR7 suppression and chemotaxis inhibition occur via activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) but not PPARα in differentiated macrophage. More importantly, pioglitazone therapy-induced PPARγ activation suppresses CXCR7 expression in human carotid atherosclerotic lesions. Collectively, our data demonstrate that pioglitazone suppresses CXCR7 expression to inhibit human macrophage chemotaxis through PPARγ.

  4. Inhibition of microRNA-126 promotes the expression of Spred1 to inhibit angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization: in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jian-Song; Xu, Min; Song, Jing-Jing; Zhao, Zhong-Wei; Chen, Min-Jiang; Chen, Wei-Qian; Tu, Jian-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-126 (miR-126) has been found to promote angiogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. So, we conducted this study to explore the effect of miR-126 expression on angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). The expression levels of miR-126 and sprouty-related, EVH1 domain containing protein (Spred)1 in surgically resected HCC tissue, HCC tissue with TACE + operation, and tumor-adjacent tissues were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of miR-126, Spred1, and vascular endothelial growth factor were found by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The microvessel density (MVD) of tumor tissues was determined by immunohistochemical staining. The miR-126 and Spred1 expressions in HCC tissue with TACE + operation were elevated and decreased, respectively, as compared to those in surgically resected HCC tissues and tumor-adjacent tissues (all P<0.001), which indicated that the expression of Spred1 was negatively correlated with miR-126 (P<0.001, r=−0.6224). Based on the bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter gene activity detection, Spred1 was found to target miR-126 (P<0.001). Inhibition of miR-126 expression reduces the degree of weight loss and tumor size in TACE model rats. The MVD in TACE + operation group was increased compared to that in the control group; inhibition of miR-126 expression had a reversal effect, to a certain extent, on MVD increase after TACE (all P<0.05). Inhibition of miR-126 expression increased Spred1 expression and decreased vascular endothelial growth factor expression (P<0.01). In summary, this study unveiled the potential mechanism by which miR-126 regulates angiogenesis in HCC tissues through embolization treatment by targeting Spred1, and also showed that the feasibility of TACE with the miR-126 inhibitor has a certain value in the medical treatment of HCC. PMID:27499630

  5. Changes in rice allelopathy and rhizosphere microflora by inhibiting rice phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Fang, Changxun; Zhuang, Yuee; Xu, Tiecheng; Li, Yingzhe; Li, Yue; Lin, Wenxiong

    2013-02-01

    Gene expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in allelopathic rice PI312777 was inhibited by RNA interference (RNAi). Transgenic rice showed lower levels of PAL gene expression and PAL activity than wild type rice (WT). The concentrations of phenolic compounds were lower in the root tissues and root exudates of transgenic rice than in those of wild type plants. When barndyardgrass (BYG) was used as the receiver plant, the allelopathic potential of transgenic rice was reduced. The sizes of the bacterial and fungal populations in rice rhizospheric soil at the 3-, 5-, and 7-leaf stages were estimated by using quantitative PCR (qPCR), which showed a decrease in both populations at all stages of leaf development analyzed. However, PI312777 had a larger microbial population than transgenic rice. In addition, in T-RFLP studies, 14 different groups of bacteria were detected in WT and only 6 were detected in transgenic rice. This indicates that there was less rhizospheric bacterial diversity associated with transgenic rice than with WT. These findings collectively suggest that PAL functions as a positive regulator of rice allelopathic potential.

  6. Use of Walnut Shell Powder to Inhibit Expression of Fe2+-Oxidizing Genes of Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuhui; Liu, Yehao; Tan, Huifang; Zhang, Yifeng; Yue, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is a Gram-negative bacterium that obtains energy by oxidizing Fe2+ or reduced sulfur compounds. This bacterium contributes to the formation of acid mine drainage (AMD). This study determined whether walnut shell powder inhibits the growth of A. ferrooxidans. First, the effects of walnut shell powder on Fe2+ oxidization and H+ production were evaluated. Second, the chemical constituents of walnut shell were isolated to determine the active ingredient(s). Third, the expression of Fe2+-oxidizing genes and rus operon genes was investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Finally, growth curves were plotted, and a bioleaching experiment was performed to confirm the active ingredient(s) in walnut shells. The results indicated that both walnut shell powder and the phenolic fraction exert high inhibitory effects on Fe2+ oxidation and H+ production by A. ferrooxidans cultured in standard 9K medium. The phenolic components exert their inhibitory effects by down-regulating the expression of Fe2+-oxidizing genes and rus operon genes, which significantly decreased the growth of A. ferrooxidans. This study revealed walnut shell powder to be a promising substance for controlling AMD. PMID:27144574

  7. Arundic Acid Prevents Developmental Upregulation of S100B Expression and Inhibits Enteric Glial Development

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Marlene M.; Capoccia, Elena; Cirillo, Carla; Boesmans, Werend; Vanden Berghe, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    S100B is expressed in various types of glial cells and is involved in regulating many aspects of their function. However, little is known about its role during nervous system development. In this study, we investigated the effect of inhibiting the onset of S100B synthesis in the development of the enteric nervous system, a network of neurons and glia located in the wall of the gut that is vital for control of gastrointestinal function. Intact gut explants were taken from embryonic day (E)13.5 mice, the day before the first immunohistochemical detection of S100B, and cultured in the presence of arundic acid, an inhibitor of S100B synthesis, for 48 h. The effects on Sox10-immunoreactive enteric neural crest progenitors and Hu-immunoreactive enteric neurons were then analyzed. Culture in arundic acid reduced the proportion of Sox10+ cells and decreased cell proliferation. There was no change in the density of Hu+ enteric neurons, however, a small population of cells exhibited atypical co-expression of both Sox10 and Hu, which was not observed in control cultures. Addition of exogenous S100B to the cultures did not change Sox10+ cell numbers. Overall, our data suggest that cell-intrinsic intracellular S100B is important for maintaining Sox10 and proliferation of the developing enteric glial lineage. PMID:28280459

  8. Chelating agents inhibit activity and prevent expression of streptococcal glucan-binding lectins.

    PubMed Central

    Lü-Lü; Singh, J S; Galperin, M Y; Drake, D; Taylor, K G; Doyle, R J

    1992-01-01

    Several of the cariogenic mutans streptococci produce cell wall-associated glucan-binding lectins (GBLs). The lectins bind alpha-1,6-linked glucans and have no affinity for other polysaccharides or anomeric linkages. When citrate or lactate was included in the growth medium, expression of the activities of the GBLs of Streptococcus cricetus and S. sobrinus was prevented. Furthermore, chelating agents, including citrate, lactate, EDTA, and acetylacetone, were able to reversibly inhibit glucan-induced aggregation of GBL+ streptococci. In addition, the chelating agents prevented sucrose-dependent streptococcal adhesion to glass surfaces and dispersed preformed adherent masses of the streptococci. Neither citrate nor other chelating agents modified the activities of glucosyltransferases. Expression of the lectin could only be achieved by the addition of manganous ion to the growth medium. Chloramphenicol and other metabolic inhibitors prevented synthesis of GBL in cells obtained from manganese-deficient medium and shifted to manganous ion-sufficient medium. The GBL may be a manganoprotein, the manganese of which may be perturbed, but not removed, by chelating agents. During synthesis of the GBL, manganous ion may be required in order for the protein to achieve an active conformation. Citrate or other chelating agents may have promise as anticaries agents. Images PMID:1500189

  9. In vivo depletion of lymphotoxin-alpha expressing lymphocytes inhibits xenogeneic graft-versus-host-disease.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Eugene Y; Kolumam, Ganesh; McCutcheon, Krista M; Young, Judy; Lin, Zhonghua; Balazs, Mercedesz; Grogan, Jane L

    2012-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major barrier to successful allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation and is largely mediated by activated donor lymphocytes. Lymphotoxin (LT)-α is expressed by subsets of activated T and B cells, and studies in preclinical models demonstrated that targeted depletion of these cells with a mouse anti-LT-α monoclonal antibody (mAb) was efficacious in inhibiting inflammation and autoimmune disease. Here we demonstrate that LT-α is also upregulated on activated human donor lymphocytes in a xenogeneic model of GVHD and targeted depletion of these donor cells ameliorated GVHD. A depleting humanized anti-LT-α mAb, designated MLTA3698A, was generated that specifically binds to LT-α in both the soluble and membrane-bound forms, and elicits antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity in vitro. Using a human peripheral blood mononuclear cell transplanted SCID (Hu-SCID) mouse model of GVHD, the anti-human LT-α mAb specifically depleted activated LT-expressing human donor T and B cells, resulting in prolonged survival of the mice. A mutation in the Fc region, rendering the mAb incapable of mediating ADCC, abolished all in vitro and in vivo effects. These data support a role for using a depleting anti-LT-α antibody in treating immune diseases such as GVHD and autoimmune diseases.

  10. Transient expression of protein tyrosine phosphatases encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus inhibits insect cellular immune responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M. A.; Kim, Yonggyun

    2008-01-01

    Several immunosuppressive factors are associated with parasitism of an endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, on the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) encodes a large number of putative protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), which may play a role in inhibiting host cellular immunity. To address this inhibitory hypothesis of CpBV-PTPs, we performed transient expression of individual CpBV-PTPs in hemocytes of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and analyzed their cellular immune responses. Two different forms of CpBV-PTPs were chosen and cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector under the control of the p10 promoter of baculovirus: one with the normal cysteine active site (CpBV-PTP1) and the other with a mutated active site (CpBV-PTP5). The hemocytes transfected with CpBV-PTP1 significantly increased in PTP activity compared to control hemocytes, but those with CpBV-PTP5 exhibited a significant decrease in the PTP activity. All transfected hemocytes exhibited a significant reduction in both cell spreading and encapsulation activities compared to control hemocytes. Co-transfection of CpBV-PTP1 together with its double-stranded RNA reduced the messenger RNA (mRNA) level of CpBV-PTP1 and resulted in recovery of both hemocyte behaviors. This is the first report demonstrating that the polydnaviral PTPs can manipulate PTP activity of the hemocytes to interrupt cellular immune responses.

  11. Cerium oxide nanoparticles inhibit the migration and proliferation of gastric cancer by increasing DHX15 expression.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yu-Feng; Li, Jian-Mei; Wang, Su-Min; Yong, Xin; Tang, Bo; Jie, Meng-Meng; Dong, Hui; Yang, Xiao-Chao; Yang, Shi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of tumor-related deaths in the world. Current treatment options do not satisfy doctors and patients, and new therapies are therefore needed. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) have been studied as a potential therapeutic approach for treating many diseases. However, their effects on human gastric cancer are currently unknown. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to characterize the effects of CNPs on human gastric cancer cell lines (MKN28 and BGC823). Gastric cancer cells were cocultured with different concentrations of CNPs, and proliferation and migration were measured both in vitro and in vivo. We found that CNPs inhibited the migration of gastric cancer cells when applied at different concentrations, but only a relatively high concentration (10 µg/mL) of CNPs suppressed proliferation. Furthermore, we found that CNPs increased the expression of DHX15 and its downstream signaling pathways. We therefore provide evidence showing that CNPs may be a promising approach to suppress malignant activity of gastric cancer by increasing the expression of DHX15.

  12. Myricetin suppresses UVB-induced wrinkle formation and MMP-9 expression by inhibiting Raf

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Keun; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Ho Young; Oh, Mi Hyun; Byun, Sanguine; Lim, Sung Hwan; Heo, Yong-Seok; Kang, Nam Joo; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2010-01-01

    Chronic exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) light causes skin photoaging. Many studies have shown that naturally occurring phytochemicals have anti-photoaging effects, but their direct target molecule(s) and mechanism(s) remain unclear. We found that myricetin, a major flavonoid in berries and red wine, inhibited wrinkle formation in mouse skin induced by chronic UVB irradiation (0.18 J/cm2, 3 days/wk for 15 wk). Myricetin treatment reduced UVB-induced epidermal thickening of mouse skin and also suppressed UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) protein expression and enzyme activity. Myricetin appeared to exert its anti-aging effects by suppressing UVB-induced Raf kinase activity and subsequent attenuation of UVB-induced phosphorylation of MEK and ERK in mouse skin. In vitro and in vivo pull-down assays revealed that myricetin bound with Raf in an ATP-noncompetitive manner. Overall, these results indicate that myricetin exerts potent anti-photoaging activity by regulating MMP-9 expression through the suppression of Raf kinase activity. PMID:20093107

  13. Arundic Acid Prevents Developmental Upregulation of S100B Expression and Inhibits Enteric Glial Development.

    PubMed

    Hao, Marlene M; Capoccia, Elena; Cirillo, Carla; Boesmans, Werend; Vanden Berghe, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    S100B is expressed in various types of glial cells and is involved in regulating many aspects of their function. However, little is known about its role during nervous system development. In this study, we investigated the effect of inhibiting the onset of S100B synthesis in the development of the enteric nervous system, a network of neurons and glia located in the wall of the gut that is vital for control of gastrointestinal function. Intact gut explants were taken from embryonic day (E)13.5 mice, the day before the first immunohistochemical detection of S100B, and cultured in the presence of arundic acid, an inhibitor of S100B synthesis, for 48 h. The effects on Sox10-immunoreactive enteric neural crest progenitors and Hu-immunoreactive enteric neurons were then analyzed. Culture in arundic acid reduced the proportion of Sox10+ cells and decreased cell proliferation. There was no change in the density of Hu+ enteric neurons, however, a small population of cells exhibited atypical co-expression of both Sox10 and Hu, which was not observed in control cultures. Addition of exogenous S100B to the cultures did not change Sox10+ cell numbers. Overall, our data suggest that cell-intrinsic intracellular S100B is important for maintaining Sox10 and proliferation of the developing enteric glial lineage.

  14. Sub-MIC Tylosin Inhibits Streptococcus suis Biofilm Formation and Results in Differential Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Yang, Yanbei; Zhao, Yulin; Zhao, Honghai; Bai, Jingwen; Chen, Jianqing; Zhou, Yonghui; Wang, Chang; Li, Yanhua

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S.suis) is an important zoonotic pathogen that causes severe diseases in humans and pigs. Biofilms of S. suis can induce persistent infections that are difficult to treat. In this study, the effect of tylosin on biofilm formation of S. suis was investigated. 1/2 minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and 1/4 MIC of tylosin were shown to inhibit S. suis biofilm formation in vitro. By using the iTRAQ strategy, we compared the protein expression profiles of S. suis grown with sub-MIC tylosin treatment and with no treatment. A total of 1501 proteins were identified by iTRAQ. Ninety-six differentially expressed proteins were identified (Ratio > ±1.5, p < 0.05). Several metabolism proteins (such as phosphoglycerate kinase) and surface proteins (such as ABC transporter proteins) were found to be involved in biofilm formation. Our results indicated that S. suis metabolic regulation, cell surface proteins, and virulence proteins appear to be of importance in biofilm growth with sub-MIC tylosin treatment. Thus, our data revealed the rough regulation of biofilm formation that may provide a foundation for future research into mechanisms and targets.

  15. Sub-MIC Tylosin Inhibits Streptococcus suis Biofilm Formation and Results in Differential Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Yang, Yanbei; Zhao, Yulin; Zhao, Honghai; Bai, Jingwen; Chen, Jianqing; Zhou, Yonghui; Wang, Chang; Li, Yanhua

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S.suis) is an important zoonotic pathogen that causes severe diseases in humans and pigs. Biofilms of S. suis can induce persistent infections that are difficult to treat. In this study, the effect of tylosin on biofilm formation of S. suis was investigated. 1/2 minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and 1/4 MIC of tylosin were shown to inhibit S. suis biofilm formation in vitro. By using the iTRAQ strategy, we compared the protein expression profiles of S. suis grown with sub-MIC tylosin treatment and with no treatment. A total of 1501 proteins were identified by iTRAQ. Ninety-six differentially expressed proteins were identified (Ratio > ±1.5, p < 0.05). Several metabolism proteins (such as phosphoglycerate kinase) and surface proteins (such as ABC transporter proteins) were found to be involved in biofilm formation. Our results indicated that S. suis metabolic regulation, cell surface proteins, and virulence proteins appear to be of importance in biofilm growth with sub-MIC tylosin treatment. Thus, our data revealed the rough regulation of biofilm formation that may provide a foundation for future research into mechanisms and targets. PMID:27065957

  16. H2 inhibits TNF-α-induced lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 expression by inhibiting nuclear factor κB activation in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Guohua; Tian, Hua; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Hongle; Sun, Xuejun; Qin, Shucun

    2011-09-01

    H(2) is a therapeutic antioxidant that can reduce oxidative stress. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein, which plays roles in atherosclerosis, may promote endothelial dysfunction by binding the cell-surface receptor LOX-1. LOX-1 expression can be upregulated by various stimuli, including TNF-α. Thus, we aimed to examine whether the upregulation of LOX-1 by different stimuli could be blocked by H(2) in endothelial cells. H(2) significantly abolished the upregulation of LOX-1 by different stimuli, including TNF-α, at the protein and mRNA levels. The TNF-α-induced upregulation of LOX-1 was also attenuated by the NF-κB inhibitor N-acetyl-L-cysteine. H(2) inhibited the TNF-α-induced activation of NF-κB and the phosphorylation of IκB-α. Furthermore, H(2) inhibited the expression of LOX-1 and the activation of NF-κB in apolipoprotein E knockout mice, an animal model of atherosclerosis. Thus, H(2) probably inhibits cytokine-induced LOX-1 gene expression by suppressing NF-κB activation.

  17. Evidence of sexual dimorphism in placental vitamin D metabolism: Testosterone inhibits calcitriol-dependent cathelicidin expression.

    PubMed

    Olmos-Ortiz, Andrea; García-Quiroz, Janice; López-Marure, Rebeca; González-Curiel, Irma; Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Olivares, Aleida; Avila, Euclides; Barrera, David; Halhali, Ali; Caldiño, Felipe; Larrea, Fernando; Díaz, Lorenza

    2016-10-01

    Male fetus and neonates show increased immune vulnerability compared to females, which results in a higher risk of perinatal infections. These differences could partially be due to sex steroids differential modulation of vitamin D metabolism; since calcitriol, the most active vitamin D metabolite, regulates immune responses and transcriptionally induces the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin in the human placenta. Calcitriol availability depends on CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 expression, the cytochromes involved in its synthesis and degradation, respectively. However, the effects of testosterone upon these enzymes and the final biological outcome upon the calcitriol-dependent immune-target cathelicidin in the placenta have not been studied. In this study we show that testosterone significantly inhibited CYP27B1 while stimulated CYP24A1 gene expression in cultured trophoblasts. These effects were accompanied by CREB activation through cAMP-independent and androgen receptor-dependent mechanisms. Male placental cotyledons showed reduced basal CYP27B1 and cathelicidin gene expression compared to females (P<0.05). Testosterone concentration was higher in the cord blood of male neonates (P=0.007), whereas cathelicidin levels were lesser compared to females (P=0.002). Altogether our results suggest that male placentas produce less cathelicidin due to decreased calcitriol bioavailability. We propose that the observed sex-dependent differences in placental vitamin D metabolism contribute in fetal responses to infections and could partially explain why the increased male fetuses immune vulnerability. Moreover, gestational hyperandrogenemia could adversely affect placental vitamin D metabolism independently of fetal sex.

  18. Inhibition of TMEM16A Expression Suppresses Growth and Invasion in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Yujie; Sun, Meiyan; Wu, Fei; Yang, Longfei; Di, Weihua; Zhang, Guizhen; Zhong, Lili; Ma, Zhiming; Zheng, Jinhao; Fang, Xuedong; Ma, Tonghui

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis leads to poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients, and there is a growing need for new therapeutic targets. TMEM16A (ANO1, DOG1 or TAOS2) has recently been identified as a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) and is reported to be overexpressed in several malignancies; however, its expression and function in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. In this study, we found expression of TMEM16A mRNA and protein in high-metastatic-potential SW620, HCT116 and LS174T cells, but not in primary HCT8 and SW480 cells, using RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence labeling. Patch-clamp recordings detected CaCC currents regulated by intracellular Ca2+ and voltage in SW620 cells. Knockdown of TMEM16A by short hairpin RNAs (shRNA) resulted in the suppression of growth, migration and invasion of SW620 cells as detected by MTT, wound-healing and transwell assays. Mechanistically, TMEM16A depletion was accompanied by the dysregulation of phospho-MEK, phospho-ERK1/2 and cyclin D1 expression. Flow cytometry analysis showed that SW620 cells were inhibited from the G1 to S phase of the cell cycle in the TMEM16A shRNA group compared with the control group. In conclusion, our results indicate that TMEM16A CaCC is involved in growth, migration and invasion of metastatic CRC cells and provide evidence for TMEM16A as a potential drug target for treating metastatic colorectal carcinoma. PMID:25541940

  19. Flavones Inhibit LPS-Induced Atrogin-1/MAFbx Expression in Mouse C2C12 Skeletal Myotubes.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Chieko; Abe, Tomoki; Kawai, Nobuhiko; Ohno, Ayako; Teshima-Kondo, Shigetada; Mori, Hiroyo; Terao, Junji; Tanaka, Eiji; Nikawa, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Muscle atrophy is a complex process that occurs as a consequence of various stress events. Muscle atrophy-associated genes (atrogenes) such as atrogin-1/MAFbx and MuRF-1 are induced early in the atrophy process, and the increase in their expression precedes the loss of muscle weight. Although antioxidative nutrients suppress atrogene expression in skeletal muscle cells, the inhibitory effects of flavonoids on inflammation-induced atrogin-1/MAFbx expression have not been clarified. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effects of flavonoids on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced atrogin-1/MAFbx expression. We examined whether nine flavonoids belonging to six flavonoid categories inhibited atrogin-1/MAFbx expression in mouse C2C12 myotubes. Two major flavones, apigenin and luteolin, displayed potent inhibitory effects on atrogin-1/MAFbx expression. The pretreatment with apigenin and luteolin significantly prevented the decrease in C2C12 myotube diameter caused by LPS stimulation. Importantly, the pretreatment of LPS-stimulated myoblasts with these flavones significantly inhibited LPS-induced JNK phosphorylation in C2C12 myotubes, resulting in the significant suppression of atrogin-1/MAFbx promoter activity. These results suggest that apigenin and luteolin, prevent LPS-mediated atrogin-1/MAFbx expression through the inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway in C2C12 myotubes. Thus, these flavones, apigenin and luteolin, may be promising agents to prevent LPS-induced muscle atrophy.

  20. The preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) inhibits myeloid differentiation in normal hematopoietic and leukemic progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Katherine A.; Cummings, Carrie L.; Sabo, Kathleen; Wood, Brent L.; Gooley, Ted; Yang, Taimei; Epping, Mirjam T.; Shou, Yaping; Pogosova-Agadjanyan, Era; Ladne, Paula; Stirewalt, Derek L.; Abkowitz, Janis L.; Radich, Jerald P.

    2009-01-01

    The preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) is expressed in several hematologic malignancies, but either is not expressed or is expressed at only low levels in normal hematopoietic cells, making it a target for cancer therapy. PRAME is a tumor-associated antigen and has been described as a corepressor of retinoic acid signaling in solid tumor cells, but its function in hematopoietic cells is unknown. PRAME mRNA expression increased with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) disease progression and its detection in late chronic-phase CML patients before tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy was associated with poorer therapeutic responses and ABL tyrosine kinase domain point mutations. In leukemia cell lines, PRAME protein expression inhibited granulocytic differentiation only in cell lines that differentiate along this lineage after all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) exposure. Forced PRAME expression in normal hematopoietic progenitors, however, inhibited myeloid differentiation both in the presence and absence of ATRA, and this phenotype was reversed when PRAME was silenced in primary CML progenitors. These observations suggest that PRAME inhibits myeloid differentiation in certain myeloid leukemias, and that its function in these cells is lineage and phenotype dependent. Lastly, these observations suggest that PRAME is a target for both prognostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:19625708

  1. Exercise combined with low-level GABAA receptor inhibition up-regulates the expression of neurotrophins in the motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuma; Maejima, Hiroshi; Ikuta, Gaku; Mani, Hiroki; Asaka, Tadayoshi

    2017-01-01

    Neurotrophins play a crucial role in neuroplasticity, neurogenesis, and neuroprotection in the central nervous system. Aerobic exercise is known to increase the expression of BDNF in the cerebral cortex. Several animal studies have evaluated the tonic inhibition of GABAergic synapses to enhance hippocampal plasticity as well as learning and memory, whereas the effects of GABAergic inhibition on plasticity in the cerebral cortex related to motor learning are not well characterized. The objective of the present study was to examine the interactive effect of low-level GABAA receptor inhibition and exercise on the expression of neurotrophins including BDNF in the murine motor cortex. ICR mice were randomly distributed among 4 groups based on two factors of GABAA receptor inhibition and exercise, i.e. control group, an exercise group, a bicuculline group, and an exercise plus bicuculline group. We administered GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline intraperitoneally to the mice (bicuculline and exercise plus bicuculline group) at a non-epileptic dose of 0.25mg/kg, whereas the mice (exercise and exercise plus bicuculline group) were exercised on a treadmill for 1h every day. After two week intervention, the expression of mRNA and protein abundance of neurotrophins in the motor cortex was assayed using Real time PCR and ELISA. BDNF gene expression was significantly increased by approximately 3-fold in the bicuculline group relative to the control, exercise, and bicuculline plus exercise groups. Protein abundance of BDNF expression was significantly increased by approximately 3-fold in the bicuculline plus exercise group relative to other groups. Therefore, the present study revealed that combined GABAA receptor inhibition and moderate aerobic exercise up-regulated BDNF protein expression in the motor cortex without producing side effects on motor or cognitive functions. Alterations in BDNF expression could positively contribute to plasticity by regulating the balance

  2. Dkk1-dependent inhibition of Wnt signaling activates Hesx1 expression through its 5' enhancer and directs forebrain precursor development.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Kazunari; Kondoh, Hisato

    2014-05-01

    Development of the anterior forebrain precursor (AFBP) in the anterior neural plate (ANP) depends on the activation of the Hesx1 transcription factor gene. The Hesx1-expression domain of the ANP is underlain by Dkk1-expressing tissues, initially proximal-most anterior visceral endoderm (AVE), and later anterior mesendoderm (AME). As Dkk1-null embryos fail to develop the Hesx1-expressing domain, it is likely that Wnt signal inhibition in the ANP is required for the Hesx1 activation. To investigate the regulation of the AFBP development, we took advantage of epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs), which develop into the ANP in the absence of activin signaling. Expression of Hesx1 and Six3, both involved in the AFBP development, was strongly activated 2 days after activin removal and concomitant addition of Wnt signal inhibitors, Dkk1 or XAV939. Furthermore, we showed that activation of the 720-bp Hesx1 5' enhancer is responsible for Hesx1 expression in the AFBP and depends on Wnt signal inhibition. In addition, we showed that Wnt inhibition during the first day has larger impact on the activation of Hesx1 and Six3 than the second day, suggesting that in embryos Wnt inhibition caused by the AVE-derived Dkk1, rather than the AME-derived Dkk1, contributes greatly in the establishment of the AFBP.

  3. Downregulation of hepatic stimulator substance during the early phase of liver regeneration inhibits E-cadherin expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haifeng; Dong, Ling-Yue; Sun, Guangyong; An, Wei

    2014-02-01

    Hepatic stimulatory substance (HSS), which encodes a sulfhydryl oxidase enzyme, promotes liver regeneration (LR) and maintains the viability of hepatocytes. Surprisingly, we found that the levels of the HSS mRNA and expressed protein were both strongly repressed at 12h after a 70% partial hepatectomy (PH) in mice. Understanding the mechanism and effect of this extraordinary suppression can provide a novel path for exploring the molecular function of HSS during LR. We observed that the EGF levels in the serum were negatively correlated with HSS expression in regenerating livers. Treating primary mouse hepatocytes or Hepa1-6 cells with EGF suppressed HSS mRNA expression. This suppression was transcriptional and was mediated by the effect of EGF on the phosphorylation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ), which regulates HSS expression. We further showed that the enhanced phosphorylation of C/EBPβ after PH promoted its interaction with the HSS promoter and repressed HSS expression at early time-points after PH. Interestingly, the knockdown of HSS caused a dramatic decrease in E-cadherin expression in hepatocytes. E-cadherin expression was also significantly suppressed at 12h after PH. Moreover, the pre-injection of HSS-expressing adenovirus vectors prevented E-cadherin suppression after PH. Treatment with C/EBPβ siRNA reversed the EGF-mediated inhibition of HSS expression and led to enhanced E-cadherin expression and reduced cell migration. Our findings suggest that C/EBPβ directly inhibits the HSS promoter after PH and that this inhibition can downregulate E-cadherin expression. These data provide novel insight into the potential role of HSS in hepatic structural reconstruction during LR.

  4. Phenylmethimazole and a thiazole derivative of phenylmethimazole inhibit IL-6 expression by triple negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Noori, Mahboubeh S; O'Brien, John D; Champa, Zachary J; Deosarkar, Sudhir P; Lanier, Olivia L; Qi, Chunyan; Burdick, Monica M; Schwartz, Frank L; Bergmeier, Stephen C; McCall, Kelly D; Goetz, Douglas J

    2017-03-23

    Inhibition of interleukin-6 (IL-6) holds significant promise as a therapeutic approach for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). We previously reported that phenylmethimazole (C10) reduces IL-6 expression in several cancer cell lines. We have identified a more potent derivative of C10 termed COB-141. In the present work, we tested the hypothesis that C10 and COB-141 inhibit TNBC cell expressed IL-6 and investigated the potential for classical IL-6 pathway induced signaling within TNBC cells. A panel of TNBC cell lines (MDA-MB-231, Hs578T, MDA-MB-468) was used. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) revealed that C10 and COB-141 inhibit MDA-MB-231 cell IL-6 secretion, with COB-141 being ~6.5 times more potent than C10. Therefore, the remainder of the study focused on COB-141 which inhibited IL-6 secretion, and was found, via quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR), to inhibit IL-6 mRNA in the TNBC panel. COB-141 had little, if any, effect on metabolic activity indicating that the IL-6 inhibition is not via a toxic effect. Flow cytometric analysis and QRT-PCR revealed that the TNBC cell lines do not express the IL-6 receptor (IL-6Rα). Trans-AM assays suggested that COB-141 exerts its inhibitory effect, at least in part, by reducing NF-κB (p65/p50) DNA binding. In summary, COB-141 is a potent inhibitor of TNBC cell expressed IL-6 and the inhibition does not appear to be due to non-specific toxicity. The TNBC cell lines do not have an intact classical IL-6 signaling pathway. COB-141's inhibitory effect may be due, at least in part, to reducing NF-κB (p65/p50) DNA binding.

  5. Expression of the mad gene during cell differentiation in vivo and its inhibition of cell growth in vitro

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Mad is a basic region helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor which can dimerize with the Max protein and antagonize transcriptional activation by the Myc-Max transcription factor heterodimer. While the expression of Myc is necessary for cell proliferation, the expression of Mad is induced upon differentiation of at least some leukemia cell lines. Here, the expression of the mad gene has been explored in developing mouse tissues. During organogenesis in mouse embryos mad mRNA was predominantly expressed in the liver and in the mantle layer of the developing brain. At later stages mad expression was detected in neuroretina, epidermis, and whisker follicles, and in adult mice mad was expressed at variable levels in most organs analyzed. Interestingly, in the skin mad was highly expressed in the differentiating epidermal keratinocytes, but not in the underlying proliferating basal keratinocyte layer. Also, in the gut mad mRNA was abundant in the intestinal villi, where cells cease proliferation and differentiate, but not in the crypts, where the intestinal epithelial cells proliferate. In the testis, mad expression was associated with the completion of meiosis and early development of haploid cells. In cell culture, Mad inhibited colony formation of a mouse keratinocyte cell line and rat embryo fibroblast transformation by Myc and Ras. The pattern of mad expression in tissues and its ability to inhibit cell growth in vitro suggests that Mad can cause the cessation of cell proliferation associated with cell differentiation in vivo. PMID:7896882

  6. Curcumin inhibits oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC-9 cells proliferation by regulating miR-9 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Can; Wang, Lili; Zhu, Lifang; Zhang, Chenping; Zhou, Jianhua

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • miR-9 expression level was significantly decreased in OSCC tissues. • Curcumin significantly inhibited SCC-9 cells proliferation. • miR-9 mediates the inhibition of SCC-9 proliferation by curcumin. • Curcumin suppresses Wnt/β-catenin signaling in SCC-9 cells. • miR-9 mediates the suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by curcumin. - Abstract: Curcumin, a phytochemical derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, has shown anticancer effects against a variety of tumors. In the present study, we investigated the effects of curcumin on the miR-9 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and explored the potential relationships between miR-9 and Wnt/β-catenin pathway in curcumin-mediated OSCC inhibition in vitro. As the results shown, the expression levels of miR-9 were significantly lower in clinical OSCC specimens than those in the adjacent non-tumor tissues. Furthermore, our results indicated that curcumin inhibited OSCC cells (SCC-9 cells) proliferation through up-regulating miR-9 expression, and suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling by increasing the expression levels of the GSK-3β, phosphorylated GSK-3β and β-catenin, and decreasing the cyclin D1 level. Additionally, the up-regulation of miR-9 by curcumin in SCC-9 cells was significantly inhibited by delivering anti-miR-9 but not control oligonucleotides. Downregulation of miR-9 by anti-miR-9 not only attenuated the growth-suppressive effects of curcumin on SCC-9 cells, but also re-activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling that was inhibited by curcumin. Therefore, our findings would provide a new insight into the use of curcumin against OSCC in future.

  7. Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Xia; Li, Xiaonan; Liu, Fuli; Tan, Hui; Shang, Deya

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin reduces expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha} in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK and NF-{kappa}B activation in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin supreeses TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway. -- Abstract: In the present study, we investigated whether omentin affected the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data showed that omentin decreased TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVECs. In addition, omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Further, we found that omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-activated signal pathway of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) by preventing NF-{kappa}B inhibitory protein (I{kappa}B{alpha}) degradation and NF-{kappa}B/DNA binding activity. Omentin pretreatment significantly inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK activity and ERK phosphorylation in HUVECs. Pretreatment with PD98059 suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity. Omentin, NF-kB inhibitor (BAY11-7082) and ERK inhibitor (PD98059) reduced the up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha}. These results suggest that omentin may inhibit TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via blocking ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway.

  8. Inhibition of liver fibrosis by solubilized coenzyme Q10: Role of Nrf2 activation in inhibiting transforming growth factor-beta1 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Hoo-Kyun; Pokharel, Yuba Raj; Lim, Sung Chul; Han, Hyo-Kyung; Ryu, Chang Seon; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kwak, Mi Kyong; Kang, Keon Wook

    2009-11-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an endogenous antioxidant, is important in oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. It has anti-diabetic and anti-cardiovascular disease effects, but its ability to protect against liver fibrosis has not been studied. Here, we assessed the ability of solubilized CoQ10 to improve dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrogenesis in mice. DMN treatments for 3 weeks produced a marked liver fibrosis as assessed by histopathological examination and tissue 4-hydroxyproline content. Solubilized CoQ10 (10 and 30 mg/kg) significantly inhibited both the increases in fibrosis score and 4-hydroxyproline content induced by DMN. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses revealed that solubilized CoQ10 inhibited increases in the transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) mRNA and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) protein by DMN. Interestingly, hepatic glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) and glutathione S-transferase A2 (GSTA2) were up-regulated in mice treated with CoQ10. Solubilized CoQ10 also up-regulated antioxidant enzymes such as catalytic subunits of GCL and GSTA2 via activating NF-E2 related factor2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) in H4IIE hepatoma cells. Moreover, CoQ10's inhibition of alpha-SMA and TGF-beta1 expressions disappeared in Nrf2-null MEF cells. In contrast, Nrf2 overexpression significantly decreased the basal expression levels of alpha-SMA and TGF-beta1 in Nrf2-null MEF cells. These results demonstrated that solubilized CoQ10 inhibited DMN-induced liver fibrosis through suppression of TGF-beta1 expression via Nrf2/ARE activation.

  9. Andrographolide inhibits hepatoma cells growth and affects the expression of cell cycle related proteins.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kai-Kai; Liu, Tian-Yu; Xu, Chong; Ji, Li-Li; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2009-09-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate the toxic effects of andrographolide (Andro) on hepatoma cells and elucidate its preliminary mechanisms. After cells were treated with different concentrations of Andro (0-50 micromol x L(-1)) for 24 h, cell viability was evaluated with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Furthermore, after hepatoma cells (Hep3B and HepG2) were treated with different concentrations of Andro (0-30 micromol x L(-1)) for 14 d, the number of colony formation was accounted under microscope. Cell cycle related proteins such as Cdc-2, phosphorylated-Cdc-2, Cyclin B and Cyclin D1 were detected with Western blotting assay and the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry using propidium iodide staining. MTT results showed that Andro induced growth inhibition of hepatoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner but had no significant effects on human normal liver L-02 cells. Andro dramatically decreased the colony formation of hepatoma cells in the concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, Andro induced a decrease of Hep3B cells at the G0-G1 phase and a concomitant accumulation of cells at G2-M phase. At the molecular level, Western blotting results showed that Andro decreased the expression of Cdc-2, phosphorylated-Cdc-2, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin B proteins in a time-dependent manner, which are all cell cycle related proteins. Taken together, the results demonstrated that Andro specifically inhibited the growth of hepatoma cells and cellular cell cycle related proteins were possibly involved in this process.

  10. Histophilus somni Stimulates Expression of Antiviral Proteins and Inhibits BRSV Replication in Bovine Respiratory Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, C.; Agnes, J. T.; Behrens, N.; Tagawa, Y.; Gershwin, L. J.; Corbeil, L. B.

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) followed by Histophilus somni causes more severe bovine respiratory disease and a more permeable alveolar barrier in vitro than either agent alone. However, microarray analysis revealed the treatment of bovine alveolar type 2 (BAT2) epithelial cells with H. somni concentrated culture supernatant (CCS) stimulated up-regulation of four antiviral protein genes as compared with BRSV infection or dual treatment. This suggested that inhibition of viral infection, rather than synergy, may occur if the bacterial infection occurred before the viral infection. Viperin (or radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2—RSAD2) and ISG15 (IFN-stimulated gene 15—ubiquitin-like modifier) were most up-regulated. CCS dose and time course for up-regulation of viperin protein levels were determined in treated bovine turbinate (BT) upper respiratory cells and BAT2 lower respiratory cells by Western blotting. Treatment of BAT2 cells with H. somni culture supernatant before BRSV infection dramatically reduced viral replication as determined by qRT PCR, supporting the hypothesis that the bacterial infection may inhibit viral infection. Studies of the role of the two known H. somni cytotoxins showed that viperin protein expression was induced by endotoxin (lipooligosaccharide) but not by IbpA, which mediates alveolar permeability and H. somni invasion. A naturally occurring IbpA negative asymptomatic carrier strain of H. somni (129Pt) does not cause BAT2 cell retraction or permeability of alveolar cell monolayers, so lacks virulence in vitro. To investigate initial steps of pathogenesis, we showed that strain 129Pt attached to BT cells and induced a strong viperin response in vitro. Thus colonization of the bovine upper respiratory tract with an asymptomatic carrier strain lacking virulence may decrease viral infection and the subsequent enhancement of bacterial respiratory infection in vivo. PMID:26859677

  11. Baicalein reduces angiogenesis in the inflammatory microenvironment via inhibiting the expression of AP-1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yujie; Miao, Zhaorui; Hu, Yang; Yuan, Yang; Zhou, Yuxin; Wei, Libin; Zhao, Kai; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2017-01-01

    Increasing clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that refractory chronic inflammation will result in malignant tumor and anti-angiogenic therapy may be an effective way to thwart the progression. Baicalein, one of the major active flavanoids found in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been exhibited potent anti-inflammation and anti-tumor effects by reducing angiogenesis. However, the exact mechanism of baicalein on endothelial cells in inflammatory microenvironment was not clear yet. Here, we investigated the anti-angiogenic effect of baicalein by incubating human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with THP-1 conditioned medium in vitro. The tube formation of HUVECs and microvessel outgrowth of rat aorta were attenuated, as well as the number of newly formed blood vessels in chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) was reduced by baicalein. This anti-angiogenic effect was mainly on account of the inhibited motility, migration and invasion of HUVECs. In addition, mechanistic studies showed that baicalein could bind to AP-1 directly and the expression of c-Jun and c-Fos in HUVECs was reduced, accompanied by their increased proteasomal degradation. Besides, baicalein suppressed the nuclear translation, heterodimer formation and DNA binding affinity of c-Jun and c-Fos. What's more, the anti-angiogenic effect of baicalein was further confirmed by matrigel plug assay in vivo. Taken together, our study demonstrated that baicalein could exert its anti-angiogenic effect in the inflammation microenvironment via inhibiting the transcriptional activity of AP-1, which suggested that baicalein might be an alternative treatment against refractory chronic inflammation. PMID:27903990

  12. Dihydromyricetin inhibits migration and invasion of hepatoma cells through regulation of MMP-9 expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing-Yu; Li, Ran; Zeng, Guo-Fang; Liu, Bin; Liu, Jie; Shu, Yang; Liu, Zhong-Kao; Qiu, Zhi-Dong; Wang, Dong-Jun; Miao, Hui-Lai; Li, Ming-Yi; Zhu, Run-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of dihydromyricetin (DHM) on the migration and invasion of human hepatic cancer cells. METHODS: The hepatoma cell lines SK-Hep-1 and MHCC97L were used in this study. The cells were cultured in RPIM-1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at 37 °C in a humidified 5% CO2 incubator. DHM was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide and diluted to various concentrations in medium before applying to cells. MTT assays were performed to measure the viability of the cells after DHM treatment. Wound healing and Boyden transwell assays were used to assess cancer cell motility. The invasive capacity of cancer cells was measured using Matrigel-coated transwell chambers. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9 activity was examined by fluorescence analysis. Western blot was carried out to analyze the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, p-38, JNK, ERK1/2 and PKC-δ proteins. All data were analyzed by Student’s t tests in GraphPad prism 5.0 software and are presented as mean ± SD. RESULTS: DHM was found to strongly inhibit the migration of the hepatoma cell lines SK-Hep-1 (without DHM, 24 h: 120 ± 8 μmol/L vs 100 μmol/L DHM, 24 h: 65 ± 10 μmol/L, P < 0.001) and MHCC97L (without DHM, 24 h: 126 ± 7 μmol/L vs 100 μmol/L DHM, 24 h: 74 ± 6 μmol/L, P < 0.001). The invasive capacity of the cells was reduced by DHM treatment (SK-Hep-1 cells without DHM, 24 h: 67 ± 4 μmol/L vs 100 μmol/L DHM, 24 h: 9 ± 3 μmol/L, P < 0.001; MHCC97L cells without DHM, 24 h: 117 ± 8 μmol/L vs 100 μmol/L DHM, 24 h: 45 ± 2 μmol/L, P < 0.001). MMP2/9 activity was also inhibited by DHM exposure (SK-Hep-1 cells without DHM, 24 h: 600 ± 26 μmol/L vs 100 μmol/L DHM, 24 h: 100 ± 6 μmol/L, P < 0.001; MHCC97L cells without DHM, 24 h: 504 ± 32 μmol/L vs 100 μmol/L DHM 24 h: 156 ± 10 μmol/L, P < 0.001). Western blot analysis showed that DHM decreased the expression level of MMP-9 but had little effect on MMP-2. Further investigation indicated that DHM markedly

  13. Icariin inhibits foam cell formation by down-regulating the expression of CD36 and up-regulating the expression of SR-BI.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haitao; Yan, Lijie; Qian, Peng; Duan, Hongyan; Wu, Jintao; Li, Bing; Wang, Shanling

    2015-04-01

    Icariin is an important pharmacologically active flavonol diglycoside that can inhibit inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of Icariin in the formation of foam cells. In this study, macrophages were cultured with LPS and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in the presence or absence of Icariin. RT-PCR and western blot were used to detect the levels of mRNA and protein expression of CD36, scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) and the phosphorylation of p38MAPK. It was demonstrated that 4 µM or 20 µM Icariin treatment significantly inhibited the cholesterol ester (CE)/total cholesterol (TC) and oxLDL-mediated foam cell formation (P < 0.05). The binding of oxLDL to LPS-activated macrophages was also significantly hindered by Icariin (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Icariin down-regulated the expression of CD36 in LPS-activated macrophages in a dose-dependent manner and CD36 over-expression restored the inhibitory effect of Icariin on foam cell formation. The phosphorylation of p38MAPK was reduced by Icariin, indicating that Icariin reduced the expression of CD36 through the p38MAPK pathway. In addition, Icariin up-regulated SR-BI protein expression in a dose-dependent manner, and SR-BI gene silencing restored the inhibitory effect of Icariin on foam cell formation. These data demonstrate that Icariin inhibited foam cell formation by down-regulating the expression of CD36 and up-regulating the expression of SR-BI. Therefore, our findings provide a new explanation as to why Icariin could inhibit atherosclerosis.

  14. The effects of calpain inhibition upon IL-2 and CD25 expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Schaecher, K E; Goust, J M; Banik, N L

    2001-10-01

    Calcium is an important contributor to T cell activation; it is also the major factor in the activation of the calcium-activated neutral proteinase, calpain. For this reason, we wanted to investigate if calpain has a role in T cell activation and what aspects of this activation calpain affects. As measured by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), calpain inhibition decreased interleukin-2 (IL-2) and CD25 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, at early time points following the initial activation, and over extended periods of time in activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Using an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) specific for human IL-2, we found that calpain inhibition decreased IL-2 secretion in a dose-dependent manner, shortly after activation, and continuously over time. Inhibiting calpain caused a dose-dependent inhibition of CD25 cell surface expression and also inhibited expression shortly after activation and for at least 48 h. This study showed that calpain has an integral role in the synthesis of the two important T cell activation factors, IL-2 and CD25.

  15. Species-Specific Dibutyl Phthalate Fetal Testis Endocrine Disruption Correlates with Inhibition of SREBP2-Dependent Gene Expression Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kamin J.; McDowell, Erin N.; Viereck, Megan P.; Xia, Jessie Q.

    2011-01-01

    Fetal rat phthalate exposure produces a spectrum of male reproductive tract malformations downstream of reduced Leydig cell testosterone production, but the molecular mechanism of phthalate perturbation of Leydig cell function is not well understood. By bioinformatically examining fetal testis expression microarray data sets from susceptible (rat) and resistant (mouse) species after dibutyl phthalate (DBP) exposure, we identified decreased expression of several metabolic pathways in both species. However, lipid metabolism pathways transcriptionally regulated by sterol regulatory element–binding protein (SREBP) were inhibited in the rat but induced in the mouse, and this differential species response corresponded with repression of the steroidogenic pathway. In rats exposed to 100 or 500 mg/kg DBP from gestational days (GD) 16 to 20, a correlation was observed between GD20 testis steroidogenic inhibition and reductions of testis cholesterol synthesis endpoints including testis total cholesterol levels, Srebf2 gene expression, and cholesterol synthesis pathway gene expression. SREBP2 expression was detected in all fetal rat testis cells but was highest in Leydig cells. Quantification of SREBP2 immunostaining showed that 500 mg/kg DBP exposure significantly reduced SREBP2 expression in rat fetal Leydig cells but not in seminiferous cords. By Western analysis, total rat testis SREBP2 levels were not altered by DBP exposure. Together, these data suggest that phthalate-induced inhibition of fetal testis steroidogenesis is closely associated with reduced activity of several lipid metabolism pathways and SREBP2-dependent cholesterologenesis in Leydig cells. PMID:21266533

  16. Expression of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Beta in Muscle Satellite Cells Inhibits Myogenesis in Cancer Cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Marchildon, François; Lamarche, Émilie; Lala-Tabbert, Neena; St-Louis, Catherine; Wiper-Bergeron, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a paraneoplastic syndrome that causes profound weight loss and muscle mass atrophy and is estimated to be the cause of up to 30% of cancer deaths. Though the exact cause is unknown, patients with cancer cachexia have increased muscle protein catabolism. In healthy muscle, injury activates skeletal muscle stem cells, called satellite cells, to differentiate and promote regeneration. Here, we provide evidence that this mechanism is inhibited in cancer cachexia due to persistent expression of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein beta (C/EBPβ) in muscle myoblasts. C/EBPβ is a bzip transcription factor that is expressed in muscle satellite cells and is normally downregulated upon differentiation. However, in myoblasts exposed to a cachectic milieu, C/EBPβ expression remains elevated, despite activation to differentiate, resulting in the inhibition of myogenin expression and myogenesis. In vivo, cancer cachexia results in increased number of Pax7+ cells that also express C/EBPβ and the inhibition of normal repair mechanisms. Loss of C/EBPβ expression in primary myoblasts rescues differentiation under cachectic conditions without restoring myotube size, indicating that C/EBPβ is an important inhibitor of myogenesis in cancer cachexia. PMID:26709824

  17. An isocorydine derivative (d-ICD) inhibits drug resistance by downregulating IGF2BP3 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Chao; Chen, Lijuan; Fang, Tao; Li, Hong; Tian, Hua; Liu, Junxi; Chen, Taoyang; Jiang, Guoping; Xie, Haiyang; Cui, Ying; Yao, Ming; Li, Jinjun

    2015-01-01

    In our previous studies, we reported that CD133+ cancer stem cells (CSCs) were chemoresistant in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and that isocorydine treatment decreased the percentage of CD133+ CSCs. Here, we found that a derivative of isocorydine (d-ICD) inhibited HCC cell growth, particularly among the CD133+ subpopulation, and rendered HCC cells more sensitive to sorafenib treatment. d-ICD inhibited IGF2BP3 expression in a time-dependent manner, and IGF2BP3 expression negatively correlated with d-ICD-induced growth suppression. IGF2BP3 overexpression enriched the CD133+ CSC subpopulation in HCC, enhanced tumor sphere formation and suppressed the cytotoxic effects of sorafenib and doxorubicin. The expression of drug resistance-related genes, including ABCB1 and ABCG2, and the CSC marker CD133 expression was increased after IGF2BP3 overexpression. The significance of these observations was underscored by our findings that high IGF2BP3 expression predicted poor survival in a cohort of 236 patients with HCC and positively correlated with ABCG2 and CD133 expression in vivo. These results suggested that the d-ICD may inhibit HCC cells growth by IGF2BP3 decrease and that IGF2BP3 may serve as a therapeutic target for HCC. PMID:26327240

  18. Expression of 5-HT3 receptors by extrinsic duodenal afferents contribute to intestinal inhibition of gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Raybould, Helen E; Glatzle, Jorg; Robin, Carla; Meyer, James H; Phan, Thomas; Wong, Helen; Sternini, Catia

    2003-03-01

    Intestinal perfusion with carbohydrates inhibits gastric emptying via vagal and spinal capsaicin-sensitive afferent pathways. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of 1) 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(3) receptors (5-HT(3)R) in mediating glucose-induced inhibition of gastric emptying and 2) 5-HT(3)R expression in vagal and spinal afferents in innervating the duodenum. In awake rats fitted with gastric and duodenal cannulas, perfusion of the duodenum with glucose (50 and 100 mg) inhibited gastric emptying. Intestinal perfusion of mannitol inhibited gastric emptying only at the highest concentration (990 mosm/kgH(2)O). Pretreatment with the 5-HT(3)R antagonist tropisetron abolished both glucose- and mannitol-induced inhibition of gastric emptying. Retrograde labeling of visceral afferents by injection of dextran-conjugated Texas Red into the duodenal wall was used to identify extrinsic primary afferents. Immunoreactivity for 5-HT(3)R, visualized with an antibody directed to the COOH terminus of the rat 5-HT(3)R, was found in >80% of duodenal vagal and spinal afferents. These results show that duodenal extrinsic afferents express 5-HT(3)R and that the receptor mediates specific glucose-induced inhibition of gastric emptying. These findings support the hypothesis that enterochromaffin cells in the intestinal mucosa release 5-HT in response to glucose, which activates 5-HT(3)R on afferent nerve terminals to evoke reflex changes in gastric motility. The primary glucose sensors of the intestine may be mucosal enterochromaffin cells.

  19. NF-κB Has a Direct Role in Inhibiting Bmp- and Wnt-Induced Matrix Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Tarapore, Rohinton S; Lim, Jason; Tian, Chen; Pacios, Sandra; Xiao, Wenmei; Reid, Daniel; Guan, Hancheng; Mattos, Marcelo; Yu, Bo; Wang, Cun-Yu; Graves, Dana T

    2016-01-01

    The host response to pathogens through nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is an essential defense mechanism for eukaryotic organisms. NF-κB-mediated host responses inhibit bone and other connective tissue synthesis and are thought to affect the transcription of matrix proteins through multiple indirect pathways. We demonstrate that inhibiting NF-κB in osteoblasts increases osteocalcin expression in vivo in mice with periodontal disease. Mutating NF-κB binding sites on osteocalcin (OC) or bone sialoprotein (Bsp) promoters rescues the negative impact of NF-κB on their transcription and that NF-κB can inhibit Wnt- and Bmp-induced OC and Bsp transcription, even when protein synthesis is inhibited, indicating a direct effect of NF-κB. This inhibition depends on p65-p50 NF-κB heterodimer formation and deacetylation by HDAC1 but is not affected by the noncanonical NF-κB pathway. Moreover, NF-κB reduces Runx2 and β-catenin binding to OC/Bsp promoters independently of their nuclear localization. Thus, inflammatory signals stimulate the direct interaction of NF-κB with response elements to inhibit binding of β-catenin and Runx2 binding to nearby consensus sites and reduce expression of matrix proteins. This direct mechanism provides a new explanation for the rapid decrease in new bone formation after inflammation-related NF-κB activation.

  20. Xylitol does not inhibit xylose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing xylA as severely as it inhibits xylose isomerase reaction in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ha, Suk-Jin; Kim, Soo Rin; Choi, Jin-Ho; Park, Myeong Soo; Jin, Yong-Su

    2011-10-01

    Efficient fermentation of xylose, which is abundant in hydrolysates of lignocellulosic biomass, is essential for producing cellulosic biofuels economically. While heterologous expression of xylose isomerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as a strategy to engineer this yeast for xylose fermentation, only a few xylose isomerase genes from fungi and bacteria have been functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae. We cloned two bacterial xylose isomerase genes from anaerobic bacteria (Bacteroides stercoris HJ-15 and Bifidobacterium longum MG1) and introduced them into S. cerevisiae. While the transformant with xylA from B. longum could not assimilate xylose, the transformant with xylA from B. stercoris was able to grow on xylose. This result suggests that the xylose isomerase (BsXI) from B. stercoris is functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae. The engineered S. cerevisiae strain with BsXI consumed xylose and produced ethanol with a good yield (0.31 g/g) under anaerobic conditions. Interestingly, significant amounts of xylitol (0.23 g xylitol/g xylose) were still accumulated during xylose fermentation even though the introduced BsXI might not cause redox imbalance. We investigated the potential inhibitory effects of the accumulated xylitol on xylose fermentation. Although xylitol inhibited in vitro BsXI activity significantly (K(I) = 5.1 ± 1.15 mM), only small decreases (less than 10%) in xylose consumption and ethanol production rates were observed when xylitol was added into the fermentation medium. These results suggest that xylitol accumulation does not inhibit xylose fermentation by engineered S. cerevisiae expressing xylA as severely as it inhibits the xylose isomerase reaction in vitro.

  1. Downregulation of TGF-β Receptor-2 Expression and Signaling through Inhibition of Na/K-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    La, Jennifer; Reed, Eleanor; Chan, Lan; Smolyaninova, Larisa V.; Akomova, Olga A.; Mutlu, Gökhan M.; Orlov, Sergei N.; Dulin, Nickolai O.

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a multi-functional cytokine implicated in the control of cell growth and differentiation. TGF-β signals through a complex of TGF-β receptors 1 and 2 (TGFβR1 and TGFβR2) that phosphorylate and activate Smad2/3 transcription factors driving transcription of the Smad-target genes. The Na+/K+-ATPase is an integral plasma membrane protein critical for maintaining the electro-chemical gradient of Na+ and K+ in the cell. We found that inhibition of the Na+/K+ ATPase by ouabain results in a dramatic decrease in the expression of TGFβR2 in human lung fibrobalsts (HLF) at the mRNA and protein levels. This was accompanied by inhibition of TGF-β-induced Smad phosphorylation and the expression of TGF-β target genes, such as fibronectin and smooth muscle alpha-actin. Inhibition of Na+/K+ ATPase by an alternative approach (removal of extracellular potassium) had a similar effect in HLF. Finally, treatment of lung alveolar epithelial cells (A549) with ouabain also resulted in the downregulation of TGFβR2, the inhibition of TGF-β-induced Smad phosphorylation and of the expression of mesenchymal markers, vimentin and fibronectin. Together, these data demonstrate a critical role of Na+/K+-ATPase in the control of TGFβR2 expression, TGF-β signaling and cell responses to TGF-β. PMID:28006004

  2. Quercetin inhibits intestinal iron absorption and ferroportin transporter expression in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lesjak, Marija; Hoque, Rukshana; Balesaria, Sara; Skinner, Vernon; Debnam, Edward S; Srai, Surjit K S; Sharp, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Balancing systemic iron levels within narrow limits is critical for maintaining human health. There are no known pathways to eliminate excess iron from the body and therefore iron homeostasis is maintained by modifying dietary absorption so that it matches daily obligatory losses. Several dietary factors can modify iron absorption. Polyphenols are plentiful in human diet and many compounds, including quercetin--the most abundant dietary polyphenol--are potent iron chelators. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute and longer-term effects of quercetin on intestinal iron metabolism. Acute exposure of rat duodenal mucosa to quercetin increased apical iron uptake but decreased subsequent basolateral iron efflux into the circulation. Quercetin binds iron between its 3-hydroxyl and 4-carbonyl groups and methylation of the 3-hydroxyl group negated both the increase in apical uptake and the inhibition of basolateral iron release, suggesting that the acute effects of quercetin on iron transport were due to iron chelation. In longer-term studies, rats were administered quercetin by a single gavage and iron transporter expression measured 18 h later. Duodenal FPN expression was decreased in quercetin-treated rats. This effect was recapitulated in Caco-2 cells exposed to quercetin for 18 h. Reporter assays in Caco-2 cells indicated that repression of FPN by quercetin was not a transcriptional event but might be mediated by miRNA interaction with the FPN 3'UTR. Our study highlights a novel mechanism for the regulation of iron bioavailability by dietary polyphenols. Potentially, diets rich in polyphenols might be beneficial for patients groups at risk of iron loading by limiting the rate of intestinal iron absorption.

  3. MnSOD expression inhibited by electromagnetic pulse radiation in the rat testis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, LiHua; Ji, XiTuan; Zhang, YanJun; Miao, Xia; Zou, ChangXu; Lang, HaiYang; Zhang, Jie; Li, YuRong; Wang, XiaoWu; Qi, HongXing; Ren, DongQin; Guo, GuoZhen

    2011-12-01

    Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to EMP irradiation of 100 kV/m peak-to-peak e-field intensity and different numbers of pulses. Rat sperm samples were prepared for analysis of sperm qualities; Testes were assessed by transmission electron microscopy and serum hormone concentrations were examined by radioimmunoassay; Enzymatic activities of Total-superoxide dismutase(T-SOD) and manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), the mRNA levels of MnSOD and cuprozinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), and the density of malondialdehyde (MDA) were also determined. EMP irradiation did not affect spermatozoon morphology, micronucleus formation rate, sperm number or viability, but the acrosin reaction rate decreased at 24 h and 48 h and recovered by 72 h after irradiation as compared to the controls. The ultrastructure of rat testis displayed more serious damage at 24 h than at other time points (6 h, 12 h, 48 h). Serum levels of luteotrophic hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) were elevated in irradiated rats as compared to controls. After irradiation, enzymatic activities of T-SOD and MnSOD were reduced by 24 h, consistent with the changes observed in MnSOD mRNA expression; MDA content increased at 6 h in turn. These studies have quantified the morphological damage and dysfunction in the rat reproductive system induced by EMP. The mechanism of EMP induced damage may be associated with the inhibition of MnSOD expression.

  4. Antisense inhibition of cyclin D1 expression is equivalent to flavopiridol for radiosensitization of zebrafish embryos

    SciTech Connect

    McAleer, Mary Frances; Duffy, Kevin T.; Davidson, William R.; Kari, Gabor; Dicker, Adam P.; Rodeck, Ulrich; Wickstrom, Eric . E-mail: eric@tesla.jci.tju.edu

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: Flavopiridol, a small molecule pan-cyclin inhibitor, has been shown to enhance Radiation response of tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. The clinical utility of flavopiridol, however, is limited by toxicity, previously attributed to pleiotropic inhibitory effects on several targets affecting multiple signal transduction pathways. Here we used zebrafish embryos to investigate radiosensitizing effects of flavopiridol in normal tissues. Methods and Materials: Zebrafish embryos at the 1- to 4-cell stage were treated with 500 nM flavopiridol or injected with 0.5 pmol antisense hydroxylprolyl-phosphono nucleic acid oligomers to reduce cyclin D1 expression, then subjected to ionizing radiation (IR) or no radiation. Results: Flavopiridol-treated embryos demonstrated a twofold increase in mortality after exposure to 40 Gy by 96 hpf and developed distinct radiation-induced defects in midline development (designated as the 'curly up' phenotype) at higher rates when compared with embryos receiving IR only. Cyclin D1-deficient embryos had virtually identical IR sensitivity profiles when compared with embryos treated with flavopiridol. This was particularly evident for the IR-induced curly up phenotype, which was greatly exacerbated by both flavopriridol and cyclin D1 downregulation. Conclusions: Treatment of zebrafish embryos with flavopiridol enhanced radiation sensitivity of zebrafish embryos to a degree that was very similar to that associated with downregulation of cyclin D1 expression. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that inhibition of cyclin D1 is sufficient to account for the radiosensitizing action of flavopiridol in the zebrafish embryo vertebrate model.

  5. Plexin B1 inhibits MET through direct association and regulates Shp2 expression in melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Soong, Joanne; Scott, Glynis

    2013-01-15

    Plexin B1, the receptor for Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), is expressed by melanocytes in the skin. We recently showed that Sema4D suppresses activation of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor, MET, in melanocytes, and that knockdown of Plexin B1 results in activation of MET. MET signaling mediates proliferation, survival and migration in melanocytes, and its activation is associated with transformation of melanocytes to melanoma. In this report we investigated the mechanism by which Plexin B1 inhibits MET activation. Our results show that Plexin B1 and MET exist as an oligomeric receptor-receptor complex in melanocytes, and that receptor association is increased by Sema4D. MET and Plexin B1 receptor complexes were identified along the cell body of melanocytes, and Sema4D increased receptor association on dendrites, suggesting that Sema4D regulates MET-dependent processes at precise locations on the melanocyte. Despite activation of MET, Plexin B1 knockdowns proliferated slowly and showed increased apoptosis compared with controls. Shp2, a non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase, translates growth and survival signals from MET and other receptor tyrosine kinases. Plexin B1 knockdowns had markedly lower levels of Shp2 compared with controls, and Sema4D upregulated Shp2 expression at the protein and message level in normal melanocytes. Functional studies showed that blockade of Shp2 activity abrogated MET-dependent activation of Erk1/Erk2 and Akt in melanocytes. These results suggest a complex role for Sema4D and Plexin B1 in orchestrating signaling from the MET receptor in melanocytes. Because Shp2 is a downstream adaptor protein for multiple receptors, Sema4D may control the effects of several growth factors on melanocytes through regulation of Shp2.

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide inhibits Candida albicans hyphae formation and alters gene expression during biofilm development.

    PubMed

    Bandara, H M H N; K Cheung, B P; Watt, R M; Jin, L J; Samaranayake, L P

    2013-02-01

    Elucidation of bacterial and fungal interactions in multispecies biofilms will have major impacts on understanding the pathophysiology of infections. The objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on Candida albicans hyphal development and transcriptional regulation, (ii) investigate protein expression during biofilm formation, and (iii) propose likely molecular mechanisms for these interactions. The effect of LPS on C. albicans biofilms was assessed by XTT-reduction and growth curve assays, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Changes in candidal hypha-specific genes (HSGs) and transcription factor EFG1 expression were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, respectively. Proteome changes were examined by mass spectrometry. Both metabolic activities and growth rates of LPS-treated C. albicans biofilms were significantly lower (P < 0.05). There were higher proportions of budding yeasts in test biofilms compared with the controls. SEM and CLSM further confirmed these data. Significantly upregulated HSGs (at 48 h) and EFG1 (up to 48 h) were noted in the test biofilms (P < 0.05) but cAMP levels remained unaffected. Proteomic analysis showed suppression of candidal septicolysin-like protein, potential reductase-flavodoxin fragment, serine hydroxymethyltransferase, hypothetical proteins Cao19.10301(ATP7), CaO19.4716(GDH1), CaO19.11135(PGK1), CaO19.9877(HNT1) by P. aeruginosa LPS. Our data imply that bacterial LPS inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation and hyphal development. The P. aeruginosa LPS likely target glycolysis-associated mechanisms during candidal filamentation.

  7. Berberine Inhibits Doxorubicin-Triggered Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis via Attenuating Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Increasing Bcl-2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiuxiu; Yu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yiyang; Wang, Faqiang; Li, Hongmei; Wang, Yanping; Lu, Daxiang; Qi, Renbin; Wang, Huadong

    2012-01-01

    Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is an important event in doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiac injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protection of berberine (Ber) against DOX- triggered cardiomyocyte apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and rats. In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, Ber attenuated DOX-induced cellular injury and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. However, Ber has no significant effect on viability of MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with DOX. Ber reduced caspase-3 and caspase-9, but not caspase-8 activity in DOX-treated cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, Ber decreased adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) and p53 phosphorylation at 2 h, cytosolic cytochrome c and mitochondrial Bax levels and increased Bcl-2 level at 6 h in DOX-stimulated cardiomyocytes. Pretreatment with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, also suppressed p53 phosphorylation and apoptosis in DOX-treated cardiomyocytes. DOX stimulation for 30 min led to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and a rise in the AMP/ATP ratio. Ber markedly reduced DOX-induced mitochondrial membrane potential loss and an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio at 1 h and 2 h post DOX exposure. In in vivo experiments, Ber significantly improved survival, increased stroke volume and attenuated myocardial injury in DOX-challenged rats. TUNEL and Western blot assays showed that Ber not only decreased myocardial apoptosis, caspase-3 activation, AMPKα and p53 phosphorylation, but also increased Bcl-2 expression in myocardium of rats exposed to DOX for 84 h. These findings indicate that Ber attenuates DOX-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis via protecting mitochondria, inhibiting an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio and AMPKα phosphorylation as well as elevating Bcl-2 expression, which offer a novel mechanism responsible for protection of Ber against DOX-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:23077597

  8. A bipartite U1 site represses U1A expression by synergizing with PIE to inhibit nuclear polyadenylation.

    PubMed

    Guan, Fei; Caratozzolo, Rose M; Goraczniak, Rafal; Ho, Eric S; Gunderson, Samuel I

    2007-12-01

    U1A protein negatively autoregulates itself by polyadenylation inhibition of its own pre-mRNA by binding as two molecules to a 3'UTR-located Polyadenylation Inhibitory Element (PIE). The (U1A)2-PIE complex specifically blocks U1A mRNA biosynthesis by inhibiting polyA tail addition, leading to lower mRNA levels. U1 snRNP bound to a 5'ss-like sequence, which we call a U1 site, in the 3'UTRs of certain papillomaviruses leads to inhibition of viral late gene expression via a similar mechanism. Although such U1 sites can also be artificially used to potently silence reporter and endogenous genes, no naturally occurring U1 sites have been found in eukaryotic genes. Here we identify a conserved U1 site in the human U1A gene that is, unexpectedly, within a bipartite element where the other part represses the U1 site via a base-pairing mechanism. The bipartite element inhibits U1A expression via a synergistic action with the nearby PIE. Unexpectedly, synergy is not based on stabilizing binding of the inhibitory factors to the 3'UTR, but rather is a property of the larger ternary complex. Inhibition targets the biosynthetic step of polyA tail addition rather than altering mRNA stability. This is the first example of a functional U1 site in a cellular gene and of a single gene containing two dissimilar elements that inhibit nuclear polyadenylation. Parallels with other examples where U1 snRNP inhibits expression are discussed. We expect that other cellular genes will harbor functional U1 sites.

  9. Dexamethasone inhibits human interleukin 2 but not interleukin 2 receptor gene expression in vitro at the level of nuclear transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Boumpas, D T; Anastassiou, E D; Older, S A; Tsokos, G C; Nelson, D L; Balow, J E

    1991-01-01

    Glucocorticosteroids have an inhibitory effect on the expression of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) genes. To determine the mechanisms of this inhibition, human T lymphocytes were stimulated with mitogens in the presence of dexamethasone. Nuclear transcription run-off assays showed that high doses of dexamethasone inhibited the transcription of the IL-2 gene but not that of the IL-2R gene. Post-transcriptionally, high doses of dexamethasone (10(-4) M) were required to inhibit IL-2R mRNA levels by 50%, whereas lower doses (10(-6) M) inhibited by greater than 70% the accumulation of IL-2 mRNA. IL-2 mRNA half-life decreased in the presence of dexamethasone (10(-6) M) by approximately 50%. At the protein product level, dexamethasone inhibited both IL-2 production, as well as cell surface and soluble forms of IL-2R. IL-2R gene expression was inhibited for at least 72 h after exposure of cells to dexamethasone. In the presence of exogenous IL-2, dexamethasone failed to exert a significant effect on the production of IL-2R protein. These data indicate that dexamethasone has a greater effect on the expression of the IL-2 gene than on the IL-2R gene. Dexamethasone both inhibits transcription of the IL-2 gene and decreases the stability of IL-2 mRNA. The effect of dexamethasone on the IL-2R gene is post-transcriptional and may result indirectly from decreased IL-2 production. Images PMID:2022743

  10. MicroRNA-224 inhibits proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells by down-regulating Fizzled 5 expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Liu, Yang; Shen, Jingling; Zhang, Guoqiang; Han, Jiguang

    2016-08-02

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling is crucial for the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. However, the expression of microRNA-224 (miR-224) in the different types of breast cancers and its role in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells are poorly understood. In this study, the levels of miR-224 in different types of breast cancer tissues and cell lines were examined by quantitative RT-PCR and the potential targets of miR-224 in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling were investigated. The effects of altered miR-224 expression on the frequency of CD44+CD24- cancer stem-like cells (CSC), proliferation and migration of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were examined by flow cytometry, MTT and transwell migration. We found that the levels of miR-224 expression in different types of breast cancer tissues and cell lines were associated inversely with aggressiveness of breast cancers. Enhanced miR-224 expression significantly reduced the fizzled 5-regulated luciferase activity in 293T cells, fizzled 5 expression in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, the β-dependent luciferase activity in MCF-7 cells, and the nuclear translocation of β-catenin in MDA-MB-231 cells. miR-224 inhibition significantly increased the percentages of CSC in MCF-7 cells and enhanced proliferation and migration of MCF-7 cells. Enhanced miR-224 expression inhibited proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells, and the growth of implanted breast cancers in vivo. Induction of Frizzled 5 over-expression mitigated the miR-224-mediated inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation. Collectively, these data indicated that miR-224 down-regulated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling possibly by binding to Frizzled 5 and inhibited proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells.

  11. Protective effects of SIRT1 in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy via the inhibition of IL-17 expression

    PubMed Central

    LIU, SHULIN; LIN, YU; LIU, XIN

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a chronic microvascular complication of diabetes that may lead to loss of vision. The pathogenesis of DR is complex and elevated expression levels of T helper (Th)17 cells and interleukin (IL)-17 have been suggested to be associated with the development and progression of DR. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide+-dependent histone deacetylase that is downregulated in patients with DR. Previous studies have demonstrated that SIRT1 is capable of inhibiting the production of IL-17. In the present study, 19 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and 20 non-diabetic controls with idiopathic macular epiretinal membranes were recruited and the SIRT1 expression levels of excised specimens were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. IL-17 expression levels in the sera from patients with PDR and controls were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore, SIRT1 mRNA and protein expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from the two groups were analyzed following culture with or without a SIRT1 activator, resveratrol. IL-17 expression levels in the supernatants of PBMCs were determined using ELISA and the results demonstrated that IL-17 expression levels were increased in the sera of patients with PDR, as compared with the controls. Furthermore, increased expression levels of SIRT1 and IL-17 were detected in fibrovascular membranes and PBMCs harvested from patients with PDR, respectively. Notably, SIRT1 mRNA and protein expression levels were decreased in the PBMCs of patients with PDR and IL-17 production was inhibited following SIRT1 activation. The results of the present study indicated that imbalanced IL-17 and SIRT1 expression levels may contribute to the pathogenesis of DR, and SIRT1 may have a protective role in PDR by inhibiting the production of IL-17. PMID:26889251

  12. Inhibition of RNA transportation induces glioma cell apoptosis via downregulation of RanGAP1 expression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tsung-Yao; Lee, Chin-Cheng; Chen, Ku-Chung; Lin, Chien-Ju; Shih, Chwen-Ming

    2015-05-05

    The prognosis of glioblastoma remains poor, even treatment with surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy. Therefore, it is still important to develop a new strategy for treatment of glioblastoma. Previous reports demonstrated that rRNA is produced at abnormally high levels in tumor cells. Nuclear export of all non-coding RNAs are known to depend on RanGTPase system. Hydrolyzation of RanGTP-RNA complex by RanGTPase activating protein 1 (RanGAP1) releases RNA from nucleus to cytoplasm. Therefore, inhibition of RNA transportation would be a useful strategy to affect cancer cell fate. In this study, 5-30 μM of oridonin, a natural diterpenoid compound isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine, Rabdosia rubescens, induced U87MG glioma cell apoptosis and RNA accumulation in nucleus at 12h-time point. Before U87MG cell apoptosis, the RanGAP1 protein amount decreased and RanGTP accumulated in nucleus as respectively determined by immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence, suggesting that decrease of RanGAP1 may result in nuclear entrapment of RanGTP and RNA, and then induce U87MG cell death. In contrast, over-expression of the RanGAP1 protein reversed oridonin-induced U87MG cell apoptosis. Hence, we demonstrated that downregulation of the RanGAP1 protein level by oridonin may result in RNA accumulation in nucleus via nuclear entrapment of RanGTP which eventually led to the apoptosis of glioma cells.

  13. NNK, a tobacco-specific carcinogen, inhibits the expression of lysyl oxidase, a tumor suppressor.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guang; Li, Jianmin; Zheng, Maoguen; Zhao, Yinzhi; Zhou, Jing; Li, Wande

    2014-12-23

    A tobacco-specific carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), is believed to contribute to the cancer burden in cigarette smokers. To evaluate NNK effects on the expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX), a tumor suppressor, we examined this enzyme at various levels in NNK-treated rat fetal lung fibroblasts (RFL6). Exposure of cells to NNK reduced levels of steady-states LOX mRNA and new transcript synthesis. NNK inhibited all LOX protein species in a dose-dependent manner. Although 300 µM NNK markedly decreased the level in the 46 kDa preproenzyme, under same conditions, there was no detectable amounts of the 50 kDa proenzyme and the 32 kDa mature enzyme suggesting NNK perturbing the LOX protein processing to its mature form. Moreover, NNK also suppressed LOX activities in conditioned media of treated cells. At the promoter level, NNK enhanced methylation of CpG, but decreased acetylation of histone H3 at the core promoter region of the LOX gene. These results indicated that transcriptional and translational processes of LOX are major targets for NNK. Thus, inactivation of tumor suppressor gene LOX may play a critical role in NNK carcinogenesis.

  14. Inhibition of collagen fibrillogenesis by cells expressing soluble extracellular domains of DDR1 and DDR2.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Lisa A; Blissett, Angela R; Calomeni, Edward P; Agarwal, Gunjan

    2010-01-22

    Collagen fiber assembly affects many physiological processes and is tightly controlled by collagen-binding proteins. However, to what extent membrane-bound versus cell-secreted collagen-binding proteins affect collagen fibrillogenesis is not well understood. In our previous studies, we had demonstrated that the membrane-anchored extracellular domain (ECD) of the collagen receptor discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) inhibits fibrillogenesis of collagen endogenously secreted by the cells. These results led to a novel functional role of the DDR2 ECD. However, since soluble forms of DDR1 and DDR2 containing its ECD are known to naturally exist in the extracellular matrix, in this work we investigated if these soluble DDR ECDs may have a functional role in modulating collagen fibrillogenesis. For this purpose, we created mouse osteoblast cell lines stably secreting DDR1 or DDR2 ECD as soluble proteins. Transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and hydroxyproline assays were used to demonstrate that DDR ECD expression reduced the rate and quantity of collagen deposition and induced significant changes in fiber morphology and matrix mineralization. Collectively, our studies advance our understanding of DDR receptors as powerful regulators of collagen deposition in the ECM and elucidate their multifaceted role in ECM remodeling.

  15. CD200R signaling inhibits pro-angiogenic gene expression by macrophages and suppresses choroidal neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Horie, Shintaro; Robbie, Scott J.; Liu, Jian; Wu, Wei-Kang; Ali, Robin R.; Bainbridge, James W.; Nicholson, Lindsay B.; Mochizuki, Manabu; Dick, Andrew D.; Copland, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are rapidly conditioned by cognate and soluble signals to acquire phenotypes that deliver specific functions during inflammation, wound healing and angiogenesis. Whether inhibitory CD200R signaling regulates pro-angiogenic macrophage phenotypes with the potential to suppress ocular neovascularization is unknown. CD200R-deficient bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMΦ) were used to demonstrate that macrophages lacking this inhibitory receptor exhibit enhanced levels of Vegfa, Arg-1 and Il-1β when stimulated with PGE2 or RPE-conditioned (PGE2-enriched) media. Endothelial tube formation in HUVECs was increased when co-cultured with PGE2-conditioned CD200R−/− BMMΦ, and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization was enhanced in CD200R-deficient mice. In corroboration, signaling through CD200R results in the down-regulation of BMMΦ angiogenic and pro-inflammatory phenotypes. Translational potential of this pathway was investigated in the laser-induced model of choroidal neovascularization. Local delivery of a CD200R agonist mAb to target myeloid infiltrate alters macrophage phenotype and inhibits pro-angiogenic gene expression, which suppresses pathological angiogenesis and CNV development. PMID:24170042

  16. Silencing of GRA10 protein expression inhibits Toxoplasma gondii intracellular growth and development.

    PubMed

    Witola, William H; Bauman, Bretta; McHugh, Mark; Matthews, Kwame

    2014-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii dense granule proteins (GRAs) are secreted abundantly in both the tachyzoite and bradyzoite stages of the parasite and are known to localize to various compartments of the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) that interfaces with the host cell milieu. Thus, GRAs may play significant roles in the biogenesis of the PV that is important for survival of intracellular T. gondii. GRA10 is a dense granule protein whose role in T. gondii has not yet been characterized. Therefore, in this study, we endeavored to determine the role of GRA10 in the growth and survival of intracellular T. gondii by using phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PPMOs) antisense knockdown approach to disrupt the translation of GRA10 mRNA in the parasites. We expressed and purified a truncated recombinant GRA10 protein to generate anti-GRA10 polyclonal antibodies that we used to characterize GRA10 in T. gondii. We found that GRA10 is a soluble, dense granule-associated protein that is secreted into the parasite cytosol and the parasitophorous vacuole milieu. Using in vitro cultures, we found that knockdown of GRA10 results in severe inhibition of T. gondii growth in human fibroblasts and in ovine monocytic cells. Together, our findings define GRA10 as a dense granule protein that plays a significant role in the growth and propagation of intracellular T. gondii in human fibroblasts and in ovine monocytic cells.

  17. The Ubiquitin Ligase Praja1 Reduces NRAGE Expression and Inhibits Neuronal Differentiation of PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Teuber, Jan; Mueller, Bettina; Fukabori, Ryoji; Lang, Daniel; Albrecht, Anne; Stork, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that regulated ubiquitination of proteins plays a critical role in the development and plasticity of the central nervous system. We have previously identified the ubiquitin ligase Praja1 as a gene product induced during fear memory consolidation. However, the neuronal function of this enzyme still needs to be clarified. Here, we investigate its involvement in the nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced differentiation of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Praja1 co-localizes with cytoskeleton components and the neurotrophin receptor interacting MAGE homologue (NRAGE). We observed an enhanced expression of Praja1 after 3 days of NGF treatment and a suppression of neurite formation upon Praja1 overexpression in stably transfected PC12 cell lines, which was associated with a proteasome-dependent reduction of NRAGE levels. Our data suggest that Praja1, through ubiquitination and degradation of NRAGE, inhibits neuronal differentiation. The two murine isoforms, Praja1.1 and Praja1.2, appear to be functionally homologous in this respect. PMID:23717400

  18. Molecular characterization of Thy1 expressing fear-inhibiting neurons within the basolateral amygdala

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Kenneth M.; Choi, Dennis; Guo, Jidong; Zimmerman, Kelsey; Walton, Jordan; Rainnie, Donald G.; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular characterization of neuron populations, particularly those controlling threat responses, is essential for understanding the cellular basis of behaviour and identifying pharmacological agents acting selectively on fear-controlling circuitry. Here we demonstrate a comprehensive workflow for identification of pharmacologically tractable markers of behaviourally characterized cell populations. Thy1-eNpHR-, Thy1-Cre- and Thy1-eYFP-labelled neurons of the BLA consistently act as fear inhibiting or ‘Fear-Off' neurons during behaviour. We use cell-type-specific optogenetics and chemogenetics (DREADDs) to modulate activity in this population during behaviour to block or enhance fear extinction. Dissociated Thy1-eYFP neurons are isolated using FACS. RNA sequencing identifies genes strongly upregulated in RNA of this population, including Ntsr2, Dkk3, Rspo2 and Wnt7a. Pharmacological manipulation of neurotensin receptor 2 confirms behavioural effects observed in optogenetic and chemogenetic experiments. These experiments identify and validate Ntsr2-expressing neurons within the BLA, as a putative ‘Fear-Off' population. PMID:27767183

  19. Macrophages Polarized by Expression of ToxoGRA15II Inhibit Growth of Hepatic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuanling; Poppoe, Faustina; Chen, Jian; Yu, Li; Deng, Fang; Luo, Qingli; Xu, Yuanhong; Cai, Yihong; Shen, Jilong

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that tumor-associated macrophages are deeply involved in the hepatocellular carcinoma proliferation and account for the large proportion of infiltrated cells in tumor tissues and play a major role in promotion of tumor growth. On the other hand, studies have demonstrated that Toxoplasma gondii virulence-associated molecule of dense granule protein (ToxoGRA15II) tends to induce classically activated macrophages (M1) differentiation. Thus, we explored the M1 induced by ToxoGRA15II in vitro and its inhibitory impact on the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of hepatic carcinoma in murine model. Here, we constructed recombinant plasmid of pegfp-gra15II and subsequently ligate it to lentivirus (Lv) vector, with which RAW264.7 was transfected. The results showed that the transfected macrophages were polarized to M1. Coculture of the M1 with Hepa1-6 cells showed a remarkable inhibition of migration and invasion of the tumor cells and decreased expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 without notable apoptosis of Hepa1-6 cells. Subsequently, ToxoGRA15II-polarized macrophages inoculated to tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice were seen in both spleen and tumor tissues, and tumor growth was sharply restricted. Particularly, interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression, which is closely associated with the cancer malignant behaviors, was significantly dampened in tumor tissues. In addition, expression of TNF-α and IL-12 mRNAs was increased, whereas IL-6 and interleukin-10 mRNAs were downregulated in splenocytes. Our results indicate that the effector molecule of ToxoGRA15II may induce macrophage polarization to M1 that has a restrictive effect on tumor growth via its related cytokines profile in tumor and spleen tissues. Besides, ToxoGRA15II, due to its early activation of specified cell population and non-toxicity to mammalians, has a potential value for a novel therapeutic strategy of enhancing host innate immunity against tumor

  20. One mechanism of glucocorticoid action in asthma may involve the inhibition of IL-25 expression

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei; Lu, Chao; Zhang, Chengming; Zhang, Chenghao

    2017-01-01

    in asthma. One of the mechanisms of glucocorticoid action in asthma may involve inhibition of IL-25 expression.

  1. IL-4 inhibits TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation by inhibition of RANKL expression in TNF-α-activated stromal cells and direct inhibition of TNF-α-activated osteoclast precursors via a T-cell-independent mechanism in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toshiya; Kitaura, Hideki; Kimura, Keisuke; Hakami, Zaki Weli; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2012-10-01

    It has been reported that osteoclastogenesis is induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Interleukin (IL)-4 is the most important cytokine involved in humoral immunity. However, no studies have investigated the effect of IL-4 on TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effect of IL-4 on TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation in vivo. TNF-α was administered with and without IL-4 into the supracalvariae of mice. The number of osteoclasts and the levels of mRNA for cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphate, both osteoclast markers, in mice administered TNF-α and IL-4 were lower than those in mice administered TNF-α alone. The level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase form 5b (TRACP5b) as a marker of bone resorption in mice administered both TNF-α and IL-4 was also lower. We showed that IL-4 inhibited TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation in osteoclast precursors in vitro. Expression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) in TNF-α-activated stromal cells was also inhibited. Furthermore, we investigated whether IL-4 had effects on both stromal cells and osteoclast precursors in TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation in vivo. Using mice whose stromal cells and osteoclast precursors were chimeric for the presence of TNF receptors, IL-4 inhibited TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation in the presence of TNF-α-responsive stromal cells, and TNF-α-responsive osteoclast precursors in vivo. IL-4 also inhibited TNF-α-induced RANKL expression in the presence of TNF-α-responsive stromal cells in vivo. This event is dependent on p38 inhibition in vitro. Additionally, IL-4 inhibited TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation in T cell-depleted mice. In summary, we conclude that IL-4 inhibited TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation by inhibiting expression of RANKL in TNF-α-activated stromal cells, and directly inhibited TNF-α-activated osteoclast precursors in vivo via a T cell-independent mechanism.

  2. microRNA-218 inhibits prostate cancer cell growth and promotes apoptosis by repressing TPD52 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Guangye Fan, Maochuan Zhang, Xinjun

    2015-01-16

    Highlights: • miR-218 expression is downregulated in prostate cancer. • miR-218 inhibits prostate tumor cells proliferation partially through promoting apoptosis. • miR-218 targets TPD52 by binding to its 3′-UTR. • miR-218 suppresses prostate cancer cell growth through inhibiting TPD52 expression. - Abstract: The tumor protein D52 (TPD52) is an oncogene overexpressed in prostate cancer (PC) due to gene amplification. Although the oncogenic effect of TPD52 is well recognized, how its expression is regulated is still not clear. This study tried to explore the regulative role of miR-218, a tumor suppressing miRNA on TPD52 expression and prostate cancer cell proliferation. We found the expression of miR-218 was significantly lower in PC specimens. Based on gain and loss of function analysis, we found miR-218 significantly inhibit cancer cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis. These results strongly suggest that miR-218 plays a tumor suppressor role in PC cells. In addition, our data firstly demonstrated that miR-218 directly regulates oncogenic TPD52 in PC3 cells and the miR-218-TPD52 axis can regulate growth of this prostate cancer cell line. Knockdown of TPD52 resulted in significantly increased cancer cell apoptosis. Clearly understanding of oncogenic TPD52 pathways regulated by miR-218 might be helpful to reveal new therapeutic targets for PC.

  3. Resveratrol inhibits the expression of SREBP1 in cell model of steatosis via Sirt1-FOXO1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Li; Fu, Yu-Cai; Xu, Wen-Can; Feng, Ya-Qing; Fang, Shi-Rong; Zhou, Xiao-Hui

    2009-03-13

    Recent studies in mice have shown that resveratrol can protect the liver from fat accumulation induced by high fat diet. However, the exact mechanism is largely unknown. To explore the possible mechanism, we investigated the anti-lipogenic effect of resveratrol in vitro model. Oil Red O staining revealed that resveratrol could significantly ameliorate the excessive triglyceride accumulation in HepG2 cells induced by palmitate. The results of RT-PCR and Western blotting showed that resveratrol upregulated the expression of Sirt1 and forkhead box O1 (FOXO1), whereas downregulated the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein1 (SREBP1). Moreover, resveratrol was shown to inhibit the activity of SREBP1, as evaluated by immunofluorescence assay. Our results suggest that resveratrol may attenuate fat deposition by inhibiting SREBP1 expression via Sirt1-FOXO1 pathway and thus may have application for the treatment of NAFLD.

  4. Silkworm apolipophorin protein inhibits hemolysin gene expression of Staphylococcus aureus via binding to cell surface lipoteichoic acids.

    PubMed

    Omae, Yosuke; Hanada, Yuichi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2013-08-30

    We previously reported that a silkworm hemolymph protein, apolipophorin (ApoLp), binds to the cell surface of Staphylococcus aureus and inhibits expression of the saePQRS operon encoding a two-component system, SaeRS, and hemolysin genes. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory mechanism of ApoLp on S. aureus hemolysin gene expression. ApoLp bound to lipoteichoic acids (LTA), an S. aureus cell surface component. The addition of purified LTA to liquid medium abolished the inhibitory effect of ApoLp against S. aureus hemolysin production. In an S. aureus knockdown mutant of ltaS encoding LTA synthetase, the inhibitory effects of ApoLp on saeQ expression and hemolysin production were attenuated. Furthermore, the addition of anti-LTA monoclonal antibody to liquid medium decreased the expression of S. aureus saeQ and hemolysin genes. In S. aureus strains expressing SaeS mutant proteins with a shortened extracellular domain, ApoLp did not decrease saeQ expression. These findings suggest that ApoLp binds to LTA on the S. aureus cell surface and inhibits S. aureus hemolysin gene expression via a two-component regulatory system, SaeRS.

  5. Heme oxygenase-1 inhibits the expression of adhesion molecules associated with endothelial cell activation via inhibition of NF-kappaB RelA phosphorylation at serine 276.

    PubMed

    Seldon, Mark P; Silva, Gabriela; Pejanovic, Nadja; Larsen, Rasmus; Gregoire, Isabel Pombo; Filipe, Josina; Anrather, Josef; Soares, Miguel P

    2007-12-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; encoded by the Hmox1 gene) catalyzes the degradation of free heme into biliverdin, via a reaction that releases iron (Fe) and carbon monoxide. We report that HO-1 down-regulates the proinflammatory phenotype associated with endothelial cell (EC) activation by reducing intracellular nonprotein-bound Fe (labile Fe). EC isolated from Hmox1(-/-) mice have higher levels of intracellular labile Fe and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as compared with EC isolated from Hmox1(+/+) mice. Basal and TNF-induced expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin were increased in Hmox1(-/-) vs Hmox1(+/+) EC, an effect reversed by Fe chelation using deferoxamine mesylate (DFO). Fe chelation inhibits TNF-driven transcription of Vcam-1, Icam-1, and E-selectin, as assessed using luciferase reporter assays. This effect is associated with inhibition of the transcription factor NF-kappaB via a mechanism that is not associated with the inhibition of IkappaBalpha phosphorylation/degradation or NF-kappaB (i.e., RelA) nuclear translocation, although it affects very modestly NF-kappaB binding to DNA kappaB consensus sequences in the Vcam-1 and E-selectin promoters. HO-1 inhibits NF-kappaB (i.e., RelA) phosphorylation at Ser(276), a phosphoacceptor that is critical to sustain TNF-driven NF-kappaB activity in EC. This effect was mimicked by Fe chelation as well as by antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine). In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel mechanism via which HO-1 down-modulates the proinflammatory phenotype of activated EC, i.e., the inhibition of RelA phosphorylation at Ser(276).

  6. Rhesus macaque θ-defensin RTD-1 inhibits proinflammatory cytokine secretion and gene expression by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tongaonkar, Prasad; Trinh, Katie K.; Schaal, Justin B.; Tran, Dat; Gulko, Percio S.; Ouellette, André J.; Selsted, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    θ-Defensins are pleiotropic, macrocyclic peptides that are expressed uniquely in Old World monkeys. The peptides are potent, broad-spectrum microbicides that also modulate inflammatory responses in vitro and in animal models of viral infection and polymicrobial sepsis. θ-Defensins suppress proinflammatory cytokine secretion by leukocytes stimulated with diverse Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. Studies were performed to delineate anti-inflammatory mechanisms of rhesus θ-defensin 1 (RTD-1), the most abundant θ-defensin isoform in macaque granulocytes. RTD-1 reduced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-8 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human blood monocytes and THP-1 macrophages, and this was accompanied by inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Peptide inhibition of NF-κB activation occurred following stimulation of extracellular (TLRs 1/2 and 4) and intracellular (TLR9) receptors. Although RTD-1 did not inhibit MAPK in unstimulated cells, it induced phosphorylation of Akt in otherwise untreated monocytes and THP-1 cells. In the latter, this occurred within 10 min of RTD-1 treatment and produced a sustained elevation of phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) for at least 4 h. pAkt is a negative regulator of MAPK and NF-κB activation. RTD-1 inhibited IκBα degradation and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and stimulated Akt phosphorylation in LPS-treated human primary monocytes and THP-1 macrophages. Specific inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) blocked RTD-1-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and reversed the suppression of NF-κB activation by the peptide. These studies indicate that the anti-inflammatory properties of θ-defensins are mediated by activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway and suppression of proinflammatory signals in immune-stimulated cells. PMID:26269197

  7. p53-dependent NDRG1 expression induces inhibition of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation but not apoptosis after polyamine depletion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai-Hong; Rao, Jaladanki N; Zou, Tongtong; Liu, Lan; Marasa, Bernard S; Xiao, Lan; Chen, Jie; Turner, Douglas J; Wang, Jian-Ying

    2007-07-01

    Normal intestinal mucosal growth requires polyamines that regulate expression of various genes involved in cell proliferation, growth arrest, and apoptosis. Our previous studies have shown that polyamine depletion stabilizes p53, resulting in inhibition of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation, but the exact downstream targets of induced p53 are still unclear. The NDRG1 (N-myc downregulated gene-1) gene encodes a growth-related protein, and its transcription can be induced in response to stress. The current study tests the hypothesis that induced p53 inhibits IEC proliferation by upregulating NDRG1 expression following polyamine depletion. Depletion of cellular polyamines by inhibiting ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) with alpha-difluoromethylornithine not only induced p53 but also increased NDRG1 transcription as indicated by induction of the NDRG1 promoter activity and increased levels of NDRG1 mRNA and protein, all of which were prevented by using specific p53 siRNA and in cells with a targeted deletion of p53. In contrast, increased levels of cellular polyamines by ectopic expression of the ODC gene decreased p53 and repressed expression of NDRG1. Consistently, polyamine depletion-induced activation of the NDRG1-promoter was decreased when p53-binding sites within the NDRG1 proximal promoter region were deleted. Ectopic expression of the wild-type NDRG1 gene inhibited DNA synthesis and decreased final cell numbers regardless of the presence or absence of endogenous p53, whereas silencing NDRG1 promoted cell growth. However, overexpression of NDRG1 failed to directly induce cell death and to alter susceptibility to apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha/cycloheximide. These results indicate that NDRG1 is one of the direct mediators of induced p53 following polyamine depletion and that p53-dependent NDRG1 expression plays a critical role in the negative control of IEC proliferation.

  8. Extract from Nandina domestica inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Takuro; Akaishi, Tatsuhiro; Okumura, Hidenobu; Abe, Kazuho

    2012-01-01

    Extract from fruits of Nandina domestica THUNBERG (NDE) has been used to improve cough and breathing difficulty in Japan for many years. To explore whether NDE may alleviate respiratory inflammation, we investigated its effect on expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and production of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells in culture. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 6 µg/mL) resulted in an increase of COX-2 expression and PGE₂ production in A549 cells. Both the LPS-induced COX-2 expression and PGE₂ production were significantly inhibited by NDE (1-10 µg/mL) in a concentration-dependent manner. NDE did not affect COX-1 expression nor COX activity. These results suggest that NDE downregulates LPS-induced COX-2 expression and inhibits PGE₂ production in pulmonary epithelial cells. Furthermore, higenamine and nantenine, two major constituents responsible for tracheal relaxing effect of NDE, did not mimic the inhibitory effect of NDE on LPS-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells. To identify active constituent(s) of NDE responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect, NDE was introduced in a polyaromatic absorbent resin column and stepwise eluted to yield water fraction, 20% methanol fraction, 40% methanol fraction, 99.8% methanol fraction, and 99.5% acetone fraction. However, none of these five fractions alone inhibited LPS-induced COX-2 expression. On the other hand, exclusion of water fraction from NDE abolished the inhibitory effect of NDE on LPS-induced COX-2 expression. These results suggest that constituent(s) present in water fraction is required but not sufficient for the anti-inflammatory activity of NDE, which may result from interactions among multiple constituents.

  9. LYR71, a derivative of trimeric resveratrol, inhibits tumorigenesis by blocking STAT3-mediated matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ja Eun; Kim, Hong Sook; Shin, Yong-Jae; Lee, Chang Seok; Won, Cheolhee; Lee, Sin-Ae; Lee, Jung Weon; Kim, Youngsoo; Kang, Jae-Seung; Chung, Myung-Hee

    2008-01-01

    Tumor migration/invasion is the main cause of tumor progression and STAT3 is needed to enhance tumor migration/invasion by up-regulating MMP-9. Thus, agents that inhibit STAT3 activation may be used as an anticancer drug. We present herein that 6-methyl-2-propylimino-6, 7-dihydro-5H-benzo [1, 3]-oxathiol-4-one (LYR71) , a derivative of trimeric resveratrol, has an anticancer activity through inhibition of STAT3 activation. We found that LYR71 suppressed STAT3 activation and inhibited the expression and activity of MMP-9 in RANTES-stimulated breast cancer cells. In addition, LYR71 reduced RANTES-induced MMP-9 transcripts by blocking STAT3 recruitment, dissociating p300 and deacetylating histone H3 and H4 on the MMP-9 promoter. Furthermore, LYR71 inhibited tumor migration/invasion in RANTES-treated breast cancer cells and consequently blocked tumor progression in tumor-bearing mice. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that LYR71 can be therapeutically useful due to the inhibition effect of STAT3-mediated MMP-9 expression in breast cancer cells. PMID:18985009

  10. Harpagoside suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression through inhibition of NF-kappa B activation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Tran, Van H; Duke, Rujee K; Tan, Sharon; Chrubasik, Sigrun; Roufogalis, Basil D; Duke, Colin C

    2006-03-08

    Preparations of Harpagophytum procumbens, known as devil's claw, are used as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of pain and osteoarthritis. Pharmacological evaluations have proven the effectiveness of this herbal drug as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent. The present study has investigated the mechanism of action of harpagoside, one of the major components of Harpagophytum procumbens, using human HepG2 hepatocarcinoma and RAW 264.7 macrophage cell lines. Harpagoside inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced mRNA levels and protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide in HepG2 cells. These inhibitions appeared to correlate with the suppression of NF-kappaB activation by harpagoside, as pre-treating cells with harpagoside blocked the translocation of NF-kappaB into the nuclear compartments and degradation of the inhibitory subunit IkappaB-alpha. Furthermore, harpagoside dose-dependently inhibited LPS-stimulated NF-kappaB promoter activity in a gene reporter assay in RAW 264.7 cells, indicating that harpagoside interfered with the activation of gene transcription. These results suggest that the inhibition of the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide by harpagoside involves suppression of NF-kappaB activation, thereby inhibiting downstream inflammation and subsequent pain events.

  11. Reversible cell cycle inhibition and premature aging features imposed by conditional expression of p16Ink4a

    PubMed Central

    Boquoi, Amelie; Arora, Sanjeevani; Chen, Tina; Litwin, Sam; Koh, James; Enders, Greg H

    2015-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p16Ink4a (p16) is a canonical mediator of cellular senescence and accumulates in aging tissues, where it constrains proliferation of some progenitor cells. However, whether p16 induction in tissues is sufficient to inhibit cell proliferation, mediate senescence, and/or impose aging features has remained unclear. To address these issues, we generated transgenic mice that permit conditional p16 expression. Broad induction at weaning inhibited proliferation of intestinal transit-amplifying and Lgr5+ stem cells and rapidly imposed features of aging, including hair loss, skin wrinkling, reduced body weight and subcutaneous fat, an increased myeloid fraction in peripheral blood, poor dentition, and cataracts. Aging features were observed with multiple combinations of p16 transgenes and transactivators and were largely abrogated by a germline Cdk4 R24C mutation, confirming that they reflect Cdk inhibition. Senescence markers were not found, and de-induction of p16, even after weeks of sustained expression, allowed rapid recovery of intestinal cell proliferation and reversal of aging features in most mice. These results suggest that p16-mediated inhibition of Cdk activity is sufficient to inhibit cell proliferation and impose aging features in somatic tissues of mammals and that at least some of these aging features are reversible. PMID:25481981

  12. Omentin inhibits TNF-α-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via ERK/NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xia; Li, Xiaonan; Liu, Fuli; Tan, Hui; Shang, Deya

    2012-08-24

    In the present study, we investigated whether omentin affected the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data showed that omentin decreased TNF-α-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVECs. In addition, omentin inhibited TNF-α-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Further, we found that omentin inhibited TNF-α-activated signal pathway of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by preventing NF-κB inhibitory protein (IκBα) degradation and NF-κB/DNA binding activity. Omentin pretreatment significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced ERK activity and ERK phosphorylation in HUVECs. Pretreatment with PD98059 suppressed TNF-α-induced NF-κB activity. Omentin, NF-kB inhibitor (BAY11-7082) and ERK inhibitor (PD98059) reduced the up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-α. These results suggest that omentin may inhibit TNF-α-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via blocking ERK/NF-κB pathway.

  13. Inhibition of NF-κB activity and cFLIP expression contribute to viral-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, P.; DeBiasi, R. L.; Meintzer, S. M.; Robinson, B. A.; Tyler, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Virus-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is required for Type 3 (T3) reovirus-induced apoptosis. We now show that NF-κB is also activated by the prototypic Type 1 reovirus strain Lang (T1L), which induces significantly less apoptosis than T3 viruses, indicating that NF-κB activation alone is not sufficient for apoptosis in reovirus-infected cells. A second phase of virus-induced NF-κB regulation, where NF-κB activation is inhibited at later times following infection with T3 Abney (T3A), is absent in T1L-infected cells. This suggests that inhibition of NF-κB activation at later times post infection also contributes to reovirus-induced apoptosis. Reovirus-induced inhibition of stimulus-induced activation of NF-κB is significantly associated with apoptosis following infection of HEK293 cells with reassortant reoviruses and is determined by the T3 S1 gene segment, which is also the primary determinant of reovirus-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of stimulus-induced activation of NF-κB also occurs following infection of primary cardiac myocytes with apoptotic (8B) but not non-apoptotic (T1L) reoviruses. Expression levels of the NF-κB-regulated cellular FLICE inhibitory protein (cFLIP) reflect NF-κB activation in reovirus-infected cells. Further, inhibition of NF-κB activity and cFLIP expression promote T1L-induced apoptosis. These results demonstrate that inhibition of stimulus-induced activation of NF-κB and the resulting decrease in cFLIP expression promote reovirus-induced apoptosis. PMID:15909114

  14. Inhibition of carcinogen induced c-Ha-ras and c-fos proto-oncogenes expression by dietary curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Limtrakul, Porn-ngarm; Anuchapreeda, Songyot; Lipigorngoson, Suwiwek; Dunn, Floyd W

    2001-01-01

    Background We investigated the chemopreventive action of dietary curcumin on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12,0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted skin tumor formation in Swiss albino mice. Curcumin, a yellow coloring matter isolated from roots of Curcuma longa Linn, is a phenolic compound possessing antioxidant, free radical scavenger, and antiinflammatory properties. It has been shown by previously reported work that TPA-induced skin tumors were inhibited by topical application of curcumin, and curcumin has been shown to inhibit a variety of biological activities of TPA. Topical application of curcumin was reported to inhibit TPA-induced c-fos, c-jun and c-myc gene expression in mouse skin. This paper reports the effects of orally administered curcumin, which was consumed as a dietary component at concentrations of 0.2 % or 1 %, in ad libitum feeding. Results Animals in which tumors had been initiated with DMBA and promoted with TPA experienced significantly fewer tumors and less tumor volume if they ingested either 0.2% or 1% curcumin diets. Also, the dietary consumption of curcumin resulted in a significantly decreased expression of ras and fos proto-oncogenes in the tumorous skin, as measured by enhanced chemiluminesence Western blotting detection system (Amersham). Conclusions Whereas earlier work demonstrated that topical application of curcumin to mouse skin inhibited TPA-induced expression of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc oncogenes, our results are the first to show that orally consumed curcumin significantly inhibited DMBA- and TPA-induced ras and fos gene expression in mouse skin. PMID:11231886

  15. Bufalin derivative BF211 inhibits proteasome activity in human lung cancer cells in vitro by inhibiting β1 subunit expression and disrupting proteasome assembly

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peng; Feng, Li-xing; Zhang, Dong-mei; Liu, Miao; Liu, Wang; Mi, Tian; Wu, Wan-ying; Jiang, Bao-hong; Yang, Min; Hu, Li-hong; Guo, De-an; Liu, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Bufalin is one of the active components in the traditional Chinese medicine ChanSu that is used to treat arrhythmia, inflammation and cancer. BF211 is a bufalin derivative with stronger cytotoxic activity in cancer cells. The aim of this study was to identify the putative target proteins of BF211 and the signaling pathways in cancer cells. Methods: A549 human lung cancer cells were treated with BF211. A SILAC-based proteomic analysis was used to detect the protein expression profiles of BF211-treated A549 cells. Cellular proteasome activities were examined using fluorogenic peptide substrates, and the binding affinities of BF211 to recombinant proteasome subunit proteins were evaluated using the Biacore assay. The expression levels of proteasome subunits were determined using RT-PCR and Western blotting, and the levels of the integral 26S proteasome were evaluated using native PAGE analysis. Results: The proteomic analysis revealed that 1282 proteins were differentially expressed in BF211-treated A549 cells, and the putative target proteins of BF211 were associated with various cellular functions, including transcription, translation, mRNA splicing, ribosomal protein synthesis and proteasome function. In A549 cells, BF211 (5, 10, and 20 nmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the enzymatic activities of proteasome. But BF211 displayed a moderate affinity in binding to proteasome β1 subunit and no binding affinity to the β2 and β5 subunits. Moreover, BF211 (0.1, 1, and 10 nmol/L) did not inhibit the proteasome activities in the cell lysates. BF211 (5, 10, and 20 nmol/L) significantly decreased the expression level of proteasome β1 subunit and the levels of integral 26S proteasome in A549 cells. Similarly, knockdown of the β1 subunit with siRNA in A549 cells significantly decreased integral 26S proteasome and proteasome activity. Conclusion: BF211 inhibits proteasome activity in A549 cells by decreasing β1 subunit expression and disrupting proteasome assembly

  16. Inhibition of PTEN Gene Expression by Oncogenic miR-23b-3p in Renal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Mohd Saif; Thamminana, Sobha; Shahryari, Varahram; Chiyomaru, Takeshi; Deng, Guoren; Saini, Sharanjot; Majid, Shahana; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Chang, Inik; Arora, Sumit; Hirata, Hiroshi; Ueno, Koji; Singh, Kamaldeep; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2012-01-01

    Background miR-23b is located on chromosome number 9 and plays different roles in different organs especially with regards to cancer development. However, the functional significance of miR-23b-3p in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has not been reported. Methods and Results We measured miR-23b-3p levels in 29 pairs of renal cell carcinoma and their normal matched tissues using real-time PCR. The expression level of miR-23b-3p was correlated with the 5 year survival rate of renal cancer patients. In 15 cases (52%), miR-23b-3p expression was found to be high. All patients with moderate to low miR-23b-3p expression survived 5 years, while those with high miR-23b-3p expression, only 50% survived. After knocking down miRNA-23b-3p expression in RCC cell lines, there was an induction of apoptosis and reduced invasive capabilities. MiR-23b-3p was shown to directly target PTEN gene through 3′UTR reporter assays. Inhibition of miR-23b-3p induces PTEN gene expression with a concomitant reduction in PI3-kinase, total Akt and IL-32. Immunohistochemistry showed the lack of PTEN protein expression in cancerous regions of tissue samples where the expression of miR-23b-3p was high. We studied the in vitro effects of the dietary chemo preventive agent genistein on miR-23b-3p expression and found that it inhibited expression of miR-23b-3p in RCC cell lines. Conclusions The current study shows that miR-23b-3p is an oncogenic miRNA and inhibits PTEN tumor suppressor gene in RCC. Therefore, inhibition of miR-23b-3p may be a useful therapeutic target for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. PMID:23189187

  17. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by hydrogen peroxide transcriptionally inhibits NaV1.5 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Huo, Rong; Cai, Benzhi; Lu, Yan; Ye, Bo; Li, Xiang; Li, Faqian; Xu, Haodong

    2016-07-01

    Oxidants and canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling have been shown to decrease cardiac Na(+) channel activity by suppressing NaV1.5 expression. Our aims are to determine if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), one oxidant of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling and promotes β-catenin nuclear activity, leading to suppression of NaV1.5 expression and if this suppression requires the interaction of β-catenin with its nuclear partner, TCF4 (also called TCF7L2) to decrease SCN5a promoter activity. The results demonstrated that H2O2 increased β-catenin, but not TCF4 nuclear localization determined by immunofluorescence without affecting total β-catenin protein level. Furthermore, H2O2 exerted a dose- and time-dependent suppressive effect on NaV1.5 expression. RT-PCR and/or Western blot analyses revealed that overexpressing active form of β-catenin or stabilizing β-catenin by GSK-3β inhibitors, LiCl and Bio, suppressed NaV1.5 expression in HL-1 cells. In contrast, destabilization of β-catenin by a constitutively active GSK-3β mutant (S9A) upregulated NaV1.5 expression. Whole-cell recording showed that LiCl significantly inhibited Na(+) channel activity in these cells. Using immunoprecipitation (IP), we showed that β-catenin interacted with TCF4 indicating that β-catenin as a co-transfactor, regulates NaV1.5 expression through TCF4. Analyses of the SCN5a promoter sequences among different species by using VISTA tools indicated that SCN5a promoter harbors TCF4 binding sites. Chromatin IP assays demonstrated that both β-catenin and TCF4 were recruited in the SCN5a promoter, and regulated its activity. Luciferase promoter assays exhibited that β-catenin inhibited the SCN5a promoter activity at a dose-dependent manner and this inhibition required TCF4. Small interfering (Si) RNA targeting β-catenin significantly increased SCN5a promoter activity, leading to enhanced NaV1.5 expression. As expected, β-catenin SiRNA prevents H2O2 suppressive effects

  18. Over-expression of COQ10 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae inhibits mitochondrial respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Zampol, Mariana A.; Busso, Cleverson; Gomes, Fernando; Ferreira-Junior, Jose Ribamar; Tzagoloff, Alexander; Barros, Mario H.

    2010-11-05

    Research highlights: {yields} COQ10 deletion elicits a defect in mitochondrial respiration correctable by addition of coenzyme Q{sub 2}, a synthetic diffusible ubiquinone. {yields} The significance that purified Coq10p contains bound Q{sub 6} was examined by testing over-expression of Coq10p on respiration. {yields} Inhibition of CoQ function due to Coq10p excess strength our hypothesis of Coq10p functi