Comparing Fullerenes by Spectral Moments.
Taghvaee, F; Ashrafi, A R
2016-03-01
Suppose G is a graph, A(G) its adjacency matrix, and μ1(G)≤(G)μ2(G)≤ ... ≤ μ(n)(G)are eigenvalues of A(G). The numbers S(k)(G) = Σ(i) n = 1 μ(i)k (G), 0 ≤ k ≤ n -1 are said to be the k-th spectral moment of G and the sequence S(G) = (S0(G), S1 (G),..., S(n-1)(G)is called the spectral moments sequence of G. Suppose G1 and G2 are graphs. If there exists an integer k, 1 ≤ k ≤ n - 1, such that for each i, 0 ≤ i ≤ k - 1, S(i) (G1) = S(i)(G2) and S(k)(G1) < S(k)(G2) then we write G1 -<(s) G2. The aim of this paper is order some classes of fullerene graphs with respect to the S-order.
Spectral moment estimation in MST radars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodman, R. F.
1983-01-01
Signal processing techniques used in Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST) radars are reviewed. Techniques which produce good estimates of the total power, frequency shift, and spectral width of the radar power spectra are considered. Non-linear curve fitting, autocovariance, autocorrelation, covariance, and maximum likelihood estimators are discussed.
Spectral moments versus Bark cepstrum classification of children's voiceless stops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polikoff, James; Hammond, Jenna; McNicholas, Jane; Bunnell, H. Timothy
2001-05-01
Spectral moments have been shown to be effective in deriving acoustic features for classifying voiceless stop release bursts [K. Forrest, G. Weismer, P. Milenkovic, and R. N. Dougall, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 115-123 (1988)]. In this study, we compared the classification of stops /p/, /t/, and /k/ based on spectral moments with classification based on an equal number of Bark cepstrum coefficients. The speech tokens were 446 instances each of utterance-initial /p/, /t/, and /k/ sampled from utterances produced by 208 children 6 to 8 years old. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to classify the three stops based on four analysis frames from the initial 40 ms of each token. The best classification based on spectral moments used all four spectral moment features and all four time intervals and yielded 75.6% correct classification. The best classification based on Bark cepstrum yielded 83.4% correct also using four coefficients and four time frames. Differences between these results and previous classification results using spectral moments will be discussed. Implications for future research on the acoustic characteristics of children's speech will be considered.
Cui, Jian; Beyler, Andrew P.; Marshall, Lisa F.; Chen, Ou; Harris, Daniel K.; Wanger, Darcy D.; Brokmann, Xavier; Bawendi, Moungi G.
2013-01-01
The spectral linewidth of an ensemble of fluorescent emitters is dictated by a combination of the single emitter linewidths and sample inhomogeneities. For semiconductor nanocrystals, efforts to tune ensemble linewidths for optical applications have focused primarily on eliminating sample inhomogeneities because conventional single-molecule methods cannot reliably build accurate ensemble-level statistics for single-particle linewidths. Photon-correlation Fourier spectroscopy in solution (S-PCFS) offers a unique approach to investigating single-nanocrystal spectra with large sample statistics, without user selection bias, with high signal-to-noise ratios, and at fast timescales. With S-PCFS, we directly and quantitatively deconstruct the ensemble linewidth into contributions from the average single-particle linewidth and from sample inhomogeneity. We demonstrate that single-particle linewidths vary significantly from batch to batch and can be synthetically controlled. These findings crystallize our understanding of the synthetic challenges facing underdeveloped nanomaterials such as InP and InAs core/shell particles and introduce new avenues for the synthetic optimization of fluorescent nanoparticles. PMID:23787751
Phi meson spectral moments and QCD condensates in nuclear matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gubler, Philipp; Weise, Wolfram
2016-10-01
A detailed analysis of the lowest two moments of the ϕ meson spectral function in vacuum and nuclear matter is performed. The consistency is examined between the constraints derived from finite energy QCD sum rules and the spectra computed within an improved vector dominance model, incorporating the coupling of kaonic degrees of freedom with the bare ϕ meson. In the vacuum, recent accurate measurements of the e+e- →K+K- cross section allow us to determine the spectral function with high precision. In nuclear matter, the modification of the spectral function can be described by the interactions of the kaons from ϕ → K K ‾ with the surrounding nuclear medium. This leads primarily to a strong broadening and an asymmetric deformation of the ϕ meson peak structure. We confirm that, both in vacuum and nuclear matter, the zeroth and first moments of the corresponding spectral functions satisfy the requirements of the finite energy sum rules to a remarkable degree of accuracy. Limits on the strangeness sigma term of the nucleon are examined in this context. Applying our results to the second moment of the spectrum, we furthermore discuss constraints on four-quark condensates and the validity of the commonly used ground state saturation approximation.
Spectral moments analysis of stops in tracheoesophageal speakers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenbauer, Kimberly; Obert, Kerrie; Fox, Robert Allen
2002-05-01
Optimal speech intelligibility is naturally of primary concern for individuals who have had their larynxes removed due to cancer and are now using tracheoesophageal (TE) speech as their primary mode of communication. The current study examines the acoustic characteristics associated with the oral stops /pbtdkg/ produced by TE speakers as compared to normal speakers. Of particular interest are the acoustic differences between these two sets of speakers in oral stop bursts and in the aspiration frication for the voiceless stops. A set of utterances in which these six stops occur in both initial position (CV) and intervocalic position (VCV) before a wide range of English vowels were recorded for each set of speakers. Appropriate acoustic measurements were then made for each stop. These measurements included the spectral moments of the burst and aspiration, VOT, closure duration (for intervocalic stops), and the relative and normalized amplitude levels of the burst and aspiration. Acoustic differences obtained will be discussed as a function of speaker type, phonetic context and, in the case of the TE speaker, experience with the device.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kokubo, Mitsuru
2015-05-01
The physical mechanisms of the quasar ultraviolet (UV)-optical variability are not well understood despite the long history of observations. Recently, Dexter & Agol presented a model of quasar UV-optical variability, which assumes large local temperature fluctuations in the quasar accretion discs. This inhomogeneous accretion disc model is claimed to describe not only the single-band variability amplitude, but also microlensing size constraints and the quasar composite spectral shape. In this work, we examine the validity of the inhomogeneous accretion disc model in the light of quasar UV-optical spectral variability by using five-band multi-epoch light curves for nearly 9 000 quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 region. By comparing the values of the intrinsic scatter σint of the two-band magnitude-magnitude plots for the SDSS quasar light curves and for the simulated light curves, we show that Dexter & Agol's inhomogeneous accretion disc model cannot explain the tight inter-band correlation often observed in the SDSS quasar light curves. This result leads us to conclude that the local temperature fluctuations in the accretion discs are not the main driver of the several years' UV-optical variability of quasars, and consequently, that the assumption that the quasar accretion discs have large localized temperature fluctuations is not preferred from the viewpoint of the UV-optical spectral variability.
Milford, A.; Devaud, C.B.
2010-08-15
The present paper examines the case of autoignition of high pressure methane jets in a shock tube over a range of pre-heated air temperatures in engine-relevant conditions. The two objectives of the present paper are: (i) to examine the effect of the inhomogeneous mixing model on the autoignition predictions relative to the results obtained using homogeneous mixing models and (ii) to see if the magnitude of the change can explain the discrepancy between the predictions of ignition delay previously obtained with homogeneous mixing models and the experimental data. The governing equation of the scalar dissipation rate is solved for transient conditions and two different formulations of the same model are tested and compared: one using the linear model for the conditional velocity and one including the gradient diffusion model. The predicted ignition kernel location and time delay over a range of pre-combustion air temperatures are compared with results obtained using two homogeneous turbulent mixing models and available experimental data. The profiles of conditional velocity and the conditional scalar dissipation rate are examined. Issues related to the conditional velocity model are discussed. It is found that the differences in the predictions are due to the mixing model only. The inhomogeneous model using the gradient conditional velocity model produces much larger ignition delays compared to the other models, whereas the inhomogeneous form including the linear model does not produce any significant differences. The effect of the turbulent inhomogeneous model is larger at high air temperatures and decreases with decreasing air temperatures. In comparison with the measured ignition delays, the inhomogeneous-Gradient model brings a small improvement at high air temperatures over the results from the turbulent homogeneous models. At low air temperatures, other parameters need to be investigated in order to bring the predicted ignition delays and locations within the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pullerits, Tōnu; Freiberg, Arvi
1991-01-01
The picosecond time-domain singlet excitation transfer and trapping kinetics in photosynthetic membranes in case of low excitation intensities is studied by numerical integration of the appropriate master equation. The essential features of our two-dimensional-lattice random walk model are spectral heterogeneity of the light-harvesting antenna, inclusion of temperature effects, nonabsolute excitation trap, correlation between spectral and spatial parameters. A reasonably good agreement between theoretical and experimental fluorescence decay kinetics for purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum is achieved only by assuming relatively large spectral inhomogeneity. From this comparison the average excitation lifetime on the lattice site is estimated to be 5-8 ps at the effective nearest neighbour lattice distance of 32 Å. If the model is correct, the relatively slow hopping rate determines that excitation transfer and trapping in R. rubrum at active photosynthesis conditions is a diffusion-limited process. The invariably present spectral disorder of photosynthetic systems promoting directed energy transfer serves for higher light-utilizing efficiency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buder, Eugene H.; Parham, Douglas F.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol
2003-04-01
Previous investigations comparing Swedish dental versus American English alveolar /t/ production found many acoustic differences in both adults and 30-month-old children [C. Stoel-Gammon, K. Williams, and E. H. Buder, ``Cross-language differences in phonological acquisition: Swedish and American /t/,'' Phonetica 51, 146-158 (1994)]. The primary differences in the word initial consonants included the second spectral moment (``spectral SD''), VOT, and burst intensity. However, subsequent studies demonstrated that spectral SD and other moments measures were sensitive to recording environment and correlated with other production characteristics. Moreover, measurements of spectral SD differed across these languages in other stop bursts such as /p/ and /k/. These observations raised questions regarding the true sensitivity of this measure in place of articulation for /t/. To examine these questions, the current work examines stop burst characteristics of two adult male native speakers of Swedish and American English recorded in an anechoic chamber with digital equipment. Results suggest that the primary variation of spectral SD in /t/ bursts is attributable to the dental versus the alveolar place of articulation. However, the results indicate that spectral moment measures are also generally sensitive to burst intensity, which may be unrelated to place but still language-specific. [Work supported by NICHD R01-HD32065.
An Overdetermined System for Improved Autocorrelation Based Spectral Moment Estimator Performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keel, Byron M.
1996-01-01
Autocorrelation based spectral moment estimators are typically derived using the Fourier transform relationship between the power spectrum and the autocorrelation function along with using either an assumed form of the autocorrelation function, e.g., Gaussian, or a generic complex form and applying properties of the characteristic function. Passarelli has used a series expansion of the general complex autocorrelation function and has expressed the coefficients in terms of central moments of the power spectrum. A truncation of this series will produce a closed system of equations which can be solved for the central moments of interest. The autocorrelation function at various lags is estimated from samples of the random process under observation. These estimates themselves are random variables and exhibit a bias and variance that is a function of the number of samples used in the estimates and the operational signal-to-noise ratio. This contributes to a degradation in performance of the moment estimators. This dissertation investigates the use autocorrelation function estimates at higher order lags to reduce the bias and standard deviation in spectral moment estimates. In particular, Passarelli's series expansion is cast in terms of an overdetermined system to form a framework under which the application of additional autocorrelation function estimates at higher order lags can be defined and assessed. The solution of the overdetermined system is the least squares solution. Furthermore, an overdetermined system can be solved for any moment or moments of interest and is not tied to a particular form of the power spectrum or corresponding autocorrelation function. As an application of this approach, autocorrelation based variance estimators are defined by a truncation of Passarelli's series expansion and applied to simulated Doppler weather radar returns which are characterized by a Gaussian shaped power spectrum. The performance of the variance estimators determined
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganapolskii, E. M.; Tarasov, Yu. V.; Shostenko, L. D.
2011-08-01
A rigorous solution for the spectrum of a quasioptical cylindrical cavity resonator with a randomly rough side boundary has been obtained. To accomplish this task, we have developed a method for the separation of variables in a wave equation, which enables one, in principle, to rigorously examine any limiting case—from negligibly weak to arbitrarily strong disorder at the resonator boundary. It is shown that the effect of disorder-induced scattering can be properly described in terms of two geometric potentials, specifically, the “amplitude” and the “gradient” potentials, which appear in wave equations in the course of conformal smoothing of the resonator boundaries. The scattering resulting from the gradient potential appears to be dominant, and its impact on the whole spectrum is governed by the unique sharpness parameter Ξ, the mean tangent of the asperity slope. As opposed to the resonator with bulk disorder, the distribution of nearest-neighbor spacings (NNS) in the rough-resonator spectrum acquires Wigner-like features only when the governing wave operator loses its unitarity, i.e., with the availability in the system of either openness or dissipation channels. It is shown that the reason for this is that the spectral line broadening related to the oscillatory mode scattering due to random inhomogeneities is proportional to the dissipation rate. Our numeric experiments suggest that in the absence of dissipation loss the randomly rough resonator spectrum is always regular, whatever the degree of roughness. Yet, the spectrum structure is quite different in the domains of small and large values of the parameter Ξ. For the dissipation-free resonator, the NNS distribution changes its form with growing the asperity sharpness from Poissonian-like distribution in the limit of Ξ≪1 to the bell-shaped distribution in the domain where Ξ≫1.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinnola, Francesco Paolo
2016-10-01
The statistical characterization of the oscillator response with non-integer order damping under Gaussian noise represents an important challenge in the modern stochastic mechanics. In fact, this kind of problem appears in several issues of different type (wave propagation in viscoelastic media, Brownian motion, fluid dynamics, RLC circuit, etc.). The aim of this paper is to provide a stochastic characterization of the stationary response of linear fractional oscillator forced by normal white noise. In particular, this paper shows a new method to obtain the correlation function by exact complex spectral moments. These complex quantities contain all the information to describe the random processes but in the considered case their analytical evaluation needs some mathematical manipulations. For this reason such complex spectral moment characterization is used in conjunction with a fractional-order state variable analysis. This kind of analysis permits to find the exact expression of complex spectral moments, and the correlation function by using the Mellin transform. Moreover, the proposed approach provides an analytical expression of the response variance of the fractional oscillator. Capability and efficiency of the present method are shown in the numerical examples in which correlation and variance of fractional oscillator response are found and compared with those obtained by Monte Carlo simulations.
Violation of quark-hadron duality and spectral chiral moments in QCD
Gonzalez-Alonso, Martin; Pich, Antonio; Prades, Joaquim
2010-04-01
We analyze the spectral moments of the V-A two-point correlation function. Using all known short-distance constraints and the most recent experimental data from tau decays, we determine the lowest spectral moments, trying to assess the uncertainties associated with the so-called violations of quark-hadron duality. We have generated a large number of acceptable spectral functions, satisfying all conditions, and have used them to extract the wanted hadronic parameters through a careful statistical analysis. We obtain accurate values for the {chi}PT couplings L{sub 10} and C{sub 87}, and a realistic determination of the dimension six and eight contributions in the operator product expansion, O{sub 6}=(-5.4{sub -1.6}{sup +3.6}){center_dot}10{sup -3} GeV{sup 6} and O{sub 8}=(-8.9{sub -7.4}{sup +12.6}){center_dot}10{sup -3} GeV{sup 8}, showing that the duality-violation effects have been underestimated in previous literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banach, Zbigniew; Larecki, Wieslaw
2013-06-01
The spectral formulation of the nine-moment radiation hydrodynamics resulting from using the Boltzmann entropy maximization procedure is considered. The analysis is restricted to the one-dimensional flows of a gas of massless fermions. The objective of the paper is to demonstrate that, for such flows, the spectral nine-moment maximum entropy hydrodynamics of fermionic radiation is not a purely formal theory. We first determine the domains of admissible values of the spectral moments and of the Lagrange multipliers corresponding to them. We then prove the existence of a solution to the constrained entropy optimization problem. Due to the strict concavity of the entropy functional defined on the space of distribution functions, there exists a one-to-one correspondence between the Lagrange multipliers and the moments. The maximum entropy closure of moment equations results in the symmetric conservative system of first-order partial differential equations for the Lagrange multipliers. However, this system can be transformed into the equivalent system of conservation equations for the moments. These two systems are consistent with the additional conservation equation interpreted as the balance of entropy. Exploiting the above facts, we arrive at the differential relations satisfied by the entropy function and the additional function required to close the system of moment equations. We refer to this additional function as the moment closure function. In general, the moment closure and entropy-entropy flux functions cannot be explicitly calculated in terms of the moments determining the state of a gas. Therefore, we develop a perturbation method of calculating these functions. Some additional analytical (and also numerical) results are obtained, assuming that the maximum entropy distribution function tends to the Maxwell-Boltzmann limit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charlebois, M.; Sénéchal, D.; Gagnon, A.-M.; Tremblay, A.-M. S.
2015-01-01
Defect-induced magnetic moments are at the center of the research effort on spintronic applications of graphene. Here, we study the problem of a nonmagnetic impurity in graphene with a new theoretical method, inhomogeneous cluster dynamical mean-field theory (I-CDMFT), which takes into account interaction-induced short-range correlations while allowing long-range inhomogeneities. The system is described by a Hubbard model on the honeycomb lattice. The impurity is modeled by a local potential. For a large enough potential, interactions induce local antiferromagnetic correlations around the impurity and a net total spin 1/2 appears, in agreement with Lieb's theorem. Bound states caused by the impurity are visible in the local density of states (LDOS) and have their energies shifted by interactions in a spin-dependent way, leading to the antiferromagnetic correlations. Our results take into account dynamical correlations; nevertheless they qualitatively agree with previous mean-field and density functional theory (DFT) studies. Moreover, they provide a relation between impurity potential and on-site repulsion U that could in principle be used to determine experimentally the value of U .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salas, E. L.; Henebry, G. M.
2011-12-01
We introduce a new framework for analyzing spectra called Moment Distance that uses metrics derived from the shape of the spectral curve described by fine resolution data. We use the methodology to (1) locate potential spectral ranges useful for estimation of foliar pigments such as chlorophyll and carotenoids, and (2) explore the spectral separability of maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in specific spectral regions previously identified in the literature as indicative of the foliar pigments. We find that the Moment Distance Index (MDI) computed for these regions can perform as well as or better than optimized band ratio models in terms of bias and RMSE. Moreover, the MDI yields significantly different linear models for retrieval of chlorophyll from maize and soybean. Although these results have been obtained from a dataset of leaf level spectra and associated pigment concentrations, the strength of the relationships suggest possible application of MDIs to canopy and landscape scales.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afach, S.; Baker, C. A.; Ban, G.; Bison, G.; Bodek, K.; Chowdhuri, Z.; Daum, M.; Fertl, M.; Franke, B.; Geltenbort, P.; Green, K.; van der Grinten, M. G. D.; Grujic, Z.; Harris, P. G.; Heil, W.; Hélaine, V.; Henneck, R.; Horras, M.; Iaydjiev, P.; Ivanov, S. N.; Kasprzak, M.; Kermaïdic, Y.; Kirch, K.; Knowles, P.; Koch, H.-C.; Komposch, S.; Kozela, A.; Krempel, J.; Lauss, B.; Lefort, T.; Lemière, Y.; Mtchedlishvili, A.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Pendlebury, J. M.; Piegsa, F. M.; Pignol, G.; Prashant, P. N.; Quéméner, G.; Rebreyend, D.; Ries, D.; Roccia, S.; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Severijns, N.; Weis, A.; Wursten, E.; Wyszynski, G.; Zejma, J.; Zenner, J.; Zsigmond, G.
2015-10-01
We report on the measurement of a Larmor frequency shift proportional to the electric-field strength for 199Hg atoms contained in a volume permeated with aligned magnetic and electric fields. This shift arises from the interplay between the inevitable magnetic field gradients and the motional magnetic field. The proportionality to electric-field strength makes it apparently similar to an electric dipole moment (EDM) signal, although unlike an EDM this effect is P- and T-conserving. We have used a neutron magnetic resonance EDM spectrometer, featuring a mercury co-magnetometer and an array of external cesium magnetometers, to measure the shift as a function of the applied magnetic field gradient. Our results are in good agreement with theoretical expectations.
Spatial and spectral shape of inhomogeneous nonequilibrium exciton-polariton condensates
Wouters, Michiel; Carusotto, Iacopo; Ciuti, Cristiano
2008-03-15
We develop a mean-field theory of the spatial profile and the spectral properties of polariton condensates in nonresonantly pumped semiconductor microcavities in the strong coupling regime. Specific signatures of the nonequilibrium character of the condensation process are pointed out: a striking sensitivity of the condensate shape on the optical pump spot size is demonstrated by analytical and numerical calculations, in good quantitative agreement with recent experimental observations.
2D spectral element modeling of GPR wave propagation in inhomogeneous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zarei, Sajad; Oskooi, Behrooz; Amini, Navid; Dalkhani, Amin Rahimi
2016-10-01
We present a spectral element method, for simulation of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) in two dimensions. The technique is based upon a weak formulation of the equations of Maxwell and combines the flexibility of the elemental-based methods with the accuracy of the spectral based methods. The wave field on the elements is discretized using high-degree Lagrange interpolation and integration over an element is accomplished based upon the Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre integration rule. As a result, the mass matrix and the damping matrix are always diagonal, which drastically reduces the computational cost. We first develop the formulation of 2D spectral element method (SEM) in the time-domain based on Maxwell's equations. The presented formulation is with matrix notation that simplifies the implementation of the relations in computer programs, especially in MATLAB application. We discuss the differences between spectral element method and finite-element method in the time-domain. Also, we show that the SEM numerical dispersion is much lower than FEM. To absorb waves at the edges of the modeling domain, we implement first order Clayton and Engquist absorbing boundary conditions (CE-ABC) introduced in numerical finite-difference modeling of seismic wave propagation. We used the SEM to simulate a complex model to show its abilities and limitations. As well as, one distinct advantage of SEM is that we can easily define our model features in nodal points, because the integration points and the interpolation points are similar that makes it very flexible in simulation of complex models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gruszka, Marcin; Borysow, Aleksandra
1994-01-01
In this paper we examine the role of the anisotropy of the intermolecular potential in the rototranslational collision-induced absorption of the CO2 pairs. Using newly developed formulas that include the effects of anisotropy of the potential to all orders, we calculate the two lowest spectral moments gamma(prime), and alpha(prime), for four different classes of C02 pair potentials and compare the results with the experimental values. We assumed only multipolar induction in the process of forming the induced dipole, with the second-order contributions included. Using a site-site LJ and a site-site semi-ab initio intermolecular potentials we were able to reproduce the experimental values of gamma(prime), and alpha(prime) moments over entire temperature range from 230 to 330 K. Also, the role of an electrostatic interaction between two C02 molecules and its impact on the spectral moments is thoroughly investigated. An isotropic core with a point quadrupole centered at each molecule is shown to be an inadequate representation of the C02-CO2 potential. Additionally, we show the results obtained with the first- and second-order perturbation theory to be more than twice too small.
Frezza, F; Mangini, F
2016-05-01
A rigorous theoretical treatment to analyze the electromagnetic scattering of an inhomogeneous elliptically polarized plane wave by a sphere buried in a lossy half-space is presented. To consider the losses in the media an inhomogeneous plane wave is considered. The incident and the scattered electric field components are expanded in series of vectorial spherical harmonics using the Legendre functions generalized via hypergeometrical and gamma functions, with unknown expansion coefficients. The spectral-domain method to represent the scattered electric field is used in order to compute the scattered-reflected and scattered-transmitted fields, considering the reflection and transmission of each elementary plane wave by the interface. Finally, the unknown coefficients of the scattered field are computed by imposing the boundary condition on the spherical surface. In order to validate the model, a homemade code has been implemented. Comparisons with the simulations performed with a commercial software and the results in the literature are presented.
Frezza, F; Mangini, F
2016-05-01
A rigorous theoretical treatment to analyze the electromagnetic scattering of an inhomogeneous elliptically polarized plane wave by a sphere buried in a lossy half-space is presented. To consider the losses in the media an inhomogeneous plane wave is considered. The incident and the scattered electric field components are expanded in series of vectorial spherical harmonics using the Legendre functions generalized via hypergeometrical and gamma functions, with unknown expansion coefficients. The spectral-domain method to represent the scattered electric field is used in order to compute the scattered-reflected and scattered-transmitted fields, considering the reflection and transmission of each elementary plane wave by the interface. Finally, the unknown coefficients of the scattered field are computed by imposing the boundary condition on the spherical surface. In order to validate the model, a homemade code has been implemented. Comparisons with the simulations performed with a commercial software and the results in the literature are presented. PMID:27140892
Kutulya, L.A.; Pivnenko, N.S.; Nemchenok, I.B.; Khandrimailova, T.V.; Semenkova, G.P.; Biba, V.I.; Tishchenko, V.G.
1987-08-10
On the basis of dipole-moment and PMR-spectral data the E configuration of the cinnamoyl fragment of molecules of optically active 2-benzylidene-p-menthan-3-ones was established. By means of PMR and IR spectroscopy experimental proofs were obtained of deviation from coplanarity of the separate parts of the cinnamoyl system in the molecules investigated. It was shown that the cinnamoyl fragment of the molecules of 2-benzylidene-p-menthan-3-ones is more aplanar than in the case of the model ..pi..-isoelectronic 2-benzylidenecyclo-hexanone systems. By means of PMR the preferential axial orientation of the methyl group and equatorial orientation of the isopropyl group in the cyclohexanone system of molecules of 2-benzylidene-p-methan-3-ones was established.
Koltsov, A.V.; Serov, A.V.
1995-12-31
The generation of frequency harmonics of a radiation when the electron beam traverse the inhomogeneous electromagnetic wave was investigated. The electromagnetic wave are linearly polarized. The plane beam of particles enters the wave at right angle with respect to the direction of propogation of the wave and the vector E of the wave. The spartial distribution of radiation from the higher harmonics and the power density contours are caculated.
Vencels, Juris; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Johnson, Alec; Peng, Ivy Bo; Laure, Erwin; Markidis, Stefano
2015-06-01
A spectral method for kinetic plasma simulations based on the expansion of the velocity distribution function in a variable number of Hermite polynomials is presented. The method is based on a set of non-linear equations that is solved to determine the coefficients of the Hermite expansion satisfying the Vlasov and Poisson equations. In this paper, we first show that this technique combines the fluid and kinetic approaches into one framework. Second, we present an adaptive strategy to increase and decrease the number of Hermite functions dynamically during the simulation. The technique is applied to the Landau damping and two-stream instabilitymore » test problems. Performance results show 21% and 47% saving of total simulation time in the Landau and two-stream instability test cases, respectively.« less
Vencels, Juris; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Johnson, Alec; Peng, Ivy Bo; Laure, Erwin; Markidis, Stefano
2015-06-01
A spectral method for kinetic plasma simulations based on the expansion of the velocity distribution function in a variable number of Hermite polynomials is presented. The method is based on a set of non-linear equations that is solved to determine the coefficients of the Hermite expansion satisfying the Vlasov and Poisson equations. In this paper, we first show that this technique combines the fluid and kinetic approaches into one framework. Second, we present an adaptive strategy to increase and decrease the number of Hermite functions dynamically during the simulation. The technique is applied to the Landau damping and two-stream instability test problems. Performance results show 21% and 47% saving of total simulation time in the Landau and two-stream instability test cases, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fornari, G.; Rosa, R. R.; de Meneses, F. C.; Muralikrishna, P.
2016-11-01
In this Part I of a more general paper on the analysis of ionospheric irregularities over Brazilian territory, we apply the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) method to evaluate in situ equatorial F-region plasma bubbles events carried out with a sounding rocket over equatorial region in Brazil. The range of scaling exponents derived from the DFA technique are compared to previous results obtained using Power Spectral Density (PSD) technique (which is widely used in this area despite its recognized inaccuracy to analyze short series). The results obtained in this first part of our investigation, using DFA, also show a wide range of spectral index variation with standard deviation of the same order found from the previous application using PSD (σm ≫ 10 %). Therefore, since the dependence of the technique are disregarded, our findings also supports that the observed lack of a universality class characterized by the nonexistence of a single spectral index (with σm ≈ 2 %) may be due to non-homogeneity energy cascades that can appear in the incoherent ionospheric turbulent process.
Li, Youzhi; Hoskins, Alan; Schlottau, Friso; Wagner, Kelvin H; Embry, Carl; Babbitt, William Randall
2006-09-01
We introduce a new approach to coherent lidar range-Doppler sensing by utilizing random-noise illuminating waveforms and a quantum-optical, parallel sensor based on spatial-spectral holography (SSH) in a cryogenically cooled inhomogeneously broadened absorber (IBA) crystal. Interference between a reference signal and the lidar return in the spectrally selective absorption band of the IBA is used to sense the lidar returns and perform the front-end range-correlation signal processing. Modulating the reference by an array of Doppler compensating frequency shifts enables multichannel Doppler filtering. This SSH sensor performs much of the postdetection signal processing, increases the lidar system sensitivity through range-correlation gain before detection, and is capable of not only Doppler processing but also parallel multibeam reception using the high-spatial resolution of the IBA crystals. This approach permits the use of ultrawideband, high-power, random-noise, cw lasers as ranging waveforms in lidar systems instead of highly stabilized, injection-seeded, and amplified pulsed or modulated laser sources as required by most conventional coherent lidar systems. The capabilities of the IBA media for many tens of gigahertz bandwidth and resolution in the 30-300 kHz regime, while using either a pseudo-noise-coded waveform or just a high-power, noisy laser with a broad linewidth (e.g., a truly random noise lidar) may enable a new generation of improved lidar sensors and processors. Preliminary experimental demonstrations of lidar ranging and simulation on range-Doppler processing are presented.
Li, Youzhi; Hoskins, Alan; Schlottau, Friso; Wagner, Kelvin H; Embry, Carl; Babbitt, William Randall
2006-09-01
We introduce a new approach to coherent lidar range-Doppler sensing by utilizing random-noise illuminating waveforms and a quantum-optical, parallel sensor based on spatial-spectral holography (SSH) in a cryogenically cooled inhomogeneously broadened absorber (IBA) crystal. Interference between a reference signal and the lidar return in the spectrally selective absorption band of the IBA is used to sense the lidar returns and perform the front-end range-correlation signal processing. Modulating the reference by an array of Doppler compensating frequency shifts enables multichannel Doppler filtering. This SSH sensor performs much of the postdetection signal processing, increases the lidar system sensitivity through range-correlation gain before detection, and is capable of not only Doppler processing but also parallel multibeam reception using the high-spatial resolution of the IBA crystals. This approach permits the use of ultrawideband, high-power, random-noise, cw lasers as ranging waveforms in lidar systems instead of highly stabilized, injection-seeded, and amplified pulsed or modulated laser sources as required by most conventional coherent lidar systems. The capabilities of the IBA media for many tens of gigahertz bandwidth and resolution in the 30-300 kHz regime, while using either a pseudo-noise-coded waveform or just a high-power, noisy laser with a broad linewidth (e.g., a truly random noise lidar) may enable a new generation of improved lidar sensors and processors. Preliminary experimental demonstrations of lidar ranging and simulation on range-Doppler processing are presented. PMID:16912777
Gonzalez-Diaz, Humberto; Arrasate, Sonia; Juan, Asier Gomez-San; Sotomayor, Nuria; Lete, Esther; Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Ruso, Juan M; Luan, Feng; Cordeiro, Maria Natalia Dias Soeiro
2014-01-01
The study of quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) is important to study complex networks of chemical reactions in drug synthesis or metabolism or drug-target interaction networks. A difficult but possible goal is the prediction of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) process with a single QSPR model. For this QSPR modelers need to use flexible structural parameters useful for the description of many different systems at different structural scales (multi-scale parameters). Also they need to use powerful analytical methods able to link in a single multi-scale hypothesis structural parameters of different target systems (multi-target modeling) with different experimental properties of these systems (multi-output models). In this sense, the QSPR study of complex bio-molecular systems may benefit substantially from the combined application of spectral moments of graph representations of complex systems with perturbation theory methods. On one hand, spectral moments are almost universal parameters that can be calculated to many different matrices used to represent the structure of the states of different systems. On the other hand, perturbation methods can be used to add "small" variation terms to parameters of a known state of a given system in order to approach to a solution of another state of the same or similar system with unknown properties. Here we present one state-of-art review about the different applications of spectral moments to describe complex bio-molecular systems. Next, we give some general ideas and formulate plausible linear models for a general-purpose perturbation theory of QSPR problems of complex systems. Last, we develop three new QSPR-Perturbation theory models based on spectral moments for three different problems with multiple in-out boundary conditions that are relevant to biomolecular sciences. The three models developed correctly classify more than pairs 115,600; 48,000; 134,900 cases of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagao, T. M.; Letu, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.
2014-12-01
Cloud droplet effective radius (re) and optical thickness (τc) of liquid water cloud retrieved from multi-spectral measurement of satellite-borne sensors such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are important parameters for understanding of cloud microphysics and droplet growth process. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is scheduling to launch a new earth observation satellite, the Global Change Observation Mission - Climate (GCOM-C), in Japan fiscal year 2016. The GCOC-C consists the Second Generation Global Imager (SGLI) instrument, which is a radiometer providing near-ultraviolet-to-thermal-infrared multi-spectral measurements at 250m-1km resolution with 1150-1400km swath. Motivated by the importance of re and τc retrievals, the GCOM-C/SGLI cloud product also provides them. However, it is pointed out by previous studies that multi-spectral-retrieved re and τc are impacted by cloud vertical and horizontal inhomogeneity. This study investigates the impacts by using A-Train and Landsat-8 data. First, we interpret three re retrievals from 1.6, 2.1, and 3.7µm-band measurements (re,1.6, re,2.1, and re,3.7) in terms of cloud vertical inhomogeneity by using synergistic measurements from the CloudSat/CPR and Aqua/MODIS. For this interpretation, we use an approach called Contoured Frequency by Optical Depth Diagram (CFODD), which is a joint frequency diagram of CloudSat/CPR radar reflectivity profile as a function of in-cloud optical depth profile as classified according to retrieved re (Nakajima et al., 2010; Suzuki et al., 2010). The CFODD approach visualizes the linkage of re,1.6, re,2.1, and re,3.7 to cloud droplet vertical profile. Second, we simulate the biases in re and τc retrievals at 1km resolution from the MODIS and SGLI induced by cloud horizontal inhomogeneity by using high-spatial resolution measurements of Landsat-8. And then we suggest two inversion models which estimate the biases in re and τc retrievals by using co
Inhomogeneous viscous fluid in anisotropic inflationary universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, M.; Mohsaneen, Sidra
2015-06-01
In this paper, we study inhomogeneous viscous fluid for inflation in the framework of locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I universe model. We consider an inhomogeneous equation of state with viscosity term to ensure a graceful exit from inflationary period. In order to study inflationary perturbations, we evaluate slow-roll parameters, scalar and tensor power spectra, scalar spectral index, tensor to scalar ratio for scalar field and inhomogeneous viscous fluid. It is concluded that our anisotropic inflationary universe model with inhomogeneous viscous fluid is consistent with recent data in a specific range of the model parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Marika; Woodhead, William
2014-12-01
We study models of translational symmetry breaking in which inhomogeneous matter field profiles can be engineered in such a way that black-brane metrics remain isotropic and homogeneous. We explore novel Lagrangians involving square root terms and show how these are related to massive gravity models and to tensionless limits of branes. Analytic expressions for the DC conductivity and for the low frequency scaling of the optical conductivity are derived in phenomenological models, and the optical conductivity is studied in detail numerically. The square root Lagrangians are associated with linear growth in the DC resistivity with temperature and also lead to minima in the optical conductivity at finite frequency, suggesting that our models may capture many features of heavy fermion systems.
Riera-Fernández, Pablo; Martín-Romalde, Raquel; Prado-Prado, Francisco J; Escobar, Manuel; Munteanu, Cristian R; Concu, Riccardo; Duardo-Sanchez, Aliuska; González-Díaz, Humberto
2012-01-01
/or larger complex networks. In second instance, we use for the first time a Markov chain model to generalize Spectral moments to higher order analogues coined here as the Stochastic Spectral Moments TIs of order k (πk). Lastly, we report for the first time different QSAR/QSPR models for different classes of networks found in drug research, nature, technology, and social-legal sciences using πk values. This work updates our previous reviews Gonzalez-Diaz et al. Curr Top Med Chem. 2007; 7(10): 1015-29 and Gonzalez-Diaz et al. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008; 8(18):1676-90. It has been prepared in response to the kind invitation of the editor Prof. AB Reitz in commemoration of the 10th anniversary of this journal in 2010. PMID:22352918
Riera-Fernández, Pablo; Martín-Romalde, Raquel; Prado-Prado, Francisco J; Escobar, Manuel; Munteanu, Cristian R; Concu, Riccardo; Duardo-Sanchez, Aliuska; González-Díaz, Humberto
2012-01-01
/or larger complex networks. In second instance, we use for the first time a Markov chain model to generalize Spectral moments to higher order analogues coined here as the Stochastic Spectral Moments TIs of order k (πk). Lastly, we report for the first time different QSAR/QSPR models for different classes of networks found in drug research, nature, technology, and social-legal sciences using πk values. This work updates our previous reviews Gonzalez-Diaz et al. Curr Top Med Chem. 2007; 7(10): 1015-29 and Gonzalez-Diaz et al. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008; 8(18):1676-90. It has been prepared in response to the kind invitation of the editor Prof. AB Reitz in commemoration of the 10th anniversary of this journal in 2010.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wada, N.; Kawakata, H.; Murakami, O.; Doi, I.; Yoshimitsu, N.; Nakatani, M.; Yabe, Y.; Naoi, M. M.; Miyakawa, K.; Miyake, H.; Ide, S.; Igarashi, T.; Morema, G.; Pinder, E.; Ogasawara, H.
2011-12-01
Scaling relationship between corner frequencies, fc, and seismic moments, Mo is an important clue to understand the seismic source characteristics. Aki (1967) showed that Mo is proportional to fc-3 for large earthquakes (cubic law). Iio (1986) claimed breakdown of the cubic law between fc and Mo for smaller earthquakes (Mw < 2), and Gibowicz et al. (1991) also showed the breakdown for the ultra micro and small earthquakes (Mw < -2). However, it has been reported that the cubic law holds even for micro earthquakes (-1 < Mw > 4) by using high quality data observed at a deep borehole (Abercrombie, 1995; Ogasawara et al., 2001; Hiramatsu et al., 2002; Yamada et al., 2007). In order to clarify the scaling relationship for smaller earthquakes (Mw < -1), we analyzed ultra micro earthquakes using very high sampling records (48 kHz) of borehole seismometers installed within a hard rock at the Mponeng mine in South Africa. We used 4 tri-axial accelerometers of three-component that have a flat response up to 25 kHz. They were installed to be 10 to 30 meters apart from each other at 3,300 meters deep. During the period from 2008/10/14 to 2008/10/30 (17 days), 8,927 events were recorded. We estimated fc and Mo for 60 events (-3 < Mw < -1) within 200 meters from the seismometers. Assuming the Brune's source model, we estimated fc and Mo from spectral ratios. Common practice is using direct waves from adjacent events. However, there were only 5 event pairs with the distance between them less than 20 meters and Mw difference over one. In addition, the observation array is very small (radius less than 30 m), which means that effects of directivity and radiation pattern on direct waves are similar at all stations. Hence, we used spectral ratio of coda waves, since these effects are averaged and will be effectively reduced (Mayeda et al., 2007; Somei et al., 2010). Coda analysis was attempted only for relatively large 20 events (we call "coda events" hereafter) that have coda energy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Kate
2012-01-01
The informatics moment is the moment when a person seeks help in using some digital technology that is new to him or her. This article examines the informatics moment in people's everyday lives as they sought help at a branch public library. Four types of literacy were involved: basic literacy (reading and writing), computer literacy (use of a…
Second Moment Closure Near the Two-component Limit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubinstein, Robert; Girimaji, Sharath S.
2006-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to explore some wider implications of the two-component limit for both single point turbulence models and spectral closure theories. Although the two-component limit arises most naturally in inhomogeneous problems like wall-bounded turbulence, the analysis will be restricted to homogeneous turbulence. But since homogeneous turbulence is the crucial case for realizability, the conclusions will nevertheless be applicable to modeling. Th essential point of our argument is that whereas the evolution of the stochastic velocity field is Markovian because it is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, the exact stress evolution equation is not Markovian because it is unclosed. This property of moment evolution has been stressed by Kraichnan (1959). We will show that modeling stress evolution at the two-component limit with a closure that is Markovian in the stresses alone leads to basic inconsistencies in single-point modeling and, perhaps surprisingly, in spectral modes as well.
Inhomogeneous turbulence in magnetic reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yokoi, Nobumitsu
2016-07-01
Turbulence is expected to play an essential role in enhancing magnetic reconnection. Turbulence associated with magnetic reconnection is highly inhomogeneous: it is generated by inhomogeneities of the field configuration such as the velocity shear, temperature gradient, density stratification, magnetic shear, etc. This self-generated turbulence affects the reconnection through the turbulent transport. In this reconnection--turbulence interaction, localization of turbulent transport due to dynamic balance between several turbulence effects plays an essential role. For investigating inhomogeneous turbulence in a strongly nonlinear regime, closure or turbulence modeling approaches provide a powerful tool. A turbulence modeling approach for the magnetic reconnection is introduced. In the model, the mean-field equations with turbulence effects incorporated are solved simultaneously with the equations of turbulent statistical quantities that represent spatiotemporal properties of turbulence under the effect of large-scale field inhomogeneities. Numerical simulations of this Reynolds-averaged turbulence model showed that self-generated turbulence enhances magnetic reconnection. It was pointed out that reconnection states may be divided into three category depending on the turbulence level: (i) laminar reconnection; (ii) turbulent reconnection, and (iii) turbulent diffusion. Recent developments in this direction are also briefly introduced, which includes the magnetic Prandtl number dependence, spectral evolution, and guide-field effects. Also relationship of this fully nonlinear turbulence approach with other important approaches such as plasmoid instability reconnection will be discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostashev, Vladimir E.; Wilson, D. Keith; Goedecke, George H.
2004-01-01
Inhomogeneity and anisotropy are intrinsic characteristics of daytime and nighttime turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer. In the present paper, line-of-sight sound propagation through inhomogeneous, anisotropic turbulence with temperature and velocity fluctuations is considered. Starting from a parabolic equation and using the Markov approximation, formulas are derived for the correlation functions and variances of log-amplitude and phase fluctuations of a spherical sound wave. These statistical moments of a sound field are important for many practical applications in atmospheric acoustics. The derived formulas for the correlation functions and variances generalize those already known in the literature for two limiting cases: (a) homogeneous, isotropic turbulence, and (b) inhomogeneous, anisotropic turbulence with temperature fluctuations only. Furthermore, the formulas differ from those for the case of plane wave propagation. Using the derived formulas and Mann's spectral tensor of velocity fluctuations for shear-driven turbulence, the correlation functions and variances of log-amplitude and phase fluctuations are studied numerically. The results obtained clearly show that turbulence inhomogeneity and anisotropy significantly affect sound propagation in the atmosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Neill, Norman T.; Baibakov, Konstantin; Hesaraki, Sareh; Ivanescu, Liviu; Martin, Randall V.; Perro, Chris; Chaubey, Jai P.; Herber, Andreas; Duck, Thomas J.
2016-10-01
We compared star-photometry-derived, polar winter aerosol optical depths (AODs), acquired at Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, and Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, with GEOS-Chem (GC) simulations as well as ground-based lidar and CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) retrievals over a sampling period of two polar winters. The results indicate significant cloud and/or low-altitude ice crystal (LIC) contamination which is only partially corrected using temporal cloud screening. Spatially homogeneous clouds and LICs that remain after temporal cloud screening represent an inevitable systematic error in the estimation of AOD: this error was estimated to vary from 78 to 210 % at Eureka and from 2 to 157 % at Ny-Ålesund. Lidar analysis indicated that LICs appeared to have a disproportionately large influence on the homogeneous coarse-mode optical depths that escape temporal cloud screening. In principle, spectral cloud screening (to yield fine-mode or submicron AODs) reduces pre-cloud-screened AODs to the aerosol contribution if one assumes that coarse-mode (super-micron) aerosols are a minor part of the AOD. Large, low-frequency differences between these retrieved values and their GC analogue appeared to be often linked to strong, spatially extensive planetary boundary layer events whose presence at either site was inferred from CALIOP profiles. These events were either not captured or significantly underestimated by the GC simulations. High-frequency AOD variations of GC fine-mode aerosols at Ny-Ålesund were attributed to sea salt, while low-frequency GC variations at Eureka and Ny-Ålesund were attributable to sulfates. CALIOP profiles and AODs were invaluable as spatial and temporal redundancy support (or, alternatively, as insightful points of contention) for star photometry retrievals and GC estimates of AOD.
Vortex lattice inhomogeneity in spatially inhomogeneous superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheehy, Daniel E.; Radzihovsky, Leo
2004-11-01
A trapped degenerate Bose gas exhibits superfluidity with spatially nonuniform superfluid density. We show that the vortex distribution in such a highly inhomogeneous rotating superfluid is nevertheless nearly uniform. The inhomogeneity in vortex density, which diminishes in the rapid-rotation limit, is driven by the discrete way vortices impart angular momentum to the superfluid. This effect favors the highest vortex density in regions where the superfluid density is most uniform (e.g., the center of a harmonically trapped gas). A striking consequence of this is that the boson velocity deviates from a rigid-body form exhibiting a radial-shear flow past the vortex lattice.
Modeling Electromagnetic Scattering From Complex Inhomogeneous Objects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deshpande, Manohar; Reddy, C. J.
2011-01-01
This software innovation is designed to develop a mathematical formulation to estimate the electromagnetic scattering characteristics of complex, inhomogeneous objects using the finite-element-method (FEM) and method-of-moments (MoM) concepts, as well as to develop a FORTRAN code called FEMOM3DS (Finite Element Method and Method of Moments for 3-Dimensional Scattering), which will implement the steps that are described in the mathematical formulation. Very complex objects can be easily modeled, and the operator of the code is not required to know the details of electromagnetic theory to study electromagnetic scattering.
Inflating an inhomogeneous universe
Easther, Richard; Price, Layne C.; Rasero, Javier E-mail: lpri691@aucklanduni.ac.nz
2014-08-01
While cosmological inflation can erase primordial inhomogeneities, it is possible that inflation may not begin in a significantly inhomogeneous universe. This issue is particularly pressing in multifield scenarios, where even the homogeneous dynamics may depend sensitively on the initial configuration. This paper presents an initial survey of the onset of inflation in multifield models, via qualitative lattice-based simulations that do not include local gravitational backreaction. Using hybrid inflation as a test model, our results suggest that small subhorizon inhomogeneities do play a key role in determining whether inflation begins in multifield scenarios. Interestingly, some configurations which do not inflate in the homogeneous limit ''succeed'' after inhomogeneity is included, while other initial configurations which inflate in the homogeneous limit ''fail'' when inhomogeneity is added.
Towards collisions of inhomogeneous shockwaves in AdS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández, Daniel
2015-07-01
We perform a numerical simulation of the evolution of inhomogeneities with transverse profile in a collision of gravitational shockwaves in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime. This constitutes a step closer towards an accurate holographic description of the thermalization of a strongly coupled plasma, which can model the dynamics of heavy ion collisions. The results indicate that the considered inhomogeneities typically become hydrodynamical earlier or at the same moment when hydrodynamics applies to the background, even though they decay slowly.
Radially inhomogeneous bounded plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakeri-Khatir, H.; Aghamir, F. M.
2016-07-01
On the basis of kinetic theory along with self-consistent field equations, the expressions for dielectric tensor of radially inhomogeneous magnetized plasma columns are obtained. The study of dielectric tensor characteristics allows the accurate analysis of the inhomogeneous properties, beyond limitations that exist in the conventional method. Through the Bessel-Fourier transformation, the localized form of material equations in a radially inhomogeneous medium are obtained. In order to verify the integrity of the model and reveal the effect of inhomogeneity, a special case of a cylindrical plasma waveguide completely filled with inhomogeneous magnetized cold plasma was considered. The dispersion relation curves for four families of electromagnetic (EH and HE) and electrostatic (SC and C) modes are obtained and compared with the findings of the conventional model. The numerical analysis indicates that the inhomogeneity effect leads to coupling of electromagnetic and electrostatic modes each having different radial eigen numbers. The study also reveals that the electrostatic modes are more sensitive to inhomogeneous effects than the electromagnetic modes.
Radially inhomogeneous bounded plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakeri-Khatir, H.; Aghamir, F. M.
2016-07-01
On the basis of kinetic theory along with self-consistent field equations, the expressions for dielectric tensor of radially inhomogeneous magnetized plasma columns are obtained. The study of dielectric tensor characteristics allows the accurate analysis of the inhomogeneous properties, beyond limitations that exist in the conventional method. Through the Bessel–Fourier transformation, the localized form of material equations in a radially inhomogeneous medium are obtained. In order to verify the integrity of the model and reveal the effect of inhomogeneity, a special case of a cylindrical plasma waveguide completely filled with inhomogeneous magnetized cold plasma was considered. The dispersion relation curves for four families of electromagnetic (EH and HE) and electrostatic (SC and C) modes are obtained and compared with the findings of the conventional model. The numerical analysis indicates that the inhomogeneity effect leads to coupling of electromagnetic and electrostatic modes each having different radial eigen numbers. The study also reveals that the electrostatic modes are more sensitive to inhomogeneous effects than the electromagnetic modes.
Moving inhomogeneous envelopes of stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oskinova, Lidia M.; Kubátová, Brankica; Hamann, Wolf-Rainer
2016-11-01
Massive stars are extremely luminous and drive strong winds, blowing a large part of their matter into the galactic environment before they finally explode as a supernova. Quantitative knowledge of massive star feedback is required to understand our Universe as we see it. Traditionally, massive stars have been studied under the assumption that their winds are homogeneous and stationary, largely relying on the Sobolev approximation. However, observations with the newest instruments, together with progress in model calculations, ultimately dictate a cardinal change of this paradigm: stellar winds are highly inhomogeneous. Hence, we are now advancing to a new stage in our understanding of stellar winds. Using the foundations laid by V.V. Sobolev and his school, we now update and further develop the stellar spectral analysis techniques. New sophisticated 3-D models of radiation transfer in inhomogeneous expanding media elucidate the physics of stellar winds and improve classical empiric mass-loss rate diagnostics. Applications of these new techniques to multiwavelength observations of massive stars yield consistent and robust stellar wind parameters.
Cloud Inhomogeneity from MODIS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Cahalan, Robert F.
2004-01-01
Two full months (July 2003 and January 2004) of MODIS Atmosphere Level-3 data from the Terra and Aqua satellites are analyzed in order to characterize the horizontal variability of cloud optical thickness and water path at global scales. Various options to derive cloud variability parameters are discussed. The climatology of cloud inhomogeneity is built by first calculating daily parameter values at spatial scales of l degree x 1 degree, and then at zonal and global scales, followed by averaging over monthly time scales. Geographical, diurnal, and seasonal changes of inhomogeneity parameters are examined separately for the two cloud phases, and separately over land and ocean. We find that cloud inhomogeneity is weaker in summer than in winter, weaker over land than ocean for liquid clouds, weaker for local morning than local afternoon, about the same for liquid and ice clouds on a global scale, but with wider probability distribution functions (PDFs) and larger latitudinal variations for ice, and relatively insensitive to whether water path or optical thickness products are used. Typical mean values at hemispheric and global scales of the inhomogeneity parameter nu (roughly the mean over the standard deviation of water path or optical thickness), range from approximately 2.5 to 3, while for the inhomogeneity parameter chi (the ratio of the logarithmic to linear mean) from approximately 0.7 to 0.8. Values of chi for zonal averages can occasionally fall below 0.6 and for individual gridpoints below 0.5. Our results demonstrate that MODIS is capable of revealing significant fluctuations in cloud horizontal inhomogenity and stress the need to model their global radiative effect in future studies.
Theoretical understanding of chromospheric inhomogeneities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Delache, P.
1973-01-01
Detailed theoretical studies of chromospheric inhomogeneities consider dynamics as well as radiative transfer of mass flow as a consequence of energy deposition. It is shown that pressure is exerted by the heating waves, especially in inhomogeneous structures, where they can be defracted. A dynamical model is formulated that depicts the inhomogeneous structure of the chromosphere-corona transition region through mass flow regimes.
Byrnes, Christian T.; Nurmi, Sami; Tasinato, Gianmassimo; Wands, David E-mail: s.nurmi@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de E-mail: david.wands@port.ac.uk
2012-03-01
We propose a method to probe higher-order correlators of the primordial density field through the inhomogeneity of local non-Gaussian parameters, such as f{sub NL}, measured within smaller patches of the sky. Correlators between n-point functions measured in one patch of the sky and k-point functions measured in another patch depend upon the (n+k)-point functions over the entire sky. The inhomogeneity of non-Gaussian parameters may be a feasible way to detect or constrain higher- order correlators in local models of non-Gaussianity, as well as to distinguish between single and multiple-source scenarios for generating the primordial density perturbation, and more generally to probe the details of inflationary physics.
Stabilizing synchrony by inhomogeneity
Bolhasani, Ehsan; Valizadeh, Alireza
2015-01-01
We show that for two weakly coupled identical neuronal oscillators with strictly positive phase resetting curve, isochronous synchrony can only be seen in the absence of noise and an arbitrarily weak noise can destroy entrainment and generate intermittent phase slips. Small inhomogeneity–mismatch in the intrinsic firing rate of the neurons–can stabilize the phase locking and lead to more precise relative spike timing of the two neurons. The results can explain how for a class of neuronal models, including leaky integrate-fire model, inhomogeneity can increase correlation of spike trains when the neurons are synaptically connected. PMID:26338691
Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo
2016-10-01
In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with ``flat'' (including toroidal) and ``open'' (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are ``flat'' or ``open''. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with ``flat'' or ``open'' topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.
Characteristics of inhomogeneous jets in confined swirling air flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
So, R. M. C.; Ahmed, S. A.
1984-01-01
An experimental program to study the characteristics of inhomogeneous jets in confined swirling flows to obtain detailed and accurate data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport modeling for combustor flows is discussed. The work was also motivated by the need to investigate and quantify the influence of confinement and swirl on the characteristics of inhomogeneous jets. The flow facility was constructed in a simple way which allows easy interchange of different swirlers and the freedom to vary the jet Reynolds number. The velocity measurements were taken with a one color, one component DISA Model 55L laser-Doppler anemometer employing the forward scatter mode. Standard statistical methods are used to evaluate the various moments of the signals to give the flow characteristics. The present work was directed at the understanding of the velocity field. Therefore, only velocity and turbulence data of the axial and circumferential components are reported for inhomogeneous jets in confined swirling air flows.
Solutions of the chemical kinetic equations for initially inhomogeneous mixtures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hilst, G. R.
1973-01-01
Following the recent discussions by O'Brien (1971) and Donaldson and Hilst (1972) of the effects of inhomogeneous mixing and turbulent diffusion on simple chemical reaction rates, the present report provides a more extensive analysis of when inhomogeneous mixing has a significant effect on chemical reaction rates. The analysis is then extended to the development of an approximate chemical sub-model which provides much improved predictions of chemical reaction rates over a wide range of inhomogeneities and pathological distributions of the concentrations of the reacting chemical species. In particular, the development of an approximate representation of the third-order correlations of the joint concentration fluctuations permits closure of the chemical sub-model at the level of the second-order moments of these fluctuations and the mean concentrations.
Generalized Langevin theory for inhomogeneous fluids: The equations of motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grant, Martin; Desai, Rashmi C.
1982-05-01
We use the generalized Langevin approach to study the dynamical correlations in an inhomogeneous system. The equations of motion (formally exact) are obtained for the number density, momentum density, energy density, stress tensor, and heat flux. We evaluate all the relevant sum rules appearing in the frequency matrix exactly in terms of microscopic pair potentials and an external field. We show using functional derivatives how these microscopic sum rules relate to more familiar, though now nonlocal, hydrodynamiclike quantities. The set of equations is closed by a Markov approximation in the equations for stress tensor and heat flux. As a result, these equations become analogous to Grad's 13-moment equations for low-density fluids and constitute a generalization to inhomogeneous fluids of the work of Schofield and Akcasu-Daniels. We also indicate how the resulting general set of equations would simplify for systems in which the inhomogeneity is unidirectional, e.g., a liquid-vapor interface.
On Isospectral Deformations of an Inhomogeneous String
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colville, Kale; Gomez, Daniel; Szmigielski, Jacek
2016-07-01
In this paper we consider a class of isospectral deformations of the inhomogeneous string boundary value problem. The deformations considered are generalizations of the isospectral deformation that has arisen in connection with the Camassa-Holm equation for the shallow water waves. It is proved that these new isospectral deformations result in evolution equations on the mass density whose form depends on how the string is tied at the endpoints. Moreover, it is shown that the evolution equations in this class linearize on the spectral side and hence can be solved by the inverse spectral method. In particular, the problem involving a mass density given by a discrete finite measure and arbitrary boundary conditions is shown to be solvable by Stieltjes' continued fractions.
Moment-to-Moment Emotions during Reading
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Graesser, Arthur C.; D'Mello, Sidney
2012-01-01
Moment-to-moment emotions are affective states that dynamically change during reading and potentially influence comprehension. Researchers have recently identified these emotions and the emotion trajectories in reading, tutoring, and problem solving. The primary learning-centered emotions are boredom, frustration, confusion, flow (engagement),…
Homogeneous and inhomogeneous eddies
Pavia, E.G.
1994-12-31
This work deals with mesoscale warm oceanic eddies; i.e., self-contained bodies of water which transport heat, among other things, for several months and for several hundreds of kilometers. This heat transport is believed to play an important role in the atmospheric and oceanic conditions of the region where it is being transported. Here the author examines the difference in evolution between eddies modeled as blobs of homogeneous water and eddies in which density varies in the horizontal. Preliminary results suggest that instability is enhanced by inhomogeneities, which would imply that traditional modeling studies, based on homogeneous vortices have underestimated the rate of heat-release from oceanic eddies to the surroundings. The approach is modeling in the simplest form; i.e., one single active layer. Although previous studies have shown the drastic effect on stability brought by two or more dynamically-relevant homogeneous layers, the author believes the single-layer eddy-model has not been investigated thoroughly.
The Signature of Inhomogeneous Superconductivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agosta, Charles C.; Bishop-Van Horn, Logan; Newman, Max
2016-11-01
Superconductivity can be inhomogeneous, having a periodically modulated order parameter, in materials that have long electronic mean free paths and where the effects of vortices are suppressed. One class of materials that has these properties is crystalline organic superconductors. They are stoichiometric compounds and highly anisotropic crystals such that the vortices that form can hide in the least conducting layers. We analyze recent data to look for complexity in the inhomogeneous states, such as changes in the order parameter nodal structure.
The Signature of Inhomogeneous Superconductivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agosta, Charles C.; Bishop-Van Horn, Logan; Newman, Max
2016-09-01
Superconductivity can be inhomogeneous, having a periodically modulated order parameter, in materials that have long electronic mean free paths and where the effects of vortices are suppressed. One class of materials that has these properties is crystalline organic superconductors. They are stoichiometric compounds and highly anisotropic crystals such that the vortices that form can hide in the least conducting layers. We analyze recent data to look for complexity in the inhomogeneous states, such as changes in the order parameter nodal structure.
Model of non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bragg, Andrew D.; Kurien, Susan; Clark, Timothy T.
2016-07-01
We compare results from a spectral model for non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence (Besnard et al. in Theor Comp Fluid Dyn 8:1-35, 1996) with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of a shear-free mixing layer (SFML) (Tordella et al. in Phys Rev E 77:016309, 2008). The SFML is used as a test case in which the efficacy of the model closure for the physical-space transport of the fluid velocity field can be tested in a flow with inhomogeneity, without the additional complexity of mean-flow coupling. The model is able to capture certain features of the SFML quite well for intermediate to long times, including the evolution of the mixing-layer width and turbulent kinetic energy. At short-times, and for more sensitive statistics such as the generation of the velocity field anisotropy, the model is less accurate. We propose two possible causes for the discrepancies. The first is the local approximation to the pressure-transport and the second is the a priori spherical averaging used to reduce the dimensionality of the solution space of the model, from wavevector to wavenumber space. DNS data are then used to gauge the relative importance of both possible deficiencies in the model.
Inhomogeneous high harmonic generation in krypton clusters.
Ruf, H; Handschin, C; Cireasa, R; Thiré, N; Ferré, A; Petit, S; Descamps, D; Mével, E; Constant, E; Blanchet, V; Fabre, B; Mairesse, Y
2013-02-22
High order harmonic generation from clusters is a controversial topic: conflicting theories exist, with different explanations for similar experimental observations. From an experimental point of view, separating the contributions from monomers and clusters is challenging. By performing a spectrally and spatially resolved study in a controlled mixture of clusters and monomers, we are able to isolate a region of the spectrum where the emission purely originates from clusters. Surprisingly, the emission from clusters is depolarized, which is the signature of statistical inhomogeneous emission from a low-density source. The harmonic response to laser ellipticity shows that this generation is produced by a new recollisional mechanism, which opens the way to future theoretical studies.
Wei, Zhiliang; Yang, Jian; Lin, Yanqin E-mail: chenz@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Zhong E-mail: chenz@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Youhe
2015-04-07
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy serves as an important tool for analyzing chemicals and biological metabolites. However, its performance is subject to the magnetic-field homogeneity. Under inhomogeneous fields, peaks are broadened to overlap each other, introducing difficulties for assignments. Here, we propose a method termed as line broadening interference (LBI) to provide high-resolution information under inhomogeneous magnetic fields by employing certain gradients in the indirect dimension to interfere the magnetic-field inhomogeneity. The conventional spectral-line broadening is thus interfered to be non-diagonal, avoiding the overlapping among adjacent resonances. Furthermore, an inhomogeneity correction algorithm is developed based on pattern recognition to recover the high-resolution information from LBI spectra. Theoretical deductions are performed to offer systematic and detailed analyses on the proposed method. Moreover, experiments are conducted to prove the feasibility of the proposed method for yielding high-resolution spectra in inhomogeneous magnetic fields.
Wei, Zhiliang; Yang, Jian; Chen, Youhe; Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Zhong
2015-04-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy serves as an important tool for analyzing chemicals and biological metabolites. However, its performance is subject to the magnetic-field homogeneity. Under inhomogeneous fields, peaks are broadened to overlap each other, introducing difficulties for assignments. Here, we propose a method termed as line broadening interference (LBI) to provide high-resolution information under inhomogeneous magnetic fields by employing certain gradients in the indirect dimension to interfere the magnetic-field inhomogeneity. The conventional spectral-line broadening is thus interfered to be non-diagonal, avoiding the overlapping among adjacent resonances. Furthermore, an inhomogeneity correction algorithm is developed based on pattern recognition to recover the high-resolution information from LBI spectra. Theoretical deductions are performed to offer systematic and detailed analyses on the proposed method. Moreover, experiments are conducted to prove the feasibility of the proposed method for yielding high-resolution spectra in inhomogeneous magnetic fields.
Inhomogeneous Gain Saturation in EDF: Experiment and Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peretti, Romain; Jacquier, Bernard; Boivin, David; Burov, Ekaterina; Jurdyc, Anne-Marie
2011-05-01
Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers can present holes in spectral gain in Wavelength Division Multiplexing operation. The origin of this inhomogeneous saturation behavior is still a subject of controversy. In this paper we present both an experimental methods and a gain's model. Our experimental method allow us to measure the first homogeneous linewidth of the 1.5 $\\mu$m erbium emission with gain spectral hole burning consistently with the other measurement in the literature and the model explains the differences observed in literature between GSHB and other measurement methods.
Generalized Langevin Theory for Inhomogeneous Fluids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grant, Martin Garth
This thesis presents a molecular theory of the dynamics of inhomogeneous fluids. Dynamical correlations in a nonuniform system are studied through the generalized Langevin approach. The equations of motion (formally exact) are obtained for the number density, momentum density, energy density, stress tensor and heat flux. We evaluate all the relevant sum rules appearing in the frequency matrix exactly in terms of microscopic pair potentials and an external field. We show using functional derivatives how these microscopic sum rules relate to more familiar, though now nonlocal, hydrodynamic-like quantities. The set of equations is closed by a Markov approximation in the equations for stress tensor and heat flux. As a result, these equations become analogous to Grad's 13-moment equations for low density fluids and constitute a generalization to inhomogeneous fluids of the work of Schofield and Akcasu-Daniels. We apply this formalism to several problems. We study the correlation of currents orthogonal to a diffuse planar, liquid-vapour, interface, introducing new nonlocal elastic moduli and new nonlocal, frequency dependent, viscosities. Novel symmetry breaking contributions are obtained, which are related to the Young-Laplace equation for pressure balance. The normal modes, associated with the symmetry breaking interface in the liquid-vapour system, are analyzed, taking into account the nonlocal nature of the diffuse planar interface. We obtain the classical dispersion relation for capillary waves, observed in light scattering experiments, from an adiabatic (molecular) approach. We consider the 'capillary wave model' (CWM) of the equilibrium liquid-vapour interface. CWM is reformulated to be consistent with capillary waves; corrections to the standard CWM results, due to self-consistent long range coupling, are obtained for finite surface area and nonzero gravitational acceleration. Finally, we obtain the Landau-Lifshitz theory of fluctuating hydrodynamics from the
Remarks on inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaya, Ali
2016-08-01
Recently a new no-global-recollapse argument was given for some inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies that utilizes surface deformation by the mean curvature flow. In this paper we discuss important properties of the mean curvature flow of spacelike surfaces in Lorentzian manifolds. We show that singularities may form during cosmic evolution, and the theorems forbidding the global recollapse lose their validity. The time evolution of the spatial scalar curvature that may kinematically prevent the recollapse is determined in normal coordinates, which shows the impact of inhomogeneities explicitly. Our analysis indicates a caveat in numerical solutions that give rise to inflation.
Inhomogeneous diffusion-limited aggregation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Selinger, Robin Blumberg; Nittmann, Johann; Stanley, H. E.
1989-01-01
It is demonstrated here that inhomogeneous diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model can be used to simulate viscous fingering in a medium with inhomogeneous permeability and homogeneous porosity. The medium consists of a pipe-pore square-lattice network in which all pores have equal volume and the pipes have negligible volume. It is shown that fluctuations in a DLA-based growth process may be tuned by noise reduction, and that fluctuations in the velocity of the moving interface are multiplicative in form.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clare, R. B.; Levinger, J. S.
1981-02-01
We use the formalism of hyperspherical harmonics to calculate several moments for the triton photoeffect, for a Volkov spin-independent potential. First, we improve the accuracy of Maleki's calculations of the moments σ2 and σ3 by including more terms in the hyperspherical expansion. We also calculate moments σ0 and σ1 for a Serber mixture. We find reasonable agreement between our moments found by sum rules and those found from the cross sections calculated by Fang et al. and Levinger-Fitzgibbon. We then develop a technique of inversion of a finite number of moments by making the assumption that the cross section can be written as a sum of several Laguerre polynomials multiplied by a decreasing exponential. We test our inversion technique successfully on several model potentials. We then modify it and apply it to the five moments (σ-1 to σ3) for a force without exchange, and find fair agreement with Fang's values of the cross section. Finally, we apply the inversion technique to our three moments (σ-1,σ0,and σ1) for a Serber mixture, and find reasonable agreement with Gorbunov's measurements of the 3He photoeffect. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Triton photoeffects, hyperspherical harmonics, moments of photoeffect, inversion of moments.
(Fracture mechanics of inhomogeneous materials)
Bass, B.R.
1990-10-01
Discussions were held with Japanese researchers concerning (1) the Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics in Inhomogeneous Materials and Structures (EPI) Program, and (2) ongoing large-scale pressurized- thermal-shock (PTS) experiments in Japan. In the EPI Program, major activities in the current fiscal year include round-robin analyses of measured data from inhomogeneous base metal/weld metal compact- tension (CT) specimens fabricated from welded plates of A533 grade B class 1 steel. The round-robin task involves participants from nine research organizations in Japan and is scheduled for completion by the end of 1990. Additional experiments will be performed on crack growth in inhomogeneous CT specimens and three-point bend (3PB) specimens 10 mm thick. The data will be compared with that generated previously from 19-mm-thick-specimens. A new type of inhomogeneous surface-cracked specimen will be tested this year, with ratio of crack depth to surface length (a/c) satisfying 0.2 {le} (a/c) {le} 0. 8 and using a 3PB type of applied load. Plans are under way to fabricate a new welded plate of A533 grade B class 1 steel (from a different heat than that currently being tested) in order to provide an expanded fracture-toughness data base. Other topics concerning fracture-prevention issues in reactor pressure vessels were discussed with each of the host organizations, including an overview of ongoing work in the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program.
Averaging inhomogeneous cosmologies - a dialogue.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchert, T.
The averaging problem for inhomogeneous cosmologies is discussed in the form of a disputation between two cosmologists, one of them (RED) advocating the standard model, the other (GREEN) advancing some arguments against it. Technical explanations of these arguments as well as the conclusions of this debate are given by BLUE.
Averaging inhomogenous cosmologies - a dialogue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchert, T.
The averaging problem for inhomogeneous cosmologies is discussed in the form of a disputation between two cosmologists, one of them (RED) advocating the standard model, the other (GREEN) advancing some arguments against it. Technical explanations of these arguments as well as the conclusions of this debate are given by BLUE.
Simple inhomogeneous cosmological (toy) models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chirinos Isidro, Eddy G.; Zuñiga Vargas, Cristofher; Zimdahl, Winfried
2016-05-01
Based on the Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) metric we consider two flat inhomogeneous big-bang models. We aim at clarifying, as far as possible analytically, basic features of the dynamics of the simplest inhomogeneous models and to point out the potential usefulness of exact inhomogeneous solutions as generalizations of the homogeneous configurations of the cosmological standard model. We discuss explicitly partial successes but also potential pitfalls of these simplest models. Although primarily seen as toy models, the relevant free parameters are fixed by best-fit values using the Joint Light-curve Analysis (JLA)-sample data. On the basis of a likelihood analysis we find that a local hump with an extension of almost 2 Gpc provides a better description of the observations than a local void for which we obtain a best-fit scale of about 30 Mpc. Future redshift-drift measurements are discussed as a promising tool to discriminate between inhomogeneous configurations and the ΛCDM model.
Vortices in spatially inhomogeneous superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheehy, Daniel E.; Radzihovsky, Leo
2004-12-01
We study vortices in a radially inhomogeneous superfluid, as realized by a trapped degenerate Bose gas in a uniaxially symmetric potential. We show that, in contrast to a homogeneous superfluid, an off-axis vortex corresponds to an anisotropic superflow whose profile strongly depends on the distance to the trap axis. One consequence of this superflow anisotropy is vortex precession about the trap axis in the absence of an imposed rotation. In the complementary regime of a finite prescribed rotation, we compute the minimum-energy vortex density, showing that in the rapid-rotation limit it is extremely uniform, despite a strongly inhomogeneous (nearly) Thomas-Fermi condensate density ρs(r) . The weak radially dependent contribution [∝∇2lnρs(r)] to the vortex distribution, that vanishes with the number of vortices Nv as 1/Nv , arises from the interplay between vortex quantum discreteness (namely their inability to faithfully support the imposed rigid-body rotation) and the inhomogeneous superfluid density. This leads to an enhancement of the vortex density at the center of a typical concave trap, a prediction that is in quantitative agreement with recent experiments. One striking consequence of the inhomogeneous vortex distribution is an azimuthally directed, radially shearing superflow.
Michael Ramsey-Musolf; Wick Haxton; Ching-Pang Liu
2002-03-29
Nuclear anapole moments are parity-odd, time-reversal-even E1 moments of the electromagnetic current operator. Although the existence of this moment was recognized theoretically soon after the discovery of parity nonconservation (PNC), its experimental isolation was achieved only recently, when a new level of precision was reached in a measurement of the hyperfine dependence of atomic PNC in 133Cs. An important anapole moment bound in 205Tl also exists. In this paper, we present the details of the first calculation of these anapole moments in the framework commonly used in other studies of hadronic PNC, a meson exchange potential that includes long-range pion exchange and enough degrees of freedom to describe the five independent S-P amplitudes induced by short-range interactions. The resulting contributions of pi-, rho-, and omega-exchange to the single-nucleon anapole moment, to parity admixtures in the nuclear ground state, and to PNC exchange currents are evaluated, using configuration-mixed shell-model wave functions. The experimental anapole moment constraints on the PNC meson-nucleon coupling constants are derived and compared with those from other tests of the hadronic weak interaction. While the bounds obtained from the anapole moment results are consistent with the broad ''reasonable ranges'' defined by theory, they are not in good agreement with the constraints from the other experiments. We explore possible explanations for the discrepancy and comment on the potential importance of new experiments.
Transdimensional imaging of random velocity inhomogeneities in Nankai subduction zone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, T.; Obana, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Kaiho, Y.; Nakanishi, A.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.
2014-12-01
The Nankai trough in southwestern Japan is a convergent margin where the Philippine Sea plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian plate. We have conducted five seismic observations with ocean bottom seismograms (OBSs) from 2008 to 2012 to elucidate detailed seismic structures and its relations with fault segments of large earthquakes. These observations covered the entire area of the Nankai trough, but quantity and quality of data are not spatially uniform because of different observing lengths and various noises. Waveform data of OBSs suggests variously-sized anomalies of random velocity inhomogeneity (i.e., scattering strength) in this subduction zone. To clarify details of random inhomogeneity structures, we conducted a transdimensional imaging of random inhomogeneities by means of the reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (rjMCMC) without assuming smooth spatial distributions of unknown parameters. We applied the rjMCMC for the inversion of peak delay times of S-wave envelopes at 4-8, 8-16, and 16-32 Hz, where the peak delay time is defined as the time lag from the S-wave onset to its maximal amplitude arrival. This delay time mainly reflects the accumulated multiple forward scattering effect due to random inhomogeneities. We assumed the von Karman type power spectral density function (PSDF) for random velocity fluctuation, and estimated two parameters related with the PSDF at large wavenumber. Study area is partitioned by discrete Voronoi cells of which number and spatial sizes are variable. Estimated random inhomogeneities show clear lateral variations along the Nankai trough. The strongest inhomogeneity on the Nankai trough was found near the subducted Kyushu-Palau ridge that is located at the western margin of the fault segments. We also find a horizontal variation of inhomogeneity along the non-volcanic tremor zone. Relatively strong inhomogeneities in this tremor zone were imaged beneath west Shikoku and Kii-Peninsula. These anomalies were not clearly
Moment inference from tomograms
Day-Lewis, F. D.; Chen, Y.; Singha, K.
2007-01-01
Time-lapse geophysical tomography can provide valuable qualitative insights into hydrologic transport phenomena associated with aquifer dynamics, tracer experiments, and engineered remediation. Increasingly, tomograms are used to infer the spatial and/or temporal moments of solute plumes; these moments provide quantitative information about transport processes (e.g., advection, dispersion, and rate-limited mass transfer) and controlling parameters (e.g., permeability, dispersivity, and rate coefficients). The reliability of moments calculated from tomograms is, however, poorly understood because classic approaches to image appraisal (e.g., the model resolution matrix) are not directly applicable to moment inference. Here, we present a semi-analytical approach to construct a moment resolution matrix based on (1) the classic model resolution matrix and (2) image reconstruction from orthogonal moments. Numerical results for radar and electrical-resistivity imaging of solute plumes demonstrate that moment values calculated from tomograms depend strongly on plume location within the tomogram, survey geometry, regularization criteria, and measurement error. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.
A blind test of correction algorithms for daily inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stepanek, Petr; Venema, Victor; Guijarro, Jose; Nemec, Johanna; Zahradnicek, Pavel; Hadzimustafic, Jasmina
2013-04-01
As part of the COST Action HOME (Advances in homogenisation methods of climate series: an integrated approach), a dataset was generated that serves as a validation tool for correction of daily inhomogeneities. The dataset contains daily air temperature data and was generated based on the temperature series from the Czech Republic. The validation dataset has three different types of series: network, pair and pair-dedicated data. Different types of inhomogeneities have been inserted into the series. Parametric breaks in the first three moments were introduced and the influence of relocation was simulated by exchanging the distribution of two nearby stations. The participants have returned several contributions, including methods that are currently used: HOM, SPLIDHOM (with various modifications like HOMAD and bootstrapped SPLIDHOM), QM (RHtestsV3 software), DAP (ProClimDB), HCL (Climatol), MASH and also simple delta method. The quality of the homogenised data was measured by a large range of metrics, the most important ones are the RMSE and the trends in the moments. Thanks to RHtestsV3 algorithms we could also assess relative and absolute homogenization results. As expected, the simpler methods, correcting only the mean, are best at reducing the RMSE. For more information on the COST Action on homogenisation see: http://www.homogenisation.org/
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, T.; Obana, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nakanishi, A.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.
2011-12-01
In the Nankai trough, there are three seismogenic zones of megathrust earthquakes (Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes). Lithospheric structures in and around these seismogenic zones are important for the studies on mutual interactions and synchronization of their fault ruptures. Recent studies on seismic wave scattering at high frequencies (>1Hz) make it possible to estimate 3D distributions of random inhomogeneities (or scattering coefficient) in the lithosphere, and clarified that random inhomogeneity is one of the important medium properties related to microseismicity and damaged structure near the fault zone [Asano & Hasegawa, 2004; Takahashi et al. 2009]. This study estimates the spatial distribution of the power spectral density function (PSDF) of random inhomogeneities the western part of Nankai subduction zone, and examines the relations with crustal velocity structure and seismic activity. Seismic waveform data used in this study are those recorded at seismic stations of Hi-net & F-net operated by NIED, and 160 ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) deployed at Hyuga-nada region from Dec. 2008 to Jan. 2009. This OBS observation was conducted by JAMSTEC as a part of "Research concerning Interaction Between the Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai Earthquakes" funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. Spatial distribution of random inhomogeneities is estimated by the inversion analysis of the peak delay time of small earthquakes [Takahashi et al. 2009], where the peak delay time is defined as the time lag from the S-wave onset to its maximal amplitude arrival. We assumed the von Karman type functional form for the PSDF. Peak delay times are measured from root mean squared envelopes at 4-8Hz, 8-16Hz and 16-32Hz. Inversion result can be summarized as follows. Random inhomogeneities beneath the Quaternary volcanoes are characterized by strong inhomogeneities at small spatial scale (~ a few hundreds meter) and weak spectral gradient
High-order harmonic generation from Rydberg atoms in inhomogeneous fields.
Wang, Zhe; He, Lixin; Luo, Jianghua; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang
2014-10-20
We theoretically investigate the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from Rydberg atoms considering the spatial inhomogeneity of the driving field. It is found that in the inhomogeneous field, the effect of the cutoff extension in the harmonic spectrum from Rydberg atoms can be extended to multi-cycle regime, while in the homogeneous field case, the extension of the harmonic cutoff is limited to the few-cycle regime (less than two optical cycles). The underlying physics of the cutoff extension from Rydberg atoms in the inhomogeneous field is analyzed based on the classical and quantum-mechanical models. Furthermore, by optimizing the field inhomogeneity, the electron dynamics can be well controlled to generate a smooth supercontinuum in the extended spectral region. This can support the efficient generation of isolated attosecond pulses in Rydberg atoms from multi-cycle laser fields.
Ising Critical Behavior of Inhomogeneous Curie-Weiss Models and Annealed Random Graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dommers, Sander; Giardinà, Cristian; Giberti, Claudio; van der Hofstad, Remco; Prioriello, Maria Luisa
2016-11-01
We study the critical behavior for inhomogeneous versions of the Curie-Weiss model, where the coupling constant {J_{ij}(β)} for the edge {ij} on the complete graph is given by {J_{ij}(β)=β w_iw_j/( {sum_{kin[N]}w_k})}. We call the product form of these couplings the rank-1 inhomogeneous Curie-Weiss model. This model also arises [with inverse temperature {β} replaced by {sinh(β)} ] from the annealed Ising model on the generalized random graph. We assume that the vertex weights {(w_i)_{iin[N]}} are regular, in the sense that their empirical distribution converges and the second moment converges as well. We identify the critical temperatures and exponents for these models, as well as a non-classical limit theorem for the total spin at the critical point. These depend sensitively on the number of finite moments of the weight distribution. When the fourth moment of the weight distribution converges, then the critical behavior is the same as on the (homogeneous) Curie-Weiss model, so that the inhomogeneity is weak. When the fourth moment of the weights converges to infinity, and the weights satisfy an asymptotic power law with exponent {τ} with {τin(3,5)}, then the critical exponents depend sensitively on {τ}. In addition, at criticality, the total spin {S_N} satisfies that {S_N/N^{(τ-2)/(τ-1)}} converges in law to some limiting random variable whose distribution we explicitly characterize.
Inhomogeneous Broadening in Perturbed Angular Correlation Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunker, Austin; Adams, Mike; Hodges, Jeffery; Park, Tyler; Stufflebeam, Michael; Evenson, William; Matheson, Phil; Zacate, Matthew
2009-10-01
Our research concerns the effect of a static distribution of defects on the net electric field gradient (EFG) within crystal structures. Defects and vacancies perturb the distribution of gamma rays emitted from radioactive probe nuclei within the crystal. These defects and vacancies produce a net EFG at the site of the probe which causes the magnetic quadrupole moment of the nucleus of the probe to precess about the EFG. The net EFG, which is strongly dependent upon the defect concentration, perturbs the angular correlation (PAC) of the gamma rays, and is seen in the damping of the perturbation function, G2(t), in time and broadening of the spectral peaks in the Fourier transform. We have used computer simulations to study the probability distribution of EFG tensor components in order to uncover the concentration dependence of G2(t). This in turn can be used to analyze experimental PAC data and quantitatively describe properties of the crystal.
Casimir stress in an inhomogeneous medium
Philbin, T.G. Xiong, C.; Leonhardt, U.
2010-03-15
The Casimir effect in an inhomogeneous dielectric is investigated using Lifshitz's theory of electromagnetic vacuum energy. A permittivity function that depends continuously on one Cartesian coordinate is chosen, bounded on each side by homogeneous dielectrics. The result for the Casimir stress is infinite everywhere inside the inhomogeneous region, a divergence that does not occur for piece-wise homogeneous dielectrics with planar boundaries. A Casimir force per unit volume can be extracted from the infinite stress but it diverges on the boundaries between the inhomogeneous medium and the homogeneous dielectrics. An alternative regularization of the vacuum stress is considered that removes the contribution of the inhomogeneity over small distances, where macroscopic electromagnetism is invalid. The alternative regularization yields a finite Casimir stress inside the inhomogeneous region, but the stress and force per unit volume diverge on the boundaries with the homogeneous dielectrics. The case of inhomogeneous dielectrics with planar boundaries thus falls outside the current understanding of the Casimir effect.
A Chebychev propagator for inhomogeneous Schroedinger equations
Ndong, Mamadou; Koch, Christiane P.; Tal-Ezer, Hillel; Kosloff, Ronnie
2009-03-28
A propagation scheme for time-dependent inhomogeneous Schroedinger equations is presented. Such equations occur in time dependent optimal control theory and in reactive scattering. A formal solution based on a polynomial expansion of the inhomogeneous term is derived. It is subjected to an approximation in terms of Chebychev polynomials. Different variants for the inhomogeneous propagator are demonstrated and applied to two examples from optimal control theory. Convergence behavior and numerical efficiency are analyzed.
Thomson scattering on inhomogeneous targets
Thiele, R.; Sperling, P.; Bornath, Th.; Kraeft, W.-D.; Redmer, R.; Chen, M.; Faeustlin, R. R.; Toleikis, S.; Fortmann, C.; Glenzer, S. H.; Pukhov, A.; Tschentscher, Th.
2010-11-15
The introduction of brilliant free-electron lasers enables new pump-probe experiments to characterize warm dense matter states. For instance, a short-pulse optical laser irradiates a liquid hydrogen jet that is subsequently probed with brilliant soft x-ray radiation. The strongly inhomogeneous plasma prepared by the optical laser is characterized with particle-in-cell simulations. The interaction of the soft x-ray probe radiation for different time delays between pump and probe with the inhomogeneous plasma is also taken into account via radiative hydrodynamic simulations. We calculate the respective scattering spectrum based on the Born-Mermin approximation for the dynamic structure factor considering the full density and temperature-dependent Thomson scattering cross section throughout the target. We can identify plasmon modes that are generated in different target regions and monitor their temporal evolution. Therefore, such pump-probe experiments are promising tools not only to measure the important plasma parameters density and temperature but also to gain valuable information about their time-dependent profile through the target. The method described here can be applied to various pump-probe scenarios by combining optical lasers and soft x ray, as well as x-ray sources.
Quasiadiabatic modes from viscous inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giovannini, Massimo
2016-04-01
The viscous inhomogeneities of a relativistic plasma determine a further class of entropic modes whose amplitude must be sufficiently small since curvature perturbations are observed to be predominantly adiabatic and Gaussian over large scales. When the viscous coefficients only depend on the energy density of the fluid the corresponding curvature fluctuations are shown to be almost adiabatic. After addressing the problem in a gauge-invariant perturbative expansion, the same analysis is repeated at a nonperturbative level by investigating the nonlinear curvature inhomogeneities induced by the spatial variation of the viscous coefficients. It is demonstrated that the quasiadiabatic modes are suppressed in comparison with a bona fide adiabatic solution. Because of its anomalously large tensor to scalar ratio the quasiadiabatic mode cannot be a substitute for the conventional adiabatic paradigm so that, ultimately, the present findings seems to exclude the possibility of a successful accelerated dynamics solely based on relativistic viscous fluids. If the dominant adiabatic mode is not affected by the viscosity of the background a sufficiently small fraction of entropic fluctuations of viscous origin cannot be a priori ruled out.
Scattering of electromagnetic wave by the layer with one-dimensional random inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kogan, Lev; Zaboronkova, Tatiana; Grigoriev, Gennadii., IV.
A great deal of attention has been paid to the study of probability characteristics of electro-magnetic waves scattered by one-dimensional fluctuations of medium dielectric permittivity. However, the problem of a determination of a density of a probability and average intensity of the field inside the stochastically inhomogeneous medium with arbitrary extension of fluc-tuations has not been considered yet. It is the purpose of the present report to find and to analyze the indicated functions for the plane electromagnetic wave scattered by the layer with one-dimensional fluctuations of permittivity. We assumed that the length and the amplitude of individual fluctuations as well the interval between them are random quantities. All of indi-cated fluctuation parameters are supposed as independent random values possessing Gaussian distribution. We considered the stationary time cases both small-scale and large-scale rarefied inhomogeneities. Mathematically such problem can be reduced to the solution of integral Fred-holm equation of second kind for Hertz potential (U). Using the decomposition of the field into the series of multiply scattered waves we obtained the expression for a probability density of the field of the plane wave and determined the moments of the scattered field. We have shown that all odd moments of the centered field (U-¡U¿) are equal to zero and the even moments depend on the intensity. It was obtained that the probability density of the field possesses the Gaussian distribution. The average field is small compared with the standard fluctuation of scattered field for all considered cases of inhomogeneities. The value of average intensity of the field is an order of a standard of fluctuations of field intensity and drops with increases the inhomogeneities length in the case of small-scale inhomogeneities. The behavior of average intensity is more complicated in the case of large-scale medium inhomogeneities. The value of average intensity is the
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goodrow, Mary Ellen
2000-01-01
Details how an unplanned activity involving spinning wool presented a teachable moment for children in a family child care setting. Notes how activities related to farming, spinning wool, and using wool cloth resulted from following the children's lead. Concludes that everyday activities provide opportunities to listen to children, learn about…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Higgins, Chris
2014-01-01
In "The Humanist Moment," Chris Higgins sets out to recover a tenable, living humanism, rejecting both the version vilified by the anti-humanists and the one sentimentalized by the reactionary nostalgists. Rescuing humanism from such polemics is only the first step, as we find at least nine rival, contemporary definitions of humanism.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Child & Youth Services, 2004
2004-01-01
This chapter presents additional stories and interpretations by John Korsmo, Molly Weingrod, Joseph Stanley, Quinn Wilder, Amy Evans, Rick Flowers, Arcelia Martinez, and Pam Ramsey. The stories and interpretations are presented as teachable moments that are examples of how people are learning to understand youthwork and, as such, are open to…
Pair production in inhomogeneous fields
Gies, Holger; Klingmueller, Klaus
2005-09-15
We employ the recently developed worldline numerics, which combines string-inspired field theory methods with Monte Carlo techniques, to develop an algorithm for the computation of pair-production rates in scalar QED for inhomogeneous background fields. We test the algorithm with the classic Sauter potential, for which we compute the local production rate for the first time. Furthermore, we study the production rate for a superposition of a constant E field and a spatially oscillating field for various oscillation frequencies. Our results reveal that the approximation by a local derivative expansion already fails for frequencies small compared to the electron-mass scale, whereas for strongly oscillating fields a derivative expansion for the averaged field represents an acceptable approximation. The worldline picture makes the nonlocal nature of pair production transparent and facilitates a profound understanding of this important quantum phenomenon.
Electromagnetic inhomogeneous waves at planar boundaries: tutorial.
Frezza, Fabrizio; Tedeschi, Nicola
2015-08-01
In this review paper, we summarize the fundamental properties of inhomogeneous waves at the planar interface between two media. We point out the main differences between the wave types: lateral waves, surface waves, and leaky waves. We analyze each kind of inhomogeneous wave, giving a quasi-optical description and explaining the physical origin of some of their properties.
Inhomogeneities of stratocumulus liquid water
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cahalan, Robert F.; Snider, Jack B.
1990-01-01
There is a growing body of observational evidence on inhomogeneous cloud structure, most recently from the extensive measurements of the FIRE field program. Knowledge of cloud structure is important because it strongly influences the cloud radiative properties, one of the major factors in determining the global energy balance. Current atmospheric circulation models use plane-parallel radiation, so that the liquid water in each gridbox is assumed to be uniform, which gives an unrealistically large albedo. In reality cloud liquid water occupies only a subset of each gridbox, greatly reducing the mean albedo. If future climate models are to treat the hydrological cycle in a manner consistent with energy balance, a better treatment of cloud liquid is needed. FIRE concentrated upon two cloud types of special interest: cirrus and marine stratocumulus. Cirrus tend to be high and optically thin, thus reducing the effective radiative temperature without increasing the albedo significantly, leading to an enhanced greenhouse heating. In contrast, marine stratocumulus are low and optically thick, thus producing a large increase in reflected radiation with a small change in emitted radiation, giving a net cooling which could potentially mitigate the expected greenhouse warming. The FIRE measurements in California stratocumulus during June and July of 1987 show variations in cloud liquid water on all scales. Such variations are associated with inhomogeneous entrainment, in which entrained dry air, rather than mixing uniformly with cloudy air, remains intact in blobs of all sizes, which decay only slowly by invasion of cloudy air. Two important stratocumulus observations are described, followed by a simple fractal model which reproduces these properties, and finally, the model radiative properties are discussed.
Quantifying uncertainty from material inhomogeneity.
Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Emery, John M.; Brewer, Luke N.; Boyce, Brad Lee
2009-09-01
Most engineering materials are inherently inhomogeneous in their processing, internal structure, properties, and performance. Their properties are therefore statistical rather than deterministic. These inhomogeneities manifest across multiple length and time scales, leading to variabilities, i.e. statistical distributions, that are necessary to accurately describe each stage in the process-structure-properties hierarchy, and are ultimately the primary source of uncertainty in performance of the material and component. When localized events are responsible for component failure, or when component dimensions are on the order of microstructural features, this uncertainty is particularly important. For ultra-high reliability applications, the uncertainty is compounded by a lack of data describing the extremely rare events. Hands-on testing alone cannot supply sufficient data for this purpose. To date, there is no robust or coherent method to quantify this uncertainty so that it can be used in a predictive manner at the component length scale. The research presented in this report begins to address this lack of capability through a systematic study of the effects of microstructure on the strain concentration at a hole. To achieve the strain concentration, small circular holes (approximately 100 {micro}m in diameter) were machined into brass tensile specimens using a femto-second laser. The brass was annealed at 450 C, 600 C, and 800 C to produce three hole-to-grain size ratios of approximately 7, 1, and 1/7. Electron backscatter diffraction experiments were used to guide the construction of digital microstructures for finite element simulations of uniaxial tension. Digital image correlation experiments were used to qualitatively validate the numerical simulations. The simulations were performed iteratively to generate statistics describing the distribution of plastic strain at the hole in varying microstructural environments. In both the experiments and simulations, the
Dynamic inhomogeneity in the photodynamics of cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1.
Kim, Peter W; Rockwell, Nathan C; Martin, Shelley S; Lagarias, J Clark; Larsen, Delmar S
2014-05-01
Phytochromes are widespread red/far-red photosensory proteins well known as critical regulators of photomorphogenesis in plants. It is often assumed that natural selection would have optimized the light sensing efficiency of phytochromes to minimize nonproductive photochemical deexcitation pathways. Surprisingly, the quantum efficiency for the forward Pr-to-Pfr photoconversion of phytochromes seldom exceeds 15%, a value very much lower than that of animal rhodopsins. Exploiting ultrafast excitation wavelength- and temperature-dependent transient absorption spectroscopy, we resolve multiple pathways within the ultrafast photodynamics of the N-terminal PAS-GAF-PHY photosensory core module of cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1 (termed Cph1Δ) that are primarily responsible for the overall low quantum efficiency. This inhomogeneity primarily reflects a long-lived fluorescent subpopulation that exists in equilibrium with a spectrally distinct, photoactive subpopulation. The fluorescent subpopulation is favored at elevated temperatures, resulting in anomalous excited-state dynamics (slower kinetics at higher temperatures). The spectral and kinetic behavior of the fluorescent subpopulation strongly resembles that of the photochemically compromised and highly fluorescent Y176H variant of Cph1Δ. We present an integrated, heterogeneous model for Cph1Δ that is based on the observed transient and static spectroscopic signals. Understanding the molecular basis for this dynamic inhomogeneity holds potential for rational design of efficient phytochrome-based fluorescent and photoswitchable probes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tajima, F.; Mayeda, K. M.; Dreger, D. S.; Wurman, G.
2002-12-01
The method of seismic moment-tensor determination using complete waveforms (Dreger and Helmberger, 1993; Pasyanos et al., 1996) provides stable solutions for local and regional events if the data propagation paths are well-calibrated to calculate Green's functions. However, this waveform modeling approach has a limitation to apply to smaller events with the cut-off magnitude of approximately 3.5 due to reduction of S/N ratios in the passband employed. We carried out an experiment to extend the moment magnitude scale to smaller events (M<3.5) in northern California using an empirical method of coda derived moment magnitude (Mw(coda)) calibration (Mayeda et al., 2002). The basic assumption of this approach is that the coda spectra are the results of scatters from randomly distributed inhomogeneities in the crust and represent seismic energy propagation, independent of the source radiation pattern, as a function of propagation distance with a specific attenuation rule. In practice we found that when the data propagation paths cross a wide range of different structural areas, the standard deviation of the parameters is large and the parameter estimation is less coherent. Thus, in the course of calibration the entire northern California is divided into several tectonic subregions, in each of which the calibration parameters are relatively coherent. The present study suggests a conservative application of the coda envelope calibration method to estimate Mw(coda) that avoids ambiguities.
Additional calculations of triton moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lally, D. F.; Levinger, J. S.
1982-02-01
The formalism of hyperspherical harmonics is used to calculate several moments of the triton photoeffect for a Volkov potential with Serber exchange. The accuracy of Clare's calculations of moments σ0 and σ1 is improved by including more terms in the hyperspherical harmonic expansion of the potential and of the ground state wave function. The moment σ2=8.9×104 MeV3 mb is calculated using one term in the hyperspherical harmonic expansions of the potential and wave function. We invert four moments and find reasonable agreement with Gorbunov's measurements of the 3He photoeffect. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Triton photoeffect, hyperspherical harmonics, moments of photoeffect, inversion of moments.
Localization of resistive domains in inhomogeneous superconductors
Gurevich, A.V.; Mints, R.G.
1981-01-01
The properties of resistive domains due to the Joule heating in inhomogeneous superconductors with transport currents are studied. The equilibrium of a domain at an inhomogeneity of arbitrary type and with dimensions much smaller than the dimensions of the domain is investigated. It is shown that resistive domains can become localized at inhomogeneities. The temperature distribution in a domain and the current--voltage characteristic of the domain are determined. The stability of localized domains is discussed. It is shown that such domains give rise to a hysteresis in the destruction (recovery) of the superconductivity by the transport current.
Inhomogeneous dephasing masks coherence lifetimes in ensemble measurements
Pelzer, Kenley M.; Griffin, Graham B.; Engel, Gregory S.; Gray, Stephen K.
2012-04-28
An open question at the forefront of modern physical sciences is what role, if any, quantum effects may play in biological sensing and energy transport mechanisms. One area of such research concerns the possibility of coherent energy transport in photosynthetic systems. Spectroscopic evidence of long-lived quantum coherence in photosynthetic light-harvesting pigment protein complexes (PPCs), along with theoretical modeling of PPCs, has indicated that coherent energy transport might boost efficiency of energy transport in photosynthesis. Accurate assessment of coherence lifetimes is crucial for modeling the extent to which quantum effects participate in this energy transfer, because such quantum effects can only contribute to mechanisms proceeding on timescales over which the coherences persist. While spectroscopy is a useful way to measure coherence lifetimes, inhomogeneity in the transition energies across the measured ensemble may lead to underestimation of coherence lifetimes from spectroscopic experiments. Theoretical models of antenna complexes generally model a single system, and direct comparison of single system models to ensemble averaged experimental data may lead to systematic underestimation of coherence lifetimes, distorting much of the current discussion. In this study, we use simulations of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex to model single complexes as well as averaged ensembles to demonstrate and roughly quantify the effect of averaging over an inhomogeneous ensemble on measured coherence lifetimes. We choose to model the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex because that system has been a focus for much of the recent discussion of quantum effects in biology, and use an early version of the well known environment-assisted quantum transport model to facilitate straightforward comparison between the current model and past work. Although ensemble inhomogeneity is known to lead to shorter lifetimes of observed oscillations (simply inhomogeneous spectral
Holographic confinement in inhomogeneous backgrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marolf, Donald; Wien, Jason
2016-08-01
As noted by Witten, compactifying a d-dimensional holographic CFT on an S 1 gives a class of ( d - 1)-dimensional confining theories with gravity duals. The proto-typical bulk solution dual to the ground state is a double Wick rotation of the AdS d+1 Schwarzschild black hole known as the AdS soliton. We generalize such examples by allowing slow variations in the size of the S 1, and thus in the confinement scale. Coefficients governing the second order response of the system are computed for 3 ≤ d ≤ 8 using a derivative expansion closely related to the fluid-gravity correspondence. The primary physical results are that i) gauge-theory flux tubes tend to align orthogonal to gradients and along the eigenvector of the Hessian with the lowest eigenvalue, ii) flux tubes aligned orthogonal to gradients are attracted to gradients for d ≤ 6 but repelled by gradients for d ≥ 7, iii) flux tubes are repelled by regions where the second derivative along the tube is large and positive but are attracted to regions where the eigenvalues of the Hessian are large and positive in directions orthogonal to the tube, and iv) for d > 3, inhomogeneities act to raise the total energy of the confining vacuum above its zeroth order value.
Pair-production in inhomogeneous electric fields
Xue Shesheng
2008-01-03
This is a preliminary study on the rate of electron-positron pair production in spatially inhomogeneous electric fields. We study the rate in the Sauter field and compare it to the rate in the homogeneous field.
Vacuum bubble in an inhomogeneous cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischler, W.; Paban, S.; Žanić, M.; Krishnan, C.
2008-05-01
We study the propagation of bubbles of new vacuum in a radially inhomogeneous Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi background that includes a cosmological constant. This exemplifies the classical evolution of a tunneling bubble through a metastable state with curvature inhomogeneities, and will be relevant in the context of the Landscape. We demand that the matter profile in the LTB background satisfy the weak energy condition. For sample profiles that satisfy this restriction, we find that the evolution of the bubble (in terms of the physically relevant coordinates intrinsic to the shell) is largely unaffected by the presence of local inhomogeneities. Our setup should also be a useful toy model for capturing the effects of ambient inhomogeneities on an inflating region.
Wittmann, Marc
2011-01-01
It has been suggested that perception and action can be understood as evolving in temporal epochs or sequential processing units. Successive events are fused into units forming a unitary experience or “psychological present.” Studies have identified several temporal integration levels on different time scales which are fundamental for our understanding of behavior and subjective experience. In recent literature concerning the philosophy and neuroscience of consciousness these separate temporal processing levels are not always precisely distinguished. Therefore, empirical evidence from psychophysics and neuropsychology on these distinct temporal processing levels is presented and discussed within philosophical conceptualizations of time experience. On an elementary level, one can identify a functional moment, a basic temporal building block of perception in the range of milliseconds that defines simultaneity and succession. Below a certain threshold temporal order is not perceived, individual events are processed as co-temporal. On a second level, an experienced moment, which is based on temporal integration of up to a few seconds, has been reported in many qualitatively different experiments in perception and action. It has been suggested that this segmental processing mechanism creates temporal windows that provide a logistical basis for conscious representation and the experience of nowness. On a third level of integration, continuity of experience is enabled by working memory in the range of multiple seconds allowing the maintenance of cognitive operations and emotional feelings, leading to mental presence, a temporal window of an individual’s experienced presence. PMID:22022310
Diffraction by spherically symmetric inhomogeneous scatterers
Perel`man, A.Y.
1995-05-01
The problem of diffraction by scatterers optically inhomogeneous in the radial direction illuminated by sources with a fixed azimuthal structure is solved. Standard models are proposed for approximating the exact solution of the problem, in which partial potentials are represented in terms of exponential and exponential and cylindrical functions, and the corresponding algorithms for solving the problem are developed. A formula is deduced for the scattering cross section of a radially inhomogeneous sphere. 8 refs.
Inhomogeneous Einstein-Rosen string cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clancy, Dominic; Feinstein, Alexander; Lidsey, James E.; Tavakol, Reza
1999-08-01
Families of anisotropic and inhomogeneous string cosmologies containing non-trivial dilaton and axion fields are derived by applying the global symmetries of the string effective action to a generalized Einstein-Rosen metric. The models exhibit a two-dimensional group of Abelian isometries. In particular, two classes of exact solutions are found that represent inhomogeneous generalizations of the Bianchi type VIh cosmology. The asymptotic behavior of the solutions is investigated and further applications are briefly discussed.
Inhomogeneities Between and Within Moldavites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lange, J.-M.; Meisel, T.
1995-09-01
Tektites of unusual chemical or textural composition can give us clues to a range of source materials involved in the formation of the whole population of ejected glasses. Inhomogeneities of moldavites are well known [e.g. 1, 2]. There have been several reports on Muong Nong or layered tektites in the moldavite strewn field [e.g. 3]. In a systematical study of 69 specimens of Lusatia and also from the Czech subfields (Moravia, Bohemia, Radomilice) new glasses were discovered with unusual composition. To the etablished groups of: Normal moldavites (SiO2 76-80 wt%, CaO/MgO about 1.3) including the Bohemian (MgO > 1.5 wt%, CaO > 2 wt%) and Moravian (MgO < 1.5 wt%, CaO < 2 wt%) types, HSi-moldavites (> 80 wt% SiO2) which is common in the Radomilice subfield, HCa/Mg-moldavites (CaO/MgO > 2) first described by [4], HFe-moldavites (Fe-rich moldavites FeO > 2 wt% and SiO2 typically < 76 wt% reported by [5] and layered moldavite (one specimen described by [3], with textural similiarities to Muong Nong-type tektites),we want to add new types found at Jankov (Bohemia) and Trebic (Moravia), "MB-JKV12", which is characterized by two optically distinct components of distinct chemical composition: 1. low SiO2 and high FeO (dark colored) areas and 2. areas of normal moldavite composition (pale areas). The halogen content and Cl/Br ratio are similiar to layered tektites from Indochina [6]. Figure 1 displays the inhomogeneity of this sample in the chemical composition of the two areas and "MM-TRB1" a LCa/Mg-moldavite with an low CaO/MgO-ratio of 0.5. In a diagram Eu versus CaO most of the groups above can be discriminated. New REE-analysis of MB-CLM1 (a HCa/Mg type) done with ID-MS display a less pronounced negative Eu anomaly compared to a normal moldavite from the same locality (MB-CLM2). The high Ca and higher Eu content could be indicative of a higher proportion of plagioclas in the source of this specimen. Whereas the Moravia specimens are very homogenous in their element
How Forest Inhomogeneities Affect the Edge Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boudreault, Louis-Étienne; Dupont, Sylvain; Bechmann, Andreas; Dellwik, Ebba
2016-09-01
Most of our knowledge on forest-edge flows comes from numerical and wind-tunnel experiments where canopies are horizontally homogeneous. To investigate the impact of tree-scale heterogeneities ({>}1 m) on the edge-flow dynamics, the flow in an inhomogeneous forest edge on Falster island in Denmark is investigated using large-eddy simulation. The three-dimensional forest structure is prescribed in the model using high resolution helicopter-based lidar scans. After evaluating the simulation against wind measurements upwind and downwind of the forest leading edge, the flow dynamics are compared between the scanned forest and an equivalent homogeneous forest. The simulations reveal that forest inhomogeneities facilitate flow penetration into the canopy from the edge, inducing important dispersive fluxes in the edge region as a consequence of the flow spatial variability. Further downstream from the edge, the forest inhomogeneities accentuate the canopy-top turbulence and the skewness of the wind-velocity components while the momentum flux remains unchanged. This leads to a lower efficiency in the turbulent transport of momentum within the canopy. Dispersive fluxes are only significant in the upper canopy. Above the canopy, the mean flow is less affected by the forest inhomogeneities. The inhomogeneities induce an increase in the mean wind speed that was found to be equivalent to a decrease in the aerodynamic height of the canopy. Overall, these results highlight the importance of forest inhomogeneities when looking at canopy-atmosphere exchanges in forest-edge regions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, T.; Obana, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nakanishi, A.; Kaiho, Y.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.
2012-12-01
The Nankai trough in southwestern Japan is a convergent margin where the Philippine sea plate is subducted beneath the Eurasian plate. There are major faults segments of huge earthquakes that are called Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes. According to the earthquake occurrence history over the past hundreds years, we must expect various rupture patters such as simultaneous or nearly continuous ruptures of plural fault segments. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) conducted seismic surveys at Nankai trough in order to clarify mutual relations between seismic structures and fault segments, as a part of "Research concerning Interaction Between the Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai Earthquakes" funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. This study evaluated the spatial distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities from Hyuga-nada to Kii-channel by using velocity seismograms of small and moderate sized earthquakes. Random velocity inhomogeneities are estimated by the peak delay time analysis of S-wave envelopes (e.g., Takahashi et al. 2009). Peak delay time is defined as the time lag from the S-wave onset to its maximal amplitude arrival. This quantity mainly reflects the accumulated multiple forward scattering effect due to random inhomogeneities, and is quite insensitive to the inelastic attenuation. Peak delay times are measured from the rms envelopes of horizontal components at 4-8Hz, 8-16Hz and 16-32Hz. This study used the velocity seismograms that are recorded by 495 ocean bottom seismographs and 378 onshore seismic stations. Onshore stations are composed of the F-net and Hi-net stations that are maintained by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) of Japan. It is assumed that the random inhomogeneities are represented by the von Karman type PSDF. Preliminary result of inversion analysis shows that spectral gradient of PSDF (i.e., scale dependence of
2-D Inhomogeneous Modeling of the Solar CO Bands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayres, T. R.
1996-05-01
The recent discovery of off-limb emissions in the mid-IR ( ~ 5 mu m) vibration-rotation bands of solar carbon monoxide (CO) has sparked new interest in the formation of the molecular lines, and their ability to diagnose thermal conditions at high altitudes. The off-limb extensions of the strong CO lines indicate the penetration of cool material (T ~ 3500 K) several hundred kilometers into the otherwise hot (T ~ 6000 K) chromosphere. The origin of the cool gas, and its role in the thermal energy balance, remain controversial. The interpretation of the CO observations must rely heavily upon numerical modeling, in particular highly-inhomogeneous thermal structures arrayed in a 2-D scheme that can properly treat the geometry of the grazing rays at the solar limb. The radiation transport, itself, is especially simple for the CO off-limb emissions, because the fundamental bands form quite close to LTE (high collision rates; low spontaneous decay rates) and the background continuum is purely thermal as well (f--f transitions in H(-) and H). Thus, the geometrical aspects of the problem can be treated in considerably more detail than would be practical for typical NLTE scattering lines. I describe the recent modeling efforts, and the diagnostic potential of the CO bands for future observational studies of inhomogeneous surface structure on the Sun, and on other stars of late spectral type. This work was supported by NSF grant AST-9218063 to the University of Colorado.
Efficient vector radiative transfer calculations in vertically inhomogeneous cloudy atmospheres.
van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Hasekamp, Otto P; Landgraf, Jochen
2006-08-10
Accurate radiative transfer calculations in cloudy atmospheres are generally time consuming, limiting their practical use in satellite remote sensing applications. We present a model to efficiently calculate the radiative transfer of polarized light in atmospheres that contain homogeneous cloud layers. This model combines the Gauss-Seidel method, which is efficient for inhomogeneous cloudless atmospheres, with the doubling method, which is efficient for homogeneous cloud layers. Additionally to reduce the computational effort for radiative transfer calculations in absorption bands, the cloud reflection and transmission matrices are interpolated over the absorption and scattering optical thicknesses within the cloud layer. We demonstrate that the proposed radiative transfer model in combination with this interpolation technique is efficient for the simulation of satellite measurements for inhomogeneous atmospheres containing one homogeneous cloud layer. For example, the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) measurements in the oxygen A band (758-773 nm) and the Hartley-Huggins ozone band (295-335 nm) with a spectral resolution of 0.4 nm can be simulated for these atmospheres within 1 min on a 2.8 GHz PC with an accuracy better than 0.1%.
Theoretical study of inhomogenous fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noworyta, Jerzy Piotr
1998-07-01
Binary, additive mixtures of hard spheres near the structureless 'hard' walls are studied with the grand canonical Monte Carlo (MC) simulation method. Binary mixtures of hard spheres and hard sphere systems in the neighborhood of hard walls had been studied separately before. This research for the first time incorporates both elements. A brief survey of the alternative methods that can be applied to study inhomogenous fluid systems is presented, with special attention paid to the integral equation theory. Well-known formulas utilizing the idea of a radial distribution function and a direct correlation function to describe the thermodynamics of the uniform hard sphere fluid through the solution of the Ornstein- Zernike (OZ) integral equation within the Percus-Yevick (PY) closure are given, as well as their generalization to the mixtures. Also presented are the empirical expressions (BMCSL), based on the PY and the scaled particle theory (SPT). The main features of the model assumed for the purpose of this study are hard spheres of two sizes, the conditions of the grand canonical ensemble and the existence of two parallel flat and structureless walls. In contrast to some recently published results, chemical potential is held constant for both species. Some details of the application of the classical Monte Carlo method to the investigated model are presented, including the procedure to ensure an unbiased Markov chain of states. The results of the simulation are analyzed with special attention to the choice of the equilibration point and the extrapolation of the density to the contact separation from the wall. The standard deviation is estimated through the block average method. Results are presented for the mixtures of hard spheres with a 3:5 and 1:3 diameter ratio. The applied range of chemical potentials allowed the simulation of moderately high densities, below the packing fraction of 0.4. Generally, the plots of the obtained reduced density profiles show good
Laser-driven electron acceleration in an inhomogeneous plasma channel
Zhang, Rong; Cheng, Li-Hong; Xue, Ju-Kui
2015-12-15
We study the laser-driven electron acceleration in a transversely inhomogeneous plasma channel. We find that, in inhomogeneous plasma channel, the developing of instability for electron acceleration and the electron energy gain can be controlled by adjusting the laser polarization angle and inhomogeneity of plasma channel. That is, we can short the accelerating length and enhance the energy gain in inhomogeneous plasma channel by adjusting the laser polarization angle and inhomogeneity of the plasma channel.
Preconditioned iterative methods for inhomogeneous acoustic scattering applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sifuentes, Josef
This thesis develops and analyzes efficient iterative methods for solving discretizations of the Lippmann--Schwinger integral equation for inhomogeneous acoustic scattering. Analysis and numerical illustrations of the spectral properties of the scattering problem demonstrate that a significant portion of the spectrum is approximated well on coarse grids. To exploit this, I develop a novel restarted GMRES method with adaptive deflation preconditioning based on spectral approximations on multiple grids. Much of the literature in this field is based on exact deflation, which is not feasible for most practical computations. This thesis provides an analytical framework for general approximate deflation methods and suggests a way to rigorously study a host of inexactly-applied preconditioners. Approximate deflation algorithms are implemented for scattering through thin inhomogeneities in photonic band gap problems. I also develop a short term recurrence for solving the one dimensional version of the problem that exploits the observation that the integral operator is a low rank perturbation of a self-adjoint operator. This method is based on strategies for solving Schur complement problems, and provides an alternative to a recent short term recurrence algorithm for matrices with such structure that we show to be numerically unstable for this application. The restarted GMRES method with adaptive deflation preconditioning over multiple grids, as well as the short term recurrence method for operators with low rank skew-adjoint parts, are very effective for reducing both the computational time and computer memory required to solve acoustic scattering problems. Furthermore, the methods are sufficiently general to be applicable to a wide class of problems.
Light propagation and large-scale inhomogeneities
Brouzakis, Nikolaos; Tetradis, Nikolaos; Tzavara, Eleftheria E-mail: ntetrad@phys.uoa.gr
2008-04-15
We consider the effect on the propagation of light of inhomogeneities with sizes of order 10 Mpc or larger. The Universe is approximated through a variation of the Swiss-cheese model. The spherical inhomogeneities are void-like, with central underdensities surrounded by compensating overdense shells. We study the propagation of light in this background, assuming that the source and the observer occupy random positions, so that each beam travels through several inhomogeneities at random angles. The distribution of luminosity distances for sources with the same redshift is asymmetric, with a peak at a value larger than the average one. The width of the distribution and the location of the maximum increase with increasing redshift and length scale of the inhomogeneities. We compute the induced dispersion and bias of cosmological parameters derived from the supernova data. They are too small to explain the perceived acceleration without dark energy, even when the length scale of the inhomogeneities is comparable to the horizon distance. Moreover, the dispersion and bias induced by gravitational lensing at the scales of galaxies or clusters of galaxies are larger by at least an order of magnitude.
Inquiry-Based Science: Turning Teachable Moments into Learnable Moments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haug, Berit S.
2014-01-01
This study examines how an inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning creates teachable moments that can foster conceptual understanding in students, and how teachers capitalize upon these moments. Six elementary school teachers were videotaped as they implemented an integrated inquiry-based science and literacy curriculum in their…
Spectral and Spread Spectral Teleportation
Humble, Travis S
2010-01-01
We report how quantum information encoded into the spectral degree of freedom of a single-photon state is teleported using a finite spectrally entangled biphoton state. We further demonstrate how the bandwidth of a teleported waveform can be controllably and coherently dilated using a spread spectral variant of teleportation. We present analytical fidelities for spectral and spread spectral teleportation when complex-valued Gaussian states are prepared using a proposed experimental approach, and we discuss the utility of these techniques for integrating broad-bandwidth photonic qubits with narrow-bandwidth receivers in quantum communication systems.
Beginning inflation in an inhomogeneous universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
East, William E.; Kleban, Matthew; Linde, Andrei; Senatore, Leonardo
2016-09-01
Using numerical solutions of the full Einstein field equations coupled to a scalar inflaton field in 3+1 dimensions, we study the conditions under which a universe that is initially expanding, highly inhomogeneous and dominated by gradient energy can transition to an inflationary period. If the initial scalar field variations are contained within a sufficiently flat region of the inflaton potential, and the universe is spatially flat or open on average, inflation will occur following the dilution of the gradient and kinetic energy due to expansion. This is the case even when the scale of the inhomogeneities is comparable to the initial Hubble length, and overdense regions collapse and form black holes, because underdense regions continue expanding, allowing inflation to eventually begin. This establishes that inflation can arise from highly inhomogeneous initial conditions and solve the horizon and flatness problems, at least as long as the variations in the scalar field do not include values that exceed the inflationary plateau.
FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Big Bounce and inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brizuela, David; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Pawłowski, Tomasz
2010-03-01
The dynamics of an inhomogeneous universe is studied with the methods of loop quantum cosmology, via a so-called hybrid quantization, as an example of the quantization of vacuum cosmological spacetimes containing gravitational waves (Gowdy spacetimes). The analysis of this model with an infinite number of degrees of freedom, performed at the effective level, shows that (i) the initial Big Bang singularity is replaced (as in the case of homogeneous cosmological models) by a Big Bounce, joining deterministically two large universes, (ii) the universe size at the bounce is at least of the same order of magnitude as that of the background homogeneous universe and (iii) for each gravitational wave mode, the difference in amplitude at very early and very late times has a vanishing statistical average when the bounce dynamics is strongly dominated by the inhomogeneities, whereas this average is positive when the dynamics is in a near-vacuum regime, so that statistically the inhomogeneities are amplified.
Refraction in electrically thin inhomogeneous media.
Ruphuy, Miguel; Ramahi, Omar M
2016-04-01
This work presents a new formulation for refraction from flat electrically thin lenses and reflectors comprised of inhomogeneous material. Inhomogeneous electrically thin flat lenses and reflectors cannot make use of the Snell law since this classical formulation works solely at interfaces of planar homogeneous media. The refraction of a perpendicularly incident plane wave at a planar interface is physically explained through the phase advance of the rays within the medium. The Huygens principle is then used to construct the refracted wavefront. The formulation is validated using numerical full wave simulation for several examples where the refractive angle is predicted with good accuracy. Furthermore, the formulation gives a physical insight of the phenomenon of refraction from electrically thin inhomogeneous media.
Exact sum rules for inhomogeneous strings
Amore, Paolo
2013-11-15
We derive explicit expressions for the sum rules of the eigenvalues of inhomogeneous strings with arbitrary density and with different boundary conditions. We show that the sum rule of order N may be obtained in terms of a diagrammatic expansion, with (N−1)!/2 independent diagrams. These sum rules are used to derive upper and lower bounds to the energy of the fundamental mode of an inhomogeneous string; we also show that it is possible to improve these approximations taking into account the asymptotic behavior of the spectrum and applying the Shanks transformation to the sequence of approximations obtained to the different orders. We discuss three applications of these results. -- Highlights: •We derive an explicit expression for the sum rules of an inhomogeneous string. •We obtain a diagrammatic representation for the sum rules of a given order. •We obtain precise bounds on the lowest eigenvalue of the string.
Polarization and adiabatic pumping in inhomogeneous crystals.
Xiao, Di; Shi, Junren; Clougherty, Dennis P; Niu, Qian
2009-02-27
We develop a general theory of electric polarization in crystals with inhomogeneous order. We show that the inhomogeneity-induced polarization can be classified into two parts: a perturbative contribution stemming from a correction to the basis functions and a topological contribution described in terms of the Chern-Simons form of the Berry gauge fields. The latter is determined up to an uncertainty quantum, which is the second Chern number in appropriate units. Our theory provides an exhaustive link between microscopic models and the macroscopic polarization. PMID:19257787
Polarization and Adiabatic Pumping in Inhomogeneous Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Di; Shi, Junren; Clougherty, Dennis P.; Niu, Qian
2009-02-01
We develop a general theory of electric polarization in crystals with inhomogeneous order. We show that the inhomogeneity-induced polarization can be classified into two parts: a perturbative contribution stemming from a correction to the basis functions and a topological contribution described in terms of the Chern-Simons form of the Berry gauge fields. The latter is determined up to an uncertainty quantum, which is the second Chern number in appropriate units. Our theory provides an exhaustive link between microscopic models and the macroscopic polarization.
Annealed and quenched inhomogeneous cellular automata (INCA)
Vichniac, G.Y.; Tamayo, P.; Hartman, H.
1986-12-01
A probabilistic one-dimensional cellular automaton model by Domany and Kinzel is mapped into an inhomogeneous cellular automaton with the Boolean functions XOR an AND as transition rules. Wolfram's classification is recovered by varying the frequency of these two simple rules and by quenching or annealing the inhomogeneity. In particular, ''class 4'' is related to critical behavior in directed percolation. Also, the critical slowing down of second-order phase transitions is related to a stochastic version of the classical ''halting problem'' of computation theory.
On electromagnetic field problems in inhomogeneous media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mohsen, A.
1973-01-01
Analysis of electromagnetic fields in inhomogeneous media is of practical interest in general scattering and propagation problems and in the study of lenses. For certain types of inhomogeneities, the fields may be represented in terms of two scalars. In a general orthogonal coordinate system, these potentials satisfy second order differential equations. Exact solutions of these equations are known only for a few particular cases and in general, an approximate or numerical technique must be employed. The present work reviews and generalizes some of the main methods of attack of the problem. The results are presented in a form appropriate for numerical computation.
spectral-cube: Read and analyze astrophysical spectral data cubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robitaille, Thomas; Ginsburg, Adam; Beaumont, Chris; Leroy, Adam; Rosolowsky, Erik
2016-09-01
Spectral-cube provides an easy way to read, manipulate, analyze, and write data cubes with two positional dimensions and one spectral dimension, optionally with Stokes parameters. It is a versatile data container for building custom analysis routines. It provides a uniform interface to spectral cubes, robust to the wide range of conventions of axis order, spatial projections, and spectral units that exist in the wild, and allows easy extraction of cube sub-regions using physical coordinates. It has the ability to create, combine, and apply masks to datasets and is designed to work with datasets too large to load into memory, and provide basic summary statistic methods like moments and array aggregates.
Inhomogeneous generalization of some Bianchi models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carmeli, M.; Charach, Ch.
1980-02-01
Vacuum Bianchi models which can be transformed to the Einstein-Rosen metric are considered. The models are used in order to construct new inhomogeneous universes, which are generalizations of Bianchi cosmologies of types III, V and VIh. Recent generalizations of these Bianchi models, considered by Wainwright et al., are also discussed.
Optical properties of nonextensive inhomogeneous plasma sheath
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mousavi, A.; Esfandiari-Kalejahi, A.; Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.
2016-07-01
Propagation of electromagnetic wave through an inhomogeneous magnetized nonextensive plasma sheath is numerically examined for a realistic density profile of a reentry problem around a hypersonic vehicle. The effect of nonextensivity and inhomogeneity on radio wave communication is studied parametrically. Variation of reflection and transmission coefficients, total attenuation, and total phase shift over the plasma sheath with respect to the strength of applied magnetic field are derived and compared for different values of q-nonextensive parameter. The obtained results for inhomogeneous plasma sheath are compared with previously obtained results of authors for homogeneous plasma sheath. The comparison shows that radio communication in the inhomogeneous plasma sheath is more advantageous than that in the homogeneous case. The transmission coefficient of a plasma sheath with superthermal electrons ( /1 3 < q < 1 ) has larger value compared to that with q > 1. Moreover, for ω c e > ω , the minimum value of total attenuation corresponds to the range /1 3 < q < 1 . An interesting result is that nonextensivity effect on wave propagation in plasma sheath depends on the strength of the ambient magnetic field. The effect of nonextensivity on attenuation coefficient is found to be negligible for ω c e < ω while it is significant for ω c e > ω .
Mesoscale inhomogeneities in an aqueous ternary system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subramanian, Deepa; Hayward, Stephen; Altabet, Elia; Collings, Peter; Anisimov, Mikhail
2012-02-01
Aqueous solutions of certain low-molecular-weight organic compounds, such as alcohols, amines, or ethers, which are considered macroscopically homogeneous, show the presence of mysterious mesoscale inhomogeneities, order of a hundred nm in size. We have performed static and dynamic light scattering experiments in an aqueous ternary system consisting of tertiary butyl alcohol and propylene oxide. Tertiary butyl alcohol is completely soluble in water and in propylene oxide, and forms strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Based on results of the study, we hypothesize that the mesoscale inhomogeneities are akin to a micro phase separation, resulting from a competition between water molecules and propylene oxide molecules, wanting to be adjacent to amphiphilic tertiary butyl alcohol molecules. Coupling between two competing order parameters, super-lattice binary-alloy-like (``antiferromagnetic'' type) and demixing (``ferromagnetic'' type) may explain the formation of these inhomogeneities. Long-term stability investigation of this supramolecular structure has revealed that these inhomogeneities are exceptionally long-lived non-equilibrium structures that persist for weeks or even months.
No hair theorem for inhomogeneous cosmologies
Jensen, L.G.; Stein-Schabes, J.A.
1986-03-01
We show that under very general conditions any inhomogeneous cosmological model with a positive cosmological constant, that can be described in a synchronous reference system will tend asymptotically in time towards the de Sitter solution. This is shown to be relevant in the context of inflationary models as it makes inflation very weakly dependent on initial conditions. 8 refs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Tsutomu; Obana, Koichiro; Yamamoto, Yojiro; Nakanishi, Ayako; Kodaira, Shuichi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki
2013-05-01
waves at high frequencies (>1 Hz) show collapsed and broadened wave trains caused by multiple scattering in the lithosphere. This study analyzed the envelopes of direct S waves in southwestern Japan and on the western side of the Nankai trough and estimated the spatial distribution of random inhomogeneities by assuming a von Kármán type power spectral density function (PSDF). Strongly inhomogeneous media have been mostly imaged at shallow depth (0-20 km depth) in the onshore area of southwestern Japan, and their PSDF is represented as P(m) ≈ 0.05m-3.7 km3, with m being the spatial wave number, whereas most of the other area shows weak inhomogeneities of which PSDF is P(m) ≈ 0.005m-4.5 km3. At Hyuga-nada in Nankai trough, there is an anomaly of inhomogeneity of which PSDF is estimated as P(m) ≈ 0.01m-4.5 km3. This PSDF has the similar spectral gradient with the weakly inhomogeneous media, but has larger power spectral density than other offshore areas. This anomalous region is broadly located in the subducted Kyushu Palau ridge, which was identified by using velocity structures and bathymetry, and it shows no clear correlation with the fault zones of large earthquakes in past decades. These spatial correlations suggest that possible origins of inhomogeneities at Hyuga-nada are ancient volcanic activity in the oceanic plate or deformed structures due to the subduction of the Kyushu Palau ridge.
Point estimates for probability moments
Rosenblueth, Emilio
1975-01-01
Given a well-behaved real function Y of a real random variable X and the first two or three moments of X, expressions are derived for the moments of Y as linear combinations of powers of the point estimates y(x+) and y(x-), where x+ and x- are specific values of X. Higher-order approximations and approximations for discontinuous Y using more point estimates are also given. Second-moment approximations are generalized to the case when Y is a function of several variables. PMID:16578731
Avakyants, L. P.; Bokov, P. Yu.; Galiev, G. B.; Kazakov, I. P.; Chervyakov, A. V.
2015-09-15
GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well heterostructures with well widths from 20 to 35 nm are investigated by photoreflectance spectroscopy. The broadening of spectral lines related to band-to-band transitions increases with the transition energy and decreases with the well width. The observed decrease in the broadening parameter with increasing well width is explained in terms of spatial inhomogeneity of the heterointerfaces. According to the experimental data, the interface inhomogeneity in the structures under study is 0.34–0.39 nm (1.3–1.4 monolayers)
Radiation reaction of multipole moments
Kazinski, P. O.
2007-08-15
A Poincare-invariant description is proposed for the effective dynamics of a localized system of charged particles in classical electrodynamics in terms of the intrinsic multipole moments of the system. A relativistic-invariant definition for the intrinsic multipole moments of a system of charged particles is given. A new generally covariant action functional for a relativistic perfect fluid is proposed. In the case of relativistic charged dust, it is proven that the description of the problem of radiation reaction of multipole moments by the model of particles is equivalent to the description of this problem by a hydrodynamic model. An effective model is obtained for a pointlike neutral system of charged particles that possesses an intrinsic dipole moment, and the free dynamics of this system is described. The bound momentum of a point dipole is found.
Radiation reaction of multipole moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazinski, P. O.
2007-08-01
A Poincaré-invariant description is proposed for the effective dynamics of a localized system of charged particles in classical electrodynamics in terms of the intrinsic multipole moments of the system. A relativistic-invariant definition for the intrinsic multipole moments of a system of charged particles is given. A new generally covariant action functional for a relativistic perfect fluid is proposed. In the case of relativistic charged dust, it is proven that the description of the problem of radiation reaction of multipole moments by the model of particles is equivalent to the description of this problem by a hydrodynamic model. An effective model is obtained for a pointlike neutral system of charged particles that possesses an intrinsic dipole moment, and the free dynamics of this system is described. The bound momentum of a point dipole is found.
Radar image sequence analysis of inhomogeneous water surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seemann, Joerg; Senet, Christian M.; Dankert, Heiko; Hatten, Helge; Ziemer, Friedwart
1999-10-01
The radar backscatter from the ocean surface, called sea clutter, is modulated by the surface wave field. A method was developed to estimate the near-surface current, the water depth and calibrated surface wave spectra from nautical radar image sequences. The algorithm is based on the three- dimensional Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) of the spatio- temporal sea clutter pattern in the wavenumber-frequency domain. The dispersion relation is used to define a filter to separate the spectral signal of the imaged waves from the background noise component caused by speckle noise. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) contains information about the significant wave height. The method has been proved to be reliable for the analysis of homogeneous water surfaces in offshore installations. Radar images are inhomogeneous because of the dependency of the image transfer function (ITF) on the azimuth angle between the wave propagation and the antenna viewing direction. The inhomogeneity of radar imaging is analyzed using image sequences of a homogeneous deep-water surface sampled by a ship-borne radar. Changing water depths in shallow-water regions induce horizontal gradients of the tidal current. Wave refraction occurs due to the spatial variability of the current and water depth. These areas cannot be investigated with the standard method. A new method, based on local wavenumber estimation with the multiple-signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm, is outlined. The MUSIC algorithm provides superior wavenumber resolution on local spatial scales. First results, retrieved from a radar image sequence taken from an installation at a coastal site, are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edwards, Benjamin; Allmann, Bettina; Fäh, Donat; Clinton, John
2010-10-01
Moment magnitudes (MW) are computed for small and moderate earthquakes using a spectral fitting method. 40 of the resulting values are compared with those from broadband moment tensor solutions and found to match with negligible offset and scatter for available MW values of between 2.8 and 5.0. Using the presented method, MW are computed for 679 earthquakes in Switzerland with a minimum ML = 1.3. A combined bootstrap and orthogonal L1 minimization is then used to produce a scaling relation between ML and MW. The scaling relation has a polynomial form and is shown to reduce the dependence of the predicted MW residual on magnitude relative to an existing linear scaling relation. The computation of MW using the presented spectral technique is fully automated at the Swiss Seismological Service, providing real-time solutions within 10 minutes of an event through a web-based XML database. The scaling between ML and MW is explored using synthetic data computed with a stochastic simulation method. It is shown that the scaling relation can be explained by the interaction of attenuation, the stress-drop and the Wood-Anderson filter. For instance, it is shown that the stress-drop controls the saturation of the ML scale, with low-stress drops (e.g. 0.1-1.0 MPa) leading to saturation at magnitudes as low as ML = 4.
Second Moments (planar Moments) and Their Application in Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohn, Robert K.; Montgomery, John A., Jr.; Michels, H. Harvey; Byrd, Jason N.
2013-06-01
Second moments, also called planar moments (P_{ii} = Σ m_{i}^{} x_{i}^{2}), are the spectroscopic parameters used to determine substitution structures (r_{s}) ) by Kraitchman''s method from spectra of a molecule and its isotopologs. They are also useful for discussing other molecular structural properties. Just as bond lengths and angles are considered transferable among similar molecules, second moments of many common groups are also transferable. This paper discusses applications of second moments of methylene/methyl groups, singly or multiply, isopropyl/tert-butyl groups, phenyl groups, per{f}{l}uoro methylene/methyl groups, combinations of any of them, and planarity of molecules, the historically most common application of second moments. The inertial defect is Δ = (I_{c} - I_{a} - I_{b}) or -2P_{cc}. Some authors err by assuming each isotopolog provides three independent rotational constants, but in some cases they are not all independent. J. Kraitchman, Am. J. Phys. {21 (17), 1953.}
Inquiry-Based Science: Turning Teachable Moments into Learnable Moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haug, Berit S.
2014-02-01
This study examines how an inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning creates teachable moments that can foster conceptual understanding in students, and how teachers capitalize upon these moments. Six elementary school teachers were videotaped as they implemented an integrated inquiry-based science and literacy curriculum in their classrooms. In this curriculum, science inquiry implies that students search for evidence in order to make and revise explanations based on the evidence found and through critical and logical thinking. Furthermore, the curriculum material is designed to address science key concepts multiple times through multiple modalities (do it, say it, read it, write it). Two types of teachable moments were identified: planned and spontaneous. Results suggest that the consolidation phases of inquiry, when students reinforce new knowledge and connect their empirical findings to theory, can be considered as planned teachable moments. These are phases of inquiry during which the teacher should expect, and be prepared for, student utterances that create opportunities to further student learning. Spontaneous teachable moments are instances when the teacher must choose to either follow the pace of the curriculum or adapt to the students' need. One implication of the study is that more teacher support is required in terms of how to plan for and effectively utilize the consolidation phases of inquiry.
Vortex structure in a long Josephson junction with two inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreeva, O. Yu.; Boyadjiev, T. L.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.
2007-09-01
We study the vortex structure in the long Josephson junctions with one and two rectangular inhomogeneities in the barrier layer. In case of one inhomogeneity we demonstrate the existence of the asymmetric fluxon states. The disappearance of the mixed fluxon-antifluxon states is shown when the position of the inhomogeneity shifted to the end of the junction. In case of two inhomogeneities the change of the amplitude of Josephson current through the inhomogeneity in the end of the junction makes strong effect on the stability of the fluxon states and smoothes the maximums on the dependence “critical current-magnetic field”.
Theory of Thomson scattering in inhomogeneous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozlowski, P. M.; Crowley, B. J. B.; Gericke, D. O.; Regan, S. P.; Gregori, G.
2016-04-01
Thomson scattering of laser light is one of the most fundamental diagnostics of plasma density, temperature and magnetic fields. It relies on the assumption that the properties in the probed volume are homogeneous and constant during the probing time. On the other hand, laboratory plasmas are seldom uniform and homogeneous on the temporal and spatial dimensions over which data is collected. This is particularly true for laser-produced high-energy-density matter, which often exhibits steep gradients in temperature, density and pressure, on a scale determined by the laser focus. Here, we discuss the modification of the cross section for Thomson scattering in fully-ionized media exhibiting steep spatial inhomogeneities and/or fast temporal fluctuations. We show that the predicted Thomson scattering spectra are greatly altered compared to the uniform case, and may lead to violations of detailed balance. Therefore, careful interpretation of the spectra is necessary for spatially or temporally inhomogeneous systems.
Generating matter inhomogeneities in general relativity.
Coley, A A; Lim, W C
2012-05-11
In this Letter we discuss a natural general relativistic mechanism that causes inhomogeneities and hence generates matter perturbations in the early Universe. We concentrate on spikes, both incomplete spikes and recurring spikes, that naturally occur in the initial oscillatory regime of general cosmological models. In particular, we explicitly show that spikes occurring in a class of G2 models lead to inhomogeneities that, due to gravitational instability, leave small residual imprints on matter in the form of matter perturbations. The residual matter overdensities from recurring spikes are not local but form on surfaces. We discuss the potential physical consequences of the residual matter imprints and their possible effect on the subsequent formation of large-scale structure.
Theory of Thomson scattering in inhomogeneous media.
Kozlowski, P M; Crowley, B J B; Gericke, D O; Regan, S P; Gregori, G
2016-01-01
Thomson scattering of laser light is one of the most fundamental diagnostics of plasma density, temperature and magnetic fields. It relies on the assumption that the properties in the probed volume are homogeneous and constant during the probing time. On the other hand, laboratory plasmas are seldom uniform and homogeneous on the temporal and spatial dimensions over which data is collected. This is particularly true for laser-produced high-energy-density matter, which often exhibits steep gradients in temperature, density and pressure, on a scale determined by the laser focus. Here, we discuss the modification of the cross section for Thomson scattering in fully-ionized media exhibiting steep spatial inhomogeneities and/or fast temporal fluctuations. We show that the predicted Thomson scattering spectra are greatly altered compared to the uniform case, and may lead to violations of detailed balance. Therefore, careful interpretation of the spectra is necessary for spatially or temporally inhomogeneous systems. PMID:27068215
Anomalous Maxwell equations for inhomogeneous chiral plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorbar, E. V.; Shovkovy, I. A.; Vilchinskii, S.; Rudenok, I.; Boyarsky, A.; Ruchayskiy, O.
2016-05-01
Using the chiral kinetic theory we derive the electric and chiral current densities in inhomogeneous relativistic plasma. We also derive equations for the electric and chiral chemical potentials that close the Maxwell equations in such a plasma. The analysis is done in the regimes with and without a drift of the plasma as a whole. In addition to the currents present in the homogeneous plasma (Hall current, chiral magnetic, chiral separation, and chiral electric separation effects, as well as Ohm's current) we derive several new terms associated with inhomogeneities of the plasma. Apart from various diffusionlike terms, we find also new dissipationless terms that are independent of relaxation time. Their origin can be traced to the Berry curvature modifications of the kinetic theory.
Theory of Thomson scattering in inhomogeneous media
Kozlowski, P. M.; Crowley, B. J. B.; Gericke, D. O.; Regan, S. P.; Gregori, G.
2016-01-01
Thomson scattering of laser light is one of the most fundamental diagnostics of plasma density, temperature and magnetic fields. It relies on the assumption that the properties in the probed volume are homogeneous and constant during the probing time. On the other hand, laboratory plasmas are seldom uniform and homogeneous on the temporal and spatial dimensions over which data is collected. This is particularly true for laser-produced high-energy-density matter, which often exhibits steep gradients in temperature, density and pressure, on a scale determined by the laser focus. Here, we discuss the modification of the cross section for Thomson scattering in fully-ionized media exhibiting steep spatial inhomogeneities and/or fast temporal fluctuations. We show that the predicted Thomson scattering spectra are greatly altered compared to the uniform case, and may lead to violations of detailed balance. Therefore, careful interpretation of the spectra is necessary for spatially or temporally inhomogeneous systems. PMID:27068215
Primordial inhomogeneities from massive defects during inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Firouzjahi, Hassan; Karami, Asieh; Rostami, Tahereh
2016-10-01
We consider the imprints of local massive defects, such as a black hole or a massive monopole, during inflation. The massive defect breaks the background homogeneity. We consider the limit that the physical Schwarzschild radius of the defect is much smaller than the inflationary Hubble radius so a perturbative analysis is allowed. The inhomogeneities induced in scalar and gravitational wave power spectrum are calculated. We obtain the amplitudes of dipole, quadrupole and octupole anisotropies in curvature perturbation power spectrum and identify the relative configuration of the defect to CMB sphere in which large observable dipole asymmetry can be generated. We observe a curious reflection symmetry in which the configuration where the defect is inside the CMB comoving sphere has the same inhomogeneous variance as its mirror configuration where the defect is outside the CMB sphere.
Efficient modeling in transversely isotropic inhomogeneous media
Alkhalifah, T.
1993-11-01
An efficient modeling technique for transversely isotropic, inhomogeneous media, is developed using a mix of analytical equations and numerical calculations. The analytic equation for the raypath in a factorized transversely isotropic (FTI) media with linear velocity variation, derived by Shearer and Chapman, is used to trace between two points. In addition, I derive an analytical equation for geometrical spreading in FTI media that aids in preserving program efficiency; however, the traveltime is calculated numerically. I then generalize the method to treat general transversely isotropic (TI) media that are not factorized anisotropic inhomogeneous by perturbing the FTI traveltimes, following the perturbation ideas of Cerveny and Filho. A Kirchhoff-summation-based program relying on Trorey`s (1970) diffraction method is used to generate synthetic seismograms for such a medium. For the type of velocity models treated, the program is much more efficient than finite-difference and general ray-trace modeling techniques.
Single-file diffusion through inhomogeneous nanopores.
Bandyopadhyay, Tusar
2008-03-21
Strict one-dimensional diffusion, due to geometrical confinement in a nanopore, of an assembly of particles forbids overtaking by each other, giving rise to single-file diffusion (SFD). Smooth carbon nanotube is the epitome of SFD. However, natural nanoporous materials are far from smooth; morphologically, the nanopores' inner surface may provide an inhomogeneous environment for diffusion to occur, giving rise to subnormal diffusion even for an isolated particle diffusing through this fractal landscape. The realm of fractional diffusion (FD) falls under this paradigm. In order to understand the characteristics of SFD through inhomogeneous nanopores, here, we introduce a fractional SFD (FSFD) formalism that deals with a combination of these two phenomena, namely, SFD of particles, each of which are moving subdiffusively in one dimension. For an infinite system, we obtain the mean square displacement (MSD) of the combined entity and our analysis is based on FD equation for particles moving in concert where the single-file correlation is established through reflection principle. For a finite system, we calculate the transport probabilities based on continuous time random walk model. While both the diffusion mechanisms (SFD and FD) acting separately are responsible for slow dynamics at long times, their combined effect leads to ultraslow diffusion. For example, while the long time asymptote of MSD of SFD scales as sqr rt of t, that for FSFD is sqr rt of t(alpha), where alpha is the measure of the extent of inhomogeneity. These findings, which are believed to occur in a natural inhomogeneous nanopore, is also important for design and fabrication of nanofluidic devices through which the fluid delivery can be engineered.
Inversion identities for inhomogeneous face models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frahm, Holger; Karaiskos, Nikos
2014-10-01
We derive exact inversion identities satisfied by the transfer matrix of inhomogeneous interaction-round-a-face (IRF) models with arbitrary boundary conditions using the underlying integrable structure and crossing properties of the local Boltzmann weights. For the critical restricted solid-on-solid (RSOS) models these identities together with some information on the analytical properties of the transfer matrix determine the spectrum completely and allow to derive the Bethe equations for both periodic and general open boundary conditions.
Controlling Charged Particles with Inhomogeneous Electrostatic Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herrero, Federico A. (Inventor)
2016-01-01
An energy analyzer for a charged-particle spectrometer may include a top deflection plate and a bottom deflection plate. The top and bottom deflection plates may be non-symmetric and configured to generate an inhomogeneous electrostatic field when a voltage is applied to one of the top or bottom deflection plates. In some instances, the top and bottom deflection plates may be L-shaped deflection plates.
Spiral laser beams in inhomogeneous media.
Mahalov, Alex; Suazo, Erwin; Suslov, Sergei K
2013-08-01
Explicit solutions of the inhomogeneous paraxial wave equation in a linear and quadratic approximation are applied to wave fields with invariant features, such as oscillating laser beams in a parabolic waveguide and spiral light beams in varying media. A similar effect of superfocusing of particle beams in a thin monocrystal film, harmonic oscillations of cold trapped atoms, and motion in magnetic field are also mentioned. PMID:23903135
Temperature-Dependent Exciton Hopping in an Array of Inhomogeneously Broadened Quantum Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyazaki, Jun; Kinoshita, Shuichi
2012-07-01
The dynamics of exciton hopping in an array of inhomogeneously broadened CdSe/ZnS quantum dot (QD) ensembles is examined by measuring time- and spectrally resolved fluorescence intensities. We have found a decrease in the fluorescence decay time as well as a dynamic redshift of the fluorescence spectrum originating from exciton transfer. Both show the characteristic temperature dependence reflecting the peculiar exciton dynamics in the QD ensemble. We propose a model of coupled QD arrays where inhomogeneous distribution and dark QDs that are related to a long-lasting off-state of blinking QDs are taken into account. Experimental results together with numerical calculations based on this model suggest that at low temperatures, an exciton transfers to a local low-energy site and tends to be trapped, whereas at high temperatures, thermally activated hopping of the exciton occurs repeatedly. Furthermore, we show that the decay time decrease of the QD array is attributable to exciton hopping to dark QDs.
Wealth inhomogeneity applied to crash rate theory.
Shuler, Robert L
2015-11-01
A crash rate theory based on corporate economic utility maximization is applied to individual behavior in U.S. and German motorway death rates, by using wealth inhomogeneity data in ten-percentile bins to account for variations of utility maximization in the population. Germany and the U.S. have similar median wealth figures, a well-known indicator of accident risk, but different motorway death rates. It is found that inhomogeneity in roughly the 10(th) to 30(th) percentile, not revealed by popular measures such as the Gini index which focus on differences at the higher percentiles, provides a satisfactory explanation of the data. The inhomogeneity analysis reduces data disparity from a factor of 2.88 to 1.75 as compared with median wealth assumed homogeneity, and further to 1.09 with average wealth assumed homogeneity. The first reduction from 2.88 to 1.75 is attributable to inequality at lower percentiles and suggests it may be as important in indicating socioeconomic risk as extremes in the upper percentile ranges, and that therefore the U.S. socioeconomic risk may be higher than generally realized. PMID:27441226
Inhomogeneous neutrino degeneracy and big bang nucleosynthesis
Whitmire, Scott E.; Scherrer, Robert J.
2000-04-15
We examine big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) in the case of inhomogeneous neutrino degeneracy, in the limit where the fluctuations are sufficiently small on large length scales that the present-day element abundances are homogeneous. We consider two representative cases: degeneracy of the electron neutrino alone and equal chemical potentials for all three neutrinos. We use a linear programming method to constrain an arbitrary distribution of the chemical potentials. For the current set of (highly restrictive) limits on the primordial element abundances, homogeneous neutrino degeneracy barely changes the allowed range of the baryon-to-photon ratio {eta}. Inhomogeneous degeneracy allows for little change in the lower bound on {eta}, but the upper bound in this case can be as large as {eta}=1.1x10{sup -8} (only {nu}{sub e} degeneracy) or {eta}=1.0x10{sup -9} (equal degeneracies for all three neutrinos). For the case of inhomogeneous neutrino degeneracy, we show that there is no BBN upper bound on the neutrino energy density, which is bounded in this case only by limits from structure formation and the cosmic microwave background. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Beginning inflation in an inhomogeneous universe
East, William E.; Kleban, Matthew; Linde, Andrei; Senatore, Leonardo
2016-09-06
Using numerical solutions of the full Einstein field equations coupled to a scalar inflaton field in 3+1 dimensions, we study the conditions under which a universe that is initially expanding, highly inhomogeneous and dominated by gradient energy can transition to an inflationary period. If the initial scalar field variations are contained within a sufficiently flat region of the inflaton potential, and the universe is spatially flat or open on average, inflation will occur following the dilution of the gradient and kinetic energy due to expansion. This is the case even when the scale of the inhomogeneities is comparable to themore » initial Hubble length, and overdense regions collapse and form black holes, because underdense regions continue expanding, allowing inflation to eventually begin. In conclusion, this establishes that inflation can arise from highly inhomogeneous initial conditions and solve the horizon and flatness problems, at least as long as the variations in the scalar field do not include values that exceed the inflationary plateau.« less
Viscosity of confined inhomogeneous nonequilibrium fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Junfang; Todd, B. D.; Travis, Karl P.
2004-12-01
We use the nonlocal linear hydrodynamic constitutive model, proposed by Evans and Morriss [Statistical Mechanics of Nonequilibrium Liquids (Academic, London, 1990)], for computing an effective spatially dependent shear viscosity of inhomogeneous nonequilibrium fluids. The model is applied to a simple atomic fluid undergoing planar Poiseuille flow in a confined channel of several atomic diameters width. We compare the spatially dependent viscosity with a local generalization of Newton's law of viscosity and the Navier-Stokes viscosity, both of which are known to suffer extreme inaccuracies for highly inhomogeneous systems. The nonlocal constitutive model calculates effective position dependent viscosities that are free from the notorious singularities experienced by applying the commonly used local constitutive model. It is simple, general, and has widespread applicability in nanofluidics where experimental measurement of position dependent transport coefficients is currently inaccessible. In principle the method can be used to predict approximate flow profiles of any arbitrary inhomogeneous system. We demonstrate this by predicting the flow profile for a simple fluid undergoing planar Couette flow in a confined channel of several atomic diameters width.
Wealth inhomogeneity applied to crash rate theory.
Shuler, Robert L
2015-11-01
A crash rate theory based on corporate economic utility maximization is applied to individual behavior in U.S. and German motorway death rates, by using wealth inhomogeneity data in ten-percentile bins to account for variations of utility maximization in the population. Germany and the U.S. have similar median wealth figures, a well-known indicator of accident risk, but different motorway death rates. It is found that inhomogeneity in roughly the 10(th) to 30(th) percentile, not revealed by popular measures such as the Gini index which focus on differences at the higher percentiles, provides a satisfactory explanation of the data. The inhomogeneity analysis reduces data disparity from a factor of 2.88 to 1.75 as compared with median wealth assumed homogeneity, and further to 1.09 with average wealth assumed homogeneity. The first reduction from 2.88 to 1.75 is attributable to inequality at lower percentiles and suggests it may be as important in indicating socioeconomic risk as extremes in the upper percentile ranges, and that therefore the U.S. socioeconomic risk may be higher than generally realized.
Inhomogeneity of pulmonary perfusion during sustained microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prisk, G. Kim; Guy, Harold J. B.; Elliott, Ann R.; West, John B.
1994-01-01
The effects of gravity on the inhomogeneity of pulmonary perfusion in man were studied by performing hyperventilation-breathhold single-breath measurements before, during and after 9 days of continuous exposure to microgravity. In microgravity the indicators of inhomogeneity of perfusion, especially the size of cardiogenic oscillations in expired CO2 and the height of phase 4, were both markedly reduced. Cardiogenic oscillations were reduced to approximately 60 of their preflight standing size, while the height of phase 4 was between 0 and -8% (a terminal fall became a small terminal rise) of preflights standing. The terminal change in CO2 was nearly abolished in microgravity indicating more uniformity of blood flow between lung units that close at the end of expiration and units that remain open. This may result from the disappearance of gravity-dependent topographical inequality of blood flow. The residual cardiographic oscillations in expired CO2 imply a persisting inhomogeneity of perfusion in the absence of gravity at a level larger than acinar.
Gasymov, Oktay K; Abduragimov, Adil R; Glasgow, Ben J
2015-01-01
Trp fluorescent spectra appear as a log-normal function but are usually analyzed with λmax, full width at half maximum, and the first moment of incomplete spectra. Log-normal analyses have successfully separated fluorescence contributions from some multi-Trp proteins but deviations were observed in single Trp proteins. The possibility that disparate rotamer environments might account for these deviations was explored by moment spectral analysis of single Trp mutants spanning the sequence of tear lipocalin as a model. The analysis required full width Trp spectra. Composite spectra were constructed using log-normal analysis to derive the inaccessible blue edge, and the experimentally obtained spectra for the remainder. First moments of the composite spectra reflected the site-resolved secondary structure. Second moments were most sensitive for spectral deviations. A novel parameter, derived from the difference of the second moments of composite and simulated log-normal spectra correlated with known multiple heterogeneous rotamer conformations. Buried and restricted side chains showed the most heterogeneity. Analyses applied to other proteins further validated the method. The rotamer heterogeneity values could be rationalized by known conformational properties of Trp residues and the distribution of nearby charged groups according to the internal Stark effect. Spectral heterogeneity fits the rotamer model but does not preclude other contributing factors. Spectral moment analysis of full width Trp emission spectra is accessible to most laboratories. The calculations are informative of protein structure and can be adapted to study dynamic processes. PMID:26119357
Electromagnetic moments of quasistable particle
Ledwig, Tim; Pascalutsa, Vladimir; Vanderhaeghen, Marc
2010-11-01
We deal with the problem of assigning electromagnetic moments to a quasistable particle (i.e., a particle with mass located at the particle's decay threshold). In this case, an application of a small external electromagnetic field changes the energy in a nonanalytic way, which makes it difficult to assign definitive moments. On the example of a spin-1/2 field with mass M{sub *} interacting with two fields of masses M and m, we show how a conventionally defined magnetic dipole moment diverges at M{sub *}=M+m. We then show that the conventional definition makes sense only when the values of the applied magnetic field B satisfy |eB|/2M{sub *}<<|M{sub *}-M-m|. We discuss implications of these results to existing studies in electroweak theory, chiral effective-field theory, and lattice QCD.
Moment of Inertia by Differentiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rizcallah, Joseph A.
2015-11-01
The calculation of the moment of inertia of an extended body, as presented in standard introductory-level textbooks, involves the evaluation of a definite integral—an operation often not fully mastered by beginners, let alone the conceptual difficulties it presents, even to the advanced student, in understanding and setting up the integral in the first place. We here use dimensional analysis along with elementary differentiation techniques to derive the moments of inertia of various extended bodies. The suggested method does not employ integrals and, in effect, is just a disguised application of elementary ordinary differential equations.
Neutron star moments of inertia
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ravenhall, D. G.; Pethick, C. J.
1994-01-01
An approximation for the moment of inertia of a neutron star in terms of only its mass and radius is presented, and insight into it is obtained by examining the behavior of the relativistic structural equations. The approximation is accurate to approximately 10% for a variety of nuclear equations of state, for all except very low mass stars. It is combined with information about the neutron-star crust to obtain a simple expression (again in terms only of mass and radius) for the fractional moment of inertia of the crust.
Score-moment combined linear discrimination analysis (SMC-LDA) as an improved discrimination method.
Han, Jintae; Chung, Hoeil; Han, Sung-Hwan; Yoon, Moon-Young
2007-01-01
A new discrimination method called the score-moment combined linear discrimination analysis (SMC-LDA) has been developed and its performance has been evaluated using three practical spectroscopic datasets. The key concept of SMC-LDA was to use not only the score from principal component analysis (PCA), but also the moment of the spectrum, as inputs for LDA to improve discrimination. Along with conventional score, moment is used in spectroscopic fields as an effective alternative for spectral feature representation. Three different approaches were considered. Initially, the score generated from PCA was projected onto a two-dimensional feature space by maximizing Fisher's criterion function (conventional PCA-LDA). Next, the same procedure was performed using only moment. Finally, both score and moment were utilized simultaneously for LDA. To evaluate discrimination performances, three different spectroscopic datasets were employed: (1) infrared (IR) spectra of normal and malignant stomach tissue, (2) near-infrared (NIR) spectra of diesel and light gas oil (LGO) and (3) Raman spectra of Chinese and Korean ginseng. For each case, the best discrimination results were achieved when both score and moment were used for LDA (SMC-LDA). Since the spectral representation character of moment was different from that of score, inclusion of both score and moment for LDA provided more diversified and descriptive information.
Updating neutrino magnetic moment constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cañas, B. C.; Miranda, O. G.; Parada, A.; Tórtola, M.; Valle, J. W. F.
2016-02-01
In this paper we provide an updated analysis of the neutrino magnetic moments (NMMs), discussing both the constraints on the magnitudes of the three transition moments Λi and the role of the CP violating phases present both in the mixing matrix and in the NMM matrix. The scattering of solar neutrinos off electrons in Borexino provides the most stringent restrictions, due to its robust statistics and the low energies observed, below 1 MeV. Our new limit on the effective neutrino magnetic moment which follows from the most recent Borexino data is 3.1 ×10-11μB at 90% C.L. This corresponds to the individual transition magnetic moment constraints: |Λ1 | ≤ 5.6 ×10-11μB, |Λ2 | ≤ 4.0 ×10-11μB, and |Λ3 | ≤ 3.1 ×10-11μB (90% C.L.), irrespective of any complex phase. Indeed, the incoherent admixture of neutrino mass eigenstates present in the solar flux makes Borexino insensitive to the Majorana phases present in the NMM matrix. For this reason we also provide a global analysis including the case of reactor and accelerator neutrino sources, presenting the resulting constraints for different values of the relevant CP phases. Improved reactor and accelerator neutrino experiments will be needed in order to underpin the full profile of the neutrino electromagnetic properties.
Measuring the Moment of Inertia
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lehmberg, George L.
1978-01-01
Two physics experiments are described, One, involving a laboratory cart accelerated along a level surface, examines the concept of inertial mass in translation and the other, using a solid cylinder, measures the moment of inertia of a wheel. Equations and illustrations are included. (MA)
Moment of Inertia by Differentiation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rizcallah, Joseph A.
2015-01-01
The calculation of the moment of inertia of an extended body, as presented in standard introductory-level textbooks, involves the evaluation of a definite integral--an operation often not fully mastered by beginners, let alone the conceptual difficulties it presents, even to the advanced student, in understanding and setting up the integral in the…
Moments of Cambered Round Bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kempf, Gunther
1949-01-01
Results are presented for the moments and position of force centers of a series of cambered round bodies derived from a torpedo-like body of revolution. The effects of placing fins on the rear of the body of revolution are also included.
Elliott, Mark A.; Giersch, Anne
2016-01-01
There has been evidence for the very brief, temporal quantization of perceptual experience at regular intervals below 100 ms for several decades. We briefly describe how earlier studies led to the concept of “psychological moment” of between 50 and 60 ms duration. According to historical theories, within the psychological moment all events would be processed as co-temporal. More recently, a link with physiological mechanisms has been proposed, according to which the 50–60 ms psychological moment would be defined by the upper limit required by neural mechanisms to synchronize and thereby represent a snapshot of current perceptual event structure. However, our own experimental developments also identify a more fine-scaled, serialized process structure within the psychological moment. Our data suggests that not all events are processed as co-temporal within the psychological moment and instead, some are processed successively. This evidence questions the analog relationship between synchronized process and simultaneous experience and opens debate on the ontology and function of “moments” in psychological experience. PMID:26779059
Diffusion of rotating inhomogeneities in ionospheric plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erukhimov, L. M.; Myasnikov, E. N.
1998-02-01
We consider the problem of generation of small-scale quasistatic electric fields that can lead to establishment of the bipolar regime of inhomogeneity relaxation observed in experimental studies of the properties of an artificial turbulence excited in the upper ionosphere by high-power shortwave radio emission [1 8], which is slower than the regime of unipolar diffusion of quasineutral fluctuations of density in a homogeneous strongly magnetized plasma [9 11]. We show that necessary conditions for the existence of this mode are disruption of the symmetry of the initial disturbance in the plasma density with respect to the direction of the field ěc B_0 and its differential rotation with the drift frequency in the plane orthogonal to ěc B_0 . Assuming that the initial disturbance of the plasma has the form of a plane wave whose wave vector ěc k makes an angle θ = k_allel /k_ bot ≪ 1 with the normal to ěc B_0 , we obtain an expression for the drift frequency and study the relations between the fluctuational electric and magnetic fields and the drift velocity of the disturbed plasma in, the linear approximation. We discuss the properties of the nonlinear solution, which, in particular, can describe generation of small-scale plasma inhomogeneities that have a helical structure in the plane orthogonal to ěc B_0 . The phenomenon of frequency broadening of the Doppler spectra of signals of field-aligned SW and USW scattering observed in the case of field-aligned scattering of short and ultrashort radio waves by artificial ionospheric inhomogeneities [4 7] is interpreted.
Landau damping and inhomogeneous reference states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barré, Julien; Olivetti, Alain; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki Y.
2015-10-01
Landau damping is a fundamental phenomenon in plasma physics, which also plays an important role in astrophysics, and sometimes under different names, in fluid dynamics, and other fields. Its theoretical discussion in the framework of the Vlasov equation often assumes that the reference stationary state is homogeneous in space. However, Landau damping around an inhomogeneous reference stationary state, a natural setting in astrophysics for instance, induces new mathematical difficulties and physical phenomena. The goal of this article is to provide an introduction to these problems and the questions they raise. xml:lang="fr"
Inhomogeneous thermal conductivity enhances thermoelectric cooling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Tingyu; Zhou, Jun; Li, Nianbei; Yang, Ronggui; Li, Baowen
2014-12-01
We theoretically investigate the enhancement of thermoelectric cooling performance in thermoelectric refrigerators made of materials with inhomogeneous thermal conductivity, beyond the usual practice of enhancing thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of materials. The dissipation of the Joule heat in such thermoelectric refrigerators is asymmetric which can give rise to better thermoelectric cooling performance. Although the thermoelectric figure of merit and the coefficient-of-performance are slightly enhanced, both the maximum cooling power and the maximum cooling temperature difference can be enhanced significantly. This finding can be used to increase the heat absorption at the cold end. We further find that the asymmetric dissipation of Joule heat leads to thermal rectification.
Fusion Reaction Rate in an Inhomogeneous Plasma
S. Son; N.J. Fisch
2004-09-03
The local fusion rate, obtained from the assumption that the distribution is a local Maxwellian, is inaccurate if mean-free-paths of fusing particles are not sufficiently small compared with the inhomogeneity length of the plasma. We calculate the first order correction of P0 in terms of the small spatial gradient and obtain a non-local modification of P(sub)0 in a shock region when the gradient is not small. Use is made of the fact that the fusion reaction cross section has a relatively sharp peak as a function of energy.
Albedo and transmittance of inhomogeneous stratus clouds
Zuev, V.E.; Kasyanov, E.I.; Titov, G.A.
1996-04-01
A highly important topic is the study of the relationship between the statistical parameters of optical and radiative charactertistics of inhomogeneous stratus clouds. This is important because the radiation codes of general circulation models need improvement, and it is important for geophysical information. A cascade model has been developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center to treat stratocumulus clouds with the simplest geometry and horizontal fluctuations of the liquid water path (optical thickness). The model evaluates the strength with which the stochastic geometry of clouds influences the statistical characteristics of albedo and the trnasmittance of solar radiation.
Curvaton and the inhomogeneous end of inflation
Assadullahi, Hooshyar; Wands, David; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein E-mail: firouz@mail.ipm.ir E-mail: david.wands@port.ac.uk
2012-12-01
We study the primordial density perturbations and non-Gaussianities generated from the combined effects of an inhomogeneous end of inflation and curvaton decay in hybrid inflation. This dual role is played by a single isocurvature field which is massless during inflation but acquire a mass at the end of inflation via the waterfall phase transition. We calculate the resulting primordial non-Gaussianity characterized by the non-linearity parameter, f{sub NL}, recovering the usual end-of-inflation result when the field decays promptly and the usual curvaton result if the field decays sufficiently late.
Curvaton and the inhomogeneous end of inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Assadullahi, Hooshyar; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein; Wands, David
2012-12-01
We study the primordial density perturbations and non-Gaussianities generated from the combined effects of an inhomogeneous end of inflation and curvaton decay in hybrid inflation. This dual role is played by a single isocurvature field which is massless during inflation but acquire a mass at the end of inflation via the waterfall phase transition. We calculate the resulting primordial non-Gaussianity characterized by the non-linearity parameter, fNL, recovering the usual end-of-inflation result when the field decays promptly and the usual curvaton result if the field decays sufficiently late.
On reflected interactions in elastic solids containing inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodin, Gregory J.; Weng, George J.
2014-08-01
Interactions in linear elastic solids containing inhomogeneities are examined using integral equations. Direct and reflected interactions are identified. Direct interactions occur simply because elastic fields emitted by inhomogeneities affect each other. Reflected interactions occur because elastic fields emitted by inhomogeneities are reflected by the specimen boundary back to the individual inhomogeneities. It is shown that the reflected interactions are of critical importance to analysis of representative volume elements. Further, the reflected interactions are expressed in simple terms, so that one can obtain explicit approximate expressions for the effective stiffness tensor for linear elastic solids containing ellipsoidal and non-ellipsoidal inhomogeneities. For ellipsoidal inhomogeneities, the new approximation is closely related to that of Mori and Tanaka. In general, the new approximation can be used to recover Ponte Castañeda-Willis' and Kanaun-Levin's approximations. Connections with Maxwell's approximation are established.
Effective quantum dynamics of interacting systems with inhomogeneous coupling
Lopez, C. E.; Retamal, J. C.; Christ, H.; Solano, E.
2007-03-15
We study the quantum dynamics of a single mode (particle) interacting inhomogeneously with a large number of particles and introduce an effective approach to find the accessible Hilbert space, where the dynamics takes place. Two relevant examples are given: the inhomogeneous Tavis-Cummings model (e.g., N atomic qubits coupled to a single cavity mode, or to a motional mode in trapped ions) and the inhomogeneous coupling of an electron spin to N nuclear spins in a quantum dot.
Local Equilibrium in Inhomogeneous Stochastic Models of Heat Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nándori, Péter
2016-07-01
We extend the duality of Kipnis et al. (J Stat Phys 27:65-74, 1982) to inhomogeneous lattice gas systems where either the components have different degrees of freedom or the rate of interaction depends on the spatial location. Then the dual process is applied to prove local equilibrium in the hydrodynamic limit for some inhomogeneous high dimensional systems and in the nonequilibrium steady state for one dimensional systems with arbitrary inhomogeneity.
Intensity inhomogeneity correction of magnetic resonance images using patches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Snehashis; Carass, Aaron; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Prince, Jerry L.
2011-03-01
This paper presents a patch-based non-parametric approach to the correction of intensity inhomogeneity from magnetic resonance (MR) images of the human brain. During image acquisition, the inhomogeneity present in the radio-frequency coil, is usually manifested on the reconstructed MR image as a smooth shading effect. This artifact can significantly deteriorate the performance of any kind of image processing algorithm that uses intensities as a feature. Most of the current inhomogeneity correction techniques use explicit smoothness assumptions on the inhomogeneity field, which sometimes limit their performance if the actual inhomogeneity is not smooth, a problem that becomes prevalent in high fields. The proposed patch-based inhomogeneity correction method does not assume any parametric smoothness model, instead, it uses patches from an atlas of an inhomogeneity-free image to do the correction. Preliminary results show that the proposed method is comparable to N3, a current state of the art method, when the inhomogeneity is smooth, and outperforms N3 when the inhomogeneity contains non-smooth elements.
Inhomogeneous radiative forcing of homogeneous greenhouse gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yi; Tan, Xiaoxiao; Xia, Yan
2016-03-01
Radiative forcing of a homogeneous greenhouse gas (HGG) can be very inhomogeneous because the forcing is dependent on other atmospheric and surface variables. In the case of doubling CO2, the monthly mean instantaneous forcing at the top of the atmosphere is found to vary geographically and temporally from positive to negative values, with the range (-2.5-5.1 W m-2) being more than 3 times the magnitude of the global mean value (2.3 W m-2). The vertical temperature change across the atmospheric column (temperature lapse rate) is found to be the best single predictor for explaining forcing variation. In addition, the masking effects of clouds and water vapor also contribute to forcing inhomogeneity. A regression model that predicts forcing from geophysical variables is constructed. This model can explain more than 90% of the variance of the forcing. Applying this model to analyzing the forcing variation in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models, we find that intermodel discrepancy in CO2 forcing caused by model climatology leads to considerable discrepancy in their projected change in poleward energy transport.
Resistance switching in oxides with inhomogeneous conductivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shang, Da-Shan; Sun, Ji-Rong; Shen, Bao-Gen; Wuttig, Matthias
2013-06-01
Electric-field-induced resistance switching (RS) phenomena have been studied for over 60 years in metal/dielectrics/metal structures. In these experiments a wide range of dielectrics have been studied including binary transition metal oxides, perovskite oxides, chalcogenides, carbon- and silicon-based materials, as well as organic materials. RS phenomena can be used to store information and offer an attractive performance, which encompasses fast switching speeds, high scalability, and the desirable compatibility with Si-based complementary metal—oxide—semiconductor fabrication. This is promising for nonvolatile memory technology, i.e., resistance random access memory (RRAM). However, a comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanism is still lacking. This impedes faster product development as well as accurate assessment of the device performance potential. Generally speaking, RS occurs not in the entire dielectric but only in a small, confined region, which results from the local variation of conductivity in dielectrics. In this review, we focus on the RS in oxides with such an inhomogeneous conductivity. According to the origin of the conductivity inhomogeneity, the RS phenomena and their working mechanism are reviewed by dividing them into two aspects: interface RS, based on the change of contact resistance at metal/oxide interface due to the change of Schottky barrier and interface chemical layer, and bulk RS, realized by the formation, connection, and disconnection of conductive channels in the oxides. Finally the current challenges of RS investigation and the potential improvement of the RS performance for the nonvolatile memories are discussed.
Structural inhomogeneities in glasses via cavitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaudhuri, Pinaki; Horbach, Jürgen
2016-09-01
Using large-scale molecular-dynamics simulations for a system of 106 particles, the response of a dense amorphous solid to the continuous expansion of its volume is investigated. We find that the spatially uniform glassy state becomes unstable via the formation of cavities, which eventually leads to failure. By scanning through a wide range of densities and temperatures, we determine the state points at which the instability occurs and thereby provide estimates of the coexistence density of the resultant glass phase. Evidence for long-lived, inhomogeneous configurations with a negative pressure is found, where the frozen-in glass structure contains spherical cavities or a network of void space. Furthermore, we demonstrate the occurrence of hysteretic effects when the cavitated solid is compressed to regain the dense glassy state. As a result, a new glass state is obtained, the pressure of which is different from the initial one due to small density inhomogeneities that are generated by the dilation-compression cycle.
Coupling dark energy to dark matter inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marra, Valerio
2016-09-01
We propose that dark energy in the form of a scalar field could effectively couple to dark matter inhomogeneities. Through this coupling energy could be transferred to/from the scalar field, which could possibly enter an accelerated regime. Though phenomenological, this scenario is interesting as it provides a natural trigger for the onset of the acceleration of the universe, since dark energy starts driving the expansion of the universe when matter inhomogeneities become sufficiently strong. Here we study a possible realization of this idea by coupling dark energy to dark matter via the linear growth function of matter perturbations. The numerical results show that it is indeed possible to obtain a viable cosmology with the expected series of radiation, matter and dark-energy dominated eras. In particular, the current density of dark energy is given by the value of the coupling parameters rather than by very special initial conditions for the scalar field. In other words, this model-unlike standard models of cosmic late acceleration-does not suffer from the so-called "coincidence problem" and its related fine tuning of initial conditions.
Inhomogeneous chemical enrichment in the Galactic Halo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, Chiaki
2016-08-01
In a galaxy, chemical enrichment takes place in an inhomogeneous fashion, and the Galactic Halo is one of the places where the inhomogeneous effects are imprinted and can be constrained from observations. I show this using my chemodynamical simulations of Milky Way type galaxies. The scatter in the elemental abundances originate from radial migration, merging/accretion of satellite galaxies, local variation of star formation and chemical enrichment, and intrinsic variation of nucleosynthesis yields. In the simulated galaxies, there is no strong age-metallicity relation. This means that the most metal-poor stars are not always the oldest stars, and can be formed in chemically unevolved clouds at later times. The long-lifetime sources of chemical enrichment such as asymptotic giant branch stars or neutron star mergers can contribute at low metallicities. The intrinsic variation of yields are important in the early Universe or metal-poor systems such as in the Galactic halo. The carbon enhancement of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars can be best explained by faint supernovae, the low [α/Fe] ratios in some EMP stars naturally arise from low-mass (~ 13 - 15M ⊙) supernovae, and finally, the [α/Fe] knee in dwarf spheroidal galaxies can be produced by subclasses of Type Ia supernovae such as SN 2002cx-like objects and sub-Chandrasekhar mass explosions.
Covariant constitutive relations and relativistic inhomogeneous plasmas
Gratus, J.; Tucker, R. W.
2011-04-15
The notion of a 2-point susceptibility kernel used to describe linear electromagnetic responses of dispersive continuous media in nonrelativistic phenomena is generalized to accommodate the constraints required of a causal formulation in spacetimes with background gravitational fields. In particular the concepts of spatial material inhomogeneity and temporal nonstationarity are formulated within a fully covariant spacetime framework. This framework is illustrated by recasting the Maxwell-Vlasov equations for a collisionless plasma in a form that exposes a 2-point electromagnetic susceptibility kernel in spacetime. This permits the establishment of a perturbative scheme for nonstationary inhomogeneous plasma configurations. Explicit formulae for the perturbed kernel are derived in both the presence and absence of gravitation using the general solution to the relativistic equations of motion of the plasma constituents. In the absence of gravitation this permits an analysis of collisionless damping in terms of a system of integral equations that reduce to standard Landau damping of Langmuir modes when the perturbation refers to a homogeneous stationary plasma configuration. It is concluded that constitutive modeling in terms of a 2-point susceptibility kernel in a covariant spacetime framework offers a natural extension of standard nonrelativistic descriptions of simple media and that its use for describing linear responses of more general dispersive media has wide applicability in relativistic plasma modeling.
Ibarria, L; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J
2006-11-17
Many scientific, imaging, and geospatial applications produce large high-precision scalar fields sampled on a regular grid. Lossless compression of such data is commonly done using predictive coding, in which weighted combinations of previously coded samples known to both encoder and decoder are used to predict subsequent nearby samples. In hierarchical, incremental, or selective transmission, the spatial pattern of the known neighbors is often irregular and varies from one sample to the next, which precludes prediction based on a single stencil and fixed set of weights. To handle such situations and make the best use of available neighboring samples, we propose a local spectral predictor that offers optimal prediction by tailoring the weights to each configuration of known nearby samples. These weights may be precomputed and stored in a small lookup table. We show that predictive coding using our spectral predictor improves compression for various sources of high-precision data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, C. J.; Deshpande, Manohar D.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.
1995-01-01
A combined finite element method/method of moments (FEM/MoM) approach is used to analyze the electromagnetic scattering properties of a three-dimensional-cavity-backed aperture in an infinite ground plane. The FEM is used to formulate the fields inside the cavity, and the MoM (with subdomain bases) in both spectral and spatial domains is used to formulate the fields above the ground plane. Fields in the aperture and the cavity are solved using a system of equations resulting from the combination of the FEM and the MoM. By virtue of the FEM, this combined approach is applicable to all arbitrarily shaped cavities with inhomogeneous material fillings, and because of the subdomain bases used in the MoM, the apertures can be of any arbitrary shape. This approach leads to a partly sparse and partly full symmetric matrix, which is efficiently solved using a biconjugate gradient algorithm. Numerical results are presented to validate the analysis.
Huang, Yuqing; Lin, Yung-Ya; Cai, Shuhui; Yang, Yu; Sun, Huijun; Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Zhong
2016-03-14
High spectral resolution in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a prerequisite for achieving accurate information relevant to molecular structures and composition assignments. The continuous development of superconducting magnets guarantees strong and homogeneous static magnetic fields for satisfactory spectral resolution. However, there exist circumstances, such as measurements on biological tissues and heterogeneous chemical samples, where the field homogeneity is degraded and spectral line broadening seems inevitable. Here we propose an NMR method, named intermolecular zero-quantum coherence J-resolved spectroscopy (iZQC-JRES), to face the challenge of field inhomogeneity and obtain desired high-resolution two-dimensional J-resolved spectra with fast acquisition. Theoretical analyses for this method are given according to the intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence treatment. Experiments on (a) a simple chemical solution and (b) an aqueous solution of mixed metabolites under externally deshimmed fields, and on (c) a table grape sample with intrinsic field inhomogeneity from magnetic susceptibility variations demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of the iZQC-JRES method. The application of this method to inhomogeneous chemical and biological samples, maybe in vivo samples, appears promising. PMID:26979686
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yuqing; Lin, Yung-Ya; Cai, Shuhui; Yang, Yu; Sun, Huijun; Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Zhong
2016-03-01
High spectral resolution in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a prerequisite for achieving accurate information relevant to molecular structures and composition assignments. The continuous development of superconducting magnets guarantees strong and homogeneous static magnetic fields for satisfactory spectral resolution. However, there exist circumstances, such as measurements on biological tissues and heterogeneous chemical samples, where the field homogeneity is degraded and spectral line broadening seems inevitable. Here we propose an NMR method, named intermolecular zero-quantum coherence J-resolved spectroscopy (iZQC-JRES), to face the challenge of field inhomogeneity and obtain desired high-resolution two-dimensional J-resolved spectra with fast acquisition. Theoretical analyses for this method are given according to the intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence treatment. Experiments on (a) a simple chemical solution and (b) an aqueous solution of mixed metabolites under externally deshimmed fields, and on (c) a table grape sample with intrinsic field inhomogeneity from magnetic susceptibility variations demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of the iZQC-JRES method. The application of this method to inhomogeneous chemical and biological samples, maybe in vivo samples, appears promising.
Huang, Yuqing; Lin, Yung-Ya; Cai, Shuhui; Yang, Yu; Sun, Huijun; Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Zhong
2016-03-14
High spectral resolution in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a prerequisite for achieving accurate information relevant to molecular structures and composition assignments. The continuous development of superconducting magnets guarantees strong and homogeneous static magnetic fields for satisfactory spectral resolution. However, there exist circumstances, such as measurements on biological tissues and heterogeneous chemical samples, where the field homogeneity is degraded and spectral line broadening seems inevitable. Here we propose an NMR method, named intermolecular zero-quantum coherence J-resolved spectroscopy (iZQC-JRES), to face the challenge of field inhomogeneity and obtain desired high-resolution two-dimensional J-resolved spectra with fast acquisition. Theoretical analyses for this method are given according to the intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence treatment. Experiments on (a) a simple chemical solution and (b) an aqueous solution of mixed metabolites under externally deshimmed fields, and on (c) a table grape sample with intrinsic field inhomogeneity from magnetic susceptibility variations demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of the iZQC-JRES method. The application of this method to inhomogeneous chemical and biological samples, maybe in vivo samples, appears promising.
Superconductivity from Emerging Magnetic Moments.
Hoshino, Shintaro; Werner, Philipp
2015-12-11
Multiorbital Hubbard models are shown to exhibit a spatially isotropic spin-triplet superconducting phase, where equal-spin electrons in different local orbitals are paired. This superconducting state is stabilized in the spin-freezing crossover regime, where local moments emerge in the metal phase, and the pairing is substantially assisted by spin anisotropy. The phase diagram features a superconducting dome below a non-Fermi-liquid metallic region and next to a magnetically ordered phase. We suggest that this type of fluctuating-moment-induced superconductivity, which is not originating from fluctuations near a quantum critical point, may be realized in spin-triplet superconductors such as strontium ruthenates and uranium compounds. PMID:26705649
Superconductivity from Emerging Magnetic Moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoshino, Shintaro; Werner, Philipp
2015-12-01
Multiorbital Hubbard models are shown to exhibit a spatially isotropic spin-triplet superconducting phase, where equal-spin electrons in different local orbitals are paired. This superconducting state is stabilized in the spin-freezing crossover regime, where local moments emerge in the metal phase, and the pairing is substantially assisted by spin anisotropy. The phase diagram features a superconducting dome below a non-Fermi-liquid metallic region and next to a magnetically ordered phase. We suggest that this type of fluctuating-moment-induced superconductivity, which is not originating from fluctuations near a quantum critical point, may be realized in spin-triplet superconductors such as strontium ruthenates and uranium compounds.
Geometric moments for gait description
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toxqui-Quitl, C.; Morales-Batalla, V.; Padilla-Vivanco, A.; Camacho-Bello, C.
2013-09-01
The optical flow associated with a set of digital images of a moving individual is analyzed in order to extract a gait signature. For this, invariant Hu moments are obtained for image description. A Hu Moment History (HMH) is obtained from K frames to describe the gait signature of individuals in a video. The gait descriptors are subsequences of the HMH of variable width. Each subsequence is generated by means of genetic algorithms and used for classification in a neuronal network. The database for algorithm evaluation is MoBo, and the gait classification results are above 90% for the cases of slow and fast walking and 100% for the cases of walking with a ball and inclined walking. An optical processor is also implemented in order to obtain the descriptors of the human gait.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohara, Takao; Matsuda, K.; Kohori, Y.; Kuwahara, K.; Amitsuka, H.
2002-03-01
In order to identify the nature of unconventional antiferromagnetic (AF) ordering with a "tiny staggered moment" below T_0=17.5 K in URu_2Si_2, ^29Si NMR has been performed under pressure up to 17.5 kbar. In the pressure range 3.0 kbar to 15 kbar of P_c, we have observed new ^29Si NMR signal arising from the AF region besides the previously reported ^29Si NMR signal, which corresponds to the paramagnetic (PM) region. The AF region increases in volume at the expense of the PM region on cooling, which shows a coexistence of the AF and the PM regions below T_0. The volume fraction is enhanced by applied pressure, whereas the value of internal field (910 Oe) remains constant up to 15 kbar. This gives definite evidence for spatially inhomogeneous development of AF ordering below T_0. Our Si NMR results have shown that the weakness of Bragg peak observed by neutron diffraction originates not from an extremely reduced moment (0.03 μ _B/U) but from the smallness of AF region with an ordered moment of 0.4 μ _B/U in the sample. The temperature dependence of nuclear spin lattice relaxation rates for both signal is also now measured under pressure. * Supported by a Grand-in -Aid from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.
Spectrally isomorphic Dirac systems: Graphene in an electromagnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jakubský, Vít
2015-02-01
We construct the new one-dimensional Dirac Hamiltonians that are spectrally isomorphic (not isospectral) with the known exactly solvable models. Explicit formulas for their spectra and eigenstates are provided. The operators are utilized for the description of Dirac fermions in graphene in the presence of an inhomogeneous electromagnetic field. We discuss explicit, physically relevant, examples of spectrally isomorphic systems with both nonperiodic and periodic electromagnetic barriers. In the latter case, spectrally isomorphic two- and three-gap systems associated with the Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur hierarchy are considered.
Tests of Cosmological Inhomogeneity Using WMAP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shubert, Richard; Tatineni, Mahidhar
2016-06-01
This paper reports on the latest results obtained from studies of the calibrated Time-Ordered Data of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (9-yr) mission that has in the past been used to determine the anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, although with a novel objective. The purpose of this work has been to examine what can be inferred from these data about the local inhomogeneity of the CMBR, which would be in this case an apparent radial variation of the brightness (or effective temperature) at the same point of the celestial sky as seen by the WMAP spacecraft instruments from the center of observation, namely the Sun. The usual studies of anisotropy normally have averaged the observed temperature of any given point on the celestial sky over one full annual orbit of the WMAP spacecraft around the Sun to produce the well-known maps. Inhomogeneity of the kind being sought here, however, would manifest itself as a systematic variation of the apparent temperature at that point as a function of the orbital position of the spacecraft. The detection of such inhomogeneity, if it could be confirmed by subsequent observations, could significantly impact the standard cosmological paradigm. The computational approach used thus far in that search, over the last four years of study by supercomputer facilities at UCSD, has been to examine the differences of temperature seen of the same points on the sky, taken in pairs corresponding to the pointing directions of the A and B radiometer horns of the instrument, from different orbital positions of the spacecraft. From those observed differences of temperature and the corresponding angular separations of the respective orbital positions — here limited to values greater than or equal to 44 degrees out of a maximum available range of 1 - 45 degrees — an apparent radial gradient of temperature could be computed with lowest uncertainties. A small but significant gradient of temperature tentatively has been
Tests of Cosmological Inhomogeneity Using WMAP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shubert, Richard; Tatineni, Mahidhar
2016-06-01
This paper reports on the latest results obtained from studies of the calibrated Time-Ordered Data of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (9-yr) mission that has in the past been used to determine the anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, although with a novel objective. The purpose of this work has been to examine what can be inferred from these data about the local inhomogeneity of the CMBR, which would be in this case an apparent radial variation of the brightness (or effective temperature) at the same point of the celestial sky as seen by the WMAP spacecraft instruments from the center of observation, namely the Sun. The usual studies of anisotropy normally have averaged the observed temperature of any given point on the celestial sky over one full annual orbit of the WMAP spacecraft around the Sun to produce the well-known maps. Inhomogeneity of the kind being sought here, however, would manifest itself as a systematic variation of the apparent temperature at that point as a function of the orbital position of the spacecraft. The detection of such inhomogeneity, if it could be confirmed by subsequent observations, could significantly impact the standard cosmological paradigm. The computational approach used thus far in that search, over the last four years of study by supercomputer facilities at UCSD, has been to examine the differences of temperature seen of the same points on the sky, taken in pairs corresponding to the pointing directions of the A and B radiometer horns of the instrument, from different orbital positions of the spacecraft. From those observed differences of temperature and the corresponding angular separations of the respective orbital positions — here limited to values greater than or equal to 44 degrees out of a maximum available range of 1 – 45 degrees — an apparent radial gradient of temperature could be computed with lowest uncertainties. A small but significant gradient of temperature tentatively has been
Porsev, S. G.; Ginges, J. S. M.; Flambaum, V. V.
2011-04-15
We have considered a mechanism for inducing a time-reversal violating electric dipole moment (EDM) in atoms through the interaction of a nuclear EDM d{sub N} with the hyperfine interaction, the ''magnetic moment effect''. We have derived the operator for this interaction and presented analytical formulas for the matrix elements between atomic states. Induced EDMs in the diamagnetic atoms {sup 129}Xe, {sup 171}Yb, {sup 199}Hg, {sup 211}Rn, and {sup 225}Ra have been calculated numerically. From the experimental limits on the atomic EDMs of {sup 129}Xe and {sup 199}Hg we have placed the following constraints on the nuclear EDMs, |d{sub N}({sup 129}Xe)|<1.1x10{sup -21}|e|cm and |d{sub N}({sup 199}Hg)|<2.8x10{sup -24}|e|cm.
Nuclear Quadrupole Moments and Nuclear Shell Structure
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Townes, C. H.; Foley, H. M.; Low, W.
1950-06-23
Describes a simple model, based on nuclear shell considerations, which leads to the proper behavior of known nuclear quadrupole moments, although predictions of the magnitudes of some quadrupole moments are seriously in error.
Ushenko, Alexander G; Dubolazov, Alexander V; Ushenko, Vladimir A; Novakovskaya, Olga Y
2016-07-01
The optical model of formation of polarization structure of laser radiation scattered by polycrystalline networks of human skin in Fourier plane was elaborated. The results of investigation of the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st to 4th order) parameters of polarization-inhomogeneous images of skin surface in Fourier plane were presented. The diagnostic criteria of pathological process in human skin and its severity degree differentiation were determined. PMID:26953777
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ushenko, Alexander G.; Dubolazov, Alexander V.; Ushenko, Vladimir A.; Novakovskaya, Olga Y.
2016-07-01
The optical model of formation of polarization structure of laser radiation scattered by polycrystalline networks of human skin in Fourier plane was elaborated. The results of investigation of the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st to 4th order) parameters of polarization-inhomogeneous images of skin surface in Fourier plane were presented. The diagnostic criteria of pathological process in human skin and its severity degree differentiation were determined.
Lensing effects in inhomogeneous cosmological models
Ghassemi, Sima; Khoeini-Moghaddam, Salomeh; Mansouri, Reza
2009-05-15
Concepts developed in the gravitational lensing techniques such as shear, convergence, tangential, and radial arcs maybe used to see how tenable inhomogeneous models proposed to explain the acceleration of the universe models are. We study the widely discussed Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) cosmological models. It turns out that for the observer sitting at origin of a global LTB solution the shear vanishes as in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models, while the value of convergence is different, which may lead to observable cosmological effects. We also consider Swiss-cheese models proposed recently based on LTB with an observer sitting in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker part. It turns out that they have different behavior as far as the formation of radial and tangential arcs are concerned.
Probing dark energy inhomogeneities with supernovae
Blomqvist, Michael; Moertsell, Edvard; Nobili, Serena E-mail: edvard@physto.se
2008-06-15
We discuss the possibility of identifying anisotropic and/or inhomogeneous cosmological models using type Ia supernova data. A search for correlations in current type Ia peak magnitudes over a large range of angular scales yields a null result. However, the same analysis limited to supernovae at low redshift shows a feeble anticorrelation at the 2{sigma} level at angular scales {theta} Almost-Equal-To 40 Degree-Sign . Upcoming data from, e.g., the SNLS (Supernova Legacy Survey) and the SDSS-II (SDSS: Sloan Digital Sky Survey) supernova searches will improve our limits on the size of-or possibly detect-possible correlations also at high redshift at the per cent level in the near future. With data from the proposed SNAP (SuperNova Acceleration Probe) satellite, we will be able to detect the induced correlations from gravitational lensing on type Ia peak magnitudes on scales less than a degree.
AFE dynamic effects in inhomogeneous plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juang, Jeng-Nan
1989-01-01
The Microwave Reflectometer Ionization Sensor (MRIS) is an instrument on the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) satellite which will be deployed from the space shuttle. The flow characteristic around a hypersonic bluff reentry vehicle will be measured by the AFE. The general mission of the MRIS is to measure the electron density within the range from 10(exp12) to 10(exp 15) electrons per cu cm and determine the distance to the location of each measured from the surface of the aerobrake. These measurements will be compared with prior aerothermodynamic computer code predictions. Since a knowledge of plasma dynamic effects is important for MRIS design and post flight analysis, it is of interest to consider any possibility of plasma dynamic effects and especially in inhomogeneous plasmas. Of particular interest is the need to study plasma dynamic effects that may emerge from a flow field stationary state that was determined without regard to electric or magnetic fields.
Dielectric elastomer membranes undergoing inhomogeneous deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Tianhu; Zhao, Xuanhe; Suo, Zhigang
2009-10-01
Dielectric elastomers are capable of large deformation subject to an electric voltage and are promising for use as actuators, sensors, and generators. Because of large deformation, nonlinear equations of states, and diverse modes of failure, modeling the process of electromechanical transduction has been challenging. This paper studies a membrane of a dielectric elastomer deformed into an out-of-plane axisymmetric shape, a configuration used in a family of commercial devices known as the universal muscle actuators. The kinematics of deformation and charging, together with thermodynamics, leads to equations that govern the state of equilibrium. Numerical results indicate that the field in the membrane can be very inhomogeneous, and that the membrane is susceptible to several modes of failure, including electrical breakdown, loss of tension, and rupture by stretch. Care is needed in the design to balance the requirements of averting various modes of failure while using the material efficiently.
Mass spectrometry and inhomogeneous ion optics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, F. A.
1973-01-01
Work done in several areas to advance the state of the art of magnetic mass spectrometers is described. The calculations and data necessary for the design of inhomogeneous field mass spectrometers, and the calculation of ion trajectories through such fields are presented. The development and testing of solid state ion detection devices providing the capability of counting single ions is discussed. New techniques in the preparation and operation of thermal-ionization ion sources are described. Data obtained on the concentrations of copper in rainfall and uranium in air samples using the improved thermal ionization techniques are presented. The design of a closed system static mass spectrometer for isotopic analyses is discussed. A summary of instrumental aspects of a four-stage mass spectrometer comprising two electrostatic and two 90 deg. magnetic lenses with a 122-cm radius used to study the interaction of ions with solids is presented.
Dielectric fluid in inhomogeneous pulsed electric field.
Shneider, M N; Pekker, M
2013-04-01
We consider the dynamics of a compressible fluid under the influence of electrostrictive ponderomotive forces in strong inhomogeneous nonstationary electric fields. It is shown that if the fronts of the voltage rise at a sharp, needlelike electrode are rather steep (less than or about nanoseconds), the region of negative pressure arises, which can reach values at which the fluid loses its continuity with the formation of cavitation ruptures. If the voltage on the electrode is not large enough or the front is flatter, the cavitation in the liquid does not occur. However, a sudden shutdown of the field results in a reverse flow of liquid from the electrode, which leads to appearance of negative pressure, and, possibly, cavitation.
Direct optical imaging of structural inhomogeneities in crystalline materials.
Grigorev, A M
2016-05-10
A method for optical imaging of structural inhomogeneities in crystalline materials is proposed, based on the differences in the optical properties of the structural inhomogeneity and the homogeneous material near the fundamental absorption edge of the crystalline material. The method can be used to detect defects in both semiconductors and insulators.
Problem of time in slightly inhomogeneous cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Edward
2016-07-01
The problem of time (PoT) is a multi-faceted conceptual incompatibility between various areas of Theoretical Physics. While usually stated as between GR and QM, in fact 8/9ths of it is already present at the classical level. Thus we adopt a ‘top-down’ classical and then quantum approach. I consider a local resolution to the PoT that is Machian, which was previously realized for relational triangle and minisuperspace models. This resolution has three levels: classical, semiclassical and combined semiclassical-histories-records. This article’s specific model is a slightly inhomogeneous cosmology considered for now at the classical level. This is motivated by how the inhomogeneous fluctuations that underlie structure formation—galaxies and CMB hotspots—might have been seeded by quantum cosmological fluctuations, as magnified by some inflationary mechanism. In particular, I consider the perturbations about {{{S}}}3 case of this involving up to second order, which has a number of parallels with the Halliwell-Hawking model but has a number of conceptual differences and useful upgrades. The article’s main features are that the elimination part of the model’s thin sandwich is straightforward, but the modewise split of the constraints fail to be first-class constraints. Thus the elimination part only arises as an intermediate geometry between superspace and Riem. The reduced geometries have surprising singularities influenced by the matter content of the Universe, though the N-body problem anticipates these with its collinear singularities. I also give a ‘basis set’ of Kuchař beables for this model arena.
The Hyades open cluster is chemically inhomogeneous
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, F.; Yong, D.; Asplund, M.; Ramírez, I.; Meléndez, J.
2016-04-01
We present a high-precision differential abundance analysis of 16 solar-type stars in the Hyades open cluster based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≈ 350-400) spectra obtained from the McDonald 2.7-m telescope. We derived stellar parameters and differential chemical abundances for 19 elements (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ba) with uncertainties as low as ˜0.01-0.02 dex. Our main results include: (1) there is no clear chemical signature of planet formation detected among the sample stars, i.e. no correlations in abundances versus condensation temperature; (2) the observed abundance dispersions are a factor of ≈1.5-2 larger than the average measurement errors for most elements; (3) there are positive correlations, of high statistical significance, between the abundances of at least 90 per cent of pairs of elements. We demonstrate that none of these findings can be explained by errors due to the stellar parameters. Our results reveal that the Hyades is chemically inhomogeneous at the 0.02 dex level. Possible explanations for the abundance variations include (1) inhomogeneous chemical evolution in the proto-cluster environment, (2) supernova ejection in the proto-cluster cloud and (3) pollution of metal-poor gas before complete mixing of the proto-cluster cloud. Our results provide significant new constraints on the chemical composition of open clusters and a challenge to the current view of Galactic archaeology.
Electromagnetic effects on the inhomogeneity of planar symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, M.; Bhatti, M. Zaeem Ul Haq
2014-08-01
In this work, we aim to identify the effects of electromagnetic field on the energy density inhomogeneity in self-gravitating plane symmetric spacetime filled with imperfect matter in terms of dissipation and anisotropic pressure. We formulate the Einstein-Maxwell field equation, conservation laws, evolution equations for the Weyl tensor and the transport equation for diffusion approximation. Inhomogeneity factors are identified for some particular cases of non-dissipative and dissipative fluids. For non-dissipative case, we analyze the inhomogeneity factor for dust, isotropic and anisotropic matter distributions while dissipative matter distribution includes the inhomogeneity factor only for geodesic dust fluid. We conclude that electric charge increases the inhomogeneity in the energy density which is due to shear, anisotropy and dissipation.
Huang, Yuqing; Zhang, Zhiyong; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong
2014-01-01
Background Two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a powerful and non-invasive tool for the analysis of molecular structures, conformations, and dynamics. However, the inhomogeneity of magnetic fields experienced by samples will destroy spectral information and hinder spectral analysis. In this study, a new pulse sequence is proposed based on the modulation of distant dipolar field to recover high-resolution 2D spin-echo correlated spectroscopy (SECSY) from inhomogeneous fields. Method and Material By using the new sequence, the correlation information between coupled spins and the J coupled information with straightforward multiplet patterns can be obtained free from inhomogeneous line broadening. In addition, the new sequence is also suitable for non-J coupled spin systems. Although three-dimensional acquisition is needed, the evolution of indirect detection dimensions is carefully designed and the ultrafast acquisition scheme is utilized to improve the acquisition efficiency. A chemical solution of butyl methacrylate (C8H14O2) in DMSO (C2H6SO) in a deshimmed magnetic field was tested to demonstrate the implementation details of the new sequence. The performance of the new sequence relative to the conventional SECSY sequence was shown by using an aqueous solution of main brain metabolites in a deshimmed magnetic field. Conclusion The results reveal that the new sequence provides an attractive way to eliminate the inhomogeneous spectral line broadening for the spin-echo correlated spectrum and is a promising tool for the study of metabolites in metabonomics, even for the applications on in vivo and in situ high-resolution 2D NMR spectroscopy. PMID:24392105
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nefed'ev, L. A.; Nizamova, E. I.; Garnaeva, G. I.
2016-07-01
The frequency-time correlation of inhomogeneous broadening on different transitions in a threelevel resonant medium in the presence of external spatially nonuniform electric fields is considered. It is shown that, under a certain relationship between the magnitudes of gradients of external nonuniform electric fields acting at different moments of time, it is possible to control the magnitude of the frequency-time correlation on different frequency transitions. An increase in the frequency-time correlation coefficient with certain strengths of external spatially nonuniform electric fields leads to the recovery of the phase memory of the system and an increase in the stimulated photon echo intensity.
Fermion dipole moment and holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulaxizi, Manuela; Rahman, Rakibur
2015-12-01
In the background of a charged AdS black hole, we consider a Dirac particle endowed with an arbitrary magnetic dipole moment. For non-zero charge and dipole coupling of the bulk fermion, we find that the dual boundary theory can be plagued with superluminal modes. Requiring consistency of the dual CFT amounts to constraining the strength of the dipole coupling by an upper bound. We briefly discuss the implications of our results for the physics of holographic non-Fermi liquids.
Electromagnetic moments of 22F
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mihara, M.; Matsuta, K.; Komurasaki, J.; Hirano, H.; Nishimura, D.; Momota, S.; Ohtsubo, T.; Izumikawa, T.; Shimbara, Y.; Kubo, T.; Kameda, D.; Zhou, Dongmei; Zheng, Yongnan; Yuan, Daqing; Zhu, Shengyun; Kitagawa, A.; Kanazawa, M.; Torikoshi, M.; Sato, S.; Nagatomo, T.; Matsumiya, R.; Ishikawa, D.; Fukuda, M.; Minamisono, T.; Nojiri, Y.; Alonso, J. R.; Crebs, G. F.; Symons, T. J. M.
2010-03-01
The magnetic dipole (μ) and electric quadrupole (Q) moments of short-lived nucleus 22F (Iπ=4+, T=4.2s) have been measured for the first time by means of the β-NMR technique. A spin polarized 22F beam was produced through the charge exchange reaction of 22Ne and was implanted into single crysltals of NaF and MgF2 for μ and Q measurements, respectively. As a result, |μ(F22)|=(2.69443±0.00039)μ and |Q(F22)|=(3±2)mb was obtained. These values are well reproduced by the shell model calculations.
Characterization of ignition overpressure using band limited temporal moments
Cap, J.S.
1994-11-01
The ignition overpressure event is a transient vibroacoustic environment which occurs when a missile is launched. The environment is often too short to obtain a good estimate of the event using Power Spectral Densities, and Shock Response Spectra are limited in their ability to fully describe the nature of the environment. Sandia National Laboratories has employed band limited temporal moments in an effort to characterize the acceleration response of the components and payloads to the ignition overpressure environment and the related laboratory test inputs. The purpose of this paper will be to show the results of that study.
Third Elementary Dipole Moment: Toroidal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cordrey, Vincent; Eshete, Amanuel; Majewski, Walerian
2015-04-01
In this paper we study the generally unknown characteristics of toroids, magnets without magnetic poles. Toroids have never seemed interesting enough to be studied for their physical features in labs due to the fact that they have no magnetic fields on the outside, but rather a very strong magnetic field trapped inside. Toroidal solenoids or magnets (rings magnetized circumferentially) interact with the external magnetic field only through its curl, which can be created either by an electric current, or by a time-dependent electric flux. We confirmed a theoretical prediction, that a toroid would not interact with the curl-less magnetic field of a current-carrying wire running outside of the torus's hole. We used our toroids as magnetic curlmeters, measuring the torque on the toroid, when the current-carrying wire runs through the toroid. From this torque we found the toroidal dipole moment. We are experimenting on detecting the escape of the inner magnetic field of the toroid outside of it, when magnetic toroid rotates or when electric toroid is driven by AC voltage. We also will discuss toroidal (or anapole) moments of fundamental particles, nuclei and atoms, and toroids' applications in metamaterials.
A uniform parametrization of moment tensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tape, Walter; Tape, Carl
2015-09-01
A moment tensor is a 3 × 3 symmetric matrix that expresses an earthquake source. We construct a parametrization of the 5-D space of all moment tensors of unit norm. The coordinates associated with the parametrization are closely related to moment tensor orientations and source types. The parametrization is uniform, in the sense that equal volumes in the coordinate domain of the parametrization correspond to equal volumes of moment tensors. Uniformly distributed points in the coordinate domain therefore give uniformly distributed moment tensors. A cartesian grid in the coordinate domain can be used to search efficiently over moment tensors. We find that uniformly distributed moment tensors have uniformly distributed orientations (eigenframes), but that their source types (eigenvalue triples) are distributed so as to favour double couples.
Moment-to-moment dynamics of ADHD behaviour
2005-01-01
sequences may ultimately lead to deficient development of verbally governed behaviour and self control. The study represents a new approach to analyzing the moment-to-moment dynamics of behaviour, and provides support for the theory that reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD. PMID:16060963
Average luminosity distance in inhomogeneous universes
Kostov, Valentin
2010-04-01
Using numerical ray tracing, the paper studies how the average distance modulus in an inhomogeneous universe differs from its homogeneous counterpart. The averaging is over all directions from a fixed observer not over all possible observers (cosmic), thus is more directly applicable to our observations. In contrast to previous studies, the averaging is exact, non-perturbative, and includes all non-linear effects. The inhomogeneous universes are represented by Swiss-cheese models containing random and simple cubic lattices of mass-compensated voids. The Earth observer is in the homogeneous cheese which has an Einstein-de Sitter metric. For the first time, the averaging is widened to include the supernovas inside the voids by assuming the probability for supernova emission from any comoving volume is proportional to the rest mass in it. Voids aligned along a certain direction give rise to a distance modulus correction which increases with redshift and is caused by cumulative gravitational lensing. That correction is present even for small voids and depends on their density contrast, not on their radius. Averaging over all directions destroys the cumulative lensing correction even in a non-randomized simple cubic lattice of voids. At low redshifts, the average distance modulus correction does not vanish due to the peculiar velocities, despite the photon flux conservation argument. A formula for the maximal possible average correction as a function of redshift is derived and shown to be in excellent agreement with the numerical results. The formula applies to voids of any size that: (a)have approximately constant densities in their interior and walls; and (b)are not in a deep nonlinear regime. The average correction calculated in random and simple cubic void lattices is severely damped below the predicted maximal one after a single void diameter. That is traced to cancellations between the corrections from the fronts and backs of different voids. The results obtained
Inhomogeneous Lens Structures for Integrated Optics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finlayson, Neil
Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The thesis is concerned with the design, analysis, fabrication and evaluation of integrated optic lenses which are inhomogeneous either in physical shape or in refractive index profile. Connections are made between the study of these lenses and the exciting new field of optical computing. A special class of non-uniform lenses forms the main area of interest in the present study. Historically, the development of these lenses has followed two distinct lines. In one method the optical path is made to vary directly, whilst the other method involves controlling the physical path, and thus the optical path, through the principle of equivalence. The dual development has been continued in the field of integrated optics, where lenses based on direct control of the optical path are termed variable-index lenses and those based on physical path control are termed geodesic lenses. The perfect variable -index lens studied in this work was the well-known Luneburg lens. The design formulae for both types of lens are presented. A simpler lens, of spherical geometry, is also presented. Chapter three investigates the problems involved in modelling fabrication conditions in a thermal-evaporation -in-vacuum environment so that lens profiles can actually be constructed. Chapter four goes into methods of tracing rays through these lenses in some detail. The beam-propagation method (BPM) is used to study diffraction and associated effects in inhomogeneous lenses. Negative focal shifts are reported which are not predicted by geometrical optics or the usual approximate diffraction theories. The fabrication of lenses is considered. Planar waveguide measurements carried out on the various materials used in the study are presented. A major problem in the fabrication of geodesic lenses, that of obtaining a uniform waveguide layer over the complete lens area, is dealt with in some detail. Extensive tests on the
Average luminosity distance in inhomogeneous universes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostov, Valentin Angelov
Using numerical ray tracing, the paper studies how the average distance modulus in an inhomogeneous universe differs from its homogeneous counterpart. The averaging is over all directions from a fixed observer not over all possible observers (cosmic), thus it is more directly applicable to our observations. Unlike previous studies, the averaging is exact, non-perturbative, an includes all possible non-linear effects. The inhomogeneous universes are represented by Sweese-cheese models containing random and simple cubic lattices of mass- compensated voids. The Earth observer is in the homogeneous cheese which has an Einstein - de Sitter metric. For the first time, the averaging is widened to include the supernovas inside the voids by assuming the probability for supernova emission from any comoving volume is proportional to the rest mass in it. For voids aligned in a certain direction, there is a cumulative gravitational lensing correction to the distance modulus that increases with redshift. That correction is present even for small voids and depends on the density contrast of the voids, not on their radius. Averaging over all directions destroys the cumulative correction even in a non-randomized simple cubic lattice of voids. Despite the well known argument for photon flux conservation, the average distance modulus correction at low redshifts is not zero due to the peculiar velocities. A formula for the maximum possible average correction as a function of redshift is derived and shown to be in excellent agreement with the numerical results. The formula applies to voids of any size that: (1) have approximately constant densities in their interior and walls, (2) are not in a deep nonlinear regime. The actual average correction calculated in random and simple cubic void lattices is severely damped below the predicted maximum. That is traced to cancelations between the corrections coming from the fronts and backs of different voids at the same redshift from the
Development of a xenon polarizer for magnetometry in neutron electric dipole moment experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dawson, Troy
Next generation electric dipole moment experiments require precise knowledge of the local magnetic fields in the experimental volume. Hyperpolarized xenon-129 has been proposed as a comagnetometer gas to be used in the neutron electric dipole moment experiment planned for TRIUMF. A flow through xenon polarizer was constructed and tested, and the hyperpolarized Xe-129 produced was transported to and characterized using a new AFP-NMR spectrometer. The polarization measured in the external AFP-NMR spectrometer was (12 +/- 4)%. The longitudinal spin relaxation time T1 was found to be (77 +/- 24) s in the experimental NMR volume, limited by leaks and field inhomogeneity. This represents good progress towards the eventual system for nEDM experiments where polarizations greater than 50% and T1, T2 relaxation times greater than 1000 s are expected.
The third central moment of photospheric lines as a measure of velocity gradients and line shifts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marmolino, C.; Severino, G.
1981-07-01
The significance of the third central moment (M3) of photospheric line profiles as an indicator of velocity, temperature and pressure perturbations is analyzed. A linear inversion method is applied to the third central moments of a set of synthetic lines computed using the temperature structures of the B2 and D2 models of Altrock and Musman (1976) for the granular and intergranular atmospheres, respectively, in order to derive mean photospheric velocity gradients. It is found that for data taken with infinite spatial resolution, M3 is a nearly linear measure of the velocity gradients, whereas at finite resolution it is essentially determined by the different weights of the shifted granular and intergranular line components. Results also suggest a means of disentangling velocity gradients and the horizontal integration of inhomogeneities.
Meissner response of superconductors with inhomogeneous penetration depths
Kogan, V. G.; Kirtley, J. R.
2011-03-24
We discuss the Meissner response to a known field source of superconductors having inhomogeneities in their penetration depth. We simplify the general problem by assuming that the perturbations of the fields by the penetration depth inhomogeneities are small. We present expressions for inhomogeneities in several geometries, but concentrate for comparison with experiment on planar defects, perpendicular to the sample surfaces, with superfluid densities different from the rest of the samples. These calculations are relevant for magnetic microscopies, such as Scanning Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) and Magnetic Force Microscope, which image the local diamagnetic susceptibility of a sample.
Reflection and interference of electromagnetic waves in inhomogeneous media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geiger, F. E.; Kyle, H. L.
1973-01-01
Solutions were obtained of the wave equation for a plane horizontally polarized electro-magnetic wave incident on a semi infinite two dimensional inhomogeneous medium. Two problems were considered: An inhomogeneous half space, and an inhomogeneous layer of arbitrary thickness. Solutions of the wave equation were obtained in terms of Hankel functions with complex arguments. Numerical calculations were made of the reflection coefficient R at the interface of the homogeneous medium. The startling results show that the reflection coefficient for a complex dielectric constant with gradient, can be less than that of the same medium with zero gradient.
Modelling of hydraulic fracture propagation in inhomogeneous poroelastic medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baykin, A. N.; Golovin, S. V.
2016-06-01
In the paper a model for description of a hydraulic fracture propagation in inhomogeneous poroelastic medium is proposed. Among advantages of the presented numerical algorithm, there are incorporation of the near-tip analysis into the general computational scheme, account for the rock failure criterion on the base of the cohesive zone model, possibility for analysis of fracture propagation in inhomogeneous reservoirs. The numerical convergence of the algorithm is verified and the agreement of our numerical results with known solutions is established. The influence of the inhomogeneity of the reservoir permeability to the fracture time evolution is also demonstrated.
Dynamics of moment neuronal networks.
Feng, Jianfeng; Deng, Yingchun; Rossoni, Enrico
2006-04-01
A theoretical framework is developed for moment neuronal networks (MNNs). Within this framework, the behavior of the system of spiking neurons is specified in terms of the first- and second-order statistics of their interspike intervals, i.e., the mean, the variance, and the cross correlations of spike activity. Since neurons emit and receive spike trains which can be described by renewal--but generally non-Poisson--processes, we first derive a suitable diffusion-type approximation of such processes. Two approximation schemes are introduced: the usual approximation scheme (UAS) and the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck scheme. It is found that both schemes approximate well the input-output characteristics of spiking models such as the IF and the Hodgkin-Huxley models. The MNN framework is then developed according to the UAS scheme, and its predictions are tested on a few examples.
The classical model for moment tensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tape, W.; Tape, C.
2013-12-01
A seismic moment tensor is a description of an earthquake source, but the description is indirect. The moment tensor describes seismic radiation rather than the actual physical process that initiates the radiation. A moment tensor 'model' then ties the physical process to the moment tensor. The model is not unique, and the physical process is therefore not unique. In the classical moment tensor model (Aki and Richards, 1980), an earthquake arises from slip along a planar fault, but with the slip not necessarily in the plane of the fault. The model specifies the resulting moment tensor in terms of the slip vector, the fault normal vector, and the Lame elastic parameters, assuming isotropy. We review the classical model in the context of the fundamental lune. The lune is closely related to the space of moment tensors, and it provides a setting that is conceptually natural as well as pictorial. In addition to the classical model, we consider a crack plus double couple model (CDC model) in which a moment tensor is regarded as the sum of a crack tensor and a double couple. A compilation of full moment tensors from the literature reveals large deviations in Poisson's ratio as implied by the classical model. Either the classical model is inadequate or the published full moment tensors have very large uncertainties. We question the common interpretation of the isotropic component as a volume change in the source region.
Microwaves Scattering by Underdense Inhomogeneous Plasma Column
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lin; Ouyang, Jiting
2016-03-01
The scattering characteristics of microwaves (MWs) by an underdense inhomogeneous plasma column have been investigated. The plasma column is generated by hollow cathode discharge (HCD) in a glass tube filled with low pressure argon. The plasma density in the column can be varied by adjusting the discharge current. The scattering power of X-band MWs by the column is measured at different discharge currents and receiving angles. The results show that the column can affect the properties of scattering wave significantly regardless of its plasma frequency much lower than the incident wave frequency. The power peak of the scattering wave shifts away from 0° to about ±15° direction. The finite-different time-domain (FDTD) method is employed to analyze the wave scattering by plasma column with different electron density distributions. The reflected MW power from a metal plate located behind the column is also measured to investigate the scattering effect on reducing MW reflectivity of a metal target. This study is expected to deepen the understanding of plasma-electromagnetic wave interaction and expand the applications concerning plasma antenna and plasma stealth.
Lensing effects in an inhomogeneous universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergström, L.; Goliath, M.; Goobar, A.; Mörtsell, E.
2000-06-01
Recently, Holz & Wald have presented a new method for determining gravitational lensing effects on, e.g., supernova luminosity versus redshift measurements in inhomogeneous universes. In this paper, their method is generalized in several ways: First, the matter content is allowed to consist of several different types of fluids, possibly with non-vanishing pressure. Second, besides lensing by simple point masses and singular isothermal spheres, the more realistic halo dark matter distribution proposed by Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW), based on N-body simulation results, is treated. We discuss various aspects of the accuracy of the method, such as luminosity corrections, and statistics, for multiple images. We find in agreement with other recent work that a large sample of supernovae at large redshift could be used to extract gross features of the mass distribution of the lensing dark matter halos, such as the existence of a large number of point-like objects. The results for the isothermal sphere and the NFW model are, however, very similar if normalized to the observed luminosity distribution of galaxies. We give convenient analytical fitting formulas for our computed lensing probabilites as a function of magnification, for several redshifts.
Inhomogeneous cloud measurements during bbc-2001
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venema, V.; Simmer, C.; Crewell, S.; 4D-Clouds Team
2003-04-01
The 4D-clouds project aims at capturing the radiative influence of inhomogeneous clouds and at implementing these influences in the modelling of transport and exchange processes in dynamical atmospheric models. The measurement component of this project was executed together with the EU-project CLIWA-NET in the Baltex Bridge Campaign (BBC), which was held in the Netherlands around Cabauw in August and September 2001. It encompassed satellite and diverse ground based remote sensing measurements and simultaneous in situ measurements of the microphysical and radiative properties with three airplanes. The airplanes complement one another very well: The Merlin IV (Meteo France, CAATER) carried microphysical probes, the Cessna (TU Berlin) imaging remote sensing instruments and the Partenavia (IfT Leipzig) mainly radiation equipment. In total seven remote sensing stations with a lidar ceilometer, an infrared-radiometer and a microwave radiometer, were scattered over a region of 100 by 100 km. Furthermore, 3D cloud fields have been measured at Cabauw by making scanning measurements with a microwave radiometer and a cloud radar. In total four radars were present, an UHF windprofiler/RASS, an S-band Radar (TARA), and two cloud radars (K and W band). The paper will describe the 4D-clouds project and the instrumentation of the BBC campaign. Furthermore, it will show some first results of the campaign.
Optimality of Spatially Inhomogeneous Search Strategies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwarz, Karsten; Schröder, Yannick; Qu, Bin; Hoth, Markus; Rieger, Heiko
2016-08-01
We consider random search processes alternating stochastically between diffusion and ballistic motion, in which the distribution function of ballistic motion directions varies from point to point in space. The specific space dependence of the directional distribution together with the switching rates between the two modes of motion establishes a spatially inhomogeneous search strategy. We show that the mean first passage times for several standard search problems—narrow escape, reaction partner finding, reaction escape—can be minimized with a directional distribution that is reminiscent of the spatial organization of the cytoskeleton filaments of cells with a centrosome: radial ballistic transport from the center to the periphery and back, and ballistic transport in random directions within a concentric shell of thickness Δopt along the domain boundary. The results suggest that living cells realize efficient search strategies for various intracellular transport problems economically through a spatial cytoskeleton organization that involves radial microtubules in the central region and only a narrow actin cortex rather than a cell body filled with randomly oriented actin filaments.
First artificial periodic inhomogeneity experiments at HAARP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hysell, D. L.; McCarrick, M. J.; Fallen, C. T.; Vierinen, J.
2015-03-01
Experiments involving the generation and detection of artificial periodic inhomogeneities have been performed at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility. Irregularities were created using powerful X-mode HF emissions and then probed using short (10 μs) X- and O-mode pulses. Reception was performed using a portable software-defined receiver together with the crossed rhombic antenna from the local ionosonde. Echoes were observed reliably between about 85 and 140 km altitude with signal-to-noise ratios as high as about 30 dB. The Doppler shift of the echoes can be associated with the vertical neutral wind in this altitude range. Small but persistent Doppler shifts were observed. The decay time constant of the echoes is meanwhile indicative of the ambipolar diffusion coefficient which depends on the plasma temperature, composition, and neutral gas density. The measured time constants appear to be consistent with theoretical expectations and imply a methodology for measuring neutral density profiles. The significance of thermospheric vertical neutral wind and density measurements which are difficult to obtain using ground-based instruments by other means is discussed.
Mathematical Modeling of Extinction of Inhomogeneous Populations
Karev, G.P.; Kareva, I.
2016-01-01
Mathematical models of population extinction have a variety of applications in such areas as ecology, paleontology and conservation biology. Here we propose and investigate two types of sub-exponential models of population extinction. Unlike the more traditional exponential models, the life duration of sub-exponential models is finite. In the first model, the population is assumed to be composed clones that are independent from each other. In the second model, we assume that the size of the population as a whole decreases according to the sub-exponential equation. We then investigate the “unobserved heterogeneity”, i.e. the underlying inhomogeneous population model, and calculate the distribution of frequencies of clones for both models. We show that the dynamics of frequencies in the first model is governed by the principle of minimum of Tsallis information loss. In the second model, the notion of “internal population time” is proposed; with respect to the internal time, the dynamics of frequencies is governed by the principle of minimum of Shannon information loss. The results of this analysis show that the principle of minimum of information loss is the underlying law for the evolution of a broad class of models of population extinction. Finally, we propose a possible application of this modeling framework to mechanisms underlying time perception. PMID:27090117
Inhomogeneous field theory inside the arctic circle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allegra, Nicolas; Dubail, Jérôme; Stéphan, Jean-Marie; Viti, Jacopo
2016-05-01
Motivated by quantum quenches in spin chains, a one-dimensional toy-model of fermionic particles evolving in imaginary-time from a domain-wall initial state is solved. The main interest of this toy-model is that it exhibits the arctic circle phenomenon, namely a spatial phase separation between a critically fluctuating region and a frozen region. Large-scale correlations inside the critical region are expressed in terms of correlators in a (euclidean) two-dimensional massless Dirac field theory. It is observed that this theory is inhomogenous: the metric is position-dependent, so it is in fact a Dirac theory in curved space. The technique used to solve the toy-model is then extended to deal with the transfer matrices of other models: dimers on the honeycomb and square lattice, and the six-vertex model at the free fermion point (Δ =0 ). In all cases, explicit expressions are given for the long-range correlations in the critical region, as well as for the underlying Dirac action. Although the setup developed here is heavily based on fermionic observables, the results can be translated into the language of height configurations and of the gaussian free field, via bosonization. Correlations close to the phase boundary and the generic appearance of Airy processes in all these models are also briefly revisited in the appendix.
Spin generation by strong inhomogeneous electric fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finkler, Ilya; Engel, Hans-Andreas; Rashba, Emmanuel; Halperin, Bertrand
2007-03-01
Motivated by recent experiments [1], we propose a model with extrinsic spin-orbit interaction, where an inhomogeneous electric field E in the x-y plane can give rise, through nonlinear effects, to a spin polarization with non-zero sz, away from the sample boundaries. The field E induces a spin current js^z= z x(αjc+βE), where jc=σE is the charge current, and the two terms represent,respectively, the skew scattering and side-jump contributions. [2]. The coefficients α and β are assumed to be E- independent, but conductivity σ is field dependent. We find the spin density sz by solving the equation for spin diffusion and relaxation with a source term ∇.js^z. For sufficiently low fields, jc is linear in E, and the source term vanishes, implying that sz=0 away from the edges. However, for large fields, σ varies with E. Solving the diffusion equation in a T-shaped geometry, where the electric current propagates along the main channel, we find spin accumulation near the entrance of the side channel, similar to experimental findings [1]. Also, we present a toy model where spin accumulation away from the boundary results from a nonlinear and anisotropic conductivity. [1] V. Sih, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 096605 (2006). [2] H.-A. Engel, B.I. Halperin, E.I.Rashba, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 166605 (2005).
Optimality of Spatially Inhomogeneous Search Strategies.
Schwarz, Karsten; Schröder, Yannick; Qu, Bin; Hoth, Markus; Rieger, Heiko
2016-08-01
We consider random search processes alternating stochastically between diffusion and ballistic motion, in which the distribution function of ballistic motion directions varies from point to point in space. The specific space dependence of the directional distribution together with the switching rates between the two modes of motion establishes a spatially inhomogeneous search strategy. We show that the mean first passage times for several standard search problems-narrow escape, reaction partner finding, reaction escape-can be minimized with a directional distribution that is reminiscent of the spatial organization of the cytoskeleton filaments of cells with a centrosome: radial ballistic transport from the center to the periphery and back, and ballistic transport in random directions within a concentric shell of thickness Δ_{opt} along the domain boundary. The results suggest that living cells realize efficient search strategies for various intracellular transport problems economically through a spatial cytoskeleton organization that involves radial microtubules in the central region and only a narrow actin cortex rather than a cell body filled with randomly oriented actin filaments. PMID:27541477
Theoretical model for forming limit diagram predictions without initial inhomogeneity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gologanu, Mihai; Comsa, Dan Sorin; Banabic, Dorel
2013-05-01
We report on our attempts to build a theoretical model for determining forming limit diagrams (FLD) based on limit analysis that, contrary to the well-known Marciniak and Kuczynski (M-K) model, does not assume the initial existence of a region with material or geometrical inhomogeneity. We first give a new interpretation based on limit analysis for the onset of necking in the M-K model. Considering the initial thickness defect along a narrow band as postulated by the M-K model, we show that incipient necking is a transition in the plastic mechanism from one of plastic flow in both the sheet and the band to another one where the sheet becomes rigid and all plastic deformation is localized in the band. We then draw on some analogies between the onset of necking in a sheet and the onset of coalescence in a porous bulk body. In fact, the main advance in coalescence modeling has been based on a similar limit analysis with an important new ingredient: the evolution of the spatial distribution of voids, due to the plastic deformation, creating weaker regions with higher porosity surrounded by sound regions with no voids. The onset of coalescence is precisely the transition from a mechanism of plastic deformation in both regions to another one, where the sound regions are rigid. We apply this new ingredient to a necking model based on limit analysis, for the first quadrant of the FLD and a porous sheet. We use Gurson's model with some recent extensions to model the porous material. We follow both the evolution of a homogeneous sheet and the evolution of the distribution of voids. At each moment we test for a potential change of plastic mechanism, by comparing the stresses in the uniform region to those in a virtual band with a larger porosity. The main difference with the coalescence of voids in a bulk solid is that the plastic mechanism for a sheet admits a supplementary degree of freedom, namely the change in the thickness of the virtual band. For strain ratios close to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jie; Guo, LiXin; He, Qiong; Wei, Bing
2012-10-01
An iterative strategy combining Kirchhoff approximation^(KA) with the hybrid finite element-boundary integral (FE-BI) method is presented in this paper to study the interactions between the inhomogeneous object and the underlying rough surface. KA is applied to study scattering from underlying rough surfaces, whereas FE-BI deals with scattering from the above target. Both two methods use updated excitation sources. Huygens equivalence principle and an iterative strategy are employed to consider the multi-scattering effects. This hybrid FE-BI-KA scheme is an improved and generalized version of previous hybrid Kirchhoff approximation-method of moments (KA-MoM). This newly presented hybrid method has the following advantages: (1) the feasibility of modeling multi-scale scattering problems (large scale underlying surface and small scale target); (2) low memory requirement as in hybrid KA-MoM; (3) the ability to deal with scattering from inhomogeneous (including coated or layered) scatterers above rough surfaces. The numerical results are given to evaluate the accuracy of the multi-hybrid technique; the computing time and memory requirements consumed in specific numerical simulation of FE-BI-KA are compared with those of MoM. The convergence performance is analyzed by studying the iteration number variation caused by related parameters. Then bistatic scattering from inhomogeneous object of different configurations above dielectric Gaussian rough surface is calculated and the influences of dielectric compositions and surface roughness on the scattering pattern are discussed.
Kim, Kihong; Lee, Dong-Hun
2006-04-15
A new version of the invariant imbedding theory for the propagation of coupled waves in inhomogeneous media is applied to the mode conversion of high frequency electromagnetic waves into electrostatic modes in cold, magnetized, and stratified plasmas. The cases where the external magnetic field is applied perpendicularly to the direction of inhomogeneity and the electron density profile is linear are considered. Extensive and numerically exact results for the mode conversion coefficients, the reflectances, and the wave electric and magnetic field profiles inside the inhomogeneous plasma are obtained. The dependencies of mode conversion phenomena on the magnitude of the external magnetic field, the incident angle, and the wave frequency are explored in detail.
Relativistic corrections to the nuclear Schiff moment
Dmitriev, V.F.; Flambaum, V.V.
2005-06-01
Parity- and time-invariance-violating (P,T-odd) atomic electric dipole moments (EDM) are induced by the interaction between atomic electrons and nuclear P,T-odd moments, which are themselves produced by P,T-odd nuclear forces. The nuclear EDM is screened by atomic electrons. The EDM of a nonrelativistic atom with closed electron subshells is induced by the nuclear Schiff moment. For heavy relativistic atoms EDM is induced by the nuclear local dipole moments, which differ by 10-50% from the Schiff moments calculated previously. We calculate the local dipole moments for {sup 199}Hg and {sup 205}Tl where the most accurate atomic [Romalis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2505 (2001)] and molecular [Cho et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2559 (1989); Phys. Rev. A 44, 2783 (1991)] EDM measurements have been performed.
The Higher Moments Dynamic on SIS Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinto, Alberto; Martins, José; Stollenwerk, Nico
2009-09-01
The basic contact process or the SIS model is a well known epidemic process and have been studied for a wide class of people. In an epidemiological context, many authors worked on the SIS model considering only the dynamic of the first moments of infecteds, i.e., the mean value and the variance of the infected individuals. In this work, we study not only the dynamic of the first moments of infecteds but also on the dynamic of the higher moments. Recursively, we consider the dynamic equations for all the moments of infecteds and, applying the moment closure approximation, we obtain the stationary states of the state variables. We observe that the stationary states of the SIS model, in the moment closure approximation, can be used to obtain good approximations of the quasi-stationary states of the SIS model.
Alternative field representations and integral equations for modeling inhomogeneous dielectrics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Volakis, John L.
1992-01-01
New volume and volume-surface integral equations are presented for modeling inhomogeneous dielectric regions. The presented integral equations result in more efficient numerical implementations and should, therefore, be useful in a variety of electromagnetic applications.
Inhomogeneous Fermi and quantum spin systems on lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bru, J.-B.; de Siqueira Pedra, W.
2012-12-01
We study the thermodynamic properties of a certain type of space-inhomogeneous Fermi and quantum spin systems on lattices. We are particularly interested in the case where the space scale of the inhomogeneities stays macroscopic, but very small as compared to the side-length of the box containing fermions or spins. The present study is however not restricted to "macroscopic inhomogeneities" and also includes the (periodic) microscopic and mesoscopic cases. We prove that - as in the homogeneous case - the pressure is, up to a minus sign, the conservative value of a two-person zero-sum game, named here thermodynamic game. Because of the absence of space symmetries in such inhomogeneous systems, it is not clear from the beginning what kind of object equilibrium states should be in the thermodynamic limit. However, we give rigorous statements on correlations functions for large boxes.
Scaling of earthquake models with inhomogeneous stress dissipation.
Dominguez, Rachele; Tiampo, Kristy; Serino, C A; Klein, W
2013-02-01
Natural earthquake fault systems are highly nonhomogeneous. The inhomogeneities occur because the earth is made of a variety of materials which hold and dissipate stress differently. In this work, we study scaling in earthquake fault models which are variations of the Olami-Feder-Christensen and Rundle-Jackson-Brown models. We use the scaling to explore the effect of spatial inhomogeneities due to damage and inhomogeneous stress dissipation in the earthquake-fault-like systems when the stress transfer range is long, but not necessarily longer than the length scale associated with the inhomogeneities of the system. We find that the scaling depends not only on the amount of damage, but also on the spatial distribution of that damage.
Inhomogeneous cosmology. III - Primordial gravitational waves and dust
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, P. J.; Hellings, R. W.; Zimmerman, R. L.
1987-01-01
In this paper, the properties of a special class of inhomogeneous cosmological models and the interaction of the inhomogeneities with the evolution of the background geometry and matter are studied. The cosmological model is chosen so that the initial inhomogeneities evolve into 'plane' gravitational waves propagating through a smooth Bianchi I dust background. It is shown how the inhomogeneities interact with matter, 3 K radiation, and the background geometry, causing the expansion to slow down in some regions and speed up in others. It is also shown how the gravitational waves can produce a 'dragging of the inertial frame' which will affect the observed distribution of matter and 3 K radiation. In particular, this frame-dragging effect can account for a major fraction of the obsserved dipole component between the 3 K background radiation and the rest frame of global matter, an effect usually assumed to have been produced by large-scale local motion.
Zero-Lag Synchronization Despite Inhomogeneities in a Relay System
Ghasemi Esfahani, Zahra; Valizadeh, Alireza
2014-01-01
A novel proposal for the zero-lag synchronization of the delayed coupled neurons, is to connect them indirectly via a third relay neuron. In this study, we develop a Poincaré map to investigate the robustness of the synchrony in such a relay system against inhomogeneity in the neurons and synaptic parameters. We show that when the inhomogeneity does not violate the symmetry of the system, synchrony is maintained and in some cases inhomogeneity enhances synchrony. On the other hand if the inhomogeneity breaks the symmetry of the system, zero lag synchrony can not be preserved. In this case we give analytical results for the phase lag of the spiking of the neurons in the stable state. PMID:25486522
Sampling-based learning control of inhomogeneous quantum ensembles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Chunlin; Dong, Daoyi; Long, Ruixing; Petersen, Ian R.; Rabitz, Herschel A.
2014-02-01
Compensation for parameter dispersion is a significant challenge for control of inhomogeneous quantum ensembles. In this paper, we present the systematic methodology of sampling-based learning control (SLC) for simultaneously steering the members of inhomogeneous quantum ensembles to the same desired state. The SLC method is employed for optimal control of the state-to-state transition probability for inhomogeneous quantum ensembles of spins as well as Λ-type atomic systems. The procedure involves the steps of (i) training and (ii) testing. In the training step, a generalized system is constructed by sampling members according to the distribution of inhomogeneous parameters drawn from the ensemble. A gradient flow based learning and optimization algorithm is adopted to find an optimal control for the generalized system. In the process of testing, a number of additional ensemble members are randomly selected to evaluate the control performance. Numerical results are presented, showing the effectiveness of the SLC method.
Fox-Wolfram moments in Higgs physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernaciak, Catherine; Buschmann, Malte Seán Andreas; Butter, Anja; Plehn, Tilman
2013-04-01
Geometric correlations between jets as part of hard processes or in addition to hard processes are key ingredients to many LHC analyses. Fox-Wolfram moments systematically describe these correlations in terms of spherical harmonics. These moments, computed either from the tagging jets or from all jets in each event, can significantly improve Higgs searches in weak boson fusion. Applications of Fox-Wolfram moments in LHC analyses obviously surpass jets as analysis objects, as well as Higgs searches in terms of analyses.
CJAM: First and second velocity moments calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watkins, Laura L.; den Brok, Mark
2013-12-01
CJAM calculates first and second velocity moments using the Jeans Anisotropic MGE (JAM) models of Cappellari (2008) and Cappellari (2012). These models have been extended to calculate all three (x, y, z) first moments and all six (xx, yy, zz, xy, xz, yz) second moments. CJAM, written in C, is based on the IDL implementation of the line-of-sight calculations by Michele Cappellari.
Inhomogeneous distribution of organic molecules adsorbed in sol gel glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meneses-Nava, M. A.; Chávez-Cerda, S.; Sánchez-Villicaña, V.; Sánchez-Mondragón, J. J.; King, T. A.
1999-09-01
The effects of the porous matrix upon the radiative characteristics of quinine sulphate doped sol-gel glasses are investigated. The broadenings of the absorption and fluorescence spectra are explained by the attachment of the molecules on distorted sites or in a non-planar fashion, creating an inhomogeneous distribution of adsorbed molecules. For this reason, each emitting center relaxes with its own characteristics. This inhomogeneous distribution is also supported by the non-exponential and the wavelength dependence of the fluorescence decay.
A uniform parameterization of moment tensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tape, C.; Tape, W.
2015-12-01
A moment tensor is a 3 x 3 symmetric matrix that expresses an earthquake source. We construct a parameterization of the five-dimensional space of all moment tensors of unit norm. The coordinates associated with the parameterization are closely related to moment tensor orientations and source types. The parameterization is uniform, in the sense that equal volumes in the coordinate domain of the parameterization correspond to equal volumes of moment tensors. Uniformly distributed points in the coordinate domain therefore give uniformly distributed moment tensors. A cartesian grid in the coordinate domain can be used to search efficiently over moment tensors. We find that uniformly distributed moment tensors have uniformly distributed orientations (eigenframes), but that their source types (eigenvalue triples) are distributed so as to favor double couples. An appropriate choice of a priori moment tensor probability is a prerequisite for parameter estimation. As a seemingly sensible choice, we consider the homogeneous probability, in which equal volumes of moment tensors are equally likely. We believe that it will lead to improved characterization of source processes.
How to introduce the magnetic dipole moment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezerra, M.; Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Cougo-Pinto, M. V.; Farina, C.
2012-09-01
We show how the concept of the magnetic dipole moment can be introduced in the same way as the concept of the electric dipole moment in introductory courses on electromagnetism. Considering a localized steady current distribution, we make a Taylor expansion directly in the Biot-Savart law to obtain, explicitly, the dominant contribution of the magnetic field at distant points, identifying the magnetic dipole moment of the distribution. We also present a simple but general demonstration of the torque exerted by a uniform magnetic field on a current loop of general form, not necessarily planar. For pedagogical reasons we start by reviewing briefly the concept of the electric dipole moment.
Gross shell structure of moments of inertia
Deleplanque, M.A.; Frauendorf, S.; Pashkevich, V.V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, A.
2002-07-01
Average yrast moments of inertia at high spins, where the pairing correlations are expected to be largely absent, were found to deviate from the rigid-body values. This indicates that shell effects contribute to the moment of inertia. We discuss the gross dependence of moments of inertia and shell energies on the neutron number in terms of the semiclassical periodic orbit theory. We show that the ground-state shell energies, nuclear deformations and deviations from rigid-body moments of inertia are all due to the same periodic orbits.
A Gravitational Experiment Involving Inhomogeneous Electric Fields
Datta, T.; Yin Ming; Vargas, Jose
2004-02-04
Unification of gravitation with other forms of interactions, particularly with electromagnetism, will have tremendous impacts on technology and our understanding of nature. The economic impact of such an achievement will also be unprecedented and far more extensive than the impact experienced in the past century due to the unification of electricity with magnetism and optics. Theoretical unification of gravitation with electromagnetism using classical differential geometry has been pursued since the late nineteen twenties, when Einstein and Cartan used teleparallelism for the task. Recently, Vargas and Torr have followed the same line of research with more powerful mathematics in a more general geometric framework, which allows for the presence of other interactions. Their approach also uses Kaehler generalization of Cartan's exterior calculus, which constitutes a language appropriate for both classical and quantum physics. Given the compelling nature of teleparallelism (path-independent equality of vectors at a distance) and the problems still existing with energy-momentum in general relativity, it is important to seek experimental evidence for such expectations. Such experimental programs are likely to provide quantitative guidance to the further development of current and future theories. We too, have undertaken an experimental search for potential electrically induced gravitational (EIG) effects. This presentation describes some of the practical concerns that relates to our investigation of electrical influences on laboratory size test masses. Preliminary results, appear to indicate a correlation between the application of a spatially inhomogeneous electric field and the appearance of an additional force on the test mass. If confirmed, the presence of such a force will be consistent with the predictions of Vargas-Torr. More importantly, proven results will shed new light and clearer understanding of the interactions between gravitational and electromagnetic
A Gravitational Experiment Involving Inhomogeneous Electric Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Datta, T.; Yin, Ming; Vargas, Jose
2004-02-01
Unification of gravitation with other forms of interactions, particularly with electromagnetism, will have tremendous impacts on technology and our understanding of nature. The economic impact of such an achievement will also be unprecedented and far more extensive than the impact experienced in the past century due to the unification of electricity with magnetism and optics. Theoretical unification of gravitation with electromagnetism using classical differential geometry has been pursued since the late nineteen twenties, when Einstein and Cartan used teleparallelism for the task. Recently, Vargas and Torr have followed the same line of research with more powerful mathematics in a more general geometric framework, which allows for the presence of other interactions. Their approach also uses Kähler generalization of Cartan's exterior calculus, which constitutes a language appropriate for both classical and quantum physics. Given the compelling nature of teleparallelism (path-independent equality of vectors at a distance) and the problems still existing with energy-momentum in general relativity, it is important to seek experimental evidence for such expectations. Such experimental programs are likely to provide quantitative guidance to the further development of current and future theories. We too, have undertaken an experimental search for potential electrically induced gravitational (EIG) effects. This presentation describes some of the practical concerns that relates to our investigation of electrical influences on laboratory size test masses. Preliminary results, appear to indicate a correlation between the application of a spatially inhomogeneous electric field and the appearance of an additional force on the test mass. If confirmed, the presence of such a force will be consistent with the predictions of Vargas-Torr. More importantly, proven results will shed new light and clearer understanding of the interactions between gravitational and electromagnetic
Inverse Scattering Problems for Acoustic Waves in AN Inhomogeneous Medium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kedzierawski, Andrzej Wladyslaw
1990-01-01
This dissertation considers the inverse scattering problem of determining either the absorption of sound in an inhomogeneous medium or the surface impedance of an obstacle from a knowledge of the far-field patterns of the scattered fields corresponding to many incident time -harmonic plane waves. First, we consider the inverse problem in the case when the scattering object is an inhomogeneous medium with complex refraction index having compact support. Our approach to this problem is the orthogonal projection method of Colton-Monk (cf. The inverse scattering problem for time acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium, Quart. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 41 (1988), 97-125). After that, we prove the analogue of Karp's Theorem for the scattering of acoustic waves through an inhomogeneous medium with compact support. We then generalize some of these results to the case when the inhomogeneous medium is no longer of compact support. If the acoustic wave penetrates the inhomogeneous medium by only a small amount then the inverse medium problem leads to the inverse obstacle problem with an impedance boundary condition. We solve the inverse impedance problem of determining the surface impedance of an obstacle of known shape by using both the methods of Kirsch-Kress and Colton-Monk (cf. R. Kress, Linear Integral Equations, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1989).
Local nonlinear rf forces in inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas
Chen, Jiale; Gao, Zhe
2014-06-15
The local nonlinear forces induced by radio frequency (rf) waves are derived in inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas, where the inhomogeneity exists in the rf fields, in the static magnetic field as well as in the equilibrium density and temperature. The local parallel force is completely resonant, but a novel component dependent on those inhomogeneities is obtained as the result of the inhomogeneous transport of parallel resonant-absorbed momentum by the nonlinear perpendicular drift flux. In the local poloidal force, the component induced by the inhomogeneity of rf power absorption is also confirmed and it can be recognized as the residual effect from the incomplete cancellation between the rate of the diamagnetic poloidal momentum gain and the Lorentz force due to the radial diffusion-like flux. The compact expression for radial force is also obtained for the first time, whose nonresonant component is expressed as the sum of the ponderomotive force on particles and the gradients of the nonresonant perpendicular pressure and of the nonresonant momentum flux due to the finite temperature effect. Numerical calculations in a 1-D slab model show that the resonant component dependent on the inhomogeneities may be significant when the ion absorption dominates the resonant wave-particle interaction. A quantitative estimation shows that the novel component in the parallel force is important to understand the experiments of the ion-cyclotron-frequency mode-conversion flow drive.
Direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton.
Mooser, A; Ulmer, S; Blaum, K; Franke, K; Kracke, H; Leiteritz, C; Quint, W; Rodegheri, C C; Smorra, C; Walz, J
2014-05-29
One of the fundamental properties of the proton is its magnetic moment, µp. So far µp has been measured only indirectly, by analysing the spectrum of an atomic hydrogen maser in a magnetic field. Here we report the direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of a single proton using the double Penning-trap technique. We drive proton-spin quantum jumps by a magnetic radio-frequency field in a Penning trap with a homogeneous magnetic field. The induced spin transitions are detected in a second trap with a strong superimposed magnetic inhomogeneity. This enables the measurement of the spin-flip probability as a function of the drive frequency. In each measurement the proton's cyclotron frequency is used to determine the magnetic field of the trap. From the normalized resonance curve, we extract the particle's magnetic moment in terms of the nuclear magneton: μp = 2.792847350(9)μN. This measurement outperforms previous Penning-trap measurements in terms of precision by a factor of about 760. It improves the precision of the forty-year-old indirect measurement, in which significant theoretical bound state corrections were required to obtain µp, by a factor of 3. By application of this method to the antiproton magnetic moment, the fractional precision of the recently reported value can be improved by a factor of at least 1,000. Combined with the present result, this will provide a stringent test of matter/antimatter symmetry with baryons.
Stereo Correspondence Using Moment Invariants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Premaratne, Prashan; Safaei, Farzad
Autonomous navigation is seen as a vital tool in harnessing the enormous potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and small robotic vehicles for both military and civilian use. Even though, laser based scanning solutions for Simultaneous Location And Mapping (SLAM) is considered as the most reliable for depth estimation, they are not feasible for use in UAV and land-based small vehicles due to their physical size and weight. Stereovision is considered as the best approach for any autonomous navigation solution as stereo rigs are considered to be lightweight and inexpensive. However, stereoscopy which estimates the depth information through pairs of stereo images can still be computationally expensive and unreliable. This is mainly due to some of the algorithms used in successful stereovision solutions require high computational requirements that cannot be met by small robotic vehicles. In our research, we implement a feature-based stereovision solution using moment invariants as a metric to find corresponding regions in image pairs that will reduce the computational complexity and improve the accuracy of the disparity measures that will be significant for the use in UAVs and in small robotic vehicles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loftus, A. M.; Cotton, W. R.
2014-12-01
Microphysical parameterizations in numerical cloud models continue to grow in complexity as our capability to represent microphysical processes increases owing to greater knowledge of these processes as well as advances in computing power. In Part I of this study, a new triple-moment bulk hail microphysics scheme (3MHAIL) that predicts the spectral shape parameter of the hail size distribution was presented and evaluated against lower order-moment schemes. In this paper, the 3MHAIL scheme is verified in simulations of a well-observed supercell storm that occurred over northwest Kansas on 29 June 2000 during the Severe Thunderstorm and Electrification and Precipitation Study (STEPS). Comparisons of the simulation results with the observations for this case, as well as with results of simulations using two different two-moment (2M) configurations of the RAMS microphysics schemes, suggest a significant improvement of the simulated storm structure and evolution is achieved with the 3MHAIL scheme. The generation of large hail and subsequent fallout in the simulation using 3MHAIL microphysics show particularly good agreement with surface hail reports for this storm as well as with previous studies of hail-producing supercell storms. On the other hand, the simulation with 2M microphysics produces only small hail aloft and virtually no hail at the surface, whereas a 2M version of the 3MHAIL scheme (with a fixed spectral shape parameter) produces unrealistically high amounts of large hail at low levels as a result of artificial shifts in the hail size spectra towards larger diameter hail during the melting process.
A Unified Methodology for Computing Accurate Quaternion Color Moments and Moment Invariants.
Karakasis, Evangelos G; Papakostas, George A; Koulouriotis, Dimitrios E; Tourassis, Vassilios D
2014-02-01
In this paper, a general framework for computing accurate quaternion color moments and their corresponding invariants is proposed. The proposed unified scheme arose by studying the characteristics of different orthogonal polynomials. These polynomials are used as kernels in order to form moments, the invariants of which can easily be derived. The resulted scheme permits the usage of any polynomial-like kernel in a unified and consistent way. The resulted moments and moment invariants demonstrate robustness to noisy conditions and high discriminative power. Additionally, in the case of continuous moments, accurate computations take place to avoid approximation errors. Based on this general methodology, the quaternion Tchebichef, Krawtchouk, Dual Hahn, Legendre, orthogonal Fourier-Mellin, pseudo Zernike and Zernike color moments, and their corresponding invariants are introduced. A selected paradigm presents the reconstruction capability of each moment family, whereas proper classification scenarios evaluate the performance of color moment invariants. PMID:24216719
Spectral and spread-spectral teleportation
Humble, Travis S.
2010-06-15
We report how quantum information encoded into the spectral degree of freedom of a single-photon state may be teleported using a finite spectrally entangled biphoton state. We further demonstrate how the bandwidth of the teleported wave form can be controllably and coherently dilated using a spread-spectral variant of teleportation. We calculate analytical expressions for the fidelities of spectral and spread-spectral teleportation when complex-valued Gaussian states are transferred using a proposed experimental approach. Finally, we discuss the utility of these techniques for integrating broad-bandwidth photonic qubits with narrow-bandwidth receivers in quantum communication systems.
The classical model for moment tensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tape, Walter; Tape, Carl
2013-12-01
A seismic moment tensor is a description of an earthquake source, but the description is indirect. The moment tensor describes seismic radiation rather than the actual physical process that initiates the radiation. A moment tensor `model' then ties the physical process to the moment tensor. The model is not unique, and the physical process is therefore not unique. In the classical moment tensor model, an earthquake arises from slip along a planar fault, but with the slip not necessarily in the plane of the fault. The model specifies the resulting moment tensor in terms of the slip vector, the fault normal vector and the Lamé elastic parameters, assuming isotropy. We review the classical model in the context of the fundamental lune. The lune is closely related to the space of moment tensors, and it provides a setting that is conceptually natural as well as pictorial. In addition to the classical model, we consider a crack plus double-couple model (CDC model) in which a moment tensor is regarded as the sum of a crack tensor and a double couple.
Joint moments of proper delay times
Martínez-Argüello, Angel M.; Martínez-Mares, Moisés; García, Julio C.
2014-08-15
We calculate negative moments of the N-dimensional Laguerre distribution for the orthogonal, unitary, and symplectic symmetries. These moments correspond to those of the proper delay times, which are needed to determine the statistical fluctuations of several transport properties through classically chaotic cavities, like quantum dots and microwave cavities with ideal coupling.
How to Introduce the Magnetic Dipole Moment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bezerra, M.; Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Cougo-Pinto, M. V.; Farina, C.
2012-01-01
We show how the concept of the magnetic dipole moment can be introduced in the same way as the concept of the electric dipole moment in introductory courses on electromagnetism. Considering a localized steady current distribution, we make a Taylor expansion directly in the Biot-Savart law to obtain, explicitly, the dominant contribution of the…
{ital D}-dimensional moments of inertia
Bender, C.M.; Mead, L.R.
1995-11-01
We calculate the moments of inertia of {ital D}-dimensional spheres and spherical shells, where {ital D} is a complex number. We also examine the moments of inertia of fractional-dimensional geometrical objects such as the Cantor set and the Sierpinski carpet and their {ital D}-dimensional analogs. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Association} {ital of} {ital Physics} {ital Teachers}.
Teachable Moment: Google Earth Takes Us There
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Ann; Davinroy, Thomas C.
2015-01-01
In the current educational climate, where clearly articulated learning objectives are required, it is clear that the spontaneous teachable moment still has its place. Authors Ann Williams and Thomas Davinroy think that instructors from almost any discipline can employ Google Earth as a tool to take advantage of teachable moments through the…
Balancing Beams--For a Few Moments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kibble, Bob
2008-01-01
A 2 m long wooden beam provides an ideal demonstration tool for exploring moments. A class set is cheap and can be used at introductory and advanced levels. This article explores how such beams can be used to support learning about moments, equilibrium, vectors, and simultaneous equations. (Contains 7 figures.)
Effects of observed horizontal inhomogeneities within cirrus clouds on solar radiative transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buschmann, Nicole; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.
2002-10-01
In situ microphysical and combined radar and radiometer measurements of 11 cirrus clouds from Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX), European Cloud and Radiation Experiment (EUCREX), investigation of Clouds by Ground-Based and Airborne Radar and Lidar (CARL), and First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE) are used to investigate effects of horizontal cloud inhomogeneities on solar radiative transfer. A three-dimensional ray-tracing model (GRIMALDI), based on the Monte Carlo method, is used to calculate upward and downward flux densities and absorption for the spectral range from 0.38 to 4.0 μm. Radiative flux densities are calculated using the inhomogeneous clouds derived from the observations and for horizontally and vertically averaged homogeneous clouds. Horizontally averaged values of radiative flux densities and absorption for heterogeneous clouds can differ by up to 30% from those calculated for the homogeneous clouds for convectively induced tropical cirrus clouds. The midlatitude cases examined tended to be more homogeneous, and hence differences between radiative properties for the homogeneous and heterogeneous clouds did not exceed 10%. For cirrus clouds with mean optical thicknesses smaller than 5 and with relative variances of optical thickness smaller than 0.2, errors caused by the homogeneous assumption are smaller than ±10%.
Chromospheric Circulation Driven by Horizontally Inhomogeneous Heating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasyliunas, V. M.; Song, P.
2013-12-01
The rate of chromospheric heating by damping of Alfvén waves propagating upward from below the photosphere (Song and Vasyliunas, 2011) depends on the strength of the magnetic field. In regions of locally confined very strong magnetic field, particularly at the boundaries of the chromospheric network, the heating rate is greatly enhanced, and the heating per unit mass is concentrated toward higher altitudes. Song and Vasyliunas (2012) proposed that the resulting inhomogeneity of pressure may drive circulating flows in the chromosphere, horizontally away from the strong-field region at one altitude and returning at another. We investigate this circulation further, with particular attention to the flow patterns and to the question to what extent the circulation might be impeded by MHD effects. The heating process acts equally on the plasma and on the neutral gas, but because most of the chromosphere is weakly ionized, the flow is predominantly that of the neutral gas. Below the altitude he at which electron collision frequency equals electron gyrofrequency, all the species (electrons, ions, neutrals) flow together; the magnetic field can change relative to the flow only by diffusion. In the altitude range above he but below the altitude hi at which ion collision frequency equals ion gyrofrequency, ions and neutrals flow together, but electron flow is decoupled from neutral flow; the magnetic field is frozen to the motion of electrons. Above hi neutrals are decoupled from ions, while electrons and ions flow nearly together with the common plasma flow; the magnetic field is frozen to the plasma flow. (This is analogous to the well-studied neutral-wind dynamo process in the terrestrial ionosphere and thermosphere, except that at the Sun there is no counterpart to the non-conducting terrestrial atmosphere.) The circulation, confined to altitudes above he, consists of neutral and ion flow between he and hi; above hi, there is only neutral flow, with ions at rest, while
Orthogonal wavelet moments and their multifractal invariants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uchaev, Dm. V.; Uchaev, D. V.; Malinnikov, V. A.
2015-02-01
This paper introduces a new family of moments, namely orthogonal wavelet moments (OWMs), which are orthogonal realization of wavelet moments (WMs). In contrast to WMs with nonorthogonal kernel function, these moments can be used for multiresolution image representation and image reconstruction. The paper also introduces multifractal invariants (MIs) of OWMs which can be used instead of OWMs. Some reconstruction tests performed with noise-free and noisy images demonstrate that MIs of OWMs can also be used for image smoothing, sharpening and denoising. It is established that the reconstruction quality for MIs of OWMs can be better than corresponding orthogonal moments (OMs) and reduces to the reconstruction quality for the OMs if we use the zero scale level.
Schick, F; Forster, J; Machann, J; Huppert, P; Claussen, C D
1997-08-01
Improved selectivity to one chemical shift component was obtained using simultaneous slice-selective and chemical shift-selective excitation in sequences with usual spin-echo refocusing. The new type of sequences can be applied on modern whole-body units and permits multislice operation. Spatial-spectral excitation is based on prior research in this field, but the proposed improved version provides off-center slice excitation by the usual processing of the RF pulse envelopes. In addition, no irregular gradient shapes are necessary. The required B0 homogeneity of the new method is similar to conventional "fat-sat" techniques. In contrast to fat-sat methods, selectivity to water is not reduced by unavoidable misadjustments of the transmitter or B1 field inhomogeneities in the newly developed approach. Thus, the reported method has the potential to replace standard frequency selective fat-sat sequences for most applications. PMID:9256107
Effects of charge inhomogeneities on elementary excitations in La2-xSrxCuO₄
Park, S. R.; Hamann, A.; Pintschovius, L.; Lamago, D.; Khaliullin, G.; Fujita, M.; Yamada, K.; Gu, G. D.; Tranquada, J. M.; Reznik, D.
2011-12-12
Purely local experimental probes of many copper oxide superconductors show that their electronic states are inhomogeneous in real space. For example, scanning tunneling spectroscopic imaging shows strong variations in real space, and according to nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) studies, the charge distribution in the bulk varies on the nanoscale. However, the analysis of the experimental results utilizing spatially averaged probes often ignores this fact. We have performed a detailed investigation of the doping dependence of the energy and linewidth of the zone-boundary Cu-O bond-stretching vibration in La2-xSrxCuO₄ by inelastic neutron scattering. Both our results as well as previously reported angle-dependentmore » momentum widths of the electronic spectral function detected by angle-resolved photoemission can be reproduced by including the same distribution of local environments extracted from the NQR analysis.« less
The Master T-Operator for Inhomogeneous XXX Spin Chain and mKP Hierarchy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zabrodin, Anton
2014-01-01
Following the approach of [Alexandrov A., Kazakov V., Leurent S., Tsuboi Z., Zabrodin A., J. High Energy Phys. 2013 (2013), no. 9, 064, 65 pages, arXiv:1112.3310], we show how to construct the master T-operator for the quantum inhomogeneous GL(N) XXX spin chain with twisted boundary conditions. It satisfies the bilinear identity and Hirota equations for the classical mKP hierarchy. We also characterize the class of solutions to the mKP hierarchy that correspond to eigenvalues of the master T-operator and study dynamics of their zeros as functions of the spectral parameter. This implies a remarkable connection between the quantum spin chain and the classical Ruijsenaars-Schneider system of particles.
Windowed and Wavelet Analysis of Marine Stratocumulus Cloud Inhomogeneity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gollmer, Steven M.; Harshvardhan; Cahalan, Robert F.; Snider, Jack B.
1995-01-01
To improve radiative transfer calculations for inhomogeneous clouds, a consistent means of modeling inhomogeneity is needed. One current method of modeling cloud inhomogeneity is through the use of fractal parameters. This method is based on the supposition that cloud inhomogeneity over a large range of scales is related. An analysis technique named wavelet analysis provides a means of studying the multiscale nature of cloud inhomogeneity. In this paper, the authors discuss the analysis and modeling of cloud inhomogeneity through the use of wavelet analysis. Wavelet analysis as well as other windowed analysis techniques are used to study liquid water path (LWP) measurements obtained during the marine stratocumulus phase of the First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment. Statistics obtained using analysis windows, which are translated to span the LWP dataset, are used to study the local (small scale) properties of the cloud field as well as their time dependence. The LWP data are transformed onto an orthogonal wavelet basis that represents the data as a number of times series. Each of these time series lies within a frequency band and has a mean frequency that is half the frequency of the previous band. Wavelet analysis combined with translated analysis windows reveals that the local standard deviation of each frequency band is correlated with the local standard deviation of the other frequency bands. The ratio between the standard deviation of adjacent frequency bands is 0.9 and remains constant with respect to time. This ratio defined as the variance coupling parameter is applicable to all of the frequency bands studied and appears to be related to the slope of the data's power spectrum. Similar analyses are performed on two cloud inhomogeneity models, which use fractal-based concepts to introduce inhomogeneity into a uniform cloud field. The bounded cascade model does this by iteratively redistributing LWP at each scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muddapur, G. V.; Koppal, V. V.; Patil, N. R.; Melavanki, R. M.
2016-05-01
The absorption and fluorescence spectra of newly synthesized thiadiazole derivative namely 6-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(naphthalene-1-ylmethyl) imidazo [2, 1-b][1,3,4] thiadiazole [6CNMT] have been recorded in various solvents of different polarities. The ground state dipole moment of 6CNMT was obtained from quantum chemical calculations. Solvatochromic correlations were used to estimate the ground state (μg) and excited state (μe) dipole moments. The excited state dipole moments are observed to be greater than the ground state dipole moment. Further, the changes in dipole moment (Δμ) were calculated both from solvatochromic shift method and microscopic solvent polarity parameter (ETN ) and the values are compared. The spectral variations were also analyzed by Kamlet-Taft parameters.
Inverse scattering problems for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kedzierawski, Andrzej Wladyslaw
The inverse scattering problem is considered of determining either the absorption of sound in an inhomogeneous medium or the surface impedance of an obstacle from a knowledge of the far field patterns of the scattered field corresponding to many incident time-harmonic plane waves. First, the inverse problem is studied in the case when the scattering object is an inhomogeneous medium with complex refractive index having compact support. The approach to this problem is the orthogonal projection method of Colton-Monk (1988). After that, the analogue is proven of Karp's Theorem for the scattering of acoustic waves through an inhomogeneous medium with compact support. Some of these results are then generalized to the case when the inhomogeneous medium is no longer of compact support. If the acoustic wave penetrates the inhomogeneous medium by only a small amount then the inverse medium problem leads to the inverse obstacle problem with an impedance boundary condition. The inverse impedance problem is solved of determining the surface impedance of an obstacle of known shape by using both the methods of Kirsch-Kress and Colton-Monk (1989).
Interaction between noise suppression and inhomogeneity correction in MRI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montillo, Albert; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Axel, Leon; Metaxas, Dimitri N.
2003-05-01
While cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in most developed countries, SPAMM-MRI can reduce morbidity by facilitating patient diagnosis. An image analysis method with a high degree of automation is essential for clinical adoption of SPAMM-MRI. The degree of this automation is dependent on the amount of thermal noise and surface coil-induced intensity inhomogeneity that can be removed from the images. An ideal noise suppression algorithm removes thermal noise yet retains or enhances the strength of the edges of salient structures. In this paper, we quantitatively compare and rank several noise suppression algorithms in images from both normal and diseased subjects using measures of the residual noise and edge strength and the statistical significance levels and confidence intervals of these measures. We also investigate the interrelationship between inhomogeneity correction and noise suppression algorithms and compare the effect of the ordering of these algorithms. The variance of thermal noise does not tend to change with position, however, inhomogeneity correction increases noise variance in deep thoracic regions. We quantify the degree to which an inhomogeneity estimate can improve noise suppression and how well noise suppression can facilitate the identification of homogeneous tissue regions and thereby, assist in inhomogeneity correction.
Table of nuclear electric quadrupole moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stone, N. J.
2016-09-01
This Table is a compilation of experimental measurements of static electric quadrupole moments of ground states and excited states of atomic nuclei throughout the periodic table. To aid identification of the states, their excitation energy, half-life, spin and parity are given, along with a brief indication of the method and any reference standard used in the particular measurement. Experimental data from all quadrupole moment measurements actually provide a value of the product of the moment and the electric field gradient [EFG] acting at the nucleus. Knowledge of the EFG is thus necessary to extract the quadrupole moment. A single recommended moment value is given for each state, based, for each element, wherever possible, upon a standard reference moment for a nuclear state of that element studied in a situation in which the electric field gradient has been well calculated. For several elements one or more subsidiary EFG/moment reference is required and their use is specified. The literature search covers the period to mid-2015.
Extended moment arm anti-spin device
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whipple, R. D. (Inventor)
1985-01-01
A device which corrects aerodynamic spin is provided in which a collapsible boom extends an aircraft moment arm and an anti-spin parachute force is exerted upon the end of the moment arm to correct intentional or inadvertent aerodynamic spin. This configuration effects spin recovery by means of a parachute whose required diameter decreases as an inverse function of the increasing length of the moment arm. The collapsible boom enables the parachute to avoid the aircraft wake without mechanical assistance, retracts to permit steep takeoff, and permits a parachute to correct spin while minimizing associated aerodynamic, structural and in-flight complications.
Binomial moment equations for stochastic reaction systems.
Barzel, Baruch; Biham, Ofer
2011-04-15
A highly efficient formulation of moment equations for stochastic reaction networks is introduced. It is based on a set of binomial moments that capture the combinatorics of the reaction processes. The resulting set of equations can be easily truncated to include moments up to any desired order. The number of equations is dramatically reduced compared to the master equation. This formulation enables the simulation of complex reaction networks, involving a large number of reactive species much beyond the feasibility limit of any existing method. It provides an equation-based paradigm to the analysis of stochastic networks, complementing the commonly used Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:21568538
Inhomogeneous models of the Venus clouds containing sulfur
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, S. M.; Pollack, J. B.; Giver, L. P.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Podolak, M.
1979-01-01
Based on the suggestion that elemental sulfur is responsible for the yellow color of Venus, calculations are compared at 3.4 microns of the reflectivity phase function of two sulfur containing inhomogeneous cloud models with that of a homogeneous model. Assuming reflectivity observations with 25% or less total error, comparison of the model calculations leads to a minimum detectable mass of sulfur equal to 7% of the mass of sulfuric acid for the inhomogeneous drop model. For the inhomogeneous cloud model the comparison leads to a minimum detectable mass of sulfur between 17% and 38% of the mass of the acid drops, depending upon the actual size of the large particles. It is concluded that moderately accurate 3.4 microns reflectivity observations are capable of detecting quite small amounts of elemental sulfur at the top of the Venus clouds.
Impact of Inhomogeneities in HTS Coated Conductors for Resistive FCLs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colangelo, Daniele; Memiaghe, Steeve; Lacroix, Christian; Sirois, Frédéric; Dutoit, Bertrand
Several issues remain to be addressed for the commercial development of ResistiveFault Current Limiters based on superconducting technologies (RFCL). In particular, the inhomogeneity of high temperature superconducting coated conductors (HTS-CC) combined with the diffculty to predict RFCLs behaviour when interfaced with the existing electrical grid represents an important bottleneck that limits their competitiveness on the electrical market. In order to study the influence of the local inhomogeneity of the HTS tape on the global effective performance of an RFCL, a modular equivalent circuit model has been developed using SimPowerSystemsTM. The model implements an inhomogeneity distribution based on statistical data and takes into account the thermal conduction between different zones of the HTS-CC. It has been calibrated with experimental measurements and finite element simulations. The model can be used to study various scenarios common to power systems, such as transformer in-rush currents, motor starts, etc.
Symmetry Analysis of Thermoelectric Energy Converters with Inhomogeneous Legs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korzhuev, M. A.
2010-09-01
Symmetry analysis has been applied to thermoelectric energy converters [thermoelectric generators (TEG), coolers (TEC), and heaters (TEH)] with inhomogeneous legs. The features of the crystallographic symmetry of thermoelectric materials and the symmetry of legs, thermocouples, and modules are studied. The effect of symmetry on the figure of merit Z of thermoelectric energy converters is considered. A general rule for proper placement of legs in thermoelectric converters is developed. A modified tetratomic classification for thermoelectric energy converters with inhomogeneous legs (TEGa, TEGb, TEC, and TEH) is proposed. An increase in Z for thermoelectric energy converters with inhomogeneous legs is due to the bulk thermoelectric effect. An increase in Z gives the reduction of irreversible processes in the modules (Joule heating and thermal conductivity), accompanying breaking of the symmetry of the legs. It is found that violations of the symmetry requirements can lead to significant energy losses in converters.
Inhomogeneous stationary and oscillatory regimes in coupled chaotic oscillators.
Liu, Weiqing; Volkov, Evgeny; Xiao, Jinghua; Zou, Wei; Zhan, Meng; Yang, Junzhong
2012-09-01
The dynamics of linearly coupled identical Lorenz and Pikovsky-Rabinovich oscillators are explored numerically and theoretically. We concentrate on the study of inhomogeneous stable steady states ("oscillation death (OD)" phenomenon) and accompanying periodic and chaotic regimes that emerge at an appropriate choice of the coupling matrix. The parameters, for which OD occurs, are determined by stability analysis of the chosen steady state. Three model-specific types of transitions to and from OD are observed: (1) a sharp transition to OD from a nonsymmetric chaotic attractor containing random intervals of synchronous chaos; (2) transition to OD from the symmetry-breaking chaotic regime created by negative coupling; (3) supercritical bifurcation of OD into inhomogeneous limit cycles and further evolution of the system to inhomogeneous chaotic regimes that coexist with complete synchronous chaos. These results may fill a gap in the understanding of the mechanism of OD in coupled chaotic systems.
Automatic determination of the optical constants of inhomogeneous thin films.
Borgogno, J P; Lazarides, B; Pelletier, E
1982-11-15
The refractive index of a layer is a sensitive function of the preparation conditions. Normal incidence measurement of the optical properties can reveal possible inhomogeneity of index. We propose a method of automatic determination of the complex refractive index and thickness of a layer which includes systematic measurement of the degree of inhomogeneity which is represented by a simple model. The usefulness of the technique is demonstrated by examples that form part of an experimental study of a number of useful optical materials including Y(2)O(3), TiO(2), MgF(2), HfO(2), and SiO(2). The dispersions of the refractive index, the extinction coefficient, and of the inhomogeneity are represented by Cauchy formulas with accurately determined coefficients. The results can therefore be readily used in computing the optical properties of thin-film multilayers.
Radiation from accelerated Alfven solitons in inhomogeneous plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lakhina, G. S.; Buti, B.; Tsintsadze, N. L.
1990-01-01
In a weakly inhomogeneous plasma, the large-amplitude Alfven waves propagating parallel to the ambient magnetic field are shown to evolve into accelerated Alfven solitons. Nonlinear interaction of the accelerated Alfven solitons with the Langmuir waves results in the emission of coherent radiations. Analytical expression for the power radiated per unit solid angle from a soliton is derived for two inhomogeneity profiles, namely the linear profile and the parabolic profile. For the case of uniform plasmas, the emission occurs via a decay-type process or resonant modes. In the presence of inhomogeneity, nonresonant modes provide a new channel for the emission of radiation. The power radiated per unit solid angle is computed for the parameters relevant to Comet Halley's plasma environment. For the nonresonant modes it is found to be several orders of magnitude higher than that for the case of resonant modes.
Submodels of model of nonlinear diffusion in the inhomogeneous medium involving absorption
Chirkunov, Yu. A.
2015-10-15
We study the five-parameter model, describing the process of nonlinear diffusion in an inhomogeneous medium in the presence of absorption, for which the differential equation of the model admits a continuous Lie group of transformations, acting on the set of its solutions. We found six submodels of the original model of nonlinear diffusion, with different symmetry properties. Of these six submodels, the five submodels with transient absorption, for which the absorption coefficient depends on time according to a power law, represent the greatest interest with a mathematical point of view and with the point of view of physical applications. For each of these nonlinear submodels, we obtained formulas for producing new solutions that contain arbitrary constants, and we found all invariant submodels. All essentially distinct invariant solutions describing these invariant submodels are found in an explicit form or are reduced to finding the solution of nonlinear integral equations. The presence of the arbitrary constants in the integral equations that determine these solutions provide new opportunities for analytical and numerical study of boundary value problems for the received submodels and, thus, for the original model of nonlinear diffusion. For the received invariant submodels, we studied diffusion processes for which at the initial moment of the time at a fixed point is specified as a concentration and its gradient or as a concentration and its velocity. Solving of boundary value problems describing these processes is reduced to the solving of nonlinear integral equations. We established the existence and uniqueness of solutions of these boundary value problems under some additional conditions. The obtained results can be used to study the diffusion of substances, diffusion of conduction electrons and other particles, diffusion of physical fields and propagation of heat in inhomogeneous medium, and also to study a turbulence (Leith model, differential
Bending of solitons in weak and slowly varying inhomogeneous plasma
Mukherjee, Abhik Janaki, M. S. Kundu, Anjan
2015-12-15
The bending of solitons in two dimensional plane is presented in the presence of weak and slowly varying inhomogeneous ion density for the propagation of ion acoustic soliton in unmagnetized cold plasma with isothermal electrons. Using reductive perturbation technique, a modified Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation is obtained with a chosen unperturbed ion density profile. The exact solution of the equation shows that the phase of the solitary wave gets modified by a function related to the unperturbed inhomogeneous ion density causing the soliton to bend in the two dimensional plane, while the amplitude of the soliton remains constant.
Heteronuclear J-coupling measurements in grossly inhomogeneous magnetic fields.
Mandal, S; Song, Y-Q
2015-06-01
It is difficult to measure chemical shifts in the small and inhomogeneous magnetic fields found in ex situ and single-sided NMR systems, such as those used for well-logging. However, it is still possible to obtain chemical information from J-coupling constants, which are independent of static field strength and temperature. We describe and analyze (1)H-(13)C double-resonance pulse sequences that are suitable for measuring heteronuclear J-coupling in grossly inhomogeneous fields. We also present preliminary experimental results from a low-frequency fringe-field system. PMID:25898398
Acoustic Force Density Acting on Inhomogeneous Fluids in Acoustic Fields.
Karlsen, Jonas T; Augustsson, Per; Bruus, Henrik
2016-09-01
We present a theory for the acoustic force density acting on inhomogeneous fluids in acoustic fields on time scales that are slow compared to the acoustic oscillation period. The acoustic force density depends on gradients in the density and compressibility of the fluid. For microfluidic systems, the theory predicts a relocation of the inhomogeneities into stable field-dependent configurations, which are qualitatively different from the horizontally layered configurations due to gravity. Experimental validation is obtained by confocal imaging of aqueous solutions in a glass-silicon microchip. PMID:27661695
Possible effect of subsurface inhomogeneities on the lunar microwave spectrum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fisher, A. D.; Staelin, D. H.
1977-01-01
Inhomogeneities beneath the lunar surface could alter the average microwave emission spectrum of the moon in a fashion generally consistent with observations, even in the absence of an average heat flux or density gradients with depth. The lunar subsurface was modeled as an inhomogeneous lossy dielectric with three-dimensional refractive-index fluctuations characterized by independent horizontal and vertical correlation lengths. The model suggests that attempts to infer the physical properties of the moon from the lunar microwave spectrum could be significantly inaccurate if subsurface scattering were neglected.
A theoretical model of barriers having inhomogeneous impedance surfaces.
Wang, Xu; Wang, Xiaonan; Yu, Wuzhou; Jiang, Zaixiu; Mao, Dongxing
2016-03-01
When barriers are placed in parallel on opposite sides of a source, their performance deteriorates markedly. However, barriers made from materials of inhomogeneous impedance eliminate this drawback by altering the behavior of sound as it undergoes multiple reflections between the barriers. In this paper, a theoretical approach is carried out to estimate the performance of the proposed barriers. By combining the ray-tracing method and sound diffraction theory, the existence of different ray paths between the proposed barriers is revealed. Compared to conventional rigid-walled barriers, barriers having inhomogeneous surfaces may have the potential to be widely used in environmental noise control. PMID:27036289
Acoustic Force Density Acting on Inhomogeneous Fluids in Acoustic Fields.
Karlsen, Jonas T; Augustsson, Per; Bruus, Henrik
2016-09-01
We present a theory for the acoustic force density acting on inhomogeneous fluids in acoustic fields on time scales that are slow compared to the acoustic oscillation period. The acoustic force density depends on gradients in the density and compressibility of the fluid. For microfluidic systems, the theory predicts a relocation of the inhomogeneities into stable field-dependent configurations, which are qualitatively different from the horizontally layered configurations due to gravity. Experimental validation is obtained by confocal imaging of aqueous solutions in a glass-silicon microchip.
Deep and Clear Optical Imaging of Thick Inhomogeneous Samples
Andilla, Jordi; Maandhui, Amina; Frongia, Céline; Lobjois, Valérie; Ducommun, Bernard; Lorenzo, Corinne
2012-01-01
Inhomogeneity in thick biological specimens results in poor imaging by light microscopy, which deteriorates as the focal plane moves deeper into the specimen. Here, we have combined selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) with wavefront sensor adaptive optics (wao). Our waoSPIM is based on a direct wavefront measure using a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and fluorescent beads as point source emitters. We demonstrate the use of this waoSPIM method to correct distortions in three-dimensional biological imaging and to improve the quality of images from deep within thick inhomogeneous samples. PMID:22558226
Sublattice model of atomic scale pairing inhomogeneity in a superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, Vivek; Hirschfeld, P. J.; Barash, Yuri S.
2008-03-01
We study a toy model for a superconductor on a bipartite lattice, where intrinsic microscopic inhomogeneity is produced by two different pairing coupling constants on each sublattice. We consider effects of the inhomogeneity on the transition temperature, the density of states, the specific heat and superfluid density in the framework of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, which may be solved analytically in several interesting cases. The phase diagram in the plane of two pairing coupling constants is found to include a state of gapless superconductivity.
Magnetic moments in graphene with vacancies.
Chen, Jing-Jing; Wu, Han-Chun; Yu, Da-Peng; Liao, Zhi-Min
2014-08-01
Vacancies can induce local magnetic moments in graphene, paving the way to make magnetic functional graphene. Due to the interaction between magnetic moments and conduction carriers, the magnetotransport properties of graphene can be modulated. Here, the effects of vacancy induced magnetic moments on the electrical properties of graphene are studied via magnetotransport measurements and spin-polarized density functional theory calculations. We show by quantum Hall measurements that a sharp resonant Vπ state is introduced in the midgap region of graphene with vacancies, resulting in the local magnetic moment. The coupling between the localized Vπ state and the itinerant carrier is tuned by varying the carrier concentration, temperature, magnetic field, and vacancy density, which results in a transition between hopping transport and the Kondo effect and a transition between giant negative magnetoresistance (MR) and positive MR. This modulated magnetotransport is valuable for graphene based spintronic devices.
Magnetic moments in graphene with vacancies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jing-Jing; Wu, Han-Chun; Yu, Da-Peng; Liao, Zhi-Min
2014-07-01
Vacancies can induce local magnetic moments in graphene, paving the way to make magnetic functional graphene. Due to the interaction between magnetic moments and conduction carriers, the magnetotransport properties of graphene can be modulated. Here, the effects of vacancy induced magnetic moments on the electrical properties of graphene are studied via magnetotransport measurements and spin-polarized density functional theory calculations. We show by quantum Hall measurements that a sharp resonant Vπ state is introduced in the midgap region of graphene with vacancies, resulting in the local magnetic moment. The coupling between the localized Vπ state and the itinerant carrier is tuned by varying the carrier concentration, temperature, magnetic field, and vacancy density, which results in a transition between hopping transport and the Kondo effect and a transition between giant negative magnetoresistance (MR) and positive MR. This modulated magnetotransport is valuable for graphene based spintronic devices.
The Spectral Shift Function and Spectral Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azamov, N. A.; Carey, A. L.; Sukochev, F. A.
2007-11-01
At the 1974 International Congress, I. M. Singer proposed that eta invariants and hence spectral flow should be thought of as the integral of a one form. In the intervening years this idea has lead to many interesting developments in the study of both eta invariants and spectral flow. Using ideas of [24] Singer’s proposal was brought to an advanced level in [16] where a very general formula for spectral flow as the integral of a one form was produced in the framework of noncommutative geometry. This formula can be used for computing spectral flow in a general semifinite von Neumann algebra as described and reviewed in [5]. In the present paper we take the analytic approach to spectral flow much further by giving a large family of formulae for spectral flow between a pair of unbounded self-adjoint operators D and D + V with D having compact resolvent belonging to a general semifinite von Neumann algebra {mathcal{N}} and the perturbation V in {mathcal{N}} . In noncommutative geometry terms we remove summability hypotheses. This level of generality is made possible by introducing a new idea from [3]. There it was observed that M. G. Krein’s spectral shift function (in certain restricted cases with V trace class) computes spectral flow. The present paper extends Krein’s theory to the setting of semifinite spectral triples where D has compact resolvent belonging to {mathcal{N}} and V is any bounded self-adjoint operator in {mathcal{N}} . We give a definition of the spectral shift function under these hypotheses and show that it computes spectral flow. This is made possible by the understanding discovered in the present paper of the interplay between spectral shift function theory and the analytic theory of spectral flow. It is this interplay that enables us to take Singer’s idea much further to create a large class of one forms whose integrals calculate spectral flow. These advances depend critically on a new approach to the calculus of functions of non
Toroidal Dipole Moment of a Massless Neutrino
Cabral-Rosetti, L. G.; Mondragon, M.; Perez, E. Reyes
2009-04-20
We obtain the toroidal dipole moment of a massless neutrino {tau}{sub v{sub I}}{sup M} using the results for the anapole moment of a massless Dirac neutrino a{sub v{sub I}}{sup D}, which was obtained in the context of the Standard Model of the electroweak interactions (SM)SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y}.
An online database of nuclear electromagnetic moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mertzimekis, T. J.; Stamou, K.; Psaltis, A.
2016-01-01
Measurements of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments are considered quite important for the understanding of nuclear structure both near and far from the valley of stability. The recent advent of radioactive beams has resulted in a plethora of new, continuously flowing, experimental data on nuclear structure - including nuclear moments - which hinders the information management. A new, dedicated, public and user friendly online database
Droplet-model predictions of charge moments
Myers, W.D.
1982-04-01
The Droplet Model expressions for calculating various moments of the nuclear charge distribution are given. There are contributions to the moments from the size and shape of the system, from the internal redistribution induced by the Coulomb repulsion, and from the diffuseness of the surface. A case is made for the use of diffuse charge distributions generated by convolution as an alternative to Fermi-functions.
Truncated Moment Analysis of Nucleon Structure Functions
A. Psaker; W. Melnitchouk; M. E. Christy; C. E. Keppel
2007-11-16
We employ a novel new approach using "truncated" moments, or integrals of structure functions over restricted regions of x, to study local quark-hadron duality, and the degree to which individual resonance regions are dominated by leading twists. Because truncated moments obey the same Q^2 evolution equations as the leading twist parton distributions, this approach makes possible for the first time a description of resonance region data and the phenomenon of quark-hadron duality directly from QCD.
Charge transport through inhomogeneous polymeric materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vakhshouri, Kiarash
The generation of unique properties through mixing of organic semiconductors has enabled improved performance and novel functionalities in organic electronic devices. In organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), isolated phases of a second material within the photoactive layer can act as recombination centers, enhancing the overall device performance. Mixing of flexible polymer semiconductors with high-mobility small organic molecules can yield high-performance flexible thin film transistors. Solution-processed, bulk-heterojunction (BHJ), thin-film organic solar cells rely on the self-assembly of polymer/fullerene donor/acceptor mixtures to create the necessary morphology with a high interfacial area for efficient photocurrent generation. Efficient conversion of absorbed photons into photocurrent requires sufficiently intimate mixing of the donor and acceptor phases such that photogenerated excitons can easily find an interface, as well as a sufficiently large thermodynamic driving force for charge separation at the interface. At the same time, efficient transport of separated charges towards the electrodes requires a certain degree of phase segregation between the two materials, to enable ordered molecular packing within each phase and also minimize interfacial recombination. Despite the importance of creating inhomogeneous mixtures of organic semiconductors and the tremendous recent advances in the performance of the aforementioned devices, it remains a challenge to fully describe the optoelectronic properties of organic semiconductor mixtures and understand the effects of structural and morphological parameters on charge transport. Recently, it has been shown that highly regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (RR-P3HT) and poly[2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno(3,2-b)thiophene] (PBTTT) are promising materials for organic electronic applications due to the relatively high charge carrier mobility, high solubility in different organic solvents and acceptable film
Tensor charge and anomalous magnetic moment correlation
Mekhfi, Mustapha
2005-12-01
We propose a generalization of the upgraded Karl-Sehgal formula which relates baryon magnetic moments to the spin structure of constituent quarks, by adding anomalous magnetic moments of quarks. We first argue that the relativistic nature of quarks inside baryons requires the introduction of two kinds of magnetisms, one axial and the other tensorial. The first one is associated with integrated quark helicity distributions {delta}{sub i}-{delta}{sub i} (standard) and the second with integrated transversity distributions {delta}{sub i}-{delta}{sub i}. The weight of each contribution is controlled by the combination of two parameters, x{sub i} the ratio of the quark mass to the average kinetic energy and a{sub i} the quark anomalous magnetic moment. The quark anomalous magnetic moment is correlated to transversity, and both are necessary ingredients in describing relativistic quarks. The proposed formula, when confronted with baryon magnetic moments data with reasonable inputs, yields, besides quark magnetic densities, anomalous magnetic moments large enough not to be ignored.
Estimating seismic moments and Lg Q using Lg spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Ping; Xiao, Wei-Guo; Duan, Ke-Min
2004-11-01
A multi-event and multi-station inverse method is presented in the paper to simultaneously estimate the seismic moments ( M 0) and source corner frequencies ( f c) of several Jiashi (Xinjiang, China) earthquakes, as well as the apparent Lg Q models for the paths from Jiashi to eight seismic stations (WMQ, AAK, TLG, MAKZ, KUR, VOS, ZRN and CHK) in Central Asia. The resultant seismic moments correlate well with the M 0 values obtained by Harvard University using the centroid moment tensor (CMT) inversion and the surface-wave magnitudes as well. After the correction by a typical value of average radiation coefficient for regional SV waves, the M 0 values from Lg spectral inversion are still close to the corresponding values obtained from CMT inversion. The obtained apparent Q 0Lg values (Lg Q at 1 Hz) are consistent with the tectonic features of corresponding propagation paths. The Q 0Lg values are 351±87, 349±86 and 300±27 for the paths from Jiashi to AAK, TLG and MAKZ, respectively. They are smaller than Q 0Lg values for the paths to KUR, VOS, ZRN and CHK, which are 553±72, 569±58, 550±57 and 603±65, respectively. These results agree with the condition that the paths to AAK, TLG and MAKZ mainly propagate through the mountainous Tianshan area where relatively strong seismic activities and large variations of topography are exhibited, while the paths to KUR, VOS, ZRN and CHK mainly propagate through the stable area of Kazak platform. The Q 0Lg value for the path to WMQ is 462±56. This is also in agreement with the condition that the path to WMQ is basically along the border area between Tianshan Mountain and Tarim Basin, and along this path the variations of topography and crustal thickness are moderate in comparison with that along the path to MAKZ.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koppal, V. V.; Muddapur, G. V.; Patil, N. R.; Melavanki, R. M.
2016-05-01
In this paper we attempted to record absorption and emission spectra of 2-acetyl-3H-benzo[f]chromen-3-one [2AHBC] laser dye in different solvents of varying polarities to investigate its solvatochromic behavior. The two electronic states dipole moments of 2AHBC are calculated using solvatochromic spectral shifts which are correlated with dielectric constant (ɛ) refractive index (n) of various solvents. A systematic approach is made to estimate ground and excited state dipole moments on the basis of different solvent correlation methods like Bilot-Kawski equations, Lippert-Mataga, Bakhsheiv, Kawaski-Chamma-Viallet and Reichardt methods. Dipole moments in the excited state was found to be higher than the ground state by confirming π→π* transition.
Matrix algorithms for solving (in)homogeneous bound state equations
Blank, M.; Krassnigg, A.
2011-01-01
In the functional approach to quantum chromodynamics, the properties of hadronic bound states are accessible via covariant integral equations, e.g. the Bethe–Salpeter equation for mesons. In particular, one has to deal with linear, homogeneous integral equations which, in sophisticated model setups, use numerical representations of the solutions of other integral equations as part of their input. Analogously, inhomogeneous equations can be constructed to obtain off-shell information in addition to bound-state masses and other properties obtained from the covariant analogue to a wave function of the bound state. These can be solved very efficiently using well-known matrix algorithms for eigenvalues (in the homogeneous case) and the solution of linear systems (in the inhomogeneous case). We demonstrate this by solving the homogeneous and inhomogeneous Bethe–Salpeter equations and find, e.g. that for the calculation of the mass spectrum it is as efficient or even advantageous to use the inhomogeneous equation as compared to the homogeneous. This is valuable insight, in particular for the study of baryons in a three-quark setup and more involved systems. PMID:21760640
Inhomogeneous particle model for light-scattering by cometary dust
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markkanen, Johannes; Penttilä, Antti; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Muinonen, Karri
2015-12-01
We introduce an inhomogeneous irregular-particle model for reproducing the typical light-scattering features of cometary dust such as the negative polarization near the backscattering direction, and the weak increase of the backscattering intensity. The model is based on the hierarchical Voronoi-partitioning and the algorithm provides fast generation of irregular particles with a flexible control of inhomogeneity. The input parameters of the model are refractive indices, their volumetric abundances, and the number of constituents on each level. The light-scattering properties of these particles with parameters relevant to cometary dust are solved by the volume-integral-equation method. The light-scattering features of inhomogeneous particles are compared with the mixtures of homogeneous particles, and particles with the refractive index obtained by the effective-medium approximation. We show that with the inhomogeneity size of order 0.2 μm, the different models produce qualitatively similar scattering features while some quantitative differences are observed which have an effect on the retrieved material composition of dust.
Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi type VIh models with perfect fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.
1991-07-01
Inhomogeneous universes admitting an Abelian G2 of isometry and filled with perfect fluid have been derived. These contain as special cases exact homogeneous universes of Bianchi type VIh. Many of these universes asymptotically tend to homogeneous Bianchi VIh universes. The models have been discussed for their physical and kinematical behaviors.
Achieving illusion and invisibility of inhomogeneous cylinders and spheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lin; Shi, Yan; Liang, Chang-Hong
2016-08-01
This paper has developed a scattering cancellation technique to achieve illusion and invisibility of inhomogeneous cylinders and spheres. The inhomogeneous cylinders and spheres are modelled as many thin layers of piecewise homogeneous layers. For the two-layer cylindrical and spherical objects with the isotropic coatings, Mie series solutions to the resulting scattered fields are analyzed in the quasistatic limit, and thus geometric and electromagnetic parameters of the coatings are derived to realize the illusion and invisibility of the two-layer cylindrical and spherical objects. Following a further generalization step, the coating parameters are determined for the illusion and invisibility of the inhomogeneous cylinders and spheres composed of N piecewise homogeneous layers. With the proposed method, the electrically small inhomogeneous cylindrical and spherical objects with arbitrary media and conductor core can be hidden, and have illusion images generated by the objects with similar shapes but different electromagnetic parameters and geometric sizes. Numerical results are given to verify correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method.
Tracking inhomogeneity in high-capacity lithium iron phosphate batteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paxton, William A.; Zhong, Zhong; Tsakalakos, Thomas
2015-02-01
Energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) is one of the few techniques that can internally probe a sealed battery under operating conditions. In this paper, we use EDXRD with ultrahigh energy synchrotron radiation to track inhomogeneity in a cycled high-capacity lithium iron phosphate cell under in-situ and operando conditions. A sequence of depth-profile x-ray diffraction spectra are collected with 40 μm resolution as the cell is discharged. Additionally, nine different locations of the cell are tracked independently throughout a second discharge process. In each case, a two-peak reference intensity ratio analysis (RIR) was used on the LiFePO4 311 and the FePO4 020 reflections to estimate the relative phase abundance of the lithiated and non-lithiated phases. The data provide a first-time look at the dynamics of electrochemical inhomogeneity in a real-world battery. We observe a strong correlation between inhomogeneity and overpotential in the galvanic response of the cell. Additionally, the data closely follow the behavior that is predicted by the resistive-reactant model originally proposed by Thomas-Alyea. Despite a non-linear response in the independently measured locations, the behavior of the ensemble is strikingly linear. This suggests that effects of inhomogeneity can be elusive and highlights the power of the EDXRD technique.
L-moments and TL-moments of the generalized lambda distribution
Asquith, W.H.
2007-01-01
The 4-parameter generalized lambda distribution (GLD) is a flexible distribution capable of mimicking the shapes of many distributions and data samples including those with heavy tails. The method of L-moments and the recently developed method of trimmed L-moments (TL-moments) are attractive techniques for parameter estimation for heavy-tailed distributions for which the L- and TL-moments have been defined. Analytical solutions for the first five L- and TL-moments in terms of GLD parameters are derived. Unfortunately, numerical methods are needed to compute the parameters from the L- or TL-moments. Algorithms are suggested for parameter estimation. Application of the GLD using both L- and TL-moment parameter estimates from example data is demonstrated, and comparison of the L-moment fit of the 4-parameter kappa distribution is made. A small simulation study of the 98th percentile (far-right tail) is conducted for a heavy-tail GLD with high-outlier contamination. The simulations show, with respect to estimation of the 98th-percent quantile, that TL-moments are less biased (more robost) in the presence of high-outlier contamination. However, the robustness comes at the expense of considerably more sampling variability. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Boundary effects in welded steel moment connections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Kyoung-Hyeog
Unprecedented widespread failure of welded moment connections in steel frames caused by the 1994 Northridge and the 1995 Kobe earthquakes have alarmed the engineering communities throughout the world. Welded moment connections in steel frames have been traditionally designed by using the classical beam theory which leads to assumptions that the flanges transfer moment while the web connection primarily resists the shear force. However, this study shows that the magnitude and direction of the principal stresses in the connection region are better approximated by using truss analogy rather than the classical beam theory. Accordingly, both the bending moment and the shear force are transferred across the connection near the beam flanges through diagonal strut action. Thus, the beam flange region of the traditionally designed connection is overloaded. This conclusion explains, to a large extent, the recently observed steel moment connection failures. In this study, detailed finite element analyses were carried out for a representative beam-to-column subassemblage with fully welded connection. The stress distribution in the beam web and flanges in the vicinity of the connection were closely studied. The factors responsible for stress redistribution and concentration were identified by using fundamental principles of mechanics. It was concluded that peak resultant stresses can exceed the values used in simple design calculations by large margins. Using the finite element analysis results and the truss analogy to establish a realistic load path in the connection, a practical and more rational analysis and design procedure was developed. The proposed design procedure and the new connection details were successfully validated through cyclic load testing of a nearly full size specimen. The truss model represented the force transmission around the beam-to-column moment connection region very well. Results of the finite element analyses and the laboratory testing showed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viñas, Adolfo F.; Gurgiolo, Chris
2009-01-01
This paper presents a spherical harmonic analysis of the plasma velocity distribution function using high-angular, energy, and time resolution Cluster data obtained from the PEACE spectrometer instrument to demonstrate how this analysis models the particle distribution function and its moments and anisotropies. The results show that spherical harmonic analysis produced a robust physical representation model of the velocity distribution function, resolving the main features of the measured distributions. From the spherical harmonic analysis, a minimum set of nine spectral coefficients was obtained from which the moment (up to the heat flux), anisotropy, and asymmetry calculations of the velocity distribution function were obtained. The spherical harmonic method provides a potentially effective ``compression'' technique that can be easily carried out onboard a spacecraft to determine the moments and anisotropies of the particle velocity distribution function for any species. These calculations were implemented using three different approaches, namely, the standard traditional integration, the spherical harmonic (SPH) spectral coefficients integration, and the singular value decomposition (SVD) on the spherical harmonic methods. A comparison among the various methods shows that both SPH and SVD approaches provide remarkable agreement with the standard moment integration method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gurgiolo, Chris; Vinas, Adolfo F.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a spherical harmonic analysis of the plasma velocity distribution function using high-angular, energy, and time resolution Cluster data obtained from the PEACE spectrometer instrument to demonstrate how this analysis models the particle distribution function and its moments and anisotropies. The results show that spherical harmonic analysis produced a robust physical representation model of the velocity distribution function, resolving the main features of the measured distributions. From the spherical harmonic analysis, a minimum set of nine spectral coefficients was obtained from which the moment (up to the heat flux), anisotropy, and asymmetry calculations of the velocity distribution function were obtained. The spherical harmonic method provides a potentially effective "compression" technique that can be easily carried out onboard a spacecraft to determine the moments and anisotropies of the particle velocity distribution function for any species. These calculations were implemented using three different approaches, namely, the standard traditional integration, the spherical harmonic (SPH) spectral coefficients integration, and the singular value decomposition (SVD) on the spherical harmonic methods. A comparison among the various methods shows that both SPH and SVD approaches provide remarkable agreement with the standard moment integration method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1998-05-01
illustrates how the appearance of a stellar image at the focal plane is fully controllable. Fast and thorough optical adjustment ensures the best possible optical quality at all times . 9. Image Quality of the VLT This diagram demonstrates that First Light specifications have been fully met and, more impressively, that the actual VLT performance is sometimes already within the more stringent specifications that were expected to be fulfilled only three years from now. The final steps before "First Light" The final, critical testing phase commenced with the installation of the 8.2-m primary (at that time still uncoated) Zerodur mirror and 1.1-m secondary Beryllium mirror during the second half of April. The optics were then gradually brought into position during carefully planned, successive adjustments. Due to the full integration of an advanced, active control system into the VLT concept, this delicate process went amazingly fast, especially when compared to other ground-based telescopes. It included a number of short test exposures in early May, first with the Guide Camera that is used to steer the telescope. Later, some exposures were made with the Test Camera mounted just below the main mirror at the Cassegrain Focus, in a central space inside the mirror cell. It will continue to be used during the upcoming Commissioning Phase, until the first major instruments (FORS and ISAAC) are attached to the UT1, later in 1998. The 8.2-m mirror was successfully aluminized at the Paranal Mirror Coating facility on May 20 and was reattached to the telescope tube the day thereafter, cf. ESO PR Photos 13a-e/98 and ESO PR Photos 14a-i/98. Further test exposures were then made to check the proper functioning of the telescope mechanics, optics and electronics. This has lead up to the moment of First Light , i.e. the time when the telescope is considered able to produce the first, astronomically useful images. Despite an intervening spell of bad atmospheric conditions, this important event
Inhomogeneity in films: limitation of the accuracy of optical monitoring of thin films.
Borgogno, J P; Bousquet, P; Flory, F; Lazarides, B; Pelletier, E; Roche, P
1981-01-01
With present-day refinements, thin film multilayers can be designed theoretically to meet virtually any reasonable filtering requirements. Often, when the optical properties are specified over very wide spectral regions the thicknesses of the various layers are not related in any simple way. The manufacture of such multilayers presents many difficulties. The tolerances on layer thickness and refractive indices in some designs are often very narrow. We have developed an optical method for the accurate control of layer thickness that involves the measurement of transmittance over a wide spectral region (400-1000 mm). This measurement is performed continuously during deposition by a rapid scanning monochromator. The accuracy of such a system depends on a precise knowledge of the indices of refraction that are produced during the multilayer deposition. In addition the structure of many optical thin films used for hard coatings departs considerably from the simple method that is traditionally used in optical coating designs. In the method we have developed to compensate for such discrepancies, optical inhomogeneity is included by assuming a linear refractive-index profile, determined by analyzing experimental results. These results are in agreement with other studies of structure.
Astrocyte signaling in the presence of spatial inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stamatakis, Michail; Mantzaris, Nikos V.
2007-09-01
Astrocytes, a special type of glial cells, were considered to have just a supporting role in information processing in the brain. However, several recent studies have shown that they can be chemically stimulated by various neurotransmitters, such as ATP, and can generate Ca2+ and ATP waves, which can propagate over many cell lengths before being blocked. Although pathological conditions, such as spreading depression and epilepsy, have been linked to abnormal wave propagation in astrocytic cellular networks, a quantitative understanding of the underlying characteristics is still lacking. Astrocytic cellular networks are inhomogeneous, in the sense that the domain they occupy contains passive regions or gaps, which are unable to support wave propagation. Thus, this work focuses on understanding the complex interplay between single-cell signal transduction, domain inhomogeneity, and the characteristics of wave propagation and blocking in astrocytic cellular networks. The single-cell signal transduction model that was employed accounts for ATP-mediated IP3 production, the subsequent Ca2+ release from the ER, and ATP release into the extracellular space. The model is excitable and thus an infinite range of wave propagation is observed if the domain of propagation is homogeneous. This is not always the case for inhomogeneous domains. To model wave propagation in inhomogeneous astrocytic networks, a reaction-diffusion framework was developed and one-gap as well as multiple-gap cases were simulated using an efficient finite-element algorithm. The minimum gap length that blocks the wave was computed as a function of excitability levels and geometric characteristics of the inhomogeneous network, such as the length of the active regions (cells). Complex transient patterns, such as wave reflection, wave trapping, and generation of echo waves, were also predicted by the model, and their relationship to the geometric characteristics of the network was evaluated. Therefore, the
Measurement of the microwave emitter's inhomogeneity using optical fiber DTS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaros, Jakub; Papes, Martin; Liner, Andrej; Vašinek, Vladimir; Smira, Pavel; Nasswettrova, Andrea; Cubik, Jakub; Kepak, Stanislav
2014-06-01
Researcher's teams were dealing with the microwave emitter's inhomogeneity problem since the microwaves were used. One possible way, how to measure electromagnetic field is the measurement on inhomogeneous temperature distribution on the irradiated sample, which can cause problems as in other material processing, so in the undesirable change of properties and even security. Inhomogeneity of electromagnetic field is specific by creating spots with higher or lower temperature called "hot spots". This inhomogeneity strongly affects the temperature distribution in the cross section of the material and its resultant heating. Given the impossibility of using classical electronic devices with metal temperature sensors were various indirect methods used in the past. This paper deals with experimental measurement of the microwave emitter's inhomogeneity (2.45 GHz) using the optical fiber DTS. The greatest advantage of this sensor system is just in using of the optical fiber (electromagnetic resistance, small size, safety using in inflammable and explosive area, easy installation). Due to these properties of the optical fiber sensor it's possible to measure the temperature of the sample in real time. These sensor are able to measure the temperature along the fiber, in some cases they use nonlinear effect in optical fiber (Raman nonlinear effect). The verification of non-homogeneity consists in experimental measuring of the temperature distribution within the wooden sample. The method is based on heat exchange in an isolated system where wooden sample serves as an absorber of the irradiated energy. To identify locations with different power density was used DTS system, based on nonlinear phenomena in optical fibers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brauer, R.; Wolf, S.
2016-01-01
Context. Analysis of observations of circumstellar disks around young stellar objects is often based on disk models with smooth and continuous density distribution. However, spatially resolved observations with increasing angular resolution and dynamical models indicate that circumstellar disks are highly structured. Aims: We investigate the influence of different clumpy density distributions on selected physical properties and on the observable characteristics of circumstellar disks. In particular, these are the temperature distribution, the spectral energy distribution (SED), the radial brightness profile and the degree of polarization of scattered stellar radiation. Methods: Based on radiative transfer modeling we calculated the temperature structure of the disk and simulate observational quantities in the thermal re-emission and scattering regime. The clumpy density distributions are realized using a two-phase medium approach with phases for the clumps and the medium in between. We compared our results to those obtained for a smooth and continuous density distribution to quantify the influence of clumps on internal physical parameters and observable quantities of circumstellar disks. Results: Within the considered model space, the clumpiness has a significant impact on the disk temperature distribution. For instance, in the transition region from the optically thin upper disk layers to the disk interior, it causes a decrease in the mean temperature by up to 12 K (corresponding to ~15%), if compared to continuous disks. In addition, circumstellar disks with clumpy density distributions generally feature a lower spectral index in the submm/mm range of the SED than continuous disks. The strength of this decrease can be varied by changing the dust mass or grain size, but not by changing the inclination of the disk. As a consequence of the lower spectral index, the dust grain size derived from the submm/mm-slope of the SED may be overestimated, if the inhomogeneity
Spatially mapping the spectral density of a single C60 molecule
Lu, Xinghua; Grobis, M.; Khoo, K.H.; Louie, Steve G.; Crommie, M.F.
2002-07-01
We have used scanning tunneling spectroscopy to spatially map the energy-resolved local density of states of individual C60 molecules on the Ag(100) surface. Spectral maps were obtained for molecular states derived from the C60 HOMO, LUMO, and LUMO + 1 orbitals, revealing new details of the spatially inhomogeneous C60 local electronic structure. Spatial inhomogeneities are explained using ab initio pseudopotential density functional calculations. These calculations emphasize the need for explicitly including the C60-Ag interaction and STM tip trajectory to understand the observed C60 local electronic structure.
Measurement of magnetic moment via optical transmission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heidsieck, Alexandra; Schmid, Daniel; Gleich, Bernhard
2016-03-01
The magnetic moment of nanoparticles is an important property for drug targeting and related applications as well as for the simulation thereof. However, the measurement of the magnetic moment of nanoparticles, nanoparticle-virus-complexes or microspheres in solution can be difficult and often yields unsatisfying or incomparable results. To measure the magnetic moment, we designed a custom measurement device including a magnetic set-up to observe nanoparticles indirectly via light transmission in solution. We present a simple, cheap device of manageable size, which can be used in any laboratory as well as a novel evaluation method to determine the magnetic moment of nanoparticles via the change of the optical density of the particle suspension in a well-defined magnetic gradient field. In contrast to many of the established measurement methods, we are able to observe and measure the nanoparticle complexes in their natural state in the respective medium. The nanoparticles move along the magnetic gradient and thereby away from the observation point. Due to this movement, the optical density of the fluid decreases and the transmission increases over time at the measurement location. By comparing the measurement with parametric simulations, we can deduce the magnetic moment from the observed behavior.
Perturbative analysis of spectral singularities and their optical realizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mostafazadeh, Ali; Rostamzadeh, Saber
2012-08-01
We develop a perturbative method of computing spectral singularities of a Schrödinger operator defined by a general complex potential that vanishes outside a closed interval. These can be realized as zero-width resonances in optical gain media and correspond to a lasing effect that occurs at the threshold gain. Their time-reversed copies yield coherent perfect absorption of light that is also known as antilasing. We use our general results to establish the exactness of the nth-order perturbation theory for an arbitrary complex potential consisting of n delta functions, obtain an exact expression for the transfer matrix of these potentials, and examine spectral singularities of complex barrier potentials of arbitrary shape. In the context of optical spectral singularities, these correspond to inhomogeneous gain media.
Dynamic Noun Generalization: Moment-to-Moment Interactions Shape Children's Naming Biases
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Samuelson, Larissa K.; Horst, Jessica S.
2007-01-01
Recent research on early word learning suggests that children's behavior when-generalizing novel nouns integrates their prior vocabulary knowledge with the specifics of the task. This study examines how these factors interact on the moment-to-moment time scale of the training children receive and the sequence of stimuli they are shown. In 1…
Nuclear Schiff moment and soft vibrational modes
Zelevinsky, Vladimir; Volya, Alexander; Auerbach, Naftali
2008-07-15
The atomic electric dipole moment (EDM) currently searched by a number of experimental groups requires that both parity and time-reversal invariance be violated. According to current theoretical understanding, the EDM is induced by the nuclear Schiff moment. The enhancement of the Schiff moment by the combination of static quadrupole and octupole deformation was predicted earlier. Here we study a further idea of the possible enhancement in the absence of static deformation but in a nuclear system with soft collective vibrations of two types. Both analytical approximation and numerical solution of the simplified problem confirm the presence of the enhancement. We discuss related aspects of nuclear structure which should be studied beyond mean-field and random phase approximations.
Seismic moment distribution revisited: I. Statistical results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kagan, Yan Y.
2002-03-01
An accumulation of seismic moment data gathered over the previous decade justifies a new attempt at a comprehensive statistical analysis of these data: herein, more rigourous statistical techniques are introduced, their properties investigated, and these methods are employed for analysis of large modern data sets. Several theoretical distributions of earthquake size (seismic moment-frequency relations) are described and compared. We discuss the requirements for such distributions and introduce an upper bound or a `corner moment' for a distribution to have a finite energy or moment flux. We derive expressions for probability density functions and statistical moments of the distributions. We also describe parameter evaluation, in particular how to estimate the seismic moment distribution for the largest earthquakes. Simulating earthquake size distributions allows for a more rigourous evaluation of distribution parameters and points to the limitations of the classical statistical analysis of earthquake data. Simulations suggest that several earthquakes approaching or exceeding the corner magnitude (m c ) limit need to be registered to evaluate m c with reasonable accuracy. Using the Harvard catalogue data, we compare moment distribution parameters for various temporal spans of the catalogue, for different tectonic provinces and depth ranges, and for earthquakes with various focal mechanisms. The statistical analysis suggests that the exponent β is universal (β =0.60-0.65) for all moderate earthquakes. The corner moment (M c ) value, determined by the maximum-likelihood method, both in subduction zones and globally, is about 1021 N m, corresponding to the corner moment magnitude m c ~8.0. For mid-oceanic earthquakes, m c is apparently smaller for spreading ridges, it is about 5.8, and for strike-slip earthquakes on transform faults it decreases from 7.2 to 6.5 as the relative slip velocity of faults increases. We investigate the seismic moment errors, both random and
The moments of inertia of Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bills, Bruce G.
1989-01-01
The mean moment of inertia of Mars is, at present, very poorly constrained. The generally accepted value of 0.365 M(R-squared) is obtained by assuming that the observed second degree gravity field can be decomposed into a hydrostatic oblate spheroid and a nonhydrostatic prolate spheroid with an equatorial axis of symmetry. An alternative decomposition is advocated in the present analysis. If the nonhydrostatic component is a maximally triaxial ellipsoid (intermediate moment exactly midway between greatest and least), the hydrostatic component is consistent with a mean moment of 0.345 M(R-squared). The plausibility of this decomposition is supported by statistical arguments and comparison with the earth, moon and Venus.
Relationships between dipole moments of diatomic molecules.
Hou, Shilin; Bernath, Peter F
2015-02-14
The dipole moment is one of the most important physical properties of a molecule. We present a combination rule for the dipole moments of related diatomic molecules. For molecules AB, AX, BY, and XY from two different element groups in the periodic table, if their elements make a small parallelogram, reliable predictions can be obtained. Our approach is particularly useful for systems with heavy atoms. For a large set of molecules tested, the average difference of the prediction from experimental data is less than 0.2 debye (D). The dipole moments for heavy molecules such as GaCl, InBr, SrCl, and SrS, for which no experimental data are available at present, are predicted to be 3.17, 3.76, 3.85 and 11.54 D, respectively. PMID:25588998
Multidimensional spectral load balancing
Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.
1993-01-01
We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.
High-Precision Microwave Spectroscopy of Muonium for Determination of Muonic Magnetic Moment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torii, H. A.; Higashi, Y.; Higuchi, T.; Matsuda, Y.; Mizutani, T.; Tajima, M.; Tanaka, K. S.; Ueno, Y.; Fukao, Y.; Iinuma, H.; Ikedo, Y.; Kadono, R.; Kawamura, N.; Koda, A.; Kojima, K. M.; Mibe, T.; Miyake, Y.; Nagamine, K.; Nishiyama, K.; Ogitsu, T.; Okubo, R.; Saito, N.; Sasaki, K.; Shimomura, K.; Strasser, P.; Sugano, M.; Toyoda, A.; Ueno, K.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.; Ishida, K.; Iwasaki, M.; Kamigaito, O.; Tomono, D.; Kanda, S.; Kubo, K.; Aoki, M.; Torikai, E.; Kawall, D.
2016-02-01
The muonium atom is a system suitable for precision measurements for determination of muon’s fundamental properties as well as for the test of quantum electrodynamics (QED). A microwave spectroscopy experiment of this exotic atom is being prepared at J-PARC, jointly operated by KEK and JAEA in Japan, aiming at an improved relative precision at a level of 10-8 in determination of the muonic magnetic moment. A major improvement of statistical uncertainty is expected with the higher muon intensity of the pulsed beam at J-PARC, while reduction of various sources of systematic uncertainties are being studied: those arising from microwave power fluctuations, magnetic field inhomogeneity, muon stopping distribution and atomic collisional shift of resonance frequencies. Experimental strategy and methods are presented in this paper, with an emphasis on our recent development of apparatuses and evaluation of systematic uncertainties.
Magnetic moment nonconservation in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence models.
Dalena, S; Greco, A; Rappazzo, A F; Mace, R L; Matthaeus, W H
2012-07-01
The fundamental assumptions of the adiabatic theory do not apply in the presence of sharp field gradients or in the presence of well-developed magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. For this reason, in such conditions the magnetic moment μ is no longer expected to be constant. This can influence particle acceleration and have considerable implications in many astrophysical problems. Starting with the resonant interaction between ions and a single parallel propagating electromagnetic wave, we derive expressions for the magnetic moment trapping width Δμ (defined as the half peak-to-peak difference in the particle magnetic moments) and the bounce frequency ω(b). We perform test-particle simulations to investigate magnetic moment behavior when resonance overlapping occurs and during the interaction of a ring-beam particle distribution with a broadband slab spectrum. We find that the changes of magnetic moment and changes of pitch angle are related when the level of magnetic fluctuations is low, δB/B(0) = (10(-3),10(-2)), where B(0) is the constant and uniform background magnetic field. Stochasticity arises for intermediate fluctuation values and its effect on pitch angle is the isotropization of the distribution function f(α). This is a transient regime during which magnetic moment distribution f(μ) exhibits a characteristic one-sided long tail and starts to be influenced by the onset of spatial parallel diffusion, i.e., the variance <(Δz)(2)> grows linearly in time as in normal diffusion. With strong fluctuations f(α) becomes completely isotropic, spatial diffusion sets in, and the f(μ) behavior is closely related to the sampling of the varying magnetic field associated with that spatial diffusion.
Valenza, Gaetano; Citi, Luca; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Barbieri, Riccardo
2014-01-01
Measures of entropy have been proved as powerful quantifiers of complex nonlinear systems, particularly when applied to stochastic series of heartbeat dynamics. Despite the remarkable achievements obtained through standard definitions of approximate and sample entropy, a time-varying definition of entropy characterizing the physiological dynamics at each moment in time is still missing. To this extent, we propose two novel measures of entropy based on the inho-mogeneous point-process theory. The RR interval series is modeled through probability density functions (pdfs) which characterize and predict the time until the next event occurs as a function of the past history. Laguerre expansions of the Wiener-Volterra autoregressive terms account for the long-term nonlinear information. As the proposed measures of entropy are instantaneously defined through such probability functions, the proposed indices are able to provide instantaneous tracking of autonomic nervous system complexity. Of note, the distance between the time-varying phase-space vectors is calculated through the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance of two pdfs. Experimental results, obtained from the analysis of RR interval series extracted from ten healthy subjects during stand-up tasks, suggest that the proposed entropy indices provide instantaneous tracking of the heartbeat complexity, also allowing for the definition of complexity variability indices.
Inhomogeneous point-process entropy: An instantaneous measure of complexity in discrete systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valenza, Gaetano; Citi, Luca; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Barbieri, Riccardo
2014-05-01
Measures of entropy have been widely used to characterize complexity, particularly in physiological dynamical systems modeled in discrete time. Current approaches associate these measures to finite single values within an observation window, thus not being able to characterize the system evolution at each moment in time. Here, we propose a new definition of approximate and sample entropy based on the inhomogeneous point-process theory. The discrete time series is modeled through probability density functions, which characterize and predict the time until the next event occurs as a function of the past history. Laguerre expansions of the Wiener-Volterra autoregressive terms account for the long-term nonlinear information. As the proposed measures of entropy are instantaneously defined through probability functions, the novel indices are able to provide instantaneous tracking of the system complexity. The new measures are tested on synthetic data, as well as on real data gathered from heartbeat dynamics of healthy subjects and patients with cardiac heart failure and gait recordings from short walks of young and elderly subjects. Results show that instantaneous complexity is able to effectively track the system dynamics and is not affected by statistical noise properties.
Non-parabolic hydrodynamic formulations for the simulation of inhomogeneous semiconductor devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Arlynn W.; Brennan, Kevin F.
1995-01-01
Hydrodynamic models are becoming prevalent design tools for small scale devices and other devices in which high energy effects can dominate transport. Most current hydrodynamic models use a parabolic band approximation to obtain fairly simple conservation equations. Interest in accounting for band structure effects in hydrodynamic device simulation has begun to grow since parabolic models can not fully describe the transport in state of the art devices due to the distribution populating non-parabolic states within the band. This paper presents two different non-parabolic formulations of the hydrodynamic model suitable for the simulation of inhomogeneous semiconductor devices. The first formulation uses the Kane dispersion relationship (hk)(exp 2)/2m = W(1 + alpha(W)). The second formulation makes use of a power law ((hk)(exp 2)/2m = xW(sup y)) for the dispersion relation. Hydrodynamic models which use the first formulation rely on the binomial expansion to obtain moment equations with closed form coefficients. This limits the energy range over which the model is valid. The power law formulation readily produces closed form coefficients similar to those obtained using the parabolic band approximation. However, the fitting parameters (x,y) are only valid over a limited energy range. The physical significance of the band non-parabolicity is discussed as well as the advantages/disadvantages and approximations of the two non-parabolic models. A companion paper describes device simulations based on the three dispersion relationships: parabolic, Kane dispersion, and power low dispersion.
Non-Parabolic Hydrodynamic Formulations for the Simulation of Inhomogeneous Semiconductor Devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, A. W.; Brennan, K. F.
1996-01-01
Hydrodynamic models are becoming prevalent design tools for small scale devices and other devices in which high energy effects can dominate transport. Most current hydrodynamic models use a parabolic band approximation to obtain fairly simple conservation equations. Interest in accounting for band structure effects in hydrodynamic device simulation has begun to grow since parabolic models cannot fully describe the transport in state of the art devices due to the distribution populating non-parabolic states within the band. This paper presents two different non-parabolic formulations or the hydrodynamic model suitable for the simulation of inhomogeneous semiconductor devices. The first formulation uses the Kane dispersion relationship ((hk)(exp 2)/2m = W(1 + alphaW). The second formulation makes use of a power law ((hk)(exp 2)/2m = xW(exp y)) for the dispersion relation. Hydrodynamic models which use the first formulation rely on the binomial expansion to obtain moment equations with closed form coefficients. This limits the energy range over which the model is valid. The power law formulation readily produces closed form coefficients similar to those obtained using the parabolic band approximation. However, the fitting parameters (x,y) are only valid over a limited energy range. The physical significance of the band non-parabolicity is discussed as well as the advantages/disadvantages and approximations of the two non-parabolic models. A companion paper describes device simulations based on the three dispersion relationships; parabolic, Kane dispersion and power law dispersion.
Valenza, Gaetano; Citi, Luca; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Barbieri, Riccardo
2014-01-01
Measures of entropy have been proved as powerful quantifiers of complex nonlinear systems, particularly when applied to stochastic series of heartbeat dynamics. Despite the remarkable achievements obtained through standard definitions of approximate and sample entropy, a time-varying definition of entropy characterizing the physiological dynamics at each moment in time is still missing. To this extent, we propose two novel measures of entropy based on the inho-mogeneous point-process theory. The RR interval series is modeled through probability density functions (pdfs) which characterize and predict the time until the next event occurs as a function of the past history. Laguerre expansions of the Wiener-Volterra autoregressive terms account for the long-term nonlinear information. As the proposed measures of entropy are instantaneously defined through such probability functions, the proposed indices are able to provide instantaneous tracking of autonomic nervous system complexity. Of note, the distance between the time-varying phase-space vectors is calculated through the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance of two pdfs. Experimental results, obtained from the analysis of RR interval series extracted from ten healthy subjects during stand-up tasks, suggest that the proposed entropy indices provide instantaneous tracking of the heartbeat complexity, also allowing for the definition of complexity variability indices. PMID:25571453
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shapira, Boaz; Frydman, Lucio
2006-09-01
We have recently proposed a protocol for retrieving nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra based on a spatially-dependent encoding of the MR interactions. It has also been shown that the spatial selectivity with which spins are manipulated during such encoding opens up new avenues towards the removal of magnetic field inhomogeneities; not by demanding extreme Bo field uniformities, but rather by compensating for the dephasing effects introduced by the field distribution at a radiofrequency excitation and/or refocusing level. The present study discusses in further detail a number of strategies deriving from this principle, geared at acquiring both uni- as well as multi-dimensional spectroscopic data at high resolution conditions. Different variants are presented, tailored according to the relative sensitivity and chemical nature of the spin system being explored. In particular a simple multi-scan experiment is discussed capable of affording substantial improvements in the spectral resolution, at nearly no sensitivity or scaling penalties. This new compensation scheme is therefore well-suited for the collection of high-resolution data in low-field systems possessing limited signal-to-noise ratios, where magnetic field heterogeneities might present a serious obstacle. Potential areas of applications of these techniques include high-field in vivo NMR studies in regions near tissue/air interfaces, clinical low field MR spectroscopy on relatively large off-center volumes difficult to shim, and ex situ NMR. The principles of the different compensation methods are reviewed and experimentally demonstrated for one-dimensional inhomogeneities; further improvements and extensions are briefly discussed.
On the X-ray spectra of luminous, inhomogeneous accretion flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merloni, A.; Malzac, J.; Fabian, A. C.; Ross, R. R.
2006-08-01
We discuss the expected X-ray spectral and variability properties of black hole accretion discs at high luminosity, under the hypothesis that radiation-pressure-dominated discs are subject to violent clumping instabilities and, as a result, have a highly inhomogeneous two-phase structure. After deriving the full accretion disc solutions explicitly in terms of the parameters of the model, we study their radiative properties both with a simple two-zone model, treatable analytically, and with radiative transfer simulations which account simultaneously for energy balance and Comptonization in the hot phase, together with reflection, reprocessing, ionization and thermal balance in the cold phase. We show that, if not only the density, but also the heating rate within these flows is inhomogeneous, then complex reflection-dominated spectra can be obtained for a high enough covering fraction of the cold phase. In general, large reflection components in the observed X-ray spectra should be associated with strong soft excesses, resulting from the combined emission of ionized atomic emission lines. The variability properties of such systems are such that, even when contributing to a large fraction of the hard X-ray spectrum, the reflection component is less variable than the power-law-like emission originating from the hot Comptonizing phase, in agreement with what is observed in many Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies and bright Seyfert 1. Our model falls within the family of those trying to explain the complex X-ray spectra of bright AGN with ionized reflection, but presents an alternative, specific, physically motivated, geometrical set-up for the complex multiphase structure of the inner regions of near-Eddington accretion flows.
SCATTERING POLARIZATION AND HANLE EFFECT IN STELLAR ATMOSPHERES WITH HORIZONTAL INHOMOGENEITIES
Manso Sainz, Rafael; Trujillo Bueno, Javier E-mail: jtb@iac.es
2011-12-10
Scattering of light from an anisotropic source produces linear polarization in spectral lines and in the continuum. In the outer layers of a stellar atmosphere the anisotropy of the radiation field is typically dominated by the radiation escaping away, but local horizontal fluctuations of the physical conditions may also contribute, distorting the illumination and, hence, the polarization pattern. Additionally, a magnetic field may perturb and modify the line scattering polarization signals through the Hanle effect. Here, we study such symmetry-breaking effects. We develop a method to solve the transfer of polarized radiation in a scattering atmosphere with weak horizontal fluctuations of the opacity and source functions. It comprises linearization (small opacity and Planck function fluctuations are assumed), reduction to a quasi-plane-parallel problem through harmonic analysis, and the problem's numerical solution by generalized standard techniques. We apply this method to study scattering polarization in atmospheres with horizontal fluctuations in the Planck function and opacity. We derive several very general results and constraints from considerations on the symmetries and dimensionality of the problem, and we give explicit solutions of a few illustrative problems of special interest. For example, we show (1) how the amplitudes of the fractional linear polarization signals change when considering increasingly smaller horizontal atmospheric inhomogeneities, (2) that in the presence of such inhomogeneities even a vertical magnetic field may modify the scattering line polarization, and (3) that forward scattering polarization may be produced without the need for an inclined magnetic field. These results are important for understanding the physics of the problem and as benchmarks for multidimensional radiative transfer codes.
Hutchings, L
2001-12-12
The purpose of computer program NetMoment (Appendix I) is to utilize fundamental knowledge of earthquake sources, propagation attenuation, and site response in a simultaneous inversion of network data to determine the moment and source corner frequency of earthquakes, and site specific t*. The source parameters are especially difficult to determine for small earthquakes. A fundamental problem in determining the source corner frequencies of small earthquakes is that site response can result in spectral corner frequencies in the range that may be expected from the earthquakes themselves. Several authors have identified this as fmax (Hanks, 1982), a constant corner frequency for small events so that below threshold moment (about 1.0 x 10{sup 21} dyne-cm) the corner frequency remains constant the size of events diminishes. Hutchings and Wu (1990) found that for the southern California region, events with moment less than about 1.5 x 10{sup 21} dyne-cm (about magnitude 3.4) show no source effect in their spectra. Hanks (1982) found the threshold to be about 1.0 x l0{sup 21} dyne-cm for other southern California sites. Baise et al. (2002) found borehole recordings on Yerba Buena Island, in San Francisco Bay, to have corner frequencies limited to about 3-5 Hz for M < 4.0 earthquakes in the region. Some authors have attributed this to a minimum source dimension for earthquakes, which results in a decrease in stress drop for smaller events (Archuleta et al., 1982; Papageorgiou and Aki, 1983). alternative explanation is that the constant corner frequencies result from whole path or near site attenuation and/or amplifications due to soil response. This is supported by a wide body of literature (Anderson and Hough, 1984, Hutchings and Wu, 1990, Blakeslee and Malin, 1991; Aster and Shearer, 1991; Abercrombie, 1995). Abercrombie, for example, estimated source corner frequencies from events recorded in granite at a depth of 2.5 Km in the Cajon Pass scientific drill hole and
Jarem, J M
1994-01-10
The mutual coherence function (MCF) that results when a double point source illuminates a transversely and longitudinally inhomogeneous turbulence layer is considered. The analysis was carried out by (1) decomposition of the free-space MCF from the double point source into four separate interference terms, (2) calculation of the MCF that resulted from each of these terms when the optical wave that arose from these terms propagated through the inhomogeneous turbulence layer, and (3) addition of the solutions together to form the overall MCF solution of the optical system. The analysis was carried out in a transverse center-difference coordinate system. Two of the four terms were shown to vary rapidly in the center coordinate variables, and the other two were shown to vary rapidly in the difference coordinate variables. Because two of the terms showed rapid interference effects in the center coordinate variable and the other two in the difference coordinate variable, two different spatial-spectral algorithms were developed in the paper to analyze the MCF's that arose from each of the two types of rapid interference variation. The spatial-spectral MCF equations that arose from the analysis were solved numerically by the Lax-Wendroff finite-difference method. Several numerical plots of the center and difference interference MCF's that resulted when a double point source was incident upon a transversely inhomogeneous aero-optic layer were given. Plots of the variation of the interference MCF's with angular separation of the double point source are shown. PMID:20862014
Neutron electric dipole moment and CP
Chang, Darwin; Chang, We-Fu; Frank, Mariana; Keung, Wai-Yee
2000-11-01
We analyze the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with explicit R-parity violating terms. The leading contribution to the EDM occurs at the two-loop level and is dominated by the chromoelectric dipole moments of quarks, assuming there is no tree-level mixings between sleptons and Higgs bosons or between leptons and gauginos. Based on the experimental constraint on the neutron EDM, we set limits on the imaginary parts of complex couplings {lambda}{sub ijk}{prime} and {lambda}{sub ijk} due to the virtual b loop or {tau} loop.
Determination of the Neutron Magnetic Moment
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Greene, G. L.; Ramsey, N. F.; Mampe, W.; Pendlebury, J. M.; Smith, K.; Dress, W. B.; Miller, P. D.; Perrin, P.
1981-06-01
The neutron magnetic moment has been measured with an improvement of a factor of 100 over the previous best measurement. Using a magnetic resonance spectrometer of the separated oscillatory field type capable of determining a resonance signal for both neutrons and protons (in flowing H{sub 2}O), we find ..mu..{sub n}/..mu..{sub p} = 0.68497935(17) (0.25 ppM). The neutron magnetic moment can also be expressed without loss of accuracy in a variety of other units.
First moments of nucleon generalized parton distributions
Wang, P.; Thomas, A. W.
2010-06-01
We extrapolate the first moments of the generalized parton distributions using heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. The calculation is based on the one loop level with the finite range regularization. The description of the lattice data is satisfactory, and the extrapolated moments at physical pion mass are consistent with the results obtained with dimensional regularization, although the extrapolation in the momentum transfer to t=0 does show sensitivity to form factor effects, which lie outside the realm of chiral perturbation theory. We discuss the significance of the results in the light of modern experiments as well as QCD inspired models.
Spectral entropy in monitoring anesthetic depth.
Escontrela Rodríguez, B; Gago Martínez, A; Merino Julián, I; Martínez Ruiz, A
2016-10-01
Monitoring the brain response to hypnotics in general anesthesia, with the nociceptive and hemodynamic stimulus interaction, has been a subject of intense investigation for many years. Nowadays, monitors of depth of anesthesia are based in processed electroencephalogram by different algorithms, some of them unknown, to obtain a simplified numeric parameter approximate to brain activity state in each moment. In this review we evaluate if spectral entropy suitably reflects the brain electric behavior in response to hypnotics and the different intensity nociceptive stimulus effect during a surgical procedure.
Fast real-time moment-ratio analysis of multibreath nitrogen washout in children.
Kraemer, R; Meister, B
1985-10-01
To apply real-time moment-ratio analysis to multibreath N2-washout curves (MBNW) from children, a new processor-controlled device was constructed. Flow and fractional N2 concentration (FN2) were each sampled by 200 Hz. An electromagnetic triple-valve system, with an instrumental dead space of 36 ml and a valve resistance of 0.3 cmH2O . l-1 . s, was connected in series with a pneumotachograph and an N2 analyzer (Ohio 720) placed next to the mouthpiece. A FORTRAN/MACRO program on a PDP 11/23 computer enabled measurement of inspiratory and expiratory flow and FN2 sampling by a 12-bit analog-to-digital converter. The fast real-time digital processing of the N2 and flow signals incorporated filtering, delay compensation, and corrections for the effects of changes in gas composition and temperature. MBNW dynamics of the lungs were studied in 17 healthy and 28 asthmatic children and in 16 patients with cystic fibrosis, evaluating the moment ratios of the washout curves as indices of the ventilation characteristics. Intrasubject variability of the moment ratios (m1/m0, m2/m0) and determination of functional residual capacity (FRC) varied between 6.3 and 14.7% (depending on which parameter is considered) and was comparatively lower than other indices previously investigated in adults. In addition, the sensitivity of the moment ratios for discriminating different stages of ventilation inhomogeneity was superior to other indices. m2/m0 is closely related to the simultaneously measured airway resistance, and the ratio between cumulative expired volume and FRC is correlated with the ratio between residual volume and total lung capacity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The Effect of Habitat Inhomogeneities and Fragmentation on Population Density and Time to Extinction
Kostova, T; Carlsen, T
2003-12-22
We present a study, based on simulations with SERDYCA, a spatially-explicit individual based model of rodent dynamics, on the connection between population persistence and the presence of inhomogeneities in the habitat. We are specifically interested on the effect that inhomogeneities that do not fragment the environment, have on population persistence. Our results suggest that a certain percentage of inhomogeneities can increase the average time to extinction of the population. Inhomogeneities decrease the population density and can increase the ratio of juveniles in the population thus providing a better chance for the population to restore itself after a severe period with critically low population density. We call this the ''inhomogeneity localization effect''.
Critical role of inhomogeneities in pacing termination of cardiac reentry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinha, Sitabhra; Stein, Kenneth M.; Christini, David J.
2002-09-01
Reentry around nonconducting ventricular scar tissue, a cause of lethal arrhythmias, is typically treated by rapid electrical stimulation from an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. However, the dynamical mechanisms of termination (success and failure) are poorly understood. To elucidate such mechanisms, we study the dynamics of pacing in one- and two-dimensional models of anatomical reentry. In a crucial realistic difference from previous studies of such systems, we have placed the pacing site away from the reentry circuit. Our model-independent results suggest that with such off-circuit pacing, the existence of inhomogeneity in the reentry circuit is essential for successful termination of tachycardia under certain conditions. Considering the critical role of such inhomogeneities may lead to more effective pacing algorithms.
Inhomogeneous spin diffusion in traps with cold atoms.
Heiselberg, H
2012-06-15
The spin diffusion and damped oscillations are studied in the collision of two spin polarized clouds of cold atoms with resonant interactions. The strong density dependence of the diffusion coefficient leads to inhomogeneous spin diffusion that changes from central to surface spin flow as the temperature increases. The inhomogeneity and the smaller finite trap size significantly reduce the spin diffusion rate at low temperatures. The resulting spin diffusion rates and spin drag at longer time scales are compatible with measurements at low to high temperatures for resonant attractive interactions but are incompatible with a metastable ferromagnetic phase. This does not exclude that the colliding clouds can evolve into a repulsive initial state which subsequently decays during the bounce and the initial damped oscillations. PMID:23004287
Inhomogeneous spin diffusion in traps with cold atoms.
Heiselberg, H
2012-06-15
The spin diffusion and damped oscillations are studied in the collision of two spin polarized clouds of cold atoms with resonant interactions. The strong density dependence of the diffusion coefficient leads to inhomogeneous spin diffusion that changes from central to surface spin flow as the temperature increases. The inhomogeneity and the smaller finite trap size significantly reduce the spin diffusion rate at low temperatures. The resulting spin diffusion rates and spin drag at longer time scales are compatible with measurements at low to high temperatures for resonant attractive interactions but are incompatible with a metastable ferromagnetic phase. This does not exclude that the colliding clouds can evolve into a repulsive initial state which subsequently decays during the bounce and the initial damped oscillations.
Gilbert damping of ferromagnetic metals incorporating inhomogeneous spin dynamics
Umetsu, Nobuyuki Miura, Daisuke; Sakuma, Akimasa
2015-05-07
The effects of inhomogeneous spin dynamics on magnetic damping in ferromagnetic metals are studied. On the basis of linear response theory, we derive the microscopic expression for the Gilbert damping term in a two-dimensional electron gas interacting with the magnetization via exchange coupling in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC). In the spin wave propagating with the wave vector, q, the behavior of q-dependent damping can be explained in terms of both inter- and intra-band spin excitations. The spatially dependent damping torques originating from Rashba SOC that cancel out in a uniform precession system distort the circular orbit of a magnetization-precession trajectory in the presence of inhomogeneous spin dynamics.
Effects of dipole magnet inhomogeneities on the beam ellipsoid
Tsoupas, N.; Colman, J.; Levine, M.; McKenzie-Wilson, R.; Ward, T.; Grand, P.
1986-01-01
The RAYTRACE computer code has been modified to accept magnetic fields measured in the median plane of a dipole magnet. This modification allows one to study the effects of a non-ideal dipole magnet on the beam ellipsoid (as defined by the TRANSPORT code manual). The effects on the beam ellipsoid are due to: field inhomogeneities in the interior region of the dipole, and discrepancies from design conditions of the magnetic field values in the fringe field region. The results of the RAYTRACE code calculations based on experimentally measured fields will be compared with the results derived using both an ideal (no inhomogeneities) dipole with SCOFF boundaries and an ideal dipole with perfect (according to design) fringe fields.
Trace element evidence for a laterally inhomogeneous moon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G. W., Jr.
1978-01-01
A number of trace element interrelationships support the concept of a laterally inhomogeneous moon based originally on Clr/P2O5 ratios. The correspondence between Clr/P2O3 and Rb/Sr ratios in basalts are of special interest since the isotropic evolution of the latter pair of elements relates to the earliest history of the moon. This implies the times when the Clr/P2O5 relationships were established. The early magma ocean is conjectured to have been made up of non-intermixing seas resulting either from large convection cells or large body accretion. These mutually exclusive regions could be lunar geological provinces. It is proposed that the diversity of basalts from the Apollo 17 site is related to the lateral inhomogeneity of the moon. Ca/Na ratios in basalts show a trend which parallels that of Ru/Os and in a corresponding fashion may serve as a depth indicator.
Sublattice model of atomic scale pairing inhomogeneity in a superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, Vivek; Hirschfeld, P. J.; Barash, Yu. S.
2008-10-01
We study a toy model for a superconductor on a bipartite lattice where intrinsic pairing inhomogeneity is produced by two different coupling constants on the sublattices. The simplicity of the model allows for analytical solutions and tests of the consequences of atomic scale variations in pairing interactions, which have been considered recently in the cuprates. We present results for the transition temperature, density of states, and thermodynamics of the system over a phase diagram in the plane of two pairing coupling constants. For coupling constants of alternating sign, a gapless superconducting state is stable. Inhomogeneity is generally found to enhance the critical temperature, and at the same time the superfluid density is remarkably robust; at T=0 , it is suppressed only in the gapless phase.
Multi-echo imaging in highly inhomogeneous magnetic fields.
Casanova, F; Perlo, J; Blümich, B; Kremer, K
2004-01-01
A new pulsed field gradient multi-echo imaging technique to encode position in the phase of every echo generated by a CPMG sequence in the presence of a strongly inhomogeneous static magnetic field is presented. It was applied to improve the sensitivity in an imaging experiment by adding the echo train acquired during the CPMG sequence and to spatially resolve relaxation times of inhomogeneous specimens using single-sided probes. The sequence was implemented in a new bar-magnet MOUSE equipped with a gradient coil system to apply a pulsed magnetic field with a constant gradient along one spatial coordinate. An important reduction by a factor larger than two orders of magnitude in the acquisition time was obtained compared to the previously published single-point imaging technique. PMID:14675822
Spatial hole burning and spectral stability of a quantum-dot laser
Savelyev, A. V. Korenev, V. V.; Maximov, M. V.; Zhukov, A. E.
2015-11-15
The inhomogeneous intensity distribution of the optical model along the axis of a semiconductor quantum-dot laser results in spatial hole burning. The influence of this phenomenon on the stability of the multifrequency emission spectrum is studied when the optical transition of the quantum dots is characterized by considerable homogeneous broadening. The results of two models—in which inhomogeneous broadening is disregarded and taken into account—regarding the stability of the radiation spectrum under the influence of slight variation of the spectral loss dependence in the resonator are compared. Inhomogeneous distribution of the charge carriers (spatial hole burning) is found to be a critical factor in determining the form and stability of the spectrum.
Multipole moments of bumpy black holes
Vigeland, Sarah J.
2010-11-15
General relativity predicts the existence of black holes, compact objects whose spacetimes depend only on their mass, spin, and charge in vacuum (the 'no-hair' theorem). As various observations probe deeper into the strong fields of black hole candidates, it is becoming possible to test this prediction. Previous work suggested that such tests can be performed by measuring whether the multipolar structure of black hole candidates has the form that general relativity demands, and introduced a family of 'bumpy black hole' spacetimes to be used for making these measurements. These spacetimes have generalized multipoles, where the deviation from the Kerr metric depends on the spacetime's 'bumpiness'. In this paper, we show how to compute the Geroch-Hansen moments of a bumpy black hole, demonstrating that there is a clean mapping between the deviations used in the bumpy black hole formalism and the Geroch-Hansen moments. We also extend our previous results to define bumpy black holes whose current moments, analogous to magnetic moments of electrodynamics, deviate from the canonical Kerr value.
The Doubling Moment: Resurrecting Edgar Allan Poe
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Minnick, J. Bradley; Mergil, Fernando
2008-01-01
This article expands upon Jeffrey Wilhelm's and Brian Edmiston's (1998) concept of a doubling of viewpoints by encouraging middle level students to use dramatization to take on multiple perspectives, to pose interpretive questions, and to enhance critical inquiry from inside and outside of texts. The doubling moment is both the activation of…
Expanding Assessment Methods and Moments in History
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Frost, Jennifer; de Pont, Genevieve; Brailsford, Ian
2012-01-01
History courses at The University of Auckland are typically assessed at two or three moments during a semester. The methods used normally employ two essays and a written examination answering questions set by the lecturer. This study describes an assessment innovation in 2008 that expanded both the frequency and variety of activities completed by…
Moments of GPDs from lattice QCD
David Richards
2006-09-18
I review the lattice computation of the moments of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), and their chiral extrapolation to the physical quark masses. I illustrate how lattice computations of generalized form factors can provide constraints on phenomenological parameterizations of GPDs, and provide insight into the three-dimensional picture of the nucleon.
Moments, Mixed Methods, and Paradigm Dialogs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Denzin, Norman K.
2010-01-01
I reread the 50-year-old history of the qualitative inquiry that calls for triangulation and mixed methods. I briefly visit the disputes within the mixed methods community asking how did we get to where we are today, the period of mixed-multiple-methods advocacy, and Teddlie and Tashakkori's third methodological moment. (Contains 10 notes.)
Detecting transition radiation from a magnetic moment.
Ivanov, Igor P; Karlovets, Dmitry V
2013-06-28
Electromagnetic radiation can be emitted not only by particle charges but also by magnetic moments and higher electric and magnetic multipoles. However, experimental proofs of this fundamental fact are extremely scarce. In particular, the magnetic moment contribution has never been observed in any form of polarization radiation. Here, we propose to detect it using vortex electrons carrying large orbital angular momentum ℓ. The relative contribution of the orbital angular momentum-induced magnetic moment, ℓℏω/Ee, becomes much larger than the spin-induced contribution ℏω/E and it can be observed experimentally. As a particular example, we consider transition radiation from vortex electrons obliquely incident on an interface between a vacuum and a dispersive medium, in which the magnetic moment contribution manifests itself via a left-right angular asymmetry. For electrons with Ee=300 keV and ℓ=100-1000, we predict an asymmetry of the order of 0.1%-1%, which could be measured with existing technology. Thus, vortex electrons emerge as a new tool in the physics of electromagnetic radiation.
Pedagogical Moments: Affective Sexual Literacies in Film
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clarke, Kyra
2013-01-01
This paper considers three pedagogical moments in the film "Tomorrow, When the War Began" (2010), contemplating the way in which they open a space for conversations about feelings, sexuality and gender. "Tomorrow, When the War Began" follows the plight of 17-year-old Ellie who returns to her rural town from a camping trip with…
The Magic Moment: Creating Color Harmony
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bartges, Dan
2009-01-01
If there is a truly magic moment in art class, it must be when a student--of any age--attains a working knowledge of color's core principles. At that point, she or he becomes able to consistently create color harmony in any painting, regardless of the subject matter. From then on, that student gains greater confidence, can paint better pictures…
Flannery O'Connor's Moments of Grace.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Byrne, Mary Ellen
1988-01-01
Suggests that instructors of introductory literature courses can teach students how to analyze content and meaning through a pervading theme. Proposes using three of Flannery O'Connor's works, focusing on the "moment of grace" theme in each story and discussing its central importance in the works. (MS)
Gradient moment nulling in fast spin echo.
Hinks, R S; Constable, R T
1994-12-01
The fast spin echo sequence combines data from many echo signals in a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill echo train to form a single image. Much of the signal in the second and later echoes results from the coherent addition of stimulated echo signal components back to the spin echo signal. Because stimulated echoes experience no dephasing effects during the time that they are stored as Mz magnetization, they experience a different gradient first moment than does the spin echo. This leads to flow-related phase differences between different echo components and results in flow voids and ghosting, even when the first moment is nulled for the spin echo signal. A method of gradient moment nulling that correctly compensates both spin echo and stimulated echo components has been developed. The simplest solution involves nulling the first gradient moment at least at the RF pulses and preferably at both the RF pulses and the echoes. Phantom and volunteer studies demonstrate good suppression of flow-related artifacts.
Avalanche!--Teachable Moments in Outdoor Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Galloway, Shayne
2005-01-01
Rarely do outdoor educators get the opportunity to safely incorporate an avalanche while the topic of the day is actually avalanche awareness and forecasting. Many similar possibilities exist in the expeditionary context, but even brief excursions may result in incredible learning experiences. These "teachable moments" occur regularly in the…
Using Aha! Moments to Understand Leadership Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moore, Lori L.; Lewis, Lauren J.
2012-01-01
As Huber (2002) noted, striving to understand how leadership is taught and learned is both a challenge and an opportunity facing leadership educators. This article describes the "Leadership Aha! Moment" assignment used in a leadership theory course to help students recognize the intersection of leadership theories and their daily lives while…
"To Value Every Child in the Moment"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Armstrong, Michael
2014-01-01
This article takes as its starting point the assertion that the purpose of primary education is to value every child in the moment. The author examines one particular story by a six-year-old girl as an example of what this assertion implies, and of its significance for teaching and learning within the primary school.
Nuclear spins and moments: Fundamental structural information
Semmes, P.B.
1991-01-01
Predictions for the low energy structure of well deformed odd-A Pm and Sm nuclei in the A {approx} 130 region are given, based on the particle-rotor model. Distinctive magnetic dipole properties (static moments and transition rates) are expected for certain Nilsson configurations, and comparisons to recent data are made for {sup 133}Pm, {sup 135}Sm and {sup 133}Sm.
Nuclear spins and moments: Fundamental structural information
Semmes, P.B.
1991-12-31
Predictions for the low energy structure of well deformed odd-A Pm and Sm nuclei in the A {approx} 130 region are given, based on the particle-rotor model. Distinctive magnetic dipole properties (static moments and transition rates) are expected for certain Nilsson configurations, and comparisons to recent data are made for {sup 133}Pm, {sup 135}Sm and {sup 133}Sm.
The Teachable Moment and the Handicapped Infant.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Langley, M. Beth
The report examines, from a cognitive developmental view, research on the teachable moment or critical learning period in handicapped infants. The author explains that developmental gaps are produced by a mismatch between the infant's readiness and opportunity to learn. Characteristics and educational implications of specific handicapping…
Scatter of elastic waves by a thin flat elliptical inhomogeneity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fu, L. S.
1983-01-01
Elastodynamic fields of a single, flat, elliptical inhomogeneity embedded in an infinite elastic medium subjected to plane time harmonic waves are studied. Scattered displacement amplitudes and stress intensities are obtained in series form for an incident wave in an arbitrary direction. The cases of a penny shaped crack and an elliptical crack are given as examples. The analysis is valid for alpha a up to about two, where alpha is longitudinal wave number and a is a typical geometric parameter.
Inhomogeneities in single crystals of cuprate oxide superconductors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moorjani, K.; Bohandy, J.; Kim, B. F.; Adrian, F. J.
1991-01-01
The next stage in the evolution of experimental research on the high temperature superconductors will require high quality single crystals and epitaxially grown crystalline films. However, inhomogeneities and other defects are not uncommon in single crystals of cuprate oxide superconductors, so a corollary requirement will be a reliable method for judging the quality of these materials. The application of magnetically modulated resistance methods in this task is briefly described and illustrated.
Structural inhomogeneity and magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrites
Pashchenko, V.P.; Samoilenko, Z.A.; Vintonyak, V.M.
1995-07-01
The clustered inhomogeneity observed in ferromagnetic materials deepens our concepts of the actual structure of solids and opens new possibilities for controlling their properties. These investigations were made for the purpose of establishment of the relationship between clusterization and magnetic properties of SrO-nFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, where 5.4 < n < 6.2, metal oxide magnetically hard strontium ferrites.
Comment on 'Heavy element production in inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis'
Rauscher, Thomas
2007-03-15
The work of Matsuura et al. [Phys. Rev. D 72, 123505 (2005)] claims that heavy nuclei could have been produced in a combined p- and r-process in very high baryon density regions of an inhomogeneous big bang. However, they do not account for observational constraints and previous studies which show that such high baryon density regions did not significantly contribute to big bang abundances.
Phase transformation kinetics in finite inhomogeneously nucleated systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weinberg, Michael; Kapral, Raymond
1989-01-01
Phase transformation kinetics that occur by a nucleation and growth process are investigated. A simple discrete space and time model is used for the dynamics and analytical results are obtained for the volume fraction of the material transformed for both finite systems and a special example of an inhomogeneously nucleated system. The theory is developed for two cases, initial nucleation, and continuous nucleation. The results are compared with simulations of the model.
Integration of inhomogeneous cosmological spacetimes in the BSSN formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mertens, James B.; Giblin, John T.; Starkman, Glenn D.
2016-06-01
We present cosmological-scale numerical simulations of an evolving universe in full general relativity and introduce a new numerical tool, cosmograph, which employs the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formalism on a three-dimensional grid. Using cosmograph, we calculate the effect of an inhomogeneous matter distribution on the evolution of a spacetime. We also present the results of a set of standard stability tests to demonstrate the robustness of our simulations.
Detection of detachments and inhomogeneities in frescos by Compton scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castellano, A.; Cesareo, R.; Buccolieri, G.; Donativi, M.; Palamà, F.; Quarta, S.; De Nunzio, G.; Brunetti, A.; Marabelli, M.; Santamaria, U.
2005-07-01
A mobile instrument has been developed for the detection and mapping of detachments in frescos by using Compton back scattered photons. The instrument is mainly composed of a high energy X-ray tube, an X-ray detection system and a translation table. The instrument was first applied to samples simulating various detachment situations, and then transferred to the Vatican Museum to detect detachments and inhomogeneities in the stanza di Eliodoro, one of the "Raphael's stanze".
Variational calculations for resonance oscillations of inhomogeneous plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peng, Y. K. M.; Crawford, F. W.
1973-01-01
The electrostatic resonance properties of an inhomogeneous plasma column are reported by application of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. A description of the rf equation of motion and pressure term that expresses the system of equations in Euler-Lagrange form is presented. The Rayleigh-Ritz procedure is applied to the corresponding Lagrangian to obtain approximate resonance frequencies and eigenfunctions. An appropriate set of trial coordinate functions is defined, which leads to frequency and eigenfunction estimates.
Exploration of Learning Strategies Associated With Aha Learning Moments.
Pilcher, Jobeth W
2016-01-01
Educators recognize aha moments as powerful aspects of learning. Yet limited research has been performed regarding how to promote these learning moments. This article describes an exploratory study of aha learning moments as experienced and described by participants. Findings showed use of visuals, scenarios, storytelling, Socratic questions, and expert explanation led to aha learning moments. The findings provide guidance regarding the types of learning strategies that can be used to promote aha moments. PMID:26985751
Microbial hotspots and hot moments in soil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuzyakov, Yakov; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia
2015-04-01
Soils are the most heterogeneous parts of the biosphere, with an extremely high differentiation of properties and processes within nano- to macroscales. The spatial and temporal heterogeneity of input of labile organics by plants creates microbial hotspots over short periods of time - the hot moments. We define microbial hotspots as small soil volumes with much faster process rates and much more intensive interactions compared to the average soil conditions. Such hotspots are found in the rhizosphere, detritusphere, biopores (including drilosphere) and on aggregate surfaces, but hotspots are frequently of mixed origin. Hot moments are short-term events or sequences of events inducing accelerated process rates as compared to the averaged rates. Thus, hotspots and hot moments are defined by dynamic characteristics, i.e. by process rates. For this hotspot concept we extensively reviewed and examined the localization and size of hotspots, spatial distribution and visualization approaches, transport of labile C to and from hotspots, lifetime and process intensities, with a special focus on process rates and microbial activities. The fraction of active microorganisms in hotspots is 2-20 times higher than in the bulk soil, and their specific activities (i.e. respiration, microbial growth, mineralization potential, enzyme activities, RNA/DNA ratio) may also be much higher. The duration of hot moments in the rhizosphere is limited and is controlled by the length of the input of labile organics. It can last a few hours up to a few days. In the detritusphere, however, the duration of hot moments is regulated by the output - by decomposition rates of litter - and lasts for weeks and months. Hot moments induce succession in microbial communities and intense intra- and interspecific competition affecting C use efficiency, microbial growth and turnover. The faster turnover and lower C use efficiency in hotspots counterbalances the high C inputs, leading to the absence of strong
Co-existence of a few and sub micron inhomogeneities in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells
Iwata, Yoshiya; Oto, Takao; Banal, Ryan G.; Funato, Mitsuru; Kawakami, Yoichi; Gachet, David
2015-03-21
Inhomogeneity in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells is directly observed using our custom-built confocal microscopy photoluminescence (μ-PL) apparatus with a reflective system. The μ-PL system can reach the AlN bandgap in the deep ultra-violet spectral range with a spatial resolution of 1.8 μm. In addition, cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements with a higher spatial resolution of about 100 nm are performed. A comparison of the μ-PL and CL measurements reveals that inhomogeneities, which have different spatial distributions of a few- and sub-micron scales that are superimposed, play key roles in determining the optical properties.
Dispersion properties of helical waves in radially inhomogeneous elastic media.
Syresin, D E; Zharnikov, T V; Tyutekin, V V
2012-06-01
In this paper, a method describing dispersion curve calculation for waves propagating in radially layered, inhomogeneous isotropic elastic waveguides is developed. Particular emphasis is placed on the helical waves with noninteger azimuthal wavenumbers, which can be potentially applied in such fields as nondestructive evaluation, acoustic tomography, etc., stipulating their practical importance. To solve the problem under consideration, the matrix Riccati equation is formulated for an impedance matrix. The use of the latter yields a simple form of the dispersion equation. Numerical computation of dispersion curves can encounter difficulties, which are due to potential singularities of the impedance matrix and the necessity to separate roots of the dispersion equation. These difficulties are overcome by employing the Cayley transform and invoking the parametric continuation method. The method developed by the authors is demonstrated by calculating dispersion diagrams in support of helical waves for several models of practical interest. Such computations for an inhomogeneous layer and its approximation by a set of homogeneous layers using a transfer matrix and Riccati equation methods revealed higher computational accuracy of the latter. Dispersion curves calculated for layers with different types of inhomogeneity demonstrated significant discrepancies at low frequencies. PMID:22712901
Inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking in dense neutron-star matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buballa, Michael; Carignano, Stefano
2016-03-01
An increasing number of model results suggests that chiral symmetry is broken inhomogeneously in a certain window at intermediate densities in the QCD phase diagram. This could have significant effects on the properties of compact stars, possibly leading to new astrophysical signatures. In this contribution we discuss this idea by reviewing recent results on inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking under an astrophysics-oriented perspective. After introducing two commonly studied spatial modulations of the chiral condensate, the chiral density wave and the real kink crystal, we focus on their properties and their effect on the equation of state of quark matter. We also describe how these crystalline phases are affected by different elements which are required for a realistic description of a compact star, such as charge neutrality, the presence of magnetic fields, vector interactions and the interplay with color superconductivity. Finally, we discuss possible signatures of inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking in the core of compact stars, considering the cases of mass-radius relations and neutrino emissivity explicitly.
Modelling of of hydraulic fractures trajectories in inhomogeneous stress field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreev, A. A.; Galybin, A.
2013-05-01
The paper examines an actual problem of oil and gas production -- modelling of the hydro-fracture trajectories depending on ihomogeneous distributions of pore pressure. The results could serve for improvement of the design of hydraulic fracturing in the oil/gas fields. The methods of the plane elasticity theory and fracture mechanics are employed. It is assumed, that in addition to the homogeneous field of natural stress the reservoir is also subjected to additional stresses caused by technological reasons, which makes the total stress field to be inhomogeneous. Therefore, the objective is to model a curvilinear crack path in an elastic inhomogeneous-loaded plane depending on the different mechanical parameters that control the stress state of the reservoir. For the simulation of the trajectory of a crack the method of boundary integral equation is used. The algorithms of step-by-step determination of the crack's trajectory development using the criterion of maximum tensile stresses at the end of the cracks have been developed. For the numerical realization of the solution we used a special modification of the method of mechanical quadratures providing effective and fast solution of the corresponding system of singular integral equation. The solution for the hydro-fracture path have been simulated for the case of inhomogeneous stress field due to presence of injection well for several physical models.
Simulated models of inhomogeneous broadening in perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hodges, Jeffery A.; Park, Tyler; Stufflebeam, Michael; Evenson, W.; Matheson, P.; Zacate, M. O.
2008-10-01
All real crystals have defects such as impurities and vacancies which affect their properties. In perturbed angular correlation (PAC), these defects produce damping of the correlation signal in time and broadening of the frequency spectrum. This broadening is termed ``inhomogeneous broadening'' since it is due to the inhomogeneities (i.e. defects) in the crystal. We have simulated PAC spectra for various concentrations (0.1% to 15%) of randomly distributed defects with a near-neighbor vacancy in simple cubic and face-centered cubic crystal structures. For every particular set of defects, the randomly distributed defects and the near-neighbor vacancy together produce a net electric field gradient (EFG), from which we obtain the PAC spectrum. We then average PAC spectra to study the effects of defect concentration and crystal structure on inhomogeneous broadening as an aid to analyzing experimental data. This work will be applied initially to broadened PAC data from β-Mn, Al-doped β-Mn, and Sr2RuO4.
Electromagnetic scattering from an inhomogeneous object by ray tracing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Hyeongdong; Ling, Hao
1992-01-01
A 'shooting and bouncing ray' (SBR) formulation is presented for treating the electromagnetic scattering from electrically large, inhomogeneous objects. A dense grid of rays representing the incident plane wave is shot toward the inhomogeneous object. At the scatterer boundary, reflected rays and refracted rays are generated due to discontinuity of the medium parameters. The trajectory, amplitude, phase and polarization of the rays inside the inhomogeneous object are traced based on geometrical optics. Whenever the rays cross the scatterer surface, additional reflected/refracted rays are generated and are tracked. This process is repeated until the intensities of the refracted/reflected rays become negligible. The contributions of the exiting rays to the total scattered field are calculated by using the equivalence principle in conjunction with a ray-tube integration scheme. The ray formulation is applied to calculate the backscattering from cylinders and spheres and good agreement with the exact series solutions is observed in the high frequency range. In addition, the backscattering mechanisms in penetrable objects are interpreted in terms of simple ray pictures.
Density functional theory for systems with mesoscopic inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciach, A.; Gozdz, W. T.
2016-06-01
We study the effects of fluctuations on the mesoscopic length scale on systems with mesoscopic inhomogeneities. Equations for the correlation function and for the average volume fraction are derived in the self-consistent Gaussian approximation. The equations are further simplified by postulating the expression for the structure factor consistent with scattering experiments for self-assembling systems. Predictions of the approximate theory are verified by a comparison with the exact results obtained earlier for the one-dimensional lattice model with first-neighbor attraction and third-neighbor repulsion. We find qualitative agreement for the correlation function, the equation of state and the dependence of the chemical potential μ on the volume fraction ζ. Our results confirm also that strong inhomogeneities in the disordered phase are found only in the case of strong repulsion. The inhomogeneities are reflected in an oscillatory decay of the correlation function with a very large correlation length, three inflection points in the μ ≤ft(\\zeta \\right) curve and a compressibility that for increasing ζ takes very large, very small and again very large values.
Segmentation of intensity inhomogeneous brain MR images using active contours.
Akram, Farhan; Kim, Jeong Heon; Lim, Han Ul; Choi, Kwang Nam
2014-01-01
Segmentation of intensity inhomogeneous regions is a well-known problem in image analysis applications. This paper presents a region-based active contour method for image segmentation, which properly works in the context of intensity inhomogeneity problem. The proposed region-based active contour method embeds both region and gradient information unlike traditional methods. It contains mainly two terms, area and length, in which the area term practices a new region-based signed pressure force (SPF) function, which utilizes mean values from a certain neighborhood using the local binary fitted (LBF) energy model. In turn, the length term uses gradient information. The novelty of our method is to locally compute new SPF function, which uses local mean values and is able to detect boundaries of the homogenous regions. Finally, a truncated Gaussian kernel is used to regularize the level set function, which not only regularizes it but also removes the need of computationally expensive reinitialization. The proposed method targets the segmentation problem of intensity inhomogeneous images and reduces the time complexity among locally computed active contour methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method yields better segmentation result as well as less time complexity compared with the state-of-the-art active contour methods. PMID:25143780
Off-center observers versus supernovae in inhomogeneous pressure universes
Balcerzak, Adam; Dabrowski, Mariusz P.; Denkiewicz, Tomasz
2014-09-10
Exact luminosity distance and apparent magnitude formulae are applied to the Union2 557 supernovae sample in order to constrain the possible position of an observer outside of the center of symmetry in spherically symmetric inhomogeneous pressure Stephani universes, which are complementary to inhomogeneous density Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) void models. Two specific models are investigated. The first allows a barotropic equation of state at the center of symmetry without the need to specify a scale factor function (model IIA). The second has no barotropic equation of state at the center, but has an explicit dust-like scale factor evolution (model IIB). It is shown that even at 3σ CL, an off-center observer cannot be further than about 4.4 Gpc away from the center of symmetry, which is comparable to the reported size of a void in LTB models with the most likely value of the distance from the center at about 341 Mpc for model IIA and 68 Mpc for model IIB. The off-center observer cannot be farther away from the center than about 577 Mpc for model IIB at 3σ CL. It is determined that the best-fit parameters which characterize inhomogeneity are Ω{sub inh} = 0.77 (dimensionless: model IIA) and α = 7.31 × 10{sup –9} (s km{sup –1}){sup 2/3} Mpc{sup –4/3} (model IIB).
Correcting radiofrequency inhomogeneity effects in skeletal muscle magnetisation transfer maps.
Sinclair, C D J; Morrow, J M; Hanna, M G; Reilly, M M; Yousry, T A; Golay, X; Thornton, J S
2012-02-01
The potential of MRI to provide quantitative measures of neuromuscular pathology for use in therapeutic trials is being increasingly recognised. Magnetisation transfer (MT) imaging shows particular promise in this context, being sensitive to pathological changes, particularly in skeletal muscle, where measurements correlate with clinically measured muscle strength. Radiofrequency (RF) transmit field (B(1)) inhomogeneities can be particularly problematic in measurements of the MT ratio (MTR) and may obscure genuine muscle MTR changes caused by disease. In this work, we evaluate, for muscle imaging applications, a scheme previously proposed for the correction of RF inhomogeneity artefacts in cerebral MTR maps using B(1) information acquired in the same session. We demonstrate the theoretical applicability of this scheme to skeletal muscle using a two-pool model of pulsed quantitative MT. The correction scheme is evaluated practically in MTR imaging of the lower limbs of 28 healthy individuals and in two groups of patients with representative neuromuscular diseases: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A and inclusion body myositis. The correction scheme was observed to reduce both the within-subject and between-subject variability in the calf and thigh muscles of healthy subjects and patient groups in histogram- and region-of-interest-based approaches. This method of correcting for RF inhomogeneity effects in MTR maps using B(1) data may markedly improve the sensitivity of MTR mapping indices as measures of pathology in skeletal muscle.
The magnitude-redshift relation in a realistic inhomogeneous universe
Hada, Ryuichiro; Futamase, Toshifumi E-mail: tof@astr.tohoku.ac.jp
2014-12-01
The light rays from a source are subject to a local inhomogeneous geometry generated by inhomogeneous matter distribution as well as the existence of collapsed objects. In this paper we investigate the effect of inhomogeneities and the existence of collapsed objects on the propagation of light rays and evaluate changes in the magnitude-redshift relation from the standard relationship found in a homogeneous FRW universe. We give the expression of the correlation function and the variance for the perturbation of apparent magnitude, and calculate it numerically by using the non-linear matter power spectrum. We use the lognormal probability distribution function for the density contrast and spherical collapse model to truncate the power spectrum in order to estimate the blocking effect by collapsed objects. We find that the uncertainties in Ω{sub m} is ∼ 0.02, and that of w is ∼ 0.04 . We also discuss a possible method to extract these effects from real data which contains intrinsic ambiguities associated with the absolute magnitude.
Advanced parameter retrievals for metamaterial slabs using an inhomogeneous model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li Hou, Ling; Chin, Jessie Yao; Yang, Xin Mi; Lin, Xian Qi; Liu, Ruopeng; Xu, Fu Yong; Cui, Tie Jun
2008-03-01
The S-parameter retrieval has proved to be an efficient approach to obtain electromagnetic parameters of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients, where a slab of metamaterial with finite thickness is regarded as a homogeneous medium slab with the same thickness [D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002)]. However, metamaterial structures composed of subwavelength unit cells are different from homogeneous materials, and the conventional retrieval method is, under certain circumstances, not accurate enough. In this paper, we propose an advanced parameter retrieval method for metamaterial slabs using an inhomogeneous model. Due to the coupling effects of unit cells in a metamaterial slab, the roles of edge and inner cells in the slab are different. Hence, the corresponding equivalent medium parameters are different, which results in the inhomogeneous property of the metamaterial slab. We propose the retrievals of medium parameters for edge and inner cells from S parameters by considering two- and three-cell metamaterial slabs, respectively. Then we set up an inhomogeneous three-layer model for arbitrary metamaterial slabs, which is much more accurate than the conventional homogeneous model. Numerical simulations verify the above conclusions.
Inhomogeneity of pulmonary perfusion during sustained microgravity on SLS-1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prisk, G. Kim; Guy, Harold J. B.; Elliott, Ann R.; West, John B.
1994-01-01
We studied the effects of gravity on the inhomogeneity of pulmonary perfusion in humans by performing hyperventilation-breath-hold single-breath measurements before, during, and after 9 days of continuous exposure to microgravity during the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) mission. In microgravity the indicators of inhomogeneity of perfusion, especially the size of cardiogenic oscillations in expired CO2 and the height of phase IV, were markedly reduced. Cardiogenic oscillations were reduced to approximately 60% of their preflight standing size, and the height of phase IV was between 0 and -8% (a terminal fall became a small terminal rise) of the preflight standing value. The terminal change in expired CO2 was nearly abolished in microgravity, indicating more uniformity of blood flow between lung units that close and those that remain open at the end of expiration. A possible explanation of this observation is the disappearance of gravity-dependent topographic inequality of blood flow. The residual cardiogenic oscillations in expired CO2 imply a persisting inhomogeneity of perfusion in the absence of gravity, probably in lung regions that are not within the same acinus.
A Study of Effects of Tissue Inhomogeneity on HIFU Beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amin, Viren; Roberts, Ron; Long, Tao; Thompson, R. B.; Ryken, Timothy
2006-05-01
The potential of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) will not be realized unless the effects of overlaying tissues are understood in such a way that allows for estimation of HIFU dose distribution at a target tissue. We employ computational models to examine the impact of phase aberration on tissue ablation. Thompson and Roberts have recently studied the effects of phase aberration on ultrasound focusing in aerospace engine materials such as titanium alloy, and have developed a computational model to examine these effects. The ultrasound beam observed after transmission through the fused quartz (homogeneous) and that observed after transmission through the titanium (inhomogeneous) demonstrate the severe beam wavefield amplitude distortion introduced by the velocity inhomogeneity-induced phase aberration. We study applicability of this approach to model phase aberration in inhomogeneous tissues and its effect on HIFU dose distribution around the focus. It is hypothesized that the ill-effects of phase aberration accumulate during propagation through intervening tissue in which field intensities are substantially lower than that in the focal zone, and it is therefore appropriate to use a linear acoustic model to describe the transport of energy from the transducer to the volume targeted for ablation. We present initial results of the simulation and experiments of beam measurements under water without and with different tissue layers.
Dispersion properties of helical waves in radially inhomogeneous elastic media.
Syresin, D E; Zharnikov, T V; Tyutekin, V V
2012-06-01
In this paper, a method describing dispersion curve calculation for waves propagating in radially layered, inhomogeneous isotropic elastic waveguides is developed. Particular emphasis is placed on the helical waves with noninteger azimuthal wavenumbers, which can be potentially applied in such fields as nondestructive evaluation, acoustic tomography, etc., stipulating their practical importance. To solve the problem under consideration, the matrix Riccati equation is formulated for an impedance matrix. The use of the latter yields a simple form of the dispersion equation. Numerical computation of dispersion curves can encounter difficulties, which are due to potential singularities of the impedance matrix and the necessity to separate roots of the dispersion equation. These difficulties are overcome by employing the Cayley transform and invoking the parametric continuation method. The method developed by the authors is demonstrated by calculating dispersion diagrams in support of helical waves for several models of practical interest. Such computations for an inhomogeneous layer and its approximation by a set of homogeneous layers using a transfer matrix and Riccati equation methods revealed higher computational accuracy of the latter. Dispersion curves calculated for layers with different types of inhomogeneity demonstrated significant discrepancies at low frequencies.
Magnetostatic modes in ferromagnetic samples with inhomogeneous internal fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arias, Rodrigo
2015-03-01
Magnetostatic modes in ferromagnetic samples are very well characterized and understood in samples with uniform internal magnetic fields. More recently interest has shifted to the study of magnetization modes in ferromagnetic samples with inhomogeneous internal fields. The present work shows that under the magnetostatic approximation and for samples of arbitrary shape and/or arbitrary inhomogeneous internal magnetic fields the modes can be classified as elliptic or hyperbolic, and their associated frequency spectrum can be delimited. This results from the analysis of the character of the second order partial differential equation for the magnetostatic potential under these general conditions. In general, a sample with an inhomogeneous internal field and at a given frequency, may have regions of elliptic and hyperbolic character separated by a boundary. In the elliptic regions the magnetostatic modes have a smooth monotonic character (generally decaying form the surfaces (a ``tunneling'' behavior)) and in hyperbolic regions an oscillatory wave-like character. A simple local criterion distinguishes hyperbolic from elliptic regions: the sign of a susceptibility parameter. This study shows that one may control to some extent magnetostatic modes via external fields or geometry. R.E.A. acknowledges Financiamiento Basal para Centros Cientificos y Tecnologicos de Excelencia under Project No. FB 0807 (Chile), Grant No. ICM P10-061-F by Fondo de Innovacion para la Competitividad-MINECON, and Proyecto Fondecyt 1130192.
Moment tensors of a dislocation in a porous medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhi; Hu, Hengshan
2016-06-01
A dislocation can be represented by a moment tensor for calculating seismic waves. However, the moment tensor expression was derived in an elastic medium and cannot completely describe a dislocation in a porous medium. In this paper, effective moment tensors of a dislocation in a porous medium are derived. It is found that the dislocation is equivalent to two independent moment tensors, i.e., the bulk moment tensor acting on the bulk of the porous medium and the isotropic fluid moment tensor acting on the pore fluid. Both of them are caused by the solid dislocation as well as the fluid-solid relative motion corresponding to fluid injection towards the surrounding rocks (or fluid outflow) through the fault plane. For a shear dislocation, the fluid moment tensor is zero, and the dislocation is equivalent to a double couple acting on the bulk; for an opening dislocation or fluid injection, the two moment tensors are needed to describe the source. The fluid moment tensor only affects the radiated compressional waves. By calculating the ratio of the radiation fields generated by unit fluid moment tensor and bulk moment tensor, it is found that the fast compressional wave radiated by the bulk moment tensor is much stronger than that radiated by the fluid moment tensor, while the slow compressional wave radiated by the fluid moment tensor is several times stronger than that radiated by the bulk moment tensor.
Evaluating Spectral Signals to Identify Spectral Error
Bazar, George; Kovacs, Zoltan; Tsenkova, Roumiana
2016-01-01
Since the precision and accuracy level of a chemometric model is highly influenced by the quality of the raw spectral data, it is very important to evaluate the recorded spectra and describe the erroneous regions before qualitative and quantitative analyses or detailed band assignment. This paper provides a collection of basic spectral analytical procedures and demonstrates their applicability in detecting errors of near infrared data. Evaluation methods based on standard deviation, coefficient of variation, mean centering and smoothing techniques are presented. Applications of derivatives with various gap sizes, even below the bandpass of the spectrometer, are shown to evaluate the level of spectral errors and find their origin. The possibility for prudent measurement of the third overtone region of water is also highlighted by evaluation of a complex data recorded with various spectrometers. PMID:26731541
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zang, Thomas A.; Streett, Craig L.; Hussaini, M. Yousuff
1989-01-01
One of the objectives of these notes is to provide a basic introduction to spectral methods with a particular emphasis on applications to computational fluid dynamics. Another objective is to summarize some of the most important developments in spectral methods in the last two years. The fundamentals of spectral methods for simple problems will be covered in depth, and the essential elements of several fluid dynamical applications will be sketched.
'Shim pulses' for NMR spectroscopy in inhomogeneous magneticfields
Topgaard, Daniel; Martin, Rachel W.; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Meriles, Carlos; Pines, Alexander
2004-05-19
NMR spectroscopy conveys information about chemical structure through ppm-scale shifts of the resonance frequency depending on the chemical environment. In order to observe these small shifts, magnets with highly homogeneous magnetic field B{sub 0} are used. The high cost and large size of these magnets are a consequence of the requirement for high homogeneity. In this contribution we introduce a new method for recording high-resolution NMR spectra from samples in inhomogeneous B{sub 0}, opening up the possibility of exploiting magnets of lower homogeneity and cost. Instead of using the traditional B{sub 0} ''shim coils'', adiabatic radiofrequency (RF) pulse sequences and modulated B{sub 0} gradients generated by coils in the probe are used to produce ''shim pulses''. A great deal of work has been devoted to finding methods for retrieving chemical shift information even when B{sub 0} is inhomogeneous. One class of methods relies on zero- or multiple quantum coherences which evolve independently of B{sub 0}. These methods are inherently two-dimensional and the high-resolution information is obtained indirectly. In order to minimize experimental time it is desirable to acquire a high-resolution spectrum directly just as for traditional NMR in homogeneous fields. A further advantage with direct acquisition is that modification of already existing multidimensional NMR techniques is facilitated. A fundamentally different approach utilizes inhomogeneity of the RF magnetic field to periodically refocus the phase dispersion from the inhomogeneous B{sub 0}. With this technique a high-resolution spectrum can indeed be acquired in a single shot. The main drawback is the requirement for spatial matching between the RF and B{sub 0} inhomogeneities. Based on this latter technique we propose the use of ''shim pulses'', i.e. modulated, spatially constant, B{sub 0} gradient pulses together with spatially homogeneous adiabatic frequency sweeps to induce non-linear phase shifts in
Gusev, Vitalyi
2010-06-15
The detailed theoretical description of how picosecond plane shear acoustic transients can be excited by ultrafast lasers in isotropic media is presented. The processes leading to excitation of inhomogeneous plane bulk compression/dilatation (c/d) and shear acoustic modes by transient laser interference pattern at a mechanically free surface of an elastically isotropic medium are analyzed. Both pure modes are dispersive. The modes can be evanescent or propagating. The mechanical displacement vector in both propagating modes is oriented obliquely to the mode propagation direction. Consequently the c/d mode is not purely longitudinal and shear mode is not purely transversal. Each of the propagating modes has a plane wave front parallel to the surface and the amplitude harmonically modulated along the surface. Inhomogeneous shear acoustic mode cannot be generated in isotropic medium by thermal expansion and is excited by mode conversion of laser-generated inhomogeneous c/d acoustic mode incident on the surface. The spectral transformation function of the laser radiation conversion into shear modes has one of its maxima at a frequency corresponding to transmission from laser-induced generation of propagating to laser-induced generation of evanescent c/d modes. At this particular frequency the shear waves are due to their Cherenkov emission by bulk longitudinal acoustic waves skimming along the laser-irradiated surface, which are generated by laser-induced gratings synchronously. There exists an interval of frequencies where only shear acoustic modes are launched in the material by laser-induced grating, while c/d modes generated by thermoelastic optoacoustic conversion are evanescent. Propagating picosecond plane shear acoustic fronts excited by interference pattern of fs-ps laser pulses can be applied for the determination of the shear rigidity by optoacoustic echoes diagnostics of thin films and coatings. Theoretical predictions are correlated with available results
Dynamic self-consistent field theory of inhomogeneous complex fluids under shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mihajlovic, Maja Lazar
Understanding and predicting the interplay between morphology and rheology of sheared, inhomogeneous, complex fluids is of great importance. Yet the modeling of such phenomena is in its infancy. We have developed a novel dynamic self-consistent field (DSCF) theory that makes possible a detailed computational study of such phenomena. Our DSCF theory couples the time evolution of chain conformation statistics with probabilistic transport equations for volume fractions and momenta, based on local conservation laws formulated on a segmental scale. To generate chain conformation statistics, we are using a modification of the lattice random walk formalism of Scheutjens and Fleer. Their static SCF theory is limited to equilibrium systems, since probability distributions are obtained by free energy minimization, assuming isotropic Gaussian chain conformations. In contrast, our DSCF approach accounts for explicit time evolution of the segmental and (anisotropic) conditional stepping probabilities used for generating chain conformations. We have applied the DSCF model to a variety of isothermal inhomogenous fluids containing homopolymers, block copolymers and colloidal particles. In all the simulations, the system is equilibrated before the onset of a steady shear at the walls. Our results suggest that, on short time scales, the velocity evolution resembles shock wave propagation. In the course of time, the amplitude of the shock waves is viscously damped, giving rise to a Couette-like steady state velocity profile. This is also reflected in the temporal evolution of the tensor of the second moment of the end-to-end vector and the dissipative stress tensor. The two- and three-component polymer blends (with a diblock copolymer as the third component) exhibit the interfacial velocity and viscosity slip. The addition of a diblock copolymer suppresses the velocity, and therefore the viscosity slip. Colloidal particles suspended in a simple fluid exhibit layering near the walls
Extensions Of The Method Of Moments For Deconvolution Of Experimental Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Small, Enoch W.; Libertini, Louis J.; Brown, David W.; Small, Jeanne R.
1989-05-01
The Method of Moments is one of a series of closely related transform methods which have been developed primarily for the deconvolution and analysis of fluorescence decay data. The main distinguishing feature of the Method of Moments is that it has been designed to be robust with respect to several important nonrandom errors of instrumental origin. The historical development of the method is reviewed here. Several new extensions are also described, including a statistical theory, an improved global analysis, and a method for analyzing continuous distributions of lifetimes. The new statistical theory is the first to incorporate a combined treatment of exponential depression and moment index displacement, both necessary components of the Method of Moments. In comparisons with the more commonly used least squares iterative reconvolution (LSIR) approach, it is shown that, in analyses of ideal synthetic data with random noise, the Method of Moments gives deviations in recovered parameters which are slightly greater but essentially comparable to those found by the data fitting method. Real experimental data also contain nonrandom errors. In the presence of certain such errors, decay parameters recovered by the Method of Moments will be unaffected, whereas the least squares method may yield incorrect results, unless care is taken to fit all of the data errors. An example of the improved global analysis application of the Method of Moments is shown in which two rhodamine dyes with very close lifetimes are distinguished based on spectral data. Also, the use of the distribution analysis method is illustrated with the binding of the intercalating dye ethidium bromide to DNA and nucleosome core particles. At very low ionic strength the width and location of the lifetime distribution shows a time dependence, indicating time-dependent changes in the environment of the probe. Finally, examples of Method of Moments analyses are shown for a totally different kind of data
On the Dipole Moment of Quantized Vortices in the Presence of Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shevchenko, S. I.; Konstantinov, A. M.
2016-02-01
The polarization charge ρ_{pol} of an inhomogeneous superfluid system is expressed as a function of the order parameter Φ (r_1, r_2 ) . It is shown that if the order parameter changes on macroscopic distances, the polarization charge ρ _pol is proportional to Anabla ^2n , and the polarization P is proportional to Anabla n , where n is the density of the system. For noninteracting atoms, the proportionality coefficient A is independent of density, and in the presence of interaction A is proportional to n. The change of the Bose gas density is found in the presence of a flow w=v_n - v_s passing the vortex. It is found that a vortex in a superfluid film creates an electric potential above the film. This potential has the form of a potential of a dipole, allowing to assign a dipole moment to the vortex. The dipole moment is a sum of two terms, the first one is proportional to the relative flow velocity w and the second one is proportional to [ κ × w ] , where κ is the vortex circulation.
Rabi, the proton magnetic moment, and the ‘2-wire' magnet, 1931-34
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forman, Paul
2001-04-01
With the assistance of Gregory Breit, I.I. Rabi, at Columbia University, worked out in 1931 a method to determine the spin (not the magnetic moment) of atomic nuclei by deflecting an atomic beam of the isotope in question in a weak, but long, inhomogeneous magnetic field. Crucial to this method was that it required no exact knowledge of that field. When the sensational result -- µp = 2.5µ_Bohr(m_e/m_p) -- from Otto Stern's deflection of a beam of hydrogen molecules in a strong magnetic field became known late in 1932, its confirmation by another laboratory, preferably by another method, seemed urgent. No one else had the refined technique to reproduce Stern's experiment. But because the hydrogen electronic wave function was known, the Breit-Rabi technique was susceptible of extension in this case to the measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton - - but only with accurate knowledge of the magnetic field and field gradient traversed by the atomic hydrogen beam. To this end Rabi introduced the '2-wire' magnet, producing a weak field and uniform gradient that could be calculated rather than measured. This field configuration quickly came to be used in all magnetic deflection experiments in Rabi's laboratory, first as produced directly by electric currents, and subsequently as emulated in iron electromagnets in order to achieve the higher magnetic fields required by molecular beam magnetic resonance experiments from 1937 onward.
Rabi, the proton magnetic moment, and the ¡2-wire¢ magnet, 1931-34
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forman, Paul
2001-04-01
With the assistance of Gregory Breit, I.I. Rabi, at Columbia University, worked out in 1931 a method to determine the spin (not the magnetic moment) of atomic nuclei by deflecting an atomic beam of the isotope in question in a weak, but long, inhomogeneous magnetic field. Crucial to this method was that it required no exact knowledge of that field. When the sensational result: p = 2.5:_Bohr(m_e/m_p) from Otto Stern's deflection of a beam of hydrogen molecules in a strong magnetic field became known late in 1932, its confirmation by another laboratory, preferably by another method, seemed urgent. No one else had the refined technique to reproduce Stern's experiment. But because the hydrogen electronic wave function was known, the Breit Rabi technique was susceptible of extension in this case to the measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton but only with accurate knowledge of the magnetic field and field gradient traversed by the atomic hydrogen beam. To this end Rabi introduced the '2 wire' magnet, producing a weak field and uniform gradient that could be calculated rather than measured. This field configuration quickly came to be used in all magnetic deflection experiments in Rabi's laboratory, first as produced directly by electric currents, and subsequently as emulated in iron electromagnets in order to achieve the higher magnetic fields required by molecular beam magnetic resonance experiments from 1937 onward.
Impurity-induced moments in underdoped cuprates
Khaliullin, G. |; Kilian, R.; Krivenko, S.; Fulde, P.
1997-11-01
We examine the effect of a nonmagnetic impurity in a two-dimensional spin liquid in the spin-gap phase, employing a drone-fermion representation of spin-1/2 operators. The properties of the local moment induced in the vicinity of the impurity are investigated and an expression for the nuclear-magnetic-resonance Knight shift is derived, which we compare with experimental results. Introducing a second impurity into the spin liquid an antiferromagnetic interaction between the moments is found when the two impurities are located on different sublattices. The presence of many impurities leads to a screening of this interaction as is shown by means of a coherent-potential approximation. Further, the Kondo screening of an impurity-induced local spin by charge carriers is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Collapse of composite tubes under end moments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stockwell, Alan E.; Cooper, Paul A.
1992-01-01
Cylindrical tubes of moderate wall thickness such as those proposed for the original space station truss, may fail due to the gradual collapse of the tube cross section as it distorts under load. Sometimes referred to as the Brazier instability, it is a nonlinear phenomenon. This paper presents an extension of an approximate closed form solution of the collapse of isotropic tubes subject to end moments developed by Reissner in 1959 to include specially orthotropic material. The closed form solution was verified by an extensive nonlinear finite element analysis of the collapse of long tubes under applied end moments for radius to thickness ratios and composite layups in the range proposed for recent space station truss framework designs. The finite element analysis validated the assumption of inextensional deformation of the cylindrical cross section and the approximation of the material as specially orthotropic.
Moment equations in spatial evolutionary ecology.
Lion, Sébastien
2016-09-21
How should we model evolution in spatially structured populations? Here, I review an evolutionary ecology approach based on the technique of spatial moment equations. I first provide a mathematical underpinning to the derivation of equations for the densities of various spatial configurations in network-based models. I then show how this spatial ecological framework can be coupled with an adaptive dynamics approach to compute the invasion fitness of a rare mutant in a resident population at equilibrium. Under the additional assumption that mutations have small phenotypic effects, I show that the selection gradient can be expressed as a function of neutral measures of genetic and demographic structure. I discuss the connections between this approach and inclusive fitness theory, as well as the applicability and limits of this technique. My main message is that spatial moment equations can be used as a means to obtain compact qualitative arguments about the evolution of life-history traits for a variety of life cycles.
Permanent electric dipole moment of molybdenum carbide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hailing; Virgo, Wilton L.; Chen, Jinhai; Steimle, Timothy C.
2007-09-01
High resolution optical spectroscopy has been used to study a molecular beam of molybdenum monocarbide (MoC). The Stark effect of the Re(0) and Qfe(1) branch features of the [18.6]Π13-XΣ-3(0,0) band system of Mo98C were analyzed to determine the permanent electric dipole moments μe of 2.68(2) and 6.07(18)D for the [18.6]Π13(ν =0) and XΣ-3(ν =0) states, respectively. The dipole moments are compared with the experimental value for ruthenium monocarbide [T. C. Steimle et al., J. Chem. Phys. 118, 2620 (2003)] and with theoretical predictions. A molecular orbital correlation diagram is used to interpret the observed and predicted trends of ground state μe values for the 4d-metal monocarbides series.
Interpreting magnetic data by integral moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tontini, F. Caratori; Pedersen, L. B.
2008-09-01
The use of the integral moments for interpreting magnetic data is based on a very elegant property of potential fields, but in the past it has not been completely exploited due to problems concerning real data. We describe a new 3-D development of previous 2-D results aimed at determining the magnetization direction, extending the calculation to second-order moments to recover the centre of mass of the magnetization distribution. The method is enhanced to reduce the effects of the regional field that often alters the first-order solutions. Moreover, we introduce an iterative correction to properly assess the errors coming from finite-size surveys or interaction with neighbouring anomalies, which are the most important causes of the failing of the method for real data. We test the method on some synthetic examples, and finally, we show the results obtained by analysing the aeromagnetic anomaly of the Monte Vulture volcano in Southern Italy.
Magnetic Moments of States in 110Sn.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumbartzki, G. J.
2016-06-01
The semi-magic Sn isotopes with Z = 50 are the subject of extensive experimental and theoretical studies. The measured B(E2) values to the 21 + states for the neutron-deficient side of the isotope chain suggest enhanced collectivity when fewer particles are available if the proton shell is not broken. Magnetic moments which are sensitive to proton and neutron contributions to the wave functions of the states could provide critical and relevant information. Magnetic moments were previously measured only for the even stable and a few neutron-rich unstable Sn isotopes. A measurement of the g factors of excited states in 110Sn using the transient field technique was performed at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the LBNL in Berkeley. The 110Sn nuclei were produced via an α-particle transfer to 106Cd.
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
SRD 117 Triatomic Spectral Database (Web, free access) All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 55 triatomic molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access) All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
SRD 114 Diatomic Spectral Database (Web, free access) All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 121 diatomic molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty, and reference are given for each transition reported.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hussaini, M. Y.; Kopriva, D. A.; Patera, A. T.
1987-01-01
This review covers the theory and application of spectral collocation methods. Section 1 describes the fundamentals, and summarizes results pertaining to spectral approximations of functions. Some stability and convergence results are presented for simple elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations. Applications of these methods to fluid dynamics problems are discussed in Section 2.
Zhang, Yanni; Huang, Hai; Zheng, Jing; Pan, Jie
2015-11-01
This paper extends previous work of Zhang and Pan [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133(4), 2082-2096 (2013)] on sound scattering and absorption by an underwater coated plate with a single attached distributed-inhomogeneity to that with periodically located distributed-inhomogeneities. A comparison is made among cases of a plate without inhomogeneities, a plate with inhomogeneities, and one with inhomogeneities ignoring the mutual coupling. Results show that coupling of the structural waves scattered by the inhomogeneities plays an important role in modifying the sound absorption and scattering of surface sound pressure, especially at low frequencies and/or the resonance frequencies of the trapped modes of the plate. The sound absorption of the plate is dependent on the distance between the adjacent inhomogeneities, the length of the inhomogeneity, and the angle of the incident sound. On the surface of the inhomogeneities, the scattered/total sound pressure is generally enhanced. On the surface in between the inhomogeneities, the pressure is also enhanced at low frequencies but is nearly unchanged at higher frequencies. Results also show that the coupling-induced variation of scattered/total pressure is significant only at the resonance frequencies of the global modes and trapped modes. The surface normal velocity is presented to explain the coupling-induced variations in the vibration and pressure fields.
Zhang, Yanni; Huang, Hai; Zheng, Jing; Pan, Jie
2015-11-01
This paper extends previous work of Zhang and Pan [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133(4), 2082-2096 (2013)] on sound scattering and absorption by an underwater coated plate with a single attached distributed-inhomogeneity to that with periodically located distributed-inhomogeneities. A comparison is made among cases of a plate without inhomogeneities, a plate with inhomogeneities, and one with inhomogeneities ignoring the mutual coupling. Results show that coupling of the structural waves scattered by the inhomogeneities plays an important role in modifying the sound absorption and scattering of surface sound pressure, especially at low frequencies and/or the resonance frequencies of the trapped modes of the plate. The sound absorption of the plate is dependent on the distance between the adjacent inhomogeneities, the length of the inhomogeneity, and the angle of the incident sound. On the surface of the inhomogeneities, the scattered/total sound pressure is generally enhanced. On the surface in between the inhomogeneities, the pressure is also enhanced at low frequencies but is nearly unchanged at higher frequencies. Results also show that the coupling-induced variation of scattered/total pressure is significant only at the resonance frequencies of the global modes and trapped modes. The surface normal velocity is presented to explain the coupling-induced variations in the vibration and pressure fields. PMID:26627747
Electric dipole moment of light nuclei
Afnan, Iraj R.; Gibson, Benjamin F.
2010-07-27
We examine the sensitivity of the deuteron Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) to variation in the nucleon-nucleon interaction. In particular, we write the EDM as a sum of two terms, one depends on the target wave function, the second on intermediate multiple scattering states in the {sup 3}P{sub 1} channel. This second contribution is sensitive to off-shell behavior of the {sup 3}P{sub 1} amplitude.
Nuclear magnetic moments and related sum rules
Bentz, Wolfgang; Arima, Akito
2011-05-06
We first review the history and our present understanding of nuclear magnetic moments and Gamow-Teller transitions, with emphasis on the roles of configuration mixing and meson exchange currents. Then we discuss the renormalization of the orbital g-factor in nuclei, and its relation to the E1 sum rule for photoabsorption and the M1 sum rule for the scissors mode of deformed nuclei.
Electric dipole moment of light nuclei
Gibson, Benjamin; Afnan, I R
2010-01-01
We examine the sensitivity of the deuteron Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) to variation in the nucleon-nucleon interaction. In particular, we write the EDM as a sum of two terms, one depends on the target wave function, the second on intermediate multiple scattering states in the {sup 3}P{sub 1} channel. This second contribution is sensitive to off-shell behavior of the {sup 3}P{sub 1} amplitude.
Search for the electron electric dipole moment
De Mille, D.; Bickman, S.; Hamilton, P.; Jiang, Y.; Prasad, V.; Kawall, D.; Paolino, R.
2006-07-11
Extensions to the Standard Model (SM) typically include new heavy particles and new mechanisms for CP violation. These underlying phenomena can give rise to electric dipole moments of the electron and other particles. Tabletop-scale experiments used to search for these effects are described. Present experiments are already sensitive to new physics at the TeV scale, and new methods could extend this range dramatically. Such experiments could be among the first to show evidence for physics beyond the SM.
Measurement of the Ω- magnetic moment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diehl, H. T.; Teige, S.; Thomson, G. B.; Zou, Y.; James, C.; Luk, K. B.; Rameika, R.; Ho, P. M.; Longo, M. J.; Nguyen, A.; Duryea, J.; Guglielmo, G.; Johns, K.; Heller, K.; Thorne, K.
1991-08-01
A sample of 24 700 Ω- hyperons was produced by a prolarized neutral beam in a spin-transfer reaction. The Ω- polarizations are found to be -0.054+/-0.019 and -0.149+/-0.055 at mean Ω- momenta of 322 and 398 GeV/c, respectively. The directions of these polarizations give an Ω- magnetic moment of -(1.94+/-0.17+/-0.14)μN
Monte Carlo Volcano Seismic Moment Tensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waite, G. P.; Brill, K. A.; Lanza, F.
2015-12-01
Inverse modeling of volcano seismic sources can provide insight into the geometry and dynamics of volcanic conduits. But given the logistical challenges of working on an active volcano, seismic networks are typically deficient in spatial and temporal coverage; this potentially leads to large errors in source models. In addition, uncertainties in the centroid location and moment-tensor components, including volumetric components, are difficult to constrain from the linear inversion results, which leads to a poor understanding of the model space. In this study, we employ a nonlinear inversion using a Monte Carlo scheme with the objective of defining robustly resolved elements of model space. The model space is randomized by centroid location and moment tensor eigenvectors. Point sources densely sample the summit area and moment tensors are constrained to a randomly chosen geometry within the inversion; Green's functions for the random moment tensors are all calculated from modeled single forces, making the nonlinear inversion computationally reasonable. We apply this method to very-long-period (VLP) seismic events that accompany minor eruptions at Fuego volcano, Guatemala. The library of single force Green's functions is computed with a 3D finite-difference modeling algorithm through a homogeneous velocity-density model that includes topography, for a 3D grid of nodes, spaced 40 m apart, within the summit region. The homogenous velocity and density model is justified by long wavelength of VLP data. The nonlinear inversion reveals well resolved model features and informs the interpretation through a better understanding of the possible models. This approach can also be used to evaluate possible station geometries in order to optimize networks prior to deployment.
Evidence for large temperature fluctuations in quasar accretion disks from spectral variability
Ruan, John J.; Anderson, Scott F.; Agol, Eric; Dexter, Jason
2014-03-10
The well-known bluer-when-brighter trend observed in quasar variability is a signature of the complex processes in the accretion disk and can be a probe of the quasar variability mechanism. Using a sample of 604 variable quasars with repeat spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II (SDSS), we construct difference spectra to investigate the physical causes of this bluer-when-brighter trend. The continuum of our composite difference spectrum is well fit by a power law, with a spectral index in excellent agreement with previous results. We measure the spectral variability relative to the underlying spectra of the quasars, which is independent of any extinction, and compare to model predictions. We show that our SDSS spectral variability results cannot be produced by global accretion rate fluctuations in a thin disk alone. However, we find that a simple model of an inhomogeneous disk with localized temperature fluctuations will produce power-law spectral variability over optical wavelengths. We show that the inhomogeneous disk will provide good fits to our observed spectral variability if the disk has large temperature fluctuations in many independently varying zones, in excellent agreement with independent constraints from quasar microlensing disk sizes, their strong UV spectral continuum, and single-band variability amplitudes. Our results provide an independent constraint on quasar variability models and add to the mounting evidence that quasar accretion disks have large localized temperature fluctuations.
Local electric dipole moments: A generalized approach.
Groß, Lynn; Herrmann, Carmen
2016-09-30
We present an approach for calculating local electric dipole moments for fragments of molecular or supramolecular systems. This is important for understanding chemical gating and solvent effects in nanoelectronics, atomic force microscopy, and intensities in infrared spectroscopy. Owing to the nonzero partial charge of most fragments, "naively" defined local dipole moments are origin-dependent. Inspired by previous work based on Bader's atoms-in-molecules (AIM) partitioning, we derive a definition of fragment dipole moments which achieves origin-independence by relying on internal reference points. Instead of bond critical points (BCPs) as in existing approaches, we use as few reference points as possible, which are located between the fragment and the remainder(s) of the system and may be chosen based on chemical intuition. This allows our approach to be used with AIM implementations that circumvent the calculation of critical points for reasons of computational efficiency, for cases where no BCPs are found due to large interfragment distances, and with local partitioning schemes other than AIM which do not provide BCPs. It is applicable to both covalently and noncovalently bound systems. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27520590
The MOMENT to search for CP violation
Blennow, Mattias; Coloma, Pilar; Fernández-Martinez, Enrique
2016-03-30
In this letter, we analyze for the first time the physics reach in terms of sensitivity to leptonic CP violation of the proposed MuOn-decay MEdium baseline NeuTrino beam (MOMENT) experiment, a novel neutrino oscillation facility that would operate with neutrinos from muon decay. Apart from obtaining a sufficiently intense flux, the bottlenecks to the physics reach of this experiment will be achieving a high enough suppression of the atmospheric background and, particularly, attaining a sufficient level of charge identification. We thus present our results as a function of these two factors. We consider a very massive Gd-doped Water Cherenkov detector.more » We also find that MOMENT will be competitive with other currently planned future oscillation experiments if a charge identification of at least 80 % can be achieved at the same time that the atmospheric background can be suppressed by at least a factor of ten. We also find a large synergy of MOMENT with the current generation of neutrino oscillation experiments, T2K and NOvA, which significantly enhances its final sensitivity.« less
Nearly incompressible fluids: hydrodynamics and large scale inhomogeneity.
Hunana, P; Zank, G P; Shaikh, D
2006-08-01
A system of hydrodynamic equations in the presence of large-scale inhomogeneities for a high plasma beta solar wind is derived. The theory is derived under the assumption of low turbulent Mach number and is developed for the flows where the usual incompressible description is not satisfactory and a full compressible treatment is too complex for any analytical studies. When the effects of compressibility are incorporated only weakly, a new description, referred to as "nearly incompressible hydrodynamics," is obtained. The nearly incompressible theory, was originally applied to homogeneous flows. However, large-scale gradients in density, pressure, temperature, etc., are typical in the solar wind and it was unclear how inhomogeneities would affect the usual incompressible and nearly incompressible descriptions. In the homogeneous case, the lowest order expansion of the fully compressible equations leads to the usual incompressible equations, followed at higher orders by the nearly incompressible equations, as introduced by Zank and Matthaeus. With this work we show that the inclusion of large-scale inhomogeneities (in this case time-independent and radially symmetric background solar wind) modifies the leading-order incompressible description of solar wind flow. We find, for example, that the divergence of velocity fluctuations is nonsolenoidal and that density fluctuations can be described to leading order as a passive scalar. Locally (for small lengthscales), this system of equations converges to the usual incompressible equations and we therefore use the term "locally incompressible" to describe the equations. This term should be distinguished from the term "nearly incompressible," which is reserved for higher-order corrections. Furthermore, we find that density fluctuations scale with Mach number linearly, in contrast to the original homogeneous nearly incompressible theory, in which density fluctuations scale with the square of Mach number. Inhomogeneous nearly
Modelling the inhomogeneous SiC Schottky interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gammon, P. M.; Pérez-Tomás, A.; Shah, V. A.; Vavasour, O.; Donchev, E.; Pang, J. S.; Myronov, M.; Fisher, C. A.; Jennings, M. R.; Leadley, D. R.; Mawby, P. A.
2013-12-01
For the first time, the I-V-T dataset of a Schottky diode has been accurately modelled, parameterised, and fully fit, incorporating the effects of interface inhomogeneity, patch pinch-off and resistance, and ideality factors that are both heavily temperature and voltage dependent. A Ni/SiC Schottky diode is characterised at 2 K intervals from 20 to 320 K, which, at room temperature, displays low ideality factors (n < 1.01) that suggest that these diodes may be homogeneous. However, at cryogenic temperatures, excessively high (n > 8), voltage dependent ideality factors and evidence of the so-called "thermionic field emission effect" within a T0-plot, suggest significant inhomogeneity. Two models are used, each derived from Tung's original interactive parallel conduction treatment of barrier height inhomogeneity that can reproduce these commonly seen effects in single temperature I-V traces. The first model incorporates patch pinch-off effects and produces accurate and reliable fits above around 150 K, and at current densities lower than 10-5 A cm-2. Outside this region, we show that resistive effects within a given patch are responsible for the excessive ideality factors, and a second simplified model incorporating these resistive effects as well as pinch-off accurately reproduces the entire temperature range. Analysis of these fitting parameters reduces confidence in those fits above 230 K, and questions are raised about the physical interpretation of the fitting parameters. Despite this, both methods used are shown to be useful tools for accurately reproducing I-V-T data over a large temperature range.
Examples of backreaction of small-scale inhomogeneities in cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, Stephen R.; Wald, Robert M.
2013-06-01
In previous work, we introduced a new framework to treat large-scale backreaction effects due to small-scale inhomogeneities in general relativity. We considered one-parameter families of spacetimes for which such backreaction effects can occur, and we proved that, provided the weak energy condition on matter is satisfied, the leading effect of small-scale inhomogeneities on large-scale dynamics is to produce a traceless effective stress-energy tensor that itself satisfies the weak energy condition. In this work, we illustrate the nature of our framework by providing two explicit examples of one-parameter families with backreaction. The first, based on previous work of Berger, is a family of polarized vacuum Gowdy spacetimes on a torus, which satisfies all of the assumptions of our framework. As the parameter approaches its limiting value, the metric uniformly approaches a smooth background metric, but spacetime derivatives of the deviation of the metric from the background metric do not converge uniformly to zero. The limiting metric has nontrivial backreaction from the small-scale inhomogeneities, with an effective stress energy that is traceless and satisfies the weak energy condition, in accord with our theorems. Our second one-parameter family consists of metrics which have a uniform Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker limit. This family satisfies all of our assumptions with the exception of the weak energy condition for matter. In this case, the limiting metric has an effective stress-energy tensor which is not traceless. We emphasize the importance of imposing energy conditions on matter in studies of backreaction.
Raman spectroscopy study of compositional inhomogeneity in lithium tantalate crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostritskii, S. M.; Aillerie, M.; Bourson, P.; Kip, D.
2009-04-01
Raman spectra of LiTaO3 single crystals with various stoichiometries were measured to investigate the compositional uniformity of these crystals. Raman spectra mapping demonstrates a spatial variation of the widths of the phonon bands for stoichiometric, congruent, and quasi-congruent samples. A significant radial compositional inhomogeneity is found to be a common feature of commercially available wafers having a near-congruent crystal composition (i.e., x c ={[Li2O]/([Li2O]+[Ta2O5])}×100%=47.85-48.50%) grown by the single-crucible Czochralski method. A maximum value of the composition gradient ∇ x c for a radial inhomogeneity of 0.163 and 0.036%/cm is measured for thin wafers diced from so-called congruent (vendors’ value of x c =48.50%) and quasi-congruent ( x c =47.88%) crystals, respectively. In crystals grown from highly Li-rich melts (starting composition 54.5 mol% Li2O), a drastic spatial dependence of Raman bandwidths, indicating a significant gradual compositional inhomogeneity throughout the crystal, is found, which is due to a change of the melt composition during crystal growth. In contrast, the Raman bandwidths of near-stoichiometric crystals fabricated by a vapor transport equilibrium (VTE) technique are found to be constant, i.e. these crystals are practically compositionally uniform. This conclusion has been confirmed by mapping the photoluminescence intensity, evidencing ∇ x c ≤0.006%/cm in near-stoichiometric VTE-treated crystals.
NMR, MRI, and spectroscopic MRI in inhomogeneous fields
Demas, Vasiliki; Pines, Alexander; Martin, Rachel W; Franck, John; Reimer, Jeffrey A
2013-12-24
A method for locally creating effectively homogeneous or "clean" magnetic field gradients (of high uniformity) for imaging (with NMR, MRI, or spectroscopic MRI) both in in-situ and ex-situ systems with high degrees of inhomogeneous field strength. THe method of imaging comprises: a) providing a functional approximation of an inhomogeneous static magnetic field strength B.sub.0({right arrow over (r)}) at a spatial position {right arrow over (r)}; b) providing a temporal functional approximation of {right arrow over (G)}.sub.shim(t) with i basis functions and j variables for each basis function, resulting in v.sub.ij variables; c) providing a measured value .OMEGA., which is an temporally accumulated dephasing due to the inhomogeneities of B.sub.0({right arrow over(r)}); and d) minimizing a difference in the local dephasing angle .phi.({right arrow over (r)},t)=.gamma..intg..sub.0.sup.t{square root over (|{right arrow over (B)}.sub.1({right arrow over (r)},t')|.sup.2+({right arrow over (r)}{right arrow over (G)}.sub.shimG.sub.shim(t')+.parallel.{right arrow over (B)}.sub.0({right arrow over (r)}).parallel..DELTA..omega.({right arrow over (r)},t'/.gamma/).sup.2)}dt'-.OMEGA. by varying the v.sub.ij variables to form a set of minimized v.sub.ij variables. The method requires calibration of the static fields prior to minimization, but may thereafter be implemented without such calibration, may be used in open or closed systems, and potentially portable systems.
Spectroscopy of one-dimensionally inhomogeneous media with quadratic nonlinearity
Golubkov, A A; Makarov, Vladimir A
2011-11-30
We present a brief review of the results of fifty years of development efforts in spectroscopy of one-dimensionally inhomogeneous media with quadratic nonlinearity. The recent original results obtained by the authors show the fundamental possibility of determining, from experimental data, the coordinate dependences of complex quadratic susceptibility tensor components of a onedimensionally inhomogeneous (along the z axis) medium with an arbitrary frequency dispersion, if the linear dielectric properties of the medium also vary along the z axis and are described by a diagonal tensor of the linear dielectric constant. It is assumed that the medium in question has the form of a plane-parallel plate, whose surfaces are perpendicular to the direction of the inhomogeneity. Using the example of several components of the tensors X{sup (2)}(z, {omega}{sub 1} {+-} {omega}{sub 2}; {omega}{sub 1}, {+-} {omega}{sub 2}), we describe two methods for finding their spatial profiles, which differ in the interaction geometry of plane monochromatic fundamental waves with frequencies {omega}{sub 1} and {omega}{sub 2}. The both methods are based on assessing the intensity of the waves propagating from the plate at the sum or difference frequency and require measurements over a range of angles of incidence of the fundamental waves. Such measurements include two series of additional estimates of the intensities of the waves generated under special conditions by using the test and additional reference plates, which eliminates the need for complicated phase measurements of the complex amplitudes of the waves at the sum (difference) frequency.
Confinement of superconducting fluctuations due to emergent electronic inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carbillet, C.; Caprara, S.; Grilli, M.; Brun, C.; Cren, T.; Debontridder, F.; Vignolle, B.; Tabis, W.; Demaille, D.; Largeau, L.; Ilin, K.; Siegel, M.; Roditchev, D.; Leridon, B.
2016-04-01
The microscopic nature of an insulating state in the vicinity of a superconducting state in the presence of disorder is a hotly debated question. While the simplest scenario proposes that Coulomb interactions destroy the Cooper pairs at the transition, leading to localization of single electrons, an alternate possibility supported by experimental observations suggests that Cooper pairs instead directly localize. The question of the homogeneity, granularity, or possibly glassiness of the material on the verge of this transition is intimately related to this fundamental issue. Here, by combining macroscopic and nanoscale studies of superconducting ultrathin NbN films, we reveal nanoscopic inhomogeneities that emerge when the film thickness is reduced. For the thinnest films, scanning tunneling spectroscopy at low temperature unveils inhomogeneities in the superconducting properties, of typical size Li, that are not correlated to any structural inhomogeneity and that are found to persist above the critical temperature in the form of a pseudogap. Remarkably enough, while the thickest films display a purely two-dimensional behavior in the superconducting fluctuations above the critical temperature, paraconductivity in the pseudogap regime of the thinnest samples demonstrates fluctuations of the amplitude of the order parameter, corresponding to zero-dimensional fluctuating regions of size precisely Li. We propose that an anomalous diffusion slowing-down process is at play at long wave vectors, leading to some "confinement" of the superconducting fluctuations, which allows us to explain the simultaneous paradoxical presence of a pseudogap and zero-dimensional amplitude fluctuations of the order parameter. These findings call for further theoretical investigation to understand this intermediate state where Cooper pairs continuously evolve from a bound state of fermionic objects into localized bosonic entities.
Critical assessment of some inhomogeneous pressure Stephani models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balcerzak, Adam; Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Denkiewicz, Tomasz; Polarski, David; Puy, Denis
2015-04-01
We consider spherically symmetric inhomogeneous pressure Stephani universes, with the center of symmetry being our location. The main feature of these models is that comoving observers do not follow geodesics. In particular, comoving perfect fluids necessarily have a radially dependent pressure. We consider a subclass of these models characterized by some inhomogeneity parameter β . We show also that the velocity of sound of comoving perfect fluids, like the (effective) equation of state parameter, acquires away from the origin a time- and radial-dependent change proportional to β . In order to produce a realistic universe accelerating at late times without a dark energy component, one must take β <0 . The redshift acquires a modified dependence on the scale factor a (t ) with a relative modification of -9 %, peaking at z ˜4 and vanishing at the big bang and today on our past light cone. The equation of state parameter and the speed of sound of dustlike matter (corresponding to a vanishing pressure at the center of symmetry r =0 ) behave in a similar way, and away from the center of symmetry they become negative—a property usually encountered in the dark energy component only. In order to mimic the observed late-time accelerated expansion, the matter component must significantly depart from standard dust, presumably ruling this subclass of Stephani models out as a realistic cosmology. The only way to accept these models is to keep all standard matter components of the universe, including dark energy, and take an inhomogeneity parameter β that is sufficiently small.
Wexler, Adam D; Drusová, Sandra; Woisetschläger, Jakob; Fuchs, Elmar C
2016-06-28
In this experiment liquid water is subject to an inhomogeneous electric field (∇(2)Ea≈ 10(10) V m(2)) using a high voltage (20 kV) point-plane electrode system. Using interferometry it was found that the application of a strong electric field gradient to water generates local changes in the refractive index of the liquid, polarizes the surface and creates a downward moving electro-convective jet. A maximum temperature difference of 1 °C is measured in the immediate vicinity of the point electrode. Raman spectroscopy performed on water reveals an enhancement of the vibrational collective modes (3250 cm(-1)) as well as an increase in the local mode (3490 cm(-1)) energy. This bimodal enhancement indicates that the spectral changes are not due to temperature changes. The intense field gradient thus establishes an excited subpopulation of vibrational oscillators far from thermal equilibrium. Delocalization of the collective vibrational mode spatially expands this excited population beyond the microscale. Hindered rotational freedom due to electric field pinning of molecular dipoles retards the heat flow and generates a chemical potential gradient. These changes are responsible for the observed changes in the refractive index and temperature. It is demonstrated that polar liquids can thus support local non-equilibrium thermodynamic transient states critical to biochemical and environmental processes. PMID:27253197
Inhomogeneous speed effects on H2 vibrational line profiles in ternary mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joubert, P.; Bruet, X.; Bonamy, J.; Robert, D.; Chaussard, F.; Saint-Loup, R.; Berger, H.
2000-12-01
A study of speed inhomogeneous broadening of the hydrogen vibrational line profiles in the collisional regime for ternary mixtures is reported. The Q(1) line of H2 in H2-Ar-N2, H2-He-Ar, and H2-He-N2 mixtures is investigated by high resolution stimulated Raman spectroscopy for various concentrations and temperatures. A model, successfully used for binary mixtures, is extended to ternary mixtures. An excellent agreement is obtained between theory and experiment for H2-Ar-N2, by using the collisional parameters previously obtained from binary mixtures study. For H2-He-Ar and H2-He-N2, H2-He collisions play a "hardening" effect in the H2 soft speed memory mechanism for H2-Ar or H2-N2. The present experimental results allow us, via the frame of our model, to determine the "hardness" parameter values for H2-He (inaccessible from binary mixtures data) and to get an accurate description of the spectral line shape. This study should be useful for hydrogen coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy thermometry in H2/air flames at high pressure through its possible extension to the H2-N2-H2O system.
Fast iterative, coupled-integral-equation technique for inhomogeneous profiled and periodic slabs.
Magath, Thore; Serebryannikov, Andriy E
2005-11-01
A fast coupled-integral-equation (CIE) technique is developed to compute the plane-TE-wave scattering by a wide class of periodic 2D inhomogeneous structures with curvilinear boundaries, which includes finite-thickness relief and rod gratings made of homogeneous material as special cases. The CIEs in the spectral domain are derived from the standard volume electric field integral equation. The kernel of the CIEs is of Picard type and offers therefore the possibility of deriving recursions, which allow the computation of the convolution integrals occurring in the CIEs with linear amounts of arithmetic complexity and memory. To utilize this advantage, the CIEs are solved iteratively. We apply the biconjugate gradient stabilized method. To make the iterative solution process faster, an efficient preconditioning operator (PO) is proposed that is based on a formal analytical inversion of the CIEs. The application of the PO also takes only linear complexity and memory. Numerical studies are carried out to demonstrate the potential and flexibility of the CIE technique proposed. Though the best efficiency and accuracy are observed at either low permittivity contrast or high conductivity, the technique can be used in a wide range of variation of material parameters of the structures including when they contain components made of both dielectrics with high permittivity and typical metals.
Fast iterative, coupled-integral-equation technique for inhomogeneous profiled and periodic slabs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magath, Thore; Serebryannikov, Andriyâ E.
2005-11-01
A fast coupled-integral-equation (CIE) technique is developed to compute the plane-TE-wave scattering by a wide class of periodic 2D inhomogeneous structures with curvilinear boundaries, which includes finite-thickness relief and rod gratings made of homogeneous material as special cases. The CIEs in the spectral domain are derived from the standard volume electric field integral equation. The kernel of the CIEs is of Picard type and offers therefore the possibility of deriving recursions, which allow the computation of the convolution integrals occurring in the CIEs with linear amounts of arithmetic complexity and memory. To utilize this advantage, the CIEs are solved iteratively. We apply the biconjugate gradient stabilized method. To make the iterative solution process faster, an efficient preconditioning operator (PO) is proposed that is based on a formal analytical inversion of the CIEs. The application of the PO also takes only linear complexity and memory. Numerical studies are carried out to demonstrate the potential and flexibility of the CIE technique proposed. Though the best efficiency and accuracy are observed at either low permittivity contrast or high conductivity, the technique can be used in a wide range of variation of material parameters of the structures including when they contain components made of both dielectrics with high permittivity and typical metals.
Wexler, Adam D; Drusová, Sandra; Woisetschläger, Jakob; Fuchs, Elmar C
2016-06-28
In this experiment liquid water is subject to an inhomogeneous electric field (∇(2)Ea≈ 10(10) V m(2)) using a high voltage (20 kV) point-plane electrode system. Using interferometry it was found that the application of a strong electric field gradient to water generates local changes in the refractive index of the liquid, polarizes the surface and creates a downward moving electro-convective jet. A maximum temperature difference of 1 °C is measured in the immediate vicinity of the point electrode. Raman spectroscopy performed on water reveals an enhancement of the vibrational collective modes (3250 cm(-1)) as well as an increase in the local mode (3490 cm(-1)) energy. This bimodal enhancement indicates that the spectral changes are not due to temperature changes. The intense field gradient thus establishes an excited subpopulation of vibrational oscillators far from thermal equilibrium. Delocalization of the collective vibrational mode spatially expands this excited population beyond the microscale. Hindered rotational freedom due to electric field pinning of molecular dipoles retards the heat flow and generates a chemical potential gradient. These changes are responsible for the observed changes in the refractive index and temperature. It is demonstrated that polar liquids can thus support local non-equilibrium thermodynamic transient states critical to biochemical and environmental processes.
Fast inhomogeneous plane wave algorithm for the analysis of electromagnetic scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Bin; Chew, Weng Cho; Velamparambil, Sanjay
2001-01-01
The fast inhomogeneous plane wave algorithm has been developed to accelerate the solution of three-dimensional electromagnetic scattering problems in free space. By expanding the kernel of the Green's function using the Weyl identity and choosing a proper steepest descent path, the diagonalization of the translation matrix is achieved after the interpolation and extrapolation techniques are applied. The proposed algorithm is implemented on top of the scalable multipole engine, a portable implementation of the dynamic multilevel fast multipole algorithm for distributed-memory computers. The computational time per matrix vector multiplication is reduced to O(NlogN) and the memory requirement is reduced to O(N), where N is the number of unknowns in the discretized integral equation. The algorithm is validated by applying it to the solution of the electromagnetic scattering from the perfect electric conducting scatterers. This approach can be easily extended to more general problems with complicated Green's function expressed in terms of the plane wave spectral integrals, such as the ones encountered in the multilayered medium studies.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zajac, David J.; Cevidanes, Lucia; Shah, Sonam; Haley, Katarina L.
2012-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to determine maxillary arch dimensions of children with repaired cleft lip and palate (CLP) who produced middorsum palatal stops and (b) to describe some spectral characteristics of middorsum palatal stops. Method: Maxillary arch width, length, and height dimensions and first spectral moments of…
Investigating inhomogeneous Szekeres models and their applications to precision cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peel, Austin Chandler
Exact solutions of Einstein's field equations that can describe the evolution of complex structures in the universe provide complementary frameworks to standard perturbation theory in which to analyze cosmological and astrophysical phenomena. The flexibility and generality of the inhomogeneous and anisotropic Szekeres metric make it the best known exact solution to explore nonlinearities in the universe. We study applications of Szekeres models to precision cosmology, focusing on the influence of inhomogeneities in two primary contexts---the growth rate of cosmic structures and biases in distance determinations to remote sources. We first define and derive evolution equations for a Szekeres density contrast, which quantifies exact deviations from a smooth background cosmology. Solving these equations and comparing to the usual perturbative approach, we find that for models with the same matter content, the Szekeres growth rate is larger through the matter-dominated cosmic era. Including a cosmological constant, we consider exact global perturbations, as well as the evolution of a single extended structure surrounded by an almost homogeneous background. For the former, we use growth data to obtain a best fit Szekeres model and find that it can fit the data as well as the standard Lambda-Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) cosmological model but with different cosmological parameters. Next, to study effects of inhomogeneities on distance measures, we build an exact relativistic Swiss-cheese model of the universe, where a large number of non-symmetric and randomly placed Szekeres structures are embedded within a LCDM background. Solving the full relativistic propagation equations, light beams are traced through the model, where they traverse the inhomogeneous structures in a way that mimics the paths of real light beams in the universe. For beams crossing a single structure, their magnification or demagnification reflects primarily the net density encountered along the path
Theory of Electric Polarization Induced by Inhomogeneity in Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Di; Shi, Junren; Clougherty, Dennis; Niu, Qian
2008-03-01
We develop a general theory of electric polarization induced by inhomogeneity in crystals. We show that contributions to polarization can be classified in powers of the gradient of the order parameter. The zeroth order contribution reduces to the well-known result obtained by King-Smith and Vanderbilt for uniform systems. The first order contribution, when expressed in a two- point formula, takes the Chern-Simons 3-form of the vector potentials derived from the Bloch wave functions. Using the relation between polarization and charge density, we demonstrate our formula by studying charge fractionalization in a two-dimensional dimer model recently proposed.
Estimation of geometrically undistorted B(0) inhomogeneity maps.
Matakos, A; Balter, J; Cao, Y
2014-09-01
Geometric accuracy of MRI is one of the main concerns for its use as a sole image modality in precision radiation therapy (RT) planning. In a state-of-the-art scanner, system level geometric distortions are within acceptable levels for precision RT. However, subject-induced B0 inhomogeneity may vary substantially, especially in air-tissue interfaces. Recent studies have shown distortion levels of more than 2 mm near the sinus and ear canal are possible due to subject-induced field inhomogeneity. These distortions can be corrected with the use of accurate B0 inhomogeneity field maps. Most existing methods estimate these field maps from dual gradient-echo (GRE) images acquired at two different echo-times under the assumption that the GRE images are practically undistorted. However distortion that may exist in the GRE images can result in estimated field maps that are distorted in both geometry and intensity, leading to inaccurate correction of clinical images. This work proposes a method for estimating undistorted field maps from GRE acquisitions using an iterative joint estimation technique. The proposed method yields geometrically corrected GRE images and undistorted field maps that can also be used for the correction of images acquired by other sequences. The proposed method is validated through simulation, phantom experiments and applied to patient data. Our simulation results show that our method reduces the root-mean-squared error of the estimated field map from the ground truth by ten-fold compared to the distorted field map. Both the geometric distortion and the intensity corruption (artifact) in the images caused by the B0 field inhomogeneity are corrected almost completely. Our phantom experiment showed improvement in the geometric correction of approximately 1 mm at an air-water interface using the undistorted field map compared to using a distorted field map. The proposed method for undistorted field map estimation can lead to improved geometric
Estimation of geometrically undistorted B0 inhomogeneity maps
Matakos, A; Balter, J; Cao, Y
2014-01-01
Geometric accuracy of MRI is one of the main concerns for its use as a sole image modality in precision radiation therapy (RT) planning. In a state-of-art scanner, system level geometric distortions are within acceptable levels for precision RT. However, subject-induced B0 inhomogeneity may vary substantially, especially in air-tissue interfaces. Recent studies have shown distortion levels of more than 2 mm near the sinus and ear canal are possible due to subject-induced field inhomogeneity. These distortions can be corrected with the use of accurate B0 inhomogeneity field maps. Most existing methods estimate these field maps from dual gradient-echo (GRE) images acquired at two different echo-times under the assumption that the GRE images are practically undistorted. However distortion that may exist in the GRE images can result in estimated field maps that are distorted in both geometry and intensity, leading to inaccurate correction of clinical images. This work proposes a method for estimating undistorted field maps from GRE acquisitions using an iterative joint estimation technique. The proposed method yields geometrically corrected GRE images and undistorted field maps that can also be used for the correction of images acquired by other sequences. The proposed method is validated through simulation, phantom experiments and applied to patient data. Our simulation results show that our method reduces the root-mean-squared error of the estimated field map from the ground truth by ten-fold compared to the distorted field map. Both the geometric distortion and the intensity corruption (artifact) in the images caused by the B0 field inhomogeneity are corrected almost completely. Our phantom experiment showed improvement in the geometric correction of approximately 1mm at an air-water interface using the undistorted field map compared to using a distorted field map. The proposed method for undistorted field map estimation can lead to improved geometric distortion
Neutrino Heat Conduction and Inhomogeneities in the Early Universe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heckler, A.; Hogan, C. J.
1993-01-01
Constraints on parameters of inhomogeneous nucteosynthesis, namely, the overdensity and size of baryon lumps, are found by calculatig the blackbody neutrino heat conduction into the lumps, which tends to inflate them away. The scale size for efficient heat conduction is determined by the mean free path lambda of the neutrino, and so we compute lambda in our case of a high-temperature plasma with low chemical potential, and find a general result that many-body effects are unimportant, simplifying the calculation. We find that in the region of interest for nucleosynthesis, neutrino inflation is important for overdensities greater than 10(exp 4).
Hydraulic jumps in inhomogeneous strongly coupled toroidal dust flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piel, Alexander; Wilms, Jochen
2016-07-01
The inhomogeneous flow of strongly coupled dust particles in a toroidal particle trap with harmonic radial confinement is analyzed in the incompressible fluid limit. It is shown that the flow can spontaneously generate shock-like events, which are similar to the hydraulic jump in open channel flows. A definition of the Froude number for this model is given and the critical speed is recovered as the group velocity of surface waves. This hydraulic model is compared with molecular-dynamics simulations, which show that a sudden bifurcation of the flow lines and a localized temperature peak appear just at the point where the critical condition for the hydraulic jump is located.
Inhomogeneous phase shifting: an algorithm for nonconstant phase displacements
Tellez-Quinones, Alejandro; Malacara-Doblado, Daniel
2010-11-10
In this work, we have developed a different algorithm than the classical one on phase-shifting interferometry. These algorithms typically use constant or homogeneous phase displacements and they can be quite accurate and insensitive to detuning, taking appropriate weight factors in the formula to recover the wrapped phase. However, these algorithms have not been considered with variable or inhomogeneous displacements. We have generalized these formulas and obtained some expressions for an implementation with variable displacements and ways to get partially insensitive algorithms with respect to these arbitrary error shifts.
Non-Fraunhofer interference pattern in inhomogeneous ferromagnetic Josephson junctions.
Alidoust, Mohammad; Sewell, Granville; Linder, Jacob
2012-01-20
Generic conditions are established for producing a non-Fraunhofer response of the critical supercurrent subject to an external magnetic field in ferromagnetic Josephson junctions. Employing the quasiclassical Keldysh-Usadel method, we demonstrate theoretically that an inhomogeneity in the magnitude of the energy scales in the system, including Thouless energy, exchange field and temperature gradient normal to the transport direction, influences drastically the standard Fraunhofer pattern. The exotic non-Fraunhofer response, similar to that observed in recent experiments, is described in terms of an intricate interplay between multiple "0-π" states and is related to the appearance of proximity vortices.
Inhomogeneous Generalization of a Multispecies Totally Asymmetric Zero Range Process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuniba, Atsuo; Maruyama, Shouya; Okado, Masato
2016-08-01
The n-species totally asymmetric zero range process ( n-TAZRP) on a one-dimensional periodic chain studied recently by the authors is a continuous time Markov process where arbitrary number of particles can occupy the same sites and hop to the adjacent sites only in one direction with a priority constraint according to their species. In this paper we introduce an n-parameter generalization of the n-TAZRP having inhomogeneous transition rate. The steady state probability is obtained in a matrix product form and also by an algorithm related to combinatorial R.
Inhomogeneous atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in cubic lattices.
Cramer, M; Eisert, J; Illuminati, F
2004-11-01
We determine the ground state properties of inhomogeneous mixtures of bosons and fermions in cubic lattices and parabolic confining potentials. For finite hopping we determine the domain boundaries between Mott-insulator plateaux and hopping-dominated regions for lattices of arbitrary dimension within mean-field and perturbation theory. The results are compared with a new numerical method that is based on a Gutzwiller variational approach for the bosons and an exact treatment for the fermions. The findings can be applied as a guideline for future experiments with trapped atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices.
Accelerating Airy beams in the presence of inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Besieris, Ioannis M.; Shaarawi, Amr M.; Zamboni-Rached, Michel
2016-06-01
Studies have already been made of accelerating Airy beams in the presence of deterministic inhomogeneities, illustrating, in particular, that the inherent self-healing properties of such beams are preserved. The cases of a range-dependent linear transverse potential and a converging GRIN structure (harmonic oscillator) have been examined thoroughly. Examples will be given in this article of novel accelerating Airy beams in the presence of five other types of potential functions. Three of the resulting exact analytical solutions have a common salient characteristic property: they are constructed using the free-space accelerating Airy beam solution as a seed.
Estimation of geometrically undistorted B0 inhomogeneity maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matakos, A.; Balter, J.; Cao, Y.
2014-09-01
Geometric accuracy of MRI is one of the main concerns for its use as a sole image modality in precision radiation therapy (RT) planning. In a state-of-the-art scanner, system level geometric distortions are within acceptable levels for precision RT. However, subject-induced B0 inhomogeneity may vary substantially, especially in air-tissue interfaces. Recent studies have shown distortion levels of more than 2 mm near the sinus and ear canal are possible due to subject-induced field inhomogeneity. These distortions can be corrected with the use of accurate B0 inhomogeneity field maps. Most existing methods estimate these field maps from dual gradient-echo (GRE) images acquired at two different echo-times under the assumption that the GRE images are practically undistorted. However distortion that may exist in the GRE images can result in estimated field maps that are distorted in both geometry and intensity, leading to inaccurate correction of clinical images. This work proposes a method for estimating undistorted field maps from GRE acquisitions using an iterative joint estimation technique. The proposed method yields geometrically corrected GRE images and undistorted field maps that can also be used for the correction of images acquired by other sequences. The proposed method is validated through simulation, phantom experiments and applied to patient data. Our simulation results show that our method reduces the root-mean-squared error of the estimated field map from the ground truth by ten-fold compared to the distorted field map. Both the geometric distortion and the intensity corruption (artifact) in the images caused by the B0 field inhomogeneity are corrected almost completely. Our phantom experiment showed improvement in the geometric correction of approximately 1 mm at an air-water interface using the undistorted field map compared to using a distorted field map. The proposed method for undistorted field map estimation can lead to improved geometric
Manipulating Short-Lived Isotopes with Inhomogeneous RF-Fields
Li, T.; Schuessler, H.A.
2003-08-26
Online isotopes separators (ISOL-systems) and projectile fragment separators provide a wide variety of radioactive ions with energies in the keV to the several MeV ranges. For high resolution radio frequency and optical spectroscopy the ions must be decelerated to low energies and possibly injected into an ion trap. With this goal in mind we have made simulations of ion orbits under the influence of strong focusing by inhomogeneous RF fields and decelerating DC fields. The operation of the segmented linear ion guide, the ion carpet, and the ion funnel are discussed. The optimum operating parameters of these devices are obtained using computer simulations with SIMION software.
Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses in the inhomogeneous media
Liu, Wen-Jun; Huang, Long-Gang; Pan, Nan; Lei, Ming
2014-10-15
Pulse interactions affect pulse qualities during the propagation. Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses are investigated to improve pulse qualities in the inhomogeneous media. In order to describe the interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses, analytic two-soliton solutions are derived. Based on those solutions, influences of corresponding parameters on pulse interactions are discussed. Methods to control the pulse interactions are suggested. - Highlights: • Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses are investigated. • Methods to control the pulse interactions are suggested. • Analytic two-soliton solutions for butterfly-shaped pulses are derived.
Inhomogeneities in the use of orbit - Impact of earth stations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sane, C. K.
The paper highlights rapid increase in demand for the two limited natural resources, the geostationary satellite orbit (GSO) and radio frequency spectrum, arising from spectacular growth of satellite communication systems in the recent years. Certain parts of the GSO are relatively more congested due to uneven distribution of countries, their sizes, population, geographical factors and telecommunication requirements over the surface of the earth. Consideration for the selection of the orbit slots, inhomogeneity in the use of GSO and technical factors relating to intersatellite spacing are presented. Uneven use of GSO, intersatellite interference and impact of earth station parameters has been discussed. Techno-economic factors influencing earth station subsystems are given.
Inhomogeneous critical current in nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors
Gaudio, R. Hoog, K. P. M. op 't; Zhou, Z.; Sahin, D.; Fiore, A.
2014-12-01
A superconducting thin film with uniform properties is the key to realize nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) with high performance and high yield. To investigate the uniformity of NbN films, we introduce and characterize simple detectors consisting of short nanowires with length ranging from 100 nm to 15 μm. Our nanowires, contrary to meander SSPDs, allow probing the homogeneity of NbN at the nanoscale. Experimental results, endorsed by a microscopic model, show the strongly inhomogeneous nature of NbN films on the sub-100 nm scale.
Symmetry breaking and multipeaked solitons in inhomogeneous gain landscapes
Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Vysloukh, Victor A.; Konotop, Vladimir V.
2011-04-15
We address one-dimensional soliton formation in a cubic nonlinear medium with two-photon absorption and transversally inhomogeneous gain landscape consisting of a single or several amplifying channels. Existence of the solitons requires certain threshold gain while the properties of solitons strongly depend on whether the number of the amplifying channels is odd or even. In the former case, an increase of the gain leads to symmetry breaking, which occurs through the pitchfork bifurcation, and to emergence of a single or several coexisting stable asymmetric modes. In the case of an even number of amplifying channels, we have found only asymmetric stable states.
Thermodynamics for Spatially Inhomogeneous Magnetization and Young-Gibbs Measures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montino, Alessandro; Soprano-Loto, Nahuel; Tsagkarogiannis, Dimitrios
2016-09-01
We derive thermodynamic functionals for spatially inhomogeneous magnetization on a torus in the context of an Ising spin lattice model. We calculate the corresponding free energy and pressure (by applying an appropriate external field using a quadratic Kac potential) and show that they are related via a modified Legendre transform. The local properties of the infinite volume Gibbs measure, related to whether a macroscopic configuration is realized as a homogeneous state or as a mixture of pure states, are also studied by constructing the corresponding Young-Gibbs measures.
Inhomogeneous atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in cubic lattices.
Cramer, M; Eisert, J; Illuminati, F
2004-11-01
We determine the ground state properties of inhomogeneous mixtures of bosons and fermions in cubic lattices and parabolic confining potentials. For finite hopping we determine the domain boundaries between Mott-insulator plateaux and hopping-dominated regions for lattices of arbitrary dimension within mean-field and perturbation theory. The results are compared with a new numerical method that is based on a Gutzwiller variational approach for the bosons and an exact treatment for the fermions. The findings can be applied as a guideline for future experiments with trapped atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices. PMID:15600816
Tailoring diffuse reflectance of inhomogeneous films containing microplatelets
Slovick, Brian A. Baker, John M.; Flom, Zachary; Krishnamurthy, Srini
2015-10-05
We develop an analytical model for calculating the diffuse reflectance of inhomogeneous films containing aligned microplatelets with diameters much greater than the wavelength. The scattering parameters are derived by modeling the platelets as one-dimensional thin films, and the overall diffuse reflectance of the slab is calculated using the Kubelka-Munk model. Our model predicts that reflection minima and maxima arising from coherent interference within the platelets are preserved in the diffuse reflectance of the disordered slab. Experimental validation of the model is provided by reflectance measurements (0.3–15 μm) of a solid aerosol film of aligned hexagonal boron nitride platelets.
Interplay between density inhomogeneity and temperature in graphene transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qiuzi; Hwang, Euyheon; Das Sarma, Sankar
2011-03-01
Motivated by recent experimental measurements of the temperature-dependent resistivity in graphene, we study the transport properties in monolayer graphene in the presence of electron-hole puddles induced by charged impurities in the environment. We explain the apparent insulating behavior of temperature-dependent conductivity observed in low mobility samples using an analytic statistical theory, which takes into account the non-mean-field nature of transport in the highly inhomogeneous density and potential landscape. In particular, the existence of puddles allows local activation of carriers in low density samples, mimicking an insulating temperature dependence in graphene conductivity. Work supported by ONR-MURI, NRI-NSF-SWAN and CNAM.
Population extinction in an inhomogeneous host-pathogen model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagarti, Trilochan
2016-01-01
We study inhomogeneous host-pathogen dynamics to model the global amphibian population extinction in a lake basin system. The lake basin system is modeled as quenched disorder. In this model we show that once the pathogen arrives at the lake basin it spreads from one lake to another, eventually spreading to the entire lake basin system in a wave like pattern. The extinction time has been found to depend on the steady state host population and pathogen growth rate. Linear estimate of the extinction time is computed. The steady state host population shows a threshold behavior in the interaction strength for a given growth rate.
K-corrections and spectral templates of Type Ia supernovae
Nugent, Peter E; Hsiao, E.Y.; Conley, A.; Howell, D.A.; Sullivan, M.; Pritchet, C.J.; Carlberg, R.G.; Nugent, P.E.; Phillips, M.M.
2007-03-20
With the advent of large dedicated Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) surveys, K-corrections of SNe Ia and their uncertainties have become especially important in the determination of cosmological parameters. While K-corrections are largely driven by SN Ia broadband colors, it is shown here that the diversity in spectral features of SNe Ia can also be important. For an individual observation, the statistical errors from the inhomogeneity in spectral features range from 0.01 (where the observed and rest-frame filters are aligned) to 0.04 (where the observed and rest-frame filters are misaligned). To minimize the systematic errors caused by an assumed SN Ia spectral energy distribution (SED), we outline a prescription for deriving a mean spectral template time series that incorporates a large and heterogeneous sample of observed spectra. We then remove the effects of broadband colors and measure the remaining uncertainties in the K-corrections associated with the diversity in spectral features. Finally, we present a template spectroscopic sequence near maximum light for further improvement on the K-correction estimate. A library of ~;;600 observed spectra of ~;;100 SNe Ia from heterogeneous sources is used for the analysis.
Shaping the spatial and spectral emissivity at the diffraction limit
Makhsiyan, Mathilde; Bouchon, Patrick Jaeck, Julien; Pelouard, Jean-Luc; Haïdar, Riad
2015-12-21
Metasurfaces have attracted a growing interest for their ability to artificially tailor an electromagnetic response on various spectral ranges. In particular, thermal sources with unprecedented abilities, such as directionality or monochromaticity, have been achieved. However, these metasurfaces exhibit homogeneous optical properties whereas the spatial modulation of the emissivity up to the wavelength scale is at the crux of the design of original emitters. In this letter, we study an inhomogeneous metasurface made of a nonperiodic set of optical nano-antennas that spatially and spectrally control the emitted light up to the diffraction limit. Each antenna acts as an independent deep subwavelength emitter for given polarization and wavelength. Their juxtaposition at the subwavelength scale encodes far field multispectral and polarized images. This opens up promising breakthroughs for applications such as optical storage, anti-counterfeit devices, and multispectral emitters for biochemical sensing.
Wei, Zhiliang; Lin, Liangjie; Lin, Yanqin E-mail: chenz@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Zhong E-mail: chenz@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Youhe
2014-09-29
In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, it is of great necessity and importance to obtain high-resolution spectra, especially under inhomogeneous magnetic fields. In this study, a method based on partial homogeneity is proposed for retrieving high-resolution one-dimensional NMR spectra under inhomogeneous fields. Signals from series of small voxels, which characterize high resolution due to small sizes, are recorded simultaneously. Then, an inhomogeneity correction algorithm is developed based on pattern recognition to correct the influence brought by field inhomogeneity automatically, thus yielding high-resolution information. Experiments on chemical solutions and fish spawn were carried out to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. The proposed method serves as a single radiofrequency pulse high-resolution NMR spectroscopy under inhomogeneous fields and may provide an alternative of obtaining high-resolution spectra of in vivo living systems or chemical-reaction systems, where performances of conventional techniques are usually degenerated by field inhomogeneity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ammari, Habib; Seo, Jin Keun; Zhang, Tingting
2016-10-01
We are aiming to identify the thin insulating inhomogeneities and small conductive inhomogeneities inside an electrically conducting medium by using multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography. The thin insulating inhomogeneities are considered in the form of a tubular neighborhood of a curve and small conductive inhomogeneities are regarded as circular disks. Taking advantage of the frequency dependent behavior of insulating objects, we give a rigorous derivation of the potential along thin insulating objects at various frequencies. Asymptotic formula is given to analyze relationship between inhomogeneities and boundary potential at different frequencies. In numerical simulations, spectroscopic images are provided to visualize the reconstructed admittivity at various frequencies. For the view of both kinds of inhomogeneities, an integrated reconstructed image based on principal component analysis is provided. Phantom experiments are performed by using Swisstom EIT-Pioneer Set.
Revising the Multipole Moments of Numerical Spacetimes and its Consequences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pappas, George; Apostolatos, Theocharis A.
2012-06-01
Identifying the relativistic multipole moments of a spacetime of an astrophysical object that has been constructed numerically is of major interest, both because the multipole moments are intimately related to the internal structure of the object, and because the construction of a suitable analytic metric that mimics a numerical metric should be based on the multipole moments of the latter one in order to yield a reliable representation. In this Letter, we show that there has been a widespread delusion in the way the multipole moments of a numerical metric are read from the asymptotic expansion of the metric functions. We show how one should read correctly the first few multipole moments (starting from the quadrupole mass moment) and how these corrected moments improve the efficiency of describing the metric functions with analytic metrics that have already been used in the literature, as well as other consequences of using the correct moments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manning, Robert M.
2004-01-01
The extended wide-angle parabolic wave equation applied to electromagnetic wave propagation in random media is considered. A general operator equation is derived which gives the statistical moments of an electric field of a propagating wave. This expression is used to obtain the first and second order moments of the wave field and solutions are found that transcend those which incorporate the full paraxial approximation at the outset. Although these equations can be applied to any propagation scenario that satisfies the conditions of application of the extended parabolic wave equation, the example of propagation through atmospheric turbulence is used. It is shown that in the case of atmospheric wave propagation and under the Markov approximation (i.e., the delta-correlation of the fluctuations in the direction of propagation), the usual parabolic equation in the paraxial approximation is accurate even at millimeter wavelengths. The comprehensive operator solution also allows one to obtain expressions for the longitudinal (generalized) second order moment. This is also considered and the solution for the atmospheric case is obtained and discussed. The methodology developed here can be applied to any qualifying situation involving random propagation through turbid or plasma environments that can be represented by a spectral density of permittivity fluctuations.
Single-grid spectral collocation for the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bernardi, Christine; Canuto, Claudio; Maday, Yvon; Metivet, Brigitte
1988-01-01
The aim of the paper is to study a collocation spectral method to approximate the Navier-Stokes equations: only one grid is used, which is built from the nodes of a Gauss-Lobatto quadrature formula, either of Legendre or of Chebyshev type. The convergence is proven for the Stokes problem provided with inhomogeneous Dirichlet conditions, then thoroughly analyzed for the Navier-Stokes equations. The practical implementation algorithm is presented, together with numerical results.
Spectrally nonselective holographic objective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wardosanidze, Zurab V.
1991-10-01
Reflection holograms and holographic optical elements fabricated by the Denisyuk method are spectrally selective. In certain applications there may be a need for the development of holographic structures that are not selective in terms of the spectral composition of the reconstructing light. This paper describes the possibility of creating spectral nonselective optical elements and reflection holograms on a dichromate gelatin layer (DGL). The essential condition for achieving nonselectivity in this case is a strong absorption of actinic radiation in the initial emulsion layer conditioning the strongly damping character of the summary field in thickness.
Moments of zeta and correlations of divisor-sums: I
Conrey, Brian; Keating, Jonathan P.
2015-01-01
We examine the calculation of the second and fourth moments and shifted moments of the Riemann zeta-function on the critical line using long Dirichlet polynomials and divisor correlations. Previously, this approach has proved unsuccessful in computing moments beyond the eighth, even heuristically. A careful analysis of the second and fourth moments illustrates the nature of the problem and enables us to identify the terms that are missed in the standard application of these methods. PMID:25802411
Normalization of ground reaction forces, joint moments, and free moments in human locomotion.
Wannop, John W; Worobets, Jay T; Stefanyshyn, Darren J
2012-12-01
Authors who report ground reaction force (GRF), free moment (FM), and resultant joint moments usually normalize these variables by division normalization. Normalization parameters include body weight (BW), body weight x height (BWH), and body weight x leg length (BWL). The purpose of this study was to explore the appropriateness of division normalization, power curve normalization, and offset normalization on peak GRF, FM, and resultant joint moments. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected on 98 subjects who walked at 1.2 and 1.8 m/s and ran at 3.4 and 4.0 m/s. Linear curves were best fit to the data, and regression analyses performed to test the significance of the correlations. It was found that the relationship between peak force and BW, as well as joint moments and BW, BWH, and BWL, were not always linear. After division normalization, significant correlations were still found. Power curve and offset normalization, however, were effective at normalizing all variables; therefore, when attempting to normalize GRF and joint moments, perhaps nonlinear or offset methods should be implemented. PMID:23348130
Lie Algebraic Discussions for Time-Inhomogeneous Linear Birth-Death Processes with Immigration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohkubo, Jun
2014-10-01
Analytical solutions for time-inhomogeneous linear birth-death processes with immigration are derived. While time-inhomogeneous linear birth-death processes without immigration have been studied by using a generating function approach, the processes with immigration are here analyzed by Lie algebraic discussions. As a result, a restriction for time-inhomogeneity of the birth-death process is understood from the viewpoint of the finiteness of the dimensionality of the Lie algebra.
Numerical Study of Interaction of a Vortical Density Inhomogeneity with Shock and Expansion Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Povitsky, A.; Ofengeim, D.
1998-01-01
We studied the interaction of a vortical density inhomogeneity (VDI) with shock and expansion waves. We call the VDI the region of concentrated vorticity (vortex) with a density different from that of ambiance. Non-parallel directions of the density gradient normal to the VDI surface and the pressure gradient across a shock wave results in an additional vorticity. The roll-up of the initial round VDI towards a non-symmetrical shape is studied numerically. Numerical modeling of this interaction is performed by a 2-D Euler code. The use of an adaptive unstructured numerical grid makes it possible to obtain high accuracy and capture regions of induced vorticity with a moderate overall number of mesh points. For the validation of the code, the computational results are compared with available experimental results and good agreement is obtained. The interaction of the VDI with a propagating shock wave is studied for a range of initial and induced circulations and obtained flow patterns are presented. The splitting of the VDI develops into the formation of a non-symmetrical vortex pair and not in a set of vortices. A method for the analytical computation of an overall induced circulation Gamma(sub 1) as a result of the interaction of a moving VDI with a number of waves is proposed. Simplified, approximated, expressions for Gamma(sub 1) are derived and their accuracy is discussed. The splitting of the VDI passing through the Prandtl-Meyer expansion wave is studied numerically. The obtained VDI patterns are compared to those for the interaction of the VDI with a propagating shock wave for the same values of initial and induced circulations. These patterns have similar shapes for corresponding time moments.
Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy of Chlorophyll a: Solvent Dependent Spectral Evolution.
Moca, Roberta; Meech, Stephen R; Heisler, Ismael A
2015-07-01
The interaction of the monomeric chlorophyll Q-band electronic transition with solvents of differing physical-chemical properties is investigated through two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES). Chlorophyll constitutes the key chromophore molecule in light harvesting complexes. It is well-known that the surrounding protein in the light harvesting complex fine-tunes chlorophyll electronic transitions to optimize energy transfer. Therefore, an understanding of the influence of the environment on the monomeric chlorophyll electronic transitions is important. The Q-band 2DES is inhomogeneous at early times, particularly in hydrogen bonding polar solvents, but also in nonpolar solvents like cyclohexane. Interestingly this inhomogeneity persists for long times, even up to the nanosecond time scale in some solvents. The reshaping of the 2DES occurs over multiple time scales and was assigned mainly to spectral diffusion. At early times the reshaping is Gaussian-like, hinting at a strong solvent reorganization effect. The temporal evolution of the 2DES response was analyzed in terms of a Brownian oscillator model. The spectral densities underpinning the Brownian oscillator fitting were recovered for the different solvents. The absorption spectra and Stokes shift were also properly described by this model. The extent and nature of inhomogeneous broadening was a strong function of solvent, being larger in H-bonding and viscous media and smaller in nonpolar solvents. The fastest spectral reshaping components were assigned to solvent dynamics, modified by interactions with the solute.
Inhomogeneous feed gas processing in industrial ozone generation.
Krogh, Fabio; Merz, Reto; Gisler, Rudolf; Müller, Marco; Paolini, Bernhard; Lopez, Jose L; Freilich, Alfred
2008-01-01
The synthesis of ozone by means of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is extensively used in industry. Ozone generators available on the market differ in ozone production capacities, electrode arrangements and working parameters, but operate with a uniformly distributed filamentary discharge plasma pattern.In the presented work the benefits of inhomogeneous feed gas processing are explored. Causality between power induction, production efficiency and working parameters are investigated. Different electrode arrangements, evenly distributed within a given space parameter, were designed, simulated, manufactured and tested on a representative scale. A finite element model was utilized to simulate an inhomogeneous power induction pattern along the ozone generator tube. The simulation yielded the local power density, the local gas temperature gradient and the relative DBD packing density.Results show that the degree of filamentation turns out to be decisive, indicating a new potential by means of plasma tailoring. An arrangement with a pronounced power induction at the inlet of the ozone generator revealed several advantages over homogeneous plasma processing arrangements, for which an increase in robustness and a reduction in electrical power consumption are achieved. PMID:19092182
The Prediction of Wave Competitions in Inhomogeneous Brusselator Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Xiao-Hua; Dong, Yun-Xia; Huang, Xiao-Qing; Li, Ning
2015-03-01
The competition of waves has remained a hot topic in physics over the past few decades, especially the area of pattern control. Because of improved understanding of various dynamic behaviors, many practical applications have sprung up recently. The prediction of wave competitions is also very important and quite useful in these fields. This paper considers the behaviors of wave competitions in simple, inhomogeneous media which is modeled by Brusselator equations. We present a simple rule to judge the results of wave competitions utilizing the dispersion relation curves and the waves coming from different wave sources. Moreover, this rule can also be used to predict the results of wave propagation. It provides methods of obtaining the desired waves with given frequencies in inhomogeneous media. All our results are concluded and verified by computer simulations. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11105051, 11104071, 11247272, Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities, Beijing Higher Education Elite Young Teacher Project, and Youth Scholars Program of Beijing Normal University
A Simple Model of Cirrus Horizontal Inhomogeneity and Cloud Fraction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Samantha A.; DelGenio, Anthony D.
1998-01-01
A simple model of horizontal inhomogeneity and cloud fraction in cirrus clouds has been formulated on the basis that all internal horizontal inhomogeneity in the ice mixing ratio is due to variations in the cloud depth, which are assumed to be Gaussian. The use of such a model was justified by the observed relationship between the normalized variability of the ice water mixing ratio (and extinction) and the normalized variability of cloud depth. Using radar cloud depth data as input, the model reproduced well the in-cloud ice water mixing ratio histograms obtained from horizontal runs during the FIRE2 cirrus campaign. For totally overcast cases the histograms were almost Gaussian, but changed as cloud fraction decreased to exponential distributions which peaked at the lowest nonzero ice value for cloud fractions below 90%. Cloud fractions predicted by the model were always within 28% of the observed value. The predicted average ice water mixing ratios were within 34% of the observed values. This model could be used in a GCM to produce the ice mixing ratio probability distribution function and to estimate cloud fraction. It only requires basic meteorological parameters, the depth of the saturated layer and the standard deviation of cloud depth as input.
MFPT calculation for random walks in inhomogeneous networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wijesundera, Isuri; Halgamuge, Malka N.; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Nanayakkara, Thrishantha
2016-11-01
Knowing the expected arrival time at a particular state, also known as the mean first passage time (MFPT), often plays an important role for a large class of random walkers in their respective state-spaces. Contrasting to ideal conditions required by recent advancements on MFPT estimations, many naturally occurring random walkers encounter inhomogeneity of transport characteristics in the networks they walk on. This paper presents a heuristic method to divide an inhomogeneous network into homogeneous network primitives (NPs) optimized using particle swarm optimizer, and to use a 'hop-wise' MFPT calculation method. This methodology's potential is demonstrated through simulated random walks and with a case study using the dataset of past cyclone tracks over the North Atlantic Ocean. Parallel processing was used to increase calculation efficiency. The predictions using the proposed method are compared to real data averages and predictions assuming homogeneous transport properties. The results show that breaking the problem into NPs reduces the average error from 18.8% to 5.4% with respect to the homogeneous network assumption.
Functional integral approach to the kinetic theory of inhomogeneous systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fouvry, Jean-Baptiste; Chavanis, Pierre-Henri; Pichon, Christophe
2016-10-01
We present a derivation of the kinetic equation describing the secular evolution of spatially inhomogeneous systems with long-range interactions, the so-called inhomogeneous Landau equation, by relying on a functional integral formalism. We start from the BBGKY hierarchy derived from the Liouville equation. At the order 1 / N, where N is the number of particles, the evolution of the system is characterised by its 1-body distribution function and its 2-body correlation function. Introducing associated auxiliary fields, the evolution of these quantities may be rewritten as a traditional functional integral. By functionally integrating over the 2-body autocorrelation, one obtains a new constraint connecting the 1-body DF and the auxiliary fields. When inverted, this constraint allows us to obtain the closed non-linear kinetic equation satisfied by the 1-body distribution function. This derivation provides an alternative to previous methods, either based on the direct resolution of the truncated BBGKY hierarchy or on the Klimontovich equation. It may turn out to be fruitful to derive more accurate kinetic equations, e.g., accounting for collective effects, or higher order correlation terms.
Statistical energy conservation principle for inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems.
Majda, Andrew J
2015-07-21
Understanding the complexity of anisotropic turbulent processes over a wide range of spatiotemporal scales in engineering shear turbulence as well as climate atmosphere ocean science is a grand challenge of contemporary science with important societal impact. In such inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems there is a large dimensional phase space with a large dimension of unstable directions where a large-scale ensemble mean and the turbulent fluctuations exchange energy and strongly influence each other. These complex features strongly impact practical prediction and uncertainty quantification. A systematic energy conservation principle is developed here in a Theorem that precisely accounts for the statistical energy exchange between the mean flow and the related turbulent fluctuations. This statistical energy is a sum of the energy in the mean and the trace of the covariance of the fluctuating turbulence. This result applies to general inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems including the above applications. The Theorem involves an assessment of statistical symmetries for the nonlinear interactions and a self-contained treatment is presented below. Corollary 1 and Corollary 2 illustrate the power of the method with general closed differential equalities for the statistical energy in time either exactly or with upper and lower bounds, provided that the negative symmetric dissipation matrix is diagonal in a suitable basis. Implications of the energy principle for low-order closure modeling and automatic estimates for the single point variance are discussed below.
Improved inhomogeneous finite elements for fabric reinforced composite mechanics analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Foye, R. L.
1992-01-01
There is a need to do routine stress/failure analysis of fabric reinforced composite microstructures to provide additional confidence in critical applications and guide materials development. Conventional methods of 3-D stress analysis are time consuming to set up, run and interpret. A need exists for simpler methods of modeling these structures and analyzing the models. The principal difficulty is the discrete element mesh generation problem. Inhomogeneous finite elements are worth investigating for application to these problems because they eliminate the mesh generation problem. However, there are penalties associated with these elements. Their convergence rates can be slow compared to homogeneous elements. Also, there is no accepted method for obtaining detailed stresses in the constituent materials of each element. This paper shows that the convergence rate can be significantly improved by a simple device which substitutes homogeneous elements for the inhomogeneous ones. The device is shown to work well in simple one and two dimensional problems. However, demonstration of the application to more complex two and three dimensional problems remains to be done. Work is also progressing toward more realistic fabric microstructural geometries.
Statistical energy conservation principle for inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems.
Majda, Andrew J
2015-07-21
Understanding the complexity of anisotropic turbulent processes over a wide range of spatiotemporal scales in engineering shear turbulence as well as climate atmosphere ocean science is a grand challenge of contemporary science with important societal impact. In such inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems there is a large dimensional phase space with a large dimension of unstable directions where a large-scale ensemble mean and the turbulent fluctuations exchange energy and strongly influence each other. These complex features strongly impact practical prediction and uncertainty quantification. A systematic energy conservation principle is developed here in a Theorem that precisely accounts for the statistical energy exchange between the mean flow and the related turbulent fluctuations. This statistical energy is a sum of the energy in the mean and the trace of the covariance of the fluctuating turbulence. This result applies to general inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems including the above applications. The Theorem involves an assessment of statistical symmetries for the nonlinear interactions and a self-contained treatment is presented below. Corollary 1 and Corollary 2 illustrate the power of the method with general closed differential equalities for the statistical energy in time either exactly or with upper and lower bounds, provided that the negative symmetric dissipation matrix is diagonal in a suitable basis. Implications of the energy principle for low-order closure modeling and automatic estimates for the single point variance are discussed below. PMID:26150510
Modelling of the inhomogeneous interior of polymer gels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shew, Chwen-Yang; Iwaki, Takafumi
2006-04-01
A simple model has been investigated to elucidate the mean squared displacement (MSD) of probe molecules in cross-linked polymer gels. In the model, we assume that numerous cavities distribute in the inhomogeneous interior of a gel, and probe molecules are confined within these cavities. The individual probe molecules trapped in a gel are treated as Brownian particles confined to a spherical harmonic potential. The harmonic potential is chosen to model the effective potential experienced by the probe particle in the cavity of a gel. Each field strength is corresponding to the characteristic of one type of effective cavity. Since the statistical distribution of different effective cavity sizes is unknown, several distribution functions are examined. Meanwhile, the calculated averaged MSDs are compared to the experimental data by Nisato et al (2000 Phys. Rev. E 61 2879). We find that the theoretical results of the MSD are sensitive to the shape of the distribution function. For low cross-linked gels, the best fit is obtained when the interior cavities of a gel follow a bimodal distribution. Such a result may be attributed to the presence of at least two distinct classes of cavity in gels. For high cross-linked gels, the cavities in the gel can be depicted by a single-modal uniform distribution function, suggesting that the range of cavity sizes becomes smaller. These results manifest the voids inside a gel, and the shape of distribution functions may provide the insight into the inhomogeneous interior of a gel.
Role of structural inhomogeneities in resting-state brain dynamics.
Vuksanović, Vesna; Hövel, Philipp
2016-08-01
Brain imaging methods allow a non-invasive assessment of both structural and functional connectivity. However, the mechanism of how functional connectivity arises in a structured network of interacting neural populations is as yet poorly understood. Here we use a modeling approach to explore the way in which functional correlations arise from underlying structural connections taking into account inhomogeneities in the interactions between the brain regions of interest. The local dynamics of a neural population is assumed to be of phase-oscillator type. The considered structural connectivity patterns describe long-range anatomical connections between interacting neural elements. We find a dependence of the simulated functional connectivity patterns on the parameters governing the dynamics. We calculate graph-theoretic measures of the functional network topology obtained from numerical simulations. The effect of structural inhomogeneities in the coupling term on the observed network state is quantified by examining the relation between simulated and empirical functional connectivity. Importantly, we show that simulated and empirical functional connectivity agree for a narrow range of coupling strengths. We conclude that identification of functional connectivity during rest requires an analysis of the network dynamics.
Nanoscale inhomogeneities in yttrium-barium-copper-oxide (YBCO) superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Islam, Zahirul; Sinha, S. K.; Lang, J. C.; Liu, X.; Haskel, D.; Moss, S. C.; Srajer, G.; Veal, B. W.; Wermeille, D.; Lee, D. R.; Haeffner, D. R.; Welp, U.; Wochner, P.
2004-03-01
X-ray diffraction studies at the Advanced Photon Source reveal that nanoscale inhomogeneities, electronic or structural in origin, form in yttrium-barium-copper-oxide (YBa_2Cu_3O_6+x) superconductors and coexist with the superconducting (SC) state. Diffuse scattering from these inhomogeneous superstructures is due to atomic displacements with respect to equilibrium lattice sites (Z. Islam et al. Phys. Rev. B 66, 92501 (2002)), that are characterized by a wavevector of the form q=(q_x,0,0), where qx varies with hole doping from 2 unit cells (along shorter Cu-O-Cu direction) for very low doping to 4 unit cells at optimal doping. Interestingly, while these superstructures are 3-dimensionally ordered when the SC state is weakened (e.g., at x=0.4), as the doping increases, they become quasi 1D with correlation lengths comparable to SC coherence lengths in these cuprates. Recent first-principles calculations (D. de Fontaine et al., to be published) for the x=0.63 compound show that atomic displacements consistent with experimental data can be the result of ordering of O vacancies in YBCO. Models for various superstructures and their role in the phase diagram will be discussed.
Energetic Electron Transport In An Inhomogeneous Plasma Medium
Das, Amita
2010-11-23
A review of the work carried out at IPR on energetic electron transport through an inhomogeneous plasma medium is presented in this article. A Generalized Electron Magnetohydrodynamic (G-EMHD) fluid model has been developed and employed for such studies. Novel observations such as (i) the trapping of electron current pulse structure in a high density plasma region, (ii) the formation of sharp magnetic field shock structures at the inhomogeneous plasma density layer (iii) and intense energy dissipation at the shock layer even in the collisionless limit are reported. The intense energy dissipation of the electron current pulse at the shock layer provides a mechanism whereby highly energetic electrons which are essentially collision-less can also successfully deposit their energy in a local region of the plasma. This is specially attractive as it opens up the possibility of heating a localized region of an overdense plasma (where lasers cannot penetrate) by highly energetic collision-less electrons. A direct application of this mechanism to Fast Ignition (FT) experiments is discussed.
Nanodomain structures with hierarchical inhomogeneities in PMN-PT.
Kurushima, Kosuke; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Mori, Shigeo
2012-09-01
The nanometric domain configuration of (1 - x) Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3-x)PbTiO(3) [(1 - x)PMN-xPT] single crystals in the monoclinic phase around a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) has been examined thoroughly by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Domain structures with hierarchically inhomogeneous configuration were found in the monoclinic phase near the MPB region around x ~ 0.32, which are characterized as nanoscaled lamella-type domain structures with ~10 nm width inside macroscopic-sized banded domains with 100 to 200 nm width. To elucidate formation processes of the domain structures with hierarchically inhomogeneous configuration, an in situ TEM observation of changes of the domain structures in the temperature window between 298K and 500K was carried out. It is revealed that these nanoscaled lamella-type domain structures with ~10 nm width appear inside the banded domains as a result of the tetragonal structure and are inherent to the monoclinic phase. PMID:23007758
Charge and Spin Inhomogeneity in Cuprate Superconductors Characterized by NMR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haase, J.; Slichter, C. P.; Milling, C. T.; Hinks, D.; Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi
2002-03-01
The characterization of spatial inhomogeneities in the electronic structure of cuprate superconductors is of great interest since the relation of such inhomogeneities to superconductivity is unknown. We use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to investigate the magnetic and electric fields at various nuclear sites in the unit cell of La2-xSrxCuO4 and address one of the long standing mysteries in NMR: what causes the rather large distributions of local fields? We will show that the found large linewidths are due to short wavelength spatial modulations in the Cu-O plane, that comprise the electric field gradients and magnetic fields. Both quantities are correlated. The data are consistent with a non-uniform electronic spin polarization induced by a homogeneous magnetic field. The resulting width of the distribution of the electronic spin polarization at the Cu sites follows Curie laws. The correlation functions between neighboring electronic spins was determined and found to be sample and temperature dependent. Below optimal doping (x=0.10 and x=0.15) it approaches at lower temperatures a value expected from (commensurate) antiferromagnetic behavoir, whereas for x = 0.2 it is temperature independent and in agreement with incommensurate behavior found from INS experiments.
Time scale algorithms for an inhomogeneous group of atomic clocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacques, C.; Boulanger, J.-S.; Douglas, R. J.; Morris, D.; Cundy, S.; Lam, H. F.
1993-01-01
Through the past 17 years, the time scale requirements at the National Research Council (NRC) have been met by the unsteered output of its primary laboratory cesium clocks, supplemented by hydrogen masers when short-term stability better than 2 x 10(exp -12)tau(sup -1/2) has been required. NRC now operates three primary laboratory cesium clocks, three hydrogen masers, and two commercial cesium clocks. NRC has been using ensemble averages for internal purposes for the past several years, and has a realtime algorithm operating on the outputs of its high-resolution (2 x 10(exp -13) s at 1 s) phase comparators. The slow frequency drift of the hydrogen masers has presented difficulties in incorporating their short-term stability into the ensemble average, while retaining the long-term stability of the laboratory cesium frequency standards. We report on this work on algorithms for an inhomogeneous ensemble of atomic clocks, and on our initial work on time scale algorithms that could incorporate frequency calibrations at NRC from the next generation of Zacharias fountain cesium frequency standards having frequency accuracies that might surpass 10(exp -15), or from single-trapped-ion frequency standards (Ba+, Sr+,...) with even higher potential accuracies. The requirements for redundancy in all the elements (including the algorithms) of an inhomogeneous ensemble that would give a robust real-time output of the algorithms are presented and discussed.
Soil spectral characterization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F.
1981-01-01
The spectral characterization of soils is discussed with particular reference to the bidirectional reflectance factor as a quantitative measure of soil spectral properties, the role of soil color, soil parameters affecting soil reflectance, and field characteristics of soil reflectance. Comparisons between laboratory-measured soil spectra and Landsat MSS data have shown good agreement, especially in discriminating relative drainage conditions and organic matter levels in unvegetated soils. The capacity to measure both visible and infrared soil reflectance provides information on other soil characteristics and makes it possible to predict soil response to different management conditions. Field and laboratory soil spectral characterization helps define the extent to which intrinsic spectral information is available from soils as a consequence of their composition and field characteristics.
Electric dipole moments (EDM) of ionic atoms
Oshima, Sachiko
2010-03-15
Recent investigations show that the second-order perturbation calculations of electric dipole moments (EDM) from the finite nuclear size as well as the relativistic effects are all canceled out by the third-order perturbation effects and that this is due to electron screening. To derive the nucleon EDM from the nucleus, we propose to measure the EDM of an ionic system. In this case, it is shown that the nucleon EDM can survive by the reduction factor of 1/Z for the ionic system with one electron stripped off.