Inhomogeneous Elastic Response of Silica Glass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Léonforte, F.; Tanguy, A.; Wittmer, J. P.; Barrat, J.-L.
2006-08-01
Using large scale molecular dynamics simulations we investigate the properties of the nonaffine displacement field induced by macroscopic uniaxial deformation of amorphous silica, a strong glass according to Angell’s classification. We demonstrate the existence of a length scale ξ characterizing the correlations of this field (corresponding to a volume of about 1000 atoms), and compare its structure to the one observed in a standard fragile model glass. The “boson-peak” anomaly of the density of states can be traced back in both cases to elastic inhomogeneities on wavelengths smaller than ξ where classical continuum elasticity becomes simply unapplicable.
On reflected interactions in elastic solids containing inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodin, Gregory J.; Weng, George J.
2014-08-01
Interactions in linear elastic solids containing inhomogeneities are examined using integral equations. Direct and reflected interactions are identified. Direct interactions occur simply because elastic fields emitted by inhomogeneities affect each other. Reflected interactions occur because elastic fields emitted by inhomogeneities are reflected by the specimen boundary back to the individual inhomogeneities. It is shown that the reflected interactions are of critical importance to analysis of representative volume elements. Further, the reflected interactions are expressed in simple terms, so that one can obtain explicit approximate expressions for the effective stiffness tensor for linear elastic solids containing ellipsoidal and non-ellipsoidal inhomogeneities. For ellipsoidal inhomogeneities, the new approximation is closely related to that of Mori and Tanaka. In general, the new approximation can be used to recover Ponte Castañeda-Willis' and Kanaun-Levin's approximations. Connections with Maxwell's approximation are established.
Identifying the inhomogeneous properties of an orthotropic elastic layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vatul'yan, A. O.; Yavruyan, O. V.; Bogachev, I. V.
2013-11-01
A scheme is proposed for reconstructing inhomogeneously thick elasticity modules of an orthotropic layer from acoustic sounding data. The problem of reconstruction has been reduced to stepwise reconstruction of the functions characterizing the elasticity modules, based on iteration regularization and A.N. Tikhonov's regularization method, which utilize analysis of the averaged characteristics. A computer experiment is performed for different inhomogeneity layers, the effective frequency sounding regions for identification are revealed, and various aspects of numerical realization are discussed.
Kinetic faceting and anomalous coarsening in elastically inhomogeneous multiphase systems.
Perez, Danny; Lewis, Laurent J
2007-02-16
With a view of finding a route toward microstructural stability in alloys, we numerically study the impact of elastic inhomogeneities on the growth of inclusions in multiphase systems. We show that growth can proceed either continuously at rough interfaces, or in a layer-by-layer fashion following an elastically induced kinetic faceting process. In the former case, the chemical potential of the inclusions is a smooth function of size, while in the latter case, elasticity increases the barrier for nucleation of new terraces on the facets, leading to an oscillatory behavior of the chemical potential and hence a strong resistance against coarsening, opening up the possibility to stabilize the structure.
Scatter of elastic waves by a thin flat elliptical inhomogeneity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fu, L. S.
1983-01-01
Elastodynamic fields of a single, flat, elliptical inhomogeneity embedded in an infinite elastic medium subjected to plane time harmonic waves are studied. Scattered displacement amplitudes and stress intensities are obtained in series form for an incident wave in an arbitrary direction. The cases of a penny shaped crack and an elliptical crack are given as examples. The analysis is valid for alpha a up to about two, where alpha is longitudinal wave number and a is a typical geometric parameter.
Effective balance equations for elastic composites subject to inhomogeneous potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penta, Raimondo; Ramírez-Torres, Ariel; Merodio, José; Rodríguez-Ramos, Reinaldo
2017-08-01
We derive the new effective governing equations for linear elastic composites subject to a body force that admits a Helmholtz decomposition into inhomogeneous scalar and vector potentials. We assume that the microscale, representing the distance between the inclusions (or fibers) in the composite, and its size (the macroscale) are well separated. We decouple spatial variations and assume microscale periodicity of every field. Microscale variations of the potentials induce a locally unbounded body force. The problem is homogenizable, as the results, obtained via the asymptotic homogenization technique, read as a well-defined linear elastic model for composites subject to a regular effective body force. The latter comprises both macroscale variations of the potentials, and nonstandard contributions which are to be computed solving a well-posed elastic cell problem which is solely driven by microscale variations of the potentials. We compare our approach with an existing model for locally unbounded forces and provide a simplified formulation of the model which serves as a starting point for its numerical implementation. Our formulation is relevant to the study of active composites, such as electrosensitive and magnetosensitive elastomers.
Contact instabilities of anisotropic and inhomogeneous soft elastic films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomar, Gaurav; Sharma, Ashutosh
2012-02-01
Anisotropy plays important roles in various biological phenomena such as adhesion of geckos and grasshoppers enabled by the attachment pods having hierarchical structures like thin longitudinal setae connected with threads mimicked by anisotropic films. We study the contact instability of a transversely isotropic thin elastic film when it comes in contact proximity of another surface. In the present study we investigate the contact stability of a thin incompressible transversely isotropic film by performing linear stability analysis. Based on the linear stability analysis, we show that an approaching contactor renders the film unstable. The critical wavelength of the instability is a function of the total film thickness and the ratio of the Young's modulus in the longitudinal direction and the shear modulus in the plane containing the longitudinal axis. We also analyze the stability of a thin gradient film that is elastically inhomogeneous across its thickness. Compared to a homogeneous elastic film, it becomes unstable with a longer wavelength when the film becomes softer in going from the surface to the substrate.
The Effect of the Elastic Body assumption on the Focusing of Ultrasounds in Inhomogeneous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimura, Takaaki; Okita, Kohei; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro
2011-09-01
Simulation of HIFU transmission in the human body is a useful method for High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) treatments. For HIFU simulation, it is important to establish a calculation system which can incorporate inhomogeneous media such as human cells, bones, and organs. In this research, we have assumed a linear elastic body for bones and organs, and constructed a fluid-elastic coupled calculation code. We used the FDTD method for calculation. As a result, we have found the difference in HIFU transmission between elastic and fluid models.
Correlating local structure with inhomogeneous elastic deformation in a metallic glass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, J.; Cheng, Y. Q.; Ma, E.
2012-09-01
The elastic response of metallic glasses (MGs) is inhomogeneous, due to the wide variation of local structural arrangements. Here, we present molecular dynamics simulations on a one-million-atoms sample of a Cu64Zr36 model MG, correlating the atomic strain and non-affine displacement with short-range order. Cu atoms in full icosahedra experience less atomic relaxation and behave stiffer, while the rest of Cu atoms contribute more to anelasticity on the timescale of simulation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sheu, Y. C.; Fu, L. S.
1983-01-01
The extended method of equivalent inclusions is applied to study the specific wave problems: (1) the transmission of elastic waves in an infinite medium containing a layer of inhomogeneity, and (2) the scattering of elastic waves in an infinite medium containing a perfect spherical inhomogeneity. Eigenstrains are expanded as a geometric series and a method of integration based on the inhomogeneous Helmholtz operator is adopted. This study compares results, obtained by using limited number of terms in the eigenstrain expansion, with exact solutions for the layer problem and that for a perfect sphere.
Debonding of an elastic inhomogeneity of arbitrary shape in anti-plane shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xu; Yang, Moxuan; Schiavone, Peter
2016-08-01
We investigate the anti-plane shear problem of a curvilinear crack lying along the interface of an arbitrarily shaped elastic inhomogeneity embedded in an infinite matrix subjected to uniform stresses at infinity. Complex variable and conformal mapping techniques are used to derive an analytical solution in series form. The problem is first reduced to a non-homogeneous Riemann-Hilbert problem, the solution of which can be obtained by evaluating the associated Cauchy integral. A set of linear algebraic equations is obtained from the compatibility condition imposed on the resulting analytic function defined in the inhomogeneity and its Faber series expansion. Each of the unknown coefficients in the corresponding analytic functions can then be uniquely determined by solving the linear algebraic equations, which are written concisely in matrix form. The resulting analytical solution is then used to quantify the displacement jump across the debonded section of the interface as well as the traction distribution along the bonded section of the interface. In addition, our solution allows us to obtain mode-III stress intensity factors at the two crack tips. The solution to the anti-plane problem of a partially debonded elliptical inhomogeneity containing a confocal crack is also derived using a similar method.
Wrinkle surface instability of an inhomogeneous elastic block with graded stiffness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Shengyou; Chen, Yi-chao
2017-04-01
Surface instabilities have been studied extensively for both homogeneous materials and film/substrate structures but relatively less for materials with continuously varying properties. This paper studies wrinkle surface instability of a graded neo-Hookean block with exponentially varying modulus under plane strain by using the linear bifurcation analysis. We derive the first variation condition for minimizing the potential energy functional and solve the linearized equations of equilibrium to find the necessary conditions for surface instability. It is found that for a homogeneous block or an inhomogeneous block with increasing modulus from the surface, the critical stretch for surface instability is 0.544 (0.456 strain), which is independent of the geometry and the elastic modulus on the surface of the block. This critical stretch coincides with that reported by Biot (1963 Appl. Sci. Res. 12, 168-182. (doi:10.1007/BF03184638)) 53 years ago for the onset of wrinkle instabilities in a half-space of homogeneous neo-Hookean materials. On the other hand, for an inhomogeneous block with decreasing modulus from the surface, the critical stretch for surface instability ranges from 0.544 to 1 (0-0.456 strain), depending on the modulus gradient, and the length and height of the block. This sheds light on the effects of the material inhomogeneity and structural geometry on surface instability.
Boundary effect on the elastic field of a semi-infinite solid containing inhomogeneities
Liu, Y. J.; Song, G.; Yin, H. M.
2015-01-01
The boundary effect of one inhomogeneity embedded in a semi-infinite solid at different depths has firstly been investigated using the fundamental solution for Mindlin's problem. Expanding the eigenstrain in a polynomial form and using the Eshelby's equivalent inclusion method, one can calculate the eigenstrain and thus obtain the elastic field. When the inhomogeneity is far from the boundary, the solution recovers Eshelby's solution. The method has been extended to a many-particle system in a semi-infinite solid, which is first demonstrated by the cases of two spheres. The comparison of the asymptotic form solution with the finite-element results shows the accuracy and capability of this method. The solution has been used to illustrate the boundary effects on its effective material behaviour of a semi-infinite simple cubic lattice particulate composite. The local field of a semi-infinite composite has been calculated at different volume fractions. A representative unit cell has been taken with different depths to the surface. The average stress and strain of the unit cell have been calculated under uniform loading conditions of normal or shear force on the surface, respectively. The effective elastic moduli of the unit cell not only depend on the material proportion, but also on its distance to the surface. The present model can be extended to other types of particle distribution and ellipsoidal particles. PMID:26345084
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sheu, Y. C.; Fu, L. S.
1982-01-01
The extended method of equivalent inclusion developed is applied to study the specific wave problems of the transmission of elastic waves in an infinite medium containing a layer of inhomogeneity, and of the scattering of elastic waves in an infinite medium containing a perfect spherical inhomogeneity. The eigenstrains are expanded as a geometric series and the method of integration for the inhomogeneous Helmholtz operator given by Fu and Mura is adopted. The results obtained by using a limited number of terms in the eigenstrain expansion are compared with exact solutions for the layer problem and for a perfect sphere. Two parameters are singled out for this comparison: the ratio of elastic moduli, and the ratio of the mass densities. General trends for three different situations are shown.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Hung K.; Ito, Makiko; Nakajima, Ken
2016-08-01
The elastic and viscoelastic responses of inhomogeneous polymers upon interacting with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe are simultaneously characterized by a bimodal AFM approach namely the amplitude- and frequency-modulation (AM-FM) method. In this approach, the AFM probe is operated in the AM mode at the first flexural frequency and in the FM mode at a higher flexural frequency. The AM mode provides information about the viscoelasticity of polymers in terms of the mechanical loss tangent, whereas the modulus of polymers is obtained as a function of the frequency shift of flexural frequencies in both modes. For a glassy polymer blend, the AM-FM method provides a consistent result in both the elastic modulus and loss tangent in comparison with those obtained by other methods. Moreover, a significant improvement of the contrast and lateral resolution in the AM-FM modulus image can be observed. However, the current approach shows a substantial increase in the modulus of rubbery polymers.
Evaluation of elastic modulus and hardness of highly inhomogeneous materials by nanoindentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Epshtein, Svetlana A.; Borodich, Feodor M.; Bull, Steve J.
2015-04-01
The experimental and numerical techniques for evaluation of mechanical properties of highly inhomogeneous materials are discussed. The techniques are applied to coal as an example of such a material. Characterization of coals is a very difficult task because they are composed of a number of distinct organic entities called macerals and some amount of inorganic substances along with internal pores and cracks. It is argued that to avoid the influence of the pores and cracks, the samples of the materials have to be prepared as very thin and very smooth sections, and the depth-sensing nanoindentation (DSNI) techniques has to be employed rather than the conventional microindentation. It is shown that the use of the modern nanoindentation techniques integrated with transmitted light microscopy is very effective for evaluation of elastic modulus and hardness of coal macerals. However, because the thin sections are glued to the substrate and the glue thickness is approximately equal to the thickness of the section, the conventional DSNI techniques show the effective properties of the section/substrate system rather than the properties of the material. As the first approximation, it is proposed to describe the sample/substrate system using the classic exponential weight function for the dependence of the equivalent elastic contact modulus on the depth of indentation. This simple approach allows us to extract the contact modulus of the material constitutes from the data measured on a region occupied by a specific component of the material. The proposed approach is demonstrated on application to the experimental data obtained by Berkovich nanoindentation with varying maximum depth of indentation.
Brannon, R.M.
1996-12-31
A mathematical framework is developed for the study of materials containing axisymmetric inclusions or flaws such as ellipsoidal voids, penny-shaped cracks, or fibers of circular cross-section. The general case of nonuniform statistical distributions of such heterogeneities is attacked by first considering a spatially uniform distribution of flaws that are all oriented in the same direction. Assuming an isotropic substrate, the macroscopic material properties of this simpler microstructure naturally should be transversely isotropic. An orthogonal basis for the linear subspace consisting of all double-symmetric transversely-isotropic fourth-order tensors associated with a given material vector is applied to deduce the explicit functional dependence of the material properties of these aligned materials on the shared symmetry axis. The aligned and uniform microstructure seems geometrically simple enough that the macroscopic transversely isotropic properties could be derived in closed form. Since the resulting properties are transversely isotropic, the analyst must therefore be able to identify the appropriate coefficients of the transverse basis. Once these functions are identified, a principle of superposition of strain rates ay be applied to define an expectation integral for the composite properties of a material containing arbitrary anisotropic distributions of axisymmetric inhomogeneities. A proposal for coupling plastic anisotropy to the elastic anisotropy is presented in which the composite yield surface is interpreted as a distortion of the isotropic substrate yield surface; the distortion directions are coupled to the elastic anisotropy directions. Finally, some commonly assumed properties (such as major symmetry) of the Cauchy tangent stiffness tensor are shown to be inappropriate for large distortions of anisotropic materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vila, F. D.; Rehr, J. J.
Effects of thermal vibrations are essential to obtain a more complete understanding of the properties of complex materials. For example, they are important in the analysis and simulation of x-ray absorption spectra (XAS). In previous work we introduced an ab initio approach for a variety of vibrational effects, such as crystallographic and XAS Debye-Waller factors, Debye and Einstein temperatures, and thermal expansion coefficients. This approach uses theoretical dynamical matrices from which the locally-projected vibrational densities of states are obtained using a Lanczos recursion algorithm. In this talk I present recent improvements to our implementation, which permit simulations of more complex materials with up to two orders of magnitude larger simulation cells. The method takes advantage of parallelization in calculations of the dynamical matrix with VASP. To illustrate these capabilities we discuss two problems of considerable interest: negative thermal expansion in ZrW2O8; and local inhomogeneities in the elastic properties of supported metal nanoparticles. Both cases highlight the importance of a local treatment of vibrational properties. Supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-03ER15476, with computer support from DOE-NERSC.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Shishir; Ahmed, Mostaid; Pramanik, Abhijit
2017-03-01
The paper intends to study the propagation of horizontally polarized shear waves in an elastic medium with void pores constrained between a vertically inhomogeneous and an anisotropic magnetoelastic semi-infinite media. Elasto-dynamical equations of elastic medium with void pores and magnetoelastic solid have been employed to investigate the shear wave propagation in the proposed three-layered earth model. Method of separation of variables has been incorporated to deduce the dispersion relation. All possible special cases have been envisaged and they fairly comply with the corresponding results for classical cases. The role of inhomogeneity parameter, thickness of layer, angle with which the wave crosses the magnetic field and anisotropic magnetoelastic coupling parameter for three different materials has been elucidated and represented by graphs using MATHEMATICA.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Shishir; Ahmed, Mostaid; Pramanik, Abhijit
2017-02-01
The paper intends to study the propagation of horizontally polarized shear waves in an elastic medium with void pores constrained between a vertically inhomogeneous and an anisotropic magnetoelastic semi-infinite media. Elasto-dynamical equations of elastic medium with void pores and magnetoelastic solid have been employed to investigate the shear wave propagation in the proposed three-layered earth model. Method of separation of variables has been incorporated to deduce the dispersion relation. All possible special cases have been envisaged and they fairly comply with the corresponding results for classical cases. The role of inhomogeneity parameter, thickness of layer, angle with which the wave crosses the magnetic field and anisotropic magnetoelastic coupling parameter for three different materials has been elucidated and represented by graphs using MATHEMATICA.
Zorko, A.; Kokalj, J.; Komelj, M.; Adamopoulos, O.; Luetkens, H.; Arčon, D.; Lappas, A.
2015-01-01
Inhomogeneity in the ground state is an intriguing, emergent phenomenon in magnetism. Recently, it has been observed in the magnetostructural channel of the geometrically frustrated α-NaMnO2, for the first time in the absence of active charge degrees of freedom. Here we report an in-depth numerical and local-probe experimental study of the isostructural sister compound CuMnO2 that emphasizes and provides an explanation for the crucial differences between the two systems. The experimentally verified, much more homogeneous, ground state of the stoichiometric CuMnO2 is attributed to the reduced magnetoelastic competition between the counteracting magnetic-exchange and elastic-energy contributions. The comparison of the two systems additionally highlights the role of disorder and allows the understanding of the puzzling phenomenon of phase separation in uniform antiferromagnets. PMID:25786810
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poudel, Joemini; Matthews, Thomas P.; Mitsuhashi, Kenji; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Wang, Lihong V.; Anastasio, Mark A.
2017-03-01
Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) is an emerging computed imaging modality that exploits optical contrast and ultrasonic detection principles to form images of the photoacoustically induced initial pressure distribution within tissue. The PACT reconstruction problem corresponds to a time-domain inverse source problem, where the initial pressure distribution is recovered from the measurements recorded on an aperture outside the support of the source. A major challenge in transcranial PACT brain imaging is to compensate for aberrations in the measured data due to the propagation of the photoacoustic wavefields through the skull. To properly account for these effects, a wave equation-based inversion method should be employed that can model the heterogeneous elastic properties of the medium. In this study, an iterative image reconstruction method for 3D transcranial PACT is developed based on the elastic wave equation. To accomplish this, a forward model based on a finite-difference time-domain discretization of the elastic wave equation is established. Subsequently, gradient-based methods are employed for computing penalized least squares estimates of the initial source distribution that produced the measured photoacoustic data. The developed reconstruction algorithm is validated and investigated through computer-simulation studies.
Zhang, Neng-Hui; Meng, Wei-Lie; Tan, Zou-Qing
2013-02-01
In nanoscale diagnostic systems, inhomogeneity in near-surface systems and flexibility in biostructures greatly influence the mechanical/electrical/thermal properties of biosensors and resultant detection signals. This study focuses on inhomogeneity and flexibility of DNA biofilm and characterizes its local interactions and mechanical properties. First, a flexible cylinder model of DNA chain is employed to capture the local geometric deformation characteristics of DNA molecules on microcantilever. In order to describe the inhomogeneous properties of DNA biofilm at thickness direction, the Strey's empirical formula for mesoscopic DNA liquid crystal theory is improved with the assumption of a net charge distribution in film. The model parameters are obtained by curve fitting with experimental data. Second, the biaxial iso-strain compression of thought experiment and the energy conservation law are used to predict macroscopic effective tangent modulus of DNA biofilm in terms of nanoscopic properties of dsDNA, buffer salt concentration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stoynov, Y.
2015-10-28
Functionally graded materials (FGM) are extensively used in modern industry. They are composite materials with continuously varying properties in one or more special dimensions, according to the specific purpose. In view of the wide range of applications of FGM, stress analysis is important for their structural integrity and reliable service life. In this study we will consider functionally graded magneto-electro-elastic materials with one or more cracks subjected to SH waves. We assume that the material properties vary in one and the same way, described by an inhomogeneity function. The boundary value problem is reduced to a system of integro-differential equations based on the existence of fundamental solutions. Different inhomogeneity classes are used to obtain a wave equation with constant coefficients. Radon transform is applied to derive the fundamental solution in a closed form. Program code in FORTRAN 77 is developed and validated using available examples from literature. Simulations show the dependence of stress field concentration near the crack tips on the frequency of the applied time-harmonic load for different types of material inhomogeneity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reza Barati, Mohammad; Shahverdi, Hossein
2017-04-01
In this article, forced vibration and resonance frequencies of functionally graded (FG) nanobeams resting on Winkler-Pasternak foundation are investigated employing a higher-order refined beam theory which captures shear deformation influences without the need for any shear correction factor. The nanobeam is subjected to a uniform dynamic load with a finite length. The two-parameter elastic medium consists of parallel springs and a shear layer. Gradation of the material properties of the nanobeam is described via the Mori-Tanaka distribution model. The governing equations of embedded higher-order FG nanobeams under dynamic loading are obtained by employing Eringen's elastic differential law and Hamilton's principle. These equations are solved for simply-supported-simply-supported (S-S) and clamped-clamped (C-C) boundary conditions. It is indicated that forced vibration characteristics and resonance frequencies of embedded FG nanobeams are significantly influenced by material composition, nonlocality, foundation parameters and boundary conditions. A nonlocal FG beam has lower resonance frequency compared with a local beam. However, the presence of elastic foundation leads to a significant delay in the occurrence of resonance frequencies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Junru; Liu, Jianjun; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Chaolei; Liu, Yazheng
2017-03-01
The dissolution process of delta ferrites and the influence of high temperature pre-deformation on the dissolution rate of delta ferrites in martensitic heat-resistant steel 10Cr12Ni3Mo2VN were studied by isothermal heating and thermal simulation experiments. The precipitation temperature of delta ferrites in experimental steel is about 1195 °C. M23C6-type carbides incline to precipitate and coarsen at the boundaries of delta ferrites below 930 °C, and can be rapidly dissolved by heating at 1180 °C. The percentage of delta ferrites gradually decreases with heating time. And a Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation was established to describe the dissolution process of delta ferrites at 1180 °C. High temperature pre-deformation can markedly increase the dissolution rate of delta ferrites. Pre-deformation can largely increase the interface area between delta ferrite and matrix and thus increase the unit-time diffusing quantities of alloying elements between delta ferrites and matrix. In addition, high temperature pre-deformation leads to dynamic recrystallization and increases the number of internal grain boundaries in the delta ferrites. This can also greatly increase the diffusing rate of alloying elements. In these cases, the dissolution of delta ferrites can be promoted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Junru; Liu, Jianjun; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Chaolei; Liu, Yazheng
2017-02-01
The dissolution process of delta ferrites and the influence of high temperature pre-deformation on the dissolution rate of delta ferrites in martensitic heat-resistant steel 10Cr12Ni3Mo2VN were studied by isothermal heating and thermal simulation experiments. The precipitation temperature of delta ferrites in experimental steel is about 1195 °C. M23C6-type carbides incline to precipitate and coarsen at the boundaries of delta ferrites below 930 °C, and can be rapidly dissolved by heating at 1180 °C. The percentage of delta ferrites gradually decreases with heating time. And a Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation was established to describe the dissolution process of delta ferrites at 1180 °C. High temperature pre-deformation can markedly increase the dissolution rate of delta ferrites. Pre-deformation can largely increase the interface area between delta ferrite and matrix and thus increase the unit-time diffusing quantities of alloying elements between delta ferrites and matrix. In addition, high temperature pre-deformation leads to dynamic recrystallization and increases the number of internal grain boundaries in the delta ferrites. This can also greatly increase the diffusing rate of alloying elements. In these cases, the dissolution of delta ferrites can be promoted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Y.; Qi, C. J.; Han, D.; Ji, H. M.; Zhang, M. Q.; Li, X. W.
2017-02-01
To explore the effect of cyclic pre-deformation on static mechanical behavior of materials with different stacking fault energies (SFEs), polycrystalline Cu-16 at. pct Al alloy with a low SFE is selected as the target material in the present work, and the strengthening micro-mechanisms induced by cyclic pre-deformation are compared with the previous studies on pure Al with a high SFE and Cu with an intermediate SFE. The results show that the movement of dislocations exhibits a high slip planarity during cyclic pre-deformation at different total strain amplitudes Δ ɛ t/2, and some nano-sized deformation twins are formed after subsequent tension. The cyclic pre-deformation at an appropriate Δ ɛ t/2 of 1.0 × 10-3 promotes a significant increase in ultimate tensile strength σ UTS nearly without loss of tensile ductility, which primarily stems from the introduction of many mobile planar slip dislocations by cyclic pre-deformation as well as the formation of nano-sized deformation twins during subsequent tension. Based on the comparison of the strengthening micro-mechanisms induced by cyclic pre-deformation in Al, Cu, and Cu-16 at. pct Al alloy, it is deduced that a low-cycle cyclic pre-deformation at an appropriate condition is expected to cause a better strengthening effect on the static tensile properties of low SFE metals.
Wu, Fu-Fa; Chan, K C; Jiang, Song-Shan; Chen, Shun-Hua; Wang, Gang
2014-06-16
Bulk metallic glasses exhibit high strength and large elastic strain limit but have no tensile ductility. However, bulk metallic glass composites reinforced by in-situ dendrites possess significantly improved toughness but at the expense of high strength and large elastic strain limit. Here, we report a bulk metallic glass composite with strong strain-hardening capability and large elastic strain limit. It was found that, by plastic predeformation, the bulk metallic glass composite can exhibit both a large elastic strain limit and high strength under tension. These unique elastic mechanical properties are attributed to the reversible B2↔B19' phase transformation and the plastic-predeformation-induced complicated stress state in the metallic glass matrix and the second phase. These findings are significant for the design and application of bulk metallic glass composites with excellent mechanical properties.
Wu, Fu-Fa; Chan, K. C.; Jiang, Song-Shan; Chen, Shun-Hua; Wang, Gang
2014-01-01
Bulk metallic glasses exhibit high strength and large elastic strain limit but have no tensile ductility. However, bulk metallic glass composites reinforced by in-situ dendrites possess significantly improved toughness but at the expense of high strength and large elastic strain limit. Here, we report a bulk metallic glass composite with strong strain-hardening capability and large elastic strain limit. It was found that, by plastic predeformation, the bulk metallic glass composite can exhibit both a large elastic strain limit and high strength under tension. These unique elastic mechanical properties are attributed to the reversible B2↔B19′ phase transformation and the plastic-predeformation-induced complicated stress state in the metallic glass matrix and the second phase. These findings are significant for the design and application of bulk metallic glass composites with excellent mechanical properties. PMID:24931632
Decaying surface waves in inhomogeneous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Begmatov, A.
2016-11-01
Two problems on plane decaying surface waves in an inhomogeneous medium are under consideration: the problem where the waves similar to Rayleigh waves propagate in an isotropic elastic half-space that borders with a layer of an ideal incompressible fluid and the problem where the waves similar to Love waves propagate in a semi-infinite saturated porous medium that borders with a layer of an isotropic elastic medium.
(Fracture mechanics of inhomogeneous materials)
Bass, B.R.
1990-10-01
Discussions were held with Japanese researchers concerning (1) the Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics in Inhomogeneous Materials and Structures (EPI) Program, and (2) ongoing large-scale pressurized- thermal-shock (PTS) experiments in Japan. In the EPI Program, major activities in the current fiscal year include round-robin analyses of measured data from inhomogeneous base metal/weld metal compact- tension (CT) specimens fabricated from welded plates of A533 grade B class 1 steel. The round-robin task involves participants from nine research organizations in Japan and is scheduled for completion by the end of 1990. Additional experiments will be performed on crack growth in inhomogeneous CT specimens and three-point bend (3PB) specimens 10 mm thick. The data will be compared with that generated previously from 19-mm-thick-specimens. A new type of inhomogeneous surface-cracked specimen will be tested this year, with ratio of crack depth to surface length (a/c) satisfying 0.2 {le} (a/c) {le} 0. 8 and using a 3PB type of applied load. Plans are under way to fabricate a new welded plate of A533 grade B class 1 steel (from a different heat than that currently being tested) in order to provide an expanded fracture-toughness data base. Other topics concerning fracture-prevention issues in reactor pressure vessels were discussed with each of the host organizations, including an overview of ongoing work in the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program.
Chamseddine, Ali H.; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav E-mail: viatcheslav.Mukhanov@lmu.de
2016-02-01
We modify Einstein General Relativity by adding non-dynamical scalar fields to account simultaneously for both dark matter and dark energy. The dark energy in this case can be distributed in-homogeneously even within horizon scales. Its inhomogeneities can contribute to the late time integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, possibly removing some of the low multipole anomalies in the temperature fluctuations of the CMB spectrum. The presence of the inhomogeneous dark matter also influences structure formation in the universe.
Acoustoelasticity model of inhomogeneously deformed bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kravchishin, O. Z.; Chekurin, V. F.
2009-10-01
We consider a mathematical model of dynamics of small elastic perturbations in an inhomogeneously deformed rigid body, where for the determining parameters of a local state we take the tensor characteristics of a given actual (strained) configuration (the Cauchy stress tensor and the Hencky or Almansi or Figner strain measure). An iteration algorithm is developed to solve the Cauchy problem stated in the framework of this model for a system of hyperbolic equations with variable coefficients that describes the propagation of elastic pulses in an inhomogeneous deformed continuum. In the case of two-dimensional stress fields, we obtain acoustoelasticity integral relations between the probing pulse parameters and the initial strain (stress) distribution in the direction of pulse propagation in the strained body. We also consider an example of application of the obtained integral relations in the inverse acoustic tomography problem for residual strains in a strip.
Inflation in inhomogeneous cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calzetta, Esteban; Sakellariadou, Maria
1992-04-01
We discuss the onset of inflation in an inhomogeneous, asymptotically Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe coupled to a scalar inflaton field. We consider a three-parameter family of inhomogeneous Cauchy data, for which we can solve analytically the constraint equations. Inflation only occurs if the Cauchy data are homogeneous over several horizon lengths.
Probabilistic Elastography: Estimating Lung Elasticity
Risholm, Petter; Ross, James; Washko, George R.; Wells, William M.
2011-01-01
We formulate registration-based elastography in a probabilistic framework and apply it to study lung elasticity in the presence of emphysematous and fibrotic tissue. The elasticity calculations are based on a Finite Element discretization of a linear elastic biomechanical model. We marginalize over the boundary conditions (deformation) of the biomechanical model to determine the posterior distribution over elasticity parameters. Image similarity is included in the likelihood, an elastic prior is included to constrain the boundary conditions, while a Markov model is used to spatially smooth the inhomogeneous elasticity. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique to characterize the posterior distribution over elasticity from which we extract the most probable elasticity as well as the uncertainty of this estimate. Even though registration-based lung elastography with inhomogeneous elasticity is challenging due the problem's highly underdetermined nature and the sparse image information available in lung CT, we show promising preliminary results on estimating lung elasticity contrast in the presence of emphysematous and fibrotic tissue. PMID:21761697
Probabilistic elastography: estimating lung elasticity.
Risholm, Petter; Ross, James; Washko, George R; Wells, William M
2011-01-01
We formulate registration-based elastography in a probabilistic framework and apply it to study lung elasticity in the presence of emphysematous and fibrotic tissue. The elasticity calculations are based on a Finite Element discretization of a linear elastic biomechanical model. We marginalize over the boundary conditions (deformation) of the biomechanical model to determine the posterior distribution over elasticity parameters. Image similarity is included in the likelihood, an elastic prior is included to constrain the boundary conditions, while a Markov model is used to spatially smooth the inhomogeneous elasticity. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique to characterize the posterior distribution over elasticity from which we extract the most probable elasticity as well as the uncertainty of this estimate. Even though registration-based lung elastography with inhomogeneous elasticity is challenging due the problem's highly underdetermined nature and the sparse image information available in lung CT, we show promising preliminary results on estimating lung elasticity contrast in the presence of emphysematous and fibrotic tissue.
Radially inhomogeneous bounded plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakeri-Khatir, H.; Aghamir, F. M.
2016-07-01
On the basis of kinetic theory along with self-consistent field equations, the expressions for dielectric tensor of radially inhomogeneous magnetized plasma columns are obtained. The study of dielectric tensor characteristics allows the accurate analysis of the inhomogeneous properties, beyond limitations that exist in the conventional method. Through the Bessel-Fourier transformation, the localized form of material equations in a radially inhomogeneous medium are obtained. In order to verify the integrity of the model and reveal the effect of inhomogeneity, a special case of a cylindrical plasma waveguide completely filled with inhomogeneous magnetized cold plasma was considered. The dispersion relation curves for four families of electromagnetic (EH and HE) and electrostatic (SC and C) modes are obtained and compared with the findings of the conventional model. The numerical analysis indicates that the inhomogeneity effect leads to coupling of electromagnetic and electrostatic modes each having different radial eigen numbers. The study also reveals that the electrostatic modes are more sensitive to inhomogeneous effects than the electromagnetic modes.
Cloud Inhomogeneity from MODIS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Cahalan, Robert F.
2004-01-01
Two full months (July 2003 and January 2004) of MODIS Atmosphere Level-3 data from the Terra and Aqua satellites are analyzed in order to characterize the horizontal variability of cloud optical thickness and water path at global scales. Various options to derive cloud variability parameters are discussed. The climatology of cloud inhomogeneity is built by first calculating daily parameter values at spatial scales of l degree x 1 degree, and then at zonal and global scales, followed by averaging over monthly time scales. Geographical, diurnal, and seasonal changes of inhomogeneity parameters are examined separately for the two cloud phases, and separately over land and ocean. We find that cloud inhomogeneity is weaker in summer than in winter, weaker over land than ocean for liquid clouds, weaker for local morning than local afternoon, about the same for liquid and ice clouds on a global scale, but with wider probability distribution functions (PDFs) and larger latitudinal variations for ice, and relatively insensitive to whether water path or optical thickness products are used. Typical mean values at hemispheric and global scales of the inhomogeneity parameter nu (roughly the mean over the standard deviation of water path or optical thickness), range from approximately 2.5 to 3, while for the inhomogeneity parameter chi (the ratio of the logarithmic to linear mean) from approximately 0.7 to 0.8. Values of chi for zonal averages can occasionally fall below 0.6 and for individual gridpoints below 0.5. Our results demonstrate that MODIS is capable of revealing significant fluctuations in cloud horizontal inhomogenity and stress the need to model their global radiative effect in future studies.
Modeling of indentation into inhomogeneous soft tissues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyubicheva, A. N.; Goryacheva, I. G.; Dosaev, M. Z.; Su, F.-Ch.
2017-01-01
A simulation of a contact interaction of the indenter and inhomogeneous soft biological tissues is carried out. The soft tissue is modeled by the incompressible elastic body which contains structural inhomogeneities (spherical or longitudinal inclusions). The elastic moduli of inclusions are higher than the bulk soft tissue modulus. These inclusions may be considered, in particular, as the models of the pathological growths. The indenter has the form of a hollow hemisphere (shell). It is the model of the mechanoreceptor developed in [1] to study the mechanical properties of soft tissues. The hydrostatic pressure can be applied inside the shell. Based on the numerical analysis, the dependences of the contact area size, and contact pressure on penetration of the indenter into the sample for several values of the inclusion size, depth, its location, the ratio of the elastic moduli of inclusion and the surrounding material, but also for various values of hydrostatic pressure inside the shell were obtained. The possibility of an inverse problem solution for determining the mechanical properties of the inclusion, and its size by measuring the contact characteristics is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Haibao; Huang, Wei Min; Lian Wu, Xue; Ge, Yu Chun; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Yong; Geng, Junfeng
2014-06-01
In this paper, the heating/ethanol-response of a commercial poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) is investigated. All PMMA samples are pre-deformed by means of impression (surface compression with a mold) to introduce a gradient pre-strain/stress field. Two types of molds are applied in impression. One is a Singaporean coin and the other is a particularly designed mold with a variable protrusive feature on top. Two potential applications—temperature sensors to monitor overheating temperatures and anti-counterfeit labels with a water-mark that appears only upon heating to a particular temperature—are demonstrated. Since the heating-responsive shape memory effect (SME) is an intrinsic feature of almost all polymers, other conventional polymers may be used in such applications as well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hongding; La, Peiqing; Shi, Ting; Wei, Yupeng; Jiao, Huisheng
2014-01-01
In this study, a processing route is introduced to control the morphology of carbide and the grain size of nanocrystalline matrix of Fe-Al-Cr alloy. After predeformation followed by annealing treatment, the grain size of nanocrystalline matrix decreased slightly and the Cr7C3 phases transformed from a fiber shape to the globular shape. The yield strength and the flow stress of the alloy increased from 1048 to 1338 MPa and 1150 to 1550 MPa, respectively, while the ductility of the alloy also became better. This proposed method may open a way for controlling the morphology of carbide and the grain size of matrix in bulk nanocrystalline materials to receive higher strength and better plasticity.
Theoretical understanding of chromospheric inhomogeneities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Delache, P.
1973-01-01
Detailed theoretical studies of chromospheric inhomogeneities consider dynamics as well as radiative transfer of mass flow as a consequence of energy deposition. It is shown that pressure is exerted by the heating waves, especially in inhomogeneous structures, where they can be defracted. A dynamical model is formulated that depicts the inhomogeneous structure of the chromosphere-corona transition region through mass flow regimes.
Sampling inhomogeneous turbulent fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adrian, R. J.; Moin, P.; Moser, R. D.
1988-01-01
The reconstruction of an inhomogeneous random process from a finite number of discrete samples can be performed in terms of the Karhunen-Loeve (KL) expansion for that process. The n(th) eigenfunction has n - 1 zero crossings which are the sampling points for the inhomogeneous process. The rapid variation of the KL eigenfunctions makes it unnecessary to have a high density of sampling (or grid points) near the wall. However, this result should not be construed to indicate that with spectral simulations significantly fewer grid points are required with the KL expansion as compared to other orthogonal expansions. Moin and Moser (1989) have shown that the advantage of the KL expansion over Chebychev expansion rapidly diminishes when high percentage (say 90 percent) energy recovery is demanded.
Byrnes, Christian T.; Nurmi, Sami; Tasinato, Gianmassimo; Wands, David E-mail: s.nurmi@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de E-mail: david.wands@port.ac.uk
2012-03-01
We propose a method to probe higher-order correlators of the primordial density field through the inhomogeneity of local non-Gaussian parameters, such as f{sub NL}, measured within smaller patches of the sky. Correlators between n-point functions measured in one patch of the sky and k-point functions measured in another patch depend upon the (n+k)-point functions over the entire sky. The inhomogeneity of non-Gaussian parameters may be a feasible way to detect or constrain higher- order correlators in local models of non-Gaussianity, as well as to distinguish between single and multiple-source scenarios for generating the primordial density perturbation, and more generally to probe the details of inflationary physics.
Inhomogeneous compact extra dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bronnikov, K. A.; Budaev, R. I.; Grobov, A. V.; Dmitriev, A. E.; Rubin, Sergey G.
2017-10-01
We show that an inhomogeneous compact extra space possesses two necessary features— their existence does not contradict the observable value of the cosmological constant Λ4 in pure f(R) theory, and the extra dimensions are stable relative to the "radion mode" of perturbations, the only mode considered. For a two-dimensional extra space, both analytical and numerical solutions for the metric are found, able to provide a zero or arbitrarily small Λ4. A no-go theorem has also been proved, that maximally symmetric compact extra spaces are inconsistent with 4D Minkowski space in the framework of pure f(R) gravity.
Stabilizing synchrony by inhomogeneity
Bolhasani, Ehsan; Valizadeh, Alireza
2015-01-01
We show that for two weakly coupled identical neuronal oscillators with strictly positive phase resetting curve, isochronous synchrony can only be seen in the absence of noise and an arbitrarily weak noise can destroy entrainment and generate intermittent phase slips. Small inhomogeneity–mismatch in the intrinsic firing rate of the neurons–can stabilize the phase locking and lead to more precise relative spike timing of the two neurons. The results can explain how for a class of neuronal models, including leaky integrate-fire model, inhomogeneity can increase correlation of spike trains when the neurons are synaptically connected. PMID:26338691
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diamond, Larryn W.; Tarantola, Alexandre
2015-05-01
A well developed theoretical framework is available in which paleofluid properties, such as chemical composition and density, can be reconstructed from fluid inclusions in minerals that have undergone no ductile deformation. The present study extends this framework to encompass fluid inclusions hosted by quartz that has undergone weak ductile deformation following fluid entrapment. Recent experiments have shown that such deformation causes inclusions to become dismembered into clusters of irregularly shaped relict inclusions surrounded by planar arrays of tiny, new-formed (neonate) inclusions. Comparison of the experimental samples with a naturally sheared quartz vein from Grimsel Pass, Aar Massif, Central Alps, Switzerland, reveals striking similarities. This strong concordance justifies applying the experimentally derived rules of fluid inclusion behaviour to nature. Thus, planar arrays of dismembered inclusions defining cleavage planes in quartz may be taken as diagnostic of small amounts of intracrystalline strain. Deformed inclusions preserve their pre-deformation concentration ratios of gases to electrolytes, but their H2O contents typically have changed. Morphologically intact inclusions, in contrast, preserve the pre-deformation composition and density of their originally trapped fluid. The orientation of the maximum principal compressive stress (σ1) at the time of shear deformation can be derived from the pole to the cleavage plane within which the dismembered inclusions are aligned. Finally, the density of neonate inclusions is commensurate with the pressure value of σ1 at the temperature and time of deformation. This last rule offers a means to estimate magnitudes of shear stresses from fluid inclusion studies. Application of this new paleopiezometer approach to the Grimsel vein yields a differential stress (σ1-σ3) of ˜ 300 MPa at 390 ± 30 °C during late Miocene NNW-SSE orogenic shortening and regional uplift of the Aar Massif. This differential
Shear viscosity of inhomogeneous fluids.
Hoang, Hai; Galliero, Guillaume
2012-03-28
Using molecular dynamics simulations on inhomogeneous fluids, we have studied the effects of strong density inhomogeneities of varying wavelengths on the shear viscosity computed locally. For dense fluids, the local average density model combined with an adequate weight function yields a good description of the viscosity profiles obtained by simulations. However, for low density inhomogeneous fluids, the local average density model is unable to describe correctly the viscosity profiles obtained by simulations. It is shown that this weakness can be overcome by taking into account the density inhomogeneity in the local translational contribution to the viscosity using a density gradient like approach.
Interaction Among Inhomogeneities.
1980-12-01
cracks induced by hydraulic fracturing . This is an application of the inclusion theory to geothermal energy extraction problem. Our research on the elastic...2, 475-489 (1979). E. N. Mastrojannis, L. M. Keer, and T. Mura, "Growth of Planar Cracks induced by Hydraulic Fracturing ," Int. J. Numerical Meth
Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo
2016-10-01
In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with ``flat'' (including toroidal) and ``open'' (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are ``flat'' or ``open''. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with ``flat'' or ``open'' topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.
Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology
Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo
2016-10-12
In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with “flat” (including toroidal) and “open” (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are “flat” or “open”. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with “flat” or “open” topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.
Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology
Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo
2016-10-12
In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here in this paper, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with "flat'' (including toroidal) and "open'' (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarilymore » large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are "flat" or "open". Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with "flat'' or "open" topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.« less
Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology
Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo
2016-10-12
In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here in this paper, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with "flat'' (including toroidal) and "open'' (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are "flat" or "open". Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with "flat'' or "open" topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.
Topological implications of inhomogeneity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roukema, Boudewijn F.; Blanlœil, Vincent; Ostrowski, Jan J.
2013-02-01
The approximate homogeneity of spatial sections of the Universe is well supported observationally, but the inhomogeneity of the spatial sections is even better supported. Here, we consider the implications of inhomogeneity in dust models for the connectedness of spatial sections at early times. We consider a nonglobal Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) model designed to match observations, a more general, heuristic model motivated by the former, and two specific, global LTB models. We propose that the generic class of solutions of the Einstein equations projected back in time from the spatial section at the present epoch includes subclasses in which the spatial section evolves (with increasing time) smoothly (i) from being disconnected to being connected, or (ii) from being simply connected to being multiply connected, where the coordinate system is comoving and synchronous. We show that (i) and (ii) each contain at least one exact solution. These subclasses exist because the Einstein equations allow nonsimultaneous big bang times. The two types of topology evolution occur over time slices that include significantly postquantum epochs if the bang time varies by much more than a Planck time. In this sense, it is possible for cosmic topology evolution to be “mostly” classical.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paul, H.; Tarasek, A.; Wajda, W.; Berent, K.
2014-08-01
Crystal lattice rotations induced by shear bands developed in an AA1050 aluminium alloy have been examined in order to investigate the influence of the finegrained structure on the slip propagation across the grain boundaries and the resulting texture evolution. Samples of the AA1050 alloy were pre-deformed in ECAP up to 6 passes via route C, then machined and further compressed in a channel-die up to ~25% at room temperature. The microstructure and texture were characterized by SEM equipped with a high resolution EBSD facility. The ECAP-processing leads to the formation of a fine grained structure. The grains were grouped into nearly complementarily oriented layers. During the secondary straining in the channel-die, the layers of fine grains, initially situated almost parallel to the compression plane, undergo deflection within some narrow areas. This is the beginning stage of the macroscopic shear band (MSB) formation. In all the deformed grains examined (within MSB) a strong tendency for strain-induced re-orientation could be observed. The SEM orientation mapping shows how the layers of flattened grains are incorporated into the MSB area, and what kinds of mechanisms are responsible for the strain accommodation at the macro-scale. Finally, a crystallographic description of the mechanism of MSB formation in AA1050 aluminium alloy is proposed based on the local lattice re-orientations due to localized kinking.
Inhomogeneous Thermal Quenches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sohrabi, Kiyoumars A.
2017-07-01
We describe holographic thermal quenches that are inhomogeneous in space. The main characteristic of the quench is to take the system far from its equilibrium configuration. Except in special extreme cases, the problem has no analytic solution. Using the numerical holography methods, we study different observables that measure thermalization such as the time evolution of the apparent horizon, two-point Wightman function and entanglement entropy (EE). Having an extra nontrivial spacial direction allows us to study this peculiar generalization since we categorize the problem based on whether we do the measurements along this special direction or perpendicular to it. Exciting new features that are absent in the common computations appear in the literature; the appearance of negative EE valleys surrounding the positive EE hills and abrupt quenches that occupy the whole space at their universal limit are some of the results of this paper. Physical explanation is given, and connections to Cardy's idea of thermalization are discussed.
Closed inhomogeneous string cosmologies
Feinstein, A.; Lazkoz, R.; Vazquez-Mozo, M.A.
1997-10-01
We present a general algorithm which permits us to construct solutions in string cosmology for heterotic and type-IIB superstrings in four dimensions. Using a chain of transformations applied in sequence{emdash}conformal, T duality, and SL(2,{bold R}) rotations, along with the usual generating techniques associated with Geroch transformations in Einstein frame{emdash}we obtain solutions with all relevant low-energy remnants of the string theory. To exemplify our algorithm we present an inhomogeneous string cosmology with S{sup 3} topology of spatial sections, discuss some properties of the solution, and point out some subtleties involved in the concept of homogeneity and isotropy in string cosmology. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Twinning-Induced Elasticity in NiTi Shape Memory Alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birk, Thorsten; Biswas, Somjeet; Frenzel, Jan; Eggeler, Gunther
2016-06-01
Pseudoelasticity (PE) in shape memory alloys relies on the formation of stress-induced martensite during loading and on the reverse transformation during unloading. PE yields reversible strains of up to 8 % and is applied in applications such as medical implants, flexible eye glass frames, damping elements, and others. Unfortunately, PE shows a strong temperature dependence and thus can only be exploited within a relatively narrow temperature window. The present work focuses on a related process, which we refer to as twinning-induced elasticity (TIE). It involves the growth and shrinkage of martensite variants which are stabilized by dislocations, which are introduced by appropriate cold work. TIE yields reversible strains of the order of 3 %. The TIE effect does not suffer from the strong temperature dependence of PE. The weak temperature dependence of mechanical TIE properties makes TIE attractive for applications where temperature fluctuations are large. In the present work, we study the TIE effect focusing on Ni50Ti50 shape memory alloy wires. The degree of plastic pre-deformation of the initial material represents a key parameter of the ingot metallurgy processing route. It governs the exploitable recoverable strain, the apparent Young's modulus, and the widths of the mechanical hysteresis. Dynamic mechanical analysis is used to study the effects of pre-deformation on elementary microstructural processes which govern TIE.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarantola, Alexandre; Diamond, Larryn W.
2015-04-01
A well developed theoretical framework is available in which paleofluid properties, such as chemical composition and density, can be reconstructed from fluid inclusions in minerals that have undergone no ductile deformation. Fluid inclusions are known to reequilibrate during strong post-entrapment changes in hydrostatic confining pressure (e.g. Sterner and Bodnar 1989). The present study extends this framework to encompass fluid inclusions hosted by quartz that has undergone weak ductile deformation following fluid entrapment. Recent piston-cylinder experiments (Griggs apparatus) made on single quartz crystals have shown that such deformation causes inclusions to become dismembered into clusters of irregularly shaped relict inclusions surrounded by planar arrays of tiny, new-formed (neonate) inclusions (Diamond et al. 2010; Tarantola et al. 2010, 2012). Comparison of the experimental samples with a naturally sheared quartz vein from Grimsel Pass, Central Alps, Switzerland, reveals striking similarities. This strong concordance justifies applying the experimentally derived rules of fluid inclusion behaviour to nature. Thus, planar arrays of dismembered inclusions defining cleavage planes in quartz may be taken as diagnostic of small amounts of intracrystalline strain. Deformed inclusions preserve their pre-deformation concentration ratios of gases to electrolytes, but their H2O contents typically have changed. Morphologically intact inclusions, in contrast, preserve the pre-deformation composition and density of their originally trapped fluid. The orientation of the maximum principal compressive stress (σ1) at the time of shear deformation can be derived from the pole to the cleavage plane within which the dismembered inclusions are aligned. Finally, the density of neonate inclusions is commensurate with the pressure value of σ1 at the temperature and time of deformation. This last rule offers a means to estimate magnitudes of shear stresses from fluid inclusion
Thermal effects in orthotropic porous elastic beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iaşan, D.
2009-01-01
This paper is concerned with the linear theory of anisotropic porous elastic bodies. The extension and bending of orthotropic porous elastic cylinders subjected to a plane temperature field is investigated. The work is motivated by the recent interest in the using of the orthotropic porous elastic solid as model for bones and various engineering materials. First, the thermoelastic deformation of inhomogeneous beams whose constitutive coefficients are independent of the axial coordinate is studied. Then, the extension and bending effects in orthotropic cylinders reinforced by longitudinal rods are investigated. The three-dimensional problem is reduced to the study of two-dimensional problems. The method is used to solve the problem of an orthotropic porous circular cylinder with a special kind of inhomogeneity.
Two-dimensional model of a plate made of an anisotropic inhomogeneous material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tovstik, P. E.; Tovstik, T. P.
2017-03-01
We present an asymptotic derivation of the two-dimensional equations of equilibrium of a thin elastic inhomogeneous plate manufactured of an anisotropic material of general form with 21 moduli of elasticity. We also consider simplified models obtained under special assumptions on the moduli. We use test examples to illustrate the error estimate of the proposed model and discuss its scope. The model is compared with the classical Kirchhoff-Love and Timoshenko-Reissner models.
Volume integrals of ellipsoids associated with the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fu, L. S.; Mura, T.
1982-01-01
Problems of wave phenomena in the fields of acoustics, electromagnetics and elasticity are often reduced to an integration of the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation. Results are presented for volume integrals associated with the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation, for an ellipsoidal region. By using appropriate Taylor series expansions and the multinomial theorem, these volume integrals are obtained in series form for regions r greater than r-prime and r less than r-prime, where r and r-prime are the distances from the origin to the point of observation and the source. Derivatives of these integrals are easily evaluated. When the wavenumber approaches zero the results reduce directly to the potentials of ellipsoids of variable densities.
Breather solutions for inhomogeneous FPU models using Birkhoff normal forms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martínez-Farías, Francisco; Panayotaros, Panayotis
2016-11-01
We present results on spatially localized oscillations in some inhomogeneous nonlinear lattices of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) type derived from phenomenological nonlinear elastic network models proposed to study localized protein vibrations. The main feature of the FPU lattices we consider is that the number of interacting neighbors varies from site to site, and we see numerically that this spatial inhomogeneity leads to spatially localized normal modes in the linearized problem. This property is seen in 1-D models, and in a 3-D model with a geometry obtained from protein data. The spectral analysis of these examples suggests some non-resonance assumptions that we use to show the existence of invariant subspaces of spatially localized solutions in quartic Birkhoff normal forms of the FPU systems. The invariant subspaces have an additional symmetry and this fact allows us to compute periodic orbits of the quartic normal form in a relatively simple way.
Generalized Langevin Theory for Inhomogeneous Fluids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grant, Martin Garth
This thesis presents a molecular theory of the dynamics of inhomogeneous fluids. Dynamical correlations in a nonuniform system are studied through the generalized Langevin approach. The equations of motion (formally exact) are obtained for the number density, momentum density, energy density, stress tensor and heat flux. We evaluate all the relevant sum rules appearing in the frequency matrix exactly in terms of microscopic pair potentials and an external field. We show using functional derivatives how these microscopic sum rules relate to more familiar, though now nonlocal, hydrodynamic-like quantities. The set of equations is closed by a Markov approximation in the equations for stress tensor and heat flux. As a result, these equations become analogous to Grad's 13-moment equations for low density fluids and constitute a generalization to inhomogeneous fluids of the work of Schofield and Akcasu-Daniels. We apply this formalism to several problems. We study the correlation of currents orthogonal to a diffuse planar, liquid-vapour, interface, introducing new nonlocal elastic moduli and new nonlocal, frequency dependent, viscosities. Novel symmetry breaking contributions are obtained, which are related to the Young-Laplace equation for pressure balance. The normal modes, associated with the symmetry breaking interface in the liquid-vapour system, are analyzed, taking into account the nonlocal nature of the diffuse planar interface. We obtain the classical dispersion relation for capillary waves, observed in light scattering experiments, from an adiabatic (molecular) approach. We consider the 'capillary wave model' (CWM) of the equilibrium liquid-vapour interface. CWM is reformulated to be consistent with capillary waves; corrections to the standard CWM results, due to self-consistent long range coupling, are obtained for finite surface area and nonzero gravitational acceleration. Finally, we obtain the Landau-Lifshitz theory of fluctuating hydrodynamics from the
Volumetric Elasticity Imaging with a 2D CMUT Array
Fisher, Ted G.; Hall, Timothy J.; Panda, Satchi; Richards, Michael S.; Barbone, Paul E.; Jiang, Jingfeng; Resnick, Jeff; Barnes, Steve
2010-01-01
This paper reports the use of a two-dimensional (2D) capacitive micro-machined ultrasound transducer (CMUT) to acquire radio frequency (RF) echo data from relatively large volumes of a simple ultrasound phantom to compare 3D elasticity imaging methods. Typical 2D motion tracking for elasticity image formation was compared to three different methods of 3D motion tracking, with sum-squared difference (SSD) used as the similarity measure. Differences among the algorithms were the degree to which they tracked elevational motion: not at all (2D search), planar search, combination of multiple planes, and plane independent guided search. The cross correlation between the pre-deformation and motion-compensated post-deformation RF echo fields was used to quantify motion tracking accuracy. The lesion contrast-to-noise ratio was used to quantify image quality. Tracking accuracy and strain image quality generally improved with increased tracking sophistication. When used as input for a 3D modulus reconstruction, high quality 3D displacement estimates yielded accurate and low noise modulus reconstruction. PMID:20510188
Volumetric elasticity imaging with a 2-D CMUT array.
Fisher, Ted G; Hall, Timothy J; Panda, Satchi; Richards, Michael S; Barbone, Paul E; Jiang, Jingfeng; Resnick, Jeff; Barnes, Steve
2010-06-01
This article reports the use of a two-dimensional (2-D) capacitive micro-machined ultrasound transducer (CMUT) to acquire radio-frequency (RF) echo data from relatively large volumes of a simple ultrasound phantom to compare three-dimensional (3-D) elasticity imaging methods. Typical 2-D motion tracking for elasticity image formation was compared with three different methods of 3-D motion tracking, with sum-squared difference (SSD) used as the similarity measure. Differences among the algorithms were the degree to which they tracked elevational motion: not at all (2-D search), planar search, combination of multiple planes and plane independent guided search. The cross-correlation between the predeformation and motion-compensated postdeformation RF echo fields was used to quantify motion tracking accuracy. The lesion contrast-to-noise ratio was used to quantify image quality. Tracking accuracy and strain image quality generally improved with increased tracking sophistication. When used as input for a 3-D modulus reconstruction, high quality 3-D displacement estimates yielded accurate and low noise modulus reconstruction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fu, L. S. W.
1982-01-01
The scattering of a single ellipsoidal inhomogeneity is studied via an eigenstrain approach. The displacement field is given in terms of volume integrals that involve eigenstrains that are related to mismatch in mass density and that in elastic moduli. The governing equations for these unknown eigenstrains are derived. Agreement with other approaches for the scattering problem is shown. The formulation is general and both the inhomogeneity and the host medium can be anisotrophic. The axisymmetric scattering of an ellipsoidal inhomogeneity in a linear elastic isotropic medium is given as an example. The angular and frequency dependence of the scattered displacement field, the differential and total cross sections are formally given in series expansions for the case of uniformly distributed eigenstrains.
Averaging inhomogenous cosmologies - a dialogue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchert, T.
The averaging problem for inhomogeneous cosmologies is discussed in the form of a disputation between two cosmologists, one of them (RED) advocating the standard model, the other (GREEN) advancing some arguments against it. Technical explanations of these arguments as well as the conclusions of this debate are given by BLUE.
Averaging inhomogeneous cosmologies - a dialogue.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchert, T.
The averaging problem for inhomogeneous cosmologies is discussed in the form of a disputation between two cosmologists, one of them (RED) advocating the standard model, the other (GREEN) advancing some arguments against it. Technical explanations of these arguments as well as the conclusions of this debate are given by BLUE.
Surface elasticity effect on the size-dependent elastic property of nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Haiyan; Yun, Guohong; Bai, Narsu; Li, Jiangang
2012-04-01
A modified core-shell (MC-S) model is proposed to investigate the effect of surface elasticity on the elastic properties of nanowires under bending and tension loading modes. The continuous exponential function based on bulk elasticity is applied to the surface region of nanowires to better describe the elasticity in the surface layer. Two parameters related to the surface, namely, the inhomogeneous degree constant α˜, and the transition region of this inhomogeneous state rs (i.e., surface layer thickness), are introduced for examining the size effects of the elastic modulus of the overall nanowires. A strong size dependence of elasticity is revealed under both bending and tension loads. Furthermore, the theoretical solution for an effective Young's modulus with relevant experiments, as well as the results of a molecular statistical thermodynamics (MST) method for zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires, and a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for silicon (Si) nanowires, are compared. It is shown that the theoretical curves not only agree well with the experimental data, but also fit the computational results (MST or MD) approximately below 20 nm. As a result, our model can predict the behavior of surface elasticity, with respect to the lateral size of nanostructures at a relatively small scale, no matter how stiff or soft the surface of the nanomaterials.
Inhomogeneous cosmology with numerical relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Macpherson, Hayley J.; Lasky, Paul D.; Price, Daniel J.
2017-03-01
We perform three-dimensional numerical relativity simulations of homogeneous and inhomogeneous expanding spacetimes, with a view toward quantifying nonlinear effects from cosmological inhomogeneities. We demonstrate fourth-order convergence with errors less than one part in 1 06 in evolving a flat, dust Friedmann-Lemaître-Roberston-Walker spacetime using the Einstein Toolkit within the Cactus framework. We also demonstrate agreement to within one part in 1 03 between the numerical relativity solution and the linear solution for density, velocity and metric perturbations in the Hubble flow over a factor of ˜350 change in scale factor (redshift). We simulate the growth of linear perturbations into the nonlinear regime, where effects such as gravitational slip and tensor perturbations appear. We therefore show that numerical relativity is a viable tool for investigating nonlinear effects in cosmology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vassiliev, Dmitri
2017-04-01
We consider an infinite three-dimensional elastic continuum whose material points experience no displacements, only rotations. This framework is a special case of the Cosserat theory of elasticity. Rotations of material points are described mathematically by attaching to each geometric point an orthonormal basis that gives a field of orthonormal bases called the coframe. As the dynamical variables (unknowns) of our theory, we choose the coframe and a density. We write down the general dynamic variational functional for our rotational theory of elasticity, assuming our material to be physically linear but the kinematic model geometrically nonlinear. Allowing geometric nonlinearity is natural when dealing with rotations because rotations in dimension three are inherently nonlinear (rotations about different axes do not commute) and because there is no reason to exclude from our study large rotations such as full turns. The main result of the talk is an explicit construction of a class of time-dependent solutions that we call plane wave solutions; these are travelling waves of rotations. The existence of such explicit closed-form solutions is a non-trivial fact given that our system of Euler-Lagrange equations is highly nonlinear. We also consider a special case of our rotational theory of elasticity which in the stationary setting (harmonic time dependence and arbitrary dependence on spatial coordinates) turns out to be equivalent to a pair of massless Dirac equations. The talk is based on the paper [1]. [1] C.G.Boehmer, R.J.Downes and D.Vassiliev, Rotational elasticity, Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, 2011, vol. 64, p. 415-439. The paper is a heavily revised version of preprint https://arxiv.org/abs/1008.3833
Absorption in Extended Inhomogeneous Clouds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Joiner, Joanna; Vasilkov, Alexander; Spurr, Robert; Bhartia, P. K.; Krotkov, Nick
2008-01-01
The launch of several different sensors, including CloudSat, into the A-train constellation of satellites allows us for the first time to compute absorption that can occur in realistic vertically inhomogeneous clouds including multiple cloud decks. CloudSat data show that these situations are common. Therefore, understanding vertically inhomogeneous clouds is important from both climate and satellite atmospheric composition remote sensing perspectives. Satellite passive sensors that operate from the near IR to the UV often rely on radiative cloud pressures derived from absorption in oxygen bands (A, B, gamma, or O2-O2 bands) or from rotational-Raman scattering in order to retrieve information about atmospheric trace gases. The radiative cloud pressure is distinct from the physical cloud top derived from thermal infrared measurements. Therefore, the combination of information from different passive sensors yields some information about the cloud vertical profile. When either or both the clouds or atmospheric absorbers (trace gases and aerosols) are vertically inhomogeneous, the use of an effective cloud pressure derived from these approaches may lead to errors. Here, we focus on several scenarios (deep convective clouds and distinct two layer clouds) based on realistic cloud optical depth vertical profiles derived from the CloudSatfMODIS combination. We focus on implications for trace-gas column amount retrievals (specifically ozone and NO2) and derived surface UV irradiance from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Atrain Aura platform.
Numerical micromagnetism of strong inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreas, Christian; Gliga, Sebastian; Hertel, Riccardo
2014-08-01
The size of micromagnetic structures, such as domain walls or vortices, is comparable to the exchange length of the ferromagnet. Both, the exchange length of the stray field ls and the magnetocrystalline exchange length lk, are material-dependent quantities that usually lie in the nanometer range. This emphasizes the theoretical challenges associated with the mesoscopic nature of micromagnetism: the magnetic structures are much larger than the atomic lattice constant, but at the same time much smaller than the sample size. In computer simulations, the smallest exchange length serves as an estimate for the largest cell size admissible to prevent appreciable discretization errors. This general rule is not valid in special situations where the magnetization becomes particularly inhomogeneous. When such strongly inhomogeneous structures develop, micromagnetic simulations inevitably contain systematic and numerical errors. It is suggested to combine micromagnetic theory with a Heisenberg model to resolve such problems. We analyze cases where strongly inhomogeneous structures pose limits to standard micromagnetic simulations, arising from fundamental aspects as well as from numerical drawbacks.
Ultrasonic beam fluctuation and flaw signal variance in inhomogeneous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, S.; Roberts, R.; Margetan, F.
2000-05-01
This paper examines the effect of forward scattering on ultrasonic beam propagation and flaw signal amplitude in inhomogeneous material microstructures. A beam propagating through a weakly-scattering, randomly inhomogeneous medium will display random fluctuations in amplitude and phase, attributable to forward scattering. Correspondingly, the signal received from a given flaw at a given position in the beam volume will fluctuate as the beam and flaw are simultaneously scanned throughout the volume of an inhomogeneous host medium. These effects have been prominently observed in the inspection of titanium. For example, maps of beam amplitude profiles after transmission through titanium reveal severe distortion of beam amplitude and phase. Similarly, signals from "identical" flat bottom holes (FBH) at equal depths but different lateral positions in titanium display a random variation in amplitude. Interestingly, it has been noted that this FBH signal variance varies inversely to the beam diameter, that is, signal variance normalized to the mean signal amplitude is a minimum when the flaw is in the focal zone of a focused bearn. As this observation has great significance to the inspection of titanium, a model, prediction of this phenomenon is being sought. In the work reported here, beam propagation is formulated as a volumetric integral equation employing the Green function for the homogeneous spatial mean of the medium. The integral equation is solved using iterative methods. Preliminary work considering scalar two-dimensional propagation in inhomogeneous media has predicted a flaw signal variance that displays an inverse relation to beam diameter, thus reproducing the qualitative behavior seen in experimental data in titanium. Current work is extending the preliminary two-dimensional scalar result to three-dimensional elasticity, representing propagation in an actual titanium microstructure. Progress on this effort will be reported.
A micromechanical approach for homogenization of elastic metamaterials with dynamic microstructure.
Muhlestein, Michael B; Haberman, Michael R
2016-08-01
An approximate homogenization technique is presented for generally anisotropic elastic metamaterials consisting of an elastic host material containing randomly distributed heterogeneities displaying frequency-dependent material properties. The dynamic response may arise from relaxation processes such as viscoelasticity or from dynamic microstructure. A Green's function approach is used to model elastic inhomogeneities embedded within a uniform elastic matrix as force sources that are excited by a time-varying, spatially uniform displacement field. Assuming dynamic subwavelength inhomogeneities only interact through their volume-averaged fields implies the macroscopic stress and momentum density fields are functions of both the microscopic strain and velocity fields, and may be related to the macroscopic strain and velocity fields through localization tensors. The macroscopic and microscopic fields are combined to yield a homogenization scheme that predicts the local effective stiffness, density and coupling tensors for an effective Willis-type constitutive equation. It is shown that when internal degrees of freedom of the inhomogeneities are present, Willis-type coupling becomes necessary on the macroscale. To demonstrate the utility of the homogenization technique, the effective properties of an isotropic elastic matrix material containing isotropic and anisotropic spherical inhomogeneities, isotropic spheroidal inhomogeneities and isotropic dynamic spherical inhomogeneities are presented and discussed.
A micromechanical approach for homogenization of elastic metamaterials with dynamic microstructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muhlestein, Michael B.; Haberman, Michael R.
2016-08-01
An approximate homogenization technique is presented for generally anisotropic elastic metamaterials consisting of an elastic host material containing randomly distributed heterogeneities displaying frequency-dependent material properties. The dynamic response may arise from relaxation processes such as viscoelasticity or from dynamic microstructure. A Green's function approach is used to model elastic inhomogeneities embedded within a uniform elastic matrix as force sources that are excited by a time-varying, spatially uniform displacement field. Assuming dynamic subwavelength inhomogeneities only interact through their volume-averaged fields implies the macroscopic stress and momentum density fields are functions of both the microscopic strain and velocity fields, and may be related to the macroscopic strain and velocity fields through localization tensors. The macroscopic and microscopic fields are combined to yield a homogenization scheme that predicts the local effective stiffness, density and coupling tensors for an effective Willis-type constitutive equation. It is shown that when internal degrees of freedom of the inhomogeneities are present, Willis-type coupling becomes necessary on the macroscale. To demonstrate the utility of the homogenization technique, the effective properties of an isotropic elastic matrix material containing isotropic and anisotropic spherical inhomogeneities, isotropic spheroidal inhomogeneities and isotropic dynamic spherical inhomogeneities are presented and discussed.
Thermal rectification in inhomogeneous nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Budaev, Bair V.; Bogy, David B.
2016-12-01
Heat transfer in axially inhomogeneous nanotubes is known to be asymmetric with respect to the direction of transfer. This phenomenon is known as the thermal rectification. We demonstrate that thermal rectification in such nanotubes arises due to the interference of phonons excited in the different parts of the nanotube. It is shown that the rectification does not vanish when the thickness of nanotube increases, but it vanishes as the external diameter of nanotubes decreases to a few nanometers. The understanding of the origin of thermal rectification opens a way to the design of devices controlling heat flows that could perform as efficiently as their electronic counterparts controlling electric currents.
Inhomogeneous interface laser mirror coatings.
Ledger, A M
1979-09-01
Methods of improving the durability of thin-film laser mirror coatings for 10.6 microm using thorium fluoride, zinc selenide, and zinc sulfide materials have been investigated. The largest improvement in film durability was obtained by using inhomogeneous interface fabrication for all the dielectric-dielectric interfaces and by incorporating cerium fluoride protective overcoating material into the film design. Experimental results are given for enhanced reflectors, polarization-selective coatings, and buried-grating aperture-sharing coatings designed for high-power laser applications.
Casimir stress in an inhomogeneous medium
Philbin, T.G. Xiong, C.; Leonhardt, U.
2010-03-15
The Casimir effect in an inhomogeneous dielectric is investigated using Lifshitz's theory of electromagnetic vacuum energy. A permittivity function that depends continuously on one Cartesian coordinate is chosen, bounded on each side by homogeneous dielectrics. The result for the Casimir stress is infinite everywhere inside the inhomogeneous region, a divergence that does not occur for piece-wise homogeneous dielectrics with planar boundaries. A Casimir force per unit volume can be extracted from the infinite stress but it diverges on the boundaries between the inhomogeneous medium and the homogeneous dielectrics. An alternative regularization of the vacuum stress is considered that removes the contribution of the inhomogeneity over small distances, where macroscopic electromagnetism is invalid. The alternative regularization yields a finite Casimir stress inside the inhomogeneous region, but the stress and force per unit volume diverge on the boundaries with the homogeneous dielectrics. The case of inhomogeneous dielectrics with planar boundaries thus falls outside the current understanding of the Casimir effect.
Elastic Fluctuations and Rubber Elasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xing, Xiangjun; Goldbart, Paul; Rradzihovsky, Leo
2006-03-01
A coarse-grained phenomenological model is constructed to describe both phonon fluctuations and elastic heterogeneities in rubbery materials. It is a nonlocal, spatially heterogeneous generalization of the classical model of rubber elasticity, and with a tunable repulsion interaction. This model can also be derived from the Vulcanization theory. The residual stress and the non-affine deformation field, as well as their correlations, are calculated perturbatively, to the leading order of quenched randomness. It is explicitly shown that the interplay between the repulsive interaction and quenched randomness induces non- affine deformation. The spatial correlations of the non- affine deformation field and residual stress exhibit power-law scaling, with no characteristic length scale. We also calculate the contributions to the elastic free energy from both thermal and quenched fluctuations for arbitrary deformation. We find that they naturally explain the universal features in the Mooney-Rivlin plot of the stress-strain curve for rubbery materials. The (disorder averaged) thermal fluctuation of monomers is shown to depend on deformation, and becomes anisotropic upon shear deformation, as long as the repulsive interaction is finite.
A Chebychev propagator for inhomogeneous Schroedinger equations
Ndong, Mamadou; Koch, Christiane P.; Tal-Ezer, Hillel; Kosloff, Ronnie
2009-03-28
A propagation scheme for time-dependent inhomogeneous Schroedinger equations is presented. Such equations occur in time dependent optimal control theory and in reactive scattering. A formal solution based on a polynomial expansion of the inhomogeneous term is derived. It is subjected to an approximation in terms of Chebychev polynomials. Different variants for the inhomogeneous propagator are demonstrated and applied to two examples from optimal control theory. Convergence behavior and numerical efficiency are analyzed.
Inhomogeneous state of few-fermion superfluids.
Bugnion, P O; Lofthouse, J A; Conduit, G J
2013-07-26
The few-fermion atomic gas is an ideal setting to explore inhomogeneous superfluid pairing analogous to the Larkin-Ovchinnikov state. Two up and one down-spin atom is the minimal configuration that displays an inhomogeneous pairing density, whereas imbalanced systems containing more fermions present a more complex pairing topology. With more than eight atoms trapped the system approaches the macroscopic superfluid limit. An oblate trap with a central barrier offers a direct experimental probe of pairing inhomogeneity.
Polarized radiation from inhomogeneous shocks
Wu, Kinwah.
1989-01-01
Strongly polarized radiation from AM Herculis binaries is believed to be due to cyclotron emission from hot magnetized plasmas. The flat optically thin spectra and strong IR polarization observed in these binaries cannot be explained by models assuming a homogeneous emission region with a simple geometry. Therefore, the cyclotron emission from infinite plasma cylinders with uniform magnetic fields and temperatures was studied, but with a variety of axially symmetric electron density profiles and it was shown that such inhomogeneous plasmas are able to produce relatively flat spectra which cannot be produced by the homogeneous models. The polarization at low frequencies is shown to be stronger than that due to the homogeneous plasmas and the polarization at high frequencies is weaker. The steady state hydrodynamics was also studied of bremsstrahlung dominated shocks and the cyclotron emission was calculated from them. Three types of accretion rate profiles (uniform, axisymmetric and asymmetric) were considered. The shock-structure is planar for the uniform accretion rate case. The shock due to an axisymmetric accretion rate is a curved surface. For asymmetric accretion, the post-shock region is asymmetric and hence produces asymmetric light curves. All these inhomogeneous shocks produce flat optical/IR spectra and strong IR polarization.
3DHZETRN: Inhomogeneous Geometry Issues
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Badavi, Francis F.
2017-01-01
Historical methods for assessing radiation exposure inside complicated geometries for space applications were limited by computational constraints and lack of knowledge associated with nuclear processes occurring over a broad range of particles and energies. Various methods were developed and utilized to simplify geometric representations and enable coupling with simplified but efficient particle transport codes. Recent transport code development efforts, leading to 3DHZETRN, now enable such approximate methods to be carefully assessed to determine if past exposure analyses and validation efforts based on those approximate methods need to be revisited. In this work, historical methods of representing inhomogeneous spacecraft geometry for radiation protection analysis are first reviewed. Two inhomogeneous geometry cases, previously studied with 3DHZETRN and Monte Carlo codes, are considered with various levels of geometric approximation. Fluence, dose, and dose equivalent values are computed in all cases and compared. It is found that although these historical geometry approximations can induce large errors in neutron fluences up to 100 MeV, errors on dose and dose equivalent are modest (<10%) for the cases studied here.
Moving inhomogeneous envelopes of stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oskinova, Lidia M.; Kubátová, Brankica; Hamann, Wolf-Rainer
2016-11-01
Massive stars are extremely luminous and drive strong winds, blowing a large part of their matter into the galactic environment before they finally explode as a supernova. Quantitative knowledge of massive star feedback is required to understand our Universe as we see it. Traditionally, massive stars have been studied under the assumption that their winds are homogeneous and stationary, largely relying on the Sobolev approximation. However, observations with the newest instruments, together with progress in model calculations, ultimately dictate a cardinal change of this paradigm: stellar winds are highly inhomogeneous. Hence, we are now advancing to a new stage in our understanding of stellar winds. Using the foundations laid by V.V. Sobolev and his school, we now update and further develop the stellar spectral analysis techniques. New sophisticated 3-D models of radiation transfer in inhomogeneous expanding media elucidate the physics of stellar winds and improve classical empiric mass-loss rate diagnostics. Applications of these new techniques to multiwavelength observations of massive stars yield consistent and robust stellar wind parameters.
Thomson scattering on inhomogeneous targets.
Thiele, R; Sperling, P; Chen, M; Bornath, Th; Fäustlin, R R; Fortmann, C; Glenzer, S H; Kraeft, W-D; Pukhov, A; Toleikis, S; Tschentscher, Th; Redmer, R
2010-11-01
The introduction of brilliant free-electron lasers enables new pump-probe experiments to characterize warm dense matter states. For instance, a short-pulse optical laser irradiates a liquid hydrogen jet that is subsequently probed with brilliant soft x-ray radiation. The strongly inhomogeneous plasma prepared by the optical laser is characterized with particle-in-cell simulations. The interaction of the soft x-ray probe radiation for different time delays between pump and probe with the inhomogeneous plasma is also taken into account via radiative hydrodynamic simulations. We calculate the respective scattering spectrum based on the Born-Mermin approximation for the dynamic structure factor considering the full density and temperature-dependent Thomson scattering cross section throughout the target. We can identify plasmon modes that are generated in different target regions and monitor their temporal evolution. Therefore, such pump-probe experiments are promising tools not only to measure the important plasma parameters density and temperature but also to gain valuable information about their time-dependent profile through the target. The method described here can be applied to various pump-probe scenarios by combining optical lasers and soft x ray, as well as x-ray sources.
Quasiadiabatic modes from viscous inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giovannini, Massimo
2016-04-01
The viscous inhomogeneities of a relativistic plasma determine a further class of entropic modes whose amplitude must be sufficiently small since curvature perturbations are observed to be predominantly adiabatic and Gaussian over large scales. When the viscous coefficients only depend on the energy density of the fluid the corresponding curvature fluctuations are shown to be almost adiabatic. After addressing the problem in a gauge-invariant perturbative expansion, the same analysis is repeated at a nonperturbative level by investigating the nonlinear curvature inhomogeneities induced by the spatial variation of the viscous coefficients. It is demonstrated that the quasiadiabatic modes are suppressed in comparison with a bona fide adiabatic solution. Because of its anomalously large tensor to scalar ratio the quasiadiabatic mode cannot be a substitute for the conventional adiabatic paradigm so that, ultimately, the present findings seems to exclude the possibility of a successful accelerated dynamics solely based on relativistic viscous fluids. If the dominant adiabatic mode is not affected by the viscosity of the background a sufficiently small fraction of entropic fluctuations of viscous origin cannot be a priori ruled out.
Scattering from inhomogeneous penetrable bodies of revolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Govind, S.; Wilton, D. R.; Glisson, A. W.
1984-11-01
A systematic procedure for studying scattering from inhomogeneous penetrable bodies in which the inhomogeneity is modeled by piecewise homogeneous layers, is presented. The procedure utilizes the block tridiagonal property of the system matrix to simplify the computations and is applied to examples of dielectric bodies of revolution. An extension of the technique permits the solution of a composite missile/plume scattering problem.
Declercq, Nico F; Leroy, Oswald
2011-08-01
Plane waves are solutions of the visco-elastic wave equation. Their wave vector can be real for homogeneous plane waves or complex for inhomogeneous and evanescent plane waves. Although interesting from a theoretical point of view, complex wave vectors normally only emerge naturally when propagation or scattering is studied of sound under the appearance of damping effects. Because of the particular behavior of inhomogeneous and evanescent waves and their estimated efficiency for surface wave generation, bounded beams, experimentally mimicking their infinite counterparts similar to (wide) Gaussian beams imitating infinite harmonic plane waves, are of special interest in this report. The study describes the behavior of bounded inhomogeneous and bounded evanescent waves in terms of amplitude and phase distribution as well as energy flow direction. The outcome is of importance to the applicability of bounded inhomogeneous ultrasonic waves for nondestructive testing.
MR image intensity inhomogeneity correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
(Vişan Pungǎ, Mirela; Moldovanu, Simona; Moraru, Luminita
2015-01-01
MR technology is one of the best and most reliable ways of studying the brain. Its main drawback is the so-called intensity inhomogeneity or bias field which impairs the visual inspection and the medical proceedings for diagnosis and strongly affects the quantitative image analysis. Noise is yet another artifact in medical images. In order to accurately and effectively restore the original signal, reference is hereof made to filtering, bias correction and quantitative analysis of correction. In this report, two denoising algorithms are used; (i) Basis rotation fields of experts (BRFoE) and (ii) Anisotropic Diffusion (when Gaussian noise, the Perona-Malik and Tukey's biweight functions and the standard deviation of the noise of the input image are considered).
Light propagation in inhomogeneous universes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schneider, Peter; Weiss, Achim
1988-01-01
Refsdal's (1970) method is generalized to study the propagation of light rays through an inhomogeneous universe. The probability distribution for the linear component of the cumulative shear (CS) along light rays is derived, and it is shown that the CS can be dominated by nonlinear components, espcially for light rays in empty cones. The amplification tail of the amplification probability distribution is compared with analytic results; these linear investigations are shown to underestimate the high-amplification probability and hence the importance of the amplification bias in source counts. The distribution of the ellipticity of images of infinitesimal circular sources is derived, and it is shown that this can be dominated by the nonlinear contributions to the CS.
Particle production in inhomogeneous cosmologies
Cespedes, J.; Verdaguer, E. )
1990-02-15
A perturbative evaluation of the {ital S} matrix is used to compute the production of particles in an expanding flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe in the presence of small inhomogeneities. We first consider the production of massless conformally coupled and weakly nonconformally coupled particles, obtaining known results, and then we consider the production of massive particles. The production of massive particles cannot be treated only perturbatively and a method is proposed to compute this in general. The pair-production probability is computed using two different, but related, methods: in one we directly evaluate the number of particles produced and in the other we concentrate mainly on the vacuum-to-vacuum or vacuum persistence amplitude.
Inhomogeneities of stratocumulus liquid water
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cahalan, Robert F.; Snider, Jack B.
1990-01-01
There is a growing body of observational evidence on inhomogeneous cloud structure, most recently from the extensive measurements of the FIRE field program. Knowledge of cloud structure is important because it strongly influences the cloud radiative properties, one of the major factors in determining the global energy balance. Current atmospheric circulation models use plane-parallel radiation, so that the liquid water in each gridbox is assumed to be uniform, which gives an unrealistically large albedo. In reality cloud liquid water occupies only a subset of each gridbox, greatly reducing the mean albedo. If future climate models are to treat the hydrological cycle in a manner consistent with energy balance, a better treatment of cloud liquid is needed. FIRE concentrated upon two cloud types of special interest: cirrus and marine stratocumulus. Cirrus tend to be high and optically thin, thus reducing the effective radiative temperature without increasing the albedo significantly, leading to an enhanced greenhouse heating. In contrast, marine stratocumulus are low and optically thick, thus producing a large increase in reflected radiation with a small change in emitted radiation, giving a net cooling which could potentially mitigate the expected greenhouse warming. The FIRE measurements in California stratocumulus during June and July of 1987 show variations in cloud liquid water on all scales. Such variations are associated with inhomogeneous entrainment, in which entrained dry air, rather than mixing uniformly with cloudy air, remains intact in blobs of all sizes, which decay only slowly by invasion of cloudy air. Two important stratocumulus observations are described, followed by a simple fractal model which reproduces these properties, and finally, the model radiative properties are discussed.
Quantifying uncertainty from material inhomogeneity.
Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Emery, John M.; Brewer, Luke N.; Boyce, Brad Lee
2009-09-01
Most engineering materials are inherently inhomogeneous in their processing, internal structure, properties, and performance. Their properties are therefore statistical rather than deterministic. These inhomogeneities manifest across multiple length and time scales, leading to variabilities, i.e. statistical distributions, that are necessary to accurately describe each stage in the process-structure-properties hierarchy, and are ultimately the primary source of uncertainty in performance of the material and component. When localized events are responsible for component failure, or when component dimensions are on the order of microstructural features, this uncertainty is particularly important. For ultra-high reliability applications, the uncertainty is compounded by a lack of data describing the extremely rare events. Hands-on testing alone cannot supply sufficient data for this purpose. To date, there is no robust or coherent method to quantify this uncertainty so that it can be used in a predictive manner at the component length scale. The research presented in this report begins to address this lack of capability through a systematic study of the effects of microstructure on the strain concentration at a hole. To achieve the strain concentration, small circular holes (approximately 100 {micro}m in diameter) were machined into brass tensile specimens using a femto-second laser. The brass was annealed at 450 C, 600 C, and 800 C to produce three hole-to-grain size ratios of approximately 7, 1, and 1/7. Electron backscatter diffraction experiments were used to guide the construction of digital microstructures for finite element simulations of uniaxial tension. Digital image correlation experiments were used to qualitatively validate the numerical simulations. The simulations were performed iteratively to generate statistics describing the distribution of plastic strain at the hole in varying microstructural environments. In both the experiments and simulations, the
Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Park, Seonghun; Eckstein, Felix; Ateshian, Gerard A
2003-10-01
It has been well established that articular cartilage is compositionally and mechanically inhomogenous through its depth. To what extent this structural inhomogeneity is a prerequisite for appropriate cartilage function and integrity is not well understood. The first hypothesis to be tested in this study was that the depth-dependent inhomogeneity of the cartilage acts to maximize the interstitial fluid load support at the articular surface, to provide efficient frictional and wear properties. The second hypothesis was that the inhomogeneity produces a more homogeneous state of elastic stress in the matrix than would be achieved with uniform properties. We have, for the first time, simultaneously determined depth-dependent tensile and compressive properties of human patellofemoral cartilage from unconfined compression stress relaxation tests. The results show that the tensile modulus increases significantly from 4.1 +/- 1.9 MPa in the deep zone to 8.3 +/- 3.7 MPa at the superficial zone, while the compressive modulus decreases from 0.73 +/- 0.26 MPa to 0.28 +/- 0.16 MPa. The experimental measurements were then implemented with the finite-element method to compute the response of an inhomogeneous and homogeneous cartilage layer to loading. The finite-element models demonstrate that structural inhomogeneity acts to increase the interstitial fluid load support at the articular surface. However, the state of stress, strain, or strain energy density in the solid matrix remained inhomogeneous through the depth of the articular layer, whether or not inhomogeneous material properties were employed. We suggest that increased fluid load support at the articular surface enhances the frictional and wear properties of articular cartilage, but that the tissue is not functionally adapted to produce homogeneous stress, strain, or strain energy density distributions. Interstitial fluid pressurization, but not a homogeneous elastic stress distribution, appears thus to be a
Gautier, G; Kelders, L; Groby, J P; Dazel, O; De Ryck, L; Leclaire, P
2011-09-01
Wave propagation in macroscopically inhomogeneous porous materials has received much attention in recent years. The wave equation, derived from the alternative formulation of Biot's theory of 1962, was reduced and solved recently in the case of rigid frame inhomogeneous porous materials. This paper focuses on the solution of the full wave equation in which the acoustic and the elastic properties of the poroelastic material vary in one-dimension. The reflection coefficient of a one-dimensional macroscopically inhomogeneous porous material on a rigid backing is obtained numerically using the state vector (or the so-called Stroh) formalism and Peano series. This coefficient can then be used to straightforwardly calculate the scattered field. To validate the method of resolution, results obtained by the present method are compared to those calculated by the classical transfer matrix method at both normal and oblique incidence and to experimental measurements at normal incidence for a known two-layers porous material, considered as a single inhomogeneous layer. Finally, discussion about the absorption coefficient for various inhomogeneity profiles gives further perspectives.
Shear waves in inhomogeneous, compressible fluids in a gravity field.
Godin, Oleg A
2014-03-01
While elastic solids support compressional and shear waves, waves in ideal compressible fluids are usually thought of as compressional waves. Here, a class of acoustic-gravity waves is studied in which the dilatation is identically zero, and the pressure and density remain constant in each fluid particle. These shear waves are described by an exact analytic solution of linearized hydrodynamics equations in inhomogeneous, quiescent, inviscid, compressible fluids with piecewise continuous parameters in a uniform gravity field. It is demonstrated that the shear acoustic-gravity waves also can be supported by moving fluids as well as quiescent, viscous fluids with and without thermal conductivity. Excitation of a shear-wave normal mode by a point source and the normal mode distortion in realistic environmental models are considered. The shear acoustic-gravity waves are likely to play a significant role in coupling wave processes in the ocean and atmosphere.
Elasticity, adhesion and actin based propulsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gopinathan, Ajay
2006-03-01
When a cells crawls, its shape re-organizes via polymerization and depolymerization of actin filaments. The growing ends of the filaments are oriented towards the outside of the cell, and their polymerization pushes the cell membrane forwards. The same mechanism comes into play when the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes infects a cell. The bacterium hijacks the host cell's actin machinery to create an actin network (the actin comet tail) that propels the bacterium through cells and into neighboring cells. We propose a mechanism for how polymerization gives rise to motility that incorporates the effects of inhomogeneous polymerization. We treat the actin comet tail as an elastic continuum tethered to the rear of the bacterium. The interplay of polymerization and tethering gives rise to inhomogeneous stresses calculated with a finite element analysis. We quantitatively reproduce many distinctive features of actin propulsion that have been observed experimentally, including stepped motion, hopping, tail shape and the propulsion of flat surfaces.
Size effects on magnetoelectric response of multiferroic composite with inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yue, Y. M.; Xu, K. Y.; Chen, T.; Aifantis, E. C.
2015-12-01
This paper investigates the influence of size effects on the magnetoelectric performance of multiferroic composite with inhomogeneities. Based on a simple model of gradient elasticity for multiferroic materials, the governing equations and boundary conditions are obtained from an energy variational principle. The general formulation is applied to consider an anti-plane problem of multiferroic composites with inhomogeneities. This problem is solved analytically and the effective magnetoelectric coefficient is obtained. The influence of the internal length (grain size or particle size) on the effective magnetoelectric coefficients of piezoelectric/piezomagnetic nanoscale fibrous composite is numerically evaluated and analyzed. The results suggest that with the increase of the internal length of piezoelectric matrix (PZT and BaTiO3), the magnetoelectric coefficient increases, but the rate of increase is ratcheting downwards. If the internal length of piezoelectric matrix remains unchanged, the magnetoelectric coefficient will decrease with the increase of internal length scale of piezomagnetic nonfiber (CoFe2O3). In a composite consisiting of a piezomagnetic matrix (CoFe2O3) reinforced with piezoelectric nanofibers (BaTiO3), an increase of the internal length in the piezomagnetic matrix, results to a decrease of the magnetoelectric coefficient, with the rate of decrease diminishing.
Predicting surface vibration from underground railways through inhomogeneous soil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Simon; Hunt, Hugh
2012-04-01
Noise and vibration from underground railways is a major source of disturbance to inhabitants near subways. To help designers meet noise and vibration limits, numerical models are used to understand vibration propagation from these underground railways. However, the models commonly assume the ground is homogeneous and neglect to include local variability in the soil properties. Such simplifying assumptions add a level of uncertainty to the predictions which is not well understood. The goal of the current paper is to quantify the effect of soil inhomogeneity on surface vibration. The thin-layer method (TLM) is suggested as an efficient and accurate means of simulating vibration from underground railways in arbitrarily layered half-spaces. Stochastic variability of the soil's elastic modulus is introduced using a K-L expansion; the modulus is assumed to have a log-normal distribution and a modified exponential covariance kernel. The effect of horizontal soil variability is investigated by comparing the stochastic results for soils varied only in the vertical direction to soils with 2D variability. Results suggest that local soil inhomogeneity can significantly affect surface velocity predictions; 90 percent confidence intervals showing 8 dB averages and peak values up to 12 dB are computed. This is a significant source of uncertainty and should be considered when using predictions from models assuming homogeneous soil properties. Furthermore, the effect of horizontal variability of the elastic modulus on the confidence interval appears to be negligible. This suggests that only vertical variation needs to be taken into account when modelling ground vibration from underground railways.
Localization of resistive domains in inhomogeneous superconductors
Gurevich, A.V.; Mints, R.G.
1981-01-01
The properties of resistive domains due to the Joule heating in inhomogeneous superconductors with transport currents are studied. The equilibrium of a domain at an inhomogeneity of arbitrary type and with dimensions much smaller than the dimensions of the domain is investigated. It is shown that resistive domains can become localized at inhomogeneities. The temperature distribution in a domain and the current--voltage characteristic of the domain are determined. The stability of localized domains is discussed. It is shown that such domains give rise to a hysteresis in the destruction (recovery) of the superconductivity by the transport current.
Inflation in spherically symmetric inhomogeneous models
Stein-Schabes, J.A.
1986-11-01
Exact analytical solutions of Einstein's equations are found for a spherically symmetric inhomogeneous metric in the presence of a massless scalar field with a flat potential. The process of isotropization and homogenization is studied in detail. It is found that the time dependence of the metric becomes de Sitter for large times. Two cases are studied. The first deals with a homogeneous scalar field, while the second with a spherically symmetric inhomogeneous scalar field. In the former case the metric is of the Robertson-Walker form, while the latter is intrinsically inhomogeneous. 16 refs.
Dynamics of Alfven solitons in inhomogeneous plasmas
Xu Tao; Li Lili; Lue Xing; Zhang Cheng; Tian Bo
2008-10-15
To provide an analytical scheme for the dynamical behavior of nonlinear Alfven waves in inhomogeneous plasmas, this paper investigates a generalized variable-coefficient derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation. In the sense of admitting the Lax pair and infinitely many conservation laws, the integrability of this equation is established under certain coefficient constraint which suggests which inhomogeneities support stable Alfven solitons. The Hirota method is adopted to construct the one- and multi-Alfven-soliton solutions. The inhomogeneous soliton features are also discussed through analyzing some important physical quantities. A sample model is treated with our results, and graphical illustration presents two energy-radiating Alfven soliton structures.
Holographic confinement in inhomogeneous backgrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marolf, Donald; Wien, Jason
2016-08-01
As noted by Witten, compactifying a d-dimensional holographic CFT on an S 1 gives a class of ( d - 1)-dimensional confining theories with gravity duals. The proto-typical bulk solution dual to the ground state is a double Wick rotation of the AdS d+1 Schwarzschild black hole known as the AdS soliton. We generalize such examples by allowing slow variations in the size of the S 1, and thus in the confinement scale. Coefficients governing the second order response of the system are computed for 3 ≤ d ≤ 8 using a derivative expansion closely related to the fluid-gravity correspondence. The primary physical results are that i) gauge-theory flux tubes tend to align orthogonal to gradients and along the eigenvector of the Hessian with the lowest eigenvalue, ii) flux tubes aligned orthogonal to gradients are attracted to gradients for d ≤ 6 but repelled by gradients for d ≥ 7, iii) flux tubes are repelled by regions where the second derivative along the tube is large and positive but are attracted to regions where the eigenvalues of the Hessian are large and positive in directions orthogonal to the tube, and iv) for d > 3, inhomogeneities act to raise the total energy of the confining vacuum above its zeroth order value.
Matched Interface and Boundary Method for Elasticity Interface Problems
Wang, Bao; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei
2015-01-01
Elasticity theory is an important component of continuum mechanics and has had widely spread applications in science and engineering. Material interfaces are ubiquity in nature and man-made devices, and often give rise to discontinuous coefficients in the governing elasticity equations. In this work, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method is developed to address elasticity interface problems. Linear elasticity theory for both isotropic homogeneous and inhomogeneous media is employed. In our approach, Lamé’s parameters can have jumps across the interface and are allowed to be position dependent in modeling isotropic inhomogeneous material. Both strong discontinuity, i.e., discontinuous solution, and weak discontinuity, namely, discontinuous derivatives of the solution, are considered in the present study. In the proposed method, fictitious values are utilized so that the standard central finite different schemes can be employed regardless of the interface. Interface jump conditions are enforced on the interface, which in turn, accurately determines fictitious values. We design new MIB schemes to account for complex interface geometries. In particular, the cross derivatives in the elasticity equations are difficult to handle for complex interface geometries. We propose secondary fictitious values and construct geometry based interpolation schemes to overcome this difficulty. Numerous analytical examples are used to validate the accuracy, convergence and robustness of the present MIB method for elasticity interface problems with both small and large curvatures, strong and weak discontinuities, and constant and variable coefficients. Numerical tests indicate second order accuracy in both L∞ and L2 norms. PMID:25914439
Matched Interface and Boundary Method for Elasticity Interface Problems.
Wang, Bao; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei
2015-09-01
Elasticity theory is an important component of continuum mechanics and has had widely spread applications in science and engineering. Material interfaces are ubiquity in nature and man-made devices, and often give rise to discontinuous coefficients in the governing elasticity equations. In this work, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method is developed to address elasticity interface problems. Linear elasticity theory for both isotropic homogeneous and inhomogeneous media is employed. In our approach, Lamé's parameters can have jumps across the interface and are allowed to be position dependent in modeling isotropic inhomogeneous material. Both strong discontinuity, i.e., discontinuous solution, and weak discontinuity, namely, discontinuous derivatives of the solution, are considered in the present study. In the proposed method, fictitious values are utilized so that the standard central finite different schemes can be employed regardless of the interface. Interface jump conditions are enforced on the interface, which in turn, accurately determines fictitious values. We design new MIB schemes to account for complex interface geometries. In particular, the cross derivatives in the elasticity equations are difficult to handle for complex interface geometries. We propose secondary fictitious values and construct geometry based interpolation schemes to overcome this difficulty. Numerous analytical examples are used to validate the accuracy, convergence and robustness of the present MIB method for elasticity interface problems with both small and large curvatures, strong and weak discontinuities, and constant and variable coefficients. Numerical tests indicate second order accuracy in both L∞ and L2 norms.
Pair-production in inhomogeneous electric fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, She-Sheng
2008-01-01
This is a preliminary study on the rate of electron-positron pair production in spatially inhomogeneous electric fields. We study the rate in the Sauter field and compare it to the rate in the homogeneous field.
Inhomogeneous Einstein-Rosen string cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clancy, Dominic; Feinstein, Alexander; Lidsey, James E.; Tavakol, Reza
1999-08-01
Families of anisotropic and inhomogeneous string cosmologies containing non-trivial dilaton and axion fields are derived by applying the global symmetries of the string effective action to a generalized Einstein-Rosen metric. The models exhibit a two-dimensional group of Abelian isometries. In particular, two classes of exact solutions are found that represent inhomogeneous generalizations of the Bianchi type VIh cosmology. The asymptotic behavior of the solutions is investigated and further applications are briefly discussed.
Diffraction by spherically symmetric inhomogeneous scatterers
Perel`man, A.Y.
1995-05-01
The problem of diffraction by scatterers optically inhomogeneous in the radial direction illuminated by sources with a fixed azimuthal structure is solved. Standard models are proposed for approximating the exact solution of the problem, in which partial potentials are represented in terms of exponential and exponential and cylindrical functions, and the corresponding algorithms for solving the problem are developed. A formula is deduced for the scattering cross section of a radially inhomogeneous sphere. 8 refs.
Apparatus Tests Thermocouples For Seebeck Inhomogeneity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burkett, Cecil G., Jr.; Bauserman, Willard A., Jr.; West, James W.
1995-01-01
Automated apparatus reveals sources of error not revealed in calibration. Computer-controlled apparatus detects and measures Seebeck inhomogeneities in sheathed thermocouples. Measures thermocouple output voltage as function of position of probe along sharp gradient of temperature. Abnormal variations in voltage-versus-position data indicative of Seebeck inhomogeneities. Prototype for development of standard method and equipment for routine acceptance/rejection testing of sheathed thermocouples in industrial and research laboratories.
How Forest Inhomogeneities Affect the Edge Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boudreault, Louis-Étienne; Dupont, Sylvain; Bechmann, Andreas; Dellwik, Ebba
2017-03-01
Most of our knowledge on forest-edge flows comes from numerical and wind-tunnel experiments where canopies are horizontally homogeneous. To investigate the impact of tree-scale heterogeneities ({>}1 m) on the edge-flow dynamics, the flow in an inhomogeneous forest edge on Falster island in Denmark is investigated using large-eddy simulation. The three-dimensional forest structure is prescribed in the model using high resolution helicopter-based lidar scans. After evaluating the simulation against wind measurements upwind and downwind of the forest leading edge, the flow dynamics are compared between the scanned forest and an equivalent homogeneous forest. The simulations reveal that forest inhomogeneities facilitate flow penetration into the canopy from the edge, inducing important dispersive fluxes in the edge region as a consequence of the flow spatial variability. Further downstream from the edge, the forest inhomogeneities accentuate the canopy-top turbulence and the skewness of the wind-velocity components while the momentum flux remains unchanged. This leads to a lower efficiency in the turbulent transport of momentum within the canopy. Dispersive fluxes are only significant in the upper canopy. Above the canopy, the mean flow is less affected by the forest inhomogeneities. The inhomogeneities induce an increase in the mean wind speed that was found to be equivalent to a decrease in the aerodynamic height of the canopy. Overall, these results highlight the importance of forest inhomogeneities when looking at canopy-atmosphere exchanges in forest-edge regions.
How Forest Inhomogeneities Affect the Edge Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boudreault, Louis-Étienne; Dupont, Sylvain; Bechmann, Andreas; Dellwik, Ebba
2016-09-01
Most of our knowledge on forest-edge flows comes from numerical and wind-tunnel experiments where canopies are horizontally homogeneous. To investigate the impact of tree-scale heterogeneities ({>}1 m) on the edge-flow dynamics, the flow in an inhomogeneous forest edge on Falster island in Denmark is investigated using large-eddy simulation. The three-dimensional forest structure is prescribed in the model using high resolution helicopter-based lidar scans. After evaluating the simulation against wind measurements upwind and downwind of the forest leading edge, the flow dynamics are compared between the scanned forest and an equivalent homogeneous forest. The simulations reveal that forest inhomogeneities facilitate flow penetration into the canopy from the edge, inducing important dispersive fluxes in the edge region as a consequence of the flow spatial variability. Further downstream from the edge, the forest inhomogeneities accentuate the canopy-top turbulence and the skewness of the wind-velocity components while the momentum flux remains unchanged. This leads to a lower efficiency in the turbulent transport of momentum within the canopy. Dispersive fluxes are only significant in the upper canopy. Above the canopy, the mean flow is less affected by the forest inhomogeneities. The inhomogeneities induce an increase in the mean wind speed that was found to be equivalent to a decrease in the aerodynamic height of the canopy. Overall, these results highlight the importance of forest inhomogeneities when looking at canopy-atmosphere exchanges in forest-edge regions.
Inhomogeneous Waves in Anisotropic Porous Layer Overlying Solid Bedrock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vashishth, A. K.; Khurana, P.
2002-12-01
The problem of propagation of inhomogeneous waves in anisotropic porous layered medium is studied using transfer matrix. Firstly, transfer matrix for an anisotropic porous layer is derived. Biot's poro-elastic theory is incorporated to model the acoustics of anisotropic porous layer. The interface between porous layer and elastic half-space is considered as imperfect and modified boundary conditions are applied for this more realistic situation. The theory of transfer matrix is used to derive the analytical expression for the surface impedance. Numerical computation of results is done for different degrees of bonding in the low as well as high-frequency range. In the first case, which is relevant to geophysical studies, the surface impedance is predicted for low-frequency range and surface impedance for second model is computed in high-frequency range. It is observed that loose bondedness is accompanied by the loss of energy at the interface. The technique of transfer matrix is utilized to compute the surface impedance in both cases. The role of surface impedance in seismological studies and in the study of composites is discussed.
Laser-driven electron acceleration in an inhomogeneous plasma channel
Zhang, Rong; Cheng, Li-Hong; Xue, Ju-Kui
2015-12-15
We study the laser-driven electron acceleration in a transversely inhomogeneous plasma channel. We find that, in inhomogeneous plasma channel, the developing of instability for electron acceleration and the electron energy gain can be controlled by adjusting the laser polarization angle and inhomogeneity of plasma channel. That is, we can short the accelerating length and enhance the energy gain in inhomogeneous plasma channel by adjusting the laser polarization angle and inhomogeneity of the plasma channel.
A circular inclusion with circumferentially inhomogeneous imperfect interface in harmonic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McArthur, D. R.; Sudak, L. J.
2016-03-01
In the following analysis, we present a rigorous solution for the problem of a circular elastic inclusion surrounded by an infinite elastic matrix in finite plane elastostatics. The inclusion and matrix are separated by a circumferentially inhomogeneous imperfect interface characterized by the linear spring-type imperfect interface model where the interface is such that the same degree of imperfection is realized in both the normal and tangential directions. Through the use of analytic continuation, a set of first-order coupled ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients are developed for two analytic potential functions. The unknown coefficients of the potential functions are determined from their analyticity requirements and some additional problem-specific constraints. An example is then presented for a specific class of interface where the inclusion mean stress is contrasted between the homogeneous interface and inhomogeneous interface models. It is shown that, for circumstances where a homogeneously imperfect interface may not be warranted, the inhomogeneous model has a pronounced effect on the mean stress within the inclusion.
Atomic picture of elastic deformation in a metallic glass
Wang, X. D.; Aryal, S.; Zhong, C.; Ching, W. Y.; Sheng, H. W.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, D. X.; Cao, Q. P.; Jiang, J. Z.
2015-03-17
The tensile behavior of a Ni₆₀Nb₄₀ metallic glass (MG) has been studied by using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculation with a large cell containing 1024 atoms (614 Ni and 410 Nb). We provide insight into how a super elastic limit can be achieved in a MG. Spatially inhomogeneous responses of single atoms and also major polyhedra are found to change greatly with increasing external stress when the strain is over 2%, causing the intrinsically viscoelastic behavior. We uncover the origin of the observed super elastic strain limit under tension (including linear and viscoelastic strains) in small-sized MG samples, mainly caused by inhomogeneous distribution of excess volumes in the form of newly formed subatomic cavities.
Atomic picture of elastic deformation in a metallic glass
Wang, X. D.; Aryal, S.; Zhong, C.; ...
2015-03-17
The tensile behavior of a Ni₆₀Nb₄₀ metallic glass (MG) has been studied by using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculation with a large cell containing 1024 atoms (614 Ni and 410 Nb). We provide insight into how a super elastic limit can be achieved in a MG. Spatially inhomogeneous responses of single atoms and also major polyhedra are found to change greatly with increasing external stress when the strain is over 2%, causing the intrinsically viscoelastic behavior. We uncover the origin of the observed super elastic strain limit under tension (including linear and viscoelastic strains) in small-sized MG samples,more » mainly caused by inhomogeneous distribution of excess volumes in the form of newly formed subatomic cavities.« less
Atomic picture of elastic deformation in a metallic glass.
Wang, X D; Aryal, S; Zhong, C; Ching, W Y; Sheng, H W; Zhang, H; Zhang, D X; Cao, Q P; Jiang, J Z
2015-03-17
The tensile behavior of a Ni60Nb40 metallic glass (MG) has been studied by using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculation with a large cell containing 1024 atoms (614 Ni and 410 Nb). We provide insight into how a super elastic limit can be achieved in a MG. Spatially inhomogeneous responses of single atoms and also major polyhedra are found to change greatly with increasing external stress when the strain is over 2%, causing the intrinsically viscoelastic behavior. We uncover the origin of the observed super elastic strain limit under tension (including linear and viscoelastic strains) in small-sized MG samples, mainly caused by inhomogeneous distribution of excess volumes in the form of newly formed subatomic cavities.
Micromechanics Solution for the Elastic Moduli of Fiber-Reinforced Concrete
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huan, Yu Jia; Yang, Liu; Jin, Yu; Guang, Jia Lian; Ming, Liu
2014-09-01
The overall elastic moduli of fiber-reinforced concrete composite materials are investigated by employing the theory of micromechanics. A method based on the Mori-Tanaka theory and triple inhomogeneities is found to provide a sufficiently accurate evaluation of the average elastic properties of fiber-reinforced concrete composite materials. The inhomogeneities of the materials are divided into three groups: a fine aggregate, a coarse aggregate, and fibers (steel or polymer). The elastic moduli of fiber-reinforced concrete composite materials are determined as functions of the physical properties and volume fraction of sand, gravel, fibers (steel or polymer), and cement paste as a matrix. The theoretical results obtained are compared with published experimental data. The parameters affecting the elastic moduli of fiber-reinforced concrete are discussed in detail.
Beginning inflation in an inhomogeneous universe
East, William E.; Kleban, Matthew; Linde, Andrei; Senatore, Leonardo
2016-09-06
Using numerical solutions of the full Einstein field equations coupled to a scalar inflaton field in 3+1 dimensions, we study the conditions under which a universe that is initially expanding, highly inhomogeneous and dominated by gradient energy can transition to an inflationary period. If the initial scalar field variations are contained within a sufficiently flat region of the inflaton potential, and the universe is spatially flat or open on average, inflation will occur following the dilution of the gradient and kinetic energy due to expansion. This is the case even when the scale of the inhomogeneities is comparable to the initial Hubble length, and overdense regions collapse and form black holes, because underdense regions continue expanding, allowing inflation to eventually begin. In conclusion, this establishes that inflation can arise from highly inhomogeneous initial conditions and solve the horizon and flatness problems, at least as long as the variations in the scalar field do not include values that exceed the inflationary plateau.
Assessment of inhomogeneous ELF magnetic field exposures.
Leitgeb, N; Cech, R; Schröttner, J
2008-01-01
In daily life as well as at workplaces, exposures to inhomogeneous magnetic fields become very frequent. This makes easily applicable compliance assessment methods increasingly important. Reference levels have been defined linking basic restrictions to levels of homogeneous fields at worst-case exposure conditions. If reference levels are met, compliance with basic restrictions can be assumed. If not, further investigations could still prove compliance. Because of the lower induction efficiency, inhomogeneous magnetic fields such as from electric appliances could be allowed exceeding reference levels. To easily assess inhomogeneous magnetic fields, a quick and flexible multi-step assessment procedure is proposed. On the basis of simulations with numerical, anatomical human models reference factors were calculated elevating reference levels to link hot-spot values measured at source surfaces to basic limits and allowing accounting for different source distance, size, orientation and position. Compliance rules are proposed minimising assessment efforts.
Beginning inflation in an inhomogeneous universe
East, William E.; Kleban, Matthew; Linde, Andrei; Senatore, Leonardo
2016-09-06
Using numerical solutions of the full Einstein field equations coupled to a scalar inflaton field in 3+1 dimensions, we study the conditions under which a universe that is initially expanding, highly inhomogeneous and dominated by gradient energy can transition to an inflationary period. If the initial scalar field variations are contained within a sufficiently flat region of the inflaton potential, and the universe is spatially flat or open on average, inflation will occur following the dilution of the gradient and kinetic energy due to expansion. This is the case even when the scale of the inhomogeneities is comparable to the initial Hubble length, and overdense regions collapse and form black holes, because underdense regions continue expanding, allowing inflation to eventually begin. This establishes that inflation can arise from highly inhomogeneous initial conditions and solve the horizon and flatness problems, at least as long as the variations in the scalar field do not include values that exceed the inflationary plateau.
Dendritic inhomogeneity of stainless maraging steels
Krasnikova, S.I.; Drobot, A.V.; Shmelev, A.Y.; Vukelich, S.B.
1986-03-01
The authors investigated dendritic inhomogeneity in industrial ingots 630 mm (steel I) in diameter and 500 mm (steel II) in diameter. The variation in the degree of dendritic inhomogeneity was investigated over the height of the ingots and across the sections on an MS-46 microprobe. It was established that the elements can be placed in the following order in accordance with the degree of reduction in the liquation factor: titanium, molybdenum, nickel, chromium, and cobalt. Titanium and molybdenum exhibit forward liquation in both steels, and chromium in steel II. The distribution of nickel and chromium in the steel I ingots and cobalt in the steel II ingots is unconventional. Dendritic inhomogeneity, which must be considered in assigning the heat treatment for finished articles, develops during the crystallization of stainless maraging steels.
Magnetostimulated inhomogeneity of electric field in aluminum
Sobol, V.R.; Mazurenko, O.N.; Drozd, A.A.
1997-06-01
The peculiarities of potential and current distribution in metals under inhomogeneous action of magnetic field is studied experimentally and analytically. Magnetic field inhomogeneity is modeled with a method of curving the electric current lines in rectangular conductors through the use of preset profiles of samples. Observed inhomogeneous distribution of electric potential is analyzed on the base of charge continuity. It is shown that current density redistribution takes place. Near one side current density is high and near another it is small. This is a reason of decrease of an effective cross-section of conductor with respective enhancement of magnetoresistance. Some analytical relations and modes of applications of observed phenomena in cryogenic electronic devices are proposed.
A piezoelectric screw dislocation near an elliptical inhomogeneity containing a confocal rigid line
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, C. Z.; Zhao, Y. X.; Liu, Y. W.
2012-09-01
The interaction between a piezoelectric screw dislocation and an elliptical inhomogeneity in piezoelectric composite material which contains an electrically conductive confocal rigid line is studied, especially analyzing the shielding effect of a piezoelectric screw dislocation near an elliptical inhomogeneity. By applying the complex variable method, the analytical solution to the elastic field and the electric field, the field intensity factors at the tip of the rigid line are derived. The image force acting on the piezoelectric screw dislocation is calculated by using the generalized Peach-Koehler formula. Accordingly, the location and the orientation of the dislocation, the material properties upon the shielding or anti-shielding effect on the stress intensity factors, as well as the effects of the rigid line and the electroelastic properties of the piezoelectric materials on the image force are discussed.
Effect of collisions on neutrino flavor inhomogeneity in a dense neutrino gas
Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Paris, Mark W.; Shalgar, Shashank
2017-09-25
We investigate the stability, with respect to spatial inhomogeneity, of a two-dimensional dense neutrino gas. The system exhibits growth of seed inhomogeneity due to nonlinear coherent neutrino self-interactions. In the absence of incoherent collisional effects, we also observe a dependence of this instability growth rate on the neutrino mass spectrum: the normal neutrino mass hierarchy exhibits spatial instability over a larger range of neutrino number density compared to that of the inverted case. Furthermore, we consider the effect of elastic incoherent collisions of the neutrinos with a static background of heavy, nucleon-like scatterers. At small scales, the growth of flavormore » instability can be suppressed by collisions. At large length scales we find, perhaps surprisingly, that for inverted neutrino mass hierarchy incoherent collisions fail to suppress flavor instabilities, independent of the coupling strength.« less
On electromagnetic field problems in inhomogeneous media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mohsen, A.
1973-01-01
Analysis of electromagnetic fields in inhomogeneous media is of practical interest in general scattering and propagation problems and in the study of lenses. For certain types of inhomogeneities, the fields may be represented in terms of two scalars. In a general orthogonal coordinate system, these potentials satisfy second order differential equations. Exact solutions of these equations are known only for a few particular cases and in general, an approximate or numerical technique must be employed. The present work reviews and generalizes some of the main methods of attack of the problem. The results are presented in a form appropriate for numerical computation.
Cosmic inhomogeneities and averaged cosmological dynamics.
Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T P
2008-10-31
If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a "dark energy." However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be "no." Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics.
Growing inhomogeneities in cosmological Goldstone modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benson, Katherine M.
1992-08-01
We examine the evolution of initial inhomogeneities in a Goldstone field in an expanding Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. We find subhorizon inhomogeneities grow, relative to the homogeneous state. This stems not from growing fluctuations - which simply redshift - but from rapid (ϱ ~ a-6) decay of the homogeneous state. We show how Goldstone modes escape assumptions - some inapplicable, some ill-founded - underpinning conventional analyses of cosmological fluctuations. Finally, we reconcile our analysis to standard cosmology, noting that the Goldstone evolution is essentially decoupled and dynamical. This material is based upon work supported by NSF grants PHY-87-14654 (while the author was at Harvard University) and PHY91-06210.
Polarization and adiabatic pumping in inhomogeneous crystals
Xiao, Di; Shi, Junren; Clougherty, Dennis; Niu, Qian
2009-01-01
We develop a general theory of electric polarization in crystals with inhomogeneous order. We show that the inhomogeneity-induced polarization can be classified into two parts: a perturbative contribution stemming from a correction to the basis functions and a topological contribution described in terms of the Chern-Simons form of the Berry gauge fields. The latter is determined up to an uncertainty quantum, which is the second Chern number in appropriate units. Our theory provides an exhaustive link between microscopic models and the macroscopic polarization.
Density inhomogeneity in ferroelectric thin films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Jiang-Li; Solbach, Axel; Klemradt, Uwe; Weirich, Thomas; Mayer, Joachim; Böttger, Ulrich; Schorn, Peter J.; Waser, Rainer
2006-07-01
Structural investigations of Pb(Zr ,Ti)O3 (PZT) ferroelectric thin films derived by chemical solution deposition on Pt /TiOx electrode stacks were performed using grazing incidence x-ray specular reflectivity of synchrotron radiation and transmission electron microscopy. A density inhomogeneity, i.e., a sublayer structure, in the PZT thin films was observed; the upper PZT sublayer had a lower density and the lower sublayer had a higher density. The influence of the density inhomogeneity, as a possible extrinsic contribution to size effects in ferroelectric thin films, was discussed.
Inhomogeneous generalization of some Bianchi models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carmeli, M.; Charach, Ch.
1980-02-01
Vacuum Bianchi models which can be transformed to the Einstein-Rosen metric are considered. The models are used in order to construct new inhomogeneous universes, which are generalizations of Bianchi cosmologies of types III, V and VIh. Recent generalizations of these Bianchi models, considered by Wainwright et al., are also discussed.
No hair theorem for inhomogeneous cosmologies
Jensen, L.G.; Stein-Schabes, J.A.
1986-03-01
We show that under very general conditions any inhomogeneous cosmological model with a positive cosmological constant, that can be described in a synchronous reference system will tend asymptotically in time towards the de Sitter solution. This is shown to be relevant in the context of inflationary models as it makes inflation very weakly dependent on initial conditions. 8 refs.
Angular radiation transfer in inhomogeneous dispersive media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saad, E. A.; El Ghazaly, A. A.; Krim, M. S. Abdel
1988-10-01
The equation of radiative transfer for an inhomogeneous dispersive finite medium subject to general boundary conditions is solved. The Padé approximation technique is used to calculate the angular distribution of radiation. Numerical results for the [0/1] Padé approximant lead to numerical results that compare with the exact results.
Weak Wave Coupling Through Plasma Inhomogeneity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swanson, D. G.
1998-11-01
Some effects of linear wave coupling due to effects of plasma inhomogeneity are well known through the process of mode conversion(D. G. Swanson, Theory of Mode Conversion and Tunneling in Inhomogenous Plasmas), (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1998).. Another type of resonant coupling in a periodically inhomogeneous plasma has been recently found(V. A. Svidzinski and D. G. Swanson, Physics of Plasmas series 5), 486 (1998)., but any two waves will generally be coupled if the plasma is inhomogeneous, although the coupling may be weak. If the wavelengths are close, nearly all of the energy in one mode may be transferred to the other mode over a distance that depends on the coupling strength. The coupling strength depends on gradients of the plasma parameters. This means that the coupling may occur over an extended region in space, but that substantial amounts of wave energy may be transferred to a wave traditionally thought to be independent. Low-frequency Alfvén waves are shown to be a good example of this type of coupling.
Mesoscale inhomogeneities in an aqueous ternary system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subramanian, Deepa; Hayward, Stephen; Altabet, Elia; Collings, Peter; Anisimov, Mikhail
2012-02-01
Aqueous solutions of certain low-molecular-weight organic compounds, such as alcohols, amines, or ethers, which are considered macroscopically homogeneous, show the presence of mysterious mesoscale inhomogeneities, order of a hundred nm in size. We have performed static and dynamic light scattering experiments in an aqueous ternary system consisting of tertiary butyl alcohol and propylene oxide. Tertiary butyl alcohol is completely soluble in water and in propylene oxide, and forms strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Based on results of the study, we hypothesize that the mesoscale inhomogeneities are akin to a micro phase separation, resulting from a competition between water molecules and propylene oxide molecules, wanting to be adjacent to amphiphilic tertiary butyl alcohol molecules. Coupling between two competing order parameters, super-lattice binary-alloy-like (``antiferromagnetic'' type) and demixing (``ferromagnetic'' type) may explain the formation of these inhomogeneities. Long-term stability investigation of this supramolecular structure has revealed that these inhomogeneities are exceptionally long-lived non-equilibrium structures that persist for weeks or even months.
Inhomogeneous random phase approximation: A solvable model
Lemm, J.C.
1995-11-15
A recently developed method to include particle-hole correlations into the time-independent mean field theory for scattering (TIMF) by an inhomogeneous random phase approximation (IRPA) is applied to a numerically solvable model. Having adapted the procedure according to numerical requirements, IRPA calculations turn out to be tractable. The obtained results improve TIMF results. 8 refs., 28 figs., 3 tabs.
Multifractal Analysis of Inhomogeneous Bernoulli Products
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batakis, Athanasios; Testud, Benoît
2011-03-01
We are interested to the multifractal analysis of inhomogeneous Bernoulli products which are also known as coin tossing measures. We give conditions ensuring the validity of the multifractal formalism for such measures. On another hand, we show that these measures can have a dense set of phase transitions.
Propagation of ultrasonic Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic functionally graded materials.
Kiełczyński, P; Szalewski, M; Balcerzak, A; Wieja, K
2016-02-01
This paper presents a theoretical study of the propagation behavior of ultrasonic Love waves in nonhomogeneous functionally graded elastic materials, which is a vital problem in the mechanics of solids. The elastic properties (shear modulus) of a semi-infinite elastic half-space vary monotonically with the depth (distance from the surface of the material). The Direct Sturm-Liouville Problem that describes the propagation of Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic functionally graded materials is formulated and solved by using two methods: i.e., (1) Finite Difference Method, and (2) Haskell-Thompson Transfer Matrix Method. The dispersion curves of phase and group velocity of surface Love waves in inhomogeneous elastic graded materials are evaluated. The integral formula for the group velocity of Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic graded materials has been established. The effect of elastic non-homogeneities on the dispersion curves of Love waves is discussed. Two Love wave waveguide structures are analyzed: (1) a nonhomogeneous elastic surface layer deposited on a homogeneous elastic substrate, and (2) a semi-infinite nonhomogeneous elastic half-space. Obtained in this work, the phase and group velocity dispersion curves of Love waves propagating in the considered nonhomogeneous elastic waveguides have not previously been reported in the scientific literature. The results of this paper may give a deeper insight into the nature of Love waves propagation in elastic nonhomogeneous functionally graded materials, and can provide theoretical guidance for the design and optimization of Love wave based devices.
Analysis of the Stress-Strain State of Inhomogeneous Hollow Cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigorenko, A. Ya.; Yaremchenko, S. N.
2016-07-01
The stress-strain state of an inhomogeneous hollow cylinder with different boundary conditions at the ends is analyzed using the three-dimensional theory of elasticity. Spline collocation is used to reduce the two-dimensional boundary-value problem to a boundary-value problem for a system of ordinary differential equations of high order with respect to the radial coordinate, which is solved with the stable discrete-orthogonalization method. The results obtained using the spline-collocation, Fourier-series, and finite-element methods are compared
Volume integrals associated with the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation. Part 1: Ellipsoidal region
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fu, L. S.; Mura, T.
1983-01-01
Problems of wave phenomena in fields of acoustics, electromagnetics and elasticity are often reduced to an integration of the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation. Results are presented for volume integrals associated with the Helmholtz operator, nabla(2) to alpha(2), for the case of an ellipsoidal region. By using appropriate Taylor series expansions and multinomial theorem, these volume integrals are obtained in series form for regions r 4' and r r', where r and r' are distances from the origin to the point of observation and source, respectively. Derivatives of these integrals are easily evaluated. When the wave number approaches zero, the results reduce directly to the potentials of variable densities.
Parametrization of turbulent fluxes over inhomogeneous landscapes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panin, G. N.; Bernhofer, Ch.
2008-12-01
Reasons for the nonclosure of the heat balance in the atmospheric boundary layers over natural land surfaces are analyzed. Results of measuring the heat-balance components over different land surfaces are used. The Cabauw (Netherlands) data (obtained throughout 1996 over a grass surface with intermittent shrubs and single trees) and the data from the Anchor station in Germany (measured over coniferous forest in 2000-2001) are analyzed. In all, the analysis involves about fifty thousand independent values of the heat-balance components measured in the experiments, which should be indicative of the reliability of the results obtained in the paper. The data have shown that the heat balance is not closed and the imbalance is 50-250 W/m2. The sum of the latent and sensible heat fluxes λ E + H = STF is found to be systematically smaller than the difference between the net radiation and the heat flux into the ground R n - G. It is shown that the main cause of a systematic heat imbalance in the atmospheric boundary layers over inhomogeneous land surfaces is that the methods of surface-flux measurement and estimation are based on the theory that requires the hypothesis of stationarity and horizontal homogeneity. Direct data analysis has shown that the heat imbalance increases with landscape inhomogeneity. In the paper, a parametrization of the heat imbalance is carried out and the coefficient k f ( z {0/ ef }/ L ef ) is introduced as a measure of inhomogeneity. For this, data from the experiments FIFE, KUREX, TARTEX, SADE, etc., are also used. Empirical formulas are presented to refine the results of direct measurements and calculations of surface fluxes over natural (inhomogeneous) land surfaces from profile and standard (using bulk parametrizations) data. These formulas can also be used to determine surface fluxes over inhomogeneous underlying land surfaces in order to take into account so-called subgrid-scale effects in constructing prediction models.
Annular inhomogeneities with eigenstrain and interphase modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markenscoff, Xanthippi; Dundurs, John
2014-03-01
Two and three-dimensional analytical solutions for an inhomogeneity annulus/ring (of arbitrary thickness) with eigenstrain are presented. The stresses in the core may become tensile (for dilatational eigenstrain in the annulus) depending on the relative shear moduli. For shear eigenstrain, an “interface rotation” and rotation jumps at the interphase also occur, consistent with the Frank-Bilby interface model. A Taylor series expansion for small thickness of the annulus is obtained to the second-order as to model thin interphases, with the limit agreeing with the Gurtin-Murdoch surface membrane, but also accounting for curvature effects.. The Eshelby “driving forces” on a boundary with eigenstrain are calculated, and for small, but finite, interphase thicknesses they account for the interaction of the two interfaces of the layer, and the next order term may induce instabilities, for some bimaterial combinations, if it becomes large enough to render the driving force zero. It is also proven that for 2-D inhomogeneities with eigenstrain the stresses have reduced material dependence for any geometry of the inhomogeneity. The case when the outer boundary of the inhomogeneity annulus with eigenstrain is a free surface is also analyzed and agrees with classical surface tension results in the limit, but, moreover, the thick free surface terms (next order in the expansion depending on the radius) are also obtained and may induce instabilities depending on the bimaterial combinations. Applications of inhomogeneity annuluses with eigenstrain are wide and include interphases in thermal barrier coatings and coated particles in electrically/thermally conductive adhesives.
Statistical concepts in radiative transfer through inhomogeneous media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindsey, C.; Jefferies, J. T.
1990-01-01
The theory of radiative transfer in inhomogeneous media is extended to handle transfer for scale lengths small compared to the scale size of the inhomogeneity. This is called the microscopic domain of inhomogeneous radiative transfer. A concept called the vector intensity distribution is introduced to characterize the statistical properties of radiation in various species of medium. Radiative transfer in an inhomogeneous atmosphere is expressed in terms of the evolution of this vector intensity distribution and its various moments along the optical path.
Surface Critical Phenomena in Smoothly Inhomogeneous Systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guim, Ihnsouk
We consider the surface critical behavior of semi -infinite magnetic systems with short-range couplings that depend smoothly on the distance from the surface. We study how the inhomogeneity of the couplings modifies the surface critical behavior at the bulk critical temperature. According to renormalization-group or scaling arguments, the modifications depend on how fast the inhomogeneity decays into the bulk. In the case of couplings that vary as K(m) = K(,B)+A/m('y), where K(,B) is the bulk coupling and m is the distance from the surface, the scaling theory predicts that for y > (nu)('-1), the surface critical behavior is the same as in the homogeneous case A = 0. Here is the critical exponent of the bulk correlation length. For y < (nu)(' -1), the scaling theory predicts an anomalous exponential decay of the boundary pair correlation function. In this thesis we calculate exact results for inhomogeneous two-dimensional Gaussian and Ising models. The results are in complete agreement with the scaling predictions. For y < (nu)('-1), the pair correlation function of surface spins separated by r decays as g(,(PARLL))(r)(TURN)exp {-(r/(')(xi))('1-(nu)y)}, (')(xi)(TURN)A('-(nu)/(1 -(nu)y)), with (nu) = 1/2 and 1 for the Gaussian and Ising models, respectively. In the Ising model with A > 0 and y < (nu)('-1), there is a spontaneous boundary magnetization m(,1) at the bulk critical temperature. In the limit A (--->) 0, m(,1) vanishes as A('1/{2(1-y)}). At y = (nu)('-1), we find nonuniversal surface critical behavior in both the Gaussian and Ising models. The exponent (eta)(,(PARLL)) which characterizes the correlation function in the large -r limit depends on A. In the Ising model with A > A(,c) > 0, y = (nu)('-1), we also find a non-zero spontaneous boundary magnetization at the bulk critical temperature, which vanishes as (A-A(,c))(' 1/2) as A (--->) A(,c). At A(,c) the correlation function exhibits an unusual logarithmic decay. The method we use for obtaining these
Elastically Decoupling Dark Matter.
Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim; Lorier, Nicolas Rey-Le; Tsai, Yu-Dai
2016-06-03
We present a novel dark matter candidate, an elastically decoupling relic, which is a cold thermal relic whose present abundance is determined by the cross section of its elastic scattering on standard model particles. The dark matter candidate is predicted to have a mass ranging from a few to a few hundred MeV, and an elastic scattering cross section with electrons, photons and/or neutrinos in the 10^{-3}-1 fb range.
Elastic internal flywheel gimbal
Rabenhorst, D.W.
1981-01-13
An elastic joint mounting and rotatably coupling a rotary inertial energy storage device or flywheel, to a shaft, the present gimbal structure reduces vibration and shock while allowing precession of the flywheel without the need for external gimbal mounts. The present elastic joint usually takes the form of an annular elastic member either integrally formed into the flywheel as a centermost segment thereof or attached to the flywheel or flywheel hub member at the center thereof, the rotary shaft then being mounted centrally to the elastic member.
Theory of Thomson scattering in inhomogeneous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozlowski, P. M.; Crowley, B. J. B.; Gericke, D. O.; Regan, S. P.; Gregori, G.
2016-04-01
Thomson scattering of laser light is one of the most fundamental diagnostics of plasma density, temperature and magnetic fields. It relies on the assumption that the properties in the probed volume are homogeneous and constant during the probing time. On the other hand, laboratory plasmas are seldom uniform and homogeneous on the temporal and spatial dimensions over which data is collected. This is particularly true for laser-produced high-energy-density matter, which often exhibits steep gradients in temperature, density and pressure, on a scale determined by the laser focus. Here, we discuss the modification of the cross section for Thomson scattering in fully-ionized media exhibiting steep spatial inhomogeneities and/or fast temporal fluctuations. We show that the predicted Thomson scattering spectra are greatly altered compared to the uniform case, and may lead to violations of detailed balance. Therefore, careful interpretation of the spectra is necessary for spatially or temporally inhomogeneous systems.
Signatures of inhomogeneity in the early universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fowler, William A.; Kawano, L. H.; Malaney, R. A.; Kavanagh, R. W.
We have made a systematic study of the production of elemental CNO in inhomogeneous nucleosynthesis, investigating a much larger region of parameter space than previously studied. We have determined abundances of CNO elements and ascertained the main channels to their production. We have focused in particular on the role played by the Li-7(n, gamma)Li-8(alpha, n)B-11(n, gamma)B-12(beta(-) nu)C-12 reaction sequence: in models with Omega(b) = 1, we show that this sequence provides the main channel to CNO element production of which there is a significant amount; for lower values of Omega(b), there is competition from Li-7(alpha, gamma)B-11 but here there is a concurrent decline in CNO production. From these determinations, CNO element production emerges as a distinct signature of an Omega(b) = 1 inhomogeneous universe.
Automatically generated code for relativistic inhomogeneous cosmologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bentivegna, Eloisa
2017-02-01
The applications of numerical relativity to cosmology are on the rise, contributing insight into such cosmological problems as structure formation, primordial phase transitions, gravitational-wave generation, and inflation. In this paper, I present the infrastructure for the computation of inhomogeneous dust cosmologies which was used recently to measure the effect of nonlinear inhomogeneity on the cosmic expansion rate. I illustrate the code's architecture, provide evidence for its correctness in a number of familiar cosmological settings, and evaluate its parallel performance for grids of up to several billion points. The code, which is available as free software, is based on the Einstein Toolkit infrastructure, and in particular leverages the automated code generation capabilities provided by its component Kranc.
Majorana quasiparticles of an inhomogeneous Rashba chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maśka, Maciej M.; Gorczyca-Goraj, Anna; Tworzydło, Jakub; Domański, Tadeusz
2017-01-01
We investigate the inhomogeneous Rashba chain coupled to a superconducting substrate, hosting the Majorana quasiparticles near its edges. We discuss its subgap spectrum and study how robust the zero-energy quasiparticles are against the diagonal and off-diagonal disorder. Studying the Z2 topological invariant we show that disorder-induced transition from the topologically nontrivial to trivial phases is manifested by characteristic features in the spatially resolved quasiparticle spectrum at zero energy. We provide evidence for the nonlocal nature of the zero-energy Majorana quasiparticles that are well preserved upon partitioning the chain into separate pieces. Even though the Majorana quasiparticles are not completely immune to inhomogeneity, we show that they can spread onto other (normal) nanoscopic objects via the proximity effect.
Primordial inhomogeneities from massive defects during inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Firouzjahi, Hassan; Karami, Asieh; Rostami, Tahereh
2016-10-01
We consider the imprints of local massive defects, such as a black hole or a massive monopole, during inflation. The massive defect breaks the background homogeneity. We consider the limit that the physical Schwarzschild radius of the defect is much smaller than the inflationary Hubble radius so a perturbative analysis is allowed. The inhomogeneities induced in scalar and gravitational wave power spectrum are calculated. We obtain the amplitudes of dipole, quadrupole and octupole anisotropies in curvature perturbation power spectrum and identify the relative configuration of the defect to CMB sphere in which large observable dipole asymmetry can be generated. We observe a curious reflection symmetry in which the configuration where the defect is inside the CMB comoving sphere has the same inhomogeneous variance as its mirror configuration where the defect is outside the CMB sphere.
Inhomogeneous chemical enrichment in the Galactic Halo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, Chiaki
2015-08-01
In a galaxy, chemical enrichment takes place in an inhomogeneous fashion, and the Galactic Halo is one of the places where the inhomogeneous effects are imprinted and can be constrained from observations. I show this using my chemodynamical simulations of Milky Way type galaxies. The scatter in the elemental abundances is originated from radial migration, merging/accretion of satellite galaxies, local variation of star formation and chemical enrichment, and intrinsic variation of nucleosynthesis yields. In the simulated galaxies, there is no strong age-metallicity relations. This means that the most metal poor stars are not always the oldest stars, and can be formed in chemically unevolved clouds at later times. The long-lifetime sources of chemical enrichment such as asymptotic giant blanch stars or neutron star mergers can contribute the abundance patterns of extremely metal-poor stars, which are in good agreement with observations.
Theory of Thomson scattering in inhomogeneous media
Kozlowski, P. M.; Crowley, B. J. B.; Gericke, D. O.; Regan, S. P.; Gregori, G.
2016-01-01
Thomson scattering of laser light is one of the most fundamental diagnostics of plasma density, temperature and magnetic fields. It relies on the assumption that the properties in the probed volume are homogeneous and constant during the probing time. On the other hand, laboratory plasmas are seldom uniform and homogeneous on the temporal and spatial dimensions over which data is collected. This is particularly true for laser-produced high-energy-density matter, which often exhibits steep gradients in temperature, density and pressure, on a scale determined by the laser focus. Here, we discuss the modification of the cross section for Thomson scattering in fully-ionized media exhibiting steep spatial inhomogeneities and/or fast temporal fluctuations. We show that the predicted Thomson scattering spectra are greatly altered compared to the uniform case, and may lead to violations of detailed balance. Therefore, careful interpretation of the spectra is necessary for spatially or temporally inhomogeneous systems. PMID:27068215
Improving Thermoelectric Properties of Nanowires Through Inhomogeneity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, J. Eduardo; Sánchez, Vicenta; Wang, Chumin
2016-10-01
Inhomogeneity in nanowires can be present in the cross-section and/or by breaking the translational symmetry along the nanowire. In particular, the quasiperiodicity introduces an unusual class of electronic and phononic transport with a singular continuous eigenvalue spectrum and critically localized wave functions. In this work, the thermoelectricity in periodic and quasiperiodically segmented nanobelts and nanowires is addressed within the Boltzmann formalism by using a real-space renormalization plus convolution method developed for the Kubo-Greenwood formula, in which tight-binding and Born models are, respectively, used for the calculation of electric and lattice thermal conductivities. For periodic nanowires, we observe a maximum of the thermoelectric figure-of-merit (ZT) in the temperature space, as occurred in the carrier concentration space. This maximum ZT can be improved by introducing into nanowires periodically arranged segments and an inhomogeneous cross-section. Finally, the quasiperiodically segmented nanowires reveal an even larger ZT in comparison with the periodic ones.
Generating matter inhomogeneities in general relativity.
Coley, A A; Lim, W C
2012-05-11
In this Letter we discuss a natural general relativistic mechanism that causes inhomogeneities and hence generates matter perturbations in the early Universe. We concentrate on spikes, both incomplete spikes and recurring spikes, that naturally occur in the initial oscillatory regime of general cosmological models. In particular, we explicitly show that spikes occurring in a class of G2 models lead to inhomogeneities that, due to gravitational instability, leave small residual imprints on matter in the form of matter perturbations. The residual matter overdensities from recurring spikes are not local but form on surfaces. We discuss the potential physical consequences of the residual matter imprints and their possible effect on the subsequent formation of large-scale structure.
Efficient modeling in transversely isotropic inhomogeneous media
Alkhalifah, T.
1993-11-01
An efficient modeling technique for transversely isotropic, inhomogeneous media, is developed using a mix of analytical equations and numerical calculations. The analytic equation for the raypath in a factorized transversely isotropic (FTI) media with linear velocity variation, derived by Shearer and Chapman, is used to trace between two points. In addition, I derive an analytical equation for geometrical spreading in FTI media that aids in preserving program efficiency; however, the traveltime is calculated numerically. I then generalize the method to treat general transversely isotropic (TI) media that are not factorized anisotropic inhomogeneous by perturbing the FTI traveltimes, following the perturbation ideas of Cerveny and Filho. A Kirchhoff-summation-based program relying on Trorey`s (1970) diffraction method is used to generate synthetic seismograms for such a medium. For the type of velocity models treated, the program is much more efficient than finite-difference and general ray-trace modeling techniques.
Improving Thermoelectric Properties of Nanowires Through Inhomogeneity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, J. Eduardo; Sánchez, Vicenta; Wang, Chumin
2017-05-01
Inhomogeneity in nanowires can be present in the cross-section and/or by breaking the translational symmetry along the nanowire. In particular, the quasiperiodicity introduces an unusual class of electronic and phononic transport with a singular continuous eigenvalue spectrum and critically localized wave functions. In this work, the thermoelectricity in periodic and quasiperiodically segmented nanobelts and nanowires is addressed within the Boltzmann formalism by using a real-space renormalization plus convolution method developed for the Kubo-Greenwood formula, in which tight-binding and Born models are, respectively, used for the calculation of electric and lattice thermal conductivities. For periodic nanowires, we observe a maximum of the thermoelectric figure-of-merit ( ZT) in the temperature space, as occurred in the carrier concentration space. This maximum ZT can be improved by introducing into nanowires periodically arranged segments and an inhomogeneous cross-section. Finally, the quasiperiodically segmented nanowires reveal an even larger ZT in comparison with the periodic ones.
Magnetoresistance in inhomogeneous graphene/metal hybrids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moktadir, Zakaria; Mizuta, Hiroshi
2013-02-01
We investigate extraordinary magnetoresistance (EMR) of inhomogeneous graphene-metal hybrids using finite element modelling. Inhomogeneous graphene is a binary system made of electron and hole puddles. Two geometries of the embedded metallic structure were considered: circular and fishbone geometries. We found that the breaking of graphene into charge puddles weakens the magnetoresistance of the hybrid system compared to a homogeneous graphene-metal system. For a fixed value of the magnetic field, the magnetoresistance increases with decreasing area fraction occupied by electrons puddles. Fishbone geometry showed an enhanced magnetoresistance compared to circular geometry. The EMR is also investigated as a function of the contact resistance for the fishbone geometry where it was found that a minimal contact resistance is essential to obtain enhanced EMR in graphene-metal hybrid devices.
Inhomogeneous Monte Carlo simulations of dermoscopic spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gareau, Daniel S.; Li, Ting; Jacques, Steven; Krueger, James
2012-03-01
Clinical skin-lesion diagnosis uses dermoscopy: 10X epiluminescence microscopy. Skin appearance ranges from black to white with shades of blue, red, gray and orange. Color is an important diagnostic criteria for diseases including melanoma. Melanin and blood content and distribution impact the diffuse spectral remittance (300-1000nm). Skin layers: immersion medium, stratum corneum, spinous epidermis, basal epidermis and dermis as well as laterally asymmetric features (eg. melanocytic invasion) were modeled in an inhomogeneous Monte Carlo model.
Controlling Charged Particles with Inhomogeneous Electrostatic Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herrero, Federico A. (Inventor)
2016-01-01
An energy analyzer for a charged-particle spectrometer may include a top deflection plate and a bottom deflection plate. The top and bottom deflection plates may be non-symmetric and configured to generate an inhomogeneous electrostatic field when a voltage is applied to one of the top or bottom deflection plates. In some instances, the top and bottom deflection plates may be L-shaped deflection plates.
Entropy and holography constraints for inhomogeneous universes.
Wang, B; Abdalla, E; Osada, T
2000-12-25
We calculated the entropy of a class of inhomogeneous dust universes. Allowing spherical symmetry, we proposed a holographic principle by reflecting all physical freedoms on the surface of the apparent horizon. In contrast to flat homogeneous counterparts, the principle may break down in some models. We refined fractal parabolic solutions to have a reasonable entropy value for the present observable universe and found that the holographic principle always holds in the realistic cases.
Production of heavy elements in inhomogeneous cosmologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rauscher, Thomas; Applegate, James H.; Cowan, John J.; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl; Wiescher, Michael
1994-07-01
Baryon density inhomogeneities during big bang nucleosynthesis can result from a variety of possible causes (e.g., quantum chromodynamic and electroweak phase transitions; cosmic strings). We present here the consequences of such inhomogeneities with special emphasis on the production of heavy elements in a parameter study, varying the global baryon-to-photon ratio eta (which is related to the baryon density and the Hubble constant via eta10 = 64.94 Omegab(H0/50)2 and the length scale of the density inhomogeneities. The production of heavy elements beyond Fe can only occur in neutron-rich environments; thus, we limit our study to neutron-rich zones, originating from neutron diffusion into low-density regions. In this first calculation including elements heavier than Si, we prove an earlier hypothesis that under such conditions r-process elements can be produced, strongly enhanced by the process of fission cycling. Primordial r-process abundances are, however, very sensitive to the choice of eta. Significant amounts, comparable to or larger than the (permitted) floor of heavy-element abundances found in low-metallicity stars at the onset of galactic evolution, can only be obtained for values in excess of eta10 = 133 (i.e., Omegab(h50)2 = 2.0; e.g., Omegab = 1, H0 = 71, or Omegab = 0.5, H0 = 100) and large length scales of inhomogeneities, which minimize the back-diffusion of neutrons into proton-rich regions. Recent investigations analyzing the primordial abundances of light elements seem to set tighter limits, eta10 less than 26 to 39 (Omega b)(h50)2 less than 0.4 to 0.6, from He-4 and apparently considerably lower values based on Li, Be, and B. Under such conditions the predicted abundances of heavy elements are a factor of 105 or more below presently observable limits.
Wave excitation by inhomogeneous suprathermal electron beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Freund, H. P.; Dillenburg, D.; Wu, C. S.
1982-01-01
Wave excitation by an inhomogeneous suprathermal electron beam in a homogeneous magnetized plasma is studied. Not only is the beam density nonuniform, but the beam electrons possess a sheared bulk velocity. The general dispersion equation encompassing both electrostatic and electromagnetic effects is derived. Particular attention is given to the whistler mode. It is established that the density-gradient and velocity-shear effects are important for waves with frequencies close to the lower-hybrid resonance frequency.
Parity Breaking Bifurcation in Inhomogeneous Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knobloch, E.; Hettel, J.; Dangelmayr, G.
1995-06-01
Parity breaking instabilities of spatially periodic patterns are considered. In homogeneous systems such instabilities produce steadily drifting patterns. Spatial inhomogeneities are shown to lead to pattern pinning. The transition from pinned patterns to drifting ones may be surprisingly complex. Examples are described containing infinite cascades of global bifurcations. The values of the bifurcation parameter at which these occur obey a simple scaling law. The predicted dynamics provide a qualitative understanding of recent experiments on binary fluid convection in an annulus.
Crack Path Prediction Near an Elliptical Inhomogeneity
1991-09-01
Prediction Near an Elliptical Inhomogeneity 1L162618AH80 6. AUTHOR(S) Edward M. Patton 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8 . PERFORMING...oriented crack. Erdogan and Gupta [ 8 ] later solved the problem in which the crack crosses the interface. These solutions are based on the Green’s...the crack propagation direction 8 is greatest. This criterion implies that the stress parallel to that direction would be a minimum, or that the
Image splittings in an inhomogeneous universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xiangping
1990-01-01
In the previous paper [Chin. Phys. Lett. 6 (1989) 233] the amplification, luminosity distances and probabilities for lensing in the case of small optical depth were discussed. As the second part of this work, the present paper will deal with multiple images produced by pointlike lensing objects which are assumed to be the dominant contributors of inhomogeneities in the universe. The expectation values of image separations, the visual magnitude and solid angle of each image will be calculated.
Programming of inhomogeneous resonant guided wave networks.
Feigenbaum, Eyal; Burgos, Stanley P; Atwater, Harry A
2010-12-06
Photonic functions are programmed by designing the interference of local waves in inhomogeneous resonant guided wave networks composed of power-splitting elements arranged at the nodes of a nonuniform waveguide network. Using a compact, yet comprehensive, scattering matrix representation of the network, the desired photonic function is designed by fitting structural parameters according to an optimization procedure. This design scheme is demonstrated for plasmonic dichroic and trichroic routers in the infrared frequency range.
On inhomogeneous straining in compressed sylvinite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barannikova, S. A.; Nadezhkin, M. V.; Zuev, L. B.; Zhigalkin, V. M.
2010-06-01
Spatiotemporal distributions of local components of the distortion tensor of quasi-plastic materials—saliferous rocks (sylvinite)—have been studied under active compressive straining conditions using double-exposure speckle photography techniques. The strain localization patterns are presented and the features of macroscopic strain inhomogeneity are considered for inelastic behavior of the material. Results obtained for the slow wave processes in deformed saliferous rocks are compared to analogous data available for ionic crystals.
Spiral laser beams in inhomogeneous media.
Mahalov, Alex; Suazo, Erwin; Suslov, Sergei K
2013-08-01
Explicit solutions of the inhomogeneous paraxial wave equation in a linear and quadratic approximation are applied to wave fields with invariant features, such as oscillating laser beams in a parabolic waveguide and spiral light beams in varying media. A similar effect of superfocusing of particle beams in a thin monocrystal film, harmonic oscillations of cold trapped atoms, and motion in magnetic field are also mentioned.
Rayleigh scattering and nonlinear inversion of elastic waves
Gritto, Roland
1995-12-01
Rayleigh scattering of elastic waves by an inclusion is investigated and the limitations determined. In the near field of the inhomogeneity, the scattered waves are up to a factor of 300 stronger than in the far field, excluding the application of the far field Rayleigh approximation for this range. The investigation of the relative error as a function of parameter perturbation shows a range of applicability broader than previously assumed, with errors of 37% and 17% for perturbations of -100% and +100%, respectively. The validity range for the Rayleigh limit is controlled by large inequalities, and therefore, the exact limit is determined as a function of various parameter configurations, resulting in surprisingly high values of up to k_{p}R = 0.9. The nonlinear scattering problem can be solved by inverting for equivalent source terms (moments) of the scatterer, before the elastic parameters are determined. The nonlinear dependence between the moments and the elastic parameters reveals a strong asymmetry around the origin, which will produce different results for weak scattering approximations depending on the sign of the anomaly. Numerical modeling of cross hole situations shows that near field terms are important to yield correct estimates of the inhomogeneities in the vicinity of the receivers, while a few well positioned sources and receivers considerably increase the angular coverage, and thus the model resolution of the inversion parameters. The pattern of scattered energy by an inhomogeneity is complicated and varies depending on the object, the wavelength of the incident wave, and the elastic parameters involved. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the direction of scattered amplitudes to determine the best survey geometry.
Wealth inhomogeneity applied to crash rate theory.
Shuler, Robert L
2015-11-01
A crash rate theory based on corporate economic utility maximization is applied to individual behavior in U.S. and German motorway death rates, by using wealth inhomogeneity data in ten-percentile bins to account for variations of utility maximization in the population. Germany and the U.S. have similar median wealth figures, a well-known indicator of accident risk, but different motorway death rates. It is found that inhomogeneity in roughly the 10(th) to 30(th) percentile, not revealed by popular measures such as the Gini index which focus on differences at the higher percentiles, provides a satisfactory explanation of the data. The inhomogeneity analysis reduces data disparity from a factor of 2.88 to 1.75 as compared with median wealth assumed homogeneity, and further to 1.09 with average wealth assumed homogeneity. The first reduction from 2.88 to 1.75 is attributable to inequality at lower percentiles and suggests it may be as important in indicating socioeconomic risk as extremes in the upper percentile ranges, and that therefore the U.S. socioeconomic risk may be higher than generally realized.
Beginning inflation in an inhomogeneous universe
East, William E.; Kleban, Matthew; Linde, Andrei; ...
2016-09-06
Using numerical solutions of the full Einstein field equations coupled to a scalar inflaton field in 3+1 dimensions, we study the conditions under which a universe that is initially expanding, highly inhomogeneous and dominated by gradient energy can transition to an inflationary period. If the initial scalar field variations are contained within a sufficiently flat region of the inflaton potential, and the universe is spatially flat or open on average, inflation will occur following the dilution of the gradient and kinetic energy due to expansion. This is the case even when the scale of the inhomogeneities is comparable to themore » initial Hubble length, and overdense regions collapse and form black holes, because underdense regions continue expanding, allowing inflation to eventually begin. In conclusion, this establishes that inflation can arise from highly inhomogeneous initial conditions and solve the horizon and flatness problems, at least as long as the variations in the scalar field do not include values that exceed the inflationary plateau.« less
Inhomogeneity of pulmonary perfusion during sustained microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prisk, G. Kim; Guy, Harold J. B.; Elliott, Ann R.; West, John B.
1994-01-01
The effects of gravity on the inhomogeneity of pulmonary perfusion in man were studied by performing hyperventilation-breathhold single-breath measurements before, during and after 9 days of continuous exposure to microgravity. In microgravity the indicators of inhomogeneity of perfusion, especially the size of cardiogenic oscillations in expired CO2 and the height of phase 4, were both markedly reduced. Cardiogenic oscillations were reduced to approximately 60 of their preflight standing size, while the height of phase 4 was between 0 and -8% (a terminal fall became a small terminal rise) of preflights standing. The terminal change in CO2 was nearly abolished in microgravity indicating more uniformity of blood flow between lung units that close at the end of expiration and units that remain open. This may result from the disappearance of gravity-dependent topographical inequality of blood flow. The residual cardiographic oscillations in expired CO2 imply a persisting inhomogeneity of perfusion in the absence of gravity at a level larger than acinar.
Inference of magnetic fields in inhomogeneous prominences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milić, I.; Faurobert, M.; Atanacković, O.
2017-01-01
Context. Most of the quantitative information about the magnetic field vector in solar prominences comes from the analysis of the Hanle effect acting on lines formed by scattering. As these lines can be of non-negligible optical thickness, it is of interest to study the line formation process further. Aims: We investigate the multidimensional effects on the interpretation of spectropolarimetric observations, particularly on the inference of the magnetic field vector. We do this by analyzing the differences between multidimensional models, which involve fully self-consistent radiative transfer computations in the presence of spatial inhomogeneities and velocity fields, and those which rely on simple one-dimensional geometry. Methods: We study the formation of a prototype line in ad hoc inhomogeneous, isothermal 2D prominence models. We solve the NLTE polarized line formation problem in the presence of a large-scale oriented magnetic field. The resulting polarized line profiles are then interpreted (i.e. inverted) assuming a simple 1D slab model. Results: We find that differences between input and the inferred magnetic field vector are non-negligible. Namely, we almost universally find that the inferred field is weaker and more horizontal than the input field. Conclusions: Spatial inhomogeneities and radiative transfer have a strong effect on scattering line polarization in the optically thick lines. In real-life situations, ignoring these effects could lead to a serious misinterpretation of spectropolarimetric observations of chromospheric objects such as prominences.
Loop quantum cosmology: Anisotropies and inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson-Ewing, Edward
In this dissertation we extend the improved dynamics of loop quantum cosmology from the homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker space-times to cosmological models which allow anisotropies and inhomogeneities. Specifically, we consider the cases of the homogeneous but anisotropic Bianchi type I, II and IX models with a massless scalar field as well as the vacuum, inhomogeneous, linearly polarized Gowdy T3 model. For each case, we derive the Hamiltonian constraint operator and study its properties. In particular, we show how in all of these models the classical big bang and big crunch singularities are resolved due to quantum gravity effects. Since the Bianchi models play a key role in the Belinskii, Khalatnikov and Lifshitz conjecture regarding the nature of generic space-like singularities in general relativity, the quantum dynamics of the Bianchi cosmologies are likely to provide considerable intuition about the fate of such singularities in quantum gravity. In addition, the results obtained here provide an important step toward the full loop quantization of cosmological space-times that allow generic inhomogeneities; this would provide falsifiable predictions that could be compared to observations.
Inhomogeneities and relaxation in supercooled liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohanty, U.
1994-04-01
Nonexponential relaxation in glass forming liquids has been attributed by Robertson and Donth to inhomogeneous distribution of small local regions. We show, based neither on free-volume nor on configurational entropy theories that the correlation volume V of such inhomogeneous regions isR [ΔH* (1-x)/RT]2{kBT4gΔκTg/< Δ2 ln τ>}, where Δh* is the enthalpy of activation near the glass transition temperature Tg, x is the Narayanaswamy-Gardon nonlinear parameter, ΔκTg is the change in thermal conductivity at Tg, <Δ2 ln τ>, describes how wide is the spectrum of relaxation times, and kB and R are the Boltzmann and the gas constants, respectively. The correlation length does not diverge at Tg. In fact, the correlation length at Tg for B2O3, glycerol, and PVAc are found to be approximately 1.27, 0.91, and 1.53 nm, respectively. Our results indicate, in agreement with Moynihan and Schroeder, that characteristics of nonexponential relaxation in glass forming liquids may be due to inhomogeneous domains whose size are in the nanometer length scale.
Structural elucidation of inhomogeneous lignins from bamboo.
Wen, Jia-Long; Sun, Shao-Long; Xue, Bai-Liang; Sun, Run-Cang
2015-01-01
A better understanding of the inhomogeneous molecular structure of lignin from bamboo is a prerequisite for promoting the "biorefinery" technologies of the bamboo feedstock. A mild and successive method for fractionating native lignin from bamboo species was proposed in the present study. The molecular structure and structural inhomogeneity of the isolated lignin polymers were comprehensively investigated by elemental analysis, carbohydrate analysis, state-of-the-art NMR and analytical pyrolysis techniques (quantitative (13)C NMR, (13)C-DEPT 135 NMR, 2D-HSQC NMR, (31)P NMR, and pyrolysis-GC-MS). The results showed that the proposed method is effective for extracting lignin from bamboo. NMR results showed that syringyl (S) was the predominant unit in bamboo lignin over guaiacyl (G) and p-hydroxyphenyl (H) units. In addition, the lignin was associated with p-coumarates and ferulates via ester and ether bonds, respectively. Moreover, various substructures, such as β-O-4, β-β, β-5, β-1, and α,β-diaryl ether linkages, were identified and quantified by NMR techniques. Based on the results obtained, a proposed schematic diagram of structural heterogeneity of the lignin polymers extracted from the bamboo is presented. In short, well-defined inhomogeneous structures of native lignin from bamboo will facilitate further applications of bamboo in current biorefineries.
Inhomogeneity of pulmonary perfusion during sustained microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prisk, G. Kim; Guy, Harold J. B.; Elliott, Ann R.; West, John B.
1994-01-01
The effects of gravity on the inhomogeneity of pulmonary perfusion in man were studied by performing hyperventilation-breathhold single-breath measurements before, during and after 9 days of continuous exposure to microgravity. In microgravity the indicators of inhomogeneity of perfusion, especially the size of cardiogenic oscillations in expired CO2 and the height of phase 4, were both markedly reduced. Cardiogenic oscillations were reduced to approximately 60 of their preflight standing size, while the height of phase 4 was between 0 and -8% (a terminal fall became a small terminal rise) of preflights standing. The terminal change in CO2 was nearly abolished in microgravity indicating more uniformity of blood flow between lung units that close at the end of expiration and units that remain open. This may result from the disappearance of gravity-dependent topographical inequality of blood flow. The residual cardiographic oscillations in expired CO2 imply a persisting inhomogeneity of perfusion in the absence of gravity at a level larger than acinar.
Green's Functions of Polaritons in a Medium with Zero-mean Inhomogeneous Coupling Parameter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ignatchenko, V. A.; Polukhin, D. S.
Dynamic susceptibilities (Green's functions) of the interacting electromagnetic waves G"e(ω) and optical phonons G"u(ω) in a medium with zero-mean inhomogeneous coupling parameter have been considered. The calculation was performed using a self-consistent approximation for the two stochastically interacting wave fields. It is shown that on the tops of the resonance maxima of the imaginary parts of the Green functions the fine structure is formed: a minimum (dip) on the top of G"e(ω) and narrow maximum (peak) on the top of G"u(ω). With increasing the correlation wavenumber of inhomogeneities kc (i.e., with decreasing the size of inhomogeneities), the width of the peak on G"u(ω) decreases, and two resonance maxima in the function G"e(ω) are formed. Because of the large difference in the speeds of light and optical phonons, the fine structure of the polaritons is manifested itself more clearly and saved to a much larger values of kc, than for the studied earlier crossing resonance of spin and elastic waves.
Elastic rods with incompatible strain: Macroscopic versus microscopic buckling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lestringant, Claire; Audoly, Basile
2017-06-01
We consider the buckling of a long prismatic elastic solid under the combined effect of a pre-stress that is inhomogeneous in the cross-section, and of a prescribed displacement of its endpoints. A linear bifurcation analysis is carried out using different structural models (namely a double beam, a rectangular thin plate, and a hyper-elastic prismatic solid in 3-d): it yields the buckling mode and the wavenumber qc that are first encountered when the end-to-end displacement is progressively decreased with fixed pre-stress. For all three structural models, we find a transition from a long-wavelength (qc = 0) to a short-wavelength first buckling mode (qc ≠ 0) when the inhomogeneous pre-stress is increased past a critical value. A method for calculating the critical inhomogeneous pre-stress is proposed based on a small-wavenumber expansion of the buckling mode. Overall, our findings explain the formation of multiple perversions in elastomer strips, as well as the large variations in the number of perversions as a function of pre-stress and cross-sectional geometry, as reported by Liu et al. (2014).
Detecting inhomogeneities in pan evaporation time series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirono, D. G. C.
2009-04-01
There is increasingly growing demand for evaporation data for studies of surface water and energy fluxes, especially for studies which address the impacts of global warming. To serve this purpose, a homogeneous evaporation data are necessary. This paper describes the use of two tests for detecting and adjusting discontinuities in Class A pan evaporation time series for 28 stations across Australia, and illustrates the benefit of using corrected records in climate studies. The two tests being the bivariate test of Maronna and Yohai (1978), also known as the Potter method (WMO 2003), and the RHTest of Wang and Feng (2004). Overall, 58 per cent of the inhomogeneities detected by the bivariate test were also identified by the RHTest. The fact that the other 42 per cent of inhomogeneities were not consistently detected is due to different sensitivities of the two methods. Ninety-two per cent of the inhomogeneities detected by the bivariate test are consistent with documented changes that can be strongly associated with the discontinuity. Having identified inhomogeneities, the adjusments were only applied to records which contained inhomogeneities that could be verified as having a non-climatic origin. The benefit of using the original and adjusted pan evaporation records in a climate study were then investigated from two points of view: correlation analyses and trend analysis. As an illustration, the results show that the trend (1970-2004) in the all-stations average was -2.8±1.7 for the original data but only -0.7±1.6 mm/year/year for the adjusted data, demonstrating the importance of screening the data before their use in climate studies. References Maronna, R. and Yohai, V.J. 1978. A bivariate test for the detection of a systematic change in mean. J. Amer. Statis. Assoc., 73, 640-645. Wang, X.L. and Feng, Y. 2004. RHTest User manual. Available from http://cccma.seos.uvic.ca/ETCCDMI/RHTestUserManual.doc WMO. 2003. Guidelines on climate metadata and homogenization
Eshelby's solution for ellipsoidal inhomogeneous inclusions with applications to compaction bands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Chunfang; Pollard, David D.
2014-10-01
Eshelby's solution for an ellipsoidal inhomogeneous inclusion in an infinite elastic body is applied to compaction and shear-enhanced compaction bands in the Aztec sandstone at Valley of Fire State Park, NV. The inclusion and matrix are linear elastic and isotropic, but have different elastic moduli, and a remote stress represents tectonic loading. A prescribed uniform strain within the inclusion accounts for inelastic compaction for a porosity change from 25 to 10%. Differences in elastic moduli between the matrix and inclusion are based on laboratory data. We generalize earlier results, limited to 2D and axisymmetric geometries, by considering ellipsoids with different intermediate and greatest axial lengths, consistent with field observations. Stiffness contrasts and non-circular tip-line shapes produce modest concentrations of the remote stress, but compaction strains of 1-10% produce significant triaxial compressive stress concentrations, which presumably are responsible for band propagation. The plastic strain is triaxial, but dominated by the normal strain across the inclusion. The stress diminution on the band flank is easily overcome by minor increases in the tectonic loading, enabling bands to be closely spaced. For the shear-enhanced band, if the plastic shear and normal strains are approximately equal, the ratio of shear to normal stress is about 1.3 at the tip.
Elastic properties of minerals
Aleksandrov, K.S.; Prodaivoda, G.T.
1993-09-01
Investigations of the elastic properties of the main rock-forming minerals were begun by T.V. Ryzhova and K.S. Aleksandrov over 30 years ago on the initiative of B.P. Belikov. At the time, information on the elasticity of single crystals in general, and especially of minerals, was very scanty. In the surveys of that time there was information on the elasticity of 20 or 30 minerals. These, as a rule, did not include the main rock-forming minerals; silicates were represented only by garnets, quartz, topaz, tourmaline, zircon, beryl, and staurolite, which are often found in nature in the form of large and fairly high-quality crystals. Then and even much later it was still necessary to prove a supposition which now seems obvious: The elastic properties of rocks, and hence the velocities of elastic (seismic) waves in the earth`s crust, are primarily determined by the elastic characteristics of the minerals composing these rocks. Proof of this assertion, with rare exceptions of mono-mineralic rocks (marble, quartzite, etc.) cannot be obtained without information on the elasticities of a sufficiently large number of minerals, primarily framework, layer, and chain silicates which constitute the basis of most rocks. This also served as the starting point and main problem of the undertakings of Aleksandrov, Ryzhova, and Belikov - systematic investigations of the elastic properties of minerals and then of various rocks. 108 refs., 7 tabs.
Jiang, Yi; Li, Guoyang; Qian, Lin-Xue; Liang, Si; Destrade, Michel; Cao, Yanping
2015-10-01
We use supersonic shear wave imaging (SSI) technique to measure not only the linear but also the nonlinear elastic properties of brain matter. Here, we tested six porcine brains ex vivo and measured the velocities of the plane shear waves induced by acoustic radiation force at different states of pre-deformation when the ultrasonic probe is pushed into the soft tissue. We relied on an inverse method based on the theory governing the propagation of small-amplitude acoustic waves in deformed solids to interpret the experimental data. We found that, depending on the subjects, the resulting initial shear modulus [Formula: see text] varies from 1.8 to 3.2 kPa, the stiffening parameter [Formula: see text] of the hyperelastic Demiray-Fung model from 0.13 to 0.73, and the third- [Formula: see text] and fourth-order [Formula: see text] constants of weakly nonlinear elasticity from [Formula: see text]1.3 to [Formula: see text]20.6 kPa and from 3.1 to 8.7 kPa, respectively. Paired [Formula: see text] test performed on the experimental results of the left and right lobes of the brain shows no significant difference. These values are in line with those reported in the literature on brain tissue, indicating that the SSI method, combined to the inverse analysis, is an efficient and powerful tool for the mechanical characterization of brain tissue, which is of great importance for computer simulation of traumatic brain injury and virtual neurosurgery.
Wang, Xu; Schiavone, Peter
2014-10-08
We propose an elegant and concise general method for the solution of a problem involving the interaction of a screw dislocation and a nano-sized, arbitrarily shaped, elastic inhomogeneity in which the contribution of interface/surface elasticity is incorporated using a version of the Gurtin-Murdoch model. The analytic function inside the arbitrarily shaped inhomogeneity is represented in the form of a Faber series. The real periodic function arising from the contribution of the surface mechanics is then expanded as a Fourier series. The resulting system of linear algebraic equations is solved through the use of simple matrix algebra. When the elastic inhomogeneity represents a hole, our solution method simplifies considerably. Furthermore, we undertake an analytical investigation of the challenging problem of a screw dislocation interacting with two closely spaced nano-sized holes of arbitrary shape in the presence of surface stresses. Our solutions quite clearly demonstrate that the induced elastic fields and image force acting on the dislocation are indeed size-dependent.
Sun, Qicheng; Jin, Feng; Wang, Guangqian; Song, Shixiong; Zhang, Guohua
2015-01-01
Mesoscopic structures form in dense granular materials due to the self-organisation of the constituent particles. These structures have internal structural degrees of freedom in addition to the translational degree of freedom. The resultant granular elasticity, which exhibits intrinsic variations and inevitable relaxation, is a key quantity that accounts for macroscopic solid- or fluid-like properties and the transitions between them. In this work, we propose a potential energy landscape (PEL) with local stable basins and low elastic energy barriers to analyse the nature of granular elasticity. A function for the elastic energy density is proposed for stable states and is further calibrated with ultrasonic measurements. Fluctuations in the elastic energy due to the evolution of internal structures are proposed to describe a so-called configuration temperature Tc as a counterpart of the classical kinetic granular temperature Tk that is attributed to the translational degrees of freedom. The two granular temperatures are chosen as the state variables, and a fundamental equation is established to develop non-equilibrium thermodynamics for granular materials. Due to the relatively low elastic energy barrier in the PEL, granular elasticity relaxes more under common mechanical loadings, and a simple model based on mean-field theory is developed to account for this behaviour. PMID:25951049
Albedo and transmittance of inhomogeneous stratus clouds
Zuev, V.E.; Kasyanov, E.I.; Titov, G.A.
1996-04-01
A highly important topic is the study of the relationship between the statistical parameters of optical and radiative charactertistics of inhomogeneous stratus clouds. This is important because the radiation codes of general circulation models need improvement, and it is important for geophysical information. A cascade model has been developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center to treat stratocumulus clouds with the simplest geometry and horizontal fluctuations of the liquid water path (optical thickness). The model evaluates the strength with which the stochastic geometry of clouds influences the statistical characteristics of albedo and the trnasmittance of solar radiation.
Fusion Reaction Rate in an Inhomogeneous Plasma
S. Son; N.J. Fisch
2004-09-03
The local fusion rate, obtained from the assumption that the distribution is a local Maxwellian, is inaccurate if mean-free-paths of fusing particles are not sufficiently small compared with the inhomogeneity length of the plasma. We calculate the first order correction of P0 in terms of the small spatial gradient and obtain a non-local modification of P(sub)0 in a shock region when the gradient is not small. Use is made of the fact that the fusion reaction cross section has a relatively sharp peak as a function of energy.
Modeling Electromagnetic Scattering From Complex Inhomogeneous Objects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deshpande, Manohar; Reddy, C. J.
2011-01-01
This software innovation is designed to develop a mathematical formulation to estimate the electromagnetic scattering characteristics of complex, inhomogeneous objects using the finite-element-method (FEM) and method-of-moments (MoM) concepts, as well as to develop a FORTRAN code called FEMOM3DS (Finite Element Method and Method of Moments for 3-Dimensional Scattering), which will implement the steps that are described in the mathematical formulation. Very complex objects can be easily modeled, and the operator of the code is not required to know the details of electromagnetic theory to study electromagnetic scattering.
Characterization of strange attractors as inhomogeneous fractals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paladin, G.; Vulpiani, A.
1984-09-01
The geometry of strange attractors of chaotic dynamical systems is investigated analytically within the framework of fractal theory. A set of easily computable exponents which generalize the fractal dimensionality and characterize the inhomogeneity of the fractals of strange attractors is derived, and sample computations are shown. It is pointed out that the fragmentation process described is similar to models of intermittency in fully developed turbulence. The exponents for the sample problems are computed in the same amount of CPU time as the computation of nu by the method of Grassberger and Procaccia (1983) but provide more information; less time is required than for the nu(n) computation of Hentschel and Procaccia (1983).
Motion of spinning molecules in inhomogeneous fields
Floss, Johannes; Gershnabel, Erez; Averbukh, Ilya Sh.
2011-02-15
Several laser techniques have been suggested and demonstrated recently for preparing polarizable molecules in rapidly spinning states with a disk-like angular distribution. We consider motion of these spinning disks in inhomogeneous fields and show that the molecular trajectories may be precisely controlled by the tilt of the plane of the laser-induced rotation. The feasibility of the scheme is illustrated by optical deflection of linear molecules twirled by two delayed cross-polarized laser pulses. These results open new ways for many applications involving molecular focusing, guiding, and trapping and may be suitable for separating molecular mixtures by optical and static fields.
Optimal interaction of indenter with inhomogeneous plate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aptukov, Valery N.
1991-01-01
Consideration is given to a new class of problems dealing with an optimal design of an inhomogeneous plate during dynamic penetration of the rigid indenter. The quality criterion of the process is defined by the specific mass of the target, which absorbs the given kinetic mass of the indenter. Parameters of control are expressed in terms of mechanical characteristics, i.e., distribution of density and the related hardness across the plate thickness. The maximum principle of Pontryagin is used to search for the piecewise continuous control function. With consideration of impact conditions and characteristics for a given class of material, an optimal target structure criterion was estimated for engineering applications.
Chemical waves in inhomogeneous excitable media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maselko, Jerzy; Showalter, Kenneth
1991-04-01
Propagating chemical waves are typically studied in homogeneous, excitable reaction mixtures. Chemical waves in an inhomogeneous excitable medium are examined in this paper. Cation exchange beads, loaded with ferroin, are bathed in Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction mixtures containing no catalyst. Spiral waves are spontaneously initiated above a critical bromate concentration, which is dependent on the size of the ferroin-loaded beads. At high bromate concentrations, irregular patterns are formed due to an overcrowding of spirals. An upper limit in the number of individual waves is exhibited, which is independent on the bead size. Regular and irregular patterns are analyzed by calculating spatial correlation functions from digital images.
Curvaton and the inhomogeneous end of inflation
Assadullahi, Hooshyar; Wands, David; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein E-mail: firouz@mail.ipm.ir E-mail: david.wands@port.ac.uk
2012-12-01
We study the primordial density perturbations and non-Gaussianities generated from the combined effects of an inhomogeneous end of inflation and curvaton decay in hybrid inflation. This dual role is played by a single isocurvature field which is massless during inflation but acquire a mass at the end of inflation via the waterfall phase transition. We calculate the resulting primordial non-Gaussianity characterized by the non-linearity parameter, f{sub NL}, recovering the usual end-of-inflation result when the field decays promptly and the usual curvaton result if the field decays sufficiently late.
Elastic membranes in confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bostwick, Joshua; Miksis, Michael; Davis, Stephen
2014-11-01
An elastic membrane stretched between two walls takes a shape defined by its length and the volume of fluid it encloses. Many biological structures, such as cells, mitochondria and DNA, have finer internal structure in which a membrane (or elastic member) is geometrically ``confined'' by another object. We study the shape stability of elastic membranes in a ``confining'' box and introduce repulsive van der Waals forces to prevent the membrane from intersecting the wall. We aim to define the parameter space associated with mitochondria-like deformations. We compare the confined to `unconfined' solutions and show how the structure and stability of the membrane shapes changes with the system parameters.
Elastic scattering phenomenology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mackintosh, R. S.
2017-04-01
We argue that, in many situations, fits to elastic scattering data that were historically, and frequently still are, considered "good", are not justifiably so describable. Information about the dynamics of nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering is lost when elastic scattering phenomenology is insufficiently ambitious. It is argued that in many situations, an alternative approach is appropriate for the phenomenology of nuclear elastic scattering of nucleons and other light nuclei. The approach affords an appropriate means of evaluating folding models, one that fully exploits available empirical data. It is particularly applicable for nucleons and other light ions.
Observable Deviations from Homogeneity in an Inhomogeneous Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giblin, John T., Jr.; Mertens, James B.; Starkman, Glenn D.
2016-12-01
How does inhomogeneity affect our interpretation of cosmological observations? It has long been wondered to what extent the observable properties of an inhomogeneous universe differ from those of a corresponding Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) model, and how the inhomogeneities affect that correspondence. Here, we use numerical relativity to study the behavior of light beams traversing an inhomogeneous universe, and construct the resulting Hubble diagrams. The universe that emerges exhibits an average FLRW behavior, but inhomogeneous structures contribute to deviations in observables across the observer’s sky. We also investigate the relationship between angular diameter distance and the angular extent of a source, finding deviations that grow with source redshift. These departures from FLRW are important path-dependent effects, with implications for using real observables in an inhomogeneous universe such as our own.
Discrete and Continuum Elastic Properties of Interfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alber, Elliott Solomon
The microstructure of defects in solids, e.g. interfaces, is heterogeneous and, consequently, so are the elastic properties. The complete anisotropic fourth-order tensors of both the discrete and the effective elastic moduli are defined in the interfacial region. To examine the meaning of discrete elastic constants, (i) a piecewise-continuous medium is considered where individual phases occupy the Voronoi polyhedra and have the elastic moduli associated with individual atoms, and (ii) the relationship between natural vibrations of the discrete systems and continuum waves is explored. Questions of local energy changes and stability are addressed in terms of continuum properties of the moduli, particularly positive definiteness and strong ellipticity. Comparisons between the atomistic results (exact effective moduli) and those for the continuum analog (bounds) establish the validity of the definition of elastic properties for heterogeneous structures at atomic scales and lead to criteria to assess the stability of a given microstructure. Homogenization of interfacial properties gives heterogeneous transition zone (or interphase) model. Interface phenomena in macrosystems (composites) and microsystems (grain boundaries) is explained by inner layer conditions between homogeneous bulk regions. Dynamical membrane and spring models of the imperfect interfaces are shown to be limiting models (similar to Reuss and Voigt bounding approximations in multiphase composite mechanics) for asymptotic expansions of stress and strain fields, respectively. Asymptotic expansion of both fields (in terms of small parameter h -thickness of the layer) produces mixed-type, exact approximation of the first order in h. Derived models of imperfect interface are used for investigation of interface waves in anisotropic bicrystals and for comparison with corresponding acoustical modes in phonon spectra. Localized interface waves are explained as general inhomogeneous plane waves in subsonic
Discrete and continuum elastic properties of interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alber, Elliott Solomon
1993-06-01
The microstructure of defects in solids, e.g. interfaces, is heterogeneous and, consequently, so are the elastic properties. The complete anisotropic fourth-order tensors of both the discrete and the effective elastic moduli are defined in the interfacial region. To examine the meaning of discrete elastic constants, (1) a piecewise-continuous medium is considered where individual phases occupy the Voronoi polyhedra and have the elastic moduli associated with individual atoms, and (2) the relationship between natural vibrations of the discrete systems and continuum waves is explored. Questions of local energy changes and stability are addressed in terms of continuum properties of the moduli, particularly positive definiteness and strong ellipticity. Comparisons between the atomistic results (exact effective moduli) and those for the continuum analog (bounds) establish the validity of the definition of elastic properties for heterogeneous structures at atomic scales and lead to criteria to assess the stability of a given microstructure. Homogenization of interfacial properties gives heterogeneous transition zone (or interphase) model. Interface phenomena in macrosystems (composites) and microsystems (grain boundaries) is explained by inner layer conditions between homogeneous bulk regions. Dynamical membrane and spring models of the imperfect interfaces are shown to be limiting models (similar to Reuss and Voigt bounding approximations in multiphase composite mechanics) for asymptotic expansions of stress and strain fields, respectively. Asymptotic expansion of both fields (in terms of small parameter h-thickness of the layer) produces mixed-type, exact approximation of the first order in h. Derived models of imperfect interface are used for investigation of interface waves in anisotropic bicrystals and for comparison with corresponding acoustical modes in phonon spectra. Localized interface waves are explained as general inhomogeneous plane waves in subsonic
Crossing resonance of wave fields in a medium with an inhomogeneous coupling parameter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ignatchenko, V. A.; Polukhin, D. S.
2013-11-01
The dynamic susceptibilities (Green's functions) of the system of two coupled wave fields of different physical natures in a medium with an arbitrary relation between the mean value ɛ and rms fluctuation Δɛ of the coupling parameter have been examined. The self-consistent approximation involving all diagrams with noncrossing correlation lines has been developed for the case where the initial Green's function of the homogeneous medium describes the system of coupled wave fields. The analysis has been performed for spin and elastic waves. Expressions have been obtained for the diagonal elements G mm and G uu of the matrix Green's function, which describe spin and elastic waves in the case of magnetic and elastic excitations, and for the off-diagonal elements G mu and G um , which describe these waves in the case of cross excitation. Change in the forms of these elements has been numerically studied for the case of one-dimensional inhomogeneities with an increase in Δɛ and with a decrease in ɛ under the condition that the sum of the squares of these quantities is conserved: two peaks in the frequency dependences of imaginary parts of G mm and G uu are broadened and then joined into one broad peak; a fine structure appears in the form of narrow resonance at the vertex of the Green's function of one wave field and narrow antiresonance at the vertex of the Green's function of the other field; peaks of the fine structure are broadened and then disappear with an increase in the correlation wavenumber of the inhomogeneities of the coupling parameter; and the amplitudes of the off-diagonal elements vanish in the limit ɛ → 0.
Crossing resonance of wave fields in a medium with an inhomogeneous coupling parameter
Ignatchenko, V. A. Polukhin, D. S.
2013-11-15
The dynamic susceptibilities (Green functions) of the system of two coupled wave fields of different physical natures in a medium with an arbitrary relation between the mean value ε and rms fluctuation Δε of the coupling parameter have been examined. The self-consistent approximation involving all diagrams with noncrossing correlation lines has been developed for the case where the initial Green’s function of the homogeneous medium describes the system of coupled wave fields. The analysis has been performed for spin and elastic waves. Expressions have been obtained for the diagonal elements G{sub mm} and G{sub uu} of the matrix Green’s function, which describe spin and elastic waves in the case of magnetic and elastic excitations, and for the off-diagonal elements G{sub mu} and G{sub um}, which describe these waves in the case of cross excitation. Change in the forms of these elements has been numerically studied for the case of one-dimensional inhomogeneities with an increase in Δε and with a decrease in ε under the condition that the sum of the squares of these quantities is conserved: two peaks in the frequency dependences of imaginary parts of G{sub mm} and G{sub uu} are broadened and then joined into one broad peak; a fine structure appears in the form of narrow resonance at the vertex of the Green’s function of one wave field and narrow antiresonance at the vertex of the Green function of the other field; peaks of the fine structure are broadened and then disappear with an increase in the correlation wavenumber of the inhomogeneities of the coupling parameter; and the amplitudes of the off-diagonal elements vanish in the limit ε → 0.
Investigation of condensed matter by means of elastic thermal-neutron scattering
Abov, Yu. G.; Dzheparov, F. S.; Elyutin, N. O.; Lvov, D. V. Tyulyusov, A. N.
2016-07-15
The application of elastic thermal-neutron scattering in investigations of condensed matter that were performed at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics is described. An account of diffraction studies with weakly absorbing crystals, including studies of the anomalous-absorption effect and coherent effects in diffuse scattering, is given. Particular attention is given to exposing the method of multiple small-angle neutron scattering (MSANS). It is shown how information about matter inhomogeneities can be obtained by this method on the basis of Molière’s theory. Prospects of the development of this method are outlined, and MSANS theory is formulated for a high concentration of matter inhomogeneities.
Contribution to the theory of tidal oscillations of an elastic earth. External tidal potential
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Musen, P.
1974-01-01
The differential equations of the tidal oscillations of the earth were established under the assumption that the interior of the earth is laterally inhomogeneous. The theory was developed using vectorial and dyadic symbolism to shorten the exposition and to reduce the differential equations to a symmetric form convenient for programming and for numerical integration. The formation of tidal buldges on the surfaces of discontinuity and the changes in the internal density produce small periodic variations in the exterior geopotential which are reflected in the motion of artificial satellites. The analoques of Love elastic parameters in the expansion of exterior tidal potential reflect the asymmetric and inhomogeneous structure of the interior of the earth.
Toroidal insulating inhomogeneity in an infinite space and related problems
Radi, E.
2016-01-01
An analytic solution for the steady-state temperature distribution in an infinite conductive medium containing an insulated toroidal inhomogeneity and subjected to remotely applied uniform heat flux is obtained. The temperature flux on the torus surface is then determined as a function of torus parameters. This result is used to calculate the resistivity contribution tensor for the toroidal inhomogeneity required to evaluate the effective conductive properties of a material containing multiple inhomogeneities of this shape. PMID:27118919
Effective quantum dynamics of interacting systems with inhomogeneous coupling
Lopez, C. E.; Retamal, J. C.; Christ, H.; Solano, E.
2007-03-15
We study the quantum dynamics of a single mode (particle) interacting inhomogeneously with a large number of particles and introduce an effective approach to find the accessible Hilbert space, where the dynamics takes place. Two relevant examples are given: the inhomogeneous Tavis-Cummings model (e.g., N atomic qubits coupled to a single cavity mode, or to a motional mode in trapped ions) and the inhomogeneous coupling of an electron spin to N nuclear spins in a quantum dot.
Intensity Inhomogeneity Correction of Magnetic Resonance Images using Patches.
Roy, Snehashis; Carass, Aaron; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Prince, Jerry L
2011-03-11
This paper presents a patch-based non-parametric approach to the correction of intensity inhomogeneity from magnetic resonance (MR) images of the human brain. During image acquisition, the inhomogeneity present in the radio-frequency coil, is usually manifested on the reconstructed MR image as a smooth shading effect. This artifact can significantly deteriorate the performance of any kind of image processing algorithm that uses intensities as a feature. Most of the current inhomogeneity correction techniques use explicit smoothness assumptions on the inhomogeneity field, which sometimes limit their performance if the actual inhomogeneity is not smooth, a problem that becomes prevalent in high fields. The proposed patch-based inhomogeneity correction method does not assume any parametric smoothness model, instead, it uses patches from an atlas of an inhomogeneity-free image to do the correction. Preliminary results show that the proposed method is comparable to N3, a current state of the art method, when the inhomogeneity is smooth, and outperforms N3 when the inhomogeneity contains non-smooth elements.
Intensity Inhomogeneity Correction of Magnetic Resonance Images using Patches
Roy, Snehashis; Carass, Aaron; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Prince, Jerry L.
2014-01-01
This paper presents a patch-based non-parametric approach to the correction of intensity inhomogeneity from magnetic resonance (MR) images of the human brain. During image acquisition, the inhomogeneity present in the radio-frequency coil, is usually manifested on the reconstructed MR image as a smooth shading effect. This artifact can significantly deteriorate the performance of any kind of image processing algorithm that uses intensities as a feature. Most of the current inhomogeneity correction techniques use explicit smoothness assumptions on the inhomogeneity field, which sometimes limit their performance if the actual inhomogeneity is not smooth, a problem that becomes prevalent in high fields. The proposed patch-based inhomogeneity correction method does not assume any parametric smoothness model, instead, it uses patches from an atlas of an inhomogeneity-free image to do the correction. Preliminary results show that the proposed method is comparable to N3, a current state of the art method, when the inhomogeneity is smooth, and outperforms N3 when the inhomogeneity contains non-smooth elements. PMID:25077011
Mechanism of Resilin Elasticity
Qin, Guokui; Hu, Xiao; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.
2012-01-01
Resilin is critical in the flight and jumping systems of insects as a polymeric rubber-like protein with outstanding elasticity. However, insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for resilin elasticity remains undefined. Here we report the structure and function of resilin from Drosophila CG15920. A reversible beta-turn transition was identified in the peptide encoded by exon III and for full length resilin during energy input and release, features that correlate to the rapid deformation of resilin during functions in vivo. Micellar structures and nano-porous patterns formed after beta-turn structures were present via changes in either the thermal or mechanical inputs. A model is proposed to explain the super elasticity and energy conversion mechanisms of resilin, providing important insight into structure-function relationships for this protein. Further, this model offers a view of elastomeric proteins in general where beta-turn related structures serve as fundamental units of the structure and elasticity. PMID:22893127
Solving the Inverse Problem with Inhomogeneous Universes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoo, C.; Kai, T.; Nakao, K.
2008-11-01
We construct the Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) dust universe whose distance-redshift relation is equivalent to that in the concordance Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological model. In our model, the density distribution and velocity field are not homogeneous, whereas the big-bang time is uniform, which implies that the universe is homogeneous at its beginning. We also study the effects of local clumpiness in the density distribution as well as the effects of large-scale inhomogeneities on the distance-redshift relation, and show that these effects may reduce the amplitude of large-scale inhomogeneities necessary for having a distance-redshift relation that is the same as that of the concordance ΛCDM universe. We also study the temporal variation of the cosmological redshift and show that, by the observation of this quantity, we can distinguish our LTB universe model from the concordance ΛCDM model, even if their redshift-distance relations are equivalent to each other.
Model of non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence
Bragg, Andrew D.; Kurien, Susan; Clark, Timothy T.
2016-07-08
Here, we compare results from a spectral model for non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence (Besnard et al. in Theor Comp Fluid Dyn 8:1–35, 1996) with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of a shear-free mixing layer (SFML) (Tordella et al. in Phys Rev E 77:016309, 2008). The SFML is used as a test case in which the efficacy of the model closure for the physical-space transport of the fluid velocity field can be tested in a flow with inhomogeneity, without the additional complexity of mean-flow coupling. The model is able to capture certain features of the SFML quite well for intermediate to long times, including the evolution of the mixing-layer width and turbulent kinetic energy. At short-times, and for more sensitive statistics such as the generation of the velocity field anisotropy, the model is less accurate. We propose two possible causes for the discrepancies. The first is the local approximation to the pressure-transport and the second is the a priori spherical averaging used to reduce the dimensionality of the solution space of the model, from wavevector to wavenumber space. DNS data are then used to gauge the relative importance of both possible deficiencies in the model.
Model of non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence
Bragg, Andrew D.; Kurien, Susan; Clark, Timothy T.
2016-07-08
Here, we compare results from a spectral model for non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence (Besnard et al. in Theor Comp Fluid Dyn 8:1–35, 1996) with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of a shear-free mixing layer (SFML) (Tordella et al. in Phys Rev E 77:016309, 2008). The SFML is used as a test case in which the efficacy of the model closure for the physical-space transport of the fluid velocity field can be tested in a flow with inhomogeneity, without the additional complexity of mean-flow coupling. The model is able to capture certain features of the SFML quite well for intermediate to longmore » times, including the evolution of the mixing-layer width and turbulent kinetic energy. At short-times, and for more sensitive statistics such as the generation of the velocity field anisotropy, the model is less accurate. We propose two possible causes for the discrepancies. The first is the local approximation to the pressure-transport and the second is the a priori spherical averaging used to reduce the dimensionality of the solution space of the model, from wavevector to wavenumber space. DNS data are then used to gauge the relative importance of both possible deficiencies in the model.« less
Model of non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bragg, Andrew D.; Kurien, Susan; Clark, Timothy T.
2017-02-01
We compare results from a spectral model for non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence (Besnard et al. in Theor Comp Fluid Dyn 8:1-35, 1996) with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of a shear-free mixing layer (SFML) (Tordella et al. in Phys Rev E 77:016309, 2008). The SFML is used as a test case in which the efficacy of the model closure for the physical-space transport of the fluid velocity field can be tested in a flow with inhomogeneity, without the additional complexity of mean-flow coupling. The model is able to capture certain features of the SFML quite well for intermediate to long times, including the evolution of the mixing-layer width and turbulent kinetic energy. At short-times, and for more sensitive statistics such as the generation of the velocity field anisotropy, the model is less accurate. We propose two possible causes for the discrepancies. The first is the local approximation to the pressure-transport and the second is the a priori spherical averaging used to reduce the dimensionality of the solution space of the model, from wavevector to wavenumber space. DNS data are then used to gauge the relative importance of both possible deficiencies in the model.
Inhomogeneous chemical enrichment in the Galactic Halo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, Chiaki
2016-08-01
In a galaxy, chemical enrichment takes place in an inhomogeneous fashion, and the Galactic Halo is one of the places where the inhomogeneous effects are imprinted and can be constrained from observations. I show this using my chemodynamical simulations of Milky Way type galaxies. The scatter in the elemental abundances originate from radial migration, merging/accretion of satellite galaxies, local variation of star formation and chemical enrichment, and intrinsic variation of nucleosynthesis yields. In the simulated galaxies, there is no strong age-metallicity relation. This means that the most metal-poor stars are not always the oldest stars, and can be formed in chemically unevolved clouds at later times. The long-lifetime sources of chemical enrichment such as asymptotic giant branch stars or neutron star mergers can contribute at low metallicities. The intrinsic variation of yields are important in the early Universe or metal-poor systems such as in the Galactic halo. The carbon enhancement of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars can be best explained by faint supernovae, the low [α/Fe] ratios in some EMP stars naturally arise from low-mass (~ 13 - 15M ⊙) supernovae, and finally, the [α/Fe] knee in dwarf spheroidal galaxies can be produced by subclasses of Type Ia supernovae such as SN 2002cx-like objects and sub-Chandrasekhar mass explosions.
Model of non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence
Bragg, Andrew D.; Kurien, Susan; Clark, Timothy T.
2016-07-08
Here, we compare results from a spectral model for non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence (Besnard et al. in Theor Comp Fluid Dyn 8:1–35, 1996) with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of a shear-free mixing layer (SFML) (Tordella et al. in Phys Rev E 77:016309, 2008). The SFML is used as a test case in which the efficacy of the model closure for the physical-space transport of the fluid velocity field can be tested in a flow with inhomogeneity, without the additional complexity of mean-flow coupling. The model is able to capture certain features of the SFML quite well for intermediate to long times, including the evolution of the mixing-layer width and turbulent kinetic energy. At short-times, and for more sensitive statistics such as the generation of the velocity field anisotropy, the model is less accurate. We propose two possible causes for the discrepancies. The first is the local approximation to the pressure-transport and the second is the a priori spherical averaging used to reduce the dimensionality of the solution space of the model, from wavevector to wavenumber space. DNS data are then used to gauge the relative importance of both possible deficiencies in the model.
Robustness of inflation to inhomogeneous initial conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clough, Katy; Lim, Eugene A.; DiNunno, Brandon S.; Fischler, Willy; Flauger, Raphael; Paban, Sonia
2017-09-01
We consider the effects of inhomogeneous initial conditions in both the scalar field profile and the extrinsic curvature on different inflationary models. In particular, we compare the robustness of small field inflation to that of large field inflation, using numerical simulations with Einstein gravity in 3+1 dimensions. We find that small field inflation can fail in the presence of subdominant gradient energies, suggesting that it is much less robust to inhomogeneities than large field inflation, which withstands dominant gradient energies. However, we also show that small field inflation can be successful even if some regions of spacetime start out in the region of the potential that does not support inflation. In the large field case, we confirm previous results that inflation is robust if the inflaton occupies the inflationary part of the potential. Furthermore, we show that increasing initial scalar gradients will not form sufficiently massive inflation-ending black holes if the initial hypersurface is approximately flat. Finally, we consider the large field case with a varying extrinsic curvature K, such that some regions are initially collapsing. We find that this may again lead to local black holes, but overall the spacetime remains inflationary if the spacetime is open, which confirms previous theoretical studies.
Resistance switching in oxides with inhomogeneous conductivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shang, Da-Shan; Sun, Ji-Rong; Shen, Bao-Gen; Wuttig, Matthias
2013-06-01
Electric-field-induced resistance switching (RS) phenomena have been studied for over 60 years in metal/dielectrics/metal structures. In these experiments a wide range of dielectrics have been studied including binary transition metal oxides, perovskite oxides, chalcogenides, carbon- and silicon-based materials, as well as organic materials. RS phenomena can be used to store information and offer an attractive performance, which encompasses fast switching speeds, high scalability, and the desirable compatibility with Si-based complementary metal—oxide—semiconductor fabrication. This is promising for nonvolatile memory technology, i.e., resistance random access memory (RRAM). However, a comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanism is still lacking. This impedes faster product development as well as accurate assessment of the device performance potential. Generally speaking, RS occurs not in the entire dielectric but only in a small, confined region, which results from the local variation of conductivity in dielectrics. In this review, we focus on the RS in oxides with such an inhomogeneous conductivity. According to the origin of the conductivity inhomogeneity, the RS phenomena and their working mechanism are reviewed by dividing them into two aspects: interface RS, based on the change of contact resistance at metal/oxide interface due to the change of Schottky barrier and interface chemical layer, and bulk RS, realized by the formation, connection, and disconnection of conductive channels in the oxides. Finally the current challenges of RS investigation and the potential improvement of the RS performance for the nonvolatile memories are discussed.
Gradient effects on the fracture of inhomogeneous materials
Becker, Terrence Lee
2000-05-01
Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) have a spatial variation in physical properties that can be tailored to meet the needs of a specific application and/or to minimize internal stresses arising from thermal and elastic mismatch. Modeling these materials as inhomogeneous continua allows assessment of the role of the gradient without requiring detailed knowledge of the microstructure. Motivated by the relative difficulty of obtaining analytical solutions to boundary value problems for FGMs, an accurate finite-element code is developed for obtaining numerical planar and axisymmetric linear thermoelastic solutions. In addition an approximate analytical technique for mapping homogeneous-modulus solutions to those for FGMs is assessed and classes of problems to which it applies accurately are identified. The fracture mechanics analysis of FGMs can be characterized by the classic stress intensities, KI and KII, but there has been scarce progress in understanding the role of the modulus gradient in determining fracture initiation and propagation. To address this question, a statistical fracture model is used to correlate near-tip stresses with brittle fracture initiation behavior. This describes the behavior of a material experiencing fracture initiation away from the crack tip. Widely dispersed zones of fracture initiation sites are expected. Finite-length kinks are analyzed to describe the crack path for continuous crack growth. For kink lengths much shorter than the gradient dimension, a parallel stress term describes the deviation of the kinking angle from that for homogeneous materials. For longer kinks there is a divergence of the kink angle predicted by the maximum energy release rate and the pure opening mode criteria.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quilliet, Catherine; Quemeneur, François; Marmottant, Philippe; Imhof, Arnout; Pépin-Donat, Brigitte; van Blaaderen, Alfons
2010-03-01
The deflation of elastic spherical surfaces has been numerically investigated, and show very different types of deformations according the range of elastic parameters, some of them being quantitatively explained through simple calculations. This allows to retrieve various shapes observed on hollow shells (from colloidal to centimeter scale), on lipid vesicles, or on some biological objects. The extension of this process to other geometries allows to modelize vegetal objects such as the ultrafast trap of carnivorous plants.
Local elastic constants in thin films of an fcc crystal.
van Workum, Kevin; de Pablo, Juan J
2003-03-01
In this work we present a formalism for the calculation of the local elastic constants in inhomogeneous systems based on a method of planes. Unlike previous work, this formalism does not require the partitioning of the system into a set of finite volumes over which average elastic constants are calculated. Results for the calculation of the local elastic constants of a nearest-neighbor Lennard-Jones fcc crystal in the bulk and in a thin film are presented. The local constants are calculated at exact planes of the (001) face of the crystal. The average elastic constants of the bulk system are also computed and are consistent with the local constants. Additionally we present the local stress profiles in the thin film when a small uniaxial strain is applied. The resulting stress profile compares favorably with the stress profile predicted via the local elastic constants. The surface melting of a model for argon for which experimental and simulation data are available is also studied within the framework of this formalism.
Elastic and osmotic properties of articular cartilage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, David; Dimitriadis, Emilios; Horkayne-Szakaly, Iren; Horkay, Ferenc
2006-03-01
The pathophysiology of osteoarthritis involves cellular and biochemical processes linked to mechanical stress. A better understanding of the mechanism of these processes and how they cause changes in the composition, macro- and micro-structure, and mechanical properties of cartilage is necessary for developing effective preventative and treatment strategies. In this study, elastic and osmotic swelling properties of tissue-engineered cartilage were explored using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a tissue osmometer. AFM was also used to image the surface of the specimens while chemical composition was determined by biochemical analysis. Estimation of the Young's moduli of the tissue from AFM force-indentation data was performed using an optimization approach to fit appropriate models to the data. Force-indentation data were acquired both with sharp, pyramidal and with microspherical probes. The procedure has been validated by making measurements on model gel systems of known elastic properties. This approach is presented as a robust method of optimally extracting Young's moduli of soft, crosslinked materials from AFM data. Gross inhomogeneities at different scales in the cartilage tissue are manifested in the high degree of variance in local Young's moduli values obtained from both AFM and osmotic swelling data. These findings suggest that the mechanical properties of cartilage are affected by the local macromolecular composition.
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics. II. Application to inhomogeneous systems.
Gujrati, P D
2012-04-01
We provide an extension of a recent approach to study nonequilibrium thermodynamics [Gujrati, Phys. Rev. E 81, 051130 (2010), to be denoted by I in this work] to inhomogeneous systems by considering the latter to be composed of quasi-independent subsystems. The system Σ along with the (macroscopically extremely large) medium Σ[over ̃] form an isolated system Σ0. The fields (temperature, pressure, etc.) of Σ and Σ[over ̃] differ unless at equilibrium. We show that the additivity of entropy requires quasi-independence of the subsystems, which results from the interaction energies between different subsystems being negligible so the energy also becomes additive. The thermodynamic potentials such as the Gibbs free energy that continuously decrease during approach to equilibrium are determined by the fields of the medium and exist no matter how far the subsystems are out of equilibrium, so their fields may not even exist. This and the requirement of quasi-independence make our approach differ from the conventional approach used by de Groot and others, as discussed in the text. We find it useful to introduce the time-dependent Gibbs statistical entropy for Σ0, from which we derive the Gibbs entropy of Σ; in equilibrium this entropy reduces to the equilibrium thermodynamic entropy. As the energy depends on the frame of reference, the thermodynamic potentials and the Gibbs fundamental relation, but not the entropy, depend on the frame of reference. The possibility of relative motion between subsystems described by their net linear and angular momenta gives rise to viscous dissipation. The concept of internal equilibrium introduced in I is developed further here and its important consequences are discussed for inhomogeneous systems. The concept of internal variables (various examples are given in the text) as variables that cannot be controlled by the observer for nonequilibrium evolution is also discussed. They are important because the concept of internal
Tests of Cosmological Inhomogeneity Using WMAP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shubert, Richard; Tatineni, Mahidhar
2016-06-01
This paper reports on the latest results obtained from studies of the calibrated Time-Ordered Data of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (9-yr) mission that has in the past been used to determine the anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, although with a novel objective. The purpose of this work has been to examine what can be inferred from these data about the local inhomogeneity of the CMBR, which would be in this case an apparent radial variation of the brightness (or effective temperature) at the same point of the celestial sky as seen by the WMAP spacecraft instruments from the center of observation, namely the Sun. The usual studies of anisotropy normally have averaged the observed temperature of any given point on the celestial sky over one full annual orbit of the WMAP spacecraft around the Sun to produce the well-known maps. Inhomogeneity of the kind being sought here, however, would manifest itself as a systematic variation of the apparent temperature at that point as a function of the orbital position of the spacecraft. The detection of such inhomogeneity, if it could be confirmed by subsequent observations, could significantly impact the standard cosmological paradigm. The computational approach used thus far in that search, over the last four years of study by supercomputer facilities at UCSD, has been to examine the differences of temperature seen of the same points on the sky, taken in pairs corresponding to the pointing directions of the A and B radiometer horns of the instrument, from different orbital positions of the spacecraft. From those observed differences of temperature and the corresponding angular separations of the respective orbital positions — here limited to values greater than or equal to 44 degrees out of a maximum available range of 1 - 45 degrees — an apparent radial gradient of temperature could be computed with lowest uncertainties. A small but significant gradient of temperature tentatively has been
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, C. S.
2014-12-01
The dry granular flowmap can be broken into two broad categories, the Elastic and the Inertial. Elastic flows are dominated by force chains and stresses are generated by the compression of the interparticle contacts within those chains, and thus are proportional to the stiffness of the contacts. The Elastic zone can be subdivided into two regimes, the Elastic-Quasistatic where forces are independent of the shear rate which at high shear rates transitions to Elastic-Inertial where the particle inertia is reflected in the forces and the stresses increase linearly with the shear rate. In the Inertial regime, the stresses vary with the square of the shear rate. It also is divided into two regimes, the Dense-Inertial where the flow is dominated by clusters of particles, and the Inertial-Collisional where the flow is dominated by binary collisions. Appropriately the elastic theory grew out of an old study of landslides. But like most such studies, all of the above depend on idealized computer simulations of uniform sized spherical particles. Real particles are never round, never of uniform size, and the process of flowing changes surface properties and may even shatter the particles. But all indications are that real systems still fit into the pattern drawn out in the last paragraph. A grave problem facing the field is how to incorporate these effects without losing a fundamental understanding of the internal rheological processes. This talk will begin with an overview of the Elastic flowmap and the behaviors associated with each flow regime. It will then discuss early work to include effects of particle shape and size mixtures and perhaps some effects of particle breakage.
Elasticity of plagioclase feldspars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, J. Michael; Angel, Ross J.; Ross, Nancy L.
2016-02-01
Elastic properties are reported for eight plagioclase feldspars that span compositions from albite (NaSi3AlO8) to anorthite (CaSi2Al2O8). Surface acoustic wave velocities measured using Impulsive Stimulated Light Scattering and compliance sums from high-pressure X-ray compression studies accurately determine all 21 components of the elasticity tensor for these triclinic minerals. The overall pattern of elasticity and the changes in individual elastic components with composition can be rationalized on the basis of the evolution of crystal structures and chemistry across this solid-solution join. All plagioclase feldspars have high elastic anisotropy; a* (the direction perpendicular to the b and c axes) is the softest direction by a factor of 3 in albite. From albite to anorthite the stiffness of this direction undergoes the greatest change, increasing twofold. Small discontinuities in the elastic components, inferred to occur between the three plagioclase phases with distinct symmetry (C1>¯, I1>¯, and P1>¯), appear consistent with the nature of the underlying conformation of the framework-linked tetrahedra and the associated structural changes. Measured body wave velocities of plagioclase-rich rocks, reported over the last five decades, are consistent with calculated Hill-averaged velocities using the current moduli. This confirms long-standing speculation that previously reported elastic moduli for plagioclase feldspars are systematically in error. The current results provide greater assurance that the seismic structure of the middle and lower crusts can be accurately estimated on the basis of specified mineral modes, chemistry, and fabric.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Bin; Su, Yipin; Chen, Weiqiu; Zhang, Chuanzeng
2017-02-01
Soft electroactive (EA) tube actuators and many other cylindrical devices have been proposed recently in literature, which show great advantages over those made from conventional hard solid materials. However, their practical applications may be limited because these soft EA devices are prone to various failure modes. In this paper, we present an analysis of the guided circumferential elastic waves in soft EA tube actuators, which has potential applications in the in-situ nondestructive evaluation (NDE) or online structural health monitoring (SHM) to detect structural defects or fatigue cracks in soft EA tube actuators and in the self-sensing of soft EA tube actuators based on the concept of guided circumferential elastic waves. Both circumferential SH and Lamb-type waves in an incompressible soft EA cylindrical tube under inhomogeneous biasing fields are considered. The biasing fields, induced by the application of an electric voltage difference to the electrodes on the inner and outer cylindrical surfaces of the EA tube in addition to an axial pre-stretch, are inhomogeneous in the radial direction. Dorfmann and Ogden's theory of nonlinear electroelasticity and the associated linear theory for small incremental motion constitute the basis of our analysis. By means of the state-space formalism for the incremental wave motion along with the approximate laminate technique, dispersion relations are derived in a particularly efficient way. For a neo-Hookean ideal dielectric model, the proposed approach is first validated numerically. Numerical examples are then given to show that the guided circumferential wave propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the inhomogeneous biasing fields and the geometrical parameters. Some particular phenomena such as the frequency veering and the nonlinear dependence of the phase velocity on the radial electric voltage are discussed. Our numerical findings demonstrate that it is feasible to use guided circumferential
Direct optical imaging of structural inhomogeneities in crystalline materials.
Grigorev, A M
2016-05-10
A method for optical imaging of structural inhomogeneities in crystalline materials is proposed, based on the differences in the optical properties of the structural inhomogeneity and the homogeneous material near the fundamental absorption edge of the crystalline material. The method can be used to detect defects in both semiconductors and insulators.
Effects of nanoscale density inhomogeneities on shearing fluids.
Dalton, Benjamin A; Daivis, Peter J; Hansen, J S; Todd, B D
2013-11-01
It is well known that density inhomogeneities at the solid-liquid interface can have a strong effect on the velocity profile of a nanoconfined fluid in planar Poiseuille flow. However, it is difficult to control the density inhomogeneities induced by solid walls, making this type of system unsuitable for a comprehensive study of the effect on density inhomogeneity on nanofluidic flow. In this paper, we employ an external force compatible with periodic boundary conditions to induce the density variation, which greatly simplifies the problem when compared to flow in nonperiodic nanoconfined systems. Using the sinusoidal transverse force method to produce shearing velocity profiles and the sinusoidal longitudinal force method to produce inhomogeneous density profiles, we are able to observe the interactions between the two property inhomogeneities at the level of individual Fourier components. This gives us a method for direct measurement of the coupling between the density and velocity fields and allows us to introduce various feedback control mechanisms which customize fluid behavior in individual Fourier components. We briefly discuss the role of temperature inhomogeneity and consider whether local thermal expansion due to nonuniform viscous heating is sufficient to account for shear-induced density inhomogeneities. We also consider the local Newtonian constitutive relation relating the shear stress to the velocity gradient and show that the local model breaks down for sufficiently large density inhomogeneities over atomic length scales.
Effects of nanoscale density inhomogeneities on shearing fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dalton, Benjamin A.; Daivis, Peter J.; Hansen, J. S.; Todd, B. D.
2013-11-01
It is well known that density inhomogeneities at the solid-liquid interface can have a strong effect on the velocity profile of a nanoconfined fluid in planar Poiseuille flow. However, it is difficult to control the density inhomogeneities induced by solid walls, making this type of system unsuitable for a comprehensive study of the effect on density inhomogeneity on nanofluidic flow. In this paper, we employ an external force compatible with periodic boundary conditions to induce the density variation, which greatly simplifies the problem when compared to flow in nonperiodic nanoconfined systems. Using the sinusoidal transverse force method to produce shearing velocity profiles and the sinusoidal longitudinal force method to produce inhomogeneous density profiles, we are able to observe the interactions between the two property inhomogeneities at the level of individual Fourier components. This gives us a method for direct measurement of the coupling between the density and velocity fields and allows us to introduce various feedback control mechanisms which customize fluid behavior in individual Fourier components. We briefly discuss the role of temperature inhomogeneity and consider whether local thermal expansion due to nonuniform viscous heating is sufficient to account for shear-induced density inhomogeneities. We also consider the local Newtonian constitutive relation relating the shear stress to the velocity gradient and show that the local model breaks down for sufficiently large density inhomogeneities over atomic length scales.
Mass spectrometry and inhomogeneous ion optics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, F. A.
1973-01-01
Work done in several areas to advance the state of the art of magnetic mass spectrometers is described. The calculations and data necessary for the design of inhomogeneous field mass spectrometers, and the calculation of ion trajectories through such fields are presented. The development and testing of solid state ion detection devices providing the capability of counting single ions is discussed. New techniques in the preparation and operation of thermal-ionization ion sources are described. Data obtained on the concentrations of copper in rainfall and uranium in air samples using the improved thermal ionization techniques are presented. The design of a closed system static mass spectrometer for isotopic analyses is discussed. A summary of instrumental aspects of a four-stage mass spectrometer comprising two electrostatic and two 90 deg. magnetic lenses with a 122-cm radius used to study the interaction of ions with solids is presented.
Mean-field theory for inhomogeneous electrolytes.
Yeh, Shin-Shing; Chen, Peilong
2005-09-01
We calculate the free energy density for inhomogeneous electrolytes based on the mean-field Debye-Hückel theory. Derived are the contributions of (1) the differential term for the electrolyte density being slow varying in one direction and (2) the boundary term for an electrolyte confined to one side of a planar interface. These contributions are shown to cause an electrolyte depletion near the air-water interfaces, which makes the surface tension increase, to be significantly larger than those predicted by previous theories. Nonuniform electrolyte densities are also computed near the water-electrolyte and electrolyte-electrolyte interfaces. Finally we calculate the interaction of two uncharged macrospheres due to the electrolyte depletion.
Segregation and inhomogeneities in photorefractive SBN fibers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erdei, Sandor; Galambos, Ludwig; Tanaka, Isao; Hesselink, Lambertus; Ainger, Frank W.; Cross, Leslie E.; Feigelson, Robert S.
1996-10-01
Ce doped and undoped SrxBa1-xNb2O6 (SBN) fibers grown by the laser heated pedestal growth (LHPG) technique in Stanford University were investigated by 2D scanning electron microprobe analysis. The SBN fibers grown along c [001] or a [100] axes often show radially distributed optical inhomogeneities (core effects) of varying magnitude. Ba enrichment and Sr reduction were primarily detected in the core which can be qualitatively described by a complex-segregation effect. This defect structure as a complex-congruency related phenomenon modified by the composition-control mechanism of LHPG system. Its radial dependence of effective segregation coefficient is described by the modified Burton-Prim- Slichter equation.
An inhomogeneous model universe behaving homogeneously
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khosravi, Sh.; Kourkchi, E.; Mansouri, R.; Akrami, Y.
2008-05-01
We present a new model universe based on the junction of FRW to flat Lemaitre Tolman Bondi (LTB) solutions of Einstein equations along our past light cone, bringing structures within the FRW models. The model is assumed globally to be homogeneous, i.e. the cosmological principle is valid. Local inhomogeneities within the past light cone are modeled as a flat LTB, whereas those outside the light cone are assumed to be smoothed out and represented by a FRW model. The model is singularity free, always FRW far from the observer along the past light cone, gives way to a different luminosity distance relation as for the CDM/FRW models, a negative deceleration parameter near the observer, and correct linear and non-linear density contrast. As a whole, the model behaves like a FRW model on the past light cone with a special behavior of the scale factor, Hubble and deceleration parameter, mimicking dark energy.
On Isospectral Deformations of an Inhomogeneous String
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colville, Kale; Gomez, Daniel; Szmigielski, Jacek
2016-12-01
In this paper we consider a class of isospectral deformations of the inhomogeneous string boundary value problem. The deformations considered are generalizations of the isospectral deformation that has arisen in connection with the Camassa-Holm equation for the shallow water waves. It is proved that these new isospectral deformations result in evolution equations on the mass density whose form depends on how the string is tied at the endpoints. Moreover, it is shown that the evolution equations in this class linearize on the spectral side and hence can be solved by the inverse spectral method. In particular, the problem involving a mass density given by a discrete finite measure and arbitrary boundary conditions is shown to be solvable by Stieltjes' continued fractions.
Speckle spectroscopy of fluorescent randomly inhomogeneous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zimnyakov, D. A.; Asharchuk, I. A.; Yuvchenko, S. A.; Sviridov, A. P.
2016-11-01
We propose a coherence optical method for probing fluorescent randomly inhomogeneous media based on the statistical analysis of spatial fluctuations of spectrally selected fluorescence radiation. We develop a phenomenological model that interrelates the flicker index of the spatial distribution of the fluorescence intensity at a fixed wavelength and the mean path difference of partial components of the fluorescence radiation field in the probed medium. The results of experimental approbation of the developed method using the layers of densely packed silicon dioxide particles saturated with the aqueous rhodamine 6G solution with a high concentration of the dye are presented. The experimentally observed significant decrease in the flicker index under the wavelength tuning from the edges of the fluorescence spectrum towards it central part is presumably a manifestation of spectrally dependent negative absorption in the medium.
Inhomogeneous reheating scenario with DBI fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Sheng
2010-08-01
We discuss a new mechanism which can be responsible for the origin of the primordial perturbation in inflationary models, the inhomogeneous DBI reheating scenario. Light DBI fields fluctuate during inflation, and finally create the density perturbations through modulation of the inflation decay rate. In this note, we investigate the curvature perturbation and its non-Gaussianity from this new mechanism. Presenting generalized expressions for them, we show that the curvature perturbation not only depends on the particular process of decay but is also dependent on the sound speed cs from the DBI action. More interestingly we find that the non-Gaussianity parameter fNL is independent of cs. As an application we exemplify some decay processes which give a viable and detectable non-Gaussianity. Finally we find a possible connection between our model and the DBI-Curvaton mechanism.
Sound barriers from materials of inhomogeneous impedance.
Wang, Xu; Mao, Dongxing; Yu, Wuzhou; Jiang, Zaixiu
2015-06-01
Sound barriers are extensively used in environmental noise protection. However, when barriers are placed in parallel on opposite sides of a sound source, their performance deteriorates markedly. This paper describes a barrier made from materials of inhomogeneous impedance which lacks this drawback. The nonuniform impedance affects the way sound undergoes multiple reflections, and in the process traps acoustic energy. A proposed realization of the barrier comprises a closely spaced array of progressively tuned hollow narrow tubes which create a phase gradient. The acoustics of the barrier is theoretically examined and its superiority over conventional barriers is calculated using finite element modeling. Structural parameters of the barrier can be changed to achieve the required sound insertion loss, and the barrier has the potential to be widely used in environmental noise control.
Measurable inhomogeneities in stock trading volume flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cortines, A. A. G.; Riera, R.; Anteneodo, C.
2008-08-01
We investigate the statistics of volumes of shares traded in stock markets. We show that the stochastic process of trading volumes can be understood on the basis of a mixed Poisson process at the microscopic time level. The beta distribution of the second kind (also known as q-gamma distribution), that has been proposed to describe empirical volume histograms, naturally results from our analysis. In particular, the shape of the distribution at small volumes is governed by the degree of granularity in the trading process, while the exponent controlling the tail is a measure of the inhomogeneities in market activity. Furthermore, the present case furnishes empirical evidence of how power law probability distributions can arise as a consequence of a fluctuating intrinsic parameter.
Quantizing polaritons in inhomogeneous dissipative systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drezet, Aurélien
2017-02-01
In this article we provide a general analysis of canonical quantization for polaritons in dispersive and dissipative electromagnetic inhomogeneous media. We compare several approaches based either on the Huttner-Barnett model [B. Huttner and S. M. Barnett, Phys. Rev. A 46, 4306 (1992), 10.1103/PhysRevA.46.4306] or the Green function, Langevin-noise method [T. Gruner and D.-G. Welsch, Phys. Rev. A 53, 1818 (1996), 10.1103/PhysRevA.53.1818] which includes only material oscillators as fundamental variables. We show that in order to preserve unitarity, causality, and time symmetry, one must necessarily include with an equal footing both electromagnetic modes and material fluctuations in the evolution equations. This becomes particularly relevant for all nanophotonics and plasmonics problems involving spatially localized antennas or devices.
The Hyades open cluster is chemically inhomogeneous
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, F.; Yong, D.; Asplund, M.; Ramírez, I.; Meléndez, J.
2016-04-01
We present a high-precision differential abundance analysis of 16 solar-type stars in the Hyades open cluster based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≈ 350-400) spectra obtained from the McDonald 2.7-m telescope. We derived stellar parameters and differential chemical abundances for 19 elements (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ba) with uncertainties as low as ˜0.01-0.02 dex. Our main results include: (1) there is no clear chemical signature of planet formation detected among the sample stars, i.e. no correlations in abundances versus condensation temperature; (2) the observed abundance dispersions are a factor of ≈1.5-2 larger than the average measurement errors for most elements; (3) there are positive correlations, of high statistical significance, between the abundances of at least 90 per cent of pairs of elements. We demonstrate that none of these findings can be explained by errors due to the stellar parameters. Our results reveal that the Hyades is chemically inhomogeneous at the 0.02 dex level. Possible explanations for the abundance variations include (1) inhomogeneous chemical evolution in the proto-cluster environment, (2) supernova ejection in the proto-cluster cloud and (3) pollution of metal-poor gas before complete mixing of the proto-cluster cloud. Our results provide significant new constraints on the chemical composition of open clusters and a challenge to the current view of Galactic archaeology.
Problem of time in slightly inhomogeneous cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Edward
2016-07-01
The problem of time (PoT) is a multi-faceted conceptual incompatibility between various areas of Theoretical Physics. While usually stated as between GR and QM, in fact 8/9ths of it is already present at the classical level. Thus we adopt a ‘top-down’ classical and then quantum approach. I consider a local resolution to the PoT that is Machian, which was previously realized for relational triangle and minisuperspace models. This resolution has three levels: classical, semiclassical and combined semiclassical-histories-records. This article’s specific model is a slightly inhomogeneous cosmology considered for now at the classical level. This is motivated by how the inhomogeneous fluctuations that underlie structure formation—galaxies and CMB hotspots—might have been seeded by quantum cosmological fluctuations, as magnified by some inflationary mechanism. In particular, I consider the perturbations about {{{S}}}3 case of this involving up to second order, which has a number of parallels with the Halliwell-Hawking model but has a number of conceptual differences and useful upgrades. The article’s main features are that the elimination part of the model’s thin sandwich is straightforward, but the modewise split of the constraints fail to be first-class constraints. Thus the elimination part only arises as an intermediate geometry between superspace and Riem. The reduced geometries have surprising singularities influenced by the matter content of the Universe, though the N-body problem anticipates these with its collinear singularities. I also give a ‘basis set’ of Kuchař beables for this model arena.
Acoustic excitations and elastic heterogeneities in disordered solids.
Mizuno, Hideyuki; Mossa, Stefano; Barrat, Jean-Louis
2014-08-19
In the recent years, much attention has been devoted to the inhomogeneous nature of the mechanical response at the nanoscale in disordered solids. Clearly, the elastic heterogeneities that have been characterized in this context are expected to strongly affect the nature of the sound waves which, in contrast to the case of perfect crystals, cannot be completely rationalized in terms of phonons. Building on previous work on a toy model showing an amorphization transition, we investigate the relationship between sound waves and elastic heterogeneities in a unified framework by continuously interpolating from the perfect crystal, through increasingly defective phases, to fully developed glasses. We provide strong evidence of a direct correlation between sound wave features and the extent of the heterogeneous mechanical response at the nanoscale.
Acoustic excitations and elastic heterogeneities in disordered solids
Mizuno, Hideyuki; Mossa, Stefano; Barrat, Jean-Louis
2014-01-01
In the recent years, much attention has been devoted to the inhomogeneous nature of the mechanical response at the nanoscale in disordered solids. Clearly, the elastic heterogeneities that have been characterized in this context are expected to strongly affect the nature of the sound waves which, in contrast to the case of perfect crystals, cannot be completely rationalized in terms of phonons. Building on previous work on a toy model showing an amorphization transition, we investigate the relationship between sound waves and elastic heterogeneities in a unified framework by continuously interpolating from the perfect crystal, through increasingly defective phases, to fully developed glasses. We provide strong evidence of a direct correlation between sound wave features and the extent of the heterogeneous mechanical response at the nanoscale. PMID:25092324
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Neill, Bridget; Bass, Jay D.; Rossman, George R.; Geiger, Charles A.; Langer, Klaus
1991-03-01
Brillouin spectroscopy was used to measure the single crystal elastic properties of a pure synthetic pyrope and a natural garnet containing 89.9 mol% of the pyrope end member (Mg3Al2Si3O12). The elastic moduli, c ij , of the two samples are entirely consistent and agree with previous estimates of the elastic properties of pyrope based upon the moduli of solid solutions. Our results indicate that the elastic moduli of pyrope end-member are c 11=296.2±0.5, c 12=111.1±0.6, c 44=91.6±0.3, Ks=172.8±0.3, μ=92.0±0.2, all in units of GPa. These results differ by several percent from those reported previously for synthetic pyrope, but are based upon a much larger data set. Although the hydrous components of the two samples from the present study are substantially different, representing both ‘dry’ and ‘saturated’ samples, we find no discernable effect of structurally bound water on the elastic properties. This is due to the small absolute solubility of water in pyrope, as compared with other garnets such as grossular.
Inhomogeneous cosmology and backreaction: Current status and future prospects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolejko, Krzysztof; Korzyński, Mikołaj
Astronomical observations reveal hierarchical structures in the universe, from galaxies, groups of galaxies, clusters and superclusters, to filaments and voids. On the largest scales, it seems that some kind of statistical homogeneity can be observed. As a result, modern cosmological models are based on spatially homogeneous and isotropic solutions of the Einstein equations, and the evolution of the universe is approximated by the Friedmann equations. In parallel to standard homogeneous cosmology, the field of inhomogeneous cosmology and backreaction is being developed. This field investigates whether small scale inhomogeneities via nonlinear effects can backreact and alter the properties of the universe on its largest scales, leading to a non-Friedmannian evolution. This paper presents the current status of inhomogeneous cosmology and backreaction. It also discusses future prospects of the field of inhomogeneous cosmology, which is based on a survey of 50 academics working in the field of inhomogeneous cosmology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert
2016-08-01
We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.
Sewell, T. D.; Bedrov, D.; Menikoff, Ralph; Smith, G. D.
2001-01-01
Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been used to calculate isothermal elastic properties for {beta}-, {alpha}-, and {delta}-HMX. The complete elastic tensor for each polymorph was determined at room temperature and pressure via analysis of microscopic strain fluctuations using formalism due to Rahman and Parrinello [J. Chem. Phys. 76,2662 (1982)]. Additionally, the isothermal compression curve was computed for {beta}-HMX for 0 {le} p {le} 10.6 GPa; the bulk modulus K and its pressure derivative K{prime} were obtained from two fitting forms employed previously in experimental studies of the {beta}-HMX equation of state. Overall, the results indicate good agreement between the bulk modulus predicted from the measured and calculated compression curves. The bulk modulus determined directly from the elastic tensor of {beta}-HMX is in significant disagreement with the compression curve-based results. The explanation for this discrepancy is an area of current research.
Peselnick, L.; Robie, R.A.
1962-01-01
The recent measurements of the elastic constants of calcite by Reddy and Subrahmanyam (1960) disagree with the values obtained independently by Voigt (1910) and Bhimasenachar (1945). The present authors, using an ultrasonic pulse technique at 3 Mc and 25??C, determined the elastic constants of calcite using the exact equations governing the wave velocities in the single crystal. The results are C11=13.7, C33=8.11, C44=3.50, C12=4.82, C13=5.68, and C14=-2.00, in units of 1011 dyncm2. Independent checks of several of the elastic constants were made employing other directions and polarizations of the wave velocities. With the exception of C13, these values substantially agree with the data of Voigt and Bhimasenachar. ?? 1962 The American Institute of Physics.
Elastic model of supercoiling.
Benham, C J
1977-01-01
An elastic model for the supercoiling of duplex DNA is developed. The simplest assumptions regarding the elastic properties of double-helical DNA (homogeneous, isotropic, of circular cross section, and remaining straight when unstressed) will generate two orders of superhelicity when stressed. Recent experimental results [Brady, G.W., Fein, D.B. & Brumberger, H. (1976) Nature 264, 231-234] suggest that in supercoiled DNA molecules there are regions where two distinct orders of supercoiling arise, as predicted by this model. PMID:267934
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quilliet, Catherine
2011-03-01
The deflation of elastic spherical surfaces has been numerically investigated, and show very different types of deformations according the range of elastic parameters, some of them being quantitatively understood through simple theoretical considerations. In particular, the role of the Poisson ratio is closely investigated. This work allowed to retrieve various shapes observed on hollow deformable shells (from colloidal to centimeter scale), on lipid vesicles, or on some simple biological objects. Conversely, it shows how high deformations can tell observers about mechanical properties of a body. Such investigations have been extended to other geometries, in order to provide clues to understand deformations of vegetal or animal tissues.
Structural relaxation driven increase in elastic modulus for a bulk metallic glass
Arora, Harpreet Singh; Aditya, Ayyagari V.; Mukherjee, Sundeep
2015-01-07
The change in elastic modulus as a function of temperature was investigated for a zirconium-based bulk metallic glass. High temperature nano-indentation was done over a wide temperature range from room temperature to the glass-transition. At higher temperature, there was a transition from inhomogeneous to homogeneous deformation, with a decrease in serrated flow and an increase in creep displacement. Hardness was found to decrease, whereas elastic modulus was found to increase with temperature. The increase in elastic modulus for metallic glass at higher temperature was explained by diffusive rearrangement of atoms resulting in free volume annihilation. This is in contrast to elastic modulus increase with temperature for silicate glasses due to compaction of its open three dimensional coordinated structure without any atomic diffusion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lavrikov, SV; Mikenina, OA; Revuzhenko, AF
2017-02-01
Under analysis is an approach to mathematical modeling of structurally inhomogeneous rocks considering structural hierarchy and internal self-balanced stresses. The fields of stresses and strains at various scale levels of rock mass medium are characterized using the non-Archimedean analysis methods. It is shown that such model describes accumulationtion of elastic energy in the form of internal self-balanced stresses on a micro-scale. The finite element algorithm and a computer program are developed to solve plane boundary-value problems. The calculated data on compression of a rock specimen are reported. The paper shows that the behavior of plastic strain zones largley depends on the pre-set initital micro-stresses.
Di Mundo, Rosa; Recchia, Giuseppina; Parekh, Mohit; Ruzza, Alessandro; Ferrari, Stefano; Carbone, Giuseppe
2017-10-01
The paper describes a highly space-resolved characterization of the surface mechanical properties of the posterior human corneal layer (Descemet's membrane). This has been accomplished with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) nano-indentation by using a probe with a sharp tip geometry. Results indicate that the contact with this biological tissue in liquid occurs with no (or very low) adhesion. More importantly, under the same operating conditions, a broad distribution of penetration depth can be measured on different x-y positions of the tissue surface, indicating a high inhomogeneity of surface stiffness, not yet clearly reported in the literature. An important contribution to such inhomogeneity should be ascribed to the discontinuous nature of the collagen/proteoglycans fibers matrix tissue, as can be imaged by AFM when the tissue is semi-dry. Using classical contact mechanics calculations adapted to the specific geometry of the tetrahedral tip it has been found that the elastic modulus E of the material in the very proximity of the surface ranges from 0.23 to 2.6 kPa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Multimodal and omnidirectional beam splitters for Lamb modes in elastic plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Yabin; Torrent, Daniel; Pennec, Yan; Lévêque, Gaëtan; Pan, Yongdong; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram
2016-12-01
Omnidirectional beam splitters for the simultaneous control of the three fundamental Lamb modes in an elastic plate are designed and numerically studied. Beam splitters consist in radially symmetric and inhomogeneous lenses designed to redirect the incoming energy towards a given angle. In this work, these devices are designed by means of graded phononic crystals combined with thickness variations of the plate. Numerical simulations are presented to show the performance of the designed devices.
Elastic moduli inheritance and the weakest link in bulk metallic glasses.
Ma, D; Stoica, A D; Wang, X-L; Lu, Z P; Clausen, B; Brown, D W
2012-02-24
We show that a variety of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) inherit their Young's modulus and shear modulus from the solvent components. This is attributed to preferential straining of locally solvent-rich configurations among tightly bonded atomic clusters, which constitute the weakest link in an amorphous structure. This aspect of inhomogeneous deformation, also revealed by our in situ neutron diffraction studies of an elastically deformed BMG, suggests a rubberlike viscoelastic behavior due to a hierarchy of atomic bonds in BMGs.
Uncertainties Concerning the Free Vibration of Inhomogeneous Orthotropic Reinforced Concrete Plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahsavar, Vahid Lal; Tofighi, Samira
2014-09-01
Analyzing nearly collapsed and broken structures gives good insights into possible architectural and engineering design mistakes and faults in the detailing and mismanagement of a construction by building contractors. Harmful vibration effects of construction operations occur frequently. The background reviews have demonstrated that the problem of the vibration serviceability of long-span concrete floors in buildings is complex and interdisciplinary in nature. In public buildings, floor vibration control is required in order to meet Serviceability Limit States that ensure the comfort of the users of a building. In industrial buildings, machines are often placed on floors. Machines generate vibrations of various frequencies, which are transferred to supporting constructions. Precision machines require a stable floor with defined and known dynamic characteristics. In recent years there has been increasing interest in the motion of elastic bodies whose material properties (density, elastic moduli, etc.) are not constant, but vary with their position, perhaps in a random manner. Concrete is a non-homogeneous and anisotropic material. Modeling the mechanical behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) is still one of the most difficult challenges in the field of structural engineering. One of several methods for determining the dynamic modulus of the elasticity of engineering materials is the vibration frequency procedure. In this method, the required variables except for the modulus of elasticity are accurately and certainly determined. In this research, the uncertainly analysis of the free vibration of inhomogeneous orthotropic reinforced concrete plates has been investigated. Due to the numerous outputs obtained, the software package has been written in Matlab, and an analysis of the data and drawing related charts has been done.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cocco, Alberto; Masin, Sergio Cesare
2010-01-01
Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight--a cognitive law analogous to Hooke's law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined…
Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gluck, Paul
2010-01-01
There have been two articles in this journal that described a pair of collision carts used to demonstrate vividly the difference between elastic and inelastic collisions. One cart had a series of washers that were mounted rigidly on a rigid wooden framework, the other had washers mounted on rubber bands stretched across a framework. The rigidly…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gordon, Warren B.
2006-01-01
This paper examines the elasticity of demand, and shows that geometrically, it may be interpreted as the ratio of two simple distances along the tangent line: the distance from the point on the curve to the x-intercept to the distance from the point on the curve to the y-intercept. It also shows that total revenue is maximized at the transition…
Hydrodynamic Elastic Magneto Plastic
Wilkins, M. L.; Levatin, J. A.
1985-02-01
The HEMP code solves the conservation equations of two-dimensional elastic-plastic flow, in plane x-y coordinates or in cylindrical symmetry around the x-axis. Provisions for calculation of fixed boundaries, free surfaces, pistons, and boundary slide planes have been included, along with other special conditions.
Elastic swimming I: Optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lauga, Eric; Yu, Tony; Hosoi, Anette
2006-03-01
We consider the problem of swimming at low Reynolds number by oscillating an elastic filament in a viscous liquid, as investigated by Wiggins and Goldstein (1998, Phys Rev Lett). In this first part of the study, we characterize the optimal forcing conditions of the swimming strategy and its optimal geometrical characteristics.
Elastic swimming II: Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Tony; Lauga, Eric; Hosoi, Anette
2006-03-01
We consider the problem of swimming at low Reynolds number by oscillating an elastic filament in a viscous liquid, as investigated by Wiggins and Goldstein (1998, Phys Rev Lett). In this second part of the study, we present results of a series of experiments characterizing the performance of the propulsive mechanism.
Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gluck, Paul
2010-01-01
There have been two articles in this journal that described a pair of collision carts used to demonstrate vividly the difference between elastic and inelastic collisions. One cart had a series of washers that were mounted rigidly on a rigid wooden framework, the other had washers mounted on rubber bands stretched across a framework. The rigidly…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, Charles
2006-03-01
There is no fundamental understanding of the mechanics of granular solids. Partially this is because granular flows have historically been divided into two very distinct flow regimes, (1) the slow, quasistatic regime, in which the bulk friction coefficient is taken to be a material constant, and (2) the fast, rapid-flow regime, where the particles interact collisionally. But slow hopper flow simulations indicate that the bulk friction coefficient is not a constant. Rapidly moving large scale landslide simulations never entered the collisional regime and operate in a separate intermediate flow regime. In other words, most realistic granular flows are not described by either the quasistatic or rapid flow models and it is high time that the field look beyond those early models. This talk will discuss computer simulation studies that draw out the entire flowmap of shearing granular materials, spanning the quasistatic, rapid and the intermediate regimes. The key was to include the elastic properties of the solid material in the set of rheological parameters; in effect, this puts solid properties back into the rheology of granular solids. The solid properties were previously unnecessary in the plasticity and kinetic theory formalisms that respectively form the foundations of the quasistatic and rapid-flow theories. Granular flows can now be divided into two broad categories, the Elastic Regimes, in which the particles are locked in force chains and interact elastically over long duration contact with their neighbors and the Inertial regimes, where the particles have broken free of the force chains. The Elastic regimes can be further subdivided into the Elastic-Quasistatic regime (the old quasistatic regime) and the Elastic-Inertial regime. The Elastic-Inertial regime is the ``new'' regime observed in the landslide simulations, in which the inertially induced stresses are significant compared to the elastically induced stresses. The Inertial regime can also be sub
Modelling of hydraulic fracture propagation in inhomogeneous poroelastic medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baykin, A. N.; Golovin, S. V.
2016-06-01
In the paper a model for description of a hydraulic fracture propagation in inhomogeneous poroelastic medium is proposed. Among advantages of the presented numerical algorithm, there are incorporation of the near-tip analysis into the general computational scheme, account for the rock failure criterion on the base of the cohesive zone model, possibility for analysis of fracture propagation in inhomogeneous reservoirs. The numerical convergence of the algorithm is verified and the agreement of our numerical results with known solutions is established. The influence of the inhomogeneity of the reservoir permeability to the fracture time evolution is also demonstrated.
Evolution of vacuum bubbles embedded in inhomogeneous spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anabella Teppa Pannia, Florencia; Esteban Perez Bergliaffa, Santiago
2017-03-01
We study the propagation of bubbles of new vacuum in a radially inhomogeneous background filled with dust or radiation, and including a cosmological constant, as a first step in the analysis of the influence of inhomogeneities in the evolution of an inflating region. We also compare the cases with dust and radiation backgrounds and show that the evolution of the bubble in radiation environments is notably different from that in the corresponding dust cases, both for homogeneous and inhomogeneous ambients, leading to appreciable differences in the evolution of the proper radius of the bubble.
Influence of white matter inhomogeneous anisotropy on EEG forward computing.
Bashar, R; Li, Y; Wen, P
2008-06-01
In this paper, we model the human head using the Volume and Wang's constraint methods, and study the inhomogeneous anisotropic conductivity for white matter (WM) using finite element method (FEM). To represent the WM accurately, the conductivity ratio approximation (CRA) and statistical conductivity approximation (SCA) techniques are applied to assign inhomogeneous anisotropic conductivity. This model is evaluated and compared with a homogeneous isotropic model and a homogeneous anisotropic model. The results show that the effects of inhomogeneous anisotropic conductivity ofWM on the scalp EEG are significant.
Hydrodynamic charge and heat transport on inhomogeneous curved spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scopelliti, Vincenzo; Schalm, Koenraad; Lucas, Andrew
2017-08-01
We develop the theory of hydrodynamic charge and heat transport in strongly interacting quasirelativistic systems on manifolds with inhomogeneous spatial curvature. In solid-state physics, this is analogous to strain disorder in the underlying lattice. In the hydrodynamic limit, we find that the thermal and electrical conductivities are dominated by viscous effects and that the thermal conductivity is most sensitive to this disorder. We compare the effects of inhomogeneity in the spatial metric to inhomogeneity in the chemical potential and discuss the extent to which our hydrodynamic theory is relevant for experimentally realizable condensed-matter systems, including suspended graphene at the Dirac point.
Inhomogeneous optical coatings: an experimental study of a new approach.
Bertram, R; Ouellette, M F; Tse, P Y
1989-07-15
Inhomogeneous optical interference coatings offer a potentially superior alternative to their multilayer counterparts in meeting rigid performance requirements. However, their development has been severely hampered by the lack of appropriate design software and process control hardware. The work reported in this paper involved the experimental design and fabrication of a number of inhomogeneous coatings, and some interesting results were obtained. Using customized algorithms and simultaneous codeposition techniques, an inhomogeneous antireflection coating based on germanium and thorium fluoride has been successfully produced. Attempts with other materials such as zinc sulfide were less successful because of discrepancies between predicted and actual deposition rates, and further studies are being conducted.
Production of spin-1/2 particles in inhomogeneous cosmologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos, A.; Verdaguer, E.
1992-06-01
The production of spin-1/2 particles by small gravitational inhomogeneities is discussed by using a perturbative approach based on the evaluation of the scattering matrix. We compute the production of massive and massless particles by linear gravitational inhomogeneities in flat spacetime and the production of massless particles in an expanding universe described by the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models with small inhomogeneities. As in the case of scalar particles the total pair-creation probability is given in terms of geometric invariants of the spacetime.
Meissner response of superconductors with inhomogeneous penetration depths
Kogan, V. G.; Kirtley, J. R.
2011-03-24
We discuss the Meissner response to a known field source of superconductors having inhomogeneities in their penetration depth. We simplify the general problem by assuming that the perturbations of the fields by the penetration depth inhomogeneities are small. We present expressions for inhomogeneities in several geometries, but concentrate for comparison with experiment on planar defects, perpendicular to the sample surfaces, with superfluid densities different from the rest of the samples. These calculations are relevant for magnetic microscopies, such as Scanning Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) and Magnetic Force Microscope, which image the local diamagnetic susceptibility of a sample.
Reflection and interference of electromagnetic waves in inhomogeneous media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geiger, F. E.; Kyle, H. L.
1973-01-01
Solutions were obtained of the wave equation for a plane horizontally polarized electro-magnetic wave incident on a semi infinite two dimensional inhomogeneous medium. Two problems were considered: An inhomogeneous half space, and an inhomogeneous layer of arbitrary thickness. Solutions of the wave equation were obtained in terms of Hankel functions with complex arguments. Numerical calculations were made of the reflection coefficient R at the interface of the homogeneous medium. The startling results show that the reflection coefficient for a complex dielectric constant with gradient, can be less than that of the same medium with zero gradient.
Inhomogeneous magnetization reversal on vicinal surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hyman, R. A.; Stiles, M. D.; Zangwill, A.
1998-03-01
We report numerical and analytic results for a model of magnetization reversal in single-crystal vicinal ultrathin films with in-plane magnetization. We model the vicinality by the inclusion of equally spaced infinitely long step edges separating flat terraces. Inhomogeneous magnetization reversal occurs because the intrinsic four-fold anisotropy of the terraces is augmented by uniaxial anisotropy localized at the step edges. The reversal process is a combination of domain nucleation at step edges, depinning due to domain wall interactions, and coherent rotation in the center of flat terraces. Hysteresis curves are calculated as a function of terrace length and exhibit two symmetrically shifted loops in qualitative agreement with experiments(R.K. Kawakami, Ernesto J.Escorcia-Aparicio, and Z.Q. Qui, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2570 (1996), W. Weber, C.H. Back, A. Bischof, Ch. Wursch, R. Allenspach, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1940 (1996)). In the limits of small and large miscut angle, simple analytic formula for the hysteretic jump fields are derived that agree well with our numerical work.
Stochastic modeling of inhomogeneous ocean waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smit, P. B.; Janssen, T. T.; Herbers, T. H. C.
2015-12-01
Refraction of swell waves in coastal waters can result in fast-scale variations of wave statistics due to wave interference. These variations cannot be resolved by wave models based on the radiative transport equation. More advanced models based on quasi-coherent theory, a generalization of the radiative transfer equation, can be coupled or nested into larger-scale models to resolve such local inhomogeneous effects. However, source terms for quasi-coherent models to account for non-conservative and nonlinear effects are not available, which hampers their operational use. In the present work we revisit the derivation of quasi-coherent theory to consistently include a source term for dissipation associated with depth-induced wave breaking. We demonstrate how general source terms can be incorporated in this class of models and compare model simulations with the new dissipation term to laboratory observations of focusing and breaking waves over a submerged shoal. The results show that a consistent derivation of source terms is essential to accurately capture coherent effects in coastal areas. Specifically, our results show that if coherent effects are ignored in the dissipation term, interference effects are strongly exaggerated. With the development of source terms for quasi-coherent models they can be effectively nested inside or otherwise coupled to larger-scale wave models to efficiently improve operational predictive capability of wave models near the coast.
Bose Metal Phase from Inhomogeneous Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zimanyi, Gergely; Jensen, Niels
2008-03-01
Numerous experiments report a Bose Metal phase between the Superconducting (S) and the Insulating (I) phases at an SI transition. [1,2] However, theoretically the origin of the corresponding dissipation remains unclear. We propose a picture in which inhomogeneous superconducting flow occurs in channels/filaments, defined by islands of localized Bose Glass. The superconducting bosons interact with the localized bosons of the Bose Glass via the Coulomb interaction. This Coulomb drag generates an effective dissipation for the superflow. We developed a new numerical technique to simulate superconductivity by inertial dynamics and a current generator. We found a Bose Metal phase in a finite range of the disorder, bracketed by the superconducting and insulating phases. The noise spectrum was also determined and compared to recent experiments. [1] H.M. Jaeger, D.B. Haviland, B.G. Orr and A.M. Goldman, Phys. Rev. B 40, 182 (1989). [2] A. Yazdani and A. Kapitulnik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3037 (1995); M. Steiner, N. Breznay and A. Kapitulnik, arxiv: 0710.1822.
Inhomogeneous field theory inside the arctic circle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allegra, Nicolas; Dubail, Jérôme; Stéphan, Jean-Marie; Viti, Jacopo
2016-05-01
Motivated by quantum quenches in spin chains, a one-dimensional toy-model of fermionic particles evolving in imaginary-time from a domain-wall initial state is solved. The main interest of this toy-model is that it exhibits the arctic circle phenomenon, namely a spatial phase separation between a critically fluctuating region and a frozen region. Large-scale correlations inside the critical region are expressed in terms of correlators in a (euclidean) two-dimensional massless Dirac field theory. It is observed that this theory is inhomogenous: the metric is position-dependent, so it is in fact a Dirac theory in curved space. The technique used to solve the toy-model is then extended to deal with the transfer matrices of other models: dimers on the honeycomb and square lattice, and the six-vertex model at the free fermion point (Δ =0 ). In all cases, explicit expressions are given for the long-range correlations in the critical region, as well as for the underlying Dirac action. Although the setup developed here is heavily based on fermionic observables, the results can be translated into the language of height configurations and of the gaussian free field, via bosonization. Correlations close to the phase boundary and the generic appearance of Airy processes in all these models are also briefly revisited in the appendix.
Spin generation by strong inhomogeneous electric fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finkler, Ilya; Engel, Hans-Andreas; Rashba, Emmanuel; Halperin, Bertrand
2007-03-01
Motivated by recent experiments [1], we propose a model with extrinsic spin-orbit interaction, where an inhomogeneous electric field E in the x-y plane can give rise, through nonlinear effects, to a spin polarization with non-zero sz, away from the sample boundaries. The field E induces a spin current js^z= z x(αjc+βE), where jc=σE is the charge current, and the two terms represent,respectively, the skew scattering and side-jump contributions. [2]. The coefficients α and β are assumed to be E- independent, but conductivity σ is field dependent. We find the spin density sz by solving the equation for spin diffusion and relaxation with a source term ∇.js^z. For sufficiently low fields, jc is linear in E, and the source term vanishes, implying that sz=0 away from the edges. However, for large fields, σ varies with E. Solving the diffusion equation in a T-shaped geometry, where the electric current propagates along the main channel, we find spin accumulation near the entrance of the side channel, similar to experimental findings [1]. Also, we present a toy model where spin accumulation away from the boundary results from a nonlinear and anisotropic conductivity. [1] V. Sih, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 096605 (2006). [2] H.-A. Engel, B.I. Halperin, E.I.Rashba, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 166605 (2005).
Inhomogeneous chemical evolution of the Galactic disk
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malinie, Guy; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Clayton, Donald D.; Mathews, Grant J.
1993-01-01
We present analytical models for inhomogeneous chemical evolution (ICE) of systems in which the star formation history resembles a series of bursts, localized in space and/or time, with intermittent periods of remixing. The additional parameter of this model is the metallicity increment of bursting subsystems, but this parameter is constrained by the spread in the age-metallicity relation. We apply this model to the solar annulus in the Galactic disk and show that ICE models yield an improved fit to the observed shape of the stellar abundance distribution function (ADF). The G-dwarf problem can be alleviated with ICE models, but infall of metal poor gas and/or some preenrichment of the disk during the epoch of protogalactic evolution is still required to explain the paucity of low-metallicity dwarfs. ICE models also suggest an explanation of the reduced frequency of metal-rich G-dwarfs relative to the predictions of the simple model. It does not seem likely that chemical evolution of the solar annulus proceeded in a medium that was well-mixed at all times.
First artificial periodic inhomogeneity experiments at HAARP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hysell, D. L.; McCarrick, M. J.; Fallen, C. T.; Vierinen, J.
2015-03-01
Experiments involving the generation and detection of artificial periodic inhomogeneities have been performed at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility. Irregularities were created using powerful X-mode HF emissions and then probed using short (10 μs) X- and O-mode pulses. Reception was performed using a portable software-defined receiver together with the crossed rhombic antenna from the local ionosonde. Echoes were observed reliably between about 85 and 140 km altitude with signal-to-noise ratios as high as about 30 dB. The Doppler shift of the echoes can be associated with the vertical neutral wind in this altitude range. Small but persistent Doppler shifts were observed. The decay time constant of the echoes is meanwhile indicative of the ambipolar diffusion coefficient which depends on the plasma temperature, composition, and neutral gas density. The measured time constants appear to be consistent with theoretical expectations and imply a methodology for measuring neutral density profiles. The significance of thermospheric vertical neutral wind and density measurements which are difficult to obtain using ground-based instruments by other means is discussed.
Mathematical Modeling of Extinction of Inhomogeneous Populations
Karev, G.P.; Kareva, I.
2016-01-01
Mathematical models of population extinction have a variety of applications in such areas as ecology, paleontology and conservation biology. Here we propose and investigate two types of sub-exponential models of population extinction. Unlike the more traditional exponential models, the life duration of sub-exponential models is finite. In the first model, the population is assumed to be composed clones that are independent from each other. In the second model, we assume that the size of the population as a whole decreases according to the sub-exponential equation. We then investigate the “unobserved heterogeneity”, i.e. the underlying inhomogeneous population model, and calculate the distribution of frequencies of clones for both models. We show that the dynamics of frequencies in the first model is governed by the principle of minimum of Tsallis information loss. In the second model, the notion of “internal population time” is proposed; with respect to the internal time, the dynamics of frequencies is governed by the principle of minimum of Shannon information loss. The results of this analysis show that the principle of minimum of information loss is the underlying law for the evolution of a broad class of models of population extinction. Finally, we propose a possible application of this modeling framework to mechanisms underlying time perception. PMID:27090117
Lensing effects in an inhomogeneous universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergström, L.; Goliath, M.; Goobar, A.; Mörtsell, E.
2000-06-01
Recently, Holz & Wald have presented a new method for determining gravitational lensing effects on, e.g., supernova luminosity versus redshift measurements in inhomogeneous universes. In this paper, their method is generalized in several ways: First, the matter content is allowed to consist of several different types of fluids, possibly with non-vanishing pressure. Second, besides lensing by simple point masses and singular isothermal spheres, the more realistic halo dark matter distribution proposed by Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW), based on N-body simulation results, is treated. We discuss various aspects of the accuracy of the method, such as luminosity corrections, and statistics, for multiple images. We find in agreement with other recent work that a large sample of supernovae at large redshift could be used to extract gross features of the mass distribution of the lensing dark matter halos, such as the existence of a large number of point-like objects. The results for the isothermal sphere and the NFW model are, however, very similar if normalized to the observed luminosity distribution of galaxies. We give convenient analytical fitting formulas for our computed lensing probabilites as a function of magnification, for several redshifts.
Optimality of Spatially Inhomogeneous Search Strategies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwarz, Karsten; Schröder, Yannick; Qu, Bin; Hoth, Markus; Rieger, Heiko
2016-08-01
We consider random search processes alternating stochastically between diffusion and ballistic motion, in which the distribution function of ballistic motion directions varies from point to point in space. The specific space dependence of the directional distribution together with the switching rates between the two modes of motion establishes a spatially inhomogeneous search strategy. We show that the mean first passage times for several standard search problems—narrow escape, reaction partner finding, reaction escape—can be minimized with a directional distribution that is reminiscent of the spatial organization of the cytoskeleton filaments of cells with a centrosome: radial ballistic transport from the center to the periphery and back, and ballistic transport in random directions within a concentric shell of thickness Δopt along the domain boundary. The results suggest that living cells realize efficient search strategies for various intracellular transport problems economically through a spatial cytoskeleton organization that involves radial microtubules in the central region and only a narrow actin cortex rather than a cell body filled with randomly oriented actin filaments.
Inhomogeneous Tsallis distributions in the HMF model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chavanis, P.-H.; Campa, A.
2010-08-01
We study the maximization of the Tsallis functional at fixed mass and energy in the Hamiltonian Mean Field (HMF) model. We give a thermodynamical and a dynamical interpretation of this variational principle. This leads to q-distributions known as stellar polytropes in astrophysics. We study phase transitions between spatially homogeneous and spatially inhomogeneous equilibrium states. We show that there exists a particular index qc = 3 playing the role of a canonical tricritical point separating first and second order phase transitions in the canonical ensemble and marking the occurence of a negative specific heat region in the microcanonical ensemble. We apply our results to the situation considered by Antoni and Ruffo [Phys. Rev. E 52, 2361 (1995)] and show that the anomaly displayed on their caloric curve can be explained naturally by assuming that, in this region, the QSSs are polytropes with critical index qc = 3. We qualitatively justify the occurrence of polytropic (Tsallis) distributions with compact support in terms of incomplete relaxation and inefficient mixing (non-ergodicity). Our paper provides an exhaustive study of polytropic distributions in the HMF model and the first plausible explanation of the surprising result observed numerically by Antoni and Ruffo (1995). In the course of our analysis, we also report an interesting situation where the caloric curve presents both microcanonical first and second order phase transitions.
Kolkoori, S R; Rahman, M-U; Chinta, P K; Ktreutzbruck, M; Rethmeier, M; Prager, J
2013-02-01
Ultrasound propagation in inhomogeneous anisotropic materials is difficult to examine because of the directional dependency of elastic properties. Simulation tools play an important role in developing advanced reliable ultrasonic non destructive testing techniques for the inspection of anisotropic materials particularly austenitic cladded materials, austenitic welds and dissimilar welds. In this contribution we present an adapted 2D ray tracing model for evaluating ultrasonic wave fields quantitatively in inhomogeneous anisotropic materials. Inhomogeneity in the anisotropic material is represented by discretizing into several homogeneous layers. According to ray tracing model, ultrasonic ray paths are traced during its energy propagation through various discretized layers of the material and at each interface the problem of reflection and transmission is solved. The presented algorithm evaluates the transducer excited ultrasonic fields accurately by taking into account the directivity of the transducer, divergence of the ray bundle, density of rays and phase relations as well as transmission coefficients. The ray tracing model is able to calculate the ultrasonic wave fields generated by a point source as well as a finite dimension transducer. The ray tracing model results are validated quantitatively with the results obtained from 2D Elastodynamic Finite Integration Technique (EFIT) on several configurations generally occurring in the ultrasonic non destructive testing of anisotropic materials. Finally, the quantitative comparison of ray tracing model results with experiments on 32mm thick austenitic weld material and 62mm thick austenitic cladded material is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Alternative field representations and integral equations for modeling inhomogeneous dielectrics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Volakis, John L.
1992-01-01
New volume and volume-surface integral equations are presented for modeling inhomogeneous dielectric regions. The presented integral equations result in more efficient numerical implementations and should, therefore, be useful in a variety of electromagnetic applications.
Interaction of a harmonic wave with a dynamically transforming inhomogeneity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikata, Yozo; Nemat-Nasser, S.
1991-08-01
The elastodynamic response of the transformation-toughened ceramics under a time-harmonic stress wave is investigated. A phenomenological model is proposed to describe the situation, which involves the interaction between an incident stress wave and a dynamic inhomogeneity with a stress-induced martensitic transformation. The most important assumption made in this model is that the stress-induced transformation can be treated as completely reversible. The solution for this model is obtained by combining solutions to a scattering problem, a dynamic inhomogeneity problem, and a static inhomogeneity problem. An exact closed form solution is obtained for the dynamic inhomogeneity problem. The numerical results for the zirconia-toughened ceramics suggest that, under the high-frequency dynamic loading, the transformation-toughened ceramics might lose its toughness due to a relatively large tension field caused by the dynamically transforming zirconia particle.
Inhomogeneous cosmological models: exact solutions and their applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolejko, Krzysztof; Célérier, Marie-Noëlle; Krasiński, Andrzej
2011-08-01
Recently, inhomogeneous generalizations of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmological models have gained interest in the astrophysical community and are more often employed to study cosmological phenomena. However, in many papers the inhomogeneous cosmological models are treated as an alternative to the FLRW models. In fact, they are not an alternative, but an exact perturbation of the latter, and are gradually becoming a necessity in modern cosmology. The assumption of homogeneity is just a first approximation introduced to simplify equations. So far this assumption is commonly believed to have worked well, but future and more precise observations will not be properly analysed unless inhomogeneities are taken into account. This paper reviews recent developments in the field and shows the importance of an inhomogeneous framework in the analysis of cosmological observations.
Inhomogeneous cosmology. III - Primordial gravitational waves and dust
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, P. J.; Hellings, R. W.; Zimmerman, R. L.
1987-01-01
In this paper, the properties of a special class of inhomogeneous cosmological models and the interaction of the inhomogeneities with the evolution of the background geometry and matter are studied. The cosmological model is chosen so that the initial inhomogeneities evolve into 'plane' gravitational waves propagating through a smooth Bianchi I dust background. It is shown how the inhomogeneities interact with matter, 3 K radiation, and the background geometry, causing the expansion to slow down in some regions and speed up in others. It is also shown how the gravitational waves can produce a 'dragging of the inertial frame' which will affect the observed distribution of matter and 3 K radiation. In particular, this frame-dragging effect can account for a major fraction of the obsserved dipole component between the 3 K background radiation and the rest frame of global matter, an effect usually assumed to have been produced by large-scale local motion.
The formation of composite chaotic multiattractors containing inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prokopenko, V. G.
2017-08-01
Two methods for introducing inhomogeneities into composite chaotic multiattractors have been proposed. The first method makes it possible to change the mutual arrangement of multiattractor elements. The second method allows one to preset differences between chaotic attractors forming a multiattractor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williamson, Matthew M.
1995-01-01
This thesis presents the design, construction, control and evaluation of a novel for controlled actuator. Traditional force controlled actuators are designed from the premise that 'Stiffer is better'. This approach gives a high bandwidth system, prone to problems of contact instability, noise, and low power density. The actuator presented in this thesis is designed from the premise that 'Stiffness isn't everything'. The actuator, which incorporates a series elastic element, trades off achievable bandwidth for gains in stable, low noise force control, and protection against shock loads. This thesis reviews related work in robot force control, presents theoretical descriptions of the control and expected performance from a series elastic actuator, and describes the design of a test actuator constructed to gather performance data. Finally the performance of the system is evaluated by comparing the performance data to theoretical predictions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Revenough, Justin
Elastic waves propagating in simple media manifest a surprisingly rich collection of phenomena. Although some can't withstand the complexities of Earth's structure, the majority only grow more interesting and more important as remote sensing probes for seismologists studying the planet's interior. To fully mine the information carried to the surface by seismic waves, seismologists must produce accurate models of the waves. Great strides have been made in this regard. Problems that were entirely intractable a decade ago are now routinely solved on inexpensive workstations. The mathematical representations of waves coded into algorithms have grown vastly more sophisticated and are troubled by many fewer approximations, enforced symmetries, and limitations. They are far from straightforward, and seismologists using them need a firm grasp on wave propagation in simple media. Linear Elastic Waves, by applied mathematician John G. Harris, responds to this need.
Constructing AN Inhomogeneous Braneworld Through Space-Time Matching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giang, Dan; Dyer, Charles C.
We attempt to construct the braneworld analog of the cheese slice universe, an inhomogeneous cosmology constructed from alternating layers of Kasner and FLRW space-times. This construction is possible in four dimensions and we find that the energy conditions can be satisfied in the braneworld context. However, an extension into the bulk becomes more problematic. We use a 3 + 1 + 1 decomposition inspired by the ADM decompositions to show that structure is required in the bulk to support an inhomogeneous brane.
Dynamics of inhomogeneous condensates in contact with a surface
Bludov, Yu. V.; Yan Zhenya; Konotop, V. V.
2010-06-15
We show that interplay of linear attractive (repulsive) boundary with inhomogeneous repulsive (attractive) interatomic interactions results in nonlinear localized surface modes (surface solitons), some of which are stable. We consider several example systems describing interaction of inhomogeneous Bose-Einstein condensates with rigid surfaces and allowing for exact solutions. The stability of the obtained modes is analyzed analytically and numerically. Stable localized surface modes are found and dynamics of the unstable modes is described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oline, L.; Medaglia, J.
1972-01-01
The dynamic finite element method was used to investigate elastic stress waves in a plate. Strain displacement and stress strain relations are discussed along with the stiffness and mass matrix. The results of studying point load, and distributed load over small, intermediate, and large radii are reported. The derivation of finite element matrices, and the derivation of lumped and consistent matrices for one dimensional problems with Laplace transfer solutions are included. The computer program JMMSPALL is also included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sankovich, Vladimir
1998-12-01
The goal of this paper is to build a consistent physical theory of the dynamics of the bat-ball interaction. This requires creating realistic models for both the softball bat and the softball. Some of the features of these models are known phenomenologically, from experiments conducted in our laboratory, others will be introduced and computed from first principles here for the first time. Both interacting objects are treated from the viewpoint of the theory of elasticity, and it is shown how a computer can be used to accurately calculate all the relevant characteristics of batball collisions. It is shown also how the major elastic parameters of the material constituting the interior of a softball can be determined using the existing experimental data. These parameters, such as the Young's modulus, the Poisson ratio and the damping coefficient are vital for the accurate description of the ball's dynamics. We are demonstrating how the existing theories of the elastic behavior of solid bars and hollow shells can be augmented to simplify the resulting equations and make the subsequent computer analysis feasible. The standard system of fourth-order PDE's is reduced to a system of the second order, because of the inclusion of the usually ignored effects of the shear forces in the bat.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spagnolie, Saverio; Lauga, Eric
2009-11-01
We address the question of optimality for slender swimming bodies or flagella in viscous fluid environments. Our novel approach is to define an energy which includes not only the work performed against the surrounding fluid, but also the energy stored elastically in the bending of the body, the energy stored elastically in internal shearing (such as the relative sliding of microtubules internal to a flagellum), and viscous dissipation due to the presence of an internal fluid. The shape of the optimal periodic planar wave is determined numerically and in some cases analytically which maximizes a related efficiency measure. We find that bending or internal dissipation costs regularize the optimal shape, but elastic shearing costs do not. For bodies of finite length, we show that the number of wavelengths expressed by the body is determined by a competition between bending costs and the work done on the fluid associated with body rotations. The hydrodynamic efficiency is shown to be less sensitive to the morphology than the bending costs, which may help us to better understand the locomotory forms observed in nature.
A Gravitational Experiment Involving Inhomogeneous Electric Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Datta, T.; Yin, Ming; Vargas, Jose
2004-02-01
Unification of gravitation with other forms of interactions, particularly with electromagnetism, will have tremendous impacts on technology and our understanding of nature. The economic impact of such an achievement will also be unprecedented and far more extensive than the impact experienced in the past century due to the unification of electricity with magnetism and optics. Theoretical unification of gravitation with electromagnetism using classical differential geometry has been pursued since the late nineteen twenties, when Einstein and Cartan used teleparallelism for the task. Recently, Vargas and Torr have followed the same line of research with more powerful mathematics in a more general geometric framework, which allows for the presence of other interactions. Their approach also uses Kähler generalization of Cartan's exterior calculus, which constitutes a language appropriate for both classical and quantum physics. Given the compelling nature of teleparallelism (path-independent equality of vectors at a distance) and the problems still existing with energy-momentum in general relativity, it is important to seek experimental evidence for such expectations. Such experimental programs are likely to provide quantitative guidance to the further development of current and future theories. We too, have undertaken an experimental search for potential electrically induced gravitational (EIG) effects. This presentation describes some of the practical concerns that relates to our investigation of electrical influences on laboratory size test masses. Preliminary results, appear to indicate a correlation between the application of a spatially inhomogeneous electric field and the appearance of an additional force on the test mass. If confirmed, the presence of such a force will be consistent with the predictions of Vargas-Torr. More importantly, proven results will shed new light and clearer understanding of the interactions between gravitational and electromagnetic
Can we remove the systematic error due to isotropic inhomogeneities?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Negishi, Hiroyuki; Nakao, Ken-ichi
2017-01-01
Usually, we assume that there is no inhomogeneity isotropic in terms of our location in our Universe. This assumption has not been observationally confirmed yet in sufficient accuracy, and we need to consider the possibility that there are non-negligible large-scale isotropic inhomogeneities in our Universe. The existence of large-scale isotropic inhomogeneities affects the determination of cosmological parameters. In particular, from only the distance-redshift relation, we cannot distinguish the inhomogeneous isotropic universe model from the homogeneous isotropic one, because of the ambiguity in the cosmological parameters. In this paper, in order to avoid such ambiguity, we consider three observables—the distance-redshift relation, the fluctuation spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation, and the scale of the baryon acoustic oscillation—and compare these observables in two universe models. One is the inhomogeneous isotropic universe model with the cosmological constant, and the other is the homogeneous isotropic universe model with dark energy other than the cosmological constant. We show that these two universe models cannot predict the same observational data of all three observables but the same ones of only two of three, as long as the perturbations are adiabatic. In principle, we can distinguish the inhomogeneous isotropic universe from the homogeneous isotropic one through the appropriate three observables, if the perturbations are adiabatic.
Local nonlinear rf forces in inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas
Chen, Jiale; Gao, Zhe
2014-06-15
The local nonlinear forces induced by radio frequency (rf) waves are derived in inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas, where the inhomogeneity exists in the rf fields, in the static magnetic field as well as in the equilibrium density and temperature. The local parallel force is completely resonant, but a novel component dependent on those inhomogeneities is obtained as the result of the inhomogeneous transport of parallel resonant-absorbed momentum by the nonlinear perpendicular drift flux. In the local poloidal force, the component induced by the inhomogeneity of rf power absorption is also confirmed and it can be recognized as the residual effect from the incomplete cancellation between the rate of the diamagnetic poloidal momentum gain and the Lorentz force due to the radial diffusion-like flux. The compact expression for radial force is also obtained for the first time, whose nonresonant component is expressed as the sum of the ponderomotive force on particles and the gradients of the nonresonant perpendicular pressure and of the nonresonant momentum flux due to the finite temperature effect. Numerical calculations in a 1-D slab model show that the resonant component dependent on the inhomogeneities may be significant when the ion absorption dominates the resonant wave-particle interaction. A quantitative estimation shows that the novel component in the parallel force is important to understand the experiments of the ion-cyclotron-frequency mode-conversion flow drive.
Inverse Scattering Problems for Acoustic Waves in AN Inhomogeneous Medium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kedzierawski, Andrzej Wladyslaw
1990-01-01
This dissertation considers the inverse scattering problem of determining either the absorption of sound in an inhomogeneous medium or the surface impedance of an obstacle from a knowledge of the far-field patterns of the scattered fields corresponding to many incident time -harmonic plane waves. First, we consider the inverse problem in the case when the scattering object is an inhomogeneous medium with complex refraction index having compact support. Our approach to this problem is the orthogonal projection method of Colton-Monk (cf. The inverse scattering problem for time acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium, Quart. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 41 (1988), 97-125). After that, we prove the analogue of Karp's Theorem for the scattering of acoustic waves through an inhomogeneous medium with compact support. We then generalize some of these results to the case when the inhomogeneous medium is no longer of compact support. If the acoustic wave penetrates the inhomogeneous medium by only a small amount then the inverse medium problem leads to the inverse obstacle problem with an impedance boundary condition. We solve the inverse impedance problem of determining the surface impedance of an obstacle of known shape by using both the methods of Kirsch-Kress and Colton-Monk (cf. R. Kress, Linear Integral Equations, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1989).
Robust model for segmenting images with/without intensity inhomogeneities.
Li, Changyang; Wang, Xiuying; Eberl, Stefan; Fulham, Michael; Feng, David Dagan
2013-08-01
Intensity inhomogeneities and different types/levels of image noise are the two major obstacles to accurate image segmentation by region-based level set models. To provide a more general solution to these challenges, we propose a novel segmentation model that considers global and local image statistics to eliminate the influence of image noise and to compensate for intensity inhomogeneities. In our model, the global energy derived from a Gaussian model estimates the intensity distribution of the target object and background; the local energy derived from the mutual influences of neighboring pixels can eliminate the impact of image noise and intensity inhomogeneities. The robustness of our method is validated on segmenting synthetic images with/without intensity inhomogeneities, and with different types/levels of noise, including Gaussian noise, speckle noise, and salt and pepper noise, as well as images from different medical imaging modalities. Quantitative experimental comparisons demonstrate that our method is more robust and more accurate in segmenting the images with intensity inhomogeneities than the local binary fitting technique and its more recent systematic model. Our technique also outperformed the region-based Chan–Vese model when dealing with images without intensity inhomogeneities and produce better segmentation results than the graph-based algorithms including graph-cuts and random walker when segmenting noisy images.
Torsional elasticity and energetics of F1-ATPase.
Czub, Jacek; Grubmüller, Helmut
2011-05-03
F(o)F(1)-ATPase is a rotary motor protein synthesizing ATP from ADP driven by a cross-membrane proton gradient. The proton flow through the membrane-embedded F(o) generates the rotary torque that drives the rotation of the asymmetric shaft of F(1). Mechanical energy of the rotating shaft is used by the F(1) catalytic subunit to synthesize ATP. It was suggested that elastic power transmission with transient storage of energy in some compliant part of the shaft is required for the observed high turnover rate. We used atomistic simulations to study the spatial distribution and structural determinants of the F(1) torsional elasticity at the molecular level and to comprehensively characterize the elastic properties of F(1)-ATPase. Our fluctuation analysis revealed an unexpected heterogeneity of the F(1) shaft elasticity. Further, we found that the measured overall torsional moduli of the shaft arise from two distinct contributions, the intrinsic elasticity and the effective potential imposed on the shaft by the catalytic subunit. Separation of these two contributions provided a quantitative description of the coupling between the rotor and the catalytic subunit. This description enabled us to propose a minimal quantitative model of the F(1) energetics along the rotary degrees of freedom near the resting state observed in the crystal structures. As opposed to the usually employed models where the motor mechanical progression is described by a single angular variable, our multidimensional treatment incorporates the spatially inhomogeneous nature of the shaft and its interactions with the stator and offers new insight into the mechanoenzymatics of F(1)-ATPase.
Apparent anisotropy in inhomogeneous isotropic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Fan-Chi; Ritzwoller, Michael H.
2011-09-01
Surface waves propagating through a laterally inhomogeneous medium undergo wavefield complications such as multiple scattering, wave front healing, and backward scattering. Unless accounted for accurately, these effects will introduce a systematic isotropic bias in estimates of azimuthal anisotropy. We demonstrate with synthetic experiments that backward scattering near an observing station will introduce an apparent 360° periodicity into the azimuthal distribution of anisotropy near strong lateral variations in seismic wave speeds that increases with period. Because it violates reciprocity, this apparent 1ψ anisotropy, where ψ is the azimuthal angle, is non-physical for surface waves and is, therefore, a useful indicator of isotropic bias. Isotropic bias of the 2ψ (180° periodicity) component of azimuthal anisotropy, in contrast, is caused mainly by wave front healing, which results from the broad forward scattering part of the surface wave sensitivity kernel. To test these predictions, we apply geometrical ray theoretic (eikonal) tomography to teleseismic Rayleigh wave measurements across the Transportable Array component of USArray to measure the directional dependence of phase velocities between 30 and 80 s period. Eikonal tomography accounts for multiple scattering (ray bending) but not finite frequency effects such as wave front healing or backward scattering. At long periods (>50 s), consistent with the predictions from the synthetic experiments, a significant 1ψ component of azimuthal anisotropy is observed near strong isotropic structural contrasts with fast directions that point in the direction of increasing phase speeds. The observed 2ψ component of azimuthal anisotropy is more weakly correlated with synthetic predictions of isotropic bias, probably because of the imprint of intrinsic structural anisotropy. The observation of a 1ψ component of azimuthal anisotropy is a clear indicator of isotropic bias in the inversion caused by unmodelled
Inhomogeneous random phase approximation for nuclear and atomic reactions
Lemm, J.C.
1995-11-15
A random phase approximation (RPA) of the inhomogeneous time-independent mean field (TIMF) equations for reactions is developed. The TIMF method is based on a general variational principle for calculating matrix elements of operator inverses as, for example, matrix elements of the resolvent of a Hamiltonian or the scattering T-operator. In the case of nuclear or atomic reactions, these matrix elements are calculated with respect to the asymptotic channel wave functions which also define the inhomogeneous terms in the variational equations. For inhomogeneous equations a direct RPA-like treatment, analogous to the standard RPA used for diagonalization problems, is not possible. Hence the starting point to obtain an RPA extension for the inhomogeneous mean field. equations is a transformation of the inhomogeneous into homogeneous variational equations. The problem of operator inversion is then transformed into the inversion of a function which is obtained by the diagonalization of an auxiliary operator. This auxiliary operator consists of the operator to be inverted and an additional term incorporating the inhomogeneities. Taking into account particle-hole correlations for the nonhermitian diagonalization problem, the standard random phase approximation for hermitian operators can be generalized to a nonhermitian RPA built on top of TIME For that purpose, the antisymmetric TIMF theory for operator inversion is formulated in second quantization. Complications are discussed, which result from the use of several biorthogonal bases and of only intra-fragment antisymmetrized channel wave functions, as needed in antisymmetric scattering theories. In this framework it is shown how particle-hole correlations can be used to generalize the inhomogeneous TIMF method, thus going beyond the mean field approximation. 62 refs., 8 figs.
Distribution of randomly diffusing particles in inhomogeneous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yiwei; Kahraman, Osman; Haselwandter, Christoph A.
2017-09-01
Diffusion can be conceptualized, at microscopic scales, as the random hopping of particles between neighboring lattice sites. In the case of diffusion in inhomogeneous media, distinct spatial domains in the system may yield distinct particle hopping rates. Starting from the master equations (MEs) governing diffusion in inhomogeneous media we derive here, for arbitrary spatial dimensions, the deterministic lattice equations (DLEs) specifying the average particle number at each lattice site for randomly diffusing particles in inhomogeneous media. We consider the case of free (Fickian) diffusion with no steric constraints on the maximum particle number per lattice site as well as the case of diffusion under steric constraints imposing a maximum particle concentration. We find, for both transient and asymptotic regimes, excellent agreement between the DLEs and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of the MEs. The DLEs provide a computationally efficient method for predicting the (average) distribution of randomly diffusing particles in inhomogeneous media, with the number of DLEs associated with a given system being independent of the number of particles in the system. From the DLEs we obtain general analytic expressions for the steady-state particle distributions for free diffusion and, in special cases, diffusion under steric constraints in inhomogeneous media. We find that, in the steady state of the system, the average fraction of particles in a given domain is independent of most system properties, such as the arrangement and shape of domains, and only depends on the number of lattice sites in each domain, the particle hopping rates, the number of distinct particle species in the system, and the total number of particles of each particle species in the system. Our results provide general insights into the role of spatially inhomogeneous particle hopping rates in setting the particle distributions in inhomogeneous media.
Elastic Anisotropy of Trabecular Bone in the Elderly Human Vertebra
Unnikrishnan, Ginu U.; Gallagher, John A.; Hussein, Amira I.; Barest, Glenn D.; Morgan, Elise F.
2015-01-01
-based and the μFE-computed elastic moduli (R2 ≥ 0.337; p < 0.0001). These results indicate that when using a criterion of 5 mm for a representative volume element (RVE), transverse isotropy or orthotropy cannot be assumed for elderly human vertebral trabecular bone. Particularly at low values of BV/TV, this criterion does not ensure applicability of theories of continuous media. In light of the very sparse and inhomogeneous microstructure found in the specimens analyzed in this study, further work is needed to establish guidelines for selecting a RVE within the aged vertebral centrum. PMID:26300326
Elastic Anisotropy of Trabecular Bone in the Elderly Human Vertebra.
Unnikrishnan, Ginu U; Gallagher, John A; Hussein, Amira I; Barest, Glenn D; Morgan, Elise F
2015-11-01
FE-computed elastic moduli (R2 ≥ 0.337; p < 0.0001). These results indicate that when using a criterion of 5 mm for a representative volume element (RVE), transverse isotropy or orthotropy cannot be assumed for elderly human vertebral trabecular bone. Particularly at low values of BV/TV, this criterion does not ensure applicability of theories of continuous media. In light of the very sparse and inhomogeneous microstructure found in the specimens analyzed in this study, further work is needed to establish guidelines for selecting a RVE within the aged vertebral centrum.
Elastic pion Compton scattering
Kowalewski, R.V.; Berg, D.; Chandlee, C.; Cihangir, S.; Ferbel, T.; Huston, J.; Jensen, T.; Kornberg, R.; Lobkowicz, F.; Ohshima, T.
1984-03-01
We present evidence for elastic pion Compton scattering as observed via the Primakoff process on nulcear targets. We find production cross sections for ..pi../sup -/A..--> pi../sup -/..gamma..A on lead and copper of 0.249 +- 0.027 and 0.029 +- 0.006 mb, respectively, in agreement with the values expected from the one-photon-exchange mechanism of 0.268 +- 0.018 and 0.035 +- 0.004 mb in the region of our experimental acceptance. This reaction provides a clean test of the Primakoff formalism.
Dielectric and Elastic Characterization of Nonlinear Heterogeneous Materials
Giordano, Stefano
2009-01-01
This review paper deals with the dielectric and elastic characterization of composite materials constituted by dispersions of nonlinear inclusions embedded in a linear matrix. The dielectric theory deals with pseudo-oriented particles shaped as ellipsoids of revolution: it means that we are dealing with mixtures of inclusions of arbitrary aspect ratio and arbitrary non-random orientational distributions. The analysis ranges from parallel spheroidal inclusions to completely random oriented inclusions. Each ellipsoidal inclusion is made of an isotropic dielectric material described by means of the so-called Kerr nonlinear relation. On the other hand, the nonlinear elastic characterization takes into consideration a dispersion of nonlinear (spherical or cylindrical) inhomogeneities. Both phases are considered isotropic (actually it means polycrystalline or amorphous solids). Under the simplifying hypotheses of small deformation for the material body and of small volume fraction of the embedded phase, we describe a theory for obtaining the linear and nonlinear elastic properties (bulk and shear moduli and Landau coefficients) of the overall material.
Windowed and Wavelet Analysis of Marine Stratocumulus Cloud Inhomogeneity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gollmer, Steven M.; Harshvardhan; Cahalan, Robert F.; Snider, Jack B.
1995-01-01
To improve radiative transfer calculations for inhomogeneous clouds, a consistent means of modeling inhomogeneity is needed. One current method of modeling cloud inhomogeneity is through the use of fractal parameters. This method is based on the supposition that cloud inhomogeneity over a large range of scales is related. An analysis technique named wavelet analysis provides a means of studying the multiscale nature of cloud inhomogeneity. In this paper, the authors discuss the analysis and modeling of cloud inhomogeneity through the use of wavelet analysis. Wavelet analysis as well as other windowed analysis techniques are used to study liquid water path (LWP) measurements obtained during the marine stratocumulus phase of the First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment. Statistics obtained using analysis windows, which are translated to span the LWP dataset, are used to study the local (small scale) properties of the cloud field as well as their time dependence. The LWP data are transformed onto an orthogonal wavelet basis that represents the data as a number of times series. Each of these time series lies within a frequency band and has a mean frequency that is half the frequency of the previous band. Wavelet analysis combined with translated analysis windows reveals that the local standard deviation of each frequency band is correlated with the local standard deviation of the other frequency bands. The ratio between the standard deviation of adjacent frequency bands is 0.9 and remains constant with respect to time. This ratio defined as the variance coupling parameter is applicable to all of the frequency bands studied and appears to be related to the slope of the data's power spectrum. Similar analyses are performed on two cloud inhomogeneity models, which use fractal-based concepts to introduce inhomogeneity into a uniform cloud field. The bounded cascade model does this by iteratively redistributing LWP at each scale
Squeezing Superfluid from a Stone: Coupling Superfluidity and Elasticity in a Supersolid
Dorsey, Alan T.; Goldbart, Paul M.; Toner, John
2006-02-10
Starting from the assumption that the normal solid to supersolid (NS-SS) phase transition is continuous, we develop a phenomenological Landau theory of the transition in which superfluidity is coupled to the elasticity of the crystalline {sup 4}He lattice. We find that the elasticity does not affect the universal properties of the superfluid transition, so that in an unstressed crystal the well-known {lambda} anomaly in the heat capacity of the superfluid transition should also appear at the NS-SS transition. We also find that the onset of supersolidity leads to anomalies in the elastic moduli and thermal expansion coefficients near the transition and, conversely, that inhomogeneous lattice strains can induce local variations of the superfluid transition temperature, leading to a broadened transition.
A model for compression-weakening materials and the elastic fields due to contractile cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosakis, Phoebus; Notbohm, Jacob; Ravichandran, Guruswami
2015-12-01
We construct a homogeneous, nonlinear elastic constitutive law that models aspects of the mechanical behavior of inhomogeneous fibrin networks. Fibers in such networks buckle when in compression. We model this as a loss of stiffness in compression in the stress-strain relations of the homogeneous constitutive model. Problems that model a contracting biological cell in a finite matrix are solved. It is found that matrix displacements and stresses induced by cell contraction decay slower (with distance from the cell) in a compression weakening material than linear elasticity would predict. This points toward a mechanism for long-range cell mechanosensing. In contrast, an expanding cell would induce displacements that decay faster than in a linear elastic matrix.
Numerical analysis of homogeneous and inhomogeneous intermittent search strategies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwarz, Karsten; Schröder, Yannick; Rieger, Heiko
2016-10-01
Random search processes for targets that are inhomogeneously distributed in a search domain require spatially inhomogeneous search strategies to find the target as fast as possible. Here, we compare systematically the efficiency of homogeneous and inhomogeneous strategies for intermittent search, which alternates stochastically between slow, diffusive motion in which the target can be detected and fast ballistic motion during which targets cannot be detected. We analyze the mean first-passage time of homogeneous and inhomogeneous strategies for three paradigmatic search problems: (1) the narrow escape problem, i.e., the searcher looks for a small area on the boundary of the search domain, (2) reaction kinetics, i.e., the detection of an immobile target in the interior of a search domain, and (3) the reaction-escape problem, i.e., the searcher first needs to find a mobile target before it can escape through a narrow area on the boundary. Using families of inhomogeneous strategies, partially motivated by the organization of the cytoskeleton in cells with a centrosome, we show that they are almost always more efficient than homogeneous strategies.
On Determination of Inhomogeneous Thermomechanical Characteristics of a Pipe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vatul‧yan, A. O.; Nesterov, S. A.
2015-07-01
Structures from inhomogeneous materials are widely used in various fields of technology with large thermomechanical loads. The efficiency of use of such materials depends on the knowledge of exact laws of inhomogeneity, which requires solution of inverse coefficient thermoelasticity problems. In the present work, we give versions of statement of inverse thermoelasticity problems for an inhomogeneous cylindrical pipe. Investigation of the primal problem on radial oscillations of the pipe is reduced to solution of a system of ordinary differential equations of 1st order in Laplace transforms on the basis of the targeting method and the employment of the inversion technique implemented in accordance with the Durbin method. For solution of a nonlinear inverse problem on the basis of the linearization method, we construct an iterative process each stage of which is used for solution of the Fredholm integral equation of the 1st kind. Consideration is given to specific examples of reconstruction of thermomechanical characteristics of an inhomogeneous cylinder. Computational experiments show the efficiency of this approach to reconstruction of different inhomogeneity laws.
Inverse scattering problems for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kedzierawski, Andrzej Wladyslaw
The inverse scattering problem is considered of determining either the absorption of sound in an inhomogeneous medium or the surface impedance of an obstacle from a knowledge of the far field patterns of the scattered field corresponding to many incident time-harmonic plane waves. First, the inverse problem is studied in the case when the scattering object is an inhomogeneous medium with complex refractive index having compact support. The approach to this problem is the orthogonal projection method of Colton-Monk (1988). After that, the analogue is proven of Karp's Theorem for the scattering of acoustic waves through an inhomogeneous medium with compact support. Some of these results are then generalized to the case when the inhomogeneous medium is no longer of compact support. If the acoustic wave penetrates the inhomogeneous medium by only a small amount then the inverse medium problem leads to the inverse obstacle problem with an impedance boundary condition. The inverse impedance problem is solved of determining the surface impedance of an obstacle of known shape by using both the methods of Kirsch-Kress and Colton-Monk (1989).
Lung liquid and protein exchange: the four inhomogeneities.
Staub, N C
1987-01-01
William of Ockham, 14th-century scholastic philosopher at Oxford and Munich, emphasized the principle of economy, "pleurality is not to be supposed without necessity" (Ockham's razor). Necessity is the key word. In the modeling of steady-state lung liquid and protein exchange, the desire for simplicity has sometimes outweighed good judgment. In fact, we and others have shown that simple models do not work. It is necessary to include several forms of inhomogeneity. The air-filled lung shows regional (top to bottom) variations of mass, microvascular pressure, and perimicrovascular protein concentration. Normally, the small longitudinal (arterioles to venules) gradient of microvascular and perimicrovascular pressures is not a major concern, but in nonuniform disease processes, such as microembolism, longitudinal inhomogeneity, and parallel inhomogeneity are dominant. Multiple pores should also be considered a form of inhomogeneity. The effect on liquid and protein exchange, when plasma protein concentration or microvascular pressure change, can be readily explained using pore heterogeneity. The model I am currently using consists of a large number of discrete compartments (18), rather than a continuous distribution. We have recently identified a fifth inhomogeneity, which is that lung lymph flow might not always represent steady-state transvascular filtration because interstitial liquid may leak through the pleura or along the bronchovascular liquid cuffs into the mediastinum.
Design guidance for elastic followup
Naugle, F.V.
1983-01-01
The basic mechanism of elastic followup is discussed in relation to piping design. It is shown how mechanistic insight gained from solutions for a two-bar problem can be used to identify dominant design parameters and to determine appropriate modifications where elastic followup is a potential problem. It is generally recognized that quantitative criteria are needed for elastic followup in the creep range where badly unbalanced lines can pose potential problems. Approaches for criteria development are discussed.
Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.
1988-12-01
Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.
Theory of epithelial elasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krajnc, Matej; Ziherl, Primož
2015-11-01
We propose an elastic theory of epithelial monolayers based on a two-dimensional discrete model of dropletlike cells characterized by differential surface tensions of their apical, basal, and lateral sides. We show that the effective tissue bending modulus depends on the apicobasal differential tension and changes sign at the transition from the flat to the fold morphology. We discuss three mechanisms that stabilize the finite-wavelength fold structures: Physical constraint on cell geometry, hard-core interaction between non-neighboring cells, and bending elasticity of the basement membrane. We show that the thickness of the monolayer changes along the waveform and thus needs to be considered as a variable rather than a parameter. Next we show that the coupling between the curvature and the thickness is governed by the apicobasal polarity and that the amplitude of thickness modulation along the waveform is proportional to the apicobasal differential tension. This suggests that intracellular stresses can be measured indirectly by observing easily measurable morphometric parameters. We also study the mechanics of three-dimensional structures with cylindrical symmetry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Hui; Li, Xin; Fan, Zhongwei; Kurtz, Ron; Juhasz, Tibor
2017-02-01
Corneal biomechanics plays an important role in determining the eye's structural integrity, optical power and the overall quality of vision. It also plays an increasingly recognized role in corneal transplant and refractive surgery, affecting the predictability, quality and stability of final visual outcome [1]. A critical limitation to increasing our understanding of how corneal biomechanics controls corneal stability and refraction is the lack of non-invasive technologies that microscopically measure local biomechanical properties, such as corneal elasticity within the 3D space. Bubble based acoustic radiation force elastic microscopy (ARFEM) introduce the opportunity to measure the inhomogeneous elastic properties of the cornea by the movement of a micron size cavitation bubble generated by a low energy femtosecond laser pulse [2, 3]. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) also known as laser induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS) or laser spark spectrometry (LSS) is an atomic emission spectroscopy [4]. The LIBS principle of operation is quite simple, although the physical processes involved in the laser matter interaction are complex and still not completely understood. In one sentence for description, the laser pulses are focused down to a target so as to generate plasma that vaporizes a small amount of material which the emitted spectrum is measured to analysis the elements of the target.
Inhomogeneous models of the Venus clouds containing sulfur
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, S. M.; Pollack, J. B.; Giver, L. P.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Podolak, M.
1979-01-01
Based on the suggestion that elemental sulfur is responsible for the yellow color of Venus, calculations are compared at 3.4 microns of the reflectivity phase function of two sulfur containing inhomogeneous cloud models with that of a homogeneous model. Assuming reflectivity observations with 25% or less total error, comparison of the model calculations leads to a minimum detectable mass of sulfur equal to 7% of the mass of sulfuric acid for the inhomogeneous drop model. For the inhomogeneous cloud model the comparison leads to a minimum detectable mass of sulfur between 17% and 38% of the mass of the acid drops, depending upon the actual size of the large particles. It is concluded that moderately accurate 3.4 microns reflectivity observations are capable of detecting quite small amounts of elemental sulfur at the top of the Venus clouds.
Quantifying the calibration uncertainty attributable to thermocouple inhomogeneity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, K. D.; Gee, D. J.
2013-09-01
Inhomogeneity in the Seebeck coefficient as a function of position along a thermocouple wire frequently dominates the uncertainty budgets of thermocouple calibration and use. The calibration process itself, simply through exposure to elevated temperatures for relatively modest times, generates both reversible and irreversible changes to the thermocouple that are a complex function of time, temperature, alloy composition, sheath structure, etc. We present data acquired using a salt bath at 250 °C to provide the step-function-like gradient that is our spatial probe of thermoelectric homogeneity. We show how the finite width of the step-function limits our ability to assess the "true" inhomogeneity of the thermocouple, and explore how the inhomogeneity impacts the calibration uncertainty attainable with the various thermal sources used for the calibration of thermocouples (based on their characteristic temperature gradients).
A method for longitudinal relaxation time measurement in inhomogeneous fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Hao; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong
2017-08-01
The spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) plays a crucial role in the study of spin dynamics, signal optimization and data quantification. However, the measurement of chemical shift-specific T1 constants is hampered by the magnetic field inhomogeneity due to poorly shimmed external magnetic fields or intrinsic magnetic susceptibility heterogeneity in samples. In this study, we present a new protocol to determine chemical shift-specific T1 constants in inhomogeneous fields. Based on intermolecular double-quantum coherences, the new method can resolve overlapped peaks in inhomogeneous fields. The measurement results are in consistent with the measurements in homogeneous fields using the conventional method. Since spatial encoding technique is involved, the experimental time for the new method is very close to that for the conventional method. With the aid of T1 knowledge, some concealed information can be exploited by T1 weighting experiments.
A tetrahedron-based inhomogeneous Monte Carlo optical simulator.
Shen, H; Wang, G
2010-02-21
Optical imaging has been widely applied in preclinical and clinical applications. Fifteen years ago, an efficient Monte Carlo program 'MCML' was developed for use with multi-layered turbid media and has gained popularity in the field of biophotonics. Currently, there is an increasingly pressing need for simulating tools more powerful than MCML in order to study light propagation phenomena in complex inhomogeneous objects, such as the mouse. Here we report a tetrahedron-based inhomogeneous Monte Carlo optical simulator (TIM-OS) to address this issue. By modeling an object as a tetrahedron-based inhomogeneous finite-element mesh, TIM-OS can determine the photon-triangle interaction recursively and rapidly. In numerical simulation, we have demonstrated the correctness and efficiency of TIM-OS.
A tetrahedron-based inhomogeneous Monte Carlo optical simulator
Shen, H; Wang, G
2010-01-01
Optical imaging has been widely applied in preclinical and clinical applications. Fifteen years ago, an efficient Monte Carlo program ‘MCML’ was developed for use with multi-layered turbid media and has gained popularity in the field of biophotonics. Currently, there is an increasingly pressing need for simulating tools more powerful than MCML in order to study light propagation phenomena in complex inhomogeneous objects, such as the mouse. Here we report a tetrahedron-based inhomogeneous Monte Carlo optical simulator (TIM-OS) to address this issue. By modeling an object as a tetrahedron-based inhomogeneous finite-element mesh, TIM-OS can determine the photon– triangle interaction recursively and rapidly. In numerical simulation, we have demonstrated the correctness and efficiency of TIM-OS. PMID:20090182
Langmuir solitons in a plasma with inhomogeneous electron temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gromov, Evgeny M.; Malomed, Boris A.
2015-06-01
Dynamics of Langmuir solitons is considered in plasmas with spatially inhomogeneous electron temperature. An underlying Zakharov-type system of two unidirectional equations for the Langmuir and ion-sound fields is reduced to an inhomogeneous nonlinear Schrödinger equation with spatial variation of the second-order dispersion and self-phase modulation coefficients, induced by a spatially inhomogeneous profile of the electron temperature. Analytical trajectories of motion of a soliton in the plasma with an electron-temperature hole, barrier, or cavity between two barriers are found, using the method of integral moments. The possibility of the soliton to pass a high-temperature barrier is shown too. Analytical results are well corroborated by numerical simulations.
Solutions of the chemical kinetic equations for initially inhomogeneous mixtures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hilst, G. R.
1973-01-01
Following the recent discussions by O'Brien (1971) and Donaldson and Hilst (1972) of the effects of inhomogeneous mixing and turbulent diffusion on simple chemical reaction rates, the present report provides a more extensive analysis of when inhomogeneous mixing has a significant effect on chemical reaction rates. The analysis is then extended to the development of an approximate chemical sub-model which provides much improved predictions of chemical reaction rates over a wide range of inhomogeneities and pathological distributions of the concentrations of the reacting chemical species. In particular, the development of an approximate representation of the third-order correlations of the joint concentration fluctuations permits closure of the chemical sub-model at the level of the second-order moments of these fluctuations and the mean concentrations.
Generalized Langevin theory for inhomogeneous fluids: The equations of motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grant, Martin; Desai, Rashmi C.
1982-05-01
We use the generalized Langevin approach to study the dynamical correlations in an inhomogeneous system. The equations of motion (formally exact) are obtained for the number density, momentum density, energy density, stress tensor, and heat flux. We evaluate all the relevant sum rules appearing in the frequency matrix exactly in terms of microscopic pair potentials and an external field. We show using functional derivatives how these microscopic sum rules relate to more familiar, though now nonlocal, hydrodynamiclike quantities. The set of equations is closed by a Markov approximation in the equations for stress tensor and heat flux. As a result, these equations become analogous to Grad's 13-moment equations for low-density fluids and constitute a generalization to inhomogeneous fluids of the work of Schofield and Akcasu-Daniels. We also indicate how the resulting general set of equations would simplify for systems in which the inhomogeneity is unidirectional, e.g., a liquid-vapor interface.
Characteristics of inhomogeneous jets in confined swirling air flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
So, R. M. C.; Ahmed, S. A.
1984-04-01
An experimental program to study the characteristics of inhomogeneous jets in confined swirling flows to obtain detailed and accurate data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport modeling for combustor flows is discussed. The work was also motivated by the need to investigate and quantify the influence of confinement and swirl on the characteristics of inhomogeneous jets. The flow facility was constructed in a simple way which allows easy interchange of different swirlers and the freedom to vary the jet Reynolds number. The velocity measurements were taken with a one color, one component DISA Model 55L laser-Doppler anemometer employing the forward scatter mode. Standard statistical methods are used to evaluate the various moments of the signals to give the flow characteristics. The present work was directed at the understanding of the velocity field. Therefore, only velocity and turbulence data of the axial and circumferential components are reported for inhomogeneous jets in confined swirling air flows.
Evolution of electron phase space holes in inhomogeneous magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuzichev, I. V.; Vasko, I. Y.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F. S.; Artemyev, A. V.
2017-03-01
Electron phase space holes (EHs) are electrostatic solitary waves that are widely observed in the space plasma often permeated by inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Understanding of the EH evolution in inhomogeneous magnetic fields is critical for accurate interpretations of spacecraft data. To study this evolution, we use 1.5-D gyrokinetic electrostatic Vlasov code (magnetized electrons and immobile ions) with periodic boundary conditions. We find that EHs propagating into stronger (weaker) magnetic field are decelerated (accelerated) with deceleration (acceleration) rate dependent on the magnetic field gradient. Remarkably, decelerating EHs are reflected at the magnetic field dependent only on EH parameters (independent of the magnetic field gradient). A magnetic field inhomogeneity results in development of a net potential drop along EHs. Our simulations suggest that slow EHs recently observed in the plasma sheet boundary layer can appear due to braking of initially fast EHs by magnetic field gradients and that a large number of even fast EHs can contribute to macroscopic parallel potential drops.
Lin, David C; Dimitriadis, Emilios K; Horkay, Ferenc
2007-06-01
The atomic force microscope (AFM) has found wide applicability as a nanoindentation tool to measure local elastic properties of soft materials. An automated approach to the processing of AFM indentation data, namely, the extraction of Young's modulus, is essential to realizing the high-throughput potential of the instrument as an elasticity probe for typical soft materials that exhibit inhomogeneity at microscopic scales. This paper focuses on Hertzian analysis techniques, which are applicable to linear elastic indentation. We compiled a series of synergistic strategies into an algorithm that overcomes many of the complications that have previously impeded efforts to automate the fitting of contact mechanics models to indentation data. AFM raster data sets containing up to 1024 individual force-displacement curves and macroscopic compression data were obtained from testing polyvinyl alcohol gels of known composition. Local elastic properties of tissue-engineered cartilage were also measured by the AFM. All AFM data sets were processed using customized software based on the algorithm, and the extracted values of Young's modulus were compared to those obtained by macroscopic testing. Accuracy of the technique was verified by the good agreement between values of Young's modulus obtained by AFM and by direct compression of the synthetic gels. Validation of robustness was achieved by successfully fitting the vastly different types of force curves generated from the indentation of tissue-engineered cartilage. For AFM indentation data that are amenable to Hertzian analysis, the method presented here minimizes subjectivity in preprocessing and allows for improved consistency and minimized user intervention. Automated, large-scale analysis of indentation data holds tremendous potential in bioengineering applications, such as high-resolution elasticity mapping of natural and artificial tissues.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brunelle, Eugene J.
1994-01-01
The first few viewgraphs describe the general solution properties of linear elasticity theory which are given by the following two statements: (1) for stress B.C. on S(sub sigma) and zero displacement B.C. on S(sub u) the altered displacements u(sub i)(*) and the actual stresses tau(sub ij) are elastically dependent on Poisson's ratio nu alone: thus the actual displacements are given by u(sub i) = mu(exp -1)u(sub i)(*); and (2) for zero stress B.C. on S(sub sigma) and displacement B.C. on S(sub u) the actual displacements u(sub i) and the altered stresses tau(sub ij)(*) are elastically dependent on Poisson's ratio nu alone: thus the actual stresses are given by tau(sub ij) = E tau(sub ij)(*). The remaining viewgraphs describe the minimum parameter formulation of the general classical laminate theory plate problem as follows: The general CLT plate problem is expressed as a 3 x 3 system of differential equations in the displacements u, v, and w. The eighteen (six each) A(sub ij), B(sub ij), and D(sub ij) system coefficients are ply-weighted sums of the transformed reduced stiffnesses (bar-Q(sub ij))(sub k); the (bar-Q(sub ij))(sub k) in turn depend on six reduced stiffnesses (Q(sub ij))(sub k) and the material and geometry properties of the k(sup th) layer. This paper develops a method for redefining the system coefficients, the displacement components (u,v,w), and the position components (x,y) such that a minimum parameter formulation is possible. The pivotal steps in this method are (1) the reduction of (bar-Q(sub ij))(sub k) dependencies to just two constants Q(*) = (Q(12) + 2Q(66))/(Q(11)Q(22))(exp 1/2) and F(*) - (Q(22)/Q(11))(exp 1/2) in terms of ply-independent reference values Q(sub ij); (2) the reduction of the remaining portions of the A, B, and D coefficients to nondimensional ply-weighted sums (with 0 to 1 ranges) that are independent of Q(*) and F(*); and (3) the introduction of simple coordinate stretchings for u, v, w and x,y such that the process is
Inhomogeneity Effects on Dose Deposition for Photon and Electron Beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Xinsheng
1989-03-01
A long-standing problem in radiation therapy has been to correct the dose distributions for the presence of inhomogeneities. The availability of CT and MRI imaging for treatment planning has led to many new algorithms for making such corrections. Unfortunately, each of these methods shows a limited range of validity outside of which errors exceeding 10% may occur due to the assumptions made in the algorithm. In order for valid assumptions to be made, the physical processes involved in the perturbation effects of inhomogeneities on radiation dose deposition must be identified and understood. The work presented in this thesis is to achieve this goal. Inhomogeneity effects on photon dose deposition have been studied by means of experimental measurements and theoretical simulations. The results indicated that changes in atomic number could result in large changes in dose by perturbing the transport of the secondary electrons. Electron transport theory was then studied with the emphasis on the electron multiple scattering. The small angle approximation in the Fermi-Eyges theory and the assumption of semi-infinite slab geometry in current electron dose calculation algorithms were found to cause inaccurate prediction of dose in the vicinity of local inhomogeneities. Using the concept of mean path, a new multiray model has been derived, which is sensitive to local inhomogeneities and gives good agreement with Monte -Carlo simulations. Based on the understanding of both photon and electron transport, a new photon-electron cascade model is proposed for calculating photon dose deposition. The model explicitly includes the transport of the secondary charged particles and is applicable for the presence of inhomogeneities with different electron densities and atomic numbers.
Giant linear strain gradient with extremely low elastic energy in a perovskite nanostructure array
Tang, Y. L.; Zhu, Y. L.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Y. J.; Ma, X. L.
2017-01-01
Although elastic strains, particularly inhomogeneous strains, are able to tune, enhance or create novel properties of some nanoscale functional materials, potential devices dominated by inhomogeneous strains have not been achieved so far. Here we report a fabrication of inhomogeneous strains with a linear gradient as giant as 106 per metre, featuring an extremely lower elastic energy cost compared with a uniformly strained state. The present strain gradient, resulting from the disclinations in the BiFeO3 nanostructures array grown on LaAlO3 substrates via a high deposition flux, induces a polarization of several microcoulomb per square centimetre. It leads to a large built-in electric field of several megavoltage per metre, and gives rise to a large enhancement of solar absorption. Our results indicate that it is possible to build up large-scale strain-dominated nanostructures with exotic properties, which in turn could be useful in the development of novel devices for electromechanical and photoelectric applications. PMID:28665413
Giant linear strain gradient with extremely low elastic energy in a perovskite nanostructure array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Y. L.; Zhu, Y. L.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Y. J.; Ma, X. L.
2017-06-01
Although elastic strains, particularly inhomogeneous strains, are able to tune, enhance or create novel properties of some nanoscale functional materials, potential devices dominated by inhomogeneous strains have not been achieved so far. Here we report a fabrication of inhomogeneous strains with a linear gradient as giant as 106 per metre, featuring an extremely lower elastic energy cost compared with a uniformly strained state. The present strain gradient, resulting from the disclinations in the BiFeO3 nanostructures array grown on LaAlO3 substrates via a high deposition flux, induces a polarization of several microcoulomb per square centimetre. It leads to a large built-in electric field of several megavoltage per metre, and gives rise to a large enhancement of solar absorption. Our results indicate that it is possible to build up large-scale strain-dominated nanostructures with exotic properties, which in turn could be useful in the development of novel devices for electromechanical and photoelectric applications.
Nanoscale Inhomogeneities Mapping in Ga-Modified Arsenic Selenide Glasses.
Shpotyuk, Ya; Adamiak, S; Dziedzic, A; Szlezak, J; Bochnowski, W; Cebulski, J
2017-12-01
Nanoscale inhomogeneities mapping in Ga-modified As2Se3 glass was utilized exploring possibilities of nanoindentation technique using a Berkovitch-type diamond tip. Structural inhomogeneities were detected in Gax(As0.40Se0.60)100-x alloys with more than 3 at.% of Ga. The appeared Ga2Se3 nanocrystallites were visualized in Ga-modified arsenic selenide glasses using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The Ga additions are shown to increase nanohardness and Young's modulus, this effect attaining an obvious bifurcation trend in crystallization-decomposed Ga5(As0.40Se0.60)95 alloy.
Inhomogeneous exact solution in brane gravity and its applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heydari-Fard, Malihe; Heydari-Fard, Mohaddese
2017-02-01
Considering an inhomogeneous brane embedded in a five dimensional constant curvature bulk, we find the non-static and spherically symmetric exact solutions of the Einstein equations on the brane. With different choices of the parameters, one interesting case/solution is studied. We show that an inhomogeneous brane model can explain the accelerated expansion of the universe at large distance scales and also the galaxy rotation curves of spiral galaxies without assuming the existence of dark matter or new modified theories at the galactic scales.
Dendritic signal transmission induced by intracellular charge inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazarevich, Ivan A.; Kazantsev, Victor B.
2013-12-01
Signal propagation in neuronal dendrites represents the basis for interneuron communication and information processing in the brain. Here we take into account charge inhomogeneities arising in the vicinity of ion channels in cytoplasm and obtain a modified cable equation. We show that charge inhomogeneities acting on a millisecond time scale can lead to the appearance of propagating waves with wavelengths of hundreds of micrometers. They correspond to a certain frequency band predicting the appearance of resonant properties in brain neuron signaling. We also show that membrane potential in spiny dendrites obeys the modified cable equation suggesting a crucial role of the spines in dendritic subthreshold resonance.
Lifetimes of long-lived states in inhomogeneous magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Maninder; Chinthalapalli, Srinivas; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey
2015-03-01
Long-lived states (LLS), also known as singlet states, have been widely studied in the last decade. So far, LLS have only been observed in homogeneous magnetic fields, which preclude applications to many biological samples that are inherently inhomogeneous. We present a method to measure the lifetimes TLLS of long-lived states in inhomogeneous magnetic fields, which combines established sequences for the excitation of LLS with their conversion into long-lived coherences (LLC) that can be detected by windowed acquisition. The method is applied to a pair of diastereotopic scalar-coupled protons of glycine in the dipeptide Alanine-Glycine (Ala-Gly).
Acoustic Force Density Acting on Inhomogeneous Fluids in Acoustic Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karlsen, Jonas T.; Augustsson, Per; Bruus, Henrik
2016-09-01
We present a theory for the acoustic force density acting on inhomogeneous fluids in acoustic fields on time scales that are slow compared to the acoustic oscillation period. The acoustic force density depends on gradients in the density and compressibility of the fluid. For microfluidic systems, the theory predicts a relocation of the inhomogeneities into stable field-dependent configurations, which are qualitatively different from the horizontally layered configurations due to gravity. Experimental validation is obtained by confocal imaging of aqueous solutions in a glass-silicon microchip.
Inhomogeneous helicity effect in the solar angular-momentum transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yokoi, Nobumitsu
2017-04-01
Coupled with mean absolute vorticity Ω∗ (rotation and mean relative vorticity), inhomogeneous turbulent helicity is expected to contribute to the generation of global flow structure against the linear and angular momentum mixing due to turbulent or eddy viscosity. This inhomogeneous helicity effect was originally derived in Yokoi & Yoshizawa (1993) [1], and recently has been validated by direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of rotating helical turbulence [2]. Turbulence effect enters the mean-vorticity equation through the turbulent vortexmotive force ⟨u'×ω'⟩ [u': velocity fluctuation, ω'(= ∇× u'): vorticity fluctuation], which is the vorticity counterpart of the electromotive force ⟨u'× b'⟩ (b': magnetic fluctuation) in the mean magnetic-field induction. The mean velocity induction δU is proportional to the vortexmotive force. According to the theoretical result [1,2], it is expressed as δU = -νT∇×Ω∗-ηT(∇2H)Ω∗, where ηT is the transport coefficient, H = ⟨u'ṡω'⟩ the turbulent helicity, and Ω∗ the mean absolute vorticity. The first term corresponds to the enhanced diffusion due to turbulent viscosity νT. The second term expresses the large-scale flow generation due to inhomogeneous helicity. Since helicity is self-generated in rotating stratified turbulence [3], an inhomogeneous helicity distribution is expected to exist in the solar convection zone. A rising flow with expansion near the surface of the Sun generates a strongly negative helicity there [4]. This spatial distribution of helicity would lead to a positive Laplacian of turbulent helicity (∇2H > 0) in the subsurface layer of the Sun. In the combination with the large-scale vorticity associated with the meridional circulation, the inhomogeneous helicity effect works for accelerating the mean velocity in the azimuthal direction. The relevance of this inhomogeneous helicity effect in the solar convection zone is discussed further. References [1] Yokoi, N. and
Deep and Clear Optical Imaging of Thick Inhomogeneous Samples
Andilla, Jordi; Maandhui, Amina; Frongia, Céline; Lobjois, Valérie; Ducommun, Bernard; Lorenzo, Corinne
2012-01-01
Inhomogeneity in thick biological specimens results in poor imaging by light microscopy, which deteriorates as the focal plane moves deeper into the specimen. Here, we have combined selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) with wavefront sensor adaptive optics (wao). Our waoSPIM is based on a direct wavefront measure using a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and fluorescent beads as point source emitters. We demonstrate the use of this waoSPIM method to correct distortions in three-dimensional biological imaging and to improve the quality of images from deep within thick inhomogeneous samples. PMID:22558226
Transverse quasilinear relaxation in an inhomogeneous magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyutikov, Maxim
1998-08-01
Transverse quasilinear relaxation of the cyclotron Cherenkov instability of an ultrarelativistic beam propagating along a strong, inhomogeneous magnetic field in a pair plasma is considered. We find a quasilinear state in which the kinetic-type instability is saturated by the force arising in the inhomogeneous field due to the conservation of the adiabatic invariant. The resulting wave intensities generally have a non-power-law frequency dependence, but in a broad frequency range can be well approximated by a power law with a spectral index -2. The emergent spectra and fluxes are consistent with the one observed from radio pulsars.
Inhomogeneities in an expanding universe: the nonlinear and relativistic regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
East, William
2017-01-01
I will discuss the dynamics, and observational consequences of inhomogeneities in an expanding universe. In particular, I will concentrate on how the tools of numerical relativity can be used to study this problem in a fully general-relativistic setting, where traditionally employed approximations may break down. I will show how this can be used to explore and quantify the cosmological regime where the evolution of the inhomogeneities becomes nonlinear, and where relativistic effects may become important. This includes applications to primordial black hole formation, as well as other settings in the early universe where strong-field gravity plays a role.
Cosmological observations in an inhomogeneous universe - Distance-redshift relation
Watanabe, K.; Tomita, K. )
1990-05-01
The distance-redshift relation (DRR) in an inhomogeneous universe is studied. On the basis of relativistic optical equations, numerical calculations are performed to get a realistic DRR. It is shown that the DRR is coincident with that in the standard Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) model on average if galaxies or clusters of galaxies are assumed to be completely transparent. It is also shown that the effect of the shear along the light path is small if the scale of inhomogeneities is larger than galactic scale, and that these numerical results are consistent with the analytical investigation of Futamase and Sasaki (1989). 26 refs.
ADAPTIVE OPTICS: Laser refractography of optically inhomogeneous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raskovskaya, I. L.; Rinkevichyus, B. S.; Tolkachev, A. V.
2007-12-01
The basic principles of laser refractography, a new method for diagnostics of optically inhomogeneous media and flows based on refraction of spatially structured laser radiation, are described. By using 2D- and 3D-refraction patterns, the medium under investigation can be visualised and the inhomogeneity profile can be diagnosed quantitatively. The method is modified for studying edge effects and thin boundary layers in liquids and gases. Due to nearly inertialess measurements, laser refractography can be used for diagnostics of fast and transient processes. The simultaneous diagnostics of processes in various regions is provided by an extended radiation source.
Non-Rational Rogue Waves Induced by Inhomogeneity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Jing-Song; Wang, You-Ying; Li, Lin-Jing
2012-06-01
The variable Sine—Gordon (VSG) equation is often used to model several kinds of systems with inhomogeneity and it can be realized by the management of dispersion and nonlinearity in optics and Feschbach resonance in Bose-Einstein condensates. We derive four new kinds of non-rational rogue wave (RW) of the VSG by using an explicit transformation and the designable integrability. These RWs have novel profiles and interesting internal structures. It is shown that the RW is induced by the inhomogeneity of the system modeled by the VSG. The theoretical prediction of the corresponding relations between the RWs and some extreme events in DNA is discussed.
Effect of Inhomogeneous Flow on K-H Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasquez, Gabriela; Lin, Dong; Sen, Sudip; Scale, Wayne; Petulante, Nelson
2017-01-01
We study the effect of inhomogeneous flow on the Kelvin-Helmholz instability and turbulence. The inhomogeneous flow includes both flow shear and flow curvature. The effect of flow curvature (second radial derivative of flow) is shown to have significant effect in controlling the turbulence level contrary to the usual prediction that flow shear (first radial derivative of flow) alone controls the turbulence level. The detail result of this simulation will be reported. Work in this work is supported by the DOE grant DE-SC0016397.
Bending of solitons in weak and slowly varying inhomogeneous plasma
Mukherjee, Abhik Janaki, M. S. Kundu, Anjan
2015-12-15
The bending of solitons in two dimensional plane is presented in the presence of weak and slowly varying inhomogeneous ion density for the propagation of ion acoustic soliton in unmagnetized cold plasma with isothermal electrons. Using reductive perturbation technique, a modified Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation is obtained with a chosen unperturbed ion density profile. The exact solution of the equation shows that the phase of the solitary wave gets modified by a function related to the unperturbed inhomogeneous ion density causing the soliton to bend in the two dimensional plane, while the amplitude of the soliton remains constant.
Acoustic Force Density Acting on Inhomogeneous Fluids in Acoustic Fields.
Karlsen, Jonas T; Augustsson, Per; Bruus, Henrik
2016-09-09
We present a theory for the acoustic force density acting on inhomogeneous fluids in acoustic fields on time scales that are slow compared to the acoustic oscillation period. The acoustic force density depends on gradients in the density and compressibility of the fluid. For microfluidic systems, the theory predicts a relocation of the inhomogeneities into stable field-dependent configurations, which are qualitatively different from the horizontally layered configurations due to gravity. Experimental validation is obtained by confocal imaging of aqueous solutions in a glass-silicon microchip.
Chemical substructure and inhomogeneous mixing in Local Group dwarf galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venn, K. A.
Evidence for inhomogeneous mixing in the Carina, Draco, and Sculptor dwarf galaxies is examined from chemical abundance patterns. Inhomogeneous mixing at early times is indicated in the classical dwarf galaxies, though cannot be ascertained in ultra faint dwarfs. Mixing efficiencies can affect the early metallicity distribution function, the pre-enrichment levels in globular clusters, and also have an impact on the structure of dwarf systems at early times. Numerical models that include chemical evolution explicitly do a better job in reproducing the observations, and make interesting predictions for the nature of dwarf galaxies and their first stars at the earliest times.
Unusual thermopower of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nam, Youngwoo; Sun, Jie; Lindvall, Niclas; Jae Yang, Seung; Rae Park, Chong; Woo Park, Yung; Yurgens, August
2014-01-01
We report on thermopower (TEP) and resistance measurements of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Unlike the conventional resistance of pristine graphene, the gate-dependent TEP shows a large electron-hole asymmetry. This can be accounted for by inhomogeneity of the CVD-graphene where individual graphene regions contribute with different TEPs. At the high magnetic field and low temperature, the TEP has large fluctuations near the Dirac point associated with the disorder in the CVD-graphene. TEP measurements reveal additional characteristics of CVD-graphene, which are difficult to obtain from the measurement of resistance alone.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fain, Boris; Rudnick, Joseph
1997-03-01
Short segments of DNA assume shapes that minimize their elastic energy. Modeling of the various mechanisms involving the molecule - replication, transcription, packaging, etc. - requires a description of the conformations of DNA under constraints. We develop a formalism that obtains analytic expressions for shape, link, twist and extension of a segment subject to sufficient number of constraints. We apply our technique to two particular cases: a) Stretched twisted linear DNA. This is an interesting test for our formalism, especially in light of recent experiments(Strick T.R., Allemand J.-F., Bensimon A., Croquette V. Science) 271 1835-1837, (1996). The molecule remains extended until a critical twist is reached, at which point it undergoes a plectonemic transition. b) Closed circular DNA. Describing the shapes of such molecules has been an outstanding problem for some time. We obtain a family of curves classified by their deviation in link from the plain circle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spagnolie, Saverio E.; Lauga, Eric
2010-03-01
Motile eukaryotic cells propel themselves in viscous fluids by passing waves of bending deformation down their flagella. An infinitely long flagellum achieves a hydrodynamically optimal low-Reynolds number locomotion when the angle between its local tangent and the swimming direction remains constant along its length. Optimal flagella therefore adopt the shape of a helix in three dimensions (smooth) and that of a sawtooth in two dimensions (nonsmooth). Physically, biological organisms (or engineered microswimmers) must expend internal energy in order to produce the waves of deformation responsible for the motion. Here we propose a physically motivated derivation of the optimal flagellum shape. We determine analytically and numerically the shape of the flagellar wave which leads to the fastest swimming for a given appropriately defined energetic expenditure. Our novel approach is to define an energy which includes not only the work against the surrounding fluid, but also (1) the energy stored elastically in the bending of the flagellum, (2) the energy stored elastically in the internal sliding of the polymeric filaments which are responsible for the generation of the bending waves (microtubules), and (3) the viscous dissipation due to the presence of an internal fluid. This approach regularizes the optimal sawtooth shape for two-dimensional deformation at the expense of a small loss in hydrodynamic efficiency. The optimal waveforms of finite-size flagella are shown to depend on a competition between rotational motions and bending costs, and we observe a surprising bias toward half-integer wave numbers. Their final hydrodynamic efficiencies are above 6%, significantly larger than those of swimming cells, therefore indicating available room for further biological tuning.
Larkin, A. I.; Khmelnitskii, D. E.
2013-09-15
Friction of elastic bodies is connected with the passing through the metastable states that arise at the contact of surfaces rubbing against each other. Three models are considered that give rise to the metastable states. Friction forces and their dependence on the pressure are calculated. In Appendix A, the contact problem of elasticity theory is solved with adhesion taken into account.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Girill, T. R.
1972-01-01
The Boyle-Mariotte gas law was formulated in terms of pneumatic springs," subsumed by Hooke under his own stress-strain relation, and generally regarded as a law of elasticity. The subsequent development of Boyle's principle and elasticity provide thought-provoking test cases for Kuhn's notations of paradigm and puzzle solving in physics.…
Valve designed with elastic seat
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mac Glashan, W. F., Jr.
1965-01-01
Absolute valve closure is accomplished by a machined valve with an axially annular channel which changes the outlet passage into a thin tubular elastic seat member with a retainer backup ring. The elasticity of the seat provides tight conformity to ball irregularity.
PAGOSA Sample Problem. Elastic Precursor
Weseloh, Wayne N.; Clancy, Sean Patrick
2016-02-03
A PAGOSA simulation of a flyer plate impact which produces an elastic precursor wave is examined. The simulation is compared to an analytic theory for the Mie-Grüneisen equation of state and an elastic-perfectly-plastic strength model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Girill, T. R.
1972-01-01
The Boyle-Mariotte gas law was formulated in terms of pneumatic springs," subsumed by Hooke under his own stress-strain relation, and generally regarded as a law of elasticity. The subsequent development of Boyle's principle and elasticity provide thought-provoking test cases for Kuhn's notations of paradigm and puzzle solving in physics.…
Elasticity of adherent active cells on a compliant substrate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Shiladitya; Mertz, Aaron F.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Marchetti, M. Cristina
2012-02-01
We present a continuum mechanical model of rigidity sensing by livings cells adhering to a compliant substrate. The cell or cell colony is modeled as an elastic active gel, adapting recently developed continuum theories of active viscoelastic fluids. The coupling to the substrate enters as a boundary condition that relates the cell's deformation field to local stress gradients. In the presence of activity, the substrate induces spatially inhomogeneous contractile stresses and deformations, with a power law dependence of the total traction forces on cell or colony size. This is in agreement with recent experiments on keratinocyte colonies adhered to fibronectin coated surfaces. In the presence of acto-myosin activity, the substrate also enhances the cell polarization, breaking the cell's front-rear symmetry. Maximal polarization is observed when the substrate stiffness matches that of the cell, in agreement with experiments on stem cells.
Charge transport through inhomogeneous polymeric materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vakhshouri, Kiarash
The generation of unique properties through mixing of organic semiconductors has enabled improved performance and novel functionalities in organic electronic devices. In organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), isolated phases of a second material within the photoactive layer can act as recombination centers, enhancing the overall device performance. Mixing of flexible polymer semiconductors with high-mobility small organic molecules can yield high-performance flexible thin film transistors. Solution-processed, bulk-heterojunction (BHJ), thin-film organic solar cells rely on the self-assembly of polymer/fullerene donor/acceptor mixtures to create the necessary morphology with a high interfacial area for efficient photocurrent generation. Efficient conversion of absorbed photons into photocurrent requires sufficiently intimate mixing of the donor and acceptor phases such that photogenerated excitons can easily find an interface, as well as a sufficiently large thermodynamic driving force for charge separation at the interface. At the same time, efficient transport of separated charges towards the electrodes requires a certain degree of phase segregation between the two materials, to enable ordered molecular packing within each phase and also minimize interfacial recombination. Despite the importance of creating inhomogeneous mixtures of organic semiconductors and the tremendous recent advances in the performance of the aforementioned devices, it remains a challenge to fully describe the optoelectronic properties of organic semiconductor mixtures and understand the effects of structural and morphological parameters on charge transport. Recently, it has been shown that highly regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (RR-P3HT) and poly[2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno(3,2-b)thiophene] (PBTTT) are promising materials for organic electronic applications due to the relatively high charge carrier mobility, high solubility in different organic solvents and acceptable film
Elasticity of Flowing Soap films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Ildoo; Mandre, Shreyas
2016-11-01
The robustness of soap films and bubbles manifests their mechanical stability. The single most important factor underlying the mechanical stability of soap films is its elasticity. Non-destructive measurement of the elasticity in these films has been cumbersome, because of its flowing nature. Here we provide a convenient, reproducible, and non-destructive method for measuring the elasticity by generating and inspecting Marangoni waves. Our method is based on generating an oblique shock by inserting a thin cylindrical obstacle in the flowing film, and converting the measured the shock angle to elasticity. Using this method, we find a constant value for the elasticity of 22 dyne/cm in the commonly used range of film widths, thicknesses or flow rates, implying that the surface of the film is chemically saturated with soap molecules.
Katsamenis, Orestis L; Jenkins, Thomas; Thurner, Philipp J
2015-07-01
damage around the crack-tip. In contrast, shorter and more direct crack paths as well as less-distributed damage were evidenced during failure of the weaker specimens. Overall, this multi-scale study highlights the importance of elasticity inhomogeneity within the osteon to the damage susceptibility and consequently to the fracture resistance of the tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mechanism for an absolute parametric instability of an inhomogeneous plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arkhipenko, V. I.; Budnikov, V. N.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Romanchuk, I. A.; Simonchik, L. V.
1984-05-01
The structure of plasma oscillations in a region of parametric spatial amplification has been studied experimentally for the first time. A new mechanism for an absolute parametric instability has been observed. This mechanism operates when a pump wave with a spatial structure more complicated than a plane wave propagates through a plasma which is inhomogeneous along more than one dimension.
Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi type VIh models with perfect fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.
1991-07-01
Inhomogeneous universes admitting an Abelian G2 of isometry and filled with perfect fluid have been derived. These contain as special cases exact homogeneous universes of Bianchi type VIh. Many of these universes asymptotically tend to homogeneous Bianchi VIh universes. The models have been discussed for their physical and kinematical behaviors.
Matrix algorithms for solving (in)homogeneous bound state equations.
Blank, M; Krassnigg, A
2011-07-01
In the functional approach to quantum chromodynamics, the properties of hadronic bound states are accessible via covariant integral equations, e.g. the Bethe-Salpeter equation for mesons. In particular, one has to deal with linear, homogeneous integral equations which, in sophisticated model setups, use numerical representations of the solutions of other integral equations as part of their input. Analogously, inhomogeneous equations can be constructed to obtain off-shell information in addition to bound-state masses and other properties obtained from the covariant analogue to a wave function of the bound state. These can be solved very efficiently using well-known matrix algorithms for eigenvalues (in the homogeneous case) and the solution of linear systems (in the inhomogeneous case). We demonstrate this by solving the homogeneous and inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equations and find, e.g. that for the calculation of the mass spectrum it is as efficient or even advantageous to use the inhomogeneous equation as compared to the homogeneous. This is valuable insight, in particular for the study of baryons in a three-quark setup and more involved systems.
Spatial Inhomogeneity of Kinetic and Magnetic Dissipations in Thermal Convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hotta, H.
2017-08-01
We investigate the inhomogeneity of kinetic and magnetic dissipations in thermal convection using high-resolution calculations. In statistically steady turbulence, the injected and dissipated energies are balanced. This means that a large amount of energy is continuously converted into internal energy via dissipation. As in thermal convection, downflows are colder than upflows and the inhomogeneity of the dissipation potentially changes the convection structure. Our investigation of the inhomogeneity of the dissipation shows the following. (1) More dissipation is seen around the bottom of the calculation domain, and this tendency is promoted with the magnetic field. (2) The dissipation in the downflow is much larger than that in the upflow. The dissipation in the downflow is more than 80% of the total at maximum. This tendency is also promoted with the magnetic field. (3) Although 2D probability density functions of the kinetic and magnetic dissipations versus the vertical velocity are similar, the kinetic and magnetic dissipations are not well correlated. Our result suggests that the spatial inhomogeneity of the dissipation is significant and should be considered when modeling a small-scale strong magnetic field generated with an efficient small-scale dynamo for low-resolution calculations.
On the ion acoustic obliquely propagation in magnetized inhomogeneous plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mowafy, A. E.; El-Shewy, E. K.; Abdelwahed, H. G.
2017-02-01
Inhomogeneous multi-component magnetized plasmas containing inertial ions, nonthermal electrons, and Boltzmannian positrons have been investigated theoretically. Variable coefficients Zakharov Kuznetsov (VZK) equation has been derived in a small amplitude limit. It is found that the propagation directions, positron parameters and magnetic field affected the properties of propagation of positive-negative solitary waves.
An inhomogeneous Lax representation for the Hirota equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fioravanti, Davide; Nepomechie, Rafael I.
2017-02-01
Motivated by recent work on quantum integrable models without U(1) symmetry, we show that the sl(2) Hirota equation admits a Lax representation with inhomogeneous terms. The compatibility of the auxiliary linear problem leads to a new consistent family of Hirota-like equations.
Fluorescence of pyrene in inhomogeneous media containing silver nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romanovskaya, G. I.
2014-05-01
Pyrene fluorescence in inhomogeneous media based on ionic detergents containing silver nanoparticles with different morphologies is investigated. An increase in pyrene monomer emissions in the spectral range of 400-500 nm is observed, due to the resonance between electronic transitions in pyrene molecules in that region and the plasmonic oscillations of silver nanoparticles.
Matrix algorithms for solving (in)homogeneous bound state equations
Blank, M.; Krassnigg, A.
2011-01-01
In the functional approach to quantum chromodynamics, the properties of hadronic bound states are accessible via covariant integral equations, e.g. the Bethe–Salpeter equation for mesons. In particular, one has to deal with linear, homogeneous integral equations which, in sophisticated model setups, use numerical representations of the solutions of other integral equations as part of their input. Analogously, inhomogeneous equations can be constructed to obtain off-shell information in addition to bound-state masses and other properties obtained from the covariant analogue to a wave function of the bound state. These can be solved very efficiently using well-known matrix algorithms for eigenvalues (in the homogeneous case) and the solution of linear systems (in the inhomogeneous case). We demonstrate this by solving the homogeneous and inhomogeneous Bethe–Salpeter equations and find, e.g. that for the calculation of the mass spectrum it is as efficient or even advantageous to use the inhomogeneous equation as compared to the homogeneous. This is valuable insight, in particular for the study of baryons in a three-quark setup and more involved systems. PMID:21760640
Features of inhomogeneous current state in wide superconducting films
D'yachenko, A.I.; Tarenkov, V.Y.; Stupakov, V.V.
1982-04-01
A dc superconducting-transformer circuit is used to investigate the features of the current-voltage characteristics (CVC) of thin aluminum films of width W>>lambda/sub perpendicular/. It is shown that in contrast to narrow channels, where phase-slippage centers are realized, the steplike structure of the CVC results in this case from the inhomogeneous entry of the vortex strings.
Phase Diagram of Inhomogeneous Percolation with a Defect Plane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iliev, G. K.; Janse van Rensburg, E. J.; Madras, N.
2015-01-01
Let be the -dimensional hypercubic lattice and let be an -dimensional sublattice, with . We consider a model of inhomogeneous bond percolation on at densities and , in which edges in are open with probability , and edges in open with probability . We generalize several classical results of (homogeneous) bond percolation to this inhomogeneous model. The phase diagram of the model is presented, and it is shown that there is a subcritical regime for and (where is the critical probability for homogeneous percolation in ), a bulk supercritical regime for , and a surface supercritical regime for and . We show that is a strictly decreasing function for , with a jump discontinuity at . We extend the Aizenman-Barsky differential inequalities for homogeneous percolation to the inhomogeneous model and use them to prove that the susceptibility is finite inside the subcritical phase. We prove that the cluster size distribution decays exponentially in the subcritical phase, and sub-exponentially in the supercritical phases. For a model of lattice animals with a defect plane, the free energy is related to functions of the inhomogeneous percolation model, and we show how the percolation transition implies a non-analyticity in the free energy of the animal model. Finally, we present simulation estimates of the critical curve.
Surface and guided waves on structured surfaces and inhomogeneous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polanco, Javier
Surface and guided waves on structured surfaces and inhomogeneous media studies the propagation of waves in systems with spatially varying parameters. In the rainbow case (chapter 1), the dielectric constant changes with coordinates. In the cylinder case: boundary and the metal (chapter 2), it is a curved surface. Finally, in the last case (chapter 3), the dielectric constant changes in z-direction.
Spherically symmetric inhomogeneous bianisotropic media: Wave propagation and light scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novitsky, Andrey; Shalin, Alexander S.; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.
2017-05-01
We develop a technique for finding closed-form expressions for electromagnetic fields in radially inhomogeneous bianisotropic media, both the solutions of the Maxwell equations and material tensors being defined by the set of auxiliary two-dimensional matrices. The approach is applied to determine the scattering cross-sections by spherical particles, the fields inside which correspond to the Airy-exponential waves.
Tracking inhomogeneity in high-capacity lithium iron phosphate batteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paxton, William A.; Zhong, Zhong; Tsakalakos, Thomas
2015-02-01
Energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) is one of the few techniques that can internally probe a sealed battery under operating conditions. In this paper, we use EDXRD with ultrahigh energy synchrotron radiation to track inhomogeneity in a cycled high-capacity lithium iron phosphate cell under in-situ and operando conditions. A sequence of depth-profile x-ray diffraction spectra are collected with 40 μm resolution as the cell is discharged. Additionally, nine different locations of the cell are tracked independently throughout a second discharge process. In each case, a two-peak reference intensity ratio analysis (RIR) was used on the LiFePO4 311 and the FePO4 020 reflections to estimate the relative phase abundance of the lithiated and non-lithiated phases. The data provide a first-time look at the dynamics of electrochemical inhomogeneity in a real-world battery. We observe a strong correlation between inhomogeneity and overpotential in the galvanic response of the cell. Additionally, the data closely follow the behavior that is predicted by the resistive-reactant model originally proposed by Thomas-Alyea. Despite a non-linear response in the independently measured locations, the behavior of the ensemble is strikingly linear. This suggests that effects of inhomogeneity can be elusive and highlights the power of the EDXRD technique.
Inhomogeneity of methane emissions from a dairy waste lagoon.
Grant, Richard H; Boehm, Matthew T
2015-11-01
Methane (CH4) is the dominant greenhouse gas emitted by animal agriculture manure. Since the gas is relatively insoluble in water, it is concentrated in discrete bubbles that rise through waste lagoons and burst at the surface. This results in lagoon emissions that are inhomogeneous in both space and time. Emissions from a midwestern dairy waste lagoon were measured over 2 weeks to evaluate the spatial homogeneity of the source emissions and to compare two methods for measuring this inhomogeneous emission. Emissions were determined using an inverse dispersion model based on CH4 concentrations measured both by a single scanning tunable diode laser (TDL) aimed at a series of reflectors and by flame ionization detection (FID) gas chromatography on line-sampled air. Emissions were best estimated using scanned TDL concentrations over relatively short optical paths that collectively span the entire cross-wind width of the source, so as to provide both the best capture of discrete plumes from the bursting bubbles on the lagoon surface and the best detection of CH4 background concentrations. The lagoon emissions during the study were spatially inhomogeneous at hourly time scales. Partitioning the inhomogeneous source into two source regions reduced the estimated emissions of the overall lagoon by 57% but increased the variability. Consequently, it is important to assess the homogeneity of a source prior to measurements and final emissions calculation. Plans for measuring methane emissions from waste lagoons must take into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the source strength. The assumption of emission source homogeneity for a low-solubility gas such as CH4 emitted from an animal waste lagoon can result in significant emission overestimates. The entire breadth and length of the area source must be measured, preferably with multiple optical paths, for the detection of discrete plumes from the different emitting regions and for determining the background concentration
Measurement of the microwave emitter's inhomogeneity using optical fiber DTS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaros, Jakub; Papes, Martin; Liner, Andrej; Vašinek, Vladimir; Smira, Pavel; Nasswettrova, Andrea; Cubik, Jakub; Kepak, Stanislav
2014-06-01
Researcher's teams were dealing with the microwave emitter's inhomogeneity problem since the microwaves were used. One possible way, how to measure electromagnetic field is the measurement on inhomogeneous temperature distribution on the irradiated sample, which can cause problems as in other material processing, so in the undesirable change of properties and even security. Inhomogeneity of electromagnetic field is specific by creating spots with higher or lower temperature called "hot spots". This inhomogeneity strongly affects the temperature distribution in the cross section of the material and its resultant heating. Given the impossibility of using classical electronic devices with metal temperature sensors were various indirect methods used in the past. This paper deals with experimental measurement of the microwave emitter's inhomogeneity (2.45 GHz) using the optical fiber DTS. The greatest advantage of this sensor system is just in using of the optical fiber (electromagnetic resistance, small size, safety using in inflammable and explosive area, easy installation). Due to these properties of the optical fiber sensor it's possible to measure the temperature of the sample in real time. These sensor are able to measure the temperature along the fiber, in some cases they use nonlinear effect in optical fiber (Raman nonlinear effect). The verification of non-homogeneity consists in experimental measuring of the temperature distribution within the wooden sample. The method is based on heat exchange in an isolated system where wooden sample serves as an absorber of the irradiated energy. To identify locations with different power density was used DTS system, based on nonlinear phenomena in optical fibers.
Analyses of Inhomogeneities in Radiosonde Temperature and Humidity Time Series.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhai, Panmao; Eskridge, Robert E.
1996-04-01
Twice daily radiosonde data from selected stations in the United States (period 1948 to 1990) and China (period 1958 to 1990) were sorted into time series. These stations have one sounding taken in darkness and the other in sunlight. The analysis shows that the 0000 and 1200 UTC time series are highly correlated. Therefore, the Easterling and Peterson technique was tested on the 0000 and 1200 time series to detect inhomogeneities and to estimate the size of the biases. Discontinuities were detected using the difference series created from the 0000 and 1200 UTC time series. To establish that the detected bias was significant, a t test was performed to confirm that the change occurs in the daytime series but not in the nighttime series.Both U.S. and Chinese radiosonde temperature and humidity data include inhomogeneities caused by changes in radiosonde sensors and observation times. The U.S. humidity data have inhomogeneities that were caused by instrument changes and the censoring of data. The practice of reporting relative humidity as 19% when it is lower than 20% or the temperature is below 40°C is called censoring. This combination of procedural and instrument changes makes the detection of biases and adjustment of the data very difficult. In the Chinese temperatures, them are inhomogeneities related to a change in the radiation correction procedure.Test results demonstrate that a modified Easterling and Peterson method is suitable for use in detecting and adjusting time series radiosonde data.Accurate stations histories are very desirable. Stations histories can confirm that detected inhomogeneities are related to instrument or procedural changes. Adjustments can then he made to the data with some confidence.
Astrocyte signaling in the presence of spatial inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stamatakis, Michail; Mantzaris, Nikos V.
2007-09-01
Astrocytes, a special type of glial cells, were considered to have just a supporting role in information processing in the brain. However, several recent studies have shown that they can be chemically stimulated by various neurotransmitters, such as ATP, and can generate Ca2+ and ATP waves, which can propagate over many cell lengths before being blocked. Although pathological conditions, such as spreading depression and epilepsy, have been linked to abnormal wave propagation in astrocytic cellular networks, a quantitative understanding of the underlying characteristics is still lacking. Astrocytic cellular networks are inhomogeneous, in the sense that the domain they occupy contains passive regions or gaps, which are unable to support wave propagation. Thus, this work focuses on understanding the complex interplay between single-cell signal transduction, domain inhomogeneity, and the characteristics of wave propagation and blocking in astrocytic cellular networks. The single-cell signal transduction model that was employed accounts for ATP-mediated IP3 production, the subsequent Ca2+ release from the ER, and ATP release into the extracellular space. The model is excitable and thus an infinite range of wave propagation is observed if the domain of propagation is homogeneous. This is not always the case for inhomogeneous domains. To model wave propagation in inhomogeneous astrocytic networks, a reaction-diffusion framework was developed and one-gap as well as multiple-gap cases were simulated using an efficient finite-element algorithm. The minimum gap length that blocks the wave was computed as a function of excitability levels and geometric characteristics of the inhomogeneous network, such as the length of the active regions (cells). Complex transient patterns, such as wave reflection, wave trapping, and generation of echo waves, were also predicted by the model, and their relationship to the geometric characteristics of the network was evaluated. Therefore, the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tolokonnikov, L. A.; Larin, N. V.
2017-01-01
An analytical solution of the problem of the propagation of a plane sound wave through a discretely inhomogeneous thermoelastic layer adjacent to inviscid heat-conducting liquids is obtained. Results of calculations of the dependences of the transmission coefficient on the wave incidence angle and frequency for discretely inhomogeneous and continuously inhomogeneous thermoelastic layers are given. It is shown that a thermoelastic layer with continuously inhomogeneous thickness can be simulated using a system of homogeneous thermoelastic layers.
Zhang, Hong; Smith, Sean C
2004-01-15
We present an efficient and robust method for the calculation of all S matrix elements (elastic, inelastic, and reactive) over an arbitrary energy range from a single real-symmetric Lanczos recursion. Our new method transforms the fundamental equations associated with Light's artificial boundary inhomogeneity approach from the primary representation (original grid or basis representation of the Hamiltonian or its function) into a single tridiagonal Lanczos representation, thereby affording an iterative version of the original algorithm with greatly superior scaling properties. The method has important advantages over existing iterative quantum dynamical scattering methods: (a) the numerically intensive matrix propagation proceeds with real symmetric algebra, which is inherently more stable than its complex symmetric counterpart; (b) no complex absorbing potential or real damping operator is required, saving much of the exterior grid space which is commonly needed to support these operators and also removing the associated parameter dependence. Test calculations are presented for the collinear H+H(2) reaction, revealing excellent performance characteristics.
Glavatskiy, Kirill S; Dalton, Benjamin A; Daivis, Peter J; Todd, B D
2015-06-01
We present theoretical expressions for the density, strain rate, and shear pressure profiles in strongly inhomogeneous fluids undergoing steady shear flow with periodic boundary conditions. The expressions that we obtain take the form of truncated functional expansions. In these functional expansions, the independent variables are the spatially sinusoidal longitudinal and transverse forces that we apply in nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations. The longitudinal force produces strong density inhomogeneity, and the transverse force produces sinusoidal shear. The functional expansions define new material properties, the response functions, which characterize the system's nonlocal response to the longitudinal force and the transverse force. We find that the sinusoidal longitudinal force, which is mainly responsible for the generation of density inhomogeneity, also modulates the strain rate and shear pressure profiles. Likewise, we find that the sinusoidal transverse force, which is mainly responsible for the generation of sinusoidal shear flow, can also modify the density. These cross couplings between density inhomogeneity and shear flow are also characterized by nonlocal response functions. We conduct nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations to calculate all of the response functions needed to describe the response of the system for weak shear flow in the presence of strong density inhomogeneity up to the third order in the functional expansion. The response functions are then substituted directly into the truncated functional expansions and used to predict the density, velocity, and shear pressure profiles. The results are compared to the directly evaluated profiles from molecular-dynamics simulations, and we find that the predicted profiles from the truncated functional expansions are in excellent agreement with the directly computed density, velocity, and shear pressure profiles.
Elasticity of crystalline molecular explosives
Hooks, Daniel E.; Ramos, Kyle J.; Bolme, C. A.; ...
2015-04-14
Crystalline molecular explosives are key components of engineered explosive formulations. In precision applications a high degree of consistency and predictability is desired under a range of conditions to a variety of stimuli. Prediction of behaviors from mechanical response and failure to detonation initiation and detonation performance of the material is linked to accurate knowledge of the material structure and first stage of deformation: elasticity. The elastic response of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), and cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), including aspects of material and measurement variability, and computational methods are described in detail. Experimental determinations of elastic tensors are compared, andmore » an evaluation of sources of error is presented. Furthermore, computed elastic constants are also compared for these materials and for triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), for which there are no measurements.« less
Elasticity of crystalline molecular explosives
Hooks, Daniel E.; Ramos, Kyle J.; Bolme, C. A.; Cawkwell, Marc J.
2015-04-14
Crystalline molecular explosives are key components of engineered explosive formulations. In precision applications a high degree of consistency and predictability is desired under a range of conditions to a variety of stimuli. Prediction of behaviors from mechanical response and failure to detonation initiation and detonation performance of the material is linked to accurate knowledge of the material structure and first stage of deformation: elasticity. The elastic response of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), and cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), including aspects of material and measurement variability, and computational methods are described in detail. Experimental determinations of elastic tensors are compared, and an evaluation of sources of error is presented. Furthermore, computed elastic constants are also compared for these materials and for triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), for which there are no measurements.
Measuring How Elastic Arteries Function.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeMont, M. Edwin; MacGillivray, Patrick S.; Davison, Ian G.; McConnell, Colin J.
1997-01-01
Describes a procedure used to measure force and pressure in elastic arteries. Discusses the physics of the procedure and recommends the use of bovine arteries. Explains the preparation of the arteries for the procedure. (DDR)
Measuring How Elastic Arteries Function.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeMont, M. Edwin; MacGillivray, Patrick S.; Davison, Ian G.; McConnell, Colin J.
1997-01-01
Describes a procedure used to measure force and pressure in elastic arteries. Discusses the physics of the procedure and recommends the use of bovine arteries. Explains the preparation of the arteries for the procedure. (DDR)
Elastic protectors for ultrasound injection
Barkhatov, V.A.; Nesterova, L.A.
1995-07-01
A new material has been developed for elastic protectors on ultrasonic probes: sonar rubber. This combines low ultrasonic absorption, high strength, and wear resistance, and so the rubber can be used in sensor designs.
Flame resistant elastic elastomeric fibers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howarth, J. T.; Massucco, A. A.
1972-01-01
Development of materials to improve flame resistance of elastic elastomeric fibers is discussed. Two approaches, synthesis of polyether based urethanes and modification of synthesized urethanes with flame ratardant additives, are described. Specific applications of both techniques are presented.
Hilbert complexes of nonlinear elasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angoshtari, Arzhang; Yavari, Arash
2016-12-01
We introduce some Hilbert complexes involving second-order tensors on flat compact manifolds with boundary that describe the kinematics and the kinetics of motion in nonlinear elasticity. We then use the general framework of Hilbert complexes to write Hodge-type and Helmholtz-type orthogonal decompositions for second-order tensors. As some applications of these decompositions in nonlinear elasticity, we study the strain compatibility equations of linear and nonlinear elasticity in the presence of Dirichlet boundary conditions and the existence of stress functions on non-contractible bodies. As an application of these Hilbert complexes in computational mechanics, we briefly discuss the derivation of a new class of mixed finite element methods for nonlinear elasticity.
Elastic waves in quasiperiodic structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velasco, V. R.; Zárate, J. E.
2001-08-01
We study the transverse and sagittal elastic waves in different quasiperiodic structures by means of the full transfer-matrix technique and surface Green-function matching method. The quasiperiodic structures follow Fibonacci, Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro sequences, respectively. We consider finite structures having stress-free bounding surfaces and different generation orders, including up to more than 1000 interfaces. We obtain the dispersion relations for elastic waves and spatial localization of the different modes. The fragmentation of the spectrum for different sequences is evident for intermediate generation orders, in the case of transverse elastic waves, whereas, for sagittal elastic waves, higher generation orders are needed to show clearly the spectrum fragmentation. The results of Fibonacci and Thue-Morse sequences exhibit similarities not present in the results of Rudin-Shapiro sequences.
Elastic Properties of Mantle Minerals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duffy, T. S.; Stan, C. V.
2012-12-01
The most direct information about the interior structure of the Earth comes from seismic wave velocities. Interpretation of seismic data requires an understanding of how sound velocities and elastic properties of minerals vary with pressure, temperature, crystal structure, and composition as well as the role of anelasticity, melts, etc. More generally, elastic moduli are important for understanding many solid-state phenomena including mechanical stability, interatomic interactions, material strength, compressibility, and phase transition mechanisms. The database of mineral elasticity measurements has been growing rapidly in recent years. In this work, we report initial results of an ongoing survey of our current knowledge of mineral elasticity at both ambient conditions and high pressures and temperatures. The analysis is selective, emphasizing single crystal measurements but also incorporating polycrystalline measurements and volume compression data as appropriate. The goal is to synthesize our current understanding of mineral elasticity in terms of structure and composition, and to identify the major remaining needs for experimental and theoretical work. Clinopyroxenes (Cpx) provide an example of our approach. A wide range of clinopyroxene compositions are found geologically and Mg-, Ca-, and Na-rich clinopyroxenes are expected to be important components in the upper mantle. The single-crystal elastic properties of a number of endmember Cpx compositions have been measured and these exhibit a range of ~25% in shear velocity. Those with monovalent cations (spodumene, jadeite) in the M2 site exhibit the highest velocities while Fe-rich (hendenbergit, acmite) compositions have the lowest velocities. The effects on velocity due to a wide range of chemical substitutions can be defined, but there are important discrepancies and omissions in the database. New measurements of omphacites, intermediate diopside-hedenbergite compositions, aegerine/acmite, augite, etc. are
Input-output theory for waveguide QED with an ensemble of inhomogeneous atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lalumière, Kevin; Sanders, Barry C.; van Loo, A. F.; Fedorov, A.; Wallraff, A.; Blais, A.
2013-10-01
We study the collective effects that emerge in waveguide quantum electrodynamics where several (artificial) atoms are coupled to a one-dimensional superconducting transmission line. Since single microwave photons can travel without loss for a long distance along the line, real and virtual photons emitted by one atom can be reabsorbed or scattered by a second atom. Depending on the distance between the atoms, this collective effect can lead to super- and subradiance or to a coherent exchange-type interaction between the atoms. Changing the artificial atoms transition frequencies, something which can be easily done with superconducting qubits (two levels artificial atoms), is equivalent to changing the atom-atom separation and thereby opens the possibility to study the characteristics of these collective effects. To study this waveguide quantum electrodynamics system, we extend previous work and present an effective master equation valid for an ensemble of inhomogeneous atoms driven by a coherent state. Using input-output theory, we compute analytically and numerically the elastic and inelastic scattering and show how these quantities reveal information about collective effects. These theoretical results are compatible with recent experimental results using transmon qubits coupled to a superconducting one-dimensional transmission line [van Loo (unpublished)].
Prolongation Structure of a Generalised Inhomogeneous Gardner Equation in Plasmas and Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Xi-Yang; Tian, Bo; Sun, Wen-Rong; Wang, Yun-Po
2016-04-01
In this article, the prolongation structure technique is applied to a generalised inhomogeneous Gardner equation, which can be used to describe certain physical situations, such as the stratified shear flows in ocean and atmosphere, ion acoustic waves in plasmas with a negative ion, interfacial solitary waves over slowly varying topographies, and wave motion in a non-linear elastic structural element with large deflection. The Lax pairs, which are derived via the prolongation structure, are more general than the Lax pairs published before. Under the Painlevé conditions, the linear-damping coefficient equals to zero, the quadratic non-linear coefficient is proportional to the dispersive coefficient c(t), the cubic non-linear coefficient is proportional to c(t), leaving no constraints on c(t) and the dissipative coefficient d(t). We establish the prolongation structure through constructing the exterior differential system. We introduce two methods to obtain the Lax pairs: (a) based on the prolongation structure, the Lax pairs are obtained, and (b) via the Lie algebra, we can derive the Pfaffian forms and Lax pairs when certain parameters are chosen. We set d(t) as a constant to discuss the influence of c(t) on the Pfaffian forms and Lax pairs, and to discuss the influence of d(t) on the Pfaffian forms and Lax pairs, we set c(t) as another constant. Then, we get different prolongation structure, Pfaffian forms and Lax pairs.
X-ray grazing incidence study of inhomogeneous strain relaxation in Si/SiGe wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hesse, A.; Zhuang, Y.; Holý, V.; Stangl, J.; Zerlauth, S.; Schäffler, F.; Bauer, G.; Darowski, N.; Pietsch, U.
2003-01-01
The elastic strain relaxation in a series of dry-etched periodic multilayer Si/SiGe wire samples with different etching depths was investigated systematically by means of grazing incidence diffraction (GID). The samples were patterned by holographic lithography and reactive ion etching from a Si/SiGe superlattice grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were employed to obtain information on the shape of the wires. The inhomogeneous strain distribution in the etched wires and in the non-etched part of the multilayers was derived by means of finite element calculations which were used as an input for simulations of the scattered X-ray intensities in depth dependent GID. The theoretical calculations for the scattered intensities are based on distorted-wave Born approximation. The unperturbed scattering potential was chosen with a reduced optical density corresponding to the ratio of wire width and wire period, in order to reflect the main interaction between the incident X-rays and the patterned samples. The calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data demonstrating the variation of strain relaxation with depth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parnell, William J.; Abrahams, I. David
2010-11-01
In this article we attempt to clarify various notions regarding multiple point scattering. We consider several predictions for the effective material properties of an inhomogeneous slab region which can be derived from classical multiple scattering theories. In particular we are interested in the point scattering limit when wavelengths λ0 ≫ l ∼ a where l is the characteristic length-scale of the distance between inclusions and a is the characteristic length-scale of inclusions. In this limit we are able to derive effective properties which are physically valid for any volume fraction φ, except in the sound-soft scatterer case where there is a condition on the size of φ. We shall confine attention to random distributions of inclusions and employ the Quasi-Crystalline Approximation to yield results. In particular we discuss the different scenarios of acoustics and antiplane elasticity and stress the reciprocity between these two problems which means that they can be solved simultaneously. We make various statements regarding the efficacy of the various multiple scattering theories in the prediction of effective material properties in the quasi-static limit.
Kermani, Golriz; Hemmasizadeh, Ali; Assari, Soroush; Autieri, Michael; Darvish, Kurosh
2017-05-01
This study investigates the inhomogeneity and anisotropy of porcine descending thoracic aorta in three dimensions using a custom-made nano-indentation technique and a quasi-linear viscoelastic modeling approach. The indentation tests were conducted in axial, circumferential, and radial orientations with about 100 μm spatial resolution. The ratio of the elastic moduli obtained in different orientations was used to quantify the tissue local anisotropy. The distal sections were generally stiffer than the proximal ones in both axial and circumferential indentations. Four distinct layers were identified across the thickness with significantly different mechanical properties. The stiffness of the medial quadrant was significantly lower than all other quadrants in axial indentation. The anisotropic behavior of the tissue was more pronounced in the lateral quadrant of the distal sections. The results of this study can be used to better understand the mechanisms of aorta deformation and improve the spatial accuracy of computational models of aorta. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Inhomogeneous plane waves and cylindrical waves in anisotropic anelastic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krebes, E. S.; Le, Lawrence H. T.
1994-12-01
In isotropic anelastic media, the phase velocity of an inhomogeneous plane body wave, which is a function of Q and the degree of inhomogeneity gamma, is significantly less than the corresponding homogeneous wave phase velocity typically only if gamma is very large (unless Q is unusually low). Here we investigate inhomogeneous waves in anisotropic anelastic media, where phase velocities are also functions of the direction of phase propagation theta, and find that (1) the low phase velocities can occur at values of gamma which are substantially less than the isotropic values and that they occur over a limited range of oblique directions theta, and (2) for large positive values of gamma, there are ranges of oblique directions theta in which the inhomogeneous waves cannot propagate at all because there is no physically acceptable solution to the dispersion relation. We show examples of how the waves of case 1 can occur in practice and cause a number of anomalous wave propagation effects. The waves of case 2, though, do not arise in practice (they do not correspond to any points on the horizontal slowness plate). We also show that in the decomposition of a cylindrical wave into plane waves, inhomogeneous plane waves occur whose amplitudes grow in the direction of phase propagation and that this direction is away from the receiver to which they are contributing. The energy in these waves does, however, travel toward the receiver, and their amplitudes decay in the direction of energy propagation. We also show that if the commonly used definition for the quality factor in an isotropic medium, Q = -Re(mu)/Im(mu) where mu is a complex modulus, is applied to an anisotropic anelastic medium in order to study absorption anisotropy, a generally unreliable measure of the anelasticity of inhomogeneous wave propagation in a given arbitrary direction is obtained. The more fundamental definition based on energy loss (i.e., 2pi/Q = Delta E/E) should be used in general, and we present
Atomistic simulations of elastic deformation and dislocation nucleation during nanoindentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lilleodden, E. T.; Zimmerman, J. A.; Foiles, S. M.; Nix, W. D.
2003-05-01
Nanoindentation experiments have shown that microstructural inhomogeneities across the surface of gold thin films lead to position-dependent nanoindentation behavior [Phys. Rev. B (2002), to be submitted]. The rationale for such behavior was based on the availability of dislocation sources at the grain boundary for initiating plasticity. In order to verify or refute this theory, a computational approach has been pursued. Here, a simulation study of the initial stages of indentation using the embedded atom method (EAM) is presented. First, the principles of the EAM are given, and a comparison is made between atomistic simulations and continuum models for elastic deformation. Then, the mechanism of dislocation nucleation in single crystalline gold is analyzed, and the effects of elastic anisotropy are considered. Finally, a systematic study of the indentation response in the proximity of a high angle, high sigma (low symmetry) grain boundary is presented; indentation behavior is simulated for varying indenter positions relative to the boundary. The results indicate that high angle grain boundaries are a ready source of dislocations in indentation-induced deformation.
Elastic waves in a semi-infinite body
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apostol, B. F.
2010-04-01
A new method is introduced for studying the propagation of elastic waves in isotropic bodies, based on the Kirchhoff potentials borrowed from electromagnetism. By means of this method we identify and characterize the elastic waves generated in a semi-infinite (half-space) body by the action of an external force localized on, or beneath, the body surface. The method implies coupled integral equations for the wave amplitudes, which we solve for both cases mentioned above. For a force localized on the body surface we identify two transverse waves, corresponding to the two polarizations (normal and parallel to the propagation plane). The longitudinal waves appear as eigenmodes. The waves produced by a force localized beneath the surface are stationary waves along the normal to the surface. We compute the surface displacement in both cases and the force exerted on the surface by a force localized beneath. All these quantities exhibit a characteristic decrease with the distance on the body surface and an oscillatory behaviour. We discuss briefly some possibilities of extending the present method to include the effect of the inhomogeneities on the waves propagation.
Scaling laws for the response of nonlinear elastic media with implications for cell mechanics.
Shokef, Yair; Safran, Samuel A
2012-04-27
We show how strain stiffening affects the elastic response to internal forces, caused either by material defects and inhomogeneities or by active forces that molecular motors generate in living cells. For a spherical force dipole in a material with a strongly nonlinear strain energy density, strains change sign with distance, indicating that, even around a contractile inclusion or molecular motor, there is radial compression; it is only at a long distance that one recovers the linear response in which the medium is radially stretched. Scaling laws with irrational exponents relate the far-field renormalized strain to the near-field strain applied by the inclusion or active force.
The Effect of Habitat Inhomogeneities and Fragmentation on Population Density and Time to Extinction
Kostova, T; Carlsen, T
2003-12-22
We present a study, based on simulations with SERDYCA, a spatially-explicit individual based model of rodent dynamics, on the connection between population persistence and the presence of inhomogeneities in the habitat. We are specifically interested on the effect that inhomogeneities that do not fragment the environment, have on population persistence. Our results suggest that a certain percentage of inhomogeneities can increase the average time to extinction of the population. Inhomogeneities decrease the population density and can increase the ratio of juveniles in the population thus providing a better chance for the population to restore itself after a severe period with critically low population density. We call this the ''inhomogeneity localization effect''.
Propagation of cylindrical lower hybrid drift solitary wave in an inhomogeneous plasma
Liu Haifeng; Wang Shiqing; Fazhan Yang; Li Kehua; Wang Zhanhe; Zhang Weibing; Wang Zhilong; Qiangxiang; Kaihuang; Yaoliu; Silili; Lanchang
2013-04-15
The nonlinear cylindrical lower hybrid drift solitary wave in an inhomogeneous, magnetized plasma with the combined effects of electron density inhomogeneity and electron temperature inhomogeneity is investigated in a two-fluid model. The amplitude and width of the solitary wave are found to decrease as the electronic density inhomogeneity increases. When the electron temperature inhomogeneity grows, the amplitude of the soliton decays and the width never changes. It is noted that the decrease of diamagnetic drift velocity will strengthen the cylindrical lower hybrid drift solitary wave height and width.
Generation of indirect combustion noise by compositional inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magri, Luca; O'Brien, Jeff; Ihme, Matthias
2016-11-01
The generation of indirect combustion noise in nozzles and turbine stages is commonly attributed to temperature inhomogeneities and vorticity fluctuations. Here, compositional inhomogeneities in a multi-component gas mixture are shown to produce indirect noise both theoretically and numerically. The chemical potential function is introduced as an additional acoustic source mechanism. The contribution of the compositional noise is compared to the entropy noise and direct noise by considering subsonic, supersonic and shocked nozzles downstream of the combustor exit. It is shown that the compositional noise is dependent on the local mixture composition and can exceed entropy noise for fuel-lean conditions and supersonic/shocked nozzle flows. This suggests that compositional indirect combustion noise may require consideration with the implementation of advanced combustion concepts in gas turbines, including low-emissions combustors, high-power-density engine cores, or compact burners.
Influence of inhomogeneities on holographic mutual information and butterfly effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Rong-Gen; Zeng, Xiao-Xiong; Zhang, Hai-Qing
2017-07-01
We study the effect of inhomogeneity, which is induced by the graviton mass in massive gravity, on the mutual information and the chaotic behavior of a 2+1-dimensional field theory from the gauge/gravity duality. When the system is near-homogeneous, the mutual information increases as the graviton mass grows. However, when the system is far from homogeneity, the mutual information decreases as the graviton mass increases. By adding the perturbations of energy into the system, we investigate the dynamical mutual information in the shock wave geometry. We find that the greater perturbations disrupt the mutual information more rapidly, which resembles the butterfly effect in chaos theory. Besides, the greater inhomogeneity reduces the dynamical mutual information more quickly just as in the static case.
Critical role of inhomogeneities in pacing termination of cardiac reentry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinha, Sitabhra; Stein, Kenneth M.; Christini, David J.
2002-09-01
Reentry around nonconducting ventricular scar tissue, a cause of lethal arrhythmias, is typically treated by rapid electrical stimulation from an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. However, the dynamical mechanisms of termination (success and failure) are poorly understood. To elucidate such mechanisms, we study the dynamics of pacing in one- and two-dimensional models of anatomical reentry. In a crucial realistic difference from previous studies of such systems, we have placed the pacing site away from the reentry circuit. Our model-independent results suggest that with such off-circuit pacing, the existence of inhomogeneity in the reentry circuit is essential for successful termination of tachycardia under certain conditions. Considering the critical role of such inhomogeneities may lead to more effective pacing algorithms.
Localization of collisionally inhomogeneous condensates in a bichromatic optical lattice
Cheng Yongshan; Adhikari, S. K.
2011-02-15
By direct numerical simulation and variational solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we studied the stationary and dynamic characteristics of a cigar-shaped, localized, collisionally inhomogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a one-dimensional bichromatic quasiperiodic optical-lattice potential, as used in a recent experiment on the localization of a Bose-Einstein condensate [Roati et al., Nature (London) 453, 895 (2008)]. The effective potential characterizing the spatially modulated nonlinearity is obtained. It is found that the collisional inhomogeneity has influence not only on the central region but also on the tail of the Bose-Einstein condensate. The influence depends on the sign and value of the spatially modulated nonlinearity coefficient. We also demonstrate the stability of the stationary localized state by performing a standard linear stability analysis. Where possible, the numerical results are shown to be in good agreement with the variational results.
Inhomogeneous and homogeneous linewidths in Er 3+-doped chalcogenide glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bigot, L.; Jurdyc, A.-M.; Jacquier, B.; Adam, J.-L.
2003-10-01
The erbium 4I 13/2- 4I 15/2 transition around 1.5 μm is of prim interest for telecommunications and depends on the erbium ions surrounding. In glasses, the broadening of a transition comes from two contributions: inhomogeneous (due to the disorder) and homogeneous (due to the electron phonon interaction) broadening. Resonant Fluorescence Line Narrowing (RFLN) is a useful tool to separate this two parameters. We will show in this paper that the 4I 13/2- 4I 15/2 transition in chalcogenide glass (GeGaSSb) presents a strong homogeneous character and a smaller inhomogeneous contribution compared to aluminosilicate and fluoride glasses. Consequences on gain saturation will also be discussed.
Photon merging and splitting in electromagnetic field inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gies, Holger; Karbstein, Felix; Seegert, Nico
2016-04-01
We investigate photon merging and splitting processes in inhomogeneous, slowly varying electromagnetic fields. Our study is based on the three-photon polarization tensor following from the Heisenberg-Euler effective action. We put special emphasis on deviations from the well-known constant field results, also revisiting the selection rules for these processes. In the context of high-intensity laser facilities, we analytically determine compact expressions for the number of merged/split photons as obtained in the focal spots of intense laser beams. For the parameter range of typical petawatt class laser systems as pump and probe, we provide estimates for the numbers of signal photons attainable in an actual experiment. The combination of frequency upshifting, polarization dependence and scattering off the inhomogeneities renders photon merging an ideal signature for the experimental exploration of nonlinear quantum vacuum properties.
Spatial localization and thermal rectification in inhomogeneously deformed lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savin, Alexander V.; Kivshar, Yuri S.
2017-08-01
We reveal that inhomogeneous deformations (stretching, compression, twisting, or bending) of anharmonic lattices can lead to a local change of the coupling coefficients and induce the energy localization of high-frequency phonon modes. We consider a linear chain of particles interacting via the Lennard-Jones potentials under the action of a constant external force, and demonstrate that high-frequency oscillations can be localized at the edge of the inhomogeneously deformed chain. We also show stable propagation of an acoustic soliton in such chains that only changes its velocity due to the deformations. Additionally, we demonstrate that this mechanism is responsible for the formation of spatially localized phonon states in twisted graphene nanoribbons and the topological Möbius-like graphene structures through stretching of the valent bonds between carbon atoms. We argue that these anharmonic effects can be employed for rectification and control of heat flows in stretched lattices at the nanoscale.
Inhomogeneous loop quantum cosmology: Hybrid quantization of the Gowdy model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garay, L. J.; Martín-Benito, M.; Mena Marugán, G. A.
2010-08-01
The Gowdy cosmologies provide a suitable arena to further develop loop quantum cosmology, allowing the presence of inhomogeneities. For the particular case of Gowdy spacetimes with the spatial topology of a three-torus and a content of linearly polarized gravitational waves, we detail a hybrid quantum theory in which we combine a loop quantization of the degrees of freedom that parametrize the subfamily of homogeneous solutions, which represent Bianchi I spacetimes, and a Fock quantization of the inhomogeneities. Two different theories are constructed and compared, corresponding to two different schemes for the quantization of the Bianchi I model within the improved dynamics formalism of loop quantum cosmology. One of these schemes has been recently put forward by Ashtekar and Wilson-Ewing. We address several issues, including the quantum resolution of the cosmological singularity, the structure of the superselection sectors in the quantum system, or the construction of the Hilbert space of physical states.
Speckle Statistics of Multiple Overlapping Beams Propagating in Inhomogeneous Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afeyan, Bedros B.; Schmitt, A. J.; Lehmberg, R. H.
1999-11-01
We have calculated the electric field of RPP, SSD and ISI beams propagating in inhomogeneous plasmas. We have studied the intensity statistics of these beams as well as those generated when a number of such beams overlap. Changes in the geometry and statistical properties of the resulting hot spots will be presented as a function of angles of incidence, spot sizes and density scale length. Analytic, semi-analytic (quadrature using Green's functions) and numerical simulation results will be shown. The degree to which vacuum electrodynamics is inappropriate to model multiple overlapping beams in inhomogeneous plasmas will be demonstrated. These results are crucial to the study of plasma phenomena in the coronas of direct drive targets including laser imprinting and parametric instabilities. Parametric instabilities at the LEH of indirect drive targets must also take into account overlapping beam physics issues discussed here.
Spin diffusion from an inhomogeneous quench in an integrable system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ljubotina, Marko; Žnidarič, Marko; Prosen, Tomaž
2017-07-01
Generalized hydrodynamics predicts universal ballistic transport in integrable lattice systems when prepared in generic inhomogeneous initial states. However, the ballistic contribution to transport can vanish in systems with additional discrete symmetries. Here we perform large scale numerical simulations of spin dynamics in the anisotropic Heisenberg XXZ spin 1/2 chain starting from an inhomogeneous mixed initial state which is symmetric with respect to a combination of spin reversal and spatial reflection. In the isotropic and easy-axis regimes we find non-ballistic spin transport which we analyse in detail in terms of scaling exponents of the transported magnetization and scaling profiles of the spin density. While in the easy-axis regime we find accurate evidence of normal diffusion, the spin transport in the isotropic case is clearly super-diffusive, with the scaling exponent very close to 2/3, but with universal scaling dynamics which obeys the diffusion equation in nonlinearly scaled time.
Magnetic Helicity Density and Its Flux in Weakly Inhomogeneous Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Brandenburg, Axel
2006-09-01
A gauge-invariant and hence physically meaningful definition of magnetic helicity density for random fields is proposed, using the Gauss linking formula, as the density of correlated field line linkages. This definition is applied to the random small-scale field in weakly inhomogeneous turbulence, whose correlation length is small compared with the scale on which the turbulence varies. For inhomogeneous systems, with or without boundaries, our technique then allows one to study the local magnetic helicity density evolution in a gauge-independent fashion, which was not possible earlier. This evolution equation is governed by local sources (owing to the mean field) and by the divergence of a magnetic helicity flux density. The role of magnetic helicity fluxes in alleviating catastrophic quenching of mean field dynamos is discussed.
Phase transitions, inhomogeneous horizons and second-order hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Attems, Maximilian; Bea, Yago; Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Mateos, David; Triana, Miquel; Zilhão, Miguel
2017-06-01
We use holography to study the spinodal instability of a four-dimensional, strongly-coupled gauge theory with a first-order thermal phase transition. We place the theory on a cylinder in a set of homogeneous, unstable initial states. The dual gravity configurations are black branes afflicted by a Gregory-Laflamme instability. We numerically evolve Einstein's equations to follow the instability until the system settles down to a stationary, inhomogeneous black brane. The dual gauge theory states have constant temperature but non-constant energy density. We show that the time evolution of the instability and the final states are accurately described by second-order hydrodynamics. In the static limit, the latter reduces to a single, second-order, non-linear differential equation from which the inhomogeneous final states can be derived.
QED commutation relations for inhomogeneous Kramers-Kronig dielectrics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheel, Stefan; Knöll, Ludwig; Welsch, Dirk-Gunnar
1998-07-01
Recently a quantization scheme for the phenomenological Maxwell theory of the full electromagnetic field in an inhomogeneous three-dimensional, dispersive, and absorbing dielectric medium has been developed and applied to a system consisting of two infinite half-spaces with a common planar interface (H.T. Dung, L. Knöll, and D.-G. Welsch, Phys. Rev. A 57, 3931 (1998)). Here we show that the scheme, which is based on the classical Green-tensor integral representation of the electromagnetic field, applies to any inhomogeneous medium. For this purpose we prove that the fundamental equal-time commutation relations of QED are preserved for an arbitrarily space-dependent, Kramers-Kronig consistent permittivity. Further, an extension of the quantization scheme to linear media with bounded regions of amplification is given, and the problem of anisotropic media is briefly addressed.
Artificial local magnetic field inhomogeneity enhances T2 relaxivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Zijian; Tian, Rui; Wang, Zhenyu; Yang, Zhen; Liu, Yijing; Liu, Gang; Wang, Ruifang; Gao, Jinhao; Song, Jibin; Nie, Liming; Chen, Xiaoyuan
2017-05-01
Clustering of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is perhaps the most effective, yet intriguing strategy to enhance T2 relaxivity in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the underlying mechanism is still not fully understood and the attempts to generalize the classic outersphere theory from single particles to clusters have been found to be inadequate. Here we show that clustering of MNPs enhances local field inhomogeneity due to reduced field symmetry, which can be further elevated by artificially involving iron oxide NPs with heterogeneous geometries in terms of size and shape. The r2 values of iron oxide clusters and Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert simulations confirmed our hypothesis, indicating that solving magnetic field inhomogeneity may become a powerful way to build correlation between magnetization and T2 relaxivity of MNPs, especially magnetic clusters. This study provides a simple yet distinct mechanism to interpret T2 relaxivity of MNPs, which is crucial to the design of high-performance MRI contrast agents.
Anomalous propagation and radar coverage through inhomogeneous atmospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ko, H. W.; Sari, J. W.; Thomas, M. E.; Herchenroeder, P. J.; Martone, P. J.
1984-02-01
A method is outlined which enables radar coverage predictions to be made under anomalous propagation conditions. Spatial and temporal changes in the height and strength of refractive layers in the troposphere are known to compromise radar coverage. Refractive layers may create coverage voids by diverting rays and may introduce anomalous clutter and range height errors in radar systems. In this paper, elements of meteorology, atmospheric boundary layer physics, and electromagnetic wave propagation are combined to investigate the effect of inhomogeneous refractive layers on radar coverage. A computer program called EMPE (Electromagnetic Parabolic Equation) has been developed to aid in these investigations. A special feature of EMPE is its ability to deal with inhomogeneous atmospheric changes in both the horizontal and vertical directions. Predictions for anomalous wave behavior have been made for frequencies from 100 MHz to 10 GHz. The results are relevant to a variety of microwave electromagnetic systems such as those used for communications, radar, and aircraft instrument landing.
Continuum Model of Gas Uptake for Inhomogeneous Fluids
Ihm, Yungok; Cooper, Valentino R.; Vlcek, Lukas; ...
2017-07-20
Here, we describe a continuum model of gas uptake for inhomogeneous fluids (CMGIF) and use it to predict fluid adsorption in porous materials directly from gas-substrate interaction energies determined by first-principles calculations or accurate effective force fields. The method uses a perturbation approach to correct bulk fluid interactions for local inhomogeneities caused by gas–substrate interactions, and predicts local pressure and density of the adsorbed gas. The accuracy and limitations of the model are tested by comparison with the results of grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of hydrogen uptake in metal–organic frameworks (MOFs). We show that the approach provides accurate predictionsmore » at room temperature and at low temperatures for less strongly interacting materials. The speed of the CMGIF method makes it a promising candidate for high-throughput materials discovery in connection with existing databases of nanoporous materials.« less
Critical role of inhomogeneities in pacing termination of cardiac reentry.
Sinha, Sitabhra; Stein, Kenneth M.; Christini, David J.
2002-09-01
Reentry around nonconducting ventricular scar tissue, a cause of lethal arrhythmias, is typically treated by rapid electrical stimulation from an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. However, the dynamical mechanisms of termination (success and failure) are poorly understood. To elucidate such mechanisms, we study the dynamics of pacing in one- and two-dimensional models of anatomical reentry. In a crucial realistic difference from previous studies of such systems, we have placed the pacing site away from the reentry circuit. Our model-independent results suggest that with such off-circuit pacing, the existence of inhomogeneity in the reentry circuit is essential for successful termination of tachycardia under certain conditions. Considering the critical role of such inhomogeneities may lead to more effective pacing algorithms. (c) 2002 American Institute of Physics.
Vibrational resonance in an inhomogeneous medium with periodic dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy-Layinde, T. O.; Laoye, J. A.; Popoola, O. O.; Vincent, U. E.; McClintock, P. V. E.
2017-09-01
The role of nonlinear dissipation in vibrational resonance (VR) is investigated in an inhomogeneous system characterized by a symmetric and spatially periodic potential and subjected to nonuniform state-dependent damping and a biharmonic driving force. The contributions of the parameters of the high-frequency signal to the system's effective dissipation are examined theoretically in comparison to linearly damped systems, for which the parameter of interest is the effective stiffness in the equation of slow vibration. We show that the VR effect can be enhanced by varying the nonlinear dissipation parameters and that it can be induced by a parameter that is shared by the damping inhomogeneity and the system potential. Furthermore, we have apparently identified the origin of the nonlinear-dissipation-enhanced response: We provide evidence of its connection to a Hopf bifurcation, accompanied by monotonic attractor enlargement in the VR regime.
Determination of critical exponents of inhomogeneous Gd films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosales-Rivera, A.; Salazar, N. A.; Hovorka, O.; Idigoras, O.; Berger, A.
2012-08-01
The role of inhomogeneity on the critical behavior is studied for non-epitaxial Gd films. For this purpose, the film inhomogeneity was varied experimentally by annealing otherwise identical samples at different temperatures TAN=200, 400, and 500 °C. Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) was used for magnetization M vs. T measurements at different external fields H. A method based upon the linear superposition of different sample parts having different Curie temperatures TC was used to extract the critical exponents and the intrinsic distribution of Curie temperatures. We found that this method allows extracting reliable values of the critical exponents for all annealing temperatures, which enabled us to study the effects of disorder onto the universality class of Gd films.
TOPICAL REVIEW: Electron dynamics in inhomogeneous magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nogaret, Alain
2010-06-01
This review explores the dynamics of two-dimensional electrons in magnetic potentials that vary on scales smaller than the mean free path. The physics of microscopically inhomogeneous magnetic fields relates to important fundamental problems in the fractional quantum Hall effect, superconductivity, spintronics and graphene physics and spins out promising applications which will be described here. After introducing the initial work done on electron localization in random magnetic fields, the experimental methods for fabricating magnetic potentials are presented. Drift-diffusion phenomena are then described, which include commensurability oscillations, magnetic channelling, resistance resonance effects and magnetic dots. We then review quantum phenomena in magnetic potentials including magnetic quantum wires, magnetic minibands in superlattices, rectification by snake states, quantum tunnelling and Klein tunnelling. The third part is devoted to spintronics in inhomogeneous magnetic fields. This covers spin filtering by magnetic field gradients and circular magnetic fields, electrically induced spin resonance, spin resonance fluorescence and coherent spin manipulation.
Trace element evidence for a laterally inhomogeneous moon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G. W., Jr.
1978-01-01
A number of trace element interrelationships support the concept of a laterally inhomogeneous moon based originally on Clr/P2O5 ratios. The correspondence between Clr/P2O3 and Rb/Sr ratios in basalts are of special interest since the isotropic evolution of the latter pair of elements relates to the earliest history of the moon. This implies the times when the Clr/P2O5 relationships were established. The early magma ocean is conjectured to have been made up of non-intermixing seas resulting either from large convection cells or large body accretion. These mutually exclusive regions could be lunar geological provinces. It is proposed that the diversity of basalts from the Apollo 17 site is related to the lateral inhomogeneity of the moon. Ca/Na ratios in basalts show a trend which parallels that of Ru/Os and in a corresponding fashion may serve as a depth indicator.
Artificial local magnetic field inhomogeneity enhances T2 relaxivity
Zhou, Zijian; Tian, Rui; Wang, Zhenyu; Yang, Zhen; Liu, Yijing; Liu, Gang; Wang, Ruifang; Song, Jibin; Nie, Liming; Chen, Xiaoyuan
2017-01-01
Clustering of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is perhaps the most effective, yet intriguing strategy to enhance T2 relaxivity in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the underlying mechanism is still not fully understood and the attempts to generalize the classic outersphere theory from single particles to clusters have been found to be inadequate. Here we show that clustering of MNPs enhances local field inhomogeneity due to reduced field symmetry, which can be further elevated by artificially involving iron oxide NPs with heterogeneous geometries in terms of size and shape. The r2 values of iron oxide clusters and Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert simulations confirmed our hypothesis, indicating that solving magnetic field inhomogeneity may become a powerful way to build correlation between magnetization and T2 relaxivity of MNPs, especially magnetic clusters. This study provides a simple yet distinct mechanism to interpret T2 relaxivity of MNPs, which is crucial to the design of high-performance MRI contrast agents. PMID:28516947
Glauber theory and the quantum coherence of curvature inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giovannini, Massimo
2017-02-01
The curvature inhomogeneities are systematically scrutinized in the framework of the Glauber approach. The amplified quantum fluctuations of the scalar and tensor modes of the geometry are shown to be first-order coherent while the interference of the corresponding intensities is larger than in the case of Bose–Einstein correlations. After showing that the degree of second-order coherence does not suffice to characterize unambiguously the curvature inhomogeneities, we argue that direct analyses of the degrees of third- and fourth-order coherence are necessary to discriminate between different correlated states and to infer more reliably the statistical properties of the large-scale fluctuations. We speculate that the moments of the multiplicity distributions of the relic phonons might be observationally accessible thanks to new generations of instruments able to count the single photons of the Cosmic Microwave Background in the THz region.
Geometric spin Hall effect of light with inhomogeneous polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ling, Xiaohui; Zhou, Xinxing; Yi, Xunong
2017-01-01
The spin Hall effect of light originates from spin-orbit interaction of light, which manifests two types of geometric phases. In this paper, we report the observation of a geometric spin Hall effect by generating a light beam with inhomogeneous polarization distribution. Unlike the previously reported geometric spin Hall effect observed in a tilted beam-detector system, which is believed to result from an effective spin-redirection Berry geometric phase, the geometric spin Hall effect demonstrated here is attributed to an effective, spatially varying Pancharatnam-Berry geometric phase generated by the inhomogeneous polarization geometry. Our further experiments show that the geometric spin Hall effect can be tuned by tailoring the polarization geometry of light, demonstrating the spin states of photons can be steered with a great flexibility.
Semianalytical models of sprite formation from plasma inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Surkov, V. V.; Hayakawa, M.
2016-11-01
A spherical plasma inhomogeneity located at mesospheric altitudes in a thundercloud quasi-electrostatic field is considered as a possible cause of sprite formation. A simple semianalytical model of ionization instability in a quasi-electrostatic field, the value of which is larger than the air breakdown value, is developed on the assumption that plasma ball conductivity is controlled by impact ionization and electron attachment to neutrals. After several simplifications, the problem is reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations for the average conductivity and plasma ball radius. The analytical estimates and numerical simulation indicate that the predicted expansion rate and acceleration of the plasma inhomogeneity boundary are close in magnitude to the values observed during high-speed imaging of sprite development.
The Optimal Inhomogeneity for Superconductivity: Finite Size Studies
Tsai, W-F.
2010-04-06
We report the results of exact diagonalization studies of Hubbard models on a 4 x 4 square lattice with periodic boundary conditions and various degrees and patterns of inhomogeneity, which are represented by inequivalent hopping integrals t and t{prime}. We focus primarily on two patterns, the checkerboard and the striped cases, for a large range of values of the on-site repulsion U and doped hole concentration, x. We present evidence that superconductivity is strongest for U of order the bandwidth, and intermediate inhomogeneity, 0 < t{prime} < t. The maximum value of the 'pair-binding energy' we have found with purely repulsive interactions is {Delta}{sub pb} = 0.32t for the checkerboard Hubbard model with U = 8t and t{prime} = 0.5t. Moreover, for near optimal values, our results are insensitive to changes in boundary conditions, suggesting that the correlation length is sufficiently short that finite size effects are already unimportant.
Origin of magnetocapacitance in chemically homogeneous and inhomogeneous ferrites.
Mondal, R A; Murty, B S; Murthy, V R K
2015-01-28
The present work mainly focuses on the magnetodielectric (MD) effect in polycrystalline Ni0.9-yCuyZn0.1Fe1.98O3.97 (y = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) ferrite synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. Sintered samples showed the formation of CuO-rich grain boundary segregation for y≥ 0.2. The appearance of segregation made the present material chemically inhomogeneous and electrically heterogeneous. A negative MD response was observed in homogeneous ferrite for y = 0 and 0.1 due to lattice distortion (an intrinsic effect), whereas a positive MD response occurs in chemically inhomogeneous segregated ferrite (y≥ 0.2) due the collective effects of Maxwell-Wagner (MW) polarization with intrinsic magnetoresistance (an extrinsic effect).
Gilbert damping of ferromagnetic metals incorporating inhomogeneous spin dynamics
Umetsu, Nobuyuki Miura, Daisuke; Sakuma, Akimasa
2015-05-07
The effects of inhomogeneous spin dynamics on magnetic damping in ferromagnetic metals are studied. On the basis of linear response theory, we derive the microscopic expression for the Gilbert damping term in a two-dimensional electron gas interacting with the magnetization via exchange coupling in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC). In the spin wave propagating with the wave vector, q, the behavior of q-dependent damping can be explained in terms of both inter- and intra-band spin excitations. The spatially dependent damping torques originating from Rashba SOC that cancel out in a uniform precession system distort the circular orbit of a magnetization-precession trajectory in the presence of inhomogeneous spin dynamics.
Inhomogeneous Deformation of AZ31 Magnesium Sheet in Uniaxial Tension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Jidong; Wilkinson, David S.; Mishra, Raja K.
Inhomogeneous plastic deformation during uniaxial tensile test of AZ31 magnesium sheet has been studied using digital image correlation and electron backscatter diffraction techniques. It is shown that large strain gradients exist on the sheet surface parallel and perpendicular to the loading direction and very little deformation occurs in the thickness direction. The lack of thinning leads to abrupt fracture right after the formation of a premature but profound diffuse neck without transitioning to any localized neck. Such inhomogeneous deformation arises from the strong basal texture of the starting sheet and the resultant need for contraction and double twinning to accommodate strain. The strain distribution on the sheet surface evolves nonlinearly with strain, impacting the measured r-value.
Correction for inhomogeneous line broadening in spin labels, II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bales, Barney L.
Our methods to correct for inhomogeneous line broadening in the EPR of nitroxide spin labels are extended. Previously, knowledge of the hyperfine pattern of the nuclei responsible for the inhomogeneous broadening was necessary in order to carry out the corrections. This normally meant that either a separate NMR experiment or EPR spectral simulation was needed. Here a very simple method is developed, based upon measurement of four points on the experimental EPR spectrum itself, that allows one to carry out the correction procedure with precision rivaling that attained using NMR or spectral simulation. Two associated problems are solved: (1) the EPR signal strength is estimated without the need to carry out double integrations and (2) linewidth ratios, important in calculating rotational correlation times, are corrected. In all cases except one, the corrections are effected from the four measured points using only a hand-held programmable calculator. Experimental examples illustrate the methods and show them to be amazingly accurate.
Quantum theory for spatial motion of polaritons in inhomogeneous fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Lan; Lu, Jing; Zhou, D. L.; Sun, C. P.
2008-02-01
Polaritons are the collective excitations of many atoms dressed by resonant photons, which can be used to explain the slow light propagation with the mechanism of electromagnetically induced transparency. As quasiparticles, these collective excitations possess the typical feature of the matter particles, which can be reflected and deflected by the inhomogeneous medium in its spatial motion with some velocity. In this paper we develop a quantum theory to systematically describe the spatial motion of polaritons in inhomogeneous magnetic and optical fields. This theoretical approach treats these quasiparticles through an effective Schrödinger equation with anisotropic dispersion that the longitudinal motion is similar to an ultrarelativistic motion of a “slow light velocity” while the transverse motion is of nonrelativity with certain effective mass. We find that, after passing through the EIT medium, the light ray bends due to the spatial-dependent profile of external field. This phenomenon explicitly demonstrates the exotic corpuscular and anisotropic property of polaritons.
Effects of dipole magnet inhomogeneities on the beam ellipsoid
Tsoupas, N.; Colman, J.; Levine, M.; McKenzie-Wilson, R.; Ward, T.; Grand, P.
1986-01-01
The RAYTRACE computer code has been modified to accept magnetic fields measured in the median plane of a dipole magnet. This modification allows one to study the effects of a non-ideal dipole magnet on the beam ellipsoid (as defined by the TRANSPORT code manual). The effects on the beam ellipsoid are due to: field inhomogeneities in the interior region of the dipole, and discrepancies from design conditions of the magnetic field values in the fringe field region. The results of the RAYTRACE code calculations based on experimentally measured fields will be compared with the results derived using both an ideal (no inhomogeneities) dipole with SCOFF boundaries and an ideal dipole with perfect (according to design) fringe fields.
Statistical analysis of the effects of helicity in inhomogeneous turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yokoi, Nobumitsu; Yoshizawa, Akira
1993-01-01
Effects of helicity in three-dimensional incompressible inhomogeneous turbulence are examined with the aid of a two-scale direct-interaction approximation (DIA). The turbulent helicity gives a measure of the reflectional asymmetry in a turbulent flow and its inhomogeneity contributes to the sustainment of large-scale vorticity field in a three-dimensional mean flow. The importance of helicity effects is discussed in the context of flows in a rotating system and swirling flows in a pipe. A three-equation model with the turbulent helicity incorporated is proposed using the theoretical results. The validity of the model is confirmed quantitatively through the application to a decaying swirling flow in a pipe.
Mode conversion in plasmas with two-dimensional inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nassiri-Mofakham, Nora; Sabzevari, Bijan Sh.
2006-02-01
Most of the mode conversion theories considered so far assume only a plane-layered medium, i.e. a medium where the parameters depend on one spatial coordinate. We generalize the mode-conversion method of Cairns and Lashmore-Davies to plasmas with two-dimensional inhomogeneities. In the method presented here, the frequencies ω_1 and ω_2 of the uncoupled modes belonging to two different dispersion equations are considered as functions of the space variable r and the wave vector k and are coupled together via a small quantity η. We calculate the energy transmission and conversion coefficients analytically by solving two coupled wave amplitude equations in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies. The results are applicable to electron Bernstein wave heating of plasmas with two-dimensional inhomogeneity, e.g. spherical tokamaks.
Statistical Properties of the Acoustic Field in Inhomogeneous Oceanic Environments
2003-09-30
homogeneous , the expression for potential function can be written explicitly as a ratio of polynomials of the third and fifth order. The scattering...of the received field (“time reversal”). This procedure was accomplished both in the ideal situation of a homogeneous Pekeris waveguide, and with...rough surfaces in homogeneous media. Scattering in inhomogeneous media needs to be studied separately. A novel perturbation theory has been
Thermomechanical Instability Analysis of Inhomogeneous Deformation in Amorphous Alloys
Gao, Yanfei; Yang, Bing; Nieh, Tai-Gang
2007-01-01
Recent experiments have shown that inhomogeneous deformation in amorphous alloys critically depends on the environmental temperature and the applied strain rate, and the temperature field inside the shear band can rise up to the glass transition temperature. A thermo-viscoplastic constitutive law is developed that accounts both stress-driven and thermally induced strain softening behavior. A perturbation analysis is carried out to examine the conditions for unstable temperature growth. A deformation mechanism map is constructed and compared to the available experiments.
Generation of magnetic skyrmion bubbles by inhomogeneous spin Hall currents
Heinonen, Olle; Jiang, Wanjun; Somaily, Hamoud; ...
2016-03-07
Recent experiments have shown that magnetic skyrmion bubbles can be generated and injected at room temperature in thin films. In this study, we demonstrate, using micromagnetic modeling, that such skyrmions can be generated by an inhomogeneous spin Hall torque in the presence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions (DMIs). In the experimental Ta-Co20Fe60B20 thin films, the DMI is rather small; nevertheless, the skyrmion bubbles are stable, or at least metastable on observational time scales.
Detection of detachments and inhomogeneities in frescos by Compton scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castellano, A.; Cesareo, R.; Buccolieri, G.; Donativi, M.; Palamà, F.; Quarta, S.; De Nunzio, G.; Brunetti, A.; Marabelli, M.; Santamaria, U.
2005-07-01
A mobile instrument has been developed for the detection and mapping of detachments in frescos by using Compton back scattered photons. The instrument is mainly composed of a high energy X-ray tube, an X-ray detection system and a translation table. The instrument was first applied to samples simulating various detachment situations, and then transferred to the Vatican Museum to detect detachments and inhomogeneities in the stanza di Eliodoro, one of the "Raphael's stanze".
Mesoscale inhomogeneities in aqueous solutions of small amphiphilic molecules.
Subramanian, Deepa; Boughter, Christopher T; Klauda, Jeffery B; Hammouda, Boualem; Anisimov, Mikhail A
2013-01-01
Small amphiphilic molecules, also known as hydrotropes, are too small to form micelles in aqueous solutions. However, aqueous solutions of nonionic hydrotropes show the presence of a dynamic, loose, non-covalent clustering in the water-rich region, This clustering can be viewed as "micelle-like structural fluctuations". Although these fluctuations are short ranged (approximately 1 nm) and short lived (10 ps-50 ps), they may lead to thermodynamic anomalies. In addition, many experiments on aqueous solutions of hydrotropes show the occasional presence of mesoscale (approximately 100 nm) inhomogeneities. We have combined results obtained from molecular dynamics simulations, small-angle neutron scattering, and dynamic light-scattering experiments carried out on tertiary butyl alcohol (hydrotrope)-water solutions and on tertiary butyl alcohol-water-cyclohexane (hydrophobe) solutions to elucidate the nature and structure of these inhomogeneities. We have shown that stable mesoscale inhomogeneities occur in aqueous solutions of nonionic hydrotropes only when the solution contains a third, more hydrophobic, component. Moreover, these inhomogeneities exist in ternary systems only in the concentration range where structural fluctuations and thermodynamic anomalies are observed in the binary water-hydrotrope solutions. Addition of a hydrophobe seems to stabilize the water-hydrotrope structural fluctuations, and leads to the formation of larger (mesoscopic) droplets. The structure of these mesoscopic droplets is such that they have a hydrophobe-rich core, surrounded by a hydrogen-bonded shell of water and hydrotrope molecules. These droplets can be extremely long-lived, being stable for over a year. We refer to the phenomenon of formation of mesoscopic droplets in aqueous solutions of nonionic hydrotropes containing hydrophobes, as mesoscale solubilization. This phenomenon may represent a ubiquitous feature of nonionic hydrotropes that exhibit clustering in water, and may have
Inhomogeneous broadening effects in multimode CW chemical lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirels, H.
1981-01-01
The performance of a multiple longitudinal mode CW chemical laser is investigated with reference to the effects of inhomogeneous broadening for the case where the longitudinal mode spacing is small compared with the characteristic Doppler and homogeneous widths of the lasing medium. Both a Fabry-Perot resonator and a saturated amplifier are considered, using a two-vibrational-level model. Closed form solutions are obtained which are shown to be in good agreement with the numerical results of Bullock and Lipkis (1979).
Inhomogeneities in single crystals of cuprate oxide superconductors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moorjani, K.; Bohandy, J.; Kim, B. F.; Adrian, F. J.
1991-01-01
The next stage in the evolution of experimental research on the high temperature superconductors will require high quality single crystals and epitaxially grown crystalline films. However, inhomogeneities and other defects are not uncommon in single crystals of cuprate oxide superconductors, so a corollary requirement will be a reliable method for judging the quality of these materials. The application of magnetically modulated resistance methods in this task is briefly described and illustrated.
Multi-Scale Characterization of Inhomogeneous Morphologically Textured Microstructures (Preprint)
2009-04-01
Introduction 1 The effect of second-phase inhomogeneity (clustering) on tra nsport properties an d me chanical beha vior in heterogeneous m aterial sy...composite via microtomography in order to derive a micr ostructure correlation l ength a nd, conse quently, a geometric RVE. Accompanying...onfigurations, p referential directions of clustering that ca n ca use significant a nisotropy in transport per colation or l ocalization of m echanical
Ekman Spiral in Horizontally Inhomogeneous Ocean with Varying Eddy Viscosity
2015-01-01
buoyancy (heat and moisture), and the shear imposed by the ocean circulation , and characterized by the existence of a vertically quasi-uniform layer...dimensional circulation and found that there is not a single, simple paradigm for the upper-ocean velocity profiles in stratified Ekman layers due to the...horizontally inhomogeneous ocean with depth-dependent eddy viscosity. 2. Ekman Layer Dynamics Let (x, y, z) be the zonal (positive eastward), latitudinal
The Performance of a Parametric Receiver in an Inhomogeneous Medium.
1980-08-18
subject considered in this thesis is the performance of a parametric acoustic receiving array in an inhomogeneous medium. Develop- ment of this subject... ment presented. Of necessity, topics have been treated briefly. Some 42 topics, such as the use of arrays of parametric receivers, the phase mod- 41...that the agree- ment of the Kolmogorov theory with their experimental results was a conse- quence of the ’freezing’ of the thermal patches after their
Comment on 'Heavy element production in inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis'
Rauscher, Thomas
2007-03-15
The work of Matsuura et al. [Phys. Rev. D 72, 123505 (2005)] claims that heavy nuclei could have been produced in a combined p- and r-process in very high baryon density regions of an inhomogeneous big bang. However, they do not account for observational constraints and previous studies which show that such high baryon density regions did not significantly contribute to big bang abundances.
Variational calculations for resonance oscillations of inhomogeneous plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peng, Y. K. M.; Crawford, F. W.
1973-01-01
The electrostatic resonance properties of an inhomogeneous plasma column are reported by application of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. A description of the rf equation of motion and pressure term that expresses the system of equations in Euler-Lagrange form is presented. The Rayleigh-Ritz procedure is applied to the corresponding Lagrangian to obtain approximate resonance frequencies and eigenfunctions. An appropriate set of trial coordinate functions is defined, which leads to frequency and eigenfunction estimates.
Polarized beam splitting effect in inhomogeneously magnetized magnetooptic films.
Waring, M
1989-10-15
Linearly polarized light passing through a several micron thick magnetooptic film in the inhomogeneous magnetization state is split into a linearly polarized central beam and linearly polarized first and higher order diverging rings. The polarization of the central output beam lies in the same direction as the linearly polarized input, while the polarization of the diverging rings lies in a direction orthogonal to the input plane of polarization. The effect is described, and applications of the effect are discussed.
Inhomogeneous ensembles of radical pairs in chemical compasses
Procopio, Maria; Ritz, Thorsten
2016-01-01
The biophysical basis for the ability of animals to detect the geomagnetic field and to use it for finding directions remains a mystery of sensory biology. One much debated hypothesis suggests that an ensemble of specialized light-induced radical pair reactions can provide the primary signal for a magnetic compass sensor. The question arises what features of such a radical pair ensemble could be optimized by evolution so as to improve the detection of the direction of weak magnetic fields. Here, we focus on the overlooked aspect of the noise arising from inhomogeneity of copies of biomolecules in a realistic biological environment. Such inhomogeneity leads to variations of the radical pair parameters, thereby deteriorating the signal arising from an ensemble and providing a source of noise. We investigate the effect of variations in hyperfine interactions between different copies of simple radical pairs on the directional response of a compass system. We find that the choice of radical pair parameters greatly influences how strongly the directional response of an ensemble is affected by inhomogeneity. PMID:27804956
Theoretical approach to photoinduced inhomogeneous anisotropy in bacteriorhodopsin films.
Acebal, P; Carretero, L; Blaya, S; Murciano, A; Fimia, A
2007-07-01
The aim of this work was to perform a complete study of the dynamic and steady-state photoinduced processes of thick bacteriorhodopsin (bR) films, taking into account all the physical parameters and the coupling of rate equations with the energy transfer equation. The theoretical approach was compared with experimental data, and good concordance was found between both sets of data. The theoretical approach shows that the values of the rate constants for solid bR films are about two or three orders of magnitude lower than those observed in solution. It can also be noted that the temperature change during the experiment had a great influence on the final values of transmittance and, consequently, on the inhomogeneous distribution along the coordinate of light propagation. The study shows that, depending on the intensity and wavelength of the pump beam, we can obtain a very inhomogeneous profile of the population densities, which implies an inhomogeneous profile of the birefringence and dichroism. Therefore, this must be taken into account in the applications described for this system.
Inhomogeneous ensembles of radical pairs in chemical compasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Procopio, Maria; Ritz, Thorsten
2016-11-01
The biophysical basis for the ability of animals to detect the geomagnetic field and to use it for finding directions remains a mystery of sensory biology. One much debated hypothesis suggests that an ensemble of specialized light-induced radical pair reactions can provide the primary signal for a magnetic compass sensor. The question arises what features of such a radical pair ensemble could be optimized by evolution so as to improve the detection of the direction of weak magnetic fields. Here, we focus on the overlooked aspect of the noise arising from inhomogeneity of copies of biomolecules in a realistic biological environment. Such inhomogeneity leads to variations of the radical pair parameters, thereby deteriorating the signal arising from an ensemble and providing a source of noise. We investigate the effect of variations in hyperfine interactions between different copies of simple radical pairs on the directional response of a compass system. We find that the choice of radical pair parameters greatly influences how strongly the directional response of an ensemble is affected by inhomogeneity.
Inhomogeneity of pulmonary perfusion during sustained microgravity on SLS-1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prisk, G. Kim; Guy, Harold J. B.; Elliott, Ann R.; West, John B.
1994-01-01
We studied the effects of gravity on the inhomogeneity of pulmonary perfusion in humans by performing hyperventilation-breath-hold single-breath measurements before, during, and after 9 days of continuous exposure to microgravity during the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) mission. In microgravity the indicators of inhomogeneity of perfusion, especially the size of cardiogenic oscillations in expired CO2 and the height of phase IV, were markedly reduced. Cardiogenic oscillations were reduced to approximately 60% of their preflight standing size, and the height of phase IV was between 0 and -8% (a terminal fall became a small terminal rise) of the preflight standing value. The terminal change in expired CO2 was nearly abolished in microgravity, indicating more uniformity of blood flow between lung units that close and those that remain open at the end of expiration. A possible explanation of this observation is the disappearance of gravity-dependent topographic inequality of blood flow. The residual cardiogenic oscillations in expired CO2 imply a persisting inhomogeneity of perfusion in the absence of gravity, probably in lung regions that are not within the same acinus.
Fluorescence-lifetime-based sensors using inhomogeneous waveguiding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Draxler, Sonja; Kieslinger, Dietmar; Trznadel, Karolina; Lippitsch, Max E.
1996-12-01
Most intrinsic fiberoptic sensors are based on the evanescent-wave scheme, where the evanescent field of modes guided in a fiber reaches out into a chemically sensitive coating. In the commonly used multimode waveguides, the evanescent field contains only a small part of the total energy, however, thus making evanescent-wave sensors rather insensitive. Combining a transparent substrate and a transparent sensing layer of rather similar refractive index into a common waveguiding structure produces an inhomogeneous waveguide, where a large portion of the total energy transverses the sensing layer. This yields much superior sensor performance. The transmission through a waveguide is subject to various disturbing influences. Thus it is advantageous to combine the inhomogeneous waveguiding approach with a measuring scheme that is not prone to those disturbances. Such a scheme is available with fluorescence lifetime-based sensors. The fluorescence lifetime of an indicator incorporated into the sensing layer is changed by the presence of the respective analyte. This lifetime is independent of the transmission through the waveguide. Thus inhomogeneous waveguiding together with fluorescence lifetime measurement paves the way for optical chemical sensors with high analyte sensitivity and immunity to external disturbances.
A Level Set Approach to Image Segmentation With Intensity Inhomogeneity.
Zhang, Kaihua; Zhang, Lei; Lam, Kin-Man; Zhang, David
2016-02-01
It is often a difficult task to accurately segment images with intensity inhomogeneity, because most of representative algorithms are region-based that depend on intensity homogeneity of the interested object. In this paper, we present a novel level set method for image segmentation in the presence of intensity inhomogeneity. The inhomogeneous objects are modeled as Gaussian distributions of different means and variances in which a sliding window is used to map the original image into another domain, where the intensity distribution of each object is still Gaussian but better separated. The means of the Gaussian distributions in the transformed domain can be adaptively estimated by multiplying a bias field with the original signal within the window. A maximum likelihood energy functional is then defined on the whole image region, which combines the bias field, the level set function, and the piecewise constant function approximating the true image signal. The proposed level set method can be directly applied to simultaneous segmentation and bias correction for 3 and 7T magnetic resonance images. Extensive evaluation on synthetic and real-images demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over other representative algorithms.
Radiation of a relativistic electron in a periodically inhomogeneous medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gevorgian, Lekdar A.
2005-08-01
The problem of hard transition radiation (HTR) produced by relativistic charged particle passing through periodically inhomogeneous medium with uniform velocity has been solved. Due to the medium inhomogeneities the phase of radiation vector potential varies periodically with amplitude growing. The application of approximation methods for solving the given problem shows that this amplitude is constant; the existing resonance condition between the radiation frequency and angle undergoes essential changes. This, in turn, changes the spectral distribution characteristics. The principle of harmonics equivalence in HTR is revealed. This principle says that the frequency distribution of radiation intensity is the same for different harnionics. For strongly inhomogenous medium frequency intervals of harmonics are overlapped. Consequently the HTR total intensity does not depend upon frequency up to the critical frequency. It is several orders higher as it was assume in former conceptions. The frequency distribution varies inversely with particle energy squared. On the other side the energy of photons at the critical frequency grows quadratically with the particle energy. Therefore, the energy losses do not depend on the particle energy, but under certain conditions can be of the same order as its energy.
Evidence for Inhomogeneous Heating in the Solar Wind
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greco, A.; Osman, K.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Servidio, S.
2010-12-01
Solar wind observations and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations are used to probe the nature of turbulence heating and its relationship to inhomogeneity and coherent structures. In particular, the electron heat flux, electron temperature, and ion temperature are studied using ACE and Wind data. These heating diagnostics are also compared with numerically obtained estimates of the local dissipation density. In each case, the vector increments of the magnetic field, normalized to their standard deviation [1], are used to conditionally sample the data. Coherent structures, which are sources of inhomogeneity and intermittency in MHD turbulence, are found to be associated with enhancements in each of the heating related diagnostics. This supports the hypothesis that significant inhomogeneous heating occurs in the solar wind, connected with current sheets that are dynamically generated by MHD turbulence. Indeed, MHD simulations identify a subset of these coherent current sheets as magnetic reconnection sites. The possibility of using similar intermittency-related techniques to complement current magnetic reconnection identification methods is explored. [1] A. Greco et al, ApJ., 691, L111 (2009)
The magnitude-redshift relation in a realistic inhomogeneous universe
Hada, Ryuichiro; Futamase, Toshifumi E-mail: tof@astr.tohoku.ac.jp
2014-12-01
The light rays from a source are subject to a local inhomogeneous geometry generated by inhomogeneous matter distribution as well as the existence of collapsed objects. In this paper we investigate the effect of inhomogeneities and the existence of collapsed objects on the propagation of light rays and evaluate changes in the magnitude-redshift relation from the standard relationship found in a homogeneous FRW universe. We give the expression of the correlation function and the variance for the perturbation of apparent magnitude, and calculate it numerically by using the non-linear matter power spectrum. We use the lognormal probability distribution function for the density contrast and spherical collapse model to truncate the power spectrum in order to estimate the blocking effect by collapsed objects. We find that the uncertainties in Ω{sub m} is ∼ 0.02, and that of w is ∼ 0.04 . We also discuss a possible method to extract these effects from real data which contains intrinsic ambiguities associated with the absolute magnitude.
COMMENT: Comment on `Inhomogeneities and birefringence in quartz'
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saint-Grégoire, P.; Luk'yanchuk, I.
1999-10-01
We comment on the role of the novel incommensurate elongated-triangle (ELT) phase in the huge light scattering in quartz at small angles that was observed more than 40 years ago at the icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/>-icons/Journals/Common/beta" ALT="beta" ALIGN="TOP"/> phase transition and was associated with optical inhomogeneities of unknown nature. The relation of these inhomogeneities with the differently oriented ferroelastic blocks of the ELT phase proposed by us and co-workers in a previous publication was misinterpreted and criticized in a recent article by Aslanyan et al (Aslanyan T E, Shigenari T and Abe K 1998 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 10 4577), who claimed also that the lock-in occurs at qicons/Journals/Common/neq" ALT="neq" ALIGN="TOP"/>0. Responding to their criticism, we claim that the ELT blocks do have ferroelastic properties which induce the inhomogeneities of optical indices and that the lock-in occurs at q = 0.
Segmentation of Intensity Inhomogeneous Brain MR Images Using Active Contours
Akram, Farhan; Kim, Jeong Heon; Lim, Han Ul; Choi, Kwang Nam
2014-01-01
Segmentation of intensity inhomogeneous regions is a well-known problem in image analysis applications. This paper presents a region-based active contour method for image segmentation, which properly works in the context of intensity inhomogeneity problem. The proposed region-based active contour method embeds both region and gradient information unlike traditional methods. It contains mainly two terms, area and length, in which the area term practices a new region-based signed pressure force (SPF) function, which utilizes mean values from a certain neighborhood using the local binary fitted (LBF) energy model. In turn, the length term uses gradient information. The novelty of our method is to locally compute new SPF function, which uses local mean values and is able to detect boundaries of the homogenous regions. Finally, a truncated Gaussian kernel is used to regularize the level set function, which not only regularizes it but also removes the need of computationally expensive reinitialization. The proposed method targets the segmentation problem of intensity inhomogeneous images and reduces the time complexity among locally computed active contour methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method yields better segmentation result as well as less time complexity compared with the state-of-the-art active contour methods. PMID:25143780
Laser pulse propagation in inhomogeneous magnetoplasma channels and wakefield acceleration
Sharma, B. S. Jain, Archana; Jaiman, N. K.; Gupta, D. N.; Jang, D. G.; Suk, H.; Kulagin, V. V.
2014-02-15
Wakefield excitation in a preformed inhomogeneous parabolic plasma channel by an intense relativistic (≃10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) circularly polarized Gaussian laser pulse is investigated analytically and numerically in the presence of an external longitudinal magnetic field. A three dimensional envelope equation for the evolution of the laser pulse is derived, which includes the effect of the nonparaxial and applied external magnetic field. A relation for the channel radius with the laser spot size is derived and examines numerically to see the external magnetic field effect. It is observed that the channel radius depends on the applied external magnetic field. An analytical expression for the wakefield is derived and validated with the help of a two dimensional particle in cell (2D PIC) simulation code. It is shown that the electromagnetic nature of the wakes in an inhomogeneous plasma channel makes their excitation nonlocal, which results in change of fields with time and external magnetic field due to phase mixing of the plasma oscillations with spatially varying frequencies. The magnetic field effect on perturbation of the plasma density and decreasing length is also analyzed numerically. In addition, it has been shown that the electron energy gain in the inhomogeneous parabolic magnetoplasma channel can be increased significantly compared with the homogeneous plasma channel.
A Study of Effects of Tissue Inhomogeneity on HIFU Beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amin, Viren; Roberts, Ron; Long, Tao; Thompson, R. B.; Ryken, Timothy
2006-05-01
The potential of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) will not be realized unless the effects of overlaying tissues are understood in such a way that allows for estimation of HIFU dose distribution at a target tissue. We employ computational models to examine the impact of phase aberration on tissue ablation. Thompson and Roberts have recently studied the effects of phase aberration on ultrasound focusing in aerospace engine materials such as titanium alloy, and have developed a computational model to examine these effects. The ultrasound beam observed after transmission through the fused quartz (homogeneous) and that observed after transmission through the titanium (inhomogeneous) demonstrate the severe beam wavefield amplitude distortion introduced by the velocity inhomogeneity-induced phase aberration. We study applicability of this approach to model phase aberration in inhomogeneous tissues and its effect on HIFU dose distribution around the focus. It is hypothesized that the ill-effects of phase aberration accumulate during propagation through intervening tissue in which field intensities are substantially lower than that in the focal zone, and it is therefore appropriate to use a linear acoustic model to describe the transport of energy from the transducer to the volume targeted for ablation. We present initial results of the simulation and experiments of beam measurements under water without and with different tissue layers.
Off-center observers versus supernovae in inhomogeneous pressure universes
Balcerzak, Adam; Dabrowski, Mariusz P.; Denkiewicz, Tomasz
2014-09-10
Exact luminosity distance and apparent magnitude formulae are applied to the Union2 557 supernovae sample in order to constrain the possible position of an observer outside of the center of symmetry in spherically symmetric inhomogeneous pressure Stephani universes, which are complementary to inhomogeneous density Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) void models. Two specific models are investigated. The first allows a barotropic equation of state at the center of symmetry without the need to specify a scale factor function (model IIA). The second has no barotropic equation of state at the center, but has an explicit dust-like scale factor evolution (model IIB). It is shown that even at 3σ CL, an off-center observer cannot be further than about 4.4 Gpc away from the center of symmetry, which is comparable to the reported size of a void in LTB models with the most likely value of the distance from the center at about 341 Mpc for model IIA and 68 Mpc for model IIB. The off-center observer cannot be farther away from the center than about 577 Mpc for model IIB at 3σ CL. It is determined that the best-fit parameters which characterize inhomogeneity are Ω{sub inh} = 0.77 (dimensionless: model IIA) and α = 7.31 × 10{sup –9} (s km{sup –1}){sup 2/3} Mpc{sup –4/3} (model IIB).
Large-scale flow generation by inhomogeneous helicity.
Yokoi, N; Brandenburg, A
2016-03-01
The effect of kinetic helicity (velocity-vorticity correlation) on turbulent momentum transport is investigated. The turbulent kinetic helicity (pseudoscalar) enters the Reynolds stress (mirror-symmetric tensor) expression in the form of a helicity gradient as the coupling coefficient for the mean vorticity and/or the angular velocity (axial vector), which suggests the possibility of mean-flow generation in the presence of inhomogeneous helicity. This inhomogeneous helicity effect, which was previously confirmed at the level of a turbulence- or closure-model simulation, is examined with the aid of direct numerical simulations of rotating turbulence with nonuniform helicity sustained by an external forcing. The numerical simulations show that the spatial distribution of the Reynolds stress is in agreement with the helicity-related term coupled with the angular velocity, and that a large-scale flow is generated in the direction of angular velocity. Such a large-scale flow is not induced in the case of homogeneous turbulent helicity. This result confirms the validity of the inhomogeneous helicity effect in large-scale flow generation and suggests that a vortex dynamo is possible even in incompressible turbulence where there is no baroclinicity effect.
Inhomogeneity of pulmonary perfusion during sustained microgravity on SLS-1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prisk, G. Kim; Guy, Harold J. B.; Elliott, Ann R.; West, John B.
1994-01-01
We studied the effects of gravity on the inhomogeneity of pulmonary perfusion in humans by performing hyperventilation-breath-hold single-breath measurements before, during, and after 9 days of continuous exposure to microgravity during the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) mission. In microgravity the indicators of inhomogeneity of perfusion, especially the size of cardiogenic oscillations in expired CO2 and the height of phase IV, were markedly reduced. Cardiogenic oscillations were reduced to approximately 60% of their preflight standing size, and the height of phase IV was between 0 and -8% (a terminal fall became a small terminal rise) of the preflight standing value. The terminal change in expired CO2 was nearly abolished in microgravity, indicating more uniformity of blood flow between lung units that close and those that remain open at the end of expiration. A possible explanation of this observation is the disappearance of gravity-dependent topographic inequality of blood flow. The residual cardiogenic oscillations in expired CO2 imply a persisting inhomogeneity of perfusion in the absence of gravity, probably in lung regions that are not within the same acinus.
Effect of weak inhomogeneities in high temperature superconductivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doluweera, D. G. Sumith P.
We present results of three studies done using a dynamical cluster quantum Monte Carlo approximation. First, we investigate the d-wave superconducting transition temperature Tc in the doped 2D repulsive Hubbard model with a weak inhomogeneity in hopping in the form of checkerboard pattern or a lattice of 2 x 2 plaquettes. Near neighbor hoppings within a plaquette is t and that of between the plaquettes is t'. We investigate T c in the weak inhomogeneous limit 0.8t < t' < 1.2t. We find inhomogeneity (t' ≠ t) suppresses Tc. The characteristic spin excitation energy (effective exchange energy) and the strength of d-wave pairing interaction decrease with decreasing T c. The latter observations suggest a strong correlation among effective exchange interaction, Tc and the d-wave pairing interaction of the system. Second1, we further find that enhancement of effective exchange interaction causes a slight increase in Tc of a weakly disordered system with low impurity concentration, compared to the homogeneous system. Here the disorder is introduced to homogeneous repulsive 2D Hubbard model as a weak local potential disorder. Third, we present an improved maximum entropy method to analytically continue quantum Monte Carlo data with a severe sign problem. 1A result from a collaborative study done with A. Kemper of Florida State University.
Particle Diffusion and Localized Acceleration in Inhomogeneous AGN Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xuhui; Pohl, Martin; Boettcher, Markus
2014-08-01
We present an inhomogeneous AGN jet model built on our time-dependent multi-zone radiation code that permits studying how particle acceleration and spatial diffusion complicate the energy-dependent jet inhomogeneity.In the code, a Fokker-Planck equation is used to describe the electrons accelerated through a second-order Fermi process. A Monte Carlo method is used for the radiative transfer, so that light travel time effects are taken into account.To account for inhomogeneity, we use a 2D axi-symmetric cylindrical geometry for both relativistic electrons and magnetic field. We found that small isolated acceleration regions in a much larger emission volume are sufficient to generate high energy particles needed for the X-ray and gamma-ray emission. Diffusive escape from these regions provides a natural explanation for the spectral form of the jet emission. Characteristic spectral hardening can be identified at high energies if diffusive escape is relatively inefficient.Various possible geometries and locations of the acceleration region are evaluated to further assess the structure of the relativistic jets and the energy dissipation processes in them. If the acceleration region is not located at the center of the emission region, the electron spectrum is an atypical broken power-law. The change in the power-law index, which is a result of both particle cooling and escape, is less than 1, the traditionally assumed value.
Magnetostatic modes in ferromagnetic samples with inhomogeneous internal fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arias, Rodrigo
2015-03-01
Magnetostatic modes in ferromagnetic samples are very well characterized and understood in samples with uniform internal magnetic fields. More recently interest has shifted to the study of magnetization modes in ferromagnetic samples with inhomogeneous internal fields. The present work shows that under the magnetostatic approximation and for samples of arbitrary shape and/or arbitrary inhomogeneous internal magnetic fields the modes can be classified as elliptic or hyperbolic, and their associated frequency spectrum can be delimited. This results from the analysis of the character of the second order partial differential equation for the magnetostatic potential under these general conditions. In general, a sample with an inhomogeneous internal field and at a given frequency, may have regions of elliptic and hyperbolic character separated by a boundary. In the elliptic regions the magnetostatic modes have a smooth monotonic character (generally decaying form the surfaces (a ``tunneling'' behavior)) and in hyperbolic regions an oscillatory wave-like character. A simple local criterion distinguishes hyperbolic from elliptic regions: the sign of a susceptibility parameter. This study shows that one may control to some extent magnetostatic modes via external fields or geometry. R.E.A. acknowledges Financiamiento Basal para Centros Cientificos y Tecnologicos de Excelencia under Project No. FB 0807 (Chile), Grant No. ICM P10-061-F by Fondo de Innovacion para la Competitividad-MINECON, and Proyecto Fondecyt 1130192.
Study of homogeneity and inhomogeneity phantom in CUDA EGS for small field dosimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yani, Sitti; Rhani, Mohamad Fahdillah; Haryanto, Freddy; Arif, Idam
2017-02-01
CUDA EGS was CUDA implementation to simulate transport photon in a material based on Monte Carlo algorithm for X-ray imaging. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of inhomogeneities in inhomogeneity phantom for small field dosimetry (1×1, 2×2, 3×3, 4×4 and 5×5 cm2). Two phantoms, homogeneity and inhomogeneity phantom were used. The interaction in homogeneity and inhomogeneity phantom was dominated by Compton interaction and multiple scattering. The CUDA EGS can represent the inhomogeneity effect in small field dosimetry by combining the grayscale curve between homogeneity and inhomogeneity phantom. The grayscale curve in inhomogeneity phantom is not asymmetric because of the existence of different material in phantom.
Elastic moduli and vibrational modes in jammed particulate packings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizuno, Hideyuki; Saitoh, Kuniyasu; Silbert, Leonardo E.
2016-06-01
When we elastically impose a homogeneous, affine deformation on amorphous solids, they also undergo an inhomogeneous, nonaffine deformation, which can have a crucial impact on the overall elastic response. To correctly understand the elastic modulus M , it is therefore necessary to take into account not only the affine modulus MA, but also the nonaffine modulus MN that arises from the nonaffine deformation. In the present work, we study the bulk (M =K ) and shear (M =G ) moduli in static jammed particulate packings over a range of packing fractions φ . The affine MA is determined essentially by the static structural arrangement of particles, whereas the nonaffine MN is related to the vibrational eigenmodes. We elucidate the contribution of each vibrational mode to the nonaffine MN through a modal decomposition of the displacement and force fields. In the vicinity of the (un)jamming transition φc, the vibrational density of states g (ω ) shows a plateau in the intermediate-frequency regime above a characteristic frequency ω*. We illustrate that this unusual feature apparent in g (ω ) is reflected in the behavior of MN: As φ →φc , where ω*→0 , those modes for ω <ω* contribute less and less, while contributions from those for ω >ω* approach a constant value which results in MN to approach a critical value MN c, as MN-MN c˜ω* . At φc itself, the bulk modulus attains a finite value Kc=KA c-KN c>0 , such that KN c has a value that remains below KA c. In contrast, for the critical shear modulus Gc, GN c and GA c approach the same value so that the total value becomes exactly zero, Gc=GA c-GN c=0 . We explore what features of the configurational and vibrational properties cause such a distinction between K and G , allowing us to validate analytical expressions for their critical values.
Anatomic variation in the elastic anisotropy of cortical bone tissue in the human femur
Espinoza Orías, Alejandro A.; Deuerling, Justin M.; Landrigan, Matthew D.; Renaud, John E.; Roeder, Ryan K.
2009-01-01
Experimental investigations for anatomic variation in the magnitude and anisotropy of elastic constants in human femoral cortical bone tissue have typically focused on a limited number of convenient sites near the mid-diaphysis. However, the proximal and distal ends of the diaphysis are more clinically relevant to common orthopaedic procedures and interesting mechanobiology. Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure anatomic variation in the elastic anisotropy and inhomogeneity of human cortical bone tissue along the entire length (15-85% of the total femur length) and around the periphery (anterior, medial, posterior and lateral quadrants) of the femoral diaphysis using ultrasonic wave propagation in the three orthogonal specimen axes. The elastic symmetry of tissue in the distal and extreme proximal portions of the diaphysis (15-45% and 75-85% of the total femur length, respectively) was, at most, orthotropic. In contrast, the elastic symmetry of tissue near the mid- and proximal mid-diaphysis (50-70% of the total femur length) was reasonably approximated as transversely isotropic. The magnitudes of elastic constants generally reached maxima near the mid- and proximal mid-diaphysis in the lateral and medial quadrants, and decreased toward the epiphyses, as well as the posterior and anterior quadrants. The elastic anisotropy ratio in the longitudinal and radial anatomic axes showed the opposite trends. These variations were significantly correlated with the apparent tissue density, as expected. In summary, the human femur exhibited statistically significant anatomic variation in elastic anisotropy, which may have important implications for whole bone numerical models and mechanobiology. PMID:19627830
Elastic wavefield migration and tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Yuting
Wavefield migration and tomography are well-developed under the acoustic assumption; however, multicomponent recorded seismic data include shear waves (S-modes) in addition to the compressional waves (P-modes). Constructing multicomponent wavefields and considering multiparameter model properties make it possible to utilize information provided by various wave modes, and this information allows for better characterization of the subsurface. In my thesis, I apply popular wavefield imaging and tomography to elastic media, and propose methods to address challenges posed by elastic multicomponent wavefields and multiparameter models. The key novelty of my research consists of new elastic imaging conditions, which generate elastic images with improved qualities and clear physical meaning. Moreover, I demonstrate an elastic wavefield tomography method to obtain realistic elastic models which benefits elastic migration. Migration techniques, including conventional RTM, extended RTM, and least-squares RTM (LSRTM), provide images of subsurface structures. I propose one imaging condition that computes potential images (PP, PS, SP, and SS). This imaging condition exploits pure P- and S-modes obtained by Helmholtz decomposition and corrects for the polarity reversal in PS and SP images. Using this imaging condition, I propose methods for conventional RTM and extended RTM. The extended imaging condition makes it possible to compute angle gathers for converted waves. The amplitudes of the scalar images indicate reflectivities, which can be used for amplitude verse offset (AVO) analysis; however, this imaging condition requires knowledge of the geologic dip. I propose a second imaging condition that computes perturbation images, i.e., P and S velocity perturbations. Because these images correspond to perturbations to material properties that are angle-independent, they do not have polarity reversals; therefore, they do not need dip information for polarity correction. I use this
Inhomogeneous dephasing masks coherence lifetimes in ensemble measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelzer, Kenley M.; Griffin, Graham B.; Gray, Stephen K.; Engel, Gregory S.
2012-04-01
An open question at the forefront of modern physical sciences is what role, if any, quantum effects may play in biological sensing and energy transport mechanisms. One area of such research concerns the possibility of coherent energy transport in photosynthetic systems. Spectroscopic evidence of long-lived quantum coherence in photosynthetic light-harvesting pigment protein complexes (PPCs), along with theoretical modeling of PPCs, has indicated that coherent energy transport might boost efficiency of energy transport in photosynthesis. Accurate assessment of coherence lifetimes is crucial for modeling the extent to which quantum effects participate in this energy transfer, because such quantum effects can only contribute to mechanisms proceeding on timescales over which the coherences persist. While spectroscopy is a useful way to measure coherence lifetimes, inhomogeneity in the transition energies across the measured ensemble may lead to underestimation of coherence lifetimes from spectroscopic experiments. Theoretical models of antenna complexes generally model a single system, and direct comparison of single system models to ensemble averaged experimental data may lead to systematic underestimation of coherence lifetimes, distorting much of the current discussion. In this study, we use simulations of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex to model single complexes as well as averaged ensembles to demonstrate and roughly quantify the effect of averaging over an inhomogeneous ensemble on measured coherence lifetimes. We choose to model the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex because that system has been a focus for much of the recent discussion of quantum effects in biology, and use an early version of the well known environment-assisted quantum transport model to facilitate straightforward comparison between the current model and past work. Although ensemble inhomogeneity is known to lead to shorter lifetimes of observed oscillations (simply inhomogeneous spectral
Anisotropy, inhomogeneity and inertial-range scalings in turbulent convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rincon, François
2006-09-01
This paper provides a detailed study of turbulent statistics and scale-by-scale budgets in turbulent Rayleigh Bénard convection. It aims at testing the applicability of Kolmogorov and Bolgiano theories in the case of turbulent convection and at improving the understanding of the underlying inertial-range scalings, for which a general agreement is still lacking. Particular emphasis is laid on anisotropic and inhomogeneous effects, which are often observed in turbulent convection between two differentially heated plates. For this purpose, the SO(3) decomposition of structure functions and a method of description of inhomogeneities are used to derive inhomogeneous and anisotropic generalizations of Kolmogorov and Yaglom equations applying to Rayleigh Bénard convection, which can be extended easily to other types of anisotropic and/or inhomogeneous flows. The various contributions to these equations are computed in and off the central plane of a convection cell using data produced by a direct numerical simulation of turbulent Boussinesq convection at Ra {=} 10(6) and Pr {=} 1 with aspect ratio A {=} 5. The analysis of the isotropic part of the Kolmogorov equation demonstrates that the shape of the third-order velocity structure function is significantly influenced by buoyancy forcing and large-scale inhomogeneities, while the isotropic part of the mixed third-order structure function <(Deltatheta)(2Deltavec{u}>) appearing in the Yaglom equation exhibits a clear scaling exponent 1 in a small range of scales. The magnitudes of the various low ℓ degree anisotropic components of the equations are also estimated and are shown to be comparable to their isotropic counterparts at moderate to large scales. The analysis of anisotropies notably reveals that computing reduced structure functions (structure functions computed at fixed depth for correlation vectors boldsymbol{r} lying in specific planes only) in order to reveal scaling exponents predicted by isotropic theories
Inhomogeneous dephasing masks coherence lifetimes in ensemble measurements
Pelzer, Kenley M.; Griffin, Graham B.; Engel, Gregory S.; Gray, Stephen K.
2012-04-28
An open question at the forefront of modern physical sciences is what role, if any, quantum effects may play in biological sensing and energy transport mechanisms. One area of such research concerns the possibility of coherent energy transport in photosynthetic systems. Spectroscopic evidence of long-lived quantum coherence in photosynthetic light-harvesting pigment protein complexes (PPCs), along with theoretical modeling of PPCs, has indicated that coherent energy transport might boost efficiency of energy transport in photosynthesis. Accurate assessment of coherence lifetimes is crucial for modeling the extent to which quantum effects participate in this energy transfer, because such quantum effects can only contribute to mechanisms proceeding on timescales over which the coherences persist. While spectroscopy is a useful way to measure coherence lifetimes, inhomogeneity in the transition energies across the measured ensemble may lead to underestimation of coherence lifetimes from spectroscopic experiments. Theoretical models of antenna complexes generally model a single system, and direct comparison of single system models to ensemble averaged experimental data may lead to systematic underestimation of coherence lifetimes, distorting much of the current discussion. In this study, we use simulations of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex to model single complexes as well as averaged ensembles to demonstrate and roughly quantify the effect of averaging over an inhomogeneous ensemble on measured coherence lifetimes. We choose to model the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex because that system has been a focus for much of the recent discussion of quantum effects in biology, and use an early version of the well known environment-assisted quantum transport model to facilitate straightforward comparison between the current model and past work. Although ensemble inhomogeneity is known to lead to shorter lifetimes of observed oscillations (simply inhomogeneous spectral
Comparison of inhomogeneity correction algorithms in small photon fields.
Jones, Andrew O; Das, Indra J
2005-03-01
Algorithms such as convolution superposition, Batho, and equivalent pathlength which were originally developed and validated for conventional treatments under conditions of electronic equilibrium using relatively large fields greater than 5 x 5 cm2 are routinely employed for inhomogeneity corrections. Modern day treatments using intensity modulated radiation therapy employ small beamlets characterized by the resolution of the multileaf collimator. These beamlets, in general, do not provide electronic equilibrium even in a homogeneous medium, and these effects are exaggerated in media with inhomogenieties. Monte Carlo simulations are becoming a tool of choice in understanding the dosimetry of small photon fields as they encounter low density media. In this study, depth dose data from the Monte Carlo simulations are compared to the results of the convolution superposition, Batho, and equivalent pathlength algorithms. The central axis dose within the low-density inhomogeneity as calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and convolution superposition decreases for small field sizes whereas it increases using the Batho and equivalent pathlength algorithms. The dose perturbation factor (DPF) is defined as the ratio of dose to a point within the inhomogeneity to the same point in a homogeneous phantom. The dose correction factor is defined as the ratio of dose calculated by an algorithm at a point to the Monte Carlo derived dose at the same point, respectively. DPF is noted to be significant for small fields and low density for all algorithms. Comparisons of the algorithms with Monte Carlo simulations is reflected in the DCF, which is close to 1.0 for the convolution-superposition algorithm. The Batho and equivalent pathlength algorithms differ significantly from Monte Carlo simulation for most field sizes and densities. Convolution superposition shows better agreement with Monte Carlo data versus the Batho or equivalent pathlength corrections. As the field size increases the
Coupling of Spin and Charge Ordering and Elastic Finescales in Complex Electronic Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lookman, T.; Saxena, A.; Albers, R. C.; Bishop, A. R.; Shenoy, S. R.
2000-03-01
There has been an intense focus in the past decade on complex electronic/magnetic materials such as high temperature cuprate and bismuthate superconductors, colossal magnetoresistance manganites, martensitic (and shape memory) alloys, ferroelectric as well as relaxor titanates and zirconates. Various high-resolution microscopies probing spin, charge and lattice degrees of freedom have revealed new, intrinsically inhomogeneous phases, with complex multiscale patterning over hundreds of lattice spacings. We show that long-range anisotropic strain interactions arising from general elastic compatibility considerations, linking components of the strain tensor, can enable interfaces or atomic-scale defects, to induce global strain textures. Symmetry-allowed couplings between strains and electronic/magnetic variables can then generate effective strain-mediated long-range interactions between these variables. This provides a generic elastic mechanism for mutual multiscale texturing of spin, charge and microstructural variables in the above complex materials.
Elastic actuation for legged locomotion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Chongjing; Conn, Andrew
2017-04-01
The inherent elasticity of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) gives this technology great potential in energy efficient locomotion applications. In this work, a modular double cone DEA is developed with reduced manufacturing and maintenance time costs. This actuator can lift 45 g of mass (5 times its own weight) while producing a stroke of 10.4 mm (23.6% its height). The contribution of the elastic energy stored in antagonistic DEA membranes to the mechanical work output is experimentally investigated by adding delay into the DEA driving voltage. Increasing the delay time in actuation voltage and hence reducing the duty cycle is found to increase the amount of elastic energy being recovered but an upper limit is also noticed. The DEA is then applied to a three-segment leg that is able to move up and down by 17.9 mm (9% its initial height), which demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing this DEA design in legged locomotion.
Photoacoustic elastic oscillation and characterization.
Gao, Fei; Feng, Xiaohua; Zheng, Yuanjin
2015-08-10
Photoacoustic imaging and sensing have been studied extensively to probe the optical absorption of biological tissue in multiple scales ranging from large organs to small molecules. However, its elastic oscillation characterization is rarely studied and has been an untapped area to be explored. In literature, photoacoustic signal induced by pulsed laser is commonly modelled as a bipolar "N-shape" pulse from an optical absorber. In this paper, the photoacoustic damped oscillation is predicted and modelled by an equivalent mass-spring system by treating the optical absorber as an elastic oscillator. The photoacoustic simulation incorporating the proposed oscillation model shows better agreement with the measured signal from an elastic phantom, than conventional photoacoustic simulation model. More interestingly, the photoacoustic damping oscillation effect could potentially be a useful characterization approach to evaluate biological tissue's mechanical properties in terms of relaxation time, peak number and ratio beyond optical absorption only, which is experimentally demonstrated in this paper.
The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...
The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...
Inhomogeneous Quadriceps Femoris Hypertrophy in Response to Strength and Power Training.
Earp, Jacob E; Newton, Robert U; Cormie, Prue; Blazevich, Anthony J
2015-11-01
Previous studies have reported inhomogeneous changes in quadriceps femoris (QF) cross-sectional area (CSA) in response to strength training. It is assumed that these differential changes in muscle shape influence the muscle's functional capacity during high-force and high-power movements. The purpose of the current study was to compare intermuscular and intramuscular QF adaptations to high-load strength training and fast-speed power training. Thirty-six non-strength-trained men were randomly assigned to four groups and completed 8 wk of parallel-depth heavy squat-lift training (HS-P), parallel-depth jump squat training (JS-P), volitional-depth jump squat training (JS-V), or no training (C). Quadriceps femoris, vastus lateralis (VL), intermedius (VI), medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF) CSA were measured in distal-, mid-, and proximal-thigh regions using extended field-of-view ultrasonography and compared using a 3 × 2 mixed-model MANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests (P < 0.05). Parallel-depth heavy squat-lift training and JS-P elicited similar changes in mid-CSA(QF) as well as summed CSA of the QF, VL, VI, and VM. Cross-sectional area of the VL (CSA(VL)) and CSA(VI) increased in both HS-P and JS-P at mid-thigh, but only JS-P significantly increased CSA proximally, and only HS-P significantly increased CSA distally. Cross-sectional area of the VM (CSA(VM)) increased in HS-P and JS-P distally, but only HS-P increased at mid-thigh. No hypertrophy was observed in RF at any location and no significant differences were observed between JS-P and JS-V. Parallel-depth heavy squat-lift training elicited greater proximal hypertrophy in each of the vasti muscles, whereas only JS-P elicited distal VL and VI hypertrophy. These observed inhomogeneous changes in CSA may alter the thigh's moment of inertia and moment arms of muscle "compartments," and the influence of elastic component force transmission on the muscular force expression. Such selective hypertrophy is
Thermal Fluctuations and Rubber Elasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xing, Xiangjun; Goldbart, Paul M.; Radzihovsky, Leo
2007-02-01
The effects of thermal elastic fluctuations in rubbery materials are examined. It is shown that, due to their interplay with the incompressibility constraint, these fluctuations qualitatively modify the large-deformation stress-strain relation, compared to that of classical rubber elasticity. To leading order, this mechanism provides a simple and generic explanation for the peak structure of Mooney-Rivlin stress-strain relation and shows good agreement with experiments. It also leads to the prediction of a phonon correlation function that depends on the external deformation.
Thermal fluctuations and rubber elasticity.
Xing, Xiangjun; Goldbart, Paul M; Radzihovsky, Leo
2007-02-16
The effects of thermal elastic fluctuations in rubbery materials are examined. It is shown that, due to their interplay with the incompressibility constraint, these fluctuations qualitatively modify the large-deformation stress-strain relation, compared to that of classical rubber elasticity. To leading order, this mechanism provides a simple and generic explanation for the peak structure of Mooney-Rivlin stress-strain relation and shows good agreement with experiments. It also leads to the prediction of a phonon correlation function that depends on the external deformation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhatia, A. K.
2003-01-01
Precision calculations for e^{-}-H and e^{-}-He^{+} for S-wave scattering in the elastic region have been carried out using the optical potential approach. This formalism is now extended to e^{-}-H P-wave scattering in the elastic region. The scattering equations are solved by the non-iterative method. Phase shifts are calculated using Hylleraas-type correlation functions up to 84 terms. Results are rigorous lower bounds to the exact phase shifts and they are compared to those obtained in previous calculations.
Cellular Uptake of Elastic Nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Xin; Shi, Xinghua; Gao, Huajian
2011-08-01
A fundamental understanding of cell-nanomaterial interaction is of essential importance to nanomedicine and safe applications of nanotechnology. Here we investigate the adhesive wrapping of a soft elastic vesicle by a lipid membrane. We show that there exist a maximum of five distinct wrapping phases based on the stability of full wrapping, partial wrapping, and no wrapping states. The wrapping phases depend on the vesicle size, adhesion energy, surface tension of membrane, and bending rigidity ratio between vesicle and membrane. These results are of immediate interest to the study of vesicular transport and endocytosis or phagocytosis of elastic particles into cells.
Zhang, Yanni; Huang, Hai; Zheng, Jing; Pan, Jie
2015-11-01
This paper extends previous work of Zhang and Pan [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133(4), 2082-2096 (2013)] on sound scattering and absorption by an underwater coated plate with a single attached distributed-inhomogeneity to that with periodically located distributed-inhomogeneities. A comparison is made among cases of a plate without inhomogeneities, a plate with inhomogeneities, and one with inhomogeneities ignoring the mutual coupling. Results show that coupling of the structural waves scattered by the inhomogeneities plays an important role in modifying the sound absorption and scattering of surface sound pressure, especially at low frequencies and/or the resonance frequencies of the trapped modes of the plate. The sound absorption of the plate is dependent on the distance between the adjacent inhomogeneities, the length of the inhomogeneity, and the angle of the incident sound. On the surface of the inhomogeneities, the scattered/total sound pressure is generally enhanced. On the surface in between the inhomogeneities, the pressure is also enhanced at low frequencies but is nearly unchanged at higher frequencies. Results also show that the coupling-induced variation of scattered/total pressure is significant only at the resonance frequencies of the global modes and trapped modes. The surface normal velocity is presented to explain the coupling-induced variations in the vibration and pressure fields.
A solid-shell Cosserat point element ( SSCPE) for elastic thin structures at finite deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jabareen, Mahmood; Mtanes, Eli
2016-07-01
The objective of this study is to develop a new solid-shell element using the Cosserat point theory for modeling thin elastic structures at finite deformations. The point-wise Green-Lagrange strain tensor is additively decomposed into homogeneous and inhomogeneous parts. Only the latter part of the strain tensor is modified by the assumed natural strain ANS concept to avoid both curvature-thickness locking and transverse shear locking. To the authors' knowledge, such modification has not been applied yet in the literature, and here it is referred to as the assumed natural inhomogeneous strain ANIS concept. Moreover, a new methodology for determining the constitutive coefficients of the strain energy function, which controls the inhomogeneous deformations, is proposed. The resulting coefficients ensure both accuracy, robustness, and elimination of all locking pathologies in the solid-shell Cosserat point element ( SSCPE). The performance of the developed SSCPE is verified and tested via various benchmark problems and compared to other solid, shell, and solid-shell elements. These examples demonstrate that the SSCPE is accurate, robust, stable, free of locking, and can be used for modeling thin structures at both small and finite deformations.
Nearly incompressible fluids: hydrodynamics and large scale inhomogeneity.
Hunana, P; Zank, G P; Shaikh, D
2006-08-01
A system of hydrodynamic equations in the presence of large-scale inhomogeneities for a high plasma beta solar wind is derived. The theory is derived under the assumption of low turbulent Mach number and is developed for the flows where the usual incompressible description is not satisfactory and a full compressible treatment is too complex for any analytical studies. When the effects of compressibility are incorporated only weakly, a new description, referred to as "nearly incompressible hydrodynamics," is obtained. The nearly incompressible theory, was originally applied to homogeneous flows. However, large-scale gradients in density, pressure, temperature, etc., are typical in the solar wind and it was unclear how inhomogeneities would affect the usual incompressible and nearly incompressible descriptions. In the homogeneous case, the lowest order expansion of the fully compressible equations leads to the usual incompressible equations, followed at higher orders by the nearly incompressible equations, as introduced by Zank and Matthaeus. With this work we show that the inclusion of large-scale inhomogeneities (in this case time-independent and radially symmetric background solar wind) modifies the leading-order incompressible description of solar wind flow. We find, for example, that the divergence of velocity fluctuations is nonsolenoidal and that density fluctuations can be described to leading order as a passive scalar. Locally (for small lengthscales), this system of equations converges to the usual incompressible equations and we therefore use the term "locally incompressible" to describe the equations. This term should be distinguished from the term "nearly incompressible," which is reserved for higher-order corrections. Furthermore, we find that density fluctuations scale with Mach number linearly, in contrast to the original homogeneous nearly incompressible theory, in which density fluctuations scale with the square of Mach number. Inhomogeneous nearly
Experimental assessment of proton dose calculation accuracy in inhomogeneous media.
Sorriaux, J; Testa, M; Paganetti, H; Orban de Xivry, J; Lee, J A; Traneus, E; Souris, K; Vynckier, S; Sterpin, E
2017-06-01
Proton therapy with Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) has the potential to improve radiotherapy treatments. Unfortunately, its promises are jeopardized by the sensitivity of the dose distributions to uncertainties, including dose calculation accuracy in inhomogeneous media. Monte Carlo dose engines (MC) are expected to handle heterogeneities better than analytical algorithms like the pencil-beam convolution algorithm (PBA). In this study, an experimental phantom has been devised to maximize the effect of heterogeneities and to quantify the capability of several dose engines (MC and PBA) to handle these. An inhomogeneous phantom made of water surrounding a long insert of bone tissue substitute (1×10×10 cm(3)) was irradiated with a mono-energetic PBS field (10×10 cm(2)). A 2D ion chamber array (MatriXX, IBA Dosimetry GmbH) lied right behind the bone. The beam energy was such that the expected range of the protons exceeded the detector position in water and did not attain it in bone. The measurement was compared to the following engines: Geant4.9.5, PENH, MCsquare, as well as the MC and PBA algorithms of RayStation (RaySearch Laboratories AB). For a γ-index criteria of 2%/2mm, the passing rates are 93.8% for Geant4.9.5, 97.4% for PENH, 93.4% for MCsquare, 95.9% for RayStation MC, and 44.7% for PBA. The differences in γ-index passing rates between MC and RayStation PBA calculations can exceed 50%. The performance of dose calculation algorithms in highly inhomogeneous media was evaluated in a dedicated experiment. MC dose engines performed overall satisfactorily while large deviations were observed with PBA as expected. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NMR, MRI, and spectroscopic MRI in inhomogeneous fields
Demas, Vasiliki; Pines, Alexander; Martin, Rachel W; Franck, John; Reimer, Jeffrey A
2013-12-24
A method for locally creating effectively homogeneous or "clean" magnetic field gradients (of high uniformity) for imaging (with NMR, MRI, or spectroscopic MRI) both in in-situ and ex-situ systems with high degrees of inhomogeneous field strength. THe method of imaging comprises: a) providing a functional approximation of an inhomogeneous static magnetic field strength B.sub.0({right arrow over (r)}) at a spatial position {right arrow over (r)}; b) providing a temporal functional approximation of {right arrow over (G)}.sub.shim(t) with i basis functions and j variables for each basis function, resulting in v.sub.ij variables; c) providing a measured value .OMEGA., which is an temporally accumulated dephasing due to the inhomogeneities of B.sub.0({right arrow over(r)}); and d) minimizing a difference in the local dephasing angle .phi.({right arrow over (r)},t)=.gamma..intg..sub.0.sup.t{square root over (|{right arrow over (B)}.sub.1({right arrow over (r)},t')|.sup.2+({right arrow over (r)}{right arrow over (G)}.sub.shimG.sub.shim(t')+.parallel.{right arrow over (B)}.sub.0({right arrow over (r)}).parallel..DELTA..omega.({right arrow over (r)},t'/.gamma/).sup.2)}dt'-.OMEGA. by varying the v.sub.ij variables to form a set of minimized v.sub.ij variables. The method requires calibration of the static fields prior to minimization, but may thereafter be implemented without such calibration, may be used in open or closed systems, and potentially portable systems.
Flux motion in thin superconductors with inhomogeneous pinning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schuster, Thomas; Kuhn, Holger; Brandt, Ernst Helmut; Indenbom, Mikhail; Koblischka, Michael R.; Konczykowski, Marcin
1994-12-01
The penetration and exit of magnetic flux in thin superconductors in a perpendicular applied field is investigated in detail. Flux-density pictures and profiles are obtained by magneto-optics; magnetization curves are measured by torque magnetometry; theoretical space- and time-dependent flux-density and current-density profiles are calculated from Maxwell's equations in a planar approximation assuming a highly nonlinear current-voltage law E~(J/Jc)n (n>>1, E=electric field, J=sheet current) with a critical sheet current Jc(B,r) in general depending on the position and on the perpendicular flux density B. Our experiments and calculations show that for inhomogeneous pinning the additional nontrivial condition Jc=∞ for B=0 is appropriate. Our specimens are high-Tc superconductors in the form of platelets, strips, or rings. In two platelets, an inhomogeneous Jc was produced by heavy-ion irradiation of the edge zone or by thinning down the central part by sputtering. In all cases good qualitative agreement is found between the experimental and theoretical results. In particular, our time-dependent theory reproduces the recently derived static Bean-model profiles in perpendicular geometry, which we also confirm experimentally; field and current profiles in the ring are as predicted for a current-carrying strip in perpendicular field; in the platelet with enhanced edge pinning, when flux starts to leak into the central weak pinning zone the flux lines are driven immediately to the sample center and pile up there; for weaker inhomogeneity of Jc(r), when the flux front arrives from the edges at the central weak-pinning zone the flux lines jump to an intermediate position from where they fill the central zone gradually. Our experiments also confirm the predicted ``uphill motion'' of flux lines against the flux-density gradient and the occurrence of overcritical current densities in the flux-free regions.
Modelling the inhomogeneous SiC Schottky interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gammon, P. M.; Pérez-Tomás, A.; Shah, V. A.; Vavasour, O.; Donchev, E.; Pang, J. S.; Myronov, M.; Fisher, C. A.; Jennings, M. R.; Leadley, D. R.; Mawby, P. A.
2013-12-01
For the first time, the I-V-T dataset of a Schottky diode has been accurately modelled, parameterised, and fully fit, incorporating the effects of interface inhomogeneity, patch pinch-off and resistance, and ideality factors that are both heavily temperature and voltage dependent. A Ni/SiC Schottky diode is characterised at 2 K intervals from 20 to 320 K, which, at room temperature, displays low ideality factors (n < 1.01) that suggest that these diodes may be homogeneous. However, at cryogenic temperatures, excessively high (n > 8), voltage dependent ideality factors and evidence of the so-called "thermionic field emission effect" within a T0-plot, suggest significant inhomogeneity. Two models are used, each derived from Tung's original interactive parallel conduction treatment of barrier height inhomogeneity that can reproduce these commonly seen effects in single temperature I-V traces. The first model incorporates patch pinch-off effects and produces accurate and reliable fits above around 150 K, and at current densities lower than 10-5 A cm-2. Outside this region, we show that resistive effects within a given patch are responsible for the excessive ideality factors, and a second simplified model incorporating these resistive effects as well as pinch-off accurately reproduces the entire temperature range. Analysis of these fitting parameters reduces confidence in those fits above 230 K, and questions are raised about the physical interpretation of the fitting parameters. Despite this, both methods used are shown to be useful tools for accurately reproducing I-V-T data over a large temperature range.
Observations of Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous Mixing in Warm Cumulus Clouds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehmann, K.; Siebert, H.; Shaw, R. A.
2007-12-01
The helicopter-borne instrument payload ACTOS was used to study the entrainment/mixing process in shallow warm cumulus clouds. Using ACTOS, high resolution measurements of the three-dimensional wind, temperature and humidity fields were made. In addition, cloud microphysical parameters such as the droplet number concentration and size were measured with a modified Fast-FSSP. The effect of entrained subsaturated air on the droplet number size distribution was analyzed using mixing diagrams which correlate droplet number concentration and droplet size. Both homogeneous and inhomogeneous mixing was observed to take place. The characteristic of the mixing process is compared to the Damköhler number. The Damköhler number is given by the ratio of the timescale for turbulent mixing and the reaction timescale, which is either the time for droplet evaporation, or the phase relaxation timescale. With ACTOS' instrumentation, the Damköhler number can be determined with a spatial resolution of about 15 m. In agreement with literature, low values of the Damköhler number correlate with the homogeneous mixing scenario, while higher values of the Damköhler number correlate with the inhomogeneous mixing scenario. It is shown that even within one cloud, different mixing scenarios can take place. The data suggest that homogeneous mixing is more likely to occur in the vicinity of the vigorous cloud core, while inhomogeneous mixing dominates in the outer, less turbulent part of the cloud. A case is presented in which the mixing led to the formation of drops that are larger than in the unmixed adiabatic core. This is of potential importance for precipitation formation in warm cumulus clouds.
Kinetic theory of spatially inhomogeneous stellar systems without collective effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chavanis, P.-H.
2013-08-01
We review and complete the kinetic theory of spatially inhomogeneous stellar systems when collective effects (dressing of the stars by their polarization cloud) are neglected. We start from the BBGKY hierarchy issued from the Liouville equation and consider an expansion in powers of 1/N in a proper thermodynamic limit. For N → +∞, we obtain the Vlasov equation describing the evolution of collisionless stellar systems like elliptical galaxies. This corresponds to the mean field approximation. At the order 1/N, we obtain a kinetic equation describing the evolution of collisional stellar systems like globular clusters. This corresponds to the weak coupling approximation. This equation coincides with the generalized Landau equation derived from a more abstract projection operator formalism. This equation does not suffer logarithmic divergences at large scales since spatial inhomogeneity is explicitly taken into account. Making a local approximation, and introducing an upper cut-off at the Jeans length, it reduces to the Vlasov-Landau equation which is the standard kinetic equation of stellar systems. Our approach provides a simple and pedagogical derivation of these important equations from the BBGKY hierarchy which is more rigorous for systems with long-range interactions than the two-body encounters theory. Making an adiabatic approximation, we write the generalized Landau equation in angle-action variables and obtain a Landau-type kinetic equation that is valid for fully inhomogeneous stellar systems and is free of divergences at large scales. This equation is less general than the recently derived Lenard-Balescu-type kinetic equation since it neglects collective effects, but it is substantially simpler and could be useful as a first step. We discuss the evolution of the system as a whole and the relaxation of a test star in a bath of field stars. We derive the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation in angle-action variables and provide expressions for the
Refractive status in eyes with inhomogeneous or irregular pupils.
Navarro, Rafael; Fernández-Sánchez, Vicente; López-Gil, Norberto
2014-02-01
In some eyes, aberrometric measurements of the refractive error can differ by more than 1 diopter from standard subjective refraction. We aim to understand the reasons for these discrepancies and to study the role of both amplitude (irregular or inhomogeneous pupil transmission) and phase (aberrations) of the wavefront. The spherical equivalent was measured by different subjective, objective, and aberrometric methods in a population of 177 eyes. We first analyzed the degree of correlation between the outcomes of the different methods. Then we analyzed cases showing the highest discrepancies (>1 diopter) between subjective and aberrometric spherical equivalent. The refractive error sensing method was generalized and applied here to include the effect of inhomogeneous pupil transmittance (Stiles-Crawford effect) and irregular pupil shapes on refractive error. Objective and aberrometric methods showed a strong correlation with subjective methods (R > 0.89 in all cases). However, individual data points may show large discrepancies. Several eyes with discrepancies of 1 D or even 2 D usually presented higher values of higher-order aberration (mainly coma and/or spherical aberration) than average, which may cause these eyes to have a natural bifocal (or even multifocal) optical performance. Refractive error sensing analysis suggests that this multifocal performance could explain the high objective-subjective discrepancies found in these eyes. Nevertheless, the Stiles-Crawford effect (or irregular pupils) can substantially modify the energy distribution, tending to minimize multifocal effects, thus minimizing discrepancies between aberrometric and subjective refraction. Discrepancies between aberrometric and subjective refraction may appear in aberrated eyes when aberrometric methods ignore the impact of the wavefront amplitude (inhomogeneous or irregular pupil transmittance.) The generalized refractive error sensing proposed here seems promising and able to provide a
Spectroscopy of one-dimensionally inhomogeneous media with quadratic nonlinearity
Golubkov, A A; Makarov, Vladimir A
2011-11-30
We present a brief review of the results of fifty years of development efforts in spectroscopy of one-dimensionally inhomogeneous media with quadratic nonlinearity. The recent original results obtained by the authors show the fundamental possibility of determining, from experimental data, the coordinate dependences of complex quadratic susceptibility tensor components of a onedimensionally inhomogeneous (along the z axis) medium with an arbitrary frequency dispersion, if the linear dielectric properties of the medium also vary along the z axis and are described by a diagonal tensor of the linear dielectric constant. It is assumed that the medium in question has the form of a plane-parallel plate, whose surfaces are perpendicular to the direction of the inhomogeneity. Using the example of several components of the tensors X{sup (2)}(z, {omega}{sub 1} {+-} {omega}{sub 2}; {omega}{sub 1}, {+-} {omega}{sub 2}), we describe two methods for finding their spatial profiles, which differ in the interaction geometry of plane monochromatic fundamental waves with frequencies {omega}{sub 1} and {omega}{sub 2}. The both methods are based on assessing the intensity of the waves propagating from the plate at the sum or difference frequency and require measurements over a range of angles of incidence of the fundamental waves. Such measurements include two series of additional estimates of the intensities of the waves generated under special conditions by using the test and additional reference plates, which eliminates the need for complicated phase measurements of the complex amplitudes of the waves at the sum (difference) frequency.