Science.gov

Sample records for initial bunch noise

  1. Q-switched-like soliton bunches and noise-like pulses generation in a partially mode-locked fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenhong; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Yan-Ge; Zhao, Wenjing; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Shangcheng; Yang, Guang; He, Ruijing

    2016-06-27

    We report an intermediate regime between c.w. emission and noise-like pulses (NLPs) regime in an Er-doped partially mode-locked fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation. In this regime, the soliton bunches stochastically turn up from a quasi-cw background in the Q-switched-like envelope. The soliton bunches normally last for tens or hundreds of intracavity round-trips. When the soliton bunches vanish, typical NLPs chains are generated sporadically at location where the soliton bunches collapses. These results would be helpful to understand the generation and property of the NLPs regime.

  2. Soliton collapse and bunched noise-like pulse generation in a passively mode-locked fiber ring laser.

    PubMed

    Tang, D; Zhao, L; Zhao, B

    2005-04-04

    A passively mode-locked soliton fiber ring laser with dispersion managed cavity is reported. The laser emits intense bunched noise-like pulses including the transform limited pulses. The optical spectrum of the laser emission has a bandwidth as broad as 32.10 nm. It was found that purely depending on the linear cavity phase delay the laser could be switched between the soliton operation and the noise-like pulse emission. Numerical simulations showed that the laser emission was caused by the combined effect of soliton collapse and positive cavity feedback in the laser.

  3. Thermal Noise in the Initial LIGO Interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Aaron D.

    1995-01-01

    Gravitational wave detectors capable of detecting broadband gravitational wave bursts with a strain amplitude sensitivity near 10^{-21} at frequencies around 100 Hz are currently under construction by the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) and VIRGO groups. One challenge facing these groups is how to detect the motion of the center of an inertial mass to a precision of 10^{-18} m when the mass consists of atoms each of which individually moves much more than that due to thermal energy. The uncertainty in the interferometer's measurement due to these thermal motions is called thermal noise. This thesis describes the thermal noise of the initial LIGO detectors. The thermal noise was analyzed by modelling the normal modes of the test mass suspension system as harmonic oscillators with dissipation and applying the fluctuation dissipation theorem. The dissipation of all modes which contribute significant thermal noise to the interferometer was measured and from these measurements the total thermal noise was estimated. The frequency dependence of the dissipation of the pendulum mode was characterized from measurements of the violin modes. A steel music wire suspension system was found to meet the goals of the initial LIGO detectors. A mathematical technique was developed which relates the energy in each vibrational mode to the motion of the mirror surface measured by the interferometer. Modes with acoustic wavelengths greater than the laser beam spot size can contribute significant thermal noise to the interferometer measurements. The dissipation of the test masses of LIGO's 40 -m interferometer at Caltech was investigated, and a technique for suspending and controlling the test masses which lowered the dissipation and met the thermal noise goals of the initial LIGO detector was developed. New test masses were installed in the 40-m interferometer resulting in improved noise performance. The implications of thermal noise to detecting gravitational

  4. Generation of Q-switched mode locking controlled rectangular noise-like soliton bunching in a Tm-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tian; Chen, Weicheng; Lin, Wei; Yang, Zhongmin

    2016-08-08

    We report on an interesting phenomenon of the combination of Q-switched mode locked pulses (QSMLP) and rectangular noise-like pulses (RNLP) as a unit in a Tm-doped ring fiber laser which contains a Fabry-Perot (F-P) subcavity based on the nonlinear polarization evolution (NPE) technique. The RNLP and QSMLP are independently generated in the ring cavity and F-P subcavity, respectively. A notable characteristic is that the physical parameters of RNLP, e.g. repetition rate and pulse duration, are controlled by QSMLP. Thus, they form as a composite bunching, which is termed as "Q-switched mode locking controlled rectangular noise-like soliton bunching (QRNSB)". Further investigation shows that the existence of QRNSB only occurs in high pumping conditions, while both fundamental mode-locking pulses and the coexistence of QSMLP and solitons are achieved in low pumping ones. Our work can enrich the understanding of the nonlinear dynamics in fiber lasers.

  5. Initial noise predictions for rudimentary landing gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalart, Philippe R.; Shur, Mikhail L.; Strelets, Mikhail Kh.; Travin, Andrey K.

    2011-08-01

    A four-wheel "rudimentary" landing gear (RLG) truck was designed for public-domain research, with a level of complexity which is manageable in current numerical simulations, and a weak Reynolds-number sensitivity. Experimental measurements of wall-pressure fluctuations are allowing a meaningful test of unsteady simulations with emphasis on noise generation. We present three Detached-Eddy Simulations (DES) using up to 18 million points in the high-order NTS code. The first is incompressible with the model placed in the wind tunnel, as requested for the 2010 workshop on Benchmark problems for Airframe Noise Computations (BANC-I), intended for force and surface-pressure studies. The second and third are at Mach 0.115 and Mach 0.23, with only one wall, a "ceiling" analogous to a wing (but infinite and inviscid), and are used to exercise far-field noise prediction by coupling the Detached-Eddy Simulations and a Ffowcs-Williams/Hawkings calculation. The results include wall-pressure, and far-field-noise intensities and spectra. The wall pressure signals in the three simulations are very similar and, in a comparison published separately, agree well with experiment and other simulations. In the absence of experimental noise data, the attention is focused on internal quality checks, by varying the permeable Ffowcs-Williams/Hawkings calculation surface and then by using only the solid surface. An unexpected finding at these Mach numbers is an apparent strong role for quadrupoles, revealed by a typical deficit of 3 dB in the solid-surface results, relative to the permeable-surface results. The solid-surface approach has variants, related to the presence of the ceiling (a plane of symmetry), which can increase this error further; there is little consensus on the exact configuration of the solid surfaces in the Ffowcs-Williams/Hawkings calculation procedure. Tentative theoretical arguments suggest that a balance somewhat in favor of quadrupoles over dipoles is plausible at Mach

  6. Initial Integration of Noise Prediction Tools for Acoustic Scattering Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Burley, Casey L.; Tinetti, Ana; Rawls, John W.

    2008-01-01

    This effort provides an initial glimpse at NASA capabilities available in predicting the scattering of fan noise from a non-conventional aircraft configuration. The Aircraft NOise Prediction Program, Fast Scattering Code, and the Rotorcraft Noise Model were coupled to provide increased fidelity models of scattering effects on engine fan noise sources. The integration of these codes led to the identification of several keys issues entailed in applying such multi-fidelity approaches. In particular, for prediction at noise certification points, the inclusion of distributed sources leads to complications with the source semi-sphere approach. Computational resource requirements limit the use of the higher fidelity scattering code to predict radiated sound pressure levels for full scale configurations at relevant frequencies. And, the ability to more accurately represent complex shielding surfaces in current lower fidelity models is necessary for general application to scattering predictions. This initial step in determining the potential benefits/costs of these new methods over the existing capabilities illustrates a number of the issues that must be addressed in the development of next generation aircraft system noise prediction tools.

  7. Improved bunch spreader modules

    SciTech Connect

    Ieiri, Takao

    1989-07-20

    In order to raise the threshold beam current of instabilities in the fixed target run, it is required to increase the longitudinal emittance, and hence the bunch length. The bunch spreader used a noise generator through a sharp-cut ban pass filter (BPF) instead of a coherent signal. In that filter, the pass band frequency was near twice the synchrotron frequency 2f/sub s/. The bandwidth of the filter was fixed between 350Hz and 600Hz, though twice the synchrotron frequency changed from 500Hz to 300Hz after transition in Main Ring. The noise through the filter is applied to an RF amplitude modulator. In the Tevatron, where the synchrotron frequency f/sub s/ varies from 120Hz to 40Hz during acceleration, the noise is applied to a phase shifter at the frequency of f/sub s/. So, we need a tunable filter which tracks 2f/sub s/ in the Main Ring and f/sub s/ in the Tevatron. This note describes details of improved bunch spreader modules using a tunable filter used in both the Main Ring and the Tevatron. A brief description about this module along with a beam test done in the Main Ring is shown. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Rayleigh Wave Tomography of Noise-Removed Cascadia Initiative Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, S. W.; Ruan, Y.; Forsyth, D. W.

    2014-12-01

    A deployment of ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) in the area of the Juan de Fuca and Gorda plates, the Cascadia Initiative (CI) provides a useful laboratory to probe the tectonics of ocean plates. With intermediate spreading rates, the Juan de Fuca and Gorda ridges provide a contrast with the rapidly spreading East Pacific Rise, where the MELT experiment, the only other detailed OBS study of a spreading ridge, was conducted. One key question we explore is whether migration in the hotspot reference frame drives an asymmetry in ridge structure. On the westward-migrating East Pacific Rise, more abundant seamounts and lower seismic velocities are observed on the west side. On the Juan de Fuca ridge, which is also migrating westward, a similar seamount asymmetry has been observed, and preliminary results from Rayleigh wave tomography using the first year of data suggested a corresponding low velocity anomaly. The second and third year of data from the CI will allow us to test the asymmetry of the Gorda ridge and improve the resolution of the Juan de Fuca ridge. Another key question we explore is the validity of the conductive cooling model of oceanic plates. In the MELT experiment at the East Pacific Rise, significant deviations from the conductive cooling model were found, attributed to the combined effects of melt and dehydration of the uppermost mantle. At the Juan de Fuca and Gorda ridges, we assess whether the conductive cooling model is more applicable at intermediate spreading rates. Finally, we explore whether there are any structural differences between the Juan de Fuca and Gorda plates. Unlike the Juan de Fuca ridge, there is a pronounced median valley at the Gorda axis and there is much intraplate seismicity within the deforming Gorda plate. To explore these questions, we present Rayleigh wave tomography of the Cascadia region. Because OBS data have high noise at long periods, and long periods are necessary for probing greater depths, noise complicates

  9. The Tevatron bunch by bunch longitudinal dampers

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng-Yang Tan and James Steimel

    2002-09-25

    We describe in this paper the Tevatron bunch by bunch dampers. The goal of the dampers is to stop the spontaneous longitudinal beam size blowup of the protons during a store. We will go through the theory and also show the measured results during the commissioning of this system. The system is currently operational and have stopped the beam blowups during a store.

  10. Computer modelling of bunch-by-bunch feedback for the SLAC B-factory design

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, D.; Fox, J.D.; Hosseini, W.; Klaisner, L.; Morton, P.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Thompson, K.A. ); Lambertson, G. )

    1991-05-01

    The SLAC B-factory design, with over 1600 high current bunches circulating in each ring, will require a feedback system to avoid coupled-bunch instabilities. A computer model of the storage ring, including the RF system, wave fields, synchrotron radiation loss, and the bunch-by-bunch feedback system is presented. The feedback system model represents the performance of a fast phase detector front end (including system noise and imperfections), a digital filter used to generate a correction voltage, and a power amplifier and beam kicker system. The combined ring-feedback system model is used to study the feedback system performance required to suppress instabilities and to quantify the dynamics of the system. Results are presented which show the time development of coupled bunch instabilities and the damping action of the feedback system. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Initial results of a porous plug nozzle for supersonic jet noise suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, L.

    1978-01-01

    As part of a continuing study of possible methods of jet noise reduction, some tests have been made on a porous plug type noise suppressor. Very little information exists on the aeroacoustic performance of jet nozzles having porous elements designed to eliminate the shock wave in the exhaust stream and by so doing to eliminate the shock associated noise and screech. Some initial results on the aeroacoustic performance of a model porous plug type jet noise suppressor are presented. Included are shadowgraph pictures of the flow exhausting from the porous plug nozzle with the comparable acoustic far-field spectra and cross correlations which illustrate the benefits of the test device.

  12. ANALYSIS OF SPACE CHARGE DRIVEN MODULATION IN ELECTRON BUNCH ENERGY SPECTRA.

    SciTech Connect

    SHAFTAN,T.YU,L.H.

    2003-08-22

    As was discussed earlier [1,2] longitudinal space charge force in initially nonuniform bunch transforms density fluctuations into energy modulation along the bunch. For characterization of the resulted energy modulation one can chirp the bunch using accelerator section, located upstream of beam spectrometer, and record energy spectrum of such chirped bunch. Measured spectrum shows structure with parameters, depending on the bunch properties. In this paper we present analysis of the structure in the bunch energy spectrum and its connection with energy modulation along the bunch.

  13. Studies with spike initiators - Linearization by noise allows continuous signal modulation in neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Xiaolong; Lewis, Edwin R.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that noise can be an important element in the translation of neuronal generator potentials (summed inputs) to neuronal spike trains (outputs), creating or expanding a range of amplitudes over which the spike rate is proportional to the generator potential amplitude. Noise converts the basically nonlinear operation of a spike initiator into a nearly linear modulation process. This linearization effect of noise is examined in a simple intuitive model of a static threshold and in a more realistic computer simulation of spike initiator based on the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model. The results are qualitatively similar; in each case larger noise amplitude results in a larger range of nearly linear modulation. The computer simulation of the HH model with noise shows linear and nonlinear features that were earlier observed in spike data obtained from the VIIIth nerve of the bullfrog. This suggests that these features can be explained in terms of spike initiator properties, and it also suggests that the HH model may be useful for representing basic spike initiator properties in vertebrates.

  14. Curvature-Induced Bunch Self-Interaction for an Energy-Chirped Bunch in Magnetic Bends

    SciTech Connect

    Rui Li

    2006-01-04

    The curvature-induced bunch collective interaction in magnetic bends can be studied using effective forces in the canonical formulation of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effect. In this paper, for an electron distribution moving ultrarelativistically in a bending system, the dynamics of a particle in the electron distribution is derived from the Hamiltonian of the particle in terms of the bunch internal coordinates. The consequent Vlasov equation manifests explicitly how the phase space distribution is perturbed by the effective CSR forces. In particular, we study the impact of an initial linear energy chirp of the bunch on the behavior of the effective longitudinal CSR force, which arises due to the modification of the retardation relation as a result of the energy-chirping-induced longitudinal-horizontal correlation of the bunch distribution (bunch tilt) in dispersive regions.

  15. Bunch identification module

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    This module provides bunch identification and timing signals for the PEP Interaction areas. Timing information is referenced to the PEP master oscillator, and adjusted in phase as a function of region. Identification signals are generated in a manner that allows observers in all interaction regions to agree on an unambiguous bunch identity. The module provides bunch identification signals via NIM level logic, upon CAMAC command, and through LED indicators. A front panel ''region select'' switch allows the same module to be used in all regions. The module has two modes of operation: a bunch identification mode and a calibration mode. In the identification mode, signals indicate which of the three bunches of electrons and positrons are interacting, and timing information about beam crossing is provided. The calibration mode is provided to assist experimenters making time of flight measurements. In the calibration mode, three distinct gating signals are referenced to a selected bunch, allowing three timing systems to be calibrated against a common standard. Physically, the bunch identifier is constructed as a single width CAMAC module. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Initial Development of a Spatially Separated Speech-in-Noise and Localization Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Richard S.; Witt, Shelley A.; Dunn, Camille C.; Wang, Wenjun

    2010-01-01

    Objective This article describes the initial development of a novel approach for training hearing-impaired listeners to improve their ability to understand speech in the presence of background noise and to also improve their ability to localize sounds. Design Most people with hearing loss, even those well fit with hearing devices, still experience significant problems understanding speech in noise. Prior research suggests that at least some subjects can experience improved speech understanding with training. However, all training systems that we are aware of have one basic, critical limitation. They do not provide spatial separation of the speech and noise, therefore ignoring the potential benefits of training binaural hearing. In this paper we describe our initial experience with a home-based training system that includes spatially separated speech-in-noise and localization training. Results Throughout the development of this system patient input, training and preliminary pilot data from individuals with bilateral cochlear implants were utilized. Positive feedback from subjective reports indicated that some individuals were engaged in the treatment, and formal testing showed benefit. Feedback and practical issues resulted from the reduction of an eight-loudspeaker to a two-loudspeaker system. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest we have successfully developed a viable spatial hearing training system that can improve binaural hearing in noise and localization. Applications include, but are not limited to, hearing with hearing aids and cochlear implants. PMID:20701836

  17. The Statistics of Burgers Turbulence Initialized with Fractional Brownian Noise Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Reade

    The statistics of the solution to the inviscid Burgers equation are investigated when the initial velocity potential is fractional Brownian motion. Using the theory of large deviations for Gaussian processes, we characterize the tails of the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the velocity, the distance between shocks, and the shock strength. These PDFs are shown to decay like ``stretched'' exponentials of the form . Our method of proof can also be used to extend these results to a much larger class of Gaussian potentials. This work generalizes the results of Avellaneda and E [2, 3] on the inviscid Burgers equation with white-noise initial data.

  18. Bunched beam stochastic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jie.

    1992-01-01

    The scaling laws for bunched-beam stochastic cooling has been derived in terms of the optimum cooling rate and the mixing condition. In the case that particles occupy the entire sinusoidal rf bucket, the optimum cooling rate of the bunched beam is shown to be similar to that predicted from the coasting-beam theory using a beam of the same average density and mixing factor. However, in the case that particles occupy only the center of the bucket, the optimum rate decrease in proportion to the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. The cooling efficiency can be significantly improved if the synchrotron side-band spectrum is effectively broadened, e.g. by the transverse tune spread or by using a double rf system.

  19. Bunched beam stochastic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jie

    1992-09-01

    The scaling laws for bunched-beam stochastic cooling has been derived in terms of the optimum cooling rate and the mixing condition. In the case that particles occupy the entire sinusoidal rf bucket, the optimum cooling rate of the bunched beam is shown to be similar to that predicted from the coasting-beam theory using a beam of the same average density and mixing factor. However, in the case that particles occupy only the center of the bucket, the optimum rate decrease in proportion to the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. The cooling efficiency can be significantly improved if the synchrotron side-band spectrum is effectively broadened, e.g. by the transverse tune spread or by using a double rf system.

  20. Bunch-by-bunch feedback for PEP II

    SciTech Connect

    Oxoby, G.; Claus, R.; Eisen, N.; Fox, J.; Hindi, H.; Hoeflich, J.; Olsen, J.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Linscott, I.

    1993-01-01

    The proposed PEP II B factory at SLAC requires a feedback to damp out longitudinal synchrotron oscillations. A time domain, downsampled, bunch-by-bunch feedback system in which each bunch is treated as an oscillator being driven by disturbances from other bunches is presented as we review the evolution of the system design. Results from a synchrotron oscillation damping experiment conducted at the SLAC/SSRL/SPEAR ring are also presented in this paper.

  1. Cooperative parametric (quasi-Cherenkov) radiation produced by electron bunches in natural or photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anishchenko, S. V.; Baryshevsky, V. G.

    2015-07-01

    We study the features of cooperative parametric (quasi-Cherenkov) radiation arising when initially unmodulated electron (positron) bunches pass through a crystal (natural or artificial) under the conditions of dynamical diffraction of electromagnetic waves in the presence of shot noise. A detailed numerical analysis is given for cooperative THz radiation in artificial crystals. The radiation intensity above 200 MW/cm2 is obtained in simulations. The peak intensity of cooperative radiation emitted at small and large angles to particle velocity is investigated as a function of the current density of an electron bunch. The peak radiation intensity appeared to increase monotonically until saturation is achieved. At saturation, the shot noise causes strong fluctuations in the intensity of cooperative parametric radiation. It is shown that the duration of radiation pulses can be much longer than the particle flight time through the crystal. This enables a thorough experimental investigation of the time structure of cooperative parametric radiation generated by electron bunches available with modern accelerators. The complicated time structure of cooperative parametric (quasi-Cherenkov) radiation can be observed in crystals (natural or artificial) in all spectral ranges (X-ray, optical, terahertz, and microwave).

  2. Tunable subpicosecond electron bunch train generation using a transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchange technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.-E; Piot, P.; Johnson, A.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Maxwell, T.J.; Ruan, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.; /Fermilab

    2010-11-01

    We report on the experimental generation of a train of subpicosecond electron bunches. The bunch train generation is accomplished using a beamline capable of exchanging the coordinates between the horizontal and longitudinal degrees of freedom. An initial beam consisting of a set of horizontally-separated beamlets is converted into a train of bunches temporally separated with tunable bunch duration and separation. The experiment reported in this Letter unambiguously demonstrates the conversion process and its versatility.

  3. Coherent synchrotron radiation and bunch stability in a compactstorage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Venturini, Marco; Warnock, Robert; Ruth, Ronald; Ellison, James A.

    2004-04-09

    We examine the effect of the collective force due to coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in an electron storage ring with small bending radius. In a computation based on time-domain integration of the nonlinear Vlasov equation, we find the threshold current for a longitudinal microwave instability induced by CSR alone. The model accounts for suppression of radiation at long wave lengths due to shielding by the vacuum chamber. In a calculation just above threshold, small ripples in the charge distribution build up over a fraction of a synchrotron period, but then die out to yield a relatively smooth but altered distribution with eventual oscillations in bunch length. The instability evolves from small noise on an initial smooth bunch of r.m.s.length much greater than the shielding cutoff. The paper includes a derivation and extensive analysis of the complete impedance function Z for synchrotron radiation with parallel plate shielding. We find corrections to the lowest approximation to the coherent force which involve ''off-diagonal'' values of Z, that is, fields with phase velocity not equal to the particle velocity.

  4. Thanks a bunch.

    PubMed

    2012-03-07

    Dangerous daisies, hazardous heliotropes or a delightful gift to gladden the heart? Flowers in hospital are still a minefield. Some hospitals ban them, some do not. Some wards will not let a bunch past the door, while others welcome their cheering presence.

  5. Multi-bunch energy compensation in the NLC bunch compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, F.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Thomson, K.A.

    1996-06-01

    The task of the NLC bunch compressor is to reduce the length of each bunch in a train of 90 bunches from 4 mm, at extraction from the damping ring, to about 100 {mu}m, suitable for injection into the X-band main linac. This task is complicated by longitudinal long-range wake fields and the multi-bunch beam loading in the various accelerating sections of the compressor. One possible approach to compensate the multi-bunch beam loading is to add two RF systems with slightly different frequencies ({prime} {Delta}f{prime} scheme) to each accelerating section, as first proposed by Kikuchi. This paper summarizes the choice of parameters for three such compensating sections, and presents simulation results of combined single- and multi-bunch dynamics for four different NLC versions. The multi-bunch energy compensation is shown to be straightforward and its performance to be satisfactory.

  6. Structure of Shocks in Burgers Turbulence with Lévy Noise Initial Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, Joshua

    2013-08-01

    We study the structure of the shocks for the inviscid Burgers equation in dimension 1 when the initial velocity is given by Lévy noise, or equivalently when the initial potential is a two-sided Lévy process ψ 0. When ψ 0 is abrupt in the sense of Vigon or has bounded variation with lim sup| h|↓0 h -2 ψ 0( h)=∞, we prove that the set of points with zero velocity is regenerative, and that in the latter case this set is equal to the set of Lagrangian regular points, which is non-empty. When ψ 0 is abrupt we show that the shock structure is discrete. When ψ 0 is eroded we show that there are no rarefaction intervals.

  7. Bunch-by-bunch detection of coherent transverse modes from digitized single-bpm signals in the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Stancari, G.; Valishev, A.; Semenov, A.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    A system was developed for bunch-by-bunch detection of transverse proton and antiproton coherent oscillations based on the signal from a single beam-position monitor (BPM) located in a region of the ring with large amplitude functions. The signal is digitized over a large number of turns and Fourier-analyzed offline with a dedicated algorithm. To enhance the signal, the beam is excited with band-limited noise for about one second, and this was shown not to significantly affect the circulating beams even at high luminosity. The system is used to measure betatron tunes of individual bunches and to study beam-beam effects. In particular, it is one of the main diagnostic tools in an ongoing study of nonlinear beam-beam compensation studies with Gaussian electron lenses. We present the design and operation of this tool, together with results obtained with proton and antiproton bunches.

  8. Initial results of a model rotor higher harmonic control (HHC) wind tunnel experiment on BVI impulsive noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splettstoesser, W. R.; Lehmann, G.; van der Wall, B.

    1989-09-01

    Initial acoustic results are presented from a higher harmonic control (HHC) wind tunnel pilot experiment on helicopter rotor blade-vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise reduction, making use of the DFVLR 40-percent-scaled BO-105 research rotor in the DNW 6m by 8m closed test section. Considerable noise reduction (of several decibels) has been measured for particular HHC control settings, however, at the cost of increased vibration levels and vice versa. The apparently adverse results for noise and vibration reduction by HHC are explained. At optimum pitch control settings for BVI noise reduction, rotor simulation results demonstrate that blade loading at the outer tip region is decreased, vortex strength and blade vortex miss-distance are increased, resulting altogether in reduced BVI noise generation. At optimum pitch control settings for vibration reduction adverse effects on blade loading, vortex strength and blade vortex miss-distance are found.

  9. CSR Interaction for a 2D Energy-Chirped Bunch on a General Orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Rui Li

    2009-05-01

    When an electron bunch with initial linear energy chirp traverses a bunch compression chicane, the bunch interacts with itself via coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and space charge force. The effective longitudinal CSR force for such kind of 2D bunch on a circular orbit has been analyzed earlier [1]. In this paper, we present the analytical results of the effective longitudinal CSR force for a 2D energy-chirped bunch going through a general orbit, which includes the entrance and exit of a circular orbit. In particular, we will show the behavior of the force in the last bend of a chicane when the bunch is under extreme compression. This is the condition when bifurcation of bunch phase space occurs in many CSR measurements. [1] R. Li, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 024401 (2008)

  10. Six Dimensional Bunch Merging for Muon Collider Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.; Fernow, R.C.

    2011-03-28

    A muon collider requires single, intense, muon bunches with small emittances in all six dimensions. It is most efficient to initally phase-rotate the muons into many separate bunches, cool these bunches in six dimensions (6D), and, when cool enough, merge them into single bunches (one of each sign). Previous studies only merged in longitudinal phase space (2D). In this paper we describe merging in all six dimensions (6D). The scheme uses rf for longitudinal merging, and kickers and transports with differing lengths (trombones) for transverse merging. Preliminary simulations, including incorporation in 6D cooling, is described. Muons are efficiently generated by pion decay, but they then have very large emittances. A muon collider requires low emittances, which can be achieved using transverse ionization cooling, combined with emittance exchange using dispersion and shaped absorbers. For efficient capture, muons are first phase-rotated by rf into a train of many bunches. But for high luminosity, we need just one bunch of each sign, so after some initial cooling, these bunches should be merged.

  11. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Mahmoud

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  12. Tunable subpicosecond electron-bunch-train generation using a transverse-to-longitudinal phase-space exchange technique.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y-E; Piot, P; Johnson, A; Lumpkin, A H; Maxwell, T J; Ruan, J; Thurman-Keup, R

    2010-12-03

    We report on the experimental generation of a train of subpicosecond electron bunches. The bunch train generation is accomplished using a beam line capable of exchanging the coordinates between the horizontal and longitudinal degrees of freedom. An initial beam consisting of a set of horizontally separated beamlets is converted into a train of bunches temporally separated with tunable bunch duration and separation. The experiment reported in this Letter unambiguously demonstrates the conversion process and its versatility.

  13. A bunch compressor for the Next Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Emma, P.; Raubenheimer, T.; Zimmermann, F.

    1995-06-01

    A bunch compressor design for the Next Linear Collider (NLC) is described. The compressor reduces the bunch length by a factor of 40 in two stages. The first stage at 2 GeV consists of an rf section and a wiggler. The second stage at 10 GeV is formed by an arc, an rf section, and a chicane. The final bunch phase is insensitive to initial phase errors and to beam loading in the intermediate S-band pre-linac. Residual longitudinal aberrations of the system are partially compensated. The bunch compressor encompasses a solenoid spin-rotator system at 2 GeV that allows complete control over the spin orientation.

  14. Simulation of longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, K.A.

    1991-02-07

    The purpose of this note is to document some work done as part of the effort directed at designing and simulating a bunch-by-bunch feedback system to control longitudinal coupled bunch instabilities in the B-factory. In particular, I discuss the ring model used in the simulation program developed to study this feedback system. Basically the simulation is a simple tracking program in which the rf drive voltage, the wakefields due to all the bunches, the synchrotron radiation losses, and the kicks applied to the bunches by the bunch-by-bunch feedback are all modelled as voltages applied at a single, discrete point in the ring. The computation of the bunch-by-bunch feedback voltages may of course be done by any desired algorithms. An example and discussion of the general behavior without bunch-by-bunch feedback is given at the end of this report.

  15. Dechirper wakefields for short bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bane, Karl; Stupakov, Gennady

    2016-06-01

    In previous work (Bane and Stupakov, 2015 [1]) general expressions, valid for arbitrary bunch lengths, were derived for the wakefields of corrugated structures with flat geometry, such as is used in the RadiaBeam/LCLS dechirper. However, the bunch at the end of linac-based X-ray FELs-like the LCLS-is extremely short, and for short bunches the wakes can be considerably simplified. In this work, we first derive analytical approximations to the short-range wakes. These are generalized wakes, in the sense that their validity is not limited to a small neighborhood of the symmetry axis, but rather extends to arbitrary transverse offsets of driving and test particles. The validity of these short-bunch wakes holds not only for the corrugated structure, but rather for any flat structure whose beam-cavity interaction can be described by a surface impedance. We use these wakes to obtain, for a short bunch passing through a dechirper: estimates of the energy loss as function of gap, the transverse kick as a function of beam offset, the slice energy spread increase, and the emittance growth. In the Appendix, a more accurate derivation-than that is found in Bane and Stupakov (2015) [1]-of the arbitrary bunch length wakes is performed; we find full agreement with the earlier results, provided the bunches are short compared to the dechirper gap, which is normally the regime of interest.

  16. Phase space analysis of velocity bunched beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippetto, D.; Bellaveglia, M.; Castellano, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Cultrera, L.; di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Ficcadenti, L.; Gallo, A.; Gatti, G.; Pace, E.; Vaccarezza, C.; Vicario, C.; Bacci, A.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L.; Cianchi, A.; Marchetti, B.; Giannessi, L.; Labat, M.; Quattromini, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Marrelli, C.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Serluca, M.

    2011-09-01

    Peak current represents a key demand for new generation electron beam photoinjectors. Many beam applications, such as free electron laser, inverse Compton scattering, terahertz radiation generation, have efficiencies strongly dependent on the bunch length and current. A method of beam longitudinal compression (called velocity bunching) has been proposed some years ago, based on beam longitudinal phase space rotation in a rf field potential. The control of such rotation can lead to a compression factor in excess of 10, depending on the initial longitudinal emittance. Code simulations have shown the possibility to fully compensate the transverse emittance growth during rf compression, and this regime has been experimentally proven recently at SPARC. The key point is the control of transverse beam plasma oscillations, in order to freeze the emittance at its lowest value at the end of compression. Longitudinal and transverse phase space distortions have been observed during the experiments, leading to asymmetric current profiles and higher final projected emittances. In this paper we discuss in detail the results obtained at SPARC in the regime of velocity bunching, analyzing such nonlinearities and identifying the causes. The beam degradation is discussed, both for slice and projected parameters. Analytical tools are derived to experimentally quantify the effect of such distortions on the projected emittance.

  17. STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR BUNCHED BEAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    BLASKIEWICZ, M.

    2005-05-16

    Problems associated with bunched beam stochastic cooling are reviewed. A longitudinal stochastic cooling system for RHIC is under construction and has been partially commissioned. The state of the system and future plans are discussed.

  18. Experimental Study of Airfoil Trailing Edge Noise: Instrumentation, Methodology and Initial Results. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manley, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanisms of aerodynamic noise generation at the trailing edge of an airfoil is investigated. Instrumentation was designed, a miniature semiconductor strain-gauge pressure transducer and associated electronic amplifier circuitry were designed and tested and digital signal analysis techniques applied to gain insight into the relationship between the dynamic pressure close to the trailing edge and the sound in the acoustic far-field. Attempts are made to verify some trailing-edge noise generation characteristics as theoretically predicted by several contemporary acousticians. It is found that the noise detected in the far-field is comprised of the sum of many uncorrelated emissions radiating from the vicinity of the trailing edge. These emissions appear to be the result of acoustic energy radiation which has been converted by the trailing-edge noise mechanism from the dynamic fluid energy of independent streamwise 'strips' of the turbulent boundary layer flow.

  19. Initial Results from SQUID Sensor: Analysis and Modeling for the ELF/VLF Atmospheric Noise

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Huan; Wang, Huali; Chen, Liang; Wu, Jun; Qiu, Longqing; Rong, Liangliang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the amplitude probability density (APD) of the wideband extremely low frequency (ELF) and very low frequency (VLF) atmospheric noise is studied. The electromagnetic signals from the atmosphere, referred to herein as atmospheric noise, was recorded by a mobile low-temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) receiver under magnetically unshielded conditions. In order to eliminate the adverse effect brought by the geomagnetic activities and powerline, the measured field data was preprocessed to suppress the baseline wandering and harmonics by symmetric wavelet transform and least square methods firstly. Then statistical analysis was performed for the atmospheric noise on different time and frequency scales. Finally, the wideband ELF/VLF atmospheric noise was analyzed and modeled separately. Experimental results show that, Gaussian model is appropriate to depict preprocessed ELF atmospheric noise by a hole puncher operator. While for VLF atmospheric noise, symmetric α-stable (SαS) distribution is more accurate to fit the heavy-tail of the envelope probability density function (pdf). PMID:28216590

  20. Initial Results from SQUID Sensor: Analysis and Modeling for the ELF/VLF Atmospheric Noise.

    PubMed

    Hao, Huan; Wang, Huali; Chen, Liang; Wu, Jun; Qiu, Longqing; Rong, Liangliang

    2017-02-14

    In this paper, the amplitude probability density (APD) of the wideband extremely low frequency (ELF) and very low frequency (VLF) atmospheric noise is studied. The electromagnetic signals from the atmosphere, referred to herein as atmospheric noise, was recorded by a mobile low-temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) receiver under magnetically unshielded conditions. In order to eliminate the adverse effect brought by the geomagnetic activities and powerline, the measured field data was preprocessed to suppress the baseline wandering and harmonics by symmetric wavelet transform and least square methods firstly. Then statistical analysis was performed for the atmospheric noise on different time and frequency scales. Finally, the wideband ELF/VLF atmospheric noise was analyzed and modeled separately. Experimental results show that, Gaussian model is appropriate to depict preprocessed ELF atmospheric noise by a hole puncher operator. While for VLF atmospheric noise, symmetric α-stable (SαS) distribution is more accurate to fit the heavy-tail of the envelope probability density function (pdf).

  1. Step Bunching: Influence of Impurities and Solution Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, A. A.; Vekilov, P. G.; Coriell, S. R.; Murray, B. T.; McFadden, G. B.

    1999-01-01

    Step bunching results in striations even at relatively early stages of its development and in inclusions of mother liquor at the later stages. Therefore, eliminating step bunching is crucial for high crystal perfection. At least 5 major effects causing and influencing step bunching are known: (1) Basic morphological instability of stepped interfaces. It is caused by concentration gradient in the solution normal to the face and by the redistribution of solute tangentially to the interface which redistribution enhances occasional perturbations in step density due to various types of noise; (2) Aggravation of the above basic instability by solution flowing tangentially to the face in the same directions as the steps or stabilization of equidistant step train if these flows are antiparallel; (3) Enhanced bunching at supersaturation where step velocity v increases with relative supersaturation s much faster than linear. This v(s) dependence is believed to be associated with impurities. The impurities of which adsorption time is comparable with the time needed to deposit one lattice layer may also be responsible for bunching; (4) Very intensive solution flow stabilizes growing interface even at parallel solution and step flows; (5) Macrosteps were observed to nucleate at crystal corners and edges. Numerical simulation, assuming step-step interactions via surface diffusion also show that step bunching may be induced by random step nucleation at the facet edge and by discontinuity in the step density (a ridge) somewhere in the middle of a face. The corresponding bunching patterns produce the ones observed in experiment. The nature of step bunching generated at the corners and edges and by dislocation step sources, as well as the also relative importance and interrelations between mechanisms 1-5 is not clear, both from experimental and theoretical standpoints. Furthermore, several laws controlling the evolution of existing step bunches have been suggested, though

  2. Initial Noise Assessment of an Embedded-wing-propulsion Concept Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Krejsa, Eugene A.

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle acoustic requirements are considered for a Cruise-Efficient Short Take-Off and Landing (CESTOL) vehicle concept using an Embedded-Wing-Propulsion (EWP) system based on a review of the literature. Successful development of such vehicles would enable more efficient use of existing airports in accommodating the anticipated growth in air traffic while at the same time reducing the noise impact on the community around the airport. A noise prediction capability for CESTOL-EWP aircraft is developed, based largely on NASA's FOOTPR code and other published methods, with new relations for high aspect ratio slot nozzles and wing shielding. The predictive model is applied to a preliminary concept developed by Boeing for NASA GRC. Significant noise reduction for such an aircraft relative to the current state-of-the-art is predicted, and technology issues are identified which should be addressed to assure that the potential of this design concept is fully achieved with minimum technical risk.

  3. Non-Bunch-Davies statistical anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xingang; Wang, Yi E-mail: yi.wang@ipmu.jp

    2014-07-01

    We introduce a generic mechanism that can extend the effects of relic anisotropies at the beginning of inflation to relatively much shorter scales in density perturbations. This is induced by non-Bunch-Davies states of the quantum fluctuations, and can show up in the non-oscillatory components of the density perturbations. This mechanism works for general forms of anisotropies, and, to illustrate it, we use an example of relic vector field. The detailed scale-dependence of these anisotropies can be used to probe the initial quantum state of our universe.

  4. End-to-end simulation of bunch merging for a muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Yu; Stratakis, Diktys; Hanson, Gail G.; Palmer, Robert B.

    2015-05-03

    Muon accelerator beams are commonly produced indirectly through pion decay by interaction of a charged particle beam with a target. Efficient muon capture requires the muons to be first phase-rotated by rf cavities into a train of 21 bunches with much reduced energy spread. Since luminosity is proportional to the square of the number of muons per bunch, it is crucial for a Muon Collider to use relatively few bunches with many muons per bunch. In this paper we will describe a bunch merging scheme that should achieve this goal. We present for the first time a complete end-to-end simulation of a 6D bunch merger for a Muon Collider. The 21 bunches arising from the phase-rotator, after some initial cooling, are merged in longitudinal phase space into seven bunches, which then go through seven paths with different lengths and reach the final collecting "funnel" at the same time. The final single bunch has a transverse and a longitudinal emittance that matches well with the subsequent 6D rectilinear cooling scheme.

  5. Scattering Impulse Response Synthesis Using Random Noise Illumination: Initial Concept Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    CONCEPT . 2 C. OVERVIEWV OF THESIS.....................................5 11. TEORY OF NOIS.ESOLRtCE IMP1ULSIE RLS1IONSE MIE--ASURL.NIEN F .7 A...INTRODUCTION A. OVERVIEW The objective of this research is to demonstrate the viability of performing high- resolution impulse response scattering... marketing of this technology. The second advan- taue is related to the use of noise-source illunlination for tactical and strategic radar applications

  6. Effect of Initial Condition on Subsonic Jet Noise from Two Rectangular Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in jet noise data from two small 8:1 aspect ratio nozzles are investigated experimentally. The interiors of the two nozzles are identical but one has a thin-lip at the exit while the has a perpendicular face at the exit (thick-lip). It is found that the thin-lip nozzle is substantially noisier throughout the subsonic Mach number range. As much as 5dB difference in OASPL is noticed around Mj =0.96. Hot-wire measurements are carried out for the characteristics of the exit boundary layer and, overall, the noise difference can be ascribed to differences in the boundary layer state. The boundary layer of the quieter (thick-lip) nozzle goes through transition around M(sub j) =0.25 and at higher M(sub j) it remains "nominally turbulent". In comparison, the boundary layer of the thin-lip nozzle is found to remain "nominally laminar". at high subsonic conditions. The nominally laminar state involves significantly larger turbulence intensities commensurate with the higher radiated noise.

  7. Use beam steering dipoles to minimize aberrations associated with off-centered transit through the induction bunching module. Design an improved NDCX-I drift compression section to make best use of the new bunching module to optimize planned initial NDCX-I target experiments

    SciTech Connect

    HIFS-VNL; Seidl, Peter; Seidl, P.; Barnard, J.; Bieniosek, F.; Coleman, J.; Grote, D.; Leitner, M.; Gilson, E.; Logan, B.G.; Lund, S.; Lidia, S.; Ni, P.; Ogata, D.; Roy, P.; Waldron, W.; Welch, D.; Wooton, C.

    2008-03-28

    This milestone has been met by: (1) calculating steering solutions and implementing them in the experiment using the three pairs of crossed magnetic dipoles installed in between the matching solenoids, S1-S4. We have demonstrated the ability to center the beam position and angle to<1 mm and<1 mrad upstream of the induction bunching module (IBM) gap, compared to uncorrected beam offsets of several millimeters and milli-radians. (2) Based on LSP and analytic study, the new IBM, which has twice the volt-seconds of our first IBM, should be accompanied by a longer drift compression section in order to achieve a predicted doubling of the energy deposition on future warm-dense matter targets. This will be accomplished by constructing a longer ferro-electric plasma source. (3) Because the bunched current is a function of the longitudinal phase space and emittance of the beam entering the IBM we have characterized the longitudinal phase space with a high-resolution energy analyzer.

  8. Collective effects in short bunches: Summary of the Working Group on Proton Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1990-10-10

    This report discusses the following topics on proton beam bunching: space charge, a collective but incoherent effect; a very short proton bunch; long proton bunches; transition energy crossing; intrabeam scattering; vacuum related effects; and the issue of mode-coupling for proton bunches. (LSP)

  9. Design and Testing of Gproto Bunch-by-bunch Signal Processor

    SciTech Connect

    Teytelman, D.; Rivetta, C.; Van Winkle, D.; Akre, R.; Fox, J.; Krasnykh, A.; Drago, A.; /Frascati

    2006-07-18

    A prototype programmable bunch-by-bunch signal acquisition and processing channel with multiple applications in storage rings has been developed at SLAC. The processing channel supports up to 5120 bunches with bunch spacings as close as 1.9 ns. The prototype has been tested and operated in five storage rings: SPEAR-3, DAINE, PEP-II, KEKB, and ATF damping ring. The testing included such applications as transverse and longitudinal coupled-bunch instability control, bunch-by-bunch luminosity monitoring, and injection diagnostic. In this contribution the prototype design will be described and its operation will be illustrated with the data measured at the above-mentioned accelerators.

  10. Initial clinical experience of an ultrasonic strain imaging system with novel noise-masking capability.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Freeman, S J; Gee, A H; Housden, R J; Prager, R W; Sinnatamby, R; Treece, G M

    2010-08-01

    Quasistatic strain imaging is a form of elastography that can produce qualitative images of tissue stiffness with only software modifications to conventional ultrasound hardware. Unlike current commercial offerings, the novel strain-imaging system that is the subject of this paper displays regions of signal decorrelation using an overlaid colour mask and can also produce three-dimensional (3D) strain images. In illustrative studies of the breast, testis and thyroid, the colour mask is seen to reduce the potential to misinterpret noise as meaningful stiffness information, and also helps to differentiate cystic and solid lesions. High-quality imaging of the testis in vivo demonstrates that 3D strain imaging is feasible.

  11. Turn-by-Turn and Bunch-by-Bunch Transverse Profiles of a Single Bunch in a Full Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, R.; Fisher, A.S.; /SLAC

    2005-12-15

    The apparatus described in this paper can image the evolution of the transverse profile of a single bunch, isolated from a full PEP-II ring of 1500 bunches. Using this apparatus there are two methods of single bunch imaging; bunch-by-bunch beam profiling can image every bunch in the ring a single bunch at a time with the images of sequential bunches being in order, allowing one to see variations in beam size along a train. Turn-by-turn beam profiling images a single bunch on each successive turn it makes around the ring. This method will be useful in determining the effect that an injected bunch has on a stable bunch as the oscillations of the injected bunch damp out. Turn-by-turn imaging of the synchrotron light uses a system of lenses and mirrors to image many turns of both the major and minor axis of a single bunch across the photocathode of a gateable camera. The bunch-by-bunch method is simpler: because of a focusing mirror used in porting the light from the ring, the synchrotron light from the orbiting electrons becomes an image at a certain distance from the mirror; and since the camera does not use a lens, the photocathode is set exactly at this image distance. Bunch-by-bunch profiling has shown that in the Low Energy Ring (LER) horizontal bunch size decreases along a train. Turn-by-turn profiling has been able to image 100 turns of a single bunch on one exposure of the camera. The turn-by-turn setup has also been able to image 50 turns of the minor axis showing part of the damping process of an oscillating injected charge during a LER fill. The goal is to image the damping of oscillations of injected charge for 100 turns of both the major and minor axis throughout the damping process during trickle injection. With some changes to the apparatus this goal is within reach and will make turn-by-turn imaging a very useful tool in beam diagnostics.

  12. An Electron Bunch Compression Scheme for a Superconducting Radio Frequency Linear Accelerator Driven Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    C. Tennant, S.V. Benson, D. Douglas, P. Evtushenko, R.A. Legg

    2011-09-01

    We describe an electron bunch compression scheme suitable for use in a light source driven by a superconducting radio frequency (SRF) linac. The key feature is the use of a recirculating linac to perform the initial bunch compression. Phasing of the second pass beam through the linac is chosen to de-chirp the electron bunch prior to acceleration to the final energy in an SRF linac ('afterburner'). The final bunch compression is then done at maximum energy. This scheme has the potential to circumvent some of the most technically challenging aspects of current longitudinal matches; namely transporting a fully compressed, high peak current electron bunch through an extended SRF environment, the need for a RF harmonic linearizer and the need for a laser heater. Additional benefits include a substantial savings in capital and operational costs by efficiently using the available SRF gradient.

  13. SUCCESSFUL BUNCHED BEAM STOCHASTIC COOLING IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    BRENNAN, J.M.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; SEVERINO, F.

    2006-06-23

    We report on a successful test of bunch-beam stochastic cooling in RHIC at 100 GeV. The cooling system is designed for heavy ions but was tested in the recent RHIC run which operated only with polarized protons. To make an analog of the ion beam a special bunch was prepared with very low intensity. This bunch had {approx}1.5 x 10{sup 9} protons, while the other 100 bunches contained {approx}1.2 x 10{sup 11} protons each. With this bunch a cooling time on the order 1 hour was observed through shortening of the bunch length and increase in the peak bunch current, together with a narrowing of the spectral line width of the Scottky power at 4 GHz. The low level signal processing electronics and the isolated-frequency kicker cavities are described.

  14. A compact source for bunches of singly charged atomic ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murböck, T.; Schmidt, S.; Andelkovic, Z.; Birkl, G.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Vogel, M.

    2016-04-01

    We have built, operated, and characterized a compact ion source for low-energy bunches of singly charged atomic ions in a vacuum beam line. It is based on atomic evaporation from an electrically heated oven and ionization by electron impact from a heated filament inside a grid-based ionization volume. An adjacent electrode arrangement is used for ion extraction and focusing by applying positive high-voltage pulses to the grid. The method is particularly suited for experimental environments which require low electromagnetic noise. It has proven simple yet reliable and has been used to produce μs-bunches of up to 106 Mg+ ions at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. We present the concept, setup and characterizing measurements. The instrument has been operated in the framework of the SpecTrap experiment at the HITRAP facility at GSI/FAIR to provide Mg+ ions for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions by laser-cooled 24Mg+.

  15. Bunch Length Measurements in SPEAR3

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, W.J.; Fisher, A.; Huang, X.; Safranek, J.; Sebek, J.; Lumpkin, A.; Sannibale, F.; Mok, W.; /Unlisted

    2007-11-28

    A series of bunch length measurements were made in SPEAR3 for two different machine optics. In the achromatic optics the bunch length increases from the low-current value of 16.6ps rms to about 30ps at 25ma/bunch yielding an inductive impedance of -0.17{Omega}. Reducing the momentum compaction factor by a factor of {approx}60 [1] yields a low-current bunch length of {approx}4ps rms. In this paper we review the experimental setup and results.

  16. Electron cloud wakefields in bunch trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, F. B.; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver

    2016-02-01

    Electron cloud is a concern for many modern and future accelerator facilities. There are a number of undesired effects attributed to the presence of electron clouds. Among them are coherent instabilities, emittance growth, cryogenic heat load, synchronous phase shift and pressure rise. In long bunch trains one can observe the emittance growth getting faster along the bunch train. The interaction between the beam and the electron cloud is a two-stream interaction. The prameters of the electron cloud wakefields depend on the beam intensity, beam centroid perturbations, and on the electron density and perturbations. If the electron cloud forgets the bunch centroid perturbation very fast, the buildup itself, via growing density, becomes a way of coupling between the bunches. In the present paper we address how the bunch perturbation shape affects the multi-bunch wakefields under the conditions similar to the CERN LHC and SPS. We study the interplay between the single-bunch and multi-bunch electron cloud wakefields. The effect of the dipole magnetic field on the multi-bunch wakefields is studied.

  17. Unwinding in Hopfion vortex bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeykkae, Juha; Hietarinta, Jarmo

    2009-06-15

    We investigate the behavior of parallel Faddeev-Hopf vortices under energy minimization in a system with physically relevant, but unusual boundary conditions. The homotopy classification is no longer provided by the Hopf invariant, but rather by the set of integer homotopy invariants proposed by Pontrjagin. The nature of these invariants depends on the boundary conditions. A set of tightly wound parallel vortices of the usual Hopfion structure is observed to form a bunch of intertwined vortices or unwind completely, depending on the boundary conditions.

  18. Characterization of pseudosingle bunch kick-and-cancel operational mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, C.; Robin, D. S.; Steier, C.; Portmann, G.

    2015-12-01

    Pseudosingle-bunch kick-and-cancel (PSB-KAC) is a new operational mode at the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory that provides full timing and repetition rate control for single x-ray pulse users while being fully transparent to other users of synchrotron radiation light. In this operational mode, a single electron bunch is periodically displaced from a main bunch train by a fast kicker magnet with a user-on-demand repetition rate, creating a single x-ray pulse to be matched to a typical laser excitation pulse rate. This operational mode can significantly improve the signal to noise ratio of single x-ray pulse experiments and drastically reduce dose-induced sample damage rate. It greatly expands the capabilities of synchrotron light sources to carry out dynamics and time-of-flight experiments. In this paper, we carry out extensive characterizations of this PSB-KAC mode both numerically and experimentally. This includes the working principle of this mode, resonance conditions and beam stability, experimental setups, and diagnostic tools and measurements.

  19. Nonlinear Dynamics of Single Bunch Instability

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, G.V.; Breizman, B.N.; Pekker, M.S.; /Texas U.

    2011-09-09

    A nonlinear equation is derived that governs the evolution of the amplitude of unstable oscillations with account of quantum diffusion effects due to the synchrotron radiation. Numerical solutions to this equation predict a variety of possible scenarios of nonlinear evolution of the instability some of which are in good qualitative agreement with experimental observations. Microwave single bunch instability in circular accelerators has been observed in many machines. The instability usually arises when the number of particles in the bunch exceeds some critical value, Nc, which varies depending on the parameters of the accelerating regime. Recent observations on the SLC damping rings at SLAC with a new low-impedance vacuum chamber revealed new interesting features of the instability. In some cases, after initial exponential growth, the instability eventually saturated at a level that remained constant through the accumulation cycle. In other regimes, relaxation-type oscillations were measured in nonlinear phase of the instability. In many cases, the instability was characterized by a frequency close to the second harmonic of the synchrotron oscillations. Several attempts have been made to address the nonlinear stage of the instability based on either computer simulations or some specific assumptions regarding the structure of the unstable mode. An attempt of a more general consideration of the problem is carried out in this paper. We adopt an approach recently developed in plasma physics for analysis of nonlinear behavior of weakly unstable modes in dynamic systems. Assuming that the growth rate of the instability is much smaller than its frequency, we find a time dependent solution to Vlasov equation and derive an equation for the complex amplitude of the oscillations valid in the nonlinear regime. Numerical solutions to this equation predict a variety of possible scenarios of nonlinear evolution of the instability some of which are in good qualitative agreement

  20. Growth of Quantum Wires on Step-Bunched Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Feng

    2005-02-01

    This proposal initiates a combined theoretical and experimental multidisciplinary research effort to explore a novel approach for growing metallic and magnetic nanowires on step-bunched semiconductor and dielectric substrates, and to lay the groundwork for understanding the growth mechanisms and the electronic, electrical, and magnetic properties of metallic and magnetic nanowires. The research will focus on four topics: (1) fundamental studies of step bunching and self-organization in a strained thin film for creating step-bunched substrates. (2) Interaction between metal adatoms (Al,Cu, and Ni) and semiconductor (Si and SiGe) and dielectric (CaF2) surface steps. (3) growth and characterization of metallic and magnetic nanowires on step-bunched templates. (4) fabrication of superlattices of nanowires by growing multilayer films. We propose to attack these problems at both a microscopic and macroscopic level, using state-of-the-art theoretical and experimental techniques. Multiscale (electronic-atomic-continuum) theories will be applied to investigate growth mechanisms of nanowires: mesoscopic modeling and simulation of step flow growth of strained thin films, in particular, step bunching and self-organization will be carried out within the framework of continuum linear elastic theory; atomistic calculation of interaction between metal adatoms and semiconductor and dielectric surface steps will be done by large-scale computations using first-principles total-energy methods. In parallel, thin films and nanowires will be grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and the resultant structure and morphology will be characterized at the atomic level up to micrometer range, using a combination of different surface/interface probes, including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM, atomic resolution), atomic force microscopy (AFM, nanometer resolution), low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM, micrometer resolution), reflectance high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), and x

  1. Step Bunch Evolution on Vicinal Faces of KDP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, N. A.; Chernov, A. A.; Vekilov, P. G.

    2003-01-01

    For in-situ studies of the formation and evolution of step patterns in solution growth, we have assembled an experimental setup based on Michelson interferometry with the growing crystal surface as one of the reflective surfaces. The device allows data collection over a relatively large area (approximately 4 sq. mm) in situ and in real time during growth. The depth resolution is improved over traditional interferometry using phase-shifted images combining by a suitable algorithm. We achieve a depth resolution of approximately 50 Angstroms. Lateral resolution, dependent on the degree of magnification, is around 0.3 to 5 microns. The crystal chosen as a model in this work is potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), the optically non-linear material widely used in frequency doubling applications. Kinetics of KDP crystallization is well studied so that KDP can serve as a benchmark for our investigations. We present quantitative results on the onset, initial stages and development of instabilities in moving step trains on vicinal crystal surfaces at varying supersaturation, flow rate, and flow direction. The kinetics data suggest that at low supersaturations, step bunching is caused by impurity retardation of the steps, while at higher supersaturations, we link the non-linearity during growth to interdependence of the velocity and density of the steps evidenced in independent experiments. The behavior on the surface is very dynamic, small bunches both merge and split from larger bunches as they travel across the facet. We present evidence that despite these dynamics, under steady conditions there exists a limiting value to step bunch height. This height is reached at distances between 600 and 1000 microns from the step source. In our experiments, we observed the retention of this step bunch height limit up to the path of 1500 microns.

  2. A hybrid approach for generating ultra-short bunches for advanced accelerator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Stratakis, Diktys

    2015-09-01

    Generation of electron beams with high phase-space density, short bunch length and high peak current is an essential requirement for future linear colliders and bright electron beam sources. Unfortunately, such bunches cannot be produced directly from the source since forces from the mutual repulsion of electrons would destroy the brilliance of the beam within a short distance. Here, we detail a beam dynamics study of an innovative two-stage compression scheme that can generate ultra-short bunches without degrading the beam quality. In the first stage, the beam is compressed with an advanced velocity bunching technique in which the longitudinal phase space is rotated so that electrons on the bunch tail become faster than electrons in the bunch head. In the second stage, the beam is further compressed with a conventional magnetic chicane. With the aid of numerical simulations we show that our two-staged scheme is capable to increase the current of a 50 pC bunch to a notable factor of 100 while the emittance growth can be suppressed to 1% with appropriate tailoring of the initial beam distribution.

  3. A hybrid approach for generating ultra-short bunches for advanced accelerator applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratakis, Diktys

    2016-06-01

    Generation of electron beams with high phase-space density, short bunch length and high peak current is an essential requirement for future linear colliders and bright electron beam sources. Unfortunately, such bunches cannot be produced directly from the source since forces from the mutual repulsion of electrons would destroy the brilliance of the beam within a short distance. Here, we detail a beam dynamics study of a two-stage compression scheme that can generate ultra-short bunches without degrading the beam quality. In the first stage, a magnetized beam is compressed with a velocity bunching technique in which the longitudinal phase space is rotated so that electrons on the bunch tail become faster than electrons in the bunch head. In the second stage, the beam is further compressed with a magnetic chicane. With the aid of numerical simulations we show that our two-staged scheme is capable to increase the current of a 50 pC bunch by a notable factor of 100 (from 15 A to 1.5 kA) while the emittance growth can be suppressed to 1% with appropriate tailoring of the initial beam distribution.

  4. Bunch length measurements using synchrotron ligth monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Mahmoud; Tiefenback, Michael G.

    2015-09-01

    The bunch length is measured at CEBAF using an invasive technique. The technique depends on applying an energy chirp for the electron bunch and imaging it through a dispersive region. The measurements are taken through Arc1 and Arc2 at CEBAF. The fundamental equations, procedure and the latest results are given.

  5. THz radiation as a bunch diagnostic forlaser-wakefield-accelerated electron bunches

    SciTech Connect

    van Tilborg, J.; Schroeder, C.B.; Filip, C.V.; Toth, Cs.; Geddes,C.G.R.; Fubiani, G.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.

    2006-02-15

    Experimental results are reported from two measurementtechniques (semiconductor switching and electro-optic sampling) thatallow temporal characterization of electron bunches produced by alaser-driven plasma-based accelerator. As femtosecond electron bunchesexit the plasma-vacuum interface, coherent transition radiation (at THzfrequencies) is emitted. Measuring the properties of this radiationallows characterization of the electron bunches. Theoretical work on theemission mechanism is represented, including a model that calculates theTHz waveform from a given bunch profile. It is found that the spectrum ofthe THz pulse is coherent up to the 200 mu m thick crystal (ZnTe)detection limit of 4 THz, which corresponds to the production of sub-50fs (root-mean-square) electron bunch structure. The measurementsdemonstrate both the shot-to-shot stability of bunch parameters that arecritical to THz emission (such as total charge and bunch length), as wellas femtosecond synchrotron between bunch, THz pulse, and laserbeam.

  6. Femtosecond electron bunches, source and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongbai, C.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Rimjaem, S.; Rhodes, M. W.; Saisut, J.; Thamboon, P.; Wichaisirimongkol, P.; Vilaithong, T.

    2008-03-01

    A femtosecond electron source has been developed at the Fast Neutron Research Facility (FNRF), Chiang Mai University, Thailand. So far, it has produced electron bunches as short as σ z˜180 fs with (1-6)×10 8 electrons per microbunch. The system consists of an RF-gun with a thermionic cathode, an alpha-magnet as a magnetic bunch compressor, and a linear accelerator as a post acceleration section. Coherent transition radiation emitted at wavelengths equal to and longer than the bunch length is used in a Michelson interferometer to determine the bunch length by autocorrelation technique. The experimental setup and results of the bunch length measurement are described.

  7. Electron bunch structure in energy recovery linac with high-voltage dc photoelectron gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saveliev, Y. M.; Jackson, F.; Jones, J. K.; McKenzie, J. W.

    2016-09-01

    The internal structure of electron bunches generated in an injector line with a dc photoelectron gun is investigated. Experiments were conducted on the ALICE (accelerators and lasers in combined experiments) energy recovery linac at Daresbury Laboratory. At a relatively low dc gun voltage of 230 kV, the bunch normally consisted of two beamlets with different electron energies, as well as transverse and longitudinal characteristics. The beamlets are formed at the head and the tail of the bunch. At a higher gun voltage of 325 kV, the beam substructure is much less pronounced and could be observed only at nonoptimal injector settings. Experiments and computer simulations demonstrated that the bunch structure develops during the initial beam acceleration in the superconducting rf booster cavity and can be alleviated either by increasing the gun voltage to the highest possible level or by controlling the beam acceleration from the gun voltage in the first accelerating structure.

  8. Laser vacuum acceleration of a relativistic electron bunch

    SciTech Connect

    Glazyrin, I V; Karpeev, A V; Kotova, O G; Nazarov, K S; Bychenkov, V Yu

    2015-06-30

    With regard to the problem of laser acceleration of a relativistic electron bunch we present a scheme of its vacuum acceleration directly by a relativistic intensity laser pulse. The energy of the electron bunch injected into the laser pulse leading edge increases during its coaxial movement to a thin, pulse-reflecting target. The laser-accelerated electrons continue to move free forward, passing through the target. The study of this acceleration scheme in the three-dimensional geometry is verified in a numerical simulation by the particle-in-cell method, which showed that the energy of a part of the electrons can increase significantly compared to the initial one. Restrictions are discussed, which impose limiting values of energy and total charge of accelerated electrons. (superstrong light fields)

  9. Gyrophase bunched ions in the plasma sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhai, Hao; Gao, Zhuxiu; Huang, Chaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Gyrophase bunched ions were first detected in the upstream region of the Earth's bow shock in the early 1980s which is formed by the microphysical process associated with reflected solar wind ions at the bow shock. Inside the magnetosphere, the results of computer simulations demonstrated that nonlinear wave-particle interaction can also result in the gyrophase bunching of particles. However, to date direct observations barely exist regarding this issue occurred inside the magnetosphere. In this paper, we report for the first time an event of gyrophase bunched ions observed in the near-Earth plasma sheet. The nongyrotropic distributions of ions were closely accompanied with the electromagnetic waves at the oxygen cyclotron frequency. The phase of bunched ions and the phase of waves mainly have very narrow phase differences (<30°) when the O+ band waves are remarkably enhanced, which indicates that the wave and particle are closely corotating. The "electric phase bunching" is considered to be a possible mechanism for the formation of the gyrophase bunched distributions in this case. The MVA analysis suggests that the oxygen band waves possess left helicity with respect to the propagation direction, which agrees with the characteristic of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. The observation of O+ ions composition suggests that the oxygen band waves are excited due to the enhancements of the O+ ion density. This study suggests that the gyrophase bunching is a significant nonlinear effect that exists not only in the bow shock but also in the inner magnetosphere.

  10. Van Kampen modes for bunch longitudinal motion

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, A.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Conditions for existence, uniqueness and stability of bunch steady states are considered. For the existence uniqueness problem, simple algebraic equations are derived, showing the result both for the action and Hamiltonian domain distributions. For the stability problem, van Kampen theory is used. Emerging of discrete van Kampen modes show either loss of Landau damping, or instability. This method can be applied for an arbitrary impedance, RF shape and beam distribution function Available areas on intensity-emittance plane are shown for resistive wall wake and single harmonic, bunch shortening and bunch lengthening RF configurations. Language of van Kampen modes is a powerful tool for studying beam stability. Its unique efficiency reveals itself in those complicated cases, when the dielectric function cannot be obtained, as it is for the longitudinal bunch motion. Emergence of a discrete mode means either loss of Landau damping or instability. By definition, the discrete modes lie outside the continuous incoherent spectrum, but they still may stay within the bucket. In the last case, the discrete mode would disappear after a tiny portion of resonant particles would be added. However, if the discrete mode lie outside the bucket, the Landau damping cannot be restored by tiny perturbation of the particle distribution; LLD is called radical in that case. For a given bunch emittance and RF voltage, the intensity is limited either by reduction of the bucket acceptance or by (radical) LLD. In this paper, results are presented for longitudinal bunch stability in weak head-tail approximation and resistive wall impedance; three RF configurations are studied: single harmonic, bunch shortening and bunch lengthening. It is shown that every RF configuration may be preferable, depending on the bunch emittance and intensity.

  11. Plasma-driven ultrashort bunch diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornmair, I.; Schroeder, C. B.; Floettmann, K.; Marchetti, B.; Maier, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    Ultrashort electron bunches are crucial for an increasing number of applications, however, diagnosing their longitudinal phase space remains a challenge. We propose a new method that harnesses the strong electric fields present in a laser driven plasma wakefield. By transversely displacing driver laser and witness bunch, a streaking field is applied to the bunch. This field maps the time information to a transverse momentum change and, consequently, to a change of transverse position. We illustrate our method with simulations where we achieve a time resolution in the attosecond range.

  12. Diagnostic technique applied for FEL electron bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovko, O.; Grebentsov, A.; Morozov, N.; Syresin, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2016-05-01

    Diagnostic technique applied for FEL ultrashort electron bunches is developed at JINR-DESY collaboration within the framework of the FLASH and XFEL projects. Photon diagnostics are based on calorimetric measurements and detection of undulator radiation. The infrared undulator constructed at JINR and installed at FLASH is used for longitudinal bunch shape measurements and for two-color lasing provided by the FIR and VUV undulators. The pump probe experiments with VUV and FIR undulators provide the bunch profile measurements with resolution of several femtosecond. The new three microchannel plates (MCP) detectors operated in X-ray range are under development now in JINR for SASE1-SASE 3 European XFEL.

  13. Contrast of Subpicosecond Microelectron Bunch Trains

    SciTech Connect

    Muggli, Patric; Kallos, Efthymios; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Kusche, Karl; Babzien, Marcus; Park, Jangho

    2009-01-22

    We recently demonstrated that electron bunch trains with a controllable number of bunches and adjustable subpicosecond spacing can be produced using a mask technique. In this paper we calculate the bunch train contrast as a function of the beam betatron size at the mask {sigma}{sub {beta}} and of the diameter d of the mask wires separated by a period D. As expected, when {sigma}{sub {beta}}/(d/2) the contrast is high and decreases with increasing {sigma}{sub {beta}}/(d/2)

  14. Excitation of Intra-bunch Vertical Motion in the SPS - Implications for Feedback Control of Ecloud and TMCI Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cesaratto, J.M.; Fox, J.D.; Pivi, M.T.; Rivetta, C.H.; Turgut, O.; Uemura, S.; Hofle, W.; Wehrle, U.; /CERN

    2012-06-01

    Electron cloud (ecloud) and transverse mode coupled-bunch instabilities (TMCI) limit the bunch intensity in the CERN SPS. This paper presents experimental measurements in the SPS of single-bunch motion driven by a GHz bandwidth vertical excitation system. The final goal is to quantify the change in internal bunch dynamics as instability thresholds are approached, and quantify the frequencies of internal modes as ecloud effects become significant. Initially, we have been able to drive the beam and view its motion. We show the excitation of barycentric, head-tail and higher vertical modes at different bunch intensities. The beam motion is analyzed in the time domain, via animated presentations of the sampled vertical signals, and in the frequency domain, via spectrograms showing the modal frequencies vs. time. The demonstration of the excitation of selected internal modes is a significant step in the development of the feedback control techniques.

  15. Down sampled signal processing for a B Factory bunch-by-bunch feedback system

    SciTech Connect

    Hindi, H.; Hosseini, W.; Briggs, D.; Fox, J.; Hutton, A.

    1992-03-01

    A bunch-by-bunch feedback scheme is studied for damping coupled bunch synchrotron oscillations in the proposed PEP II B Factory. The quasi-linear feedback systems design incorporates a phase detector to provide a quantized measure of bunch phase, digital signal processing to compute an error correction signal and a kicker system to correct the energy of the bunches. A farm of digital processors, operating in parallel, is proposed to compute correction signals for the 1658 bunches of the B Factory. This paper studies the use of down sampled processing to reduce the computational complexity of the feedback system. We present simulation results showing the effect of down sampling on beam dynamics. Results show that down sampled processing can reduce the scale of the processing task by a factor of 10.

  16. Effect of higher harmonic control on helicopter rotor blade-vortex interaction noise: Prediction and initial validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaumier, P.; Prieur, J.; Rahier, G.; Spiegel, P.; Demargne, A.; Tung, C.; Gallman, J. M.; Yu, Y. H.; Kube, R.; Vanderwall, B. G.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a status of theoretical tools of AFDD, DLR, NASA and ONERA for prediction of the effect of HHC on helicopter main rotor BVI noise. Aeroacoustic predictions from the four research centers, concerning a wind tunnel simulation of a typical descent flight case without and with HHC are presented and compared. The results include blade deformation, geometry of interacting vortices, sectional loads and noise. Acoustic predictions are compared to experimental data. An analysis of the results provides a first insight of the mechanisms by which HHC may affect BVI noise.

  17. Coupled-bunch instabilities of the Tevatron at Run II

    SciTech Connect

    K. Y. Ng

    2003-03-06

    The longitudinal and transverse coupled-bunch instabilities of the Tevatron at Run II are addressed in two scenarios. The first scenario corresponds to the present Run II condition: 36 proton bunches on 36 antiprotons. Each proton bunch contains 1.7 x 10{sup 11} particles with a rms bunch length 60 cm. The second scenario is for the future upgrade when there are 108 proton bunches colliding with 108 antiproton bunches. Each proton bunch contains 2.7 x 10{sup 11} particles with a rms bunch length 50 cm. The analysis shows that the growth rates of transverse coupled-bunch instabilities are slow and will be damped by a small betatron tune spread. On the other hand, growth rates of longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities will be fast especially for the 108-by-108 scenario.

  18. Single bunch and multi-bunch injection schemes for Iranian Light Source Facility booster synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghipanah, A.; Feghhi, S. A. H.; Rahighi, J.; Ghasem, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the design proposal for the Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF) chopper is presented and the expected performance of both single bunch and multi-bunch modes of beam injection into the booster synchrotron is described. For the multi-bunch mode, a 100 MHz sub-harmonic pre-buncher is proposed to be employed next to the electron gun particularly to reduce the particle loss during the energy ramp of the booster. The results indicated significant improvement of the injection efficiency into the booster. The total particle loss rate for the multi-bunch injection is reduced from 35% to 4%.

  19. Considerations of bunch-spacing options for multi-bunch operation of the Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Dugan, G.

    1989-12-14

    This discussion will consider a number of points relevant to limitations, advantages and disadvantages of various arrangements of bunches in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. The considerations discussed here will be limited to: (a) bunch spacing symmetry and relation to the relative luminosity at B0 and D0 and the beam-beam interaction with separated beams; (b) bunch spacing constraints imposed by Main Ring RF coalescing and the optics of beam separation at B0 and D0; and (c) bunch spacing constraints imposed by injection and abort kicker timing requirements, and by the Antiproton Source RF unstacking process. 20 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. Generation and measurement of velocity bunched ultrashort bunch of pC charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X. H.; Tang, C. X.; Li, R. K.; To, H.; Andonian, G.; Musumeci, P.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss the velocity compression in a short rf linac of an electron bunch from a rf photoinjector operated in the blowout regime. Particle tracking simulations shows that with a beam charge of 2 pC an ultrashort bunch duration of 16 fs can be obtained at a tight longitudinal focus downstream of the linac. A simplified coherent transition radiation (CTR) spectrum method is developed to enable the measurement of ultrashort (sub-50 fs) bunches at low bunch energy (5 MeV) and low bunch charges (<10 pC ). In this method, the ratio of the radiation energy selected by two narrow bandwidth filters is used to estimate the bunch length. The contribution to the coherent form factor of the large transverse size of the bunch suppresses the radiation signal significantly and is included in the analysis. The experiment was performed at the UCLA Pegasus photoinjector laboratory. The measurement results show bunches of sub-40 fs with 2 pC of charge well consistent with the simulation using actual experimental conditions. These results open the way to the generation of ultrashort bunches with time-duration below 10 fs once some of the limitations of the setup (rf phase jitter, amplitude instability and low field in the gun limited by breakdown) are corrected.

  1. Bunch-by-bunch longitudinal feedback system for PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Oxoby, G.; Claus, R.; Fox, J.

    1994-06-01

    This paper describes the implementation of the bunch-by-bunch longitudinal feedback system for the PEP-II B Factory. Bunch spacing down to 2 ns is achieved using 500 Megasamples per second A/D and D/A converters, and AT&T 1610 Digital Signal Processors are integrated to run a downsampled feedback algorithm for each bunch in parallel. This general purpose programmable system, packaged in VXI and VME, is modular and scalable to offer portability to other accelerator rings. The control and monitoring hardware and software architecture have been developed to provide ease of operation as well as diagnostic tools for machine physics.

  2. Bunch compression for the TLC: Preliminary design

    SciTech Connect

    Kheifets, S.A.; Ruth, R.D.; Murray, J.J.; Fieguth, T.H.

    1988-12-01

    A preliminary design of a TLC bunch compressor as a two-stage device is described. The main parameters of the compressor, as well as results of some simulations, are presented. They show that the ideal system (no imperfections) does the job of transmitting transverse emittances without distortions (at least up to the second-order terms) producing at the same time the desired bunch length of 50 m. 9 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Application accelerator system having bunch control

    DOEpatents

    Wang, D.; Krafft, G.A.

    1999-06-22

    An application accelerator system for monitoring the gain of a free electron laser is disclosed. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detection techniques are used with a bunch length monitor for ultra short, picosec to several tens of femtosec, electron bunches. The monitor employs an application accelerator, a coherent radiation production device, an optical or beam chopping device, an infrared radiation collection device, a narrow-banding filter, an infrared detection device, and a control. 1 fig.

  4. Application accelerator system having bunch control

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Dunxiong; Krafft, Geoffrey Arthur

    1999-01-01

    An application accelerator system for monitoring the gain of a free electron laser. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detection techniques are used with a bunch length monitor for ultra short, picosec to several tens of femtosec, electron bunches. The monitor employs an application accelerator, a coherent radiation production device, an optical or beam chopping device, an infrared radiation collection device, a narrow-banding filter, an infrared detection device, and a control.

  5. Compact noninvasive electron bunch-length monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Brock; Poelker, Matt; Mammei, Russell R.; McCarter, James L.

    2012-12-01

    A compact RF cavity was constructed that simultaneously resonates at many harmonic modes when excited by a bunched electron beam passing through its bore. The excitation of these modes provides a Fourier description of the temporal characteristics of the bunchtrain. The cavity was used to non-invasively characterize electron bunches produced from thin and thick GaAs photocathodes inside a DC high voltage photogun illuminated with 37 ps (FWHM) laser pulses at repetition rates near 500 and 1500 MHz, at average beam current from 5 uA to 500 uA and at beam energy from 75 keV to 195 keV. The cavity bunchlength monitor could detect electron bunches as short as 57 ps (FWHM) when connected directly to a sampling oscilloscope, and could clearly distinguish bunches with varying degrees of space-charge induced growth and with different tail signatures. Efforts are underway to detect shorter bunches, by designing cavities with increased bandwidth and improved coupling uniformity. This demonstration lends credibility to the idea that these cavities could also be used for other applications, including bunching and shaping, when driven with external RF.

  6. Bucket shaking stops bunch dancing in Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, A.; Tan, C.Y.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Bunches in Tevatron are known to be longitudinally unstable: their collective oscillations, also called dancing bunches, persist without any signs of decay. Typically, a damper is used to stop these oscillations, but recently, it was theoretically predicted that the oscillations can be stabilized by means of small bucket shaking. Dedicated measurements in Tevatron have shown that this method does stop the dancing. According to predictions of Refs. [2,3], the flattening of the bunch distribution at low amplitudes should make the bunch more stable against LLD. An experiment has been devised to flatten the distribution by modulating the RF phase at the low-amplitude synchrotron frequency for a few degrees of amplitude. These beam studies show that stabilisation really happens. After several consecutive shakings, the dancing disappears and the resulting bunch profile becomes smoother at the top. Although not shown in this report, sometimes a little divot forms at the centre of the distribution. These experiments confirm that resonant RF shaking flattens the bunch distribution at low amplitudes, and the dancing stops.

  7. Longitudinal Diagnostics for Short Electron Beam Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Loos, H.; /SLAC

    2010-06-11

    Single-pass free electron lasers require high peak currents from ultra-short electron bunches to reach saturation and an accurate measurement of bunch length and longitudinal bunch profile is necessary to control the bunch compression process from low to high beam energy. The various state-of-the-art diagnostics methods from ps to fs time scales using coherent radiation detection, RF deflection, and other techniques are presented. The use of linear accelerators as drivers for free electron lasers (FEL) and the advent of single-pass (SASE) FELs has driven the development of a wide range of diagnostic techniques for measuring the length and longitudinal distribution of short and ultra-short electron bunches. For SASE FELs the radiation power and the length of the undulator needed to achieve saturation depend strongly on the charge density of the electron beam. In the case of X-ray FELs, this requires the accelerator to produce ultra-high brightness beams with micron size transverse normalized emittances and peak currents of several kA through several stages of magnetic bunch compression. Different longitudinal diagnostics are employed to measure the peak current and bunch profile along these stages. The measurement techniques can be distinguished into different classes. Coherent methods detect the light emitted from the beam by some coherent radiation process (spectroscopic measurement), or directly measure the Coulomb field traveling with the beam (electro-optic). Phase space manipulation techniques map the time coordinate onto a transverse dimension and then use conventional transverse beam diagnostics (transverse deflector, rf zero-phasing). Further methods measure the profile or duration of an incoherent light pulse emitted by the bunch at wavelengths much shorted than the bunch length (streak camera, fluctuation technique) or modulate the electron beam at an optical wavelength and then generate a narrow bandwidth radiation pulse with the longitudinal profile of

  8. Terahertz radiation as a bunch diagnostic for laser-wakefield-accelerated electron bunches

    SciTech Connect

    van Tilborg, Jeroen; Schroeder, Carl; Filip, Catalin; Toth, Csaba; Geddes, Cameron; Fubiani, Gwenael; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2011-06-17

    Experimental results are reported from two measurement techniques (semiconductor switching and electro-optic sampling) that allow temporal characterization of electron bunches produced by a laser-driven plasma-based accelerator. As femtosecond electron bunches exit the plasma-vacuum interface, coherent transition radiation (at THz frequencies) is emitted. Measuring the properties of this radiation allows characterization of the electron bunches. Theoretical work on the emission mechanism is presented, including a model that calculates the THz wave form from a given bunch profile. It is found that the spectrum of the THz pulse is coherent up to the 200 {micro}m thick crystal (ZnTe) detection limit of 4 THz, which corresponds to the production of sub-50 fs (rms) electron bunch structure. The measurements demonstrate both the shot-to-shot stability of bunch parameters that are critical to THz emission (such as total charge and bunch length), as well as femtosecond synchronization among bunch, THz pulse, and laser beam.

  9. COMMISSIONING OF THE DIGITAL TRANSVERSE BUNCH-BY-BUNCH FEEDBACK SYSTEM FOR THE TLS.

    SciTech Connect

    HU, K.H.; KUO, C.H.; CHOU, P.J.; LEE, D.; HSU, S.Y.; CHEN, J.; WANG, C.J.; HSU, K.T.; KOBAYASHI, K.; NAKAMURA, T.; CHAO, A.W.; WENG, W.T.

    2006-06-26

    Multi-bunch instabilities degrade beam quality through increased beam emittance, energy spread and even beam loss. Feedback systems are used to suppress multi-bunch instabilities associated with the resistive wall of the beam ducts, cavity-like structures, and trapped ions. A new digital transverse bunch-by-bunch feedback system has recently been commissioned at the Taiwan Light Source, and has replaced the previous analog system. The new system has the advantages that it enlarges the tune acceptance and improves damping for transverse instability at high currents, such that top-up operation is achieved. After a coupled-bunch transverse instability was suppressed, more than 350 mA was successfully stored during preliminary commissioning. In this new system, a single feedback loop simultaneously suppresses both horizontal and vertical multi-bunch instabilities. Investigating the characteristics of the feedback loop and further improving the system performances are the next short-term goals. The feedback system employs the latest generation of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) processor to process bunch signals. Memory has been installed to capture up to 250 msec of bunch oscillation signal, considering system diagnostics suitable to support various beam physics studies.

  10. Initial flight and simulator evaluation of a head up display for standard and noise abatement visual approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourquin, K.; Palmer, E. A.; Cooper, G.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary assessment was made of the adequacy of a simple head up display (HUD) for providing vertical guidance for flying noise abatement and standard visual approaches in a jet transport. The HUD featured gyro-stabilized approach angle scales which display the angle of declination to any point on the ground and a horizontal flight path bar which aids the pilot in his control of the aircraft flight path angle. Thirty-three standard and noise abatement approaches were flown in a Boeing 747 aircraft equipped with a head up display. The HUD was also simulated in a research simulator. The simulator was used to familiarize the pilots with the display and to determine the most suitable way to use the HUD for making high capture noise abatement approaches. Preliminary flight and simulator data are presented and problem areas that require further investigation are identified.

  11. A compact source for bunches of singly charged atomic ions.

    PubMed

    Murböck, T; Schmidt, S; Andelkovic, Z; Birkl, G; Nörtershäuser, W; Vogel, M

    2016-04-01

    We have built, operated, and characterized a compact ion source for low-energy bunches of singly charged atomic ions in a vacuum beam line. It is based on atomic evaporation from an electrically heated oven and ionization by electron impact from a heated filament inside a grid-based ionization volume. An adjacent electrode arrangement is used for ion extraction and focusing by applying positive high-voltage pulses to the grid. The method is particularly suited for experimental environments which require low electromagnetic noise. It has proven simple yet reliable and has been used to produce μs-bunches of up to 10(6) Mg(+) ions at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. We present the concept, setup and characterizing measurements. The instrument has been operated in the framework of the SpecTrap experiment at the HITRAP facility at GSI/FAIR to provide Mg(+) ions for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions by laser-cooled (24)Mg(+).

  12. Double rf system for bunch shortening

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Yong Ho.

    1990-11-01

    It was suggested by Zisman that the combination of the two systems (double rf system) may be more effective to shorten a bunch, compromising between the desirable and the undesirable effects mentioned above. In this paper, we demonstrate that a double rf system is, in fact, quite effective in optimizing the rf performance. The parameters used are explained, and some handy formulae for bunch parameters are derived. We consider an example of bunch shortening by adding a higher-harmonic rf system to the main rf system. The parameters of the main rf system are unchanged. The double rf system, however, can be used for another purpose. Namely, the original bunch length can be obtained with a main rf voltage substantially lower than for a single rf system without necessitating a high-power source for the higher-harmonic cavities. Using a double rf system, the momentum acceptance remains large enough for ample beam lifetime. Moreover, the increase in nonlinearity of the rf waveform increases the synchrotron tune spread, which potentially helps a beam to be stabilized against longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities. We will show some examples of this application. We discuss the choice of the higher-harmonic frequency.

  13. Loss of Landau Damping for Bunch Oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-04-11

    Conditions for the existence, uniqueness and stability of self-consistent bunch steady states are considered. For the existence and uniqueness problems, simple algebraic criteria are derived for both the action and Hamiltonian domain distributions. For the stability problem, van Kampen theory is used. The onset of a discrete van Kampen mode means the emergence of a coherent mode without any Landau damping; thus, even a tiny couple-bunch or multi-turn wake is sufficient to drive the instability. The method presented here assumes an arbitrary impedance, RF shape, and beam distribution function. Available areas on the intensity-emittance plane are shown for resistive wall wake and single harmonic, bunch shortening and bunch lengthening RF configurations. Thresholds calculated for the Tevatron parameters and impedance model are in agreement with the observations. These thresholds are found to be extremely sensitive to the small-argument behaviour of the bunch distribution function. Accordingly, a method to increase the LLD threshold is suggested. This article summarizes and extends recent author's publications.

  14. Fast Bunch Integrators at Fermilab During Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Thomas; Briegel, Charles; Fellenz, Brian; Vogel, Greg; /Fermilab

    2011-07-13

    The Fast Bunch Integrator is a bunch intensity monitor designed around the measurements made from Resistive Wall Current Monitors. During the Run II period these were used in both Tevatron and Main Injector for single and multiple bunch intensity measurements. This paper presents an overview of the design and use of these systems during this period. During the Run II era the Fast Bunch integrators have found a multitude of uses. From antiproton transfers to muti-bunch beam coalescing, Main Injector transfers to halo scraping and lifetime measurements, the Fast Bunch Integrators have proved invaluable in the creation and maintenance of Colliding Beams stores at Fermilab.

  15. Measurements and Analysis of Longitudinal HOM Driven Coupled Bunch Modes in PEP-II Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Mastorides, T; Rivetta, C.; Fox, J.D.; Winkle, D.Van; /SLAC

    2008-07-07

    The growth rates of the longitudinal higher-order impedance-driven beam modes have greatly increased since the initial PEP-II design and commissioning. This increase is attributed to the addition of 6 1.2MW RF stations with 8 accelerating cavities in the HER and 2 1.2MW RF stations with 4 accelerating cavities in the LER, which allowed operations at twice the design current and almost four times the luminosity. As a result, the damping requirements for the longitudinal feedback have greatly increased since the design, and the feedback filters and control schemes have evolved during PEP-II operations. In this paper, growth and damping rate data for the higher-order mode (HOM) driven coupled-bunch modes are presented from various PEP-II runs and are compared with historical estimates during commissioning. The effect of noise in the feedback processing channel is also studied. Both the stability and performance limits of the system are analyzed.

  16. Adaptive method for electron bunch profile prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinker, Alexander; Gessner, Spencer

    2015-10-01

    We report on an experiment performed at the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, in which a new adaptive control algorithm, one with known, bounded update rates, despite operating on analytically unknown cost functions, was utilized in order to provide quasi-real-time bunch property estimates of the electron beam. Multiple parameters, such as arbitrary rf phase settings and other time-varying accelerator properties, were simultaneously tuned in order to match a simulated bunch energy spectrum with a measured energy spectrum. The simple adaptive scheme was digitally implemented using matlab and the experimental physics and industrial control system. The main result is a nonintrusive, nondestructive, real-time diagnostic scheme for prediction of bunch profiles, as well as other beam parameters, the precise control of which are important for the plasma wakefield acceleration experiments being explored at FACET. © 2015 authors. Published by the American Physical Society.

  17. Note on polarized RHIC bunch arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, D.

    1996-08-30

    We discuss what combinations of bunch polarization in the two RHIC rings are necessary to do the physics measurements at various interaction regions. We also consider the bunches for both the pion inclusive and p-p elastic polarization measurements. Important factors to consider are the direction of the polarization with respect to the momentum in each bunch, the beam gas backgrounds, and the simulation of zero - polarization in one beam by averaging + and - helicity, and luminosity monitoring for normalization. These considerations can be addressed by setting the relative number of each of the 9 combinations possible at each of the 6 interaction regions. The combinations are (+ empty -) yellow X (+ empty -)blue, where yellow and blue are the counter-rotating rings.

  18. Adaptive method for electron bunch profile prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheinker, Alexander; Gessner, Spencer

    2015-10-01

    We report on an experiment performed at the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, in which a new adaptive control algorithm, one with known, bounded update rates, despite operating on analytically unknown cost functions, was utilized in order to provide quasi-real-time bunch property estimates of the electron beam. Multiple parameters, such as arbitrary rf phase settings and other time-varying accelerator properties, were simultaneously tuned in order to match a simulated bunch energy spectrum with a measured energy spectrum. The simple adaptive scheme was digitally implemented using matlab and the experimental physics and industrial control system. The main result is a nonintrusive, nondestructive, real-time diagnostic scheme for prediction of bunch profiles, as well as other beam parameters, the precise control of which are important for the plasma wakefield acceleration experiments being explored at FACET.

  19. Bunched beam longitudinal instability: Coherent dipole motion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.Y.; Weng, W.T.

    1993-04-23

    In this paper, the authors present a new formulation for the longitudinal coherent dipole motion, where a quadrature response of the environmental impedance is shown to be the effective longitudinal impedance for the beam instability. The Robinson-Pedersen formulation for the longitudinal dipole motion is also presented, the difference of the two approaches is discussed in the comparison. The results by using the Sacherer integral equation for the coherent dipole motion can generate the same results as by using the other two approaches, except for a scaling difference. The formulation is further generalized to the rigid bunch motion using signal analysis method, where a form factor shows up naturally. Finally, the formulation is applied to solve the coupled bunch instabilities. Examples of the AGS Booster and the AGS coupled bunch instabilities are used to illustrate the applications of the formulation.

  20. BUNCHED BEAM STOCHASTIC COOLING PROJECT FOR RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    BRENNAN, J.M.; BASKIEWICZ, M.M.

    2005-09-18

    The main performance limitation for RHIC is emittance growth caused by IntraBeam Scattering during the store. We have developed a longitudinal bunched-beam stochastic cooling system in the 5-8 GHz band which will be used to counteract IBS longitudinal emittance growth and prevent de-bunching during the store. Solutions to the technical problems of achieving sufficient kicker voltage and overcoming the electronic saturation effects caused by coherent components within the Schottky spectrum are described. Results from tests with copper ions in RHIC during the FY05 physics run, including the observation of signal suppression, are presented.

  1. Longitudinal Diagnostics of Short Bunches at FLASH

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Shaukat

    2009-01-22

    Novel acceleration concepts such as laser- or beam-driven plasma acceleration require advanced diagnostic techniques to characterize and monitor the beam. A particular challenge is to measure bunch lengths of the order of 10 femtoseconds. Several methods are currently explored at the free-electron laser FLASH at DESY/Hamburg and will be discussed it this paper, such as electro-optical sampling, streaking bunches with a transversely deflecting cavity, and -most recently implemented at FLASH--the optical-replica synthesizer, a laser-based technique promising a time resolution of a few femtoseconds.

  2. Transverse single bunch instability study on BEPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, J.; Sun, Y. P.

    2007-04-01

    In recent years, a lot of experiments were done on ESRF and ELETTRA to study the single bunch transverse instability. To prevent such instabilities on BEPCII in the future, experiments were made on the single bunch transverse instability threshold current versus the chromaticity on BEPC. By analyzing the experimental data based on the theory developed in [J. Gao, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 416 (1998) 186 (see also PAC97, Vancouver, Canada, 1997, p. 1605).], the transverse loss factor of BEPC and the corresponding scaling law are obtained.

  3. Method for maximizing the brightness of the bunches in a particle injector by converting a highly space-charged beam to a relativistic and emittance-dominated beam

    DOEpatents

    Hannon, Fay

    2016-08-02

    A method for maximizing the brightness of the bunches in a particle injector by converting a highly space-charged beam to a relativistic and emittance-dominated beam. The method includes 1) determining the bunch charge and the initial kinetic energy of the highly space-charge dominated input beam; 2) applying the bunch charge and initial kinetic energy properties of the highly space-charge dominated input beam to determine the number of accelerator cavities required to accelerate the bunches to relativistic speed; 3) providing the required number of accelerator cavities; and 4) setting the gradient of the radio frequency (RF) cavities; and 5) operating the phase of the accelerator cavities between -90 and zero degrees of the sinusoid of phase to simultaneously accelerate and bunch the charged particles to maximize brightness, and until the beam is relativistic and emittance-dominated.

  4. Sub-fs electron bunch generation with sub-10-fs bunch arrival-time jitter via bunch slicing in a magnetic chicane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Assmann, R. W.; Dohlus, M.; Dorda, U.; Marchetti, B.

    2016-05-01

    The generation of ultrashort electron bunches with ultrasmall bunch arrival-time jitter is of vital importance for laser-plasma wakefield acceleration with external injection. We study the production of 100-MeV electron bunches with bunch durations of subfemtosecond (fs) and bunch arrival-time jitters of less than 10 fs, in an S-band photoinjector by using a weak magnetic chicane with a slit collimator. The beam dynamics inside the chicane is simulated by using two codes with different self-force models. The first code separates the self-force into a three-dimensional (3D) quasistatic space-charge model and a one-dimensional coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) model, while the other one starts from the first principle with a so-called 3D sub-bunch method. The simulations indicate that the CSR effect dominates the horizontal emittance growth and the 1D CSR model underestimates the final bunch duration and emittance because of the very large transverse-to-longitudinal aspect ratio of the sub-fs bunch. Particularly, the CSR effect is also strongly affected by the vertical bunch size. Due to the coupling between the horizontal and longitudinal phase spaces, the bunch duration at the entrance of the last dipole magnet of the chicane is still significantly longer than that at the exit of the chicane, which considerably mitigates the impact of space charge and CSR effects on the beam quality. Exploiting this effect, a bunch charge of up to 4.8 pC in a sub-fs bunch could be simulated. In addition, we analytically and numerically investigate the impact of different jitter sources on the bunch arrival-time jitter downstream of the chicane, and define the tolerance budgets assuming realistic values of the stability of the linac for different bunch charges and compression schemes.

  5. Diffraction effects in the coherent transition radiation bunch length diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kazakevich, G.; Lebedev, V.; Nagaitsev, S.; /Fermilab

    2007-08-01

    Diffraction effects in the Coherent Transition Radiation (CTR) bunch length diagnostics are considered for the A0 Photoinjector and the New Muon Laboratory (NML) injection module. The effects can cause a noticeable distortion of the measured CTR spectra depending on the experimental setup and the bunch parameters and resulting in errors of the bunch length measurements. Presented calculations show possible systematic errors in the bunch length in measurements based on the CTR spectra at A0 Photo injector and the NML injection module.

  6. Longitudinal Beam Diagnostics for the ILC Injectors and Bunch Compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, Philippe; Bracke, Adam; Demir, Veysel; Maxwell, Timothy; Rihaoui, Marwan; Jing, Chunguang; Power, John

    2010-12-01

    We present a diagnostics suite and analyze techniques for setting up the longitudinal beam dynamics in ILC e⁻ injectors and e⁺ and e⁻ bunch compressors. Techniques to measure the first order moments and recover the first order longitudinal transfer map of the injector's intricate bunching scheme are presented. Coherent transition radiation diagnostics needed to measure and monitor the bunch length downstream of the ~5 GeV bunch compressor are investigated using a vector diffraction model.

  7. Method and apparatus for control of coherent synchrotron radiation effects during recirculation with bunch compression

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David R; Tennant, Christopher

    2015-11-10

    A modulated-bending recirculating system that avoids CSR-driven breakdown in emittance compensation by redistributing the bending along the beamline. The modulated-bending recirculating system includes a) larger angles of bending in initial FODO cells, thereby enhancing the impact of CSR early on in the beam line while the bunch is long, and 2) a decreased bending angle in the final FODO cells, reducing the effect of CSR while the bunch is short. The invention describes a method for controlling the effects of CSR during recirculation and bunch compression including a) correcting chromatic aberrations, b) correcting lattice and CSR-induced curvature in the longitudinal phase space by compensating T.sub.566, and c) using lattice perturbations to compensate obvious linear correlations x-dp/p and x'-dp/p.

  8. Using ions to probe the transverse size of a bunch

    SciTech Connect

    Rees, J.

    1984-05-01

    The electric field carried along by a SLC bunch is very intense at the surface of the bunch because of the bunch's tiny transverse dimensions and its high charge density. For a given bunch population, the maximum electric field - which occurs at the surface - is inversely proportional to the bunch radius for a round bunch. The smaller the radius, the higher the peak field. A charged particle such as an ion or an electron which is placed at rest in the path of the oncoming bunch will be accelerated by the field as the bunch has passed having sampled the field of the bunch. Thus by placing a swarm of stationary charged particles in the path of the bunch and measuring their momentum distribution when they emerge, we can hope to infer the bunch's transverse size. We are using the terms size and surface in a qualitative way, of course, expecting that their meaning will be reasonably clear to the reader. In our calculations we use a cylindrical model for the bunch in which their meanings are precise.

  9. The Case: Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nicole; Winters, Lynn; Alkin, Marvin C.

    2005-01-01

    The Bunche-Da Vinci case described in this article presents a situation at Bunche Elementary School that four theorists were asked to address in their evaluation designs (see EJ791771, EJ719772, EJ791773, and EJ792694). The Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy, an elementary school located between an urban port city and a historically…

  10. Bunch Splitting Simulations for the JLEIC Ion Collider Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Satogata, Todd J.; Gamage, Randika

    2016-05-01

    We describe the bunch splitting strategies for the proposed JLEIC ion collider ring at Jefferson Lab. This complex requires an unprecedented 9:6832 bunch splitting, performed in several stages. We outline the problem and current results, optimized with ESME including general parameterization of 1:2 bunch splitting for JLEIC parameters.

  11. BUNCH PATTERNS AND PRESSURE RISE IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.IRISO-ARIZ,U.

    2004-07-05

    The RHIC luminosity is limited by pressure rises with high intensity beams. At injection and store, the dominating cause for the pressure rise was shown to be electron clouds. We discuss bunch distributions along the circumference that minimize the electron cloud effect in RHIC. Simulation results are compared with operational observations.

  12. Microbunching Instability due to Bunch Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhirong; Wu, Juhao; Shaftan, Timur; /Brookhaven

    2005-12-13

    Magnetic bunch compressors are designed to increase the peak current while maintaining the transverse and longitudinal emittances in order to drive a short-wavelength free electron laser (FEL). Recently, several linac-based FEL experiments observe self-developing micro-structures in the longitudinal phase space of electron bunches undergoing strong compression [1-3]. In the mean time, computer simulations of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects in bunch compressors illustrate that a CSR-driven microbunching instability may significantly amplify small longitudinal density and energy modulations and hence degrade the beam quality [4]. Various theoretical models have since been developed to describe this instability [5-8]. It is also pointed out that the microbunching instability may be driven strongly by the longitudinal space charge (LSC) field [9,10] and by the linac wakefield [11] in the accelerator, leading to a very large overall gain of a two-stage compression system such as found in the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) [12]. This paper reviews theory and simulations of microbunching instability due to bunch compression, the proposed method to suppress its effects for short-wavelength FELs, and experimental characterizations of beam modulations in linear accelerators. A related topic of interests is microbunching instability in storage rings, which has been reported in the previous ICFA beam dynamics newsletter No. 35 (http://wwwbd. fnal.gov/icfabd/Newsletter35.pdf).

  13. Dancing bunches as Van Kampen modes

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Van Kampen modes are eigen-modes of Jeans-Vlasov equation [1-3]. Their spectrum consists of continuous and, possibly, discrete parts. Onset of a discrete van Kampen mode means emergence of a coherent mode without any Landau damping; thus, even a tiny couple-bunch wake is sufficient to drive instability. Longitudinal instabilities observed at Tevatron [4], RHIC [5] and SPS [6] can be explained as loss of Landau damping (LLD), which is shown here to happen at fairly low impedances. For repulsive wakes and single-harmonic RF, LLD is found to be extremely sensitive to steepness of the bunch distribution function at small amplitudes. Based on that, a method of beam stabilization is suggested. Emergence of a discrete van Kampen mode means either loss of Landau damping or instability. Longitudinal bunch stability is analysed in weak head-tail approximation for inductive impedance and single-harmonic RF. The LLD threshold intensities are found to be rather low: for cases under study all of them do not exceed a few percent of the zero-amplitude incoherent synchrotron frequency shift, strongly decreasing for shorter bunches. Because of that, LLD can explain longitudinal instabilities happened at fairly low impedances at Tevatron [4], and possibly for RHIC [5] and SPS [6], being in that sense an alternative to the soliton explanation [5, 20]. Although LLD itself results in many cases in emergence of a mode with zero growth rate, any couple-bunch (and sometimes multi-turn) wake would drive instability for that mode, however small this wake is. LLD is similar to a loss of immune system of a living cell, when any microbe becomes fatal for it. The emerging discrete mode is normally very different from the rigid-bunch motion; thus the rigid-mode model significantly overestimates the LLD threshold. The power low of LLD predicted in Ref. [17] agrees with results of this paper. However, the numerical factor in that scaling low strongly depends on the bunch distribution function

  14. Early transverse decoherence of bunches with space charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, Ivan; Kornilov, Vladimir; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    The transverse decoherence of injected bunches is an important phenomenon in synchrotrons and storage rings. The initial stage of this process determines the transverse emittance blowup, which should be taken into account for the design of feedback systems, for example. The interplay of different high-intensity effects can strongly affect the initial decoherence stage. We present a model that explains decoherence and emittance growth with chromaticity, space charge, and image charges within the first synchrotron period. We compare the model for different combinations of parameters with self-consistent particle tracking simulations and measurements in the SIS18 synchrotron at GSI Darmstadt. Generally, space charge slows down the decoherence process and can cause the loss of decoherence. Chromaticity and image charges can partly compensate this loss and restore the decoherence. We also analyze the single-particle excitation driven by space charge during the decoherence process. Particles gain large amplitudes from the coherent beam oscillation, which leads to halo buildup and losses.

  15. Controlling multi-bunches by a fast phase switching

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, F.J.; Jobe, R.K.; Merminga, N.; Thompson, K.A.

    1990-09-01

    In linear accelerators with two or more bunches the beam loading of one bunch will influence the energy and energy spread the following bunches. This can be corrected by quickly changing the phase of a traveling wave-structure, so that each bunch receives a slightly different net phase. At the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) three bunches, two (e{sup +},e{sup {minus}}) for the high energy collisions and one (e{sup {minus}}-scavenger) for producing positrons should sit at different phases, due to their different tasks. The two e{sup {minus}}-bunches are extracted from the damping ring at the same cycle time about 60 ns apart. Fast phase switching of the RF to the bunch length compressor in the Ring-To-Linac (RTL) section can produce the necessary advance of the scavenger bunch (about 6{degree} in phase). This allows a low energy spread of this third bunch at the e{sup +}-production region at 2/3 of the linac length, while the other bunches are not influenced. The principles and possible other applications of this fast phase switching as using it for multi-bunches, as well as the experimental layout for the actual RTL compressor are presented.

  16. A Two Bunch Beam Position Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Medvedko, E.; Aiello, R.; Smith, S.; /SLAC

    2011-09-12

    A new beam position monitor digitizer module has been designed, tested and tuned at SLAC. This module, the electron-positron beam position monitor (epBPM), measures position of single electron and positron bunches for the SLC, LINAC, PEPII injections lines and final focus. The epBPM has been designed to improve resolution of beam position measurements with respect to existing module and to speed feedback correction. The required dynamic range is from 5 x 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 11} particles per bunch (46dB). The epBPM input signal range is from {+-}2.5 mV to {+-}500 mV. The pulse-to-pulse resolution is less than 2 {mu}m for 5 x 10{sup 10} particles per bunch for the 12 cm long striplines, covering 30{sup o} at 9 mm radius. The epBPM module has been made in CAMAC standard, single width slot, with SLAC type timing connector. 45 modules have been fabricated. The epBPM module has four input channels X{sup +}, X{sup -}, Y{sup +}, Y{sup -} (Fig. 1), named to correspond with coordinates of four striplines - two in horizontal and two in vertical planes, processing signals to the epBPM inputs. The epBPM inputs are split for eight signal processing channels to catch two bunches, first - the positron, then the electron bunch in one cycle of measurements. The epBPM has internal and external trigger modes of operations. The internal mode has two options - with or without external timing, catching only first bunch in the untimed mode. The epBPM has an on board calibration circuit for measuring gain of the signal processing channels and for timing scan of programmable digital delays to synchronize the trigger and the epBPM input signal's peak. There is a mode for pedestal measurements. The epBPM has 3.6 {mu}s conversion time.

  17. Subpicosecond electron bunch train production using a phase-space exchange technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.-E.; Piot, P.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Maxwell, T.J.; Ruan, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Our recent experimental demonstration of a photoinjector electron bunch train with sub-picosecond structures is reported in this paper. The experiment is accomplished by converting an initially horizontal beam intensity modulation into a longitudinal phase space modulation, via a beamline capable of exchanging phase-space coordinates between the horizontal and longitudinal degrees of freedom. The initial transverse modulation is produced by intercepting the beam with a multislit mask prior to the exchange. We also compare our experimental results with numerical simulations.

  18. Practical application of noise diffusion in U-70 synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, S. V.; Lebedev, O. P.

    2016-12-01

    This paper briefly outlines the physical substantiation and the engineering implementation of technological systems in the U-70 synchrotron based on controllable noise diffusion of the beam. They include two systems of stochastic slow beam extraction (for high and intermediate energy) and the system of longitudinal noise RF gymnastics designated for flattening the bunch distribution over the azimuth.

  19. Bunch Profiling Using a Rotating Mask

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Mitchell; /SLAC /IIT, Chicago

    2012-08-24

    The current method for measuring profiles of proton bunches in accelerators is severely lacking. One must dedicate a great deal of time and expensive equipment to achieve meaningful results. A new method to complete this task uses a rotating mask with slots of three different orientations to collect this data. By scanning over the beam in three different directions, a complete profile for each bunch is built in just seconds, compared to the hours necessary for the previous method. This design was successfully tested using synchrotron radiation emitted by SPEAR3. The profile of the beam was measured in each of the three desired directions. Due to scheduled beam maintenance, only one set of data was completed and more are necessary to solve any remaining issues. The data collected was processed and all of the RMS sizes along the major and minor axes, as well as the tilt of the beam ellipse were measured.

  20. Production and Characterization of Attosecond Bunch Trains

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Christopher M.S.; Colby, Eric; Ischebeck, Rasmus; McGuinness , Christopher; Nelson, Janice; Noble, Robert; Siemann, Robert H.; Spencer, James; Walz, Dieter; Plettner, Tomas; Byer, Robert L.; /Stanford U.

    2008-06-02

    We report the production of optically spaced attosecond microbunches produced by the inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) process. The IFEL is driven by a Ti:sapphire laser synchronized with the electron beam. The IFEL is followed by a magnetic chicane that converts the energy modulation into the longitudinal microbunch structure. The microbunch train is characterized by observing Coherent Optical Transition Radiation (COTR) at multiple harmonics of the bunching. The experimental results are compared with 1D analytic theory showing good agreement. Estimates of the bunching factors are given and correspond to a microbunch length of 350as fwhm. The formation of stable attosecond electron pulse trains marks an important step towards direct laser acceleration.

  1. Bunch Length Measurements using Coherent Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ischebeck, Rasmus; Barnes, Christopher; Blumenfeld, Ian; Decker, Franz-Josef; Hogan, Mark; Iverson, Richard H.; Krejcik, Patrick; Siemann, Robert H.; Walz, Dieter; Kirby, Neil; Clayton, Chris; Huang, Chengkun; Johnson, Devon K.; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Ken; Deng, Suzhi; Oz, Erdem; /Southern California U.

    2005-06-24

    The accelerating field that can be obtained in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator depends on the current of the electron beam that excites the wake. In the E-167 experiment, a peak current above 10 kA will be delivered at a particle energy of 28 GeV. The bunch has a length of a few ten micrometers and several methods are used to measure its longitudinal profile. Among these, autocorrelation of coherent transition radiation (CTR) is employed. The beam passes a thin metallic foil, where it emits transition radiation. For wavelengths greater than the bunch length, this transition radiation is emitted coherently. This amplifies the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. A scanning Michelson interferometer is used to autocorrelate the CTR. However, this method requires the contribution of many bunches to build an autocorrelation trace. The measurement is influenced by the transmission characteristics of the vacuum window and beam splitter. We present here an analysis of materials, as well as possible layouts for a single shot CTR autocorrelator.

  2. Laser-cooled bunched ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, J.P.; Hangst, J.S.; Nielsen, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    In collaboration with the Arhus group, the laser cooling of a beam bunched by an rf electrode was investigated at the ASTRID storage ring. A single laser is used for unidirectional cooling, since the longitudinal velocity of the beam will undergo {open_quotes}synchrotron oscillations{close_quotes} and the ions are trapped in velocity space. As the cooling proceeds the velocity spread of the beam, as well as the bunch length is measured. The bunch length decreases to the point where it is limited only by the Coulomb repulsion between ions. The measured length is slightly (20-30%) smaller than the calculated limit for a cold beam. This may be the accuracy of the measurement, or may indicate that the beam still has a large transverse temperature so that the longitudinal repulsion is less than would be expected from an absolutely cold beam. Simulations suggest that the coupling between transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom is strong -- but this issue will have to be resolved by further measurements.

  3. Simulation of the short pulse effects in the start-up from noise in high-gain FELS

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, S.J.; Kim, K.J.

    1995-12-31

    The spatio-temporal evolution of high-gain free electron lasers from noise is investigated by 1-D simulation calculation. To understand the discrepancy between the experimental result and theoretical prediction of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), the strong slippage effect in the short pulse electron beam and the coherent bunched beam effect are considered. When the length over which the electron density varies significantly is comparable or smaller than the FEL wavelength, the initial noise level would be increased due to the enhanced coherence between electrons. With a proper computer modeling of the start-up from noise including the energy spread, the overall performance and characteristics of SASE are studied. This work will be helpful to increase the credibility of the simulation calculation to predict the SASE performance in all wave-length regions.

  4. Direct determination of the chromosomal location of bunching onion and bulb onion markers using bunching onion-shallot monosomic additions and allotriploid-bunching onion single alien deletions.

    PubMed

    Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Yamashita, Koichiro; Hagihara, Takuya; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Wako, Tadayuki

    2011-02-01

    To determine the chromosomal location of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and bulb onion (A. cepa L.) expressed sequence tags (ESTs), we used a complete set of bunching onion-shallot monosomic addition lines and allotriploid bunching onion single alien deletion lines as testers. Of a total of 2,159 markers (1,198 bunching onion SSRs, 324 bulb onion EST-SSRs and 637 bulb onion EST-derived non-SSRs), chromosomal locations were identified for 406 markers in A. fistulosum and/or A. cepa. Most of the bunching onion SSRs with identified chromosomal locations showed polymorphism in bunching onion (89.5%) as well as bulb onion lines (66.1%). Using these markers, we constructed a bunching onion linkage map (1,261 cM), which consisted of 16 linkage groups with 228 markers, 106 of which were newly located. All linkage groups of this map were assigned to the eight basal Allium chromosomes. In this study, we assigned 513 markers to the eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum and A. cepa. Together with 254 markers previously located on a separate bunching onion map, we have identified chromosomal locations for 766 markers in total. These chromosome-specific markers will be useful for the intensive mapping of desirable genes or QTLs for agricultural traits, and to obtain DNA markers linked to these.

  5. SuperB Bunch-By-Bunch Feedback R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Drago, A.; Beretta, M.; Bertsche, K.; Novokhatski, A.; Migliorati, M.; /Rome U.

    2011-08-12

    The SuperB project has the goal to build in Italy, in the Frascati or Tor Vergata area, an asymmetric e{sup +}/e{sup -} Super Flavor Factory to achieve a peak luminosity > 10**36 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The SuperB design is based on collisions with extremely low vertical emittance beams and high beam currents. A source of emittance growth comes from the bunch by bunch feedback systems producing high power correction signals to damp the beams. To limit any undesirable effect, a large R&D program is in progress, partially funded by the INFN Fifth National Scientific Committee through the SFEED (SuperB Feedback) project approved within the 2010 budget. The SuperB project [1] has the goal to build in Italy, in the Frascati or Tor Vergata area, an asymmetric e{sup +}/e{sup -} Super Flavor Factory to achieve a peak luminosity > 10**36 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. In the last and current years, the machine layout has been deeply modified, in particular the main rings are now shorter and an option with high currents has been foreseen. In the fig.1 the new SuperB layout is shown. From bunch-by-bunch feedback point of view, the simultaneous presence in the machine parameters, of very low emittance, of the order of 5-10 pm in the vertical plane, and very high currents, at level of 4 Ampere for the Low Energy Ring, asks for designing very carefully the bunch-by-bunch feedback systems. The parameter list is presented in Fig. 2. The bunch-by-bunch feedback design must take care of the risky and exciting challenges proposed in the SuperB specifications, but it should consider also some other important aspects: flexibility in terms of being able to cope to unexpected beam behaviours [2], [3] legacy of previous version experience [4], [5] and internal powerful diagnostics [6] as in the systems previously used in PEP-II and DAFNE [7].

  6. Head-Tail Instability of a Super-bunch

    SciTech Connect

    Shimosaki, Yoshito; Toyama, Takeshi; Takayama, Ken

    2005-06-08

    Super-bunch acceleration is a key concept in an induction synchrotron. In the induction synchrotron, super-bunches confined in the longitudinal direction by a pair of barrier voltages are accelerated with long induction step voltage pulses. Synchrotron oscillation of the super-bunch is notable, which consists of long drifting between the barriers and quick reflection in the barrier regions. This is apparently distinguished from that of the conventional RF bunch, which is the pendulum oscillation. This property has been supposed to bring about qualitatively different features in the head-tail instability of the super-bunch. Recently the head-tail instability of the super-bunch has been systematically examined. In this paper, the preliminary results of macro-particle simulations is reported.

  7. Geometric analysis of phase bunching in the central region of cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kurashima, Satoshi; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu; Arakawa, Kazuo; Kamiya, Tomihiro

    2013-07-01

    An optimum condition for realizing phase bunching in the central region of a cyclotron was quantitatively clarified by a simplified geometric trajectory analysis of charged particles from the first to the second acceleration gap. The phase bunching performance was evaluated for a general case of a cyclotron. The phase difference of incident particles at the second acceleration gap depends on the combination of four parameters: the acceleration harmonic number h, the span angle θD of the dee electrode, the span angle θF from the first to the second acceleration gap, the ratio RV of the peak acceleration voltage between the cyclotron and ion source. Optimum values of θF for phase bunching were limited by the relationship between h and θD, which is 90°/h+θD/2≤θF≤180°/h+θD/2, and sin θF>0. The phase difference with respect to the reference particle at the second acceleration gap is minimized for voltage-ratios between two and four for an initial phase difference within 40 RF degrees. Although the slope of the first acceleration gap contributes to the RF phase at which the particles reach the second acceleration gap, phase bunching was not affected. An orbit simulation of the AVF cyclotron at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency verifies the evaluation based on geometric analysis.

  8. Local Longitudinal Microwave Instability Limits During Bunch Rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K. Y.

    2012-10-23

    Bunch width compression can be accomplished by rf rotating an elongated bunch with minimal energy spread. The formation of tails at the two bunch ends produces disconnected regions in many time-advance slices. The stability limits of longitudinal microwave growth for each time-advance slice of the beam will be affected. This effect is studied and the Keil-Schnell stability limits for such time-advance slices are derived. Application is made to the bunch-width compression in the Fermilab Compressor Ring, destined for pion and subsequently muon production

  9. More Options for the NLC Bunch Compressors (LCC-0035)

    SciTech Connect

    Emma, P.

    2004-03-23

    The present bunch compressor design for the NLC allows control of the final bunch length by way of changes to the horizontal betatron phase advance of the 180{sup o}-turnaround arc. This adjustability requirement significantly constrains the design and cost optimization of the system and excludes the possibility of using permanent magnet quadrupoles in the arc. To relieve this constraint, and to avoid the very strong arc focusing required at the upper limits of the bunch length range, we explore an option of bunch length control using the first compressor stage, with the arc optics fixed.

  10. Distortion of Crabbed Bunch Due to the Electron Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L; Raubenheimer, T.; /SLAC

    2008-05-28

    In order to improve the luminosity, two crab cavities have been installed in KEKB HER and LER [1]. Since there is only one crab cavity in each ring, the crab cavity generates a horizontally titled bunch along the whole ring. The achieved specific luminosity with crabbed bunch is higher, but it is not as high as that from beam-beam simulation [2]. One of the suspicions is the electron cloud. The electron cloud in LER (positron beam) may distort the crabbed bunch and cause the luminosity drop. This note briefly estimates the bunch shape distortion due to the electron cloud in KEKB LER.

  11. Beam transport and bunch compression at TARLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, Avni; Lehnert, Ulf

    2014-10-01

    The Turkish Accelerator and Radiation Laboratory in Ankara (TARLA) will operate two InfraRed Free Electron Lasers (IR-FEL) covering the range of 3-250 μm. The facility will consist of an injector fed by a thermionic triode gun with two-stage RF bunch compression, two superconducting accelerating ELBE modules operating at continuous wave (CW) mode and two independent optical resonator systems with different undulator period lengths. The electron beam will also be used to generate Bremsstrahlung radiation. In this study, we present the electron beam transport including beam matching to the undulators and the shaping of the longitudinal phase space using magnetic dispersive sections.

  12. INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS (ICA) APPLIED TO LONG BUNCH BEAMS IN THE LOS ALAMOS PROTON STORAGE RING

    SciTech Connect

    Kolski, Jeffrey S.; Macek, Robert J.; McCrady, Rodney C.; Pang, Xiaoying

    2012-05-14

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a powerful blind source separation (BSS) method. Compared to the typical BSS method, principal component analysis (PCA), which is the BSS foundation of the well known model independent analysis (MIA), ICA is more robust to noise, coupling, and nonlinearity. ICA of turn-by-turn beam position data has been used to measure the transverse betatron phase and amplitude functions, dispersion function, linear coupling, sextupole strength, and nonlinear beam dynamics. We apply ICA in a new way to slices along the bunch and discuss the source signals identified as betatron motion and longitudinal beam structure.

  13. Stochastic cooling of bunched beams from fluctuation and kinetic theory

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, S.

    1982-09-01

    A theoretical formalism for stochastic phase-space cooling of bunched beams in storage rings is developed on the dual basis of classical fluctuation theory and kinetic theory of many-body systems in phase-space. The physics is that of a collection of three-dimensional oscillators coupled via retarded nonconservative interactions determined by an electronic feedback loop. At the heart of the formulation is the existence of several disparate time-scales characterizing the cooling process. Both theoretical approaches describe the cooling process in the form of a Fokker-Planck transport equation in phase-space valid up to second order in the strength and first order in the auto-correlation of the cooling signal. With neglect of the collective correlations induced by the feedback loop, identical expressions are obtained in both cases for the coherent damping and Schottky noise diffusion coefficients. These are expressed in terms of Fourier coefficients in a harmonic decomposition in angle of the generalized nonconservative cooling force written in canonical action-angle variables of the particles in six-dimensional phase-space. Comparison of analytic results to a numerical simulation study with 90 pseudo-particles in a model cooling system is presented.

  14. Coupled-Beam and Coupled-Bunch Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, Alexey

    2016-06-23

    A problem of coupled-beam instability is solved for two multibunch beams with slightly different revolution frequencies, as in the Fermilab Recycler Ring (RR). Sharing of the inter-bunch growth rates between the intra-bunch modes is described. The general analysis is applied to the RR; possibilities to stabilize the beams by means of chromaticity, feedback and Landau damping are considered.

  15. Electron bunch length measurement at the Vanderbilt FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Amirmadhi, F.; Brau, C.A.; Mendenhall, M.

    1995-12-31

    During the past few years, a number of experiments have been performed to demonstrate the possibility to extract the longitudinal charge distribution from spectroscopic measurements of the coherent far-infrared radiation emitted as transition radiation or synchrotron radiation. Coherent emission occurs in a spectral region where the wavelength is comparable to or longer than the bunch length, leading to an enhancement of the radiation intensity that is on the order of the number of particles per bunch, as compared to incoherent radiation. This technique is particularly useful in the region of mm and sub-mm bunch lengths, a range where streak-cameras cannot be used for beam diagnostics due to their limited time resolution. Here we report on experiments that go beyond the proof of principle of this technique by applying it to the study and optimization of FEL performance. We investigated the longitudinal bunch length of the Vanderbilt FEL by analyzing the spectrum of coherent transition radiation emitted by the electron bunches. By monitoring the bunch length while applying a bunch-compression technique, the amount of the compression could be easily observed. This enabled us to perform a systematic study of the FEL performance, especially gain and optical pulse width, as a function of the longitudinal electron distribution in the bunch. The results of this study will be presented and discussed.

  16. General rules for bosonic bunching in multimode interferometers.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Nicolò; Vitelli, Chiara; Sansoni, Linda; Maiorino, Enrico; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Brod, Daniel J; Galvão, Ernesto F; Crespi, Andrea; Ramponi, Roberta; Osellame, Roberto

    2013-09-27

    We perform a comprehensive set of experiments that characterize bosonic bunching of up to three photons in interferometers of up to 16 modes. Our experiments verify two rules that govern bosonic bunching. The first rule, obtained recently, predicts the average behavior of the bunching probability and is known as the bosonic birthday paradox. The second rule is new and establishes a n!-factor quantum enhancement for the probability that all n bosons bunch in a single output mode, with respect to the case of distinguishable bosons. In addition to its fundamental importance in phenomena such as Bose-Einstein condensation, bosonic bunching can be exploited in applications such as linear optical quantum computing and quantum-enhanced metrology.

  17. Generation of Picosecond Electron-Bunch Trains with Variable Spacing Using a Multi-Pulse Photocathode Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Conde, M.; Gai, W.; Jing, C.; Konecny, R.; Liu, W.; Mihalcea, D.; Piot, P.; Power, J.G.; Rihaoui, M.; Yusof, Z.; /Argonne

    2012-07-08

    We demonstrate the generation of a train of electron bunches with variable spacing at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator. The photocathode ultraviolet laser pulse consists of a train of four pulses produced via polarization splitting using two alpha-BBO crystals. The photoemitted electron bunches are then manipulated in a horizontally-bending dogleg with variable longitudinal dispersion. A downstream vertically-deflecting cavity is then used to diagnose the temporal profile of the electron beam. The generation of a train composed of four bunches with tunable spacing is demonstrated. Such a train of bunch could have application to, e.g., the resonant excitation of wakefield in dielectric-lined structures. We have presented preliminary measurements on a simple technique to generate a train of electron bunches with variable separation. In the initial experiment appreciable density modulation down to wavelengths of {approx}1.8 mm (corresponding to a temporal separation of {approx}6 ps) were achieved for a total charge of 0.5 nC. Finding ways to reach smaller separations is being explored with the help of numerical simulations and will be presented elsewhere.

  18. A LOW NOISE RF SOURCE FOR RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    HAYES,T.

    2004-07-05

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) requires a low noise rf source to ensure that beam lifetime during a store is not limited by the rf system. The beam is particularly sensitive to noise from power line harmonics. Additionally, the rf source must be flexible enough to handle the frequency jump required for rebucketing (transferring bunches from the acceleration to the storage rf systems). This paper will describe the design of a Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) based system that provides both the noise performance and the flexibility required.

  19. Tunable High-Intensity Electron Bunch Train Production Based on Nonlinear Longitudinal Space Charge Oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhen; Yan, Lixin; Du, Yingchao; Zhou, Zheng; Su, Xiaolu; Zheng, Lianmin; Wang, Dong; Tian, Qili; Wang, Wei; Shi, Jiaru; Chen, Huaibi; Huang, Wenhui; Gai, Wei; Tang, Chuanxiang

    2016-05-05

    High-intensity trains of electron bunches with tunable picosecond spacing are produced and measured experimentally with the goal of generating terahertz (THz) radiation. By imposing an initial density modulation on a relativistic electron beam and controlling the charge density over the beam propagation, density spikes of several-hundred-ampere peak current in the temporal profile, which are several times higher than the initial amplitudes, have been observed for the first time. We also demonstrate that the periodic spacing of the bunch train can be varied continuously either by tuning launching phase of a radiofrequency gun or by tuning the compression of a downstream magnetic chicane. Narrow-band coherent THz radiation from the bunch train was also measured with μJ-level energies and tunable central frequency of the spectrum in the range of ~0.5 to 1.6 THz. Our results pave the way towards generating mJ-level narrow-band coherent THz radiation and driving high-gradient wakefield-based acceleration.

  20. Tunable High-Intensity Electron Bunch Train Production Based on Nonlinear Longitudinal Space Charge Oscillation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Yan, Lixin; Du, Yingchao; Zhou, Zheng; Su, Xiaolu; Zheng, Lianmin; Wang, Dong; Tian, Qili; Wang, Wei; Shi, Jiaru; Chen, Huaibi; Huang, Wenhui; Gai, Wei; Tang, Chuanxiang

    2016-05-06

    High-intensity trains of electron bunches with tunable picosecond spacing are produced and measured experimentally with the goal of generating terahertz (THz) radiation. By imposing an initial density modulation on a relativistic electron beam and controlling the charge density over the beam propagation, density spikes of several-hundred-ampere peak current in the temporal profile, which are several times higher than the initial amplitudes, have been observed for the first time. We also demonstrate that the periodic spacing of the bunch train can be varied continuously either by tuning launching phase of a radio-frequency gun or by tuning the compression of a downstream magnetic chicane. Narrow-band coherent THz radiation from the bunch train was also measured with μJ-level energies and tunable central frequency of the spectrum in the range of ∼0.5 to 1.6 THz. Our results pave the way towards generating mJ-level narrow-band coherent THz radiation and driving high-gradient wakefield-based acceleration.

  1. Demonstration of passive plasma lensing of a laser wakefield accelerated electron bunch

    SciTech Connect

    Kuschel, S.; Hollatz, D.; Heinemann, T.; Karger, O.; Schwab, M. B.; Ullmann, D.; Knetsch, A.; Seidel, A.; Rodel, C.; Yeung, M.; Leier, M.; Blinne, A.; Ding, H.; Kurz, T.; Corvan, D. J.; Savert, A.; Karsch, S.; Kaluza, M. C.; Hidding, B.; Zepf, M.

    2016-07-20

    We report on the first demonstration of passive all-optical plasma lensing using a two-stage setup. An intense femtosecond laser accelerates electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) to 100 MeV over millimeter length scales. By adding a second gas target behind the initial LWFA stage we introduce a robust and independently tunable plasma lens. We observe a density dependent reduction of the LWFA electron beam divergence from an initial value of 2.3 mrad, down to 1.4 mrad (rms), when the plasma lens is in operation. Such a plasma lens provides a simple and compact approach for divergence reduction well matched to the mm-scale length of the LWFA accelerator. The focusing forces are provided solely by the plasma and driven by the bunch itself only, making this a highly useful and conceptually new approach to electron beam focusing. Possible applications of this lens are not limited to laser plasma accelerators. Since no active driver is needed the passive plasma lens is also suited for high repetition rate focusing of electron bunches. As a result, its understanding is also required for modeling the evolution of the driving particle bunch in particle driven wake field acceleration.

  2. Tunable High-Intensity Electron Bunch Train Production Based on Nonlinear Longitudinal Space Charge Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Yan, Lixin; Du, Yingchao; Zhou, Zheng; Su, Xiaolu; Zheng, Lianmin; Wang, Dong; Tian, Qili; Wang, Wei; Shi, Jiaru; Chen, Huaibi; Huang, Wenhui; Gai, Wei; Tang, Chuanxiang

    2016-05-01

    High-intensity trains of electron bunches with tunable picosecond spacing are produced and measured experimentally with the goal of generating terahertz (THz) radiation. By imposing an initial density modulation on a relativistic electron beam and controlling the charge density over the beam propagation, density spikes of several-hundred-ampere peak current in the temporal profile, which are several times higher than the initial amplitudes, have been observed for the first time. We also demonstrate that the periodic spacing of the bunch train can be varied continuously either by tuning launching phase of a radio-frequency gun or by tuning the compression of a downstream magnetic chicane. Narrow-band coherent THz radiation from the bunch train was also measured with μ J -level energies and tunable central frequency of the spectrum in the range of ˜0.5 to 1.6 THz. Our results pave the way towards generating mJ-level narrow-band coherent THz radiation and driving high-gradient wakefield-based acceleration.

  3. Demonstration of passive plasma lensing of a laser wakefield accelerated electron bunch

    DOE PAGES

    Kuschel, S.; Hollatz, D.; Heinemann, T.; ...

    2016-07-20

    We report on the first demonstration of passive all-optical plasma lensing using a two-stage setup. An intense femtosecond laser accelerates electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) to 100 MeV over millimeter length scales. By adding a second gas target behind the initial LWFA stage we introduce a robust and independently tunable plasma lens. We observe a density dependent reduction of the LWFA electron beam divergence from an initial value of 2.3 mrad, down to 1.4 mrad (rms), when the plasma lens is in operation. Such a plasma lens provides a simple and compact approach for divergence reduction well matchedmore » to the mm-scale length of the LWFA accelerator. The focusing forces are provided solely by the plasma and driven by the bunch itself only, making this a highly useful and conceptually new approach to electron beam focusing. Possible applications of this lens are not limited to laser plasma accelerators. Since no active driver is needed the passive plasma lens is also suited for high repetition rate focusing of electron bunches. As a result, its understanding is also required for modeling the evolution of the driving particle bunch in particle driven wake field acceleration.« less

  4. Electron gun jitter effects on beam bunching

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, M. S.; Iqbal, M.

    2014-02-15

    For routine operation of Beijing Electron Positron Collider II (BEPCII) linac, many factors may affect the beam bunching process directly or indirectly. We present the measurements and analyses of the gun timing jitter, gun high voltage jitter, and beam energy at the exit of the standard acceleration section of the linac quantitatively. Almost 80 mV and more than 200 ps of gun high voltage and time jitters have ever been measured, respectively. It was analyzed that the gun timing jitter produced severe effects on beam energy than the gun high voltage jitter, if the timing jitter exceeded 100 ps which eventually deteriorates both the beam performance and the injection rate to the storage ring.

  5. Rights, Bunche, Rose and the "pipeline".

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Steven R.; Wilkinson-Lee, Ada M.

    2006-01-01

    We address education "pipelines" and their social ecology, drawing on the 1930's writing of Ralph J. Bunche, a Nobel peace maker whose war against systematic second-class education for the poor, minority and nonminority alike is nearly forgotten; and of the epidemiologist Geoffrey Rose, whose 1985 paper spotlighted the difficulty of shifting health status and risks in a "sick society. From the perspective of human rights and human development, we offer suggestions toward the paired "ends" of the pipeline: equality of opportunity for individuals, and equality of health for populations. We offer a national "to do" list to improve pipeline flow and then reconsider the merits of the "pipeline" metaphor, which neither matches the reality of lived education pathways nor supports notions of human rights, freedoms and capabilities, but rather reflects a commoditizing stance to free persons. PMID:17019927

  6. Luminosity Variations Along Bunch Trains in PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, F.J.; Boyes, M.; Colocho, W.S.; Novokhatski, A.; Sullivan, M.K.; Turner, J.L.; Weathersby, S.P.; Wienands, U.; Yocky, G.; /SLAC

    2007-05-18

    In the spring of 2005 after a long shut-down, the luminosity of the B-Factory PEP-II decreased along the bunch trains by about 25-30%. There were many reasons studied which could have caused this performance degradation, like a bigger phase transient due to an additional RF station in the Low-Energy-Ring (LER), bad initial vacuum, electron cloud, chromaticity, steering, dispersion in cavities, beam optics, etc. The initial specific luminosity of 4.2 sloped down to 3.2 and even 2.8 for a long train (typical: 130 of 144), later in the run with higher currents and shorter trains (65 of 72) the numbers were more like 3.2 down to 2.6. Finally after steering the interaction region for an unrelated reason (overheated BPM buttons) and the consequential lower luminosity for two weeks, the luminosity slope problem was mysteriously gone. Several parameters got changed and there is still some discussion about which one finally fixed the problem. Among others, likely candidates are: the LER betatron function in x at the interaction point got reduced, making the LER x stronger, dispersion reduction in the cavities, and finding and fixing a partially shorted magnet.

  7. Caustic-based approach to understanding bunching dynamics and current spike formation in particle bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, T. K.; Paganin, D. M.; Dowd, R. T.

    2016-10-01

    Current modulations, current spikes, and current horns, are observed in a range of accelerator physics applications including strong bunch compression in Free Electron Lasers and linear colliders, trains of microbunching for terahertz radiation, microbunching instability and many others. This paper considers the fundamental mechanism that drives intense current modulations in dispersive regions, beyond the common explanation of nonlinear and higher-order effects. Under certain conditions, neighboring electron trajectories merge to form caustics, and often result in characteristic current spikes. Caustic lines and surfaces are regions of maximum electron density, and are witnessed in accelerator physics as folds in phase space of accelerated bunches. We identify the caustic phenomenon resulting in cusplike current profiles and derive an expression which describes the conditions needed for particle-bunch caustic formation in dispersive regions. The caustic expression not only reveals the conditions necessary for caustics to form but also where in longitudinal space the caustics will form. Particle-tracking simulations are used to verify these findings. We discuss the broader implications of this work including how to utilize the caustic expression for manipulation of the longitudinal phase space to achieve a desired current profile shape.

  8. Bunch by Bunch Profiling with a Rotating X-ray Mask

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Christopher J.; /UC, San Diego

    2007-11-07

    It is desirable to monitor the cross sections of each positron bunch in the Low Energy Ring (LER) storage rings of the Positron Electron Project II (PEP-II) located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. One method is to pass the x-rays given off by each bunch through a scintillator, thereby studying a visible image. A rotating x-ray mask with three slots scans the beam image in three different orientations, allowing us to mechanically collect data to characterize and profile each image. Progress was made in designing the x-ray mask, researching and procuring parts, as well as advancing project plans. However, due to time constraints and difficulties in procuring special parts, the full system was not completed. A simpler setup was built to test the hardware as well as the feasibility of characterizing a circular image with a rotating mask. A blinking green light emitting diode (LED) simulated a single positron bunch stored in the LER ring. The selected hardware handled this simulation setup well and produced data that led to a reasonable estimation of the LED image diameter.

  9. Bunch mode specific rate corrections for PILATUS3 detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Trueb, P.; Dejoie, C.; Kobas, M.; ...

    2015-04-09

    PILATUS X-ray detectors are in operation at many synchrotron beamlines around the world. This article reports on the characterization of the new PILATUS3 detector generation at high count rates. As for all counting detectors, the measured intensities have to be corrected for the dead-time of the counting mechanism at high photon fluxes. The large number of different bunch modes at these synchrotrons as well as the wide range of detector settings presents a challenge for providing accurate corrections. To avoid the intricate measurement of the count rate behaviour for every bunch mode, a Monte Carlo simulation of the counting mechanismmore » has been implemented, which is able to predict the corrections for arbitrary bunch modes and a wide range of detector settings. This article compares the simulated results with experimental data acquired at different synchrotrons. It is found that the usage of bunch mode specific corrections based on this simulation improves the accuracy of the measured intensities by up to 40% for high photon rates and highly structured bunch modes. For less structured bunch modes, the instant retrigger technology of PILATUS3 detectors substantially reduces the dependency of the rate correction on the bunch mode. The acquired data also demonstrate that the instant retrigger technology allows for data acquisition up to 15 million photons per second per pixel.« less

  10. Bunch mode specific rate corrections for PILATUS3 detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Trueb, P.; Dejoie, C.; Kobas, M.; Pattison, P.; Peake, D. J.; Radicci, V.; Sobott, B. A.; Walko, D. A.; Broennimann, C.

    2015-04-09

    PILATUS X-ray detectors are in operation at many synchrotron beamlines around the world. This article reports on the characterization of the new PILATUS3 detector generation at high count rates. As for all counting detectors, the measured intensities have to be corrected for the dead-time of the counting mechanism at high photon fluxes. The large number of different bunch modes at these synchrotrons as well as the wide range of detector settings presents a challenge for providing accurate corrections. To avoid the intricate measurement of the count rate behaviour for every bunch mode, a Monte Carlo simulation of the counting mechanism has been implemented, which is able to predict the corrections for arbitrary bunch modes and a wide range of detector settings. This article compares the simulated results with experimental data acquired at different synchrotrons. It is found that the usage of bunch mode specific corrections based on this simulation improves the accuracy of the measured intensities by up to 40% for high photon rates and highly structured bunch modes. For less structured bunch modes, the instant retrigger technology of PILATUS3 detectors substantially reduces the dependency of the rate correction on the bunch mode. The acquired data also demonstrate that the instant retrigger technology allows for data acquisition up to 15 million photons per second per pixel.

  11. Bunch mode specific rate corrections for PILATUS3 detectors

    PubMed Central

    Trueb, P.; Dejoie, C.; Kobas, M.; Pattison, P.; Peake, D. J.; Radicci, V.; Sobott, B. A.; Walko, D. A.; Broennimann, C.

    2015-01-01

    PILATUS X-ray detectors are in operation at many synchrotron beamlines around the world. This article reports on the characterization of the new PILATUS3 detector generation at high count rates. As for all counting detectors, the measured intensities have to be corrected for the dead-time of the counting mechanism at high photon fluxes. The large number of different bunch modes at these synchrotrons as well as the wide range of detector settings presents a challenge for providing accurate corrections. To avoid the intricate measurement of the count rate behaviour for every bunch mode, a Monte Carlo simulation of the counting mechanism has been implemented, which is able to predict the corrections for arbitrary bunch modes and a wide range of detector settings. This article compares the simulated results with experimental data acquired at different synchrotrons. It is found that the usage of bunch mode specific corrections based on this simulation improves the accuracy of the measured intensities by up to 40% for high photon rates and highly structured bunch modes. For less structured bunch modes, the instant retrigger technology of PILATUS3 detectors substantially reduces the dependency of the rate correction on the bunch mode. The acquired data also demonstrate that the instant retrigger technology allows for data acquisition up to 15 million photons per second per pixel. PMID:25931086

  12. Mechanical Behavior of Electrospun Palmfruit Bunch Reinforced Polylactide Composite Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeosun, S. O.; Akpan, E. I.; Gbenebor, O. P.; Peter, A. A.; Olaleye, Samuel Adebayo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the mechanical characteristics of electrospun palm fruit bunch reinforced poly lactic acid (PLA) nanofiber composites using treated and untreated filler was examined. Poly lactic acid-palm fruit bunch-dichloromethane blends were electrospun by varying the concentration of the palm fruit bunch between 0 wt.% and 8 wt.%. A constant voltage of 26 kV was applied, the tip-to-collector distance was maintained at 27.5 cm and PLA-palm fruit bunch-dichloromethane (DCM) concentration of 12.5% (w/v) was used. The results revealed that the presence of untreated palm fruit bunch fillers in the electrospun PLA matrix significantly reduces the average diameters of the fibers, causing the formation of beads. As a result there are reductions in tensile strengths of the fibers. The presence of treated palm fruit bunch fillers in the electrospun PLA matrix increases the average diameters of the fibers with improvements in the mechanical properties. The optimal mechanical responses were obtained at 3 wt.% of the treated palm fruit bunch fillers in the PLA matrix. However, increase in the palm fruit fillers (treated and untreated) in the PLA matrix promoted the formation of beads in the nanofiber composites.

  13. Bunch-Kaufman factorization for real symmetric indefinite banded matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Mark T.; Patrick, Merrell L.

    1989-01-01

    The Bunch-Kaufman algorithm for factoring symmetric indefinite matrices was rejected for banded matrices because it destroys the banded structure of the matrix. Herein, it is shown that for a subclass of real symmetric matrices which arise in solving the generalized eigenvalue problem using Lanczos's method, the Bunch-Kaufman algorithm does not result in major destruction of the bandwidth. Space time complexities of the algorithm are given and used to show that the Bunch-Kaufman algorithm is a significant improvement over LU factorization.

  14. Observing atom bunching by the Fourier slice theorem.

    PubMed

    Blumkin, A; Rinott, S; Schley, R; Berkovitz, A; Shammass, I; Steinhauer, J

    2013-06-28

    By a novel reciprocal space analysis of the measurement, we report a calibrated in situ observation of the bunching effect in a 3D ultracold gas. The calibrated measurement with no free parameters confirms the role of the exchange symmetry and the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect in the bunching. Also, the enhanced fluctuations of the bunching effect give a quantitative measure of the increased isothermal compressibility. We use 2D images to probe the 3D gas, using the same principle by which computerized tomography reconstructs a 3D image of a body. The powerful reciprocal space technique presented is applicable to systems with one, two, or three dimensions.

  15. Production of relativistic electron bunch with tunable current distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Sun, Y.-E.; Rihaoui, M.; /Northern Illinois U. /NICADD, DeKalb

    2008-11-01

    We propose a novel method for tailoring the current distribution of relativistic electron bunches. The technique relies on a recently proposed transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchange. The bunch is transversely shaped and the phase space exchange mechanism converts this transverse profile into a current profile. The technique provides a tool for generating arbitrary current profiles in a tunable fashion.We demonstrate, via computer simulations, the method and its application to tailor specific current profiles such as, e.g., linearly ramped profiles and train of femtosecond micro-bunches that have application in plasma and dielectric wakefield accelerators.

  16. Production of Relativistic Electron Bunch with Tunable Current Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Sun, Y.-E; Rihaoui, M.

    2009-01-22

    We proposed a novel method for tailoring the current distribution of relativistic electron bunches. The technique relies on a recently proposed transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchange. The bunch is transversely shaped and the phase space exchange mechanism converts this transverse profile into a current profile. The technique provides a tool for generating arbitrary current profiles in a tunable fashion. We demonstrate, via computer simulations, the method and its application to tailor specific current profiles such as, e.g., linearly ramped profiles and train of femtosecond micro-bunches that have application in plasma and dielectric wakefield accelerators.

  17. Bunch Length and Impedance Measurements at SPEAR3

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, W.J.; Cheng, W.X.; Fisher, A.S.; Huang, X.; /SLAC

    2011-11-02

    Streak camera measurements were made at SPEAR3 to characterize longitudinal coupling impedance. For the nominal optics, data was taken at three rf voltages and a single-bunch current range of 0-20mA. Both bunchcentroid phase shift and bunch lengthening were recorded to extract values for resistive and reactive impedance. An (R+L) and a Q=1 model were then back-substituted into the Haissinski equation and compared with raw profile data. In the short bunch (low-{alpha}) mode, distribution 'bursting' was observed.

  18. Explanation of persistent high frequency density structure in coalesced bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Gerald P.

    1988-07-01

    It has been observed that after the Main Ring rf manipulation of coalescing (where 5 to 13 primary bunches are transferred into a single rf bucket) the new secondary bunch displays evidence of high frequency density structure superimposed on the approximately Gaussian longitudinal bunch length distribution. This structure is persistent over a period of many seconds (hundreds of synchrotron oscillation periods). With the help of multiparticle simulation programs, an explanation of this phenomenon is given in terms of single particle longitudinal phase space dynamics. No coherent effects need be taken into account. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Developing electron beam bunching technology for improving light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsten, B.E.; Chan, K.C.D.; Feldman, D.W.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to develop a new electron bunch compression technology, experimentally demonstrate subpicosecond compression of bunches with charges on the order of 1 nC, and to theoretically investigate fundamental limitations to electron bunch compression. All of these goals were achieved, and in addition, the compression system built for this project was used to generate 22 nm light in a plasma-radiator light source.

  20. Benchmarking of Electro-Optic Monitors for Femtosecond Electron Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Berden, G.; Meer, A. F. G. van der; Gillespie, W. A.; Phillips, P. J.; Jamison, S. P.; Knabbe, E.-A.; Schlarb, H.; Schmidt, B.; Schmueser, P.; Steffen, B.; MacLeod, A. M.

    2007-10-19

    The longitudinal profiles of ultrashort relativistic electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH have been investigated using two single-shot detection schemes: an electro-optic (EO) detector measuring the Coulomb field of the bunch and a radio-frequency structure transforming the charge distribution into a transverse streak. A comparison permits an absolute calibration of the EO technique. EO signals as short as 60 fs (rms) have been observed, which is a new record in the EO detection of single electron bunches and close to the limit given by the EO material properties.

  1. Observation of Femtosecond Bunch Length Using a Transverse Deflecting Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Huning, M.; Bolzmann, A.; Schlarb, H.; Frisch, J.; McCormick, D.; Ross, M.; Smith, T.; Rossbach, J.; /Hamburg U.

    2005-12-14

    The design of the VUV-FEL at DESY demands bunch lengths in the order of 50 fs and below. For the diagnostic of such very short bunches a transverse deflecting RF structure (LOLA) has been installed which streaks the beam according to the longitudinal distribution. Tests in the VUV-FEL yielded a rich substructure of the bunches. The most pronounced peak in the has a rms length of approximately 50 fs during FEL operation and below 20 fs FWHM at maximum compression. Depending on the transverse focusing a resolution well below 50 fs was achieved.

  2. Benchmarking of electro-optic monitors for femtosecond electron bunches.

    PubMed

    Berden, G; Gillespie, W A; Jamison, S P; Knabbe, E-A; MacLeod, A M; van der Meer, A F G; Phillips, P J; Schlarb, H; Schmidt, B; Schmüser, P; Steffen, B

    2007-10-19

    The longitudinal profiles of ultrashort relativistic electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH have been investigated using two single-shot detection schemes: an electro-optic (EO) detector measuring the Coulomb field of the bunch and a radio-frequency structure transforming the charge distribution into a transverse streak. A comparison permits an absolute calibration of the EO technique. EO signals as short as 60 fs (rms) have been observed, which is a new record in the EO detection of single electron bunches and close to the limit given by the EO material properties.

  3. Phase detector and phase feedback for a single bunch in a two-bunch damping ring for the SLAC Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, H.D.; Judkins, J.G.

    1987-03-01

    The synchronous phase of a bunch of positrons or electrons being damped in a SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) damping ring is dependent on beam intensity. Injection for alternate bunches into the SLC linac from the damping rings should occur at a constant phase. A phase detector was developed allowing the measurement of phase of a single-stored bunch in the presence of a second bunch in reference to the phase of the linac. The single-bunch phase is derived from beam position monitor signals using a switching scheme to separate the two bunches circulating in each damping ring. The hardware is described including feedback loops to stabilize the extraction phase.

  4. Self-Consistant Numerical Modeling of E-Cloud Driven Instability of a Bunch Train in the CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J-L.; Furman, M.A.; Secondo, R.; Venturini, M.; Fox, J.D.; Rivetta, C.H,

    2010-09-01

    The simulation package WARP-POSINST was recently upgraded for handling multiple bunches and modeling concurrently the electron cloud buildup and its effect on the beam, allowing for direct self-consistent simulation of bunch trains generating, and interacting with, electron clouds. We have used the WARP-POSINST package on massively parallel supercomputers to study the growth rate and frequency patterns in space-time of the electron cloud driven transverse instability for a proton bunch train in the CERN SPS accelerator. Results suggest that a positive feedback mechanism exists between the electron buildup and the e-cloud driven transverse instability, leading to a net increase in predicted electron density. Comparisons to selected experimental data are also given. Electron clouds have been shown to trigger fast growing instabilities on proton beams circulating in the SPS and other accelerators. So far, simulations of electron cloud buildup and their effects on beam dynamics have been performed separately. This is a consequence of the large computational cost of the combined calculation due to large space and time scale disparities between the two processes. We have presented the latest improvements of the simulation package WARP-POSINST for the simulation of self-consistent ecloud effects, including mesh refinement, and generation of electrons from gas ionization and impact at the pipe walls. We also presented simulations of two consecutive bunches interacting with electrons clouds in the SPS, which included generation of secondary electrons. The distribution of electrons in front of the first beam was initialized from a dump taken from a preceding buildup calculation using the POSINST code. In this paper, we present an extension of this work where one full batch of 72 bunches is simulated in the SPS, including the entire buildup calculation and the self-consistent interaction between the bunches and the electrons. Comparisons to experimental data are also given.

  5. Direct Numerical Modeling of E-Cloud Driven Instability of a Bunch Train in the CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J-L.; Furman, M.A.; Venturini, M.

    2011-03-01

    The simulation package WARP-POSINST was recently upgraded for handling multiple bunches and modeling concurrently the electron cloud buildup and its effect on the beam, allowing for direct self-consistent simulation of bunch trains generating, and interacting with, electron clouds. We have used the WARP-POSINST package on massively parallel supercomputers to study the buildup and interaction of electron clouds with a proton bunch train in the CERN SPS accelerator. Results suggest that a positive feedback mechanism exists between the electron buildup and the e-cloud driven transverse instability, leading to a net increase in predicted electron density. Electron clouds have been shown to trigger fast growing instabilities on proton beams circulating in the SPS and other accelerators. So far, simulations of electron cloud buildup and their effects on beam dynamics have been performed separately. This is a consequence of the large computational cost of the combined calculation due to large space and time scale disparities between the two processes. We have presented the latest improvements of the simulation package WARP-POSINST for the simulation of self-consistent ecloud effects, including mesh refinement, and generation of electrons from gas ionization and impact at the pipe walls. We also presented simulations of two consecutive bunches interacting with electrons clouds in the SPS, which included generation of secondary electrons. The distribution of electrons in front of the first beam was initialized from a dump taken from a preceding buildup calculation using the POSINST code. In this paper, we present an extension of this work where one full batch of 72 bunches is simulated in the SPS, including the entire buildup calculation and the self-consistent interaction between the bunches and the electrons.

  6. Rotorcraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. J. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    The establishment of a realistic plan for NASA and the U.S. helicopter industry to develop a design-for-noise methodology, including plans for the identification and development of promising noise reduction technology was discussed. Topics included: noise reduction techniques, scaling laws, empirical noise prediction, psychoacoustics, and methods of developing and validing noise prediction methods.

  7. Phase modulation of the bucket stops bunch oscillations at the Fermilab Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C.Y.; Burov, A.; /Fermilab

    2012-04-02

    Bunches in the Tevatron are known to exhibit longitudinal oscillations which persist indefinitely. These oscillations are colloquially called 'dancing bunches.' Although the dancing proton bunches do not cause single bunch emittance growth or beam loss at injection, they lead to bunch lengthening at collisions. In Tevatron operations, a longitudinal damper has been built which stops this dance and damps out coupled bunch modes. Recent theoretical work predicts that the dance can also be stopped by an appropriate change in the bunch distribution. This paper describes the Tevatron experiments which support this theory.

  8. Precision Control of the Electron Longitudinal Bunch Shape Using an Emittance-Exchange Beam Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, G.; Cho, M. H.; Namkung, W.; Power, J. G.; Doran, D. S.; Wisniewski, E. E.; Conde, M.; Gai, W.; Liu, W.; Whiteford, C.; Gao, Q.; Kim, K.-J.; Zholents, A.; Sun, Y.-E.; Jing, C.; Piot, P.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the experimental generation of relativistic electron bunches with a tunable longitudinal bunch shape. A longitudinal bunch-shaping (LBS) beam line, consisting of a transverse mask followed by a transverse-to-longitudinal emittance exchange (EEX) beam line, is used to tailor the longitudinal bunch shape (or current profile) of the electron bunch. The mask shapes the bunch's horizontal profile, and the EEX beam line converts it to a corresponding longitudinal profile. The Argonne wakefield accelerator rf photoinjector delivers electron bunches into a LBS beam line to generate a variety of longitudinal bunch shapes. The quality of the longitudinal bunch shape is limited by various perturbations in the exchange process. We develop a simple method, based on the incident slope of the bunch, to significantly suppress the perturbations.

  9. Generating ultrabroadband terahertz radiation based on the under-compression mode of velocity bunching

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D.; Yan, L. X.; Du, Y. C.; Hua, J. F.; Du, Q.; Qian, H. J.; Lu, X. H.; Huang, W. H.; Chen, H. B.; Tang, C. X.

    2013-02-15

    We propose and analyze a scheme to generate enhanced ultrabroadband terahertz (THz) radiation through coherent transition radiation emitted by ultrashort electron beams based on a 10.5 m beamline at Tsinghua University. The proposed scheme involves the initial compression of the electron beam with a few hundred pC charges using a velocity bunching scheme (i.e., RF compression) in an under-compression mode instead of the usual critical-compression mode in order to maintain a positive energy chirp at the exit of the traveling wave accelerator. After a long drift segment, the particles in the tail catch up with the bunch head. More than 80% of the particles are distributed in a spike with an rms length less than 20 fs. Such beams correspond to an ultrabroadband coherent transition radiation (CTR) spectrum of 0.1 THz to 25 THz, with the single-pulse THz radiation energy of up to 50 {mu}J. The principle of CTR and under-compression mode of velocity bunching are introduced in this paper. And the ASTRA simulation parameters and the stability of the system are also discussed.

  10. MULTIPLE SINGLE BUNCH EXTRACTION TO THE AGS SWITCHYARD.

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,K.A.; AHRENS,L.; GASSNER,D.; GLENN,J.W.; ROSER,T.; SMITH,G.; TSOUPAS,N.; VAN ASSELT,W.; ZENO,K.

    2001-06-18

    In this report we will describe the multiple single bunch extraction system as utilized to deliver beams to the Brookhaven's Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) switchyard area. We will describe modifications of the AGS switchyard, necessary to allow it to accept bunched beam, and results of the first commissioning of this system. The AGS Switchyard has for many years been used to simultaneously deliver (unbunched) resonant extracted beam to a set of fixed target experiments. In order to accommodate new fixed target experiments which require bunched beams, a method of sending the bunched beams to the AGS Switchyard was required. In addition, by using the AGS switchyard instead of the upstream section of the Brookhaven's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) injection line the accelerators can be reconfigured quickly and efficiently for filling RHIC. We will present results of the commissioning of this system, which was done in January 2001.

  11. STOCHASTIC COOLING OF HIGH-ENERGY BUNCHED BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRENNAN, J.M.

    2007-06-25

    Stochastic cooling of 100 GeV/nucleon bunched beams has been achieved in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The physics and technology of the longitudinal cooling system are discussed, and plans for a transverse cooling system are outlined.

  12. following an electron bunch for free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    A video artist's ultra-slow-motion impression of an APEX-style electron gun firing a continuous train of electron bunches into a superconducting linear accelerator (in reality this would happen a million times a second). As they approach the speed of light the bunches contract, maintaining beam quality. After acceleration, the electron bunches are diverted into one or more undulators, the key components of free electron lasers. Oscillating back and forth in the changing magnetic field, they create beams of structured x-ray pulses. Before entering the experimental areas the electron bunches are diverted to a beam dump. (Animation created by Illumina Visual, http://www.illuminavisual.com/, for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Music for this excerpt, "Feeling Dark (Behind The Mask)" is by 7OOP3D http://ccmixter.org/files/7OOP3D/29126 and is licensed under a Creative Commons license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/)

  13. Coherent Transition Radiation to Measure the SLAC Electron Bunch Length

    SciTech Connect

    Muggli, P.; Hogan, M.J.; Barnes, C.D.; Walz, D.; Krejcik, P.; Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC

    2005-05-13

    Coherent transition radiation is used to measure the length of the ultra-short electron bunches available at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The results and the limitations of the method are described.

  14. Nonlinear stability in the transport of intense bunched beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa da Silva, Thales M.; Rizzato, Felipe B.; Pakter, Renato; Levin, Yan

    2016-11-01

    The paper investigates the nonlinear coupling of envelope modes of oscillation for intense bunched beams. Initially, the analysis concentrates on the case of spherically symmetric beams for which longitudinal and transverse focusing forces are assumed to be the same. It is investigated how externally induced spherically symmetric breathing oscillations may nonlinearly drive the growth of ellipsoidal modes which can break the spherical beam symmetry. Next, a more general case in which the focusing forces are not symmetric such that the matched beam already presents an ellipsoidal shape is studied. It is found that depending on the parameters of the system, even a very small mismatch amplitude can drive an instability, which leads to an effective coupling of longitudinal and transversal envelope oscillations by means of the space-charge forces. Use is made of Poincaré plots and the stability index of periodic orbits to perform a detailed analysis of the location of the instability in the parameter space and how it affects the beam transport. Self-consistent numerical simulations are performed in order to verify the onset of the nonlinear instability and its effect on the evolution of the RMS size and emittance of the beam.

  15. A two-bunch beam position monitor performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traller, Robert; Medvedko, Evgeny; Smith, Steve; Aiello, Roberto

    1998-12-01

    New beam position processing electronics for the Linear Accelerator allow faster feedback and processing of both positron and electron bunch positions in a single machine pulse. More than 30 electron-positron beam position monitors (epBPMs) have been installed at SLAC in various applications and have met all design requirements. The SLC production electron bunch follows the positron bunch down the linac separated by 58.8 nS. The epBPM measures the position of both bunches with an accuracy of better than 5 μm at nominal operating intensities. For SLC, the epBPMs have measured the position of bunches consisting of from 1 to 8×1010 particles per bunch. For PEP-II (B Factory) injection, epBPMs have been used with larger electrodes and several BPMs have been combined on a single cable set. The signals are separated for measurement in the epBPM by timing. In PEP-II injection we have measured the position of bunches of as little as 2×109 particles per bunch. To meet the demands of SLC and PEP-II injection, the epBPM has been designed with three triggering modes: 1. As a self-triggering detector, it can trigger off the beam and hold the peak signal until read out by the control program. 2. The gated mode uses external timing signals to gate the beam trigger. 3. The external trigger mode uses the external timing signals offset with internal vernier delays to precisely catch peak signals in noisy environments. Finally, the epBPM also has built-in timing verniers capable of nulling errors in cable set fabrication and differences in channel-to-channel signal delay. Software has made all this functionality available through the SLC control system.

  16. Longitudinal bunch dynamics study with coherent synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billinghurst, B. E.; Bergstrom, J. C.; Baribeau, C.; Batten, T.; May, T. E.; Vogt, J. M.; Wurtz, W. A.

    2016-02-01

    An electron bunch circulating in a storage ring constitutes a dynamical system with both longitudinal and transverse degrees of freedom. Through a self-interaction with the wakefields created by the bunch, certain of these degrees may get excited, defining a set of eigenmodes analogous to a spectroscopic series. The present study focuses on the longitudinal modes of a single bunch. The excitation of a mode appears as an amplitude modulation at the mode frequency of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by the bunch. The modulations are superimposed on a much larger continuum from CSR emission in the continuous mode. A given eigenmode is classified by the integer m which is the ratio of the mode frequency to the synchrotron frequency. The present measurements extend up to m =8 and focus on the region near the instability thresholds. At threshold the modes are excited sequentially, resembling a staircase when the mode frequencies are plotted as a function of bunch length or synchrotron frequency. Adjacent modes are observed to coexist at the boundaries between the modes. An energy-independent correlation is observed between the threshold current for an instability and the corresponding zero-current bunch length. Measurements were made at five beam energies between 1.0 and 2.9 GeV at the Canadian Light Source. The CSR was measured in the time domain using an unbiased Schottky diode spanning 50-75 GHz.

  17. Phase Noise Comparision of Short Pulse Laser Systems

    SciTech Connect

    S. Zhang; S. V. Benson; J. Hansknecht; D. Hardy; G. Neil; Michelle D. Shinn

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the phase noise measurement on several different mode-locked laser systems that have completely different gain media and configurations including a multi-kW free-electron laser. We will focus on the state of the art short pulse lasers, especially the drive lasers for photocathode injectors. A comparison between the phase noise of the drive laser pulses, electron bunches and FEL pulses will also be presented.

  18. Airport noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendley, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of airport noise at several airports and air bases is detailed. Community reactions to the noise, steps taken to reduce jet engine noise, and the effect of airport use restrictions and curfews on air transportation are discussed. The adverse effect of changes in allowable operational noise on airport safety and altenative means for reducing noise pollution are considered. Community-airport relations and public relations are discussed.

  19. Combustion noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the subject of combustion generated noise is presented. Combustion noise is an important noise source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion noise importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion noise are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.

  20. Dynamics of Flat Bunches with Second Harmonic RF

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Tanaji; Bhat, Chandra; Kim, Hyung Jin; Ostiguy, Jean-Francois; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the dynamics of longitudinally flat bunches created with a second harmonic cavity in a high energy collider. We study Landau damping in a second harmonic cavity with analytical and numerical methods. The latter include particle tracking and evolution of the phase space density. The results are interpreted in the context of possible application to the LHC. A possible path to a luminosity upgrade at the LHC is through the creation of longitudinally flat bunches. They can increase the luminosity roughly by 40% when the beam intensities are at the beam-beam limit. Lower momentum spread which can reduce backgrounds and make collimation easier as well lower peak fields which can mitigate electron cloud effects are other advantages. Use of a second harmonic rf system is a frequently studied method to create such flat bunches. Here we consider some aspects of longitudinal dynamics of these bunches in the LHC at top energy. First we consider intensity limits set by the loss of Landau damping against rigid dipole oscillations. Next we describe numerical simulations using both particle tracking and evolution of the phase space density. These simulations address the consequences of driving a bunch at a frequency that corresponds to the maximum of the synchrotron frequency.

  1. Destructive interferences results in bosons anti bunching: refining Feynman's argument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchewka, Avi; Granot, Er'el

    2014-09-01

    The effect of boson bunching is frequently mentioned and discussed in the literature. This effect is the manifestation of bosons tendency to "travel" in clusters. One of the core arguments for boson bunching was formulated by Feynman in his well-known lecture series and has been frequently used ever since. By comparing the scattering probabilities of two bosons and of two distinguishable particles, he concluded: "We have the result that it is twice as likely to find two identical Bose particles scattered into the same state as you would calculate assuming the particles were different" [R.P. Feynman, R.B. Leighton, M. Sands, The Feynman Lectures on Physics: Quantum mechanics (Addison-Wesley, 1965)]. This argument was rooted in the scientific community (see for example [C. Cohen-Tannoudji, B. Diu, F. Laloë, Quantum Mechanics (John Wiley & Sons, Paris, 1977); W. Pauli, Exclusion Principle and Quantum Mechanics, Nobel Lecture (1946)]), however, while this sentence is completely valid, as is proved in [C. Cohen-Tannoudji, B. Diu, F. Laloë, Quantum Mechanics (John Wiley & Sons, Paris, 1977)], it is not a synonym of bunching. In fact, as it is shown in this paper, wherever one of the wavefunctions has a zero, bosons can anti-bunch and fermions can bunch. It should be stressed that zeros in the wavefunctions are ubiquitous in Quantum Mechanics and therefore the effect should be common. Several scenarios are suggested to witness the effect.

  2. Harmonically resonant cavity as a bunch-length monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, B.; Hannon, F.; Ali, M. M.; Forman, E.; Grames, J.; Kazimi, R.; Moore, W.; Pablo, M.; Poelker, M.; Sanchez, A.; Speirs, D.

    2016-05-01

    A compact, harmonically resonant cavity with fundamental resonant frequency 1497 MHz was used to evaluate the temporal characteristics of electron bunches produced by a 130 kV dc high voltage spin-polarized photoelectron source at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) photoinjector, delivered at 249.5 and 499 MHz repetition rates and ranging in width from 45 to 150 picoseconds (FWHM). A cavity antenna attached directly to a sampling oscilloscope detected the electron bunches as they passed through the cavity bore with a sensitivity of ˜1 mV /μ A . The oscilloscope waveforms are a superposition of the harmonic modes excited by the beam, with each cavity mode representing a term of the Fourier series of the electron bunch train. Relatively straightforward post-processing of the waveforms provided a near-real time representation of the electron bunches revealing bunch-length and the relative phasing of interleaved beams. The noninvasive measurements from the harmonically resonant cavity were compared to measurements obtained using an invasive RF-deflector-cavity technique and to predictions from particle tracking simulations.

  3. Electron Bunch Shape Measurements Using Electro-optical Spectral Decoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borysenko, A.; Hiller, N.; Müller, A.-S.; Steffen, B.; Peier, P.; Ivanisenko, Y.; Ischebeck, R.; Schlott, V.

    Longitudinal diagnostics of the electron bunch shapes play a crucial role in the operation of linac-based light sources. Electro-optical techniques allow us to measure the longitudinal electron bunch profiles non-destructively on a shot-by-shot basis. Here we present results from measurements of electron bunches with a length of 200-900 fs rms at the Swiss FEL Injector Test Facility. All the measurements were done using an Yb-doped fibre laser system (with a central wavelength of a 1050 nm) and a GaP crystal. The technique of electro-optical spectral decoding (EOSD) was applied and showed great capabilities to measure bunch shapes down to around 370 fs rms. Measurements were performed for different electron energies to study the expected distortions of the measured bunch profile due to the energy-dependent widening of the electric field, which plays a role for low beam energies below and around 40 MeV. The studies provide valuable input for the design of the EOSD monitors for the compact linear accelerator FLUTE that is currently under commissioning at the Karslruhe Institute of Technology (KIT).

  4. Generation and Analysis of Subpicosecond Double Electron Bunch at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Babzien, M.; Kusche, K.; Yakimenko, V.; Zhou, F.; Kimura, Wayne D.; Cline, D.B.; Ding, X.P.; /UCLA

    2011-08-09

    Two compressed electron beam bunches from a single 60-MeV bunch have been generated in a reproducible manner during compression in the magnetic chicane - 'dog leg' arrangement at ATF. Measurements indicate they have comparable bunch lengths ({approx}100-200 fs) and are separated in energy by {approx}1.8 MeV with the higher-energy bunch preceding the lower-energy bunch by 0.5-1 ps. Some simulation results for analyzing the double-bunch formation process are also presented.

  5. High-gradient plasma-wakefield acceleration with two subpicosecond electron bunches.

    PubMed

    Kallos, Efthymios; Katsouleas, Tom; Kimura, Wayne D; Kusche, Karl; Muggli, Patric; Pavlishin, Igor; Pogorelsky, Igor; Stolyarov, Daniil; Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2008-02-22

    A plasma-wakefield experiment is presented where two 60 MeV subpicosecond electron bunches are sent into a plasma produced by a capillary discharge. Both bunches are shorter than the plasma wavelength, and the phase of the second bunch relative to the plasma wave is adjusted by tuning the plasma density. It is shown that the second bunch experiences a 150 MeV/m loaded accelerating gradient in the wakefield driven by the first bunch. This is the first experiment to directly demonstrate high-gradient, controlled acceleration of a short-pulse trailing electron bunch in a high-density plasma.

  6. Bunch self-focusing regime of laser wakefield acceleration with reduced emittance growth.

    PubMed

    Reitsma, A J W; Goloviznin, V V; Kamp, L P J; Schep, T J

    2002-01-07

    A new regime of laser wakefield acceleration of an injected electron bunch is described. In this regime, the bunch charge is so high that the bunch wakefields play an important role in the bunch dynamics. In particular, the transverse bunch wakefield induces a strong self-focusing that suppresses the transverse emittance growth arising from misalignment errors. The decelerating longitudinal bunch wakefield, however, is not so strong that it completely cancels the accelerating laser wakefield. In fact, the induced energy spread can be compensated by exploiting phase slippage effects. These features make the new regime interesting for high beam quality laser wakefield acceleration.

  7. Simulations of a High-Transformer-Ratio Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Using Multiple Electron Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Kallos, Efthymios; Muggli, Patric; Katsouleas, Thomas; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Park, Jangho

    2009-01-22

    Particle-in-cell simulations of a plasma wakefield accelerator in the linear regime are presented, consisting of four electron bunches that are fed into a high-density plasma. It is found that a high transformer ratio can be maintained over 43 cm of plasma if the charge in each bunch is increased linearly, the bunches are placed 1.5 plasma wavelengths apart and the bunch emmitances are adjusted to compensate for the nonlinear focusing forces. The generated wakefield is sampled by a test witness bunch whose energy gain after the plasma is six times the energy loss of the drive bunches.

  8. Performance of the transverse coupled-bunch feedback system in the SRRC

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.T.; Kuo, C.C.; Kuo, C.H.; Lin, K.K.; Ueng, T.S.; Weng, W.T.

    1996-10-01

    A transverse feedback system has been implemented and commissioned in the SRRC storage ring to suppress transverse coupled-bunch oscillations of the electron beam. The system includes transverse oscillation detectors, notch filter, baseband quadrature processing circuitry, power amplifiers, and kickers. To control a large number of transverse coupled-bunch modes, the system is broad-band, bunch-by- bunch in nature. Because the system is capable of bunch-by-bunch correction, it can also be useful for suppressing instabilities introduced by ions. The sextupole strength was then reduced to improve dynamic aperture and hence lifetime of the storage ring.

  9. Quantum model of spin noise.

    PubMed

    Annabestani, R; Cory, D G; Emerson, J

    2015-03-01

    Any ensemble of quantum particles exhibits statistical fluctuations known as spin noise. Here, we provide a description of spin noise in the language of open quantum systems. The description unifies the signatures of spin noise under both strong and weak measurements. Further, the model accounts for arbitrary spin dynamics from an arbitrary initial state. In all cases we can find both the spin noise and its time correlation function.

  10. Space-charge dynamics in ultra-cold ion bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholten, Robert; Murphy, Dene; Speirs, Rory; Thompson, Daniel; Sparkes, Benjamin; McCulloch, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Cold ion sources based on photoionisation of laser cooled atoms provide a unique system for investigating Coulomb interactions within complex charged particle bunches. Space-charge driven expansion in charged particle beams is of critical importance for applications including electron and ion microscopy, mass spectrometry, synchrotrons and x-ray free electron lasers, and in electron diffraction where space-charge effects constrain the capacity to obtain diffraction information. Self-field effects are often difficult to observe because of thermal diffusion with traditional sources. Cold atom sources produce ions with temperatures of a few mK, such that subtle space-charge effects are apparent. We illustrate the capabilities through detailed investigation of a complex ion bunch shape, showing collective behaviour including high density caustics and shockwave structures arising from long-range interactions between small charge bunches.

  11. Bunch compression for the TLC (TeV Linear Collider)

    SciTech Connect

    Kheifets, S.A.; Ruth, R.D.; Fieguth, T.H.

    1989-08-01

    The length of the bunch for the TeV Linear Collider (TLC) must be decreased, while simultaneously preserving its small transverse emittance. To achieve a short bunch length (/approximately/ 70 /mu/m) needed for the TLC, it is necessary to use two-step compression of a 5 mm bunch which is extracted from the damping ring. The corresponding increase of momentum spread requires that chromatic aberrations of the transport line must be corrected at least up to second order. This goal is achieved by building the compressor out of second-order achromats, which also eliminates geometric aberrations. The utilization of flat beams restricts the design to an uncoupled, mid-plane symmetric transport line. The first compression is performed by a conventional compressor. For the second, it is possible to use a 180/degree/ bend. The emittance growth due to the synchrotron radiation is kept to several percent. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Commissioning of the LCLS Linac and Bunch Compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Akre, R.; Brachmann, A.; Decker, F.-J.; Ding, Y.; Dowell, D.; Emma#, P.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, S.; Hays, G.; Hering, Ph.; Huang, Z.; Iverson, R.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Loos, H.; Molloy, S.; Miahnahri, A.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Ratner, D.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; White, W.; /SLAC

    2008-08-20

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) project under construction at SLAC [1]. The injector section, from drive-laser and RF photocathode gun through the first bunch compressor, was commissioned in the spring and summer of 2007. The second phase of commissioning, including the second bunch compressor and various main linac modifications, was completed in January through August of 2008. We report here on experience gained during this second phase of machine commissioning, including the injector, the first and second bunch compressor stages, the linac up to 14 GeV, and beam stability measurements. The final commissioning phase, including the undulator and the long transport line from the linac, is set to begin in December 2008, with first light expected in July 2009.

  13. Stimulated coherent emission from short electron bunches in free space

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, G.R.M.; Phelps, A.D.R.; Ginzburg, N.S.

    1995-12-31

    In previous papers stimulated coherent emission of short electron bunches (superradiance-SR) was considered in the frame of 1-D models. In the present work we study superradiance of an electron bunch which has a finite transverse size in the frame of a 2-D model. This model include effects of optical guiding as well as transverse electromagnetic energy escaping and diffraction. Using a nonstationary parabolic equation we described SR of a sheet shaped electron bunch in free space. It is shown that the radiation is composed of a sequence of e.m. pulses which are diffracted after escaping from the channel formed by the electron beam. This process is accompanied by a progressive increase of the electron efficiency. This enhancement is caused by the phenomenon of permanent self supporting resonance due to the variation of the radiation angle and frequency.

  14. Non-linear effects in bunch compressor of TARLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Hüseyin; Aksoy, Avni; Arikan, Pervin

    2016-03-01

    Transport of a beam through an accelerator beamline is affected by high order and non-linear effects such as space charge, coherent synchrotron radiation, wakefield, etc. These effects damage form of the beam, and they lead particle loss, emittance growth, bunch length variation, beam halo formation, etc. One of the known non-linear effects on low energy machine is space charge effect. In this study we focus on space charge effect for Turkish Accelerator and Radiation Laboratory in Ankara (TARLA) machine which is designed to drive InfraRed Free Electron Laser covering the range of 3-250 µm. Moreover, we discuss second order effects on bunch compressor of TARLA.

  15. Acceleration of electrons by the wake field of proton bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel idea to accelerate low-intensity bunches of electrons (or positrons) by the wake field of intense proton bunches travelling along the axis of a cylindrical rf structure. Accelerating gradients in excess of 100 MeV/m and large ''transformer ratios'', which allow for acceleration of electrons to energies in the TeV range, are calculated. A possible application of the method is an electron-positron linear collider with luminosity of 10/sup 33/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/. The relatively low cost and power consumption of the method is emphasized.

  16. Collective Deceleration of Laser-Driven Electron Bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, S.; Xu, J.; Khrennikov, K.; Cardenas, D. E.; Wenz, J.; Heigoldt, M.; Hofmann, L.; Veisz, L.; Karsch, S.

    2016-09-01

    Few-fs electron bunches from laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) can efficiently drive plasma wakefields (PWFs), as shown by their propagation through underdense plasma in two experiments. A strong and density-insensitive deceleration of the bunches has been observed in 2 mm of 1 018 cm-3 density plasma with 5.1 GV /m average gradient, which is attributed to a self-driven PWF. This observation implies that the physics of PWFs, usually relying on large-scale rf accelerators as drivers, can be studied by tabletop LWFA electron sources.

  17. Bunch Length Measurements With Laser/SR Cross-Correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Timothy; Daranciang, Dan; Lindenberg, Aaron; Corbett, Jeff; Fisher, Alan; Goodfellow, John; Huang, Xiaobiao; Mok, Walter; Safranek, James; Wen, Haidan; /SLAC

    2012-07-06

    By operating SPEAR3 in low-{alpha} mode the storage ring can generate synchrotron radiation pulses of order 1ps. Applications include pump-probe x-ray science and the production of THz radiation in the CSR regime. Measurements of the bunch length are difficult, however, because the light intensity is low and streak cameras typically provide resolution of only a few ps. Tests are now underway to resolve the short bunch length using cross-correlation between a 60-fs Ti:Sapphire laser and the visible SR beam in a BBO crystal. In this paper we report on the experimental setup, preliminary measurements and prospects for further improvement.

  18. The Optimized Bunch Compressor for the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; /SLAC

    2007-07-06

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) utilizes a two stage Bunch Compressor (BC) that compresses the RMS bunch length from 9 mm to 200 to 300 micrometers before sending the electron beam to the Main Linac. This paper reports on the new design of the optimized BC wiggler. It was reduced in length by more than 30%. The introduction of nonzero dispersion slope in the BC wigglers enabled them to generate the required compression while having a small SR emittance growth, a tunability range of over a factor of 2 in each wiggler, and less than 3% RMS energy spread throughout the entire system.

  19. Flat bunch creation and acceleration: a possible path for the LHC luminosity upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    Increasing the collider luminosity by replacing bunches having Gaussian line-charge distribution with flat bunches, but with same beam-beam tune shift at collision, has been studied widely in recent years. But, creation of 'stable' flat bunches (and their acceleration) using a multiple harmonic RF system has not been fully explored. Here, we review our experience with long flat bunches in the barrier RF buckets at Fermilab.We presentsome preliminary results from beam dynamics simulations and recent beam studies in the LHC injectors to create stable flat bunches using double harmonic RF systems. The results deduced from these studies will be used to model the necessary scheme for luminosity upgrade in the LHC. We have also described a viable (and economical) way for creation and acceleration of flat bunches in the LHC. The flat bunch scheme may have many advantages over the LHC baseline scenario, particularly because of the reduced momentum spread of the bunch for increased intensities.

  20. Compact double-bunch x-ray free electron lasers for fresh bunch self-seeding and harmonic lasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emma, C.; Feng, Y.; Nguyen, D. C.; Ratti, A.; Pellegrini, C.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a novel method to improve the longitudinal coherence, efficiency and maximum photon energy of x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). The method is equivalent to having two separate concatenated XFELs. The first uses one bunch of electrons to reach the saturation regime, generating a high power self-amplified spontaneous emission x-ray pulse at the fundamental and third harmonic. The x-ray pulse is filtered through an attenuator/monochromator and seeds a different electron bunch in the second FEL, using the fundamental and/or third harmonic as an input signal. In our method we combine the two XFELs operating with two bunches, separated by one or more rf cycles, in the same linear accelerator. We discuss the advantages and applications of the proposed system for present and future XFELs.

  1. Community noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragdon, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    Airport and community land use planning as they relate to airport noise reduction are discussed. Legislation, community relations, and the physiological effect of airport noise are considered. Noise at the Logan, Los Angeles, and Minneapolis/St. Paul airports is discussed.

  2. Measuring short electron bunch lengths using coherent smith-purcell radiation

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Dinh C.

    1999-01-01

    A method is provided for directly determining the length of sub-picosecond electron bunches. A metallic grating is formed with a groove spacing greater than a length expected for the electron bunches. The electron bunches are passed over the metallic grating to generate coherent and incoherent Smith-Purcell radiation. The angular distribution of the coherent Smith-Purcell radiation is then mapped to directly deduce the length of the electron bunches.

  3. Measuring short electron bunch lengths using coherent Smith-Purcell radiation

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, D.C.

    1999-03-30

    A method is provided for directly determining the length of sub-picosecond electron bunches. A metallic grating is formed with a groove spacing greater than a length expected for the electron bunches. The electron bunches are passed over the metallic grating to generate coherent and incoherent Smith-Purcell radiation. The angular distribution of the coherent Smith-Purcell radiation is then mapped to directly deduce the length of the electron bunches. 8 figs.

  4. Nonlinear structure of the wakefield generated by relativistic intense ion bunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshelev, A. A.; Andreev, N. E.

    2016-11-01

    The resonant excitation of the nonlinear wakefield by a single proton bunch is investigated with the parameters characteristic of the AWAKE experiment. It is shown that obtained structure of the wakefield at a distance more than twenty periods behind the driver proton bunch can be suitable for the side injection and further acceleration of the witness electron bunch in the wakefield.

  5. Short electron beam bunch characterization through measurement of terahertz radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shukui Zhang; Stephen Benson; David Douglas; Michelle D. Shinn; Gwyn Williams

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents the measurement of sub-picosecond relativistic electron beam bunch length by analyzing the spectra of the coherent terahertz pulses through Kramers-Kronig transformation. The results are compared with autocorrelation from a scanning polarization autocorrelator that measures the coherent optical transition radiation. The limitations of the different methods to such a characterization are discussed.

  6. BUNCHED BEAM STOCHASTIC COOLING SIMULAITONS AND COMPARISON WITH DATA

    SciTech Connect

    BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRENNAN, J.M.

    2007-09-10

    With the experimental success of longitudinal, bunched beam stochastic cooling in RHIC it is natural to ask whether the system works as well as it might and whether upgrades or new systems are warranted. A computer code, very similar to those used for multi-particle coherent instability simulations, has been written and is being used to address these questions.

  7. Simulations of Merging Helion Bunches on the AGS Injection Porch

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C. J.

    2014-08-29

    During the setup of helions for the FY2014 RHIC run it was discovered that the standard scheme for merging bunches on the AGS injection porch required an injection kicker pulse shorter than what was available. To overcome this difficulty, K. Zeno proposed and developed an interesting and unusual alternative which uses RF harmonic numbers 12, 4, 2 (rather than the standard 8, 4, 2) to merge 8 helion bunches into 2. In this note we carry out simulations that illustrate how the alternative scheme works and how it compares with the standard scheme. This is done in Sections 13 and 14. A scheme in which 6 bunches are merged into 1 is simulated in Section 15. This may be useful if more helions per merged bunch are needed in future runs. General formulae for the simulations are given in Sections 9 through 12. For completeness, Sections 1 through 8 give a derivation of the turn-by-turn equations of longitudinal motion at constant magnetic field. The derivation is based on the work of MacLachlan. The reader may wish to skip over these Sections and start with Section 9.

  8. Scanning Synchronization of Colliding Bunches for MEIC Project

    SciTech Connect

    Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Popov, V. P.; Chernousov, Yu D.; Kazakevich, G. M.

    2015-09-01

    Synchronization of colliding beams is one of the major issues of an electron-ion collider (EIC) design because of sensitivity of ion revolution frequency to beam energy. A conventional solution for this trouble is insertion of bent chicanes in the arcs space. In our report we consider a method to provide space coincidence of encountering bunches in the crab-crossing orbits Interaction Region (IR) while repetition rates of two beams do not coincide. The method utilizes pair of fast kickers realizing a bypass for the electron bunches as the way to equalize positions of the colliding bunches at the Interaction Point (IP). A dipole-mode warm or SRF cavities fed by the magnetron transmitters are used as fast kickers, allowing a broad-band phase and amplitude control. The proposed scanning synchronization method implies stabilization of luminosity at a maximum via a feedback loop. This synchronization method is evaluated as perspective for the Medium Energy Electron-Ion collider (MEIC) project of JLab with its very high bunch repetition rate.

  9. Modeling Multi-Bunch X-band Photoinjector Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, R A; Anderson, S G; Gibson, D J; Barty, C J

    2012-05-09

    An X-band test station is being developed at LLNL to investigate accelerator optimization for future upgrades to mono-energetic gamma-ray technology at LLNL. The test station will consist of a 5.5 cell X-band rf photoinjector, single accelerator section, and beam diagnostics. Of critical import to the functioning of the LLNL X-band system with multiple electron bunches is the performance of the photoinjector. In depth modeling of the Mark 1 LLNL/SLAC X-band rf photoinjector performance will be presented addressing important challenges that must be addressed in order to fabricate a multi-bunch Mark 2 photoinjector. Emittance performance is evaluated under different nominal electron bunch parameters using electrostatic codes such as PARMELA. Wake potential is analyzed using electromagnetic time domain simulations using the ACE3P code T3P. Plans for multi-bunch experiments and implementation of photoinjector advances for the Mark 2 design will also be discussed.

  10. Dissipating Step Bunches during Crystallization under Transport Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Hong; Yau, S.-T.; Vekilov, Peter, G.

    2003-01-01

    In studies of crystal formation by the generation and spreading of layers, equidistant step trains are considered unstable---bunches and other spatiotemporal patterns of the growth steps are viewed as ubiquitous. We provide an example to the opposite. We monitor the spatiotemporal dynamics of steps and the resulting step patterns during crystallization of the proteins ferritin and apoferritin using the atomic force microscope. The variations in step velocity and density are not correlated, indicating the lack of a long-range attraction between the steps. We show that (i) because of its coupling to bulk transport, nucleation of new layers is chaotic and occurs at the facet edges, where the interfacial supersaturation is higher; (ii) step bunches self-organize via the competition for supply from the solution; and, (iii) bunches of weakly interacting steps decay as they move along the face. Tests by numerical modeling support the conclusions about the mechanisms underlying our observations. The results from these systems suggest that during crystallization controlled by transport, with weakly or noninteracting growth steps, the stable kinetic state of the surface is an equidistant step train, and step bunches only arise during nucleation of new layers. Since nucleation only occurs at a few sites on the surface, the surface morphology may be controllably patterned or smoothened by locally controlling nucleation.

  11. Instability of a witness bunch in a plasma bubble

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, A.; Lebedev, V.; Nagaitsev, S.

    2016-02-16

    The stability of a trailing witness bunch, accelerated by a plasma wake accelerator (PWA) in a blow-out regime, is discussed. The instability growth rate as well as the energy spread, required for BNS damping, are obtained. A relationship between the PWA power efficiency and the BNS energy spread is derived.

  12. Loss Factor of Tapered Structures for Short Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Blednykh, A.

    2011-03-28

    Using the electromagnetic simulation code ECHO, we have found a simple phenomenological formula that accurately describes the loss factor for short bunches traversing an axisymmetric tapered collimator. In this paper, we consider tapered collimators with rectangular cross-section and use the GdfidL code to calculate the loss factor dependence on the geometric parameters for short bunches. The results for both axisymmetric and rectangular collimators are discussed. The behaviour of the impedance of tapered structures for very short bunches in the optical regime has been determined in refs. [10,11]. Here, for the loss factors for two particular geometries, we have studied the departure from the optical regime behaviour as bunch length is increased. In both cases, the ratio of the loss factor for the tapered collimator to the loss factor in the optical regime is a function only of the scaling parameter {sigma}L/d{sup 2}. The fact that the bunch length a and the taper length L appear as a product is consistent with the recent scaling derived by Stupakov in ref. [12], since there is only a weak dependence on g. One noteworthy fact that is not a priori expected is that only the larger radius or vertical half-aperture d appears. The reduction factor is independent of b. Moreover, it is striking that the specific form involving the arctan given in Eq. (5) holds for both geometries, with only the coefficient {mu} differing by a factor of {approx}2 for flat vs round. This suggests that there may be a useful phenomenological form for more general geometries which may follow from natural extensions of Eq. (5). This possibility is presently being investigated.

  13. X-rays only when you want them: Optimized pump–probe experiments using pseudo-single-bunch operation

    DOE PAGES

    Hertlein, M. P.; Scholl, A.; Cordones, A. A.; ...

    2015-04-02

    Laser pump–X-ray probe experiments require control over the X-ray pulse pattern and timing. Here, the first use of pseudo-single-bunch mode at the Advanced Light Source in picosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption experiments on solutions and solids is reported. In this mode the X-ray repetition rate is fully adjustable from single shot to 500 kHz, allowing it to be matched to typical laser excitation pulse rates. Suppressing undesired X-ray pulses considerably reduces detector noise and improves signal to noise in time-resolved experiments. In addition, dose-induced sample damage is considerably reduced, easing experimental setup and allowing the investigation of less robust samples. Single-shotmore » X-ray exposures of a streak camera detector using a conventional non-gated charge-coupled device (CCD) camera are also demonstrated.« less

  14. X-rays only when you want them: Optimized pump–probe experiments using pseudo-single-bunch operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hertlein, M. P.; Scholl, A.; Cordones, A. A.; Lee, J. H.; Engelhorn, K.; Glover, T. E.; Barbrel, B.; Sun, C.; Steier, C.; Portmann, G.; Robin, D. S.

    2015-04-02

    Laser pump–X-ray probe experiments require control over the X-ray pulse pattern and timing. Here, the first use of pseudo-single-bunch mode at the Advanced Light Source in picosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption experiments on solutions and solids is reported. In this mode the X-ray repetition rate is fully adjustable from single shot to 500 kHz, allowing it to be matched to typical laser excitation pulse rates. Suppressing undesired X-ray pulses considerably reduces detector noise and improves signal to noise in time-resolved experiments. In addition, dose-induced sample damage is considerably reduced, easing experimental setup and allowing the investigation of less robust samples. Single-shot X-ray exposures of a streak camera detector using a conventional non-gated charge-coupled device (CCD) camera are also demonstrated.

  15. X-rays only when you want them: optimized pump–probe experiments using pseudo-single-bunch operation

    PubMed Central

    Hertlein, M. P.; Scholl, A.; Cordones, A. A.; Lee, J. H.; Engelhorn, K.; Glover, T. E.; Barbrel, B.; Sun, C.; Steier, C.; Portmann, G.; Robin, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Laser pump–X-ray probe experiments require control over the X-ray pulse pattern and timing. Here, the first use of pseudo-single-bunch mode at the Advanced Light Source in picosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption experiments on solutions and solids is reported. In this mode the X-ray repetition rate is fully adjustable from single shot to 500 kHz, allowing it to be matched to typical laser excitation pulse rates. Suppressing undesired X-ray pulses considerably reduces detector noise and improves signal to noise in time-resolved experiments. In addition, dose-induced sample damage is considerably reduced, easing experimental setup and allowing the investigation of less robust samples. Single-shot X-ray exposures of a streak camera detector using a conventional non-gated charge-coupled device (CCD) camera are also demonstrated. PMID:25931090

  16. X-rays only when you want them: optimized pump-probe experiments using pseudo-single-bunch operation.

    PubMed

    Hertlein, M P; Scholl, A; Cordones, A A; Lee, J H; Engelhorn, K; Glover, T E; Barbrel, B; Sun, C; Steier, C; Portmann, G; Robin, D S

    2015-05-01

    Laser pump-X-ray probe experiments require control over the X-ray pulse pattern and timing. Here, the first use of pseudo-single-bunch mode at the Advanced Light Source in picosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption experiments on solutions and solids is reported. In this mode the X-ray repetition rate is fully adjustable from single shot to 500 kHz, allowing it to be matched to typical laser excitation pulse rates. Suppressing undesired X-ray pulses considerably reduces detector noise and improves signal to noise in time-resolved experiments. In addition, dose-induced sample damage is considerably reduced, easing experimental setup and allowing the investigation of less robust samples. Single-shot X-ray exposures of a streak camera detector using a conventional non-gated charge-coupled device (CCD) camera are also demonstrated.

  17. ON THE USE OF SHOT NOISE FOR PHOTON COUNTING

    SciTech Connect

    Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2015-11-01

    Lieu et al. have recently claimed that it is possible to substantially improve the sensitivity of radio-astronomical observations. In essence, their proposal is to make use of the intensity of the photon shot noise as a measure of the photon arrival rate. Lieu et al. provide a detailed quantum-mechanical calculation of a proposed measurement scheme that uses two detectors and conclude that this scheme avoids the sensitivity degradation that is associated with photon bunching. If correct, this result could have a profound impact on radio astronomy. Here I present a detailed analysis of the sensitivity attainable using shot-noise measurement schemes that use either one or two detectors, and demonstrate that neither scheme can avoid the photon bunching penalty. I perform both semiclassical and fully quantum calculations of the sensitivity, obtaining consistent results, and provide a formal proof of the equivalence of these two approaches. These direct calculations are furthermore shown to be consistent with an indirect argument based on a correlation method that establishes an independent limit to the sensitivity of shot-noise measurement schemes. Furthermore, these calculations are directly applicable to the regime of interest identified by Lieu et al. Collectively, these results conclusively demonstrate that the photon-bunching sensitivity penalty applies to shot-noise measurement schemes just as it does to ordinary photon counting, in contradiction to the fundamental claim made by Lieu et al. The source of this contradiction is traced to a logical fallacy in their argument.

  18. On the Use of Shot Noise for Photon Counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2015-11-01

    Lieu et al. have recently claimed that it is possible to substantially improve the sensitivity of radio-astronomical observations. In essence, their proposal is to make use of the intensity of the photon shot noise as a measure of the photon arrival rate. Lieu et al. provide a detailed quantum-mechanical calculation of a proposed measurement scheme that uses two detectors and conclude that this scheme avoids the sensitivity degradation that is associated with photon bunching. If correct, this result could have a profound impact on radio astronomy. Here I present a detailed analysis of the sensitivity attainable using shot-noise measurement schemes that use either one or two detectors, and demonstrate that neither scheme can avoid the photon bunching penalty. I perform both semiclassical and fully quantum calculations of the sensitivity, obtaining consistent results, and provide a formal proof of the equivalence of these two approaches. These direct calculations are furthermore shown to be consistent with an indirect argument based on a correlation method that establishes an independent limit to the sensitivity of shot-noise measurement schemes. Furthermore, these calculations are directly applicable to the regime of interest identified by Lieu et al. Collectively, these results conclusively demonstrate that the photon-bunching sensitivity penalty applies to shot-noise measurement schemes just as it does to ordinary photon counting, in contradiction to the fundamental claim made by Lieu et al. The source of this contradiction is traced to a logical fallacy in their argument.

  19. Control of coupled-bunch instabilities in high current storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Lambertson, G.

    1991-04-01

    Intense particle beams may be subject to coupled-bunch instabilities that would grow at rates greater than the bunch oscillation frequencies. The suppression of the growth requires both reduction of the driving impedances and active feedback of bunch motions. The shunt impedances of higher-order cavity resonances can be reduced by passive dampers and the beam impedance within the band of the fundamental resonance can be reduced by rf feedback around the cavity and power amplifier. The feedback of bunch motions composed of numerous coupled-bunch modes requires broad-band systems for which the amplifiers are costly. Examples proposed for electron storage rings are presented. 10 refs, 5 figs.

  20. Turbomachinery noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Sofrin, Thomas G.; Rice, Edward J.; Gliebe, Phillip R.

    1991-08-01

    Summarized here are key advances in experimental techniques and theoretical applications which point the way to a broad understanding and control of turbomachinery noise. On the experimental side, the development of effective inflow control techniques makes it possible to conduct, in ground based facilities, definitive experiments in internally controlled blade row interactions. Results can now be valid indicators of flight behavior and can provide a firm base for comparison with analytical results. Inflow control coupled with detailed diagnostic tools such as blade pressure measurements can be used to uncover the more subtle mechanisms such as rotor strut interaction, which can set tone levels for some engine configurations. Initial mappings of rotor wake-vortex flow fields have provided a data base for a first generation semiempirical flow disturbance model. Laser velocimetry offers a nonintrusive method for validating and improving the model. Digital data systems and signal processing algorithms are bringing mode measurement closer to a working tool that can be frequently applied to a real machine such as a turbofan engine. On the analytical side, models of most of the links in the chain from turbomachine blade source to far field observation point have been formulated. Three dimensional lifting surface theory for blade rows, including source noncompactness and cascade effects, blade row transmission models incorporating mode and frequency scattering, and modal radiation calculations, including hybrid numerical-analytical approaches, are tools which await further application.

  1. Turbomachinery noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Sofrin, Thomas G.; Rice, Edward J.; Gliebe, Phillip R.

    1991-01-01

    Summarized here are key advances in experimental techniques and theoretical applications which point the way to a broad understanding and control of turbomachinery noise. On the experimental side, the development of effective inflow control techniques makes it possible to conduct, in ground based facilities, definitive experiments in internally controlled blade row interactions. Results can now be valid indicators of flight behavior and can provide a firm base for comparison with analytical results. Inflow control coupled with detailed diagnostic tools such as blade pressure measurements can be used to uncover the more subtle mechanisms such as rotor strut interaction, which can set tone levels for some engine configurations. Initial mappings of rotor wake-vortex flow fields have provided a data base for a first generation semiempirical flow disturbance model. Laser velocimetry offers a nonintrusive method for validating and improving the model. Digital data systems and signal processing algorithms are bringing mode measurement closer to a working tool that can be frequently applied to a real machine such as a turbofan engine. On the analytical side, models of most of the links in the chain from turbomachine blade source to far field observation point have been formulated. Three dimensional lifting surface theory for blade rows, including source noncompactness and cascade effects, blade row transmission models incorporating mode and frequency scattering, and modal radiation calculations, including hybrid numerical-analytical approaches, are tools which await further application.

  2. Interior Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, John S.; Wilby, John F.

    1991-01-01

    The generation and control of flight vehicle interior noise is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms of transmission through airborne and structure-borne paths and the control of cabin noise by path modification. Techniques for identifying the relative contributions of the various source-path combinations are also discussed along with methods for the prediction of aircraft interior noise such as those based on the general modal theory and statistical energy analysis.

  3. Generation of ultra-short hydrogen atom pulses by bunch-compression photolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Sven; Schwarzer, Dirk; Reichardt, Christian; Wodtke, Alec M.; Bünermann, Oliver

    2014-11-01

    Ultra-short light pulses enable many time-resolved studies in chemistry, especially when used in pump-probe experiments. However, most chemical events are not initiated by light, but rather by collisions. Time-resolved collisional experiments require ultra-short pulses of atoms and molecules—sadly, methods for producing such pulses are so far unknown. Here we introduce bunch-compression photolysis, an approach to forming ultra-short and highly intense pulses of neutral atoms. We demonstrate H-atom pulses of 1.2±0.3 ns duration, far shorter than any previously reported. Owing to its extraordinarily simple physical principles, we can accurately model the method—the model shows H-atom pulses as short as 110-ps are achievable. Importantly, due to the bunch-compression, large (mm3) photolysis volumes are possible, a key advantage for pulse intensity. This technique overcomes the most challenging barrier to a new class of experiments on time-resolved collisions involving atoms and molecules.

  4. Potential for luminosity improvement for low-energy RHIC operation with long bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.

    2012-02-10

    Electron cooling was proposed to increase luminosity of the RHIC collider for heavy ion beams at low energies. Luminosity decreases as the square of bunch intensity due to the beam loss from the RF bucket as a result of the longitudinal intra beam scattering (IBS), as well as due to the transverse emittance growth because of the transverse IBS. Both transverse and longitudinal IBS can be counteracted with electron cooling. This would allow one to keep the initial peak luminosity close to constant throughout the store essentially without the beam loss. In addition, the phase-space density of the hadron beams can be further increased by providing stronger electron cooling. Unfortunately, the defining limitation for low energies in RHIC is expected to be the space charge. Here we explore an idea of additional improvement in luminosity, on top of the one coming from just IBS compensation and longer stores, which may be expected if one can operate with longer bunches at the space-charge limit in a collider. This approach together with electron cooling may result in about 10-fold improvement in total luminosity for low-energy RHIC program.

  5. Noise Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Environmental Health Systems puts forth an increasing effort in the U.S. to develop ways of controlling noise, particularly in industrial environments due to Federal and State laws, labor union insistence and new findings relative to noise pollution impact on human health. NASA's Apollo guidance control system aided in the development of a noise protection product, SMART. The basis of all SMART products is SMART compound a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy/sound absorbing qualities. The basic compound was later refined for noise protection use.

  6. Much Ado about Microbunching: Coherent Bunching in High Brightness Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, Daniel

    2011-05-01

    The push to provide ever brighter coherent radiation sources has led to the creation of correspondingly bright electron beams. With billions of electrons packed into normalized emittances (phase space) below one micron, collective effects may dominate both the preservation and use of such ultra-bright beams. An important class of collective effects is due to density modulations within the bunch, or microbunching. Microbunching may be deleterious, as in the case of the Microbunching Instability (MBI), or it may drive radiation sources of unprecedented intensity, as in the case of Free Electron Lasers (FELs). In this work we begin by describing models of microbunching due to inherent beam shot noise, which sparks both the MBI as well as SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source, the world's first hard X-ray laser. We first use this model to propose a mechanism for reducing the inherent beam shot noise as well as for predicting MBI effects. We then describe experimental measurements of the resulting microbunching at LCLS, including optical radiation from the MBI, as well as the first gain length and harmonic measurements from a hard X-ray FEL. In the final chapters, we describe schemes that use external laser modulations to microbunch light sources of the future. In these sections we describe coherent light source schemes for both both linacs and storage rings.

  7. Properties of Trapped Electron Bunches in a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Neil; /SLAC

    2009-10-30

    Plasma-based accelerators use the propagation of a drive bunch through plasma to create large electric fields. Recent plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) experiments, carried out at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), successfully doubled the energy for some of the 42 GeV drive bunch electrons in less than a meter; this feat would have required 3 km in the SLAC linac. This dissertation covers one phenomenon associated with the PWFA, electron trapping. Recently it was shown that PWFAs, operated in the nonlinear bubble regime, can trap electrons that are released by ionization inside the plasma wake and accelerate them to high energies. These trapped electrons occupy and can degrade the accelerating portion of the plasma wake, so it is important to understand their origins and how to remove them. Here, the onset of electron trapping is connected to the drive bunch properties. Additionally, the trapped electron bunches are observed with normalized transverse emittance divided by peak current, {epsilon}{sub N,x}/I{sub t}, below the level of 0.2 {micro}m/kA. A theoretical model of the trapped electron emittance, developed here, indicates that the emittance scales inversely with the square root of the plasma density in the non-linear 'bubble' regime of the PWFA. This model and simulations indicate that the observed values of {epsilon}{sub N,x}/I{sub t} result from multi-GeV trapped electron bunches with emittances of a few {micro}m and multi-kA peak currents. These properties make the trapped electrons a possible particle source for next generation light sources. This dissertation is organized as follows. The first chapter is an overview of the PWFA, which includes a review of the accelerating and focusing fields and a survey of the remaining issues for a plasma-based particle collider. Then, the second chapter examines the physics of electron trapping in the PWFA. The third chapter uses theory and simulations to analyze the properties of the trapped electron

  8. Emittance preservation during bunch compression with a magnetized beam

    SciTech Connect

    Stratakis, Diktys

    2015-09-02

    The deleterious effects of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on the phase-space and energy spread of high-energy beams in accelerator light sources can significantly constrain the machine design and performance. In this paper, we present a simple method to preserve the beam emittance by means of using magnetized beams that exhibit a large aspect ratio on their transverse dimensions. The concept is based on combining a finite solenoid field where the beam is generated together with a special optics adapter. Numerical simulations of this new type of beam source show that the induced phase-space density growth can be notably suppressed to less than 1% for any bunch charge. This work elucidates the key parameters that are needed for emittance preservation, such as the required field and aspect ratio for a given bunch charge.

  9. Absolute bunch length measurement using coherent diffraction radiation.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Marco; Appio, Roberto; Craievich, Paolo; Penco, Giuseppe

    2013-02-15

    The longitudinal electron beam properties are of crucial importance for many types of frontier accelerators, from storage rings to free electron lasers and energy recovery linacs. For the online control of the machine and its stable operation, nondestructive shot by shot bunch length measurements are needed. Among the various instrumentations proposed and installed in accelerators worldwide, the ones based on the measurement of the coherent radiation power represent the simplest and the more robust tools for operational control. The major limitation of these systems is that they usually can provide only relative bunch length estimation. In this Letter we present a novel experimental methodology to self-calibrate a simple equipment based on diffraction radiation from a gap providing a measurement of the second order moment of the longitudinal distribution. We present the theoretical basis of the proposed approach and validate it through a detailed campaign of measurements.

  10. Generation of ultrashort electron bunches by colliding laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, C B; Lee, P B; Wurtele, J S; Esarey, E; Leemans, W P

    1999-05-01

    A proposed laser-plasma-based relativistic electron source [E. Esarey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2682 (1997)] using laser-triggered injection of electrons is investigated. The source generates ultrashort electron bunches by dephasing and trapping background plasma electrons undergoing fluid oscillations in an excited plasma wake. The plasma electrons are dephased by colliding two counterpropagating laser pulses which generate a slow phase velocity beat wave. Laser pulse intensity thresholds for trapping and the optimal wake phase for injection are calculated. Numerical simulations of test particles, with prescribed plasma and laser fields, are used to verify analytic predictions and to study the longitudinal and transverse dynamics of the trapped plasma electrons. Simulations indicate that the colliding laser pulse injection scheme has the capability to produce relativistic femtosecond electron bunches with fractional energy spread of order a few percent and normalized transverse emittance less than 1 mm mrad using 1 TW injection laser pulses.

  11. Electron channeling radiation experiments at very high electron bunch charges

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Freudenberger, J.; Fritzler, S.; Genz, H.; Richter, A.; Ushakov, A.; Zilges, A.; Sellschop, J.P.F.

    2003-12-01

    Plasmas offer the possibility of high acceleration gradients. An intriguing suggestion is to use the higher plasma densities possible in solids to get extremely high gradients. Although solid-state plasmas might produce high gradients they would pose daunting problems. Crystal channeling has been suggested as one mechanism to address these challenges. There is no experimental or theoretical guidance on channeling for intense electron beams. A high-density plasma in a crystal lattice could quench the channeling process. An experiment has been carried out at the Fermilab NICADD Photoinjector Laboratory to observe electron channeling radiation at high bunch charges. An electron beam with up to 8 nC per electron bunch was used to investigate the electron-crystal interaction. No evidence was found of quenching of channeling at charge densities two orders of magnitude larger than that in earlier experiments.

  12. HOM Effects in Vacuum System with Short Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Novokhatski, A.; /SLAC

    2005-06-10

    High luminosity in electron-positron factories requires high currents of very short bunches. SLAC PEP-II and KEKB B-factories are progressively increasing currents gaining more and more luminosity [1-2]. Simultaneously the interaction of high currents and vacuum chamber elements becomes more important for operation of the rings. High Order Modes excited by short intense bunches are propagating along the vacuum chamber, penetrating and dissipating inside vital vacuum elements, like shielded bellows, vacuum valves and vacuum pump. As a result, these elements get large temperature rise or temperature oscillations. Often HOM heating has a resonance character. HOM heating of vacuum pumps leads to increasing of the vacuum pressure. High frequency modes ''check'' the quality of vacuum chamber: they detect small gaps, weak RF screens or feed-through. Smooth tapers and collimators become the source of HOM production. We will discuss the physical nature of these exciting HOM effects.

  13. Electron Bunch Length Measurement for LCLS at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Zelazny, M.; Allison, S.; Chevtsov, Sergei; Emma, P.; Kotturi, K.d.; Loos, H.; Peng, S.; Rogind, D.; Straumann, T.; /SLAC

    2007-10-04

    At Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) a Bunch Length Measurement system has been developed to measure the length of the electron bunch for its new Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). This destructive measurement uses a transverse-mounted RF deflector (TCAV) to vertically streak the electron beam and an image taken with an insertable screen and a camera. The device control software was implemented with the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) toolkit. The analysis software was implemented in Matlab{trademark} using the EPICS/Channel Access Interface for Scilab{trademark} and Matlab{trademark} (labCA). This architecture allowed engineers and physicists to develop and integrate their control and analysis without duplication of effort.

  14. Emittance preservation during bunch compression with a magnetized beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratakis, Diktys

    2016-03-01

    The deleterious effects of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on the phase-space and energy spread of high-energy beams in accelerator light sources can significantly constrain the machine design and performance. In this paper, we present a simple method to preserve the beam emittance by means of using magnetized beams that exhibit a large aspect ratio on their transverse dimensions. The concept is based in combining a finite solenoid field where the beam is generated with a special optics adapter. Numerical simulations of this new type of beam source show that the induced phase-space density growth from CSR can be notably suppressed to less than 1% for any bunch charge. This work elucidates the key parameters that are needed for emittance preservation, such as the required field and aspect ratio for a given bunch charge.

  15. Compensating tune spread induced by space charge in bunched beams

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, V.; Wang, G.

    2015-05-03

    The effects of space charge play a significant role in modern-day accelerators, frequently constraining the beam parameters attainable in an accelerator or in an accelerator chain. They also can limit the luminosity of hadron colliders operating either at low energies or with sub-TeV high-brightness hadron beams. The latter is applied for strongly cooled proton and ion beams in eRHIC – the proposed future electron-ion collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Using an appropriate electron beam would compensate both the tune shift and the tune spread in the hadron beam in a coasting beam. But these methods cannot compensate space charge tune spread in a bunched hadron beam. In this paper we propose and evaluate a novel idea of using a co-propagating electron bunch with mismatched longitudinal velocity to compensate the space charge induced tune-shift and tune spread.

  16. Terahertz radiation source based on self-wake beam bunching

    SciTech Connect

    Antipov, Sergey; Jing Chunguang; Schoessow, Paul; Kanareykin, Alexei; Jiang Bo; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Zholents, Alexander; Gai Wei

    2012-12-21

    A table top device for producing high power T-ray beams is described. A rectangular electron beam that can be produced out of a photoinjector via stacking of the laser pulse, and running off-crest of the photoinjector rf is sent through a dielectric loaded waveguide. Due to the beam's self-wake its energy becomes modulated. In the chicane beamline following the dielectric energy-bunching section this energy modulation is converted to a density modulation-a bunch train. The density modulated beam can be sent through a power extraction section, like a dielectric loaded accelerating structure, or simply can intercept a foil target, producing THz radiation of various bandwidths and power levels.

  17. Coherent spontaneous radiation from highly bunched electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, K.W.; Crosson, E.R.; Ricci, K.N.

    1995-12-31

    Coherent spontaneous radiation has now been observed in several FELs, and is a subject of great importance to the design of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. We report observations of coherent spontaneous radiation in both FIREFLY and the mid-infrared FEL at the Stanford Picosecond FEL Center. Coherent emission has been observed at wavelengths as short as 5 microns, and enhancement over incoherent levels by as much as a factor of 4x10{sup 4} has been observed at longer wavelengths. The latter behavior was observed at 45 microns in FIREFLY with short bunches produced by off-peak acceleration and dispersive compression. We present temporal measurements of the highly bunched electron distributions responsible for the large enhancements, using both transition radiation and energy-phase techniques.

  18. Self-organization of step bunching instability on vicinal substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Pascale, A.; Berbezier, I.; Ronda, A.; Videcoq, A.; Pimpinelli, A.

    2006-09-04

    The authors investigate quantitatively the self-organization of step bunching instability during epitaxy of Si on vicinal Si(001). They show that growth instability evolution can be fitted by power laws L{approx}t{sup {alpha}} and A{approx}t{sup {beta}} (where L is the correlation length and A is the instability amplitude) with critical exponents {alpha}{approx}0.3 and {beta}{approx}0.5 in good agreement with previous studies and well reproduced by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. They demonstrate that the main phenomenon controlling step bunching is the anisotropy of surface diffusion. The microscopic origin of the instability is attributed to an easier adatom detachment from S{sub A} step, which can be interpreted as a pseudoinverse Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier [J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3682 (1967); J. Chem. Phys. 44, 1039 (1966)].

  19. Control of synchrotron radiation effects during recirculation with bunch compression

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, David; Benson, Stephen; Li, Rui; Roblin, Yves; Tennant, Christopher; Krafft, Geoffrey; Terzic, Balsa; Tsai, Cheng

    2015-05-01

    Studies of beam quality during recirculation have been extended to an arc providing bunch compression with positive momentum compaction. It controls both incoherent and coherent synchrotron radiation (ISR and CSR) using methods including optics balance and generates little microbunching gain. We detail the dynamical basis for the design, discuss the design process, give an example, and provide simulations of ISR and CSR effects. Reference will be made to a complete analysis of microbunching effects.

  20. New method of beam bunching in free-ion lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Bessonov, E.G.

    1995-12-31

    An effective ion beam bunching method is suggested. This method is based on a selective interaction of line spectrum laser light (e.g. axial mode structure light) with non-fully stripped ion beam cooled in a storage rings, arranging the ion beam in layers in radial direction of an energy-longitudinal coordinate plane and following rotation of the beam at the right angle after switching on the RF cavity or undulator grouper/buncher. Laser cooling of the ion beam can be used at this position after switching off the resonator to decrease the energy spread caused by accelerating field of the resonator. A relativistic multilayer ion mirror will be produced this way. Both monochromatic laser beams and intermediate monochromaticity and bandwidth light sources of spontaneous incoherent radiation can be used for production of hard and high power electromagnetic radiation by reflection from this mirror. The reflectivity of the mirror is rather high because of the cross-section of the backward Rayleigh scattering of photon light by non-fully stripped relativistic ions ({approximately}{lambda}{sup 2}) is much greater ({approximately} 10{divided_by}15 orders) then Thompson one ({approximately} r{sub e}{sup 2}). This position is valid even in the case of non-monochromatic laser light ({Delta}{omega}/{omega} {approximately} 10{sup -4}). Ion cooling both in longitudinal plane and three-dimensional radiation ion cooling had been proposed based on this observation. The using of these cooling techniques will permit to store high current and low emittance relativistic ion beams in storage rings. The bunched ion beam can be used in ordinary Free-Ion Lasers as well. After bunching the ion beam can be extracted from the storage ring in this case. Storage rings with zero momentum compaction function will permit to keep bunching of the ion beam for a long time.

  1. Amplification of Relativistic Electron Bunches by Acceleration in Laser Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braenzel, J.; Andreev, A. A.; Abicht, F.; Ehrentraut, L.; Platonov, K.; Schnürer, M.

    2017-01-01

    Direct acceleration of electrons in a coherent, intense light field is revealed by a remarkable increase of the electron number in the MeV energy range. Laser irradiation of thin polymer foils with a peak intensity of ˜1 ×1020 W /cm2 releases electron bunches along the laser propagation direction that are postaccelerated in the partly transmitted laser field. They are decoupled from the laser field at high kinetic energies, when a second foil target at an appropriate distance prevents their subsequent deceleration in the declining laser field. The scheme is established with laser pulses of high temporal contrast (1010 peak to background ratio) and two ultrathin polymer foils at a distance of 500 μ m . 2D particle in cell simulations and an analytical model confirm a significant change of the electron spectral distribution due to the double foil setup, which leads to an amplification of about 3 times of the electron number around a peak at 1 MeV electron energy. The result verifies a theoretical concept of direct electron bunch acceleration in a laser field that is scalable to extreme acceleration potential gradients. This method can be used to enhance the density and energy spread of electron bunches injected into postaccelerator stages of laser driven radiation sources.

  2. Emittance control and RF bunch compression in the NSRRC photoinjector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, W. K.; Hung, S. B.; Lee, A. P.; Chou, C. S.; Huang, N. Y.

    2011-05-01

    The high-brightness photoinjector being constructed at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center is for testing new accelerator and light-source concepts. It is the so-called split photoinjector configuration in which a short solenoid magnet is used for emittance compensation. The UV-drive laser pulses are also shaped to produce uniform cylindrical bunches for further reduction of beam emittance. However, limited by the available power from our microwave power system, the nominal accelerating gradient in the S-band booster linac is set at 18 MV/m. A simulation study with PARMELA shows that the linac operating at this gradient fails to freeze the electron beam emittance at low value. A background solenoid magnetic field is applied for beam emittance control in the linac during acceleration. A satisfactory result that meets our preliminary goal has been achieved with the solenoid magnetic field strength at 0.1 T. RF bunch compression as a means to achieve the required beam brightness for high-gain free-electron laser experiments is also examined. The reduction of bunch length to a few hundred femtoseconds can be obtained.

  3. A study of pickup and signal processing for HLS- II bunch current measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong-Liang; Ma, Tian-Ji; Sun, Bao-Gen; Wang, Ji-Gang; Zou, Jun-Ying; Cheng, Chao-Cai; Lu, Ping

    2013-09-01

    For the HLS-II bunch current measurement system, in order to obtain the absolute value of bunch current, the calibration factor should be determined by using DCCT. At the HLS storage ring, the stretch effect of bunch length is observed and the change rate is about 19% when the bunch current decays over time and this will affect the performance of bunch current detection. To overcome the bunch stretch influence in the HLS- II bunch current measurement, an evaluation about pickup type and signal processing is carried out. Strip-line pickup and button pickup are selectable, and the theoretical analysis and demonstration experiment are performed to find out an acceptable solution for the bunch current measurement system at HLS- II. The experimental data analysis shows that the normalized calibration factor will change by about 27% when the bunch length changes by about 19% if using the button pickup and processing by peak value of bunch signal; the influence will be reduced to 2% less if adopting the strip-line pickup and integral.

  4. Advanced Study for Active Noise Control in Aircraft (ASANCA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchers, Ingo U.; Emborg, Urban; Sollo, Antonio; Waterman, Elly H.; Paillard, Jacques; Larsen, Peter N.; Venet, Gerard; Goeransson, Peter; Martin, Vincent

    1992-01-01

    Aircraft interior noise and vibration measurements are included in this paper from ground and flight tests. In addition, related initial noise calculations with and without active noise control are conducted. The results obtained to date indicate that active noise control may be an effective means for reducing the critical low frequency aircraft noise.

  5. Study of Bunch Instabilities By the Nonlinear Vlasov-Fokker-Planck Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Warnock, Robert L.; /SLAC

    2006-07-11

    Instabilities of the bunch form in storage rings may be induced through the wake field arising from corrugations in the vacuum chamber, or from the wake and precursor fields due to coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). For over forty years the linearized Vlasov equation has been applied to calculate the threshold in current for an instability, and the initial growth rate. Increasing interest in nonlinear aspects of the motion has led to numerical solutions of the nonlinear Vlasov equation, augmented with Fokker-Planck terms to describe incoherent synchrotron radiation in the case of electron storage rings. This opens the door to much deeper studies of coherent instabilities, revealing a rich variety of nonlinear phenomena. Recent work on this topic by the author and collaborators is reviewed.

  6. Initial Commissioning Experience With the LCLS Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Akre, R.; Castro, J.; Ding, Y.; Dowell, D.H.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, A.; Hays, G.; Hering, P.; Huang, Z.; Iverson, R.; Krejcik, P.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Loos, H.; Miahnahri, A.; Rivetta, C.; Saleski, M.; Schmerge, J.F.; Schultz, D.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; /SLAC /DESY

    2007-11-02

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE xray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) project presently under construction at SLAC [1]. The injector section, from drive-laser and RF photocathode gun through first bunch compressor chicane, was installed in fall 2006. Initial system commissioning with an electron beam is taking place during the spring and summer of 2007. The second phase of construction, including second bunch compressor and full linac, will begin later, in the fall of 2007. We report here on experience gained during the first phase of machine commissioning, including RF photocathode gun, linac booster section, S-band and X-band RF systems, first bunch compressor, and the various beam diagnostics.

  7. Analysis of the transverse SPS beam coupling impedance with short and long bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Salvant,B.; Calaga, R.; de Maria, R.; Arduini, G.; Burkhardt, H.; Damerau, H.; Hofle, W.; Metral, E.; Papotti, G.; Rumolo, G.; Tomas, R.; White, S.

    2009-05-04

    The upgrade of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) would require a four- to five-fold increase of the single bunch intensity presently obtained in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Operating at such high single bunch intensities requires a detailed knowledge of the sources of SPS beam coupling impedance, so that longitudinal and transverse impedance reduction campaigns can be planned and performed effectively if needed. In this paper, the transverse impedance of the SPS is studied by injecting a single long bunch into the SPS, and observing its decay without RF. Longer bunches allow for higher frequency resolution of the longitudinal and transverse bunch spectra acquired with strip line couplers connected to a fast data acquisition. It also gives access to the frequency content of the transverse impedance. Results from measurements with short and long bunches in the SPS performed in 2008 are compared with simulations.

  8. Calculations for shortening the bunch length in storage rings using a harmonic cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Hao; Wu, Cong-Feng; He, Duo-Hui

    2014-08-01

    Using the Hefei Light Source phase II project (HLS- II) as an example, a theoretical analysis of shortening the bunch lengths using a higher harmonic cavity (HHC) is given. The threshold voltage of an active HHC and the threshold tuning angle of a passive HHC are first analysed. The optimum tuning angle for the constant detuning scenario and the optimum harmonic voltage for the constant voltage scenario are presented. The calculated results show that the reduced bunch length is about half that of the nominal bunch. The bunch lengths vary from 11 mm at 0.1 A to 7 mm at 0.4 A for the constant detuning scenario, while the bunch lengths are around 7 mm over the beam current range for the constant voltage scenario. In addition, the synchrotron frequency spread is increased. It indicates that HHC may be used to reduce the bunch length and increase the Landau damping of synchrotron oscillations in a storage ring.

  9. Preliminary calculations of ballistic bunch compression with thermionic cathode rf guns

    SciTech Connect

    Lewellen, J.W.; Milton, S.

    1997-09-01

    Preliminary calculations using the computer code PARMELA indicate that it is possible to achieve peak currents on the order of 1 kA using a thermionic-cathode rf gun and ballistic bunch compression. In contrast to traditional magnetic bunching schemes, ballistic bunch compression uses a series of rf cavities to modify the energy profile of the beam and properly chosen drifts to allow the bunching to occur naturally. The method, suitably modified, should also be directly applicable to photoinjector rf guns. Present work is focusing on simultaneously compressing the bunch while reducing the emittance of the electron beam. At present, the calculated normalized rms emittance is in the neighborhood of 6.8 {pi} mm mrad with a peak current of 0.88 kA, and a peak bunch charge of 0.28 nC from a thermionic-cathode gun.

  10. Effects of RF noise on the longitudinal emittance growth in Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    James Steimel et al.

    2003-06-02

    Phase and amplitude noises in the Tevatron RF system and the intrabeam scattering (IBS) produce longitudinal emittance growth with consecutive particle loss from the RF buckets. That causes a decrease of the luminosity and an increase of the background in particle detectors during the store. The report presents experimental measurements of RF system noise and the effect on the longitudinal emittance growth. There is a satisfactory agreement between measured noise spectral densities and observed emittance growth. For high bunch intensities, IBS plays an important role and has been taken into account. The sources of noises and plans for further system improvements are discussed.

  11. Generation of attosecond electron bunches upon laser pulse propagation through a sharp plasma boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, S. V.

    2017-03-01

    The formation of an electron bunch produced due to electron self-injection into a wake wave that is generated by a relativistic-intensity laser pulse propagating through a sharp boundary of semi-bounded plasma is studied in one-dimensional geometry. Analytical expressions are obtained for estimating the bunch length and the energy spread of electrons in the bunch. Numerical simulation is performed which confirms the results of analytical consideration.

  12. An Optical Streaking Method for Measuring Femtosecond Electron Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Yuantao; Bane, Karl L.F.; Huang, Zhirong; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    The measurement of the ultra-short electron bunch length on the femtosecond time scale constitutes a very challenging problem. In the x-ray free electron laser facilities such as the Linac Coherent Light Source, generation of a sub-ten femtoseconds electron beam with 20pC charge is possible, but direct measurements are very difficult due to the resolution limit of the present diagnostics. We propose a new method here based on the measurement of the electron beam energy modulation induced from laser-electron interaction in a short wiggler. A typical optical streaking method requires a laser wavelength much longer than the electron bunch length. In this paper a laser with its wavelength shorter than the electron bunch length has been adopted, while the slope on the laser intensity envelope is used to distinguish the different periods. With this technique it is possible to reconstruct the bunch longitudinal profile from a single shot measurement. Generation of ultrashort x-ray pulses at femtoseconds (fs) scale is of great interest within synchrotron radiation and free electron laser (FEL) user community. One of the simple methods is to operate the FEL facility at low charge. At the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), we have demonstrated the capability of generating ultrashort electron-beam (e-beam) with a duration of less than 10 fs fwhm using 20 pC charge. The x-ray pulses have been delivered to the x-ray users with a similar or even shorter pulse duration. However, The measurement of such short electron or x-ray pulse length at the fs time-scale constitutes a challenging problem. A standard method using an S-band radio-frequency (rf) transverse deflector has been established at LCLS, which works like a streak camera for electrons and is capable of resolving bunch lengths as short as 25 fs fwhm. With this device, the electrons are transversely deflected by the high-frequency time-variation of the deflecting fields. Increasing the deflecting voltage and rf frequency

  13. Temporal Electron-bunch Shaping from a Photoinjector for Advanced Accelerator Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lemery, Francois; Piot, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Advanced-accelerator applications often require the production of bunches with shaped temporal distributions. An example of sought-after shape is a linearly-ramped current profile that can be improve the transformer ratio in beam-driven acceleration, or produce energy-modulated pulse for, e.g., the subsequent generation of THz radiation. Typically,  such a shaping is achieved by manipulating ultra-relativistic electron bunches. In this contribution we discuss the possibility of shaping the bunch via photoemission and demonstrate using particle-in-cell simulations the production of MeV electron bunches with quasi-ramped current profile.

  14. Beam loading compensation for acceleration of multi-bunch electron beam train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengguang; Fukuda, Masafumi; Araki, Sakae; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji; Hirano, Koichiro; Sasao, Noboru

    2008-01-01

    The laser undulator compact X-ray source (LUCX) is a test bench used with the compact, high-brightness X-ray generator at KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization). Our group is conducting experiments with LUCX to demonstrate the possibility of K-edge digital subtraction angiography, based on Compton scattering. One of the challenging problems is to generate high-brightness multi-bunch electron beams to compensate for the energy difference arising from the beam loading effect. In this paper we calculate the transient beam loading voltage and energy gain from the RF field in the gun and accelerating tube for a multi-bunch train. To do so we consider the process by which the RF field builds up in the gun and accelerating tube, and the special shape of the RF pulse. We generate and accelerate 100 bunches with a 50 nC electron bunch train, effectively compensating for the beam loading effect by adjusting the injection timing. Using a beam position monitor (BPM) and optical transition radiation (OTR) system, we measure the electron beam energy bunch by bunch. The average energy of a 100-bunch train is 40.5 MeV and the maximum energy difference from bunch to bunch is 0.26 MeV.

  15. Effects of the precursor electron bunch on quasi-phase matched direct laser acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M.-W.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Liu, Y.-L.; Chen, S.-H.; Jovanovic, I.

    2016-12-01

    Direct laser acceleration (DLA) of electrons can be achieved by utilizing the axial field of a well-guided, radially polarized laser pulse in a density-modulated plasma waveguide. When a laser pulse of a few terawatt (TW) peak power is applied, however, the laser ponderomotive force perturbs plasma electrons to concentrate in the center, such that the generated electrostatic fields can significantly defocus the externally injected electron witness bunch and considerably deteriorate the acceleration efficiency. To improve the performance of DLA, a leading electron bunch, which acts as a precursor, can be introduced in DLA to effectively confine the witness bunch. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations have been conducted to demonstrate that the transverse properties of the witness bunch can be significantly improved when a precursor bunch is used. Selected bunch transverse sizes, bunch charges, and axial separation from the witness bunch have been assigned to the precursor in a series of DLA simulations. Since a favorable ion-focusing force is provided by the precursor, the transverse properties of witness bunch can be maintained when a relatively high-power (˜2 TW) laser pulse is used in DLA, and an improved overall acceleration efficiency can be achieved.

  16. Conceptual design and modeling of a six-dimensional bunch merging scheme for a muon collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yu; Hanson, Gail; Palmer, Robert B.; Stratakis, Diktys

    2016-03-01

    A high luminosity muon collider requires single, intense, muon bunches with small emittances: just one of each sign. An efficient front end and a cooling channel have been designed and simulated within the collaboration of the Muon Accelerator Program. The muons are first bunched and phase rotated into 21 bunches, and then cooled in six dimensions. When they are cool enough, they are merged into single bunches: one of each sign. The bunch merging scheme has been outlined with preliminary simulations in previous studies. In this paper we present a comprehensive design with its end-to-end simulation. The 21 bunches are first merged in longitudinal phase space into seven bunches. These are directed into seven "trombone" paths with different lengths, to bring them to the same time, and then merged transversely in a collecting "funnel" into the required single larger bunches. Detailed numerical simulations show that the 6D emittance of the resulting bunch reaches the parameters needed for high acceptance into the downstream cooling channel.

  17. The source of THz radiation based on dielectric waveguide excited by sequence of electron bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmark, A. M.; Kanareykin, A. D.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new method for excitation of THz Cherenkov radiation in a dielectric waveguide by relativistic electron bunches. A sequence of bunches generates monochromatic radiation. The frequency of radiation is defined by the distance between the bunches. The studies were carried by using the newly updated BBU-3000 code which permits taking into account a number of additional options: an external quadrupole focusing system, group velocity of the wakefield, and the dielectric material loss factor. In this paper, we present our algorithm for optimizing the number and sequential positions of bunches for generation of narrow band high power THz radiation.

  18. Density of bunches of native bluebunch wheatgrass and alien crested wheatgrass

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, W.H.

    1985-10-01

    The density of bunches of bluebunch wheatgrass in a natural undisturbed stand averaged 3.28 per m/sup 2/ as compared to 2.96 per m/sup 2/ for a nearby stand of crested wheatgrass that was planted 30 years ago. Bunch density was similar in both stands indicating that spacing is a response to an environment deficient in soil water. Bunches of crested wheatgrass on the average weighed 3.5 times more than bunches of bluebunch wheatgrass and they also produced a greater weight of seedheads.

  19. DC-Resistive-Heating-Induced Step Bunching on Vicinal Si (111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homma, Yoshikazu; Mcclelland, Robert J.; Hibino, Hiroki

    1990-12-01

    Step bunching on a 1°-misoriented Si(111) surface induced by DC resistive heating is observed by ultrahigh-vacuum scanning electron microscopy. Step band regions of the DC-heating-induced bunching surface break up into finer step bands (subbands) and (111) facets below the (7× 7){≤ftrightarrow}(1× 1) phase transition temperature (Tc{=}830°C). The temperature dependence of bunching-inducing current direction on the vicinal surface is the same as that of nearly flat (111) surfaces previously reported, except that bunching is induced for the opposite current direction to nearly flat (111) surfaces below Tc.

  20. Noise Reduction in an Undergraduate Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Charles P.; Puglisi, Dawn D.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on program initiated to reduce noise in undergraduate library through combination of space reallocation, rule changes, and staff monitoring of noise. Objective and subjective measures of noise (sound-level readings, preintervention and postintervention questionnaires) and results of intervention program are discussed. Memo distributed on…

  1. The subjective importance of noise spectral content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Donald; Phillips, Jonathan; Denman, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents secondary Standard Quality Scale (SQS2) rankings in overall quality JNDs for a subjective analysis of the 3 axes of noise, amplitude, spectral content, and noise type, based on the ISO 20462 softcopy ruler protocol. For the initial pilot study, a Python noise simulation model was created to generate the matrix of noise masks for the softcopy ruler base images with different levels of noise, different low pass filter noise bandwidths and different band pass filter center frequencies, and 3 different types of noise: luma only, chroma only, and luma and chroma combined. Based on the lessons learned, the full subjective experiment, involving 27 observers from Google, NVIDIA and STMicroelectronics was modified to incorporate a wider set of base image scenes, and the removal of band pass filtered noise masks to ease observer fatigue. Good correlation was observed with the Aptina subjective noise study. The absence of tone mapping in the noise simulation model visibly reduced the contrast at high levels of noise, due to the clipping of the high levels of noise near black and white. Under the 34-inch viewing distance, no significant difference was found between the luma only noise masks and the combined luma and chroma noise masks. This was not the intuitive expectation. Two of the base images with large uniform areas, `restaurant' and `no parking', were found to be consistently more sensitive to noise than the texture rich scenes. Two key conclusions are (1) there are fundamentally different sensitivities to noise on a flat patch versus noise in real images and (2) magnification of an image accentuates visual noise in a way that is non-representative of typical noise reduction algorithms generating the same output frequency. Analysis of our experimental noise masks applied to a synthetic Macbeth ColorChecker Chart confirmed the color-dependent nature of the visibility of luma and chroma noise.

  2. On the re-acceleration of bunched beams

    SciTech Connect

    Whittum, D.H.; Sessler, A.M.; Craig, G.D.; DeFord, J.F.; Yu, David U.L.

    1989-02-01

    We examine the re-acceleration of a bunched beam through a linear induction accelerator (LIA) cavity, with attention to the energy lost through coupling to the TM modes of the structure. We find that the energy lost at 1 kA peak current is a small fraction of the boost which the LIA is designed to impart. We discuss implications for a Relativistic Klystron or Free Electron Laser (FEL) version of the Two-Beam Accelerator (TBA). 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Towards demonstration of electron cooling with bunched electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A.

    2012-01-11

    All electron cooling systems which were in operation so far employed electron beam generated with an electrostatic electron gun in DC operating mode, immersed in a longitudinal magnetic field. At low energies magnetic field is also being used to transport electron beam through the cooling section from the gun to the collector. At higher energies (few MeV), it was shown that one can have simpler electron beam transport without continuous magnetic field. Because of a rather weak magnetic field on the cathode and in the cooling section the latter approach was referred to as 'non-magnetized cooling', since there was no suppression of the transverse angular spread of the electron beam with the magnetic field in the cooling section. Such a cooler successfully operated at FNAL (2005-11) at electron beam energy of 4.3 MeV. Providing cooling at even higher energies would be easier with RF acceleration of electron beam, and thus using bunched electron beam for cooling. Significant efforts were devoted to explore various aspects of such bunched electron beam cooling as part of R and D of high-energy electron cooling for RHIC. However, experimental studies of such cooling are still lacking. Establishing this technique experimentally would be extremely useful for future high-energy applications. Presently there is an ongoing effort to build Proof-of-Principle (PoP) experiment of Coherent Electron Cooling (CEC) at RHIC, which promises to be superior to conventional electron cooling for high energies. Since the CEC experiment is based on bunched electron beam and it has sections where electron beam co-propagates with the ion beam at the same velocity, it also provides a unique opportunity to explore experimentally conventional electron cooling but for the first time with a bunched electron beam. As a result, it allows us to explore techniques needed for the high-energy electron cooling such as 'painting' with a short electron beam and control of ion beam distribution under

  4. Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Homma, Hiroomi; Brodjonegoro, Satryo S.; Hudin, Afzer Bin Baseri; Zainuddin, Aryanti Binti

    In tropical countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, the empty fruit bunches are wastes of the oil palm industry. The wastes are abundantly available and has reached a level that severely threats the environment. Therefore, it is a great need to find useful applications of those waste materials; but firstly, the mechanical properties of the EFB fiber should be quantified. In this work, a small tensile test machine is manufactured, and the tensile test is performed on the EFB fibers. The results show that the strength of the EFB fiber is strongly affected by the fiber diameter; however, the fiber strength is relatively low in comparison to other natural fibers.

  5. Magnetic Bunch Compression for a Compact Compton Source

    SciTech Connect

    Gamage, B.; Satogata, Todd J.

    2013-12-01

    A compact electron accelerator suitable for Compton source applications is in design at the Center for Accelerator Science at Old Dominion University and Jefferson Lab. Here we discuss two options for transverse magnetic bunch compression and final focus, each involving a 4-dipole chicane with M_{56} tunable over a range of 1.5-2.0m with independent tuning of final focus to interaction point $\\beta$*=5mm. One design has no net bending, while the other has net bending of 90 degrees and is suitable for compact corner placement.

  6. A BUNCH TO BUCKET PHASE DETECTOR USING DIGITAL RECEIVER TECHNOLOGY.

    SciTech Connect

    DELONG,J.; BRENNAN, J. M.; HAYES,T.; TUONG, N. LE,; SMITH, K.

    2003-05-12

    Transferring high-speed digital signals to a Digital Signal Processor is limited by the IO bandwidth of the DSP. A digital receiver circuit is used to translate high frequency W signals to base-band. The translated output frequency is close to DC and the data rate can be reduced, by decimation, before transfer to the DSP. By translating both the longitudinal beam (bunch) and RF cavity pick-ups (bucket) to DC, a DSP can be used to measure their relative phase angle. The result can be used as an error signal in a beam control servo loop and any phase differences can be compensated.

  7. Laser comb with velocity bunching: Preliminary results at SPARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrario, M.; Alesini, D.; Bacci, A.; Bellaveglia, M.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Calvani, P.; Castellano, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Cultrera, L.; di Pirro, G.; Ficcadenti, L.; Filippetto, D.; Gallo, A.; Gatti, G.; Giannessi, L.; Labat, M.; Lupi, S.; Marchetti, B.; Marrelli, C.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Nicoletti, D.; Pace, E.; Palumbo, L.; Petrillo, V.; Quattromini, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Rossi, A. R.; Rosenzweig, J.; Serafini, L.; Serluca, M.; Spataro, B.; Tomizawa, H.; Vaccarezza, C.; Vicario, C.

    2011-05-01

    A new technique, named “laser comb”, was tested during the last SPARC run. It is able to produce electron pulse trains with a charge of some hundreds pC, a repetition rate of some terahertz, and a sub-picosecond length. This technique is based on the velocity bunching configuration of the SPARC injector. It can be useful to drive pump and probe free-electron laser experiments, to generate coherent excitation of plasma waves in plasma accelerators, and to produce narrow band terahertz radiation. In this paper, we describe the experimental results achieved so far and provide a comparison with simulations.

  8. Simulation of 6 to 3 to 1 merge and squeeze of Au77+ bunches in AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C. J.

    2016-05-09

    In order to increase the intensity per Au77+ bunch at AGS extraction, a 6 to 3 to 1 merge scheme was developed and implemented by K. Zeno during the 2016 RHIC run [1]. For this scheme, 12 Booster loads, each consisting of a single bunch, are delivered to AGS per AGS magnetic cycle. The bunch from Booster is itself the result of a 4 to 2 to 1 merge which is carried out on a at porch during the Booster magnetic cycle [2]. Each Booster bunch is injected into a harmonic 24 bucket on the AGS injection porch. In order to t into the buckets and allow for the AGS injection kicker rise time, the bunch width must be reduced by exciting quadrupole oscillations just before extraction from Booster [1]. The bunches are injected into two groups of six adjacent harmonic 24 buckets. In each group the 6 bunches are merged into 3 by bringing on RF harmonic 12 while reducing harmonic 24. This is a straightforward 2 to 1 merge (in which two adjacent bunches are merged into one). One ends up with two groups of three adjacent bunches sitting in harmonic 12 buckets. These bunches are accelerated to an intermediate porch for further merging. Doing the merge on a porch that sits above injection energy helps reduce losses that are believed to be due to the space-charge force acting on the bunched particles [3]. (The 6 to 3 merge is done on the injection porch because the harmonic 24 frequency on the intermediate porch would be too high for the AGS RF cavities.) On the intermediate porch each group of 3 bunches is merged into one by bringing on RF harmonics 8 and 4 and then reducing harmonics 12 and 8. One ends up with 2 bunches, each the result of a 6 to 3 to 1 merge and each sitting in a harmonic 4 bucket. This puts 6 Booster loads into each bunch. Each merged bunch needs to be squeezed into a harmonic 12 bucket for subsequent acceleration. This is done by again bringing on harmonic 8 and then harmonic 12.

  9. Characterization of femtosecond electron bunches from a laser-wakefield accelerator using THz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Tilborg, Jeroen

    2005-10-01

    We report on the temporal characterization of laser-plasma-produced electron bunches, indicating ultra-short sub-50 fs charge structure. In the LOASIS laboratory at LBNL, the electron bunches are produced through the interaction of an intense (>10^19 Wcm-2) laser pulse with an underdense (˜10^19 cm-3) Helium plasma. The femtosecond multi-nanoCoulomb bunches have relativistic energies, with a 100% energy spread. As the bunch exits the plasma-vacuum interface, coherent transition radiation is emitted. Since the electron bunch is still dense and compact at the emission interface, the coherent spectrum of the intense radiation pulse covers the THz regime. Spectral and temporal measurements on the THz pulse are performed and correlated to the temporal properties of the electron bunch. Detection techniques such as Michelson interferometry, semiconductor switching, and electro-optic sampling are applied. The latter technique, where the THz electric field versus time is mapped out, provides detailed temporal structure of the radiation pulse, and by inference the electron bunch. The measurements indicate that THz radiation is emitted by a skewed bunch with a sub-50 fs rise time and a ˜600 fs tail (half-width-at-half-maximum), which is consistent with ballistic debunching of 100%-energy-spread beams during propagation. The electro-optic time resolution of the method was limited by the crystal properties. The Michelson interferometry and semiconductor switching experiments confirmed the femtosecond nature of the electron bunches. The electro-optic measurement also demonstrates shot-to-shot stability of the laser-wakefield accelerator (LWFA) as well as femtosecond synchronization between the electron bunch and the probe beam. This highlights the applicability of the LWFA in pump-probe experiments, where synchronized emission of x-rays, gamma rays, THz waves, NIR beams, and electron bunches is available. This work is supported by DoE under contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  10. Ultra-Short Electron Bunch and X-Ray Temporal Diagnostics with an X-Band Transverse Deflector

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Huang, Z.; Loos, H.; Krejcik, P.; Wang, M-H.; Behrens, C.; /DESY

    2011-12-13

    shape or duration of the electron bunch and the X-ray pulse. Initial experiments at LCLS have revealed that characterization of the X-ray pulse duration on a shot-by-shot basis is critical for the interpretation of the data. However, a reliable x-ray pulse temporal diagnostic tool is not available so far at the LCLS. We propose a novel method in this paper to characterize the FEL X-ray pulse duration and shape. A transverse rf deflector is used in conjunction with an e-beam energy spectrometer, located after the FEL undulator. By measuring the difference in the e-beam longitudinal phase space between FEL-on and FEL-off, we can obtain the time-resolved energy loss and energy spread induced from the FEL radiation, allowing the FEL X-ray temporal shape to be reconstructed.

  11. Advanced simulation study on bunch gap transient effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Akai, Kazunori

    2016-06-01

    Bunch phase shift along the train due to a bunch gap transient is a concern in high-current colliders. In KEKB operation, the measured phase shift along the train agreed well with a simulation and a simple analytical form in most part of the train. However, a rapid phase change was observed at the leading part of the train, which was not predicted by the simulation or by the analytical form. In order to understand the cause of this observation, we have developed an advanced simulation, which treats the transient loading in each of the cavities of the three-cavity system of the accelerator resonantly coupled with energy storage (ARES) instead of the equivalent single cavities used in the previous simulation, operating in the accelerating mode. In this paper, we show that the new simulation reproduces the observation, and clarify that the rapid phase change at the leading part of the train is caused by a transient loading in the three-cavity system of ARES. KEKB is being upgraded to SuperKEKB, which is aiming at 40 times higher luminosity than KEKB. The gap transient in SuperKEKB is investigated using the new simulation, and the result shows that the rapid phase change at the leading part of the train is much larger due to higher beam currents. We will also present measures to mitigate possible luminosity reduction or beam performance deterioration due to the rapid phase change caused by the gap transient.

  12. A combined source of electron bunches and microwave power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, J. L.; Wang, F. Y.; Yang, X. P.; Shen, B.; Gu, W.; Zhang, L. W.

    2003-12-01

    In this article, the possibility of using a high power klystron amplifier simultaneously as a microwave power source as usual and an electron bunches source by extracting the spent beam with a magnet and also as an oscillator by feedback is investigated. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing a very compact electron linear accelerator or for other applications of electron bunches. The feasibility of the idea was first examined by computer simulation of the electron motion in a 5 MW klystron and the characteristics of the klystron spent beam. Experimental study was then carried out by installing a radio frequency cavity and a Faraday cage in sequence at the exit end of a bending magnet located at the top of the klystron collector. The energy and current of the chopped spent electron beam can then be measured. By properly choosing the feedback circuit elements, the frequency stability of the klystron in oscillator mode was proved to be good enough for linac operation. According to the results presented in this article, it is evident that an extremely compact linac for research and education with better affordability can be constructed to promote the applications of linacs.

  13. Beam manipulation with velocity bunching for PWFA applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompili, R.; Anania, M. P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Biagioni, A.; Bisesto, F.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Croia, M.; Curcio, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Ferrario, M.; Filippi, F.; Galletti, M.; Gallo, A.; Giribono, A.; Li, W.; Marocchino, A.; Mostacci, A.; Petrarca, M.; Petrillo, V.; Di Pirro, G.; Romeo, S.; Rossi, A. R.; Scifo, J.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F.; Zhu, J.

    2016-09-01

    The activity of the SPARC_LAB test-facility (LNF-INFN, Frascati) is currently focused on the development of new plasma-based accelerators. Particle accelerators are used in many fields of science, with applications ranging from particle physics research to advanced radiation sources (e.g. FEL). The demand to accelerate particles to higher and higher energies is currently limited by the effective efficiency in the acceleration process that requires the development of km-size facilities. By increasing the accelerating gradient, the compactness can be improved and costs reduced. Recently, the new technique which attracts main efforts relies on plasma acceleration. In the following, the current status of plasma-based activities at SPARC_LAB is presented. Both laser- and beam-driven schemes will be adopted with the aim to provide an adequate accelerating gradient (1-10 GV/m) while preserving the brightness of the accelerated beams to the level of conventional photo-injectors. This aspect, in particular, requires the use of ultra-short (< 100 fs) electron beams, consisting in one or more bunches. We show, with the support of simulations and experimental results, that such beams can be produced using RF compression by velocity-bunching.

  14. Matching into the Helical Bunch Coalescing Channel for a High Luminosity Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Sy, Amy; Ankenbrandt, Charles; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Morozov, Vasiliy; Neuffer, David; Yonehara, Katsuya; Yoshikawa, Cary; Johnson, R. P.

    2015-09-01

    For high luminosity in a muon collider, muon bunches that have been cooled in the six-dimensional helical cooling channel (HCC) must be merged into a single bunch and further cooled in preparation for acceleration and transport to the collider ring. The helical bunch coalescing channel has been previously simulated and provides the most natural match from helical upstream and downstream subsystems. This work focuses on the matching from the exit of the multiple bunch HCC into the start of the helical bunch coalescing channel. The simulated helical matching section simultaneously matches the helical spatial period lambda in addition to providing the necessary acceleration for efficient bunch coalescing. Previous studies assumed that the acceleration of muon bunches from p=209.15 MeV/c to 286.816 MeV/c and matching of lambda from 0.5 m to 1.0 m could be accomplished with zero particle losses and zero emittance growth in the individual bunches. This study demonstrates nonzero values for both particle loss and emittance growth, and provides considerations for reducing these adverse effects to best preserve high luminosity.

  15. Methods of computer processing of experimental data on the intensity of bunches in synchrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhabitsky, V. M.

    2016-12-01

    Methods of computer processing of experimental data on the intensity of bunches in synchrotrons for the purpose of receiving functional dependences from time during the accelerating cycle for a number of circulating particles and the mean-square length of a bunch are discussed. Examples of such dependences for the beam at the nuclotron (JINR) and PSB (CERN) are presented.

  16. Bunch compression efficiency of the femtosecond electron source at Chiang Mai University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongbai, C.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Saisut, J.

    2011-07-01

    A femtosecond electron source has been developed at the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility (PBP), Chiang Mai University (CMU), Thailand. Ultra-short electron bunches can be produced with a bunch compression system consisting of a thermionic cathode RF-gun, an alpha-magnet as a magnetic bunch compressor, and a linear accelerator as a post acceleration section. To obtain effective bunch compression, it is crucial to provide a proper longitudinal phase-space distribution at the gun exit matched to the subsequent beam transport system. Via beam dynamics calculations and experiments, we investigate the bunch compression efficiency for various RF-gun fields. The particle distribution at the RF-gun exit will be tracked numerically through the alpha-magnet and beam transport. Details of the study and results leading to an optimum condition for our system will be presented.

  17. Thermal damage at short electron bunches passage through a thin target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaev, A. A.; Gogolev, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    The thin target could be used for beam diagnostics by means the radiation that is induced by interaction of beam particles with target matter. The electron beams used in modern applications (as, for example, modern FELs) have very large brightness, small emittance as well as very short bunch length. For example, the bunch length of XFEL is about of 25 um at bunch charge order of 1 nC and with electrons energy of 17.5 GeV. The passage of this powerful short bunches could damage the target or even completely destroy it. In the presented work the train of such bunches passages through the target is investigated. It is shown the target works in extreme regime close to phase transition temperature.

  18. Dynamics of electron bunches at the laser-plasma interaction in the bubble regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, V. I.; Svystun, O. M.; Onishchenko, I. N.; Tkachenko, V. I.

    2016-09-01

    The multi-bunches self-injection, observed in laser-plasma accelerators in the bubble regime, affects the energy gain of electrons accelerated by laser wakefield. However, understanding of dynamics of the electron bunches formed at laser-plasma interaction may be challenging. We present here the results of fully relativistic electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of laser wakefield acceleration driven by a short laser pulse in an underdense plasma. The trapping and acceleration of three witness electron bunches by the bubble-like structures were observed. It has been shown that with time the first two witness bunches turn into drivers and contribute to acceleration of the last witness bunch.

  19. MICRO-BUNCHING OF THE AGS SLOW EXTRACTED BEAM FOR A RARE KAON DECAY SEARCH.

    SciTech Connect

    GLENN,J.; SIVERTZ,M.; CHIANG,I.; LAZARUS,D.; KOSCIELNIAK,S.

    2001-06-18

    The AGS Slow Extracted Beam (SEB) must be chopped with 250 ps bursts every 40 ns to permit time-of-flight (ToF) measurement of the secondary K{sup 0} beam. Standard techniques to produce this level of bunching would require excessive rf voltage, thus we have developed a ''Micro-Bunching'' technique of extracting the beam as it is forced between empty rf buckets. A specification of the required rf system will be given. Four-dimensional model simulations of particle dynamics for the planned rf and extraction systems will be shown. Simulations of previous tests along with the test measurements are also presented. Measurement of tight bunching requires dedicated instrumentation. The design of a detector system to measure bunch widths and the extinction factor between bunches will be given; considerations include the various particles produced and transported, timing precision and background.

  20. Enhanced dense attosecond electron bunch generation by irradiating an intense laser on a cone target

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Li-Xiang; Yu, Tong-Pu Shao, Fu-Qiu; Zou, De-Bin; Yin, Yan

    2015-03-15

    By using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we demonstrate enhanced spatially periodic attosecond electron bunches generation with an average density of about 10n{sub c} and cut-off energy up to 380 MeV. These bunches are acquired from the interaction of an ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulse with a cone target. The laser oscillating field pulls out the cone surface electrons periodically and accelerates them forward via laser pondermotive force. The inner cone wall can effectively guide these bunches and lead to their stable propagation in the cone, resulting in overdense energetic attosecond electron generation. We also consider the influence of laser and cone target parameters on the bunch properties. It indicates that the attosecond electron bunch acceleration and propagation could be significantly enhanced without evident divergency by attaching a plasma capillary to the original cone tip.

  1. Longitudinal electron bunch diagnostics using coherent transition radiation at the IRFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, T. Y.; Yang, Y. L.; Sun, B. G.; Tang, L. L.; Lu, P.; Zhou, Z. R.; Wu, F. F.; Liu, X. Y.

    2016-09-01

    A longitudinal electron bunch diagnostics system is developing to measure the longitudinal bunch charge distribution for the new IRFEL at National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). We use a Martin-Puplett interferometer, which is essentially a Michelson interferometer, to measure the spectrum of the coherent transition radiation produced by electrons through a thin metallic foil. Frequency components of coherent transition radiation have a relationship with the bunch form factor, which is described by the square modulus of the Fourier transform of the bunch distribution. Then several techniques, including a Kramers-Kronig analysis, have been applied to determine the longitudinal bunch charge distribution. The details of the design and theoretical investigation will be described in this paper.

  2. Improving Gabor noise.

    PubMed

    Lagae, Ares; Lefebvre, Sylvain; Dutré, Philip

    2011-08-01

    We have recently proposed a new procedural noise function, Gabor noise, which offers a combination of properties not found in the existing noise functions. In this paper, we present three significant improvements to Gabor noise: 1) an isotropic kernel for Gabor noise, which speeds up isotropic Gabor noise with a factor of roughly two, 2) an error analysis of Gabor noise, which relates the kernel truncation radius to the relative error of the noise, and 3) spatially varying Gabor noise, which enables spatial variation of all noise parameters. These improvements make Gabor noise an even more attractive alternative for the existing noise functions.

  3. Generation and characterization of erbium-Raman noise-like pulses from a figure-eight fibre laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago-Hernandez, H.; Pottiez, O.; Paez-Aguirre, R.; Ibarra-Villalon, H. E.; Tenorio-Torres, A.; Duran-Sanchez, M.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B.; Kuzin, E. A.; Hernandez-Garcia, J. C.

    2015-04-01

    We report an experimental study of the noise-like pulses generated by a ~300 m long passively mode-locked erbium-doped figure-eight fibre laser. Non-self-starting mode locking yields the formation of ns scale bunches of sub-ps pulses. Depending on birefringence adjustments, noise-like pulses with a variety of temporal profiles and optical spectra are obtained. In particular, for some adjustments the Raman-enhanced spectrum reaches a 10 dB bandwidth of ~130 nm. For the first time to our knowledge, we extract information on the inner structure of the noise-like pulses, using a birefringent Sagnac interferometer as a spectral filter and a nonlinear optical loop mirror as an intensity filter. In particular we show that the different spectral components of the bunch are homogeneously distributed within the temporal envelope of the bunch, whereas the amplitude and/or the density of the sub-pulses present substantial variations along the envelope. In some cases, the analysis reveals the existence of an intermediate level of organization in the structure of the noise-like pulse, between the ns bunch and the sub-ps inner pulses, suggesting that these objects may be even more complex than previously recognized.

  4. Community noise sources and noise control issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nihart, Gene L.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: community noise sources and noise control issues; noise components for turbine bypass turbojet engine (TBE) turbojet; engine cycle selection and noise; nozzle development schedule; NACA nozzle design; NACA nozzle test results; nearly fully mixed (NFM) nozzle design; noise versus aspiration rate; peak noise test results; nozzle test in the Low Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF); and Schlieren pictures of NACA nozzle.

  5. Advances in automated noise data acquisition and noise source modeling for power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Clapp, N.E. Jr.; Kryter, R.C.; Sweeney, F.J.; Renier, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    A newly expanded program, directed toward achieving a better appreciation of both the strengths and limitations of on-line, noise-based, long-term surveillance programs for nuclear reactors, is described. Initial results in the complementary experimental (acquisition and automated screening of noise signatures) and theoretical (stochastic modeling of likely noise sources) areas of investigation are given.

  6. Hydrothermal pretreatment of palm oil empty fruit bunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simanungkalit, Sabar Pangihutan; Mansur, Dieni; Nurhakim, Boby; Agustin, Astrid; Rinaldi, Nino; Muryanto, Fitriady, Muhammad Ariffudin

    2017-01-01

    Hydrothermal pretreatment methods in 2nd generation bioethanol production more profitable to be developed, since the conventional pretreatment, by using acids or alkalis, is associated with the serious economic and environmental constraints. The current studies investigate hydrothermal pretreatment of palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a batch tube reactor system with temperature and time range from 160 to 240 C and 15 to 30 min, respectively. The EFB were grinded and separated into 3 different particles sizes i.e. 10 mesh, 18 mesh and 40 mesh, prior to hydrothermal pretreatment. Solid yield and pH of the treated EFB slurries changed over treatment severities. The chemical composition of EFB was greatly affected by the hydrothermal pretreatment especially hemicellulose which decreased at higher severity factor as determined by HPLC. Both partial removal of hemicellulose and migration of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment caused negatively affect for enzymatic hydrolysis. This studies provided important factors for maximizing hydrothermal pretreatment of EFB.

  7. Analytical Formulas for Short Bunch Wakes in a Flat Dechirper

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, Karl; Stupakov, Gennady; Zagorodnov, Igor

    2016-03-29

    We develop analytical models of the longitudinal and transverse wakes, on and off axis for realistic structures, and then compare them with numerical calculations, and generally find good agreement. These analytical "first order" formulas approximate the droop at the origin of the longitudinal wake and of the slope of the transverse wakes; they represent an improvement in accuracy over earlier, "zeroth order" formulas. In example calculations for the RadiaBeam/LCLS dechirper using typical parameters, we find a 16% droop in the energy chirp at the bunch tail compared to simpler calculations. With the beam moved to 200 m from one jaw in one dechiper section, one can achieve a 3 MV transverse kick differential over a 30 m length.

  8. Helical bunching and symmetry lowering inducing multiferroicity in Fe langasites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaix, L.; Ballou, R.; Cano, A.; Petit, S.; de Brion, S.; Ollivier, J.; Regnault, L.-P.; Ressouche, E.; Constable, E.; Colin, C. V.; Zorko, A.; Scagnoli, V.; Balay, J.; Lejay, P.; Simonet, V.

    2016-06-01

    The chiral Fe-based langasites represent model systems of triangle-based frustrated magnets with a strong potential for multiferroicity. We report neutron-scattering measurements for the multichiral Ba3M Fe3Si2O14 (M =Nb ,Ta ) langasites revealing new important features of the magnetic order of these systems: the bunching of the helical modulation along the c axis and the in-plane distortion of the 120∘ Fe-spin arrangement. We discuss these subtle features in terms of the microscopic spin Hamiltonian and provide the link to the magnetically induced electric polarization observed in these systems. Thus, our findings put the multiferroicity of this attractive family of materials on solid ground.

  9. Radiation of charge bunches revolving around a metamaterial sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torabi, Mahmoud; Shokri, Babak

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the interaction of a relativistic uniformly rotating charge with a metamaterial sphere in the microwave range. The charge revolves around the sphere at the equatorial plane. The root mean square of the radiation field for different types of metamaterial spheres is presented and its dependence on some usual parameters is considered. They demonstrate that the radiation field is concentrated near the surface and shifts towards the centre by increasing charge energy for conventional and double-negative metamaterials. The stopping and deflection forces acting on the charge are also calculated. Finally, we generalize these results to a line charge bunch. This study has potential application in the area of high-power radiation sources and accelerators.

  10. Can YAG screen accept LEReC bunch train?

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Thieberger, P.; Miller, T.

    2016-05-18

    LEReC RF diagnostic beamline is supposed to accept 250 us long pulse trains of 1.6 MeV – 2.6 MeV (kinetic energy) electrons. This beamline is equipped with YAG profile monitor. Since we are interested in observing only the last macro bunch in the train, one of the possibilities is to install a fast kicker and a dedicated dump upstream of the YAG screen (and related diagnostics equipment). This approach is expensive and challenging from engineering point of view. Another possibility is to send the whole pulse train to the YAG screen and to use a fast gated camera (such as Imperex B0610 with trigger jitter under 60ns) to observe the image from the last pulse only. In this paper we study the feasibility of the last approach.

  11. Characterization of cellulose extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisak, Muhammad Asri Abdul; Daik, Rusli; Ramli, Suria

    2015-09-01

    Recently, cellulose has been studied by many researchers due to its promising properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, hydrophilicity and robustness. Due to that it is applied in many fields such as paper, film, drug delivery, membranes, etc. Cellulose can be extracted from various plants while oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) is the one of its sources. In this study, cellulose was extracted by chemical treatments which involved the use of formic acid and hydrogen peroxide to remove hemicellulose and lignin components. Maximum yield was 43.22%. Based on the FT-IR spectra, the peak of wax (1735 cm-1), hemicellulose (1375 cm-1) and lignin (1248 cm-1 and 1037 cm-1) were not observed in extracted cellulose. TGA analysis showed that the extracted cellulose starts to thermally degrade at 340 °C. The SEM analysis suggested that the cellulose extracted from OPEFB was not much different from commercial cellulose.

  12. Full counting statistics of super-Poissonian shot noise in multilevel quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belzig, W.

    2005-04-01

    We examine the full counting statistics of quantum dots, which display super-Poissonian shot noise. By an extension to a generic situation with many excited states we identify the underlying transport process. The statistics is a sum of independent Poissonian processes of bunches of different sizes, which leads to the enhanced noise. The obtained results could be useful in determining transport characteristics in molecules and large quantum dots, since the noise (and higher cumulants) allow us to identify the internal level structure, which is not visible in the average current.

  13. Production of bacterial endoglucanase from pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch by bacillus pumilus EB3.

    PubMed

    Ariffin, Hidayah; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shah, Umi Kalsom Md; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Ghazali, Farinazleen Mohd; Shirai, Yoshihito

    2008-09-01

    In this study, endoglucanase was produced from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) by a locally isolated aerobic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus EB3. The effects of the fermentation parameters such as initial pH, temperature, and nitrogen source on the endoglucanase production were studied using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the carbon source. Endoglucanase from B. pumilus EB3 was maximally secreted at 37 degrees C, initial pH 7.0 with 10 g/l of CMC as carbon source, and 2 g/l of yeast extract as organic nitrogen source. The activity recorded during the fermentation was 0.076 U/ml. The productivity of the enzyme increased twofold when 2 g/l of yeast extract was used as the organic nitrogen supplement as compared to the non-supplemented medium. An interesting finding from this study is that pretreated OPEFB medium showed comparable results to CMC medium in terms of enzyme production with an activity of 0.063 U/ml. As OPEFB is an abundant solid waste at palm oil mills, it has the potential of acting as a substrate in cellulase production.

  14. Control of Environmental Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Paul

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the physical properties, sources, physiological effects, and legislation pertaining to noise, especially noise characteristics in the community. Indicates that noise reduction steps can be taken more intelligently after determination of the true noise sources and paths. (CC)

  15. Predicting Anthropogenic Noise Contributions to US Waters.

    PubMed

    Gedamke, Jason; Ferguson, Megan; Harrison, Jolie; Hatch, Leila; Henderson, Laurel; Porter, Michael B; Southall, Brandon L; Van Parijs, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    To increase understanding of the potential effects of chronic underwater noise in US waters, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) organized two working groups in 2011, collectively called "CetSound," to develop tools to map the density and distribution of cetaceans (CetMap) and predict the contribution of human activities to underwater noise (SoundMap). The SoundMap effort utilized data on density, distribution, acoustic signatures of dominant noise sources, and environmental descriptors to map estimated temporal, spatial, and spectral contributions to background noise. These predicted soundscapes are an initial step toward assessing chronic anthropogenic noise impacts on the ocean's varied acoustic habitats and the animals utilizing them.

  16. Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Grading System Using Red, Green and Blue Digital Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfatni, Meftah Salem M.; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohamed; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Ben Saaed, Osama M.; Eshanta, Omar M.

    This research deals with the ripeness grading of oil palm fruit bunches. The current practice in the oil palm mills is to grade the oil palm bunches manually using human graders. This method is subjective and subject to disputes. In this research, we developed an automated grading system for oil palm bunches using the RGB color model. This grading system was developed to distinguish between the three different categories of oil palm fruit bunches. The maturity or color ripening index was based on different color intensity. Our grading system employs a computer and camera to analyze and interpret images equivalent to the human eye and brain. The colors namely Red, Green and Blue (RGB) of the palm oil fruit bunch were investigated using this grading system. The computer program developed and used the mean color intensity to differentiate between the different color and ripeness of the fruits such as oil palm FFB. The program results showed that the ripeness of fruit bunch could be differentiated between different categories of fruit bunches based on RGB intensity.

  17. Wakefields in THz cylindrical dielectric lined waveguides driven by femtosecond electron bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yuancun

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the wakefield effects driven by a high-intensity relativistic electron bunch in a dielectric lined waveguide (DLW). A state-of-the-art electron bunch is employed to serve as the drive bunch, which has an rms length of 10 μm, i.e. 33 fs, and a charge of 200 pC. Such bunch parameters are comparable to those of DESY's FLASH and SLAC's LCLS and FACET facilities. It is demonstrated that coherent Cherenkov radiation (CCR) at the fundamental mode with frequency above 1 THz and accelerating gradient as high as 2 GV/m can be obtained in a single layer cylindrical diamond-DLW structure, as long as the geometrical parameters of the DLW are properly selected to match the drive bunch. Wakefield-induced energy modulations on the drive bunch itself are studied as well, which can be used to reduce its energy spread or to produce microbunches with much shorter length from it. The simulated results agree well with the theoretical predictions. Such wakefields can be used to accelerate or modulate electron bunches with ultra-high gradients, and produce high power THz radiations directly. These properties have potential applications in the fields of compact colliders and advanced radiation sources.

  18. Capture, acceleration and bunching rf systems for the MEIC booster and storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shaoheng; Guo, Jiquan; Lin, Fanglei; Morozov, Vasiliy; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Haipeng; Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-09-01

    The Medium-energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC), proposed by Jefferson Lab, consists of a series of accelerators. The electron collider ring accepts electrons from CEBAF at energies from 3 to 12 GeV. Protons and ions are delivered to a booster and captured in a long bunch before being ramped and transferred to the ion collider ring. The ion collider ring accelerates a small number of long ion bunches to colliding energy before they are re-bunched into a high frequency train of very short bunches for colliding. Two sets of low frequency RF systems are needed for the long ion bunch energy ramping in the booster and ion collider ring. Another two sets of high frequency RF cavities are needed for re-bunching in the ion collider ring and compensating synchrotron radiation energy loss in the electron collider ring. The requirements from energy ramping, ion beam bunching, electron beam energy compensation, collective effects, beam loading and feedback capability, RF power capability, etc. are presented. The preliminary designs of these RF systems are presented. Concepts for the baseline cavity and RF station configurations are described, as well as some options that may allow more flexible injection and acceleration schemes.

  19. Analytical bunch compression studies for a linac-based electron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, M.; Wesolowski, P.

    2015-10-01

    The current paper deals with analytical bunch compression studies for FLUTE whose results are compared to simulations. FLUTE is a linac-based electron accelerator with a design energy of approximately 40 MeV currently being constructed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. One of the goals of FLUTE is to generate electron bunches with their length lying in the femtosecond regime. In the first phase this will be accomplished using a magnetic bunch compressor. This compressor forms the subject of the studies presented. The paper is divided into two parts. The first part deals with pure geometric investigations of the bunch compressor where space charge effects and the backreaction of bunches with coherent synchrotron radiation are neglected. The second part is dedicated to the treatment of space charge effects. The upshot is that the analytical results in the two parts agree quite well with what is obtained from simulations. This paper shall form the basis for future analytical studies of the FLUTE bunch compressor and of bunch compression, in general.

  20. Bunch Length Measurements at the JLab FEL Using Coherent Transition and Synchrotron Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel Evtushenko; James Coleman; Kevin Jordan; J. Michael Klopf; George Neil; Gwyn Williams

    2006-05-01

    The JLab FEL is routinely operated with sub-picosecond bunches. The short bunch length is important for high gain of the FEL. Coherent transition radiation has been used for the bunch length measurements for many years [1]. This diagnostic can be used only in the pulsed beam mode. It is our goal to run the FEL with CW beam and a 74.85 MHz micropulse repetition rate, which, with the 135 pC nominal bunch charge corresponds to the beam average current of 10 mA. Hence it is very desirable to have the possibility of making bunch length measurements when running CW beam with any micropulse frequency. We use a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interferometer, which is essentially a Michelson interferometer, to measure the spectrum of the coherent synchrotron radiation generated in the last dipole of the magnetic bunch compressor upstream of the FEL wiggler. This noninvasive diagnostic provides bunch length measurements for CW beam operation at any micropulse frequency. We also compare the measurements made with the help of the FTIR interferometer with data obtained using the Martin-Puplett interferometer [1]. Results of the two diagnostics agree within 15 %. Here we present a description of the experimental setup, data evaluation procedure and results of the beam measurements.

  1. Noise pollution resources compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Abstracts of reports concerning noise pollution are presented. The abstracts are grouped in the following areas of activity: (1) sources of noise, (2) noise detection and measurement, (3) noise abatement and control, (4) physical effects of noise and (5) social effects of noise.

  2. Cationic and anionic modifications of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibers for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Sajab, Mohd Shaiful; Chia, Chin Hua; Zakaria, Sarani; Khiew, Poi Sim

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers were employed to remove dyes from aqueous solutions via adsorption approaches. The EFB fibers were modified using citric acid (CA) and polyethylenimine (PEI) to produce anionic and cationic adsorbents, respectively. The CA modified EFB fibers (CA-EFB) and PEI-modified EFB fibers (PEI-EFB) were used to study the efficiency in removing cationic methylene blue (MB) and anionic phenol red (PR) from aqueous solutions, respectively, at different pHs, temperatures and initial dye concentrations. The adsorption data for MB on the CA-EFB fitted the Langmuir isotherm, while the adsorption of PR on the PEI-EFB fitted the Freundlich isotherm, suggesting a monolayer and heterogeneous adsorption behavior of the adsorption processes, respectively. Both modified fibers can be regenerated up to seven adsorption/desorption cycles while still providing as least 70% of the initial adsorption capacity.

  3. Theoretical and numerical analyses of a slit-masked chicane for modulated bunch generation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaofang; Broemmelsiek, Daniel R.; Shin, Young -Min

    2015-10-28

    Density modulations on electron beams can improve machine performance of beam-driven accelerators and FELs with resonance beam-wave coupling. The beam modulation is studied with a masked chicane by the analytic model and simulations with the beam parameters of the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility. With the chicane design parameters (bending angle of 18o, bending radius of 0.95 m and R56 ~ –0.19 m) and a nominal beam of 3 ps bunch length, the analytic model showed that a slit-mask with slit period 900 μ m and aperture width 300 μ m induces a modulation of bunch-to-bunch spacing ~ 100 μ m to the bunch with 2.4% correlated energy spread. With the designed slit mask and a 3 ps bunch, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, including nonlinear energy distributions, space charge force, and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effect, also result in beam modulation with bunch-to-bunch distance around 100 μ m and a corresponding modulation frequency of 3 THz. The beam modulation has been extensively examined with three different beam conditions, 2.25 ps (0.25 nC), 3.25 ps (1 nC), and 4.75 ps (3.2 nC), by tracking code Elegant. The simulation analysis indicates that the sliced beam by the slit-mask with 3 ~ 6% correlated energy spread has modulation lengths about 187 μ m (0.25 nC), 270 μ m (1 nC) and 325 μ m (3.2 nC). As a result, the theoretical and numerical data proved the capability of the designed masked chicane in producing modulated bunch train with micro-bunch length around 100 fs.

  4. Theoretical and numerical analyses of a slit-masked chicane for modulated bunch generation

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Xiaofang; Broemmelsiek, Daniel R.; Shin, Young -Min; ...

    2015-10-28

    Density modulations on electron beams can improve machine performance of beam-driven accelerators and FELs with resonance beam-wave coupling. The beam modulation is studied with a masked chicane by the analytic model and simulations with the beam parameters of the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility. With the chicane design parameters (bending angle of 18o, bending radius of 0.95 m and R56 ~ –0.19 m) and a nominal beam of 3 ps bunch length, the analytic model showed that a slit-mask with slit period 900 μ m and aperture width 300 μ m induces a modulation of bunch-to-bunch spacing ~more » 100 μ m to the bunch with 2.4% correlated energy spread. With the designed slit mask and a 3 ps bunch, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, including nonlinear energy distributions, space charge force, and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effect, also result in beam modulation with bunch-to-bunch distance around 100 μ m and a corresponding modulation frequency of 3 THz. The beam modulation has been extensively examined with three different beam conditions, 2.25 ps (0.25 nC), 3.25 ps (1 nC), and 4.75 ps (3.2 nC), by tracking code Elegant. The simulation analysis indicates that the sliced beam by the slit-mask with 3 ~ 6% correlated energy spread has modulation lengths about 187 μ m (0.25 nC), 270 μ m (1 nC) and 325 μ m (3.2 nC). As a result, the theoretical and numerical data proved the capability of the designed masked chicane in producing modulated bunch train with micro-bunch length around 100 fs.« less

  5. Theoretical and numerical analyses of a slit-masked chicane for modulated bunch generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Broemmelsiek, D. R.; Shin, Y.-M.

    2015-10-01

    Density modulations on electron beams can improve machine performance of beam-driven accelerators and FELs with resonance beam-wave coupling. The beam modulation is studied with a masked chicane by the analytic model and simulations with the beam parameters of the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility. With the chicane design parameters (bending angle of 18o, bending radius of 0.95 m and R56 ~ -0.19 m) and a nominal beam of 3 ps bunch length, the analytic model showed that a slit-mask with slit period 900 μ m and aperture width 300 μ m induces a modulation of bunch-to-bunch spacing ~ 100 μ m to the bunch with 2.4% correlated energy spread. With the designed slit mask and a 3 ps bunch, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, including nonlinear energy distributions, space charge force, and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effect, also result in beam modulation with bunch-to-bunch distance around 100 μ m and a corresponding modulation frequency of 3 THz. The beam modulation has been extensively examined with three different beam conditions, 2.25 ps (0.25 nC), 3.25 ps (1 nC), and 4.75 ps (3.2 nC), by tracking code Elegant. The simulation analysis indicates that the sliced beam by the slit-mask with 3 ~ 6% correlated energy spread has modulation lengths about 187 μ m (0.25 nC), 270 μ m (1 nC) and 325 μ m (3.2 nC). The theoretical and numerical data proved the capability of the designed masked chicane in producing modulated bunch train with micro-bunch length around 100 fs.

  6. High intensity single bunch operation with heavy periodic transient beam loading in wide band rf cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Fumihiko; Hotchi, Hideaki; Schnase, Alexander; Yoshii, Masahito; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Ohmori, Chihiro; Nomura, Masahiro; Toda, Makoto; Shimada, Taihei; Hasegawa, Katsushi; Hara, Keigo

    2015-09-01

    The rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) was originally designed to accelerate two high intensity bunches, while some of neutron experiments in the materials and life science experimental facility and a muon experiment using main ring beams require a single bunch operation mode, in which one of the two rf buckets is filled and the other is empty. The beam intensity in the single bunch operation has been limited by longitudinal beam losses due to the rf bucket distortions by the wake voltage of the odd harmonics (h =1 ,3 ,5 ) in the wide band magnetic alloy cavities. We installed an additional rf feedforward system to compensate the wake voltages of the odd harmonics (h =1 ,3 ,5 ). The additional system has a similar structure as the existing feedforward system for the even harmonics (h =2 ,4 ,6 ). We describe the function of the feedforward system for the odd harmonics, the commissioning methodology, and the commissioning results. The longitudinal beam losses during the single bunch acceleration disappeared with feedforward for the odd harmonics. We also confirmed that the beam quality in the single bunch acceleration are similar to that of the normal operation with two bunches. Thus, high intensity single bunch acceleration at the intensity of 2.3 ×1013 protons per bunch has been achieved in the J-PARC RCS. This article is a follow-up of our previous article, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 14, 051004 (2011). The feedforward system extension for single bunch operation was successful.

  7. Generation and Use of Coherent Transition Radiation from Short Electron Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Settakorn, Chitrlada

    2001-08-28

    When accelerated, an electron bunch emits coherent radiation at wavelength longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The coherent radiation intensity scales with the square of the number of electron per bunch and its radiation spectrum is determined by the Fourier Transform of the electron bunch distribution squared. At the SUNSHINE (Stanford University Short Intense Electron Source) facility, electron bunches can be generated as short as {sigma}{sub z} = 36 {micro}m (120 femtosecond duration) and such bunches can emit coherent radiation in the far-infrared. Since a typical number for the electron population in a bunch is 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9}, the coherent radiation intensity is much higher than that of incoherent radiation as well as that of a conventional far-infrared radiation source. This concentrates on coherent transition and diffraction radiation from short electron bunches as a potential high intensity far-infrared radiation source and for sub-picosecond electron bunch length measurements. Coherent transition radiation generated from a 25 MeV beam at a vacuum-metal interface is characterized. Such a high intensity radiation source allows far-infrared spectroscopy to be conducted conveniently with a Michelson interferometer and a room temperature detector. Measurements of the refractive index of silicon are described to demonstrate the possibilities of far-infrared spectroscopy using coherent transition radiation Coherent diffraction radiation, which is closely related to coherent transition radiation, can be considered as another potential FIR radiation source. Since the perturbation by the radiation generation to the electron beam is relatively small, it has the advantage of being a nondestructive radiation source.

  8. Noise Abatement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    SMART, Sound Modification and Regulated Temperature compound, is a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy and sound absorbing qualities. It is derived from a very elastic plastic which was an effective noise abatement material in the Apollo Guidance System. Discovered by a NASA employee, it is marketed by Environmental Health Systems, Inc. (EHS). The product has been successfully employed by a diaper company with noisy dryers and a sugar company with noisy blowers. The company also manufactures an audiometric test booth and acoustical office partitions.

  9. Modes on a short SPEAR bunch as observed with a streak camera

    SciTech Connect

    Sabersky, A.P.; Donald, M.H.R.

    1981-02-01

    The longitudinal structure of electron bunches in the storage ring SPEAR on a single pass was studied with time resolution approx. 10 ps. The measuring instrument used is an image-converter streak camera, a specialized device heretofore used mostly by laser workers. Unexpectedly, under some conditions the charge in a single RF bucket breaks up into two short sub-bunches which seem to rotate about a common center in energy-phase space. No evidence is seen for other, higher-frequency structure on the bunches.

  10. Distortion of Crabbed Bunch Due to Electron Cloud and Global Crabbing

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Cai, Y.; /SLAC

    2008-08-01

    Crab cavities may be used improve the luminosity in colliding beam colliders with crab crossing. In a global crab crossing correction, only one crab cavity is installed in each ring and the crab cavities generate a horizontally titled bunch oscillating around the ring. The electron cloud in positively charged rings may distort the crabbed bunch and cause the luminosity drop. This paper briefly estimates the distortion of positron bunch due to the electron cloud with global crab and estimates the effect in the KEKB and possible LHC upgrades.

  11. Quantitative study of the trapped particle bunching instability in Langmuir waves

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, Kentaro Boyd, Iain D.; Chapman, Thomas; Joseph, Ilon; Berger, Richard L.; Banks, Jeffrey W.; Brunner, Stephan

    2015-02-15

    The bunching instability of particles trapped in Langmuir waves is studied using Vlasov simulations. A measure of particle bunching is defined and used to extract the growth rate from numerical simulations, which are compared with theory [Dodin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 215006 (2013)]. In addition, the general theory of trapped particle instability in 1D is revisited and a more accurate description of the dispersion relation is obtained. Excellent agreement between numerical and theoretical predictions of growth rates of the bunching instability is shown over a range of parameters.

  12. Suppression of Longitudinal Coupled-Bunch Instabilities at the KEK-PF

    SciTech Connect

    Obina, T.; Tobiyama, M.; Honda, T.; Tadano, M.; Flanagan, J.W.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Cheng, W.X.; Fox, J.D.; Teytelman, D.; /Dimtel, Redwood City

    2012-04-09

    A bunch-by-bunch feedback system has been developed to suppress longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities at the KEK-PF. A longitudinal kicker based on a DAFNE-type overdamped cavity has been designed and installed in the ring, and a general purpose signal processor, called iGp, has been developed by the collaboration of the KEK, SLAC, and INFN-LNF. The entire feedback loop has been closed by the end of June 2007, and the feedback system has successfully suppressed the longitudinal dipole-mode instabilities up to 430 mA.

  13. Experimental investigation of the longitudinal beam dynamics in a photoinjector using a two-macroparticle bunch

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Tikhoplav, R.; Mihalcea, D.; Barov, N.; /Northern Illinois U.

    2006-03-01

    We have developed a two-macroparticle bunch to explore the longitudinal beam dynamics through various components of the Fermilab/NICADD photoinjector. Such a two-macroparticle bunch is generated by splitting the ultraviolet pulse from the photocathode drive laser. The presented method allows the exploration of radiofrequency-induced compression in the 1.625 cell rf-gun and the booster cavity. It also allows a direct measurement of the momentum compaction of the magnetic bunch compressor. The measurements are compared with analytical and numerical models.

  14. An AGS experiment to test bunching for the proton driver of the muon collider.

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.

    1998-04-27

    The proton driver for the muon collider must produce short pulses of protons in order to facilitate muon cooling and operation with polarized beams. In order to test methods of producing these bunches they have operated the AGS near transition and studied procedures which involved moving the transition energy {gamma} to the beam energy. They were able to produce stable bunches with RMS widths of {sigma} = 2.2-2.7 ns for longitudinal bunch areas of {minus}1.5 V-s, in addition to making measurements of the lowest two orders of the momentum compaction factor.

  15. Experiment and simulations of sub-ps electron bunch train generation at Fermilab photoinjectors

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.-E; Church, M.; Piot, P.; Prokop, C.R.; /Fermilab /Northern Illinois U.

    2011-10-01

    Recently the generation of electron bunch trains with sub-picosecond time structure has been experimentally demonstrated at the A0 photoinjector of Fermilab using a transverse-longitudinal phase-space exchange beamline. The temporal profile of the bunch train can be easily tuned to meet the requirements of the applications of modern accelerator beams. In this paper we report the A0 bunch-train experiment and explore numerically the possible extension of this technique to shorter time scales at the Fermilab SRF Accelerator Test Facility, a superconducting linear electron accelerator currently under construction in the NML building.

  16. A Bunch Length Monitor for JLab 12 GeV Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Mohamad Ali; Freyberger, Arne P.; Gubeli, Joseph F.; Krafft, Geoffrey A.

    2013-12-01

    A continuous non-invasive bunch length monitor for the 12 GeV upgrade of Jefferson Lab will be used to determine the bunch length of the beam. The measurement will be done at the fourth dipole of the injector chicane at 123 MeV using the coherent synchrotron light emitted from the dipole. The estimated bunch length is 333 fs. A vacuum chamber will be fabricated and a Radiabeam real time interferometer will be used. In this paper, background, the estimated calculations and the construction of the chamber will be discussed.

  17. Build up of electron cloud with different bunch pattern in the presence of solenoidal field

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Furman, M.A.; Pivi, M.

    2004-04-01

    We have augmented the code POSINST to include solenoid fields, and used it to simulate the build up of electron cloud due to electron multipacting in the PEP-II positron ring. We find that the distribution of electrons is strongly affected by the resonances associated with the cyclotron period and bunch spacing. In addition, we discover a threshold beyond which the electron density grows exponentially until it reaches the space charge limit. The threshold does not depend on the bunch spacing but does depend on the positron bunch population.

  18. Generation and characterization of electron bunches with ramped current profile at the FLASH facility

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Behrens, C.; Gerth, C.; Lemery, F.; Mihalcea, D.; Vogt, M.; /DESY

    2011-09-01

    We report on the successful generation of electron bunches with current prof les that have a quasi-linear dependency on the longitudinal coordinate. The technique relies on impressing nonlinear correlations in the longitudinal phase space using a linac operating at two frequencies (1.3 and 3.9 GHz) and a bunch compressor. Data taken for various accelerator settings demonstrate the versatility of the method. The produced bunches have parameters well matched to drive high-gradient accelerating field with enhanced transformer ratio in beam-driven accelerators based on sub-mm-sizes dielectric or plasma structures.

  19. An experimental study of electron acceleration with detuning of the bunch repetition frequency from that of an excited wake field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnik, A. F.; Onishchenko, I. N.; Pristupa, V. I.

    2017-02-01

    We have experimentally studied the excitation of wake fields in a dielectric structure by a train of relativistic electron bunches and the acceleration of subsequent bunches of the same train due to detuning of the bunch repetition frequency relative to that of the wake field excited in the dielectric structure at the Cherenkov resonance. Electron bunches of the first (leading) part of the train excite the wake wave, and bunches of the second (trailing) part of this train are shifted to the accelerating phase of the wake wave so as to gain additional energy. The possibility of controlling the number (repetition frequency) of bunches exciting the wake field in the dielectric structure and the number of subsequently accelerated bunches has been investigated by changing the value of detuning.

  20. Superpoissonian shot noise in organic magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Cascales, Juan Pedro; Martinez, Isidoro; Aliev, Farkhad G.; Hong, Jhen-Yong; Lin, Minn-Tsong; Szczepański, Tomasz; Dugaev, Vitalii K.; Barnaś, Józef

    2014-12-08

    Organic molecules have recently revolutionized ways to create new spintronic devices. Despite intense studies, the statistics of tunneling electrons through organic barriers remains unclear. Here, we investigate conductance and shot noise in magnetic tunnel junctions with 3,4,9,10-perylene-teracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) barriers a few nm thick. For junctions in the electron tunneling regime, with magnetoresistance ratios between 10% and 40%, we observe superpoissonian shot noise. The Fano factor exceeds in 1.5–2 times the maximum values reported for magnetic tunnel junctions with inorganic barriers, indicating spin dependent bunching in tunneling. We explain our main findings in terms of a model which includes tunneling through a two level (or multilevel) system, originated from interfacial bonds of the PTCDA molecules. Our results suggest that interfaces play an important role in the control of shot noise when electrons tunnel through organic barriers.

  1. Construction and performance of the magnetic bunch compressor for the THz facility at Chiang Mai University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saisut, J.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Rimjaem, S.; Kangrang, N.; Wichaisirimongkol, P.; Thamboon, P.; Rhodes, M. W.; Thongbai, C.

    2011-05-01

    The Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility at Chiang Mai University has established a THz facility to focus on the study of ultra-short electron pulses. Short electron bunches can be generated from a system that consists of a radio-frequency (RF) gun with a thermionic cathode, an alpha magnet as a magnetic bunch compressor, and a linear accelerator as a post-acceleration section. The alpha magnet is a conventional and simple instrument for low-energy electron bunch compression. With the alpha magnet constructed in-house, several hundred femtosecond electron bunches for THz radiation production can be generated from the thermionic RF gun. The construction and performance of the alpha magnet, as well as some experimental results, are presented in this paper.

  2. Electron bunch profile reconstruction based on phase-constrained iterative algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkali Taheri, F.; Konoplev, I. V.; Doucas, G.; Baddoo, P.; Bartolini, R.; Cowley, J.; Hooker, S. M.

    2016-03-01

    The phase retrieval problem occurs in a number of areas in physics and is the subject of continuing investigation. The one-dimensional case, e.g., the reconstruction of the temporal profile of a charged particle bunch, is particularly challenging and important for particle accelerators. Accurate knowledge of the longitudinal (time) profile of the bunch is important in the context of linear colliders, wakefield accelerators and for the next generation of light sources, including x-ray SASE FELs. Frequently applied methods, e.g., minimal phase retrieval or other iterative algorithms, are reliable if the Blaschke phase contribution is negligible. This, however, is neither known a priori nor can it be assumed to apply to an arbitrary bunch profile. We present a novel approach which gives reproducible, most-probable and stable reconstructions for bunch profiles (both artificial and experimental) that would otherwise remain unresolved by the existing techniques.

  3. Comparison between coasting and bunched beams on optimum stochastic cooling and signal suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.

    1991-01-01

    A comparison has been performed between coasting and bunched particle beams pertaining to the mechanism of stochastic cooling. In the case that particles occupy the entire sinusoidal rf bucket, the optimum cooling rate for the bunched beam is shown to be the same as that predicted from the coasting-beam theory using local particle density. However, in the case that particles occupy only the center of the bucket, the optimum rate decreases in proportion to the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. Furthermore, it has been shown for both coasting and bunched beams that particle motion is stable upon signal suppression if the amplitude of the gain is less than twice the optimum value over the entire frequency bandwidth of the cooling system. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Semiclassical quantization of the diamagnetic hydrogen atom with near-action-degenerate periodic-orbit bunches.

    PubMed

    Gehrke, Jan; Main, Jörg; Wunner, Günter

    2010-12-01

    The existence of periodic orbit bunches is proven for the diamagnetic Kepler problem. Members of each bunch are reconnected differently at self-encounters in phase space but have nearly equal classical action and stability parameters. Orbits can be grouped already on the level of the symbolic dynamics by application of appropriate reconnection rules to the symbolic code in the ternary alphabet. The periodic orbit bunches can significantly improve the efficiency of semiclassical quantization methods for classically chaotic systems, which suffer from the exponential proliferation of orbits. For the diamagnetic hydrogen atom the use of one or few representatives of a periodic orbit bunch in Gutzwiller's trace formula allows for the computation of semiclassical spectra with a classical data set reduced by up to a factor of 20.

  5. Measurements of Compression and Emittance Growth after the First LCLS Bunch Compressor Chicane

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.; Ding, Y.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Huang, Z.; Loos, H.; Sannibale, F.; Sonnad, K.; Stupakov, G.; Wu, J.; Zolotorev, M.; Prat, E.; /DESY

    2007-11-02

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE xray free-electron laser project presently under construction at SLAC. The injector section from RF photocathode gun through first bunch compressor chicane was installed during the fall of 2006. The first bunch compressor is located at 250 MeV and nominally compresses a 1-nC electron bunch from an rms length of about 1 mm to 0.2 mm. Transverse phase space and bunch length diagnostics are located immediately after the chicane. We present preliminary measurements and simulations of the longitudinal and transverse phase space after the chicane in various beam conditions, including extreme compression with micron-scale current spikes.

  6. Measurement of Sub-Picosecond Electron Bunches via Electro-Optic Sampling of Coherent Transition Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Timothy John

    2012-01-01

    Future collider applications as well as present high-gradient laser plasma wakefield accelerators and free-electron lasers operating with picosecond bunch durations place a higher demand on the time resolution of bunch distribution diagnostics. This demand has led to significant advancements in the field of electro-optic sampling over the past ten years. These methods allow the probing of diagnostic light such as coherent transition radiation or the bunch wakefields with sub-picosecond time resolution. We present results on the single-shot electro-optic spectral decoding of coherent transition radiation from bunches generated at the Fermilab A0 photoinjector laboratory. A longitudinal double-pulse modulation of the electron beam is also realized by transverse beam masking followed by a transverse-to-longitudinal phase-space exchange beamline. Live profile tuning is demonstrated by upstream beam focusing in conjunction with downstream monitoring of single-shot electro-optic spectral decoding of the coherent transition radiation.

  7. Head-tail instability and Landau damping in bunches with space charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, V.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.

    2010-11-01

    Head-tail modes in bunches with space charge are studied using particle tracking simulations. The eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions of transverse coherent oscillations in a Gaussian bunch are determined and compared with theories. A model for an airbag distribution in a barrier potential gives good predictions for the head-tail spectrum and for eigenfunctions in bunches with space charge. Using numerical simulations, space-charge induced Landau damping in a bunch is demonstrated. The damping rates are quantified for different modes and space-charge tune shifts. Finally, the head-tail instability with space charge is studied for the resistive-wall impedance below the mode coupling threshold. Results demonstrate that space-charge induced damping can suppress the instability for moderately strong space charge; instability growth rates saturate at strong space charge, in agreement with theoretical predictions.

  8. Noninvasive Laser Probing of Ultrashort Single Electron Bunches for Accelerator And Light Source Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, P.R.; /SLAC

    2007-06-11

    Companion development of ultrafast electron beam diagnostics capable of noninvasively resolving single bunch detail is essential for the development of high energy, high brightness accelerator facilities and associated beam-based light source applications. Existing conventional accelerators can exhibit timing-jitter down to the 100 femtosecond level which exceeds their single bunch duration capability. At the other extreme, in relatively jitterless environments, laser-plasma wakefield accelerators (LWFA) can generate single electron bunches of duration estimated to be of order 10 femtoseconds making this setting a valuable testbed for development of broadband electron bunch diagnostics. Characteristics of electro-optic schemes and laser-induced reflectance are discussed with emphasis on temporal resolution.

  9. Spherical nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) from oil palm empty fruit bunch pulp via ultrasound assisted hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zianor Azrina, Z A; Beg, M Dalour H; Rosli, M Y; Ramli, Ridzuan; Junadi, Norhafzan; Alam, A K M Moshiul

    2017-04-15

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch pulp (EFBP) using ultrasound assisted acid hydrolysis. The obtained NCC was analysed using FESEM, XRD, FTIR, and TGA, and compared with raw empty fruit bunch fibre (REFB), empty fruit bunch pulp (EFBP), and treated empty fruit bunch pulp (TEFBP). Based on FESEM analysis, it was found that NCC has a spherical shaped after acid hydrolysis with the assistance of ultrasound. This situation was different compared to previous studies that obtained rod-like shaped of NCC. Furthermore, the crystallinity of NCC is higher compared to REFB and EFBP. According to thermal stability, the NCC obtained shows remarkable sign of high thermal stability compared to REFB and EFBP.

  10. Design of a high-bunch-charge 112-MHz superconducting RF photoemission electron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, T.; Brutus, J. C.; Belomestnykh, Sergey A.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Boulware, C. H.; Grimm, T. L.; Hayes, T.; Litvinenko, Vladimir N.; Mernick, K.; Narayan, G.; Orfin, P.; Pinayev, I.; Rao, T.; Severino, F.; Skaritka, J.; Smith, K.; Than, R.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, E.; Xiao, B.; Xie, H.; Zaltsman, A.

    2016-09-01

    High-bunch-charge photoemission electron-sources operating in a continuous wave (CW) mode are required for many advanced applications of particle accelerators, such as electron coolers for hadron beams, electron-ion colliders, and free-electron lasers. Superconducting RF (SRF) has several advantages over other electron-gun technologies in CW mode as it offers higher acceleration rate and potentially can generate higher bunch charges and average beam currents. A 112 MHz SRF electron photoinjector (gun) was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory to produce high-brightness and high-bunch-charge bunches for the coherent electron cooling proof-of-principle experiment. The gun utilizes a quarter-wave resonator geometry for assuring beam dynamics and uses high quantum efficiency multi-alkali photocathodes for generating electrons.

  11. Thermal Analysis for Improving Fuel Characteristics of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz, M. S.; Horst, K.; Ariffin, M. A. Md.

    2016-03-01

    Agriculture waste is well known with low melting ashes. This is due to the large quantities of alkali metals are required as nutrients. Potassium is the one of the alkali metal that contributes to the low melting ash of empty fruit bunch biomass fuel. Thermal analysis was conducted in order to determine the increasing of ash fusion temperature of EFB fiber. Ash fusion temperature has four type of shape which is initial deformation, softening temperature, hemispherical temperature and fluidization temperature. EFB fiber has melting temperature 1061°C in average. To solve low melting ashes, Ca(OH)2 was added with EFB fiber in order to increase the ash melting point. 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% by dry weight was added to EFB fiber. From the experiment by adding 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% of Ca(OH)2, the melting temperature was increase to 1114°C, 1239°C, 1277 °C and 1315 °C respectively. As conclusion this lab scale thermal analysis test was conducted in order to allow the determination of additive percentage for larger scale in order to adapt with biomass gasifiers.

  12. Activated carbons derived from oil palm empty-fruit bunches: application to environmental problems.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Zahangir; Muyibi, Suleyman A; Mansor, Mariatul F; Wahid, Radziah

    2007-01-01

    Activated carbons derived from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were investigated to find the suitability of its application for removal of phenol in aqueous solution through adsorption process. Two types of activation namely; thermal activation at 300, 500 and 800 degrees C and physical activation at 150 degrees C (boiling treatment) were used for the production of the activated carbons. A control (untreated EFB) was used to compare the adsorption capacity of the activated carbons produced from these processes. The results indicated that the activated carbon derived at the temperature of 800 degrees C showed maximum absorption capacity in the aqueous solution of phenol. Batch adsorption studies showed an equilibrium time of 6 h for the activated carbon at 800 degrees C. It was observed that the adsorption capacity was higher at lower values of pH (2-3) and higher value of initial concentration of phenol (200-300 mg/L). The equilibrium data fitted better with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm compared to the Langmuir. Kinetic studies of phenol adsorption onto activated carbons were also studied to evaluate the adsorption rate. The estimated cost for production of activated carbon from EFB was shown in lower price (USD 0.50/kg of activated carbon) compared the activated carbon from other sources and processes.

  13. ACCELERATORS: Preliminary result of bunch length measurement using a modified Michelson interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xu-Ling; Zhang, Jian-Bing; Luo, Feng; Bei, Hua; Lu, Shan-Liang; Yu, Tie-Min; Dai, Zhi-Min

    2009-10-01

    Based on the femtosecond accelerator device which was built at the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP), recently a modified far infrared Michelson interferometer has been developed to measure the length of electron bunches via the optical autocorrelation method. Compared with our former normal Michelson interferometer, we use a hollow retroreflector instead of a flat mirror as the reflective mirror. The experimental setup and results of the bunch length measurement will be described in this paper.

  14. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation and Space Charge for a 1-D Bunch on an Arbitrary Planar Orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Warnock, R.L.; /SLAC

    2008-01-08

    Realistic modeling of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and the space charge force in single-pass systems and rings usually requires at least a two-dimensional (2-D) description of the charge/current density of the bunch. Since that leads to costly computations, one often resorts to a 1-D model of the bunch for first explorations. This paper provides several improvements to previous 1-D theories, eliminating unnecessary approximations and physical restrictions.

  15. Linear radio frequency quadrupole for the cooling and bunching of radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Darius, G.; Ban, G.; Bregeault, J.; Delahaye, P.; Desrues, Ph.; Durand, D.; Flechard, X.; Herbane, M.; Labalme, M.; LeBrun, Ch.; Lienard, E.; Mauger, F.; Merrer, Y.; Mery, A.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Szerypo, J.; Vallerand, Ph.; Vandamme, Ch.

    2004-11-01

    A linear radio frequency quadrupole has been built for the transport, cooling, and bunching of radioactive ions extracted from an ECR source. The device uses the buffer gas cooling technique and was designed such as to extend the technique for the cooling of very light ions using H{sub 2} as buffer gas. We describe here the technical specifications of the device and present results of the first tests concerning the cooling and bunching of stable ions.

  16. Recent Advances and New Techniques in Visualization of Ultra-short Relativistic Electron Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Dao; /SLAC

    2012-06-05

    Ultrashort electron bunches with rms length of {approx} 1 femtosecond (fs) can be used to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses in FELs that may open up many new regimes in ultrafast sciences. It is also envisioned that ultrashort electron bunches may excite {approx}TeV/m wake fields for plasma wake field acceleration and high field physics studies. Recent success of using 20 pC electron beam to drive an x-ray FEL at LCLS has stimulated world-wide interests in using low charge beam (1 {approx} 20 pC) to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses (0.1 fs {approx} 10 fs) in FELs. Accurate measurement of the length (preferably the temporal profile) of the ultrashort electron bunch is essential for understanding the physics associated with the bunch compression and transportation. However, the shorter and shorter electron bunch greatly challenges the present beam diagnostic methods. In this paper we review the recent advances in the measurement of ultra-short electron bunches. We will focus on several techniques and their variants that provide the state-of-the-art temporal resolution. Methods to further improve the resolution of these techniques and the promise to break the 1 fs time barrier is discussed. We review recent advances in the measurement of ultrashort relativistic electron bunches. We will focus on several techniques and their variants that are capable of breaking the femtosecond time barrier in measurements of ultrashort bunches. Techniques for measuring beam longitudinal phase space as well as the x-ray pulse shape in an x-ray FEL are also discussed.

  17. Bunch length measurement at the Fermilab A0 photoinjector using a Martin-Puplett interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman-Keup, Randy; Fliller, Raymond Patrick; Kazakevich, Grigory; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    We present preliminary measurements of the electron bunch lengths at the Fermilab A0 Photoinjector using a Martin-Puplett interferometer on loan from DESY. The photoinjector provides a relatively wide range of bunch lengths through laser pulse width adjustment and compression of the beam using a magnetic chicane. We present comparisons of data with simulations that account for diffraction distortions in the signal and discuss future plans for improving the measurement.

  18. Buildup of electron cloud with different bunch pattern in thepresence of solenoid field

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Pivi , M.; Furman , M.A.

    2003-05-01

    We have augmented the code POSINST to include solenoidfields, and used it to simulate the build up of electron cloud due toelectron multipacting in the PEP-II positron ring. We find that thedistribution of electrons is strongly affected by the resonancesassociated with the cyclotron period and bunch spacing. In addition, wediscover a threshold beyond which the electron density growsexponentially until it reaches the space charge limit. The threshold doesnot depend on the bunch spacing but does depend on the positron bunchpopulation.

  19. Longitudinal Bunch Shape Diagnostics With Coherent Radiation And a Transverse Deflecting Cavity at TTF2

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, O.; Frohlich, L.; Klose, K.; Nagl, M.; Peters, O.; Rossbach, J.; Schlarb, H.; Emma, P.J.; McCormick, D.; Ross, M.; Smith, T.J.; /SLAC

    2005-08-04

    At the DESY TTF2 linear accelerator three special techniques to characterize the longitudinal charge distribution of the electron bunches that drive the free-electron laser are currently under study: electro-optical sampling, far-infrared spectral analysis of coherent radiation and the use of a transverse deflecting cavity to streak the bunch. The principles and implementations of the latter two are described in this paper. Details on electro-optical sampling can be found in [1].

  20. Studies of a Proton Bunch Phase Monitor for Range Verification in Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, T.; Golnik, C.; Enghardt, W.; Petzoldt, J.; Kormoll, T.; Pausch, G.; Straessner, A.; Roemer, K.; Dreyer, A.; Hueso-Gonzalez, F.; Enghardt, W.

    2015-07-01

    A primary subject of the present research in particle therapy is to ensure the precise irradiation of the target volume. The prompt gamma timing (PGT) method provides one possibility for in vivo range verification during the irradiation of patients. Prompt gamma rays with high energies are emitted promptly due to nuclear reactions of protons with tissue. The arrival time of these gammas to the detector reflects the stopping process of the primary protons in tissue and is directly correlated to the range. Due to the time resolution of the detector and the proton bunch time spread, as well as drifts of the bunch phase with respect to the accelerator frequency, timing spectra are smeared out and compromise the accuracy of range information intended for future clinical applications. Nevertheless, counteracting this limitation and recovering range information from the PGT measured spectra, corrections using a bunch phase monitor can be performed. A first prototype of bunch phase monitor was tested at GSI Darmstadt, where measurements of the energy correlation profile of the ion bunches were performed. At the ELBE accelerator at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), set up to provide bremsstrahlung photons in very short pulses, a constant fraction algorithm for the incoming digital signals was evaluated, which is used for optimizing the time resolution. Studies of scattering experiments with different thin targets and detector positions are accomplished at Onco Ray Dresden, where a clinical proton beam is available. These experiments allow a basic characterization of the proton bunch structure and the detection yield. (authors)

  1. Pseudo-single-bunch with adjustable frequency: a new operation mode for synchrotron light sources.

    PubMed

    Sun, C; Portmann, G; Hertlein, M; Kirz, J; Robin, D S

    2012-12-28

    We present the concept and results of pseudo-single-bunch (PSB) operation--a new operational mode at the advanced light source--that can greatly expand the capabilities of synchrotron light sources to carry out dynamics and time-of-flight experiments. In PSB operation, a single electron bunch is displaced transversely from the other electron bunches using a short-pulse, high-repetition-rate kicker magnet. Experiments that require light emitted only from a single bunch can stop the light emitted from the other bunches using a collimator. Other beam lines will only see a small reduction in flux due to the displaced bunch. As a result, PSB eliminates the need to schedule multibunch and timing experiments during different running periods. Furthermore, the time spacing of PSB pulses can be adjusted from milliseconds to microseconds with a novel "kick-and-cancel" scheme, which can significantly alleviate complications of using high-power choppers and substantially reduce the rate of sample damage.

  2. Pseudo-Single-Bunch with Adjustable Frequency: A New Operation Mode for Synchrotron Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, C.; Portmann, G.; Hertlein, M.; Kirz, J.; Robin, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    We present the concept and results of pseudo-single-bunch (PSB) operation—a new operational mode at the advanced light source—that can greatly expand the capabilities of synchrotron light sources to carry out dynamics and time-of-flight experiments. In PSB operation, a single electron bunch is displaced transversely from the other electron bunches using a short-pulse, high-repetition-rate kicker magnet. Experiments that require light emitted only from a single bunch can stop the light emitted from the other bunches using a collimator. Other beam lines will only see a small reduction in flux due to the displaced bunch. As a result, PSB eliminates the need to schedule multibunch and timing experiments during different running periods. Furthermore, the time spacing of PSB pulses can be adjusted from milliseconds to microseconds with a novel “kick-and-cancel” scheme, which can significantly alleviate complications of using high-power choppers and substantially reduce the rate of sample damage.

  3. Single bunch transverse instability in a circular accelerator with chromaticity and space charge

    SciTech Connect

    Balbekov, V.

    2015-10-21

    The transverse instability of a bunch in a circular accelerator is elaborated in this paper. A new tree-modes model is proposed and developed to describe the most unstable modes of the bunch. This simple and flexible model includes chromaticity and space charge, and can be used with any bunch and wake forms. The dispersion equation for the bunch eigentunes is obtained in form of a third-order algebraic equation. The known head-tail and TMCI modes appear as the limiting cases which are distinctly bounded at zero chromaticity only. It is shown that the instability parameters depend only slightly on the bunch model but they are rather sensitive to the wake shape. In particular, space charge effects are investigated in the paper and it is shown that their influence depends on sign of wake field enhancing the bunch stability if the wake is negative. In addition, the resistive wall wake is considered in detail including a comparison of single and collective effects. A comparison of the results with earlier publications is carried out.

  4. Seeding of self-modulation instability of a long electron bunch in a plasma.

    PubMed

    Fang, Y; Yakimenko, V E; Babzien, M; Fedurin, M; Kusche, K P; Malone, R; Vieira, J; Mori, W B; Muggli, P

    2014-01-31

    We demonstrate experimentally that a relativistic electron bunch shaped with a sharp rising edge drives plasma wakefields with one to seven periods along the bunch as the plasma density is increased. The plasma density is varied in the 10(15)-10(17)  cm(-3) range. The wakefields generation is observed after the plasma as a periodic modulation of the correlated energy spectrum of the incoming bunch. We choose a low bunch charge of 50 pC for optimum visibility of the modulation at all plasma densities. The longitudinal wakefields creating the modulation are in the MV/m range and are indirect evidence of the generation of transverse wakefields that can seed the self-modulation instability, although the instability does not grow significantly over the short plasma length (2 cm). We show that the seeding provides a phase reference for the wakefields, a necessary condition for the deterministic external injection of a witness bunch in an accelerator. This electron work supports the concept of similar experiments in the future, e.g., SMI experiments using long bunches of relativistic protons.

  5. AGS new fast extraction system and the single bunch extraction test

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    For the neutrino physics program and for the CBA injection, a new fast extraction system has been implemented to improve the extraction efficiency and the quality of the extracted beam. Central to the new system is a new fast kicker, placed at the H5 straight section, capable of rising between bunches, t/sub r/ < 170 nsec, and staying constant for 2.6 ..mu..sec with flat top ripple less than +-1.5%. So far, the system has been operated for longer than 3000 hours and routinely extracts 10/sup 13/ ppp at 99% efficiency. Experiment 745 on QCD test requires a single AGS bunch of 40 nsec. For this purpose another fast kicker was placed at the E5 straight section and powered by a new pulser to produce a half sinusoidal pulse with both a rise and fall time of 200 nsec. A single AGS bunch was extracted through the slow beam channel at 22 GeV/c leaving the remaining 11 bunches undisturbed which continued to be accelerated to 29.4 GeV/c and extracted by the H5 kicker through the fast beam channel. Because the ring circumference ratio of CBA to the AGS is 4-3/4, some of the injected beam from the AGS has to contain 11 bunches instead of 12; consequently, this single bunch extraction mode will also be used for CBA injection.

  6. A multi-length bunch design for electron storage rings with odd buckets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liang-Jing; Li, Wei-Min; Wang, Lin; Xiang, Dao; Huang, Xiao-Biao

    2015-07-01

    A scheme with two superconducting RF cavities is designed to upgrade electron storage rings with odd buckets to multi-length bunches. In this paper, the Hefei Light Source II (HLS II) is given as an example for odd buckets. As it is designed for 45 buckets, which is a multiple of 3, simultaneous generation of three different lengths of bunches is proposed with the presently applied user optics. The final result, without low-α optics, is to fill HLS II with long bunches of length 50 ps, medium bunches of 23 ps and short bunches of 6 ps. Every third bucket can be filled with short bunches, of which the current limit is up to 6.6 mA, more than 60 times the limit for low-α mode. Moreover, particle tracking simulations to examine the beam dynamics, performed by ELEGANT, and calculations of the beam instabilities are presented in this paper. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11327902, 11175180, 11175182) and U.S. DOE (DE-AC02-76SF00515)

  7. Calculating the Loss factor of the LCLS Beam Line Elements for Ultra-Shrot Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Novokhatski, A.; /SLAC

    2009-10-17

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE 1.5-15 {angstrom} x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility. Since an ultra-short intense bunch is used in the LCLS operation one might suggest that wake fields, generated in the vacuum chamber, may have an effect on the x-ray production because these fields can change the beam particle energies thereby increasing the energy spread in a bunch. At LCLS a feedback system precisely controls the bunch energy before it enters a beam transport line after the linac. However, in the transport line and later in the undulator section the bunch energy and energy spread are not under feedback control and may change due to wake field radiation, which depends upon the bunch current or on a bunch length. The linear part of the energy spread can be compensated in the upstream linac; the energy loss in the undulator section can be compensated by varying the K-parameter of the undulators, however we need a precise knowledge of the wake fields in this part of the machine. Resistive wake fields are known and well calculated. We discuss an additional part of the wake fields, which comes from the different vacuum elements like bellows, BPMs, transitions, vacuum ports, vacuum valves and others. We use the code 'NOVO' together with analytical estimations for the wake potential calculations.

  8. On electron bunching and stratification of glow discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Golubovskii, Yuri B.; Kolobov, Vladimir I.; Nekuchaev, Vladimir O.

    2013-10-15

    Plasma stratification and excitation of ionization waves is one of the fundamental problems in gas discharge physics. Significant progress in this field is associated with the name of Lev Tsendin. He advocated the need for the kinetic approach to this problem contrary to the traditional hydrodynamic approach, introduced the idea of electron bunching in spatially periodic electric fields, and developed a theory of kinetic resonances for analysis of moving striations in rare gases. The present paper shows how Tsendin's ideas have been further developed and applied for understanding the nature of the well-known S-, P-, and R-striations observed in glow discharges of inert gases at low pressures and currents. We review numerical solutions of a Fokker-Planck kinetic equation in spatially periodic electric fields under the effects of elastic and inelastic collisions of electrons with atoms. We illustrate the formation of kinetic resonances at specific field periods for different shapes of injected Electron Distribution Functions (EDF). Computer simulations illustrate how self-organization of the EDFs occurs under nonlocal conditions and how Gaussian-like peaks moving along resonance trajectories are formed in a certain range of discharge conditions. The calculated EDFs agree well with the experimentally measured EDFs for the S, P, and R striations in noble gases. We discuss how kinetic resonances affect dispersion characteristics of moving striations and mention some non-linear effects associated with glow discharge stratification. We propose further studies of stratification phenomena combining physical kinetics and non-linear physics.

  9. Tool Wear Characteristics of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Particleboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnasingam, Jegatheswaran; Chew Tek, Tee; Farrokhpayam, Saied Reza

    A series of machining experiments on the Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) particleboard were carried out using a CNC router, to evaluate the tool wearing properties of the composite in comparison to the conventional wood-material particleboard. A single-fluted tungsten-carbide router bit (12 mm φ, 18 000 rpm), with a rake angle of 15° was used in this experiment, in which the depth of cut was 1.5 mm and feed speed was 4.5 m min-1. The router bit machined the edge of the board, moving along the full length before returning to repeat the cycle. The tool was examined for the extent of wear after complete failure had occurred. The result found that the wear pattern was similar in the oil-palm based particleboard and the wood-based particleboard, but the former was twice more abrasive compared to the latter. Microscopic examination of the cutter edge revealed greater incidence of micro-fracture when cutting the oil-palm based particleboard, indicating the presence of hard impurities in the composite. From an economic perspective, the tooling cost for machining oil-palm based particleboard is estimated to be twice of the cost for machining wood-based particleboard. This study shows that the machining properties of oil-palm based particleboard will be a primary concern, if the board is to find widespread application as a potential substitute for wood-based particleboard.

  10. Community Response to Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidell, Sandy

    The primary effects of community noise on residential populations are speech interference, sleep disturbance, and annoyance. This chapter focuses on transportation noise in general and on aircraft noise in particular because aircraft noise is one of the most prominent community noise sources, because airport/community controversies are often the most contentious and widespread, and because industrial and other specialized formsofcommunitynoise generally posemorelocalized problems.

  11. Effects of aeration rate on degradation process of oil palm empty fruit bunch with kinetic-dynamic modeling.

    PubMed

    Talib, Ahmad Tarmezee; Mokhtar, Mohd Noriznan; Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; Sulaiman, Alawi

    2014-10-01

    The effect of different aeration rates on the organic matter (OM) degradation during the active phase of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB)-rabbit manure co-composting process under constant forced-aeration system has been studied. Four different aeration rates, 0.13 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1),0.26 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1),0.49 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1) and 0.74 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1) were applied. 0.26 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1) provided enough oxygen level (10%) for the rest of composting period, showing 40.5% of OM reduction that is better than other aeration rates. A dynamic mathematical model describing OM degradation, based on the ratio between OM content and initial OM content with correction functions of moisture content, free air space, oxygen and temperature has been proposed.

  12. The effect of plasma radius and profile on the development of self-modulation instability of electron bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Y.; Vieira, J.; Amorim, L. D.; Muggli, P.

    2014-05-15

    Plasmas available for plasma wakefield accelerator experiments may have longitudinal and transverse density profiles that could affect the outcome of an experiment. This paper investigates the effect of plasmas with finite radius and inhomogeneous transverse density profiles on the wakefield excitation and the self-modulation instability (SMI) development in overdense plasmas. We focus here on the case of an electron bunch. Simulation results show that such plasmas generate larger focusing force for the propagating electron beam and therefore higher growth rate for the SMI. Although the initial accelerating field (E{sub z}) amplitude is lower in such plasmas, the increased focusing force can dominate the development trend of the SMI, i.e., larger saturated E{sub z} amplitude can be reached over similar plasma lengths.

  13. Holographic Spectroscopy for Rapid Electron Bunch Analysis: Development of an Instrument with THZ Resolved Optical Gating

    SciTech Connect

    Sievers, Albert

    2011-10-28

    The main thrust of our project was to apply the concepts of holographic spectroscopy, developed earlier in the visible and near IR spectral regions for satellite mapping, to the THz region in order to measure the spectral signature of the coherent radiation emanating from a relativistic electron bunch to obtain the bunch length itself. There were four major discoveries. (1) In the course of this ground-breaking work we developed and built the first static THz interferometer suitable for the realization of such a holographic Fourier transform spectrometer. Experimental tests and analysis of the observed results have provided the necessary foundation for future development of THz detector arrays optimized for spectroscopic applications. (2) Since such detectors do not exist at the present time our next effort was to find an alternative approach. We explored the electro-optic (EO) detection of the THz pulse using the short pulse of a visible diode laser synchronized to the bunch with the long-term goal aimed at single bunch measurement capability. The main hurdle was found to be the parasitic scattering of the diode radiation in the EO medium. By using the optical Fourier transform of the THz interference pattern the effects of this background were suppressed enough to obtain the spectrum using multiple shot acquisition. During our experiments at the FLASH facility at DESY we determined that for single bunch measurement capability the diode laser has to be able to produce sub 100 ps pulses with peak power of at least 1 W. Since these parameters are quite feasible at the current stage of diode laser science this combination of techniques can be used for single shot measurement of a short electron bunch. (3) In carrying out the above effort a simpler measurement possibility was uncovered involving the visible/nearIR pulse of incoherent radiation produced by the same bunch. This observation made possible the cross-correlation of the THz coherent and visible incoherent

  14. FET Noise Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    The predominant sources of nonlinearity in the FET, relevant to oscillator analysis, are the transconductance gm and the source-gate capacitance C sg...two general categories of noise mechanisms in an FET: intrinsic sources, i.e., noise associated with the FET operation itself, and extrinsic noise...very high drain voltages, also produces white noise. Noise produced by para- sitic resistance, one of the extrinsic noise sources, is also flat. These

  15. Hydrodynamical noise and Gubser flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Li; Grönqvist, Hanna

    2016-03-01

    Hydrodynamical noise is introduced on top of Gubser's analytical solution to viscous hydrodynamics. With respect to the ultra-central collision events of Pb-Pb, p-Pb and p-p at the LHC energies, we solve the evolution of noisy fluid systems and calculate the radial flow velocity correlations. We show that the absolute amplitude of the hydrodynamical noise is determined by the multiplicity of the collision event. The evolution of azimuthal anisotropies, which is related to the generation of harmonic flow, receives finite enhancements from hydrodynamical noise. Although it is strongest in the p-p systems, the effect of hydrodynamical noise on flow harmonics is found to be negligible, especially in the ultra-central Pb-Pb collisions. For the short-range correlations, hydrodynamical noise contributes to the formation of a near-side peak on top of the correlation structure originated from initial state fluctuations. The shape of the peak is affected by the strength of hydrodynamical noise, whose height and width grow from the Pb-Pb system to the p-Pb and p-p systems.

  16. Interaction of an Ultrarelativistic Electron Bunch Train with a W-Band Accelerating Structure: High Power and High Gradient.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Antipov, S; Jing, C; Power, J G; Conde, M; Wisniewski, E; Liu, W; Qiu, J; Ha, G; Dolgashev, V; Tang, C; Gai, W

    2016-02-05

    Electron beam interaction with high frequency structures (beyond microwave regime) has a great impact on future high energy frontier machines. We report on the generation of multimegawatt pulsed rf power at 91 GHz in a planar metallic accelerating structure driven by an ultrarelativistic electron bunch train. This slow-wave wakefield device can also be used for high gradient acceleration of electrons with a stable rf phase and amplitude which are controlled by manipulation of the bunch train. To achieve precise control of the rf pulse properties, a two-beam wakefield interferometry method was developed in which the rf pulse, due to the interference of the wakefields from the two bunches, was measured as a function of bunch separation. Measurements of the energy change of a trailing electron bunch as a function of the bunch separation confirmed the interferometry method.

  17. Interaction of an Ultrarelativistic Electron Bunch Train with a W -Band Accelerating Structure: High Power and High Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Antipov, S.; Jing, C.; Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Wisniewski, E.; Liu, W.; Qiu, J.; Ha, G.; Dolgashev, V.; Tang, C.; Gai, W.

    2016-02-01

    Electron beam interaction with high frequency structures (beyond microwave regime) has a great impact on future high energy frontier machines. We report on the generation of multimegawatt pulsed rf power at 91 GHz in a planar metallic accelerating structure driven by an ultrarelativistic electron bunch train. This slow-wave wakefield device can also be used for high gradient acceleration of electrons with a stable rf phase and amplitude which are controlled by manipulation of the bunch train. To achieve precise control of the rf pulse properties, a two-beam wakefield interferometry method was developed in which the rf pulse, due to the interference of the wakefields from the two bunches, was measured as a function of bunch separation. Measurements of the energy change of a trailing electron bunch as a function of the bunch separation confirmed the interferometry method.

  18. Interaction of an ultrarelativistic electron bunch train with a W-band accelerating structure: High power and high gradient

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, D.; Antipov, S.; Jing, C.; ...

    2016-02-05

    Electron beam interaction with high frequency structures (beyond microwave regime) has a great impact on future high energy frontier machines. We report on the generation of multimegawatt pulsed rf power at 91 GHz in a planar metallic accelerating structure driven by an ultrarelativistic electron bunch train. This slow-wave wakefield device can also be used for high gradient acceleration of electrons with a stable rf phase and amplitude which are controlled by manipulation of the bunch train. To achieve precise control of the rf pulse properties, a two-beam wakefield interferometry method was developed in which the rf pulse, due to themore » interference of the wakefields from the two bunches, was measured as a function of bunch separation. As a result, measurements of the energy change of a trailing electron bunch as a function of the bunch separation confirmed the interferometry method.« less

  19. Interaction of an ultrarelativistic electron bunch train with a W-band accelerating structure: High power and high gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D.; Antipov, S.; Jing, C.; Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Wisniewski, E.; Liu, W.; Qiu, J.; Ha, G.; Dolgashev, V.; Tang, C.; Gai, W.

    2016-02-05

    Electron beam interaction with high frequency structures (beyond microwave regime) has a great impact on future high energy frontier machines. We report on the generation of multimegawatt pulsed rf power at 91 GHz in a planar metallic accelerating structure driven by an ultrarelativistic electron bunch train. This slow-wave wakefield device can also be used for high gradient acceleration of electrons with a stable rf phase and amplitude which are controlled by manipulation of the bunch train. To achieve precise control of the rf pulse properties, a two-beam wakefield interferometry method was developed in which the rf pulse, due to the interference of the wakefields from the two bunches, was measured as a function of bunch separation. As a result, measurements of the energy change of a trailing electron bunch as a function of the bunch separation confirmed the interferometry method.

  20. Noise and blast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, D. C.; Garinther, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Noise and blast environments are described, providing a definition of units and techniques of noise measurement and giving representative booster-launch and spacecraft noise data. The effects of noise on hearing sensitivity and performance are reviewed, and community response to noise exposure is discussed. Physiological, or nonauditory, effects of noise exposure are also treated, as are design criteria and methods for minimizing the noise effects of hearing sensitivity and communications. The low level sound detection and speech reception are included, along with subjective and behavioral responses to noise.

  1. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati

    2015-04-24

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  2. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati

    2015-04-01

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  3. A self-focusing, high transformer ratio, collinear plasma dielectric wakefield accelerator driven by a ramped bunch train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikov, Gennadij V.; Marshall, Thomas C.; Shchelkunov, Sergey V.; Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2017-03-01

    New results of studies of wakefield excitation by a ramped bunch train in a collinear, single-channel dielectriclined THz-wakefield accelerator structure that is filled with a low-temperature plasma are presented. A novel ramped train of drive bunches, together with plasma filling part of the transport channel, makes possible substantial improvement of the transformer ratio of the multimode collinear device to 6:1 while the plasma could stabilize the transverse motion of the drive and witness bunches.

  4. Perturbation-minimized triangular bunch for high-transformer ratio using a double dogleg emittance exchange beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, G.; Cho, M. H.; Gai, W.; Kim, K.-J.; Namkung, W.; Power, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    The longitudinal shape, i.e., the current profile, of an electron bunch determines the transformer ratio in a collinear wakefield accelerator and thus methods are sought to control the longitudinal bunch shape. The emittance exchange (EEX) appears to be promising for creating a precisely controlled longitudinal bunch shapes. The longitudinal shape is perturbed by two sources: higher-order terms in the beam line optics and collective effects and these perturbations can lead to a significant drop of the transformer ratio. In this paper, we analytically and numerically investigate the perturbation to an ideal triangular longitudinal bunch shape and propose methods to minimize it.

  5. Spatial modulation of in-plane magnetic anisotropy in epitaxial Co(111) films grown on macrostep-bunched Si(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Davydenko, A. V. Kozlov, A. G.; Chebotkevich, L. A.

    2014-10-14

    We compared magnetic properties of epitaxial Co(111) films grown on microstep- and macrostep-bunched vicinal Si(111) substrates. A surface of the microstep-bunched Si(111) substrate represents regular array of step-bunches with height of 1.7 nm divided from each other by flat microterraces with a width of 34 nm. A surface of the macrostep-bunched Si(111) substrate is constituted by macrostep bunches with a height of 75–85 nm divided by atomically flat macroterraces. The average sum width of a macrostep bunch and a macroterrace is 2.3 μm. While in-plane magnetic anisotropy was spatially uniform in Co(111) films grown on the microstep-bunched Si(111), periodic macromodulation of the topography of the Si(111) substrate induced spatial modulation of in-plane magnetic anisotropy in Co(111) film grown on the macrostep-bunched Si(111) surface. The energy of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in the areas of the Co(111) film deposited on the Si(111) macrosteps was higher more than by the order of magnitude than the energy of the magnetic anisotropy in the areas grown on macroterraces. Magnetization reversal in the areas with different energy of the magnetic anisotropy occurred in different magnetic fields. We showed the possibility of obtaining high density of domain walls in Co(111) film grown on the macrostep-bunched Si(111) by tuning the spatial step density of the Si(111) substrate.

  6. Space charge measurements with a high intensity bunch at the Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Seiya, K.; Chase, B.; Dey, J.; Joireman, P.; Kourbanis, I.; Yagodnitsyna, A.; /Novosibirsk State U.

    2011-03-01

    For Project X, the Fermilab Main Injector will be required to operate with 3 times higher bunch intensity. The plan to study the space charge effects at the injection energy with intense bunches will be discussed. A multi-MW proton facility has been established as a critical need for the U.S. HEP program by HEPAP and P5. Utilization of the Main Injector (MI) as a high intensity proton source capable of delivering in excess of 2 MW beam power will require a factor of three increase in bunch intensity compared to current operations. Instabilities associated with beam loading, space charge, and electron cloud effects are common issues for high intensity proton machines. The MI intensities for current operations and Project X are listed in Table 1. The MI provides proton beams for Fermilab's Tevatron Proton-Antiproton Collider and MINOS neutrino experiments. The proposed 2MW proton facility, Project X, utilizes both the Recycler (RR) and the MI. The RR will be reconfigured as a proton accumulator and injector to realize the factor 3 bunch intensity increase in the MI. Since the energy in the RR and the MI at injection will be 6-8 GeV, which is relatively low, space charge effects will be significant and need to be studied. Studies based on the formation of high intensity bunches in the MI will guide the design and fabrication of the RF cavities and space-charge mitigation devices required for 2 MW operation of the MI. It is possible to create the higher bunch intensities required in the MI using a coalescing technique that has been successfully developed at Fermilab. This paper will discuss a 5 bunch coalescing scheme at 8 GeV which will produce 2.5 x 10{sup 11} protons in one bunch. Bunch stretching will be added to the coalescing process. The required RF parameters were optimized with longitudinal simulations. The beam studies, that have a goal of 85% coalescing efficiency, were started in June 2010.

  7. Fiber laser pumped high power mid-infrared laser with picosecond pulse bunch output.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kaihua; Chen, Tao; Jiang, Peipei; Yang, Dingzhong; Wu, Bo; Shen, Yonghang

    2013-10-21

    We report a novel quasi-synchronously pumped PPMgLN-based high power mid-infrared (MIR) laser with picosecond pulse bunch output. The pump laser is a linearly polarized MOPA structured all fiberized Yb fiber laser with picosecond pulse bunch output. The output from a mode-locked seed fiber laser was directed to pass through a FBG reflector via a circulator to narrow the pulse duration from 800 ps to less than 50 ps and the spectral FWHM from 9 nm to 0.15 nm. The narrowed pulses were further directed to pass through a novel pulse multiplier through which each pulse was made to become a pulse bunch composing of 13 sub-pulses with pulse to pulse time interval of 1.26 ns. The pulses were then amplified via two stage Yb fiber amplifiers to obtain a linearly polarized high average power output up to 85 W, which were then directed to pass through an isolator and to pump a PPMgLN-based optical parametric oscillator via quasi-synchronization pump scheme for ps pulse bunch MIR output. High MIR output with average power up to 4 W was obtained at 3.45 micron showing the feasibility of such pump scheme for ps pulse bunch MIR output.

  8. Exploiting coherence for real-time studies by single-bunch imaging.

    PubMed

    Rack, A; Scheel, M; Hardy, L; Curfs, C; Bonnin, A; Reichert, H

    2014-07-01

    First real-time studies of ultra-fast processes by single-bunch imaging at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility are reported. By operating the storage ring of the ESRF in single-bunch mode with its correspondingly increased electron bunch charge density per singlet, the polychromatic photon flux density at insertion-device beamlines is sufficient to capture hard X-ray images exploiting the light from a single bunch (the corresponding bunch length is 140 ps FWHM). Hard X-ray imaging with absorption contrast as well as phase contrast in combination with large propagation distances is demonstrated using spatial samplings of 11 µm and 35 µm pixel size. The images acquired allow one to track crack propagation in a bursting piece of glass, breaking of an electrical fuse as well as cell wall rupture in an aqueous foam. Future developments and their potential in the frame of the proposed Phase II of the ESRF Upgrade Program are discussed.

  9. Diffraction effects in coherent transition radiation diagnostics for sub-mm bunch length measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, T.J.; Mihalcea, D.; Piot, P.; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    Electrons crossing the boundary between different media generate bursts of transition radiation. In the case of bunches of N electrons, the radiation is coherent and has an N-squared enhancement at wavelengths related to the longitudinal bunch distribution. This coherent transition radiation has therefore attracted attention as an interceptive charged particle beam diagnostic technique. Many analytical descriptions have been devised describing the spectral distribution generated by electron bunches colliding with thin metallic foils making different simplifying assumptions. For typical bunches having lengths in the sub-millimeter range, measurable spectra are generated up into the millimeter range. Analysis of this THz radiation is performed using optical equipment tens of millimeters in size. This gives rise to concern that optical diffraction effects may spread the wavefront of interest into regions larger than the optical elements and partially escape detection, generating a wavelength-dependent instrument response. In this paper we present a model implementing vector diffraction theory to analyze these effects in bunch length diagnostics based on coherent transition radiation.

  10. Experiment to Measure Ramped Electron Bunches at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory Using a Transverse Deflecting Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    England, R. J.; O'Shea, B.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Travish, G.; Alesini, D.

    2006-11-27

    A proof of principle experiment is underway at the UCLA Neptune laboratory to test the concept of generating linearly ramped relativistic electron bunches (rising in density from head to tail followed by a sharp cutoff) by using a sextupole-corrected dogleg section as a bunch compressor. Bunches with this structure have been predicted to be ideal for use as a plasma wake-field drive beam. The diagnostic being developed to measure the time profile of the beam is an X-Band (9.6 GHz) deflecting cavity. The recently completed cavity is a 9-cell standing wave structure operating in a TM110-like mode, designed to measure the temporal structure of the 2 to 10 ps, 14 MeV electron bunches generated by the Neptune S-band photoinjector and plane-wave transformer (PWT) accelerator beamline, with 50 fs resolution. We discuss the experimental plan for the ramped bunch experiment and present preliminary data related to the tuning and operation of the deflecting cavity.

  11. High-coherence electron and ion bunches from laser-cooled atoms.

    PubMed

    Sparkes, Ben M; Thompson, Daniel J; McCulloch, Andrew J; Murphy, Dene; Speirs, Rory W; Torrance, Joshua S J; Scholten, Robert E

    2014-08-01

    Cold atom electron and ion sources produce electron bunches and ion beams by photoionization of laser-cooled atoms. They offer high coherence and the potential for high brightness, with applications including ultra-fast electron-diffractive imaging of dynamic processes at the nanoscale. The effective brightness of electron sources has been limited by nonlinear divergence caused by repulsive interactions between the electrons, known as the Coulomb explosion. It has been shown that electron bunches with ellipsoidal shape and uniform density distribution have linear internal Coulomb fields, such that the Coulomb explosion can be reversed using conventional optics. Our source can create bunches shaped in three dimensions and hence in principle achieve the transverse spatial coherence and brightness needed for picosecond-diffractive imaging with nanometer resolution. Here we present results showing how the shaping capability can be used to measure the spatial coherence properties of the cold electron source. We also investigate space-charge effects with ions and generate electron bunches with durations of a few hundred picoseconds. Future development of the cold atom electron and ion source will increase the bunch charge and charge density, demonstrate reversal of Coulomb explosion, and ultimately, ultra-fast coherent electron-diffractive imaging.

  12. Single bunch transverse instability in a circular accelerator with chromaticity and space charge

    DOE PAGES

    Balbekov, V.

    2015-10-21

    The transverse instability of a bunch in a circular accelerator is elaborated in this paper. A new tree-modes model is proposed and developed to describe the most unstable modes of the bunch. This simple and flexible model includes chromaticity and space charge, and can be used with any bunch and wake forms. The dispersion equation for the bunch eigentunes is obtained in form of a third-order algebraic equation. The known head-tail and TMCI modes appear as the limiting cases which are distinctly bounded at zero chromaticity only. It is shown that the instability parameters depend only slightly on the bunchmore » model but they are rather sensitive to the wake shape. In particular, space charge effects are investigated in the paper and it is shown that their influence depends on sign of wake field enhancing the bunch stability if the wake is negative. In addition, the resistive wall wake is considered in detail including a comparison of single and collective effects. A comparison of the results with earlier publications is carried out.« less

  13. Infrared Spectroscope for Electron Bunch-length Measurement: Heat Sensor Parameters Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Domgmo-Momo, Gilles; /Towson U. /SLAC

    2012-09-05

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is used for many experiments. Taking advantage of the free electron laser (FEL) process, scientists of various fields perform experiments of all kind. Some for example study protein folding; other experiments are more interested in the way electrons interact with the molecules before they are destroyed. These experiments among many others have very little information about the electrons x-ray produced by the FEL, except that the FEL is using bunches less than 10 femtoseconds long. To be able to interpret the data collected from those experiments, more accurate information is needed about the electron's bunch-length. Existing bunch length measurement techniques are not suitable for the measurement of such small time scales. Hence the need to design a device that will provide more precise information about the electron bunch length. This paper investigates the use of a pyreoelectric heat sensor that has a sensitivity of about 1.34 micro amps per watt for the single cell detector. Such sensitivity, added to the fact that the detector is an array sensor, makes the detector studied the primary candidate to be integrated to an infrared spectrometer designed to better measure the LCLS electron bunch length.

  14. Six-dimensional measurements of trains of high brightness electron bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianchi, A.; Alesini, D.; Anania, M. P.; Bacci, A.; Bellaveglia, M.; Castellano, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G. P.; Ferrario, M.; Gallo, A.; Innocenti, L.; Mostacci, A.; Pompili, R.; Rossi, A. R.; Scifo, J.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F.

    2015-08-01

    Trains of ultrashort electron pulses with THz repetition rate, so-called comblike beams, are assuming an ever growing interest in plasma-based acceleration. In particle-driven plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA), a train of driver bunches with separation of the order of plasma wavelength, i.e., 300 μ m , resonantly excites a plasma wake, which accelerates a trailing witness bunch, injected at the accelerating phase. Comblike beams have great potentialities in different fields of applications. In particular, radiation sources, such as free-electron lasers and THz radiation, take advantage from the possibility to tailor electron beams modulated both in time and energy, to customize emission bandwidth and temporal properties. In these scenarios, the manipulation of longitudinal phase space to investigate different bunch configurations, in terms of energy and time separation, is founded on the knowledge of the 6D phase space of each bunch in the train. In this paper we present the methods developed at the SPARC_LAB test facility in order to fulfill the requirements. Starting from conventional diagnostics, therefore applying well-known tools using more than one diagnostic at the same time, we have completely characterized not only the full 6D phase space of a comblike electron beam with THz repetition rate, but also each single bunch within the train. To our knowledge, this is the first time such a measurement has been performed. Experimental results for multibunch trains in different configurations, suitable for PWFA applications, will be shown and discussed.

  15. Ion Emittance Growth Due to Focusing Modulation from Slipping Electron Bunch

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.

    2015-02-17

    Low energy RHIC operation has to be operated at an energy ranging from γ = 4.1 to γ = 10. The energy variation causes the change of revolution frequency. While the rf system for the circulating ion will operate at an exact harmonic of the revolution frequency (h=60 for 4.5 MHz rf and h=360 for 28 MHz rf.), the superconducting rf system for the cooling electron beam does not have a frequency tuning range that is wide enough to cover the required changes of revolution frequency. As a result, electron bunches will sit at different locations along the ion bunch from turn to turn, i.e. the slipping of the electron bunch with respect to the circulating ion bunch. At cooling section, ions see a coherent focusing force due to the electrons’ space charge, which differs from turn to turn due to the slipping. We will try to estimate how this irregular focusing affects the transverse emittance of the ion bunch.

  16. UHB Engine Fan Broadband Noise Reduction Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, Philip R.; Ho, Patrick Y.; Mani, Ramani

    1995-01-01

    A study has been completed to quantify the contribution of fan broadband noise to advanced high bypass turbofan engine system noise levels. The result suggests that reducing fan broadband noise can produce 3 to 4 EPNdB in engine system noise reduction, once the fan tones are eliminated. Further, in conjunction with the elimination of fan tones and an increase in bypass ratio, a potential reduction of 7 to 10 EPNdB in system noise can be achieved. In addition, an initial assessment of engine broadband noise source mechanisms has been made, concluding that the dominant source of fan broadband noise is the interaction of incident inlet boundary layer turbulence with the fan rotor. This source has two contributors, i.e., unsteady life dipole response and steady loading quadrupole response. The quadrupole contribution was found to be the most important component, suggesting that broadband noise reduction can be achieved by the reduction of steady loading field-turbulence field quadrupole interaction. Finally, for a controlled experimental quantification and verification, the study recommends that further broadband noise tests be done on a simulated engine rig, such as the GE Aircraft Engine Universal Propulsion Simulator, rather than testing on an engine statically in an outdoor arena The rig should be capable of generating forward and aft propagating fan noise, and it needs to be tested in a large freejet or a wind tunnel.

  17. Noise, Health, and Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beranek, Leo L.

    There is reasonable agreement that hearing impairment is related to noise exposure. This hearing loss due to noise is considered a serious health injury, but there is still difficulty in delineating the importance of noise related to people's general non-auditory well-being and health. Beside hearing loss, noise inhibits satisfactory speech…

  18. Active Noise Control for Dishwasher noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Nokhaeng; Park, Youngjin

    2016-09-01

    The dishwasher is a useful home appliance and continually used for automatically washing dishes. It's commonly placed in the kitchen with built-in style for practicality and better use of space. In this environment, people are easily exposed to dishwasher noise, so it is an important issue for the consumers, especially for the people living in open and narrow space. Recently, the sound power levels of the noise are about 40 - 50 dBA. It could be achieved by removal of noise sources and passive means of insulating acoustical path. For more reduction, such a quiet mode with the lower speed of cycle has been introduced, but this deteriorates the washing capacity. Under this background, we propose active noise control for dishwasher noise. It is observed that the noise is propagating mainly from the lower part of the front side. Control speakers are placed in the part for the collocation. Observation part of estimating sound field distribution and control part of generating the anti-noise are designed for active noise control. Simulation result shows proposed active noise control scheme could have a potential application for dishwasher noise reduction.

  19. SIMULATION STUDY AND INITIAL TEST OF THESNS RING RF SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Hengjie; Holmes, Jeffrey A; Champion, Mark; Chu, Paul; Cousineau, Sarah M; Hardek, Thomas W; Plum, Michael A; Danilov, Viatcheslav; Piller, Chip

    2008-01-01

    The rfsimulator code was developed for the study of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) dual-harmonic ring RF control. It uses time-domain solvers to compute beam-cavity interactions and FFT methods to simulate the time responses of the linear RF system. The important elements of the system considered in the model include beam loading, dynamic cavity detuning, circuit bandwidth, loop delay, proportional-integral controller for feedback and adaptive feed forward, stochastic noise, width-in-turn loop parameter change, beam current fluctuation, and bunch leakage. As the beam power increases, beam loss in the ring goes up and thus precise control of the bunching RF phase and amplitude is required to limit beam loss. The code will help in the development of a functional RF control and in achieving the goal of minimizing beam loss in the accumulator ring.

  20. Bunch evolution study in optimization of MeV ultrafast electron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xian-Hai; Du, Ying-Chao; Huang, Wen-Hui; Tang, Chuan-Xiang

    2014-12-01

    Megaelectronvolt ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) is a promising detection tool for ultrafast processes. The quality of diffraction image is determined by the transverse evolution of the probe bunch. In this paper, we study the contributing terms of the emittance and space charge effects to the bunch evolution in the MeV UED scheme, employing a mean-field model with an ellipsoidal distribution as well as particle tracking simulation. The small transverse dimension of the drive laser is found to be critical to improve the reciprocal resolution, exploiting both smaller emittance and larger transverse bunch size before the solenoid. The degradation of the reciprocal spatial resolution caused by the space charge effects should be carefully controlled.

  1. High quality electron bunch generation with CO2-laser-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lingang; Shen, Baifei; Xu, Jiancai; Ji, Liangliang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Wang, Wenpeng; Zhao, Xueyan; Yi, Longqing; Yu, Yahong; Shi, Yin; Xu, Tongjun; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-02-01

    CO2 laser-driven electron acceleration in low-density plasma is demonstrated using particle-in-cell simulation. An intense CO2 laser pulse of long wavelength excites a wake bubble that has a large elongated volume for accelerating a large number of electrons before reaching the charge saturation limit. A transversely injected laser pulse is used to induce and control the electron injection. It is found that an electron bunch with total charge up to 10 nC and absolute energy spread less than 16 MeV can be obtained. As a result, the charge per energy interval of the bunch reaches up to 0.6 nC/MeV. Intense CO2-laser based electron acceleration can provide a new direction for generating highly charged electron bunches with low energy spread, which is of much current interest, especially for table-top X-ray generation.

  2. Plasma gradient controlled injection and postacceleration of high quality electron bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Geddes, C. G. R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Nakamura, K.; Schroeder, C. B.; Toth, Cs.; Esarey, E.; Plateau, G. R.; Bruhwiler, D. L.; Cary, J. R.; Leemans, W. P.

    2009-01-22

    Plasma density gradient control of wake phase velocity and trapping threshold in a laser wakefield accelerator produced electron bunches with absolute longitudinal and transverse momentum spreads more than ten times lower than in previous experiments (0.17 and 0.02 MeV/c FWHM, respectively) and with central momenta of 0.76{+-}0.02 MeV/c, stable over a week of operation. Simulations validated against diagnostics show that use of such bunches as a wakefield accelerator injector can produce stable beams with 0.2 MeV/c-class momentum spread at high energies. Preservation of bunch momentum spread requires high simulation momentum accuracy, and related self-trapped simulations showed that high order particle weight effectively suppresses simulation momentum errors allowing design of low emittance stages.

  3. High quality electron bunch generation with CO{sub 2}-laser-plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lingang; Shen, Baifei E-mail: jcxu@siom.ac.cn; Xu, Jiancai E-mail: jcxu@siom.ac.cn; Ji, Liangliang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Wang, Wenpeng; Zhao, Xueyan; Yi, Longqing; Yu, Yahong; Shi, Yin; Xu, Tongjun; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-02-15

    CO{sub 2} laser-driven electron acceleration in low-density plasma is demonstrated using particle-in-cell simulation. An intense CO{sub 2} laser pulse of long wavelength excites a wake bubble that has a large elongated volume for accelerating a large number of electrons before reaching the charge saturation limit. A transversely injected laser pulse is used to induce and control the electron injection. It is found that an electron bunch with total charge up to 10 nC and absolute energy spread less than 16 MeV can be obtained. As a result, the charge per energy interval of the bunch reaches up to 0.6 nC/MeV. Intense CO{sub 2}-laser based electron acceleration can provide a new direction for generating highly charged electron bunches with low energy spread, which is of much current interest, especially for table-top X-ray generation.

  4. Plasma irregularities caused by cycloid bunching of the CRRES G-2 barium release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Huba, J. D.; Pongratz, M. B.; Simons, D. J.; Wolcott, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) spacecraft carried a number of barium thermite canisters for release into the upper atmosphere. The barium release labeled G-2 showed evidence of curved irregularities not aligned with the ambient magnetic field B. The newly discovered curved structures can be explained by a process called cycloid bunching. Cycloid bunching occurs when plasma is created by photoionization of a neutral cloud injected at high velocity perpendicular to B. If the injection velocity is much larger than the expansion speed of the cloud, the ion trail will form a cycloid that has irregularities spaced by the product of the perpendicular injection speed and the ion gyroperiod, Images of the solar-illuminated barium ions are compared with the results of a three-dimensional kinetic simulation. Cycloid bunching is shown to be responsible for the rapid generation of both curved and field-aligned irregularities in the CRRES G-2 experiment.

  5. Direct Observation of Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Short Electron Bunches in Storage Rings.

    PubMed

    Evain, C; Roussel, E; Le Parquier, M; Szwaj, C; Tordeux, M-A; Brubach, J-B; Manceron, L; Roy, P; Bielawski, S

    2017-02-03

    In recent synchrotron radiation facilities, the use of short (picosecond) electron bunches is a powerful method for producing giant pulses of terahertz coherent synchrotron radiation. Here we report on the first direct observation of these pulse shapes with a few picoseconds resolution, and of their dynamics over a long time. We thus confirm in a very direct way the theories predicting an interplay between two physical processes. Below a critical bunch charge, we observe a train of identical THz pulses (a broadband Terahertz comb) stemming from the shortness of the electron bunches. Above this threshold, a large part of the emission is dominated by drifting structures, which appear through spontaneous self-organization. These challenging single-shot THz recordings are made possible by using a recently developed photonic time stretch detector with a high sensitivity. The experiment has been realized at the SOLEIL storage ring.

  6. Quasimonoenergetic proton bunches generation from doped foil targets irradiated by intense lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Yunqian; Wang Weimin; Li Yutong; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie

    2013-02-15

    We propose a scheme to generate 10 MeV-level quasimonoenergetic proton bunches using proton-doped heavy-ion targets irradiated by intense lasers via target normal sheath acceleration. The heavy substrate ions provide a long-life quasi-stable sheath field to accelerate the doped protons at the target rear and consequently a quasimonoenergetic proton bunch is produced. The scheme is demonstrated by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. An exemplificative simulation with parameters of targets made by ion-implant technique, a kind of modern doping process, gives a quasimonoenergetic bunch with peak energy {approx}13MeV, energy spread {approx}24%, and {approx}nC charge at the focused laser intensity 10{sup 20}W/cm{sup 2}.

  7. Asymmetric linear efficiency and bunching mechanisms of TM modes for electron cyclotron maser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, T. H.; Huang, W. C.; Yao, H. Y.; Hung, C. L.; Chen, W. C.; Su, B. Y.

    2017-02-01

    This study examines the transverse magnetic (TM) waveguide modes, which have long been considered as the unsuitable ones for the operation of the electron cyclotron maser. The beam-wave coupling strength of the TM modes, as expected, is found to be relatively weak as compared with that of the transverse electric (TE) waveguide modes. Unlike TE modes, surprisingly, the linear behavior of the TM modes depends on the sign of the wave number kz. The negative kz has a much stronger linear efficiency than that of the positive kz. The bunching mechanism analysis further exhibits that the azimuthal bunching and axial bunching do not compete but cooperate with each other for the backward-wave operation (negative kz). The current findings are encouraging and imply that TM modes might be advantageous to the gyrotron backward-wave oscillators.

  8. Electron Bunch Profile Diagnostics in the Few FS Regime Using Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolini, R.; Clarke, C.; Delerue, N.; Doucas, G.; Pattle, K.; Perry, C.; Reichold, A.; Tovey, R.; /Oxford U.

    2011-12-13

    The rapid developments in the field of laser-driven particle acceleration hold the prospect of intense, highly relativistic electron bunches that are only a few fs long. The determination of the temporal profile of such bunches presents new challenges. The use of a radiative process such as Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR), is particularly promising in this respect. In this technique the beam is made to radiate a small amount of e/m radiation and the temporal profile is reconstructed from the measured spectral distribution of the radiation. We summarise the advantages of SPR and present the design parameters and preliminary results of the experiments at the FACET facility at SLAC. We also discuss a new approach to the problem of the recovery of the 'missing phase', which is essential for the accurate reconstruction of the temporal bunch profile.

  9. Radiation from laser accelerated electron bunches: Coherent terahertz and femtosecond X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Leemans, W.P.; Esarey, E.; van Tilborg, J.; Michel, P.A.; Schroeder, C.B.; Toth, Cs.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Shadwick, B.A.

    2004-10-01

    Electron beam based radiation sources provide electromagnetic radiation for countless applications. The properties of the radiation are primarily determined by the properties of the electron beam. Compact laser driven accelerators are being developed that can provide ultra-short electron bunches (femtosecond duration) with relativistic energies reaching towards a GeV. The electron bunches are produced when an intense laser interacts with a dense plasma and excites a large amplitude plasma density modulation (wakefield) that can trap background electrons and accelerate them to high energies. The short pulse nature of the accelerated bunches and high particle energy offer the possibility of generating radiation from one compact source that ranges from coherent terahertz to gamma rays. The intrinsic synchronization to a laser pulse and unique character of the radiation offers a wide range of possibilities for scientific applications. Two particular radiation source regimes are discussed: Coherent terahertz emission and x-ray emission based on betatron oscillations and Thomson scattering.

  10. Direct Observation of Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Short Electron Bunches in Storage Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evain, C.; Roussel, E.; Le Parquier, M.; Szwaj, C.; Tordeux, M.-A.; Brubach, J.-B.; Manceron, L.; Roy, P.; Bielawski, S.

    2017-02-01

    In recent synchrotron radiation facilities, the use of short (picosecond) electron bunches is a powerful method for producing giant pulses of terahertz coherent synchrotron radiation. Here we report on the first direct observation of these pulse shapes with a few picoseconds resolution, and of their dynamics over a long time. We thus confirm in a very direct way the theories predicting an interplay between two physical processes. Below a critical bunch charge, we observe a train of identical THz pulses (a broadband Terahertz comb) stemming from the shortness of the electron bunches. Above this threshold, a large part of the emission is dominated by drifting structures, which appear through spontaneous self-organization. These challenging single-shot THz recordings are made possible by using a recently developed photonic time stretch detector with a high sensitivity. The experiment has been realized at the SOLEIL storage ring.

  11. Evaluation of Temporal Diagnostic Techniques for Two-Bunch Facet Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Litos, M.D.; Bionta, M.R.; Dolgashev, V.A.; England, R.J.; Fritz, D.; Gilevich, S.; Hering, Ph.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    Three temporal diagnostic techniques are considered for use in the FACET facility at SLAC, which will incorporate a unique two-bunch beam for plasma wakefield acceleration experiments. The results of these experiments will depend strongly on the the inter-bunch spacing as well as the longitudinal profiles of the two bunches. A reliable, singleshot, high resolution measurement of the beam's temporal profile is necessary to fully quantify the physical mechanisms underlying the beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. In this study we show that a transverse deflecting cavity is the diagnostic which best meets our criteria. Based on our laboratory testing, numerical calculations, and simulations of the three single-shot temporal diagnostic devices, the X-band TCAV system is the best candidate for resolving FACET's two-bunch beam, with an estimated resolution of 7 {micro}m. Both the S-band TCAV system and the EO system could resolve the peak-to-peak separation of the two bunches in the FACET beam with estimated resolutions of 25 {micro}m and 30 {micro}m, respectively, but would be unable to resolve the temporal profiles of the individual bunches themselves. Because the TCAV signal is more easily interpreted and because the reliability of the EO system is less well known, however, the S-band TCAV system would be the next preferred option after the X-band TCAV system. The Fesca-200 streak camera, though simple, compact, and reliable, is unable to achieve a resolution that would be of use to FACET.

  12. Bunching effect in single-molecule T4 lysozyme nonequilibrium conformational dynamics under enzymatic reactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanmin; Lu, H Peter

    2010-05-20

    The bunching effect, implying that conformational motion times tend to bunch in a finite and narrow time window, is observed and identified to be associated with substrate-enzyme complex formation in T4 lysozyme conformational dynamics under enzymatic reactions. Using single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, we have probed T4 lysozyme conformational motions under the hydrolysis reaction of polysaccharide of E. coli B cell walls by monitoring the fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET) between a donor-acceptor probe pair tethered to T4 lysozyme domains involving open-close hinge-bending motions. On the basis of the single-molecule spectroscopic results, molecular dynamics simulation, and a random walk model analysis, multiple intermediate states have been estimated in the evolution of T4 lysozyme enzymatic reaction active complex formation (Chen, Y.; Hu, D.; Vorpagel, E. R.; Lu, H. P. Probing single-molecule T4 lysozyme conformational dynamics by intramolecular fluorescence energy transfer. J. Phys. Chem. B 2003, 107, 7947-7956). In this Article, we report progress on the analysis of the reported experimental results, and we have identified the bunching effect of the substrate-enzyme active complex formation time in T4 lysozyme enzymatic reactions. We show that the bunching effect, a dynamic behavior observed for the catalytic hinge-bending conformational motions of T4 lysozyme, is a convoluted outcome of multiple consecutive Poisson rate processes that are defined by protein functional motions under substrate-enzyme interactions; i.e., convoluted multiple Poisson rate processes give rise to the bunching effect in the enzymatic reaction dynamics. We suggest that the bunching effect is likely common in protein conformational dynamics involved in conformation-gated protein functions.

  13. Overview of Alternative Bunching and Current-shaping Techniques for Low-Energy Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Techniques to bunch or shape an electron beam at low energies (E <15 MeV) have important implications toward the realization of table-top radiation sources [1] or to the design of compact multi-user free-electron lasers[2]. This paper provides an overview of alternative methods recently developed including techniques such as wakefield-based bunching, space-charge-driven microbunching via wave-breaking [3], ab-initio shaping of the electron-emission process [4], and phase space exchangers. Practical applications of some of these methods to foreseen free-electron-laser configurations are also briefly discussed [5].

  14. Temporal profile measurements of relativistic electron bunch based on wakefield generation

    DOE PAGES

    Bettoni, S.; Craievich, P.; Lutman, A. A.; ...

    2016-02-25

    A complete characterization of the time-resolved longitudinal beam phase space is important to optimize the final performances of an accelerator, and in particular this is crucial for Free Electron Laser (FEL) facilities. In this study we propose a novel method to characterize the profile of a relativistic electron bunch by passively streaking the beam using its self-interaction with the transverse wakefield excited by the bunch itself passing off-axis through a dielectric-lined or a corrugated waveguide. Results of a proof-of-principle experiment at the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility are discussed.

  15. Temporal profile measurements of relativistic electron bunch based on wakefield generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettoni, S.; Craievich, P.; Lutman, A. A.; Pedrozzi, M.

    2016-02-01

    A complete characterization of the time-resolved longitudinal beam phase space is important to optimize the final performances of an accelerator, and in particular this is crucial for Free Electron Laser (FEL) facilities. In this paper we propose a novel method to characterize the profile of a relativistic electron bunch by passively streaking the beam using its self-interaction with the transverse wakefield excited by the bunch itself passing off-axis through a dielectric-lined or a corrugated waveguide. Results of a proof-of-principle experiment at the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility are discussed.

  16. Efficiency of feedbacks for suppression of transverse instabilities of bunched beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Alexey

    2016-08-01

    Which gain and phase have to be set for a bunch-by-bunch transverse damper, and at which chromaticity is it better to stay? These questions are considered for three models: the two-particle model with possible quadrupole wake, the author's nested head-tail (NHT) model with the broadband impedance, and the NHT with the LHC impedance model. Details of 2D areas of stability in the chromaticity-intensity and chromaticity-gain planes and possibilities to use them are discussed. It is shown that resistive feedbacks may generate asymmetry of the tune shift distribution, which requires positively-shifted stability diagrams.

  17. Design of bunch compressing system with suppression of coherent synchrotron radiation for ATF upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, Yichao; Fedurin, Mikhail; Stratakis, Diktys

    2015-05-03

    One of the operation modes for Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) upgrade is to provide high peak current, high quality electron beam for users. Such operation requires a bunch compressing system with a very large compression ratio. The CSR originating from the strong compressors generally could greatly degrade the quality of the electron beam. In this paper, we present our design for the entire bunch compressing system that will limit the effect of CSR on the e-beam’s quality. We discuss and detail the performance from the start to end simulation of such a compressor for ATF.

  18. Longitudinal-to-Transverse Mapping for Femtosecond Electron Bunch Length Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Dao; Ding, Yuantao; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A longitudinal-to-transverse mapping technique is proposed to measure the length and temporal profile of ultrashort electron bunches. In this scheme a special chicane and a radio-frequency deflecting cavity are used to transform the beam's longitudinal distribution into angular distribution which is further converted to transverse distribution after a parallel-to-point imaging beam line. With this technique, the temporal profile of the electron beam is exactly mapped to the transverse profile. This makes it possible to measure ultrashort electron bunch length with a resolution well beyond 1 femtosecond.

  19. Threshold for Trapping Positrons in the Wake Driven by a Ultra-relativistic Electron Bunch

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Muggli, P.; Katsouleas, T.; Ischebeck, R.; Hogan, M. J.; Joshi, C.; Mori, W. B.

    2009-01-22

    We have recently proposed a new concept for generating, injecting and accelerating positrons in a plasma using a double-pulse electron bunch. Monte Carlo simulations show that the number of the positrons produced in a foil target has an exponentially decay energy spectrum. The energy threshold for the trapping of these positrons in a ultra-relativistic electron wake is investigated numerically. For a typical 28.5 GeV electron drive bunch, the trapping threshold for the positrons is a few MeV, and therefore a majority of positrons generated in the foil target are focused and accelerated by the plasma wake.

  20. A periodically-switched ODE model for N-bunch beamloading in a storage ring.

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, C.

    1999-04-20

    A new baseband formulation of the coupled cavity/longitudinal-bunch ODEs is derived. Assuming linearity, a model of the form {dot x}(t) = A(t)x(t) + B(t)u(t) arises, where A(t) and B(t) are piecewise constant, and periodic with the revolution period T{sub 0}. Such models, known in the control community as (periodic) switched systems, have known (in)stability criteria and control theoretic properties, which can be useful in the analysis and control of multiple bunch beamloading.

  1. Gain measurements on a waveguide FEL amplifier with pre-bunched electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Dearden, G.; Mayhew, S.E.; Lucas, J.

    1995-12-31

    A theory proposed by Doria et al. suggests that a synchronous pre-bunched electron beam should amplify radiation with a power gain which is inversely proportional to the square root of the input power. We have measured the power gain experimentally for a waveguide FEL system using a low-voltage (55kV) pre-bunched electron beam produced by a waveguide cavity buncher. The gain has been observed as a function of the electron beam current and energy; the results are compared with theory.

  2. Analysis of longitudinal bunching in an FEL driven two-beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Lidia, S.; Gardelle, J.; Lefevre, T.; Donohue, J.T.; Gouard, P.; Rullier, J.L.; Vermare, C.

    2000-08-01

    Recent experiments have explored the use of a free-electron laser (FEL) as a buncher for a microwave two-beam accelerator, and the subsequent driving of a standing-wave rf output cavity. Here the authors present a deeper analysis of the longitudinal dynamics of the electron bunches as they are transported from the end of the FEL and through the output cavity. In particular, the authors examine the effect of the transport region and cavity aperture to filter the bunched portion of the beam.

  3. Aviation noise effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, J. S.; Beattie, K. R.

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes the effects of aviation noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical findings and conclusions of pertinent research, providing, when possible, a bottom line conclusion, criterion or perspective. Issues related to aviation noise are highlighted, and current policy is presented. Specific topic addressed include: annoyance; Hearing and hearing loss; noise metrics; human response to noise; speech interference; sleep interference; non-auditory health effects of noise; effects of noise on wild and domesticated animals; low frequency acoustical energy; impulsive noise; time of day weightings; noise contours; land use compatibility; and real estate values. This document is designed for a variety of users, from the individual completely unfamiliar with aviation noise to experts in the field.

  4. Surface waves generated by charged particle bunch moving along the edge of semi-infinite planar wire grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobev, Viktor V.; Tyukhtin, Andrey V.; Galyamin, Sergey N.

    2017-04-01

    Surface waves generated by a charged-particle bunch at the semi-infinite planar periodic wire structure are analyzed. It is supposed that the bunch moves parallel to the edge of the structure. The influence of the grid is described by the averaged boundary conditions. The analytical results are given for a general case, which takes into account the finite period and wires radius. It is shown that the surface waves excited by the bunch propagate along wires with the speed of light in vacuum. The number and the structure of these surface waves depend on relative location of the bunch path and the grid. One type of wave is always excited, but its magnitude decreases with distance from the bunch path to the structure edge. If the bunch projection falls on the half-plane occupied by wires, then additionally three surface waves are generated: two of them are equivalent to ones excited by the bunch moving along infinite wire grid and another one represents the surface wave reflected from the edge. The analysis of the surface waves shows that their structure allows for determination of the length of the bunch. Typical numerical results are presented.

  5. NASA's Subsonic Jet Transport Noise Reduction Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Preisser, John S.

    2000-01-01

    Although new jet transport airplanes in today s fleet are considerably quieter than the first jet transports introduced about 40 years ago, airport community noise continues to be an important environmental issue. NASA s Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) Noise Reduction program was begun in 1994 as a seven-year effort to develop technology to reduce jet transport noise 10 dB relative to 1992 technology. This program provides for reductions in engine source noise, improvements in nacelle acoustic treatments, reductions in the noise generated by the airframe, and improvements in the way airplanes are operated in the airport environs. These noise reduction efforts will terminate at the end of 2001 and it appears that the objective will be met. However, because of an anticipated 3-8% growth in passenger and cargo operations well into the 21st Century and the slow introduction of new the noise reduction technology into the fleet, world aircraft noise impact will remain essentially constant until about 2020 to 2030 and thereafter begin to rise. Therefore NASA has begun planning with the Federal Aviation Administration, industry, universities and environmental interest groups in the USA for a new noise reduction initiative to provide technology for significant further reductions.

  6. [Subjective sensitivity to noise].

    PubMed

    Belojević, G

    1991-01-01

    It is likely that individual variations in subjectively estimated noise sensitivity influence different social and psychophysiological reactions of people exposed to noise. Subjective noise sensitivity might be a relatively stable personal characteristic. A correlation have been found between high sensitiveness to noise and some medical symptoms (sleep disturbance, nervousness, depression), and worse work performance in noisy environments. An introvert person with neurotic symptoms is more frequently found in people highly sensitive to noise. Testing for subjective sensitivity to noise might be helpful in professional selection and orientation for noisy work-places as well as in housing advising.

  7. Coherent-radiation spectroscopy of few-femtosecond electron bunches using a middle-infrared prism spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, T J; Behrens, C; Ding, Y; Fisher, A S; Frisch, J; Huang, Z; Loos, H

    2013-11-01

    Modern, high-brightness electron beams such as those from plasma wakefield accelerators and free-electron laser linacs continue the drive to ever-shorter bunch durations. In low-charge operation (~20 pC), bunches shorter than 10 fs are reported at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Though suffering from a loss of phase information, spectral diagnostics remain appealing as compact, low-cost bunch duration monitors suitable for deployment in beam dynamics studies and operations instrumentation. Progress in middle-infrared (MIR) imaging has led to the development of a single-shot, MIR prism spectrometer to characterize the corresponding LCLS coherent beam radiation power spectrum for few-femtosecond scale bunch length monitoring. In this Letter, we report on the spectrometer installation as well as the temporal reconstruction of 3 to 60 fs-long LCLS electron bunch profiles using single-shot coherent transition radiation spectra.

  8. Coherent-Radiation Spectroscopy of Few-Femtosecond Electron Bunches Using a Middle-Infrared Prism Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, T. J.; Behrens, C.; Ding, Y.; Fisher, A. S.; Frisch, J.; Huang, Z.; Loos, H.

    2013-10-28

    Modern, high-brightness electron beams such as those from plasma wakefield accelerators and free-electron laser linacs continue the drive to ever-shorter bunch durations. In low-charge operation ( ~ 20 pC ), bunches shorter than 10 fs are reported at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Though suffering from a loss of phase information, spectral diagnostics remain appealing as compact, low-cost bunch duration monitors suitable for deployment in beam dynamics studies and operations instrumentation. Progress in middle-infrared (MIR) imaging has led to the development of a single-shot, MIR prism spectrometer to characterize the corresponding LCLS coherent beam radiation power spectrum for few-femtosecond scale bunch length monitoring. In this Letter, we report on the spectrometer installation as well as the temporal reconstruction of 3 to 60 fs-long LCLS electron bunch profiles using single-shot coherent transition radiation spectra.

  9. Multiple-bunch-length operating mode design for a storage ring using hybrid low alpha and harmonic cavity method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Weiwei; Wang, Lin; Li, Heting

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we design a simultaneous three bunch length operating mode at the HLS-II (Hefei Light Source II) storage ring by installing two harmonic cavities and minimizing the momentum compaction factor. The short bunches (2.6 mm) presented in this work will meet the requirement of coherent millimeter-wave and sub-THz radiation experiments, while the long bunches (20 mm) will efficiently increase the total beam current. Therefore, this multiple-bunch-length operating mode allows present synchrotron users and coherent millimeter-wave users (or sub THz users) to carry out their experiments simultaneously. Since the relatively low energy characteristic of HLS-II we achieve the multiple-bunch-length operating mode without multicell superconducting RF cavities, which is technically feasible.

  10. Emittance growth due to static and radiative space charge forces in an electron bunch compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talman, Richard; Malitsky, Nikolay; Stulle, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Evolution of short intense electron bunches passing through bunch-compressing beam lines is studied using the UAL (Unified Accelerator Libraries) string space charge formulation [R. Talman, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 7, 100701 (2004)PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.7.100701; N. Malitsky and R. Talman, in Proceedings of the 9th European Particle Accelerator Conference, Lucerne, 2004 (EPS-AG, Lucerne, 2004); R. Talman, Accelerator X-Ray Sources (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2006), Chap. 13]. Three major configurations are studied, with the first most important and studied in greatest detail (because actual experimental results are available and the same results have been simulated with other codes): (i) Experimental bunch compression results were obtained at CTF-II, the CERN test facility for the “Compact Linear Collider” using electrons of about 40 MeV. Previous simulations of these results have been performed (using TraFiC4* [A. Kabel , Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 455, 185 (2000)NIMAER0168-900210.1016/S0168-9002(00)00729-4] and ELEGANT [M. Borland, Argonne National Laboratory Report No. LS-287, 2000]). All three simulations are in fair agreement with the data except that the UAL simulation predicts a substantial dependence of horizontal emittance γx on beam width (as controlled by the lattice βx function) at the compressor location. This is consistent with the experimental observations, but inconsistent with other simulations. Excellent agreement concerning dependence of bunch energy loss on bunch length and magnetic field strength [L. Groening , in Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference, Chicago, IL, 2001 (IEEE, New York, 2001), http://groening.home.cern/groening/csr_00.htm] confirms our understanding of the role played by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). (ii) A controlled comparison is made between the predictions of the UAL code and those of CSRTrack [M. Dohlus and T. Limberg, in Proceedings of the 2004 FEL Conference, pp. 18

  11. 2.5D Numerical Simulation of Excitation of Coherent Chain of Electron Wake-Field Bubbles by Optimal Non-Resonant Chain of Dense Relativistic Electron Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Maslov, V. I.; Lotov, K. V.; Onishchenko, I. N.; Svistun, O. M.

    2010-06-16

    It is shown that optimal difference of frequencies of following of electron bunches and following of wake-field bubbles exists, so N-1 drive-bunches strengthen chain of wakefield bubbles and N-th bunch gets in maximal accelerating wakefield.

  12. Noise and Dynamical Pattern Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtze, Douglas A.

    1996-01-01

    In pattern-forming systems, such as Rayleigh-Benard convection or directional solidification, a large number of linearly stable, patterned steady states exist when the basic, simple steady state is unstable. Which of these steady states will be realized in a given experiment appears to depend on unobservable details of the system's initial conditions. We show, however, that weak, Gaussian white noise drives such a system toward a preferred wave number which depends only on the system parameters and is independent of initial conditions. We give a prescription for calculating this wave number, analytically near the onset of instability and numerically otherwise.

  13. Bunched-beam measurements of very smaller currents at ASTRID

    SciTech Connect

    Abildskov, F.; Mo/ller, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    Stored currents in low-energy ion storage rings, like ASTRID, are often very small. Absolute current measurements are nevertheless important for absolute measurements of cross sections and also for machine operation purposes. Experimental results, using a beam charge monitor (BCM) from Bergoz, are shown for both light ions (H{sup {minus}}) and heavy ions (N{sub 2}{sup +}). The velocities are low, {beta}{approximately}0.001 to 0.05, and the detected currents are in the 0.1- to 2-{mu}A range. The storage ring ASTRID, where the measurements are made, will be described. The principle of the BCM will be briefly mentioned, and the obtained performance (resolution, stability, noise, etc.) will be given. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. An asymptotic theory of supersonic propeller noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Envia, Edmane

    1992-05-01

    A theory for predicting the noise field of supersonic propellers with realistic blade geometries is presented. The theory, which utilizes a large-blade-count approximation, provides an efficient formula for predicting the radiation of sound from all three sources of propeller noise. Comparisons with a full numerical integration indicate that the levels predicted by this formula are quite accurate. Calculations also show that, for high speed propellers, the noise radiated by the Lighthill quadrupole source is rather substantial when compared with the noise radiated by the blade thickness and loading sources. Results from a preliminary application of the theory indicate that the peak noise level generated by a supersonic propeller initially increases with increasing tip helical Mach number, but is eventually reaches a plateau and does not increase further. The predicted trend shows qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.

  15. Noise effects on reproduction— animal experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takigawa, H.; Sakamoto, H.; Murata, M.; Matsumura, Y.

    1988-12-01

    Noise effects on fetal development were observed in animals. While the copulatory function was not affected, birth rate decreased when the animals were exposed to noise. An increased number of stunted fetuses was observed when the animals were intermittently exposed. However, malformations in the fetuses increased with exposure to both intermittent and continuous noise. Two phases of hormonal change were observed in connection with noise exposure. One is the initial response phase, characterized by the increment of 11-OHCS in the adrenal gland. The other is the end phenomena phase, characterized by a disorder in central control. It is discussed that the disturbance of fetal development by exposure to noise is related to these changes in the hormonal condition.

  16. Propagation of Environmental Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Solutions for environmental noise pollution lie in systematic study of many basic processes such as reflection, scattering, and spreading. Noise propagation processes should be identified in different situations and assessed for their relative importance. (PS)

  17. Bunch length compression method for free electron lasers to avoid parasitic compressions

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David R.; Benson, Stephen; Nguyen, Dinh Cong; Tennant, Christopher; Wilson, Guy

    2015-05-26

    A method of bunch length compression method for a free electron laser (FEL) that avoids parasitic compressions by 1) applying acceleration on the falling portion of the RF waveform, 2) compressing using a positive momentum compaction (R.sub.56>0), and 3) compensating for aberration by using nonlinear magnets in the compressor beam line.

  18. Shielded transient self-interaction of a bunch entering a circle from a straight path

    SciTech Connect

    Li, R.; Bohn, C.L.; Bisognano, J.J.

    1997-08-01

    Recent developments in electron-gun and injector technologies enable production of short (mm-length), high-charge (nC-regime) bunches. In this parameter regime, the curvature effect on the bunch self-interaction, by way of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and space-charge forces as the beam traverses magnet bends, may cause serious emittance degradation. In this paper, the authors study an electron bunch orbiting between two infinite, parallel conducting plates. The bunch moves on a trajectory from a straight path to a circular orbit and begins radiating. Transient effects, arising from CSR and space-charge forces generated from source particles both on the bend and on the straight path prior to the bend, are analyzed using Lienard-Wiechert fields, and their overall net effect is obtained. The influence of the plates on the transients is contrasted to their shielding of the steady-state radiated power. Results for emittance degradation induced by this self-interaction are also presented.

  19. Towards highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches

    PubMed Central

    Busold, Simon; Schumacher, Dennis; Brabetz, Christian; Jahn, Diana; Kroll, Florian; Deppert, Oliver; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Thomas E.; Blažević, Abel; Bagnoud, Vincent; Roth, Markus

    2015-01-01

    A laser-driven, multi-MeV-range ion beamline has been installed at the GSI Helmholtz center for heavy ion research. The high-power laser PHELIX drives the very short (picosecond) ion acceleration on μm scale, with energies ranging up to 28.4 MeV for protons in a continuous spectrum. The necessary beam shaping behind the source is accomplished by applying magnetic ion lenses like solenoids and quadrupoles and a radiofrequency cavity. Based on the unique beam properties from the laser-driven source, high-current single bunches could be produced and characterized in a recent experiment: At a central energy of 7.8 MeV, up to 5 × 108 protons could be re-focused in time to a FWHM bunch length of τ = (462 ± 40) ps via phase focusing. The bunches show a moderate energy spread between 10% and 15% (ΔE/E0 at FWHM) and are available at 6 m distance to the source und thus separated from the harsh laser-matter interaction environment. These successful experiments represent the basis for developing novel laser-driven ion beamlines and accessing highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches. PMID:26212024

  20. Numerical study of self modulation instability of 1 nC electron bunch at ATF

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Yun; Mori, Warren; Muggli, Patric

    2012-12-21

    The development of self-modulation instability (SMI) is investigated numerically for the 1 nC electron bunch available at Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Possible experiment based on the simulation results is proposed. All the simulations are performed with the 2D-cylindrically symmetric particle-in-cell code.

  1. Towards highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches.

    PubMed

    Busold, Simon; Schumacher, Dennis; Brabetz, Christian; Jahn, Diana; Kroll, Florian; Deppert, Oliver; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Thomas E; Blažević, Abel; Bagnoud, Vincent; Roth, Markus

    2015-07-27

    A laser-driven, multi-MeV-range ion beamline has been installed at the GSI Helmholtz center for heavy ion research. The high-power laser PHELIX drives the very short (picosecond) ion acceleration on μm scale, with energies ranging up to 28.4 MeV for protons in a continuous spectrum. The necessary beam shaping behind the source is accomplished by applying magnetic ion lenses like solenoids and quadrupoles and a radiofrequency cavity. Based on the unique beam properties from the laser-driven source, high-current single bunches could be produced and characterized in a recent experiment: At a central energy of 7.8 MeV, up to 5 × 10(8) protons could be re-focused in time to a FWHM bunch length of τ = (462 ± 40) ps via phase focusing. The bunches show a moderate energy spread between 10% and 15% (ΔE/E0 at FWHM) and are available at 6 m distance to the source und thus separated from the harsh laser-matter interaction environment. These successful experiments represent the basis for developing novel laser-driven ion beamlines and accessing highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches.

  2. Single-shot electron bunch length measurements using a spatial electro-optical autocorrelation interferometer.

    PubMed

    Sütterlin, Daniel; Erni, Daniel; Schlott, Volker; Sigg, Hans; Jäckel, Heinz; Murk, Axel

    2010-10-01

    A spatial, electro-optical autocorrelation (EOA) interferometer using the vertically polarized lobes of coherent transition radiation (CTR) has been developed as a single-shot electron bunch length monitor at an optical beam port downstream the 100 MeV preinjector LINAC of the Swiss Light Source. This EOA monitor combines the advantages of step-scan interferometers (high temporal resolution) [D. Mihalcea et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9, 082801 (2006) and T. Takahashi and K. Takami, Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 363 (2008)] and terahertz-gating technologies [U. Schmidhammer et al., Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 95 (2009) and B. Steffen et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009)] (fast response), providing the possibility to tune the accelerator with an online bunch length diagnostics. While a proof of principle of the spatial interferometer was achieved by step-scan measurements with far-infrared detectors, the single-shot capability of the monitor has been demonstrated by electro-optical correlation of the spatial CTR interference pattern with fairly long (500 ps) neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser pulses in a ZnTe crystal. In single-shot operation, variations of the bunch length between 1.5 and 4 ps due to different phase settings of the LINAC bunching cavities have been measured with subpicosecond time resolution.

  3. THz wiggler applied for measurements of electron bunch longitudinal structure in FEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syresin, E.; Kostromin, S.; Krasilnikov, M.; Makarov, R.; Morozov, N.; Petrov, D.

    2015-01-01

    The infrared undulator manufactured at JINR and installed at FLASH in 2007 is used for longitudinal bunch shape measurements in the range of several tenths of a micrometer. The presented electromagnetic wiggler is intended for generating a narrow-band THz radiation to measure the longitudinal electron bunch structure in FELs with an electron energy of several tens of MeV. This is a planar electromagnetic device with six regular periods, each 30 cm long. The K parameter is varied in the range 0.5-7.12 corresponding to the range B = 0.025-0.356 T of the peak field on the axis. The wiggler is simulated for 19.8 MeV/ c corresponding to the possible FEL option at PITZ. The wavelength range is 126 μm - 5.1 mm for this electron beam momentum. The 3D Opera simulations of the THz wiggler are discussed. A new PITZ photocathode laser system is proposed for the optimized performance of the high-brightness electron beam. The main goal is a production of 3D ellipsoidal electron bunches with homogeneous charge density. The electromagnetic wiggler is supposed to be used for measuring the longitudinal shape of these electron bunches.

  4. Beat-wave Photoinjector for Generating Periodic Electron Bunches at THz Frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.-C.; Chen, C.-H.; Lau, W.-K.

    2009-01-22

    A laser beat wave is proposed to induce density modulated electron emission from a photocathode and is thereby used to generate a periodically bunched electron beam from a photocathode electron accelerator. This technique does not introduce additional energy spread or emittance to the electron beam. We also present a laser system for this purpose with a tunable beat frequency up to 40 THz.

  5. Report of the working group on data taking with bunched beams

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenfeld, B.; Fernow, R.C.; Herrera, J.C.; Kabe, S.; Marx, M.; Nappi, A.; Tannenbaum, M.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this working group was to consider the problems created for experimenters under the bunched beam running conditions of ISABELLE Phase I. Some indication is given of the nature of the problem, the kinds of experiments that will have difficulties are identified, and some of the possibilities for dealing with them are considered.

  6. Single-shot electron bunch length measurements using a spatial electro-optical autocorrelation interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sütterlin, Daniel; Erni, Daniel; Schlott, Volker; Sigg, Hans; Jäckel, Heinz; Murk, Axel

    2010-10-01

    A spatial, electro-optical autocorrelation (EOA) interferometer using the vertically polarized lobes of coherent transition radiation (CTR) has been developed as a single-shot electron bunch length monitor at an optical beam port downstream the 100 MeV preinjector LINAC of the Swiss Light Source. This EOA monitor combines the advantages of step-scan interferometers (high temporal resolution) [D. Mihalcea et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9, 082801 (2006) and T. Takahashi and K. Takami, Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 363 (2008)] and terahertz-gating technologies [U. Schmidhammer et al., Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 95 (2009) and B. Steffen et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009)] (fast response), providing the possibility to tune the accelerator with an online bunch length diagnostics. While a proof of principle of the spatial interferometer was achieved by step-scan measurements with far-infrared detectors, the single-shot capability of the monitor has been demonstrated by electro-optical correlation of the spatial CTR interference pattern with fairly long (500 ps) neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser pulses in a ZnTe crystal. In single-shot operation, variations of the bunch length between 1.5 and 4 ps due to different phase settings of the LINAC bunching cavities have been measured with subpicosecond time resolution.

  7. Chromaticity and wake field effect on the transverse motion of longitudinal bunch slices in the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjbar, V.H.; Ivanov, P.; /Fermilab

    2007-11-01

    The Transverse turn-by-turn evolution of a bunch slice after an impulse kick is examined considering chromatic and impedance effects. It is found that by fitting the envelope of the beam slice motion to simulated data is consistent with a resistive wall wake field the strength of which can be determined by fitting.

  8. Ralph Bunche's International Legacy: The Middle East, Congo, and United Nations Peacekeeping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Princeton N.

    2004-01-01

    Ralph Bunche is remembered most for three major achievements in the international field. His mediation of the end of the first Israel-Arab war, for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize; his work in the tumultuous period of independence in the Congo; and his "invention" of United Nations peacekeeping, which itself won the Nobel Peace Prize…

  9. Comparative Study of Bunch Length And Arrival Time Measurements at FLASH

    SciTech Connect

    Schlarb, H.; Azima, A.; Dusterer, S.; Huning, M.; Knabbe, E.A.; Roehrs, M.; Rybnikov, V.; Schmidt, B.; Steffen, B.; Ross, M.C.; Schmueser, P.; Winter, A.; /Hamburg U.

    2007-04-16

    Diagnostic devices to precisely measure the longitudinal electron beam profile and the bunch arrival time require elaborate new instrumentation techniques. At FLASH, two entirely different methods are used. The bunch profile can be determined with high precision by a transverse deflecting RF structure, but the method is disruptive and does not allow to monitor multiple bunches in a macro-pulse train. It is therefore complemented by two non-disruptive electrooptical devices, called EO and TEO. The EO setup uses a dedicated diagnostic laser synchronized to the machine RF. The longitudinal electron beam profile is encoded in the intensity profile of a chirped laser pulse and analyzed by looking at the spectral composition of the pulse. The second setup, TEO, utilizes the TiSa-based laser system used for pump-probe experiments. Here, the temporal electron shape is encoded into the spatial dimension of the laser pulse by an intersection angle between the laser and the electron beam at the EO-crystal. In this paper, we present a comparative study of bunch length and arrival time measurements performed simultaneously with all three experimental techniques.

  10. Towards highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busold, Simon; Schumacher, Dennis; Brabetz, Christian; Jahn, Diana; Kroll, Florian; Deppert, Oliver; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Thomas E.; Blažević, Abel; Bagnoud, Vincent; Roth, Markus

    2015-07-01

    A laser-driven, multi-MeV-range ion beamline has been installed at the GSI Helmholtz center for heavy ion research. The high-power laser PHELIX drives the very short (picosecond) ion acceleration on μm scale, with energies ranging up to 28.4 MeV for protons in a continuous spectrum. The necessary beam shaping behind the source is accomplished by applying magnetic ion lenses like solenoids and quadrupoles and a radiofrequency cavity. Based on the unique beam properties from the laser-driven source, high-current single bunches could be produced and characterized in a recent experiment: At a central energy of 7.8 MeV, up to 5 × 108 protons could be re-focused in time to a FWHM bunch length of τ = (462 ± 40) ps via phase focusing. The bunches show a moderate energy spread between 10% and 15% (ΔE/E0 at FWHM) and are available at 6 m distance to the source und thus separated from the harsh laser-matter interaction environment. These successful experiments represent the basis for developing novel laser-driven ion beamlines and accessing highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches.

  11. Noise Reduction Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallas, Tony

    There are two distinct kinds of noise - structural and color. Each requires a specific method of attack to minimize. The great challenge is to reduce the noise without reducing the faint and delicate detail in the image. My most-used and favorite noise suppression is found in Photoshop CS 5 Camera Raw. If I cannot get the desired results with the first choice, I will use Noise Ninja, which has certain advantages in some situations that we will cover.

  12. Handbook of noise ratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearsons, K. S.; Bennett, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The handbook was compiled to provide information in a concise form, describing the multitude of noise rating schemes. It is hoped that by describing the noise rating methods in a single volume the user will have better access to the definitions, application and calculation procedures of the current noise rating methods.

  13. Dragline noise survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vipperman, Jeffrey S.; Bauer, Eric R.

    2002-05-01

    It is estimated that 70%-90% of miners have enough noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) to be classified as a disability (NIOSH, Publication No. 76-172, 1976; Franks, NIOSH Internal Report, 1996). In response, NIOSH is conducting a cross-sectional survey of the mining industry in order to determine the sources of mining noise and offer recommendations on how to mitigate high noise levels, and bring mining operations into compliance with the recent mining noise regulation: 30CFR, Part 62. This paper will outline the results from noise surveys of eight draglines which operate in above-ground coal mining operations. The data recorded include noise dosimetry in conjunction with time-at-task studies and 1/3-octave sound level (Leq, Lmin, and Lmax) measurements. The 1/3-octave band readings were used to create noise contour maps which allowed the spatial and frequency information of the noise to be considered. Comparison of Lmin and Lmax levels offer insight into the variability of the noise levels inside the dragline. The potential for administrative controls is limited due to consistently high noise levels throughout the deck. Implementation of engineering controls is also hindered by the size and number of the noise sources and the frequency content of the noise.

  14. Characteristics of USB noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J. S.; Searle, N.

    1976-01-01

    An extensive series of noise measurements, for a variety of geometric and operational parameters, was made on models of upper surface blowing (USB) powered lift systems. The data obtained were analyzed and the effects and trends of parametric variation defined. The behavior and nature of USB noise and the design of USB systems with low noise characteristics is examined.

  15. Core Noise - Increasing Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustor-noise prediction capability as well as activities supporting the development of improved reduced-order, physics-based models for combustor-noise prediction. The need for benchmark data for validation of high-fidelity and modeling work and the value of a potential future diagnostic facility for testing of core-noise-reduction concepts are indicated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor

  16. Effects of Bunch Rot (Botrytis cinerea) and Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe necator) Fungal Diseases on Wine Aroma

    PubMed Central

    Lopez Pinar, Angela; Rauhut, Doris; Ruehl, Ernst; Buettner, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the effects of bunch rot and powdery mildew on the primary quality parameter of wine, the aroma. The influence of these fungal diseases was studied by comparative Aroma Extract Dilution Analyses (AEDA) and sensory tests. The effect of bunch rot was investigated on three grape varieties, namely White Riesling, Red Riesling and Gewürztraminer and that of powdery mildew on the hybrid Gm 8622-3; thereby, samples were selected that showed pronounced cases of infection to elaborate potential currently unknown effects. Both infections revealed aromatic differences induced by these fungi. The sensory changes were not associated with one specific compound only, but were due to quantitative variations of diverse substances. Bunch rot predominantly induced an increase in the intensities of peach-like/fruity, floral and liquor-like/toasty aroma notes. These effects were found to be related to variations in aroma substance composition as monitored via AEDA, mainly an increase in the FD factors of lactones and a general moderate increase of esters and alcohols. On the other hand, powdery mildew decreased the vanilla-like character of the wine while the remaining sensory attributes were rather unaffected. Correspondingly, FD factors of the main aroma constituents were either the same or only slightly modified by this disease. Moreover, bunch rot influenced the aroma profiles of the three varieties studied to a different degree. In hedonic evaluation, bunch rot-affected samples were rated as being more pleasant in comparison to their healthy controls in all three varieties while the powdery mildew-affected sample was rated as being less pleasant than its healthy control.

  17. Classical noise, quantum noise and secure communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannous, C.; Langlois, J.

    2016-01-01

    Secure communication based on message encryption might be performed by combining the message with controlled noise (called pseudo-noise) as performed in spread-spectrum communication used presently in Wi-Fi and smartphone telecommunication systems. Quantum communication based on entanglement is another route for securing communications as demonstrated by several important experiments described in this work. The central role played by the photon in unifying the description of classical and quantum noise as major ingredients of secure communication systems is highlighted and described on the basis of the classical and quantum fluctuation dissipation theorems.

  18. Design of helicopter rotors to noise constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaeffer, E. G.; Sternfeld, H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Results of the initial phase of a research project to study the design constraints on helicopter noise are presented. These include the calculation of nonimpulsive rotor harmonic and broadband hover noise spectra, over a wide range of rotor design variables and the sensitivity of perceived noise level (PNL) to changes in rotor design parameters. The prediction methodology used correlated well with measured whirl tower data. Application of the predictions to variations in rotor design showed tip speed and thrust as having the most effect on changing PNL.

  19. Accelerator Diagnostic Techniques Using Time-Domain Data from a Bunch-by-bunch Longitudinal Feedback System

    SciTech Connect

    Teytelman, Dmitry

    2000-03-30

    A programmable DSP-based longitudinal damping system has been developed for the PEP-II/DAFNE/ALS machines. The DSP-based architecture allows feedback functions to coexist with data acquisition or instrumentation algorithms. The fast sampling rates in these systems (500 MHz) in conjunction with the large distributed memory of the DSP processors make possible several novel beam diagnostics complementary to traditional narrowband spectral measurements. Instantaneous spectral measurements of 250 MHz span with 70 Hz resolution can be made from 14 ms time domain data records captured by the DSP system. The authors present techniques developed for the measurement of modal growth and damping rates and other beam and system diagnostics (calibrations, measurements of the system noise floor). Results from the Advanced Light Source and PEP-II are presented to illustrate these techniques.

  20. [Cardiovascular effects of noise].

    PubMed

    Vacheron, A

    1992-03-01

    The circulatory response to noise is dominated by a peripheral blood vessels vasoconstriction, of greater magnitude when asleep than awake. Noise of lower frequency seems more able to produce this response. With repetition of the noise, adaptation and tolerance to it quickly appears. Meanwhile prolonged high level noise exposition induces an increasing prevalence of arterial hypertension among industrial workers. This increase is also clearly found in residential communities living near airports. Long-term exposure to noise is a dangerous nuisance, that can lead to an increase in arterial blood pressure and favour coronary artery disease development.

  1. Combat aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgarbozza, M.; Depitre, A.

    1992-04-01

    A discussion of the characteristics and the noise levels of combat aircraft and of a transport aircraft in taking off and landing are presented. Some methods of noise reduction are discussed, including the following: operational anti-noise procedures; and concepts of future engines (silent post-combustion and variable cycle). Some measurement results concerning the noise generated in flight at great speeds and low altitude will also be examined. Finally, the protection of the environment of French air bases against noise will be described and the possibilities of regulation examined.

  2. Optical Johnson noise thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, R. L.; Blalock, T. V.; Maxey, L. C.; Roberts, M. J.; Simpson, M. L.

    1989-01-01

    A concept is being explored that an optical analog of the electrical Johnson noise may be used to measure temperature independently of emissivity. The concept is that a laser beam may be modulated on reflection from a hot surface by interaction of the laser photons with the thermally agitated conduction electrons or the lattice phonons, thereby adding noise to the reflected laser beam. If the reflectance noise can be detected and quantified in a background of other noise in the optical and signal processing systems, the reflectance noise may provide a noncontact measurement of the absolute surface temperature and may be independent of the surface's emissivity.

  3. Interpreting Transistor Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospieszalski, M. W.

    2010-10-01

    The simple noise models of field effect and bipolar transistors reviewed in this article are quite useful in engineering practice, as illustrated by measured and modeled results. The exact and approximate expressions for the noise parameters of FETs and bipolar transistors reveal certain common noise properties and some general noise properties of both devices. The usefulness of these expressions in interpreting the dependence of measured noise parameters on frequency, bias, and temperature and, consequently, in checking of consistency of measured data has been demonstrated.

  4. Violation of the transit-time limit toward generation of ultrashort electron bunches with controlled velocity chirp

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Seok-Gy; Shin, Dongwon; Hur, Min Sup

    2016-01-01

    Various methods to generate ultrashort electron bunches for the ultrafast science evolved from the simple configuration of two-plate vacuum diodes to advanced technologies such as nanotips or photocathodes excited by femtosecond lasers. In a diode either in vacuum or of solid-state, the transit-time limit originating from finite electron mobility has caused spatiotemporal bunch-collapse in ultrafast regime. Here, we show for the first time that abrupt exclusion of transit-phase is a more fundamental origin of the bunch-collapse than the transit-time limit. We found that by significantly extending the cathode-anode gap distance, thereby violating the transit-time limit, the conventional transit-time-related upper frequency barrier in diodes can be removed. Furthermore, we reveal how to control the velocity chirp of bunches leading to ballistic bunch-compression. Demonstration of 0.707 THz-, 46.4 femtosecond-bunches from a 50 μm-wide diode in three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations shows a way toward simple and compact sources of ultrafast electron bunches for diverse ultrafast sciences. PMID:27653458

  5. Violation of the transit-time limit toward generation of ultrashort electron bunches with controlled velocity chirp.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seok-Gy; Shin, Dongwon; Hur, Min Sup

    2016-09-22

    Various methods to generate ultrashort electron bunches for the ultrafast science evolved from the simple configuration of two-plate vacuum diodes to advanced technologies such as nanotips or photocathodes excited by femtosecond lasers. In a diode either in vacuum or of solid-state, the transit-time limit originating from finite electron mobility has caused spatiotemporal bunch-collapse in ultrafast regime. Here, we show for the first time that abrupt exclusion of transit-phase is a more fundamental origin of the bunch-collapse than the transit-time limit. We found that by significantly extending the cathode-anode gap distance, thereby violating the transit-time limit, the conventional transit-time-related upper frequency barrier in diodes can be removed. Furthermore, we reveal how to control the velocity chirp of bunches leading to ballistic bunch-compression. Demonstration of 0.707 THz-, 46.4 femtosecond-bunches from a 50 μm-wide diode in three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations shows a way toward simple and compact sources of ultrafast electron bunches for diverse ultrafast sciences.

  6. Violation of the transit-time limit toward generation of ultrashort electron bunches with controlled velocity chirp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Seok-Gy; Shin, Dongwon; Hur, Min Sup

    2016-09-01

    Various methods to generate ultrashort electron bunches for the ultrafast science evolved from the simple configuration of two-plate vacuum diodes to advanced technologies such as nanotips or photocathodes excited by femtosecond lasers. In a diode either in vacuum or of solid-state, the transit-time limit originating from finite electron mobility has caused spatiotemporal bunch-collapse in ultrafast regime. Here, we show for the first time that abrupt exclusion of transit-phase is a more fundamental origin of the bunch-collapse than the transit-time limit. We found that by significantly extending the cathode-anode gap distance, thereby violating the transit-time limit, the conventional transit-time-related upper frequency barrier in diodes can be removed. Furthermore, we reveal how to control the velocity chirp of bunches leading to ballistic bunch-compression. Demonstration of 0.707 THz-, 46.4 femtosecond-bunches from a 50 μm-wide diode in three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations shows a way toward simple and compact sources of ultrafast electron bunches for diverse ultrafast sciences.

  7. Verhulst model with Lévy white noise excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubkov, A. A.; Spagnolo, B.

    2008-10-01

    The transient dynamics of the Verhulst model perturbed by arbitrary non-Gaussian white noise is investigated. Based on the infinitely divisible distribution of the Lévy process we study the nonlinear relaxation of the population density for three cases of white non-Gaussian noise: (i) shot noise; (ii) noise with a probability density of increments expressed in terms of Gamma function; and (iii) Cauchy stable noise. We obtain exact results for the probability distribution of the population density in all cases, and for Cauchy stable noise the exact expression of the nonlinear relaxation time is derived. Moreover starting from an initial delta function distribution, we find a transition induced by the multiplicative Lévy noise, from a trimodal probability distribution to a bimodal probability distribution in asymptotics. Finally we find a nonmonotonic behavior of the nonlinear relaxation time as a function of the Cauchy stable noise intensity.

  8. Core Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core noise area. Recent work1 on the turbine-transmission loss of combustor noise is briefly described, two2,3 new NRA efforts in the core-noise area are outlined, and an effort to develop CMC-based acoustic liners for broadband noise reduction suitable for turbofan-core application is delineated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project's Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries.

  9. Effect of source/sink ratios on yield components, growth dynamics and structural characteristics of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) bunches.

    PubMed

    Pallas, Benoît; Mialet-Serra, Isabelle; Rouan, Lauriane; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Dingkuhn, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Source/sink ratios are known to be one of the main determinants of oil palm growth and development. A long-term experiment (9 years) was conducted in Indonesia on mature oil palms subjected to continuous bunch ablation and partial defoliation treatments to artificially modify source/sink ratios. During the experiment, all harvested bunches were dissected and phenological measurements were carried out to analyse the effect of source/sink ratios on yield components explaining variations in bunch number, the number of fruits per bunch and oil dry weight per fruit. An integrative variable (supply/demand ratio) describing the ratio between the assimilate supply from sources and the growing organ demand for carbohydrate was computed for each plant on a daily basis from observations of the number of developing organs and their sink strength, and of climate variables. Defoliation and bunch ablation affected the bunch number and the fruit number per bunch. Variations in bunch number per month were mainly due to variations in the fraction of aborted inflorescence and in the ratio between female and male inflorescences. Under fluctuating trophic conditions, variations in fruit number per bunch resulted both from changes in fruit-set and in the number of branches (rachillae) per inflorescence. For defoliated plants, the decrease in the number of developing reproductive sinks appeared to be sufficient to maintain fruit weight and oil concentration at the control level, without any major decrease in the concentration of non-structural carbohydrate reserves. Computation of the supply/demand ratio revealed that each yield component had a specific phase of sensitivity to supply/demand ratios during inflorescence development. Establishing quantitative relationships between supply/demand ratios, competition and yield components is the first step towards a functional model for oil palm.

  10. Electron diffraction using ultrafast electron bunches from a laser-wakefield accelerator at kHz repetition rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Z.-H.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Beaurepaire, B.; Nees, J. A.; Hou, B.; Malka, V.; Krushelnick, K.; Faure, J.

    2013-02-01

    We show that electron bunches in the 50-100 keV range can be produced from a laser wakefield accelerator using 10 mJ, 35 fs laser pulses operating at 0.5 kHz. It is shown that using a solenoid magnetic lens, the electron bunch distribution can be shaped. The resulting transverse and longitudinal coherence is suitable for producing diffraction images from a polycrystalline 10 nm aluminum foil. The high repetition rate, the stability of the electron source, and the fact that its uncorrelated bunch duration is below 100 fs make this approach promising for the development of sub-100 fs ultrafast electron diffraction experiments.

  11. Mitigation of the electron-cloud effect in the PSR and SNS proton storage rings by tailoring the bunch profile

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, M.; Furman, M.A.

    2003-05-20

    For the storage ring of the Spallation Neutron Source(SNS) at Oak Ridge, and for the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at Los Alamos, both with intense and very long bunches, the electroncloud develops primarily by the mechanism of trailing-edge multipacting. We show, by means of simulations for the PSR, how the resonant nature of this mechanism may be effectively broken by tailoring the longitudinal bunch profile at fixed bunch charge, resulting in a significant decrease in the electron-cloud effect. We briefly discuss the experimental difficulties expected in the implementation of this cure.

  12. Operational experience on the generation and control of high brightness electron bunch trains at SPARC-LAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostacci, A.; Alesini, D.; Anania, M. P.; Bacci, A.; Bellaveglia, M.; Biagioni, A.; Cardelli, F.; Castellano, Michele; Chiadroni, Enrica; Cianchi, Alessandro; Croia, M.; Di Giovenale, Domenico; Di Pirro, Giampiero; Ferrario, Massimo; Filippi, Francesco; Gallo, Alessandro; Gatti, Giancarlo; Giribono, Anna; Innocenti, L.; Marocchino, A.; Petrarca, M.; Piersanti, L.; Pioli, S.; Pompili, Riccardo; Romeo, Stefano; Rossi, Andrea Renato; Shpakov, V.; Scifo, J.; Vaccarezza, Cristina; Villa, Fabio; Weiwei, L.

    2015-05-01

    Sub-picosecond, high-brightness electron bunch trains are routinely produced at SPARC-LAB via the velocity bunching technique. Such bunch trains can be used to drive multi-color Free Electron Lasers (FELs) and plasma wake field accelerators. In this paper we present recent results at SPARC-LAB on the generation of such beams, highlighting the key points of our scheme. We will discuss also the on-going machine upgrades to allow driving FELs with plasma accelerated beams or with short electron pulses at an increased energy.

  13. Adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by mesoporous activated carbon prepared from H3PO4-activated langsat empty fruit bunch.

    PubMed

    Njoku, V O; Islam, Md Azharul; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2015-05-01

    The removal of toxic herbicide from wastewater is challenging due to the availability of suitable adsorbents. The Langsat empty fruit bunch is an agricultural waste and was used in this study as a cheap precursor to produce activated carbon for the adsorption of herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) at different initial concentrations ranging from 50 to 400 mg/L. The produced Langsat empty fruit bunch activated carbon (LEFBAC) was mesoporous and had high surface area of 1065.65 m(2)/g with different active functional groups. The effect of shaking time, temperature and pH on 2,4-D removal were investigated using the batch technique. The adsorption capacity of 2,4-D by LEFBAC was decreased with increase in pH of solution whereas adsorption capacity increased with temperature. The adsorption data was well described by Langmuir isotherm followed by removal capacity of 261.2 mg/g at 30 °C. The results from this work showed that LEFBAC can be used as outstanding material for anionic herbicide uptake from wastewater.

  14. Jet Noise Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    A presentation outlining current jet noise work at NASA was given at the NAVAIR Noise Workshop. Jet noise tasks in the Supersonics project of the Fundamental Aeronautics program were highlighted. The presentation gave an overview of developing jet noise reduction technologies and noise prediction capabilities. Advanced flow and noise diagnostic tools were also presented.

  15. Department of Navy Jet Noise Reduction Project Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Leadership direction, the Office of Naval Research initiated the Jet Noise Reduction (JNR) Project as part of the Noise-Induced Hearing Loss ( NIHL ) Program...Naval Research initiated the Jet Noise Reduction (JNR) Project as part of the Noise-Induced Hearing Loss ( NIHL ) Program. The JNR Project’s over...ONR Code 342 5 2007: ASN(RD&A) request to address hearing loss prevention 2008: ASN(RD&A), ASN(I&E), CNR approval of FY09-17 NIHL roadmap NIHL /JNR

  16. The effect of intensity noise on trapped-ion qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouard, Santiago; Plata, Jesus

    2004-05-01

    The effect of intensity fluctuations on laser-induced coupling of electronic and vibrational states of a trapped ion is studied analytically. Different types of noise relevant to the experiments are considered. The resulting decoherence phenomenology is shown to present nontrivial characteristics. Noise color leads to nonexponential decay of the coherences: after the initial decay, determined by the probability distribution, a transient period specific to the noise spectrum is apparent; at large times, exponential decay sets in for widely different noise properties. The detection of these features in the evolution of an initial coherent state of the vibrational mode is discussed.

  17. Judgments of aircraft noise in a traffic noise background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, C. A.; Rice, C. G.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine subjective response to aircraft noise in different road traffic backgrounds. In addition, two laboratory techniques for presenting the aircraft noise with the background noise were evaluated. For one technique, the background noise was continuous over an entire test session; for the other, the background noise level was changed with each aircraft noise during a session. Subjective response to aircraft noise was found to decrease with increasing background noise level, for a range of typical indoor noise levels. Subjective response was found to be highly correlated with the Noise Pollution Level (NPL) measurement scale.

  18. Hot topics in noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinson, Michael R.

    2003-10-01

    Our world continues to be a noisy place and the challenge to ``increase and diffuse knowledge of noise propagation, passive and active noise control, and the effects of noise'' remains. In the last several years, noise in the classroom has emerged as one of the hotter topics: Considerable progress has been made in the underpinning research, the formulation of recommendations, and the process of educating society on the social and personal impact of inadequate acoustical conditions in classrooms. The establishment of the ANSI S12.60-2002 standard for classroom acoustics was a milestone event. Noise in cities and the understanding of our soundscapes are subjects of ongoing significance. The development of standards and regulations is a continuing process, with urban community noise regulations, aviation noise, and the preservation of natural quiet in national parks being of current concern. New methods to reduce noise are under development and include passive and active methods of noise control, techniques for modeling the performance of noise barriers, and approaches for designing product sound quality.

  19. Noise Mapping and Annoyance.

    PubMed

    Knauss, D.

    2002-01-01

    The EC has published a Green Paper on noise policy in the EU and has issued a directive on the assessment and reduction of environmental noise. This directive will make noise mapping mandatory for cities with at least 250.000 inhabitants. Due to the development in computer technology it is possible to calculate noise maps for large urban areas using the available data on buildings, ground profile, road and rail traffic. Examples for noise mapping are Birmingham (GB), Linz (A) and various German cities. Based on noise maps and empirical data on the correlation between annoyance and noise levels annoyance maps for different sources (rail, road, aircraft) can be calculated. Under the assumption that the annoyance for the different sources are only weakly correlated, a combined annoyance map can be calculated. In a second step using the distribution of the population the actual number of annoyed people can be evaluated. This analysis can be used, for example, to identify noise hot spots and to assess the impact of major traffic projects - roads, airports- on the noise situation as well as the impact on the population. Furthermore, the combined annoyance maps can be used to investigate on health effects and to check whether or not empirical correlations between annoyance and noise levels are sufficiently correct.

  20. Commercial aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J.

    The history of aircraft noise control development is traced with an eye to forecasting the future. Noise control became imperative with the advent of the first generation of commercial jet aircraft, which were extremely loud. The steady increases in the size of turbofans have nearly matched the progress in noise reduction capabilities in recent years. Only 5 dB of reduction in fleet noise has been achieved since early standards were met. Current engine design is concentrated on increasing fuel efficiency rather than lowering noise emissions. Further difficulties exist because of continued flights with older aircraft. Gains in noise reduction have been made mainly by decreasing exhaust velocities from 600-700 m/sec to 300-400 m/sec. New techniques being explored comprise mixing the core and bypass flows, interaction tone control, reduction of broadband sources, development of acoustic liner technology and alterations in the number of fan blades and stage spacing.

  1. Poultry Plant Noise Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A demonstration conducted last winter at the Tip Top Poultry Plant intended to show poultry plant managers from all over the U.S. potential solutions to the problem of plant noise. Plastic covers used over sound absorbing materials need to meet cleanability requirements, high- pressure water cleaning and other harsh maintenance procedures peculiar to the poultry processing industry. For the demonstration, Fiber Flex, Inc. manufactured and donated 750 noise panels; Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation donated the fiberglas cores; and the cover material was purchased from Howe and Bainbridge. The Engineering Experiment Station (EES) conducted before and after noise surveys and is evaluating the effect of noise reduction on turnover and productivity in the demonstration plant. EES plans to conduct a noise abatement workshop and update a handbook to help poultry processors with noise problems. EES study and demonstration may be applicable to other food processing plants where similar sanitary constraints exist.

  2. Aviation Noise Effects,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    demonstrated little tolerance of aircraft noise and have shown few signs of adapting to it. Since no well-established guidelines concerning noise and animals ...vary from almost no reaction to virtually no tolerance of the sound. The question of how adaptable animals are remains largely unanswered. Both wild...report include"the-folowing:- Annoyance, --Effects of Noise on Wild and Domesticated Animal Hearing and Hearing Loss) Low .Fequency Pcoustical oEhergy

  3. Focusing and transport of high-intensity multi-MeV proton bunches from a compact laser-driven source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busold, S.; Schumacher, D.; Deppert, O.; Brabetz, C.; Frydrych, S.; Kroll, F.; Joost, M.; Al-Omari, H.; Blažević, A.; Zielbauer, B.; Hofmann, I.; Bagnoud, V.; Cowan, T. E.; Roth, M.

    2013-10-01

    Laser ion acceleration provides for compact, high-intensity ion sources in the multi-MeV range. Using a pulsed high-field solenoid, for the first time high-intensity laser-accelerated proton bunches could be selected from the continuous exponential spectrum and delivered to large distances, containing more than 109 particles in a narrow energy interval around a central energy of 9.4 MeV and showing ≤30mrad envelope divergence. The bunches of only a few nanoseconds bunch duration were characterized 2.2 m behind the laser-plasma source with respect to arrival time, energy width, and intensity as well as spatial and temporal bunch profile.

  4. Compact femtosecond electron diffractometer with 100 keV electron bunches approaching the single-electron pulse duration limit

    SciTech Connect

    Waldecker, Lutz Bertoni, Roman; Ernstorfer, Ralph

    2015-01-28

    We present the design and implementation of a highly compact femtosecond electron diffractometer working at electron energies up to 100 keV. We use a multi-body particle tracing code to simulate electron bunch propagation through the setup and to calculate pulse durations at the sample position. Our simulations show that electron bunches containing few thousands of electrons per bunch are only weakly broadened by space-charge effects and their pulse duration is thus close to the one of a single-electron wavepacket. With our compact setup, we can create electron bunches containing up to 5000 electrons with a pulse duration below 100 fs on the sample. We use the diffractometer to track the energy transfer from photoexcited electrons to the lattice in a thin film of titanium. This process takes place on the timescale of few-hundred femtoseconds and a fully equilibrated state is reached within 1 ps.

  5. Femtosecond timing-jitter between photo-cathode laser and ultra-short electron bunches by means of hybrid compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompili, R.; Anania, M. P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Biagioni, A.; Castorina, G.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Croia, M.; Di Giovenale, D.; Ferrario, M.; Filippi, F.; Gallo, A.; Gatti, G.; Giorgianni, F.; Giribono, A.; Li, W.; Lupi, S.; Mostacci, A.; Petrarca, M.; Piersanti, L.; Di Pirro, G.; Romeo, S.; Scifo, J.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F.

    2016-08-01

    The generation of ultra-short electron bunches with ultra-low timing-jitter relative to the photo-cathode (PC) laser has been experimentally proved for the first time at the SPARC_LAB test-facility (INFN-LNF, Frascati) exploiting a two-stage hybrid compression scheme. The first stage employs RF-based compression (velocity-bunching), which shortens the bunch and imprints an energy chirp on it. The second stage is performed in a non-isochronous dogleg line, where the compression is completed resulting in a final bunch duration below 90 fs (rms). At the same time, the beam arrival timing-jitter with respect to the PC laser has been measured to be lower than 20 fs (rms). The reported results have been validated with numerical simulations.

  6. Longitudinal single-bunch instabilities in the NLC main damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    Venturini, Marco

    2004-05-10

    Because of tight requirements on beam quality longitudinal single-bunch instabilities are a serious concern for the damping rings of the next generation of linear colliders. Unlike multi-bunch instabilities they cannot be damped using feed-back systems and need to be avoided altogether. We present an analysis of these instabilities for the current Feb. 03 NLC main damping ring design, with attention paid to coherent synchrotron radiation and vacuum chamber effects, with the latter including the main components (RF cavities, BPM's, and resistive wall). The study is carried out by solving the Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation for the longitudinal motion numerically. Comparison is made, whenever possible, with linear theory. We find that collective effects are dominated by coherent synchrotron radiation and estimate the instability threshold to be safely above 6 times the design current.

  7. Demonstration of cathode emittance dominated high bunch charge beams in a DC gun-based photoinjector

    SciTech Connect

    Gulliford, Colwyn Bartnik, Adam Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Cultrera, Luca

    2015-03-02

    We present the results of transverse emittance and longitudinal current profile measurements of high bunch charge (≥100 pC) beams produced in the DC gun-based Cornell energy recovery linac photoinjector. In particular, we show that the cathode thermal and core beam emittances dominate the final 95% and core emittances measured at 9–9.5 MeV. Additionally, we demonstrate excellent agreement between optimized 3D space charge simulations and measurement, and show that the quality of the transverse laser distribution limits the optimal simulated and measured emittances. These results, previously thought achievable only with RF guns, demonstrate that DC gun based photoinjectors are capable of delivering beams with sufficient single bunch charge and beam quality suitable for many current and next generation accelerator projects such as Energy Recovery Linacs and Free Electron Lasers.

  8. Microbunching instability in relativistic electron bunches: direct observations of the microstructures using ultrafast YBCO detectors.

    PubMed

    Roussel, E; Evain, C; Szwaj, C; Bielawski, S; Raasch, J; Thoma, P; Scheuring, A; Hofherr, M; Ilin, K; Wünsch, S; Siegel, M; Hosaka, M; Yamamoto, N; Takashima, Y; Zen, H; Konomi, T; Adachi, M; Kimura, S; Katoh, M

    2014-08-29

    Relativistic electron bunches circulating in accelerators are subjected to a dynamical instability leading to microstructures at millimeter to centimeter scale. Although this is a well-known fact, direct experimental observations of the structures, or the field that they emit, remained up to now an open problem. Here, we report the direct, shot-by-shot, time-resolved recording of the shapes (including envelope and carrier) of the pulses of coherent synchrotron radiation that are emitted, and that are a "signature" of the electron bunch microstructure. The experiments are performed on the UVSOR-III storage ring, using electrical field sensitive YBa2Cu3O(7-x) thin-film ultrafast detectors. The observed patterns are subjected to permanent drifts, that can be explained from a reasoning in phase space, using macroparticle simulations.

  9. Late-time structure of the Bunch-Davies de Sitter wavefunction

    SciTech Connect

    Anninos, Dionysios; Freedman, Daniel Z.; Konstantinidis, George; Anous, Tarek E-mail: tanous@mit.edu E-mail: cgcoss@stanford.edu

    2015-11-01

    We examine the late time behavior of the Bunch-Davies wavefunction for interacting light fields in a de Sitter background. We use perturbative techniques developed in the framework of AdS/CFT, and analytically continue to compute tree and loop level contributions to the Bunch-Davies wavefunction. We consider self-interacting scalars of general mass, but focus especially on the massless and conformally coupled cases. We show that certain contributions grow logarithmically in conformal time both at tree and loop level. We also consider gauge fields and gravitons. The four-dimensional Fefferman-Graham expansion of classical asymptotically de Sitter solutions is used to show that the wavefunction contains no logarithmic growth in the pure graviton sector at tree level. Finally, assuming a holographic relation between the wavefunction and the partition function of a conformal field theory, we interpret the logarithmic growths in the language of conformal field theory.

  10. Density bunching effects in a laser-driven, near-critical density plasma for ion acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettlinger, Oliver; Sahai, Aakash; Hicks, George; Ditter, Emma-Jane; Dover, Nicholas; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Helle, Michael; Gordon, Daniel; Ting, Antonio; Polyanskiy, Mikhail; Pogorelsky, Igor; Babzien, Marcus; Najmudin, Zulfikar

    2016-10-01

    We present work investigating the interaction of relativistic laser pulses with near-critical density gas targets exhibiting pre-plasma scale lengths of several laser wavelengths. Analytical and computational modelling suggest that the interaction dynamics in a low-Z plasma is a direct result of induced density bunching up to the critical surface. In fact, these bunches can themselves become overcritical and experience significant radiation pressure, accelerating ions to higher energies compared to an ``idealised'' plasma slab target. This work will be used to help explain the observation of ion energies exceeding those predicted by radiation pressure driven hole-boring in recent experiments using the TW CO2 laser at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  11. Electron Bunch Timing with Femtosecond Precision in a Superconducting Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Loehl, F.; Arsov, V.; Felber, M.; Hacker, K.; Lorbeer, B.; Ludwig, F.; Matthiesen, K.-H.; Schlarb, H.; Schmidt, B.; Winter, A.; Jalmuzna, W.; Schmueser, P.; Schulz, S.; Zemella, J.; Szewinski, J.

    2010-04-09

    High-gain free-electron lasers (FELs) are capable of generating femtosecond x-ray pulses with peak brilliances many orders of magnitude higher than at other existing x-ray sources. In order to fully exploit the opportunities offered by these femtosecond light pulses in time-resolved experiments, an unprecedented synchronization accuracy is required. In this Letter, we distributed the pulse train of a mode-locked fiber laser with femtosecond stability to different locations in the linear accelerator of the soft x-ray FEL FLASH. A novel electro-optic detection scheme was applied to measure the electron bunch arrival time with an as yet unrivaled precision of 6 fs (rms). With two beam-based feedback systems we succeeded in stabilizing both the arrival time and the electron bunch compression process within two magnetic chicanes, yielding a significant reduction of the FEL pulse energy jitter.

  12. Matching sub-fs electron bunches for laser-driven plasma acceleration at SINBAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Assmann, R. W.; Dorda, U.; Marchetti, B.

    2016-09-01

    We present theoretical and numerical studies of matching sub-femtosecond space-charge-dominated electron bunch into the Laser-plasma Wake Field Accelerator (LWFA) foreseen at the SINBAD facility. The longitudinal space-charge (SC) effect induced growths of the energy spread and longitudinal phase-space chirp are major issues in the matching section, which will result in bunch elongation, emittance growth and spot size dilution. In addition, the transverse SC effect would lead to a mismatch of the beam optics if it were not compensated for. Start-to-end simulations and preliminary optimizations were carried out in order to understand the achievable beam parameters at the entrance of the plasma accelerator.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of DNA quadruplexes containing T-tetrads formed by bunch-oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Oliviero, Giorgia; Amato, Jussara; Borbone, Nicola; Galeone, Aldo; Varra, Michela; Piccialli, Gennaro; Mayol, Luciano

    2006-02-15

    The solid phase syntheses of the bunch oligonucleotides and based on the sequences of the natural oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) d(TG2TG2C) and d(CG2TG2T), respectively, attached to a non-nucleotidic tetrabranched linker, are reported. Bunch-ODNs and were shown to form more stable monomolecular parallel G-quadruplexes and when compared with their tetramolecular counterparts [d(TG2TG2C)]4 and [d(CG2TG2T)]4, respectively. The structure and stability of all the synthesized complexes have been investigated by circular dichroism (CD), CD thermal denaturation experiments, and 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) experiments at variable temperatures. Particularly, the spectroscopic data confirmed that 1 adopts a T-tetrad containing parallel-stranded quadruplex structure as in the tetramolecular complex.

  14. Microwave measurements of energy lost to longitudinal modes by single electron bunches traversing periodic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.W.; Loew, G.A.; Weaver, J.N.; Wilson, P.B.

    1981-10-01

    In the design of future linear colliders, it will be important to minimize the loss of beam energy due to the excitation of higher-order modes in the accelerator structure by single bunches of electrons or positrons. This loss is not only detrimental in itself but also gives rise to energy spectrum widening and transverse emittance growth. Microwave measurements made on disk-loaded and alternating-spoke structures to determine the loss to the longitudinal modes are described. In these measurements the Gaussian bunch is simulated by a current pulse of the same shape transmitted through the structure on an axial center conductor. Results to date are presented for the total longitudinal loss parameter per period K in volts per picocoulomb.

  15. Acceleration and Compression of Charged Particle Bunches Using Counter-Propagating Laser Beams

    SciTech Connect

    G. Shvets; N. J. Fisch; A. Pukhov

    2000-10-17

    The nonlinear interaction between counter-propagating laser beams in a plasma results in the generation of large (enhanced) plasma wakes. The two beams need to be slightly detuned in frequency, and one of them has to be ultra-short (shorter than a plasma period). Thus produced wakes have a phase velocity close to the speed of light and can be used for acceleration and compression of charged bunches. The physical mechanism responsible for the enhanced wake generation is qualitatively described and compared with the conventional laser wakefield mechanism. The authors also demonstrate that, depending on the sign of the frequency difference between the lasers, the enhanced wake can be used as a ``snow-plow'' to accelerate and compress either positively or negatively charged bunches. This ability can be utilized in an electron-positron injector.

  16. Tunable THz radiation source from dielectric loaded waveguide excited by nonrelativistic electron bunch trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiwei; He, Zhigang; Lu, Yalin; Huang, Ruixuan; Liu, Weihao; Jia, Qika; Wang, Lin

    2016-10-01

    We propose a novel scheme to generate a tunable narrow-band THz radiation. In this scheme, a train of laser pulses with THz repetition rate is used to drive a photocathode direct current (DC) gun, leading to the emission of a train of electron bunches. The electron bunch train is subsequently accelerated by the gun field and applied to selectively excite one of the modes in the dielectric loaded waveguide (DLW) structure, which is located downstream the DC gun. Thanks to the tunability of the repetition rate of laser pulses and the gun voltage, a tunable narrow-band THz radiation source can be obtained. This proposed source has the advantages of compactness, robustness and relatively high power.

  17. Recording the synchrotron radiation by a picosecond streak camera for bunch diagnostics in cyclic accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Vereshchagin, A K; Vorob'ev, N S; Gornostaev, P B; Kryukov, S S; Lozovoi, V I; Smirnov, A V; Shashkov, E V; Schelev, M Ya; Dorokhov, V L; Meshkov, O I; Nikiforov, D A

    2016-02-28

    A PS-1/S1 picosecond streak camera with a linear sweep is used to measure temporal characteristics of synchrotron radiation pulses on a damping ring (DR) at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Novosibirsk). The data obtained allow a conclusion as to the formation processes of electron bunches and their 'quality' in the DR after injection from the linear accelerator. The expediency of employing the streak camera as a part of an optical diagnostic accelerator complex for adjusting the injection from a linear accelerator is shown. Discussed is the issue of designing a new-generation dissector with a time resolution up to a few picoseconds, which would allow implementation of a continuous bunch monitoring in the DR during mutual work with the electron-positron colliders at the BINP. (acoustooptics)

  18. Preparation of activated carbon by microwave heating of langsat (Lansium domesticum) empty fruit bunch waste.

    PubMed

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2012-07-01

    The feasibility of langsat empty fruit bunch waste for preparation of activated carbon (EFBLAC) by microwave-induced activation was explored. Activation with NaOH at the IR ratio of 1.25, microwave power of 600 W for 6 min produced EFBLAC with a carbon yield of 81.31% and adsorption uptake for MB of 302.48 mg/g. Pore structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated the physical and chemical characteristics of EFBLAC. Equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm, with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 402.06 mg/g, and the adsorption kinetics was well fitted to the pseudo-second-order equation. The findings revealed the potential to prepare high quality activated carbon from langsat empty fruit bunch waste by microwave irradiation.

  19. Effective post-acceleration of ion bunches in foils irradiated by ultra-intense laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, A. A.; Nickles, P. V.; Platonov, K. Yu

    2014-08-15

    Two-step laser acceleration of protons with two foils and two laser pulses is modelled and optimized. It is shown that a nearly mono-energetic distribution of proton bunches can be realized by a suitable parameter choice. Two-step acceleration schemes make it possible to obtain both higher efficiency and energy as compared to the acceleration with only one laser pulse of an energy equal to the sum of the energy of the two pulses. With the aid of our analytical model, the optimal distance between the two targets, the delay between the two laser pulses, and the parameters of the laser pulses are determined. Estimates and results of the modelling are proven with 2D PIC simulations of the acceleration of proton bunches moving through the second target.

  20. Generation and Characterization of Magnetized Bunched Electron Beam from a DC High Voltage Photogun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleiman, Riad; Poelker, Matthew; Benesch, Jay; Hannon, Fay; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Wang, Yan

    2016-03-01

    To maintain ion beam emittance and extend luminosity lifetime, the Jefferson Lab design of the Electron Ion Collider includes a bunched magnetized electron beam cooler as part of the Collider Ring. We are building a prototype magnetized gun using our newly commissioned 325 kV inverted-insulator DC high voltage photogun. This contribution describes planned measurements of beam magnetization as a function of bunch charge and average current, and laser beam size and magnetic field strength at the photocathode. Results will be compared to particle tracking code simulations. Photocathode lifetime at milli-ampere current will be compared to beam lifetime with no magnetization, to explore the impact of the magnetic field on photogun operation. Combined, these measurements and simulations will benchmark our design tools and provide insights on ways to optimize the electron cooler. This work is supported by the Department of Energy, Laboratory Directed Research and Development funding, under contract DE-AC05-06OR23177.

  1. Recording the synchrotron radiation by a picosecond streak camera for bunch diagnostics in cyclic accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereshchagin, A. K.; Vorob'ev, N. S.; Gornostaev, P. B.; Dorokhov, V. L.; Kryukov, S. S.; Lozovoi, V. I.; Meshkov, O. I.; Nikiforov, D. A.; Smirnov, A. V.; Shashkov, E. V.; Schelev, M. Ya

    2016-02-01

    A PS-1/S1 picosecond streak camera with a linear sweep is used to measure temporal characteristics of synchrotron radiation pulses on a damping ring (DR) at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Novosibirsk). The data obtained allow a conclusion as to the formation processes of electron bunches and their 'quality' in the DR after injection from the linear accelerator. The expediency of employing the streak camera as a part of an optical diagnostic accelerator complex for adjusting the injection from a linear accelerator is shown. Discussed is the issue of designing a new-generation dissector with a time resolution up to a few picoseconds, which would allow implementation of a continuous bunch monitoring in the DR during mutual work with the electron-positron colliders at the BINP.

  2. Electron bunch timing with femtosecond precision in a superconducting free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Löhl, F; Arsov, V; Felber, M; Hacker, K; Jalmuzna, W; Lorbeer, B; Ludwig, F; Matthiesen, K-H; Schlarb, H; Schmidt, B; Schmüser, P; Schulz, S; Szewinski, J; Winter, A; Zemella, J

    2010-04-09

    High-gain free-electron lasers (FELs) are capable of generating femtosecond x-ray pulses with peak brilliances many orders of magnitude higher than at other existing x-ray sources. In order to fully exploit the opportunities offered by these femtosecond light pulses in time-resolved experiments, an unprecedented synchronization accuracy is required. In this Letter, we distributed the pulse train of a mode-locked fiber laser with femtosecond stability to different locations in the linear accelerator of the soft x-ray FEL FLASH. A novel electro-optic detection scheme was applied to measure the electron bunch arrival time with an as yet unrivaled precision of 6 fs (rms). With two beam-based feedback systems we succeeded in stabilizing both the arrival time and the electron bunch compression process within two magnetic chicanes, yielding a significant reduction of the FEL pulse energy jitter.

  3. Late-time structure of the Bunch-Davies de Sitter wavefunction

    SciTech Connect

    Anninos, Dionysios; Anous, Tarek; Freedman, Daniel Z.; Konstantinidis, George

    2015-11-30

    We examine the late time behavior of the Bunch-Davies wavefunction for interacting light fields in a de Sitter background. We use perturbative techniques developed in the framework of AdS/CFT, and analytically continue to compute tree and loop level contributions to the Bunch-Davies wavefunction. We consider self-interacting scalars of general mass, but focus especially on the massless and conformally coupled cases. We show that certain contributions grow logarithmically in conformal time both at tree and loop level. We also consider gauge fields and gravitons. The four-dimensional Fefferman-Graham expansion of classical asymptotically de Sitter solutions is used to show that the wavefunction contains no logarithmic growth in the pure graviton sector at tree level. Finally, assuming a holographic relation between the wavefunction and the partition function of a conformal field theory, we interpret the logarithmic growths in the language of conformal field theory.

  4. Progress on the study of self-interaction of a bunch in a bend

    SciTech Connect

    Li, R.; Bohm, C.L.; Bisognano, J.J.

    1997-12-31

    When a short (mm-length) bunch with high (nC-regime) charge is transported through a magnetic bending system, self-interaction via coherent synchrotron radiation and space charge may cause emittance growth. Earlier the authors studied analytically the shielded transient self-interaction of a rigid-line bunch entering from a straight path to a circular orbit, and estimated the concomitant emittance degradation in parts of Jefferson Lab`s infrared free-electron laser (IR-FEL). In this paper, they generalize their earlier results by calculating the curvature-induced steady-state longitudinal wakefield on particles with transverse offsets from the design orbit. Recent progress in developing a self-consistent simulation are also presented.

  5. Landing gear noise attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  6. Structureborne noise in aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenson, S. A.; Metcalf, V. L.

    1987-01-01

    The amount of noise reaching an aircraft's interior by structureborne paths, when high levels of other noises are present, involves the measurement of transfer functions between vibrating levels on the wing and interior noise. The magnitude of the structureborne noise transfer function is established by exciting the aircraft with an electrodynamic shaker; a second transfer function is measured using the same sensor locations with the aircraft engines operating. Attention is given to the case of a twin-turboprop OV-10A aircraft; the resulting transfer function values at the discrete frequencies corresponding to the propeller blade passage frequency and its first four harmonics are tabulated and illustrated.

  7. Understanding jet noise.

    PubMed

    Karabasov, S A

    2010-08-13

    Jets are one of the most fascinating topics in fluid mechanics. For aeronautics, turbulent jet-noise modelling is particularly challenging, not only because of the poor understanding of high Reynolds number turbulence, but also because of the extremely low acoustic efficiency of high-speed jets. Turbulent jet-noise models starting from the classical Lighthill acoustic analogy to state-of-the art models were considered. No attempt was made to present any complete overview of jet-noise theories. Instead, the aim was to emphasize the importance of sound generation and mean-flow propagation effects, as well as their interference, for the understanding and prediction of jet noise.

  8. Effects of aqueous ammonia treatment on fiber’s surface morphology and enzymatic digestibility of empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF)

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Tang Pei; Hassan, Osman

    2013-11-27

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of aqueous ammonia reflux and soaked treatment on the fiber’s surface morphology and enzymatic digestibility of empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF). The surface morphological changes of the fiber after aqueous ammonia treatment was linked to the sugars yield by enzymatic hydrolysis. The effectiveness of 6.25% aqueous ammonia treatment in improving enzymatic digestibility of EFBF was initially studied in reflux system and by soaking. The results showed that soaked treatment was more effective than reflux system. Further study on soaked treatment of EFBF was carried out by increasing the ammonia concentration to 12.50%. Soaking in aqueous ammonia was conducted at 30°C and 50°C for 24 hours. The results of enzymatic hydrolysis showed that sugar yield from EFBF soaked in 12.50% aqueous ammonia at 50°C was the highest. Approximately 242.91±15.50 mg/g EFBF of xylose and 320.49±28.31 mg/g EFBF of glucose were produced by the action of enzyme Cellic Ctec 2. Results of scanning electron microscopic showed that aqueous ammonia treatment by soaking had caused a more severe structural distortion on the fiber’s surface and higher removal of silica bodies that embedded on the fiber than those in reflux system. The changes on the fiber’s surface morphology were believed is the contributing factor that improved the enzymatic digestibility of EFBF after aqueous ammonia treatment.

  9. Effects of aqueous ammonia treatment on fiber's surface morphology and enzymatic digestibility of empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Tang Pei; Hassan, Osman

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of aqueous ammonia reflux and soaked treatment on the fiber's surface morphology and enzymatic digestibility of empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF). The surface morphological changes of the fiber after aqueous ammonia treatment was linked to the sugars yield by enzymatic hydrolysis. The effectiveness of 6.25% aqueous ammonia treatment in improving enzymatic digestibility of EFBF was initially studied in reflux system and by soaking. The results showed that soaked treatment was more effective than reflux system. Further study on soaked treatment of EFBF was carried out by increasing the ammonia concentration to 12.50%. Soaking in aqueous ammonia was conducted at 30°C and 50°C for 24 hours. The results of enzymatic hydrolysis showed that sugar yield from EFBF soaked in 12.50% aqueous ammonia at 50°C was the highest. Approximately 242.91±15.50 mg/g EFBF of xylose and 320.49±28.31 mg/g EFBF of glucose were produced by the action of enzyme Cellic Ctec 2. Results of scanning electron microscopic showed that aqueous ammonia treatment by soaking had caused a more severe structural distortion on the fiber's surface and higher removal of silica bodies that embedded on the fiber than those in reflux system. The changes on the fiber's surface morphology were believed is the contributing factor that improved the enzymatic digestibility of EFBF after aqueous ammonia treatment.

  10. Radiation pasteurised oil palm empty fruit bunch fermented with Pleurotus sajor-caju as feed supplement to ruminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awang, Mat Rasol; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Mahmud, Mohd. Shukri; Wan Husain, Wan Badrin; Osman, Tajuddin; Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Kassim, Asmahwati; Wan Mahmud, Zal U'yun; Manaf, Ishak; Kume, Tamikazu; Hashimoto, Shoji

    1993-10-01

    In solid state fermentation, Pleurotus sajor-caju has been found to be able to degrade at least 30% oil palm empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) fibre leaving 70 % useful materials. Conditions under which fermentation carried out were investigated. It was found that, in the temperature range between 25- 28 °C, relative ph between 6-8, moisture between 60-70 % and medium composition of CaCO 3: rice bran 2 %: 5 % were the optimum conditions. The results showed in fermented products that, there were substantial reduction in cellulosic component such as Crude Fiber (CF, 18 %); Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF, 45 %), Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF, 61 %) and Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL, 14 %). However, Crude Protein (CP, 10%) increased resulted from single cell protein enrichment of mycelial microbial mass. The mass reductions of substrate in fermentation process corresponds to the CO 2 released during fermentation. Hence, attributable to the decreased in content of CF, ADF, NDF, and ADL. The digestibility study has also been carried out to determine the useful level of this product to ruminant. Aflatoxin content was detected low in both the initial substrates and products. Based on nutritional value and low content of aflatoxin, the product is useful as a source of roughage to ruminant.

  11. Towards Laser-Driven, Quasi-Monochromatic Ion Bunches via Ultrathin Targets Nano-Structuring?

    SciTech Connect

    Betti, S.; Giulietti, A.; Gizzi, L. A.; Vaselli, M.; Cecchetti, C. A.; Gamucci, A.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Pathak, N.; Levato, T.; Giulietti, D.; Andreev, A. A.; Ceccotti, T.; Martin, P.; Monot, P.

    2010-02-02

    The conditions for achieving the laser acceleration of quasi-monochromatic ion bunches with present-day, fs laser systems are theoretically discussed. The study suggests the possibility of achieving quasi-monochromaticity via irradiation of double-layer, nano-structured foils and the conjecture is numerically confirmed by means of two dimensional, Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations. A feasible setup in order to experimentally validate this approach is thus proposed.

  12. Bunching-induced asymmetry in degenerate four-wave mixing with cold atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Gattobigio, G. L.; Michaud, F.; Kaiser, R.; Javaloyes, J.

    2006-10-15

    We have investigated degenerate four-wave mixing in a sample of cold rubidium atoms. A red-blue asymmetry is observed for high intensities of the pumping beams. This asymmetry is explained by the spatial bunching of the atoms in the nodes or antinodes of the strong standing wave of the pump beams. This explanation is confirmed by different experimental configurations and by numerical simulations.

  13. Photon antibunching and bunching in a ring-resonator waveguide quantum electrodynamics system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zihao; Zhou, Yao; Shen, Jung-Tsung

    2016-07-15

    We numerically investigate the photonic state generation and its nonclassical correlations in a ring-resonator waveguide quantum electrodynamics system. Specifically, we discuss photon antibunching and bunching in various scenarios, including the imperfect resonator with backscattering and dissipations. Our numerical results indicate that an imperfect ring resonator with backscattering can enhance the quality of antibunching. In addition, we also identify the quantum photonic halo phenomenon in the photon scattering dynamics and the shoulder effect in the second-order correlation function.

  14. JINR test facility for studies FEL bunching technique for CLIC driving beam

    SciTech Connect

    Dolbilov, G.V.; Fateev, A.A.; Ivanov, I.N.

    1995-12-31

    SILUND-21 linear induction accelerator (energy up to 10 MeV, peak current about of 1 kA, pulse duration 50 - 70 ns) is constructed at JINR in the framework of experimental program to study free electron laser physics, a problem of two-beam acceleration and microwave electronics. In this paper we present project of an experiment to adopt the FEL bunching technique for generation of the CLIC driving beam.

  15. E-Cloud Effects on Singe-Bunch Dynamics in the Proposed PS2

    SciTech Connect

    Venturini, M.; Furman, M.; Vay, J.-L.

    2010-10-08

    One of the options considered for future upgrades of the LHC injector complex entails the replacement of the PSwith the PS2, a longer circumference and higher energy synchrotron. Electron cloud effects represent an importantpotential limitation to the achievement of the upgrade goals. We report the results of numerical studies aimingat estimating the e-cloud density thresholds for the occurrence of single bunch instabilities.

  16. A modified post damping ring bunch compressor beamline for the TESLA linear collider

    SciTech Connect

    Philippe R.-G. Piot; Winfried Decking

    2004-03-23

    We propose a modified bunch compressor beamline, downstream of the damping ring, for the TESLA linear collider. This modified beamline uses a third harmonic radio-frequency section based on the 3.9 GHz superconducting cavity under development at Fermilab. In our design the beam deceleration is about {approx}50 MeV instead of {approx}450 MeV in the original design proposed.

  17. ABSOLUTE BUNCH LENGTH MEASUREMENTS AT THE ALS BY INCOHERENTSYNCHROTRON RADIATION FLUCTUATION ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Sannibale, Fernando; Zolotorev, Max S.; Filippetto, Daniele; Stupakov, Gennady V.

    2007-06-22

    By analysing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations ofthe radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of thespectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatialdistribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of theLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and tested asimple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolutemeasurement of the bunch length. A description of the method and theexperimental results are presented.

  18. E-Cloud Drivent Single-Bunch Instabilities in PS2

    SciTech Connect

    Venturini, M.; Furman, M.; Penn, G.; Secondo, R.; Vay, J-L.; De Maria, R.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Rumolo, G.

    2010-05-23

    One of the proposals under consideration for future upgrades of the LHC injector complex entails the replacement of the PS with the PS2, a longer circumference and higher energy synchrotron, with electron cloud effects representing a potentially serious limitation to the achievement of the upgrade goals. We report on ongoing numerical studies aiming at estimating the e-cloud density threshold for the occurrence of single bunch instabilities.

  19. Conceptual design of non-destructive, time profile monitor for femtosecond-long electron bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konoplev, I. V.; Harrison, H.; Lancaster, A. J.; Taheri, F. Bakkali; Doucas, G.; Aryshev, A.; Lekomtsev, K.; Shevelev, M.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.

    2017-03-01

    The main objective of the project is to build a high resolution time-profile monitor for femtosecond electron beams, based on the spectral analysis of coherent Smith-Purcell radiation (cSPr). The monitor will be capable of determining the electron bunch time profile non-destructively and on a shot-by-shot basis. The results of recent experimental and theoretical studies are presented, and the conceptual design of the monitor is discussed.

  20. Pretreatment of empty fruit bunch from oil palm for fuel ethanol production and proposed biorefinery process.

    PubMed

    Tan, Liping; Yu, Yongcheng; Li, Xuezhi; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo; Choo, Yuen May; Loh, Soh Kheang

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the effects of some pretreatment processes to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) for ethanol production. The experimental results show that the bisulfite pretreatment was practical for EFB pretreatment. Moreover, the optimum pretreatment conditions of the bisulfite pretreatment (180 °C, 30 min, 8% NaHSO3, 1% H2SO4) were identified. In the experiments, a biorefinery process of EFB was proposed to produce ethanol, xylose products, and lignosulfonates.