Science.gov

Sample records for initial coolant temperature

  1. Modeling wave processes at the outflowing of a water coolant with supercritical initial parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vozhakov, I. S.; Alekseev, M. V.; Lezhnin, S. I.; Pribaturin, N. A.

    2016-10-01

    Numerical simulation of the outflow of a coolant with supercritical initial parameters at a butt-break of high-pressure pipeline is carried out. The results of calculation of the outflow dynamics on a PV-diagram, as well as the pressure evolution are presented. It is shown that the flow rate weakly depends on temperature at its low values (up to 0, 9 Tc ). In the second region (from 0, 9 Tc to Tc ), the coolant boiling occurs inside the channel, which leads to a sharp drop in the flow rate with increasing temperature. And the third area (above Tc ) is typical for the gas coolant outflow, in which the density strongly depends on pressure and temperature.

  2. Stagnation region gas film cooling: Effects of dimensionless coolant temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnice, M. A.; Lecuyer, M. R.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to mode the film cooling performance for a turbine vane leading edge using the stagnation region of a cylinder in cross flow. Experiments were conducted with a single row of spanwise angled (25 deg) coolant holes for a range of the coolant blowing ratio and dimensionless coolant temperature with free stream-to-wall temperature ratio approximately 1.7 and Re sub D = 90000. the cylindrical test surface was instrumented with miniature heat flux gages and wall thermocouples to determine the percentage reduction in the Stanton number as a function of the distance downstream from injection (x/d sub 0) and the location between adjacent holes (z/S). Data from local heat flux measurements are presented for injection from a single row located at 5 deg, 22.9 deg, 40.8 deg, from stagnation using a hole spacing ratio of S/d = 5. The film coolant was injected with T sub c T sub w with a dimensionless coolant temperature in the range 1.18 or equal to theta sub c or equal to 1.56. The data for local Stanton Number Reduction (SNR) showed a significant increase in SNR as theta sub c was increased above 1.0.

  3. Effect of Coolant Temperature and Mass Flow on Film Cooling of Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Vijay K.; Gaugler, Raymond E.

    1997-01-01

    A three-dimensional Navier Stokes code has been used to study the effect of coolant temperature, and coolant to mainstream mass flow ratio on the adiabatic effectiveness of a film-cooled turbine blade. The blade chosen is the VKI rotor with six rows of cooling holes including three rows on the shower head. The mainstream is akin to that under real engine conditions with stagnation temperature = 1900 K and stagnation pressure = 3 MPa. Generally, the adiabatic effectiveness is lower for a higher coolant temperature due to nonlinear effects via the compressibility of air. However, over the suction side of shower-head holes, the effectiveness is higher for a higher coolant temperature than that for a lower coolant temperature when the coolant to mainstream mass flow ratio is 5% or more. For a fixed coolant temperature, the effectiveness passes through a minima on the suction side of shower-head holes as the coolant to mainstream mass flow, ratio increases, while on the pressure side of shower-head holes, the effectiveness decreases with increase in coolant mass flow due to coolant jet lift-off. In all cases, the adiabatic effectiveness is highly three-dimensional.

  4. Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant

    DOEpatents

    Yunker, Wayne H.; Christiansen, David W.

    1987-05-05

    A method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

  5. Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant

    DOEpatents

    Yunker, Wayne H.; Christiansen, David W.

    1987-01-01

    A method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

  6. Coolant and ambient temperature control for chillerless liquid cooled data centers

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J.; David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.; Simons, Robert E.

    2016-02-02

    Cooling control methods include measuring a temperature of air provided to a plurality of nodes by an air-to-liquid heat exchanger, measuring a temperature of at least one component of the plurality of nodes and finding a maximum component temperature across all such nodes, comparing the maximum component temperature to a first and second component threshold and comparing the air temperature to a first and second air threshold, and controlling a proportion of coolant flow and a coolant flow rate to the air-to-liquid heat exchanger and the plurality of nodes based on the comparisons.

  7. Effect of coolant flow ejection on aerodynamic performance of low-aspect-ratio vanes. 2: Performance with coolant flow ejection at temperature ratios up to 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hass, J. E.; Kofskey, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a 0.5 aspect ratio turbine vane configuration with coolant flow ejection was experimentally determined in a full annular cascade. The vanes were tested at a nominal mean section ideal critical velocity ratio of 0.890 over a range of primary to coolant total temperature ratio from 1.0 to 2.08 and a range of coolant to primary total pressure ratio from 1.0 to 1.4 which corresponded to coolant flows from 3.0 to 10.7 percent of the primary flow. The variations in primary and thermodynamic efficiency and exit flow conditions with circumferential and radial position were obtained.

  8. Effects of coolant parameters on steady state temperature distribution in phospheric-acid fuel cell electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkasab, K. A.; Abdul-Aziz, A.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of thermophysical properties and flow rate on the steady-state temperature distribution in a phosphoric-acid fuel cell electrode plate was experimentally investigated. An experimental setup that simulates the operating conditions prevailing in a phosphoric-acid fuel cell stack was used. The fuel cell cooling system utilized three types of coolants to remove excess heat generated in the cell electrode and to maintain a reasonably uniform temperature distribution in the electrode plate. The coolants used were water, engine oil, and air. These coolants were circulated at Reynolds number ranging from 1165 to 6165 for water; 3070 to 6864 for air; and 15 to 79 for oil. Experimental results are presented.

  9. Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant

    DOEpatents

    Yunker, W.H.; Christiansen, D.W.

    1983-11-25

    This patent discloses a method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

  10. Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, Robert H; Hsu, John S; Starke, Michael R

    2006-09-01

    This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from test data at

  11. Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.; Staunton, M.R.; Starke, M.R.

    2006-09-30

    This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from test data at

  12. Cooling Characteristics of the V-1650-7 Engine. II - Effect of Coolant Conditions on Cylinder Temperatures and Heat Rejection at Several Engine Powers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povolny, John H.; Bogdan, Louis J.; Chelko, Louis J.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted on a V-1650-7 engine to determine the cylinder temperatures and the coolant and oil heat rejections over a range of coolant flows (50 to 200 gal/min) and oil inlet temperatures (160 to 2150 F) for two values of coolant outlet temperature (250 deg and 275 F) at each of four power conditions ranging from approximately 1100 to 2000 brake horsepower. Data were obtained for several values of block-outlet pressure at each of the two coolant outlet temperatures. A mixture of 30 percent by volume of ethylene glycol and 70-percent water was used as the coolant. The effect of varying coolant flow, coolant outlet temperature, and coolant outlet pressure over the ranges investigated on cylinder-head temperatures was small (0 deg to 25 F) whereas the effect of increasing the engine power condition from ll00 to 2000 brake horsepower was large (maximum head-temperature increase, 110 F).

  13. Cooled-turbine aerodynamic performance prediction from reduced primary to coolant total-temperature-ratio results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    The prediction of the cooled aerodynamic performance, for both stators and turbines, at actual primary to coolant inlet total temperature ratios from the results obtained at a reduced total temperature ratio is described. Theoretical and available experimental results were compared for convection film and transpiration cooled stator vanes and for a film cooled, single stage core turbine. For these tests the total temperature ratio varied from near 1.0 to about 2.7. The agreement between the theoretical and the experimental results was, in general, reasonable.

  14. The high-temperature sodium coolant technology in nuclear power installations for hydrogen power engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, F. A.; Sorokin, A. P.; Alekseev, V. V.; Konovalov, M. A.

    2014-05-01

    In the case of using high-temperature sodium-cooled nuclear power installations for obtaining hydrogen and for other innovative applications (gasification and fluidization of coal, deep petroleum refining, conversion of biomass into liquid fuel, in the chemical industry, metallurgy, food industry, etc.), the sources of hydrogen that enters from the reactor plant tertiary coolant circuit into its secondary coolant circuit have intensity two or three orders of magnitude higher than that of hydrogen sources at a nuclear power plant (NPP) equipped with a BN-600 reactor. Fundamentally new process solutions are proposed for such conditions. The main prerequisite for implementing them is that the hydrogen concentration in sodium coolant is a factor of 100-1000 higher than it is in modern NPPs taken in combination with removal of hydrogen from sodium by subjecting it to vacuum through membranes made of vanadium or niobium. Numerical investigations carried out using a diffusion model showed that, by varying such parameters as fuel rod cladding material, its thickness, and time of operation in developing the fuel rods for high-temperature nuclear power installations (HT NPIs) it is possible to exclude ingress of cesium into sodium through the sealed fuel rod cladding. However, if the fuel rod cladding loses its tightness, operation of the HT NPI with cesium in the sodium will be unavoidable. Under such conditions, measures must be taken for deeply purifying sodium from cesium in order to minimize the diffusion of cesium into the structural materials.

  15. Corrosion of Ferritic Steels in High Temperature Molten Salt Coolants for Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J; El-Dasher, B; de Caro, M S; Ferreira, J

    2008-11-25

    Corrosion of ferritic steels in high temperature molten fluoride salts may limit the life of advanced reactors, including some hybrid systems that are now under consideration. In some cases, the steel may be protected through galvanic coupling with other less noble materials with special neutronic properties such a beryllium. This paper reports the development of a model for predicting corrosion rates for various ferritic steels, with and without oxide dispersion strengthening, in FLiBe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) and FLiNaK (Li-Na-K-F) coolants at temperatures up to 800 C. Mixed potential theory is used to account for the protection of steel by beryllium, Tafel kinetics are used to predict rates of dissolution as a function of temperature and potential, and the thinning of the mass-transfer boundary layer with increasing Reynolds number is accounted for with dimensionless correlations. The model also accounts for the deceleration of corrosion as the coolants become saturated with dissolved chromium and iron. This paper also reports electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of steels at their corrosion potentials in high-temperature molten salt environments, with the complex impedance spectra interpreted in terms of the interfacial charge transfer resistance and capacitance, as well as the electrolyte conductivity. Such in situ measurement techniques provide valuable insight into the degradation of materials under realistic conditions.

  16. Assessment of Candidate Molten Salt Coolants for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.F.

    2006-03-24

    The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a novel reactor design that utilizes the graphite-matrix high-temperature fuel of helium-cooled reactors, but provides cooling with a high-temperature fluoride salt. For applications at temperatures greater than 900 C the AHTR is also referred to as a Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR). This report provides an assessment of candidate salts proposed as the primary coolant for the AHTR based upon a review of physical properties, nuclear properties, and chemical factors. The physical properties most relevant for coolant service were reviewed. Key chemical factors that influence material compatibility were also analyzed for the purpose of screening salt candidates. Some simple screening factors related to the nuclear properties of salts were also developed. The moderating ratio and neutron-absorption cross-section were compiled for each salt. The short-lived activation products, long-lived transmutation activity, and reactivity coefficients associated with various salt candidates were estimated using a computational model. Table A presents a summary of the properties of the candidate coolant salts. Certain factors in this table, such as melting point, vapor pressure, and nuclear properties, can be viewed as stand-alone parameters for screening candidates. Heat-transfer properties are considered as a group in Sect. 3 in order to evaluate the combined effects of various factors. In the course of this review, it became apparent that the state of the properties database was strong in some areas and weak in others. A qualitative map of the state of the database and predictive capabilities is given in Table B. It is apparent that the property of thermal conductivity has the greatest uncertainty and is the most difficult to measure. The database, with respect to heat capacity, can be improved with modern instruments and modest effort. In general, ''lighter'' (low-Z) salts tend to exhibit better heat

  17. Self-actuated nuclear reactor shutdown system using induction pump to facilitate sensing of core coolant temperature

    DOEpatents

    Sievers, Robert K.; Cooper, Martin H.; Tupper, Robert B.

    1987-01-01

    A self-actuated shutdown system incorporated into a reactivity control assembly in a nuclear reactor includes pumping means for creating an auxiliary downward flow of a portion of the heated coolant exiting from the fuel assemblies disposed adjacent to the control assembly. The shutdown system includes a hollow tubular member which extends through the outlet of the control assembly top nozzle so as to define an outer annular flow channel through the top nozzle outlet separate from an inner flow channel for primary coolant flow through the control assembly. Also, a latching mechanism is disposed in an inner duct of the control assembly and is operable for holding absorber bundles in a raised position in the control assembly and for releasing them to drop them into the core of the reactor for shutdown purposes. The latching mechanism has an inner flow passage extending between and in flow communication with the absorber bundles and the inner flow channel of the top nozzle for accommodating primary coolant flow upwardly through the control assembly. Also, an outer flow passage separate from the inner flow passage extends through the latching mechanism between and in flow communication with the inner duct and the outer flow channel of the top nozzle for accommodating inflow of a portion of the heated coolant from the adjacent fuel assemblies. The latching mechanism contains a magnetic material sensitive to temperature and operable to cause mating or latching together of the components of the latching mechanism when the temperature sensed is below a known temperature and unmating or unlatching thereof when the temperature sensed is above a given temperature. The temperature sensitive magnetic material is positioned in communication with the heated coolant flow through the outer flow passage for directly sensing the temperature thereof. Finally, the pumping means includes a jet induction pump nozzle and diffuser disposed adjacent the bottom nozzle of the control assembly

  18. UO2 and PuO2 utilization in high temperature engineering test reactor with helium coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waris, Abdul; Aji, Indarta K.; Novitrian, Pramuditya, Syeilendra; Su'ud, Zaki

    2016-03-01

    High temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) is one of high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) types which has been developed by Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The HTTR is a graphite moderator, helium gas coolant, 30 MW thermal output and 950 °C outlet coolant temperature for high temperature test operation. Original HTTR uses UO2 fuel. In this study, we have evaluated the use of UO2 and PuO2 in form of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in HTTR. The reactor cell calculation was performed by using SRAC 2002 code, with nuclear data library was derived from JENDL3.2. The result shows that HTTR can obtain its criticality condition if the enrichment of 235U in loaded fuel is 18.0% or above.

  19. JAEA Studies on High Burnup Fuel Behaviors during Reactivity-Initiated Accident and Loss-of-Coolant Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Fuketa, Toyoshi; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Nagase, Fumihisa; Suzuki, Motoe

    2007-07-01

    The objectives of fuel safety research program at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) are; to evaluate adequacy of present safety criteria and safety margins; to provide a database for future regulation on higher burnup UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels, new cladding and pellets; and to provide reasonably mechanistic computer codes for regulatory application. The JAEA program is comprised of reactivity-initiated accident (RIA) studies including pulse-irradiation experiments in the NSRR and cladding mechanical tests, loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests including integral thermal shock test and oxidation rate measurement, development and verification of computer codes FEMAXI-6 and RANNS, and so on. In addition to an overview of the fuel safety research at JAEA, most recent progresses in the RIA and LOCA tests programs and the codes development are described and discussed in the paper. (authors)

  20. Correlation of cylinder-head temperatures and coolant heat rejections of a multicylinder, liquid-cooled engine of 1710-cubic-inch displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundin, Bruce T; Povolny, John H; Chelko, Louis J

    1949-01-01

    Data obtained from an extensive investigation of the cooling characteristics of four multicylinder, liquid-cooled engines have been analyzed and a correlation of both the cylinder-head temperatures and the coolant heat rejections with the primary engine and coolant variables was obtained. The method of correlation was previously developed by the NACA from an analysis of the cooling processes involved in a liquid-cooled-engine cylinder and is based on the theory of nonboiling, forced-convection heat transfer. The data correlated included engine power outputs from 275 to 1860 brake horsepower; coolant flows from 50 to 320 gallons per minute; coolants varying in composition from 100 percent water to 97 percent ethylene glycol and 3 percent water; and ranges of engine speed, manifold pressure, carburetor-air temperature, fuel-air ratio, exhaust-gas pressure, ignition timing, and coolant temperature. The effect on engine cooling of scale formation on the coolant passages of the engine and of boiling of the coolant under various operating conditions is also discussed.

  1. Comparison of Calculated and Experimental Temperatures and Coolant Pressure Losses for a Cascade of Small Air-Cooled Turbine Rotor Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepka, Francis S

    1958-01-01

    Average spanwise blade temperatures and cooling-air pressure losses through a small (1.4-in, span, 0.7-in, chord) air-cooled turbine blade were calculated and are compared with experimental nonrotating cascade data. Two methods of calculating the blade spanwise metal temperature distributions are presented. The method which considered the effect of the length-to-diameter ratio of the coolant passage on the blade-to-coolant heat-transfer coefficient and assumed constant coolant properties based on the coolant bulk temperature gave the best agreement with experimental data. The agreement obtained was within 3 percent at the midspan and tip regions of the blade. At the root region of the blade, the agreement was within 3 percent for coolant flows within the turbulent flow regime and within 10 percent for coolant flows in the laminar regime. The calculated and measured cooling-air pressure losses through the blade agreed within 5 percent. Calculated spanwise blade temperatures for assumed turboprop engine operating conditions of 2000 F turbine-inlet gas temperature and flight conditions of 300 knots at a 30,000-foot altitude agreed well with those obtained by the extrapolation of correlated experimental data of a static cascade investigation of these blades.

  2. Transient simulation of coolant peak temperature due to prolonged fan and/or water pump operation after the vehicle is keyed-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Suh Chyn; Masjuki, Haji Hassan; Kalam, Md. Abul; Hazrat, Md. Ali

    2014-01-01

    Automotive designers should design a robust engine cooling system which works well in both normal and severe driving conditions. When vehicles are keyed-off suddenly after some distance of hill-climbing driving, the coolant temperature tends to increase drastically. This is because heat soak in the engine could not be transferred away in a timely manner, as both the water pump and cooling fan stop working after the vehicle is keyed-off. In this research, we aimed to visualize the coolant temperature trend over time before and after the vehicles were keyed-off. In order to prevent coolant temperature from exceeding its boiling point and jeopardizing engine life, a numerical model was further tested with prolonged fan and/or water pump operation after keying-off. One dimensional thermal-fluid simulation was exploited to model the vehicle's cooling system. The behaviour of engine heat, air flow, and coolant flow over time were varied to observe the corresponding transient coolant temperatures. The robustness of this model was proven by validation with industry field test data. The numerical results provided sensible insights into the proposed solution. In short, prolonging fan operation for 500 s and prolonging both fan and water pump operation for 300 s could reduce coolant peak temperature efficiently. The physical implementation plan and benefits yielded from implementation of the electrical fan and electrical water pump are discussed.

  3. Steam as turbine blade coolant: Experimental data generation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmsen, B.; Engeda, A.; Lloyd, J.R.

    1995-10-01

    Steam as a coolant is a possible option to cool blades in high temperature gas turbines. However, to quantify steam as a coolant, there exists practically no experimental data. This work deals with an attempt to generate such data and with the design of an experimental setup used for the purpose. Initially, in order to guide the direction of experiments, a preliminary theoretical and empirical prediction of the expected experimental data is performed and is presented here. This initial analysis also compares the coolant properties of steam and air.

  4. FORTRAN program for calculating coolant flow and metal temperatures of a full-coverage-film-cooled vane or blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meitner, P. L.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program that calculates the coolant flow and the metal temperatures of a full-coverage-film-cooled vane or blade was developed. The analysis was based on compressible, one-dimensional fluid flow and on one-dimensional heat transfer and treats the vane or blade shell as a porous wall. The calculated temperatures are average values for the shell outer-surface area associated with each film-cooling hole row. A thermal-barrier coating may be specified on the shell outer surface, and centrifugal effects can be included for blade calculations. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 and is operational on a UNIVAC 1100/42 computer. The method of analysis, the program input, the program output, and two sample problems are provided.

  5. Assessment of a large break loss of coolant accident scenario requiring operator action to initiate safety injection

    SciTech Connect

    Grendys, R.C.; Nissley, M.E.; Baker, D.C.

    1996-11-01

    As part of the licensing basis for a nuclear power plant, the acceptability of the Emergency Core Cooling Systems (ECCS) following a postulated Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) as described in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 10, Chapter 1, Part 50.46, must be verified. The LOCA analysis is performed with an acceptable ECCS Evaluation Model and results must show compliance with the 10 CFR 50.46 acceptance criteria. Westinghouse Electric Corporation performs Large and Small Break LOCA and LOCA-related analyses to support the licensing basis of various nuclear power plants and also performs evaluations against the licensing basis analyses as required. Occasionally, the need arises for the holder of an operating license of a nuclear power plant to submit a Licensee Event Report (LER) to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) for any event of the type described in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Chapter 1, Part 50.73. To support the LER, a Justification for Past Operation (JPO) may be performed to assess the safety consequences and implications of the event based on previous operating conditions. This paper describes the work performed for the Large Break LOCA to assess the impact of an event discovered by Florida Power and Light and reported in LER-94-005-02. For this event, it was determined that under certain circumstances, operator action would have been required to initiate safety injection (SI), thus challenging the acceptability of the ECCS. This event was specifically addressed for the Large Break LOCA by using an advanced thermal hydraulic analysis methodology with realistic input assumptions.

  6. Cooling Characteristics of the V-1650-7 Engine. 1; Coolant-Flow Distribution, Cylinder Temperatures, and Heat Rejections at Typical Operating Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povolny, John H.; Bogdan, Louis J.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the coolant-flow distribu tion, the cylinder temperatures, and the heat rejections of the V-165 0-7 engine . The tests were run a t several power levels varying from minimum fuel consumption to war emergency power and at each power l evel the coolant flows corresponded to the extremes of those likely t o be encountered in typical airplane installations, A mixture of 30-p ercent ethylene glycol and 70-percent water was used as the coolant. The temperature of each cylinder was measured between the exhaust val ves, between the intake valves, in the center of the head, on the exh aust-valve guide, at the top of the barrel on the exhaust side, and o n each exhaust spark-plug gasket. For an increase in engine power fro m 628 to approximately 1700 brake horsepower the average temperature for the cylinder heads between the exhaust valves increased from 437 deg to 517 deg F, the engine coolant heat rejection increased from 12 ,600 to 22,700 Btu. per minute, the oil heat rejection increased from 1030 to 4600 Btu per minute, and the aftercooler-coolant heat reject ion increased from 450 to 3500 Btu -per minute.

  7. Metal temperatures and coolant flow in a wire cloth transpiration cooled turbine vane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental heat transfer investigation was conducted on an air-cooled turbine vane made from wire-wound cloth material and supported by a central strut. Vane temperature data obtained are compared with temperature data from two full-coverage film-cooled vanes made of different laminated construction. Measured porous-airfoil temperatures are compared with predicted temperatures.

  8. The international surface temperature initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, P. W.; Lawrimore, J. H.; Willett, K. M.; Allan, R.; Chandler, R. E.; Mhanda, A.; de Podesta, M.; Possolo, A.; Revadekar, J.; Rusticucci, M.; Stott, P. A.; Strouse, G. F.; Trewin, B.; Wang, X. L.; Yatagai, A.; Merchant, C.; Merlone, A.; Peterson, T. C.; Scott, E. M.

    2013-09-01

    The aim of International Surface Temperature Initiative is to create an end-to-end process for analysis of air temperature data taken over the land surface of the Earth. The foundation of any analysis is the source data. Land surface air temperature records have traditionally been stored in local, organizational, national and international holdings, some of which have been available digitally but many of which are available solely on paper or as imaged files. Further, economic and geopolitical realities have often precluded open sharing of these data. The necessary first step therefore is to collate readily available holdings and augment these over time either through gaining access to previously unavailable digital data or through data rescue and digitization activities. Next, it must be recognized that these historical measurements were made primarily in support of real-time weather applications where timeliness and coverage are key. At almost every long-term station it is virtually certain that changes in instrumentation, siting or observing practices have occurred. Because none of the historical measures were made in a metrologically traceable manner there is no unambiguous way to retrieve the true climate evolution from the heterogeneous raw data holdings. Therefore it is desirable for multiple independent groups to produce adjusted data sets (so-called homogenized data) to adequately understand the data characteristics and estimate uncertainties. Then it is necessary to benchmark the performance of the contributed algorithms (equivalent to metrological software validation) through development of realistic benchmark datasets. In support of this, a series of successive benchmarking and assessment cycles are envisaged, allowing continual improvement while avoiding over-tuning of algorithms. Finally, a portal is proposed giving access to related data-products, utilizing the assessment results to provide guidance to end-users on which product is the most suited to

  9. Bypass valve and coolant flow controls for optimum temperatures in waste heat recovery systems

    DOEpatents

    Meisner, Gregory P

    2013-10-08

    Implementing an optimized waste heat recovery system includes calculating a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a heat exchanger of a waste heat recovery system, and predicting a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a material flowing through a channel of the waste heat recovery system. Upon determining the rate of change in the temperature of the material is predicted to be higher than the rate of change in the temperature of the heat exchanger, the optimized waste heat recovery system calculates a valve position and timing for the channel that is configurable for achieving a rate of material flow that is determined to produce and maintain a defined threshold temperature of the heat exchanger, and actuates the valve according to the calculated valve position and calculated timing.

  10. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  11. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  12. Oxygen sensors for Heavy Liquid Metal coolants: Calibration and assessment of the minimum reading temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassini, S.; Antonelli, A.; Di Piazza, I.; Tarantino, M.

    2017-04-01

    Oxygen sensors for Heavy Liquid Metals (HLMs) such as lead and LBE (lead-bismuth eutectic) will be essential devices in future Lead Fast Reactor (LFR) and Accelerator Driven System (ADS). Potentiometric sensors based on solid electrolytes were developed in recent years to this purpose. Internal reference electrodes such as Pt-air and Bi/Bi2O3 liquid metal/metal-oxide are among the most used but they both have a weak point: Pt-air sensor has a high minimum reading temperature around 400 °C whereas Bi/Bi2O3 suffers from internal stresses induced by Bi volume variations with temperature, which may lead to the sensor failure in the long-term. The present work describes the performance of standard Pt-air and Bi/Bi2O3 sensors and compares them with recent Cu/Cu2O sensor. Sensors with Yttria Partially Stabilized Zirconia (YPSZ) electrolyte were calibrated in oxygen-saturated HLM between 160 and 550 °C and the electric potential compared to the theoretical one to define the accuracy and the minimum reading temperature. Standard Pt-air sensor were also tested using Yttria Totally Stabilized Zirconia (YTSZ) to assess the effect of a different electrolyte on the minimum reading temperature. The performance of Pt-air and Cu/Cu2O sensors with YPSZ electrolyte were then tested together in low-oxygen HLM between 200 and 450 °C. The results showed that Pt-air, Bi/Bi2O3 and Cu/Cu2O sensors with YPSZ measured oxygen in HLMs down to 400 °C, 290 °C and 200 °C respectively. When the YTSZ electrolyte was used in place of the YPSZ, the Pt-air sensor measured correctly down to at least 350 °C thanks to the superior ionic conductivity of the YTSZ. When Cu/Cu2O and Pt-air sensors were tested together in the same low-oxygen HLM between 200 and 450 °C, Cu/Cu2O sensor worked predictably in the whole temperature range whereas Pt-air sensor exhibited a correct output only above 400 °C.

  13. Coolant line hydrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, M.D.; Kipp, W.G.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes a hydrometer unit for connection in an automobile coolant flow line comprising: a tubular fitting adapted to be connected to the coolant flow line; a coolant receiving chamber means connected to the tubular fitting for receiving coolant from the tubular fitting; and indicating float elements contained within the coolant receiving chamber means and adapted to rise therein individually as a function of the specific gravity of the coolant. The coolant receiving chamber means includes a closure cap which when connected to the tubular fitting forms a coolant receiving chamber, retaining means for retaining the indicating float elements within the coolant receiving chamber, a viewing window member of a substantially clear material through which the float elements can be visually observed within the coolant receiving chamber means, and air venturi means located within the coolant receiving chamber means for automatically removing air which may collect within the coolant chamber means.

  14. Analysis of in-core coolant temperatures of FFTF instrumented fuels tests at full power

    SciTech Connect

    Hoth, C.W

    1981-01-01

    Two full size highly instrumented fuel assemblies were inserted into the core of the Fast Flux Test Facility in December of 1979. The major objectives of these instrumented tests are to provide verification of the FFTF core conditions and to characterize temperature patterns within FFTF driver fuel assemblies. A review is presented of the results obtained during the power ascents and during irradiation at a constant reactor power of 400 MWt. The results obtained from these instrumented tests verify the conservative nature of the design methods used to establish core conditions in FFTF. The success of these tests also demonstrates the ability to design, fabricate, install and irradiate complex, instrumented fuel tests in FFTF using commercially procured components.

  15. A fracture mechanics approach for estimating fatigue crack initiation in carbon and low-alloy steels in LWR coolant environments

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H. B.; Chopra, O. K.

    2000-04-10

    A fracture mechanics approach for elastic-plastic materials has been used to evaluate the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments on the fatigue lives of carbon and low-alloy steels. The fatigue life of such steel, defined as the number of cycles required to form an engineering-size crack, i.e., 3-mm deep, is considered to be composed of the growth of (a) microstructurally small cracks and (b) mechanically small cracks. The growth of the latter was characterized in terms of {Delta}J and crack growth rate (da/dN) data in air and LWR environments; in water, the growth rates from long crack tests had to be decreased to match the rates from fatigue S-N data. The growth of microstructurally small cracks was expressed by a modified Hobson relationship in air and by a slip dissolution/oxidation model in water. The crack length for transition from a microstructurally small crack to a mechanically small crack was based on studies on small crack growth. The estimated fatigue S-N curves show good agreement with the experimental data for these steels in air and water environments. At low strain amplitudes, the predicted lives in water can be significantly lower than the experimental values.

  16. Effects of turbulence model on convective heat transfer of coolant flow in a prismatic very high temperature reactor core

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. N.; Tak, N. I.; Kim, M. H.; Noh, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    The existing study of Spall et al. shows that only {nu}{sup 2}-f turbulence model well matches with the experimental data of Shehata and McEligot which were obtained under strongly heated gas flows. Significant over-predictions in those literatures were observed in the convective heat transfer with the other famous turbulence models such as the k-{epsilon} and k-{omega} models. In spite of such good evidence about the performance of the{nu}{sup 2}-f model, the application of the {nu}{sup 2}-f model to the thermo-fluid analysis of a prismatic core is very rare. In this paper, therefore, the convective heat transfer of the coolant flow in a prismatic core has been investigated using the {nu}{sup 2}-f model. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations have been carried out for the typical unit cell geometry of a prismatic fuel column with typical operating conditions of prismatic designs. The tested Reynolds numbers of the coolant flow are 10,000, 20,000, 30,000 and 50,000. The predicted Nusselt numbers with the {nu}{sup 2}-f model are compared with the results by the other turbulence models (k-{epsilon} and SST) as well as the empirical correlations. (authors)

  17. Measuring flow and pressure of lithium coolant under developmental testing of a high-temperature cooling system of a space nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, V. Ya.; Sinyavsky, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    Sub-megawatt space NPP use lithium as a coolant and niobium alloy as a structural material. In order to refine the lithium-niobium technology of the material and design engineering, lithium-niobium loops were worked out in RSC Energia, and they were tested at a working temperature of lithium equal to 1070-1300 K. In order to measure the lithium flow and pressure, special gauges were developed, which made possible the calibration and checkout of the loops without their dismantling. The paper describes the architecture of the electromagnetic flowmeter and the electromagnetic vibrating-wire pressure transducer (gauge) for lithium coolant in the nuclear power plant cooling systems. The operating principles of these meters are presented. Flowmeters have been developed for channel diameters ranging from 10 to 100 mm, which are capable of measuring lithium flows in the range of 0.1 to 30 L/s with the error of 3% for design calibration and 1% for volume graduation. The temperature error of the pressure transducers does not exceed 0.4% per 100 K; the nonlinearity and hysteresis of the calibration curve do not exceed 0.3 and 0.4%, respectively. The transducer applications are illustrated by the examples of results obtained from tests on the NPP module mockup and heat pipes of a radiation cooler.

  18. Shock Initiation of Energetic Materials at Different Initial Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Urtiew, P A; Tarver, C M

    2005-01-14

    Shock initiation is one of the most important properties of energetic materials, which must transition to detonation exactly as intended when intentionally shocked and not detonate when accidentally shocked. The development of manganin pressure gauges that are placed inside the explosive charge and record the buildup of pressure upon shock impact has greatly increased the knowledge of these reactive flows. This experimental data, together with similar data from electromagnetic particle velocity gauges, has allowed us to formulate the Ignition and Growth model of shock initiation and detonation in hydrodynamic computer codes for predictions of shock initiation scenarios that cannot be tested experimentally. An important problem in shock initiation of solid explosives is the change in sensitivity that occurs upon heating (or cooling). Experimental manganin pressure gauge records and the corresponding Ignition and Growth model calculations are presented for two solid explosives, LX-17 (92.5 % triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) with 7.5 % Kel-F binder) and LX-04 (85 % octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazine (HMX) with 15 % Viton binder) at several initial temperatures.

  19. Minimizing thermal damage of aerospace components using coolant nozzle and coolant system optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Mindek, R.B. Jr.; Webster, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    Research to optimize the application of coolant in the creep feed grinding of aerospace components was conducted at the Center for Grinding Research and Development during the past year. During this research, work was performed in the areas of coolant jet nozzle and coolant system design to identify optimum jet nozzle designs, nozzle positioning and coolant system configurations. The knowledge gained from initial screening tests and grinding trials of flat surfaces was applied to final grinding trials on actual blade and vane (profiled) production components. Final grinding test results of four specific production operations showed that at least a 27% improvement in wheel life could be realized, relative to the levels previously established in production, by optimizing grinding fluid application. In addition, a set of guidelines for optimized coolant nozzle and coolant system design and manufacture have been developed from the results of this research, and are applicable to other types of grinding or machining as well.

  20. Purification of liquid metal systems with sodium coolant from oxygen using getters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, F. A.; Konovalov, M. A.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    For increasing the safety and economic parameters of nuclear power stations (NPSs) with sodium coolant, it was decided to install all systems contacting radioactive sodium, including purification systems of circuit I, in the reactor vessel. The performance and capacity of cold traps (CTs) (conventional element of coolant purification systems) in these conditions are limited by their volume. It was proposed to use hot traps (HTs) in circuit I for coolant purification from oxygen. It was demonstrated that, at rated parameters of the installation when the temperature of the coolant streamlining the getter (gas absorber) is equal to 550°C, the hot trap can provide the required coolant purity. In shutdown modes at 250-300°C, the performance of the hot trap is reduced by four orders of magnitude. Possible HT operation regimes for shutdown modes and while reaching rated parameters were proposed and analyzed. Basic attention was paid to purification modes at power rise after commissioning and accidental contamination of the coolant when the initial oxygen concentration in it reached 25 mln-1. It was demonstrated that the efficiency of purification systems can be increased using HTs with the getter in the form of a foil or granules. The possibility of implementing the "fast purification" mode in which the coolant is purified simultaneously with passing over from the shutdown mode to the rated parameters was substantiated.

  1. Machine coolant waste reduction by optimizing coolant life. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Pallansch, J.

    1995-08-01

    The project was designed to study the following: A specific water-soluble coolant (Blasocut 2000 Universal) in use with a variety of machines, tools, and materials; Coolant maintenance practices associated with three types of machines; Health effects of use and handling of recycled coolant; Handling practices for chips and waste coolant; Chip/coolant separation; and Oil/water separation.

  2. Experimental investigations of heat transfer and temperature fields in models simulating fuel assemblies used in the core of a nuclear reactor with a liquid heavy-metal coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, I. A.; Genin, L. G.; Krylov, S. G.; Novikov, A. O.; Razuvanov, N. G.; Sviridov, V. G.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this experimental investigation is to obtain information on the temperature fields and heat transfer coefficients during flow of liquid-metal coolant in models simulating an elementary cell in the core of a liquid heavy metal cooled fast-neutron reactor. Two design versions for spacing fuel rods in the reactor core were considered. In the first version, the fuel rods were spaced apart from one another using helical wire wound on the fuel rod external surface, and in the second version spacer grids were used for the same purpose. The experiments were carried out on the mercury loop available at the Moscow Power Engineering Institute National Research University's Chair of Engineering Thermal Physics. Two experimental sections simulating an elementary cell for each of the fuel rod spacing versions were fabricated. The temperature fields were investigated using a dedicated hinged probe that allows temperature to be measured at any point of the studied channel cross section. The heat-transfer coefficients were determined using the wall temperature values obtained at the moment when the probe thermocouple tail end touched the channel wall. Such method of determining the wall temperature makes it possible to alleviate errors that are unavoidable in case of measuring the wall temperature using thermocouples placed in slots milled in the wall. In carrying out the experiments, an automated system of scientific research was applied, which allows a large body of data to be obtained within a short period of time. The experimental investigations in the first test section were carried out at Re = 8700, and in the second one, at five values of Reynolds number. Information about temperature fields was obtained by statistically processing the array of sampled probe thermocouple indications at 300 points in the experimental channel cross section. Reach material has been obtained for verifying the codes used for calculating velocity and temperature fields in channels with

  3. Exploratory Investigation of Transpiration Cooling of a 40 deg Double Wedge using Nitrogen and Helium as Coolants at Stagnation Temperatures from 1,295 deg F to 2,910 deg F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashis, Bernard

    1961-01-01

    An investigation of transpiration cooling has been conducted in the preflight jet of the Langley Pilotless Aircraft Research Station at Wallops Island, Va. The model consisted of a double wedge of 40 deg included angle having a porous stainless-steel specimen inserted flush with the top surface of the wedge. The tests were conducted at a free-stream Mach number of 2.0 for stagnation temperatures ranging from 1,295 F to 2,910 F. Nitrogen and helium were used as coolants and tests were conducted for values ranging from approximately 0.03 to 0.30 percent of the local weight flow rate. The data for both the nitrogen and helium coolants indicated greater cooling effectiveness than that predicted by theory and were in good agreement with the results for an 8 deg cone tested at a stagnation temperature of 600 F. The results indicate that the helium coolant, for the same amount of heat-transfer reduction, requires only about one-fourth to one-fifth the coolant flow weight as the nitrogen coolant.

  4. NUCLEAR REACTOR COOLANT

    DOEpatents

    Colichman, E.L.

    1959-10-20

    The formation of new reactor coolants which suppress polymerization resulting from pyrolytic and radiation decomposition is described. The coolants consist of polyphenyls and condensed ring compounds having from two to about four carbon rings and from 0.1 to about 5% of beryllium or magnesium dispersed in the hydrocarbon.

  5. NUCLEAR REACTOR COOLANT

    DOEpatents

    Colichman, E.L.

    1959-10-20

    The formation of new reactor coolants which suppress polymerization resulting from pyrolitic and radiation decomposition is described. The coolants consist of polyphenyls and condensed ring compounds having from two to about four carbon rings and from 0.1 to about 10% of an alkall metal dispersed in the hydrocarbon.

  6. Flow boiling test of GDP replacement coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.H.

    1995-08-01

    The tests were part of the CFC replacement program to identify and test alternate coolants to replace CFC-114 being used in the uranium enrichment plants at Paducah and Portsmouth. The coolants tested, C{sub 4}F{sub 10} and C{sub 4}F{sub 8}, were selected based on their compatibility with the uranium hexafluoride process gas and how well the boiling temperature and vapor pressure matched that of CFC-114. However, the heat of vaporization of both coolants is lower than that of CFC-114 requiring larger coolant mass flow than CFC-114 to remove the same amount of heat. The vapor pressure of these coolants is higher than CFC-114 within the cascade operational range, and each coolant can be used as a replacement coolant with some limitation at 3,300 hp operation. The results of the CFC-114/C{sub 4}F{sub 10} mixture tests show boiling heat transfer coefficient degraded to a minimum value with about 25% C{sub 4}F{sub 10} weight mixture in CFC-114 and the degree of degradation is about 20% from that of CFC-114 boiling heat transfer coefficient. This report consists of the final reports from Cudo Technologies, Ltd.

  7. MACHINE COOLANT WASTE REDUCTION BY OPTIMIZING COOLANT LIFE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Machine shops use coolants to improve the life and function of machine tools. hese coolants become contaminated with oils with use, and this contamination can lead to growth of anaerobic bacteria and shortened coolant life. his project investigated methods to extend coolant life ...

  8. Identification and Ranking of Phenomena Leading to Peak Cladding Temperatures in Boiling Water Reactors During Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident Transients

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnayake, Ruwan K.; Ergun, S.; Hochreiter, L.E.; Baratta, A.J.

    2002-07-01

    In the licensing and validation process of best estimate codes for the analysis of nuclear reactors and postulated accident scenarios, the identification and quantification of the calculational uncertainty is required. One of the most important aspects in this process is the identification and recognition of the crucial contributing phenomena to the overall code uncertainty. The establishment of Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRT) provides a vehicle to assist in assessing the capabilities of the computer code, and to guide the uncertainty analysis of the calculated results. The process used in this work to identify the phenomena was reviewing both licensing and best estimate calculations, as well as experiments, which had been performed for BWR LOCA analyses. The initial PIRT was developed by a group of analysts and was compared to existing BWR LOCA PIRTs as well as BWR LOCA analyses. The initial PIRT was then independently reviewed by a second panel of experts for the selected ranking of phenomena, identification of phenomena which were ignored, as well as the basis and rationale for the ranking of the phenomena. The differences between the two groups were then resolved. PIRTs have been developed for BWR types 4 and 5/6 for the Large Break Loss of Coolant Accidents (LB-LOCA). The ranking and the corresponding rationale for each phenomenon is included in tables together with the assessed uncertainty of the code capability to predict the phenomena. (authors)

  9. The effect of fuel thermal conductivity on the behavior of LWR cores during loss-of-coolant accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Terrani, Kurt A.; Wang, Dean; Ott, Larry J.; Montgomery, Robert O.

    2014-05-01

    The effect of variation in thermal conductivity of light water reactor fuel elements on core response during loss-of-coolant accident scenarios is examined. Initially, a simplified numerical analysis is utilized to determine the time scales associated with dissipation of stored energy from the fuel into the coolant once the fission reaction is stopped. The analysis is then followed by full reactor system thermal-hydraulics analysis of a typical boiling and pressurized water reactor subjected to a large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario using the TRACE code. Accordingly, sensitivity analyses to examine the effect of an increase in fuel thermal conductivity, up to 500%, on fuel temperature evolution during these transients are performed. Given the major differences in thermal-hydraulics design aspects of boiling and pressurized water reactors, different fuel and temperature responses during the simulated loss-of-coolant transients are observed.

  10. Assessment of the Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Purifying Coolant and Heat Transfer Salts in the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

    2010-09-28

    This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor.

  11. Environmentally Friendly Coolant System

    SciTech Connect

    David Jackson Principal Investigator

    2011-11-08

    Energy reduction through the use of the EFCS is most improved by increasing machining productivity. Throughout testing, nearly all machining operations demonstrated less land wear on the tooling when using the EFCS which results in increased tool life. These increases in tool life advance into increased productivity. Increasing productivity reduces cycle times and therefore reduces energy consumption. The average energy savings by using the EFCS in these machining operations with these materials is 9%. The advantage for end milling stays with flood coolant by about 6.6% due to its use of a low pressure pump. Face milling and drilling are both about 17.5% less energy consumption with the EFCS than flood coolant. One additional result of using the EFCS is improved surface finish. Certain machining operations using the EFCS result in a smoother surface finish. Applications where finishing operations are required will be able to take advantage of the improved finish by reducing the time or possibly eliminating completely one or more finishing steps and thereby reduce their energy consumption. Some machining operations on specific materials do not show advantages for the EFCS when compared to flood coolants. More information about these processes will be presented later in the report. A key point to remember though, is that even with equivalent results, the EFCS is replacing petroleum based coolants whose production produces GHG emissions and create unsafe work environments.

  12. Radiant energy receiver having improved coolant flow control means

    DOEpatents

    Hinterberger, H.

    1980-10-29

    An improved coolant flow control for use in radiant energy receivers of the type having parallel flow paths is disclosed. A coolant performs as a temperature dependent valve means, increasing flow in the warmer flow paths of the receiver, and impeding flow in the cooler paths of the receiver. The coolant has a negative temperature coefficient of viscosity which is high enough such that only an insignificant flow through the receiver is experienced at the minimum operating temperature of the receiver, and such that a maximum flow is experienced at the maximum operating temperature of the receiver. The valving is accomplished by changes in viscosity of the coolant in response to the coolant being heated and cooled. No remotely operated valves, comparators or the like are needed.

  13. A Heated Tube Facility for Rocket Coolant Channel Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James M.; Pease, Gary M.; Meyer, Michael L.

    1995-01-01

    The capabilities of a heated tube facility used for testing rocket engine coolant channels at the NASA Lewis Research Center are presented. The facility uses high current, low voltage power supplies to resistively heat a test section to outer wall temperatures as high as 730 C (1350 F). Liquid or gaseous nitrogen, gaseous helium, or combustible liquids can be used as the test section coolant. The test section is enclosed in a vacuum chamber to minimize heat loss to the surrounding system. Test section geometry, size, and material; coolant properties; and heating levels can be varied to generate heat transfer and coolant performance data bases.

  14. Automatic coolant flow control device for a nuclear reactor assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.

    1984-01-27

    A device which controls coolant flow through a nuclear reactor assembly comprises a baffle means at the exit end of said assembly having a plurality of orifices, and a bimetallic member in operative relation to the baffle means such that at increased temperatures said bimetallic member deforms to unblock some of said orifices and allow increased coolant flow therethrough.

  15. Development of Figure of Merits (FOMs) for Intermediate Coolant Characterization and Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Eung Soo Kim; Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan Anderson

    2011-06-01

    This paper focuses on characterization of several coolant performances in the IHTL. There are lots of choices available for the IHTL coolants; gases, liquid metals, molten salts, and etc. Traditionally, the selection of coolants is highly dependent on engineer's experience and decisions. In this decision, the following parameters are generally considered: melting point, vapor pressure, density, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, viscosity, and coolant chemistry. The followings are general thermal-hydraulic requirements for the coolant in the IHTL: (1) High heat transfer performance - The IHTL coolant should exhibit high heat transfer performance to achieve high efficiency and economics; (2) Low pumping power - The IHTL coolant requires low pumping power to improve economics through less stringent pump requirements; (3) Low amount of coolant volume - The IHTL coolant requires less coolant volume for better economics; (4) Low amount of structural materials - The IHTL coolant requires less structural material volume for better economics; (5) Low heat loss - The IHTL requires less heat loss for high efficiency; and (6) Low temperature drop - The IHTL should allow less temperature drop for high efficiency. Typically, heat transfer coolants are selected based on various fluid properties such as melting point, vapor pressure, density, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, viscosity, and coolant chemistry. However, the selection process & results are highly dependent on the engineer's personal experience and skills. In the coolant selection, if a certain coolant shows superior properties with respect to the others, the decision will be very straightforward. However, generally, each coolant material exhibits good characteristics for some properties but poor for the others. Therefore, it will be very useful to have some figures of merits (FOMs), which can represent and quantify various coolant thermal performances in the system of interest. The study summarized in this

  16. Initial fuel temperature effects on burning rate of pool fire.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Lu, Shou-Xiang; Li, Chang-Hai; Kang, Quan-Sheng; Lecoustre, Vivien

    2011-04-15

    The influence of the initial fuel temperature on the burning behavior of n-heptane pool fire was experimentally studied at the State Key Laboratory of Fire Science (SKLFS) large test hall. Circular pool fires with diameters of 100mm, 141 mm, and 200 mm were considered with initial fuel temperatures ranging from 290 K to 363 K. Burning rate and temperature distributions in fuel and vessel wall were recorded during the combustion. The burning rate exhibited five typical stages: initial development, steady burning, transition, bulk boiling burning, and decay. The burning rate during the steady burning stage was observed to be relatively independent of the initial fuel temperature. In contrast, the burning rate of the bulk boiling burning stage increases with increased initial fuel temperature. It was also observed that increased initial fuel temperature decreases the duration of steady burning stage. When the initial temperature approaches the boiling point, the steady burning stage nearly disappears and the burning rate moves directly from the initial development stage to the transition stage. The fuel surface temperature increases to its boiling point at the steady burning stage, shortly after ignition, and the bulk liquid reaches boiling temperature at the bulk boiling burning stage. No distinguished cold zone is formed in the fuel bed. However, boiling zone is observed and the thickness increases to its maximum value when the bulk boiling phenomena occurs.

  17. Reactor coolant pump flywheel

    DOEpatents

    Finegan, John Raymond; Kreke, Francis Joseph; Casamassa, John Joseph

    2013-11-26

    A flywheel for a pump, and in particular a flywheel having a number of high density segments for use in a nuclear reactor coolant pump. The flywheel includes an inner member and an outer member. A number of high density segments are provided between the inner and outer members. The high density segments may be formed from a tungsten based alloy. A preselected gap is provided between each of the number of high density segments. The gap accommodates thermal expansion of each of the number of segments and resists the hoop stress effect/keystoning of the segments.

  18. Method for removing cesium from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOEpatents

    Colburn, Richard P.

    1986-01-01

    A method of and system for removing cesium from a liquid metal reactor coolant including a carbon packing trap in the primary coolant system for absorbing a major portion of the radioactive cesium from the coolant flowing therethrough at a reduced temperature. A regeneration subloop system having a secondary carbon packing trap is selectively connected to the primary system for isolating the main trap therefrom and connecting it to the regeneration system. Increasing the temperature of the sodium flowing through the primary trap diffuses a portion of the cesium

  19. Load following capability of CANDLE reactor by adjusting coolant operation condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Sinsuke

    2012-06-01

    The load following capability of CANDLE reactor is investigated in the condition that the control rods are unavailable. Both sodium cooled metallic fuel fast reactor (SFR) and 208Pb cooled metallic fuel fast reactor (LFR) are investigated for their performance in power rate changing by changing its coolant operation condition; either coolant flow rate or coolant inlet temperature. The change by coolant flow rate is difficult especially for SFR because the maximum temperature criteria on cladding material may be violated. The power rate can be changed for its full range easily by changing the coolant temperature at the core inlet. LFR can reduce the same amount of power rate by smaller change of temperature than SFR. However, the coolant output temperature is generally decreased for this method and the thermal efficiency becomes worse.

  20. Coolant passage heat transfer with rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajek, T. J.; Wagner, J.; Johnson, B. V.

    1986-01-01

    In current and advanced gas turbine engines, increased speeds, pressures and temperatures are used to reduce specific fuel consumption and increase thrust/weight ratios. Hence, the turbine airfoils are subjected to increased heat loads escalating the cooling requirements to satisfy life goals. The efficient use of cooling air requires that the details of local geometry and flow conditions be adequately modeled to predict local heat loads and the corresponding heat transfer coefficients. The objective of this program is to develop a heat transfer and pressure drop data base, computational fluid dynamic techniques and correlations for multi-pass rotating coolant passages with and without flow turbulators. The experimental effort is focused on the simulation of configurations and conditions expected in the blades of advanced aircraft high pressure turbines. With the use of this data base, the effects of Coriolis and buoyancy forces on the coolant side flow can be included in the design of turbine blades.

  1. Small-break loss-of-coolant accidents in the updated PIUS 600 advanced reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B.E.; Steiner, J.L.; Harmony, S.C.

    1995-09-01

    The PIUS advanced reactor is a 640-MWe pressurized water reactor developed by Asea Brown Boveri (ABB). A unique feature of the PIUS concept is the absence of mechanical control and shutdown rods. Reactivity is normally controlled by coolant boron concentration and the temperature of the moderator coolant. ABB submitted the PIUS design to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for preapplication review, and Los Alamos supported the NRC`s review effort. Baseline analyses of small-break initiators at two locations were performed with the system neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analysis code TRAC-PF1/MOD2. In addition, sensitivity studies were performed to explore the robustness of the PIUS concept to severe off-normal conditions having a very low probability of occurrence.

  2. Treatment of mixed waste coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, S.; Bowers, J.S.

    1995-02-01

    The primary processes used at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for treatment of radioactively contaminated machine coolants are industrial waste treatment and in situ carbon adsorption. These two processes simplify approaches to meeting the sanitary sewer discharge limits and subsequent Land Disposal Restriction criteria for hazardous and mixed wastes (40 CFR 268). Several relatively simple technologies are used in industrial water treatment. These technologies are considered Best Demonstrated Available Technologies, or BDAT, by the Environmental Protection Agency. The machine coolants are primarily aqueous and contain water soluble oil consisting of ethanol amine emulsifiers derived from fatty acids, both synthetic and natural. This emulsion carries away metal turnings from a part being machined on a lathe or other machining tool. When the coolant becomes spent, it contains chlorosolvents carried over from other cutting operations as well as a fair amount of tramp oil from machine bearings. This results in a multiphasic aqueous waste that requires treatment of metal and organic contaminants. During treatment, any dissolved metals are oxidized with hydrogen peroxide. Once oxidized, these metals are flocculated with ferric sulfate and precipitated with sodium hydroxide, and then the precipitate is filtered through diatomaceous earth. The emulsion is broken up by acidifying the coolant. Solvents and oils are adsorbed using powdered carbon. This carbon is easily separated from the remaining coolant by vacuum filtration.

  3. 1996 Coolant Flow Management Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hippensteele, Steven A. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The following compilation of documents includes a list of the 66 attendees, a copy of the viewgraphs presented, and a summary of the discussions held after each session at the 1996 Coolant Flow Management Workshop held at the Ohio Aerospace Institute, adjacent to the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio on December 12-13, 1996. The workshop was organized by H. Joseph Gladden and Steven A. Hippensteele of NASA Lewis Research Center. Participants in this workshop included Coolant Flow Management team members from NASA Lewis, their support service contractors, the turbine engine companies, and the universities. The participants were involved with research projects, contracts and grants relating to: (1) details of turbine internal passages, (2) computational film cooling capabilities, and (3) the effects of heat transfer on both sides. The purpose of the workshop was to assemble the team members, along with others who work in gas turbine cooling research, to discuss needed research and recommend approaches that can be incorporated into the Center's Coolant Flow Management program. The workshop was divided into three sessions: (1) Internal Coolant Passage Presentations, (2) Film Cooling Presentations, and (3) Coolant Flow Integration and Optimization. Following each session there was a group discussion period.

  4. Method for removing cesium from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOEpatents

    Colburn, R.P.

    1983-08-10

    A method of and system for removing cesium from a liquid metal reactor coolant including a carbon packing trap in the primary coolant system for absorbing a major portion of the radioactive cesium from the coolant flowing therethrough at a reduced temperature. A regeneration subloop system having a secondary carbon packing trap is selectively connected to the primary system for isolating the main trap therefrom and connecting it to the regeneration system. Increasing the temperature of the sodium flowing through the primary trap diffuses a portion of the cesium inventory thereof further into the carbon matrix while simultaneously redispersing a portion into the regeneration system for absorption at a reduced temperature by the secondary trap.

  5. Long life coolant pump technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Design concepts were investigated to improve space system coolant pump technology to be suitable for mission durations of two years and greater. These design concepts included an improved bearing system for the pump rotating elements, consisting of pressurized conical bearings. This design was satisfactorily endurance tested as was a new prototype pump built using various other improved design concepts. Based upon an overall assessment of the results of the program it is concluded that reliable coolant pumps can be designed for three year space missions.

  6. Experimental Investigation of Coolant Boiling in a Half-Heated Circular Tube - Final CRADA Report

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Wenhua; Singh, Dileep; France, David M.

    2016-11-01

    Coolant subcooled boiling in the cylinder head regions of heavy-duty vehicle engines is unavoidable at high thermal loads due to high metal temperatures. However, theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies of coolant subcooled flow boiling under these specific application conditions are generally lacking in the engineering literature. The objective of this project was to provide such much-needed information, including the coolant subcooled flow boiling characteristics and the corresponding heat transfer coefficients, through experimental investigations.

  7. COOLANT STABILIZED WITH KETONE

    DOEpatents

    Burr, J.G.; Strong, J.D.

    1961-11-21

    sion). U. S. Patent 3,009.88l. Nov. 2l, l06l. A method is given for inhibiting radiolytic damage to a polyphenyl composition undergoing nuclear irradiation, the polyphenyl composition initially consisting essentially of polyphenyls having 2 to 4 phenyl rings. The method comprises adding approximately 5 mole% anthraquinone to the polyphenyl composition. (AEC)

  8. Evaluation of engine coolants under flow boiling conditions

    SciTech Connect

    McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Stinson, C.; Gollin, M.

    1995-12-31

    An experimental program has been conducted to evaluate the heat transfer performance of two engine coolant mixtures, propylene-glycol/water and ethylene-glycol/water. In each mixture, the concentration was 50-50 by volume. Performance in this situation is defined as the ability to maintain a lower surface temperature for a given flux. The heat transfer regimes considered covered the range from single phase forced convection through saturated flow boiling. Results show that both coolants perform satisfactorily. However, in single phase convection, ethylene-glycol/water is slightly more effective. Conversely, for sub-cooled nucleate boiling and saturated boiling, propylene-glycol/water results in slightly lower metal temperatures.

  9. Vertical reactor coolant pump instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    The investigation conducted at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant to determine and correct increasing vibrations in the vertical reactor coolant pumps is described. Diagnostic procedures to determine the vibration causes and evaluate the corrective measures taken are also described.

  10. The international surface temperature initiative's global land surface databank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrimore, J. H.; Rennie, J.; Gambi de Almeida, W.; Christy, J.; Flannery, M.; Gleason, B.; Klein-Tank, A.; Mhanda, A.; Ishihara, K.; Lister, D.; Menne, M. J.; Razuvaev, V.; Renom, M.; Rusticucci, M.; Tandy, J.; Thorne, P. W.; Worley, S.

    2013-09-01

    The International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) consists of an end-to-end process for land surface air temperature analyses. The foundation is the establishment of a global land surface Databank. This builds upon the groundbreaking efforts of scientists in the 1980s and 1990s. While using many of their principles, a primary aim is to improve aspects including data provenance, version control, openness and transparency, temporal and spatial coverage, and improved methods for merging disparate sources. The initial focus is on daily and monthly timescales. A Databank Working Group is focused on establishing Stage-0 (original observation forms) through Stage-3 data (merged dataset without quality control). More than 35 sources of data have already been added and efforts have now turned to development of the initial version of the merged dataset. Methods have been established for ensuring to the extent possible the provenance of all data from the point of observation through all intermediate steps to final archive and access. Databank submission procedures were designed to make the process of contributing data as easy as possible. All data are provided openly and without charge. We encourage the use of these data and feedback from interested users.

  11. Temperature induced smoothing of initially fractal grain boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Streitenberger, P.; Foerster, D.; Kolbe, G.; Veit, P.

    1996-01-01

    Recently the effect of serrated or rugged grain boundaries on the mechanical properties of alloys and the numerical characterization of such a geometrically irregular microstructure by means of the concept of fractal geometry has attracted great attention. It has been reported that the generation of serrated or rugged grain boundaries, e.g. by cold work or heat treatment, is one of the most effective methods to improve the high-temperature strength of alloys, especially the creep rupture properties. In the present paper, for the first time, measurements of the change in the roughness of initially fractal grain boundaries after annealing are presented. The experimental results are discussed on the basis of a coarsening model for self-similar interfaces, which predicts a dependency of the smoothing kinetics of the grain boundaries on their initially fractal dimension.

  12. A method for measuring cooling air flow in base coolant passages of rotating turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Pollack, F. G.

    1975-01-01

    Method accurately determines actual coolant mass flow rate in cooling passages of rotating turbine blades. Total and static pressures are measured in blade base coolant passages. Mass flow rates are calculated from these measurements of pressure, measured temperature and known area.

  13. Fracture mechanics evaluation for at typical PWR primary coolant pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.; Shimizu, S.; Ogata, Y.

    1997-04-01

    For the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan, cast duplex stainless steel which is excellent in terms of strength, corrosion resistance, and weldability has conventionally been used. The cast duplex stainless steel contains the ferrite phase in the austenite matrix and thermal aging after long term service is known to change its material characteristics. It is considered appropriate to apply the methodology of elastic plastic fracture mechanics for an evaluation of the integrity of the primary coolant piping after thermal aging. Therefore we evaluated the integrity of the primary coolant piping for an initial PWR plant in Japan by means of elastic plastic fracture mechanics. The evaluation results show that the crack will not grow into an unstable fracture and the integrity of the piping will be secured, even when such through wall crack length is assumed to equal the fatigue crack growth length for a service period of up to 60 years.

  14. Effects of the reactor-coolant pumps during a small-break loss-of-coolant accident

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    TRAC-PD2 calculations indicate that more coolant mass remains in the system when the reactor coolant pumps are left in operation following a small cold-leg break. The analyses were performed for a Westinghouse plant (Zion-1) to help determine whether to trip the pumps at high-pressure injection initiation (the present operator directive), to trip the pumps at some later time in the transient, or to leave the pumps running indefinitely. The loop seals' behavior and the system refill characteristics primarily determined the results. 9 figures.

  15. Analysis of automobile radiator performance with ethylene glycol/water and propylene glycol/water coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Gollin, M.; Bjork, D.

    1996-12-31

    The heat transfer and hydraulic performance of the following coolants was examined in five automobile radiators in a wind tunnel: 100% water; 100% propylene glycol; 70/30 propylene glycol/water (volume); 50/50 propylene glycol/water (volume); 70/30 ethylene glycol/water (volume); 50/50 ethylene glycol water (volume). The results of these studies are presented to demonstrate the relative performance of these coolant mixtures in terms of heat transfer, coolant pressure drop and radiator effectiveness for a range of coolant and air flowrates. It is concluded that the most effective of the coolants in transferring heat in the test radiators was water, followed by 50/50 ethylene glycol/water, 50/50 propylene glycol/water, 70/30 ethylene glycol/water, 70/30 propylene glycol and, finally, 100% propylene glycol. There will be a negligible differences between the performance of a radiator using a 50/50 propylene glycol/water coolant and a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water coolant. It is estimated that, with 50/50 propylene glycol coolant replacing 50/50 ethylene glycol/water, the temperature of the coolant throughout the cooling loop will increase by approximately 5%. The effect that the flow regime (fully turbulent/transition/laminar) has upon the performance of a given radiator/coolant combination was found to be significant. The design of the coolant passages in radiators can affect the onset of fully turbulent flow in the coolant passages in a radiator.

  16. Transpiration cooling using air as a coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Kikkawa, Shinzo; Senda, Mamoru; Sakagushi, Katsuji; Shibutani, Hideki )

    1993-02-01

    Transpiration cooling is one of the most effective techniques for protecting a surface exposed to a high-temperature gas stream. In the present paper, the transpiration cooling effectiveness was measured under steady state. Air as a coolant was transpired from the surface of a porous plate exposed to hot gas stream, and the transpiration rate was varied in the range of 0.001 [approximately] 0.006. The transpiration cooling effectiveness was evaluated by measuring the temperature of the upper surface of the plate. Also, a theoretical study was performed and it was clarified that the effectiveness increases with increasing transpiration rate and heat-transfer coefficient of the upper surface. Further, the effectiveness was expressed as a function of the blowing parameter only. The agreement between the experimental results and theoretical ones was satisfactory.

  17. YNPS main coolant system decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, E.T.

    1996-12-31

    The Yankee Nuclear Power Station (YNPS) located in Rowe, Massachusetts, is a four-loop pressurized water reactor that permanently ceased power operation on February 26, 1992. Decommissioning activities, including steam generator removal, reactor internals removal, and system dismantlement, have been in progress since the shutdown. One of the most significant challenges for YNPS in 1996 was the performance of the main coolant system chemical decontamination. This paper describes the objectives, challenges, and achievements involved in the planning and implementation of the chemical decontamination.

  18. INHIBITING THE POLYMERIZATION OF NUCLEAR COOLANTS

    DOEpatents

    Colichman, E.L.

    1959-10-20

    >The formation of new reactor coolants which contain an additive tbat suppresses polymerization of the primary dissoclation free radical products of the pyrolytic and radiation decomposition of the organic coolants is described. The coolants consist of polyphenyls and condensed ring compounds having from two to about four carbon rings and from 0.1 to 5% of a powdered metal hydride chosen from the group consisting of the group IIA and IVA dispersed in the hydrocarbon.

  19. Cleaning of aluminum after machining with coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, B.

    1995-07-01

    An x-ray photoemission spectroscopic study was undertaken to compare the cleaning of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) aluminum extrusion storage ring vacuum chambers after machining with and without water soluble coolants. While there was significant contamination left by the coolants, the cleaning process was capable of removing the residue. The variation of the surface and near surface composition of samples machined either dry or with coolants was negligible after cleaning. The use of such coolants in the machining process is therefore recommended.

  20. Engine coolant compatibility with the nonmetals found in automotive cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Greaney, J.P.; Smith, R.A.

    1999-08-01

    High temperature, short term immersion testing was used to determine the impact of propylene and ethylene glycol base coolants on the physical properties of a variety of elastomeric and thermoplastic materials found in automotive cooling systems. The materials tested are typically used in cooling system hoses, radiator end tanks, and water pump seals. Traditional phosphate or borate-buffered silicated coolants as well as extended-life organic acid formulations were included. A modified ASTM protocol was used to carry out the testing both in the laboratory and at an independent testing facility. Post-test fluid chemistry including an analysis of any solids which may have formed is also reported. Coolant impact on elastomer integrity as well as elastomer-induced changes in fluid chemistry were found to be independent of the coolant`s glycol base.

  1. Corrosion of structural materials by lead-based reactor coolants.

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, D. P.; Leibowitz, L.; Maroni, V. A.; McDeavitt, S. M.; Raraz, A. G.

    2000-11-16

    Advanced nuclear reactor design has, in recent years, focused increasingly on the use of heavy-liquid-metal coolants, such as lead and lead-bismuth eutectic. Similarly, programs on accelerator-based transmutation systems have also considered the use of such coolants. Russian experience with heavy-metal coolants for nuclear reactors has lent credence to the validity of this approach. Of significant concern is the compatibility of structural materials with these coolants. We have used a thermal convection-based test method to allow exposure of candidate materials to molten lead and lead-bismuth flowing under a temperature gradient. The gradient was deemed essential in evaluating the behavior of the test materials in that should preferential dissolution of components of the test material occur we would expect dissolution in the hotter regions and deposition in the colder regions, thus promoting material transport. Results from the interactions of a Si-rich mild steel alloy, AISI S5, and a ferritic-martensitic stainless steel, HT-9, with the molten lead-bismuth are presented.

  2. Cleaning of uranium vs machine coolant formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, S.S.; Byrd, V.R.; Simandl, R.F.

    1984-10-01

    This study compares methods for cleaning uranium chips and the residues left on chips from alternate machine coolants based on propylene glycol-water mixtures with either borax, ammonium tetraborate, or triethanolamine tetraborate added as a nuclear poison. Residues left on uranium surfaces machined with perchloroethylene-mineral oil coolant and on surfaces machined with the borax-containing alternate coolant were also compared. In comparing machined surfaces, greater chlorine contamination was found on the surface of the perchloroethylene-mineral oil machined surfaces, but slightly greater oxidation was found on the surfaces machined with the alternate borax-containing coolant. Overall, the differences were small and a change to the alternate coolant does not appear to constitute a significant threat to the integrity of machined uranium parts.

  3. Numerical simulation of PWR response to a small break LOCA (loss-of-coolant accident) with reactor coolant pumps operating

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.P.; Dobbe, C.A.; Bayless, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    Calculations have been made of the response of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) during a small-break, loss-of-coolant accident with the reactor coolant pumps (RCPs) operating. This study was conducted, as part of a comprehensive project, to assess the relationship between measurable RCP parameters, such as motor power or current, and fluid density, both local (at the RCP inlet) and global (average reactor coolant system). Additionally, the efficacy of using these RCP parameters, together with fluid temperature, to identify an off-nominal transient as either a LOCA, a heatup transient, or a cooldown transient and to follow recovery from the transient was assessed. The RELAP4 and RELAP5 computer codes were used with three independent sets of RCP, two-phase degradation multipliers. These multipliers were based on data obtained in two-phase flow conditions for the Semiscale, LOFT, and Creare/Combustion Engineering (CE)/Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) pumps, respectively. Two reference PWRs were used in this study: Zion, a four-loop, 1100-MWe, Westinghouse plant operated by Commonwealth Edison Co. in Zion, Illinois and Bellefonte, a two-by-four loop, 1213 MWe, Babcock and Wilcox designed plant being built by the Tennessee Valley Authority in Scottsboro, Alabama. The results from this study showed that RCP operation resulted in an approximately homogeneous reactor coolant system and that this result was independent of reference plant, computer code, or two-phase RCP head degradation multiplier used in the calculation.

  4. Solar receiver protection means and method for loss of coolant flow

    DOEpatents

    Glasgow, L.E.

    1980-11-24

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for preventing a solar receiver utilizing a flowing coolant liquid for removing heat energy therefrom from overheating after a loss of coolant flow. Solar energy is directed to the solar receiver by a plurality of reflectors which rotate so that they direct solar energy to the receiver as the earth rotates. The apparatus disclosed includes a first storage tank for containing a first predetermined volume of the coolant and a first predetermined volume of gas at a first predetermined pressure. The first storage tank includes an inlet and outlet through which the coolant can enter and exit. The apparatus also includes a second storage tank for containing a second predetermined volume of the coolant and a second predetermined volume of the gas at a second predetermined pressure, the second storage tank having an inlet through which the coolant can enter. The first and second storage tanks are in fluid communication with each other through the solar receiver. The first and second predetermined coolant volumes, the first and second gas volumes, and the first and second predetermined pressures are chosen so that a predetermined volume of the coolant liquid at a predetermined rate profile will flow from the first storage tank through the solar receiver and into the second storage tank. Thus, in the event of a power failure so that coolant flow ceases and the solar reflectors stop rotating, a flow rate maintained by the pressure differential between the first and second storage tanks will be sufficient to maintain the coolant in the receiver below a predetermined upper temperature until the solar reflectors become defocused with respect to the solar receiver due to the earth's rotation.

  5. Solar receiver protection means and method for loss of coolant flow

    DOEpatents

    Glasgow, Lyle E.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and method for preventing a solar receiver (12) utilizing a flowing coolant liquid for removing heat energy therefrom from overheating after a loss of coolant flow. Solar energy is directed to the solar receiver (12) by a plurality of reflectors (16) which rotate so that they direct solar energy to the receiver (12) as the earth rotates. The apparatus disclosed includes a first storage tank (30) for containing a first predetermined volume of the coolant and a first predetermined volume of gas at a first predetermined pressure. The first storage tank (30) includes an inlet and outlet through which the coolant can enter and exit. The apparatus also includes a second storage tank (34) for containing a second predetermined volume of the coolant and a second predetermined volume of the gas at a second predetermined pressure, the second storage tank (34) having an inlet through which the coolant can enter. The first and second storage tanks (30) and (34) are in fluid communication with each other through the solar receiver (12). The first and second predetermined coolant volumes, the first and second gas volumes, and the first and second predetermined pressures are chosen so that a predetermined volume of the coolant liquid at a predetermined rate profile will flow from the first storage tank (30) through the solar receiver (12) and into the second storage tank (34). Thus, in the event of a power failure so that coolant flow ceases and the solar reflectors (16) stop rotating, a flow rate maintained by the pressure differential between the first and second storage tanks (30) and (34) will be sufficient to maintain the coolant in the receiver (12) below a predetermined upper temperature until the solar reflectors (16) become defocused with respect to the solar receiver (12) due to the earth's rotation.

  6. Coolant Design System for Liquid Propellant Aerospike Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Miranda; Branam, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Liquid propellant rocket engines burn at incredibly high temperatures making it difficult to design an effective coolant system. These particular engines prove to be extremely useful by powering the rocket with a variable thrust that is ideal for space travel. When combined with aerospike engine nozzles, which provide maximum thrust efficiency, this class of rockets offers a promising future for rocketry. In order to troubleshoot the problems that high combustion chamber temperatures pose, this research took a computational approach to heat analysis. Chambers milled into the combustion chamber walls, lined by a copper cover, were tested for their efficiency in cooling the hot copper wall. Various aspect ratios and coolants were explored for the maximum wall temperature by developing our own MATLAB code. The code uses a nodal temperature analysis with conduction and convection equations and assumes no internal heat generation. This heat transfer research will show oxygen is a better coolant than water, and higher aspect ratios are less efficient at cooling. This project funded by NSF REU Grant 1358991.

  7. Analysis of coolant entrance boundary shape of porous region to control cooling along exit boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, R.; Snyder, A.

    1983-01-01

    A cooled porous region has a plane surface exposed to a specified spatially varying heat flux. The coolant leaves the region through this surface, and it is desired to control the flow distribution to maintain a specified uniform surface temperature. This is accomplished by having the coolant entrance surface shaped to provide in the region the necessary variation of path length and, hence, flow resistance. The surface shape at the coolant entrance is found by solving a Cauchy boundary value problem. An exact solution is obtained that will deal with a wide variety of heating distributions for both two- and three-dimensional shapes.

  8. Thermal stratification potential in rocket engine coolant channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kacynski, Kenneth J.

    1992-01-01

    The potential for rocket engine coolant channel flow stratification was computationally studied. A conjugate, 3-D, conduction/advection analysis code (SINDA/FLUINT) was used. Core fluid temperatures were predicted to vary by over 360 K across the coolant channel, at the throat section, indicating that the conventional assumption of a fully mixed fluid may be extremely inaccurate. Because of the thermal stratification of the fluid, the walls exposed to the rocket engine exhaust gases will be hotter than an assumption of full mixing would imply. In this analysis, wall temperatures were 160 K hotter in the turbulent mixing case than in the full mixing case. The discrepancy between the full mixing and turbulent mixing analyses increased with increasing heat transfer. Both analysis methods predicted identical channel resistances at the coolant inlet, but in the stratified analysis the thermal resistance was negligible. The implications are significant. Neglect of thermal stratification could lead to underpredictions in nozzle wall temperatures. Even worse, testing at subscale conditions may be inadequate for modeling conditions that would exist in a full scale engine.

  9. Bi-coolant flat plate solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chon, W. Y.; Green, L. L.

    The feasibility study of a flat plate solar collector which heats air and water concurrently or separately was carried out. Air flows above the collector absorber plate, while water flows in tubes soldered or brazed beneath the plate. The collector efficiencies computed for the flow of both air and water are compared with those for the flow of a single coolant. The results show that the bi-coolant collector efficiency computed for the entire year in Buffalo, New York is higher than the single-coolant collector efficiency, although the efficiency of the water collector is higher during the warmer months.

  10. Coolant mass flow equalizer for nuclear fuel

    DOEpatents

    Betten, Paul R.

    1978-01-01

    The coolant mass flow distribution in a liquid metal cooled reactor is enhanced by restricting flow in sub-channels defined in part by the peripheral fuel elements of a fuel assembly. This flow restriction, which results in more coolant flow in interior sub-channels, is achieved through the use of a corrugated liner positioned between the bundle of fuel elements and the inner wall of the fuel assembly coolant duct. The corrugated liner is expandable to accommodate irradiation induced growth of fuel assembly components.

  11. Some Thermophysical Properties of Blood Components and Coolants for Frozen Blood Shipping Containers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    AD-A216 099 HSD-TR-89-027 SOME THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BLOOD COMPONENTS AND COOLANTS FOR FROZEN BLOOD SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ettekhar, Jahan G...obsolete SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE SUMMARY Thermophysical properties of some coolants and blood components at low temperatures were investigated...Heat of Fusion of Blood Components 33 2 Melting Point and Latent Heat of Fusion of Aqueous Solutions of Ethylene Glycol (Dowtherm SR-l) 33 3 Melting

  12. Peculiarities of evolution of shock waves generated by boiling coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, M. V.; Vozhakov, I. S.; Lezhnin, S. I.; Pribaturin, N. A.

    2016-11-01

    Simulation of compression wave generation and evolution at the disk target was performed for the case of explosive-type boiling of coolant; the boiling is initiated by endwall rupture of a high-pressure pipeline. The calculations were performed for shock wave amplitude at different times and modes of pipe rupture. The simulated pressure of a target-reflected shock wave is different from the theoretical value for ideal gas; this discrepancy between simulation and theory becomes lower at higher distances of flow from the nozzle exit. Comparative simulation study was performed for flow of two-phase coolant with account for slip flow effect and for different sizes of droplets. Simulation gave the limiting droplet size when the single-velocity homogeneous flow model is valid, i.e., the slip flow effect is insignificant.

  13. 40 CFR 1065.745 - Coolants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... without rust inhibitors. (c) For coolants allowed in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, you may use rust inhibitors and additives required for lubricity, up to the levels that the additive...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.745 - Coolants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... without rust inhibitors. (c) For coolants allowed in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, you may use rust inhibitors and additives required for lubricity, up to the levels that the additive...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.745 - Coolants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... without rust inhibitors. (c) For coolants allowed in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, you may use rust inhibitors and additives required for lubricity, up to the levels that the additive...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.745 - Coolants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... without rust inhibitors. (c) For coolants allowed in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, you may use rust inhibitors and additives required for lubricity, up to the levels that the additive...

  17. Application of CFX-10 to the Investigation of RPV Coolant Mixing in VVER Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, Fabio; Melideo, Daniele; Terzuoli, Fulvio; D'Auria, Francesco

    2006-07-01

    Coolant mixing phenomena occurring in the pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor constitute one of the main objectives of investigation by researchers concerned with nuclear reactor safety. For instance, mixing plays a relevant role in reactivity-induced accidents initiated by de-boration or boron dilution events, followed by transport of a de-borated slug into the vessel of a pressurized water reactor. Another example is constituted by temperature mixing, which may sensitively affect the consequences of a pressurized thermal shock scenario. Predictive analysis of mixing phenomena is strongly improved by the availability of computational tools able to cope with the inherent three-dimensionality of such problem, like system codes with three-dimensional capabilities, and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. The present paper deals with numerical analyses of coolant mixing in the reactor pressure vessel of a VVER-1000 reactor, performed by the ANSYS CFX-10 CFD code. In particular, the 'swirl' effect that has been observed to take place in the downcomer of such kind of reactor has been addressed, with the aim of assessing the capability of the codes to predict that effect, and to understand the reasons for its occurrence. Results have been compared against experimental data from V1000CT-2 Benchmark. Moreover, a boron mixing problem has been investigated, in the hypothesis that a de-borated slug, transported by natural circulation, enters the vessel. Sensitivity analyses have been conducted on some geometrical features, model parameters and boundary conditions. (authors)

  18. Shock initiation of explosives: Temperature spikes and growth spurts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Will P.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2016-08-01

    When energetic materials are subjected to high-velocity impacts, the first steps in the shock-to-detonation transition are the creation, ignition, and growth of hot spots. We used 1-3.2 km s-1 laser-launched flyer plates to impact powdered octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine, a powerful explosive, and monitored hundreds of emission bursts with an apparatus that determined temperature and emissivity at all times. The time-dependent volume fraction of hot spots was determined by measuring the time-dependent emissivity. After the shock, most hot spots extinguished, but the survivors smoldered for hundreds of nanoseconds until their temperatures spiked, causing a hot spot growth spurt. Depending on the impact duration, the growth spurts could be as fast as 300 ns and as slow as 13 μs.

  19. Initial development of high-temperature titanium silicide alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; Lee, E.H.; Henson, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanical and metallurgical properties of Ti/sub 5/Si/sub 3/ and its alloys were studied for the purpose of developing high-temperature silicides for structural use. Titanium silicides are extremely hard and brittle. Microcracks that formed transgranularly were observed in the silicide and its alloys, indicating a poor cleavage strength for Ti/sub 5/Si/sub 3/. Microalloying with boron and carbon gave no apparent beneficial effect. The tendency for cracking can be reduced by lowering the silicon content or by alloying with 2 to 4% Cr and 4% Zr. In particular, almost no cracks were observed in the alloy Ti-33Si-4Zr-4Cr (at. %). Titanium silicide has a hardness of 980 dph. The hardness shows a slight increase with zirconium additions and a decrease with chromium additions. Tensile tests indicate that the silicide and its alloys are brittle even at 1000/degree/C. All alloys fractured with a strength less than 100 MPa. Among the silicides tested, the alloys containing 4 to 8% Cr have better fracture strength. The fracture mode of the silicide alloys is mainly transgranular with a cleavage appearance. The silicides showed basically a parabolic oxidation rate at 800/degree/C, with an oxidation rate higher by an order of magnitude than that of nickel aluminides. 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. A Case Study Of Applying Infrared Thermography To Identify A Coolant Leak In A Municipal Ice Skating Rink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Jay R.

    1989-03-01

    This paper deals with the application of infrared imaging radiometry as a diagnostic inspection tool for locating a concealed leak in the refrigeration system supplying glycol coolant to the arena floor of an ice skating rink in a municipal coliseum facility. Scanning approximately 10 miles of black iron tubing embedded in the arena floor resulted in locating a leak within the supply/return side of the system. A secondary disclosure was a restriction to normal coolant flow in some delivery loops caused by sludge build-up. Specific inspection procedures were established to enhance temperature differentials suitable for good thermal imaging. One procedure utilized the temperature and pressure of the city water supply; a second the availability of 130F hot water from the facility's boiler system; and a third the building's own internal ambient temperature. Destructive testing and other data collection equipment confirmed the thermographic findings revealing a section of corrosion damaged pipe. Repair and flushing of the system was quickly completed with a minimum of construction costs and inconvenience. No financial losses were incurred due to the interruption of scheduled revenue events. Probable cause for the shutdown condition was attributed to a flawed installation decision made 15 years earlier during the initial construction stage.

  1. TACT1- TRANSIENT THERMAL ANALYSIS OF A COOLED TURBINE BLADE OR VANE EQUIPPED WITH A COOLANT INSERT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaugler, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    As turbine-engine core operating conditions become more severe, designers must develop more effective means of cooling blades and vanes. In order to design reliable, cooled turbine blades, advanced transient thermal calculation techniques are required. The TACT1 computer program was developed to perform transient and steady-state heat-transfer and coolant-flow analyses for cooled blades, given the outside hot-gas boundary condition, the coolant inlet conditions, the geometry of the blade shell, and the cooling configuration. TACT1 can analyze turbine blades, or vanes, equipped with a central coolant-plenum insert from which coolant-air impinges on the inner surface of the blade shell. Coolant-side heat-transfer coefficients are calculated with the heat transfer mode at each station being user specified as either impingement with crossflow, forced convection channel flow, or forced convection over pin fins. A limited capability to handle film cooling is also available in the program. The TACT1 program solves for the blade temperature distribution using a transient energy equation for each node. The nodal energy balances are linearized, one-dimensional, heat-conduction equations which are applied at the wall-outer-surface node, at the junction of the cladding and the metal node, and at the wall-inner-surface node. At the mid-metal node a linear, three-dimensional, heat-conduction equation is used. Similarly, the coolant pressure distribution is determined by solving the set of transfer momentum equations for the one-dimensional flow between adjacent fluid nodes. In the coolant channel, energy and momentum equations for one-dimensional compressible flow, including friction and heat transfer, are used for the elemental channel length between two coolant nodes. The TACT1 program first obtains a steady-state solution using iterative calculations to obtain convergence of stable temperatures, pressures, coolant-flow split, and overall coolant mass balance. Transient

  2. Viscosity of alumina nanoparticles dispersed in car engine coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Kole, Madhusree; Dey, T.K.

    2010-09-15

    The present paper, describes our experimental results on the viscosity of the nanofluid prepared by dispersing alumina nanoparticles (<50 nm) in commercial car coolant. The nanofluid prepared with calculated amount of oleic acid (surfactant) was tested to be stable for more than 80 days. The viscosity of the nanofluids is measured both as a function of alumina volume fraction and temperature between 10 and 50 C. While the pure base fluid display Newtonian behavior over the measured temperature, it transforms to a non-Newtonian fluid with addition of a small amount of alumina nanoparticles. Our results show that viscosity of the nanofluid increases with increasing nanoparticle concentration and decreases with increase in temperature. Most of the frequently used classical models severely under predict the measured viscosity. Volume fraction dependence of the nanofluid viscosity, however, is predicted fairly well on the basis of a recently reported theoretical model for nanofluids that takes into account the effect of Brownian motion of nanoparticles in the nanofluid. The temperature dependence of the viscosity of engine coolant based alumina nanofluids obeys the empirical correlation of the type: log ({mu}{sub nf}) = A exp(BT), proposed earlier by Namburu et al. (author)

  3. On-Line Coolant Chemistry Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    LM Bachman

    2006-07-19

    Impurities in the gas coolant of the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) can provide valuable indications of problems in the reactor and an overall view of system health. By monitoring the types and amounts of these impurities, much can be implied regarding the status of the reactor plant. However, a preliminary understanding of the expected impurities is important before evaluating prospective detection and monitoring systems. Currently, a spectroscopy system is judged to hold the greatest promise for monitoring the impurities of interest in the coolant because it minimizes the number of entry and exit points to the plant and provides the ability to detect impurities down to the 1 ppm level.

  4. Effect of initial product temperature and initial pH on foaming time during vacuum evaporation of liquid whole eggs.

    PubMed

    Girton, A R; Macneil, J H; Anantheswaran, R C

    1999-10-01

    During earlier studies on vacuum concentration of liquid egg white, the phenomena of foaming during the initial stages of the process were reported. In these studies, it was also shown that no concentration took place during the foaming period that varied from test to test. To minimize the total process time, this present study was undertaken to investigate what variables contributed to foaming, how they could be controlled, and what effect they had on product quality and functional properties. This study investigated the relationships among initial product temperature, initial pH, and foaming of liquid whole eggs. Two temperatures (9 and 20 C) and three pH levels (6.5, 7.3, and 8.5) were studied using a vacuum evaporation system with a maximum vacuum of 5 kPa. Tests showed that higher initial pH levels had decreased foaming times. At the end of foaming experiments, the liquid whole egg was evaluated to determine the extent of functional property change during foaming. A decrease in foaming time resulted in a decrease in whip time. The cakes made from the processed liquid whole egg had larger volumes than those from the unprocessed control. Furthermore, the liquid whole egg, which foamed the longest, had higher (P < 0.05) cake volumes. Our current experiments also verified our earlier findings that no product concentration takes place during the foaming process.

  5. Vegetable oils: liquid coolants for solar heating and cooling applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ingley, H A

    1980-02-01

    It has been proposed that vegetable oils, renewable byproducts of agriculture processes, be investigated for possible use as liquid coolants. The major thrust of the project was to investigate several thermophysical properties of the four vegetable oils selected. Vapor pressures, specific heat, viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity were determined over a range of temperatures for corn, soybean, peanut, and cottonseed oil. ASTM standard methods were used for these determinations. In addition, chemical analyses were performed on samples of each oil. The samples were collected before and after each experiment so that any changes in composition could be noted. The tests included iodine number, fatty acid, and moisture content determination. (MHR)

  6. Reactor coolant pump shaft seal stability during station blackout

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, D B; Hill, R C; Wensel, R G

    1987-05-01

    Results are presented from an investigation into the behavior of Reactor Coolant Pump shaft seals during a potential station blackout (loss of all ac power) at a nuclear power plant. The investigation assumes loss of cooling to the seals and focuses on the effect of high temperature on polymer seals located in the shaft seal assemblies, and the identification of parameters having the most influence on overall hydraulic seal performance. Predicted seal failure thresholds are presented for a range of station blackout conditions and shaft seal geometries.

  7. Estimation of surface heat flux and surface temperature during inverse heat conduction under varying spray parameters and sample initial temperature.

    PubMed

    Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Aqeel-ur-Rehman; Wang, Hong; Zubair, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm) 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck's sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF) within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m(2) was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa.

  8. Estimation of Surface Heat Flux and Surface Temperature during Inverse Heat Conduction under Varying Spray Parameters and Sample Initial Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Aqeel-ur-Rehman; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm) 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck's sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF) within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m2 was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa. PMID:24977219

  9. Emergency cooling analysis for the loss of coolant malfunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peoples, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    This report examines the dynamic response of a conceptual space power fast-spectrum lithium cooled reactor to the loss of coolant malfunction and several emergency cooling concepts. The results show that, following the loss of primary coolant, the peak temperatures of the center most 73 fuel elements can range from 2556 K to the region of the fuel melting point of 3122 K within 3600 seconds after the start of the accident. Two types of emergency aftercooling concepts were examined: (1) full core open loop cooling and (2) partial core closed loop cooling. The full core open loop concept is a one pass method of supplying lithium to the 247 fuel pins. This method can maintain fuel temperature below the 1611 K transient damage limit but requires a sizable 22,680-kilogram auxiliary lithium supply. The second concept utilizes a redundant internal closed loop to supply lithium to only the central area of each hexagonal fuel array. By using this method and supplying lithium to only the triflute region, fuel temperatures can be held well below the transient damage limit.

  10. NGNP Reactor Coolant Chemistry Control Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Castle

    2010-11-01

    The main focus of this paper is to identify the most desirable ranges of impurity levels in the primary coolant to optimize component life in the primary circuit of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), which will either be a prismatic block or pebble bed reactor.

  11. Design criteria for Waste Coolant Processing Facility and preliminary proposal 722 for Waste Coolant Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-27

    This document contains the design criteria to be used by the architect-engineer (A-E) in the performance of Titles 1 and 2 design for the construction of a facility to treat the biodegradable, water soluble, waste machine coolant generated at the Y-12 plant. The purpose of this facility is to reduce the organic loading of coolants prior to final treatment at the proposed West Tank Farm Treatment Facility.

  12. Review of cladding-coolant interactions during LWR accident transients

    SciTech Connect

    Hobson, D.O.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the coolant-cladding interactions that can take place during the design basis loss-of-coolant accident and the Three Mile Island loss-of-coolant accident are analyzed. The physical manifestations of the interactions are quite similar, but the time sequences involved can cause very different end results. These results are described and a listing is given of the main research programs that are involved in coolant-cladding interaction research.

  13. On detonation initiation by a temperature gradient for a detailed chemical reaction models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberman, M. A.; Kiverin, A. D.; Ivanov, M. F.

    2011-04-01

    The evolution from a temperature gradient to a detonation is investigated for combustion mixture whose chemistry is governed by a detailed chemical kinetics. We show that a detailed chemical reaction model has a profound effect on the spontaneous wave concept for detonation initiation by a gradient of reactivity. The evolution to detonation due to a temperature gradient is considered for hydrogen-oxygen and hydrogen-air mixtures at different initial pressures. It is shown that the minimal length of the temperature gradient for which a detonation can be ignited is much larger than that predicted from a one-step chemical model.

  14. Dynamic Fracture Initiation Toughness of a Gamma (Met-PX) Titanium Aluminide at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shazly, Mostafa; Prakash, Vikas; Draper, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Recently, a new generation of titanium aluminide alloy named Gamma-Met PX (GKSS, Geesthacht, Germany) has been developed with better rolling and postrolling characteristics. Previous work on this alloy has shown the material to have higher strengths at room and elevated temperatures when compared with other gamma titanium aluminides. In particular, this new alloy has shown increased ductility at elevated temperatures under both quasistatic and high-strain-rate uniaxial compressive loading. However, its high-strain-rate tensile ductility at room and elevated temperatures is limited to ~1 pct. In the present article, the results of a study investigating the effects of the loading rate and test temperature on the dynamic fracture initiation toughness in Gamma-Met PX are presented. A modified split Hopkinson pressure bar (MSHPB) was used along with high-speed photography, to determine the dynamic fracture initiation toughness. Three-point-bend fracture tests were conducted at impact speeds in the range 1 to 3.6 m/s and at test temperatures up to 1200 °C. Furthermore, the effect of long-time high-temperature air exposure on the fracture toughness was investigated. The results show that the dynamic fracture initiation toughness decreases at test temperatures beyond 600 °C. Moreover, the dynamic fracture initiation toughness was found to decrease with increasing exposure time. The reasons behind this drop are analyzed and discussed.

  15. Detonation Initiation by a Temperature Gradient for a Detailed Chemical Reaction Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberman, Michael; Kiverin, Alexey; Chukalovsky, Alexander; Ivanov, Mikhail

    2011-04-01

    The evolution from a temperature gradient to a detonation is investigated using high resolution numerical simulations for combustion mixture whose chemistry is governed by a detailed chemical kinetics. We employ a model representing an initial linear temperature gradient in the fuel. Emphasis is on comparing the results with previous studies that used simple one-step kinetics. It is shown that the evolution to detonation from temperature nonuniformities is considerably different for one-step kinetics models than for chain-branching kinetic models and it is different in different fuels for the same initial conditions. A detailed chemical model has a profound effect on the validity of Zel'dovich's spontaneous wave concept for detonation initiation by a gradient of reactivity. The evolution to detonation from a temperature gradient is considered for hydrogen-air and methane-air mixtures at different initial pressures. The analysis shows that for a detailed chemical kinetics the temperature gradients, which was thought to appear in the form of hot spots and the like, are not satisfy the criteria to initiate detonation, and the gradient mechanism can not be origin of the deflagration-to-detonation transition.

  16. Study of coolant activation and dose rates with flow rate and power perturbations in pool-type research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mirza, N.M.; Mirza, S.M.; Ahmad, N. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on a computer code using the multigroup diffusion theory based LEOPARD and ODMUG programs that has been developed to calculate the activity in the coolant leaving the core of a pool-type research reactor. Using this code, the dose rates at various locations along the coolant path with varying coolant flow rate and reactor power perturbations are determined. A flow rate decrease from 1000 to 145 m{sup 3}/h is considered. The results indicate that a flow rate decrease leads to an increase in the coolant outlet temperature, which affects the neutron group constants and hence the group fluxes. The activity in the coolant leaving the core increases with flow rate decrease. However, at the inlet of the holdup tank, the total dose rate first increases, then passes through a maximum at {approximately} 500 m{sup 3}/h, and finally decreases with flow rate decrease. The activity at the outlet of the holdup tank is mainly due to {sup 24}Na and {sup 56}Mn, and it increases by {approximately} 2% when the flow rate decreases from 1000 to 145 m{sup 3}/h. In an accidental power rise at constant flow rate, the activity in the coolant increases, and the dose rates at all the points along the coolant path show a slight nonlinear rise as the reactor power density increases.

  17. Vibrations of rectangular plates with moderately large initial deflections at elevated temperatures using finite element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, C. C.

    1990-01-01

    A finite-element formulation is developed for the free vibration of rectangular plates which are under the influence of moderately large stress-free initial deflections and large thermal deflections. The von Karman nonlinear strain-displacement relations are used to account for the thermal deflections. The plates are thin, isotropic, and Hookean in nature. The temperature imposed on the plate is assumed to be constant through the thickness of the plate. Uniform and sinusoidal temperature distributions are studied. The material properties of the plates are temperature-dependent due to the relatively high temperatures imposed on the plates.

  18. Surface Treatment to Improve Corrosion Resistance in Lead-Alloy Coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Todd R. Allen; Kumar Sridharan; McLean T. Machut; Lizhen Tan

    2007-08-29

    One of the six proposed advanced reactor designs of the Generation IV Initiative, the Leadcooled Fast Reactor (LFR) possesses many characteristics that make it a desirable candidate for future nuclear energy production and responsible actinide management. These characteristics include favorable heat transfer, fluid dynamics, and neutronic performance compared to other candidate coolants. However, the use of a heavy liquid metal coolant presents a challenge for reactor designers in regards to reliable structural and fuel cladding materials in both a highly corrosive high temperature liquid metal and an intense radiation fieldi. Flow corrosion studies at the University of Wisconsin have examined the corrosion performance of candidate materials for application in the LFR concept as well as the viability of various surface treatments to improve the materials’ compatibility. To date this research has included several focus areas, which include the formulation of an understanding of corrosion mechanisms and the examination of the effects of chemical and mechanical surface modifications on the materials’ performance in liquid lead-bismuth by experimental testing in Los Alamos National Laboratory’s DELTA Loop, as well as comparison of experimental findings to numerical and physical models for long term corrosion prediction. This report will first review the literature and introduce the experiments and data that will be used to benchmark theoretical calculations. The experimental results will be followed by a brief review of the underlying theory and methodology for the physical and theoretical models. Finally, the results of theoretical calculations as well as experimentally obtained benchmarks and comparisons to the literature are presented.

  19. Spring temperature, clutch initiation date and duck nest success: a test of the mismatch hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Drever, Mark C; Clark, Robert G

    2007-01-01

    1. Increases in average global temperature during the twentieth century have prompted calls for research on the effect of temperature variation on avian population dynamics. Particular attention has been paid to the hypothesis that increased temperatures may affect a species' ability to shift their breeding efforts to match the phenology of their prey, and thus result in reduced reproductive success (the 'mismatch hypothesis'). 2. We used data from a long-term study of breeding ducks to investigate how duck nest success varied with clutch initiation date, and to test whether spring temperature affected this relationship in a manner consistent with the mismatch hypothesis. We modelled five possible functional forms of how nest success might vary with clutch initiation date and spring temperature, and used an information-theoretic approach to determine which model best described the nesting outcomes of five dabbling duck species nesting in Saskatchewan, Canada. 3. Probability of nest success for the five species did not vary strongly with clutch initiation date, and we found evidence consistent with the mismatch hypothesis for one species, northern pintail Anas acuta, although weight of evidence was weak. 4. Overall nest success of all five species was positively associated with spring temperature. These results suggest that increasing spring temperature alone (within the range observed in this study) may not affect nest success in a manner that would result in lower populations of breeding ducks.

  20. Evaluation of secondary coolant control design alternatives and their effects on heat removal performance

    SciTech Connect

    Khayat, M.I.; Anderson, J.; Battle, R.; March-Leuba, J.

    1994-03-01

    This report documents a series of calculations that evaluate the performance of the core-inlet temperature controller under different transient conditions and design options. The present analyses show that the core-inlet temperature can be controlled at {approx}45{degrees}C under all transient conditions analyzed using the controller design described in the conceptual design report, which includes variable-speed secondary coolant pumps and variable-speed cooling tower fans. This study also shows that a constant-speed secondary pump would be sufficient to maintain core-inlet temperature <45{degrees}C if this temperature is allowed to drop below the set point during some demanding transients, such as normal startup. The use of secondary loop hot coolant to warm the reactor building was also evaluated; however, optimization of the secondary hot-leg temperature can only be achieved by trading off control of the primary side core-inlet temperature.

  1. Initiation Temperature for Runaway Tri-n-Butyl Phosphate/Nitric Acid Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    2001-09-14

    In a review of the safety basis for solvent extraction processes at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, a question was raised concerning the safety margin associated with a postulated accident involving a runaway tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/nitric acid reaction due to the inadvertent heating of a tank. The safety margin was based on studies which showed the maximum temperature would not exceed 128 degrees Celsius compared to 130 degrees Celsius, the minimum initiation temperature for runaway reaction established in the 1950's following damaging incidents at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. The reviewers were concerned the minimum temperature was not conservative since data for solutions containing 20 wt percent dissolved solids showed initiation temperatures at or below 130 degrees Celsius and process solutions normally contain some dissolved solids.

  2. Effect of initial temperature and concentration of catalyst in polyeugenol production

    SciTech Connect

    Widayat

    2015-12-29

    Objective of this research to study influencing of sulfuric acid concentration and initials temperature on polymerization of eugenol. Eugenol is the largest compound in the clove oil that used as raw material. Eugenol was polymerized laboratory scale. Polymerization processing conducted in reactor at 30 minutes. Polyeugenol was obtained in polymerization was conducted at temperature 40°C and ratio eugenol to sulfuric acid 1:15 mole. This research was pbtained the highest yield 81.49%. However, the weight would be increase in according with increasing of initial temperature. The polymerization in temperature 50°C with 1:1.5 mole ratio has the heaviest molecule weight; 47,530.76 gr/mole.

  3. Effect of initial temperature and concentration of catalyst in polyeugenol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widayat, Fatuchrohman, Alviano; Gustiasih, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    Objective of this research to study influencing of sulfuric acid concentration and initials temperature on polymerization of eugenol. Eugenol is the largest compound in the clove oil that used as raw material. Eugenol was polymerized laboratory scale. Polymerization processing conducted in reactor at 30 minutes. Polyeugenol was obtained in polymerization was conducted at temperature 40°C and ratio eugenol to sulfuric acid 1:15 mole. This research was pbtained the highest yield 81.49%. However, the weight would be increase in according with increasing of initial temperature. The polymerization in temperature 50°C with 1:1.5 mole ratio has the heaviest molecule weight; 47,530.76 gr/mole.

  4. Fitness for service assessment of coolant channels of Indian PHWRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, R. K.; Sinha, S. K.; Madhusoodanan, K.

    2008-12-01

    A typical coolant channel assembly of pressurised heavy water reactors mainly consists of pressure tube, calandria tube, garter spring spacers, all made of zirconium alloys and end fittings made of SS 403. The pressure tube is rolled at both its ends to the end fittings and is located concentrically inside the calandria tube with the help of garter spring spacers. Pressure tube houses the fuel bundles, which are cooled by means of pressurised heavy water. It, thus, operates under the environment of high pressure and temperature (typically 10 MPa and 573 K), and fast neutron flux (typically 3 × 10 17 n/m 2 s, E > 1 MeV neutrons). Under this operating environment, the material of the pressure tube undergoes degradation over a period of time, and eventually needs to be assessed for fitness for continued operation, without jeopardising the safety of the reactor. The other components of the coolant channel assembly, which are inaccessible for any in-service inspection, are assessed for their fitness, whenever a pressure tube is removed for either surveillance purpose or any other reasons. This paper, while describing the latest developments taking place to address the issue of fitness for service of the Zr-2.5 wt% Nb pressure tubes, also dwells briefly upon the developments taken place, to address the issues of life management and extension of zircaloy-2 pressure tubes in the earlier generation of Indian pressurised heavy water reactors.

  5. Preliminary analysis of loss-of-coolant accident in Fukushima nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect

    Su'ud, Zaki; Anshari, Rio

    2012-06-06

    Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) especially on Fukushima Nuclear Accident will be discussed in this paper. The Tohoku earthquake triggered the shutdown of nuclear power reactors at Fukushima Nuclear Power station. Though shutdown process has been completely performed, cooling process, at much smaller level than in normal operation, is needed to remove decay heat from the reactor core until the reactor reach cold-shutdown condition. If LOCA happen at this condition, it will cause the increase of reactor fuel and other core temperatures and can lead to reactor core meltdown and exposure of radioactive material to the environment such as in the Fukushima Dai Ichi nuclear accident case. In this study numerical simulation has been performed to calculate pressure composition, water level and temperature distribution on reactor during this accident. There are two coolant regulating system that operational on reactor unit 1 at this accident, Isolation Condensers (IC) system and Safety Relief Valves (SRV) system. Average mass flow of steam to the IC system in this event is 10 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 3,2 hours and fully uncovered in 4,7 hours later. There are two coolant regulating system at operational on reactor unit 2, Reactor Core Isolation Condenser (RCIC) System and Safety Relief Valves (SRV). Average mass flow of coolant that correspond this event is 20 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 73 hours and fully uncovered in 75 hours later. There are three coolant regulating system at operational on reactor unit 3, Reactor Core Isolation Condenser (RCIC) system, High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system and Safety Relief Valves (SRV). Average mass flow of water that correspond this event is 15 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 37 hours and fully uncovered in 40 hours later.

  6. TACT 1: A computer program for the transient thermal analysis of a cooled turbine blade or vane equipped with a coolant insert. 2. Programmers manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaugler, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program to calculate transient and steady state temperatures, pressures, and coolant flows in a cooled axial flow turbine blade or vane with an impingement insert is described. Coolant-side heat transfer coefficients are calculated internally in the program, with the user specifying either impingement or convection heat transfer at each internal flow station. Spent impingement air flows in a chordwise direction and is discharged through the trailing edge and through film cooling holes. The ability of the program to handle film cooling is limited by the internal flow model. Input to the program includes a description of the blade geometry, coolant-supply conditions, outside thermal boundary conditions, and wheel speed. The blade wall can have two layers of different materials, such as a ceramic thermal barrier coating over a metallic substrate. Program output includes the temperature at each node, the coolant pressures and flow rates, and the coolant-side heat transfer coefficients.

  7. Investigating Liquid CO2 as a Coolant for a MTSA Heat Exchanger Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Padilla, Sebastian; Powers, Aaron; Iacomini, Christie

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for thermal and carbon dioxide (CO 2) control for a future Portable Life Support System (PLSS), as well as water recycling. CO 2 removal and rejection is accomplished by driving a sorbent through a temperature swing of approximately 210 K to 280 K . The sorbent is cooled to these sub-freezing temperatures by a Sublimating Heat Exchanger (SHX) with liquid coolant expanded to sublimation temperatures. Water is the baseline coolant available on the moon, and if used, provides a competitive solution to the current baseline PLSS schematic. Liquid CO2 (LCO2) is another non-cryogenic coolant readily available from Martian resources which can be produced and stored using relatively low power and minimal infrastructure. LCO 2 expands from high pressure liquid (5800 kPa) to Mars ambient (0.8 kPa) to produce a gas / solid mixture at temperatures as low as 156 K. Analysis and experimental work are presented to investigate factors that drive the design of a heat exchanger to effectively use this sink. Emphasis is given to enabling efficient use of the CO 2 cooling potential and mitigation of heat exchanger clogging due to solid formation. Minimizing mass and size as well as coolant delivery are also considered. The analysis and experimental work is specifically performed in an MTSA-like application to enable higher fidelity modeling for future optimization of a SHX design. In doing so, the work also demonstrates principles and concepts so that the design can be further optimized later in integrated applications (including Lunar application where water might be a choice of coolant).

  8. Nickel sulfide formation at low temperature: initial precipitates, solubility and transformation products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation of nickel sulfides has been examined experimentally over the temperature range from 25 to 60°C. At all conditions studied, hexagonal (α-NiS) was the initial precipitate from solution containing Ni2+ and dissolved sulfide. The formation of millerite (β- NiS, rhombo...

  9. Fast simulated annealing with a multivariate Cauchy distribution and the configuration's initial temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Yong

    2015-05-01

    We propose a multi-dimensional fast simulated annealing method based on a multivariate Cauchy probability distribution and an initial temperature estimated from the configuration's variation. While conventional multi-dimensional fast simulated annealing adopts the product of onedimensional random variables generated by a univariate Cauchy distribution, the proposed method generates a random vector from a multivariate Cauchy distribution. In this way, fast simulated annealing for a multi-dimensional problem maintains the same annealing schedule as that for the one-dimensional case. The proposed method also utilizes the initial temperature estimated from the configuration's variation to generate a candidate state in addition to the conventional initial temperature derived from the variation of the objective function for the acceptance probability. The proposed method is shown not only to guarantee a fast annealing schedule but also to enhance the search capability. The proposed method was tested against the optimization of real-valued functions. We empirically found that the configuration's initial temperature, together with multivariate Cauchy distribution, is more suitable than the conventional scheme for a fast annealing schedule. Moreover, the proposed method outperforms the conventional one in optimization problems having many variables.

  10. A Knoevenagel Initiated Annulation Reaction Using Room Temperature or Microwave Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, A. Gilbert

    2007-01-01

    An experiment is presented that has the student execute a Knoevenagel initiated annulation reaction. The reaction can be carried out either through use of a microwave reactor or by allowing the mixture to stand at room temperature for two days. The student is then challenged to identify the reaction product through a guided prelab exercise of the…

  11. Snow data assimilation-constrained land initialization improves seasonal temperature prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Peirong; Wei, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zong-Liang; Zhang, Yongfei; Zhang, Kai

    2016-11-01

    We present the first systematic study to quantify the impact of land initialization on seasonal temperature prediction in the Northern Hemisphere, emphasizing the role of land snow data assimilation (DA). Three suites of ensemble seasonal integrations are conducted for coupled land-atmosphere runs. The land component is initialized using datasets from (1) no DA, (2) assimilating Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow cover fraction (SCF), and (3) assimilating both MODIS SCF and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage. Results show that snow DA improves temperature predictions especially in the Tibetan Plateau (by 5-20%) and high latitudes. Improvements at low latitudes are seen immediately and last up to 60 days, whereas improvements at high latitudes only appear later in transitional seasons. At high latitudes, assimilating GRACE data results in marked and prolonged improvements (by 25%) due to large initial snow mass changes. This study has great implications for future land DA and seasonal climate prediction studies.

  12. Initiation Temperature for Runaway Tri-n-Butyl Phosphate/Nitric Acid Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    2000-11-28

    During a review of the H-Canyon authorization basis, Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) staff members questioned the margin of safety associated with a postulated tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/nitric acid runaway reaction due to the inadvertent heating of a canyon tank containing greater than 3000 lbs (1362 kg) of TBP. The margin of safety was partially based on experiments and calculations performed by the Actinide Technology Section (ATS) to support deletion of indication of tank agitation as a Safety Class System. In the technical basis for deletion of this system, ATS personnel conservatively calculated the equilibrium temperature distribution of a canyon tank containing TBP and nitric acid layers which were inadvertently heated by a steam jet left on following a transfer. The maximum calculated temperature (128 degrees C) was compared to the minimum initiation temperature for a runaway reaction (greater than 130 degrees C) documented by experimental work in the mid 195 0s. In this work, the initiation temperature as a function of nitric acid concentration was measured for 0 and 20 wt percent dissolved solids. The DNFSB staff members were concerned that data for 0 wt percent dissolved solids were not conservative given the facts that data for 20 wt percent dissolved solids show initiation temperatures at or below 130 degrees C and H-Canyon solutions normally contained a small amount of dissolved solids.

  13. Haematite natural crystals: non-linear initial susceptibility at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero-Suarez, S.; Martín-Hernández, F.

    2016-06-01

    Several works have reported that haematite has non-linear initial susceptibility at room temperature, like pyrrhotite or titanomagnetite, but there is no explanation for the observed behaviours yet. This study sets out to determine which physical property (grain size, foreign cations content and domain walls displacements) controls the initial susceptibility. The performed measurements include microprobe analysis to determine magnetic phases different to haematite; initial susceptibility (300 K); hysteresis loops, SIRM and backfield curves at 77 and 300 K to calculate magnetic parameters and minor loops at 77 K, to analyse initial susceptibility and magnetization behaviours below Morin transition. The magnetic moment study at low temperature is completed with measurements of zero field cooled-field cooled and AC susceptibility in a range from 5 to 300 K. The minor loops show that the non-linearity of initial susceptibility is closely related to Barkhausen jumps. Because of initial magnetic susceptibility is controlled by domain structure it is difficult to establish a mathematical model to separate magnetic subfabrics in haematite-bearing rocks.

  14. The influence of initial temperature on flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition

    SciTech Connect

    Ciccarelli, G.; Boccio, J.L.; Ginsberg, T.

    1996-07-01

    The influence of initial mixture temperature on deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) has been investigated experimentally. The experiments were carried out in a 27-cm-inner diameter, 21.3-meter-long heated detonation tube, which was equipped with periodic orifice plates to promote flame acceleration. Hydrogen-air-steam mixtures were tested at a range of temperatures up to 650K and at an initial pressure of 0.1 MPa. In most cases, the limiting hydrogen mole fraction which resulted in transition to detonation corresponded to the mixture whose detonation cell size, {lambda}, was approximately equal to the inner diameter of the orifice plate, d (e.g., d/{lambda}{approximately}1). The only exception was in dry hydrogen-air mixtures at 650K where the DDT limit was observed to be 11 percent hydrogen, corresponding to a value of d/{lambda} equal to 5.5. For a 10.5 percent hydrogen mixture at 650K, the flame accelerated to a maximum velocity of about 120 m/s and then decelerated to below 2 m/s. This observation indicates that the d/{lambda} = 1 DDT limit criterion provides a necessary condition but not a sufficient one for the onset of DDT in obstacle-laden ducts. In this particular case, the mixture initial condition (i.e., temperature) resulted in the inability of the mixture to sustain flame acceleration to the point where DDT could occur. It was also observed that the distance required for the flame to accelerate to the onset of detonation was a function of both the hydrogen mole fraction and the mixture initial temperature. For example, decreasing the hydrogen mole fraction or increasing the initial mixture temperature resulted in longer transition distances.

  15. Temperature comparison of initial, middle and final point of polypropylene friction stir welded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusharjanta, Bambang; Raharjo, Wahyu P.; Triyono

    2016-03-01

    Friction Stir Welding is known as a new solid state joining process. This process is applied in thermoplastic polymers material recently. One of member thermoplastic polymer is polypropylene. Polypropylene sheet 6 mm thick was friction stir welded with a cone cut steel pin. Tool rotation, travelling speed, and plunge depth, as welding parameters were 620 rpm, 7.3 mm/minutes and 0.02 mm respectively. Temperature at the initial, middle, and final point of advance side working piece were measured and compared. Measurement were done by thermocouple and recorded by data acquisition. Based on this research, it is concluded that temperature at the initial, middle and final point of friction stir welding process are different. The highest temperature peak reach at the middle point on the advance side which affects face bending strength.

  16. Protein synthesis during the initial phase of the temperature-induced bleaching response in Euglena gracilis

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, W. )

    1990-05-01

    Growing cultures of photoheterotrophic Euglena gracilis experience an increase in chlorophyll accumulation during the initial phase of the temperature-induced bleaching response suggesting an increase in the synthesis of plastid components at the bleaching temperature of 33{degree}C. A primary goal of this work was to establish whether an increase in the synthesis of plastid proteins accompanies the observed increase in chlorophyll accumulation. In vivo pulse-labeling experiments with ({sup 35}S)sodium sulfate were carried out with cells grown at room temperature or at 33{degree}C. The synthesis of a number of plastid polypeptides of nucleocytoplasmic origin, including some presumably novel polypeptides, increased in cultures treated for 15 hours at 33{degree}C. In contrast, while synthesis of thylakoid proteins by the plastid protein synthesis machinery decreased modestly, synthesis of the large subunit of the enzyme ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase was strongly affected at the elevated temperature. Synthesis of novel plastid-encoded polypeptides was not induced at the bleaching temperature. It is concluded that protein synthesis in plastids declines during the initial phase of the temperature response in Euglena despite an overall increase in cellular protein synthesis and an increase in chlorophyll accumulation per cell.

  17. Fleet test evaluation of fully formulated heavy-duty coolant technology maintained with a delayed-release filter compared with coolant inhibited with a nitrited organic acid technology: An interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Aroyan, S.S.; Eaton, E.R.

    1999-08-01

    This paper is a controlled extended service interval (ESI) study of the comparative behaviors of a nitrite/borate/low-silicate, low total dissolved solids (TDS) coolant maintained with delayed-release filters, and an organic acid inhibited coolant technology in heavy-duty engines. It reports both laboratory and fleet test data from 66 trucks, powered with different makes of heavy-duty diesel engines. The engines were cooled with three different types of inhibitors and two different glycol base (ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) coolants for an initial period exceeding two years and 500,000 km (300,000 miles). The data reported include chemical depletion rates, periodic coolant chemical analyses, and engine/cooling system reliability experience. The ongoing test will continue for approximately five years and a 1.6 million km (1 million miles) duration. Thirteen trucks were retained as controls, operating with ASTM D 4985 specification (GM-6038 type) coolant maintained with a standard ASTM D 57542 supplemental coolant additive (SCA). Engines produced by Caterpillar, Detroit Diesel Corp., Cummins Engine Co., and Mack Trucks are included in the test mix.

  18. FEM Analysis and Experimental Verification of the Integral Forging Process for AP1000 Primary Coolant Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shenglong; Yu, Xiaoyi; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Mingxian; Wu, Huanchun

    2016-10-01

    AP1000 primary coolant pipes must be manufactured by integral forging technology according to the designer—Westinghouse Electric Co. The characteristics of these large, special-shaped pipes create nonuniform temperatures, effective stress, and effective strain during shaping of the pipes. This paper presents a three-dimensional finite element simulation (3D FEM) of the integral forging process, and qualitatively evaluates the likelihood of forging defects. By analyzing the evolution histories of the three field variables, we concluded that the initial forging temperature should be strictly controlled within the interval 1123 K to 1423 K (850 °C to 1150 °C) to avoid second-phase precipitation. In the hard deformation zones, small strains do not contribute to recrystallization resulting in coarse grains. Conversely, in the free deformation zone, the large strains can contribute to the dynamic recrystallization, favoring grain refinement and closure of voids. Cracks are likely to appear, however, on the workpiece surface when forging leads to large deformations. Based on the simulation results, an eligible workpiece with good mechanical properties, few macroscopic defects, and favorable grain size has been successfully forged by experiments at an industrial scale, which validates the FEM simulation.

  19. CREST modelling of PBX 9502 corner turning experiments at different initial temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitworth, N. J.

    2014-05-01

    Corner turning is an important problem in regard to detonation wave propagation in TATB-based explosives. Experimentally, a sudden change in the direction of the propagating wave, such as turning a sharp corner, can result in dead-zones being left behind in the corner turn region, with the observed behaviour being particularly sensitive to the initial temperature of the explosive. In this paper, the entropy-dependent CREST reactive burn model is used to simulate corner turning experiments on the TATB-based explosive PBX 9502. Calculated results of double cylinder tests at three different initial temperatures (-54°C, ~23°C, and 75°C), and a "hockey puck" experiment at ambient temperature, are compared to the corresponding test measurements. The results show that the model is able to: (i) calculate persistent dead-zones in PBX 9502 without recourse to any shock desensitisation treatment, and (ii) predict changes in corner turning behaviour with initial temperature using one set of coefficients.

  20. CREST Modelling of PBX 9502 Corner Turning Experiments at Different Initial Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitworth, Nicholas

    2013-06-01

    Corner turning is an important problem in regard to detonation wave propagation in TATB-based explosives. Experimentally, a sudden change in direction of the propagating wave, such as turning a sharp corner, can result in dead-zones being left behind in the corner turn region, with the observed behaviour being particularly sensitive to the initial temperature of the explosive. In this paper, the entropy-dependent CREST reactive burn model is used to simulate corner turning experiments on the TATB-based explosive PBX 9502. Calculated results of double cylinder tests at three different initial temperatures (-54°C, 25°C, and 75°C), and a ``hockey puck'' experiment at ambient temperature, are compared to the corresponding test measurements. The results show that the model is able to: (i) calculate persistent dead-zones in PBX 9502 without recourse to any shock desensitisation treatment, and (ii) predict changes in corner turning behaviour with initial temperature using one set of coefficients.

  1. Effect of initial core temperature on hyperthermic hyperventilation during prolonged submaximal exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Bun; Honda, Yasushi; Fujii, Naoto; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether a core temperature threshold for hyperthermic hyperventilation is seen during prolonged submaximal exercise in the heat when core temperature before the exercise is reduced and whether the evoked hyperventilatory response is affected by altering the initial core temperature. Ten male subjects performed three exercise trials at 50% of peak oxygen uptake in the heat (37°C and 50% relative humidity) after altering their initial esophageal temperature (T(es)). Initial T(es) was manipulated by immersion for 25 min in water at 18°C (Precooling), 35°C (Control), or 40°C (Preheating). T(es) after the water immersion was significantly higher in the Preheating trial (37.5 ± 0.3°C) and lower in the Precooling trial (36.1 ± 0.3°C) than in the Control trial (36.9 ± 0.3°C). In the Precooling trial, minute ventilation (Ve) showed little change until T(es) reached 37.1 ± 0.4°C. Above this core temperature threshold, Ve increased linearly in proportion to increasing T(es). In the Control trial, Ve increased as T(es) increased from 37.0°C to 38.6°C after the onset of exercise. In the Preheating trial, Ve increased from the initially elevated levels of T(es) (from 37.6 to 38.6°C) and Ve. The sensitivity of Ve to increasing T(es) above the threshold for hyperventilation (the slope of the T(es)-Ve relation) did not significantly vary across trials (Precooling trial = 10.6 ± 5.9, Control trial = 8.7 ± 5.1, and Preheating trial = 9.2 ± 6.9 L·min(-1)·°C(-1)). These results suggest that during prolonged submaximal exercise at a constant workload in humans, there is a clear core temperature threshold for hyperthermic hyperventilation and that the evoked hyperventilatory response is unaffected by altering initial core temperature.

  2. CFD analyses of coolant channel flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yagley, Jennifer A.; Feng, Jinzhang; Merkle, Charles L.

    1993-01-01

    The flowfield characteristics in rocket engine coolant channels are analyzed by means of a numerical model. The channels are characterized by large length to diameter ratios, high Reynolds numbers, and asymmetrical heating. At representative flow conditions, the channel length is approximately twice the hydraulic entrance length so that fully developed conditions would be reached for a constant property fluid. For the supercritical hydrogen that is used as the coolant, the strong property variations create significant secondary flows in the cross-plane which have a major influence on the flow and the resulting heat transfer. Comparison of constant and variable property solutions show substantial differences. In addition, the property variations prevent fully developed flow. The density variation accelerates the fluid in the channels increasing the pressure drop without an accompanying increase in heat flux. Analyses of the inlet configuration suggest that side entry from a manifold can affect the development of the velocity profile because of vortices generated as the flow enters the channel. Current work is focused on studying the effects of channel bifurcation on the flow field and the heat transfer characteristics.

  3. Evaluation of zinc addition to PWR primary coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Pathania, R.; Yagnik, S.; Gold, R.E.; Dove, M.; Kolstad, E.

    1995-12-31

    Laboratory studies have shown that addition of zinc to a PWR environment reduces the general corrosion rates of materials in the primary system and delays the initiation of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in Alloy 600. Because of the potential benefits of zinc addition in reducing radiation fields and mitigating PWSCC of Alloy 600 a project was initiated to qualify zinc addition to a PWR. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of zinc addition on radiation fields, PWSCC of Alloy 600 and fuel cladding corrosion at the Farley-2 PWR. In order to provide an early warning of any potential adverse effects on the fuel cladding, corrosion studies were initiated at the Halden test reactor prior to zinc addition at Farley-2. This paper provides an overview of the scope of the zinc addition demonstration at Farley-2 and the fuel cladding corrosion tests at Halden. The zinc concentration in the Farley-2 coolant is approximately 40 ppb and that in Halden is 50 ppb. The paper presents initial results from these studies which are still in progress.

  4. High temperature reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulera, I. V.; Sinha, R. K.

    2008-12-01

    With the advent of high temperature reactors, nuclear energy, in addition to producing electricity, has shown enormous potential for the production of alternate transport energy carrier such as hydrogen. High efficiency hydrogen production processes need process heat at temperatures around 1173-1223 K. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), is currently developing concepts of high temperature reactors capable of supplying process heat around 1273 K. These reactors would provide energy to facilitate combined production of hydrogen, electricity, and drinking water. Compact high temperature reactor is being developed as a technology demonstrator for associated technologies. Design has been also initiated for a 600 MWth innovative high temperature reactor. High temperature reactor development programme has opened new avenues for research in areas like advanced nuclear fuels, high temperature and corrosion resistant materials and protective coatings, heavy liquid metal coolant technologies, etc. The paper highlights design of these reactors and their material related requirements.

  5. Effect of glycol-based coolants on the suppression and recovery of platinum fuel cell electrocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garsany, Yannick; Dutta, Sreya; Swider-Lyons, Karen E.

    2012-10-01

    We use cyclic and rotating disk electrode voltammetry to study glycol-based coolant formulations to show that individual constituents have either negligible or significant poisoning effects on the nanoscale Pt/carbon catalysts used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The base fluid in all these coolants is glycol (1, 3 propanediol), commercially available in a BioGlycol coolant formulation with an ethoxylated nonylphenol surfactant, and azole- and polyol-based non-ionic corrosion inhibitors. Exposure of a Pt/Vulcan carbon electrode to glycol-water or glycol-water-surfactant mixtures causes the loss of Pt electrochemical surface area (ECSA), but the Pt ECSA is fully recovered in clean electrolyte. Only mixtures with the azole corrosion inhibitor cause irreversible losses to the Pt ECSA and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity. The Pt ECSA and ORR activity can only be recovered to within 70% of its initial values after aggressive voltammetric cycling to 1.50 V after azole poisoning. When poisoned with a glycol mixture containing the polyol corrosion inhibitor instead, the Pt ECSA and ORR activity is completely recovered by exposure to a clean electrolyte. The results suggest that prior to incorporation in a fuel cell, voltammetric evaluation of the constituents of coolant formulations is worthwhile.

  6. An Improved Design for Air Removal from Aerospace Fluid Loop Coolant Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritchie, Stephen M. C.; Holladay, Jon B.; Holt, J. Mike; Clark, Dallas W.

    2003-01-01

    Aerospace applications with requirements for large capacity heat removal (launch vehicles, platforms, payloads, etc.) typically utilize a liquid coolant fluid as a transport media to increase efficiency and flexibility in the vehicle design. An issue with these systems however, is susceptibility to the presence of noncondensable gas (NCG) or air. The presence of air in a coolant loop can have numerous negative consequences, including loss of centrifugal pump prime, interference with sensor readings, inhibition of heat transfer, and coolant blockage to remote systems. Hardware ground processing to remove this air is also cumbersome and time consuming which continuously drives recurring costs. Current systems for maintaining the system free of air are tailored and have demonstrated only moderate success. An obvious solution to these problems is the development and advancement of a passive gas removal device, or gas trap, that would be installed in the flight cooling system simplifying the initial coolant fill procedure and also maintaining the system during operations. The proposed device would utilize commercially available membranes thus increasing reliability and reducing cost while also addressing both current and anticipated applications. In addition, it maintains current pressure drop, water loss, and size restrictions while increasing tolerance for pressure increases due to gas build-up in the trap.

  7. The effect of initial temperature on flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Ciccarelli, G.; Boccio, J.L.; Ginsberg, T.; Finfrock, C.; Gerlach, L.; Tagawa, H.; Malliakos, A.

    1998-05-01

    The High-Temperature Combustion Facility at BNL was used to conduct deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) experiments. Periodic orifice plates were installed inside the entire length of the detonation tube in order to promote flame acceleration. The orifice plates are 27.3-cm-outer diameter, which is equivalent to the inner diameter of the tube, and 20.6-cm-inner diameter. The detonation tube length is 21.3-meters long, and the spacing of the orifice plates is one tube diameter. A standard automobile diesel engine glow plug was used to ignite the test mixture at one end of the tube. Hydrogen-air-steam mixtures were tested at a range of temperatures up to 650K and at an initial pressure of 0.1 MPa. In most cases, the limiting hydrogen mole fraction which resulted in DDT corresponded to the mixture whose detonation cell size, {lambda}, was equal to the inner diameter of the orifice plate, d (e.g., d/{lambda}=1). The only exception was in the dry hydrogen-air mixtures at 650K where the DDT limit was observed to be 11 percent hydrogen, corresponding to a value of d/{lambda} equal to 5.5. For a 10.5 percent hydrogen mixture at 650K, the flame accelerated to a maximum velocity of about 120 mIs and then decelerated to below 2 mIs. By maintaining the first 6.1 meters of the vessel at the ignition end at 400K, and the rest of the vessel at 650K, the DDT limit was reduced to 9.5 percent hydrogen (d/{lambda}=4.2). This observation indicates that the d/{lambda}=1 DDT limit criteria provides a necessary condition but not a sufficient one for the onset of DDT in obstacle laden ducts. In this particular case, the mixture initial condition (i.e., temperature) resulted in the inability of the mixture to sustain flame acceleration to the point where DDT could occur. It was also observed that the distance required for the flame to accelerate to the point of detonation initiation, referred to as the run-up distance, was found to be a function of both the hydrogen mole fraction

  8. Effect of Initial Mixture Temperature on Flame Speed of Methane-Air, Propane-Air, and Ethylene-Air Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugger, Gordon L

    1952-01-01

    Flame speeds based on the outer edge of the shadow cast by the laminar Bunsen cone were determined as functions of composition for methane-air mixtures at initial mixture temperatures ranging from -132 degrees to 342 degrees c and for propane-air and ethylene-air mixtures at initial mixture temperatures ranging from -73 degrees to 344 degrees c. The data showed that maximum flame speed increased with temperature at an increasing rate. The percentage change in flame speed with change in initial temperature for the three fuels followed the decreasing order, methane, propane, and ethylene. Empirical equations were determined for maximum flame speed as a function of initial temperature over the temperature range covered for each fuel. The observed effect of temperature on flame speed for each of the fuels was reasonably well predicted by either the thermal theory as presented by Semenov or the square-root law of Tanford and Pease.

  9. 73. View of line of stainless steel coolant storage tanks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. View of line of stainless steel coolant storage tanks for bi-sodium sulfate/water coolant solution at first floor of transmitter building no. 102. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  10. Performance of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Airlock Coolant Loop Remediation (A/L CLR) Hardware - Final

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony; Gazda, Daniel; Lewis, John

    2011-01-01

    An EMU water processing kit (Airlock Coolant Loop Recovery -- A/L CLR) was developed as a corrective action to Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) coolant flow disruptions experienced on the International Space Station (ISS) in May of 2004 and thereafter. A conservative duty cycle and set of use parameters for A/L CLR use and component life were initially developed and implemented based on prior analysis results and analytical modeling. Several initiatives were undertaken to optimize the duty cycle and use parameters of the hardware. Examination of post-flight samples and EMU Coolant Loop hardware provided invaluable information on the performance of the A/L CLR and has allowed for an optimization of the process. The intent of this paper is to detail the evolution of the A/L CLR hardware, efforts to optimize the duty cycle and use parameters, and the final recommendations for implementation in the post-Shuttle retirement era.

  11. High pressure coolant effect on PVD coated inserts during end milling of Ti-6AL-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Arvind

    Titanium alloys are being employed extensively in engineering and aerospace applications for their high strength to weight ratio, mechanical strength and ability to withstand high temperatures. Out of the different alloys of titanium available, the most commonly used alloy is Ti-6Al-4V. It is also called `Grade-5 titanium alloy' or 'α+β titanium alloy'. High speed machining of titanium alloys generates high temperatures in the cutting zone, promoting accelerated tool wear and reducing the efficiency in metal cutting. Consequently, the ability of the coolant to remove heat from the cutting zone plays an increasingly important role in the economics of the process as well as on the life of tool inserts. With the introduction of thru-tool coolant delivery, the coolant can now be delivered directly at the point of machining without having to flood the area of machining. This research tries to address the effects that high pressure and thru-tool coolant has on insert wear while end milling Ti-6Al-4V. The parameters used in this study are speed, feed, axial depth of cut, radial depth of cut and coolant pressure. A structured design of experiments along with a central composite design approach is used to determine the main effects of coolant pressure and its interactions with the remaining parameters. The results show that, within the parameters of this experiment, coolant pressure was not a significant main effect. However, pressure seems to react positively with feed rate. Contributions from this research can be used to recommend settings of the cutting factors in order to obtain the minimal tool wear.

  12. Power module assemblies with staggered coolant channels

    DOEpatents

    Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Mann, Brooks S; Korich, Mark D

    2013-07-16

    A manifold is provided for supporting a power module assembly with a plurality of power modules. The manifold includes a first manifold section. The first face of the first manifold section is configured to receive the first power module, and the second face of the first manifold section defines a first cavity with a first baseplate thermally coupled to the first power module. The first face of the second manifold section is configured to receive the second power module, and the second face of the second manifold section defines a second cavity with a second baseplate thermally coupled to the second power module. The second face of the first manifold section and the second face of the second manifold section are coupled together such that the first cavity and the second cavity form a coolant channel. The first cavity is at least partially staggered with respect to second cavity.

  13. Jet model for slot film cooling with effect of free-stream and coolant turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Frederick F.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis was performed utilizing the model of a wall jet for obtaining equations that will predict slot film-cooling efficiency under conditions of variable turbulence intensity, flow, and temperature. The analysis, in addition to assessing the effects of the above variables, makes a distinction between an initial region and a fully developed region. Such a distinction is important in determining the role that the turbulence intensity of the coolant plays in effecting film-cooling effectiveness in the area of the slot exit. The results of the analysis were used in the correlation of the results of a well-designed film-cooling experiment. The result of the analysis and experiment was equations that predicted film-cooling efficiency within + or - 4% average deviation for lateral free-stream turbulence intensities up to 24% and blowing rates up to 1.9. These equations should be useful in determining the optimum quantity of cooling air requried for protecting the wall of a combustor.

  14. Aging and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) testing of electrical connections

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.F.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental program to determine the aging and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) behavior of electrical connections in order to obtain an initial scoping of their performance. Ten types of connections commonly used in nuclear power plants were tested. These included 3 types of conduit seals, 2 types of cable-to-device connectors, 3 types of cable-to-cable connectors, and 2 types of in-line splices. The connections were aged for 6 months under simultaneous thermal (99 C) and radiation (46 Gy/hr) conditions. A simulated LOCA consisting of sequential high dose-rate irradiation (3 kGy/hr) and high-temperature steam exposures followed the aging. Connection functionality was monitored using insulation resistance measurements during the aging and LOCA exposures. Because only 5 of the 10 connection types passed a post-LOCA, submerged dielectric withstand test, further detailed investigation of electrical connections and the effects of cable jacket integrity on the cable-connection system is warranted.

  15. Linear dependence of surface expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in warm dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Vold, E. L.; Boettger, J. C.; Fernández, J. C.

    2016-07-01

    Recent progress in laser-driven quasi-monoenergetic ion beams enabled the production of uniformly heated warm dense matter. Matter heated rapidly with this technique is under extreme temperatures and pressures, and promptly expands outward. While the expansion speed of an ideal plasma is known to have a square-root dependence on temperature, computer simulations presented here show a linear dependence of expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in the warm dense matter regime. The expansion of uniformly heated 1–100 eV solid density gold foils was modeled with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code, and the average surface expansion speed was found to increase linearly with temperature. The origin of this linear dependence is explained by comparing predictions from the SESAME equation-of-state tables with those from the ideal gas equation-of-state. These simulations offer useful insight into the expansion of warm dense matter and motivate the application of optical shadowgraphy for temperature measurement.

  16. Linear dependence of surface expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in warm dense matter.

    PubMed

    Bang, W; Albright, B J; Bradley, P A; Vold, E L; Boettger, J C; Fernández, J C

    2016-07-12

    Recent progress in laser-driven quasi-monoenergetic ion beams enabled the production of uniformly heated warm dense matter. Matter heated rapidly with this technique is under extreme temperatures and pressures, and promptly expands outward. While the expansion speed of an ideal plasma is known to have a square-root dependence on temperature, computer simulations presented here show a linear dependence of expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in the warm dense matter regime. The expansion of uniformly heated 1-100 eV solid density gold foils was modeled with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code, and the average surface expansion speed was found to increase linearly with temperature. The origin of this linear dependence is explained by comparing predictions from the SESAME equation-of-state tables with those from the ideal gas equation-of-state. These simulations offer useful insight into the expansion of warm dense matter and motivate the application of optical shadowgraphy for temperature measurement.

  17. Linear dependence of surface expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in warm dense matter

    DOE PAGES

    Bang, Woosuk; Albright, Brian James; Bradley, Paul Andrew; ...

    2016-07-12

    Recent progress in laser-driven quasi-monoenergetic ion beams enabled the production of uniformly heated warm dense matter. Matter heated rapidly with this technique is under extreme temperatures and pressures, and promptly expands outward. While the expansion speed of an ideal plasma is known to have a square-root dependence on temperature, computer simulations presented here show a linear dependence of expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in the warm dense matter regime. The expansion of uniformly heated 1–100 eV solid density gold foils was modeled with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code, and the average surface expansion speed was found to increase linearly withmore » temperature. The origin of this linear dependence is explained by comparing predictions from the SESAME equation-of-state tables with those from the ideal gas equation-of-state. In conclusion, these simulations offer useful insight into the expansion of warm dense matter and motivate the application of optical shadowgraphy for temperature measurement.« less

  18. Linear dependence of surface expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, Woosuk; Albright, Brian James; Bradley, Paul Andrew; Vold, Erik Lehman; Boettger, Jonathan Carl; Fernández, Juan Carlos

    2016-07-12

    Recent progress in laser-driven quasi-monoenergetic ion beams enabled the production of uniformly heated warm dense matter. Matter heated rapidly with this technique is under extreme temperatures and pressures, and promptly expands outward. While the expansion speed of an ideal plasma is known to have a square-root dependence on temperature, computer simulations presented here show a linear dependence of expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in the warm dense matter regime. The expansion of uniformly heated 1–100 eV solid density gold foils was modeled with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code, and the average surface expansion speed was found to increase linearly with temperature. The origin of this linear dependence is explained by comparing predictions from the SESAME equation-of-state tables with those from the ideal gas equation-of-state. In conclusion, these simulations offer useful insight into the expansion of warm dense matter and motivate the application of optical shadowgraphy for temperature measurement.

  19. Role of initial state and final quench temperature on aging properties in phase-ordering kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corberi, Federico; Villavicencio-Sanchez, Rodrigo

    2016-05-01

    We study numerically the two-dimensional Ising model with nonconserved dynamics quenched from an initial equilibrium state at the temperature Ti≥Tc to a final temperature Tf below the critical one. By considering processes initiating both from a disordered state at infinite temperature Ti=∞ and from the critical configurations at Ti=Tc and spanning the range of final temperatures Tf∈[0 ,Tc[ we elucidate the role played by Ti and Tf on the aging properties and, in particular, on the behavior of the autocorrelation C and of the integrated response function χ . Our results show that for any choice of Tf, while the autocorrelation function exponent λC takes a markedly different value for Ti=∞ [λC(Ti=∞ ) ≃5 /4 ] or Ti=Tc [λC(Ti=Tc) ≃1 /8 ] the response function exponents are unchanged. Supported by the outcome of the analytical solution of the solvable spherical model we interpret this fact as due to the different contributions provided to autocorrelation and response by the large-scale properties of the system. As changing Tf is considered, although this is expected to play no role in the large-scale and long-time properties of the system, we show important effects on the quantitative behavior of χ . In particular, data for quenches to Tf=0 are consistent with a value of the response function exponent λχ=1/2 λC(Ti=∞ ) =5 /8 different from the one [λχ∈(0.5 -0.56 ) ] found in a wealth of previous numerical determinations in quenches to finite final temperatures. This is interpreted as due to important preasymptotic corrections associated to Tf>0 .

  20. Temperature and initial curvature effects in low-density panel flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resende, Hugo B.

    1992-01-01

    The panel flutter phenomenon is studied assuming free-molecule flow. This kind of analysis is relevant in the case of hypersonic flight vehicles traveling at high altitudes, especially in the leeward portion of the vehicle. In these conditions the aerodynamic shear can be expected to be considerably larger than the pressure at a given point, so that the effects of such a loading are incorporated into the structural model. Both the pressure and shear loadings are functions of the panel temperature, which can lead to great variations on the location of the stability boundaries for parametric studies. Different locations can, however, be 'collapsed' onto one another by using as ordinate an appropriately normalized dynamic pressure parameter. This procedure works better for higher values of the panel temperature for a fixed undisturbed flow temperature. Finally, the behavior of the system is studied when the panel has some initial curvature. This leads to the conclusion that it may be unrealistic to try to distinguish between a parabolic or sinusoidal initial shape.

  1. Effects of rotation on coolant passage heat transfer. Volume 1: Coolant passages with smooth walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajek, T. J.; Wagner, J. H.; Johnson, B. V.; Higgins, A. W.; Steuber, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to investigate heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of rotating multipass passages, for configurations and dimensions typical of modern turbine blades. The immediate objective was the generation of a data base of heat transfer and pressure loss data required to develop heat transfer correlations and to assess computational fluid dynamic techniques for rotating coolant passages. Experiments were conducted in a smooth wall large scale heat transfer model.

  2. Effect of initial temperature changes on myocardial enzyme levels and cardiac function in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yuanyu; Liu, Jie; Ma, Jinling; Meng, Qingyi; Peng, Chaoying

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, the effect of initial body temperature changes on myocardial enzyme levels and cardiac function in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients was investigated. A total of 315 AMI patients were enrolled and the mean temperature was calculated based on their body temperature within 24 h of admission to hospital. The patients were divided into four groups according to their normal body temperature: Group A, <36.5°C; group B, ≥36.5°C and <37.0°C; group C, ≥37.0°C and <37.5°C and group D, ≥37.5°C. The levels of percutaneous coronary intervention, myocardial enzymes and troponin T (TNT), as well as cardiac ultrasound images, were analyzed. Statistically significant differences in the quantity of creatine kinase at 12 and 24 h following admission were identified between group A and groups C and D (P<0.01). A significant difference in TNT at 12 h following admission was observed between groups A and D (P<0.05), however, this difference was not observed with groups B and C. The difference in TNT between the groups at 24 h following admission was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Significant differences in lactate dehydrogenase at 12 and 24 h following admission were observed between groups A and D (P<0.05), however, differences were not observed with groups B and C (P>0.05). Significant differences in glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase at 12 and 24 h following admission were observed between groups A and D (P<0.05), however, differences were not observed in groups B and C (P>0.05). However, no significant differences were identified in cardiac function index between all the groups. Therefore, the results of the present study indicated that AMI patients with low initial body temperatures exhibited decreased levels of myocardial enzymes and TNT. Thus, the observation of an initially low body temperature may be used as a protective factor for AMI and may improve the existing clinical program.

  3. Assessment of Thermal and Hydrodynamic Fragmentation in Molten Fuel Coolant Interaction With Simulant System

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, K.S.; Das, S.K.; Jasmin Sudha, A.; Rao, E.H.V.M.; Lydia, G.; Murthy, S.S.; Kumareshan, M.; Harvey, J.; Kasinathan, N.; Rajan, M.

    2006-07-01

    In the Safety analysis of Fast Breeder Reactor, assessment of Molten Fuel Coolant Interaction (MFCI) assumes importance for two aspects, namely the characterization of the debris and severity of pressure pulses generation. An attempt has been made to investigate the debris generation characteristics with molten Woods Metal (Alloy of Bi 50% Pb 25% Sn 12.5% and Cd 12.5% and melting point of 346 K) - Water simulant system. Liquid Woods metal and liquid Uranium dioxide physical properties (Density, Surface tension and Kinematic viscosity) are similar. Experimental studies were conducted for various melt temperatures covering non - boiling, convective boiling and film boiling regimes of water, to assess the debris generation resulting from both hydrodynamic and thermal interaction. Woods metal was heated to the desired temperature and poured through a hot funnel having a nozzle of 8 mm release diameter into a water column of height up to 140 cm. Experiments were repeated for different coolant temperature and melt inventory up to 5 kg. The melt entry velocity was determined from video recordings. The debris is analyzed on the basis of interface temperature, Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin - Helmholtz instabilities. It is observed that Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is the dominant fragmentation phenomena. Contribution due to coolant boiling resulted in more debris generation in the size less than 4 mm. (authors)

  4. Inverse design of a proper number, shapes, sizes, and locations of coolant flow passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulikravich, George S.

    1992-01-01

    During the past several years we have developed an inverse method that allows a thermal cooling system designer to determine proper sizes, shapes, and locations of coolant passages (holes) in, say, an internally cooled turbine blade, a scram jet strut, a rocket chamber wall, etc. Using this method the designer can enforce a desired heat flux distribution on the hot outer surface of the object, while simultaneously enforcing desired temperature distributions on the same hot outer surface as well as on the cooled interior surfaces of each of the coolant passages. This constitutes an over-specified problem which is solved by allowing the number, sizes, locations and shapes of the holes to adjust iteratively until the final internally cooled configuration satisfies the over-specified surface thermal conditions and the governing equation for the steady temperature field. The problem is solved by minimizing an error function expressing the difference between the specified and the computed hot surface heat fluxes. The temperature field analysis was performed using our highly accurate boundary integral element code with linearly varying temperature along straight surface panels. Examples of the inverse design applied to internally cooled turbine blades and scram jet struts (coated and non-coated) having circular and non-circular coolant flow passages will be shown.

  5. Parametric study on maximum transportable distance and cost for thermal energy transportation using various coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Su-Jong Yoon; Piyush Sabharwall

    2014-07-01

    The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as district heating, desalination, hydrogen production and other process heat applications, etc. The process heat industry/facilities will be located outside the nuclear island due to safety measures. This thermal energy from the reactor has to be transported a fair distance. In this study, analytical analysis was conducted to identify the maximum distance that thermal energy could be transported using various coolants such as molten-salts, helium and water by varying the pipe diameter and mass flow rate. The cost required to transport each coolant was also analyzed. The coolants analyzed are molten salts (such as: KClMgCl2, LiF-NaF-KF (FLiNaK) and KF-ZrF4), helium and water. Fluoride salts are superior because of better heat transport characteristics but chloride salts are most economical for higher temperature transportation purposes. For lower temperature water is a possible alternative when compared with He, because low pressure He requires higher pumping power which makes the process very inefficient and economically not viable for both low and high temperature application.

  6. Analysis of Loss-of-Coolant Accidents in the NBSR

    SciTech Connect

    Baek J. S.; Cheng L.; Diamond, D.

    2014-05-23

    This report documents calculations of the fuel cladding temperature during loss-of-coolant accidents in the NBSR. The probability of a pipe failure is small and procedures exist to minimize the loss of water and assure emergency cooling water flows into the reactor core during such an event. Analysis in the past has shown that the emergency cooling water would provide adequate cooling if the water filled the flow channels within the fuel elements. The present analysis is to determine if there is adequate cooling if the water drains from the flow channels. Based on photographs of how the emergency water flows into the fuel elements from the distribution pan, it can be assumed that this water does not distribute uniformly across the flow channels but rather results in a liquid film flowing downward on the inside of one of the side plates in each fuel element and only wets the edges of the fuel plates. An analysis of guillotine breaks shows the cladding temperature remains below the blister temperature in fuel plates in the upper section of the fuel element. In the lower section, the fuel plates are also cooled by water outside the element that is present due to the hold-up pan and temperatures are lower than in the upper section. For small breaks, the simulation results show that the fuel elements are always cooled on the outside even in the upper section and the cladding temperature cannot be higher than the blister temperature. The above results are predicated on assumptions that are examined in the study to see their influence on fuel temperature.

  7. Analysis of High Temperature Reactor Control Rod Worth for the Initial and Full Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktajianto, Hammam; Setiawati, Evi; Anam, Khoirul; Sugito, Heri

    2017-01-01

    Control rod is one important component in a nuclear reactor. In nuclear reactor operations the control rod functions to shut down the reactor. This research analyses ten control rods worth of HTR (High Temperature Reactor) at initial and full core. The HTR in this research adopts HTR-10 China and HTR- of pebble bed. Core calculations are performed by using MCNPX code after modelling the entire parts of core in condition of ten control rods fully withdrawn, all control rods in with 20 cm ranges of depth and the use of one control rod. Pebble bed and moderator balls are distributed in the core zone using a Body Centred Cubic (BCC) lattice by ratio of 57:43. The research results are obtained that the use of one control rod will decrease the reactor criticality of 2.04±0.12 %Δk/k at initial core and 1.57±0.10 %Δk/k at full core. The deeper control rods are in, the lesser criticality of reactor is with reactivity of ten control rods of 16.41±0.11 %Δk/k at initial core and 15.43±0.11 %Δk/k at full core. The results show that the use of ten control rods at full core will keep achieving subcritical condition even though the reactivity is smaller than reactivity at initial core.

  8. Some observations on simulated molten debris-coolant layer dynamics. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.A.; Klein, J.; Klages, J.; Schwarz, E.; Sanborn, Y.

    1983-04-01

    Experiments are being performed to investigate high temperature liquid-liquid film boiling between a pool of liquid metal and an overlying coolant pool of R-11 or water. Film boiling has been observed to be stable for R-11; however, considerable liquid-liquid contact has been observed with water well beyond the minimum film boiling temperature. Unstable liquid-liquid film boiling of water has been observed to escalate into dispersive, non-energetic vapor explosions when the interface contact temperature exceeded the spontaneous nucleation temperature. Other parametric trends in the data are discussed.

  9. Controlling the Velocity of Jumping Nanodroplets Via Their Initial Shape and Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    Controlling the movement of nanoscale objects is a significant goal of nanotechnology. Dewetting-induced ejection of nanodroplets could provide another means of achieving that goal. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate the dewetting-induced ejection of nanoscale liquid copper nanostructures that were deposited on a graphitic substrate. Nanostructures in the shape of a circle, square, equilateral, and isosceles triangle dewet and form nanodroplets that are ejected from the substrate with a velocity that depends on the initial shape and temperature. The dependence of the ejected velocity on shape is ascribed to the temporal asymmetry of the mass coalescence during the droplet formation; the dependence on temperature is ascribed to changes in the density and viscosity. The results suggest that dewetting induced by nanosecond laser pulses could be used to control the velocity of ejected nanodroplets.

  10. Turbulent Dispersion of Film Coolant and Hot Streaks in a Turbine Vane Cascade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-18

    turbine vane. The overall objective was to understand the turbulent mixing in a complex flow and develop tools to determine the non uniform temperature...distribution incident on a downstream turbine rotor. Magnetic resonance velocimetry provided the three component velocity distribution throughout a...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Turbulent Dispersion of Film Coolant and Hot Streaks in a Turbine Vane Cascade The

  11. ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Holt, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate buffer concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered. The remediation steps include changes in the coolant chemistry specification, development of a suite of new antimicrobial additives, and development of devices for the removal of nickel and phosphate ions from the coolant. This paper presents an overview of the anomalies, their known and suspected system effects, their causes, and the actions being taken to remediate the coolant.

  12. Reclamation and disposal of water-based machining coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, which is operated by the Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division for the Department of Energy under US government contract W-7405-eng-26, currently uses about 10{sup 6} L/yr (260,000 gal/yr) of water-based coolants in its machining operations. These coolants are disposed of in a 110,000-L (29,000-gal) activated sludge reactor. The reactor has oxidized an average of 38.6 kg of total organic carbon (TOC) per day with an overall efficiency of 90%. The predominant bacteria in the reactor have been identified once each year for the past three years. Six primary types of water-based coolants are currently used in the machine shops. In order to reduce the coolant usage rate, efforts are being made to introduce one universal coolant into the shops. By using a biocide to limit bacterial deterioration and using a filter and centrifuge system to remove dirt and tramp oils from the coolant, the coolant discard rate can be greatly reduced. 1 tab.

  13. Transient tension changes initiated by laser temperature jumps in rabbit psoas muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Y E; McCray, J A; Ranatunga, K W

    1987-01-01

    1. A technique was developed to generate 2-8 degrees C step temperature perturbations (T-jumps) in single muscle fibres to study the thermodynamics of muscle contraction. A solid-state pulsed holmium laser emitting at 2.065 microns heated the fibre and surrounding solution in approximately 150 mus. The signal from a 100 microns thermocouple fed back to a heating wire maintained the elevated temperature after the laser pulse. 2. Tension of glycerol-extracted muscle fibres from rabbit psoas muscle did not change significantly following T-jumps when the fibre was relaxed. 3. In rigor, tension decreased abruptly on heating indicating normal (not rubber-like) thermoelasticity. The thermoelastic coefficient (negative ratio of relative length change to relative temperature change) of the fibre was estimated to be -0.021 at sarcomere lengths of 2.5-2.8 microns. Rigor tension was constant after the temperature step and returned to the original value on recooling. 4. In maximal Ca2+ activation, tension transients initiated by T-jumps had several phases. An immediate tension decrease suggests that thermoelasticity during contraction is similar to that in rigor. Active tension then recovered to the value before the T-jump with an apparent rate constant of approximately 400 s-1 (at 10-20 degrees C). This rate constant did not have an appreciable dependence on the final temperature. Finally, tension increased exponentially to a new higher level with a rate constant of approximately 20 s-1 at 20 degrees C. This rate constant increased with temperature with a Q10 of 1.4. 5. At submaximal Ca2+ activation the tension rise was followed by a decay to below the value before the T-jump. This decline was expected from the temperature dependence of steady pCa-tension curves. The final tension decline occurred on the 1-5 s time scale. 6. The value and amplitude dependence of the rate constant for the quick recovery following T-jumps were similar to those of the quick recovery following

  14. Advanced reactor vessel steels for reactors with supercritical coolant parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, S. I.; Dub, V. S.; Lebedev, A. G.; Kuleshova, E. A.; Balikoev, A. G.; Makarycheva, E. V.; Tolstykh, D. S.; Frolov, A. S.; Krikun, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    A set of studies, tests, and technological works is performed to design promising high-strength vessel steels for reactors with supercritical coolant parameters. Compositions and technological parameters are proposed for the production of reference steel (within the limits of the grade composition of 15Kh2NMFA-A steel) and high-nickel steel. These steels are characterized by high properties, including metallurgical quality and service and technological parameters. Steel of the reference composition has high (higher by 15%) strength properties, improved viscoplastic properties, and ductile-brittle transition temperature t c of at most-125°C. The strength properties of the high-nickel steel are higher than those of the existing steels by 40-50% and higher than those of advanced foreign steels by 15-20% at ductile-brittle transition temperature t c of at most-165°C. Moreover, the designed steels are characterized by a low content of harmful impurity elements and nonmetallic inclusions, a fine-grained structure, and a low susceptibility to thermal embrittlement.

  15. Turbomachine injection nozzle including a coolant delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Zuo, Baifang [Simpsonville, SC

    2012-02-14

    An injection nozzle for a turbomachine includes a main body having a first end portion that extends to a second end portion defining an exterior wall having an outer surface. A plurality of fluid delivery tubes extend through the main body. Each of the plurality of fluid delivery tubes includes a first fluid inlet for receiving a first fluid, a second fluid inlet for receiving a second fluid and an outlet. The injection nozzle further includes a coolant delivery system arranged within the main body. The coolant delivery system guides a coolant along at least one of a portion of the exterior wall and around the plurality of fluid delivery tubes.

  16. Longer life for glyco-based stationary engine coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Hohlfeld, R.

    1996-07-01

    Large, stationary diesel engines used to compress natural gas that is to be transported down pipelines generate a great deal of heat. Unless this heat is dissipated efficiently, it will eventually cause an expensive breakdown. Whether the coolant uses ethylene glycol or propylene glycol, the two major causes of glycol degradation are heat and oxidation. The paper discusses inhibitors that enhance coolant service life and presents a comprehensive list of do`s and don`ts for users to gain a 20-year coolant life.

  17. Lead Coolant Test Facility Technical and Functional Requirements, Conceptual Design, Cost and Construction Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Soli T. Khericha

    2006-09-01

    This report presents preliminary technical and functional requirements (T&FR), thermal hydraulic design and cost estimate for a lead coolant test facility. The purpose of this small scale facility is to simulate lead coolant fast reactor (LFR) coolant flow in an open lattice geometry core using seven electrical rods and liquid lead or lead-bismuth eutectic. Based on review of current world lead or lead-bismuth test facilities and research need listed in the Generation IV Roadmap, five broad areas of requirements of basis are identified: Develop and Demonstrate Prototype Lead/Lead-Bismuth Liquid Metal Flow Loop Develop and Demonstrate Feasibility of Submerged Heat Exchanger Develop and Demonstrate Open-lattice Flow in Electrically Heated Core Develop and Demonstrate Chemistry Control Demonstrate Safe Operation and Provision for Future Testing. These five broad areas are divided into twenty-one (21) specific requirements ranging from coolant temperature to design lifetime. An overview of project engineering requirements, design requirements, QA and environmental requirements are also presented. The purpose of this T&FRs is to focus the lead fast reactor community domestically on the requirements for the next unique state of the art test facility. The facility thermal hydraulic design is based on the maximum simulated core power using seven electrical heater rods of 420 kW; average linear heat generation rate of 300 W/cm. The core inlet temperature for liquid lead or Pb/Bi eutectic is 420oC. The design includes approximately seventy-five data measurements such as pressure, temperature, and flow rates. The preliminary estimated cost of construction of the facility is $3.7M. It is also estimated that the facility will require two years to be constructed and ready for operation.

  18. Heat-transfer dynamics during cryogen spray cooling of substrate at different initial temperatures.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wangcun; Aguilar, Guillermo; Wang, Guo-Xiang; Nelson, J Stuart

    2004-12-07

    Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is used to minimize the risk of epidermal damage during laser dermatologic therapy. However, the dominant mechanisms of heat transfer during the transient cooling process are incompletely understood. The objective of this study is to elucidate the physics of CSC by measuring the effect of initial substrate temperature (T0) on cooling dynamics. Cryogen was delivered by a straight-tube nozzle onto a skin phantom. A fast-response thermocouple was used to record the phantom temperature changes before, during and after the cryogen spray. Surface heat fluxes (q") and heat-transfer coefficients (h) were computed using an inverse heat conduction algorithm. The maximum surface heat flux (q"max) was observed to increase with T0. The surface temperature corresponding to q"max also increased with T0 but the latter has no significant effect on h. It is concluded that heat transfer between the cryogen spray and skin phantom remains in the nucleate boiling region even if T0 is 80 degrees C.

  19. INITIAL RESULTS FROM INVESTIGATIONS TO ENHANCE THE PERFORMANCE OF HIGH TEMPERATURE IRRADIATION-RESISTANT THERMOCOUPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Crepeau, John; Rempe, Joy; Wilkins, S. Curtis; Knudson, Darrell L.; Condie, Keith G.; Daw, Joshua

    2007-04-01

    New fuel, cladding, and structural materials offer the potential for safer and more economic energy from existing reactor and advanced nuclear reactor designs. However, insufficient data are available to characterize these materials in high temperature, radiation conditions. To evaluate candidate material performance, robust instrumentation is needed that can survive these conditions. However, traditional thermocouples either drift due to degradation at high temperatures (above 1100 °C) or due to transmutation of thermocouple components. Thermocouples are needed which can withstand both high temperature and high radiation environments. To address this instrumentation need, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) recently developed the design and evaluated the performance of a high temperature radiation-resistant thermocouple that contains commercially-available alloys of molybdenum and niobium (Rempe, 2006). Candidate thermocouple component materials were first identified based on their ability to withstand high temperature and radiation. Then, components were selected based on data obtained from materials interaction tests, ductility investigations, and resolution evaluations. Results from long duration (over 4000 hours) tests at high temperatures (up to 1400 °C) and thermal cycling tests demonstrate the stability and reliability of the INL-developed design. Tests in INL’s Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) are underway to demonstrate the in-pile performance of these thermocouples. However, several options have been identified that could further enhance the lifetime and reliability of the INL-developed thermocouples, allowing their use in higher temperature applications (up to at least 1700 °C). A joint University of Idaho (UI) and INL University Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (UNERI) is underway to investigate these options and ultimately, provide recommendations for an enhanced thermocouple design. This paper presents preliminary results from this UI/INL effort

  20. Flow boiling with enhancement devices for cold plate coolant channel design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Ronald D.; Turknett, Jerry C.; Smith, Alvin

    1989-08-01

    The effects of enhancement devices on flow boiling heat transfer in circular coolant channels, which are heated over a fraction of their perimeters, are studied. The variations were examined in both the mean and local (axial, and circumferential) heat transfer coefficients for a circular coolant channel with either smooth walls or with both a twisted tape and spiral finned walls. Improvements were initiated in the present data reduction analysis. These efforts should lead to the development of heat transfer correlations which include effects of single side heat flux and enhancement device configuration. It is hoped that a stage will be set for the study of heat transfer and pressure drop in single sided heated systems under zero gravity conditions.

  1. Flow boiling with enhancement devices for cold plate coolant channel design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Ronald D.; Turknett, Jerry C.; Smith, Alvin

    1989-01-01

    The effects of enhancement devices on flow boiling heat transfer in circular coolant channels, which are heated over a fraction of their perimeters, are studied. The variations were examined in both the mean and local (axial, and circumferential) heat transfer coefficients for a circular coolant channel with either smooth walls or with both a twisted tape and spiral finned walls. Improvements were initiated in the present data reduction analysis. These efforts should lead to the development of heat transfer correlations which include effects of single side heat flux and enhancement device configuration. It is hoped that a stage will be set for the study of heat transfer and pressure drop in single sided heated systems under zero gravity conditions.

  2. Corrosion problems with aqueous coolants, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Diegle, R B; Beavers, J A; Clifford, J E

    1980-04-11

    The results of a one year program to characterize corrosion of solar collector alloys in aqueous heat-transfer media are summarized. The program involved a literature review and a laboratory investigation of corrosion in uninhibited solutions. It consisted of three separate tasks, as follows: review of the state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes; study of corrosion in multimetallic systems; and determination of interaction between different waters and chemical antifreeze additives. Task 1 involved a comprehensive review of published literature concerning corrosion under solar collector operating conditions. The reivew also incorporated data from related technologies, specifically, from research performed on automotive cooling systems, cooling towers, and heat exchangers. Task 2 consisted of determining the corrosion behavior of candidate alloys of construction for solar collectors in different types of aqueous coolants containing various concentrations of corrosive ionic species. Task 3 involved measuring the degradation rates of glycol-based heat-transfer media, and also evaluating the effects of degradation on the corrosion behavior of metallic collector materials.

  3. Reactor coolant pump monitoring and diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, R.M.; Gross, K.C.; Walsh, M. ); Humenik, K.E. )

    1990-01-01

    In order to reliably and safely operate a nuclear power plant, it is necessary to continuously monitor the performance of numerous subsystems to confirm that the plant state is within its prescribed limits. An important function of a properly designed monitoring system is the detection of incipient faults in all subsystems (with the avoidance of false alarms) coupled with an information system that provides the operators with fault diagnosis, prognosis of fault progression and recommended (either automatic or prescriptive) corrective action. In this paper, such a system is described that has been applied to reactor coolant pumps. This system includes a sensitive pattern-recognition technique based upon the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) that detects incipient faults from validated signals, an expert system embodying knowledge bases on pump and sensor performance, extensive hypertext files containing operating and emergency procedures as well as pump and sensor information and a graphical interface providing the operator with easily perceived information on the location and character of the fault as well as recommended corrective action. This system is in the prototype stage and is currently being validated utilizing data from a liquid-metal cooled fast reactor (EBR-II). 3 refs., 4 figs.

  4. The heat transfer characteristic of the reactor coolant pump canned motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, X. Y.; Xu, R.; Tao, G.; Yang, Y. L.; Wang, D. Z.

    2016-05-01

    This paper deals with the heat transfer characteristic of the reactor coolant pump canned motor. The cooling of the canned motor is an important issue for the design of the pump. In order to analyze the heat transfer characteristic of the canned motor, firstly the electromagnetic field of the canned motor is calculated with finite element method, and the magnetic resistance loss is gotten, then the heat distribution of the canned motor is obtained based on the electromagnetic field, finally the flow field and temperature field of the canned motor is calculated with CFD methods. The calculation indicates that the highest temperature and highest temperature rising are both occurred at the end winding.

  5. Behaviour of a two rows of holes coolant film along the pressure side of a high pressure nozzle guide vane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arts, T.; Bourguignon, A. E.

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to quantify the influence on external convective heat transfer of a coolant film whose position varies along the pressure side of a high pressure turbine nozzle guide vane. The measurements were performed in the short duration Isentropic Light Piston Compression Tube facility of the von Karman Institute. The effects of external and internal flow are considered in terms of Mach number, Reynolds number, freestream turbulence intensity, blowing rate and coolant to freestream temperature ratio. The way to evaluate these results in terms of film cooling efficiency and heat transfer coefficient is finally discussed.

  6. Copper-based micro-channel cooler reliably operated using solutions of distilled-water and ethanol as a coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, A. K.; Nelson, A.; Chin, R. H.; Bertaska, R.; Jacob, J. H.

    2015-03-01

    Copper-based micro-channel coolers (Cu-MCC) are the lowest thermal-resistance heat-sinks for high-power laserdiode (LD) bars. Presently, the resistivity, pH and oxygen content of the de-ionized water coolant, must be actively controlled to minimize cooler failure by corrosion and electro-corrosion. Additionally, the water must be constantly exposed to ultraviolet radiation to limit the growth of micro-organisms that may clog the micro-channels. In this study, we report the reliable, care-free operation of LD-bars attached to Cu-MCCs, using a solution of distilledwater and ethanol as the coolant. This coolant meets the storage requirements of Mil-Std 810G, e.g. exposure to a storage temperature as low as -51°C and no growth of micro-organisms during passive storage.

  7. Modulation of the neutron field in the multiplying condensed matter and coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Vodyanitskii, A. A.; Slyusarenko, Yu. V.

    2009-12-14

    The spatial damping of acoustic, neutron and thermal branches of oscillations are found in neutron multiplying medium with coolant. All three branches give additive contribution to the neutron density oscillations. However, their wave numbers and coefficients of spatial damping (at the same frequency) differ greatly from the sound with its high phase velocity and small attenuation to the neutron wave with the damping length, which is comparable with its wavelength. A spatial growth of neutron density oscillations is found in the case of large frequency of neutron capture and weak coupling of neutron density and temperature branches of oscillations. This fact is of importance for the noise diagnostics of the multiplying medium with coolant. The results can be applied to the development of the methods of noise diagnostics of the in core reactor equipment.

  8. Flow boiling with enhancement devices for cold plate coolant channel design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Ronald D.

    1991-01-01

    Future space exploration and commercialization will require more efficient heat rejection systems. For the required heat transfer rates, such systems must use advanced heat transfer techniques. Forced two phase flow boiling heat transfer with enhancements falls in this category. However, moderate to high quality two phase systems tend to require higher pressure losses. This report is divided into two major parts: (1) Multidimensional wall temperature measurement and heat transfer enhancement for top heated horizontal channels with flow boiling; and (2) Improved analytical heat transfer data reduction for a single side heated coolant channel. Part 1 summarizes over forty experiments which involve both single phase convection and flow boiling in a horizontal channel heated externally from the top side. Part 2 contains parametric dimensionless curves with parameters such as the coolant channel radius ratio, the Biot number, and the circumferential coordinate.

  9. MATLAB/Simulink Framework for Modeling Complex Coolant Flow Configurations of Advanced Automotive Thermal Management Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Titov, Gene; Lustbader, Jason; Leighton, Daniel; Kiss, Tibor

    2016-04-05

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) CoolSim MATLAB/Simulink modeling framework was extended by including a newly developed coolant loop solution method aimed at reducing the simulation effort for arbitrarily complex thermal management systems. The new approach does not require the user to identify specific coolant loops and their flow. The user only needs to connect the fluid network elements in a manner consistent with the desired schematic. Using the new solution method, a model of NREL's advanced combined coolant loop system for electric vehicles was created that reflected the test system architecture. This system was built using components provided by the MAHLE Group and included both air conditioning and heat pump modes. Validation with test bench data and verification with the previous solution method were performed for 10 operating points spanning a range of ambient temperatures between -2 degrees C and 43 degrees C. The largest root mean square difference between pressure, temperature, energy and mass flow rate data and simulation results was less than 7%.

  10. Design of the coolant system for the Large Coil Test Facility pulse coils

    SciTech Connect

    Bridgman, C.; Ryan, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    The pulse coils will be a part of the Large Coil Test Facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, which is designed to test six large tokamak-type superconducting coils. The pulse coil set consists of two resistive coaxial solenoid coils, mounted so that their magnetic axis is perpendicular to the toroidal field lines of the test coil. The pulse coils provide transient vertical fields at test coil locations to simulate the pulsed vertical fields present in tokamak devices. The pulse coils are designed to be pulsed for 30 s every 150 s, which results in a Joule heating of 116 kW per coil. In order to provide this capability, the pulse coil coolant system is required to deliver 6.3 L/s (100 gpm) of subcooled liquid nitrogen at 10-atm absolute pressure. The coolant system can also cool down each pulse coil from room temperature to liquid nitrogen temperature. This paper provides details of the pumping and heat exchange equipment designed for the coolant system and of the associated instrumentation and controls.

  11. Transient two-phase performance of LOFT reactor coolant pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.H.; Modro, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    Performance characteristics of Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor coolant pumps under transient two-phase flow conditions were obtained based on the analysis of two large and small break loss-of-coolant experiments conducted at the LOFT facility. Emphasis is placed on the evaluation of the transient two-phase flow effects on the LOFT reactor coolant pump performance during the first quadrant operation. The measured pump characteristics are presented as functions of pump void fraction which was determined based on the measured density. The calculated pump characteristics such as pump head, torque (or hydraulic torque), and efficiency are also determined as functions of pump void fractions. The importance of accurate modeling of the reactor coolant pump performance under two-phase conditions is addressed. The analytical pump model, currently used in most reactor analysis codes to predict transient two-phase pump behavior, is assessed.

  12. INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. These evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction and econo...

  13. Estimating Loss-of-Coolant Accident Frequencies for the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk Models

    SciTech Connect

    S. A. Eide; D. M. Rasmuson; C. L. Atwood

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission maintains a set of risk models covering the U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. These standardized plant analysis risk (SPAR) models include several loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) initiating events such as small (SLOCA), medium (MLOCA), and large (LLOCA). All of these events involve a loss of coolant inventory from the reactor coolant system. In order to maintain a level of consistency across these models, initiating event frequencies generally are based on plant-type average performance, where the plant types are boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors. For certain risk analyses, these plant-type initiating event frequencies may be replaced by plant-specific estimates. Frequencies for SPAR LOCA initiating events previously were based on results presented in NUREG/CR-5750, but the newest models use results documented in NUREG/CR-6928. The estimates in NUREG/CR-6928 are based on historical data from the initiating events database for pressurized water reactor SLOCA or an interpretation of results presented in the draft version of NUREG-1829. The information in NUREG-1829 can be used several ways, resulting in different estimates for the various LOCA frequencies. Various ways NUREG-1829 information can be used to estimate LOCA frequencies were investigated and this paper presents two methods for the SPAR model standard inputs, which differ from the method used in NUREG/CR-6928. In addition, results obtained from NUREG-1829 are compared with actual operating experience as contained in the initiating events database.

  14. High-temperature nuclear closed Brayton cycle power conversion system for the space exploration initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, D.J. )

    1991-01-05

    The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) has stated goals of colonizing the moon and conducting manned exploration of the planet Mars. Unlike previous ventures into space, both manned and unmanned, large quantities of electrical power will be required to provide the energy for lunar base sustenance and for highly efficient propulsion systems for the long trip to mars and return. Further, the requirement for electrical power of several megawatts will necessitate the use of nuclear reactor driven power conversion systems. This paper discusses a particle bed reactor closed Brayton cycle space power system that uses advanced materials technology to achieve a high-temperature, low-specific-weight modular system capable of providing the requisite electrical power for both a lunar base and a Mars flight vehicle propulsion system.

  15. High-temperature nuclear closed Brayton cycle power conversion system for the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, Donald J.

    The Space Exploration Initiative has stated goals of colonizing the moon and conducting manned exploration of the planet Mars. Unlike previous ventures into space, both manned and unmanned, large quantities of electrical power will be required to provide the energy for lunar base sustenance and for highly efficient propulsion systems for the long trip to Mars and return. Further, the requirement for electrical power of several megawatts will necessitate the use of nuclear reactor driven power conversion systems. This paper discusses a particle bed reactor closed Brayton cycle space power system that uses advanced materials technology to achieve a high-temperature, low-specific-weight modular system capable of providing the requisite electrical power for both a lunar base and a Mars flight vehicle propulsion system.

  16. High-temperature nuclear closed Brayton cycle power conversion system for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, Donald J.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) has stated goals of colonizing the moon and conducting manned exploration of the planet Mars. Unlike previous ventures into space, both manned and unmanned, large quantities of electrical power will be required to provide the energy for lunar base sustenance and for highly efficient propulsion systems for the long trip to mars and return. Further, the requirement for electrical power of several megawatts will necessitate the use of nuclear reactor driven power conversion systems. This paper discusses a particle bed reactor closed Brayton cycle space power system that uses advanced materials technology to achieve a high-temperature, low-specific-weight modular system capable of providing the requisite electrical power for both a lunar base and a Mars flight vehicle propulsion system.

  17. Chemical Characterization of Simulated Boiling Water Reactor Coolant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    industry to reduce personnel radiation exposure and down-time associated with the operation, mainte- nance and refueling of Light Water Reactor (LWR...AD-A226 654 t t-FILL UIY C CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SIMULATED , .BOILING WATER REACTOR COOLANt by Li . . , . , - VERRDON HOLBROOK MASON f ; B.S...CHARACTERIZATION OF SIMULATED BOILING WATER REACTOR COOLANT by VERRDON HOLBROOK MASON Submitted to the Department of Nuclear Engineering on May 9, 1988 in

  18. Investigation of cleaner technologies to minimize automotive coolant wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. These evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues. In addition, the authors examined the potential for substituting propylene glycol for ethylene glycol based engine coolant formulations. (Copyright (c) 1993 Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd.)

  19. A Comparison of Coolant Options for Brayton Power Conversion Heat Rejection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.; Siamidis, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes potential heat rejection design concepts for Brayton power conversion systems. Brayton conversion systems are currently under study by NASA for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and surface power applications. The Brayton Heat Rejection Subsystem (HRS) must dissipate waste heat generated by the power conversion system due to inefficiencies in the thermal-to-electric conversion process. Sodium potassium (NaK) and H2O are two coolant working fluids that have been investigated in the design of a pumped loop and heat pipe space HRS. In general NaK systems are high temperature (300 to 1000 K) low pressure systems, and H2O systems are low temperature (300 to 600 K) high pressure systems. NaK is an alkali metal with health and safety hazards that require special handling procedures. On the other hand, H2O is a common fluid, with no health hazards and no special handling procedures. This paper compares NaK and H20 for the HRS pumped loop coolant working fluid. A detailed Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA) analytical model, HRS_Opt, was developed to evaluate the various HRS design parameters. It is capable of analyzing NaK or H2O coolant, parallel or series flow configurations, and numerous combinations of other key parameters (heat pipe spacing, diameter and radial flux, radiator facesheet thickness, fluid duct system pressure drop, system rejected power, etc.) of the HRS. This paper compares NaK against water for the HRS coolant working fluid with respect to the relative mass, performance, design and implementation issues between the two fluids.

  20. A Comparison of Coolant Options for Brayton Power Conversion Heat Rejection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siamidis, John; Mason, Lee S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes potential heat rejection design concepts for Brayton power conversion systems. Brayton conversion systems are currently under study by NASA for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and surface power applications. The Brayton Heat Rejection Subsystem (HRS) must dissipate waste heat generated by the power conversion system due to inefficiencies in the thermal-to-electric conversion process. Sodium potassium (NaK) and H2O are two coolant working fluids that have been investigated in the design of a pumped loop and heat pipe space HRS. In general NaK systems are high temperature (300 to 1000 K) low pressure systems, and H2O systems are low temperature (300 to 600 K) high pressure systems. NaK is an alkali metal with health and safety hazards that require special handling procedures. On the other hand, H2O is a common fluid, with no health hazards and no special handling procedures. This paper compares NaK and H2O for the HRS pumped loop coolant working fluid. A detailed Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA) analytical model, HRS_Opt, was developed to evaluate the various HRS design parameters. It is capable of analyzing NaK or H2O coolant, parallel or series flow configurations, and numerous combinations of other key parameters (heat pipe spacing, diameter and radial flux, radiator facesheet thickness, fluid duct system pressure drop, system rejected power, etc.) of the HRS. This paper compares NaK against water for the HRS coolant working fluid with respect to the relative mass, performance, design and implementation issues between the two fluids.

  1. PACER -- A fast running computer code for the calculation of short-term containment/confinement loads following coolant boundary failure. Volume 1: Code models and correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Sienicki, J.J.

    1997-06-01

    A fast running and simple computer code has been developed to calculate pressure loadings inside light water reactor containments/confinements under loss-of-coolant accident conditions. PACER was originally developed to calculate containment/confinement pressure and temperature time histories for loss-of-coolant accidents in Soviet-designed VVER reactors and is relevant to the activities of the US International Nuclear Safety Center. The code employs a multicompartment representation of the containment volume and is focused upon application to early time containment phenomena during and immediately following blowdown. Flashing from coolant release, condensation heat transfer, intercompartment transport, and engineered safety features are described using best estimate models and correlations often based upon experiment analyses. Two notable capabilities of PACER that differ from most other containment loads codes are the modeling of the rates of steam and water formation accompanying coolant release as well as the correlations for steam condensation upon structure.

  2. Effects of rotation on coolant passage heat transfer. Volume 2: Coolant passages with trips normal and skewed to the flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. V.; Wagner, J. H.; Steuber, G. D.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to investigate heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of rotating multipass passages, for configurations and dimensions typical of modem turbine blades. This experimental program is one part of the NASA Hot Section Technology (HOST) Initiative, which has as its overall objective the development and verification of improved analysis methods that will form the basis for a design system that will produce turbine components with improved durability. The objective of this program was the generation of a data base of heat transfer and pressure loss data required to develop heat transfer correlations and to assess computational fluid dynamic techniques for rotating coolant passages. The experimental work was broken down into two phases. Phase 1 consists of experiments conducted in a smooth wall large scale heat transfer model. A detailed discussion of these results was presented in volume 1 of a NASA Report. In Phase 2 the large scale model was modified to investigate the effects of skewed and normal passage turbulators. The results of Phase 2 along with comparison to Phase 1 is the subject of this Volume 2 NASA Report.

  3. Apparatus for controlling coolant level in a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Robert D.

    1978-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactor which has a thermal liner spaced inwardly of the pressure vessel and includes means for passing bypass coolant through the annulus between the thermal liner and the pressure vessel to insulate the pressure vessel from hot outlet coolant includes control ports in the thermal liner a short distance below the normal operating coolant level in the reactor and an overflow nozzle in the pressure vessel below the control ports connected to an overflow line including a portion at an elevation such that overflow coolant flow is established when the coolant level in the reactor is above the top of the coolant ports. When no makeup coolant is added, bypass flow is inwardly through the control ports and there is no overflow; when makeup coolant is being added, coolant flow through the overflow line will maintain the coolant level.

  4. Buoyancy Driven Coolant Mixing Studies of Natural Circulation Flows at the ROCOM Test Facility Using ANSYS CFX

    SciTech Connect

    Hohne, Thomas; Kliem, Soren; Rohde, Ulrich; Weiss, Frank-Peter

    2006-07-01

    Coolant mixing in the cold leg, downcomer and the lower plenum of pressurized water reactors is an important phenomenon mitigating the reactivity insertion into the core. Therefore, mixing of the de-borated slugs with the ambient coolant in the reactor pressure vessel was investigated at the four loop 1:5 scaled ROCOM mixing test facility. Thermal hydraulics analyses showed, that weakly borated condensate can accumulate in particular in the pump loop seal of those loops, which do not receive safety injection. After refilling of the primary circuit, natural circulation in the stagnant loops can re-establish simultaneously and the de-borated slugs are shifted towards the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). In the ROCOM experiments, the length of the flow ramp and the initial density difference between the slugs and the ambient coolant was varied. From the test matrix experiments with 0 resp. 2% density difference between the de-borated slugs and the ambient coolant were used to validate the CFD software ANSYS CFX. To model the effects of turbulence on the mean flow a higher order Reynolds stress turbulence model was employed and a mesh consisting of 6.4 million hybrid elements was utilized. Only the experiments and CFD calculations with modeled density differences show a stratification in the downcomer. Depending on the degree of density differences the less dense slugs flow around the core barrel at the top of the downcomer. At the opposite side the lower borated coolant is entrained by the colder safety injection water and transported to the core. The validation proves that ANSYS CFX is able to simulate appropriately the flow field and mixing effects of coolant with different densities. (authors)

  5. Additional requirements for leak-before-break application to primary coolant piping in Belgium

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel, G.

    1997-04-01

    Leak-Before-Break (LBB) technology has not been applied in the first design of the seven Pressurized Water Reactors the Belgian utility is currently operating. The design basis of these plants required to consider the dynamic effects associated with the ruptures to be postulated in the high energy piping. The application of the LBB technology to the existing plants has been recently approved by the Belgian Safety Authorities but with a limitation to the primary coolant loop. LBB analysis has been initiated for the Doel 3 and Tihange 2 plants to allow the withdrawal of some of the reactor coolant pump snubbers at both plants and not reinstall some of the restraints after steam generator replacement at Doel 3. LBB analysis was also found beneficial to demonstrate the acceptability of the primary components and piping to the new conditions resulting from power uprating and stretch-out operation. LBB analysis has been subsequently performed on the primary coolant loop of the Tihange I plant and is currently being performed for the Doel 4 plant. Application of the LBB to the primary coolant loop is based in Belgium on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements. However the Belgian Safety Authorities required some additional analyses and put some restrictions on the benefits of the LBB analysis to maintain the global safety of the plant at a sufficient level. This paper develops the main steps of the safety evaluation performed by the Belgian Safety Authorities for accepting the application of the LBB technology to existing plants and summarizes the requirements asked for in addition to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission rules.

  6. Nuclear-radiation-actuated valve. [Patent application; for increasing coolant flow to blanket

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Schively, D.P.

    1982-01-19

    The present invention relates to a breeder reactor blanket fuel assembly coolant system valve which increases coolant flow to the blanket fuel assembly to minimize long-term temperature increases caused by fission of fissile fuel created from fertile fuel through operation of the breeder reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  7. Assessment of fiber optic sensors for aging monitoring of industrial liquid coolants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riziotis, Christos; El Sachat, Alexandros; Markos, Christos; Velanas, Pantelis; Meristoudi, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, Aggelos

    2015-03-01

    Lately the demand for in situ and real time monitoring of industrial assets and processes has been dramatically increased. Although numerous sensing techniques have been proposed, only a small fraction can operate efficiently under harsh industrial environments. In this work the operational properties of a proposed photonic based chemical sensing scheme, capable to monitor the ageing process and the quality characteristics of coolants and lubricants in industrial heavy machinery for metal finishing processes is presented. The full spectroscopic characterization of different coolant liquids revealed that the ageing process is connected closely to the acidity/ pH value of coolants, despite the fact that the ageing process is quite complicated, affected by a number of environmental parameters such as the temperature, humidity and development of hazardous biological content as for example fungi. Efficient and low cost optical fiber sensors based on pH sensitive thin overlayers, are proposed and employed for the ageing monitoring. Active sol-gel based materials produced with various pH indicators like cresol red, bromophenol blue and chorophenol red in tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), were used for the production of those thin film sensitive layers deposited on polymer's and silica's large core and highly multimoded optical fibers. The optical characteristics, sensing performance and environmental robustness of those optical sensors are presented, extracting useful conclusions towards their use in industrial applications.

  8. Flow boiling with enhancement devices for cold plate coolant channel design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Ronald D., Sr.; Smith, Alvin

    1990-02-01

    The use of flow boiling for thermal energy transport is intended to provide an alternative for accommodating higher heat fluxes in commercial space systems. The objectives are to: (1) examine the variations in both the mean and local (axial and circumferential) heat transfer coefficients for a circular coolant channel with either smooth walls, spiral fins, or both spiral fins and a twisted tape; (2) examine the effects of channel diameter and subcooling; and (3) develop an improved reduction analysis and/or suggest possible heat transfer correlation of the present data. Freon-11 is the working fluid. Two-dimensional (circumferential and axial) wall temperature distributions were measured for coolant channels with the above noted internal geometries. The flow regimes which are being studied are: (1) single phase; (2) subcooled flow boiling; and (3) stratified flow boiling. The inside diameter of all test sections is near 1.0 cm. Cicumferentially averaged heat transfer coefficients at several axial locations were obtained for selected coolant channels for a mass velocity of 210 kg/sq m s, an exit pressure of 0.19 MPa (absolute), and an inlet subcooling of 20.8 C. Overall (averaged over the entire channel) heat transfer coefficients were compared for the above channel geometries. This comparison showed that the channel with large pitch spiral fins had higher heat transfer coefficients at all power levels.

  9. Effects of LWR coolant environments on fatigue design curves of carbon and low-alloy steels

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Shack, W.J.

    1998-03-01

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. Figures I-9.1 through I-9.6 of Appendix I to Section III of the code specify fatigue design curves for structural materials. While effects of reactor coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the design curves, test data indicate that the Code fatigue curves may not always be adequate in coolant environments. This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue of carbon and low-alloy steels in light water reactor (LWR) environments. The existing fatigue S-N data have been evaluated to establish the effects of various material and loading variables such as steel type, dissolved oxygen level, strain range, strain rate, temperature, orientation, and sulfur content on the fatigue life of these steels. Statistical models have been developed for estimating the fatigue S-N curves as a function of material, loading, and environmental variables. The results have been used to estimate the probability of fatigue cracking of reactor components. The different methods for incorporating the effects of LWR coolant environments on the ASME Code fatigue design curves are presented.

  10. Flow boiling with enhancement devices for cold plate coolant channel design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Ronald D., Sr.; Smith, Alvin

    1990-01-01

    The use of flow boiling for thermal energy transport is intended to provide an alternative for accommodating higher heat fluxes in commercial space systems. The objectives are to: (1) examine the variations in both the mean and local (axial and circumferential) heat transfer coefficients for a circular coolant channel with either smooth walls, spiral fins, or both spiral fins and a twisted tape; (2) examine the effects of channel diameter and subcooling; and (3) develop an improved reduction analysis and/or suggest possible heat transfer correlation of the present data. Freon-11 is the working fluid. Two-dimensional (circumferential and axial) wall temperature distributions were measured for coolant channels with the above noted internal geometries. The flow regimes which are being studied are: (1) single phase; (2) subcooled flow boiling; and (3) stratified flow boiling. The inside diameter of all test sections is near 1.0 cm. Cicumferentially averaged heat transfer coefficients at several axial locations were obtained for selected coolant channels for a mass velocity of 210 kg/sq m s, an exit pressure of 0.19 MPa (absolute), and an inlet subcooling of 20.8 C. Overall (averaged over the entire channel) heat transfer coefficients were compared for the above channel geometries. This comparison showed that the channel with large pitch spiral fins had higher heat transfer coefficients at all power levels.

  11. Mixed convective/dynamic roll vortices and their effects on initial wind and temperature profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haack, Tracy; Shirer, Hampton N.

    1991-01-01

    The onset and development of both dynamically and convectively forced boundary layer rolls are studied with linear and nonlinear analyses of a truncated spectral model of shallow Boussinesq flow. Emphasis is given here on the energetics of the dominant roll modes, on the magnitudes of the roll-induced modifications of the initial basic state wind and temperature profiles, and on the sensitivity of the linear stability results to the use of modified profiles as basic states. It is demonstrated that the roll circulations can produce substantial changes to the cross-roll component of the initial wind profile and that significant changes in orientation angle estimates can result from use of a roll-modified profile in the stability analysis. These results demonstrate that roll contributions must be removed from observed background wind profiles before using them to investigate the mechanisms underlying actual secondary flows in the boundary layer. The model is developed quite generally to accept arbitrary basic state wind profiles as dynamic forcing. An Ekman profile is chosen here merely to provide a means for easy comparison with other theoretical boundary layer studies; the ultimate application of the model is to study observed boundary layer profiles. Results of the analytic stability analysis are validated by comparing them with results from a larger linear model. For an appropriate Ekman depth, a complete set of transition curves is given in forcing parameter space for roll modes driven both thermally and dynamically. Preferred orientation angles, horizontal wavelengths and propagation frequencies, as well as energetics and wind profile modifications, are all shown to agree rather well with results from studies on Ekman layers as well as with studies on near-neutral and convective atmospheric boundary layers.

  12. Modeling Cladding-Coolant Heat Transfer of High-Burnup Fuel During RIA

    SciTech Connect

    Wenfeng Liu; Kazimi, Mujid S.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes a model for the cladding-coolant heat transfer of high burnup fuel during a Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) which is implemented in the fuel performance code FRAPTRAN 1.2. The minimum stable film boiling temperature, affected by the subcooling and the clad oxidation, is modeled by a modified Henry correlation. This accounts for the effects of thermal properties of the cladding surface on the transient temperature drop during liquid-solid contact. The transition boiling regime is described as the interpolation of the heat flux between two anchor points on the boiling curve: the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) and minimum stable film boiling. The CHF correlation is based on the Zuber hydrodynamic model multiplied by a subcooling factor. Frederking correlation is chosen to model the film boiling regime. The heat conduction through the oxide layer of the cladding surface of high burnup fuel is calculated by solving heat conduction equations with thermal properties of zirconia taken from MATPRO. This model is validated in the FRAPTRAN code for test cases of both high burnup and fresh test fuel rods including the burnup level (0--56 MW d/kg), peak fuel enthalpy deposit (70--190 cal/g), degree of subcooling (0--80 deg. C), and extent of oxidation (0--25 micron). The modified code demonstrates the capability of differentiating between the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and none-DNB cases. The predicted peak cladding temperature (PCT) and duration of DNB achieves generally good agreement with the experimental data. It is found that the cladding surface oxidation of high burnup fuel causes an early rewetting of cladding or suppresses DNB due to two factors: 1) Thick zirconia layer may delay the heat conducted to the surface while keeping the surface heat transfer in the most effective nucleate boiling regime. 2) The transient liquid-solid contact resulting from vapor breaking down would cause a lower interface temperature for an oxidized surface

  13. Flame Speeds of Methane-Air, Propane-Air, and Ethylene-Air Mixtures at Low Initial Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugger, Gordon L; Heimel, Sheldon

    1952-01-01

    Flame speeds were determined for methane-air, propane-air, and ethylene-air mixtures at -73 C and for methane-air mixtures at -132 C. The data extend the curves of maximum flame speed against initial mixture temperature previously established for the range from room temperature to 344 C. Empirical equations for maximum flame speed u(cm/ sec) as a function of initial mixture temperature T(sub O) were determined to be as follows: for methane, for T(sub O) from 141 to 615 K, u = 8 + 0.000160 T(sub O)(exp 2.11); for propane, for T(sub O) from 200 to 616 K, u = 10 + 0.000342 T(sub O)(exp 2.00); for ethylene, for T(sub O) from 200 to 617 K, u = 10 + 0.00259 T(sub O)(exp 1.74). Relative flame speeds at low initial temperatures were predicted within approximately 20 percent by either the thermal theory as presented by Semenov or by the diffusion theory of Tanford and Pease. The same order was found previously for high initial temperatures. The low-temperature data were also found to extend the linear correlations between maximum flame speed and calculated equilibrium active-radical concentrations, which were established by the previously reported high-temperature data.

  14. Dynamic Fracture Initiation Toughness at Elevated Temperatures With Application to the New Generation of Titanium Aluminide Alloys. Chapter 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shazly, Mostafa; Prakash, Vikas; Draper, Susan; Shukla, Arun (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a new generation of titanium aluminide alloy, named Gamma-Met PX, has been developed with better rolling and post-rolling characteristics. I'revious work on this alloy has shown the material to have higher strengths at room and elevated temperatures when compared with other gamma titanium aluminides. In particular, this new alloy has shown increased ductility at elevated temperatures under both quasi-static and high strain rate uniaxial compressive loading. However, its high strain rate tensile ductility at room and elevated temperatures is limited to approx. 1%. In the present chapter, results of a study to investigate the effects of loading rate and test temperature on the dynamic fracture initiation toughness in Gamma-Met PX are presented. Modified split Hopkinson pressure bar was used along with high-speed photography to determine the crack initiation time. Three-point bend dynamic fracture experiments were conducted at impact speeds of approx. 1 m/s and tests temperatures of up-to 1200 C. The results show that thc dynamic fracture initiation toughness decreases with increasing test temperatures beyond 600 C. Furthermore, thc effect of long time high temperature air exposure on the fracture toughness was investigated. The dynamic fracture initiation toughness was found to decrease with increasing exposure time. The reasons behind this drop are analyzed and discussed.

  15. Flibe Use in Fusion Reactors - An Initial Safety Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Longhurst, Glen Reed

    1999-04-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of Flibe (LiF-BeF2) as a molten salt coolant for nuclear fusion power plant applications. Flibe experience in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment is briefly reviewed. Safety issues identified include chemical toxicity, radiological issues resulting from neutron activation, and the operational concerns of handling a high temperature coolant. Beryllium compounds and fluorine pose be toxicological concerns. Some controls to protect workers are discussed. Since Flibe has been handled safely in other applications, its hazards appear to be manageable. Some safety issues that require further study are pointed out. Flibe salt interaction with strong magnetic fields should be investigated. Evolution of Flibe constituents and activation products at high temperature (i.e., will Fluorine release as a gas or remain in the molten salt) is an issue. Aerosol and tritium release from a Flibe spill requires study, as does neutronics analysis to characterize radiological doses. Tritium migration from Flibe into the cooling system is also a safety concern. Investigation of these issues will help determine the extent to which Flibe shows promise as a fusion power plant coolant or plasma-facing material.

  16. Flibe use in fusion reactors -- An initial safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1999-03-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of Flibe (LiF-BeF{sub 2}) as a molten salt coolant for nuclear fusion power plant applications. Flibe experience in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment is briefly reviewed. Safety issues identified include chemical toxicity, radiological issues resulting from neutron activation, and the operational concerns of handling a high temperature coolant. Beryllium compounds and fluorine pose be toxicological concerns. Some controls to protect workers are discussed. Since Flibe has been handled safely in other applications, its hazards appear to be manageable. Some safety issues that require further study are pointed out. Flibe salt interaction with strong magnetic fields should be investigated. Evolution of Flibe constituents and activation products at high temperature (i.e., will Fluorine release as a gas or remain in the molten salt) is an issue. Aerosol and tritium release from a Flibe spill requires study, as does neutronics analysis to characterize radiological doses. Tritium migration from Flibe into the cooling system is also a safety concern. Investigation of these issues will help determine the extent to which Flibe shows promise as a fusion power plant coolant or plasma-facing material.

  17. Diesel engine coolant analysis, new application for established instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.P.; Lukas, M.; Lynch, B.K.

    1998-09-01

    Rotating disk electrode (RDE) arc emission spectrometers are used in many commercial, industrial and military laboratories throughout the world to analyze millions of oil and fuel samples each year. In fact, RDE spectrometers have been used exclusively for oil and fuel analysis for so long, that most practitioners have probably forgotten that when RDE spectrometers were first introduced more than 40 years ago, they were also routinely used for aqueous samples. This paper describes recent work to calibrate and modify RDE arc emission spectrometers for the analysis of engine coolant samples; a mixture of approximately 50% water and 50% glycol. The technique has been shown to be effective for the analysis of wear metals, contamination and supplemental coolant additives in ethylene and propylene glycol. A comparison of results for coolant samples measured by both inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and RDE spectrometers will be presented. The data correlates extremely well on new and relatively clean coolants. However, not surprisingly, RDE results are sometimes higher for samples containing particles larger than a few micrometers. This paper suggests that RDE spectrometers are appropriate, and sometimes preferred, for most types of coolants and certain types of aqueous samples. Actual field data is be presented to support the arguments.

  18. Nuclear criticality safety assessment of the proposed CFC replacement coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, W.C.; Dyer, H.R.

    1993-12-01

    The neutron multiplication characteristics of refrigerant-114 (R-114) and proposed replacement coolants perfluorobutane (C{sub 4}F{sub 10}) and cycloperfluorobutane C{sub 4}F{sub 8}) have been compared by evaluating the infinite media multiplication factors of UF{sub 6}/H/coolant systems and by replacement calculations considering a 10-MW freezer/sublimer. The results of these comparisons demonstrate that R-114 is a neutron absorber, due to its chlorine content, and that the alternative fluorocarbon coolants are neutron moderators. Estimates of critical spherical geometries considering mixtures of UF{sub 6}/HF/C{sub 4}F{sub 10} indicate that the flourocarbon-moderated systems are large compared with water-moderated systems. The freezer/sublimer calculations indicate that the alternative coolants are more reactive than R-114, but that the reactivity remains significantly below the condition of water in the tubes, which was a limiting condition. Based on these results, the alternative coolants appear to be acceptable; however, several follow-up tasks have been recommended, and additional evaluation will be required on an individual equipment basis.

  19. Heat Exchanger Can Assembly for Provision of Helium Coolant Streams for Cryomodule Testing below 2K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E. N.; Eichhorn, R.; Quigley, P.; Sabol, D.; Shore, C.; Widger, D.

    2017-02-01

    A series of heat exchanger can (HXC) assemblies have been designed, constructed and built to utilize existing 4.2 K liquefaction and compressor capabilities to provide helium gas coolant streams of 80 K, 4.5 K, and liquid from 1.6 to 2.0 K for operating cryomodules containing from one to six superconducting RF cavities built for an energy recovery linear accelerator. Designs for the largest assemblies required up to 100 W of cooling at 1.8 K with precise temperature control, especially during cool-down, and up to 2000 W at 80 K (with a 40 K temperature rise). A novel feature of these assemblies was the use of relatively inexpensive brazed stainless steel plate heat exchangers intended for room-temperature operation with water or oil, but which in practice worked well at cryogenic temperatures. The choice of operating temperatures/pressures were to provide single-phase helium flow for better control of coolant distribution in the 80 K and 4.5 K streams, to take advantage of locally elevated heat capacity near the critical point for the 4.5 K stream, and in the region below 2 K to get the best possible Q from the niobium cavities under test.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Non-Rotating and Rotating Coolant Channel Flow Fields. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, David L.

    2000-01-01

    Future generations of ultra high bypass-ratio jet engines will require far higher pressure ratios and operating temperatures than those of current engines. For the foreseeable future, engine materials will not be able to withstand the high temperatures without some form of cooling. In particular the turbine blades, which are under high thermal as well as mechanical loads, must be cooled. Cooling of turbine blades is achieved by bleeding air from the compressor stage of the engine through complicated internal passages in the turbine blades (internal cooling, including jet-impingement cooling) and by bleeding small amounts of air into the boundary layer of the external flow through small discrete holes on the surface of the blade (film cooling and transpiration cooling). The cooling must be done using a minimum amount of air or any increases in efficiency gained through higher operating temperature will be lost due to added load on the compressor stage. Turbine cooling schemes have traditionally been based on extensive empirical data bases, quasi-one-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, and trial and error. With improved capabilities of CFD, these traditional methods can be augmented by full three-dimensional simulations of the coolant flow to predict in detail the heat transfer and metal temperatures. Several aspects of turbine coolant flows make such application of CFD difficult, thus a highly effective CFD methodology must be used. First, high resolution of the flow field is required to attain the needed accuracy for heat transfer predictions, making highly efficient flow solvers essential for such computations. Second, the geometries of the flow passages are complicated but must be modeled accurately in order to capture all important details of the flow. This makes grid generation and grid quality important issues. Finally, since coolant flows are turbulent and separated the effects of turbulence must be modeled with a low Reynolds number

  1. Beyond the D-DIA: new initiatives for deformation experiments at higher pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Jing, Z.; Yu, T.; Hilairet, N.; Nishiyama, N.

    2011-12-01

    Advances in experimental high-pressure, high-temperature deformation have relied to a large extent on technological developments. From the pioneer work of F.D. Adams [1] in generating differential stress at high pressure to deform rocks plastically to Griggs' famous deformation apparatus [2], each new invention has enabled numerous scientific publications and brought our understanding of rock deformation to a new level. For the past few years, two major workhorses in deformation experiments above 3 GPa are the rotational deformation apparatus (RDA) [3] and the deformation DIA (D-DIA) [4]. These developments brought us to almost 20 GPa under controlled differential stress and strain rates. Several new initiatives are being undertaken at GSECARS aiming at further enhancing experimental capabilities to higher pressures, temperatures and better in situ characterization of the deforming samples. We constructed a modified RDA with microtomography capability at high pressure which is used to image, in situ and in 3D, fabric evolution in multi-phase composites under large shear strains, to shed lights on the physics of complex earth materials during deformation. A large version of D-DIA (DDIA-30) has also been developed taking advantages of the rigidity of large guide blocks for much improved alignment. A 6-6 multianvil cell (MA6-6) [5] is used for deformation experiments with various truncated edge lengths, without having to change the large first-stage anvils. This configuration has the potential to reach pressure conditions corresponding to the lower mantle. We present recent results of these developments, and their potential applications for understanding dynamic processes from the upper mantle to the lower mantle. [1] Adams, F. D. and J. T. Nicolson (1900) Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London. A, 195: 363-401. [2] Griggs, D.T. (1967) Geophys. J. Roy. Astr. Soc., 14:19-31. [3] Yamazaki, D., and S. Karato (2001) Rev. Sci. Instrum., 72:4207-4211. [4] Wang, Y., I. Getting, W

  2. Actively controlling coolant-cooled cold plate configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2015-07-28

    A method is provided to facilitate active control of thermal and fluid dynamic performance of a coolant-cooled cold plate. The method includes: monitoring a variable associated with at least one of the coolant-cooled cold plate or one or more electronic components being cooled by the cold plate; and dynamically varying, based on the monitored variable, a physical configuration of the cold plate. By dynamically varying the physical configuration, the thermal and fluid dynamic performance of the cold plate are adjusted to, for example, optimally cool the one or more electronic components, and at the same time, reduce cooling power consumption used in cooling the electronic component(s). The physical configuration can be adjusted by providing one or more adjustable plates within the coolant-cooled cold plate, the positioning of which may be adjusted based on the monitored variable.

  3. Cladding embrittlement during postulated loss-of-coolant accidents.

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M.; Yan, Y.; Burtseva, T.; Daum, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-07-31

    The effect of fuel burnup on the embrittlement of various cladding alloys was examined with laboratory tests conducted under conditions relevant to loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). The cladding materials tested were Zircaloy-4, Zircaloy-2, ZIRLO, M5, and E110. Tests were performed with specimens sectioned from as-fabricated cladding, from prehydrided (surrogate for high-burnup) cladding, and from high-burnup fuel rods which had been irradiated in commercial reactors. The tests were designed to determine for each cladding material the ductile-to-brittle transition as a function of steam oxidation temperature, weight gain due to oxidation, hydrogen content, pre-transient cladding thickness, and pre-transient corrosion-layer thickness. For short, defueled cladding specimens oxidized at 1000-1200 C, ring compression tests were performed to determine post-quench ductility at {le} 135 C. The effect of breakaway oxidation on embrittlement was also examined for short specimens oxidized at 800-1000 C. Among other findings, embrittlement was found to be sensitive to fabrication processes--especially surface finish--but insensitive to alloy constituents for these dilute zirconium alloys used as cladding materials. It was also demonstrated that burnup effects on embrittlement are largely due to hydrogen that is absorbed in the cladding during normal operation. Some tests were also performed with longer, fueled-and-pressurized cladding segments subjected to LOCA-relevant heating and cooling rates. Recommendations are given for types of tests that would identify LOCA conditions under which embrittlement would occur.

  4. Initial permeability peak in Gd/sub 3/Fe/sub 5/O/sub 12/ at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Pascard, H.; Globus, A.

    1986-09-01

    The existence of an initial permeability peak in polycrystalline toroidal samples of gadolinium iron garnet Gd/sub 3/Fe/sub 5/O/sub 12/ at low temperature, around 55 K, is shown. The origin of the phenomenon is explained, as in the case of the HOPKINSON peaks, by the relative variation of mangetization and anisotropy. It can be interesting to use this effect for fundamental investigations of cationic structure transformations and for applications at low temperature.

  5. Evidence for cumulative temperature as an initiating and terminating factor in downstream migratory behavior of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, G.B.; Haro, A.; McCormick, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    Temperature control of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt migration was tested using a novel technique allowing nearly continuous monitoring of behavior with complete control over environmental conditions. Parr and presmolts were implanted with passive integrated transponder tags, placed in simulated streams, and monitored for upstream and downstream movements. Beginning 18 April, temperature was increased 1??C every third day (advanced), fourth day (ambient), and tenth day (delayed). Smolt downstream movements were initially low, peaked in mid-May, and subsequently declined under all conditions. Parr downstream movements were significantly lower than those of smolts in all treatments (0.8 ?? 0.5 movement??day-1 versus 26.5 ?? 4.5 movements??day-1, mean ?? SE) and showed no increase. At delayed temperatures, smolts sustained downstream movements through July; those under ambient and advanced conditions ceased activity by mid-June. Initiation and termination of downstream movements occurred at significantly different temperatures but at the same number of degree-days in all treatments. Physiological changes associated with smolting (gill Na+,K +-ATPase activity and plasma thyroxine) were coincident with behavioral changes. This is the first evidence of a behavioral component to the smolt window. We found that temperature experience over time is more relevant to initiation and termination of downstream movement than a temperature threshold. ?? 2005 NRC Canada.

  6. Reduction of the Livestock Ammonia Emission under the Changing Temperature during the Initial Manure Nitrogen Biomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Bagdonienė, Indrė; Baležentienė, Ligita

    2013-01-01

    Experimental data were applied for the modelling optimal cowshed temperature environment in laboratory test bench by a mass-flow method. The principal factor affecting exponent growth of ammonia emission was increasing air and manure surface temperature. With the manure temperature increasing from 4°C to 30°C, growth in the ammonia emission grew fourfold, that is, from 102 to 430 mg m−2h−1. Especial risk emerges when temperature exceeds 20°C: an increase in temperature of 1°C contributes to the intensity of ammonia emission by 17 mg m−2h−1. The temperatures of air and manure surface as well as those of its layers are important when analysing emission processes from manure. Indeed, it affects the processes occurring on the manure surface, namely, dehydration and crust formation. To reduce ammonia emission from cowshed, it is important to optimize the inner temperature control and to manage air circulation, especially at higher temperatures, preventing the warm ambient air from blowing direct to manure. Decrease in mean annual temperature of 1°C would reduce the annual ammonia emission by some 5.0%. The air temperature range varied between −15°C and 30°C in barns. The highest mean annual temperature (14.6°C) and ammonia emission (218 mg m−2h−1) were observed in the semideep cowshed. PMID:24453912

  7. Reduction of the livestock ammonia emission under the changing temperature during the initial manure nitrogen biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Bleizgys, Rolandas; Bagdonienė, Indrė; Baležentienė, Ligita

    2013-01-01

    Experimental data were applied for the modelling optimal cowshed temperature environment in laboratory test bench by a mass-flow method. The principal factor affecting exponent growth of ammonia emission was increasing air and manure surface temperature. With the manure temperature increasing from 4°C to 30°C, growth in the ammonia emission grew fourfold, that is, from 102 to 430 mg m(-2)h(-1). Especial risk emerges when temperature exceeds 20°C: an increase in temperature of 1°C contributes to the intensity of ammonia emission by 17 mg m(-2)h(-1). The temperatures of air and manure surface as well as those of its layers are important when analysing emission processes from manure. Indeed, it affects the processes occurring on the manure surface, namely, dehydration and crust formation. To reduce ammonia emission from cowshed, it is important to optimize the inner temperature control and to manage air circulation, especially at higher temperatures, preventing the warm ambient air from blowing direct to manure. Decrease in mean annual temperature of 1°C would reduce the annual ammonia emission by some 5.0%. The air temperature range varied between -15°C and 30°C in barns. The highest mean annual temperature (14.6°C) and ammonia emission (218 mg m(-2)h(-1)) were observed in the semideep cowshed.

  8. The effects of temperature, relative humidity, light, and resource quality on flight initiation in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Douglas W.; Whitesell, Matthew E.; Wade, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the environmental conditions that induce a flight response in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), including resource quality, temperature, relative humidity, and light. Over 72-h trial periods, we observed the proportion of individuals emigrating by flight to range from 0.0 in extreme heat or cold to 0.82 with starvation. Resource quality, presence of a light source, and temperature all directly influenced the initiation of the flight response. We did not detect any effect of relative humidity or sudden change in temperature on the incidence of flight. We discuss our findings in the context of Tribolium ecology and evolution. PMID:27087697

  9. Directly connected heat exchanger tube section and coolant-cooled structure

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J; Coico, Patrick A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Steinke, Mark E

    2014-04-01

    A cooling apparatus for an electronics rack is provided which includes an air-to-liquid heat exchanger, one or more coolant-cooled structures and a tube. The heat exchanger, which is associated with the electronics rack and disposed to cool air passing through the rack, includes a plurality of distinct, coolant-carrying tube sections, each tube section having a coolant inlet and a coolant outlet, one of which is coupled in fluid communication with a coolant loop to facilitate flow of coolant through the tube section. The coolant-cooled structure(s) is in thermal contact with an electronic component(s) of the rack, and facilitates transfer of heat from the component(s) to the coolant. The tube connects in fluid communication one coolant-cooled structure and the other of the coolant inlet or outlet of the one tube section, and facilitates flow of coolant directly between that coolant-carrying tube section of the heat exchanger and the coolant-cooled structure.

  10. Alternative Approaches to Land Initialization for Seasonal Precipitation and Temperature Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal; Suarez, Max; Liu, Ping; Jambor, Urszula

    2004-01-01

    The seasonal prediction system of the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office is used to generate ensembles of summer forecasts utilizing realistic soil moisture initialization. To derive the realistic land states, we drive offline the system's land model with realistic meteorological forcing over the period 1979-1993 (in cooperation with the Global Land Data Assimilation System project at GSFC) and then extract the state variables' values on the chosen forecast start dates. A parallel series of forecast ensembles is performed with a random (though climatologically consistent) set of land initial conditions; by comparing the two sets of ensembles, we can isolate the impact of land initialization on forecast skill from that of the imposed SSTs. The base initialization experiment is supplemented with several forecast ensembles that use alternative initialization techniques. One ensemble addresses the impact of minimizing climate drift in the system through the scaling of the initial conditions, and another is designed to isolate the importance of the precipitation signal from that of all other signals in the antecedent offline forcing. A third ensemble includes a more realistic initialization of the atmosphere along with the land initialization. The impact of each variation on forecast skill is quantified.

  11. Initial and apparent temperatures of finite nuclear systems - a quantum statistical thermodynamics study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majka; Staszel, P.; Natowitz, J. B.; Cibor, J.; Hagel, K.; Li, J.; Mdeiwayeh, N.; Wada, R.; Zhao, Y.

    1996-10-01

    Quantum statistical thermodynamics has been used to calculate the number of available states and their occupation for fermions and bosons at temperature, T_in, of finite nuclear sytems. An apparent temperature of these systems, T_app, has been calculated from double yield ratios of two isotope pairs. The importance of employing the quantum statistics when high densities and/or low temperatures are involved is shown. However, at high temperatures and low densities, the system behaves as a Maxwell-Boltzmann gas. Sequental decays of fragments from excited states influence the double yield ratio observable, causing problems with the temperature extraction. The model has been applied to study the high temperature branch of the "caloric curve".

  12. A passively-safe fusion reactor blanket with helium coolant and steel structure

    SciTech Connect

    Crosswait, Kenneth Mitchell

    1994-04-01

    Helium is attractive for use as a fusion blanket coolant for a number of reasons. It is neutronically and chemically inert, nonmagnetic, and will not change phase during any off-normal or accident condition. A significant disadvantage of helium, however, is its low density and volumetric heat capacity. This disadvantage manifests itself most clearly during undercooling accident conditions such as a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) or a loss of flow accident (LOFA). This thesis describes a new helium-cooled tritium breeding blanket concept which performs significantly better during such accidents than current designs. The proposed blanket uses reduced-activation ferritic steel as a structural material and is designed for neutron wall loads exceeding 4 MW/m{sup 2}. The proposed geometry is based on the nested-shell concept developed by Wong, but some novel features are used to reduce the severity of the first wall temperature excursion. These features include the following: (1) A ``beryllium-joint`` concept is introduced, which allows solid beryllium slabs to be used as a thermal conduction path from the first wall to the cooler portions of the blanket. The joint concept allows for significant swelling of the beryllium (10 percent or more) without developing large stresses in the blanket structure. (2) Natural circulation of the coolant in the water-cooled shield is used to maintain shield temperatures below 100 degrees C, thus maintaining a heat sink close to the blanket during the accident. This ensures the long-term passive safety of the blanket.

  13. Coolants with selective optical filtering characteristics for ruby laser applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Devitt, F. R.; Rasquin, J. R.

    1968-01-01

    Coolant-filtering medium developed consists of a solution of copper sulfate in a 4-1 volumetric mixture of ethanol and methanol. This solution should be a useful addition to ruby laser systems, particularily in large pulse or Q switching applications.

  14. Substitution of Tolyltriazole for Mercaptobenzothiazole in Military Coolant Inhibitor Formulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    coolant specifications (0.4% of the sodium salt ). 0.15% was found to be the optimum percentage of NaTT....antifreeze inhibitors with different percentages of sodium tolyltriazole (NaTT). The NaTT caused foaming in the tests, but a silicone type antifoam

  15. AUTOMOTIVE AND HEAVY-DUTY ENGINE COOLANT RECYCLING BY DISTILLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants for a facility such as the New Jersey Department of Transportation garage in Ewing, New Jersey. he specific recycling evaluated is b...

  16. EVALUATION OF FILTRATION AND DISTILLATION METHODS FOR RECYCLING AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants at a New Jersey Department of Transportation garage. The specific recycling units evaluated are based on the technologies of filtrat...

  17. Fuels, Lubricants, and Coolants. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on fuels, lubricants, and coolants is one of a series of power mechanics tests and visual aids on automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials present basic information with illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. Focusing on fuels, the first of…

  18. Coolant-Control Valves For Fluid-Sampling Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Donald F.

    1989-01-01

    Small built-in leaks prevent overheating. Downstream flow-control globe valve replaced with modified gate valve. Modification consists of drilling small hole through valve gate, so valve never turned completely off. This "leaky" valve provides enough flow of coolant to prevent overheating causing probe to fail. Principle also applied to automatic control system by installing small bypass line around control valve.

  19. PIPING FOR COOLANT WATER IS INSTALLED INSIDE REACTOR STRUCTURE PRIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PIPING FOR COOLANT WATER IS INSTALLED INSIDE REACTOR STRUCTURE PRIOR TO EMBEDMENT IN CONCRETE. HIGHER PIPE IS INLET; THE OTHER, THE OUTLET LOOP. INLET PIPE WILL CONNECT TO TOP SECTION OF REACTOR VESSEL. INL NEGATIVE NO. 1287. Unknown Photographer, 1/18/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. Antimony tartrate corrosion inhibitive composition for coolant systems

    SciTech Connect

    Payerle, N.E.

    1987-08-11

    An automobile coolant concentrate is described comprising (a) a liquid polyhydric alcohol chosen from the group consisting of ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, diethylene glycol and mixtures thereof, and (b) corrosion inhibitors in a corrosion inhibitory amount with respect to corrosion of lead-containing solders, the corrosion inhibitors comprising (i) an alkali metal antimony tartrate, and (ii) an azole compound.

  1. Integral coolant channels supply made by melt-out method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, W. J. D.

    1964-01-01

    Melt-out method of constructing strong, pressure-tight fluid coolant channels for chambers is accomplished by cementing pins to the surface and by depositing a melt-out material on the surface followed by two layers of epoxy-resin impregnated glass fibers. The structure is heated to melt out the low-melting alloy.

  2. Customizing SNPSAM: Introducing a Secondary Coolant Loop.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    two irreversible phenomena connected with the gen- eration of thermoelectricity. The reversible are the Seebeck effect, the Thomson effect and the...The Thomson effect causes heat to be generated in a homogeneous material where there exists a temperature gradient when an electric current is

  3. Axi-symmetric generalized thermoelastic diffusion problem with two-temperature and initial stress under fractional order heat conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deswal, Sunita; Kalkal, Kapil Kumar; Sheoran, Sandeep Singh

    2016-09-01

    A mathematical model of fractional order two-temperature generalized thermoelasticity with diffusion and initial stress is proposed to analyze the transient wave phenomenon in an infinite thermoelastic half-space. The governing equations are derived in cylindrical coordinates for a two dimensional axi-symmetric problem. The analytical solution is procured by employing the Laplace and Hankel transforms for time and space variables respectively. The solutions are investigated in detail for a time dependent heat source. By using numerical inversion method of integral transforms, we obtain the solutions for displacement, stress, temperature and diffusion fields in physical domain. Computations are carried out for copper material and displayed graphically. The effect of fractional order parameter, two-temperature parameter, diffusion, initial stress and time on the different thermoelastic and diffusion fields is analyzed on the basis of analytical and numerical results. Some special cases have also been deduced from the present investigation.

  4. Water as a coolant of the city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solcerova, Anna; van de Ven, Frans; van de Giesen, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Rapid urbanization during the last century showed the necessity for understanding urban climate. Since already half of the world population lives in cities - and this number is predicted to increase in coming years and decades - making big urban areas comfortable places gains interest of the general public and policy makers, as well as scientists. It is well known fact that urban climate differs significantly from the climate of rural areas. This is caused by several factors such as lack of evaporation, anthropogenic heat, specific geometry of street canyons, etc. Magnitude of the effect of each of these factors is a widely discussed topic throughout the literature. One of the most important factors is a lack of evaporation and consequent change in the energy balance compared to rural areas. This research aims to reveal the effect of water in the city on the temperature and comfort of inhabitants. We hypothesize that water works as a cooling liquid of cities and the lack of it is the main reason for formation of so called urban heat island. We focus on two major ways water can be stored in cities; in a form of open water areas, and in plants and green areas in general. Open water buffers the temperature extremes in its surroundings, but also has a warming effect at night due to its higher heat capacity compared to buildings and pavements. Trees are then providing shading and transpirate significant amount of water. On the other hand, shading effect alone, as provided by for example mash, can increase the temperature in the area simply because it prevents ventilation. Human comfort is however not determined only by temperature; for example higher air humidity is known to lower comfort of inhabitants and therefore mitigate the cooling effect of evaporation. Understanding properly the different effects of urban climate, and the particular aspects that can influence it, is important for optimal urban design that provides pleasant living environment.

  5. Use of a temperature-initiated passive cooling system (TIPACS) for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Conklin, J.; Reich, W.J.

    1994-04-01

    A new type of passive cooling system has been invented (Forsberg 1993): the Temperature-Initiated Passive Cooling System (TIPACS). The characteristics of the TIPACS potentially match requirements for an improved reactor-cavity-cooling system (RCCS) for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR). This report is an initial evaluation of the TIPACS for the MHTGR with a Rankines (steam) power conversion cycle. Limited evaluations were made of applying the TIPACS to MHTGRs with reactor pressure vessel temperatures up to 450 C. These temperatures may occur in designs of Brayton cycle (gas turbine) and process heat MHTGRs. The report is structured as follows. Section 2 describes the containment cooling issues associated with the MHTGR and the requirements for such a cooling system. Section 3 describes TIPACS in nonmathematical terms. Section 4 describes TIPACS`s heat-removal capabilities. Section 5 analyzes the operation of the temperature-control mechanism that determines under what conditions the TIPACS rejects heat to the environment. Section 6 addresses other design and operational issues. Section 7 identifies uncertainties, and Section 8 provides conclusions. The appendixes provide the detailed data and models used in the analysis.

  6. Coolant pressure and airflow distribution in a strut-supported transpiration-cooled vane for a gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.; Poferl, D. J.; Richards, H. T.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis to predict pressure and flow distribution in a strut-supported wire-cloth vane was developed. Results were compared with experimental data obtained from room-temperature airflow tests conducted over a range of vane inlet airflow rates from 10.7 to 40.4 g/sec (0.0235 to 0.0890 lb/sec). The analytical method yielded reasonably accurate predictions of vane coolant flow rate and pressure distribution.

  7. 10 CFR 50.46a - Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting... criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems. Each nuclear power reactor must be provided with high point vents for the reactor coolant system, for the reactor vessel head, and for other systems...

  8. 10 CFR 50.46a - Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting... criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems. Each nuclear power reactor must be provided with high point vents for the reactor coolant system, for the reactor vessel head, and for other systems...

  9. Directly connected heat exchanger tube section and coolant-cooled structure

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Coico, Patrick A.; Graybill, David P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Steinke, Mark E.

    2015-09-15

    A method is provided for fabricating a cooling apparatus for cooling an electronics rack, which includes an air-to-liquid heat exchanger, one or more coolant-cooled structures, and a tube. The heat exchanger is associated with the electronics rack and disposed to cool air passing through the rack, includes a plurality of coolant-carrying tube sections, each tube section having a coolant inlet and outlet, one of which is coupled in fluid communication with a coolant loop to facilitate flow of coolant through the tube section. The coolant-cooled structure(s) is in thermal contact with an electronic component(s) of the rack, and facilitates transfer of heat from the component(s) to the coolant. The tube connects in fluid communication one coolant-cooled structure and the other of the coolant inlet or outlet of the one tube section, and facilitates flow of coolant directly between that coolant-carrying tube section of the heat exchanger and the coolant-cooled structure.

  10. The Feasibility of Applying AC Driven Low-Temperature Plasma for Multi-Cycle Detonation Initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Dianfeng

    2016-11-01

    Ignition is a key system in pulse detonation engines (PDE). As advanced ignition methods, nanosecond pulse discharge low-temperature plasma ignition is used in some combustion systems, and continuous alternating current (AC) driven low-temperature plasma using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is used for the combustion assistant. However, continuous AC driven plasmas cannot be used for ignition in pulse detonation engines. In this paper, experimental and numerical studies of pneumatic valve PDE using an AC driven low-temperature plasma igniter were described. The pneumatic valve was jointly designed with the low-temperature plasma igniter, and the numerical simulation of the cold-state flow field in the pneumatic valve showed that a complex flow in the discharge area, along with low speed, was beneficial for successful ignition. In the experiments ethylene was used as the fuel and air as oxidizing agent, ignition by an AC driven low-temperature plasma achieved multi-cycle intermittent detonation combustion on a PDE, the working frequency of the PDE reached 15 Hz and the peak pressure of the detonation wave was approximately 2.0 MPa. The experimental verifications of the feasibility in PDE ignition expanded the application field of AC driven low-temperature plasma. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51176001)

  11. LOSS-OF-COOLANT ACIDENT SIMULATIONS IN THE NATIONAL RESEARCH UNIVERSAL REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, W D; Goodman, R L; Heaberlin, S W; Hesson, G M; Nealley, C; Kirg, L L; Marshall, R K; McNair, G W; Meitzler, W D; Neally, G W; Parchen, L J; Pilger, J P; Rausch, W N; Russcher, G E; Schreiber, R E; Wildung, N J; Wilson, C L

    1981-02-01

    Pressurized water reactor loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) phenomena are being simulated with a series of experiments in the U-2 loop of the National Research Universal Reactor at Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. The first of these experiments includes up to 45 parametric thermal-hydraulic tests to establish the relationship among the reflood delay time of emergency coolant, the reflooding rate, and the resultant fuel rod cladding peak temperature. Subsequent experiments establish the fuel rod failure characteristics at selected peak cladding temperatures. Fuel rod cladding pressurization simulates high burnup fission gas pressure levels of modern PWRs. This document contains both an experiment overview of the LOCA simulation program and a review of the safety analyses performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to define the expected operating conditions as well as to evaluate the worst case operating conditions. The primary intent of this document is to supply safety information required by the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL), to establish readiness to proceed from one test phase to the next and to establish the overall safety of the experiment. A hazards review summarizes safety issues, normal operation and three worst case accidents that have been addressed during the development of the experiment plan.

  12. Effect of Hall current on an initially-stressed two-temperature thermoelastic material under G-N theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantawi, Ramadan S.

    2016-11-01

    The influence of the initial stress and the Hall current on a two-temperature thermoelastic material is investigated in the framework of the modified Ohm's law and Green-Naghdi theory. Analytical expressions for the physical quantities are obtained by using the normal mode method and are presented graphically. Finally, the resulting physical quantities are discussed with and without the initial stress and the Hall current. The results of this study have applications in a wide range of physical problems, geophysical applications, and radiation physics.

  13. The initial freezing point temperature of beef rises with the rise in pH: a short communication.

    PubMed

    Farouk, M M; Kemp, R M; Cartwright, S; North, M

    2013-05-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the initial freezing point temperature of meat is affected by pH. Sixty four bovine M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum were classified into two ultimate pH groups: low (<5.8) and high pH (>6.2) and their cooling and freezing point temperatures were determined. The initial freezing temperatures for beef ranged from -0.9 to -1.5°C (∆=0.6°C) with the higher and lower temperatures associated with high and low ultimate pH respectively. There was a significant correlation (r=+0.73, P<0.01) between beef pH and freezing point temperature in the present study. The outcome of this study has implications for the meat industry where evidence of freezing (ice formation) in a shipment as a result of high pH meat could result in a container load of valuable chilled product being downgraded to a lower value frozen product.

  14. Brief summary of the evolution of high-temperature creep-fatigue life prediction models for crack initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halford, Gary R.

    1993-10-01

    The evolution of high-temperature, creep-fatigue, life-prediction methods used for cyclic crack initiation is traced from inception in the late 1940's. The methods reviewed are material models as opposed to structural life prediction models. Material life models are used by both structural durability analysts and by material scientists. The latter use micromechanistic models as guidance to improve a material's crack initiation resistance. Nearly one hundred approaches and their variations have been proposed to date. This proliferation poses a problem in deciding which method is most appropriate for a given application. Approaches were identified as being combinations of thirteen different classifications. This review is intended to aid both developers and users of high-temperature fatigue life prediction methods by providing a background from which choices can be made. The need for high-temperature, fatigue-life prediction methods followed immediately on the heels of the development of large, costly, high-technology industrial and aerospace equipment immediately following the second world war. Major advances were made in the design and manufacture of high-temperature, high-pressure boilers and steam turbines, nuclear reactors, high-temperature forming dies, high-performance poppet valves, aeronautical gas turbine engines, reusable rocket engines, etc. These advances could no longer be accomplished simply by trial and error using the 'build-em and bust-em' approach. Development lead times were too great and costs too prohibitive to retain such an approach. Analytic assessments of anticipated performance, cost, and durability were introduced to cut costs and shorten lead times. The analytic tools were quite primitive at first and out of necessity evolved in parallel with hardware development. After forty years more descriptive, more accurate, and more efficient analytic tools are being developed. These include thermal-structural finite element and boundary element

  15. Brief summary of the evolution of high-temperature creep-fatigue life prediction models for crack initiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, Gary R.

    1993-01-01

    The evolution of high-temperature, creep-fatigue, life-prediction methods used for cyclic crack initiation is traced from inception in the late 1940's. The methods reviewed are material models as opposed to structural life prediction models. Material life models are used by both structural durability analysts and by material scientists. The latter use micromechanistic models as guidance to improve a material's crack initiation resistance. Nearly one hundred approaches and their variations have been proposed to date. This proliferation poses a problem in deciding which method is most appropriate for a given application. Approaches were identified as being combinations of thirteen different classifications. This review is intended to aid both developers and users of high-temperature fatigue life prediction methods by providing a background from which choices can be made. The need for high-temperature, fatigue-life prediction methods followed immediately on the heels of the development of large, costly, high-technology industrial and aerospace equipment immediately following the second world war. Major advances were made in the design and manufacture of high-temperature, high-pressure boilers and steam turbines, nuclear reactors, high-temperature forming dies, high-performance poppet valves, aeronautical gas turbine engines, reusable rocket engines, etc. These advances could no longer be accomplished simply by trial and error using the 'build-em and bust-em' approach. Development lead times were too great and costs too prohibitive to retain such an approach. Analytic assessments of anticipated performance, cost, and durability were introduced to cut costs and shorten lead times. The analytic tools were quite primitive at first and out of necessity evolved in parallel with hardware development. After forty years more descriptive, more accurate, and more efficient analytic tools are being developed. These include thermal-structural finite element and boundary element

  16. Ion cooling in the plasmasphere during magnetic storm initial phase: modeling the proton temperature dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotova, Galina; Verigin, Mikhail; Bezrukikh, Vladilen

    The effect of ion temperature decreasing at L ¡ 3 during geomagnetic storm development was recently revealed by INTERBALL 2 and MAGION 5 thermal plasma data. A model of proton drift outward from the Earth caused by magnetic field decreasing in the inner plasmasphere is considered. Conservation of the first adiabatic invariant results in proton cooling during their outward motion. It is shown that model temperatures well agree with experimental data. The work is partially supported by the RAS programs P16 and OFN 15.

  17. New Hydrophilic, Composite Membranes for Air Removal from Water Coolant Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritchie, Stephen M. C.; Luo, Qiang; Curtis, Salina S.; Holladay, Jon B.; Clark, Dallas W.

    2004-01-01

    Liquid coolants are commonly used as thermal transport media to increase efficiency and flexibility in aerospace vehicle design. The introduction of gas bubbles into the coolant can have negative consequences, including: loss of centrifugal pump prime, irregular sensor readings, and blockage of coolant flow to remote systems. One solution to mitigate these problems is the development of a passive gas removal device, or gas trap, installed in the flight cooling system. In this study, a new hydrophilic, composite membrane has been developed for passage of the coolant fluid and retention of gas bubbles. The trapped bubbles are subsequently vented from the system by a thin, hydrophobic, microporous membrane. The original design for this work employed a homogeneous membrane that was susceptible to fouling and pore plugging. Spare gas traps of this variety have degraded during storage, and recreation of the membranes has been complicated due to problems with polymer duplication and property variations in the final membranes. In this work, replacements have been developed based on deposition of a hydrophilic polymer on the bore-side of a porous polyethylene (PE) tube. The tube provides excellent chemical and mechanical stability, and the hydrophilic layer provides retention of gas bubbles. Preliminary results have shown that intimate contact is required between the deposited layer and the substrate to overcome material differences. This has been accomplished by presoaking the membrane tube in the solvent to raise its surface energy. Polymer solutions of various concentrations have been used to promote penetration of the polymer layer into the porous substrate and to control separation layer thickness. The resulting composite membranes have shown repeatable decrease in nitrogen permeability, which is indicative of a decrease in membrane pore size. Studies with water permeation have yielded similar results. We have observed some swelling of the added polymer layer, which

  18. Adhesive for polyester films cures at room temperature, has high initial tack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, C. M.; Fust, G. W.; Welchel, C. J.

    1966-01-01

    Quick room-temperature-cure adhesive bonds polyester-insulated flat electrical cables to metal surfaces and various other substrates. The bond strength of the adhesive may be considerably increased by first applying a commercially available polyamide primer to the polyester film.

  19. Low temperature protects mammalian cells from apoptosis initiated by various stimuli in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, Toshiharu; Itoh, Katsuhiko; Liu Yu; Higashitsuji, Hiroaki; Sumitomo, Yasuhiko; Sakamaki, Kazuhiro; Fujita, Jun . E-mail: jfujita@virus.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2005-10-01

    Mild hypothermia shows protective effects on patients with brain damage and cardiac arrest. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects, we examined the effects of low temperature (32 deg. C) on cells exposed to a variety of stress in vitro. We found that 32 deg. C suppressed induction of apoptosis by cytotoxic stimuli such as adriamycin, etoposide, thapsigargin, NaCl, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and anti-Fas antibody. In adriamycin-treated BALB/3T3 cells, the down-shift in temperature from 37 deg. C to 32 deg. C increased the Bcl-xL protein level and decreased the mRNA level of Puma and mitochondrial translocation of Bax, suppressing caspase-9-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, the protein level and stability of p53 were decreased, and its nuclear export was increased concomitant with Mdm2 mRNA upregulation. The low temperature effect was not observed in p53 {sup -/-}/Mdm2 {sup -/-} mouse embryonic fibroblasts, suggesting that the effect is mediated by suppression of the p53 pathway. In contrast, while thapsigargin-induced apoptosis was suppressed by the low temperature, no effect on the p53 protein level was observed. Furthermore, the survival rate of p53 {sup -/-}/Mdm2 {sup -/-} cells exposed to thapsigargin was increased when cultured at 32 deg. C compared with 37 deg. C. In conclusion, mild hypothermia protects cells from a variety of stress by p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms.

  20. Hybrid method for numerical modelling of LWR coolant chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiatla-Wojcik, Dorota

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive approach is proposed to model radiation chemistry of the cooling water under exposure to neutron and gamma radiation at 300 °C. It covers diffusion-kinetic processes in radiation tracks and secondary reactions in the bulk coolant. Steady-state concentrations of the radiolytic products have been assessed based on the simulated time dependent concentration profiles. The principal reactions contributing to the formation of H2, O2 and H2O2 were indicated. Simulation was carried out depending on the amount of extra hydrogen dissolved in the coolant to reduce concentration of corrosive agents. High sensitivity to the rate of reaction H+H2O=OH+H2 is shown and discussed.

  1. Glycol coolants improve heat transfer and corrosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Holfield, R.

    1995-03-01

    Various liquids from plain water to exotic fluids have been used as coolants in large stationary diesel engines that drive compressors on natural gas pipeline distribution systems. Although water is an efficient heat transfer medium, its drawbacks of freezing at {minus}32 F and boiling at 212 F seriously limit its usefulness. Special glycol-based heat transfer fluids are available and refined specifically for long-term needs of gas compressor engines. Appropriate corrosion inhibitors have been formulated for metallurgy and operating conditions encountered with these engines. Propylene glycol was developed as an alternative for use in environmentally sensitive areas. Glycol-based fluids must be specifically inhibited for industrial applications because uninhibited or improperly inhibited coolants can seriously damage reciprocating engines.

  2. Computational evidence for self-initiation in spontaneous high-temperature polymerization of methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Sriraj; Lee, Myung Won; Grady, Michael C; Soroush, Masoud; Rappe, Andrew M

    2011-02-17

    This paper presents computational evidence for the occurrence of diradical mechanism of self-initiation in thermal polymerization of methyl methacrylate. Two self-initiation mechanisms of interest were explored with first-principles density functional theory calculations. Singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces were constructed. The formation of two Diels-Alder adducts, cis- and trans-dimethyl 1,2-dimethylcyclobutane-1,2-dicarboxylate and dimethyl 2-methyl-5-methylidene-hexanedioate, on the singlet surface was identified. Transition states were calculated using B3LYP/6-31G* and assessed using MP2/6-31G*. The calculated energy barriers and rate constants with different levels of theory were found to show good agreement to corresponding data obtained from laboratory experiments. The presence of a diradical intermediate on the triplet surface was identified. When MCSCF/6-31G* was used, the spin-orbit coupling constant for the singlet to triplet crossover was calculated to be 2.5 cm(-1). The mechanism of monoradical generation via a hydrogen abstraction by both triplet and singlet diradicals from a third monomer was identified to be the most likely mechanism of initiation in spontaneous polymerization of methyl methacrylate.

  3. Analysis of Coolant Options for Advanced Metal Cooled Nuclear Reactors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    calculate the generation of Polonium - 210 in reactors cooled by lead and lead- bismuth eutectic. The motivation for this is to address a noted lack of...calculate the generation of Polonium - 210 in reactors cooled by lead and lead-bismuth eutectic. The motivation for this is to address a noted lack of...coolants. The objectives of thesis are two fold. The first objective is to independently calculate the generation of Polonium - 210 in reactors

  4. 92. View of transmitter building no. 102 first floor coolant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    92. View of transmitter building no. 102 first floor coolant process water tanks (sodium bisulfate solution), stainless steel, for electronic systems cooling in transmitter and MIP rooms. RCA Services Company 29 September, 1960, official photograph BMEWS Project by unknown photograph, Photographic Services, Riverton, NJ, BMEWS, clear as negative no. A-1226 - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  5. Expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.; Singer, Ralph M.; Humenik, Keith E.

    1993-01-01

    An expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps. This system provides a means for early detection of pump or sensor degradation. Degradation is determined through the use of a statistical analysis technique, sequential probability ratio test, applied to information from several sensors which are responsive to differing physical parameters. The results of sequential testing of the data provide the operator with an early warning of possible sensor or pump failure.

  6. Temperature-Dependent Model of Multi-step Transcription Initiation in Escherichia coli Based on Live Single-Cell Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd-Price, Jason; Tran, Huy; Ribeiro, Andre S.

    2016-01-01

    Transcription kinetics is limited by its initiation steps, which differ between promoters and with intra- and extracellular conditions. Regulation of these steps allows tuning both the rate and stochasticity of RNA production. We used time-lapse, single-RNA microscopy measurements in live Escherichia coli to study how the rate-limiting steps in initiation of the Plac/ara-1 promoter change with temperature and induction scheme. For this, we compared detailed stochastic models fit to the empirical data in maximum likelihood sense using statistical methods. Using this analysis, we found that temperature affects the rate limiting steps unequally, as nonlinear changes in the closed complex formation suffice to explain the differences in transcription dynamics between conditions. Meanwhile, a similar analysis of the PtetA promoter revealed that it has a different rate limiting step configuration, with temperature regulating different steps. Finally, we used the derived models to explore a possible cause for why the identified steps are preferred as the main cause for behavior modifications with temperature: we find that transcription dynamics is either insensitive or responds reciprocally to changes in the other steps. Our results suggests that different promoters employ different rate limiting step patterns that control not only their rate and variability, but also their sensitivity to environmental changes. PMID:27792724

  7. Component evaluation for intersystem loss-of-coolant accidents in advanced light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, A.G.

    1994-07-01

    Using the methodology outlined in NUREG/CR-5603 this report evaluates (on a probabilistic basis) design rules for components in ALWRs that could be subjected to intersystem loss-of-coolant accidents (ISLOCAs). The methodology is intended for piping elements, flange connections, on-line pumps and valves, and heat exchangers. The NRC has directed that the design rules be evaluated for BWR pressures of 7.04 MPa (1025 psig), PWR pressures of 15.4 MPa (2235 psig), and 177{degrees}C (350{degrees}F), and has established a goal of 90% probability that system rupture will not occur during an ISLOCA event. The results of the calculations in this report show that components designed for a pressure of 0.4 of the reactor coolant system operating pressure will satisfy the NRC survival goal in most cases. Specific recommendations for component strengths for BWR and PWR applications are made in the report. A peer review panel of nationally recognized experts was selected to review and critique the initial results of this program.

  8. Crack stability analysis of low alloy steel primary coolant pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.; Kameyama, M.; Urabe, Y.

    1997-04-01

    At present, cast duplex stainless steel has been used for the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan and joints of dissimilar material have been applied for welding to reactor vessels and steam generators. For the primary coolant piping of the next APWR plants, application of low alloy steel that results in designing main loops with the same material is being studied. It means that there is no need to weld low alloy steel with stainless steel and that makes it possible to reduce the welding length. Attenuation of Ultra Sonic Wave Intensity is lower for low alloy steel than for stainless steel and they have advantageous inspection characteristics. In addition to that, the thermal expansion rate is smaller for low alloy steel than for stainless steel. In consideration of the above features of low alloy steel, the overall reliability of primary coolant piping is expected to be improved. Therefore, for the evaluation of crack stability of low alloy steel piping to be applied for primary loops, elastic-plastic future mechanics analysis was performed by means of a three-dimensioned FEM. The evaluation results for the low alloy steel pipings show that cracks will not grow into unstable fractures under maximum design load conditions, even when such a circumferential crack is assumed to be 6 times the size of the wall thickness.

  9. Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant pumps and valves

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.K.; Miller, R.F.; Sindelar, R.L.

    1993-05-01

    Each of the six primary coolant loop systems of the Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors contains one reactor coolant pump, one PUMP suction side motor operated valve, and other smaller valves. The pumps me double suction, double volute, and radially split type pumps. The valves are different size shutoff and control valves rated from ANSI B16.5 construction class 150 to class 300. The reactor coolant system components, also known as the process water system (PWS), are classified as nuclear Safety Class I components. These components were constructed in the 1950`s in accordance with the then prevailing industry practices. No uniform construction codes were used for design and analysis of these components. However, no pressure boundary failures or bolting failures have ever been recorded throughout their operating history. Over the years, the in-service inspection (ISI) was limited to visual inspection of the pressure boundaries, and surface and volumetric examination of the pressure retaining bolts. Efforts are now underway to implement ISI requirements similar to the ASME Section XI requirements for pumps and valves. This report discusses the new ISI requirements which also call for volumetric examination of the pump casing and valve body welds.

  10. Analysis of the low temperature ceramics structure with consideration for polydispersity of initial refractory components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leytsin, Vladimir N.; Dmitrieva, Mariya A.; Tovpinets, Alexandr O.; Ivonin, Ivan V.; Ponomarev, Sergey V.

    2016-11-01

    The results of computer simulation of the structure and physical properties of sintered low-temperature ceramics specimens with different volume fractions of different components of refractory components are presented. Properties of sintered ceramics, residual porosity, and shrinkage anisotropy are determined by features of packing of various fractions of refractory particles. The results indicate the determining factor of the presence of particles of the coarse fraction of refractory components capable of forming a internal skeleton of interacting particles.

  11. An Analysis of an Automatic Coolant Bypass in the International Space Station Node 2 Internal Active Thermal Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clanton, Stephen E.; Holt, James M.; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A challenging part of International Space Station (ISS) thermal control design is the ability to incorporate design changes into an integrated system without negatively impacting performance. The challenge presents itself in that the typical ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) consists of an integrated hardware/software system that provides active coolant resources to a variety of users. Software algorithms control the IATCS to specific temperatures, flow rates, and pressure differentials in order to meet the user-defined requirements. What may seem to be small design changes imposed on the system may in fact result in system instability or the temporary inability to meet user requirements. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the solution process and analyses used to implement one such design change that required the incorporation of an automatic coolant bypass in the ISS Node 2 element.

  12. MATLAB/Simulink Framework for Modeling Complex Coolant Flow Configurations of Advanced Automotive Thermal Management Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Titov, Eugene; Lustbader, Jason; Leighton, Daniel; Kiss, Tibor

    2016-03-22

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) CoolSim MATLAB/Simulink modeling framework was extended by including a newly developed coolant loop solution method aimed at reducing the simulation effort for arbitrarily complex thermal management systems. The new approach does not require the user to identify specific coolant loops and their flow. The user only needs to connect the fluid network elements in a manner consistent with the desired schematic. Using the new solution method, a model of NREL's advanced combined coolant loop system for electric vehicles was created that reflected the test system architecture. This system was built using components provided by the MAHLE Group and included both air conditioning and heat pump modes. Validation with test bench data and verification with the previous solution method were performed for 10 operating points spanning a range of ambient temperatures between -2 degrees C and 43 degrees C. The largest root mean square difference between pressure, temperature, energy and mass flow rate data and simulation results was less than 7%.

  13. Carrier interactions and porosity initiated reversal of temperature dependence of thermal conduction in nanoscale tin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, Pankaj B.; Prakash, Vikas

    2014-01-14

    Recently, tin has been identified as an attractive electrode material for energy storage/conversion technologies. Tin thin films have also been utilized as an important constituent of thermal interface materials in thermal management applications. In this regards, in the present paper, we investigate thermal conductivity of two nanoscale tin films, (i) with thickness 500 ± 50 nm and 0.45% porosity and (ii) with thickness 100 ± 20 nm and 12.21% porosity. Thermal transport in these films is characterized over the temperature range from 40 K–310 K, using a three-omega method for multilayer configurations. The experimental results are compared with analytical predictions obtained by considering both phonon and electron contributions to heat conduction as described by existing frequency-dependent phenomenological models and BvK dispersion for phonons. The thermal conductivity of the thicker tin film (500 nm) is measured to be 46.2 W/m-K at 300 K and is observed to increase with reduced temperatures; the mechanisms for thermal transport are understood to be governed by strong phonon-electron interactions in addition to the normal phonon-phonon interactions within the temperature range 160 K–300 K. In the case of the tin thin film with 100 nm thickness, porosity and electron-boundary scattering supersede carrier interactions, and a reversal in the thermal conductivity trend with reduced temperatures is observed; the thermal conductivity falls to 1.83 W/m-K at 40 K from its room temperature value of 36.1 W/m-K. In order to interpret the experimental results, we utilize the existing analytical models that account for contributions of electron-boundary scattering using the Mayadas-Shatzkes and Fuchs-Sondheimer models for the thin and thick films, respectively. Moreover, the effects of porosity on carrier transport are included using a previous treatment based on phonon radiative transport involving frequency-dependent mean free paths

  14. Microstructural analysis of MTR fuel plates damaged by a coolant flow blockage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenaers, A.; Joppen, F.; Van den Berghe, S.

    2009-10-01

    In 1975, as a result of a blockage of the coolant inlet flow, two plates of a fuel element of the BR2 reactor of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN) were partially melted. The fuel element consisted of Al-clad plates with 90% 235U enriched UAl x fuel dispersed in an Al matrix. The element had accumulated a burn up of 21% 235U before it was removed from the reactor. Recently, the damaged fuel plates were sent to the hot laboratory for detailed PIE. Microstructural changes and associated temperature markers were used to identify several stages in the progression to fuel melting. It was found that the temperature in the center of the fuel plate had increased above 900-950 °C before the reactor was scrammed. In view of the limited availability of such datasets, the results of this microstructural analysis provide valuable input in the analysis of accident scenarios for research reactors.

  15. Gas production and behavior in the coolant of the SP-100 space nuclear power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGhee, John Morton

    1989-08-01

    The radiologic generation and subsequent behavior of helium gas in the lithium coolant of SP-100 class space nuclear power reactors was investigated analytically in a two part study. Part One of the study consisted of a calculation of coolant radiologic helium gas production rates in a SP-100 class reactor using the discrete ordinates code TWODANT. Cross sections were developed from ENDF/B-V data via the MATXS6s master cross section library. Cross sections were self shielded assuming one homogeneous core region, and Doppler broadened to 1300 K using the cross section preparation code TRANSX. Calculations were performed using an S sub 4/P sub 1 approximation and 80 neutron energy groups. Part Two of the study consisted of a theoretical investigation into the behavior of helium gas in the primary loop of lithium cooled space reactors. The SP-100 space power system was used as a representative of such a system. Topics investigated included: (1) heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation; (2) bubble growth/collapse by diffusion, mechanical temperature/pressure effects, and coalescence; and, (3) the effects on bubble distribution of microgravity, magnetic fields, and inertially induced buoyancy.

  16. Initial enamel wear of glazed and polished leucite-based porcelains with different fusing temperatures.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Lena Katekawa; Saiki, Mitiko; de Campos, Tomie Nakakuki; Adachi, Eduardo Makoto; Shinkai, Rosemary Sadami

    2009-01-01

    This study used the radiotracer method to measure the initial enamel wear caused by low- and high-fusing porcelains after glazing or polishing. It also tested the correlation between enamel wear and porcelain surface roughness (Ra). Surface morphology was assessed by optical microscopy. Cylindrical specimens of three porcelains (two high-fusing, one low-fusing) were either autoglazed or polished. Flattened enamel specimens were irradiated with neutrons and submitted to the wear assay for 2,500 cycles in distilled water using a 285 g load; the released beta 32P particles were measured for 10 minutes. For all samples, Ra was recorded with a profilometer before and after testing. Enamel wear was not significantly different for porcelain or finishing method but there was a trend of interaction between the two variables (p = 0.08). A positive correlation was found between enamel wear and the initial Ra of porcelain (r = 0.71). The glazed surfaces of high-fusing porcelains were wavy and had a greater Ra, while the polished surfaces had grooves and pores prior to wear testing. The low-fusing porcelain demonstrated lower Ra and a more homogeneous surface. All abraded surfaces had similar morphology after the wear assay.

  17. The Use of Passive Initiation Aids in Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. H.; Kampe, S. L.

    2013-10-01

    A modification to initiation aid-assisted ignition in bomb calorimetry that involves systemically blending boron and potassium nitrate adjacent to, and within, a bulk structural energetic elemental power blend was developed. Linear regression was used to estimate the nominal heat of reaction for the primary reaction. The technique was applied to the synthesis of TiB2 as a validation study to see if proximity to the literature values could be achieved. X-ray diffraction was used to characterize the product phases of the reactions to determine the extent and the identity of the product phases and any by-products that may have formed as a result of adding the initiation aid. The experimental data indicate the technique approximates the heat of reaction value for the synthesis of TiB2 from Ti/B powder blends and the formation of TiB2 is supported by volume fraction analysis by X-ray diffraction. Some experimental uncertainty remains as X-ray diffraction revealed that the commercially labeled amorphous boron reactant exhibited some crystalline character and may be semicrystalline, as opposed to being completely amorphous.

  18. Temperature controller for a fluid cooled garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, A. B.; Blackaby, J. R.; Billingham, J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic controller for controlling the inlet temperature of the coolant to a fluid cooled garment without requiring skin sensors is described. Temperature is controlled by the wearer's evaporative water loss rate.

  19. Characterization of an urban-rural CO 2 /temperature gradient and associated changes in initial plant productivity during secondary succession

    SciTech Connect

    Ziska, L. H.; Bunce, J. A.; Goins, E. W.

    2004-05-01

    To examine the impact of climate change on vegetative productivity, we exposed fallow agricultural soil to an in situ temperature and CO2 gradient between urban, suburban and rural areas in 2002. Along the gradient, average daytime CO2 concentration increased by 21% and maximum (daytime) and minimum (nighttime) daily temperatures increased by 1.6 and 3.3°C, respectively in an urban relative to a rural location. Consistent location differences in soil temperature were also ascertained. No other consistent differences in meteorological variables (e.g. wind speed, humidity, PAR, tropospheric ozone) as a function of urbanization were documented. The urban-induced environmental changes that were observed were consistent with most short-term (~50 year) global change scenarios regarding CO2 concentration and air temperature. Productivity, determined as final above-ground biomass, and maximum plant height were positively affected by daytime and soil temperatures as well as enhanced [CO2], increasing 60 and 115% for the suburban and urban sites, respectively, relative to the rural site. While long-term data are needed, these initial results suggest that urban environments may act as a reasonable surrogate for investigating future climatic change in vegetative communities.

  20. Membrane-initiated Actions of Estradiol that Regulate Reproduction, Energy Balance and Body Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Martin J.; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that many of the actions of estrogens in the central nervous system are mediated via intracellular receptor/transcription factors that interact with steroid response elements on target genes. However, there now exists compelling evidence for membrane estrogen receptors in hypothalamic and other brain neurons. But, it is not well understood how estrogens signal via membrane receptors, and how these signals impact not only membrane excitability but also gene transcription in neurons. Indeed, it has been known for sometime that estrogens can rapidly alter neuronal activity within seconds, indicating that some cellular effects can occur via membrane delimited events. In addition, estrogens can affect second messenger systems including calcium mobilization and a plethora of kinases to alter cell signaling. Therefore, this review will consider our current knowledge of rapid membrane-initiated and intracellular signaling by estrogens in the hypothalamus, the nature of receptors involved and how they contribute to homeostatic functions. PMID:22871514

  1. Low-temperature combustion chemistry of biofuels: pathways in the initial low-temperature (550 K-750 K) oxidation chemistry of isopentanol.

    PubMed

    Welz, Oliver; Zádor, Judit; Savee, John D; Ng, Martin Y; Meloni, Giovanni; Fernandes, Ravi X; Sheps, Leonid; Simmons, Blake A; Lee, Taek Soon; Osborn, David L; Taatjes, Craig A

    2012-03-07

    The branched C(5) alcohol isopentanol (3-methylbutan-1-ol) has shown promise as a potential biofuel both because of new advanced biochemical routes for its production and because of its combustion characteristics, in particular as a fuel for homogeneous-charge compression ignition (HCCI) or related strategies. In the present work, the fundamental autoignition chemistry of isopentanol is investigated by using the technique of pulsed-photolytic Cl-initiated oxidation and by analyzing the reacting mixture by time-resolved tunable synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry in low-pressure (8 Torr) experiments in the 550-750 K temperature range. The mass-spectrometric experiments reveal a rich chemistry for the initial steps of isopentanol oxidation and give new insight into the low-temperature oxidation mechanism of medium-chain alcohols. Formation of isopentanal (3-methylbutanal) and unsaturated alcohols (including enols) associated with HO(2) production was observed. Cyclic ether channels are not observed, although such channels dominate OH formation in alkane oxidation. Rather, products are observed that correspond to formation of OH viaβ-C-C bond fission pathways of QOOH species derived from β- and γ-hydroxyisopentylperoxy (RO(2)) radicals. In these pathways, internal hydrogen abstraction in the RO(2)⇄ QOOH isomerization reaction takes place from either the -OH group or the C-H bond in α-position to the -OH group. These pathways should be broadly characteristic for longer-chain alcohol oxidation. Isomer-resolved branching ratios are deduced, showing evolution of the main products from 550 to 750 K, which can be qualitatively explained by the dominance of RO(2) chemistry at lower temperature and hydroxyisopentyl decomposition at higher temperature.

  2. Mechanism and estimation of fatigue crack initiation in austenitic stainless steels in LWR environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Energy Technology

    2002-08-01

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. Figures I-9.1 through I-9.6 of Appendix I to Section III of the Code specify fatigue design curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Existing fatigue strain-vs.-life ({var_epsilon}-N) data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. This report provides an overview of fatigue crack initiation in austenitic stainless steels in LWR coolant environments. The existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data have been evaluated to establish the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters (such as steel type, strain range, strain rate, temperature, dissolved-oxygen level in water, and flow rate) on the fatigue lives of these steels. Statistical models are presented for estimating the fatigue {var_epsilon}-N curves for austenitic stainless steels as a function of the material, loading, and environmental parameters. Two methods for incorporating environmental effects into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations are presented. The influence of reactor environments on the mechanism of fatigue crack initiation in these steels is also discussed.

  3. Heat transfer characteristics for some coolant additives used for water cooled engines

    SciTech Connect

    Abou-Ziyan, H.Z.; Helali, A.H.B.

    1996-12-31

    Engine coolants contain certain additives to prevent engine overheating or coolant freezing in cold environments. Coolants, also, contain corrosion and rust inhibitors, among other additives. As most engines are using engine cooling solutions, it is of interest to evaluate the effect of engine coolants on the boiling heat transfer coefficient. This has its direct impact on radiator size and environment. This paper describes the apparatus and the measurement techniques. Also, it presents the obtained boiling heat transfer results at different parameters. Three types of engine coolants and their mixtures in distilled water are evaluated, under sub-cooled and saturated boiling conditions. A profound effect of the presence of additives in the coolant, on heat transfer, was clear since changes of heat transfer for different coolants were likely to occur. The results showed that up to 180% improvement of boiling heat transfer coefficient is experienced with some types of coolants. However, at certain concentrations other coolants provide deterioration or not enhancement in the boiling heat transfer characteristics. This investigation proved that there are limitations, which are to be taken into consideration, for the composition of engine coolants in different environments. In warm climates, ethylene glycol should be kept at the minimum concentration required for dissolving other components, whereas borax is beneficial to the enhancement of the heat transfer characteristics.

  4. Crack initiation behavior of neutron irradiated model and commercial stainless steels in high temperature water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Kale J.; Was, Gary S.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate key factors affecting the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) susceptibility of eleven neutron-irradiated austenitic stainless steel alloys. Four commercial purity and seven high purity stainless steels were fabricated with specific changes in composition and microstructure, and irradiated in a fast reactor spectrum at 320 °C to doses between 4.4 and 47.5 dpa. Constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests were performed in normal water chemistry (NWC), hydrogen water chemistry (HWC), or primary water (PW) environments to isolate the effects of environment, elemental solute addition, alloy purity, alloy heat, alloy type, cold work, and irradiation dose. The irradiated alloys showed a wide variation in IASCC susceptibility, as measured by the relative changes in mechanical properties and crack morphology. Cracking susceptibility measured by %IG was enhanced in oxidizing environments, although testing in the lowest potential environment caused an increase in surface crack density. Alloys containing solute addition of Ni or Ni + Cr exhibited no IASCC. Susceptibility was reduced in materials cold worked prior to irradiation, and increased with increasing irradiation dose. Irradiation-induced hardening was accounted for by the dislocation loop microstructure, however no relation between crack initiation and radiation hardening was found.

  5. Initial stages of Ba adsorption on the Si(100)-(2×1) surface at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, X.; Hu, Xiaoming; Sarid, D.; Yu, Z.; Wang, J.; Marshall, D. S.; Droopad, R.; Abrokwah, J. K.; Hallmark, J. A.; Ooms, W. J.

    1999-02-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy has been used to study the initial stages of room-temperature adsorption of Ba atoms on a clean Si(100)-(2×1) surface. It is found that most Ba atoms are located at type C defects, which stabilizes the dimer buckling in their vicinity, while the rest are located at single dimer sites on top of the Si dimer rows. Analysis of the images reveals that the Ba-Si(100) interactions are mediated by a partial charge transfer from the adsorbate to the substrate.

  6. Initial adsorption of Ge on Si(1 1 1)-(7×7) surface at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Long; Yang, Haiqiang; Gao, Hongjun; Xie, Sishen; Pang, Shijin

    2002-02-01

    The initial stage of Ge adsorption on Si(1 1 1)-(7×7) surface has been investigated by ultrahigh-vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy at room temperature. We demonstrate that there is a critical nucleus for the adsorbed Ge clusters on Si(1 1 1)-(7×7) surface. Such clusters can behave like quantum dots, which display two states at +1.5 and -1.5 eV with respect to the Fermi level. The formation mechanism of the clusters is discussed.

  7. Interactive initialization of heat flux parameters for numerical models using satellite temperature measurements. [Kansas and Indiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, T. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A method for obtaining patterns of moisture availability (and net evaporation) from satellite infrared measurements employs Carlson's boundary layer model and a variety of image processing routines executed by a minicomputer. To test the method with regard to regional scale moisture analyses, two case studies were chosen because of the availability of HCMM data and because of the presence of a large horizontal gradient in antecedent precipitation and crp moisture index. Results show some correlation in both cases between antecedent precipitation and derived moisture availability. Apparently, regional-scale moisture availability patterns can be determined with some degree of fidelity but the values themselves may be useful only in the relative sense and significant to within plus or minus one category of dryness over a range of 4 or 5 categories between absolutely dry and field saturation. Preliminary results suggest that the derived moisture values correlate best with longer-term precipitation totals, suggesting that the infrared temperatures respond more sensitively to a relatively deep substrate layer.

  8. Study of Compatibility of Stainless Steel Weld Joints with Liquid Sodium-Potassium Coolants for Fission Surface Power Reactors for Lunar and Space Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grossbeck, Martin; Qualls, Louis

    2015-07-31

    To make a manned mission to the surface of the moon or to Mars with any significant residence time, the power requirements will make a nuclear reactor the most feasible source of energy. To prepare for such a mission, NASA has teamed with the DOE to develop Fission Surface Power technology with the goal of developing viable options. The Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) recommended as the initial baseline design includes a liquid metal reactor and primary coolant system that transfers heat to two intermediate liquid metal heat transfer loops. Each intermediate loop transfers heat to two Stirling heat exchangers that each power two Stirling converters. Both the primary and the intermediate loops will use sodium-potassium (NaK) as the liquid metal coolant, and the primary loop will operate at temperatures exceeding 600°C. The alloy selected for the heat exchangers and piping is AISI Type 316L stainless steel. The extensive experience with NaK in breeder reactor programs and with earlier space reactors for unmanned missions lends considerable confidence in using NaK as a coolant in contact with stainless steel alloys. However, the microstructure, chemical segregation, and stress state of a weld leads to the potential for corrosion and cracking. Such failures have been experienced in NaK systems that have operated for times less than the eight year goal for the FSPS. For this reason, it was necessary to evaluate candidate weld techniques and expose welds to high-temperature, flowing NaK in a closed, closely controlled system. The goal of this project was to determine the optimum weld configuration for a NaK system that will withstand service for eight years under FSPS conditions. Since the most difficult weld to make and to evaluate is the tube to tube sheet weld in the intermediate heat exchangers, it was the focus of this research. A pumped loop of flowing NaK was fabricated for exposure of candidate weld specimens at temperatures of 600°C, the expected

  9. Subcooled freon-11 flow boiling in top-heated finned coolant channels with and without a twisted tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Alvin; Boyd, Ronald D., Sr.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in top-heated finned horizontal tubes to study the effect of enhancement devices on flow boiling heat transfer in coolant channels. The objectives are to examine the variations in both the mean and local (axial and circumferential) heat transfer coefficients for circular coolant channels with spiral finned walls and/or spiral fins with a twisted tape, and improve the data reduction technique of a previous investigator. The working fluid is freon-11 with an inlet temperature of 22.2 C (approximately 21 C subcooling). The coolant channel's exit pressure and mass velocity are 0.19 M Pa (absolute) and 0.21 Mg/sq. ms, respectively. Two tube configurations were examined; i.e., tubes had either 6.52 (small pitch) or 4.0 (large pitch) fins/cm of the circumferential length (26 and 16 fins, respectively). The large pitch fins were also examined with a twisted tape insert. The inside nominal diameter of the copper channels at the root of the fins was 1.0 cm. The results show that by adding enhancement devices, boiling occurs almost simultaneously at all axial locations. The case of spiral fins with large pitch resulted in larger mean (circumferentially averaged) heat transfer coefficients, h sub m, at all axial locations. Finally, when twisted tape is added to the tube with large-pitched fins, the power required for the onset of boiling is reduced at all axial and circumferential locations.

  10. Subcooled freon-11 flow boiling in top-heated finned coolant channels with and without a twisted tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alvin; Boyd, Ronald D., Sr.

    An experimental study was conducted in top-heated finned horizontal tubes to study the effect of enhancement devices on flow boiling heat transfer in coolant channels. The objectives are to examine the variations in both the mean and local (axial and circumferential) heat transfer coefficients for circular coolant channels with spiral finned walls and/or spiral fins with a twisted tape, and improve the data reduction technique of a previous investigator. The working fluid is freon-11 with an inlet temperature of 22.2 C (approximately 21 C subcooling). The coolant channel's exit pressure and mass velocity are 0.19 M Pa (absolute) and 0.21 Mg/sq. ms, respectively. Two tube configurations were examined; i.e., tubes had either 6.52 (small pitch) or 4.0 (large pitch) fins/cm of the circumferential length (26 and 16 fins, respectively). The large pitch fins were also examined with a twisted tape insert. The inside nominal diameter of the copper channels at the root of the fins was 1.0 cm. The results show that by adding enhancement devices, boiling occurs almost simultaneously at all axial locations. The case of spiral fins with large pitch resulted in larger mean (circumferentially averaged) heat transfer coefficients, h sub m, at all axial locations. Finally, when twisted tape is added to the tube with large-pitched fins, the power required for the onset of boiling is reduced at all axial and circumferential locations.

  11. Nanosecond laser-induced damage at different initial temperatures of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} films prepared by dual ion beam sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Cheng Jia, Jiaojiao; Fan, Heliang; Qiang, Yinghuai; Liu, Jiongtian; Yang, Di; Hu, Guohang; Li, Dawei

    2014-08-07

    Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} films were deposited by dual ion beam sputtering method. The nanosecond laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) at different initial temperatures and time of the films was investigated by an in situ high temperature laser-induced damage testing platform. It was shown that, when the initial temperature increased from 298 K to 383 K, the LIDT at 1064 nm and 12 ns significantly decreased by nearly 14%. Then the LIDT at 1064 nm and 12 ns decreased slower with the same temperature increment. Different damage morphologies were found at different initial temperatures. At low initial temperatures, it was the defects-isolated damage while at high initial temperatures it was the defects-combined damage. The theoretical calculations based on the defect-induced damage model revealed that both the significant increase of the highest temperature and the duration contributed to the different damage morphologies. With the initial temperature being increased, the thermal-stress coupling damage mechanism transformed gradually to the thermal dominant damage mechanism.

  12. Sensitivity of high-temperature weather to initial soil moisture: a case study with the WRF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, X.-M.; Wang, B.; Zhang, Y.; Song, S.; Huang, X.; Zheng, Y.; Chen, C.; Wang, G.

    2014-05-01

    Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), we investigate the sensitivity of simulated short-range high-temperature weather to initial soil moisture for the East China extremely hot event in late July 2003 via a succession of 24 h simulations. The initial soil moisture (SMOIS) in the Noah land surface scheme is prescribed for five groups of designed simulations, i.e., relative to the control run (CTL), SMOIS is changed by -25, -50, +25 and +50% in the DRY25, DRY50, WET25 and WET50 groups, respectively, with ten 24 h-long integrations performed in each group. We focus on above-35 °C (standard of so-called "high-temperature" event in China) 2 m surface air temperature (SAT) at 06:00 UTC (roughly 12:00 LT in the study domain) to analyze the occurrence of the high-temperature event. Ten-day mean results show that the 06:00 UTC SAT (SAT06) is sensitive to the SMOIS change, i.e., SAT06 exhibits an apparent rising with the SMOIS decrease (e.g., compared with CTL, DRY25 results in a 1 °C SAT06 rising in general over land surface of East China), areas with above-35 °C SAT06 are most affected, and the simulations are found to be more sensitive to the SMOIS decrease than to the SMOIS increase, suggesting that hot weather can be amplified under low soil moisture conditions. With regard to the mechanism of influencing the extreme high SAT06, sensible heat flux shows to directly heat the lower atmosphere, latent heat flux is found to be more sensitive to the SMOIS change and results in the overall increase of surface net radiation due to the increased greenhouse effect (e.g., with the SMOIS increase of 25% from DRY25 to CTL, the ten-day mean net radiation is increased by 5 W m-2), and a negative (positive) feedback is found between regional atmospheric circulation and air temperature in the lower atmosphere (mid-troposphere) due to the unique dynamic nature of the western Pacific subtropical high. Using a method based on an analogous temperature relationship, a

  13. Cryostabilization of high-temperature superconducting magnets with subcooled flow in microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Y. S.; Hull, J. R.; Choi, U. S.

    1992-07-01

    Subcooled flow of liquid nitrogen in microchannels is proposed as a means to enhance the stability of a superconducting magnet. Analysis shows high current density or a low stabilizer fraction is obtainable in a cryostable magnet. Increase in stability (using the Stekley criterion) is directly related to coolant velocity and coolant channel aspect ratio, however, there is a corresponding increase in pressure drop of the system. Another constraint is the coolant temperature rise, which is found to be a function of coolant residence time and the coolant to conductor ratio.

  14. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998-2012

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  15. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-01-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 25 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  16. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 25 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  17. Cryogenic-coolant He4-superconductor dynamic and static interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caspi, S.; Chuang, C.; Kim, Y. I.; Allen, R. J.; Frederking, T. H. E.

    1980-01-01

    A composite superconducting material (NbTi-Cu) was evaluated with emphasis on post quench solid cooling interaction regimes. The quasi-steady runs confirm the existence of a thermodynamic limiting thickness for insulating coatings. Two distinctly different post quench regimes of coated composites are shown to relate to the limiting thickness. Only one regime,, from quench onset to the peak value, revealed favorable coolant states, in particular in He2. Transient recovery shows favorable recovery times from this post quench regime (not drastically different from bare conductors) for both single coated specimens and a coated conductor bundle.

  18. Initial stages of growth and the influence of temperature during chemical vapor deposition of sp{sup 2}-BN films

    SciTech Connect

    Chubarov, Mikhail; Pedersen, Henrik; Högberg, Hans; Henry, Anne; Czigány, Zsolt

    2015-11-15

    Knowledge of the structural evolution of thin films, starting by the initial stages of growth, is important to control the quality and properties of the film. The authors present a study on the initial stages of growth and the temperature influence on the structural evolution of sp{sup 2} hybridized boron nitride (BN) thin films during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with triethyl boron and ammonia as precursors. Nucleation of hexagonal BN (h-BN) occurs at 1200 °C on α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with an AlN buffer layer (AlN/α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). At 1500 °C, h-BN grows with a layer-by-layer growth mode on AlN/α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} up to ∼4 nm after which the film structure changes to rhombohedral BN (r-BN). Then, r-BN growth proceeds with a mixed layer-by-layer and island growth mode. h-BN does not grow on 6H-SiC substrates; instead, r-BN nucleates and grows directly with a mixed layer-by-layer and island growth mode. These differences may be caused by differences in substrate surface temperature due to different thermal conductivities of the substrate materials. These results add to the understanding of the growth process of sp{sup 2}-BN employing CVD.

  19. TACT1, a computer program for the transient thermal analysis of a cooled turbine blade or vane equipped with a coolant insert. 1. Users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaugler, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program to calculate transient and steady state temperatures, pressures, and coolant flows in a cooled, axial flow turbine blade or vane with an impingement insert is described. Coolant side heat transfer coefficients are calculated internally in the program, with the user specifying either impingement or convection heat transfer at each internal flow station. Spent impingement air flows in a chordwise direction and is discharged through the trailing edge and through film cooling holes. The ability of the program to handle film cooling is limited by the internal flow model. Sample problems, with tables of input and output, are included in the report. Input to the program includes a description of the blade geometry, coolant supply conditions, outside thermal boundary conditions, and wheel speed. The blade wall can have two layers of different materials, such as a ceramic thermal barrier coating over a metallic substrate. Program output includes the temperature at each node, the coolant pressures and flow rates, and the inside heat-transfer coefficients.

  20. Discrete element method study of fuel relocation and dispersal during loss-of-coolant accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govers, K.; Verwerft, M.

    2016-09-01

    The fuel fragmentation, relocation and dispersal (FFRD) during LOCA transients today retain the attention of the nuclear safety community. The fine fragmentation observed at high burnup may, indeed, affect the Emergency Core Cooling System performance: accumulation of fuel debris in the cladding ballooned zone leads to a redistribution of the temperature profile, while dispersal of debris might lead to coolant blockage or to debris circulation through the primary circuit. This work presents a contribution, by discrete element method, towards a mechanistic description of the various stages of FFRD. The fuel fragments are described as a set of interacting particles, behaving as a granular medium. The model shows qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental observations, such as the packing efficiency in the balloon, which is shown to stabilize at about 55%. The model is then applied to study fuel dispersal, for which experimental parametric studies are both difficult and expensive.

  1. Chemistry control analysis of lead alloys systems to be used as nuclear coolant or spallation target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courouau, J.-L.; Robin, J.-C.

    2004-11-01

    This study presents the lead alloy system chemistry analysis for use as nuclear coolant or spallation target in ADS related systems in order to set down the needs for purification processes and monitoring. The study is limited here to the two main impurities, oxygen and iron. The analysis of the various potential pollution sources that may occur during the various operating modes is given, as well as a first pollution rate assessment. In order to limit the consequences in term of contamination (clogging) and corrosion, it is necessary to define specifications for operation as regards oxygen and iron content in the fluid. As iron cannot be measured and controlled up to now, the best specification is to set the oxygen as high as possible, defined by the cold leg interface temperature to ensure tolerable contamination, in order to maximize the oxidation area to ensure corrosion protection by self-healing oxide layer for the entire system.

  2. Liquid Cooling of Tractive Lithium Ion Batteries Pack with Nanofluids Coolant.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Xie, Huaqing; Yu, Wei; Li, Jing

    2015-04-01

    The heat generated from tractive lithium ion batteries during discharge-charge process has great impacts on the performances of tractive lithium ion batteries pack. How to solve the thermal abuse in tractive lithium ion batteries pack becomes more and more urgent and important for future development of electrical vehicles. In this work, TiO2, ZnO and diamond nanofluids are prepared and utilized as coolants in indirect liquid cooling of tractive lithium ion batteries pack. The results show that nanofluids present superior cooling performance to that of pure fluids and the diamond nanofluid presents relatively excellent cooling abilities than that of TiO2 and ZnO nanofluids. During discharge process, the temperature distribution of batteries in batteries pack is uniform and stable, due to steady heat dissipation by indirect liquid cooling. It is expected that nanofluids could be considered as a potential alternative for indirect liquid cooling in electrical vehicles.

  3. Development and performance of a large-scale, transonic turbine blade cascade facility for aerodynamic studies of merging coolant-mainstream flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sayeh, Amjad Isaaf

    1998-11-01

    , flow direction, total temperature and heavy gas concentration. Initial data are presented to demonstrate the range of the attainable operating parameters. The facility contains a number of adjustable components: the effects of these adjustments has been explored on pressure (Mach number) distributions in the approach duct, the exhaust duct and on the blades themselves. Boundary layer profiles have been determined in the approach duct for different inlet Mach numbers. The approach flow was affected by adjustments of the bleed system configuration. Shadowgraphs (still photos and video tapes) were taken that show clean, well-defined blade trailing edge shock patterns conforming to expectations. Good periodicity was demonstrated at subsonic speeds. At supersonic speeds the suction surface Mach number distributions, near the trailing edges, were found to be very sensitive to the angular setting and porosity of the nearby tailboard. The porous tailboards were effective in attenuating reflections of shocks incident on them. Solid tailboards (obtained by covering the perforated surface with tape) produced bifurcated Mach reflections. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  4. Improved prediction of severe thunderstorms over the Indian Monsoon region using high-resolution soil moisture and temperature initialization.

    PubMed

    Osuri, K K; Nadimpalli, R; Mohanty, U C; Chen, F; Rajeevan, M; Niyogi, D

    2017-01-27

    The hypothesis that realistic land conditions such as soil moisture/soil temperature (SM/ST) can significantly improve the modeling of mesoscale deep convection is tested over the Indian monsoon region (IMR). A high resolution (3 km foot print) SM/ST dataset prepared from a land data assimilation system, as part of a national monsoon mission project, showed close agreement with observations. Experiments are conducted with (LDAS) and without (CNTL) initialization of SM/ST dataset. Results highlight the significance of realistic land surface conditions on numerical prediction of initiation, movement and timing of severe thunderstorms as compared to that currently being initialized by climatological fields in CNTL run. Realistic land conditions improved mass flux, convective updrafts and diabatic heating in the boundary layer that contributed to low level positive potential vorticity. The LDAS run reproduced reflectivity echoes and associated rainfall bands more efficiently. Improper representation of surface conditions in CNTL run limit the evolution boundary layer processes and thereby failed to simulate convection at right time and place. These findings thus provide strong support to the role land conditions play in impacting the deep convection over the IMR. These findings also have direct implications for improving heavy rain forecasting over the IMR, by developing realistic land conditions.

  5. Improved prediction of severe thunderstorms over the Indian Monsoon region using high-resolution soil moisture and temperature initialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuri, K. K.; Nadimpalli, R.; Mohanty, U. C.; Chen, F.; Rajeevan, M.; Niyogi, D.

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis that realistic land conditions such as soil moisture/soil temperature (SM/ST) can significantly improve the modeling of mesoscale deep convection is tested over the Indian monsoon region (IMR). A high resolution (3 km foot print) SM/ST dataset prepared from a land data assimilation system, as part of a national monsoon mission project, showed close agreement with observations. Experiments are conducted with (LDAS) and without (CNTL) initialization of SM/ST dataset. Results highlight the significance of realistic land surface conditions on numerical prediction of initiation, movement and timing of severe thunderstorms as compared to that currently being initialized by climatological fields in CNTL run. Realistic land conditions improved mass flux, convective updrafts and diabatic heating in the boundary layer that contributed to low level positive potential vorticity. The LDAS run reproduced reflectivity echoes and associated rainfall bands more efficiently. Improper representation of surface conditions in CNTL run limit the evolution boundary layer processes and thereby failed to simulate convection at right time and place. These findings thus provide strong support to the role land conditions play in impacting the deep convection over the IMR. These findings also have direct implications for improving heavy rain forecasting over the IMR, by developing realistic land conditions.

  6. Improved prediction of severe thunderstorms over the Indian Monsoon region using high-resolution soil moisture and temperature initialization

    PubMed Central

    Osuri, K. K.; Nadimpalli, R.; Mohanty, U. C.; Chen, F.; Rajeevan, M.; Niyogi, D.

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis that realistic land conditions such as soil moisture/soil temperature (SM/ST) can significantly improve the modeling of mesoscale deep convection is tested over the Indian monsoon region (IMR). A high resolution (3 km foot print) SM/ST dataset prepared from a land data assimilation system, as part of a national monsoon mission project, showed close agreement with observations. Experiments are conducted with (LDAS) and without (CNTL) initialization of SM/ST dataset. Results highlight the significance of realistic land surface conditions on numerical prediction of initiation, movement and timing of severe thunderstorms as compared to that currently being initialized by climatological fields in CNTL run. Realistic land conditions improved mass flux, convective updrafts and diabatic heating in the boundary layer that contributed to low level positive potential vorticity. The LDAS run reproduced reflectivity echoes and associated rainfall bands more efficiently. Improper representation of surface conditions in CNTL run limit the evolution boundary layer processes and thereby failed to simulate convection at right time and place. These findings thus provide strong support to the role land conditions play in impacting the deep convection over the IMR. These findings also have direct implications for improving heavy rain forecasting over the IMR, by developing realistic land conditions. PMID:28128293

  7. Co-adsorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate and phosphate on boehmite: Influence of temperature, phosphate initial concentration and pH.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jin; Shen, Mengmeng; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Hu, Jing; Hou, Jun; Ao, Yanhui; Zheng, Hao; Li, Kun; Liu, Jingjing

    2017-03-01

    The co-presence of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and phosphate in wastewater of various industries has been detected. Removing PFOS and phosphate simultaneously before discharging sewage into natural water can decrease effectively the environmental risk caused by the combined pollution of PFOS and phosphate. In this study, laboratory batch experiments were conducted for investigating the co-adsorption of PFOS and phosphate on boehmite and the influences of temperature, phosphate initial concentration and pH on the co-adsorption. The adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics of PFOS and phosphate on boehmite were also investigated completely and systematically. The results showed that lower temperature favored the co-adsorptions of PFOS and phosphate. The adsorption of PFOS and phosphate on boehmite agreed well with the Langmuir isotherm and the adsorption parameters of thermodynamics are ΔH=-16.9 and -20.0kJmol(-1) (PFOS and phosphate), ΔS=-5.69 and -7.63Jmol(-1) K(-1) (PFOS and phosphate) and ΔG <0 (PFOS and phosphate). It demonstrated that the co-adsorption of PFOS and phosphate on boehmite is a spontaneously exothermic process. Moreover, the co-adsorption process can be described well by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. With increasing phosphate initial concentration, more phosphate could be adsorbed on boehmite, while the adsorption of PFOS decreased at phosphate initial concentration of less than 30mgL(-1) and increased at that of larger than 30mgL(-1). In the co-adsorption process, the adsorption amount of PFOS decreased with pH increasing, but that of phosphate changed little.

  8. Photoionization mass spectrometric measurements of initial reaction pathways in low-temperature oxidation of 2,5-dimethylhexane.

    PubMed

    Rotavera, Brandon; Zádor, Judit; Welz, Oliver; Sheps, Leonid; Scheer, Adam M; Savee, John D; Akbar Ali, Mohamad; Lee, Taek Soon; Simmons, Blake A; Osborn, David L; Violi, Angela; Taatjes, Craig A

    2014-11-06

    Product formation from R + O2 reactions relevant to low-temperature autoignition chemistry was studied for 2,5-dimethylhexane, a symmetrically branched octane isomer, at 550 and 650 K using Cl-atom initiated oxidation and multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS). Interpretation of time- and photon-energy-resolved mass spectra led to three specific results important to characterizing the initial oxidation steps: (1) quantified isomer-resolved branching ratios for HO2 + alkene channels; (2) 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran is formed in substantial yield from addition of O2 to tertiary 2,5-dimethylhex-2-yl followed by isomerization of the resulting ROO adduct to tertiary hydroperoxyalkyl (QOOH) and exhibits a positive dependence on temperature over the range covered leading to a higher flux relative to aggregate cyclic ether yield. The higher relative flux is explained by a 1,5-hydrogen atom shift reaction that converts the initial primary alkyl radical (2,5-dimethylhex-1-yl) to the tertiary alkyl radical 2,5-dimethylhex-2-yl, providing an additional source of tertiary alkyl radicals. Quantum-chemical and master-equation calculations of the unimolecular decomposition of the primary alkyl radical reveal that isomerization to the tertiary alkyl radical is the most favorable pathway, and is favored over O2-addition at 650 K under the conditions herein. The isomerization pathway to tertiary alkyl radicals therefore contributes an additional mechanism to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran formation; (3) carbonyl species (acetone, propanal, and methylpropanal) consistent with β-scission of QOOH radicals were formed in significant yield, indicating unimolecular QOOH decomposition into carbonyl + alkene + OH.

  9. Photoionization mass spectrometric measurements of initial reaction pathways in low-temperature oxidation of 2,5-dimethylhexane

    SciTech Connect

    Rotavera, Brandon; Zádor, Judit; Welz, Oliver; Sheps, Leonid; Scheer, Adam M.; Savee, John D.; Akbar Ali, Mohamad; Lee, Taek Soon; Simmons, Blake A.; Osborn, David L.; Violi, Angela; Taatjes, Craig A.

    2014-09-19

    The product formation from R + O2 reactions relevant to low-temperature autoignition chemistry was studied for 2,5-dimethylhexane, a symmetrically branched octane isomer, at 550 and 650 K using Cl-atom initiated oxidation and multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS). The interpretation of time- and photon-energy-resolved mass spectra led to three specific results important to characterizing the initial oxidation steps: (1) quantified isomer-resolved branching ratios for HO2 + alkene channels; (2) 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran is formed in substantial yield from addition of O2 to tertiary 2,5-dimethylhex-2-yl followed by isomerization of the resulting ROO adduct to tertiary hydroperoxyalkyl (QOOH) and exhibits a positive dependence on temperature over the range covered leading to a higher flux relative to aggregate cyclic ether yield. The higher relative flux is explained by a 1,5-hydrogen atom shift reaction that converts the initial primary alkyl radical (2,5-dimethylhex-1-yl) to the tertiary alkyl radical 2,5-dimethylhex-2-yl, providing an additional source of tertiary alkyl radicals. Furthermore, quantum-chemical and master-equation calculations of the unimolecular decomposition of the primary alkyl radical reveal that isomerization to the tertiary alkyl radical is the most favorable pathway, and is favored over O2-addition at 650 K under the conditions herein. The isomerization pathway to tertiary alkyl radicals therefore contributes an additional mechanism to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran formation; (3) carbonyl species (acetone, propanal, and methylpropanal) consistent with β-scission of QOOH radicals were formed in significant yield, indicating unimolecular QOOH decomposition into carbonyl + alkene + OH.

  10. Effect of dissolved oxygen, temperature, initial cell count, and sugar concentration on the viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in rapid fermentations.

    PubMed

    Nagodawithana, T W; Castellano, C; Steinkraus, K H

    1974-09-01

    By using 7 x 10(8) cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae per ml with which 25 degrees Brix honey solutions were fermented to 9.5% (wt/vol; 12% vol/vol) ethanol in 2.5 to 3 h at 30 C, i.e., rapid fermentation, the death rate was found to be high, with only 2.1% of the yeast cells surviving at the end of 3 h under anaerobic conditions. As the dissolved oxygen in the medium was increased from 0 to 13 to 20 to 100% in rapid fermentations at 30 C, there was a progressive increase in the percentage of cells surviving. The ethanol production rate and total were not seriously affected by a dissolved oxygen concentration of 13%, but fermentation was retarded by 20% dissolved oxygen and still further decreased as the dissolved oxygen content reached 100%. When the fermentation temperature was decreased to 15 C (at 13% dissolved oxygen), the rate of fermentation decreased, and the fermentation time to 9.5% ethanol (wt/vol) increased to 6 h. It was found that the higher the temperature between 15 and 30 C, the greater the rate of death as initial cell counts were increased from 1.1 x 10(7) to 7.8 x 10(8) cells per ml. At the lowest level of inoculum, 1.1 x 10(7) cells per ml, there was actual multiplication, even at 30 C; however, the fermentation was no longer rapid. The addition of 15% sugar, initially followed after an hour by the remaining 10%, or addition of the sugar in increments of 2.5 or 5% yielded a better survival rate of yeast cells than when the fermentation was initiated with 25% sugar.

  11. Sensitivity of high-temperature weather to initial soil moisture: a case study using the WRF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, X.-M.; Wang, B.; Zhang, Y.; Song, S.; Huang, X.; Zheng, Y.; Chen, C.; Wang, G.

    2014-09-01

    Using a succession of 24 h Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) simulations, we investigate the sensitivity to initial soil moisture of a short-range high-temperature weather event that occurred in late July 2003 in East China. The initial soil moisture (SMOIS) in the Noah land surface scheme is adjusted (relative to the control run, CTL) for four groups of simulations: DRY25 (-25%), DRY50 (-50%), WET25 (+25%) and WET50 (+50%). Ten 24 h integrations are performed in each group. We focus on 2 m surface air temperature (SAT) greater than 35 °C (the threshold of "high-temperature" events in China) at 06:00 UTC (roughly 14:00 LT in the study domain) to analyse the occurrence of the high-temperature event. The 10-day mean results show that the 06:00 UTC SAT (SAT06) is sensitive to the SMOIS change; specifically, SAT06 exhibits an apparent increase with the SMOIS decrease (e.g. compared with CTL, DRY25 generally results in a 1 °C SAT06 increase over the land surface of East China), areas with 35 °C or higher SAT06 are the most affected, and the simulations are more sensitive to the SMOIS decrease than to the SMOIS increase, which suggests that hot weather can be amplified under low soil moisture conditions. Regarding the mechanism underlying the extremely high SAT06, sensible heat flux has been shown to directly heat the lower atmosphere, and latent heat flux has been found to be more sensitive to the SMOIS change, resulting in an overall increase in surface net radiation due to the increased greenhouse effect (e.g. with the SMOIS increase from DRY25 to CTL, the 10-day mean net radiation increases by 5 W m-2). Additionally, due to the unique and dynamic nature of the western Pacific subtropical high, negative feedback occurs between the regional atmospheric circulation and the air temperature in the lower atmosphere while positive feedback occurs in the mid-troposphere. Using a method based on an analogous temperature relationship, a detailed analysis of the

  12. Optimization of the water chemistry of the primary coolant at nuclear power plants with VVER

    SciTech Connect

    Barmin, L. F.; Kruglova, T. K.; Sinitsyn, V. P.

    2005-01-15

    Results of the use of automatic hydrogen-content meter for controlling the parameter of 'hydrogen' in the primary coolant circuit of the Kola nuclear power plant are presented. It is shown that the correlation between the 'hydrogen' parameter in the coolant and the 'hydrazine' parameter in the makeup water can be used for controlling the water chemistry of the primary coolant system, which should make it possible to optimize the water chemistry at different power levels.

  13. Development of mobile, on-site engine coolant recycling utilizing reverse-osmosis technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kughn, W.; Eaton, E.R.

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents the history of the development of self-contained, mobile, high-volume, engine coolant recycling by reverse osmosis (R/O). It explains the motivations, created by government regulatory agencies, to minimize the liability of waste generators who produce waste engine coolant by providing an engine coolant recycling service at the customer`s location. Recycling the used engine coolant at the point of origin minimizes the generators` exposure to documentation requirements, liability, and financial burdens by greatly reducing the volume of used coolant that must be hauled from the generator`s property. It describes the inherent difficulties of recycling such a highly contaminated, inconsistent input stream, such as used engine coolant, by reverse osmosis. The paper reports how the difficulties were addressed, and documents the state of the art in mobile R/O technology. Reverse osmosis provides a purified intermediate fluid that is reinhibited for use in automotive cooling systems. The paper offers a review of experiences in various automotive applications, including light-duty, medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles operating on many types of fuel. The authors conclude that mobile embodiments of R/O coolant recycling technology provide finished coolants that perform equivalently to new coolants as demonstrated by their ability to protect vehicles from freezing, corrosion damage, and other cooling system related problems.

  14. Plasma-initiated rehydrogenation of amorphous silicon to increase the temperature processing window of silicon heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jianwei; Boccard, Mathieu; Holman, Zachary

    2016-07-01

    The dehydrogenation of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) at temperatures above approximately 300 °C degrades its ability to passivate silicon wafer surfaces. This limits the temperature of post-passivation processing steps during the fabrication of advanced silicon heterojunction or silicon-based tandem solar cells. We demonstrate that a hydrogen plasma can rehydrogenate intrinsic a-Si:H passivation layers that have been dehydrogenated by annealing. The hydrogen plasma treatment fully restores the effective carrier lifetime to several milliseconds in textured crystalline silicon wafers coated with 8-nm-thick intrinsic a-Si:H layers after annealing at temperatures of up to 450 °C. Plasma-initiated rehydrogenation also translates to complete solar cells: A silicon heterojunction solar cell subjected to annealing at 450 °C (following intrinsic a-Si:H deposition) had an open-circuit voltage of less than 600 mV, but an identical cell that received hydrogen plasma treatment reached a voltage of over 710 mV and an efficiency of over 19%.

  15. Hard metal lung disease: importance of cobalt in coolants.

    PubMed Central

    Sjögren, I; Hillerdal, G; Andersson, A; Zetterström, O

    1980-01-01

    Four patients were found to react to occupational exposure to grinding of hard metal (tungsten carbide). Three of the patients had symptoms and signs compatible with an allergic alveolitis, the symptoms disappearing and the chest radiograph clearing when they were absent from work for a few months. Re-exposure to the offending agent led to new signs and symptoms. The first patient was re-exposed twice and each time reacted a little more seriously. After the last episode her chest radiograph has not cleared completely, in contrast to the first two times. The fourth patient had more typical occupational asthma. All the cases occurred in the part of the factory where air concentrations of cobalt were the lowest. The cobalt there is dissolved in the coolant necessary for grinding the hard metal. It occurs mainly in the ionised form, which is known to react with proteins and therefore presumably acts as a hapten. Protective measures, including choosing a coolant with minimal ability to dissolve cobalt and an effective exhaust system, should minimise the risk of this occupational disease in the future. PMID:7444839

  16. Development of Safety Analysis Codes and Experimental Validation for a Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H. Oh, PhD; Cliff Davis; Richard Moore

    2004-11-01

    The very high temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTGRs) are those concepts that have average coolant temperatures above 900 degrees C or operational fuel temperatures above 1250 degrees C. These concepts provide the potential for increased energy conversion efficiency and for high-temperature process heat application in addition to power generation and nuclear hydrogen generation. While all the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) concepts have sufficiently high temperatures to support process heat applications, such as desalination and cogeneration, the VHTGR's higher temperatures are suitable for particular applications such as thermochemical hydrogen production. However, the high temperature operation can be detrimental to safety following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) initiated by pipe breaks caused by seismic or other events. Following the loss of coolant through the break and coolant depressurization, air from the containment will enter the core by molecular diffusion and ultimately by natural convection, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structures and fuel. The oxidation will release heat and accelerate the heatup of the reactor core. Thus, without any effective countermeasures, a pipe break may lead to significant fuel damage and fission product release. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has investigated this event for the past three years for the HTGR. However, the computer codes used, and in fact none of the world's computer codes, have been sufficiently developed and validated to reliably predict this event. New code development, improvement of the existing codes, and experimental validation are imperative to narrow the uncertaninty in the predictions of this type of accident. The objectives of this Korean/United States collaboration are to develop advanced computational methods for VHTGR safety analysis codes and to validate these computer codes.

  17. Analysis of loss-of-coolant accident for a fast-spectrum lithium-cooled nuclear reactor for space-power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turney, G. E.; Petrik, E. J.; Kieffer, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    A two-dimensional, transient, heat-transfer analysis was made to determine the temperature response in the core of a conceptual space-power nuclear reactor following a total loss of reactor coolant. With loss of coolant from the reactor, the controlling mode of heat transfer is thermal radiation. In one of the schemes considered for removing decay heat from the core, it was assumed that the 4 pi shield which surrounds the core acts as a constant-temperature sink (temperature, 700 K) for absorption of thermal radiation from the core. Results based on this scheme of heat removal show that melting of fuel in the core is possible only when the emissivity of the heat-radiating surfaces in the core is less than about 0.40. In another scheme for removing the afterheat, the core centerline fuel pin was replaced by a redundant, constant temperature, coolant channel. Based on an emissivity of 0.20 for all material surfaces in the core, the calculated maximum fuel temperature for this scheme of heat removal was 2840 K, or about 90 K less than the melting temperature of the UN fuel.

  18. Investigation of heat transfer in zirconium potassium perchlorate at low temperature: A study of the failure mechanism of the NASA standard initiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varghese, Philip L.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the reasons for the failure of pyrotechnic initiators at very low temperatures (10 to 100 K). A two-dimensional model of the NASA standard initiator was constructed to model heat transfer from the electrically heated stainless steel bridgewire to the zirconium potassium perchlorate explosive charge and the alumina charge cup. Temperature dependent properties were used in the model to simulate initiator performance over a wide range of initial temperatures (10 to 500 K). A search of the thermophysical property data base showed that pure alumina has a very high thermal conductivity at low temperatures. It had been assumed to act as a thermal insulator in all previous analyses. Rapid heat transfer from the bridgewire to the alumina at low initial temperatures was shown to cause failure of the initiators if the wire did not also make good contact with the zirconium potassium perchlorate charge. The mode is able to reproduce the results of the tests that had been conducted to investigate the cause for failure. It also provides an explanation for previously puzzling results and suggests simple design changes that will increase reliability at very low initial temperatures.

  19. Internal cooling of a lithium-ion battery using electrolyte as coolant through microchannels embedded inside the electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadian, Shahabeddin K.; He, Ya-Ling; Zhang, Yuwen

    2015-10-01

    Two and three dimensional transient thermal analysis of a prismatic Li-ion cell has been carried out to compare internal and external cooling methods for thermal management of Lithium Ion (Li-ion) battery packs. Water and liquid electrolyte have been utilized as coolants for external and internal cooling, respectively. The effects of the methods on decreasing the temperature inside the battery and also temperature uniformity were investigated. The results showed that at the same pumping power, using internal cooling not only decreases the bulk temperature inside the battery more than external cooling, but also decreases the standard deviation of the temperature field inside the battery significantly. Finally, using internal cooling decreases the intersection angle between the velocity vector and the temperature gradient which according to field synergy principle (FSP) causes to increase the convection heat transfer.

  20. Zero waste machine coolant management strategy at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, B.; Algarra, F.; Wilburn, D.

    1998-12-01

    Machine coolants are used in machining equipment including lathes, grinders, saws and drills. The purpose of coolants is to wash away machinery debris in the form of metal fines, lubricate, and disperse heat between the part and the machine tool. An effective coolant prolongs tool life and protects against part rejection, commonly due to scoring or scorching. Traditionally, coolants have a very short effective life in the machine, often times being disposed of as frequently as once per week. The cause of coolant degradation is primarily due to the effects of bacteria, which thrive in the organic rich coolant environment. Bacteria in this environment reproduce at a logarithmic rate, destroying the coolant desirable aspects and causing potential worker health risks associated with the use of biocides to control the bacteria. The strategy described in this paper has effectively controlled bacterial activity without the use of biocides, avoided disposal of a hazardous waste, and has extend ed coolant life indefinitely. The Machine Coolant Management Strategy employed a combination of filtration, heavy lubricating oil removal, and aeration, which maintained the coolant peak performance without the use of biocides. In FY96, the Laboratory generated and disposed of 19,880 kg of coolants from 9 separate sites at a cost of $145K. The single largest generator was the main machine shop producing an average 14,000 kg annually. However, in FY97, the waste generation for the main machine shop dropped to 4,000 kg after the implementation of the zero waste strategy. It is expected that this value will be further reduced in FY98.

  1. Zero Waste Machine Coolant Management Strategy at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, B.; Algarra, F.; Wilburn, D.

    1998-06-01

    Machine coolants are used in machining equipment including lathes, grinders, saws and drills. The purpose of coolants is to wash away machinery debris in the form of metal fines, lubricate, and disperse heat between the part and the machine tool. An effective coolant prolongs tool life and protects against part rejection, commonly due to scoring or scorching. Traditionally, coolants have a very short effective life in the machine, often times being disposed of as frequently as once per week. The cause of coolant degradation is primarily due to the effects of bacteria, which thrive in the organic rich coolant environment. Bacteria in this environment reproduce at a logarithmic rate, destroying the coolant desirable aspects and causing potential worker health risks associated with the use of biocides to control the bacteria. The strategy described in this paper has effectively controlled bacterial activity without the use of biocides, avoided disposal of a hazardous waste, and has extend ed coolant life indefinitely. The Machine Coolant Management Strategy employed a combination of filtration, heavy lubricating oil removal, and aeration, which maintained the coolant peak performance without the use of biocides. In FY96, the Laboratory generated and disposed of 19,880 kg of coolants from 9 separate sites at a cost of $145K. The single largest generator was the main machine shop producing an average 14,000 kg annually. However, in FY97, the waste generation for the main machine shop dropped to 4,000 kg after the implementation of the zero waste strategy. It is expected that this value will be further reduced in FY98.

  2. A strong inorganic acid-initiated methacrylate polymerization strategy for room temperature preparation of monolithic columns for capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man-Man; Wang, He-Fang; Jiang, Dong-Qing; Wang, Shan-Wei; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2010-05-01

    A facile strong inorganic acid-initiated methacrylate polymerization strategy was developed for fabricating monolithic columns at room temperature. The prepared monoliths were characterized by FTIR spectrometry, mercury intrusion porosimeter and SEM, while their performance was evaluated by CEC for the separation of various types of compounds including alkyl benzenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anilines, and nitrophenol isomers. The column-to-column and batch-to-batch reproducibility for the prepared monoliths in terms of the RSD of EOF flow velocity, retention factor, and the minimum plate height of naphthalene ranged from 3.4 to 12.4%. The fabricated monoliths gave excellent performance for the separation of the test neutral compounds with the theoretical plates of 170,000-232,000 plates per meter for thiourea, and 77,400-112,300 plates per meter for naphthalene. The proposed strong inorganic acid-initiated methacrylate polymerization strategy is a promising alternative for fabricating organic polymer-based monoliths.

  3. Photoionization mass spectrometric measurements of initial reaction pathways in low-temperature oxidation of 2,5-dimethylhexane

    DOE PAGES

    Rotavera, Brandon; Zádor, Judit; Welz, Oliver; ...

    2014-09-19

    The product formation from R + O2 reactions relevant to low-temperature autoignition chemistry was studied for 2,5-dimethylhexane, a symmetrically branched octane isomer, at 550 and 650 K using Cl-atom initiated oxidation and multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS). The interpretation of time- and photon-energy-resolved mass spectra led to three specific results important to characterizing the initial oxidation steps: (1) quantified isomer-resolved branching ratios for HO2 + alkene channels; (2) 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran is formed in substantial yield from addition of O2 to tertiary 2,5-dimethylhex-2-yl followed by isomerization of the resulting ROO adduct to tertiary hydroperoxyalkyl (QOOH) and exhibits a positive dependence on temperaturemore » over the range covered leading to a higher flux relative to aggregate cyclic ether yield. The higher relative flux is explained by a 1,5-hydrogen atom shift reaction that converts the initial primary alkyl radical (2,5-dimethylhex-1-yl) to the tertiary alkyl radical 2,5-dimethylhex-2-yl, providing an additional source of tertiary alkyl radicals. Furthermore, quantum-chemical and master-equation calculations of the unimolecular decomposition of the primary alkyl radical reveal that isomerization to the tertiary alkyl radical is the most favorable pathway, and is favored over O2-addition at 650 K under the conditions herein. The isomerization pathway to tertiary alkyl radicals therefore contributes an additional mechanism to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran formation; (3) carbonyl species (acetone, propanal, and methylpropanal) consistent with β-scission of QOOH radicals were formed in significant yield, indicating unimolecular QOOH decomposition into carbonyl + alkene + OH.« less

  4. [Effects of salting, cut type, and initial simmering temperature on protein and fat contents of meat broths: I. Beef].

    PubMed

    Gotera-Prado, Z; Quintero, J B; Huerta-Leidenz, N; Prado Gotera, Z

    1997-12-01

    A 2 x 2 x 4 factorial design was used to study variation of protein and fat contents in beef broths as affected by cut type (flank, shank), salt treatments (addition of salt to the medium, no salt), and initial temperatures of simmering (25, 70, 75, and 100 degrees C). Flank portions yielded slightly more protein (0.29 g/100 mL) and had three-fold less fat (0.39 g/mL) than those of shank (0.25 and 1.12 g/mL, respectively) (P < 0.05). No linear relationship of temperature and amount of extractable components was observed, but it was clear that the greatest protein extraction was accomplished when meat was immersed in cooking water at boiling point (P < 0.05). In general, salting of water reduced fat content of beef broths. However, a significant Salting x Cut type interaction showed this effect was only present in shanks (P < 0.05). Conversely, the reducing effect (P < 0.05) of salting on amount of protein extracted from flank was not observed in shanks. Based on these data, we conclude that larger amounts of protein and less fat could be transferred from meat pieces to the medium by immersing beef in salted water at the boiling point.

  5. Thermal X-Ray Spectral Tools. I. Parameterizing Impulsive X-Ray Heating with a Cumulative Initial Temperature (CIT) Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayley, Kenneth G.

    2014-06-01

    In collisional ionization equilibrium, the X-ray spectrum from a plasma depends on the differential emission measure (DEM), distributed over temperature. Due to the well-known ill conditioning problem, no precisely resolved DEM can be inverted directly from the spectrum, so often only a gross parameterization of the DEM is used to approximate the data, in hopes that the parameterization can provide useful model-independent constraints on the heating process. However, ill conditioning also introduces ambiguity into the various different parameterizations that could approximate the data, which may spoil the perceived advantages of model independence. Thus, this paper instead suggests a single parameterization for both the heating mechanism and the X-ray sources, based on a model of impulsive heating followed by radiative cooling. This approach is similar to a "cooling flow" approach but allows injection at multiple initial temperatures and applies even when the steady state is a distribution of different shock strengths, as for a standing shock with a range of obliquities, or for embedded stochastic shocks that are only steady in a statistical sense. This produces an alternative parameterization for X-ray spectra that is especially streamlined for higher density plasmas with efficient radiative cooling and minimal thermal conduction and mixing. The method also provides some internal consistency checks on the validity of its assumptions. A heuristic general version is then applied over a wide range of astrophysical applications to schematically explore potential alternative models for these phenomena.

  6. Thermal X-ray spectral tools. I. Parameterizing impulsive X-ray heating with a cumulative initial temperature (CIT) distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Gayley, Kenneth G.

    2014-06-10

    In collisional ionization equilibrium, the X-ray spectrum from a plasma depends on the differential emission measure (DEM), distributed over temperature. Due to the well-known ill conditioning problem, no precisely resolved DEM can be inverted directly from the spectrum, so often only a gross parameterization of the DEM is used to approximate the data, in hopes that the parameterization can provide useful model-independent constraints on the heating process. However, ill conditioning also introduces ambiguity into the various different parameterizations that could approximate the data, which may spoil the perceived advantages of model independence. Thus, this paper instead suggests a single parameterization for both the heating mechanism and the X-ray sources, based on a model of impulsive heating followed by radiative cooling. This approach is similar to a 'cooling flow' approach but allows injection at multiple initial temperatures and applies even when the steady state is a distribution of different shock strengths, as for a standing shock with a range of obliquities, or for embedded stochastic shocks that are only steady in a statistical sense. This produces an alternative parameterization for X-ray spectra that is especially streamlined for higher density plasmas with efficient radiative cooling and minimal thermal conduction and mixing. The method also provides some internal consistency checks on the validity of its assumptions. A heuristic general version is then applied over a wide range of astrophysical applications to schematically explore potential alternative models for these phenomena.

  7. Nonflammable coolants for space vehicle environmental control systems Compatibility of component materials with selected dielectric fluids.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R. T.; Korpolinski, T. S.; Mace, E. W.

    1971-01-01

    This paper summarizes a 4-year effort to evaluate and implement a nonflammable substitute coolant for application in the Saturn instrument unit (IU) environmental control system (ECS). Discussed are candidate material evaluations, detailed investigations of the properties of the coolant selected, and a summary of the implementation into a flight vehicle.

  8. Using automatic particle counting to monitor aluminum cold mill coolant{copyright}

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, D.L.

    1995-08-01

    A comprehensive program of testing and evaluation of aluminum cold rolling coolant conditions has been conducted using an automatic particle counting instrument. The project had three objectives. First, there was a need to know at what level of coolant particle contamination is surface cleanliness of an aluminum sheet affected during the rolling process. Secondly, is application of particle counting technology a reliable tool for troubleshooting coolant filtration systems and finally, what are the advantages of analyzing rolling coolants for contamination levels? A testing program was designed and performed over a two-year period. The test results revealed that mineral seal and synthetic-type coolants can begin to affect aluminum sheet surface cleanliness levels when particle sizes greater than five microns are in excess of 10,000 particles power 100 milliliters of rolling coolant. After performing over 3,000 separate tests, it was very clean that particle count levels are direct indicators of how well a filtration facility is performing. Through the application of particle counting, a number of conditions in coolant filtration facilities can be readily detected. Such items as defective filter valving, torn or fractured filter cloth, damaged filter parts, improper equipment operation and many other factors will directly impact the operation of aluminum cold rolling coolant filters. 11 figs.

  9. MTR, TRA603. FOUNDATION PLAN, SECTION C THROUGH COOLANT WATER EXIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. FOUNDATION PLAN, SECTION C THROUGH COOLANT WATER EXIT TUNNEL ALONG NORTH SIDE AS IT RETURNS TO MAIN COOLANT TUNNEL LEAVING BUILDING TO THE NORTH. BLAW-KNOX 3150-803-35, 5/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-62-098-100591, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Some peculiarities of checking the Topaz-2 system coolant filling quality

    SciTech Connect

    Ogloblin, B.G.; Svishchev, A.M.; Shalaev, A.I.

    1996-03-01

    This paper contains the analysis of validity of methods used for checking the Topaz-2 system coolant filling quality by a metering tank according to the mathematical model developed. A number of criteria is proposed for detecting occluded gas in the coolant loop. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Fusion Blanket Coolant Section Criteria, Methodology, and Results

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuth, J. A.; Meier, W. R.; Jolodosky, A.; Frantoni, M.; Reyes, S.

    2015-10-02

    The focus of this LDRD was to explore potential Li alloys that would meet the tritium breeding and blanket cooling requirements but with reduced chemical reactivity, while maintaining the other attractive features of pure Li breeder/coolant. In other fusion approaches (magnetic fusion energy or MFE), 17Li- 83Pb alloy is used leveraging Pb’s ability to maintain high TBR while lowering the levels of lithium in the system. Unfortunately this alloy has a number of potential draw-backs. Due to the high Pb content, this alloy suffers from very high average density, low tritium solubility, low system energy, and produces undesirable activation products in particular polonium. The criteria considered in the selection of a tritium breeding alloy are described in the following section.

  12. Leak rate analysis of the Westinghouse Reactor Coolant Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, T.; Jeanmougin, N.; Lofaro, R.; Prevost, J.

    1985-07-01

    An independent analysis was performed by ETEC to determine what the seal leakage rates would be for the Westinghouse Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) during a postulated station blackout resulting from loss of ac electric power. The object of the study was to determine leakage rates for the following conditions: Case 1: All three seals function. Case 2: No. 1 seal fails open while Nos. 2 and 3 seals function. Case 3: All three seals fail open. The ETEC analysis confirmed Westinghouse calculations on RCP seal performance for the conditions investigated. The leak rates predicted by ETEC were slightly lower than those predicted by Westinghouse for each of the three cases as summarized below. Case 1: ETEC predicted 19.6 gpm, Westinghouse predicted 21.1 gpm. Case 2: ETEC predicted 64.7 gpm, Westinghouse predicted 75.6 gpm. Case 3: ETEC predicted 422 gpm, Westinghouse predicted 480 gpm. 3 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Robotic inspection of PWR coolant pump casing welds

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, W.R.; Alford, J.W.; Davis, J.B.

    1997-12-01

    As of January 1, 1995, the Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate began requiring more thorough inspections of cast stainless-steel components in nuclear power plants, including pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor coolant pump (RCP) casings. The examination requirements are established by fracture mechanics analyses of component weldments and demonstrated test system detection capabilities. This may include full volumetric inspection or some portion thereof. Ringhals station is a four-unit nuclear power plant, owned and operated by the Swedish State Power Board, Vattenfall. Unit 1 is a boiling water reactor. Units 2, 3, and 4 are Westinghouse-designed PWRs, ranging in size from 795 to 925 MW. The RCP casings at the PWR units are made of cast stainless steel and contain four circumferential welds that require inspection. Due to the thickness of the casings at the weld locations and configuration and surface conditions on the outside diameter of the casings, remote inspection from the inside diameter of the pump casing was mandated.

  14. Actively controlling coolant-cooled cold plate configuration

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2016-04-26

    Cooling apparatuses are provided to facilitate active control of thermal and fluid dynamic performance of a coolant-cooled cold plate. The cooling apparatus includes the cold plate and a controller. The cold plate couples to one or more electronic components to be cooled, and includes an adjustable physical configuration. The controller dynamically varies the adjustable physical configuration of the cold plate based on a monitored variable associated with the cold plate or the electronic component(s) being cooled by the cold plate. By dynamically varying the physical configuration, the thermal and fluid dynamic performance of the cold plate are adjusted to, for example, optimally cool the electronic component(s), and at the same time, reduce cooling power consumption used in cooling the electronic component(s). The physical configuration can be adjusted by providing one or more adjustable plates within the cold plate, the positioning of which may be adjusted based on the monitored variable.

  15. Loss of coolant analysis for the tower shielding reactor 2

    SciTech Connect

    Radcliff, T.D.; Williams, P.T.

    1990-06-01

    The operational limits of the Tower Shielding Reactor-2 (TSR-2) have been revised to account for placing the reactor in a beam shield, which reduces convection cooling during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A detailed heat transfer analysis was performed to set operating time limits which preclude fuel damage during a LOCA. Since a LOCA is survivable, the pressure boundary need not be safety related, minimizing seismic and inspection requirements. Measurements of reactor component emittance for this analysis revealed that aluminum oxidized in water may have emittance much higher than accepted values, allowing higher operating limits than were originally expected. These limits could be increased further with analytical or hardware improvements. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Investigations of ice formation in the Space Shuttle Main Engine 0209 main injector coolant cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, D. R.; Charklwick, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    Severe main combustion chamber wall and main injector baffle element deterioration occurred during tests of Space Shuttle Main Engine 0209. One of the possible causes considered is ice formation and blockage of coolant to these components, resulting from the mixing of leaking hot turbine exhaust gas (hydrogen rich steam) and hydrogen coolant in the injector coolant cavity. The plausibility of ice blockage is investigated through simple mixing calculations for hot gas and hydrogen, investigation of condensation and water droplet formation, calculation of the freezing times for droplets, and the prediction of ice layer thicknesses. It is concluded that condensation and droplet formation can occur, and small water droplets that form can freeze very quickly when in contact with the cold coolant cavity surfaces. Copnservative analysis predicts, however, that the maximum thickness of the ice layers formed is too small to result in significant blockage of the coolant flow.

  17. Numerical model of the hydrodynamics of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov with variational initialization of temperature and salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalesny, V. B.; Gusev, A. V.; Moshonkin, S. N.

    2013-11-01

    A numerical primitive-equation model of the hydrodynamics of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov in σ-coordinates is proposed. The model has a resolution of ˜4 × 4 km in horizontal coordinates with 40-σ levels in the vertical and includes the four-dimensional variational initialization of temperature and salinity fields. A numerical initialization algorithm combines splitting methods and adjoint equations. Flow, temperature, sea level, and salinity fields driven by atmospheric forcing are calculated for the year 2008. The calculations are made in a variational initialization — prediction regime. Temperature and salinity fields are initialized at the end of each month. The optimality system includes forward and adjoint transport-diffusion equations for heat and salt that are linearized on the assimilation interval. Results of three numerical experiments with different sets of assimilated data in comparison with the prediction obtained from the forward model are discussed.

  18. Characterization of uranium surfaces machined with aqueous propylene glycol-borax or perchloroethylene-mineral oil coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, S.S.; Bennett, R.K. Jr.; Dillon, J.J.; Richards, H.L.; Seals, R.D.; Byrd, V.R.

    1986-12-31

    The use of perchloroethylene (perc) as an ingredient in coolants for machining enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been discontinued because of environmental concerns. A new coolant was substituted in December 1985, which consists of an aqueous solution of propylene glycol with borax (sodium tetraborate) added as a nuclear poison and with a nitrite added as a corrosion inhibitor. Uranium surfaces machined using the two coolants were compared with respects to residual contamination, corrosion or corrosion potential, and with the aqueous propylene glycol-borax coolant was found to be better than that of enriched uranium machined with the perc-mineral oil coolant. The boron residues on the final-finished parts machined with the borax-containing coolant were not sufficient to cause problems in further processing. All evidence indicated that the enriched uranium surfaces machined with the borax-containing coolant will be as satisfactory as those machined with the perc coolant.

  19. Blade-to-coolant heat-transfer results and operating data from a natural-convection water-cooled single-stage turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaguila, Anthony J; Freche, John C

    1951-01-01

    Blade-to-coolant heat-transfer data and operating data were obtained with a natural-convection water-cooled turbine over range of turbine speeds and inlet-gas temperatures. The convective coefficients were correlated by the general relation for natural-convection heat transfer. The turbine data were displaced from a theoretical equation for natural convection heat transfer in the turbulent region and from natural-convection data obtained with vertical cylinders and plates; possible disruption of natural convection circulation within the blade coolant passages was thus indicated. Comparison of non dimensional temperature-ratio parameters for the blade leading edge, midchord, and trailing edge indicated that the blade cooling effectiveness is greatest at the midchord and least at the trailing edge.

  20. Design, analysis, and initial testing of a fiber-optic shear gage for three-dimensional, high-temperature flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Matthew W.

    This investigation concerns the design, analysis, and initial testing of a new, two-component wall shear gage for 3D, high-temperature flows. This gage is a direct-measuring, non-nulling design with a round head surrounded by a small gap. Two flexure wheels are used to allow small motions of the floating head. Fiber-optic displacement sensors measure how far the polished faces of counterweights on the wheels move in relation to a fixed housing as the primary measurement system. No viscous damping was required. The gage has both fiber-optic instrumentation and strain gages mounted on the flexures for validation of the newer fiber optics. The sensor is constructed of Haynes RTM 230RTM, a high-temperature nickel alloy. The gage housing is made of 316 stainless steel. All components of the gage in pure fiber-optic form can survive to a temperature of 1073 K. The bonding methods of the backup strain gages limit their maximum temperature to 473 K. The dynamic range of the gage is from 0--500 Pa (0--10g) and higher shears can be measured by changing the floating head size. Extensive use of finite element modeling was critical to the design and analysis of the gage. Static structural, modal, and thermal analyses were performed on the flexures using the ANSYS finite element package. Static finite element analysis predicted the response of the flexures to a given load, and static calibrations using a direct force method confirmed these results. Finite element modal analysis results were within 16.4% for the first mode and within 30% for the second mode when compared with the experimentally determined modes. Vibration characteristics of the gage were determined from experimental free vibration data after the gage was subjected to an impulse. Uncertainties in the finished geometry make this level of error acceptable. A transient thermal analysis examined the effects of a very high heat flux on the exposed head of the gage. The 100,000 W/m2 heat flux used in this analysis is

  1. Experimental Investigation of Coolant Mixing in the RPV of PWR in the Late Phase of a SBLOCA Event

    SciTech Connect

    Kliem, Soren; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Suehnel, Tobias; Weiss, Frank-Peter; Hansen, Asmus

    2006-07-01

    Partial depletion of the primary circuit of a pressurized water reactor during a postulated small break loss of coolant accident can lead to interruption of one-phase flow natural circulation. In this case, the decay heat is removed from the core in the reflux-condenser mode. In this operation mode, slugs of lower borated water can accumulate in the cold legs. After refilling of the primary circuit, the natural circulation in the two loops not receiving emergency core cooling injection (ECC) re-establishes and the lower borated slugs are shifted towards the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Entering the core, the lower borated water causes a reactivity insertion. Mixing inside the RPV is an important phenomenon limiting the reactivity insertion and preventing a re-criticality. The mixing of these lower borated slugs with the ambient coolant in the RPV was investigated at the 1:5 scaled coolant mixing test facility ROCOM. Wire mesh sensors based on electrical conductivity measurement are used in ROCOM to measure in detail the spreading of a tracer solution in the facility. The mixing in the downcomer was observed with a sensor which spans a measuring grid of 64 azimuthal and 32 positions over the height. The resulting distribution of the boron concentration at the core inlet was measured with a sensor integrated into the lower core support plate providing one measurement position at the entry into each fuel assembly. The boundary conditions for the mixing experiment were taken from an experiment at the thermal-hydraulic test facility PKL operated by FANP Germany. The slugs, which have a lower density, accumulate in the upper part of the downcomer after shifting into the RPV. The ECC-water injected into the RPV falls almost straight down through the lower borated water and accelerates. On the outer sides of the ECC-streak, lower borated coolant admixes and flows together with the ECC-water downwards. This is the only mechanism of transporting the lower borated water

  2. Performance of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU): Airlock Coolant Loop Recovery (A/L CLR) Hardware - Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John; Rector, tony; Gazda, Daniel; Lewis, John

    2009-01-01

    An EMU water processing kit (Airlock Coolant Loop Recovery A/L CLR) was developed as a corrective action to Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) coolant flow disruptions experienced on the International Space Station (ISS) in May of 2004 and thereafter. Conservative schedules for A/L CLR use and component life were initially developed and implemented based on prior analysis results and analytical modeling. The examination of postflight samples and EMU hardware in November of 2006 indicated that the A/L CLR kits were functioning well and had excess capacity that would allow a relaxation of the initially conservative schedules of use and component life. A relaxed use schedule and list of component lives was implemented thereafter. Since the adoption of the relaxed A/L CLR schedules of use and component lives, several A/L CLR kit components, transport loop water samples and sensitive EMU transport loop components have been examined to gage the impact of the relaxed requirements. The intent of this paper is to summarize the findings of that evaluation, and to outline updated schedules for A/L CLR use and component life.

  3. Development of Safety Analysis Codes and Experimental Validation for a Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor - FY-05 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Oh

    2005-09-01

    The very high temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTGRs) are those concepts that have average coolant temperatures above 9000C or operational fuel temperatures above 12500C. These concepts provide the potential for increased energy conversion efficiency and for high-temperature process heat application in addition to power generation and nuclear hydrogen generation. While all the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) concepts have sufficiently high temperatures to support process heat applications, such as desalination and cogeneration, the VHTGR’s higher temperatures are suitable for particular applications such as thermochemical hydrogen production. However, the high temperature operation can be detrimental to safety following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) initiated by pipe breaks caused by seismic or other events. Following the loss of coolant through the break and coolant depressurization, air from the containment will enter the core by molecular diffusion and ultimately by natural convection, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structures and fuel. The oxidation will release heat and accelerate the heatup of the reactor core. Thus, without any effective countermeasures, a pipe break may lead to significant fuel damage and fission product release. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has investigated this event for the past three years for the HTGR. However, the computer codes used, and in fact none of the world’s computer codes, have been sufficiently developed and validated to reliably predict this event. New code development, improvement of the existing codes, and experimental validation are imperative to narrow the uncertainty in the predictions of this type of accident. The objectives of this Korean/United States collaboration are to develop advanced computational methods for VHTGR safety analysis codes and to validate these computer codes.

  4. Flow in serpentine coolant passages with trip strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tse, D. G.-N.

    1995-01-01

    Under the subject contract, an effort is being conducted at Scientific Research Associates, Inc. (SRA) to obtain flow field measurements in the coolant passage of a rotating turbine blade with ribbed walls, both in the stationary and rotating frames. The data obtained will be used for validation of computational tools and assessment of turbine blade cooling strategies. The configuration of the turbine blade passage model is given, and the measuring plane locations are given. The model has a four-pass passage with three 180 turns. This geometry was chosen to allow analyses of the velocity measurements corresponding to the heat transfer results obtained by Wagner. Two passes of the passage have a rectangular cross-section of 1.0 in x 0.5 in. Another two passes have a square cross-section of 0.5 in x 0.5 in. Trips with a streamwise pitch to trip height (P/e) = 5 and trip height to coolant passage width (e/Z) = 0.1, were machined along the leading and trailing walls. These dimensions are typical of those used in turbine blade coolant passages. The trips on these walls are staggered by the half-pitch. The trips are skewed at +/- 45 deg, and this allows the effect of trip orientation to be examined. Experiments will be conducted with flow entering the model through the 1.0 in x 0.5 in rectangular passage (Configuration C) and the 0.5 in x 0. 5 in square passage (Configuration D) to examine the effect of passage aspect ratio. Velocity measurements were obtained with a Reynolds number (Re) of 25,000, based on the hydraulic diameter of and bulk mean velocity in the half inch square passage. The coordinate system used in presenting the results for configurations C and D, respectively, is shown. The first, second and third passes of the passage will be referred to as the first, second and third passages, respectively, in later discussion. Streamwise distance (x) from the entrance is normalized by the hydraulic diameter (D). Vertical (y) and tangential (z) distances are

  5. Integrity of the reactor coolant boundary of the European pressurized water reactor (EPR)

    SciTech Connect

    Goetsch, D.; Bieniussa, K.; Schulz, H.; Jalouneix, J.

    1997-04-01

    This paper is an abstract of the work performed in the frame of the development of the IPSN/GRS approach in view of the EPR conceptual safety features. EPR is a pressurized water reactor which will be based on the experience gained by utilities and designers in France and in Germany. The reactor coolant boundary of a PWR includes the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), those parts of the steam generators (SGs) which contain primary coolant, the pressurizer (PSR), the reactor coolant pumps (RCPs), the main coolant lines (MCLs) with their branches as well as the other connecting pipes and all branching pipes including the second isolation valves. The present work covering the integrity of the reactor coolant boundary is mainly restricted to the integrity of the main coolant lines (MCLs) and reflects the design requirements for the main components of the reactor coolant boundary. In the following the conceptual aspects, i.e. design, manufacture, construction and operation, will be assessed. A main aspect is the definition of break postulates regarding overall safety implications.

  6. Selection of an Alternate Biocide for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System Coolant, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold; Weir, Natalee; Oehler, Bill; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry; Lukens, Clark

    2004-01-01

    The ISS (International Space Station) ITCS (Internal Thermal Control System) includes two internal coolant loops that utilize an aqueous based coolant for heat transfer. A silver salt biocide had previously been utilized as an additive in the coolant formulation to control the growth and proliferation of microorganisms within the coolant loops. Ground-based and in-flight testing demonstrated that the silver salt was rapidly depleted, and did not act as an effective long-term biocide. Efforts to select an optimal alternate biocide for the ITCS coolant application have been underway and are now in the final stages. An extensive evaluation of biocides was conducted to down-select to several candidates for test trials and was reported on previously. Criteria for that down-select included: the need for safe, non-intrusive implementation and operation in a functioning system; the ability to control existing planktonic and biofilm residing microorganisms; a negligible impact on system-wetted materials of construction; and a negligible reactivity with existing coolant additives. Candidate testing to provide data for the selection of an optimal alternate biocide is now in the final stages. That testing has included rapid biocide effectiveness screening using Biolog MT2 plates to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (amount that will inhibit visible growth of microorganisms), time kill studies to determine the exposure time required to completely eliminate organism growth, materials compatibility exposure evaluations, coolant compatibility studies, and bench-top simulated coolant testing. This paper reports the current status of the effort to select an alternate biocide for the ISS ITCS coolant. The results of various test results to select the optimal candidate are presented.

  7. Recycling used engine coolant using high-volume stationary, multiple technology equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Haddock, M.E.; Eaton, E.R.

    1999-08-01

    Recycling used engine coolant has become increasingly desirable due to two significant factors. First, engine coolant frequently merits designation as a hazardous waste under the Federal Clean Water Act. Federal and some state environmental protection agencies have instituted strict regulation of the disposal of used engine coolant. In some cases, the disposal of engine coolant requires imposition of waste disposal fees and surcharges. Secondly, ethylene glycol, the principal cost component of engine coolant, has experienced dramatic price fluctuations and occasional shortages in supply. Therefore, there are both environmental and economic pressures to recycle engine coolant and recover the ethylene glycol component in an efficient and cost-effective manner. This paper discusses a multistage apparatus and a process for recycling used engine coolant that employs a combination of filtration, centrifugation (hydrocyclone separation), dissolved air flotation, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, continuous deionization, and ion exchange processes for separating ethylene glycol and water from used engine coolant. The engine coolant is prefiltered through a series of filters. The filters remove particulate contaminates. This filtered fluid is then subjected to dissolved air flotation and centrifugation to remove petroleum. Then it is heated and pressurized prior to being passed over a series of two different sets of semipermeable membranes. The membrane technologies separate the feed stream into a permeate solution of ethylene glycol and water and a concentrate waste solution. The concentrate solution is returned to a concentrate tank for continuous circulation through the apparatus. The permeate solution is subjected to final refining by continuous deionization followed by a cation and anion ion exchange polishing process. The continuous deionization reduces ionic contaminants, and the ion exchange system eliminates any ionic contaminants left by the previous purification

  8. A stable, unbiased, long-term satellite based data record of sea surface temperature from ESA's Climate Change Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Nick; Good, Simon; Merchant, Chris

    2013-04-01

    The study of climate change demands long-term, stable observational records of climate variables such as sea surface temperature (SST). ESA's Climate Change Initiative was set up to unlock the potential of satellite data records for this purpose. As part of this initiative, 13 projects were established to develop the data records for different essential climate variables - aerosol, cloud, fire, greenhouse gases, glaciers, ice sheets, land cover, ocean colour, ozone, sea ice, sea level, soil moisture and SST. In this presentation we describe the development work that has taken place in the SST project and present new prototype data products that are available now for users to trial. The SST project began in 2010 and has now produced two prototype products. The first is a long-term product (covering mid-1991 - 2010 currently, but with a view to update this in the future), which prioritises length of data record and stability over other considerations. It is based on data from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) and Advanced Very-High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) series of satellite instruments. The product aims to combine the favourable stability and bias characteristics of ATSR data with the geographical coverage achieved with the AVHRR series. Following an algorithm selection process, an optimal estimation approach to retrieving SST from the satellite measurements from both sensors was adopted. The retrievals do not depend on in situ data and so this data record represents an independent assessment of SST change. In situ data are, however, being used to validate the resulting data. The second data product demonstrates the coverage that can be achieved using the modern satellite observing system including, for example, geostationary satellite data. Six months worth of data have been processed for this demonstration product. The prototype SST products will be released in April to users to trial in their work. The long term product will be available as

  9. Thermionic Converter Temperature Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Shaner,B. J.; Wolf, Joseph H.; Johnson, Robert G. R.

    1999-08-23

    A method and apparatus for controlling the temperature of a thermionic reactor over a wide range of operating power, including a thermionic reactor having a plurality of integral cesium reservoirs, a honeycomb material disposed about the reactor which has a plurality of separated cavities, a solid sheath disposed about the honeycomb material and having an opening therein communicating with the honeycomb material and cavities thereof, and a shell disposed about the sheath for creating a coolant annulus therewith so that the coolant in the annulus may fill the cavities and permit nucleate boiling during the operation of the reactor.

  10. Thermionic converter temperature controller

    DOEpatents

    Shaner, Benjamin J.; Wolf, Joseph H.; Johnson, Robert G. R.

    2001-04-24

    A method and apparatus for controlling the temperature of a thermionic reactor over a wide range of operating power, including a thermionic reactor having a plurality of integral cesium reservoirs, a honeycomb material disposed about the reactor which has a plurality of separated cavities, a solid sheath disposed about the honeycomb material and having an opening therein communicating with the honeycomb material and cavities thereof, and a shell disposed about the sheath for creating a coolant annulus therewith so that the coolant in the annulus may fill the cavities and permit nucleate boiling during the operation of the reactor.

  11. Evaluation of molten lead mixing in sodium coolant by diffusion for application to PAHR. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Chawla, T.C.; Pedersen, D.R.; Leaf, G.; Minkowycz, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    In post-accident heat removal (PAHR) applications the use of a lead slab is being considered for protecting a porous bed of steel shots in ex-vessel cavity from direct impingement of molten steel or fuel upon vessel failure following a hypothetical core dissembly accident in an LMFBR. The porous bed is provided to increase coolability of the fuel debris by the sodium coolant. The objectives of the present study are (1) to determine melting rates of lead slabs of various thicknesses in contact with sodium coolant and (2) to evaluate the extent of penetration and mixing rates of molten lead into sodium coolant by molecular diffusion alone.

  12. Computation of Space Shuttle high-pressure cryogenic turbopump ball bearing two-phase coolant flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yen-Sen

    1990-01-01

    A homogeneous two-phase fluid flow model, implemented in a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver using computational fluid dynamics methodology is described. The application of the model to the analysis of the pump-end bearing coolant flow of the high-pressure oxygen turbopump of the Space Shuttle main engine is studied. Results indicate large boiling zones and hot spots near the ball/race contact points. The extent of the phase change of the liquid oxygen coolant flow due to the frictional and viscous heat fluxes near the contact areas has been investigated for the given inlet conditions of the coolant.

  13. Numerical study: Iron corrosion-resistance in lead-bismuth eutectic coolant by molecular dynamics method

    SciTech Connect

    Arkundato, Artoto; Su'ud, Zaki; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Widayani,; Celino, Massimo

    2012-06-06

    In this present work, we report numerical results of iron (cladding) corrosion study in interaction with lead-bismuth eutectic coolant of advanced nuclear reactors. The goal of this work is to study how the oxygen can be used to reduce the corrosion rate of cladding. The molecular dynamics method was applied to simulate corrosion process. By evaluating the diffusion coefficients, RDF functions, MSD curves of the iron and also observed the crystal structure of iron before and after oxygen injection to the coolant then we concluded that a significant and effective reduction can be achieved by issuing about 2% number of oxygen atoms to lead-bismuth eutectic coolant.

  14. Computational study: Reduction of iron corrosion in lead coolant of fast nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Arkundato, Artoto; Su'ud, Zaki; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Widayani

    2012-06-20

    In this paper we report molecular dynamics simulation results of iron (cladding) corrosion in interaction with lead coolant of fast nuclear reactor. The goal of this work is to study effect of oxygen injection to the coolant to reduce iron corrosion. By evaluating diffusion coefficients, radial distribution functions, mean-square displacement curves and observation of crystal structure of iron before and after oxygen injection, we concluded that a significant reduction of corrosion can be achieved by issuing about 2% of oxygen atoms into lead coolant.

  15. Co-ordination between Leaf Initiation and Leaf Appearance in Field-grown Maize (Zea mays): Genotypic Differences in Response of Rates to Temperature

    PubMed Central

    PADILLA, J. M.; OTEGUI, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims In maize (Zea mays), early flowering date, which is a valuable trait for several cropping systems, is associated with the number of leaves per plant and the leaf appearance rate. Final leaf number depends upon the rate and duration of leaf initiation. The aims of this study were to analyse the genotypic variation in the response to temperature of leaf appearance rate and leaf initiation rate, and to investigate the co-ordination between these processes under field conditions. • Methods Sixteen hybrids of different origins were grown under six contrasting environmental conditions. The number of appeared leaves was measured twice a week to estimate leaf appearance rate (leaves d−1). Plants were dissected at four sampling dates to determine the number of initiated leaves and estimate leaf initiation rate (leaves d−1). A co-ordination model was fitted between the number of initiated leaves and the number of appeared leaves. This model was validated using two independent data sets. • Key Results Significant (P < 0·05) differences were found among hybrids in the response to temperature of leaf initiation rate (plastochron) and leaf appearance rate (phyllochron). Plastochron ranged between 24·3 and 36·4 degree days (°Cd), with a base temperature (Tb) between 4·0 and 8·2 °C. Phyllochron ranged between 48·6 and 65·5 °Cd, with a Tb between 2·9 and 5·0 °C. A single co-ordination model was fitted between the two processes for all hybrids and environments (r2 = 0·96, P < 0·0001), and was successfully validated (coefficient of variation < 9 %). • Conclusions This work has established the existence of genotypic variability in leaf initiation rate and leaf appearance rate in response to temperature, which is a promising result for maize breeding; and the interdependence between these processes from seedling emergence up to floral initiation. PMID:16126778

  16. Cracked shaft detection on large vertical nuclear reactor coolant pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, L. S.

    1985-01-01

    Due to difficulty and radiation exposure associated with examination of the internals of large commercial nuclear reactor coolant pumps, it is necessary to be able to diagnose the cause of an excessive vibration problem quickly without resorting to extensive trial and error efforts. Consequently, it is necessary to make maximum use of all available data to develop a consistent theory which locates the problem area in the machine. This type of approach was taken at Three Mile Island, Unit #1, in February 1984 to identify and locate the cause of a continuously climbing vibration level of the pump shaft. The data gathered necessitated some in-depth knowledge of the pump internals to provide proper interpretation and avoid misleading conclusions. Therefore, the raw data included more than just the vibration characteristics. Pertinent details of the data gathered is shown and is necessary and sufficient to show that the cause of the observed vibration problem could logically only be a cracked pump shaft in the shaft overhang below the pump bearing.

  17. Reliable reactor coolant pump seal performance - the station's role

    SciTech Connect

    Pothier, N.E.; Metcalfe, R.

    1989-01-01

    During the early days of the Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) power reactor program, operators and designers learned that close attention to reactor coolant pump (RCP) seals was imperative for achieving high-capacity factors. This lesson was driven home by unpredictable and frequent seal failures in the following early CANDU plants. Those seal failures caused forced outages, maintenance/dose burdens, and heavy-water losses. Because then-available industrial seal technology proved inadequate in providing satisfactory fixes, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) began a major effort to understand seal performance, develop improved designs, and evolve the station technology needed to attain the RCP seal reliable lifetime requirement of 4 yr. The payback has been huge: Fixes have been successfully implemented and excellent performance is now being achieved with AECL improved RCP seals. In this paper, the CANDU RCP seal experience, the methodology (with emphasis on the station's role) for attaining reliable long RCP seal life, and the adaptability of this technology to US light water reactors (LWRs) are discussed.

  18. Temperature Regulator for Actively Cooled Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, Max (Inventor); Kelly, H. Neale (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    In active cooling of a structure it is beneficial to use a plurality of passages for conducting coolant to various portions of the structure. Since most structures do not undergo isotropic thermal loads it is desirable to allow for variation in coolant flow to each area of the structure. The present invention allows for variable flow by a variation of the area of a portion of each of the coolant passages. Shape memory alloys and bi-material springs are used to produce passages that change flow area as a function of temperature.

  19. Influence of temperature and carbon content on the cyclic deformation and fatigue behavior of {alpha}-iron. Part 2: Crack initiation and fatigue life

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, C.; Mughrabi, H.; Lochner, D.

    1998-03-02

    The crack initiation mechanisms and the fatigue life of {alpha}-iron polycrystals have been characterized in plastic-strain-controlled tests with small to intermediate plastic strain ranges {Delta}{epsilon}{sub pl} in the temperature range from 220 to 400 K. The fatigue life of pure decarburized {alpha}-iron cannot be described generally by means of a Manson-Coffin law, except under conditions under which distinct cyclic hardening occurs. A Basquin law is found to be valid, when the effective stress component {sigma}{sup *} dominates (i.e. at low temperatures and small {delta}{epsilon}{sub pl}). At low temperatures and up to room temperature, intergranular crack initiation is observed. At higher temperatures, mostly transgranular cracks develop in decarburized {alpha}-iron in the valleys of the surface rumpling, while in {alpha}-iron with small carbon contents persistent slip bands form which then act as sites of transgranular crack initiation. Crack initiation rates and crack growth rates are evaluated in a semi-quantitative manner from crack depth distributions.

  20. Methods for calculating the temperature zero drift initiated in fiber ring interferometers by random inhomogeneities in single-mode optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malykin, G. B.

    2008-12-01

    The specific features of the existing methods used for calculating the temperature zero drift initiated in fiber ring interferometers (FRIs) by linear coupling between polarization eigenmodes at random inhomogeneities in single-mode optical fibers are analyzed. The ranges of applicability of each method are determined. It is demonstrated that numerical simulation with a variation in the temperature of the single-mode optical fiber of the FRI loop is the most complex and, at the same time, the most universal method.

  1. Determination of blade-to-coolant heat-transfer coefficients on a forced-convection, water-cooled, single-stage turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, John C; Schum, Eugene F

    1951-01-01

    Blade-to-coolant convective heat-transfer coefficients were obtained on a forced-convection water-cooled single-stage turbine over a large laminar flow range and over a portion of the transition range between laminar and turbulent flow. The convective coefficients were correlated by the general relation for forced-convection heat transfer with laminar flow. Natural-convection heat transfer was negligible for this turbine over the Grashof number range investigated. Comparison of turbine data with stationary tube data for the laminar flow of heated liquids showed good agreement. Calculated average midspan blade temperatures using theoretical gas-to-blade coefficients and blade-to-coolant coefficients from stationary-tube data resulted in close agreement with experimental data.

  2. Concerning advantages in using 208Pb as such a FR coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorasanov, G.; Zemskov, E.; Blokhin, A.

    2017-01-01

    In the paper cores of two fast reactors with heavy liquid metal coolant are considered. The first object, RBETS-M, is a project of a medium power, 900 MW, reactor cooled with lead-bismuth. The second object, BRUTS, is a project of an ultra-small power, 0.5 MW, reactor cooled with lead. The results of replacement of their standard coolants with the lead coolant enriched up to 100% with 208Pb are presented. In the RBETS-M core having a large coolant volume share this replacement results in sufficient increasing the share of 238U involved in the fission process and respective decreasing the share of 239Pu and 241Pu burning.

  3. The experience in handling of lead-bismuth coolant contaminated by Polonium-210

    SciTech Connect

    Pankratov, D.V.; Gromov, B.F.; Solodjankin, M.A.

    1993-12-31

    During exploitation of lead-bismuth cooled reactors a wide experience in handling of radioactive coolant containing polonium has been gained. By 1990 total time of this reactor operation has reached approximately 60 reactor years.

  4. PBF (PER620) interior, basement level. Detail of coolant piping. Date: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF (PER-620) interior, basement level. Detail of coolant piping. Date: May 2004. INEEL negative no. HD-41-5-2 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. Sodium coolant purification systems for a nuclear power station equipped with a BN-1200 reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, V. V.; Kovalev, Yu. P.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kozlov, F. A.; Kumaev, V. Ya.; Kondrat'ev, A. S.; Matyukhin, V. V.; Pirogov, E. P.; Sergeev, G. P.; Sorokin, A. P.; Torbenkova, I. Yu.

    2013-05-01

    Both traditional coolant purification methods (by means of traps and sorbents for removing cesium), the use of which supported successful operation of nuclear power installations equipped with fast-neutron reactors with a sodium coolant, and the possibility of removing oxygen from sodium through the use of hot traps are analyzed in substantiating the purification system for a nuclear power station equipped with a BN-1200 reactor. It is shown that a cold trap built into the reactor vessel must be a mandatory component of the reactor plant primary coolant circuit's purification system. The use of hot traps allows oxygen to be removed from the sodium coolant down to permissible concentrations when the nuclear power station operates in its rated mode. The main lines of works aimed at improving the performance characteristics of cold traps are suggested based on the results of performed investigations.

  6. Thermal transfer structures coupling electronics card(s) to coolant-cooled structure(s)

    DOEpatents

    David, Milnes P; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Parida, Pritish R; Schmidt, Roger R

    2014-12-16

    Cooling apparatuses and coolant-cooled electronic systems are provided which include thermal transfer structures configured to engage with a spring force one or more electronics cards with docking of the electronics card(s) within a respective socket(s) of the electronic system. A thermal transfer structure of the cooling apparatus includes a thermal spreader having a first thermal conduction surface, and a thermally conductive spring assembly coupled to the conduction surface of the thermal spreader and positioned and configured to reside between and physically couple a first surface of an electronics card to the first surface of the thermal spreader with docking of the electronics card within a socket of the electronic system. The thermal transfer structure is, in one embodiment, metallurgically bonded to a coolant-cooled structure and facilitates transfer of heat from the electronics card to coolant flowing through the coolant-cooled structure.

  7. The Roles of Radiative Forcing, Sea Surface Temperatures, and Atmospheric and Land Initial Conditions in U.S. Summer Warming Episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, L.; Vecchi, G. A.; Yang, X.; Gudgel, R.; Delworth, T. L.; Stern, B.; Paffendorf, K.; Underwood, S.; Zeng, F. J.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the roles of radiative forcing, sea surface temperatures (SSTs), and atmospheric and land initial conditions in the summer warming episodes of the United States. The summer warming episodes are defined as the above normal (1983-2012) June-August 2-m temperature anomalies, and are referred to as heat waves in this study. Two contrasting cases, the summers of 2006 and 2012, are explored in detail to illustrate the distinct roles of SSTs, and atmospheric and land initial conditions in driving U.S. summer heat waves. For 2012, simulations with the GFDL atmospheric general circulation model reveal that SSTs play a critical role. Further sensitivity experiments reveal the contributions of global SST warming and SSTs in individual ocean basins to the geographic distribution and magnitudes of warm temperature anomalies. In contrast to 2012, for 2006, the atmospheric and land initial conditions are key drivers. The atmospheric (land) initial conditions play a key (minor) role in the central and northwestern (north and east) of U.S.. Due to changes in radiative forcing, the probability of areal averaged U.S. summer temperature anomalies exceeding the observed 2012 temperature anomaly increases with time over the early 21st century. La Nina (El Nino) events tend to increase (reduce) the occurrence of heat waves. The temperatures over the great central U.S. are mostly influenced by El Nino/La Nina. And, the central/western tropical Pacific plays a more important role than the eastern tropical Pacific. Thus, atmospheric and land initial conditions, SSTs and radiative forcing are all important drivers of, and sources of predictability for U.S. summer heat waves.

  8. Analysis of an AP600 intermediate-size loss-of-coolant accident

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B.E.; Lime, J.F.

    1995-09-01

    A postulated double-ended guillotine break of an AP600 direct-vessel-injection line has been analyzed. This event is characterized as an intermediate-break loss-of-coolant accident. Most of the insights regarding the response of the AP600 safety systems to the postulated accident are derived from calculations preformed with the TRAC-PF1/MOD2 code. However, complementary insights derived from a scaled experiment conducted in the ROSA facility, as well as insights based upon calculations by other codes, are also presented. Based upon the calculated and experimental results, the AP600 will not experience a core heat up and will reach a safe shutdown state using only safety-class equipment. Only the early part of the long-term cooling period initiated by In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank injection was evaluated. Thus, the observation that the core is continuously cooled should be verified for the later phase of the long-term cooling period when sump injection and containment cooling processes are important.

  9. Loss-of-coolant accident analyses of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.C.J.; Yoder, G.L. ); Wendel, M.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Currently in the conceptual design stage, the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR) will operate at a high heat flux, a high mass flux, an a high degree of coolant subcooling. Loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) analyses using RELAP5 have been performed as part of an early evaluation of ANSR safety issues. This paper discusses the RELAP5 ANSR conceptual design system model and preliminary LOCA simulation results. Some previous studies were conducted for the preconceptual design. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Power Module Cooling for Future Electric Vehicle Applications: A Coolant Comparison of Oil and PGW

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    POWER MODULE COOLING FOR FUTURE ELECTRIC VEHICLE APPLICATIONS: A COOLANT COMPARISON OF OIL AND PGW T. E. Salem U. S. Naval Academy 105...and efficient power converters are being developed to support the needs of future ground vehicle systems. This progress is being driven by...2006 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Power Module Cooling For Future Electric Vehicle Applications: A Coolant

  11. Impact of the propylene glycol-water-borax coolant on material recovery operations

    SciTech Connect

    Duerksen, W.K.; Taylor, P.A.

    1983-05-01

    The reaction of the propylene glycol-water-borax coolant with nitric acid has now been studied in some detail. This document is intended to provide a summary of the results. Findings are summarized under nine headings. Tests have also been conducted to determine if the new coolant would have any adverse effects on the uranium recycle systems. Experiments were scientifically designed after observation of the production operations so that accurate response to the immediate production concerns could be provided. Conclusions from these studies are: formation of glycol nitrates is very improbable; the reaction of concentrated (70%) nitric acid with pure propylene glycol is very violent and hazardous; dilution of the nitric acid-glycol mixture causes a drastic decrease in the rate and intensity of the reaction; the mechanism of the nitric acid propylene glycol reaction is autocatalytic in nitrous acid; no reaction is observed between coolant and 30% nitric acid unless the solution is heated; the coolant reacts fairly vigorously with 55% nitric acid after a concentration-dependent induction time; experiments showed that the dissolution of uranium chips that had been soaked in coolant proceeded at about the same rate as if the chips had not previously contacted glycol; thermodynamic calculations show that the enthalpy change (heat liberated) by the reaction of nitric acid (30%) with propylene glycol is smaller than if the same amount of nitric acid reacted with uranium. Each of these conclusions is briefly discussed. The effect of new coolant on uranium recycle operations is then briefly discussed.

  12. ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project -2006 Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Holt, Mike

    2006-01-01

    The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered. This paper presents a status of the coolant stability over the past year as well as results from destructive analyses of hardware removed from the on-orbit system and the current approach to coolant remediation.

  13. Detailed heat transfer coefficient distributions under an array of impinging jets with coolant extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.; Ekkad, S.V.; Han, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    Jet impingement cooling is a high performance technique for heat transfer enhancement. Local heat transfer distributions are presented for an array of jets impinging on a target plate with a series of coolant extraction holes. The flow enters the pressure channel, impinges on the target plate and exits toward the sides and through the coolant extraction holes. The impingement plate has four rows of 12 jet holes and the target plate has three rows of 11 coolant extraction holes. The jet holes and the coolant extraction holes have the same diameters and are staggered such that the air impinging from the jet hole does not exit directly through the extraction hole. The detailed heat transfer coefficient distributions are measured using a transient technique and liquid crystal coating. Results are presented for a range of jet Reynolds numbers between 4,000 and 20,000. The effect of crossflow is also studied by changing the exit opening of the impingement channel to provide three different spent air exit directions. Heat transfer results for the target plate with coolant extraction are compared with those without coolant extraction at the same flow conditions.

  14. Temperature-Compensated Sapphire Microwave Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. John; Santiago, David G.

    1996-01-01

    Sapphire-dielectric-ring microwave resonator operating in "whispering-gallery" electromagnetic mode features differential-thermal-expansion design providing temperature compensation for ultrahigh frequency stability. Designed to minimize frequency fluctuations caused by temperature fluctuations at normal temperature equal to or even somewhat greater than temperature of liquid nitrogen. Ancillary equipment needed for operation smaller and less expensive, and liquid nitrogen used as coolant.

  15. Correct numerical simulation of a two-phase coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroshilin, A. E.; Kroshilin, V. E.

    2016-02-01

    Different models used in calculating flows of a two-phase coolant are analyzed. A system of differential equations describing the flow is presented; the hyperbolicity and stability of stationary solutions of the system is studied. The correctness of the Cauchy problem is considered. The models' ability to describe the following flows is analyzed: stable bubble and gas-droplet flows; stable flow with a level such that the bubble and gas-droplet flows are observed under and above it, respectively; and propagation of a perturbation of the phase concentration for the bubble and gas-droplet media. The solution of the problem about the breakdown of an arbitrary discontinuity has been constructed. Characteristic times of the development of an instability at different parameters of the flow are presented. Conditions at which the instability does not make it possible to perform the calculation are determined. The Riemann invariants for the nonlinear problem under consideration have been constructed. Numerical calculations have been performed for different conditions. The influence of viscosity on the structure of the discontinuity front is studied. Advantages of divergent equations are demonstrated. It is proven that a model used in almost all known investigating thermohydraulic programs, both in Russia and abroad, has significant disadvantages; in particular, it can lead to unstable solutions, which makes it necessary to introduce smoothing mechanisms and a very small step for describing regimes with a level. This does not allow one to use efficient numerical schemes for calculating the flow of two-phase currents. A possible model free from the abovementioned disadvantages is proposed.

  16. Reactor coolant pump testing using motor current signatures analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Burstein, N.; Bellamy, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes reactor coolant pump motor testing carried out at Florida Power Corporation`s Crystal River plant using Framatome Technologies` new EMPATH (Electric Motor Performance Analysis and Trending Hardware) system. EMPATH{trademark} uses an improved form of Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA), technology, originally developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratories, for detecting deterioration in the rotors of AC induction motors. Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA) is a monitoring tool for motor driven equipment that provides a non-intrusive means for detecting the presence of mechanical and electrical abnormalities in the motor and the driven equipment. The base technology was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a means for determining the affects of aging and service wear specifically on motor-operated valves used in nuclear power plant safety systems, but it is applicable to a broad range of electric machinery. MCSA is based on the recognition that an electric motor (ac or dc) driving a mechanical load acts as an efficient and permanently available transducer by sensing mechanical load variations, large and small, long-term and rapid, and converting them into variations in the induced current generated in the motor windings. The motor current variations, resulting from changes in load caused by gears, pulleys, friction, bearings, and other conditions that may change over the life of the motor, are carried by the electrical cables powering the motor and are extracted at any convenient location along the motor lead. These variations modulate the 60 Hz carrier frequency and appear as sidebands in the spectral plot.

  17. Interaction study between MOX fuel and eutectic lead-bismuth coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigier, Jean-François; Popa, Karin; Tyrpekl, Vaclav; Gardeur, Sébastien; Freis, Daniel; Somers, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    In the frame of the MYRRHA reactor project, the interaction between fuel pellets and the reactor coolant is essential for safety evaluations, e.g. in case of a pin breach. Therefore, interaction tests between uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) pellets and molten lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) have been performed and three parameters were studied, namely the interaction temperature (500 °C and 800 °C), the oxygen content in LBE and the stoichiometry of the MOX (U0.7Pu0.3O2-x and U0.7Pu0.3O2.00). After 50 h of interaction in closed containers, the pellet integrity was preserved in all cases. Whatever the conditions, neither interaction compounds (crystalline or amorphous) nor lead and bismuth diffusion into the surface regions of the MOX pellets has been detected. In most of the conditions, actinide releases into LBE were very limited (in the range of 0.01-0.15 mg), with a homogeneous release of the different actinides present in the MOX. Detected values were significantly higher in the 800 °C and low LBE oxygen content tests for both U0.7Pu0.3O2-x and U0.7Pu0.3O2.00, with 1-2 mg of actinide released in these conditions.

  18. Glow discharge electrolysis plasma initiated preparation of temperature/pH dual sensitivity reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenming; Zhu, Sha; Bai, Yunping; Xi, Ning; Wang, Shaoyang; Bian, Yang; Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yucang

    2015-05-20

    The temperature/pH dual sensitivity reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels have been prepared through glow discharge electrolysis plasma (GDEP). The effect of different discharge voltages on the temperature and pH response performance of reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels was inspected, and the formation mechanism, deswelling behaviors of reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels were also discussed. At the same time, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning differential thermal analysis (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were adopted to characterize the structure, phase transformation behaviors and microstructure of hydrogels. It turned out to be that all reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels had a double sensitivity to temperature and pH, and their phase transition temperatures were all approximately 33 °C, as well as the deswelling dynamics met the first model. In addition, the hydrogel (TPRH-3), under discharge voltage 600 V, was more sensitive to temperature and pH and had higher deswelling ratio.

  19. Safety Analysis of Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident for 1200 MWe Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR-1200 BDLB)

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y.; Revankar, S.T.; Ishii, M.

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this research is to assess the performance of the safety systems during small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) transient in the full size SBWR. RELAP5/MOD3 was used to simulate the blow-down and long-term cooling responses of the various safety systems during the accident transient. An integral test for long-term cooling under low pressure was conducted in a scaled facility with the initial conditions given by the code simulation. The code applicability and the facility scalability were evaluated by the comparison between the test data and the code simulations. The scaling analysis has been done by the comparison of the prototype code predictions and the scaled-up test data with the proper scaling multiplications and time shifting. The good agreement between the major safety parameters has shown the applicability of the RELAP5/MOD3 code and the scalability of the facility for SBWR-1200 safety analysis applications. (authors)

  20. High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) System Risk-Based Inspection Guide for Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.; DiBiasio, A.; Gunther, W.

    1993-09-01

    The High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system has been examined from a risk perspective. A System Risk-Based Inspection Guide (S-RIG) has been developed as an aid to HPCI system inspections at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1, 2 and 3. The role of. the HPCI system in mitigating accidents is discussed in this S-RIG, along with insights on identified risk-based failure modes which could prevent proper operation of the system. The S-RIG provides a review of industry-wide operating experience, including plant-specific illustrative examples to augment the PRA and operational considerations in identifying a catalogue of basic PRA failure modes for the HPCI system. It is designed to be used as a reference for routine inspections, self-initiated safety system functional inspections (SSFIs), and the evaluation of risk significance of component failures at the nuclear power plant.

  1. Initial estimates of the temperature and fractional areas of fires at the World Trade Center Disaster from AVIRIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. O.; Clark, R. N.; Boardman, J.; Pavri, B.; Sarture, C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the measurements, algorithms, analyses, and results of the fire temperature and fractional area determinations with AVIRIS calibrated spectra at the World Trade Center site in September 2001.

  2. Gas gun driven dynamic fracture and fragmentation of Ti-6Al-4V cylinders at initial temperatures between 150 K and 750 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, David R.; Chapman, David J.; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2017-01-01

    We present a study on the dynamic fracture and fragmentation of Ti-6Al-4V cylinders at initial temperatures ranging from approximately 150 K to 750 K. Cylinders with an inner diameter of 50 mm and a wall thickness of 4 mm were driven into uniform axially-symmetric expansion at radial strain rates of 104 s-1 using the ogive-insert gas gun method. Diagnostics consisted of simultaneous high speed imaging and multiple points of laser velocimetry (PDV) along the length of the sample. The imaging and PDV provided a record of the expansion process, giving expansion velocity and the failure strain. Recovered fragments were examined with optical and scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction techniques to determine the fracture mechanisms for each initial temperature. The failure strain (radial strain at first fracture) was observed to increase with temperature over the range tested, from 7.4 ± 5.2 percent at 158 K to 24.1 ± 2.4 percent at 724 K. In experiments from 158 K up to 609 K the fracture mechanism was found to be ductile tearing under mode II loading along the planes of maximum shear at 45° to the radius. At an initial cylinder temperature of 724 K the fracture mechanism transitioned to void nucleation and coalescence along adiabatic shear bands, again forming at 45° to the radial direction. The fragmentation toughness Kf was observed to also increase with temperature until the 724 K shot where there was a marked reduction, suggesting the formation of shear bands at high temperatures reduced the energy required to form fragments. The average value of Kf was 101 ± 13 MPa m1/2.

  3. Functional csdA is needed for effective adaptation and initiation of growth of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 at suboptimal temperature.

    PubMed

    Söderholm, Henna; Derman, Yağmur; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2015-09-02

    The activity of RNA helicase csdA (cbo2802) after temperature downshift was compared to its activity at optimal growth temperature, and the effect of sense and antisense oriented insertional inactivation of cbo2802 on the growth of ATCC 3502 at suboptimal temperature was evaluated. The relative cbo2802 transcript level was significantly induced for 30min to 5h after cold shock. In contrast, a significant decrease in the relative transcript level of cbo2802 was observed within the same time frame at 37°C. Inactivation of cbo2802 led to an extensive delay in initiation of exponential growth at 20°C but not at 37°C. In addition, the mean minimum growth temperatures of the mutant strains were higher than those of the wild-type strain. During a 24-hour incubation at 37°C, all strains were motile, whereas at 20°C the mutant strains showed severely impaired motility compared to the wild-type strain. This study shows that a functional csdA is needed for effective adaptation and initiation of growth and motility of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 at suboptimal temperature.

  4. Reactor Coolant Pump seal issues and their applicability to new reactor designs

    SciTech Connect

    Ruger, C.J.; Higgins, J.C.

    1993-11-01

    Reactor Coolant Pumps (RCPs) of various types are used to circulate the primary coolant through the reactor in most reactor designs. RCPs generally contain mechanical seals to limit the leakage of pressurized reactor coolant along the pump drive shaft into the containment. The relatively large number of RCP seal and seal auxiliary system failures experienced at US operating plants during the 1970`s and early 1980`s raised concerns from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) that gross failures may lead to reactor core uncovery and subsequent core damage. Some seal failure events resulted in a loss of primary coolant to the containment at flow rates greater than the normal makeup capacity of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plants. This is an example of RCP seal failures resulting in a small Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This paper discusses observed and potential causes of RCP seal failure and the recommendations for limiting the likelihood of a seal induced small LOCA. Issues arising out of the research supporting these recommendations and subsequent public comments by the utility industry on them, serve as lessons learned, which are applicable to the design of new reactor plants.

  5. Turbulence spectra and length scales measured in film coolant flows emerging from discrete holes

    SciTech Connect

    Burd, S.W.; Simon, T.W.

    1999-07-01

    To date, very little attention has been devoted to the scales and turbulence energy spectra of coolant exiting from film cooling holes. Length-scale documentation and spectral measurements have primarily been concerned with the free-stream flow with which the coolant interacts. Documentation of scales and energy decomposition of the coolant flow leads to more complete understanding of this important flow and the mechanisms by which it disperses and mixes with the free stream. CFD modeling of the emerging flow can use these data as verification that flow computations are accurate. To address this need, spectral measurements were taken with single-sensor, hot-wire anemometry at the exit plane of film cooling holes. Energy spectral distributions and length scales calculated from these distributions are presented for film cooling holes of different lengths and for coolant supply plenums of different geometries. Measurements are presented on the hole streamwise centerline at the center of the hole, one-half diameter upstream of center, and one-half diameter downstream of center. The data highlight some fundamental differences in energy content, dominant frequencies, and scales with changes in the hole and plenum geometries. Coolant flowing through long holes exhibits smoothly distributed spectra as might be anticipated in fully developed tube flows. Spectra from short-hole flows, however, show dominant frequencies.

  6. Experimental investigation on the chemical precipitation generation under the loss of coolant accident of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C. H.; Sung, J. J.; Chung, Y. W.

    2012-07-01

    The PWR containment buildings are designed to facilitate core cooling in the event of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). The cooling process requires water discharged from the break and containment spray to be collected in a sump for recirculation. The containment sump contains screens to protect the components of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) and Containment Spray System (CSS) from debris. Since the containment materials may dissolve or corrode when exposed to the reactor coolant and spray solutions, various chemical precipitations can be generated in a post-LOCA environment. These chemical precipitations may become another source of debris loading to be considered in sump screen performance and downstream effects. In this study, new experimental methodology to predict the type and quantity of chemical precipitations has been developed. To generate the plant-specific chemical precipitation in a post-LOCA environment, the plant specific chemical condition of the recirculation sump during post-LOCA is simulated with the experimental reactor for the chemical effect. The plant-specific containment materials are used in the present experiment such as glass fibers, concrete blocks, aluminum specimens, and chemical reagent - boric acid, spray additives or buffering chemicals (sodium hydroxide, Tri-Sodium Phosphate (TSP), or others). The inside temperature of the reactor is controlled to simulate the plant-specific temperature profile of the recirculation sump. The total amount of aluminum released from aluminum specimens is evaluated by ICP-AES analysis to determine the amount of AlOOH and NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8} which induce very adverse effect on the head loss across the sump screens. The amount of these precipitations generated in the present experimental study is compared with the results of WCAP-16530-NP-A. (authors)

  7. Carbon partitioning and the impact of starch deficiency on the initial response of Arabidopsis to chilling temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specific metabolites and RNA transcripts were measured in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves in response to chilling temperatures. During the first 24 h of cold treatment eight soluble carbohydrates increased 9.4 fold on average during cold treatment. Except for maltose and raffinose carbohydrate accumul...

  8. NMP and O2 as Radical Initiator: Trifluoromethylation of Alkenes to Tertiary β-Trifluoromethyl Alcohols at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Lu, Qingquan; Huang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Jian; Liao, Fan; Peng, Pan; Lei, Aiwen

    2015-12-18

    A novel strategy was developed to trigger ·CF3 by using in situ generated peroxide in NMP under O2 or air as the radical initiator. Radical trifluoromethylation of alkenes was achieved toward tertiary β-trifluoromethyl alcohols. Various tertiary β-trifluoromethyl alcohols can be synthesized in good yields without extra oxidants or transition metal catalysts. Preliminary mechanistic investigation revealed that O2 diffusion can influence the reaction rate.

  9. Nanomaterials for efficiently lowering the freezing point of anti-freeze coolants.

    PubMed

    Hong, Haiping; Zheng, Yingsong; Roy, Walter

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we report, for the first time, the effect of the lowered freezing point in a 50% water/50% anti-freeze coolant (PAC) or 50% water/50% ethylene glycol (EG) solution by the addition of carbon nanotubes and other particles. The experimental results indicated that the nano materials are much more efficient (hundreds fold) in lowering the freezing point than the regular ionic materials (e.g., NaCl). The possible explanation for this interesting phenomenon is the colligative property of fluid and relative small size of nano material. It is quite certain that the carbon nanotubes and metal oxide nano particles could be a wonderful candidate for the nano coolant application because they could not only increase the thermal conductivity, but also efficiently lower the freezing point of traditional coolants.

  10. System and method for determining coolant level and flow velocity in a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Brisson, Bruce William; Morris, William Guy; Zheng, Danian; Monk, David James; Fang, Biao; Surman, Cheryl Margaret; Anderson, David Deloyd

    2013-09-10

    A boiling water reactor includes a reactor pressure vessel having a feedwater inlet for the introduction of recycled steam condensate and/or makeup coolant into the vessel, and a steam outlet for the discharge of produced steam for appropriate work. A fuel core is located within a lower area of the pressure vessel. The fuel core is surrounded by a core shroud spaced inward from the wall of the pressure vessel to provide an annular downcomer forming a coolant flow path between the vessel wall and the core shroud. A probe system that includes a combination of conductivity/resistivity probes and/or one or more time-domain reflectometer (TDR) probes is at least partially located within the downcomer. The probe system measures the coolant level and flow velocity within the downcomer.

  11. Initial proof-of-principle for near room temperature Xe and Kr separation from air with MOFs

    SciTech Connect

    Thallapally, Praveen K.; Strachan, Denis M.

    2012-06-06

    Materials were developed and tested in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Separations and Waste Forms Campaign. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal of Xenon and krypton from gaseous products of nuclear fuel reprocessing unit operations. During FY 2012, Three Metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated in greater detail for the removal and storage of Xe and Kr from air at room temperature. Our breakthrough measurements on Nickel based MOF could capture and separate parts per million levels of Xe from Air (40 ppm Kr, 78% N2, 21% O2, 0.9% Ar, 0.03% CO2). Similarly, the selectivity can be changed from Xe > Kr to Xe < Kr simply by changing the temperature in another MOF. Also for the first time we estimated the cost of the metal organic frameworks in bulk.

  12. Models and numerical methods for the simulation of loss-of-coolant accidents in nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguin, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    In view of the simulation of the water flows in pressurized water reactors (PWR), many models are available in the literature and their complexity deeply depends on the required accuracy, see for instance [1]. The loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) may appear when a pipe is broken through. The coolant is composed by light water in its liquid form at very high temperature and pressure (around 300 °C and 155 bar), it then flashes and becomes instantaneously vapor in case of LOCA. A front of liquid/vapor phase transition appears in the pipes and may propagate towards the critical parts of the PWR. It is crucial to propose accurate models for the whole phenomenon, but also sufficiently robust to obtain relevant numerical results. Due to the application we have in mind, a complete description of the two-phase flow (with all the bubbles, droplets, interfaces…) is out of reach and irrelevant. We investigate averaged models, based on the use of void fractions for each phase, which represent the probability of presence of a phase at a given position and at a given time. The most accurate averaged model, based on the so-called Baer-Nunziato model, describes separately each phase by its own density, velocity and pressure. The two phases are coupled by non-conservative terms due to gradients of the void fractions and by source terms for mechanical relaxation, drag force and mass transfer. With appropriate closure laws, it has been proved [2] that this model complies with all the expected physical requirements: positivity of densities and temperatures, maximum principle for the void fraction, conservation of the mixture quantities, decrease of the global entropy… On the basis of this model, it is possible to derive simpler models, which can be used where the flow is still, see [3]. From the numerical point of view, we develop new Finite Volume schemes in [4], which also satisfy the requirements mentioned above. Since they are based on a partial linearization of the physical

  13. Fabrication and evaluation of temperature responsive molecularly imprinted sorbents based on surface of yeast via surface-initiated AGET ATRP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jianming; Hang, Hui; Li, Xiuxiu; Zhu, Wenjing; Meng, Minjia; Dai, Xiaohui; Dai, Jiangdong; Yan, Yongsheng

    2013-12-01

    Temperature responsive molecularly imprinted polymers (T-MIPs) were prepared based on the surface of yeast by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (AGET ATRP). The as-prepared T-MIPs were charcterized by FT-IR, SEM, TGA and elemental analysis, which indicated that T-MIPs exhibited thermal stability and composed of temperature responsive imprinted layer. Then T-MIPs were evaluated as sorbents to selectively recognise and release cefalexin (CFX) molecules. The results suggested binding properties of T-MIPs were related to the testing temperature. The maximum adsorption capacity of T-MIPs at 303 K was 59.4 mg g-1, and the maximum release proportion for T-MIPs at 293 K in water for 24 h was 71.08%. The selective recognition experiments demonstrated high affinity and selectivity of T-MIPs towards CFX over competitive compounds, and the specific recognition of binding sites may be based on the distinct size, structure and functional group to the template molecules.

  14. Facility Configuration Study of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Component Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    S. L. Austad; L. E. Guillen; D. S. Ferguson; B. L. Blakely; D. M. Pace; D. Lopez; J. D. Zolynski; B. L. Cowley; V. J. Balls; E.A. Harvego, P.E.; C.W. McKnight, P.E.; R.S. Stewart; B.D. Christensen

    2008-04-01

    A test facility, referred to as the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Component Test Facility or CTF, will be sited at Idaho National Laboratory for the purposes of supporting development of high temperature gas thermal-hydraulic technologies (helium, helium-Nitrogen, CO2, etc.) as applied in heat transport and heat transfer applications in High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. Such applications include, but are not limited to: primary coolant; secondary coolant; intermediate, secondary, and tertiary heat transfer; and demonstration of processes requiring high temperatures such as hydrogen production. The facility will initially support completion of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. It will secondarily be open for use by the full range of suppliers, end-users, facilitators, government laboratories, and others in the domestic and international community supporting the development and application of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor technology. This pre-conceptual facility configuration study, which forms the basis for a cost estimate to support CTF scoping and planning, accomplishes the following objectives: • Identifies pre-conceptual design requirements • Develops test loop equipment schematics and layout • Identifies space allocations for each of the facility functions, as required • Develops a pre-conceptual site layout including transportation, parking and support structures, and railway systems • Identifies pre-conceptual utility and support system needs • Establishes pre-conceptual electrical one-line drawings and schedule for development of power needs.

  15. Flow boiling with enhancement devices for cold plate coolant channel design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Ronald D., Sr.

    1989-02-01

    A research program to study the effect of enhancement devices on flow boiling heat transfer in coolant channels, which are heated either from the top side or uniformly, is discussed. Freon 11 is the working fluid involved. The specific objectives are: (1) examine the variations in both the mean and local (axial and circumferential) heat transfer coefficients for a circular coolant channel with either smooth walls or with both a twisted tape and spiral finned walls, (2) examine the effect channel diameter (and the length-to-diameter aspect ratio) variations for the smooth wall channel, and (3) develop an improved data reduction analysis.

  16. Polonium release from an ATW burner system with liquid lead-bismuth coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Li, N.; Yefimov, E.; Pankratov, D.

    1998-04-01

    The authors analyzed polonium release hazards in a conceptual pool-type ATW burner with liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant. Simplified quantitative models are used based on experiments and real NPP experience. They found little Po contamination outside the burner under normal operating conditions with nominal leakage from the gas system. In sudden gas leak and/or coolant spill accidents, the P contamination level can reach above the regulation limit but short exposure would not lead to severe health consequences. They are evaluating and developing mitigation methods.

  17. Probabilistic analyses of failure in reactor coolant piping. [Double-ended guillotine break

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, G.S.

    1984-07-20

    LLNL is performing probabilistic reliability analyses of PWR and BWR reactor coolant piping for the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Specifically, LLNL is estimating the probability of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) in the reactor coolant loop piping in PWR plants, and in the main stream, feedwater, and recirculation piping of BWR plants. In estimating the probability of DEGB, LLNL considers two causes of pipe break: pipe fracture due to the growth of cracks at welded joints (direct DEGB), and pipe rupture indirectly caused by the seismically-induced failure of critical supports or equipment (indirect DEGB).

  18. Development of a cleaning process for uranium chips machined with a glycol-water-borax coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.

    1984-12-01

    A chip-cleaning process has been developed to remove the new glycol-water-borax coolant from oralloy chips. The process involves storing the freshly cut chips in Freon-TDF until they are cleaned, washing with water, and displacing the water with Freon-TDF. The wash water can be reused many times and still yield clean chips and then be added to the coolant to make up for evaporative losses. The Freon-TDF will be cycled by evaporation. The cleaning facility is currently being designed and should be operational by April 1985.

  19. Design, manufacture, and test of coolant pump-motor assembly for Brayton power conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabacz, L. E.

    1973-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication, and testing of seven coolant circulating pump-motor assemblies are discussed. The pump-motor assembly is driven by the nominal 44.4-volt, 400-Hz, 3-phase output of a nominal 56-volt dc input inverter. The pump-motor assembly will be used to circulate Dow Corning 200 liquid coolant for use in a Brayton cycle space power system. The pump-motor assembly develops a nominal head of 70 psi at 3.7 gpm with an over-all efficiency of 26 percent. The design description, drawings, photographs, reliability results, and developmental and acceptance test results are included.

  20. Flow boiling with enhancement devices for cold plate coolant channel design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Ronald D., Sr.

    1989-01-01

    A research program to study the effect of enhancement devices on flow boiling heat transfer in coolant channels, which are heated either from the top side or uniformly, is discussed. Freon 11 is the working fluid involved. The specific objectives are: (1) examine the variations in both the mean and local (axial and circumferential) heat transfer coefficients for a circular coolant channel with either smooth walls or with both a twisted tape and spiral finned walls, (2) examine the effect channel diameter (and the length-to-diameter aspect ratio) variations for the smooth wall channel, and (3) develop an improved data reduction analysis.

  1. Viscosity of the Martian mantle and its initial temperature: Constraints from crust formation history and the evolution of the magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, Doris; Spohn, Tilman

    2006-02-01

    The rheology of the Martian mantle and the planet's initial temperature is constrained with thermal evolution models that include crust growth and test the conditions for magnetic field generation in the core. As observations we use the present-day average crustal thickness of 50-120 km as estimated from the Mars Global Surveyor gravity and topography data, the evidence for the crust being produced mostly early, with a rate declining from the Noachian to the Hesperian, and the evidence for an early magnetic field that likely existed for less than a billion years. We use the fact that the rate of crust growth is a function of temperature, which must be above the solidus in the sub-lithosphere mantle, and the mantle convection speed because the latter determines the rate at which melt can be replenished. The convection speed is a strong function of viscosity which, in turn, is a strong function of temperature and also of the water content of the mantle. We use a viscosity parameterization with a reference viscosity evaluated at 1600 K the value of which can be characteristic of either a dry or a wet mantle. We further consider the Fe-FeS phase diagram for the core and compare the core liquidus estimated for a sulphur content of 14% as suggested by the SNC meteorite compositions with the core temperatures calculated for our cooling models. Two data sets of the Fe-FeS eutectic temperature have been used that differ by about 200 K [Böhler, R., 1996. Fe-FeS eutectic temperatures at 620 kbar. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 96, 181-186; Fei, Y., Bertka, C.M., Finger, L.W., 1997. High-pressure iron-sulphur compound, Fe 3S 2, and melting relations in the Fe-FeS system. Science 275, 1621-1623] at Martian core-mantle boundary pressure and in the eutectic composition by 5 wt%. The differences in eutectic temperature and composition translate into a difference of about 400 K in liquidus temperature for 14 wt% sulphur. We find it premature to rule out specific mantle rheologies on

  2. Computational fluid dynamics analyses of lateral heat conduction, coolant azimuthal mixing and heat transfer predictions in a BR2 fuel assembly geometry.

    SciTech Connect

    Tzanos, C. P.; Dionne, B.

    2011-05-23

    To support the analyses related to the conversion of the BR2 core from highly-enriched (HEU) to low-enriched (LEU) fuel, the thermal-hydraulics codes PLTEMP and RELAP-3D are used to evaluate the safety margins during steady-state operation (PLTEMP), as well as after a loss-of-flow, loss-of-pressure, or a loss of coolant event (RELAP). In the 1-D PLTEMP and RELAP simulations, conduction in the azimuthal and axial directions is not accounted. The very good thermal conductivity of the cladding and the fuel meat and significant temperature gradients in the lateral directions (axial and azimuthal directions) could lead to a heat flux distribution that is significantly different than the power distribution. To evaluate the significance of the lateral heat conduction, 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, using the CFD code STAR-CD, were performed. Safety margin calculations are typically performed for a hot stripe, i.e., an azimuthal region of the fuel plates/coolant channel containing the power peak. In a RELAP model, for example, a channel between two plates could be divided into a number of RELAP channels (stripes) in the azimuthal direction. In a PLTEMP model, the effect of azimuthal power peaking could be taken into account by using engineering factors. However, if the thermal mixing in the azimuthal direction of a coolant channel is significant, a stripping approach could be overly conservative by not taking into account this mixing. STAR-CD simulations were also performed to study the thermal mixing in the coolant. Section II of this document presents the results of the analyses of the lateral heat conduction and azimuthal thermal mixing in a coolant channel. Finally, PLTEMP and RELAP simulations rely on the use of correlations to determine heat transfer coefficients. Previous analyses showed that the Dittus-Boelter correlation gives significantly more conservative (lower) predictions than the correlations of Sieder-Tate and Petukhov. STAR-CD 3-D

  3. Temperature-time distribution and thermal stresses on the RTG fins and shell during water cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) packages designed for space missions generally do not require active cooling. However, the heat they generate cannot remain inside of the launch vehicle bay and requires active removal. Therefore, before the Shuttle bay door is closed, the RTG coolant tubes attached to the heat rejection fins must be filled with water, which will circulate and remove most of the heat from the cargo bay. There is concern that charging a system at initial temperature around 200 C with water at 24 C can cause unacceptable thermal stresses in the RTG shell and fins. A computer model is developed to estimate the transient temperature distribution resulting from such charging. The thermal stresses resulting from the temperature gradients do not exceed the elastic deformation limit for the material. Since the simplified mathematical model for thermal stresses tends to overestimate stresses, it is concluded that the RTG can be cooled by introducing water at 24 C to the initially hot fin coolant tubes while the RTG is in the Shuttle cargo bay.

  4. Comparison of the Aerospace Systems Test Reactor loss-of-coolant test data with predictions of the 3D-AIRLOCA code

    SciTech Connect

    Warinner, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    This paper compares the predictions of the revised 3D-AIRLOCA computer code to those data available from the Aerospace Systems Test Reactor's (ASTR's) loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) tests run in 1964. The theoretical and experimental hot-spot temperature responses compare remarkably well. In the thirteen cases studied, the irradiation powers varied from 0.4 to 8.87 MW; the irradiation times were 300, 1540, 1800, and 10/sup 4/ s. The degrees of agreement between the data and predictions provide an experimental validation of the 3D-AIRLOCA code.

  5. Experiment Operations Plan for a Loss-of-Coolant Accident Simulation in the National Research Universal Reactor Materials Test 2

    SciTech Connect

    Russcher, G. E.; Barner, J. O.; Hesson, G. M.; Wilson, C. L.; Parchen, L. J.; Cunningham, M. E.; Marshall, R. K.; Mohr, C. L.

    1981-09-01

    A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation program is evaluating the thermal-hydraulic and mechanical effects on pressurized water reactor (PWR) test fuel bundles. This Experiment Operation Plan (EOP) Addendum 2, together with the referenced EOP, describes the desired operating conditions and additional hazards review associated with the four-part MT-2 experiment. The primary portions of the experiment, MT-2.2 and MT-2.3, will evaluate the following: 1) the mechanical deformation of pressurized fuel rods subjected to a slow LOCA, using reflood water for temperature control, that is designed to produce cladding temperatures in the range from 1033 to 1089K (1400 to 1500°F) for an extended time, and 2) the effects of the deformed and possibly failed cladding on the thermal-hydraulic performance of the test assembly during simulated LOCA heating and reflooding. The secondary portions of the experiment, MT-2.1 and MT-2.4, are intended to provide thermal-hydraulic calibration information during two-stage reflood conditions for 1) relatively low cladding temperatures, <839K (1050°F), on nondeformed rods, and 2) moderately high cladding temperatures, <1089K (1500°F), on deformed rods.

  6. Initial results from Ensemble Data Assimilation of radiances and retrieved temperatures from TES and MCS in an Martian GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.; Richardson, M. I.

    2010-12-01

    Direct observations of the Martian atmosphere are used to constrain the evolution of a Martian General Circulation Model (MarsWRF) using an ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation framework (DART). We use radiance observations from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and temperature profiles from TES and the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) to constrain the evolution of the simulated Martian atmosphere during similar seasons of each mission. We describe the observations being ingested into the model and the preprocessing necessary to ingest these observations efficiently and accurately into the assimilation system. We test the sensitivity of the assimilation system by including surface visual albedo and infra-red emissivity, and atmospheric total dust loading, in the state vector. We allow DART to modify these unobserved state vector components using only the temperature or radiance observations and information gained from the ensemble of simulated circulations. Finally, we identify and discuss the biases and model limitations revealed by the assimilation, and describe the modifications made to the GCM to improve its ensemble mean skill (accuracy) and ensemble variance to better assimilate the available observations.

  7. An experimental investigation of the post-CHF enhancement factor for a prototypical ITER divertor plate with water coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, T.D.; Watson, R.D.; McDonald, J.M.

    1995-09-01

    In an off-normal event, water-cooled copper divertor plates in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) may either experience heat loads beyond their design basis, or the normal heat loads may be accompanied by low coolant pressure and velocity. The purpose of this experiment was to illustrate that during one-sided heating, as in ITER, a copper divertor plate with the proper side wall thickness, at low system pressure and velocity can absorb without failing an incident heat flux, q{sub i}, that significantly exceed the value, q{sub i}{sup CHF}, which is associated with local CHF at the wall of the coolant channel. The experiment was performed using a 30 kW electron beam test system for heating of a square cross-section divertor heat sink with a smooth circular channel of 7.63 mm diameter. The heated width, length, and wall thickness were 16, 40, and 3 mm, respectively. Stable surface temperatures were observed at incident heat fluxes greater than the local CHF point, presumably due to circumferential conduction around the thick tube walls when q{sub i}{sup CHF} was exceeded. The Post-CHF enhancement factor, {eta}, is defined as the ratio of the incident burnout heat flux, q{sub i}{sup BO}, to q{sub i}{sup CHF}. For this experiment with water at inlet conditions of 70{degrees}C, 1 m/s, and 1 MPa, q{sub i}{sup CHF} and q{sub i}{sup BO} were 600 and 1100 W/cm{sup 2}, respectively, which gave an {eta} of 1.8.

  8. An experimental investigation of the post-CHF enhancement factor for a prototypical ITER divertor plate with water coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, T.D.; Watson, R.D.; McDonald, J.M.; Youchison, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    In an off-normal event, water-cooled copper divertor plates in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) may either experience heat loads beyond their design basis, or the normal heat loads may be accompanied by low coolant pressure and velocity. The purpose of this experiment was to illustrate that during one-sided heating, as in ITER, a copper divertor plate with the proper side wall thickness, at low system pressure and velocity can absorb without failing an incident heat flux, q{sub i}, that significantly exceed the value, q{sub i}{sup CHF}, which is associated with local CHF at the wall of the coolant channel. The experiment was performed using a 30 KW electron beam test system for heating of a square cross-section divertor heat sink with a smooth circular channel of 7.6 mm diameter. The heated width, length, and wall thickness were 16, 40, and 3 mm, respectively. Stable surface temperatures were observed at incident heat fluxes greater than the local CHF point, presumably due to circumferential conduction around the thick tube walls when q{sub i}{sup CHF} was exceeded. The Post-CHF enhancement factor, {eta}, is defined as the ratio of the incident burnout heat flux, q{sub i}{sup BO}, to q{sub i}{sup CHF}. For this experiment with water at inlet conditions of 70 C, 1 m/s, and 1 MPa, q{sub i}{sup CHF} and q{sub i}{sup BO} were 600 and 1,100 W/cm{sup 2}, respectively, which gave an {eta} of 1.8.

  9. Effects of realistic land surface initializations on subseasonal to seasonal soil moisture and temperature predictability in North America and in changing climate simulated by CCSM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Lawrence, David M.; DelSole, Timothy; Altshuler, Eric L.; Cash, Benjamin A.; Fennessy, Michael J.; Guo, Zhichang; Kinter, James L.; Straus, David M.

    2014-12-01

    Fully coupled global climate model experiments are performed using the Community Climate System Model version 4.0 (CCSM4) for preindustrial, present, and future climate to study the effects of realistic land surface initializations on subseasonal to seasonal climate forecasts. Model forecasts are verified against model control simulations (perfect model experiments), thus overcoming to some extent issues of uncertainties in the observations and/or model parameterizations. Findings suggest that realistic land surface initialization is important for climate predictability at subseasonal to seasonal time scales. We found the highest predictability for soil moisture, followed by evapotranspiration, temperature, and precipitation. The predictability is highest for the 16 to 30 days forecast period, and it progressively decreases for the second and third month forecasts. We found significant changes in the spatial distributions of temperature predictability in the present and future climate compared to the preindustrial climate, although the spatial average changes for North America were rather small (<10%). To attribute the potential cause of changes in land-driven temperature predictability, they are correlated with the changes in land related climate metrics. The changes in temperature predictability are positively (0.40), and negatively (-0.35) correlated with the changes in nonrainy days evaporative fraction, and changes in dryness index respectively. From this result, the hypothesis arises that wetter conditions favor higher land-driven temperature predictability in North America. We tested the hypothesis by rearranging the predictability experiment ensembles and found support for the hypothesis in the midlatitude regions and short-term forecasts (16 to 30 days).

  10. Handling interferences in ⁸⁹Sr and ⁹⁰Sr measurements of reactor coolant water: a method based on strontium separation chemistry.

    PubMed

    Holmgren, S; Tovedal, A; Jonsson, S; Nygren, U; Ramebäck, H

    2014-08-01

    Measurements for determining the activity of (89)Sr and (90)Sr in reactor coolant water are associated with limitations due to interferences from radionuclides with similar chemical properties and β(-)-energies. From a measurement bias point-of-view these interferences would result mainly in an overestimated activity concentration of (90)Sr. In order to address the interference problem, a common and well-known method was used in order to show the need for sufficient decontamination. An improvement was achieved by taking the sample through two initial strontium separations in order to increase the decontamination factor. This method determines the activity concentration of (89)Sr and (90)Sr, via its daughter nuclide (90)Y, by Cherenkov counting. This work is primarily based on theoretical calculations of strontium-, yttrium- and other potential interfering radionuclide ratios after instant fission. The work done to confirm the theoretical calculations were carried through on spiked strontium standard solutions and fresh reactor coolant water. The reactor coolant water was known to contain interferences at a composition resembling that of instant fission. The detection limit for double separation was calculated to 0.17 Bq/kg for (90)Sr and 0.38 Bq/kg for (89)Sr. When using methods that solely rely on strontium resins, this paper shows that the decontamination factor (DF) is significantly higher when using double separation than that of a single separation. The paper also shows that the DF of an initial double strontium separation is as effective when it comes to removing high ratio interferences as separations done with both Sr- and Ln-resin (EiChrom Technologies, Inc., 2003; Tovedal et al., 2009b). However, 'old' samples, where e.g. (140)Ba and (89)Sr has decayed, does not benefit from double separation. Furthermore, samples with low ratios of interfering radionuclides does not benefit from using this method either, seeing as this is a more time consuming method

  11. Analysis of Kuosheng Large-Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident with MELCOR 1.8.4

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.-C.; Wang, S.-J.; Chien, C.-S

    2000-09-15

    The MELCOR code, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, is capable of simulating the severe accident phenomena of light water reactor nuclear power plants (NPPs). A specific large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) for Kuosheng NPP is simulated with the use of the MELCOR 1.8.4 code. This accident is induced by a double-ended guillotine break of one of the recirculation pipes concurrent with complete failure of the emergency core cooling system. The MELCOR input deck for the Kuosheng NPP is established based on the design data of the Kuosheng NPP and the MELCOR users' guides. The initial steady-state conditions are generated with a developed self-initialization algorithm. The effect of the MELCOR 1.8.4-provided initialization process is demonstrated. The main severe accident phenomena and the corresponding fission product released fractions associated with the large-break LOCA sequences are simulated. The MELCOR 1.8.4 predicts a longer time interval between the core collapse and vessel failure and a higher source term. This MELCOR 1.8.4 input deck will be applied to the probabilistic risk assessment, the severe accident analysis, and the severe accident management study of the Kuosheng NPP in the near future.

  12. Advanced Thermal Storage for Central Receivers with Supercritical Coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Bruce D.

    2010-06-15

    The principal objective of the study is to determine if supercritical heat transport fluids in a central receiver power plant, in combination with ceramic thermocline storage systems, offer a reduction in levelized energy cost over a baseline nitrate salt concept. The baseline concept uses a nitrate salt receiver, two-tank (hot and cold) nitrate salt thermal storage, and a subcritical Rankine cycle. A total of 6 plant designs were analyzed, as follows: Plant Designation Receiver Fluid Thermal Storage Rankine Cycle Subcritical nitrate salt Nitrate salt Two tank nitrate salt Subcritical Supercritical nitrate salt Nitrate salt Two tank nitrate salt Supercritical Low temperature H2O Supercritical H2O Two tank nitrate salt Supercritical High temperature H2O Supercritical H2O Packed bed thermocline Supercritical Low temperature CO2 Supercritical CO2 Two tank nitrate salt Supercritical High temperature CO2 Supercritical CO2 Packed bed thermocline Supercritical Several conclusions have been drawn from the results of the study, as follows: 1) The use of supercritical H2O as the heat transport fluid in a packed bed thermocline is likely not a practical approach. The specific heat of the fluid is a strong function of the temperatures at values near 400 °C, and the temperature profile in the bed during a charging cycle is markedly different than the profile during a discharging cycle. 2) The use of supercritical CO2 as the heat transport fluid in a packed bed thermocline is judged to be technically feasible. Nonetheless, the high operating pressures for the supercritical fluid require the use of pressure vessels to contain the storage inventory. The unit cost of the two-tank nitrate salt system is approximately $24/kWht, while the unit cost of the high pressure thermocline system is nominally 10 times as high. 3) For the supercritical fluids, the outer crown temperatures of the receiver tubes are in the range of 700 to 800 °C. At temperatures of 700 °C and above

  13. Preliminary requirements for a Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Test Reactor (FHTR)

    SciTech Connect

    Massie, M.; Forsberg, C.; Forget, B.; Hu, L. W.

    2012-07-01

    A Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Test Reactor (FHTR) design is being developed at MIT to provide the first demonstration and test of a salt-cooled reactor using high-temperature fuel. The first step is to define the requirements. The top level requirements are (1) provide the confidence that a larger demonstration reactor is warranted and (2) develop the necessary data for a larger-scale reactor. Because requirements will drive the design of the FHTR, a significant effort is being undertaken to define requirements and understand the tradeoffs that will be required for a practical design. The preliminary requirements include specifications for design parameters and necessary tests of major reactor systems. Testing requirements include demonstration of components, systems, and procedures for refueling, instrumentation, salt temperature control to avoid coolant freezing, salt chemistry and volume control, tritium monitoring and control, and in-service inspection. Safety tests include thermal hydraulics, neutronics - including intrinsic core shutdown mechanisms such as Doppler feedback - and decay heat removal systems. Materials and coolant testing includes fuels (including mechanical wear and fatigue) and system corrosion behavior. Preliminary analysis indicates a thermal power output below 30 MW, an initial core using pebble-bed or prismatic-block fuel, peak outlet temperatures of at least 700 deg. C, and use of FLi{sup 7}Be ({sup 7}LiF-BeF{sub 2}) coolant. The option to change-out the reactor core, fuel type, and major components is being investigated. While the FHTR will be used for materials testing, its primary mission is as a reactor system performance test to enable the design and licensing of a FHR demonstration power reactor. (authors)

  14. Carbothermic Aluminum Production Using Scrap Aluminum As A Coolant

    DOEpatents

    LaCamera, Alfred F.

    2002-11-05

    A process for producing aluminum metal by carbothermic reduction of alumina ore. Alumina ore is heated in the presence of carbon at an elevated temperature to produce an aluminum metal body contaminated with about 10-30% by wt. aluminum carbide. Aluminum metal or aluminum alloy scrap then is added to bring the temperature to about 900-1000.degree. C. and precipitate out aluminum carbide. The precipitated aluminum carbide is filtered, decanted, or fluxed with salt to form a molten body having reduced aluminum carbide content.

  15. Initial oxidation behavior of Ni3Al (210) surface induced by supersonic oxygen molecular beam at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ya; Sakurai, Junya; Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Demura, Masahiko; Hirano, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    The initial oxidation behavior of a clean Ni3Al (210) surface was studied at 300 K using a supersonic O2 molecular beam (O2 SSMB) having an O2 translational energy of 2.3 eV, and real-time photoemission spectroscopy performed with high-brilliance synchrotron radiation. The evolution behaviors of the O 1s, Ni 2p, Al 2p, and Ni 3p spectra were examined during irradiation with the O2 SSMB. The spectral analysis revealed that both the Al atoms and the Ni atoms on the surface were oxidized; however, the oxidation of Al progressed much faster than that of Ni. The oxidation of Al began to occur and AlOx was formed at an oxygen coverage of 0.26 monolayer (ML) (1 ML was defined as the atomic density of the Ni3Al (210) surface) and saturated at an oxygen coverage of 2.5 ML. In contrast, the oxidation of Ni commenced a little late at an oxygen coverage of 1.6 ML and slowly progressed to saturation, which occurred at an oxygen coverage of 4.89 ML.

  16. Sources and flow patterns of deep-ocean waters as deduced from potential temperature, salinity, and initial phosphate concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broecker, Wallace S.; Takahashi, Taro; Takahashi, Timothy

    1985-01-01

    Through the deconvolution of ocean chemical data it has been shown that the ratio of O2 utilization to phosphate production in the sea is 175±6 (rather than 138, as proposed by Redfield et al. (1963)). We find no evidence that this ratio changes significantly with location or depth in the sea. We have used this new ratio to calculate the initial phosphate concentrations for the waters sampled during the GEOSECS and TTO programs. The important application of these new results is in constraining the origin and flow patterns of deep waters in the ocean. We believe that a strong case can be made that Antarctic salinity maximum water (i.e., the common water of Montgomery (1958)) is produced by the mixing of waters entering the Antarctic from mid-depths in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic with Weddell Sea bottom water (southern component). Antarctic common water consists of about 45% Weddell Sea bottom water, 30% intermediate waters from the Pacific and Indian oceans, and 25% deep water originating from the northern Atlantic.

  17. Assembly for facilitating inservice inspection of a reactor coolant pump rotor

    DOEpatents

    Veronesi, Luciano

    1990-01-01

    A reactor coolant pump has an outer casing with an internal cavity holding a coolant and a rotor rotatably mounted in the cavity within the coolant. An assembly for permitting inservice inspection of the pump rotor without first draining the coolant from the casing cavity is attached to an end of the pump. A cylindrical bore is defined through the casing in axial alignment with an end of pump rotor and opening into the internal cavity. An extension attached on the rotor end and rotatable therewith has a cylindrical coupler member extending into the bore. An outer end of the coupler member has an element configured to receive a tool for performance of inservice rotor inspection. A hollow cylindrical member is disposed in the bore and surrounds the coupler member. The cylindrical member is slidably movable relative to the coupler member along the bore between a retracted position wherein the cylindrical member is stored for normal pump operation and an extended position wherein the cylindrical member is extended for permitting inservice rotor inspection. A cover member is detachably and sealably attached to the casing across the bore for closing the bore and retaining the cylindrical member at its retracted position for normal pump operation. Upon detachment of the cover member, the cylindrical member can be extended to permit inservice rotor inspection.

  18. ETR COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, TRA645. FOUR SECONDARY COOLANT PUMPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-645. FOUR SECONDARY COOLANT PUMPS ARE ARRANGED IN A ROW. IN REAR ARE THREE SHUTDOWN EMERGENCY PUMPS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4176. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 12/21/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. A PRIMARY COOLANT PUMP AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. A PRIMARY COOLANT PUMP AND 24-INCH CHECK VALVE ARE MOUNTED IN A SHIELDED CUBICLE. NOTE CONNECTION AT RIGHT THROUGH SHIELD WALL TO PUMP MOTOR ON OTHER SIDE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4177. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 12/21/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. PBF (PER620) interior, second basement level. Coolant and tank piping. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF (PER-620) interior, second basement level. Coolant and tank piping. Mark on vertical pipe says, "H.P. Demin. Water." (High pressure demineralized water.) Date: March 2004. INEEL negative no. HD-41-4-3 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Detecting the gas bubbles in a liquid metal coolant by means of magnetic flowmeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogilner, A. I.; Morozov, S. A.; Zakharov, S. O.; Uralets, A. Yu.

    Solution of some problems of control and diagnosis of circuits with a liquid-metal coolant (LMC) often requires the detection of gas bubbles penetrating the circulation loop. The sources of gas intake can be presented by failed fuel elements in reactor core, failed heat-exchange surfaces in sodium-water steam generators in the secondary circuits, gas capture by circulating coolant from gas circuits. Sometimes the gas is especially injected into circulating coolant to study the dynamics of accumulation and extraction of gas bubbles and to solve research problems related to simulations of emergency situations. The most commonly used methods for gas bubble detection include methods based on measuring coolant electric conductivity. A method for detecting gas bubbles in LMC, based on revealing the change of its electric conductivity is considered. Magnetic flowmeter is used as a detecting element of these changes. Approximate theory for describing spectral and energy noises in signals of a magnetic flowmeter, controlling the flow rate of LMC with gas bubbles is suggested. A new method for signal reading is suggested. Experimental results illustrating the possibility of using the method for measuring the rate of bubble movement and studying the dependence of gas bubble volume on the flow rate of injected gas are presented.

  2. Method and apparatus for removing iodine from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Martin H.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing iodine-131 and iodine-125 from a liquid sodium reactor coolant. Non-radioactive iodine is dissolved in hot liquid sodium to increase the total iodine concentration. Subsequent precipitation of the iodine in a cold trap removes both the radioactive iodine isotopes as well as the non-radioactive iodine.

  3. TRITIUM LABORATORY, TRA666, INTERIOR. COOLANT LOOP PIPING DETAIL AND CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRITIUM LABORATORY, TRA-666, INTERIOR. COOLANT LOOP PIPING DETAIL AND CONTROL VALVE EQUIPMENT ALONG EAST WALL. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD30-2-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 6/2001 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. Modeling Film-Coolant Flow Characteristics at the Exit of Shower-Head Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Vijay K.; Gaugler, R. E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The coolant flow characteristics at the hole exits of a film-cooled blade are derived from an earlier analysis where the hole pipes and coolant plenum were also discretized. The blade chosen is the VKI rotor with three staggered rows of shower-head holes. The present analysis applies these flow characteristics at the shower-head hole exits. A multi-block three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code with Wilcox's k-omega model is used to compute the heat transfer coefficient on the film-cooled turbine blade. A reasonably good comparison with the experimental data as well as with the more complete earlier analysis where the hole pipes and coolant plenum were also gridded is obtained. If the 1/7th power law is assumed for the coolant flow characteristics at the hole exits, considerable differences in the heat transfer coefficient on the blade surface, specially in the leading-edge region, are observed even though the span-averaged values of h (heat transfer coefficient based on T(sub o)-T(sub w)) match well with the experimental data. This calls for span-resolved experimental data near film-cooling holes on a blade for better validation of the code.

  5. Determination of soluble chromium in simulated PWR coolant by differential-pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Torrance, K; Gatford, C

    1987-11-01

    An analytical method has been developed for the determination of dissolved chromium at concentrations less than 2 mug/l. in PWR coolant by differential-pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry at a hanging mercury drop electrode. Concentrations above 2 mug/l. can be determined by appropriate dilution of the sample. The method is based on measurement of the current associated with reduction of a chromium(III)-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid) complex adsorbed at the surface of the mercury drop. The effects of boric acid, pH, DTPA concentration, accumulation potential and time were investigated together with the oxidation state of the chromium. No interference was observed from other transition metal ions expected to be present in PWR coolant. No alternative chemical technique of similar sensitivity was available for comparison with the results obtained in solutions containing <1 mug/l. chromium. Recoveries from simulated coolant solutions were greater than 95% and the relative standard deviations for single determinations were in the range 12-25%. The statistical limit of detection at the 95% confidence level was 0.023 mug/l. This method of analysis should prove valuable in corrosion studies and is uniquely capable of following the changes in soluble chromium concentration in PWR coolant that follow operational changes in the reactor.

  6. MTR, TRA603. SUBBASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. INLET/OUTLET TUNNELS FOR COOLANT WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. SUB-BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. INLET/OUTLET TUNNELS FOR COOLANT WATER (NORTH SIDE) AND AIR (SOUTH SIDE). RABBIT CANAL AND BULKHEADS. SUMPS AND DRAINS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-3-7, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100006, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Turbulent Coolant Dispersion in the Wake of a Turbine Vane Trailing Edge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Asymmet- ric dispersion in this region indicated that longitudinal vortices shed from the coolant injection structures played a dominant role in the...Wedding, M.T. Draney, C.J. Elkins, D.W. Parker , R. Wicker, C.A. Taylor, R.J. Herfkens, and N.J. Pelc. Time- resolved three-dimensional phase-contrast mri

  8. Biohydrogen production from Tequila vinasses in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor: effect of initial substrate concentration, temperature and hydraulic retention time.

    PubMed

    Buitrón, Germán; Carvajal, Carolina

    2010-12-01

    The effect of the temperature (25 and 35 degrees C), the hydraulic retention time, HRT, (12 and 24 h) and initial substrate concentration on hydrogen production from Tequila vinasse was studied using a sequencing batch reactor. When 25 degrees C and 12-h HRT were applied, only insignificant biogas quantities were produced; however, using 24 h of HRT and temperatures of 25 and 35 degrees C, biogas containing hydrogen was produced. A maximum volumetric hydrogen production rate of 50.5 mL H(2) L(-1) h(-1) (48 mmol H(2) L(reactor)(-1) d(-1)) and an average hydrogen content in the biogas of 29.2+/-8.8% were obtained when the reactor was fed with 3 g COD L(-1), at 35 degrees C and 12-h HRT. Methane formation was observed when the longer HRT was applied. Results demonstrated the feasibility to produce hydrogen from this waste without a previous pre-treatment.

  9. Carbon partitioning and the impact of starch deficiency on the initial response of Arabidopsis to chilling temperatures.

    PubMed

    Sicher, Richard

    2011-08-01

    Metabolites and stress related transcripts were measured in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to chilling temperatures. Rates of carbon assimilation increased 17% on average in response to cold treatment. Sucrose, glucose and fructose accumulation consumed 42% of the carbon from A but leaf starch only could synthesize ~10% of observed changes in soluble sugars. Carbohydrates were the only major class of metabolites that accumulated during the first 24 h of cold treatment. Except maltose and raffinose, carbohydrate accumulation was abolished when cold treatments were in darkness. Starch hydrolysis was correlated with maltose accumulation and increased expression of BAM3, which encodes a β-amylase necessary for starch mobilization. Hexose accumulation was delayed 6 h and raffinose accumulation was not observed in a starchless (pgm1) mutant. Changes of expression of five stress-induced transcripts in response to cold were similar in the wild type and in the pgm1 mutant. Three of five stress related transcripts had decreased expression when cold treatments were performed in the dark compared to the light. Therefore, starch hydrolysis may augment hexose and raffinose accumulations during the first 24 h after a cold shock and a partial cold stress response was observed in Arabidopsis during cold treatments in the dark.

  10. A numerical study of the temperature field in a cooled radial turbine rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, A.; Baskharone, E.; Tabakoff, W.

    1977-01-01

    The three dimensional temperature distribution in the cooled rotor of a radial inflow turbine is determined numerically using the finite element method. Through this approach, the complicated geometries of the hot rotor and coolant passage surfaces are handled easily, and the temperatures are determined without loss of accuracy at these convective boundaries. Different cooling techniques with given coolant to primary flow ratios are investigated, and the corresponding rotor temperature fields are presented for comparison.

  11. Behavior of an improved Zr fuel cladding with oxidation resistant coating under loss-of-coolant accident conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Dong Jun; Kim, Hyun Gil; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Jung Hwan; Yang, Jae Ho; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates protective coatings for improving the high temperature oxidation resistance of Zr fuel claddings for light water nuclear reactors. FeCrAl alloy and Cr layers were deposited onto Zr plates and tubes using cold spraying. For the FeCrAl/Zr system, a Mo layer was introduced between the FeCrAl coating and the Zr matrix to prevent inter-diffusion at high temperatures. Both the FeCrAl and Cr coatings improved the oxidation resistance compared to that of the uncoated Zr alloy when exposed to a steam environment at 1200 °C. The ballooning behavior and mechanical properties of the coated cladding samples were studied under simulated loss-of-coolant accident conditions. The coated samples showed higher burst temperatures, lower circumferential strain, and smaller rupture openings compared to the uncoated Zr. Although 4-point bend tests of the coated samples showed a small increase in the maximum load, ring compression tests of a sectioned sample showed increased ductility.

  12. Polonium Issue in Fast Reactor Lead Coolants and One of the Ways of Its Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Khorasanov, G.L.; Ivanov, A.P.; Blokhin, A.I.

    2002-07-01

    One of the main issues in using materials for nuclear facilities is to minimize the production of the most hazardous radionuclides. In the ideal case, all nuclear reactor materials, except a fuel, should be low-activation. The term 'low-activation material' means that this one loses its induced activity in a short time after removal from irradiation. Proposals for building a fusion reactor using low-activation materials are given in Ref.1, 2. For this purpose, low-activation structural materials based on V-Ti-Cr alloys are in the stage of R and D in several countries [3,4]. Another technique to avoid the hazardous activity is in using isotopically enriched materials [5-7]. Although isotopic tailoring option requires tremendous technical efforts and it is too expensive, its application can be first of all assumed for those structural and functional materials which generate very hazardous radionuclides under irradiation. In modern projects of next generation NPPs the preference is given to fast reactors (FRs) with a lead coolant [8]. As it known, the coolant circulating through a FR core is activated, and in the future we should have problems with handling a completed coolant after FR decommissioning or at realization of repair or emergency activities. There, it is desirable to have a low-activation coolant with the low contents of hazardous radionuclides. In papers [9,10] presented at the previous ICONE conferences it was proposed to use lead isotope, Pb-206, as a coolant instead of lead natural, Pb-nat. This paper is devoted to more detailed calculations of accumulating stable bismuth, Bi-209, and polonium radioisotopes, Po-209 (T{sub 1/2}=102 y) and Po-210 (T{sub 1/2}=138 d), in 1 kg of Pb-nat or Pb-206 placed in the core of the BOR-60 type FR. (authors)

  13. Grafting N-Isopropyl Acrylamide) from Poly(vinylidene Fluoride) Mirofiltration, Membranes via Direct Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization, and Temperature Sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yiwang; Xiao, Jichun; Zhou, Weihua; Deng, Qilan; Nie, Huarong; Wan, Meixiang; Bai, Fenglian

    Well-defined poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAAm) brushes on commercial hydrophobic poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) microfiltration membrane surfaces were prepared, via direct atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with the secondary fluorinated site of PVDF as initiator and water as solvent at 80°C. The effect of solvents on the ATRP was studied in detail. The water as reaction solvent was in favor of surface-initiated ATRP of N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAAm) from secondary fluoride of PVDF membranes. The chemical composition and structure of the modified PVDF membrane surfaces were determined by attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface and cross-section morphology of membranes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pore sizes of the pristine PVDF membrane and the PNIPAAm-grafted PVDF membranes were measured using micro-image analysis and process software. The introduction of the well-defined PNIPAAm on the PVDF membrane gave rise to hydrophilicity. Water contact angles of PVDF membranes reduced after the surface grafting of PNIPAAm. Water fluxes and protein solution permeation experiments revealed that the PNIPAAm-grafted PVDF membranes exhibited temperature-responsive permeability. The unique microstructure of PNIPAAm brushes facilitated hydrophilicity below the lower critical solution temperature.

  14. The effect of exhaust-to-coolant heat transfer on warm-up time and fuel consumption of two automobile engines

    SciTech Connect

    Goettler, H.J.; Vidger, L.J.; Majkrzak

    1986-01-01

    A 1977 Buick V-6 engine and a 1981 Ford Granada automobile were equipped with heat exchangers to transfer energy from the exhaust gases to the cooling water after cold starts in order to shorten engine warm-up periods and improve fuel economy. A parallel concern was the time required to reach satisfactory heat delivery to the passenger compartment. The Buick engine was investigated in the laboratory. The Ford automobile was tested during driving over a 12.4 km length of freeway and over an 8.6 km test route including both in-town and highway segments. Prior to each test run the engines were exposed to ambient air for at least 8 hours at temperatures ranging from -26/sup 0/C to +2/sup 0/C. The use of the heat exchangers resulted in average reductions of fuel consumption of 2.8% during a 7 minute warm-up period for the engine, and of 2.2% for the automobile when tested on the above test routes. The corresponding times for the coolant in the automobile compartment heater to reach maximum temperature were reduced by 16% and 7%. While fuel savings were achieved, their economic value is questionable, particularly in light of a possible retrofit of an existing automobile with an exhaust-to-coolant heat exchanger and the necessary control equipment.

  15. Method and apparatus for controlling the temperature in thermoforming machines

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, J.

    1985-04-02

    The temperature of upper and lower parts of a forming tool making deep-drawn thermoplastic articles is controlled with a system which performs the steps of passing a coolant of predetermined total volume through the upper part and the lower part of the forming tool; measuring the temperature of the upper and lower parts; determining the actual temperature difference between the upper and lower parts; comparing the actual temperature difference with a predetermined desired temperature difference; generating a signal representing the magnitude of deviation between the actual and desired temperature differences; and, as a function of the signal, increasing the volume of coolant passing through one of the forming tool parts and decreasing the volume of coolant passing through the other of the forming tool parts for reducing the magnitude of deviation while maintaining the total volume unchanged.

  16. The role of mantle temperature and lithospheric thickness during initial oceanic crust production: numerical modelling constraints from the southern South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taposeea, C.; Armitage, J. J.; Collier, J.

    2015-12-01

    Evidence from seaward dipping reflector distributions has recently suggested that segmentation plays a major role in the pattern of volcanism during breakup, particularly in the South Atlantic. At a larger scale, variations in mantle temperature and lithosphere thickness can enhance or reduce volcanism. To understand what generates along strike variation of volcanism at conjugate margins, we measure the thickness of earliest oceanic crust in the South Atlantic, south of the Walvis and Rio Grande ridges. We use data from 29 published wide-angle and multichannel seismic profiles and at least 14 unpublished multichannel seismic profiles. A strong linear trend between initial oceanic crustal thickness and distance from hotspot centres, defined as the commencement of Walvis and Rio Grande ridges, with a regression coefficient of 0.7, is observed. At 450km south of the Walvis Ridge, earliest oceanic crustal thickness is found to be 11.7km. This reduces to 7.0km in the south at a distance of 1,420km. Such a linear trend suggests rift segmentation plays a secondary role on volcanism during breakup. To explore the cause of this trend, we use a 2D numerical model of extension capable of predicting the volume and composition of melt generated by decompressional melting during extension to steady state seafloor spreading. We explore the effect of both mantle temperature and lithosphere thickness on melt production with a thermal anomaly (hot layer) 100km thick located below the lithosphere with an excess temperature of 50-200°C, and lithospheric thickness ranging from 125-140km, covering the thickness range estimated from tomographic studies. By focusing on a set of key seismic profiles, we show a reduction in hot layer temperature is needed in order to match observed oceanic crustal thickness, even when the effect of north to south variations in lithosphere thickness are included. This model implies that the observed oceanic thickness requires the influence of a hot layer up

  17. Chlorine atom-initiated low-temperature oxidation of prenol and isoprenol: The effect of C=C double bonds on the peroxy radical chemistry in alcohol oxidation

    DOE PAGES

    Welz, Oliver; Savee, John D.; Osborn, David L.; ...

    2014-07-04

    The chlorine atom-initiated oxidation of two unsaturated primary C5 alcohols, prenol (3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, (CH3)2CCHCH2OH) and isoprenol (3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, CH2C(CH3)CH2CH2OH), is studied at 550 K and low pressure (8 Torr). The time- and isomer-resolved formation of products is probed with multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS) using tunable vacuum ultraviolet ionizing synchrotron radiation. The peroxy radical chemistry of the unsaturated alcohols appears much less rich than that of saturated C4 and C5 alcohols. The main products observed are the corresponding unsaturated aldehydes – prenal (3-methyl-2-butenal) from prenol oxidation and isoprenal (3-methyl-3-butenal) from isoprenol oxidation. No significant products arising from QOOH chemistry are observed. Thesemore » results can be qualitatively explained by the formation of resonance stabilized allylic radicals via H-abstraction in the Cl + prenol and Cl + isoprenol initiation reactions. The loss of resonance stabilization upon O2 addition causes the energies of the intermediate wells, saddle points, and products to increase relative to the energy of the initial radicals and O2. These energetic shifts make most product channels observed in the peroxy radical chemistry of saturated alcohols inaccessible for these unsaturated alcohols. The experimental findings are underpinned by quantum-chemical calculations for stationary points on the potential energy surfaces for the reactions of the initial radicals with O2. Under our conditions, the dominant channels in prenol and isoprenol oxidation are the chain-terminating HO2-forming channels arising from radicals, in which the unpaired electron and the –OH group are on the same carbon atom, with stable prenal and isoprenal co-products, respectively. These results suggest that the presence of C=C double bonds in alcohols will reduce low-temperature reactivity during autoignition.« less

  18. Cold atoms as a coolant for levitated optomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjit, Gambhir; Montoya, Cris; Geraci, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    Optically trapped dielectric objects are well suited for reaching the quantum regime of their center-of-mass motion in an ultrahigh-vacuum environment. We show that ground-state cooling of an optically trapped nanosphere is achievable when starting at room temperature, by sympathetic cooling of a cold-atomic gas optically coupled to the nanoparticle. Unlike cavity cooling in the resolved-sideband limit, this system requires only a modest cavity finesse and it allows the cooling to be turned off, permitting subsequent observation of strongly coupled dynamics between the atoms and sphere. Nanospheres cooled to their quantum ground state could have applications in quantum information science or in precision sensing.

  19. Effect of surface oxidation on the onset of nucleate boiling in a materials test reactor coolant channel

    DOE PAGES

    Forrest, Eric C.; Don, Sarah M.; Hu, Lin -Wen; ...

    2016-02-29

    The onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) serves as the thermal-hydraulic operating limit for many research and test reactors. However, boiling incipience under forced convection has not been well-characterized in narrow channel geometries or for oxidized surface conditions. This study presents experimental data for the ONB in vertical upflow of deionized (DI) water in a simulated materials test reactor (MTR) coolant channel. The channel gap thickness and aspect ratio were 1.96 mm and 29:1, respectively. Boiling surface conditions were carefully controlled and characterized, with both heavily oxidized and native oxide surfaces tested. Measurements were performed for mass fluxes ranging from 750more » to 3000 kg/m2s and for subcoolings ranging from 10 to 45°C. ONB was identified using a combination of high-speed visual observation, surface temperature measurements, and channel pressure drop measurements. Surface temperature measurements were found to be most reliable in identifying the ONB. For the nominal (native oxide) surface, results indicate that the correlation of Bergles and Rohsenow, when paired with the appropriate single-phase heat transfer correlation, adequately predicts the ONB heat flux. Furthermore, incipience on the oxidized surface occurred at a higher heat flux and superheat than on the plain surface.« less

  20. Effect of surface oxidation on the onset of nucleate boiling in a materials test reactor coolant channel

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, Eric C.; Don, Sarah M.; Hu, Lin -Wen; Buongiorno, Jacopo; McKrell, Thomas J.

    2016-02-29

    The onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) serves as the thermal-hydraulic operating limit for many research and test reactors. However, boiling incipience under forced convection has not been well-characterized in narrow channel geometries or for oxidized surface conditions. This study presents experimental data for the ONB in vertical upflow of deionized (DI) water in a simulated materials test reactor (MTR) coolant channel. The channel gap thickness and aspect ratio were 1.96 mm and 29:1, respectively. Boiling surface conditions were carefully controlled and characterized, with both heavily oxidized and native oxide surfaces tested. Measurements were performed for mass fluxes ranging from 750 to 3000 kg/m2s and for subcoolings ranging from 10 to 45°C. ONB was identified using a combination of high-speed visual observation, surface temperature measurements, and channel pressure drop measurements. Surface temperature measurements were found to be most reliable in identifying the ONB. For the nominal (native oxide) surface, results indicate that the correlation of Bergles and Rohsenow, when paired with the appropriate single-phase heat transfer correlation, adequately predicts the ONB heat flux. Furthermore, incipience on the oxidized surface occurred at a higher heat flux and superheat than on the plain surface.

  1. Method and apparatus for controlling hybrid powertrain system in response to engine temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Martini, Ryan D; Spohn, Brian L; Lehmen, Allen J; Cerbolles, Teresa L

    2014-10-07

    A method for controlling a hybrid powertrain system including an internal combustion engine includes controlling operation of the hybrid powertrain system in response to a preferred minimum coolant temperature trajectory for the internal combustion engine.

  2. Direct Numerical Simulation of a Coolant Jet in a Periodic Crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Chirdeep; Acharya, Sumanta

    1998-01-01

    A Direct Numerical Simulation of a coolant jet injected normally into a periodic crossflow is presented. The physical situation simulated represents a periodic module in a coolant hole array with a heated crossflow. A collocated finite difference scheme is used which is fifth-order accurate spatially and second-order accurate temporally. The scheme is based on a fractional step approach and requires the solution of a pressure-Poisson equation. The simulations are obtained for a blowing ratio of 0.25 and a channel Reynolds number of 5600. The simulations reveal the dynamics of several large scale structures including the Counter-rotating Vortex Pair (CVP), the horse-shoe vortex, the shear layer vortex, the wall vortex and the wake vortex. The origins and the interactions of these vortical structures are identified and explored. Also presented are the turbulence statistics and how they relate to the flow structures.

  3. Compression waves at boiling coolant outflow and peculiarities of their interaction with a barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribaturin, N. A.; Lezhnin, S. I.; Vozhakov, I. S.; Alekseev, M. V.

    2016-10-01

    Numerical simulation of the boiling coolant outflow at a butt-break of high-pressure pipeline was carried out. Interaction between the emerging compression wave and a barrier was studied. The temporal dynamics of the axial pressure profile and pressure in the center of the target were detected. The form of the radial pressure profile on the target was investigated. It has been obtained that in the case of the two-phase outflowing coolant the calculated pressure of the wave reflected from the barrier near the nozzle is less than the theoretical prediction for the ideal gas, and that with an increase in the distance from the nozzle to the barrier the differences between the calculated and theoretical values decrease.

  4. Experimental investigations of MHD flow tailoring for first wall coolant channels of self-cooled blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Picologlou, B.F.; Reed, C.B.; Hua, T.Q.; Barleon, L.; Kreuzinger, H.; Walker, J.S.

    1989-03-01

    Results of experiments on the concept of flow tailoring, the use of salient features of MHD flows in strong magnetic fields to create desirable velocity profiles in the coolant ducts of the first wall and the blanket, are reported. Proof-of-principle testing of flow tailoring has been chosen as the first joint activity on liquid metal MHD between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) because flow tailoring offers the possibility of significant improvement in blanket design and performance. The joint tests are conducted at ANL's ALEX facility on a test article fabricated at KfK. A 3-D MHD thermal hydraulic code developed at ANL is used to demonstrate the increased thermal performance of first wall coolant channels with flow tailoring. Sample results of detailed measurements of velocity and voltage distributions are compared to theoretical predictions provided by analytical tools developed at ANL with the collaboration of the University of Illinois.

  5. The effect of coolants on the performance of magnetic micro-refrigerators.

    PubMed

    Silva, D J; Bordalo, B D; Pereira, A M; Ventura, J; Oliveira, J C R E; Araújo, J P

    2014-06-01

    Magnetic refrigeration is an alternative cooling technique with envisaged technological applications on micro- and opto-electronic devices. Here, we present a magnetic micro-refrigerator cooling device with embedded micro-channels and based on the magnetocaloric effect. We studied the influence of the coolant fluid in the refrigeration process by numerically simulating the heat transfer processes using the finite element method. This allowed us to calculate the cooling power of the device. Our results show that gallium is the most efficient coolant fluid and, when used with Gd5Si2Ge2, a maximum power of 11.2 W/mm3 at a working frequency of -5 kHz can be reached. However, for operation frequencies around 50 Hz, water is the most efficient fluid with a cooling power of 0.137 W/mm3.

  6. Fluid-Structure Interaction for Coolant Flow in Research-type Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Franklin G; Ekici, Kivanc; Freels, James D

    2011-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is scheduled to undergo a conversion of the fuel used and this proposed change requires an extensive analysis of the flow through the reactor core. The core consists of 540 very thin and long fuel plates through which the coolant (water) flows at a very high rate. Therefore, the design and the flow conditions make the plates prone to dynamic and static deflections, which may result in flow blockage and structural failure which in turn may cause core damage. To investigate the coolant flow between fuel plates and associated structural deflections, the Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) module in COMSOL will be used. Flow induced flutter and static deflections will be examined. To verify the FSI module, a test case of a cylinder in crossflow, with vortex induced vibrations was performed and validated.

  7. Algebraic grid generation for coolant passages of turbine blades with serpentine channels and pin fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, T. I.-P.; Roelke, R. J.; Steinthorsson, E.

    1991-01-01

    In order to study numerically details of the flow and heat transfer within coolant passages of turbine blades, a method must first be developed to generate grid systems within the very complicated geometries involved. In this study, a grid generation package was developed that is capable of generating the required grid systems. The package developed is based on an algebraic grid generation technique that permits the user considerable control over how grid points are to be distributed in a very explicit way. These controls include orthogonality of grid lines next to boundary surfaces and ability to cluster about arbitrary points, lines, and surfaces. This paper describes that grid generation package and shows how it can be used to generate grid systems within complicated-shaped coolant passages via an example.

  8. In situ synthesis and characterization of silver/polymer nanocomposites by thermal cationic polymerization processes at room temperature: initiating systems based on organosilanes and starch nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Tehfe, Mohamad-Ali; Jamois, Romain; Cousin, Patrice; Elkoun, Saïd; Robert, Mathieu

    2015-04-14

    New methods for the preparation of silver nanoparticles/polymer nanocomposite materials by thermal cationic polymerization of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) or α-pinene oxide (α-PO) at room temperature (RT) and under air were developed. The new initiating systems were based on silanes (Si), starch nanocrystals (StN) and metal salts. Excellent polymerization profiles were revealed. It was shown that silver nanoparticles (Ag(0) NPs) were in situ formed and that the addition of StN improves the polymerization efficiency. The as-synthesized nanocomposite materials contained spherical nanoparticles homogeneously dispersed in the polymer matrices. Polymers and nanoparticles were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis spectroscopy. A coherent picture of the involved chemical mechanisms is presented.

  9. Proposal of New Water Electrode Method Used for Short-time Testing Method of Water Treeing and Consideration on Temperature Effects of Water Tree Initiation and Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Hiroaki; Kudo, Katsutoshi; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Kanekawa, Teruo; Tsuboi, Yuichi; Ushiwata, Kodai; Yoshimitsu, Tetsuo

    Water treeing occurs when ac voltage is applied to electrical insulation system such as those in power cables and power apparatus. From a practical viewpoint, research on water treeing has been mostly performed under high-frequency ac voltage application. However, power cables and power apparatuses are also used under dc voltage application owing to progress in inverter technology. The inverter drive of a rotating electrical machine has spread and expanded for global warming prevention and maintenance improvement. An underwater motor is used in the water. In an underwater motor driven by the voltage of an inverter, it is necessary to consider the water treeing of motor insulation and connected cable insulation with a drive board. Thus far, the water electrode method that utilizes an ac voltage of high frequency has been used in conducting the accelerating experimental method of water treeing for a long time. On the other hand, an inverter with surge voltage generates an equivalent ac frequency by the application of a multifrequency pulse voltage similar to a pulse width modulation (PWM) control wave. Therefore, there is a possibility of committing a mistake in real-machine reliability evaluation because the initiation and propagation mechanisms are different from those in the case of a real-machine even if we can reproduce water treeing by increasing the basic frequency. In this paper, we investigated the new water electrode method and the temperature effects on water tree initiation and propagation. Furthermore, we compared the experimental results between 500Hz and 50Hz by using the new water electrode method from the view point of temperature.

  10. TMI-2 (Three Mile Island Unit 2) primary coolant mass flowrate data report

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, R.D.

    1986-12-01

    This is a report on the preparation of data from the TMI-2 primary coolant mass flowrate meters for inclusion into the TMI Data Base. The sources of the as-recorded data are discussed, and a description of the instrument is given. An explanation is given of how corrections were made to the as-recorded data and how the uncertainties were calculated. The identifiers attached to each data set in the TMI Data Base are given.

  11. Main-coolant-pump shaft-seal reliability investigation. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Fair, C.E.; Marsi, J.A.; Greer, A.O.

    1982-09-01

    This report contains the results of a survey of reactor coolant pump shaft seal reliability. The survey sample is representatively large (approx. = 27% of total US commercial plant population) and includes the three industry seal suppliers (Bingham-Williamette, Byron Jackson, and Westinghouse). Operationally incurred/induced problems and seal redesign parameters are identified. Failure hypotheses in the form of fault trees have been developed to describe the failure mechanisms. Recommendations are made for seal reliability improvement.

  12. Method for controlling coolant flow in airfoil, flow control structure and airfoil incorporating the same

    DOEpatents

    Itzel, Gary Michael; Devine, II, Robert Henry; Chopra, Sanjay; Toornman, Thomas Nelson

    2003-07-08

    A coolant flow control structure is provided to channel cooling media flow to the fillet region defined at the transition between the wall of a nozzle vane and a wall of a nozzle segment, for cooling the fillet region. In an exemplary embodiment, the flow control structure defines a gap with the fillet region to achieve the required heat transfer coefficients in this region to meet part life requirements.

  13. Main-coolant-pump shaft-seal guidelines. Volume 3. Specification guidelines. Final report. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Fair, C.E.; Greer, A.O.

    1983-03-01

    This report presents a set of guidelines and criteria to aid in the generation of procurement specifications for Main Coolant Pump Shaft Seals. The noted guidelines are developed from EPRI sponsored nuclear power plant seal operating experience studies, a review of pump and shaft seal literature and discussions with pump and seal designers. This report is preliminary in nature and could be expanded and finalized subsequent to completion of further design, test and evaluation efforts.

  14. Correlations of norbornenyl crosslinked polyimide resin structures with resin thermo-oxidative stability, resin glass transition temperature and composite initial mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B.

    1988-01-01

    PMR (polymerization of monomeric reactants) methodology was used to prepare 70 different polyimide oligomeric resins and 30 different unidirectional graphite fiber/polyimide composites. Monomeric composition as well as chain length between sites of crosslinks were varied to examine their effects on resin thermo-oxidative stability and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the cured/postcured resins. A linear correlation of decreasing 316 C resin weight loss/surface area versus (1) decreasing aliphatic content, or (2) increasing benzylic/aliphatic content stoichiometry ratio over a wide range of resin compositions was observed. An almost linear correlation of Tg versus molecular distance between the crosslinks was also observed. An attempt was made to correlate Tg with initial composite mechanical properties (flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength). However, the scatter in mechanical strength data prevented obtaining a clear correlation. Instead, only a range of composite mechanical properties was obtained at 25, 288, and 316 C. Perhaps more importantly, what did become apparent during the correlation study was (1) the PMR methodology could be used to prepare composites from resins containing a wide variety of monomer modifications, (2) that these composites almost invariably provided satisfactory initial mechanical properties as long as the resins formulated exhibited satisfactory processing flow, and (3) that PMR resins exhibited predictable rates of 316 C weight loss/surface area based on their benzylic/aliphatic stoichiometery ratio.

  15. Radiogenic lead as coolant, reflector and moderator in advanced fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, E. G.

    2017-01-01

    Main purpose of the study is assessing reasonability for recovery, production and application of radiogenic lead as a coolant, neutron moderator and neutron reflector in advanced fast reactors. When performing the study, thermal, physical and neutron-physical properties of natural and radiogenic lead were analyzed. The following results were obtained: 1. Radiogenic lead with high content of isotope 208Pb can be extracted from thorium or mixed thorium-uranium ores because 208Pb is a final product of 232Th natural decay chain. 2. The use of radiogenic lead with high 208Pb content in advanced fast reactors and accelerator-driven systems (ADS) makes it possible to improve significantly their neutron-physical and thermal-hydraulic parameters. 3. The use of radiogenic lead with high 208Pb content in advanced fast reactors as a coolant opens the possibilities for more intense fuel breeding and for application of well-known oxide fuel instead of the promising but not tested enough nitride fuel under the same safety parameters. 4. The use of radiogenic lead with high 208Pb content in ADS as a coolant can upgrade substantially the level of neutron flux in the ADS blanket, which enables effective transmutation of radioactive wastes with low cross-sections of radiative neutron capture.

  16. Reducing forces during drilling brittle hard materials by using ultrasonic and variation of coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schopf, C.; Rascher, R.

    2016-11-01

    The process of ultrasonic machining is especially used for brittle hard materials as the additional ultrasonic vibration of the tool at high frequencies and low amplitudes acts like a hammer on the surface. With this technology it is possible to drill holes with lower forces, therefor the machining can be done faster and the worktime is much less than conventionally. A three-axis dynamometer was used to measure the forces, which act between the tool and the sample part. A focus is set on the sharpness of the tool. The results of a test series are based on the Sauer Ultrasonic Grinding Centre. On the same machine it is possible to drill holes in the conventional way. Additional to the ultasonic Input the type an concentration of coolant is important for the Drilling-force. In the test there were three different coolant and three different concentrations tested. The combination of ultrasonic vibration and the right coolant and concentration is the best way to reduce the Forces. Another positive effect is, that lower drilling-forces produce smaller chipping on the edge of the hole. The way to reduce the forces and chipping is the main issue of this paper.

  17. Heat transfer performance characteristics of hybrid nanofluids as coolant in louvered fin automotive radiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Rashmi R.; Sarkar, Jahar

    2016-12-01

    Present study deals with the enhancement of convective heat transfer performance of EG brine based various hybrid nanofluids i.e. Ag, Cu, SiC, CuO and TiO2 in 0-1% volume fraction of Al2O3 nanofluid, as coolants for louvered fin automobile radiator. The effects of nanoparticles combination and operating parameters on thermo physical properties, heat transfer, effectiveness, pumping power and performance index of hybrid nanofluids have been evaluated. Comparison of studied hybrid nanofluids based on radiator size and pumping power has been made as well. Among all studied hybrid nanofluids, 1% Ag hybrid nanofluid (0.5% Ag and 0.5% Al2O3) yields highest effectiveness and heat transfer rate as well as pumping power. However, SiC + Al2O3 dispersed hybrid nanofluid yields maximum performance index and hence this can be recommended for best coolant. For the same radiator size and heat transfer rate, pumping power increases by using Ag hybrid nanofluids leading to increase in engine thermal efficiency and hence reduction in engine fuel consumption. For same coolant flow rate and heat transfer rate, the radiator size reduces and pumping power increases by using Ag hybrid nanofluids leading to reduction in radiator size, weight and cost.

  18. Evaluation of the coolant reactivity coefficient influence on the dynamic response of a small LFR system

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzi, S.; Bortot, S.; Cammi, A.; Ponciroli, R.

    2012-07-01

    An assessment of the coolant reactivity feedback influence on a small Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) dynamics has been made aimed at providing both qualitative and quantitative insights into the system transient behavior depending on the sign of the above mentioned coefficient. The need of such an investigation has been recognized since fast reactors cooled by heavy liquid metals show to be characterized by a strong coupling between primary and secondary systems. In particular, the coolant density and radial expansion coefficients have been attested to play a major role in determining the core response to any perturbed condition on the Steam Generator (SG) side. The European Lead-cooled System (ELSY)-based demonstrator (DEMO) has been assumed as the reference LFR case study. As a first step, a zero-dimensional dynamics model has been developed and implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK{sup R} environment; then typical transient scenarios have been simulated by incorporating the actual negative lead density reactivity coefficient and its opposite. In all the examined cases results have shown that the reactor behaves in a completely different way when considering a positive coolant feedback instead of the reference one, the system free dynamics resulting moreover considerably slower due to the core and SG mutually conflicting reactions. The outcomes of the present analysis may represent a useful feedback for both the core and the control system designers. (authors)

  19. Guidelines to achieve seals with minimal leak rates for HWR-NPR coolant system components

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.

    1991-03-01

    Seal design practices that are acceptable in pressurized-water and boiling-water reactors in the United States are not usable for the Heavy Water Reactor-New Production Reactor (HWR-NPR) because of the stringent requirement on tritium control for the atmosphere within its containment building. To maintain an atmosphere in which workers do not need protective equipment, the components of the coolant system must have a cumulative leak rate less than 0.00026 L/s. Existing technology for seal systems was reviewed with regard to flange, elastomer, valve, and pump design. A technology data base for the designers of the HWR-NPR coolant system was derived from operating experience and seal development work on reactors in the United States, Canada, and Europe. This data base was then used to generate guidelines for the design of seals and/or joints for the HWR-NPR coolant system. Also discussed are needed additional research and development, as well as the necessary component qualification tests for an effective quality control program. 141 refs., 21 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. Chimera grids in the simulation of three-dimensional flowfields in turbine-blade-coolant passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, M. A.; Rimlinger, M. J.; Shih, T. I.-P.; Civinskas, K. C.

    1993-01-01

    When computing flows inside geometrically complex turbine-blade coolant passages, the structure of the grid system used can affect significantly the overall time and cost required to obtain solutions. This paper addresses this issue while evaluating and developing computational tools for the design and analysis of coolant-passages, and is divided into two parts. In the first part, the various types of structured and unstructured grids are compared in relation to their ability to provide solutions in a timely and cost-effective manner. This comparison shows that the overlapping structured grids, known as Chimera grids, can rival and in some instances exceed the cost-effectiveness of unstructured grids in terms of both the man hours needed to generate grids and the amount of computer memory and CPU time needed to obtain solutions. In the second part, a computational tool utilizing Chimera grids was used to compute the flow and heat transfer in two different turbine-blade coolant passages that contain baffles and numerous pin fins. These computations showed the versatility and flexibility offered by Chimera grids.

  1. High-Temperature High-Power Packaging Techniques for HEV Traction Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, F.D.; Elshabini, A.

    2006-11-30

    reduction of these systems could be achieved is through the use of a single coolant loop for both the power electronics as well as the internal combustion engine (ICE) [2]. This change would reduce the complexity of the cooling system which currently relies on two loops to a single loop [3]. However, the current nominal coolant temperature entering these inverters is 65 C [3], whereas a normal ICE coolant temperature would be much higher at approximately 100 C. This change in coolant temperature significantly increases the junction temperatures of the devices and creates a number of challenges for both device fabrication and the assembly of these devices into inverters and converters for HEV and PHEV applications. With this change in mind, significant progress has been made on the use of SiC devices for inverters that can withstand much higher junction temperatures than traditional Si based inverters [4,5,6]. However, a key problem which the single coolant loop and high temperature devices is the effective packaging of these devices and related components into a high temperature inverter. The elevated junction temperatures that exist in these modules are not compatible with reliable inverters based on existing packaging technology. This report seeks to provide a literature survey of high temperature packaging and to highlight the issues related to the implementation of high temperature power electronic modules for HEV and PHEV applications. For purposes of discussion, it will be assumed in this report that 200 C is the targeted maximum junction temperature.

  2. Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR) phenomena identification and ranking (PIR) for large break loss of coolant accidents (LBLOCA)

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggles, A. E.; Cheng, L. Y.; Dimenna, R. A.; Griffith, P.; Wilson, G. E.

    1994-06-01

    A team of experts in reactor analysis conducted a phenomena identification and ranking (PIR) exercise for a large break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) in the Advanced Neutron source Reactor (ANSR). The LBLOCA transient is broken into two separate parts for the PIR exercise. The first part considers the initial depressurization of the system that follows the opening of the break. The second part of the transient includes long-term decay heat removal after the reactor is shut down and the system is depressurized. A PIR is developed for each part of the LBLOCA. The ranking results are reviewed to establish if models in the RELAP5-MOD3 thermalhydraulic code are adequate for use in ANSR LBLOCA simulations. Deficiencies in the RELAP5-MOD3 code are identified and existing data or models are recommended to improve the code for this application. Experiments were also suggested to establish models for situations judged to be beyond current knowledge. The applicability of the ANSR PIR results is reviewed for the entire set of transients important to the ANSR safety analysis.

  3. Chlorine atom-initiated low-temperature oxidation of prenol and isoprenol: The effect of C=C double bonds on the peroxy radical chemistry in alcohol oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Welz, Oliver; Savee, John D.; Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.

    2014-07-04

    The chlorine atom-initiated oxidation of two unsaturated primary C5 alcohols, prenol (3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, (CH3)2CCHCH2OH) and isoprenol (3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, CH2C(CH3)CH2CH2OH), is studied at 550 K and low pressure (8 Torr). The time- and isomer-resolved formation of products is probed with multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS) using tunable vacuum ultraviolet ionizing synchrotron radiation. The peroxy radical chemistry of the unsaturated alcohols appears much less rich than that of saturated C4 and C5 alcohols. The main products observed are the corresponding unsaturated aldehydes – prenal (3-methyl-2-butenal) from prenol oxidation and isoprenal (3-methyl-3-butenal) from isoprenol oxidation. No significant products arising from QOOH chemistry are observed. These results can be qualitatively explained by the formation of resonance stabilized allylic radicals via H-abstraction in the Cl + prenol and Cl + isoprenol initiation reactions. The loss of resonance stabilization upon O2 addition causes the energies of the intermediate wells, saddle points, and products to increase relative to the energy of the initial radicals and O2. These energetic shifts make most product channels observed in the peroxy radical chemistry of saturated alcohols inaccessible for these unsaturated alcohols. The experimental findings are underpinned by quantum-chemical calculations for stationary points on the potential energy surfaces for the reactions of the initial radicals with O2. Under our conditions, the dominant channels in prenol and isoprenol oxidation are the chain-terminating HO2-forming channels arising from radicals, in which the unpaired electron and the –OH group are on the same carbon atom, with stable prenal and isoprenal co-products, respectively. These results suggest that the presence of C=C double bonds in alcohols will reduce

  4. Fatigue crack initiation in carbon and low-alloy steels in light water reactor environments : mechanism and prediction.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.

    1998-01-27

    Section 111 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. The effects of reactor coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Recent test data illustrate potentially significant effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of carbon and low-alloy steels. Under certain loading and environmental conditions, fatigue lives of test specimens may be shorter than those in air by a factor of {approx}70. The crack initiation and crack growth characteristics of carbon and low-alloy steels in LWR environments are presented. Decreases in fatigue life of these steels in high-dissolved-oxygen water are caused primarily by the effect of environment on growth of short cracks < 100 {micro}m in depth. The material and loading parameters that influence fatigue life in LWR environments are defined. Fatigue life is decreased significantly when five conditions are satisfied simultaneously, viz., applied strain range, service temperature, dissolved oxygen in water, and S content in steel are above a threshold level, and loading strain rate is below a threshold value. Statistical models have been developed for estimating the fatigue life of these steels in LWR environments. The significance of the effect of environment on the current Code design curve is evaluated.

  5. Low Temperature Chlorine-Initiated Oxidation of Small-Chain Methyl Esters: Quantification of Chain-Terminating HO2-Elimination Channels.

    PubMed

    Muller, Giel; Scheer, Adam; Osborn, David L; Taatjes, Craig A; Meloni, Giovanni

    2016-03-17

    Cl-initiated oxidation reactions of three small-chain methyl esters, methyl propanoate (CH3CH2COOCH3; MP), methyl butanoate (CH3CH2CH2COOCH3; MB), and methyl valerate (CH3CH2CH2CH2COOCH3; MV), are studied at 1 or 8 Torr and 550 and 650 K. Products are monitored as a function of mass, time, and photoionization energy using multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry coupled to tunable synchrotron photoionization radiation. Pulsed photolysis of molecular chlorine is the source of Cl radicals, which remove an H atom from the ester, forming a free radical. In each case, after addition of O2 to the initial radicals, chain-terminating HO2-elimination reactions are observed to be important. Branching ratios among competing HO2-elimination channels are determined via absolute photoionization spectra of the unsaturated methyl ester coproducts. At 550 K, HO2-elimination is observed to be selective, resulting in nearly exclusive production of the conjugated methyl ester coproducts, methyl propenoate, methyl-2-butenoate, and methyl-2-pentenoate, respectively. However, in MV, upon raising the temperature to 650 K, other HO2-elimination pathways are observed that yield methyl-3-pentenoate and methyl-4-pentenoate. In each methyl ester oxidation reaction, a peak is observed at a mass consistent with cyclic ether formation, indicating chain-propagating OH loss/ring formation pathways via QOOH intermediates. Evidence is observed for the participation of resonance-stabilized QOOH in the most prominent cyclic ether pathways. Stationary point energies for HO2-elimination pathways and select cyclic ether formation channels are calculated at the CBS-QB3 level of theory and assist in the assignment of reaction pathways and final products.

  6. Initial fate assessment of teratogenic drug trimipramine and its photo-transformation products - Role of pH, concentration and temperature.

    PubMed

    Khaleel, Nareman D H; Mahmoud, Waleed M M; Olsson, Oliver; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Trimipramine (TMP) is an antidepressant drug used for the treatment of a variety of depressive states and other psychiatric disorders. It has been already detected in the aquatic environment. Currently, no further knowledge is available on fate and effects of TMP in the aquatic environment. Therefore, we studied the biodegradability of TMP and of its photolysis transformation products (PTPs) generated by irradiation with polychromatic UV light in aqueous solution. Different conditions including initial drug concentration, pH, and temperature were applied during TMP photolysis. Subsequently, the time courses of TMP and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were monitored throughout the whole photo-degradation process. Then, high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to identify and elucidate the structures of the resulting PTPs. After that, the two standardized biodegradation tests, Closed Bottle test (CBT; OECD 301 D) and Manometric Respirometry test (MRT; OECD 301 F), were performed for TMP and its photolytic mixtures to assess the biodegradability of TMP and its PTPs. Finally, the toxicity of TMP and its photolytic mixtures was predicted using different quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) software. It was found that after 128 min of UV-irradiation, 91.8% of TMP at the initial concentration of 100 mg L(-1) was eliminated with only 23.9% removal in the DOC. So, it can be pointed out that more than 65% of the degraded TMP is transformed to new non-mineralized PTPs. 14 new PTPs were detected in TMP's photolytic mixtures. Their supposed structures indicate that the proposed photo-transformation pathway is mainly by hydroxylation. The statistical analysis confirms that the differences in the degradation rates of TMP as a function of concentration, pH, and temperature are statistically significant in most cases investigated here. In biodegradation testing, TMP and its PTPs are classified as not readily biodegradable, while LC-MS analysis

  7. High-temperature pump-motor assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colker, C.; Waldron, W.

    1971-01-01

    Assembly pumps liquid sodium-potassium /NaK/ eutectic at 950 K for up to 20,000 hours. Design features include - high operating-temperature capability, zero leakage, process fluid lubricant/coolant, insulation system compatible with ionizing radiation environments, and reliability and long life without maintenance.

  8. Scaling and design analyses of a scaled-down, high-temperature test facility for experimental investigation of the initial stages of a VHTR air-ingress accident

    SciTech Connect

    Arcilesi, David J.; Ham, Tae Kyu; Kim, In Hun; Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard N.; Oh, Chang H.

    2015-07-01

    A critical event in the safety analysis of the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) is an air-ingress accident. This accident is initiated, in its worst case scenario, by a double-ended guillotine break of the coaxial cross vessel, which leads to a rapid reactor vessel depressurization. In a VHTR, the reactor vessel is located within a reactor cavity that is filled with air during normal operating conditions. Following the vessel depressurization, the dominant mode of ingress of an air–helium mixture into the reactor vessel will either be molecular diffusion or density-driven stratified flow. The mode of ingress is hypothesized to depend largely on the break conditions of the cross vessel. Since the time scales of these two ingress phenomena differ by orders of magnitude, it is imperative to understand under which conditions each of these mechanisms will dominate in the air ingress process. Computer models have been developed to analyze this type of accident scenario. There are, however, limited experimental data available to understand the phenomenology of the air-ingress accident and to validate these models. Therefore, there is a need to design and construct a scaled-down experimental test facility to simulate the air-ingress accident scenarios and to collect experimental data. The current paper focuses on the analyses performed for the design and operation of a 1/8th geometric scale (by height and diameter), high-temperature test facility. A geometric scaling analysis for the VHTR, a time scale analysis of the air-ingress phenomenon, a transient depressurization analysis of the reactor vessel, a hydraulic similarity analysis of the test facility, a heat transfer characterization of the hot plenum, a power scaling analysis for the reactor system, and a design analysis of the containment vessel are discussed.

  9. Fuel-Coolant-Interaction modeling and analysis work for the High Flux Isotope Reactor Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Georgevich, V.; Nestor, C.W.; Chang, S.J.; Freels, J.; Gat, U.; Lepard, B.L.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Luttrell, C.; Kirkpatrick, J.

    1993-07-01

    A brief historical background and a description of short- and long-term task plan development for effective closure of this important safety issue for the HFIR are given. Short-term aspects deal with Fuel-Coolant-Interaction (FCI) issues experimentation, modeling, and analysis for the flow-blockage-induced steam explosion events in direct support of the SAR. Long-term aspects deal with addressing FCI issues resulting from other accidents in conjunction with issues dealing with aluminum ignition, which can result in an order of magnitude increase in overall energetics. Problem formulation, modeling, and computer code simulation for the various phases of steam explosions are described. The evaluation of core melt initiation propagation, and melt superheat are described. Core melt initiation and propagation have been studied using simple conservative models as well as from modeling and analysis using RELAP5. Core debris coolability, heatup, and melting/freezing aspects have been studied by use of the two-dimensional melting/freezing analysis code 2DKO, which was also benchmarked with MELCOR code predictions. Descriptions are provided for the HM, BH, FCIMOD, and CTH computer codes that have been implemented for studying steam explosion energetics from the standpoint of evaluating bounding loads by thermodynamic models or best-estimate loads from one- and two-dimensional simulations of steam explosion energetics. Vessel failure modeling and analysis was conducted using the principles of probabilistic fracture mechanics in conjunction with ADINA code calculations. Top head bolts failure modeling has also been conducted where the failure criterion was based upon stresses in the bolts exceeding the material yield stress for a given time duration. Missile transport modeling and analysis was conducted by setting up a one-dimensional mathematical model that accounts for viscous dissipation, virtual mass effects, and material inertia.

  10. Experimental study of void behavior in a suppression pool of a boiling water reactor during the blowdown period of a loss of coolant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassame, Somboon

    The possible failure of an Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) train due to a large amount of entrained gas in the ECCS pump suction piping in a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) is one of the potential engineering problems faced in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) power plant. To analyze potential gas intrusion into the ECCS pump suction piping, the study of void behavior in the Suppression Pool (SP) during the LOCA is necessary. The void fraction distribution and void penetration are considered as the key parameters in the problem analysis. Two sets of experiments, namely, steady-state tests and transient tests were conducted using the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly for ESBWR application (PUMA-E) to study void behavior in the SP during the blowdown. The design of the test apparatus used is based on the scaling analysis from a prototypical BWR containment (MARK-I) with consideration of the downcomer size, the SP water level, and the downcomer water submergence depth. Several instruments were installed to obtain the required experimental data, such as inlet gas volumetric flow, void fraction, pressure, and temperature. For the steady-state tests, the air was injected through a downcomer pipe in the SP in order to simulate the physical phenomena in the SP during the initial blowdown of LOCA. Thirty tests were performed with two different downcomer sizes (0.076 and 0.102 m), various air volumetric flow rates or flux (0.003 to 0.153 m3/s or 0.5 to 24.7 m/s), initial downcomer void conditions (fully filled with water, partially void, and completely void) and air velocity ramp rates (one to two seconds). Two phases of the experiment were observed, namely, the initial phase and the quasi-steady phase. The initial phase produced the maximum void penetration depth; and the quasi-steady phase showed less void penetration with oscillation in the void penetration. The air volumetric flow rate was found to have a minor effect on the void fraction

  11. Vapor Explosion of Coolant Jet When Penetrating a Hot Molten Metal

    SciTech Connect

    Perets, Y.; Harari, R.; Sher, E.

    2005-06-15

    The vapor explosion phenomenon is investigated experimentally for a geometrical arrangement in which a cold liquid (water) jet is injected into a hot liquid surface (tin). Medium-scale experiments using 1 kg of molten tin were performed in an open geometry experiment system. In the first phase of the research, the influence of the injection mass flow rate on the likelihood of vapor explosion was investigated in order to map the various relevant regimes. In the second phase, the influence of some selected parameters on the interaction was studied to characterize the relevant parameters of the vapor explosion phenomenon.The range of the initial tin and water temperatures that leads to vapor explosion has been determined in order to define the thermal interaction zone. It is noticed that vapor explosion can occur at high water temperatures even near the saturation point. The delay time for the explosion to occur and the degree of the interaction violence were correlated with the initial tin and water temperatures. We also clarified the triggering point and noted a correlation between the quench temperature and the likelihood of the vapor explosion occurrence.

  12. First-principles study of structure, initial lattice expansion, and pressure-composition-temperature hysteresis for substituted LaNi5 and TiMn2 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, D. F.; Young, K.; Ng, K. Y. S.

    2016-12-01

    The c/a unit-cell aspect ratios of CaCu5-structured AB5 and C14 Laves phase AB2 metal hydride alloy families are generally correlated to pressure-concentration-temperature hysteresis and degree of alloy pulverization. Structures of substituted LaNi4 X and C14 Ti4Mn7 X compositions and their hydrides in the α-phase were calculated by first principles using density functional theory to look at the c/a ratio and its relationship to initial lattice expansion. Lattice expansion with respect to the lattice parameters and lattice volume in the α-phase hydrides were analyzed, and a general trend in lattice expansion in the direction of higher resistance to elastic deformation was observed to correlate well to the trends in hysteresis measured in AB5 and C14 AB2 type alloys. Lattice expansion is noted to induce microstrains within the crystal lattice, and the anisotropy in the LaNi4 X and Ti4Mn7 X alloys played a role in determining the direction of higher resistance to deformation. Lattice expansions both measured and calculated have been linked to capacity degradation measurements as well as to hysteresis (a measure of irreversible energy losses due to lattice plastic deformation), which may be related to the dislocations and defects formed during hydrogenation.

  13. Enhanced production of direct photons in Au + Au collisions at square root(S(NN)) = 200 GeV and implications for the initial temperature.

    PubMed

    Adare, A; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Al-Jamel, A; Aoki, K; Aphecetche, L; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Asai, J; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bauer, F; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, Y; Bickley, A A; Bjorndal, M T; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Chai, J-S; Chang, B S; Charvet, J-L; Chernichenko, S; Chiba, J; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Churyn, A; Cianciolo, V; Cleven, C R; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgo, T; Dahms, T; Das, K; David, G; Deaton, M B; Dehmelt, K; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drachenberg, J L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Dubey, A K; Durum, A; Dzhordzhadze, V; Efremenko, Y V; Egdemir, J; Ellinghaus, F; Emam, W S; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Forestier, B; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fung, S-Y; Fusayasu, T; Gadrat, S; Garishvili, I; Gastineau, F; Germain, M; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H-A; Hachiya, T; Hadj Henni, A; Haegemann, C; Haggerty, J S; Hagiwara, M N; Hamagaki, H; Han, R; Harada, H; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Harvey, M; Haslum, E; Hasuko, K; Hayano, R; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Heuser, J M; He, X; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Hohlmann, M; Holmes, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Hur, M G; Ichihara, T; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Inoue, Y; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jin, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Kanou, H; Kawagishi, T; Kawall, D; Kazantsev, A V; Kelly, S; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, Y-S; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klay, J; Klein-Boesing, C; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kroon, P J; Kubart, J; Kunde, G J; Kurihara, N; Kurita, K; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y-S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Le Bornec, Y; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, M K; Lee, T; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Lenzi, B; Lim, H; Liska, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Li, X; Li, X H; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Masek, L; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCain, M C; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Miake, Y; Mikes, P; Miki, K; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, G C; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mitrovski, M; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagata, Y; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Norman, B E; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, H; Okada, K; Oka, M; Omiwade, O O; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Rykov, V L; Ryu, S S; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, S; Sakata, H; Samsonov, V; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shea, T K; Shein, I; Shevel, A; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shohjoh, T; Shoji, K; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Skutnik, S; Slunecka, M; Smith, W C; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sullivan, J P; Sziklai, J; Tabaru, T; Takagi, S; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tojo, J; Tomásek, L; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tram, V-N; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Vertesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wagner, M; Walker, D; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; Wessels, J; White, S N; Willis, N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yanovich, A; Yasin, Z; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zaudtke, O; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zimányi, J; Zolin, L

    2010-04-02

    The production of e+ e- pairs for m(e+ e-)<0.3 GeV/c2 and 1initial temperatures ranging from T(init) approximately 300-600 MeV at times of approximately 0.6-0.15 fm/c after the collision are in qualitative agreement with the data. Lattice QCD predicts a phase transition to quark gluon plasma at approximately 170 MeV.

  14. Control of reactor coolant flow path during reactor decay heat removal

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein N.

    1988-01-01

    An improved reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system for a sodium cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The sodium cooled nuclear reactor is of the type having a reactor vessel liner separating the reactor hot pool on the upstream side of an intermediate heat exchanger and the reactor cold pool on the downstream side of the intermediate heat exchanger. The improvement includes a flow path across the reactor vessel liner flow gap which dissipates core heat across the reactor vessel and containment vessel responsive to a casualty including the loss of normal heat removal paths and associated shutdown of the main coolant liquid sodium pumps. In normal operation, the reactor vessel cold pool is inlet to the suction side of coolant liquid sodium pumps, these pumps being of the electromagnetic variety. The pumps discharge through the core into the reactor hot pool and then through an intermediate heat exchanger where the heat generated in the reactor core is discharged. Upon outlet from the heat exchanger, the sodium is returned to the reactor cold pool. The improvement includes placing a jet pump across the reactor vessel liner flow gap, pumping a small flow of liquid sodium from the lower pressure cold pool into the hot pool. The jet pump has a small high pressure driving stream diverted from the high pressure side of the reactor pumps. During normal operation, the jet pumps supplement the normal reactor pressure differential from the lower pressure cold pool to the hot pool. Upon the occurrence of a casualty involving loss of coolant pump pressure, and immediate cooling circuit is established by the back flow of sodium through the jet pumps from the reactor vessel hot pool to the reactor vessel cold pool. The cooling circuit includes flow into the reactor vessel liner flow gap immediate the reactor vessel wall and containment vessel where optimum and immediate discharge of residual reactor heat occurs.

  15. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) / International Space Station (ISS) Coolant Loop Failure and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Cole, Harold; Cronin, Gary; Gazda, Daniel B.; Steele, John

    2006-01-01

    Following the Colombia accident, the Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMU) onboard ISS were unused for several months. Upon startup, the units experienced a failure in the coolant system. This failure resulted in the loss of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) capability from the US segment of ISS. With limited on-orbit evidence, a team of chemists, engineers, metallurgists, and microbiologists were able to identify the cause of the failure and develop recovery hardware and procedures. As a result of this work, the ISS crew regained the capability to perform EVAs from the US segment of the ISS.

  16. Analysis of a small break loss-of-coolant accident of pressurized water reactor by APROS

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Falahi, A.; Haennine, M.; Porkholm, K.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the capability of APROS (Advanced PROcess Simulator) code to simulate the real plant thermal-hydraulic transient of a Small Break Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) of Loss-Of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility. The LOFT is a scaled model of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). This work is a part of a larger validation of the APROS thermal-hydraulic models. The results of SBLOCA transient calculated by APROS showed a reasonable agreement with the measured data.

  17. Failures of the thermal barriers of 900 MWe reactor coolant pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Peyrouty, P.

    1996-12-01

    This report describes the anomalies encountered in the thermal barriers of the reactor coolant pumps in French 900 MWe PWR power stations. In addition to this specific problem, it demonstrates how the fortuitous discovery of a fault during a sampling test enabled faults of a generic nature to be revealed in components which were not subject to periodic inspection, the failure of which could seriously affect safety. This example demonstrates the risk which can be associated with the deterioration in areas which are not examined periodically and for which there are no preceding signs which would make early detection of deterioration possible.

  18. Lamp system with conditioned water coolant and diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene(PTFE)

    DOEpatents

    Zapata, Luis E.; Hackel, Lloyd

    1999-01-01

    A lamp system with a very soft high-intensity output is provided over a large area by water cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure by a one micron particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates and de-ionizes and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.

  19. Proceedings of the CSNI specialists meeting on fuel-coolant interactions

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    A specialists meeting on fuel-coolant interactions was held in Santa Barbara, CA from January 5-7, 1993. The meeting was sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission in collaboration with the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installation (CSNI) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the University of California at Santa Barbara. The objectives of the meeting are to cross-fertilize on-going work, provide opportunities for mutual check points, seek to focus the technical issues on matters of practical significance and re-evaluate both the objectives as well as path of future research. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  20. Photoelectrochemical protection of stainless alloys from the stress-corrosion cracking in BWR primary coolant environment

    SciTech Connect

    Akashi, Masatsune; Iso-o, Hiroyuki; Kubota, Nobuhiko; Fukuda, Takanori; Ayabe, Muneo; Hirano, Kenji

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of counteracting or preventing the stress-corrosion cracking in the BWR core internals by the photoelectrochemical method has been examined. For the purpose TiO{sub 2} semiconductor is noted for its capability of photo electrochemically inducing the water-oxidizing anodic reaction in low enough potential domain if supplied with a light of a wavelength shorter than 410 nm. This paper offers an empirical proof by showing that Type 304 stainless steel and Alloy 600 stainless alloy that have been plasma-spray coated with TiO{sub 2} film will do quite well in environments of BWR primary coolant.

  1. Development of sputtered techniques for thrust chambers. [coolant passage closing by triode sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullaly, J. R.; Hecht, R. J.; Broch, J. W.; Allard, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    Procedures for closing out coolant passages in regeneratively cooled thrust chambers by triode sputtering, using post and hollow Cu-0.15 percent Zr cathodes are described. The effects of aluminum composite filler materials, substrate preparation, sputter cleaning, substrate bias current density and system geometry on closeout layer bond strength and structure are evaluated. High strength closeout layers were sputtered over aluminum fillers. The tensile strength and microstructure of continuously sputtered Cu-0.15 percent Zr deposits were determined. These continuous sputtered deposits were as thick as 0.75 cm. Tensile strengths were consistently twice as great as the strength of the material in wrought form.

  2. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Case 2: with Beam Shutdown Only

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    This report is one of a series of reports that document normal operation and accident simulations for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) blanket heat removal system. These simulations were performed for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. This report documents the results of simulations of a Loss-of-Flow Accident (LOFA) where power is lost to all of the pumps that circulate water in the blanket region, the accelerator beam is shut off and neither the residual heat removal nor cavity flood systems operate.

  3. TEMPERATURE DEPENDANT BEHAVIOUR OBSERVED IN THE AFIP-6 IRRADIATION TEST

    SciTech Connect

    A. B. Robinson; D. M. Wachs; P. Medvedev; S.J. Miller; F. J. Rice; M. K. Meyer; D. M. Perez

    2012-03-01

    The AFIP-6 test assembly was irradiated for one cycle in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory. The experiment was designed to test two monolithic fuel plates at power and burn-ups which bounded the operating conditions of both ATR and HFIR driver fuel. Both plates contained a solid U-Mo fuel foil with a zirconium diffusion barrier between 6061-aluminum cladding plates bonded by hot isostatic pressing. The experiment was designed with an orifice to restrict the coolant flow in order to obtain prototypic coolant temperature conditions. While these coolant temperatures were obtained, the reduced flow resulted in a sufficiently low heat transfer coefficient that failure of the fuel plates occurred. The increased fuel temperature led to significant variations in the fission gas retention behaviour of the U-Mo fuel. These variations in performance are outlined herein.

  4. Numerical Analysis of Coolant Flow and Heat Transfer in ITER Diagnostic First Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Khodak, A.; Loesser, G.; Zhai, Y.; Udintsev, V.; Klabacha, J.; Wang, W.; Johnson, D.; Feder, R.

    2015-07-24

    We performed numerical simulations of the ITER Diagnostic First Wall (DFW) using ANSYS workbench. During operation DFW will include solid main body as well as liquid coolant. Thus thermal and hydraulic analysis of the DFW was performed using conjugated heat transfer approach, in which heat transfer was resolved in both solid and liquid parts, and simultaneously fluid dynamics analysis was performed only in the liquid part. This approach includes interface between solid and liquid part of the systemAnalysis was performed using ANSYS CFX software. CFX software allows solution of heat transfer equations in solid and liquid part, and solution of the flow equations in the liquid part. Coolant flow in the DFW was assumed turbulent and was resolved using Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations with Shear Stress Transport turbulence model. Meshing was performed using CFX method available within ANSYS. The data cloud for thermal loading consisting of volumetric heating and surface heating was imported into CFX Volumetric heating source was generated using Attila software. Surface heating was obtained using radiation heat transfer analysis. Our results allowed us to identify areas of excessive heating. Proposals for cooling channel relocation were made. Additional suggestions were made to improve hydraulic performance of the cooling system.

  5. Fluid flow analysis of the SSME high pressure fuel and oxidizer turbine coolant systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teal, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    The objective is to provide improved analysis capability for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high pressure fuel and oxidizer turbine coolant systems. Each of the systems was analyzed to determine fluid flow rate and thermodynamic and transport properties at all key points in the systems. Existing computer codes were used as a baseline for these analyses. These codes were modified to provide improved analysis capability. The major areas of improvement are listed. A review of the drawings was performed, and pertinent geometry changes were included in the models. Improvements were made in the calculation of thermodynamic and transport properties for a mixture of hydrogen and steam. A one-dimensional turbine model for each system is included as a subroutine to each code. This provides a closed loop analysis with a minimum of required boundary conditions as input. An improved labyrinth seal model is included in the high pressure fuel turbine coolant model. The modifications and the analysis results are presented in detail.

  6. In-vessel ITER tubing failure rates for selected materials and coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, T.D.; Cadwallader, L.C.

    1994-03-01

    Several materials have been suggested for fabrication of ITER in-vessel coolant tubing: beryllium, copper, Inconel, niobium, stainless steel, titanium, and vanadium. This report generates failure rates for the materials to identify the best performer from an operational safety and availability perspective. Coolant types considered in this report are helium gas, liquid lithium, liquid sodium, and water. Failure rates for the materials are generated by including the influence of ITER`s operating environment and anticipated tubing failure mechanisms with industrial operating experience failure rates. The analyses define tubing failure mechanisms for ITER as: intergranular attack, flow erosion, helium induced swelling, hydrogen damage, neutron irradiation embrittlement, cyclic fatigue, and thermal cycling. K-factors, multipliers, are developed to model each failure mechanism and are applied to industrial operating experience failure rates to generate tubing failure rates for ITER. The generated failure rates identify the best performer by its expected reliability. With an average leakage failure rate of 3.1e-10(m-hr){sup {minus}1}and an average rupture failure rate of 3.1e-11(m-hr){sup {minus}1}, titanium proved to be the best performer of the tubing materials. The failure rates generated in this report are intended to serve as comparison references for design safety and optimization studies. Actual material testing and analyses are required to validate the failure rates.

  7. Numerical Study of Coolant Mixing Caused by the Flow Deflectors in a Nuclear Fuel Bundle

    SciTech Connect

    In, Wang Kee

    2001-05-15

    A numerical study was conducted to investigate the nuclear fuel assembly coolant flow mixing that is promoted by the flow deflectors on the grid spacer. Four typical flow deflectors (split vane, side-supported vane, swirl vane, and twisted vane) were chosen for this study. A single subchannel of one grid span is modeled using the flow symmetry. The predicted axial and lateral mean flow velocities, and the turbulent kinetic energy in the subchannel for the split-vane design, are in good agreement with the experimental results.The split vane and the twisted vane generate a large cross flow between the subchannels and a skewed elliptic swirling flow in the subchannel near the grid spacer. The cross flow rapidly decreases and the swirling flow becomes dominant downstream of the spacer. The side-supported vane induces a horizontally elongated elliptic swirl in the subchannel and a secondary flow in the near downstream of the spacer. The swirl vane produces a circular swirling flow in the subchannel and a negligible cross flow. For the twisted-vane and side-supported vane designs, the change in direction of the cross flow was predicted. The average turbulent kinetic energy in the subchannel sharply increases near the spacer and rapidly decreases to a fully developed level. In summary, the numerical results showed a somewhat large difference from the experimental results near the spacer but represented the overall characteristics of coolant mixing well in a nuclear fuel bundle with the flow deflectors on the grid spacer.

  8. Effect of reactor coolant radioactivity upon configuration feasibility for a nuclear electric propulsion vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffer, L.; Wright, G. N.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary shielding analysis was carried out for a conceptual nuclear electric propulsion vehicle designed to transport payloads from low earth orbit to synchronous orbit. The vehicle employed a thermionic nuclear reactor operating at 1575 kilowatts and generated 120 kilowatts of electricity for a round-trip mission time of 2000 hours. Propulsion was via axially directed ion engines employing 3300 pounds of mercury as a propellant. The vehicle configuration permitted a reactor shadow shield geometry using LiH and the mercury propellant for shielding. However, much of the radioactive NaK reactor coolant was unshielded and in close proximity to the power conditioning electronics. An estimate of the radioactivity of the NaK coolant was made and its unshielded dose rate to the power conditioning equipment calculated. It was found that the activated NaK contributed about three-fourths of the gamma dose constraint. The NaK dose was considered a sufficiently high fraction of the allowable gamma dose to necessitate modifications in configuration.

  9. Differential pulse stripping voltammetry for the determination of nickel and cobalt in simulated PWR coolant.

    PubMed

    Torrance, K; Gatford, C

    1985-04-01

    The determination of ionic nickel and cobalt in simulated PWR coolant at concentrations below 1 microg/l. by differential pulse stripping voltammetry at a hanging mercury-drop electrode has been investigated. The high sensitivity for these ions results from the adsorptive accumulation of their dimethylglyoximate complexes on the mercury drop. Boric acid does not interfere and if the samples are adjusted to pH 9 with an ammonia-ammonium chloride buffer, both nickel and cobalt can be determined in the same run. The relative standard deviations at concentrations below 2 microg/l. are of the order of 5-7% and the limits of detection for nickel and cobalt are about 8 and 2 ng/l. respectively. These performance statistics show that this method is the most sensitive method currently available for determination of soluble nickel and cobalt in PWR coolant and it should prove to be most valuable in any corrosion studies of the materials of construction of the primary circuit of a PWR.

  10. Numerical Analysis of Coolant Flow and Heat Transfer in ITER Diagnostic First Wall

    DOE PAGES

    Khodak, A.; Loesser, G.; Zhai, Y.; ...

    2015-07-24

    We performed numerical simulations of the ITER Diagnostic First Wall (DFW) using ANSYS workbench. During operation DFW will include solid main body as well as liquid coolant. Thus thermal and hydraulic analysis of the DFW was performed using conjugated heat transfer approach, in which heat transfer was resolved in both solid and liquid parts, and simultaneously fluid dynamics analysis was performed only in the liquid part. This approach includes interface between solid and liquid part of the systemAnalysis was performed using ANSYS CFX software. CFX software allows solution of heat transfer equations in solid and liquid part, and solution ofmore » the flow equations in the liquid part. Coolant flow in the DFW was assumed turbulent and was resolved using Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations with Shear Stress Transport turbulence model. Meshing was performed using CFX method available within ANSYS. The data cloud for thermal loading consisting of volumetric heating and surface heating was imported into CFX Volumetric heating source was generated using Attila software. Surface heating was obtained using radiation heat transfer analysis. Our results allowed us to identify areas of excessive heating. Proposals for cooling channel relocation were made. Additional suggestions were made to improve hydraulic performance of the cooling system.« less

  11. Waste Heat Recovery from the Advanced Test Reactor Secondary Coolant Loop

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using a waste heat recovery system (WHRS) to recover heat from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) secondary coolant system (SCS). This heat would be used to preheat air for space heating of the reactor building, thus reducing energy consumption, carbon footprint, and energy costs. Currently, the waste heat from the reactor is rejected to the atmosphere via a four-cell, induced-draft cooling tower. Potential energy and cost savings are 929 kW and $285K/yr. The WHRS would extract a tertiary coolant stream from the SCS loop and pump it to a new plate and frame heat exchanger, from which the heat would be transferred to a glycol loop for preheating outdoor air supplied to the heating and ventilation system. The use of glycol was proposed to avoid the freezing issues that plagued and ultimately caused the failure of a WHRS installed at the ATR in the 1980s. This study assessed the potential installation of a new WHRS for technical, logistical, and economic feasibility.

  12. Oxygen isotope analysis of carbonates in the calcite-dolomite-magnesite solid-solution by high-temperature pyrolysis: initial results.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Stephen F; Spero, Howard J; Winter, David A; Sloane, Hilary J; Croudace, Ian W

    2008-06-01

    Accurate and efficient measurement of the oxygen isotope composition of carbonates (delta(C) (18)O) based on the mass spectrometric analysis of CO(2) produced by reacting carbonate samples with H(3)PO(4) is compromised by: (1) uncertainties associated with fractionation factors (alpha(CO)(2)C) used to correct measured oxygen isotope values of CO(2)(delta(CO(2)(18)O) to delta(C) (18)O; and (2) the slow reaction rates of many carbonates of geological and environmental interest with H(3)PO(4). In contrast, determination of delta(C) (18)O from analysis of CO produced by high-temperature (>1400 degrees C) pyrolytic reduction, using an elemental analyser coupled to continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (TC/EA CF-IRMS), offers a potentially efficient alternative that measures the isotopic composition of total carbonate oxygen and should, therefore, theoretically be free of fractionation effects. The utility of the TC/EA CF-IRMS technique was tested by analysis of carbonates in the calcite-dolomite-magnesite solid-solution and comparing the results with delta(C) (18)O measured by conventional thermal decomposition/fluorination (TDF) on the same materials. Initial results show that CO yields are dependent on both the chemical composition of the carbonate and the specific pyrolysis conditions. Low gas yields (<100% of predicted yield) are associated with positive (>+0.2 per thousand) deviations in delta(C(TC/EA) (18)O compared with delta(C(TDF) (18)O. At a pyrolysis temperature of 1420 degrees C the difference between delta(C) (18)O measured by TC/EA CF-IRMS and TDF (Delta(C(TC/EA,TDF) (18)O) was found to be negatively correlated with gas yield (r = -0.785) and this suggests that delta(C) (18)O values (with an estimated combined standard uncertainty of +/-0.38 per thousand) could be derived by applying a yield-dependent correction. Increasing the pyrolysis temperature to 1500 degrees C also resulted in a statistically significant correlation with gas yield (r = -0

  13. The effect of stainless steel overlay cladding on corrosion fatigue crack propagation in pressure vessel steel in PWR primary coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Bramwell, I.L.; Tice, D.R.; Worswick, D.; Heys, G.B.

    1995-12-31

    The growth of sub-critical cracks in pressure boundary materials in light water reactors is assessed using codified procedures, but the presence of the overlay-welded stainless steel cladding on the pressure vessel is not normally taken into consideration because of the difficulty in demonstrating clad integrity for the lifetime of the plant. In order to investigate any possible effect of the cladding layer on crack propagation, tests have been performed using two types of specimen. The first was sputter ion plated with a thin layer of austenitic stainless steel to simulate the electrochemical and oxide effects due to the cladding, whilst the second used an overlay clad specimen to investigate the behavior of a crack propagating from the austenitic into the ferritic material. Testing was carried out under cyclic loading conditions in well controlled simulated PWR primary water. At 288 C, the presence of stainless steel in contact with the low alloy steel did not enhance crack propagation in PWR primary coolant compared to unclad or unplated specimens. There was limited evidence that at 288 C under certain loading conditions, in both air and PWR water, there may be an effect of the cladding which reduces crack growth rates, at least for a short distance of crack propagation into the low alloy steel. Crack growth rates in the ferritic steel at 130 C were higher for both the plated and clad specimens than found in previous tests under similar conditions on the unclad material. However, the crack growth rates were bounded by current ASME 11 Appendix A recommendations for defects exposed to water and at low R ratio. There was no evidence of environmental enhancement of crack propagation in the stainless steel in clad specimens. The results indicate that the current approach of ignoring the cladding for assessment purposes is conservative at plant operating temperature.

  14. Flow tests of a single fuel element coolant channel for a compact fast reactor for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springborn, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    Water flow tests were conducted on a single-fuel-element cooling channel for a nuclear concept to be used for space power. The tests established a method for measuring coolant flow rate which is applicable to water flow testing of a complete mockup of the reference reactor. The inlet plenum-to-outlet plenum pressure drop, which approximates the overall core pressure drop, was measured and correlated with flow rate. This information can be used for reactor coolant flow and heat transfer calculations. An analytical study of the flow characteristics was also conducted.

  15. Apparatus for suppressing formation of vortices in the coolant fluid of a nuclear reactor and associated method

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, Douglas E.; Garner, Daniel C.; Hopkins, Ronald J.; Land, John T.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus and method are provided for suppressing the formation of vortices in circulating coolant fluid of a nuclear reactor. A vortex-suppressing plate having a plurality of openings therein is suspended within the lower plenum of a reactor vessel below and generally parallel to the main core support of the reactor. The plate is positioned so as to intersect vortices which may form in the circulating reactor coolant fluid. The intersection of the plate with such vortices disrupts the rotational flow pattern of the vortices, thereby disrupting the formation thereof.

  16. Apparatus for suppressing formation of vortices in the coolant fluid of a nuclear reactor and associated method

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, D.E.; Garner, D.C.; Hopkins, R.J.; Land, J.T.

    1993-11-30

    An apparatus and method are provided for suppressing the formation of vortices in circulating coolant fluid of a nuclear reactor. A vortex-suppressing plate having a plurality of openings therein is suspended within the lower plenum of a reactor vessel below and generally parallel to the main core support of the reactor. The plate is positioned so as to intersect vortices which may form in the circulating reactor coolant fluid. The intersection of the plate with such vortices disrupts the rotational flow pattern of the vortices, thereby disrupting the formation thereof. 3 figures.

  17. Uncertainties in predicting turbine blade metal temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepka, F. S.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the effects of the hot-gas and coolant temperatures, the gas-to-blade and blade-to-coolant heat transfer coefficients, and the thermal conductances of a metal wall and a ceramic thermal-barrier coating on the prediction of local turbine-blade surface temperatures. The analysis was applied to the conditions of an advanced turbofan engine and a 1700 K, 40 atm turbine test rig, and to conditions that simulated the engine at 756 K and 15.6 atm. The results showed that with current information on boundary conditions, geometry, heat-transfer coefficients, and material thermal properties, the uncertainty in predicting and verifying local turbine-blade surface temperatures in an average engine is 98 kelvins or 7.6% of the reference metal absolute temperature for uncoated blades, and 62 kelvins or 5.7% for ceramic-thermal-barrier-coated blades.

  18. Study on the effect of the impeller and diffuser blade number on reactor coolant pump performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Y.; Yin, J. L.; Wang, D. Z.; Li, T. B.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, CFD approach was employed to study how the blade number of impeller and diffuser influences reactor coolant pump performances. The three-dimensional pump internal flow channel was modelled by pro/E software, Reynolds-averaged Naiver-Stokes equations with the k-ε turbulence model were solved by the computational fluid dynamics software CFX. By post-processing on the numerical results, the performance curves of reactor coolant pump were obtained. The results are as follows, with the blade number of the impeller increasing, the head of the pump with different diffuser universally increases in the 8Q n∼1.2Q n conditions, and at different blade number of the diffuser, the head increases with the blade number of the impeller increasing. In 1.0Q n condition, when the blades number combination of impeller and diffuser chooses 4+16, 7+14 and 6+18, the head curves exist singular points. In 1.2Q n condition, the head curve still exists singular point in 6+18. With the blade number of the impeller increasing, the efficiency of the pump with different diffuser universally decreases in the 0.8Q n and 1.0Q n conditions, but in 1.2Q n condition, the efficiency of the pump with different diffuser universally increases. In 1.0Q n condition, the impellers of 4 and 5 blades are better. When the blade number combination of impeller and diffuser choose 4+11, 4+17, 4+18, 5+12, 5+17 and 5+18, the efficiencies relatively have higher values. With the blade number of the impeller increasing, the hydraulic shaft power of the pump with different diffuser universally increases in the 0.8Q n∼1.2Q n conditions, and with the blade number of the diffuser increasing, the power of different impeller overall has small fluctuation, but tends to be uniform. This means the increase of the diffuser blade number has less influence on shaft power.The influence on the head and flow by the matching relationship of the blades number between impeller and diffuser is very complicated, which

  19. Piston slap induced pressure fluctuation in the water coolant passage of an internal combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Kazuhide; Wang, Xiaoyu; Saeki, Atsushi

    2016-02-01

    Liner cavitation is caused by water pressure fluctuation in the water coolant passage (WCP). When the negative pressure falls below the saturated vapor pressure, the impulsive pressure following the implosion of cavitation bubbles causes cavitation erosion of the wet cylinder liner surface. The present work establishes a numerical model for structural-acoustic coupling between the crankcase and the acoustic field in the WCP considering their dynamic characteristics. The coupling effect is evaluated through mutual interaction terms that are calculated from the mode shapes of the acoustic field and of the crankcase vibration on the boundary. Water pressure fluctuations in the WCP under the action of piston slap forces are predicted and the contributions of the uncoupled mode shapes of the crankcase and the acoustic field to the pressure waveform are analyzed. The influence of sound speed variations on the water pressure response is discussed, as well as the pressure on the thrust sides of the four cylinders.

  20. Sn-Li, a new coolant/breeding material for fusion applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.-K.; Mattas, R.; Wang, Z.; Cheng, E. T.; Sawan, M.; Zinkle, S.; McCarthy, K. A.

    1999-10-11

    A new breeding material, Sn-Li has been proposed for the APEX and ALPS programs. The key reason for proposing this material is that it has very low vapor pressure. Since both APEX and ALPS are investigating free surface flow for the blanket and divertor, respectively, low vapor pressure is a big advantage. This paper summarizes the results from a preliminary investigation. The early conclusion is that Sn-Li can be used as the coolant/breeding material for the APEX and ALPS applications. It has several attractive features, such as low vapor pressure and high thermal conductivity, but it also has some potential issues, such as material compatibility and activation. Further investigation will be required to assess the potential advantages of this material compared to other breeding materials.