Science.gov

Sample records for initial response rates

  1. Dynamic brain mapping of behavior change: tracking response initiation and inhibition to changes in reinforcement rate.

    PubMed

    Schlund, Michael W; Magee, Sandy; Hudgins, Caleb D

    2012-10-01

    Adaptive behavior change is supported by executive control processes distributed throughout a prefrontal-striatal-parietal network. Yet, the temporal dynamics of regions in the network have not been characterized. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we tracked changes brain activation while subjects initiated and inhibited responding in accordance with changes in reinforcement rate. During imaging, subjects completed a free-operant task that involved repeated transitions between fixed-ratio reinforcement and extinction (RF:EXT), where reinforcement rate decreased and responding was inhibited, and between extinction and fixed-ratio reinforcement (EXT:RF), where reinforcement rate increased and responding was initiated. Our whole-brain temporal assessment revealed that transitions which required initiating and inhibiting responding prompted positive phasic responses in a prefrontal-parietal network, the insula and thalamus. However, response initiation prompted by an increase in reinforcement rate during the EXT:RF transition elicited positive phasic responses in reward-sensitive striatal regions. Furthermore, response inhibition prompted by a decrease in reinforcement rate during the RF:EXT transition elicited negative phasic responses in ventral frontal regions sensitive to value and contingency. Our findings highlight the temporal dynamics of a brain network that supports behavioral changes (initiation and inhibition) resulting from changes in local reinforcement rates.

  2. LETTERS AND COMMENTS: Self-initiation of EEG-based brain computer communication using the heart rate response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, R.; Müller-Putz, G. R.; Pfurtscheller, G.

    2007-12-01

    Self-initiation, that is the ability of a brain-computer interface (BCI) user to autonomously switch on and off the system, is a very important issue. In this work we analyze whether the respiratory heart rate response, induced by brisk inspiration, can be used as an additional communication channel. After only 20 min of feedback training, ten healthy subjects were able to self-initiate and operate a 4-class steady-state visual evoked potential-based (SSVEP) BCI by using one bipolar ECG and one bipolar EEG channel only. Threshold detection was used to measure a beat-to-beat heart rate increase. Despite this simple method, during a 30 min evaluation period on average only 2.9 non-intentional switches (heart rate changes) were detected.

  3. Co-ordination between Leaf Initiation and Leaf Appearance in Field-grown Maize (Zea mays): Genotypic Differences in Response of Rates to Temperature

    PubMed Central

    PADILLA, J. M.; OTEGUI, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims In maize (Zea mays), early flowering date, which is a valuable trait for several cropping systems, is associated with the number of leaves per plant and the leaf appearance rate. Final leaf number depends upon the rate and duration of leaf initiation. The aims of this study were to analyse the genotypic variation in the response to temperature of leaf appearance rate and leaf initiation rate, and to investigate the co-ordination between these processes under field conditions. • Methods Sixteen hybrids of different origins were grown under six contrasting environmental conditions. The number of appeared leaves was measured twice a week to estimate leaf appearance rate (leaves d−1). Plants were dissected at four sampling dates to determine the number of initiated leaves and estimate leaf initiation rate (leaves d−1). A co-ordination model was fitted between the number of initiated leaves and the number of appeared leaves. This model was validated using two independent data sets. • Key Results Significant (P < 0·05) differences were found among hybrids in the response to temperature of leaf initiation rate (plastochron) and leaf appearance rate (phyllochron). Plastochron ranged between 24·3 and 36·4 degree days (°Cd), with a base temperature (Tb) between 4·0 and 8·2 °C. Phyllochron ranged between 48·6 and 65·5 °Cd, with a Tb between 2·9 and 5·0 °C. A single co-ordination model was fitted between the two processes for all hybrids and environments (r2 = 0·96, P < 0·0001), and was successfully validated (coefficient of variation < 9 %). • Conclusions This work has established the existence of genotypic variability in leaf initiation rate and leaf appearance rate in response to temperature, which is a promising result for maize breeding; and the interdependence between these processes from seedling emergence up to floral initiation. PMID:16126778

  4. Enhancement of the initial rate of ethanol fermentation due to dysfunction of yeast stress response components Msn2p and/or Msn4p.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Daisuke; Wu, Hong; Noguchi, Chiemi; Zhou, Yan; Akao, Takeshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2011-02-01

    Sake yeasts (strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae) produce high concentrations of ethanol in sake fermentation. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying this brewing property, we compared gene expression of sake and laboratory yeasts in sake mash. DNA microarray and reporter gene analyses revealed defects of sake yeasts in environmental stress responses mediated by transcription factors Msn2p and/or Msn4p (Msn2/4p) and stress response elements (STRE). Furthermore, we found that dysfunction of MSN2 and/or MSN4 contributes to the higher initial rate of ethanol fermentation in both sake and laboratory yeasts. These results provide novel insights into yeast stress responses as major impediments of effective ethanol fermentation.

  5. Enhancement of the Initial Rate of Ethanol Fermentation Due to Dysfunction of Yeast Stress Response Components Msn2p and/or Msn4p▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Daisuke; Wu, Hong; Noguchi, Chiemi; Zhou, Yan; Akao, Takeshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Sake yeasts (strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae) produce high concentrations of ethanol in sake fermentation. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying this brewing property, we compared gene expression of sake and laboratory yeasts in sake mash. DNA microarray and reporter gene analyses revealed defects of sake yeasts in environmental stress responses mediated by transcription factors Msn2p and/or Msn4p (Msn2/4p) and stress response elements (STRE). Furthermore, we found that dysfunction of MSN2 and/or MSN4 contributes to the higher initial rate of ethanol fermentation in both sake and laboratory yeasts. These results provide novel insights into yeast stress responses as major impediments of effective ethanol fermentation. PMID:21131516

  6. Constituents of response rates

    PubMed Central

    Pear, Joseph J.; Rector, Brian L.

    1979-01-01

    Response rate and the proportion of time pigeons allocated to a key-pecking activity were measured on several basic types of reinforcement schedules. Reinforcement frequency was varied within each type of basic schedule, and the effects on two constituents of response rate were noted. Propensity, the proportion of time the birds spent on a platform in front of the key, showed very consistent effects as reinforcement frequency varied: in general, it decreased when reinforcement frequency markedly decreased and it increased when reinforcement frequency increased. Speed, key pecks per unit of time spent on the platform, showed inconsistent effects when reinforcement frequency varied. Consequently, response rate showed less consistent effects than did propensity. Cumulative response records demonstrated the existence of several different types of transitions or boundary states between the key-pecking activity and other activities. The types of transitions that occurred between activities depended on both the type of reinforcement schedule and the frequency of reinforcement. The propensity data support the position that general laws of behavior can be based on temporal measures of behavior. The speed data suggest that, if a complete assessment of the dynamic properties of behavior is to be achieved, measures of behavior must incorporate the structural variations in the operant unit. PMID:16812155

  7. Transcriptional Response in Mouse Thyroid Tissue after 211At Administration: Effects of Absorbed Dose, Initial Dose-Rate and Time after Administration

    PubMed Central

    Rudqvist, Nils; Spetz, Johan; Schüler, Emil; Parris, Toshima Z.; Langen, Britta; Helou, Khalil; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background 211At-labeled radiopharmaceuticals are potentially useful for tumor therapy. However, a limitation has been the preferential accumulation of released 211At in the thyroid gland, which is a critical organ for such therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of absorbed dose, dose-rate, and time after 211At exposure on genome-wide transcriptional expression in mouse thyroid gland. Methods BALB/c mice were i.v. injected with 1.7, 7.5 or 100 kBq 211At. Animals injected with 1.7 kBq were killed after 1, 6, or 168 h with mean thyroid absorbed doses of 0.023, 0.32, and 1.8 Gy, respectively. Animals injected with 7.5 and 100 kBq were killed after 6 and 1 h, respectively; mean thyroid absorbed dose was 1.4 Gy. Total RNA was extracted from pooled thyroids and the Illumina RNA microarray platform was used to determine mRNA levels. Differentially expressed transcripts and enriched GO terms were determined with adjusted p-value <0.01 and fold change >1.5, and p-value <0.05, respectively. Results In total, 1232 differentially expressed transcripts were detected after 211At administration, demonstrating a profound effect on gene regulation. The number of regulated transcripts increased with higher initial dose-rate/absorbed dose at 1 or 6 h. However, the number of regulated transcripts decreased with mean absorbed dose/time after 1.7 kBq 211At administration. Furthermore, similar regulation profiles were seen for groups administered 1.7 kBq. Interestingly, few previously proposed radiation responsive genes were detected in the present study. Regulation of immunological processes were prevalent at 1, 6, and 168 h after 1.7 kBq administration (0.023, 0.32, 1.8 Gy). PMID:26177204

  8. Sensor response rate accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Vogt, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for sensor signal prediction and for improving sensor signal response time, is disclosed. An adaptive filter or an artificial neural network is utilized to provide predictive sensor signal output and is further used to reduce sensor response time delay.

  9. A response to euthanasia initiatives.

    PubMed

    Harvey, J C; Pellegrino, E D

    1994-03-01

    The outcome of the physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia debate will profoundly influence physicians' role in society, the kind of society we become, and the way physicians and patients relate to one another. Three forces account for the move to physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia: an abuse of scientific advancement, a new political philosophy, and the erosion of religious consensus. The relationship between patients and physicians has often been understood as a convenant with rights on patients' part and duties on physicians' part. Physicians' duties in this covenantal relationship are to act for patients' good (a positive duty) and to do no harm (a negative duty). Euthanasia and assisted suicide are morally wrong because, as the Judeo-Christian ethic teaches, human beings are creatures of God and have only stewardship, not dominion, over life. But in our pluralistic society, which seems to lack consensus on religion, on communal responsibility, and on common values, one cannot argue against mercy killing and assisted suicide on theological grounds. Our society generally agrees, however, that a discussion of values may take place in the language of moral philosophy, a language that expresses right reason.

  10. Provider-Initiated Patient Satisfaction Reporting Yields Improved Physician Ratings Relative to Online Rating Websites.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Benjamin F; Waddell, Brad S; Nodzo, Scott R; Lange, Jeffrey; Nocon, Allina A; Amundsen, Spencer; Tarity, T David; McLawhorn, Alexander S

    2017-08-17

    Recently, providers have begun to publicly report the results of patient satisfaction surveys from their practices. However, these outcomes have never been compared with the findings of commercial online physician rating websites. The goals of the current study were to (1) compare overall patient satisfaction ratings for orthopedic surgeons derived from provider-based third-party surveys with existing commercial physician rating websites and (2) determine the association between patient ratings and provider characteristics. The authors identified 12 institutions that provided publicly available patient satisfaction outcomes derived from third-party surveys for their orthopedic surgeons as of August 2016. Orthopedic surgeons at these institutions were eligible for inclusion (N=340 surgeons). Provider characteristics were recorded from publicly available data. Four high-traffic commercial online physician rating websites were identified: Healthgrades.com, UCompareHealthCare.com, Vitals.com, and RateMDs.com. For each surgeon, overall ratings (on a scale of 1-5), total number of ratings, and percentage of negative ratings were compared between provider-initiated internal ratings and each commercial online website. Associations between baseline factors and overall physician ratings and negative ratings were assessed. Provider-initiated internal patient satisfaction ratings showed a greater number of overall patient ratings, higher overall patient satisfaction ratings, and a lower percentage of negative comments compared with commercial online physician rating websites. A greater number of years in practice had a weak association with lower internal ratings, and an academic practice setting and a location in the Northeast were protective factors for negative physician ratings. Compared with commercial online physician rating websites, provider-initiated patient satisfaction ratings of orthopedic surgeons appear to be more favorable, with greater numbers of responses

  11. Online Course Evaluations Response Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guder, Faruk; Malliaris, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the reasons for low response rates in online evaluations. Survey data are collected from the students to understand factors that might affect student participation in the course evaluation process. When course evaluations were opened to the student body, an email announcement was sent to all students, and a reminder email was…

  12. Plastic Deformation Rate and Initiation of Crystalline Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namkung, J.; Coffey, C. S.

    2002-07-01

    Recent theoretical calculations have demonstrated a relationship between the rate of energy dissipation and the rate of plastic deformation in crystalline solids subjected to plastic flow due to shock or impact. In the case of explosive crystals the energy dissipated locally within the crystals during plastic deformation forms the hot spots from which chemical reaction can be initiated. Prompted by this prediction relating the plastic deformation rate with initiation, a series of experiments were undertaken to measure the plastic deformation rate at the initiation site at the moment of initiation for a number of polycrystalline explosives when subjected to impact or mild shock. The experiment and the results will be reviewed here.

  13. 40 CFR 280.61 - Initial response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial response. 280.61 Section 280.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... or electronic mail); (b) Take immediate action to prevent any further release of the regulated...

  14. 40 CFR 280.61 - Initial response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initial response. 280.61 Section 280.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... or electronic mail); (b) Take immediate action to prevent any further release of the regulated...

  15. 40 CFR 280.61 - Initial response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Initial response. 280.61 Section 280.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... or electronic mail); (b) Take immediate action to prevent any further release of the regulated...

  16. On the Initial Rate of Fluid-Solid Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Hong Yong; Fan, De-Qiu

    2017-02-01

    It is argued in this paper that the initial rate should not be used for the measurement or analysis the kinetics of a fluid-solid reaction, especially for a reaction in which the effect of pore diffusion starts appearing even moderately as the reaction proceeds. Even in the absence of external mass transfer effects, it is shown in this work by rigorous mathematical analysis that the range of conditions where the initial rate represents the intrinsic kinetics is very narrow. For an initially non-porous solid in the absence of external mass transfer effects, the very initial rate should mathematically be the intrinsic rate even when pore diffusion becomes important as the reaction proceeds. However, even in this case, the range of conditions for this statement is very limited. For the reaction of an initially porous solid, the rate at time zero is already affected by pore diffusion unless its effect is negligible over the entire range of conversion. Furthermore, the initial reaction rates of porous solids reacting under large values of k/D e ratio (chemical reactivity is much greater than the capacity for pore diffusion) have an apparent rate constant of √ {k \\cdot D_{e} } and thus pore diffusion alone does not control the initial rate no matter how large the effect of pore diffusion is overall.

  17. Initial nonresponse and survey response mode biases in survey research.

    PubMed

    Chi, Donald L; Chen, Chao Ying

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated survey response factors (particularly initial nonresponse and survey mode) that may be associated with bias in survey research. We examined prevention-related beliefs and outcomes for initial mail survey responders (n=209), follow-up mail survey responders (n=78), and follow-up telephone survey responders (n=74). The Pearson chi-square test and analysis of variance identified beliefs and behavioral outcomes associated with survey response mode. Follow-up options to the initial mail survey improved response rates (22.0-38.0 percent). Initial mail survey responders more strongly believed topical fluoride protects teeth from cavities than others (P=0.04). A significantly larger proportion of parents completing a follow-up telephone survey (30.8 percent) refused topical fluoride for their child than those completing mail surveys (10.3-10.4 percent) (P<0.0001). Multiple mode surveys with follow-up improve response rates. Initial nonresponse and survey response mode may be associated with biases in survey research. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  18. Initial Climate Response to a Termination Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The risk of the termination of a deployment of solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering has been raised as one of the key concerns about these ideas. Early studies demonstrated that a rapid warming of the climate would follow such a termination with global mean temperatures rapidly rising towards the levels that would have been expected in the absence of SRM geoengineering. Further work has noted the contrasting timescale of the adjustment of global mean temperature and sea-level rise, with sea-levels responding much slower and not reaching the same levels as would have been the case in the absence of SRM geoengineering. Whilst these previous studies have shown the basics of the response to a termination of SRM, a detailed analysis of the climate response in the first months or years of a termination has not been investigated. To conduct such an analysis tens of simulations with a termination of SRM are conducted, starting from the end of a G1 simulation with the HadCM3 model. The termination is initiated in Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter to investigate whether the response depends on the season. Analyzing these results I find some novel dynamic responses in the initial months and years following a termination of SRM which have not been seen in previous studies which employed decadal-scale averages. These include: A reduction in the global-scale hydrological cycle's intensity in the first weeks following termination, counter to the longer-term increase; An almost instantaneous adjustment of land-mean precipitation to the equilibrium value; And substantial shifts in the pattern of precipitation in the initial years that are distinct from those seen in the equilibrium response and which are characterized by large increases in terrestrial precipitation and runoff in many regions.

  19. Initial fuel temperature effects on burning rate of pool fire.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Lu, Shou-Xiang; Li, Chang-Hai; Kang, Quan-Sheng; Lecoustre, Vivien

    2011-04-15

    The influence of the initial fuel temperature on the burning behavior of n-heptane pool fire was experimentally studied at the State Key Laboratory of Fire Science (SKLFS) large test hall. Circular pool fires with diameters of 100mm, 141 mm, and 200 mm were considered with initial fuel temperatures ranging from 290 K to 363 K. Burning rate and temperature distributions in fuel and vessel wall were recorded during the combustion. The burning rate exhibited five typical stages: initial development, steady burning, transition, bulk boiling burning, and decay. The burning rate during the steady burning stage was observed to be relatively independent of the initial fuel temperature. In contrast, the burning rate of the bulk boiling burning stage increases with increased initial fuel temperature. It was also observed that increased initial fuel temperature decreases the duration of steady burning stage. When the initial temperature approaches the boiling point, the steady burning stage nearly disappears and the burning rate moves directly from the initial development stage to the transition stage. The fuel surface temperature increases to its boiling point at the steady burning stage, shortly after ignition, and the bulk liquid reaches boiling temperature at the bulk boiling burning stage. No distinguished cold zone is formed in the fuel bed. However, boiling zone is observed and the thickness increases to its maximum value when the bulk boiling phenomena occurs.

  20. Glycemic Response to Newly Initiated Diabetes Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Karter, Andrew J.; Moffet, Howard H.; Liu, Jennifer; Parker, Melissa M.; Ahmed, Ameena T.; Go, Alan S.; Selby, Joe V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The glycemic response to antihyperglycemic therapies for type 2 diabetes has been thoroughly evaluated in randomized controlled trials, but inadequately studied in real-world settings. Study Design: We studied glycemic response among 15 126 type 2 diabetic patients who initiated any single new antihyperglycemic agent (metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, or insulin added to medical nutrition therapy or to existing diabetes therapies) during 1999-2000 within Kaiser Permanente of Northern California, an integrated healthcare delivery system. Methods: Pre–post (3-12 months after initiation) change in glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) was analyzed using ANCOVA (analysis of covariance) models adjusted for baseline A1C, concurrent (ongoing) antihyperglycemic therapy, demographics, health behaviors, medication adherence, clinical factors, and processes of care. Results: Mean A1C was 9.01% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.98%-9.04%) before therapy initiation and 7.87% (95% CI 7.85%-7.90%) 3 to 12 months after initiation (mean A1C reduction 1.14 percentage points; 95% CI 1.11-1.17). Overall, 30.2% (95% CI 29.2%-31.1%) of patients achieved glycemic target (A1C < 7%). Although baseline disease severity and concurrent therapies differed greatly across therapeutic classes, after adjustment for these baseline clinical characteristics, no significant differences were noted in glucose-lowering effect across therapeutic classes. Treatment effects did not differ by age, race, diabetes duration, obesity, or level of renal function. Conclusions: Metformin, sulfonylures, thiazolidinediones, and insulin were equally effective in improving glucose control. Nonetheless, most patients failed to achieve the glycemic target. Findings suggest that, to keep up with progressive worsening of glycemic control, patients and providers must commit to earlier, more aggressive therapy intensification, triggered promptly after A1C exceeds the recommended glycemic target. PMID:17988185

  1. Adaptive immune cells temper initial innate responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Dong; Zhao, Jie; Auh, Sogyong; Yang, Xuanming; Du, Peishuang; Tang, Hong; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2007-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize conserved microbial structures called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Signaling from TLRs leads to upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules for better priming of T cells and secretion of inflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells. Lymphocyte-deficient hosts often die of acute infection, presumably owing to their lack of an adaptive immune response to effectively clear pathogens. However, we show here that an unleashed innate immune response due to the absence of residential T cells can also be a direct cause of death. Viral infection or administration of poly(I:C), a ligand for TLR3, led to cytokine storm in T-cell- or lymphocyte-deficient mice in a fashion dependent on NK cells and tumor necrosis factor. We have further shown, through the depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in wild-type mice and the transfer of T lymphocytes into Rag-1-deficient mice, respectively, that T cells are both necessary and sufficient to temper the early innate response. In addition to the effects of natural regulatory T cells, close contact of resting CD4+CD25-Foxp3- or CD8+ T cells with innate cells could also suppress the cytokine surge by various innate cells in an antigen-independent fashion. Therefore, adaptive immune cells have an unexpected role in tempering initial innate responses.

  2. Adaptive immune cells temper initial innate responses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Dong; Zhao, Jie; Auh, Sogyong; Yang, Xuanming; Du, Peishuang; Tang, Hong; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2008-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize conserved microbial structures called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Signaling from TLRs leads to upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules for better priming of T cells and secretion of inflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells1–4. Lymphocytedeficient hosts often die of acute infection, presumably owing to their lack of an adaptive immune response to effectively clear pathogens. However, we show here that an unleashed innate immune response due to the absence of residential T cells can also be a direct cause of death. Viral infection or administration of poly(I:C), a ligand for TLR3, led to cytokine storm in T-cell- or lymphocyte-deficient mice in a fashion dependent on NK cells and tumor necrosis factor. We have further shown, through the depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in wild-type mice and the transfer of T lymphocytes into Rag-1–deficient mice, respectively, that T cells are both necessary and sufficient to temper the early innate response. In addition to the effects of natural regulatory T cells, close contact of resting CD4+CD25−Foxp3− or CD8+ T cells with innate cells could also suppress the cytokine surge by various innate cells in an antigen-independent fashion. Therefore, adaptive immune cells have an unexpected role in tempering initial innate responses. PMID:17891146

  3. Predicting Translation Initiation Rates for Designing Synthetic Biology

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Benjamin; Hargest, Thomas; Gilbert, Charlie; Ellis, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In synthetic biology, precise control over protein expression is required in order to construct functional biological systems. A core principle of the synthetic biology approach is a model-guided design and based on the biological understanding of the process, models of prokaryotic protein production have been described. Translation initiation rate is a rate-limiting step in protein production from mRNA and is dependent on the sequence of the 5′-untranslated region and the start of the coding sequence. Translation rate calculators are programs that estimate protein translation rates based on the sequence of these regions of an mRNA, and as protein expression is proportional to the rate of translation initiation, such calculators have been shown to give good approximations of protein expression levels. In this review, three currently available translation rate calculators developed for synthetic biology are considered, with limitations and possible future progress discussed. PMID:25152877

  4. How initiation factors tune the rate of initiation of protein synthesis in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Antoun, Ayman; Pavlov, Michael Y; Lovmar, Martin; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2006-01-01

    The kinetics of initiator transfer RNA (tRNA) interaction with the messenger RNA (mRNA)-programmed 30S subunit and the rate of 50S subunit docking to the 30S preinitiation complex were measured for different combinations of initiation factors in a cell-free Escherichia coli system for protein synthesis with components of high purity. The major results are summarized by a Michaelis–Menten scheme for initiation. All three initiation factors are required for maximal efficiency (kcat/KM) of initiation and for maximal in vivo rate of initiation at normal concentration of initiator tRNA. Spontaneous release of IF3 from the 30S preinitiation complex is required for subunit docking. The presence of initiator tRNA on the 30S subunit greatly increases the rate of 70S ribosome formation by increasing the rate of IF3 dissociation from the 30S subunit and the rate of 50S subunit docking to the IF3-free 30S preinitiation complex. The reasons why IF1 and IF3 are essential in E. coli are discussed in the light of the present observations. PMID:16724118

  5. Mechanical Response and Shear Initiation of Double-Base Propellants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    dynamic shear punch test using a modified split- Hopkinson bar. Varying the striker bar’s velocity and length controls the shear rate and duration. Shear...for double-base propellants and computational results of the shear punch test . For the simulations, the viscoSCRAM constitutive model was used to...initiation is determined based on their ability to predict the observed response from the dynamic shear punch test . 15. SUBJECT TERMS insensitive

  6. Improving Beta Test Evaluation Response Rates: A Meta-Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ-Eft, Darlene; Preskill, Hallie

    2005-01-01

    This study presents a meta-evaluation of a beta-test of a customer service training program. The initial evaluation showed a low response rate. Therefore, the meta-evaluation focused on issues related to the conduct of the initial evaluation and reasons for nonresponse. The meta-evaluation identified solutions to the nonresponse problem as related…

  7. Physical initialization using SSM/I rain rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurti, T. N.; Bedi, H. S.; Ingles, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    Following our recent study on physical initialization for tropical prediction using rain rates based on outgoing long-wave radiation, the present study demonstrates a major improvement from the use of microwave radiance-based rain rates. A rain rate algorithm is used on the data from a special sensor microwave instrument (SSM/I). The initialization, as before, uses a reverse surface similarity theory, a reverse cumulus parameterization algorithm, and a bisection method to minimize the difference between satellite-based and the model-based outgoing long-wave radiation. These are invoked within a preforecast Newtonian relaxation phase of the initialization. These tests are carried out with a high-resolution global spectral model. The impact of the initialization on forecast is tested for a complex triple typhoon scenario over the Western Pacific Ocean during September 1987. A major impact from the inclusion of the SSM/I is demonstrated. Also addressed are the spin-up issues related to the typhoon structure and the improved water budget from the physical initialization.

  8. Physical initialization using SSM/I rain rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurti, T. N.; Bedi, H. S.; Ingles, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    Following our recent study on physical initialization for tropical prediction using rain rates based on outgoing long-wave radiation, the present study demonstrates a major improvement from the use of microwave radiance-based rain rates. A rain rate algorithm is used on the data from a special sensor microwave instrument (SSM/I). The initialization, as before, uses a reverse surface similarity theory, a reverse cumulus parameterization algorithm, and a bisection method to minimize the difference between satellite-based and the model-based outgoing long-wave radiation. These are invoked within a preforecast Newtonian relaxation phase of the initialization. These tests are carried out with a high-resolution global spectral model. The impact of the initialization on forecast is tested for a complex triple typhoon scenario over the Western Pacific Ocean during September 1987. A major impact from the inclusion of the SSM/I is demonstrated. Also addressed are the spin-up issues related to the typhoon structure and the improved water budget from the physical initialization.

  9. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Direct Testimony

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this testimony is to provide the context and background to the financial and risk policy objectives for BPA's WP-07 Initial Proposal. The testimony contains eight sections. The first is this introduction. Section 2 provides background regarding BPA's Subscription Strategy and the Subscription contracts to which the WP-07 rates will apply. Section 3 describes the financial policy objectives considered when establishing the WP-07 rates. Section 4 describes BPA's risk profile, the risk mitigation tools used in prior rate periods, those proposed here, and additional tools under consideration for the FY 2007-2009 rate period. Section 5 describes financial policy directives and decisions that have shaped the WP-07 Initial Proposal. Section 6 describes the uncertainties of the current litigation regarding the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion and how it is addressed in this proposal. Section 7 briefly discusses the risk mitigation package in the WP-07 Initial Proposal. Finally, Section 8 describes some liquidity tools that may be incorporated into final studies if circumstances allow.

  10. Response rate, latency, and resistance to change

    PubMed Central

    Fath, Stephen J.; Fields, Lanny; Malott, M. Kay; Grossett, Deborah

    1983-01-01

    Pigeons were trained on a multiple variable-interval/variable-interval schedule with pacing contingencies that generated high response rates in one component and low response rates in the other. Timeout periods separated the schedule components. During resistance-to-change tests, response-independent food was presented during the timeout periods, and the duration of that food presentation was varied among test sessions. Response rates in the schedule components decreased and latencies to the first response increased as a function of the duration of food presentations during the timeout. Both dependent measures changed about the same amount relative to their own baseline levels. The conclusions are that baseline response rates controlled by pacing contingencies are equally resistant to change, given equal reinforcement densities, and latency is a sensitive measure of resistance to change. PMID:16812319

  11. Acute sensitivity of landslide rates to initial soil porosity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, R.M.; Reid, M.E.; Iverson, N.R.; LaHusen, R.G.; Logan, M.; Mann, J.E.; Brien, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Some landslides move imperceptibly downslope, whereas others accelerate catastrophically. Experimental landslides triggered by rising pore water pressure moved at sharply contrasting rates due to small differences in initial porosity. Wet sandy soil with porosity of about 0.5 contracted during slope failure, partially liquefied, and accelerated within 1 second to speeds over I meter per second. The same soil with porosity of about 0.4 dilated during failure and supped episodically at rates averaging 0.002 meter per second. Repeated slip episodes were induced by gradually rising pore water pressure and were arrested by pore dilation and attendant pore pressure decline.

  12. 18 CFR 346.2 - Material in support of initial rates or change in rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE COST-OF-SERVICE FILING REQUIREMENTS § 346.2 Material in support of initial rates or change in... described in § 342.0(b) that files to establish or change rates by filing cost, revenue, and throughput data...

  13. 18 CFR 346.2 - Material in support of initial rates or change in rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE COST-OF-SERVICE FILING REQUIREMENTS § 346.2 Material in support of initial rates or change in... described in § 342.0(b) that files to establish or change rates by filing cost, revenue, and throughput data...

  14. 18 CFR 346.2 - Material in support of initial rates or change in rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE COST-OF-SERVICE FILING REQUIREMENTS § 346.2 Material in support of initial rates or change in... described in § 342.0(b) that files to establish or change rates by filing cost, revenue, and throughput data...

  15. 18 CFR 346.2 - Material in support of initial rates or change in rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE COST-OF-SERVICE FILING REQUIREMENTS § 346.2 Material in support of initial rates or change in... described in § 342.0(b) that files to establish or change rates by filing cost, revenue, and throughput data...

  16. Play Initiating Behaviors and Responses in Red Colobus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Red colobus monkeys are playful primates, making them an important species in which to study animal play. The author examines play behaviors and responses in the species for its play initiation events, age differences in initiating frequency and initiating behavior, and the types of social play that result from specific initiating behaviors. Out…

  17. Initial Studies Toward Real-Time Transmission Path Rating

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ruchi; Diao, Ruisheng; Cai, Niannian; Huang, Zhenyu; Tuck, Brian; Guo, Xinxin

    2012-07-26

    Demand continues to increase while transmission line construction is being constrained by multiple factors— economic, environmental, and political. Effective and efficient utilization of transmission lines is thus of great importance in an open access environment. Large blocks of power are transferred from areas with inexpensive generation to heavy load demand areas or areas with high generation costs. This results in some transmission paths being loaded closer to their path ratings, which limits further power transfer between areas. Traditionally, rating of important paths was determined off line by assuming the worst-case study scenario; once determined, it could be used for years. With increasing uncertainty arising from rapid growth of renewable energy and smart technologies, path rating studies are needed in near-real time to account for the latest system status and support a reliable and economic power grid. This paper adopts a simplified procedure based on standards of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) to determine total transfer capability (TTC) or transfer limit for the purpose of demonstrating the benefits and necessity of real-time path rating. Initial studies are conducted to compute TTC of a two-area test system and a 39-bus test system. Results indicate that path rating can be significantly affected by loading conditions, generator schedules, system topology and other factors.

  18. Assessment of the Rate of Decrease in Serum IgG4 Level of Autoimmune Pancreatitis Patients in Response to Initial Steroid Therapy as a Predictor of Subsequent Relapse.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kyoko; Tahara, Junko; Takayama, Yukiko; Akao, Junichi; Ajihara, Takahiro; Nagao, Kenta; Shiratori, Keiko; Tokushige, Katsutoshi

    2016-10-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) responds well to steroid therapy but frequently relapses after discontinuing the steroid. It is difficult to know which cases are most likely to relapse. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the rate of decrease in serum IgG4 level after initial steroid therapy and a relapse. The subjects were 47 AIP patients who received steroid therapy. We calculated the difference between their serum IgG4 levels before and 2 months after the start of therapy, and their rate of decrease in serum IgG4 level after treatment (Δ') by dividing the difference between the 2 values by the number of days between them. The rates of decrease were significantly higher in the nonrelapse groups than in the relapse groups. A receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the area under the curve for the Δ' value was 0.781, and that at the Δ' cutoff value of 10.7, the sensitivity and the specificity of the Δ' value for discriminating between the 2 groups were 0.846 and 0.632, respectively. Our data suggest that the rate of decrease in serum IgG4 level may be a useful predictor of a relapse of AIP after steroid therapy.

  19. The Montana Behavioral Initiative: A Statewide Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishbaugh, Mary Susan E.; Furshong, Joe

    1998-01-01

    The Montana Behavioral Initiative (MBI) is a staff development program created to stem school violence. Program components include summer institutes, site teams, ongoing technical assistance, interagency cooperation, program evaluation, information dissemination, and governance by the MBI council. MBI has expanded to include nearly 100 Montana…

  20. Assessment of Students' Acceptability Ratings of Teacher-Initiated Interventions for Classroom Misbehavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turco, Timothy L.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    1986-01-01

    Fifth-, seventh-, and ninth-grade students completed the Children's Intervention Rating Profile (CIRP) in response to eight teacher-initiated intervention methods designed to correct classroom behavior problems. A factorial analysis of variance indicated that students generally are able to differentiate between various methods of improving student…

  1. Firefighter Incident Rehabilitation: Interpreting Heart Rate Responses.

    PubMed

    Smith, Denise L; Haller, Jeannie M; Benedict, Ron; Moore-Merrell, Lori

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this observational study was to document the heart rate (HR) responses of firefighters during incident rehabilitation following firefighting activity in a high-rise building with a simulated fire on the 10th floor. Additionally, the study investigated potential factors, including firefighting workload, ambient temperature, firefighter movement, and individual characteristics, that may have affected HR during recovery. Firefighters (n = 198) were assigned to perform a simulation of fire suppression, search and rescue, or material support during one of six firefighting trials that involved different crew sizes and ascent modes, and were performed in different environmental conditions. After completing the simulated firefighting activity, firefighters reported to a rehabilitation area on the 8th floor. The rehabilitation area was staffed by firefighter/paramedics. HR was monitored continuously during simulated firefighting activity and a 15-minute rehabilitation period. Average HR during rehabilitation (HRmean) was calculated and compared across trials. Simulated firefighting activity was performed in the summer in Virginia, USA, and ambient conditions varied among trials (mean ± SD: 31 ± 4°C; 46 ± 15% relative humidity; 32 ± 4°C heat index). Duration of simulated firefighting activity ranged from 12.0 to 20.3 minutes among trials (mean: 15.4 ± 5.2 minutes). Over all trials, mean peak HR during simulations was 173 ± 18 beats·min(-1). Mean HR over all trials at entry into rehabilitation was 149 ± 24 beats·min(-1). Following 15 minutes of recovery, mean HR over all trials was 126 ± 23 beats·min(-1). Exploratory analyses revealed that higher workload during firefighting (stair trials), higher ambient temperature (≥30°C), greater movement during rehabilitation (≥0.1 g-force), higher age (≥45 years), and higher BMI (≥30.0 kg·m(-2)) were associated with higher HR responses during rehabilitation. During complex emergency

  2. Response rate viewed as engagement bouts: resistance to extinction.

    PubMed Central

    Shull, Richard L; Gaynor, Scott T; Grimes, Julie A

    2002-01-01

    Rats obtained food pellets by nose poking a lighted key, the illumination of which alternated every 50 s during a session between blinking and steady, signaling either a relatively rich (60 per hour) or relatively lean (15 per hour) rate of reinforcement. During one training condition, all the reinforcers in the presence of the rich-reinforcement signal were response dependent (i.e., a variable-interval schedule); during another condition only 25% were response dependent (i.e., a variable-time schedule operated concurrently with a variable-interval schedule). An extinction session followed each training block. For both kinds of training schedule, and consistent with prior results, response rate was more resistant to extinction in the presence of the rich-reinforcement signal than in the presence of the lean-reinforcement signal. Analysis of interresponse-time distributions from baseline showed that differential resistance to extinction was not related to baseline differences in the rate of initiating response bouts or in the length of bouts. Also, bout-initiation rate (like response rate) was most resistant to extinction in the presence of the rich-reinforcement signal. These results support the proposal of behavioral momentum theory (e.g., Nevin & Grace, 2000) that resistance to extinction in the presence of a discriminative stimulus is determined more by the stimulus-reinforcer (Pavlovian) than by the stimulus-response-reinforcer (operant) contingency. PMID:12083677

  3. Response rate viewed as engagement bouts: resistance to extinction.

    PubMed

    Shull, Richard L; Gaynor, Scott T; Grimes, Julie A

    2002-05-01

    Rats obtained food pellets by nose poking a lighted key, the illumination of which alternated every 50 s during a session between blinking and steady, signaling either a relatively rich (60 per hour) or relatively lean (15 per hour) rate of reinforcement. During one training condition, all the reinforcers in the presence of the rich-reinforcement signal were response dependent (i.e., a variable-interval schedule); during another condition only 25% were response dependent (i.e., a variable-time schedule operated concurrently with a variable-interval schedule). An extinction session followed each training block. For both kinds of training schedule, and consistent with prior results, response rate was more resistant to extinction in the presence of the rich-reinforcement signal than in the presence of the lean-reinforcement signal. Analysis of interresponse-time distributions from baseline showed that differential resistance to extinction was not related to baseline differences in the rate of initiating response bouts or in the length of bouts. Also, bout-initiation rate (like response rate) was most resistant to extinction in the presence of the rich-reinforcement signal. These results support the proposal of behavioral momentum theory (e.g., Nevin & Grace, 2000) that resistance to extinction in the presence of a discriminative stimulus is determined more by the stimulus-reinforcer (Pavlovian) than by the stimulus-response-reinforcer (operant) contingency.

  4. Strain-Rate-Free Diffusion Flames: Initiation, Properties, and Quenching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fendell, Francis; Rungaldier, Harald; Gokoglu, Suleyman; Schultz, Donald

    1997-01-01

    For about a half century, the stabilization of a steady planar deflagration on a heat-sink-type flat-flame burner has been of extraordinary service for the theoretical modeling and diagnostic probing of combusting gaseous mixtures. However, most engineering devices and most unwanted fire involve the burning of initially unmixed reactants. The most vigorous burning of initially separated gaseous fuel and oxidizer is the diffusion flame. In this useful idealization (limiting case), the reactants are converted to product at a mathematically thin interface, so no interpenetration of fuel and oxidizer occurs. This limit is of practical importance because it often characterizes the condition of optimal performance (and sometimes environmentally objectionable operation) of a combustor. A steady planar diffusion flame is most closely approached in the laboratory in the counterflow apparatus. The utility of this simple-strain-rate flow for the modeling and probing of diffusion flames was noted by Pandya and Weinberg 35 years ago, though only in the last decade or so has its use become internationally common place. However, typically, as the strain rate a is reduced below about 20 cm(exp -1), and the diffusion-flame limit (reaction rate much faster than the flow rate) is approached, the burning is observed to become unstable in earth gravity. The advantageous steady planar flow is not available in the diffusion-flame limit in earth gravity. This is unfortunate because the typical spatial scale in a counterflow is (k/a)(sup 1/2), where k denotes a characteristic diffusion coefficient; thus, the length scale becomes large, and the reacting flow is particularly amenable to diagnostic probing, as the diffusion-flame limit is approached. The disruption of planar symmetry is owing the fact that, as the strain rate a decreases, the residence time (l/a) of the throughput in the counterflow burner increases. Observationally, when the residence time exceeds about 50 msec, the

  5. Strain-Rate-Free Diffusion Flames: Initiation, Properties, and Quenching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fendell, Francis; Rungaldier, Harald; Gokoglu, Suleyman; Schultz, Donald

    1997-01-01

    For about a half century, the stabilization of a steady planar deflagration on a heat-sink-type flat-flame burner has been of extraordinary service for the theoretical modeling and diagnostic probing of combusting gaseous mixtures. However, most engineering devices and most unwanted fire involve the burning of initially unmixed reactants. The most vigorous burning of initially separated gaseous fuel and oxidizer is the diffusion flame. In this useful idealization (limiting case), the reactants are converted to product at a mathematically thin interface, so no interpenetration of fuel and oxidizer occurs. This limit is of practical importance because it often characterizes the condition of optimal performance (and sometimes environmentally objectionable operation) of a combustor. A steady planar diffusion flame is most closely approached in the laboratory in the counterflow apparatus. The utility of this simple-strain-rate flow for the modeling and probing of diffusion flames was noted by Pandya and Weinberg 35 years ago, though only in the last decade or so has its use become internationally common place. However, typically, as the strain rate a is reduced below about 20 cm(exp -1), and the diffusion-flame limit (reaction rate much faster than the flow rate) is approached, the burning is observed to become unstable in earth gravity. The advantageous steady planar flow is not available in the diffusion-flame limit in earth gravity. This is unfortunate because the typical spatial scale in a counterflow is (k/a)(sup 1/2), where k denotes a characteristic diffusion coefficient; thus, the length scale becomes large, and the reacting flow is particularly amenable to diagnostic probing, as the diffusion-flame limit is approached. The disruption of planar symmetry is owing the fact that, as the strain rate a decreases, the residence time (l/a) of the throughput in the counterflow burner increases. Observationally, when the residence time exceeds about 50 msec, the

  6. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Risk Analysis Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01

    The Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS), operated on behalf of the ratepayers of the PNW by BPA and other Federal agencies, faces many uncertainties during the FY 2007-2009 rate period. Among these uncertainties, the largest revolve around hydro conditions, market prices and river operations for fish recovery. In order to provide a high probability of making its U.S. Treasury payments, BPA performs a Risk Analysis as part of its rate-making process. In this Risk Analysis, BPA identifies key risks, models their relationships, and then analyzes their impacts on net revenues (total revenues less expenses). BPA subsequently evaluates in the ToolKit Model the Treasury Payment Probability (TPP) resulting from the rates, risks, and risk mitigation measures described here and in the Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS). If the TPP falls short of BPA's standard, additional risk mitigation revenues, such as PNRR and CRAC revenues are incorporated in the modeling in ToolKit until the TPP standard is met. Increased wholesale market price volatility and six years of drought have significantly changed the profile of risk and uncertainty facing BPA and its stakeholders. These present new challenges for BPA in its effort to keep its power rates as low as possible while fully meeting its obligations to the U.S. Treasury. As a result, the risk BPA faces in not receiving the level of secondary revenues that have been credited to power rates before receiving those funds is greater. In addition to market price volatility, BPA also faces uncertainty around the financial impacts of operations for fish programs in FY 2006 and in the FY 2007-2009 rate period. A new Biological Opinion or possible court-ordered change to river operations in FY 2006 through FY 2009 may reduce BPA's net revenues included Initial Proposal. Finally, the FY 2007-2009 risk analysis includes new operational risks as well as a more comprehensive analysis of non-operating risks. Both the operational

  7. WHAT SETS THE INITIAL ROTATION RATES OF MASSIVE STARS?

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, Anna L.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2012-04-01

    The physical mechanisms that set the initial rotation rates in massive stars are a crucial unknown in current star formation theory. Observations of young, massive stars provide evidence that they form in a similar fashion to their low-mass counterparts. The magnetic coupling between a star and its accretion disk may be sufficient to spin down low-mass pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars to well below breakup at the end stage of their formation when the accretion rate is low. However, we show that these magnetic torques are insufficient to spin down massive PMS stars due to their short formation times and high accretion rates. We develop a model for the angular momentum evolution of stars over a wide range in mass, considering both magnetic and gravitational torques. We find that magnetic torques are unable to spin down either low-mass or high-mass stars during the main accretion phase, and that massive stars cannot be spun down significantly by magnetic torques during the end stage of their formation either. Spin-down occurs only if massive stars' disk lifetimes are substantially longer or their magnetic fields are much stronger than current observations suggest.

  8. Initiation of migration and movement rates of Atlantic salmon smolts in fresh water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stich, Daniel S.; Kinnison, Michael T.; Kocik, John F.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Timing of ocean entry is critical for marine survival of both hatchery and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts. Management practices and barriers to migration such as dams may constrain timing of smolt migrations resulting in suboptimal performance at saltwater entry. We modeled influences of stocking location, smolt development, and environmental conditions on (i) initiation of migration by hatchery-reared smolts and (ii) movement rate of hatchery- and wild-reared Atlantic salmon smolts in the Penobscot River, Maine, USA, from 2005 through 2014 using acoustic telemetry data. We also compared movement rates in free-flowing reaches with rates in reaches with hydropower dams and head ponds. We compared movement rates before and after (1) removal of two mainstem dams and (2) construction of new powerhouses. Initiation of movement by hatchery fish was influenced by smolt development, stocking location, and environmental conditions. Smolts with the greatest gill Na+, K+-ATPase (NKA) activity initiated migration 24 h sooner than fish with the lowest gill NKA activity. Fish with the greatest cumulative thermal experience initiated migration 5 days earlier than those with lowest cumulative thermal experience. Smolts released furthest from the ocean initiated migration earlier than those released downstream, but movement rate increased by fivefold closer to the ocean, indicating behavioral trade-offs between initiation and movement rate. Dams had a strong effect on movement rate. Movement rate increased from 2.8 to 5.4 km·h−1 in reaches where dams were removed, but decreased from 2.1 to 0.1 km·h−1 in reaches where new powerhouses were constructed. Movement rate varied throughout the migratory period and was inversely related to temperature. Fish moved slower at extreme high or low discharge. Responses in fish movement rates to dam removal indicate the potential scope of recovery for these activities.

  9. Confirmation of ETI: initial organizational response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Albert A.

    2003-08-01

    Perhaps the most crucial responses to the confirmation of extraterrestrial intelligence will come from organizations, rather than from individual people. Among the key organizations that will help shape humanity's response are political institutions such as the US Congress, administrative bodies such as the US Department of State, security agencies, the military, professional societies, and the media. Although popular culture and individual beliefs will affect organizational performance, organizational reactions will depend also on organizational cultures and traditions, administrative structures, communication patterns, decision-making processes, and the actions of other organizations. Prompt and effective responses may be blocked by sociopolitical constraints, jurisdictional disputes, cumbersome structures and procedures, stresses that frequently slow and distort information processing, and potentially counterproductive efforts to maintain positive organizational images. Efforts undertaken by governmental agencies will be hampered by public perceptions of low credibility. Foresight and advance preparation are among the steps that organizations may take to prepare for contact, but conservative values, skepticism towards SETI, and competing organizational priorities make serious preparation unlikely.

  10. Initial effects of vegetation on Hawaiian basalt weathering rates

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, M.F.; Berner, R.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Weathering of Ca and Mg silicates on land and ensuing precipitation and burial of Ca and Mg carbonates in marine sediments is the principal sink for carbon dioxide from the atmosphere/ocean system on geologic time scales. Model calculations of ancient atmospheric CO[sub 2] partial pressure depend strongly on the authors assumptions about the enhancement of silicate weathering rates first by primitive terrestrial biota, then by the appearance and evolution of the vascular plants. Aa and pahoehoe basalts were collected from Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. Flows ranged in age (one year to several thousand years) and in ambient climate. Where possible, each flow was sampled beneath a suite of current plant covers: none, lichens, and higher plants. Rocks were embedded in epoxy to preserve the plant-rock interface, then sectioned and subjected to electron probe microanalysis. During initial weathering, vascular plants appeared to promote congruent dissolution of minerals (particularly olivine and Ca-rich plagioclase) and glass near the surfaces of underlying basalts. In the neighborhood of roots, primary cracks widened with time into networks of open channels. This effect was observed prior to the formation of measurable leached zones in exterior grains and prior to the appearance of secondary minerals. As a result, initial mass loss from young, plant-covered basalts appeared to be up to one or more orders of magnitude greater than from bare-rock controls. Despite earlier reports of substantial enhancement of Hawaiian basalt weathering rates by the lichen Stereocaulon vulcani, weathering observed beneath this lichen was comparable to that of unvegetated rocks.

  11. Initial SB4 Melt Rate Furnace Testing (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M

    2005-07-29

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is presently vitrifying Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) and preparing to process Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) in late 2006 or early 2007. The final composition of SB4 has not been finalized, as various blending and/or washing strategies are still being considered. SB4 will be comprised of the contents of Tanks 5, 6, 7, 8, and 11 (which will be transferred to Tank 51) along with plutonium and neptunium solutions from F and H Canyons, and possibly material from Tank 4. Tank 4 was originally included in projections, but plans have since changed (after completion of these tests) and Tank 4 is no longer part of SB4 due to problems with sludge removal. Even though the final SB4 composition was not finalized at the time of this study, there were 20 bounding options documented that could be used for preliminary melt rate tests. At the time of these tests, the SB4 compositions described as ''SB4 1200 canister baseline'' and ''SB4 1200 canister baseline (one less washed)'' documented elsewhere were chosen for these tests. The 1200 canister describes the number of equivalent canisters that would be produced from the beginning of the current contract period before SB3 is blended with SB4. These compositions were chosen as they had the highest amount of SB4 in the blend and were therefore considered as worse case SB4 feeds with regards to melt rate. This is because SB4 has higher alumina levels of any sludge batch yet processed and alumina has a negative impact on the DWPF melt rate. This baseline sludge includes Tank 4 but does not include auxiliary waste streams such as the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) stream, which contains monosodium titanate (MST), entrained sludge, and various soluble sodium compounds as the result of filter cleaning and stream adjustment for transfer. These preliminary dry-fed Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) tests were needed to initially evaluate melt rate/waste throughput. This study addressed SB4 with Frits 418 and 320, the impact

  12. Initial targets and cellular responses to PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Myriam E.; Azizuddin, Kashif; Chiu, Song-mao; Delos Santos, Grace; Joseph, Sheeba; Xue, Liang-yan; Oleinick, Nancy L.

    2007-02-01

    Pc 4, a photosensitizer first synthesized at Case Western Reserve University and now in clinical trial at University Hospitals of Cleveland, has been shown to bind preferentially and with high affinity to mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Upon photoirradiation of Pc 4-loaded cells, membrane components are photodamaged. In most cancer cells, apoptosis is triggered by the initial photodamage; however, in cells deficient in one of the critical intermediates of apoptosis, this process does not occur, although the cells remain as sensitive to the lethal effects of Pc 4-PDT as the apoptosis-competent cells, when cell death is determined by colony formation. Here we report that an alternative death process, autophagy, is induced in all cells tested and becomes the dominant pathway for elimination of lethally damaged cells when apoptosis is compromised. The anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, when overexpressed, protects only apoptosis-competent cells against loss of clonogenicity, while the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine provides a markedly greater protection to apoptosis-deficient cells. The results suggest that the primary determinant of cell death is not the final pathway for elimination of the cells but the initial photodamage to critical membrane targets. In attempts to identify those targets, we have studied the role of different membrane phospholipids in the localization of Pc 4. Cardiolipin (CL) is a phospholipid found exclusively in the mitochondrial inner membrane and at the contact sites between the inner and outer membranes. Previous fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies revealed colocalization of Pc 4 and CL, which points to CL as a possible binding site and target for Pc 4. Unilamellar liposomes with different lipid compositions were used as membrane models to test the affinity of Pc 4. As revealed by the binding constants, Pc 4 does not display preferential binding to CL in these systems. Moreover, binding affinities appear to be

  13. Maximising response rates in household telephone surveys

    PubMed Central

    O'Toole, Joanne; Sinclair, Martha; Leder, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Background Epidemiological and other studies that require participants to respond by completing a questionnaire face the growing threat of non-response. Response rates to household telephone surveys are diminishing because of changes in telecommunications, marketing and culture. Accordingly, updated information is required about the rate of telephone listing in directories and optimal strategies to maximise survey participation. Methods A total of 3426 households in Sydney, Australia were approached to participate in a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) regarding their domestic (recycled and/or drinking) water usage. Only randomly selected households in the suburb and postcode of interest with a telephone number listed in the Electronic White Pages (EWP) that matched Australian electoral records were approached. Results The CATI response rate for eligible households contacted by telephone was 39%. The rate of matching of electoral and EWP records, a measure of telephone directory coverage, was 55%. Conclusion The use of a combination of approaches, such as an advance letter, interviewer training, establishment of researcher credentials, increasing call attempts and targeted call times, remains a good strategy to maximise telephone response rates. However, by way of preparation for future technological changes, reduced telephone number listings and people's increasing resistance to unwanted phone calls, alternatives to telephone surveys, such as internet-based approaches, should be investigated. PMID:18980694

  14. Maximising response rates in household telephone surveys.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Joanne; Sinclair, Martha; Leder, Karin

    2008-11-03

    Epidemiological and other studies that require participants to respond by completing a questionnaire face the growing threat of non-response. Response rates to household telephone surveys are diminishing because of changes in telecommunications, marketing and culture. Accordingly, updated information is required about the rate of telephone listing in directories and optimal strategies to maximise survey participation. A total of 3426 households in Sydney, Australia were approached to participate in a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) regarding their domestic (recycled and/or drinking) water usage. Only randomly selected households in the suburb and postcode of interest with a telephone number listed in the Electronic White Pages (EWP) that matched Australian electoral records were approached. The CATI response rate for eligible households contacted by telephone was 39%. The rate of matching of electoral and EWP records, a measure of telephone directory coverage, was 55%. The use of a combination of approaches, such as an advance letter, interviewer training, establishment of researcher credentials, increasing call attempts and targeted call times, remains a good strategy to maximise telephone response rates. However, by way of preparation for future technological changes, reduced telephone number listings and people's increasing resistance to unwanted phone calls, alternatives to telephone surveys, such as internet-based approaches, should be investigated.

  15. Crop Yield Response to Increasing Biochar Rates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The benefit or detriment to crop yield from biochar application varies with biochar type/rate, soil, crop, or climate. The objective of this research was to identify yield response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), corn (Zea mayes L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to hardwood biochar applied at...

  16. Study of High Strain Rate Response of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilat, Amos

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the research was to continue the experimental study of the effect of strain rate on mechanical response (deformation and failure) of epoxy resins and carbon fibers/epoxy matrix composites, and to initiate a study of the effects of temperature by developing an elevated temperature test. The experimental data provide the information needed for NASA scientists for the development of a nonlinear, rate dependent deformation and strength models for composites that can subsequently be used in design. This year effort was directed into testing the epoxy resin. Three types of epoxy resins were tested in tension and shear at various strain rates that ranges from 5 x 10(exp -5), to 1000 per second. Pilot shear experiments were done at high strain rate and an elevated temperature of 80 C. The results show that all, the strain rate, the mode of loading, and temperature significantly affect the response of epoxy.

  17. How to program rate responsive pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Greco, E M; Guardini, S; Ferrario, M; Romano, S

    2000-02-01

    Because oxygen uptake (VO2) increases linearly with heart rate during exercise, the oxygen pulse reserve (OPR) method (VO2 reserve divided by heart rate reserve) may provide a valid guide for rate responsive parameter tailoring. Using custom-made software (Pacing Rate Profile Software [PRPS]) it is possible to predict the exercise pacing rate profile with significant accuracy, according to the patient's functional class when ergospirometry apparatus is not available for a cardiopulmonary stress test (CPX). PRPS for Windows is based on the OPR method and some known workload/metabolic cost of exercise relationships during effort. The present study had two aims; first, to evaluate the reliability of PRPS in accurately predicting pacing rate profiles; and second, the suitability of activity and metabolic rate responsive sensors in supplying pacing rates sufficiently near to those predicted using CPX or PRPS. To test the reliability of PRPS we studied 244 patients, NYHA Class I-II, under two different stress test protocols. In one, the bicycle protocol (25 W, 2-minute steps), we tested 137 normal patients (94 men and 43 women, mean age 67 +/- 15 years). Sixty-eight of these were simultaneously CPX tested. PRPS predicted pacing rates were matched against the patients' sinus rhythms or their theoretical CPX measured VO2 heart rates (OPR method). Linear regression analysis was highly significant (r = 0.93 and r = 0.97, respectively). The other, the treadmill protocol, consisted of three different protocols. (1) Speed Incremental Treadmill Stress Test (SITST): 57 patients underwent CPX (33 men and 24 women, mean age 67 +/- 15 years, NYHA Class I-II). All had been pacemaker implanted for SSS and/or advanced atrioventricular block (AVB). PRPS pacing rates were matched against CPX VO2 OPR calculated heart rates (r = 0.93), (linear regression analysis). (2) CAEP: 30 patients underwent CPX (26 men and 4 women, mean age 61 +/- 11 years, NYHA Class I-II). Thirteen of them had been

  18. Rates of soil forming processes - the RAISIN initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    Soil chronosequence studies are a valuable tool to assess soil development with time in different landscapes and climatic environments. Numerous soil chronosequences have been studied in the last decades in different parts of the world, so that it is the right time to analyze and summarize what has been achieved so far and to identify remaining challenges and research gaps. This is the main goal of the initiative RAISIN (Rates of soil forming processes obtained from soils and paleosols in well-defined settings) supported by the International Union for Quaternary Research (INQUA) as an INQUA project. This main goal of RAISIN can be subdivided into four objectives: 1. Reviewing and compiling existing studies The first objective is to provide thoroughly reviewed and checked knowledge on directions and rates of soil forming processes in different climates. In a first step, existing soil chronosequence data will be compiled within the International Soil Carbon Database (http://www.fluxdata.org/NSCN/SitePages/ISCN.aspx) which is currently modified to enable inclusion of the RAISIN data. These data will then be reviewed, discussed and combined to obtain a present state of the art in terms of rates of soil forming processes in different environments. 2. Defining soil properties indicative of progressive soil development and standardized methods Soil properties that are most closely linked to soil age are identified and are recommended to be used for estimating time-spans of soil development. Standardized field and laboratory methods that are useful for assessing the stage of soil development will be recommended as well. A standard and minimum set of field and laboratory analyses to be performed on soil chronosequences and paleosols will be defined in order to ensure that new studies will be carried out in a way that permits for comparison of the newly produced data with existing data to achieve the best possible overall scientific progress. 3. Identifying challenges and

  19. Resistance to change of forgetting functions and response rates.

    PubMed

    Odum, Amy L; Shahan, Timothy A; Nevin, John A

    2005-07-01

    This experiment examined the effects of reinforcement probability on resistance to change of remembering and response rate. Pigeons responded on a two-component multiple schedule in which completion of a variable-interval 20-s schedule produced delayed matching-to-sample trials in both components. Each session included four delays (0.1 s, 2 s, 4 s, and 8 s) between sample termination and presentation of comparison stimuli in both components. The two components differed in the probability of reinforcement arranged for correct matches (i.e., rich, p = .9; lean, p = .1). Response rates during the variable-interval portion of the procedure were higher in the rich component during baseline and more resistant to the disruptive effects of intercomponent food and extinction. Forgetting functions were constructed by examining matching accuracy as a function of delay duration. Baseline accuracy was higher in the rich component than in the lean component as measured by differences in the gamma-intercept of the forgetting functions (i.e., initial discrimination), rather than from differences in the slope of the forgetting function (i.e., rate of forgetting). Intercomponent food increased the rate of forgetting relatively more in the lean component than in the rich component, but initial discrimination was not systematically affected. Extinction reduced initial discrimination relatively more in the lean component than in the rich component, but did not systematically affect rate of forgetting. These results are consistent with our previous data suggesting that, as for response rate, accuracy and resistance to change of discriminating are positively related to rate of reinforcement. These data also suggest that the disruptability of remembering depends on the conditions of reinforcement, but the way in which remembering is disrupted depends on the nature of the disruptor.

  20. Resistance To Change Of Forgetting Functions And Response Rates

    PubMed Central

    Odum, Amy L; Shahan, Timothy A; Nevin, John A

    2005-01-01

    This experiment examined the effects of reinforcement probability on resistance to change of remembering and response rate. Pigeons responded on a two-component multiple schedule in which completion of a variable-interval 20-s schedule produced delayed matching-to-sample trials in both components. Each session included four delays (0.1 s, 2 s, 4 s, and 8 s) between sample termination and presentation of comparison stimuli in both components. The two components differed in the probability of reinforcement arranged for correct matches (i.e., rich, p  =  .9; lean, p  =  .1). Response rates during the variable-interval portion of the procedure were higher in the rich component during baseline and more resistant to the disruptive effects of intercomponent food and extinction. Forgetting functions were constructed by examining matching accuracy as a function of delay duration. Baseline accuracy was higher in the rich component than in the lean component as measured by differences in the y-intercept of the forgetting functions (i.e., initial discrimination), rather than from differences in the slope of the forgetting function (i.e., rate of forgetting). Intercomponent food increased the rate of forgetting relatively more in the lean component than in the rich component, but initial discrimination was not systematically affected. Extinction reduced initial discrimination relatively more in the lean component than in the rich component, but did not systematically affect rate of forgetting. These results are consistent with our previous data suggesting that, as for response rate, accuracy and resistance to change of discriminating are positively related to rate of reinforcement. These data also suggest that the disruptability of remembering depends on the conditions of reinforcement, but the way in which remembering is disrupted depends on the nature of the disruptor. PMID:16156137

  1. Heart rate variability predicts the magnitude of heart rate decrease after fingolimod initiation.

    PubMed

    Simula, Sakari; Laitinen, Tomi P; Laitinen, Tiina M; Hartikainen, Päivi; Hartikainen, Juha Ek

    2016-11-01

    Fingolimod is an immunomodulator with a disease modifying effect on relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). A heart rate (HR) decrease shortly after fingolimod initiation, however, requires a clinical vigilance. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate whether cardiac autonomic regulation can predict the magnitude of HR decrease after fingolimod initiation. Twenty-five patients with RRMS underwent ambulatory 24-h electrocardiogram recording to assess HR variability 20±16 days before fingolimod initiation (baseline) and repeated at the day of fingolimod initiation to assess the magnitude of HR decrease. The percentage of normal RR-intervals with duration more than 50ms different from the previous normal RR-interval (pNN50) was calculated (among the other HR variability parameters) to assess cardiac autonomic regulation. The maximal HR decrease (ΔHR) after the first dose of fingolimod was assessed in absolute units (beats/min) and in percentage (%). The maximal ΔHR was -20±11 beats/min (-23±12%) on the average. pNN50 calculated at baseline correlated with ΔHR% (r=-0.657, p<0.001). A HR decrease ≥20% was found in 10/14 patients with pNN50≥10%. The positive and negative predictive values of pNN50≥10% to predict ΔHR≥20% were 83% and 69%, respectively leading to accuracy of 76%. Cardiac autonomic regulation (pNN50>10%) at baseline can be used to predict the magnitude of HR decrease after the first dose of fingolimod. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01704183). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Heart Rate Response of Professional Musicians When Playing Music.

    PubMed

    Vellers, Heather L; Irwin, Conor; Lightfoot, J T

    2015-06-01

    The primary aim was to determine the level of physiological stress evoked while playing music in a standing position as indicated by heart rate (HR) response. A secondary aim was to analyze the effect of music genre (classic rock, western, contemporary Christian, and metal rock) on the relative HR response. Lastly, we considered potential physiological initiators of the music-playing-induced HR response. HR response was monitored in 27 professional musicians (3 women, 24 men) between the ages of 21 and 67 yrs old during rehearsal and public performances. The percent maximal HR (%MHR) evoked was determined by taking a percentage of the age-predicted maximal HR for each musician and comparing the average %MHR in each genre during public and rehearsal events. The role of the potential initiators of these responses (e.g., number of years playing in public, event type, instrument type, tempo, etc.) was determined using multiple regression analyses. The overall average %MHR responses were 52 ± 5% and 59 ± 5% during rehearsal and public performances, respectively, with genre type having a significant effect on the HR response (p=0.01). Body mass index and tempo were each found to be significant contributors to the HR response while playing music (r²=0.506, p=0.001). Playing music professionally evokes considerable increases in HR response, with music genre influencing the level of the physiological response. We concluded that 50% of the HR response while playing music was associated with body mass index, music tempo, and instrument type.

  3. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating: Development and Initial Psychometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Michael; Newgent, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometrics of the Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating is a brief screening of addiction potential based on 10 risk factors predictive of youth alcohol and drug-related problems that assists examiners in more accurate treatment planning when self-report information is…

  4. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating: Development and Initial Psychometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Michael; Newgent, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometrics of the Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating is a brief screening of addiction potential based on 10 risk factors predictive of youth alcohol and drug-related problems that assists examiners in more accurate treatment planning when self-report information is…

  5. Sublimation rates of explosive materials : method development and initial results.

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, James M.; Patton, Robert Thomas

    2004-08-01

    Vapor detection of explosives continues to be a technological basis for security applications. This study began experimental work to measure the chemical emanation rates of pure explosive materials as a basis for determining emanation rates of security threats containing explosives. Sublimation rates for TNT were determined with thermo gravimetric analysis using two different techniques. Data were compared with other literature values to provide sublimation rates from 25 to 70 C. The enthalpy of sublimation for the combined data was found to be 115 kJ/mol, which corresponds well with previously reported data from vapor pressure determinations. A simple Gaussian atmospheric dispersion model was used to estimate downrange concentrations based on continuous, steady-state conditions at 20, 45 and 62 C for a nominal exposed block of TNT under low wind conditions. Recommendations are made for extension of the experimental vapor emanation rate determinations and development of turbulent flow computational fluid dynamics based atmospheric dispersion estimates of standoff vapor concentrations.

  6. Varying termiticide application rate and volume affect initial soil penetration

    Treesearch

    Christopher Peterson

    2010-01-01

    The initial soil penetration of Premise 75 and Termidor SC, containing imidacloprid and fipronil, respectively, were tested in laboratory columns of five different soils. Three combinations of application concentration and volume were used: double the recommended active ingredient concentration at one half the recommended volume (DR), the full concentration and volume...

  7. Initial-rate based method for estimating the maximum heterotrophic growth rate parameter (μHmax).

    PubMed

    Fall, C; Hooijmans, C M; Esparza-Soto, M; Olguin, M T; Bâ, K M

    2012-07-01

    Currently, the method most used for measuring the maximum specific growth rate (μ(Hmax)) of heterotrophic biomass is by respirometry, using growth batch tests performed at high food/microorganism ratio. No other technique has been suggested, although the former approach was criticized for providing kinetic constants that could be unrepresentative of the original biomass. An alternative method (seed-increments) is proposed, which relies on measuring the initial rates of respiration (r(O2)(_ini)) at different seeding levels, in a single batch, and in the presence of excess readily biodegradable substrate (S(S)). The ASM1-based underlying equations were developed, which showed that μ(Hmax) could be estimated through the slope of the linear function of r(O2)(_ini)·(V(WW)+v(ML)) vs v(ML) (volume of mixed liquor inoculum); V(WW) represent the wastewater volume added. The procedure was tested, being easy to apply; the postulated linearity was constantly observed and the method is claimed to measure the characteristics of the biomass of interest. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular mechanisms involved in initiation of the DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Barnum, Kevin J; O’Connell, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    DNA is subject to a wide variety of damage. In order to maintain genomic integrity, cells must respond to this damage by activating repair and cell cycle checkpoint pathways. The initiating events in the DNA damage response entail recognition of the lesion and the assembly of DNA damage response complexes at the DNA. Here, we review what is known about these processes for various DNA damage pathways. PMID:27308403

  9. Molecular mechanisms involved in initiation of the DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Barnum, Kevin J; O'Connell, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    DNA is subject to a wide variety of damage. In order to maintain genomic integrity, cells must respond to this damage by activating repair and cell cycle checkpoint pathways. The initiating events in the DNA damage response entail recognition of the lesion and the assembly of DNA damage response complexes at the DNA. Here, we review what is known about these processes for various DNA damage pathways.

  10. High Strain Rate Response of an Elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Tong; Clifton, Rodney J.; Grunschel, Stephen E.

    2006-07-01

    Pressure-shear plate impact experiments are used to study the nonlinear dynamic response of an elastomer at shearing rates of 105 - 106 s-1. Samples with thicknesses in the range 100 μm - 400 μm are cast between two hard steel plates. Because of the comparatively low impedance of the elastomer, longitudinal waves reverberating through the thickness of the sample — and recorded with a laser interferometer — are used to determine the isentrope of the material under uniaxial strain compression. Once the sample is fully compressed a shear wave arrives and imposes a simple shearing deformation. From the transverse velocity, measured interferometrically at the rear surface of the sandwich target, the shear stress and the transverse velocity at the rear surface of the sample are determined. These measurements provide an indication of the shearing resistance of the material under pressure. When the longitudinal unloading wave arrives from the rear surface of the target, these same measurements provide an indication of the shearing resistance of the material at zero pressure. Because the sample adheres to the bounding plates the reflection of unloading waves from both the rear surface of the flyer and the rear surface of the target allows the sample to be strained in uniaxial extension. Thus, from a single experiment, one obtains the response of the elastomer in uniaxial strain compression, simple shear and uniaxial strain extension.

  11. Software-Based Student Response Systems: An Interdisciplinary Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Carol M.; Hoffman, Michael S.; Casey, Nancy C.; Cox, Maureen P.

    2015-01-01

    Colleagues from information technology and three academic departments collaborated on an instructional technology initiative to employ student response systems in classes in mathematics, accounting and education. The instructors assessed the viability of using software-based systems to enable students to use their own devices (cell phones,…

  12. Initial response of understory vegetation to three alternative thinning treatments

    Treesearch

    Liane R. Davis; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2009-01-01

    This study compares initial understory vegetation response among three thinning treatments and a control in 30 - to 50-year-old even-aged Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco (Douglas-fir) stands. It was conducted on four sites on the western slope of the central Oregon Cascades. Treatments included a control (no thinning), a light thinning, and...

  13. The effect of a college pen incentive on survey response rate among recent college graduates.

    PubMed

    Stange, Jonathan P; Zyzanski, Stephen J

    2011-02-01

    Incentives have shown a variable effect in improving survey response rates, but the effect of a pen from an organization to which the respondent has loyalty has not been studied. Recent college graduates were randomized to receive or not receive a college logo pen accompanying an initial survey mailing. Among 119 total respondents, there were no differences in response rate to the initial mailing, to a second mailing to nonrespondents who did not receive a pen in the initial mailing, or in total response rate. Investigators may save money by not including a pen incentive or may consider stronger incentives.

  14. Pediatric defibrillation after cardiac arrest: initial response and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio; López-Herce, Jesús; García, Cristina; Domínguez, Pedro; Carrillo, Angel; Bellón, Jose María

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Shockable rhythms are rare in pediatric cardiac arrest and the results of defibrillation are uncertain. The objective of this study was to analyze the results of cardiopulmonary resuscitation that included defibrillation in children. Methods Forty-four out of 241 children (18.2%) who were resuscitated from inhospital or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest had been treated with manual defibrillation. Data were recorded according to the Utstein style. Outcome variables were a sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and one-year survival. Characteristics of patients and of resuscitation were evaluated. Results Cardiac disease was the major cause of arrest in this group. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (PVT) was the first documented electrocardiogram rhythm in 19 patients (43.2%). A shockable rhythm developed during resuscitation in 25 patients (56.8%). The first shock (dose, 2 J/kg) terminated VF or PVT in eight patients (18.1%). Seventeen children (38.6%) needed more than three shocks to solve VF or PVT. ROSC was achieved in 28 cases (63.6%) and it was sustained in 19 patients (43.2%). Only three patients (6.8%), however, survived at 1-year follow-up. Children with VF or PVT as the first documented rhythm had better ROSC, better initial survival and better final survival than children with subsequent VF or PVT. Children who survived were older than the finally dead patients. No significant differences in response rate were observed when first and second shocks were compared. The survival rate was higher in patients treated with a second shock dose of 2 J/kg than in those who received higher doses. Outcome was not related to the cause or the location of arrest. The survival rate was inversely related to the duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Conclusion Defibrillation is necessary in 18% of children who suffer cardiac arrest. Termination of VF or PVT after the first defibrillation dose is achieved in a low

  15. The initial complication rate of phacoemulsification in India.

    PubMed

    Robin, A L; Smith, S D; Natchiar, G; Ramakrishnan, R; Srinivasan, M; Raheem, R; Hecht, W

    1997-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the feasibility of teaching experienced surgeons to perform phacoemulsification in India, a cataract-endemic area. Complications occurring during surgery and the first postoperative day were documented and evaluated. During a 1-month period, at the Aravind Eye Hospital in Madurai, India, the first 100 consecutive cataract operations performed by each of three experienced surgeons (a total of 300 cases), using phacoemulsification were prospectively evaluated. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with intraoperative and postoperative complications. The mean age of patients was 57.4+/-9.3 years. The median best corrected preoperative visual acuity was 20/80. Mean surgical and phacoemulsification times were 15.8+/-3.7 minutes and 2.2+/-1.5 minutes, respectively. Complications occurred in 65 (21.7%) eyes. The most common was a rent in the posterior capsule, occurring in 40 (13.3%) eyes. There were significant variations in complication rate and in surgical time among the surgeons. The risk of experiencing a complication decreased as the number of phacoemulsifications performed increased. An increased risk of complications was associated with worse preoperative visual acuity and increasing patient age. With each successive case, the chances of experiencing a complication decreased 1%. Acceptable results were obtained within 1 month of performing the first phacoemulsification.

  16. St. Gallen endocrine response classes predict recurrence rates over time.

    PubMed

    Koornstra, R H T; Beelen, K J; Vincent, A D; van der Noort, V; van Diest, P J; Linn, S C

    2015-12-01

    In 2007 the St. Gallen consensus panel defined three endocrine response classes: highly endocrine responsive (ER-H), incomplete endocrine responsive (ER-I) and non-endocrine responsive tumours (ER-N). However, it is uncertain whether ER-I tumours are less responsive than ER-H tumours. We investigated whether recurrence rates vary over time between response classes. Additionally, we investigated the most predictive response class definition for tamoxifen benefit. We recollected tumours from 646 patients who participated in a randomized trial of adjuvant tamoxifen vs. Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), HER2 status and tumour grade were revised centrally. St. Gallen classes were evaluated for recurrence free interval (RFI). Change in hazards over time was assessed. Subsequently, 6 alternative response class definitions were compared to optimize the cut-off for PgR and ER. Schoenfeld residuals indicate a failure of proportional hazards between the endocrine response groups (p = 0.0001). The HR for recurrence risk shifted over time with the ER-H group initially being at lower risk (HR ER-H vs. ER-I 0.5), but after six years the recurrence risk increased (HR 1.9). The cut-off values for ER and PgR that statistically best discriminated RFI in the first 4 years for lymph node positive patients were ER ≥ 50% and PgR ≥ 75%. We demonstrated a marked variability in endocrine therapy benefit. Patients with ER-H tumours have a larger benefit during adjuvant tamoxifen and in the first years after accomplishing of the therapy, but suffer from late recurrences. This might have implications for optimal treatment duration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of reinforcement rate on the spontaneous social initiations of socially withdrawn preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Zanolli, K; Daggett, J

    1998-01-01

    Social skills priming was used to increase the spontaneous social initiations of 2 socially withdrawn preschoolers, 1 of whom had been diagnosed with autism. During priming sessions, the teacher prompted and reinforced social behaviors (e.g., smiling, verbal initiations). We varied the rate of reinforcement during priming sessions and measured the effects of this manipulation on the rate of spontaneous social initiations during the subsequent classroom activity. Spontaneous initiations were more frequent after high rates of reinforcement than after low rates of reinforcement.

  18. Growth rate regulation of translation initiation factor IF3 biosynthesis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Liveris, D; Klotsky, R A; Schwartz, I

    1991-01-01

    infC, the gene encoding translation initiation factor IF3 in Escherichia coli, can be transcribed from three promoters. Two of these promoters, PI1 and PI2, are located in the upstream thrS sequence which codes for threonyl-tRNA synthetase. Previous studies had shown that PI2 was the major promoter for infC. In the present study, the extent of transcription from PI1 and/or PI2 at a variety of steady-state growth rates was analyzed by promoter fusion studies. PI2 was the more active promoter (two- to threefold stronger than PI1) at all growth rates tested. A fusion plasmid containing both PI1 and PI2 exhibited a transcription level approximately equal to the sum of those observed with the fusion plasmids containing the individual promoters. The transcriptional activities of PI1 and PI2 did not change as the growth rate was varied from 0.3 to 1.7 doublings per h. In contrast, a fusion plasmid carrying the rrnB P1 promoter displayed the expected growth rate response. The steady-state concentrations of infC mRNA in cells grown at different rates were measured and found not to vary. These results indicate that the previously reported growth rate regulation of IF3 biosynthesis neither is accomplished by transcriptional control nor is a result of differential mRNA stability. In view of these results, the steady-state levels of IF3 in cells grown at a number of different growth rates were determined by quantitative immunoblotting. IF3 levels were found to vary with growth rate in a manner essentially identical to that observed for ribosomes. A model accounting for these results and describing a mechanism for coordinate growth rate-regulated expression of ribosomes and IF3 is presented. Images PMID:2050639

  19. Feedback Functions, Optimization, and the Relation of Response Rate to Reinforcer Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Paul L.; McDowell, Jack J.; Dallery, Jesse

    2006-01-01

    The present experiment arranged a series of inverted U-shaped feedback functions relating reinforcer rate to response rate to test whether responding was consistent with an optimization account or with a one-to-one relation of response rate to reinforcer rate such as linear system theory's rate equation or Herrnstein's hyperbola. Reinforcer rate…

  20. Item Response Models for Local Dependence among Multiple Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Su, Chi-Ming; Qiu, Xue-Lan

    2014-01-01

    Ratings given to the same item response may have a stronger correlation than those given to different item responses, especially when raters interact with one another before giving ratings. The rater bundle model was developed to account for such local dependence by forming multiple ratings given to an item response as a bundle and assigning…

  1. Item Response Models for Local Dependence among Multiple Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Su, Chi-Ming; Qiu, Xue-Lan

    2014-01-01

    Ratings given to the same item response may have a stronger correlation than those given to different item responses, especially when raters interact with one another before giving ratings. The rater bundle model was developed to account for such local dependence by forming multiple ratings given to an item response as a bundle and assigning…

  2. Tactics and Factors That Increase Response Rates to Mailed Questionnaires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillihunt, Vivian C.

    Research findings on identification of factors associated with increasing response rates to mailed questionnaires are presented. Several tactics which have been used to effect a greater response rate are presented and explained. Physical factors, such as typed correspondence, have been shown to yield higher response rates than duplicated…

  3. 76 FR 6128 - Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ...-000] Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... the above-referenced proceeding Energy Exchange International, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  4. PowerChoice Residential Customer Response to TOU Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Jane S.; Moezzi, Mithra; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Woods, James; Dethman, Linda; Kunkle, Rick

    2009-10-01

    Research Into Action, Inc. and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) worked together to conduct research on the behaviors and energy use patterns of SMUD residential customers who voluntarily signed on to a Time-of-Use rate pilot launched under the PowerChoice label. The project was designed to consider the how and why of residential customers ability and willingness to engage in demand reduction behaviors, and to link social and behavioral factors to observed changes in demand. The research drew on a combination of load interval data and three successive surveys of participating households. Two experimental treatments were applied to test the effects of increased information on households ability to respond to the Time-of-Use rates. Survey results indicated that participants understood the purpose of the Time-of-Use rate and undertook substantial appropriate actions to shift load and conserve. Statistical tests revealed minor initial price effects and more marked, but still modest, adjustments to seasonal rate changes. Tests of the two information interventions indicated that neither made much difference to consumption patterns. Despite the lackluster statistical evidence for load shifting, the analysis points to key issues for critical analysis and development of residential Time-of-Use rates, especially pertinent as California sets the stage for demand response in more California residences.

  5. African media coverage of tobacco industry corporate social responsibility initiatives

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Patricia A.; Cadman, Brie; Malone, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    Guidelines for implementing the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) recommend prohibiting tobacco industry corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, but few African countries have done so. We examined African media coverage of tobacco industry CSR initiatives to understand whether and how such initiatives were presented to the public and policymakers. We searched two online media databases (Lexis Nexis and Access World News) for all news items published from 1998 to 2013, coding retrieved items through a collaborative, iterative process. We analysed the volume, type, provenance, slant and content of coverage, including the presence of tobacco control or tobacco interest themes. We found 288 news items; most were news stories published in print newspapers. The majority of news stories relied solely on tobacco industry representatives as news sources, and portrayed tobacco industry CSR positively. When public health voices and tobacco control themes were included, news items were less likely to have a positive slant. This suggests that there is a foundation on which to build media advocacy efforts. Drawing links between implementing the FCTC and prohibiting or curtailing tobacco industry CSR programmes may result in more public dialogue in the media about the negative impacts of tobacco company CSR initiatives. PMID:26947737

  6. African media coverage of tobacco industry corporate social responsibility initiatives.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Cadman, Brie; Malone, Ruth E

    2016-03-07

    Guidelines for implementing the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) recommend prohibiting tobacco industry corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, but few African countries have done so. We examined African media coverage of tobacco industry CSR initiatives to understand whether and how such initiatives were presented to the public and policymakers. We searched two online media databases (Lexis Nexis and Access World News) for all news items published from 1998 to 2013, coding retrieved items through a collaborative, iterative process. We analysed the volume, type, provenance, slant and content of coverage, including the presence of tobacco control or tobacco interest themes. We found 288 news items; most were news stories published in print newspapers. The majority of news stories relied solely on tobacco industry representatives as news sources, and portrayed tobacco industry CSR positively. When public health voices and tobacco control themes were included, news items were less likely to have a positive slant. This suggests that there is a foundation on which to build media advocacy efforts. Drawing links between implementing the FCTC and prohibiting or curtailing tobacco industry CSR programmes may result in more public dialogue in the media about the negative impacts of tobacco company CSR initiatives.

  7. Corporate social responsibility initiatives addressing social exclusion in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Werner, Wendy J

    2009-08-01

    The private sector is often seen as a driver of exclusionary processes rather than a partner in improving the health and welfare of socially-excluded populations. However, private-sector initiatives and partnerships- collectively labelled corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives-may be able to positively impact social status, earning potential, and access to services and resources for socially-excluded populations. This paper presents case studies of CSR projects in Bangladesh that are designed to reduce social exclusion among marginalized populations and explores whether CSR initiatives can increase economic and social capabilities to reduce exclusion. The examples provide snapshots of projects that (a) increase job-skills and employment opportunities for women, disabled women, and rehabilitated drug-users and (b) provide healthcare services to female workers and their communities. The CSR case studies cover a limited number of people but characteristics and practices replicable and scaleable across different industries, countries, and populations are identified. Common success factors from the case studies form the basis for recommendations to design and implement more CSR initiatives targeting socially-excluded groups. The analysis found that CSR has potential for positive and lasting impact on developing countries, especifically on socially-excluded populations. However, there is a need for additional monitoring and critical evaluation.

  8. 49 CFR 236.503 - Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... predetermined rate of speed exceeded. 236.503 Section 236.503 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... § 236.503 Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded. An automatic train control system shall operate to initiate an automatic brake application when the speed of...

  9. 49 CFR 236.503 - Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... predetermined rate of speed exceeded. 236.503 Section 236.503 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... § 236.503 Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded. An automatic train control system shall operate to initiate an automatic brake application when the speed of...

  10. 49 CFR 236.503 - Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... predetermined rate of speed exceeded. 236.503 Section 236.503 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... § 236.503 Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded. An automatic train control system shall operate to initiate an automatic brake application when the speed of...

  11. 49 CFR 236.503 - Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... predetermined rate of speed exceeded. 236.503 Section 236.503 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... § 236.503 Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded. An automatic train control system shall operate to initiate an automatic brake application when the speed of...

  12. 49 CFR 236.503 - Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... predetermined rate of speed exceeded. 236.503 Section 236.503 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... § 236.503 Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded. An automatic train control system shall operate to initiate an automatic brake application when the speed of...

  13. Maximum initial growth-rate of strong-shock-driven Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell, Z. R.; Pandian, A.; Bhowmick, A. K.; Swisher, N. C.; Stanic, M.; Stellingwerf, R. F.; Abarzhi, S. I.

    2017-09-01

    We focus on the classical problem of the dependence on the initial conditions of the initial growth-rate of strong shock driven Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) by developing a novel empirical model and by employing rigorous theories and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations to describe the simulation data with statistical confidence in a broad parameter regime. For the given values of the shock strength, fluid density ratio, and wavelength of the initial perturbation of the fluid interface, we find the maximum value of the RMI initial growth-rate, the corresponding amplitude scale of the initial perturbation, and the maximum fraction of interfacial energy. This amplitude scale is independent of the shock strength and density ratio and is characteristic quantity of RMI dynamics. We discover the exponential decay of the ratio of the initial and linear growth-rates of RMI with the initial perturbation amplitude that excellently agrees with available data.

  14. Left ventricular hypertrophy: an initial response to myocardial injury.

    PubMed

    Francis, G S; McDonald, K M

    1992-06-04

    The prevailing wisdom generally has been that the failing heart hypertrophies in response to increased wall stress. The increase in myocardial mass observed in heart failure is therefore a relatively late compensatory event geared to normalize wall stress. Although this is undoubtedly true, especially for heart failure resulting from a large anterior myocardial infarction accompanied by rapid left ventricular expansion, it is possible that an important form of hypertrophy occurs much earlier as an initial response to myocardial injury. One can hypothesize that the initial response to injury is a nonspecific phenotypic alteration of the cardiac myocyte to one of growth and development. Such changes may be driven by both trophic and mechanical forces and may be important in altering the architecture of the myocardial cell and surrounding cardiac interstitium. Preliminary data from a variety of models support the concept that neuroendocrine activity is an important component in the ventricular remodeling process, and that pharmacologic interventions designed to block systemic and tissue neuroendocrine activity may prevent excessive cardiac enlargement and its ultimate consequences. Because this concept has important implications for preventive cardiology, the results of several prevention trials, including the Cooperative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study (CONSENSUS), Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD), and Survival and Ventricular Enlargement (SAVE) are awaited eagerly.

  15. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Wholesale Power Rate Development Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2007-11-01

    The Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS) calculates BPA proposed rates based on information either developed in the WPRDS or supplied by the other studies that comprise the BPA rate proposal. All of these studies, and accompanying documentation, provide the details of computations and assumptions. In general, information about loads and resources is provided by the Load Resource Study (LRS), WP-07-E-BPA-01, and the LRS Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-01A. Revenue requirements information, as well as the Planned Net Revenues for Risk (PNNR), is provided in the Revenue Requirement Study, WP-07-E-BPA-02, and its accompanying Revenue Requirement Study Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-02A and WP-07-E-BPA-02B. The Market Price Forecast Study (MPFS), WP-07-E-BPA-03, and the MPFS Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-03A, provide the WPRDS with information regarding seasonal and diurnal differentiation of energy rates, as well information regarding monthly market prices for Demand Rates. In addition, this study provides information for the pricing of unbundled power products. The Risk Analysis Study, WP-07-E-BPA-04, and the Risk Analysis Study Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-04A, provide short-term balancing purchases as well as secondary energy sales and revenue. The Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study, WP-07-E-BPA-06, and the Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-06A, implement Section 7(b)(2) of the Northwest Power Act to ensure that BPA preference customers firm power rates applied to their general requirements are no higher than rates calculated using specific assumptions in the Northwest Power Act.

  16. Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives Addressing Social Exclusion in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The private sector is often seen as a driver of exclusionary processes rather than a partner in improving the health and welfare of socially-excluded populations. However, private-sector initiatives and partnerships—collectively labelled corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives—may be able to positively impact social status, earning potential, and access to services and resources for socially-excluded populations. This paper presents case studies of CSR projects in Bangladesh that are designed to reduce social exclusion among marginalized populations and explores whether CSR initiatives can increase economic and social capabilities to reduce exclusion. The examples provide snapshots of projects that (a) increase job-skills and employment opportunities for women, disabled women, and rehabilitated drug-users and (b) provide healthcare services to female workers and their communities. The CSR case studies cover a limited number of people but characteristics and practices replicable and scaleable across different industries, countries, and populations are identified. Common success factors from the case studies form the basis for recommendations to design and implement more CSR initiatives targeting socially-excluded groups. The analysis found that CSR has potential for positive and lasting impact on developing countries, especifically on socially-excluded populations. However, there is a need for additional monitoring and critical evaluation. PMID:19761088

  17. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedule and General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  18. The Wallops Flight Facility Rapid Response Range Operations Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Bruce E.; Kremer, Steven E.

    2004-01-01

    becomes how can a launch site provide acceptably responsive mission services to a particular customer without dedicating extensive resources and while continuing to serve other projects? NASA's Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) is pursuing solutions to exactly this challenge. NASA, in partnership with the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority, has initiated the Rapid Response Range Operations Initiative (R3Ops). R3Ops is a multi-phased effort to incrementally establish and demonstrate increasingly responsive launch operations, with an ultimate goal of providing ELV-class services in a maximum of 7-10 days from initial notification routinely, and shorter schedules possible with committed resources. This target will be pursued within the reality of simultaneous concurrent programs, and ideally, largely independent of specialized flight system configurations. WFF has recently completed Phase 1 of R3Ops, an in-depth collection (through extensive expert interviews) and software modeling of individual steps by various range disciplines. This modeling is now being used to identify existing inefficiencies in current procedures, to identify bottlenecks, and show interdependencies. Existing practices are being tracked to provide a baseline to benchmark against as new procedures are implemented. This paper will describe in detail the philosophies behind WFF's R3Ops, the data collected and modeled in Phase 1, and strategies for meeting responsive launch requirements in a multi-user range environment planned for subsequent phases of this initiative.

  19. The Wallops Flight Facility Rapid Response Range Operations Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Bruce E.; Kremer, Steven E.

    2004-01-01

    becomes how can a launch site provide acceptably responsive mission services to a particular customer without dedicating extensive resources and while continuing to serve other projects? NASA's Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) is pursuing solutions to exactly this challenge. NASA, in partnership with the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority, has initiated the Rapid Response Range Operations Initiative (R3Ops). R3Ops is a multi-phased effort to incrementally establish and demonstrate increasingly responsive launch operations, with an ultimate goal of providing ELV-class services in a maximum of 7-10 days from initial notification routinely, and shorter schedules possible with committed resources. This target will be pursued within the reality of simultaneous concurrent programs, and ideally, largely independent of specialized flight system configurations. WFF has recently completed Phase 1 of R3Ops, an in-depth collection (through extensive expert interviews) and software modeling of individual steps by various range disciplines. This modeling is now being used to identify existing inefficiencies in current procedures, to identify bottlenecks, and show interdependencies. Existing practices are being tracked to provide a baseline to benchmark against as new procedures are implemented. This paper will describe in detail the philosophies behind WFF's R3Ops, the data collected and modeled in Phase 1, and strategies for meeting responsive launch requirements in a multi-user range environment planned for subsequent phases of this initiative.

  20. 47 CFR 76.930 - Initiation of review of basic cable service and equipment rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... equipment rates. 76.930 Section 76.930 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Initiation of review of basic cable service and equipment rates. A cable operator shall file its schedule of rates for the basic service tier and associated equipment with a franchising authority within 30 days of...

  1. Spinning Reserve From Hotel Load Response: Initial Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J

    2008-11-01

    This project was motivated by the fundamental match between hotel space conditioning load response capability and power system contingency response needs. As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. At ORNL s suggestion, Digital Solutions Inc. adapted its hotel air conditioning control technology to supply power system spinning reserve. This energy saving technology is primarily designed to provide the hotel operator with the ability to control individual room temperature set-points based upon occupancy (25% to 50% energy savings based on an earlier study [Kirby and Ally, 2002]). DSI added instantaneous local load shedding capability in response to power system frequency and centrally dispatched load shedding capability in response to power system operator command. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host the spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority supplied real-time metering equipment in the form of an internet connected Dranetz-BMI power quality meter and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and test results. The Sevier County Electric System installed the metering. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. These results are prior to implementing control over the common area air conditioning loads. Testing was also not at times of highest system or hotel loading. Full response occurred in 12 to 60 seconds from when the system operator s command to shed load was issued. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect, with all units responding essentially simultaneously. Load restoration was ramped back in over several minutes. The restoration ramp can be adjusted to the power system needs. Frequency response testing was not completed. Initial

  2. Procedural Pain Heart Rate Responses in Massaged Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Diego, Miguel A.; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Heart rate (HR) responses to the removal of a monitoring lead were assessed in 56 preterm infants who received moderate pressure, light pressure or no massage therapy. The infants who received moderate pressure massage therapy exhibited lower increases in HR suggesting an attenuated pain response. The heart rate of infants who received moderate pressure massage also returned to baseline faster than the heart rate of the other two groups, suggesting a faster recovery rate. PMID:19185352

  3. Multiple mechanisms of endocannabinoid response initiation in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David A; Kim, Jimok; Alger, Bradley E

    2006-01-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) act as retrograde messengers at inhibitory synapses of the hippocampal CA1 region. Current models place eCB synthesis in the postsynaptic pyramidal cell and the site of eCB action at cannabinoid receptors located on presynaptic interneuron terminals. Four responses at the CA1-interneuron synapse are attributed to eCBs: depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI), G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated enhancement of DSI (DeltaDSI), persistent suppression of evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs), and finally, mGluR-dependent long-term depression (iLTD). It has been proposed that all are mediated by the eCB, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, yet there is evidence that DSI does not arise from the same underlying biochemical processes as the other responses. In view of the increasing importance of eCB effects in the brain, it will be essential to understand the mechanisms by which eCB effects are produced. Our results reveal new differences in the biochemical pathways by which the eCB-dependent responses are initiated. Both U73122, a phospholipase C antagonist, and RHC-80267, a diacylglycerol (DAG) lipase antagonist, prevented eCB-dependent iLTD induction by 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG). However, mAChR activation does not cause eCB-dependent iLTD. Neither enzyme inhibitor affects DSI, and persistent eCB-dependent eIPSC suppression induced by either mGluRs or mAChRs is unaffected by U73122. On the other hand, inhibition of DAG lipase prevents persistent eCB-dependent eIPSC suppression triggered by mAChRs. The results show that the biochemical pathways for the various eCB-dependent responses differ and might therefore be independently manipulated.

  4. Development of the granulomatous response in murine toxocariasis. Initial events.

    PubMed Central

    Kayes, S. G.; Oaks, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The cellular evolution of the persisting, muscle-associated granuloma in murine toxocariasis (visceral larva migrans) was chronicled for 11 weeks by light and electron microscopy. The initial granuloma consisted primarily of eosinophils and appeared to develop from the acute inflammatory infiltrate. During the ensuing 48 hours, most of the eosinophils appeared to loose their granules and disintegrate. The resulting cellular debris was then taken up by newly arrived macrophages which become the predominant mononuclear cell in the lesion by 28 days of infection. By 11 weeks, the granuloma had become a fibrotically encapsulated epithelioid granuloma surrounding the inciting larva. This histologic reaction is compared with the liver granulomatous response to Toxocara and to the well-characterized schistosome egg granuloma. A possible delayed hypersensitive etiology for the Toxocara granuloma is suggested. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:717533

  5. Initiation of adaptive immune responses by transcutaneous immunization.

    PubMed

    Warger, Tobias; Schild, Hansjörg; Rechtsteiner, Gerd

    2007-03-15

    The development of new, effective, easy-to-use and lower-cost vaccination approaches for the combat against malignant and infectious diseases is a pre-eminent need: cancer is a leading cause of morbidity in the Western World; there are numerous pathogenic diseases for which we still have no protective or therapeutic cure; and the financial limitations of developing countries to fight these diseases. In this mini-review we focus on transcutaneous immunization (TCI), a relatively new route for antigen delivery. TCI protocols appear to be particularly promising by gaining access to skin resident APC, which are highly efficient for the initiation of humoral and/or cellular immune responses. Consisting of an adjuvant as a stimulus in combination with an antigen which defines the target, TCI offers a most attractive immunization strategy to mount highly specific full-blown adaptive immune responses. As a topically applicable cell-free adjuvant/antigen mixture, TCI might be suitable to improve patient compliance, as well as feasible economically for the use in Third World countries. In addition, this non-invasive procedure might increase the safety of vaccinations by eliminating the risk of infections related to the recycling and improper disposal of needles. The dissection of antigen and adjuvant is important because it allows "free" combinations in contrast to classical immunizations which are based on application of the pathogen of interest. The most relevant ways and means to find new, effective pathogenic target antigens are "reverse vaccinology" and the direct peptide-epitope identification from MHC molecules with mass-spectrometry. Due to these efficient approaches the variety of antigenic epitopes for potential protective/therapeutic use is perpetually expanding. The most studied adjuvants in TCI approaches are cholera toxin (CT) and its less toxic relative, the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT). Both CT and LT can serve as antigen as well. In contrast to these large

  6. 75 FR 53688 - Constellation Mystic Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...-000] Constellation Mystic Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... the above-referenced proceeding of Constellation Mystic Power, LLC's application for market-based...

  7. Feedback Functions, Optimization, and the Relation of Response Rate to Reinforcer Rate

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Paul L; McDowell, Jack J; Dallery, Jesse

    2006-01-01

    The present experiment arranged a series of inverted U-shaped feedback functions relating reinforcer rate to response rate to test whether responding was consistent with an optimization account or with a one-to-one relation of response rate to reinforcer rate such as linear system theory's rate equation or Herrnstein's hyperbola. Reinforcer rate was arranged according to a quadratic equation with a maximum at a unique response rate. The experiment consisted of two phases, during which 6 Long Evans rats lever pressed for food. In the first phase of the experiment, the rats responded on six fixed-interval-plus-quadratic-feedback schedules, and in the second phase the rats responded on three variable-interval-plus-quadratic-feedback schedules. Responding in both phases was inconsistent with a one-to-one relation of response rate to reinforcer rate. Instead, different response rates were obtained at equivalent reinforcer rates. Responding did vary directly with the vertex of the feedback function in both phases, a finding consistent with optimization of reinforcer rate. The present results suggest that the feedback function relating reinforcer rate to response rate imposed by a reinforcement schedule can be an important determinant of behavior. Furthermore, the present experiment illustrates the benefit of arranging feedback functions to investigate assumptions about the variables that control schedule performance. PMID:16602376

  8. US Media Coverage of Tobacco Industry Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Lown, E Anne; Malone, Ruth E

    2017-07-06

    Media coverage of tobacco industry corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives represents a competitive field where tobacco control advocates and the tobacco industry vie to shape public and policymaker understandings about tobacco control and the industry. Through a content analysis of 649 US news items, we examined US media coverage of tobacco industry CSR and identified characteristics of media items associated with positive coverage. Most coverage appeared in local newspapers, and CSR initiatives unrelated to tobacco, with non-controversial beneficiaries, were most commonly mentioned. Coverage was largely positive. Tobacco control advocates were infrequently cited as sources and rarely authored opinion pieces; however, when their voices were included, coverage was less likely to have a positive slant. Media items published in the South, home to several tobacco company headquarters, were more likely than those published in the West to have a positive slant. The absence of tobacco control advocates from media coverage represents a missed opportunity to influence opinion regarding the negative public health implications of tobacco industry CSR. Countering the media narrative of virtuous companies doing good deeds could be particularly beneficial in the South, where the burdens of tobacco-caused disease are greatest, and coverage of tobacco companies more positive.

  9. Assessing the Impact of Low Rate Initial Production on Army Missile System Procurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    is not presently configured as a "fire and forget" weapon. The system utilizes semiactive laser or radar guidance against heavily armored vehicles at...Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) has upon Army missile system development. It focuses on: (1) regulatory guidance on the use of LRIP in the...Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) has upon Army missile system development. It focuses on: (1) regulatory guidance on the use of LRIP in the

  10. Assessment of postural response after a self-initiated perturbation.

    PubMed

    Termoz, Nicolas; Martin, Luc; Prince, François

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess postural response efficiency to a self-initiated perturbation using an original method based on the inverted pendulum model. Eight young subjects were asked to perform bilateral arm raising and lowering at 3 different speeds while standing on a force plate. The time necessary to recover a steady state following the movement was computed by analyzing the time evolution of the coefficient of determination between the center of pressure and center of mass difference variable (COP-COM) and the horizontal acceleration of the COM. Results show a spatial reorganization (hip strategy) of the segments following the perturbation and a strong influence of the linear relationship to the arm velocity. However, the conditions of arm velocity did not have any effect on the time response of the postural control, suggesting that this parameter would be an invariant characteristic of the movement. These results support the existence of an internal representation of the inertial constraints related to the movement execution.

  11. Initial Immunopathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis: Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Pedro, Norma Y.; de la Cruz, Verónica Pérez; Pineda, Benjamín; Sotelo, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating, and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. The hallmark to MS is the demyelinated plaque, which consists of a well-demarcated hypocellular area characterized by the loss of myelin, the formation of astrocytic scars, and the mononuclear cell infiltrates concentrated in perivascular spaces composed of T cells, B lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages. Activation of resident cells initiates an inflammatory cascade, leading to tissue destruction, demyelination, and neurological deficit. The immunological phenomena that lead to the activation of autoreactive T cells to myelin sheath components are the result of multiple and complex interactions between environment and genetic background conferring individual susceptibility. Within the CNS, an increase of TLR expression during MS is observed, even in the absence of any apparent microbial involvement. In the present review, we focus on the role of the innate immune system, the first line of defense of the organism, as promoter and mediator of cross reactions that generate molecular mimicry triggering the inflammatory response through an adaptive cytotoxic response in MS. PMID:24174969

  12. Breast feeding initiation rate across Western countries: does religion matter? An ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Kramer, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast feeding initiation rates remain below 80% in some Western countries. Many individual-level determinants are known; however, less is known regarding cultural and societal determinants, such as religion, that could explain population-level variations. We examined the correlations of the proportions of Catholics and Protestants with the breast feeding initiation rates across and within Western countries. Methods Using publicly available data, we carried out an ecological study comparing the proportions of Catholics and Protestants with the rates of breast feeding initiation. We correlated data at the country level, and additionally explored within-country data in five Western countries: France (Departments), Ireland (counties), the UK (countries), Canada (provinces) and the USA (states). Our analyses accounted for human development index, gross domestic product and population density. Results We observed a negative correlation (r=−0.30) between the proportion of Catholics and the rate of breast feeding initiation in Western countries. This correlation was consistent when using within-country data in France (r=−0.27), Ireland (r=−0.23), the UK (r=−0.79) and Canada (r=−0.62). In the USA, the positive correlation (r=0.26) between a state's proportion of Catholics and its breast feeding initiation rate was confounded by race, education and socioeconomic status (SES). After controlling for education and SES, the state proportion of non-Hispanic white Catholics was negatively correlated (r=−0.29) with the rate of breast feeding initiation. Conclusions In this ecological study, we found consistent negative correlations between Catholicism and breast feeding initiation rates. Qualitative and quantitative studies at the individual level are needed to confirm and explain our findings. Our results suggest that women living in a country or region where Catholicism has historically dominated are less likely to initiate breast feeding, and that breast

  13. Yttrium phosphasalen initiators for rac-lactide polymerization: excellent rates and high iso-selectivities.

    PubMed

    Bakewell, Clare; Cao, Thi-Phuong-Anh; Long, Nicholas; Le Goff, Xavier F; Auffrant, Audrey; Williams, Charlotte K

    2012-12-26

    Highly active yttrium phosphasalen initiators for the stereocontrolled ring-opening polymerization of rac-lactide are reported. The initiators are coordinated by a new class of ancillary ligand: an iminophosphorane derivative of the popular "salen" ligand, termed "phosphasalen". Changing the phosphasalen structure enables access to high iso-selectivities (P(i) = 0.84) or hetero-selectivities (P(s) = 0.87). The initiators also show very high rates, excellent polymerization control, and tolerance to low loadings; furthermore, no chiral auxiliaries/ligands are needed for the stereocontrol. The combination of such high rates with high iso-selectivities is very unusual.

  14. Diet History Questionnaire: Response Rates/Length of Questionnaire

    Cancer.gov

    Based on pilot study research from about 400 individuals in one study and about 1000 in another, the response rates for the DHQ varied from 70-85%. In both these studies, the DHQ response rates were not statistically different than those from shorter FFQs.

  15. Development of Interviewer Response Rate Standards for National Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdman, Chandra; Adams, Tamara; O'Hare, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    Realistic response rate expectations are important for successfully allocating and managing data collection efforts under limited resources. Interviewer performance is often evaluated against response rate standards, and face-to-face interviewer performance can vary due to, in part, the socioeconomic characteristics of the neighborhoods in which…

  16. Effect of Mailing Address Style on Survey Response Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookingham, Frank G.

    This study determined the effect of using mailing labels prepared by a letter-quality computer printer on survey response rate. D. A. Dillman's personalization approach to conducting mail surveys suggests that envelopes with addresses typed directly on them may produce a higher response rate than envelopes with addresses typed on self-adhesive…

  17. 77 FR 35374 - Independence Electricity; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Independence Electricity; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Independence Electricity's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  18. Virginia Star Quality Initiative: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Virginia's Star Quality Initiative prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…

  19. 47 CFR 65.101 - Initiation of unitary rate of return prescription proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initiation of unitary rate of return prescription proceedings. 65.101 Section 65.101 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND...

  20. 78 FR 56690 - Seneca Generation, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Seneca Generation, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Seneca Generation, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  1. 18 CFR 35.12 - Filing of initial rate schedules and tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Filing of initial rate schedules and tariffs. 35.12 Section 35.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES...

  2. 77 FR 42722 - Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Berry Petroleum Company's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  3. Exploring physician specialist response rates to web-based surveys.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Ceara Tess; Quan, Hude; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Noseworthy, Tom; Beck, Cynthia A; Dixon, Elijah; Samuel, Susan; Ghali, William A; Sykes, Lindsay L; Jetté, Nathalie

    2015-04-09

    Survey research in healthcare is an important tool to collect information about healthcare delivery, service use and overall issues relating to quality of care. Unfortunately, physicians are often a group with low survey response rates and little research has looked at response rates among physician specialists. For these reasons, the purpose of this project was to explore survey response rates among physician specialists in a large metropolitan Canadian city. As part of a larger project to look at physician payment plans, an online survey about medical billing practices was distributed to 904 physicians from various medical specialties. The primary method for physicians to complete the survey was via the Internet using a well-known and established survey company (www.surveymonkey.com). Multiple methods were used to encourage survey response such as individual personalized email invitations, multiple reminders, and a draw for three gift certificate prizes were used to increase response rate. Descriptive statistics were used to assess response rates and reasons for non-response. Overall survey response rate was 35.0%. Response rates varied by specialty: Neurology/neurosurgery (46.6%); internal medicine (42.9%); general surgery (29.6%); pediatrics (29.2%); and psychiatry (27.1%). Non-respondents listed lack of time/survey burden as the main reason for not responding to our survey. Our survey results provide a look into the challenges of collecting healthcare research where response rates to surveys are often low. The findings presented here should help researchers in planning future survey based studies. Findings from this study and others suggest smaller monetary incentives for each individual may be a more appropriate way to increase response rates.

  4. RATES OF ANTIBODY SYNTHESIS DURING FIRST, SECOND, AND HYPERIMMUNE RESPONSES OF RABBITS TO BOVINE GAMMA GLOBULIN

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Frank J.; Maurer, Paul H.; Weigle, William O.; Deichmiller, Maria P.

    1956-01-01

    Determinations of the rates of antibody synthesis during first, second, and hyperimmune responses to bovine gamma globulin using S35-labelle aminod acids indicate the following: 1. In all three responses the rate of antibody synthesis increases while antigen is circulating and then begins to decline rapidly after elimination of detectable circulating antigen. 2. The initial rates of decline of antibody synthesis are approximately the same for all three responses. 3. There is a relatively persistent source of antibody production which appears after repeated stimulation and increases in proportion to the number of repeated stimuli. PMID:13306852

  5. Reducing Non-Attendance Rates for Assessment at an Eating Disorders Service: A Quality Improvement Initiative.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Paul E

    2017-02-10

    Rates of non-attendance at initial appointments within community eating disorder (ED) services are frequently high, although this has received relatively little research attention and no reports of interventions designed to address this. The current report describes outcomes following a change of procedure introducing a 'partial booking' system. Attendance rates at first appointments (N = 1260) were audited following introduction of a system designed to reduce non-attendance in January 2013 within a UK ED service. Rates were compared following implementation of the new system, using a historical control group for comparison, and showed a decline from 20.4 to 15.1%, a medium-sized effect. Use of a system asking patients to book an appointment reduced non-attendance at initial appointments and may be of use to similar services experiencing high non-attendance rates. Opt-in initiatives can reduce burden resulting from long waiting times and can be easily adapted to individual services.

  6. R-rated movie viewing, growth in sensation seeking and alcohol initiation: reciprocal and moderation effects.

    PubMed

    Stoolmiller, Mike; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D; Worth, Keilah A; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2010-03-01

    The current study employed parallel process and discrete time hazard regressions to examine the interplay among exposure to R-rated movies, sensation seeking, and initiation of alcohol use in a national U.S. sample (N = 6255) of adolescents, ages 10-14, who were followed over four waves spanning 2 years. There was a short-term reciprocal relation between watching R-rated movies and sensation seeking, but over the 2-year observation period, exposure to R-rated movies was associated with increases in sensation seeking and not vice versa. Sensation seeking also moderated the effect of watching R-rated movies on initiation of alcohol consumption such that exposure was associated with greater increases in initiation of alcohol use among low sensation than among high sensation seeking adolescents. The study provides empirical evidence of an environmental media effect on sensation seeking, and important new information about the relations among sensation seeking, media exposure, and adolescent alcohol use.

  7. Does obtaining an initial magnetic resonance imaging decrease the reamputation rates in the diabetic foot?

    PubMed Central

    Jbara, Marlena; Gokli, Ami; Beshai, Sally; Lesser, Martin L.; Hanna, Shirley; Lin, Cheryl; Zeb, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Objective Diabetes mellitus (DM) through its over glycosylation of neurovascular structures and resultant peripheral neuropathy continues to be the major risk factor for pedal amputation. Repetitive trauma to the insensate foot results in diabetic foot ulcers, which are at high risk to develop osteomyelitis. Many patients who present with diabetic foot complications will undergo one or more pedal amputations during the course of their disease. The purpose of this study was to determine if obtaining an initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), prior to the first amputation, is associated with a decreased rate of reamputation in the diabetic foot. Our hypothesis was that the rate of reamputation may be associated with underutilization of obtaining an initial MRI, useful in presurgical planning. This study was designed to determine whether there was an association between the reamputation rate in diabetic patients and utilization of MRI in the presurgical planning and prior to initial forefoot amputations. Methods Following approval by our institutional review board, our study design consisted of a retrospective cohort analysis of 413 patients at Staten Island University Hospital, a 700-bed tertiary referral center between 2008 and 2013 who underwent an initial great toe (hallux) amputation. Of the 413 patients with a hallux amputation, there were 368 eligible patients who had a history of DM with documented hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) within 3 months of the initial first ray (hallux and first metatarsal) amputation and available radiographic data. Statistical analysis compared the incidence rates of reamputation between patients who underwent initial MRI and those who did not obtain an initial MRI prior to their first amputation. The reamputation rate was compared after adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity, HbA1c, cardiovascular disease, hypoalbuminemia, smoking, body mass index, and prior antibiotic treatment. Results The results of our statistical analysis failed to

  8. Response rate viewed as engagement bouts: effects of relative reinforcement and schedule type.

    PubMed Central

    Shull, R L; Gaynor, S T; Grimes, J A

    2001-01-01

    The rate of a reinforced response is conceptualized as a composite of engagement bouts (visits) and responding during visits. Part I of this paper describes a method for estimating the rate of visit initiations and the average number of responses per visit from log survivor plots: the proportion) of interresponse times (IRTs) longer than some elapsed time (log scale) plotted as a function of elapsed time. In Part 2 the method is applied to IRT distributions from rats that obtained food pellets by nose poking a lighted key under various multiple schedules of reinforcement. As expected, total response rate increased as a function of (a) increasing the rate of reinforcement (i.e., variable-interval [VI] 4 min vs. VI 1 mi), (b) increasing the amount of the reinforcer (one food pellet vs. four pellets), (c) increasing the percentage of reinforcers that were contingent on nose poking (25% vs. 100%), and (d) requiring additional responses after the end of the VI schedule (i.e., adding a tandem variable-ratio [VR] 9 requirement). The first three of these variables (relative reinforcement) increased the visit-initiation rate. The tandem VR, in contrast, increased the number of responses per visit. Thus, variables that have similar effects on total response rate can be differentiated based on their effects on the componemts of response rate. PMID:11453618

  9. Origins of initiation rate differences in ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts containing chelating benzylidenes.

    PubMed

    Engle, Keary M; Lu, Gang; Luo, Shao-Xiong; Henling, Lawrence M; Takase, Michael K; Liu, Peng; Houk, K N; Grubbs, Robert H

    2015-05-06

    A series of second-generation ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts was investigated using a combination of reaction kinetics, X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and DFT calculations in order to determine the relationship between the structure of the chelating o-alkoxybenzylidene and the observed initiation rate. Included in this series were previously reported catalysts containing a variety of benzylidene modifications as well as four new catalysts containing cyclopropoxy, neopentyloxy, 1-adamantyloxy, and 2-adamantyloxy groups. The initiation rates of this series of catalysts were determined using a UV/vis assay. All four new catalysts were observed to be faster-initiating than the corresponding isopropoxy control, and the 2-adamantyloxy catalyst was found to be among the fastest-initiating Hoveyda-type catalysts reported to date. Analysis of the X-ray crystal structures and computed energy-minimized structures of these catalysts revealed no correlation between the Ru-O bond length and Ru-O bond strength. On the other hand, the initiation rate was found to correlate strongly with the computed Ru-O bond strength. This latter finding enables both the rationalization and prediction of catalyst initiation through the calculation of a single thermodynamic parameter in which no assumptions about the mechanism of the initiation step are made.

  10. Conditions for circumstellar disc formation - II. Effects of initial cloud stability and mass accretion rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Masahiro N.; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2016-12-01

    Disc formation in strongly magnetized cloud cores is investigated using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation with a focus on the effects of the initial cloud stability and the mass accretion rate. The initial cloud stability greatly alters the disc formation process even for prestellar clouds with the same mass-to-flux ratio. A high mass accretion rate on to the disc-forming region is realized in initially unstable clouds, and a large angular momentum is introduced into the circumstellar region in a short time. The region around the protostar has both a thin infalling envelope and a weak magnetic field, which both weaken the effect of magnetic braking. The growth of the rotation-supported disc is promoted in such unstable clouds. Conversely, clouds in an initially near-equilibrium state show lower accretion rates of mass and angular momentum. The angular momentum is transported to the outer envelope before protostar formation. After protostar formation, the circumstellar region has a thick infalling envelope and a strong magnetic field that effectively brakes the disc. As a result, disc formation is suppressed when the initial cloud is in a nearly stable state. The density distribution of the initial cloud also affects the disc formation process. Disc growth strongly depends on the initial conditions when the prestellar cloud has a uniform density, whereas there is no significant difference in the disc formation process in prestellar clouds with non-uniform densities.

  11. Role of vestibular information in initiation of rapid postural responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, C. F.; Shupert, C. L.; Horak, F. B.; Zajac, F. E.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular loss have difficulty maintaining balance without stepping when standing in tandem, on compliant surfaces, across narrow beams, or on one foot, especially with eyes closed. Normal individuals (with no sensory impairment) maintain balance in these tasks by employing quick, active hip rotation (a "hip strategy"). The absence of a hip strategy in vestibular patients responding to translations of a short support surface has previously been taken as evidence that the use of hip strategy requires an intact vestibular system. However, many tasks requiring hip strategy alter one or a combination of important system characteristics, such as initial state of the body (tandem stance), dynamics (compliant surfaces), or biomechanical limits of stability (narrow beams). Therefore, the balance deficit in these tasks may result from a failure to account for these support surface alterations when planning and executing sensorimotor responses. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that vestibular information is critical to trigger a hip strategy even on an unaltered support surface, which imposes no changes on the system characteristics. We recorded the postural responses of vestibular patients and control subjects with eyes closed to rearward support surface translations of varying velocity, in erect stance on a firm, flat surface. Subjects were instructed to maintain balance without stepping, if possible. Faster translation velocities (25 cm/s or more) produced a consistent pattern of early hip torque (first 400 ms) in control subjects (i.e., a hip strategy). Most of the patients with bilateral vestibular loss responded to the same translation velocities with similar torques. Contrary to our hypothesis, we conclude that vestibular function is not necessary to trigger a hip strategy. We postulate, therefore, that the balance deficit previously observed in vestibular patients during postural tasks that elicit a hip strategy may have been due to

  12. Role of vestibular information in initiation of rapid postural responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, C. F.; Shupert, C. L.; Horak, F. B.; Zajac, F. E.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular loss have difficulty maintaining balance without stepping when standing in tandem, on compliant surfaces, across narrow beams, or on one foot, especially with eyes closed. Normal individuals (with no sensory impairment) maintain balance in these tasks by employing quick, active hip rotation (a "hip strategy"). The absence of a hip strategy in vestibular patients responding to translations of a short support surface has previously been taken as evidence that the use of hip strategy requires an intact vestibular system. However, many tasks requiring hip strategy alter one or a combination of important system characteristics, such as initial state of the body (tandem stance), dynamics (compliant surfaces), or biomechanical limits of stability (narrow beams). Therefore, the balance deficit in these tasks may result from a failure to account for these support surface alterations when planning and executing sensorimotor responses. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that vestibular information is critical to trigger a hip strategy even on an unaltered support surface, which imposes no changes on the system characteristics. We recorded the postural responses of vestibular patients and control subjects with eyes closed to rearward support surface translations of varying velocity, in erect stance on a firm, flat surface. Subjects were instructed to maintain balance without stepping, if possible. Faster translation velocities (25 cm/s or more) produced a consistent pattern of early hip torque (first 400 ms) in control subjects (i.e., a hip strategy). Most of the patients with bilateral vestibular loss responded to the same translation velocities with similar torques. Contrary to our hypothesis, we conclude that vestibular function is not necessary to trigger a hip strategy. We postulate, therefore, that the balance deficit previously observed in vestibular patients during postural tasks that elicit a hip strategy may have been due to

  13. Role of vestibular information in initiation of rapid postural responses.

    PubMed

    Runge, C F; Shupert, C L; Horak, F B; Zajac, F E

    1998-10-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular loss have difficulty maintaining balance without stepping when standing in tandem, on compliant surfaces, across narrow beams, or on one foot, especially with eyes closed. Normal individuals (with no sensory impairment) maintain balance in these tasks by employing quick, active hip rotation (a "hip strategy"). The absence of a hip strategy in vestibular patients responding to translations of a short support surface has previously been taken as evidence that the use of hip strategy requires an intact vestibular system. However, many tasks requiring hip strategy alter one or a combination of important system characteristics, such as initial state of the body (tandem stance), dynamics (compliant surfaces), or biomechanical limits of stability (narrow beams). Therefore, the balance deficit in these tasks may result from a failure to account for these support surface alterations when planning and executing sensorimotor responses. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that vestibular information is critical to trigger a hip strategy even on an unaltered support surface, which imposes no changes on the system characteristics. We recorded the postural responses of vestibular patients and control subjects with eyes closed to rearward support surface translations of varying velocity, in erect stance on a firm, flat surface. Subjects were instructed to maintain balance without stepping, if possible. Faster translation velocities (25 cm/s or more) produced a consistent pattern of early hip torque (first 400 ms) in control subjects (i.e., a hip strategy). Most of the patients with bilateral vestibular loss responded to the same translation velocities with similar torques. Contrary to our hypothesis, we conclude that vestibular function is not necessary to trigger a hip strategy. We postulate, therefore, that the balance deficit previously observed in vestibular patients during postural tasks that elicit a hip strategy may have been due to

  14. Kerma rate effects on thermoluminescent response of CVD diamond.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, F; Benabdesselam, M; Iacconi, P; Mady, F

    2006-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) response of chemical vapour deposition diamond is studied after X-irradiation (45 kV) at room temperature for various air kerma rates ranging from 0.7 to 100 Gy.min(-1). For a given air kerma, the TL signal as a function of air kerma rate exhibits large variations and is higher for low air kerma rates than for higher ones. In order to explain these results, the simplest energy-level scheme has been considered, that is, with only one electron trap and one recombination centre. Kinetic equations are numerically solved. Calculations are made for various electron-hole generation rates and show that the trap filling as a function of electron-hole generation rate follows, actually, the same evolution as the one of experimental TL response. The kerma rate effect on TL response is explained by the competitivity between the recombination and the trapping processes during irradiation.

  15. Influence of Initial Leaf Pack Size on Estimates of Breakdown Rates in Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, M. L.; Whiles, M. R.; McTammany, M. E.; Gallo, T. M.

    2005-05-01

    Experiments to determine the influence of leaf pack size on estimates of breakdown rates were conducted in Stony Run, a moderately hardwater stream in central Pennsylvania draining mature second-growth forest. We deployed 5-mm mesh bags containing different initial amounts (2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 g) of white oak leaves at 3 sites in Stony Run during October 2004. Bags have been retrieved monthly and were processed to determine ash-free dry mass remaining and abundance of shredder-detritivores in the bags. Breakdown rates varied from 0.018 d-1 in 50 g bags to 0.015 d-1 in 2 g bags and were strongly correlated with initial weight of leaf litter (log10 initial leaf mass vs. breakdown rate r = 0.99). Total invertebrate abundance was initially higher in heavier leaf bags, and proportion of shredders increased as leaf mass declined throughout the study. Shredder abundance was positively correlated with leaf pack size (r = 0.76) and breakdown rate (r = 0.82), which indicates that shredders were more important in determining breakdown rates than mechanical fragmentation or microbial activity. These results suggest that models of stream organic matter dynamics should incorporate distribution of natural leaf packs and higher breakdown rates associated with densely packed leaves.

  16. Initial cooperative decay rate and cooperative Lamb shift of resonant atoms in an infinite cylindrical geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Friedberg, Richard; Manassah, Jamal T.

    2011-08-15

    We obtain in both the scalar and vector photon models the analytical expressions for the initial cooperative decay rate and the cooperative Lamb shift for an ensemble of resonant atoms distributed uniformly in an infinite cylindrical geometry for the case that the initial state of the system is prepared in a phased state modulated in the direction of the cylindrical axis. We find that qualitatively the scalar and vector theories give different results.

  17. Supplier Outreach and Process Control (SOPC) and Supplier Rating Initiative (SRI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crenshaw, Harrel

    2003-01-01

    The viewgraph presentation presents an overview of NASA's Supplier Outreach and Process Control (SOPC) and Supplier Risk Initiatives. The discussion of the SOPC examines its importance, current groups who are involved, provides a mission statement, and describes outreach activities and how suppliers are selected. The discussion of the Supplier Risk Initiative examines the variety of ways that integrity, availability, and assurance factor in to supplier risk and describes a new supplier rating program.

  18. Supplier Outreach and Process Control (SOPC) and Supplier Rating Initiative (SRI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crenshaw, Harrel

    2003-01-01

    The viewgraph presentation presents an overview of NASA's Supplier Outreach and Process Control (SOPC) and Supplier Risk Initiatives. The discussion of the SOPC examines its importance, current groups who are involved, provides a mission statement, and describes outreach activities and how suppliers are selected. The discussion of the Supplier Risk Initiative examines the variety of ways that integrity, availability, and assurance factor in to supplier risk and describes a new supplier rating program.

  19. Physiological responses to acid stress by Saccharomyces cerevisiae when applying high initial cell density

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhong-peng; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    High initial cell density is used to increase volumetric productivity and shorten production time in lignocellulosic hydrolysate fermentation. Comparison of physiological parameters in high initial cell density cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of acetic, formic, levulinic and cinnamic acids demonstrated general and acid-specific responses of cells. All the acids studied impaired growth and inhibited glycolytic flux, and caused oxidative stress and accumulation of trehalose. However, trehalose may play a role other than protecting yeast cells from acid-induced oxidative stress. Unlike the other acids, cinnamic acid did not cause depletion of cellular ATP, but abolished the growth of yeast on ethanol. Compared with low initial cell density, increasing initial cell density reduced the lag phase and improved the bioconversion yield of cinnamic acid during acid adaptation. In addition, yeast cells were able to grow at elevated concentrations of acid, probable due to the increase in phenotypic cell-to-cell heterogeneity in large inoculum size. Furthermore, the specific growth rate and the specific rates of glucose consumption and metabolite production were significantly lower than at low initial cell density, which was a result of the accumulation of a large fraction of cells that persisted in a viable but non-proliferating state. PMID:27620460

  20. Physiological responses to acid stress by Saccharomyces cerevisiae when applying high initial cell density.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhong-Peng; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2016-11-01

    High initial cell density is used to increase volumetric productivity and shorten production time in lignocellulosic hydrolysate fermentation. Comparison of physiological parameters in high initial cell density cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of acetic, formic, levulinic and cinnamic acids demonstrated general and acid-specific responses of cells. All the acids studied impaired growth and inhibited glycolytic flux, and caused oxidative stress and accumulation of trehalose. However, trehalose may play a role other than protecting yeast cells from acid-induced oxidative stress. Unlike the other acids, cinnamic acid did not cause depletion of cellular ATP, but abolished the growth of yeast on ethanol. Compared with low initial cell density, increasing initial cell density reduced the lag phase and improved the bioconversion yield of cinnamic acid during acid adaptation. In addition, yeast cells were able to grow at elevated concentrations of acid, probable due to the increase in phenotypic cell-to-cell heterogeneity in large inoculum size. Furthermore, the specific growth rate and the specific rates of glucose consumption and metabolite production were significantly lower than at low initial cell density, which was a result of the accumulation of a large fraction of cells that persisted in a viable but non-proliferating state. © FEMS 2016.

  1. Characterization of Composites Response at High Rates of Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilat, Amos

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to experimentally study the effect of strain rate on mechanical response (deformation and failure) carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites. The experimental data provide the information needed for the development of a nonlinear, rate dependent deformation and strength models that can subsequently be used in design. This year effort was directed into testing the epoxy resin. Two types of epoxy were tested each in tension and shear at various strain rate that ranges from 5x10(exp -5), to 700/s. The results show that both the strain rate and the mode of loading affect the epoxy response.

  2. Initiating Event Rates at U.S. Nuclear Power Plants. 1988 - 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John A.; Bower, Gordon R.

    2014-02-01

    Analyzing initiating event rates is important because it indicates performance among plants and also provides inputs to several U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) risk-informed regulatory activities. This report presents an analysis of initiating event frequencies at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants since each plant’s low-power license date. The evaluation is based on the operating experience from fiscal year 1988 through 2013 as reported in licensee event reports. Engineers with nuclear power plant experience staff reviewed each event report since the last update to this report for the presence of valid scrams or reactor trips at power. To be included in the study, an event had to meet all of the following criteria: includes an unplanned reactor trip (not a scheduled reactor trip on the daily operations schedule), sequence of events starts when reactor is critical and at or above the point of adding heat, occurs at a U.S. commercial nuclear power plant (excluding Fort St. Vrain and LaCrosse), and is reported by a licensee event report. This report displays occurrence rates (baseline frequencies) for the categories of initiating events that contribute to the NRC’s Industry Trends Program. Sixteen initiating event groupings are trended and displayed. Initiators are plotted separately for initiating events with different occurrence rates for boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors. p-values are given for the possible presence of a trend over the most recent 10 years.

  3. Growth-rate of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability for small and large amplitude initial perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swisher, Nora C.; Pandian, Arun; Dell, Zachary; Stellingwerf, Robert; Abarzhi, Snezhana I.

    2016-10-01

    We study the effect of the amplitude of the initial perturbation on Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) by means of Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics simulations and by the rigorous theory and the newly developed empirical model. A broad parameter regime is analyzed. Initially, the interface has a single-mode sinusoidal perturbation with the amplitude varying from 0% to 100% of its wavelength. An empirical model is developed to describe the non-monotone dependence of the RMI growth-rate on the initial amplitude. The initial growth rate of the interface has a peak value. The position of the peak depends only weakly on the Mach and Atwood numbers, whereas the peak value depends strongly on Atwood number and weakly on Mach number. The ratio of initial growth rate to background velocity is related to the energy partitioning between the interface and the bulk. We find an upper bound of the ratio of the interfacial energy to the bulk energy, and identified its scaling with the Atwood number. This peak value of the energy ratio indicates that RM interfacial growth can be controlled by initial conditions. The work is supported by the US National Science Foundation.

  4. Growth-rate of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability for small and large amplitude initial perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swisher, Nora; Pandian, Arun; Dell, Zachary; Stellingwerf, Robert; Abarzhi, Snezhana

    2016-11-01

    We study the effect of the amplitude of the initial perturbation on Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) by means of Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics simulations and by the rigorous theory and the newly developed empirical model. A broad parameter regime is analyzed. Initially, the interface has a single-mode sinusoidal perturbation with the amplitude varying from 0% to 100% of its wavelength. An empirical model is developed to describe the non-monotone dependence of the RMI growth-rate on the initial amplitude. The initial growth rate of the interface has a peak value. The position of the peak depends only weakly on the Mach and Atwood numbers, whereas the peak value depends strongly on Atwood number and weakly on Mach number. The ratio of initial growth rate to background velocity is related to the energy partitioning between the interface and the bulk. We find an upper bound of the ratio of the interfacial energy to the bulk energy, and identified its scaling with the Atwood number. This peak value of the energy ratio indicates that RM interfacial growth can be controlled by initial conditions. The work is supported by the US National Science Foundation.

  5. Heart Rate Response and Lactic Acid Concentration in Squash Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudin, Paula; And Others

    1978-01-01

    It was concluded that playing squash is an activity that results in heart rate responses of sufficient intensity to elicit aerobic training effects without producing high lactic acid concentration in the blood. (MM)

  6. High rates of chromosome missegregation suppress tumor progression but do not inhibit tumor initiation

    PubMed Central

    Zasadil, Lauren M.; Britigan, Eric M. C.; Ryan, Sean D.; Kaur, Charanjeet; Guckenberger, David J.; Beebe, David J.; Moser, Amy R.; Weaver, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    Aneuploidy, an abnormal chromosome number that deviates from a multiple of the haploid, has been recognized as a common feature of cancers for >100 yr. Previously, we showed that the rate of chromosome missegregation/chromosomal instability (CIN) determines the effect of aneuploidy on tumors; whereas low rates of CIN are weakly tumor promoting, higher rates of CIN cause cell death and tumor suppression. However, whether high CIN inhibits tumor initiation or suppresses the growth and progression of already initiated tumors remained unclear. We tested this using the ApcMin/+ mouse intestinal tumor model, in which effects on tumor initiation versus progression can be discriminated. ApcMin/+ cells exhibit low CIN, and we generated high CIN by reducing expression of the kinesin-like mitotic motor protein CENP-E. CENP-E+/−;ApcMin/+ doubly heterozygous cells had higher rates of chromosome missegregation than singly heterozygous cells, resulting in increased cell death and a substantial reduction in tumor progression compared with ApcMin/+ animals. Intestinal organoid studies confirmed that high CIN does not inhibit tumor cell initiation but does inhibit subsequent cell growth. These findings support the conclusion that increasing the rate of chromosome missegregation could serve as a successful chemotherapeutic strategy. PMID:27146113

  7. Component duration and relative response rates in multiple schedules.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todorov, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Pigeons were trained on a multiple variable-interval 30-sec, variable interval 90-sec schedule with each component presented alternately for an equal duration. This duration of exposure was varied from 5 to 300 sec. The rate of response in the variable-interval 30-sec component relative to the rate of response in the variable-interval 90-sec component was studied. Results are plotted and discussed.

  8. Creep Strain and Strain Rate Response of 2219 Al Alloy at High Stress Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M. B.; Wagner, John A.; Lisagor, W. Barry

    1998-01-01

    As a result of high localized plastic deformation experienced during proof testing in an International Space Station connecting module, a study was undertaken to determine the deformation response of a 2219-T851 roll forging. After prestraining 2219-T851 Al specimens to simulate strains observed during the proof testing, creep tests were conducted in the temperature range from ambient temperature to 107 C (225 F) at stress levels approaching the ultimate tensile strength of 2219-T851 Al. Strain-time histories and strain rate responses were examined. The strain rate response was extremely high initially, but decayed rapidly, spanning as much as five orders of magnitude during primary creep. Select specimens were subjected to incremental step loading and exhibited initial creep rates of similar magnitude for each load step. Although the creep rates decreased quickly at all loads, the creep rates dropped faster and reached lower strain rate levels for lower applied loads. The initial creep rate and creep rate decay associated with primary creep were similar for specimens with and without prestrain; however, prestraining (strain hardening) the specimens, as in the aforementioned proof test, resulted in significantly longer creep life.

  9. Modeling rate sensitivity of exercise transient responses to limb motion.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Stanley M; Kato, Takahide

    2014-10-01

    Transient responses of ventilation (V̇e) to limb motion can exhibit predictive characteristics. In response to a change in limb motion, a rapid change in V̇e is commonly observed with characteristics different than during a change in workload. This rapid change has been attributed to a feed-forward or adaptive response. Rate sensitivity was explored as a specific hypothesis to explain predictive V̇e responses to limb motion. A simple model assuming an additive feed-forward summation of V̇e proportional to the rate of change of limb motion was studied. This model was able to successfully account for the adaptive phase correction observed during human sinusoidal changes in limb motion. Adaptation of rate sensitivity might also explain the reduction of the fast component of V̇e responses previously reported following sudden exercise termination. Adaptation of the fast component of V̇e response could occur by reduction of rate sensitivity. Rate sensitivity of limb motion was predicted by the model to reduce the phase delay between limb motion and V̇e response without changing the steady-state response to exercise load. In this way, V̇e can respond more quickly to an exercise change without interfering with overall feedback control. The asymmetry between responses to an incremental and decremental ramp change in exercise can also be accounted for by the proposed model. Rate sensitivity leads to predicted behavior, which resembles responses observed in exercise tied to expiratory reserve volume. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Simultaneous effect of initial moisture content and airflow rate on biodrying of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Huiliñir, Cesar; Villegas, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    The simultaneous effect of initial moisture content (initial Mc) and air-flow rate (AFR) on biodrying performance was evaluated. For the study, a 3(2) factorial design, whose factors were AFR (1, 2 and 3 L/min kg(TS)) and initial Mc (59, 68 and 78% w.b.), was used. Using energy and water mass balance the main routes of water removal, energy use and efficiencies were determined. The results show that initial Mc has a stronger effect on the biodrying than the AFR, affecting the air outlet temperature and improving the water removal, with higher maximum temperatures obtained around 68% and the lowest maximum matrix temperature obtained at initial Mc = 78%.Through the water mass balance it was found that the main mechanism for water removal was the aeration, with higher water removal at intermediate initial Mc (68%) and high AFR (3 L/min kg(TS)). The energy balance indicated that bioreaction is the main energy source for water evaporation, with higher energy produced at intermediate initial Mc (68%). Finally, it was found that low values of initial Mc (59%) improve biodrying efficiency.

  11. An Item Response Unfolding Model for Graphic Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The graphic rating scale, a measurement tool used in many areas of psychology, usually takes a form of a fixed-length line segment, with both ends bounded and labeled as extreme responses. The raters mark somewhere on the line, and the length of the line segment from one endpoint to the mark is taken as the measure. An item response unfolding…

  12. Obtaining Valid Response Rates: Considerations beyond the Tailored Design Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Judy Y.; Hubbard, Susan M.; Mulvey, Kevin P.

    2003-01-01

    Reports on the use of the tailored design method (TDM) to achieve high survey response in two separate studies of the dissemination of Treatment Improvement Protocols (TIPs). Findings from these two studies identify six factors may have influenced nonresponse, and show that use of TDM does not, in itself, guarantee a high response rate. (SLD)

  13. An Item Response Unfolding Model for Graphic Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The graphic rating scale, a measurement tool used in many areas of psychology, usually takes a form of a fixed-length line segment, with both ends bounded and labeled as extreme responses. The raters mark somewhere on the line, and the length of the line segment from one endpoint to the mark is taken as the measure. An item response unfolding…

  14. Improving Completion Rates in Adult Education through Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Dropout is a serious problem within education. This article reports on an intervention project, titled "New Roles for the Teacher--Increased Completion Rates Through Social Responsibility," which sought to reduce nonattendance and drop-out rates in the Danish adult educational system by improving teachers' competences. This goal was…

  15. Improving Completion Rates in Adult Education through Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Dropout is a serious problem within education. This article reports on an intervention project, titled "New Roles for the Teacher--Increased Completion Rates Through Social Responsibility," which sought to reduce nonattendance and drop-out rates in the Danish adult educational system by improving teachers' competences. This goal was…

  16. Single-chamber, rate-responsive pacemaker-mediated tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Bohm, Adam; Kiss, Robert; Dorian, Paul; Pinter, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    The case of a patient with a unipolar VVIR, who developed a sensor-driven increased pacing rate at rest following pulse generator replacement, is presented. The cause was pectoral muscle stimulation, which triggered a sensor-driven rate response in the supine position. The possible causes and management are discussed. PMID:21076726

  17. Using Web Surveys To Reach Community College Students: An Analysis of Response Rates and Response Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sax, Linda J.; Gilmartin, Shannon K.; Lee, Jenny J.; Hagedorn, Linda S.

    This study addresses the issues of response rates, nonresponse bias, and response bias in the context of comparing online surveys and traditional paper instruments. Key questions include: (1) Do online surveys yield higher rates of response than do paper surveys? (2) Is the nonresponse bias characteristic of online surveys similar to or different…

  18. Accurate label-free reaction kinetics determination using initial rate heat measurements

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Kourosh Honarmand; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Jacobs, Denise; Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate label-free methods or assays to obtain the initial reaction rates have significant importance in fundamental studies of enzymes and in application-oriented high throughput screening of enzyme activity. Here we introduce a label-free approach for obtaining initial rates of enzyme activity from heat measurements, which we name initial rate calorimetry (IrCal). This approach is based on our new finding that the data recorded by isothermal titration calorimetry for the early stages of a reaction, which have been widely ignored, are correlated to the initial rates. Application of the IrCal approach to various enzymes led to accurate enzyme kinetics parameters as compared to spectroscopic methods and enabled enzyme kinetic studies with natural substrate, e.g. proteases with protein substrates. Because heat is a label-free property of almost all reactions, the IrCal approach holds promise in fundamental studies of various enzymes and in use of calorimetry for high throughput screening of enzyme activity. PMID:26574737

  19. An Initial Study of Reading and Comprehension Rates for Students Who Received Optical Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corn, Anne L.; Wall, Robert S.; Jose, Randall T.; Bell, Jennifer K.; Wilcox, Karen; Perez, Ana

    2002-01-01

    Initial reading speeds across grades show points at which children with low vision are at risk of developing low literacy skills. Outcome group measures showed that 185 children (grades preK-12) who received optical devices increased their silent reading speeds and comprehension rates. Findings indicate optical devices assist in deciphering text.…

  20. 77 FR 2717 - Cherokee County Cogeneration Partners, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Cherokee County Cogeneration Partners, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced...

  1. 75 FR 61747 - Union Leader Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Union Leader Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Union Leader Corporation's application for market-based...

  2. 78 FR 29366 - Wheelabrator Baltimore, LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Wheelabrator Baltimore, LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Wheelabrator Baltimore, LP's application for market-based rate authority...

  3. 78 FR 75560 - Biofuels Washington LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Biofuels Washington LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of...

  4. 77 FR 60984 - World Digital Innovations; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission World Digital Innovations; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of World...

  5. 18 CFR 154.202 - Filings to initiate a new rate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Filings to initiate a new rate schedule. 154.202 Section 154.202 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... the service is interruptible or firm, and the necessity for the service; (iii) Explain how the new...

  6. 18 CFR 154.202 - Filings to initiate a new rate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Filings to initiate a new rate schedule. 154.202 Section 154.202 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... the service is interruptible or firm, and the necessity for the service; (iii) Explain how the new...

  7. 77 FR 30521 - Community Energy, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Community Energy, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of...

  8. Savings tests: separating differences in rate of learning from differences in initial levels.

    PubMed

    Rescorla, Robert A

    2002-10-01

    Three experiments used a Pavlovian magazine-approach procedure in rats to explore, in 3 theoretically interesting cases, the inferences made from savings tests. In each experiment, a compound test procedure allowed the separation of differences in rate of acquiring new associative learning from differences in initial level of associative strength. Experiment 1 found that the slower acquisition after prior nonreinforced exposure (latent inhibition) reflected differences in learning rate, not initial level. By contrast, Experiments 2 and 3 found that the higher performance observed to a previously trained and extinguished stimulus, and lower performance observed to a conditioned inhibitor, both arose primarily because of differences in initial associative value. These experiments illustrate the usefulness of a novel testing procedure in sharpening the conclusions from savings procedures.

  9. Effects of methamphetamine on response rate: a microstructural analysis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J Adam; Hughes, Christine E; Pitts, Raymond C

    2007-06-01

    Key pecking in pigeons was maintained under a multiple random-interval (RI) 1-min, RI 4-min schedule of food presentation. Several doses (0.3-5.6 mg/kg) of methamphetamine were administered, and effects on overall response rates and on the microstructure of responding were characterized. In three of the four pigeons, methamphetamine dose-dependently decreased overall response rate in both components; in the fourth pigeon, intermediate doses increased response rates. Log-survivor analyses did not produce the clear "broken-stick" pattern previously reported with rats [Shull, R.L., Gaynor, S.T., Grimes, J.A., 2001. Response rate viewed as engagement bouts: effects of relative reinforcement and schedule type. J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 75, 247-274]. A fine-grained analysis of inter-response times (IRTs) revealed clear bands of responding around certain IRT durations. Methamphetamine tended to decrease the frequency of IRTs in the shorter bands and increase the frequency of IRTs across all bins greater than 2s. These results suggest that (a) survivor analyses may not extend to pigeon key pecking, (b) microstructural analyses can reveal order not evident with overall response rate, and (c) a detailed analysis of responding might prove more useful than summary measures in characterizing drug effects on behavior.

  10. A monetary incentive increases postal survey response rates for pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Paul, C.; Walsh, R.; Tzelepis, F.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Achieving acceptable response rates from health care providers via postal questionnaires is an ongoing challenge. The use of monetary incentives is one of the most effective strategies for increasing response rates. However, the effect and cost of such an incentive on retail pharmacists' response rates has not been well studied. Methods: A sample of 700 pharmacies was selected at random from the electronic Yellow Pages in NSW Australia and mailed a brief survey regarding pharmacotherapies and advice for smoking cessation. Half of the sample was randomly allocated to receive an offer of an US$14 gift voucher. Results: The response rates were 65.9% for the voucher group and 53.5% for the no-voucher group. The odds of response from the voucher group was 1.68 (95%CI = 1.23, 2.30) times greater than for the no-voucher group. The cost per additional respondent was US$67.95. The incentive also reduced follow up costs by 10%. Conclusions: A moderately sized monetary incentive is able to achieve a significant increase in response rates for retail pharmacists, thereby reducing potential bias in the sample. PMID:16286502

  11. The Effect of a College Pen Incentive on Survey Response Rate among Recent College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stange, Jonathan P.; Zyzanski, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Incentives have shown a variable effect in improving survey response rates, but the effect of a pen from an organization to which the respondent has loyalty has not been studied. Recent college graduates were randomized to receive or not receive a college logo pen accompanying an initial survey mailing. Among 119 total respondents, there were no…

  12. The Effect of a College Pen Incentive on Survey Response Rate among Recent College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stange, Jonathan P.; Zyzanski, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Incentives have shown a variable effect in improving survey response rates, but the effect of a pen from an organization to which the respondent has loyalty has not been studied. Recent college graduates were randomized to receive or not receive a college logo pen accompanying an initial survey mailing. Among 119 total respondents, there were no…

  13. Calculation of Decompression Rates for the Initial Explosive Phase of the 2010 Merapi Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, E.; Genareau, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    The 2010 eruption of Merapi (Java, Indonesia) initiated with an uncharacteristic explosion, followed by rapid lava dome growth and collapse, all of which generated deadly pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). PDC samples from the initial explosion on October 26th were collected from several locations surrounding the edifice. Plagioclase phenocrysts represent the primary component of the dominant ash mode due to the elutriation of the finer ash fraction during PDC transport. Secondary electron images of 45 phenocrysts were taken using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to examine preserved glass coatings on phenocrysts, which represent the interstitial melt within the magma at the point of fragmentation. Using these images, the bubble number densities (BNDs) were determined, and the decompression rate meter of Toramaru (2006) was used to calculate the decompression rate during the initial explosion of the 2010 Merapi eruption. Calculated decompression rates range from 6.08x10^7 Pa/s to 1.4x10^8 Pa/s. Decompression rates have shown to correlate with eruption column height; therefore Merapi's rates should be similar to those of other Vulcanian explosions, because the eruption column was 8-9 km in height. The decompression rates acquired for Merapi using Toramaru's BND meter are higher than the rates calculated with other methods such as microlite number density and extension cracks in crystals. Sakurajima volcano (Japan) experienced decompression rates from 7.0 × 10^3 to 7.8 × 10^4 Pa/s during the later phase of the fall 2011 Vulcanian explosions. Plinian explosions, such as at the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo and the 1980 eruption of St. Helens had much higher column heights compared to the initial 2010 Merapi explosion; 35 km, 19 km, and 8-9 km, respectively, but decompression rates in a comparative range (10^8 Pa/s). Higher decompression rates during the 2010 initial explosion at Merapi likely resulted from increased overpressure in the shallow conduit, the

  14. Initial hydrologic and geomorphic response following a wildfire in the Colorado front range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, J.A.; Martin, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    A wildfire in May 1996 burned 4690 hectares in two watersheds forested by ponderosa pine and Douglas fir in a steep, mountainous landscape with a summer, convective thunderstorm precipitation regime. The wildfire lowered the erosion threshold in the watersheds, and consequently amplified the subsequent erosional response to shorter time interval episodic rainfall and created both erosional and depositional features in a complex pattern throughout the watersheds. The initial response during the first four years was an increase in runoff and erosion rates followed by decreases toward pre-fire rates. The maximum unit-area peak discharge was 24 m3 s-1 km-2 for a rainstorm in 1996 with a rain intensity of 90 mm h-1. Recovery to pre-fire conditions seems to have occured by 2000 because for a maximum 30-min rainfall intensity of 50 mm h-1, the unit-area peak discharge in 1997 was 6.6 m3 s-1 km-2, while in 2000 a similar intensity produced only 0.11 m3 s-1 km-2. Rill erosion accounted for 6 per cent, interrill erosion for 14 per cent, and drainage erosion for 80 per cent of the initial erosion in 1996. This represents about a 200-fold increase in erosion rates on hillslopes which had a recovery or relaxation time of about three years. About 67 per cent of the initially eroded sediment is still stored in the watersheds after four years with an estimated residence time greater than 300 years. This residence time is much greater than the fire recurrence interval so erosional and depositional features may become legacies from the wildfire and may affect landscape evolution by acting as a new set of initial conditions for subsequent wildfire and flood sequences. Published in 2001 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  15. Initial colonization, community assembly and ecosystem function: fungal colonist traits and litter biochemistry mediate decay rate.

    PubMed

    Cline, Lauren C; Zak, Donald R

    2015-10-01

    Priority effects are an important ecological force shaping biotic communities and ecosystem processes, in which the establishment of early colonists alters the colonization success of later-arriving organisms via competitive exclusion and habitat modification. However, we do not understand which biotic and abiotic conditions lead to strong priority effects and lasting historical contingencies. Using saprotrophic fungi in a model leaf decomposition system, we investigated whether compositional and functional consequences of initial colonization were dependent on initial colonizer traits, resource availability or a combination thereof. To test these ideas, we factorially manipulated leaf litter biochemistry and initial fungal colonist identity, quantifying subsequent community composition, using neutral genetic markers, and community functional characteristics, including enzyme potential and leaf decay rates. During the first 3 months, initial colonist respiration rate and physiological capacity to degrade plant detritus were significant determinants of fungal community composition and leaf decay, indicating that rapid growth and lignolytic potential of early colonists contributed to altered trajectories of community assembly. Further, initial colonization on oak leaves generated increasingly divergent trajectories of fungal community composition and enzyme potential, indicating stronger initial colonizer effects on energy-poor substrates. Together, these observations provide evidence that initial colonization effects, and subsequent consequences on litter decay, are dependent upon substrate biochemistry and physiological traits within a regional species pool. Because microbial decay of plant detritus is important to global C storage, our results demonstrate that understanding the mechanisms by which initial conditions alter priority effects during community assembly may be key to understanding the drivers of ecosystem-level processes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Response audit of an Internet survey of health care providers and administrators: implications for determination of response rates.

    PubMed

    Dobrow, Mark J; Orchard, Margo C; Golden, Brian; Holowaty, Eric; Paszat, Lawrence; Brown, Adalsteinn D; Sullivan, Terrence

    2008-10-16

    Internet survey modalities often compare unfavorably with traditional survey modalities, particularly with respect to response rates. Response to Internet surveys can be affected by the distribution options and response/collection features employed as well as the existence of automated (out-of-office) replies, automated forwarding, server rejection, and organizational or personal spam filters. However, Internet surveys also provide unparalleled opportunities to track study subjects and examine many of the factors influencing the determination of response rates. Tracking data available for Internet surveys provide detailed information and immediate feedback on a significant component of response that other survey modalities cannot match. This paper presents a response audit of a large Internet survey of more than 5000 cancer care providers and administrators in Ontario, Canada. Building upon the CHEcklist for Reporting Results of Internet E-Surveys (CHERRIES), the main objectives of the paper are to (a) assess the impact of a range of factors on the determination of response rates for Internet surveys and (b) recommend steps for improving published descriptions of Internet survey methods. We audited the survey response data, analyzing the factors that affected the numerator and denominator in the ultimate determination of response. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis to account for the inherent uncertainty associated with the impact of some of the factors on the response rates. The survey was initially sent out to 5636 health care providers and administrators. The determination of the numerator was influenced by duplicate/unattached responses and response completeness. The numerator varied from a maximum of 2031 crude (unadjusted) responses to 1849 unique views, 1769 participants, and 1616 complete responses. The determination of the denominator was influenced by forwarding of the invitation email to unknown individuals, server rejections, automated replies

  17. Response Audit of an Internet Survey of Health Care Providers and Administrators: Implications for Determination of Response Rates

    PubMed Central

    Orchard, Margo C; Golden, Brian; Holowaty, Eric; Paszat, Lawrence; Brown, Adalsteinn D; Sullivan, Terrence

    2008-01-01

    Background Internet survey modalities often compare unfavorably with traditional survey modalities, particularly with respect to response rates. Response to Internet surveys can be affected by the distribution options and response/collection features employed as well as the existence of automated (out-of-office) replies, automated forwarding, server rejection, and organizational or personal spam filters. However, Internet surveys also provide unparalleled opportunities to track study subjects and examine many of the factors influencing the determination of response rates. Tracking data available for Internet surveys provide detailed information and immediate feedback on a significant component of response that other survey modalities cannot match. This paper presents a response audit of a large Internet survey of more than 5000 cancer care providers and administrators in Ontario, Canada. Objective Building upon the CHEcklist for Reporting Results of Internet E-Surveys (CHERRIES), the main objectives of the paper are to (a) assess the impact of a range of factors on the determination of response rates for Internet surveys and (b) recommend steps for improving published descriptions of Internet survey methods. Methods We audited the survey response data, analyzing the factors that affected the numerator and denominator in the ultimate determination of response. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis to account for the inherent uncertainty associated with the impact of some of the factors on the response rates. Results The survey was initially sent out to 5636 health care providers and administrators. The determination of the numerator was influenced by duplicate/unattached responses and response completeness. The numerator varied from a maximum of 2031 crude (unadjusted) responses to 1849 unique views, 1769 participants, and 1616 complete responses. The determination of the denominator was influenced by forwarding of the invitation email to unknown individuals

  18. Growth and development rates have different thermal responses.

    PubMed

    Forster, Jack; Hirst, Andrew G; Woodward, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Growth and development rates are fundamental to all living organisms. In a warming world, it is important to determine how these rates will respond to increasing temperatures. It is often assumed that the thermal responses of physiological rates are coupled to metabolic rate and thus have the same temperature dependence. However, the existence of the temperature-size rule suggests that intraspecific growth and development are decoupled. Decoupling of these rates would have important consequences for individual species and ecosystems, yet this has not been tested systematically across a range of species. We conducted an analysis on growth and development rate data compiled from the literature for a well-studied group, marine pelagic copepods, and use an information-theoretic approach to test which equations best describe these rates. Growth and development rates were best characterized by models with significantly different parameters: development has stronger temperature dependence than does growth across all life stages. As such, it is incorrect to assume that these rates have the same temperature dependence. We used the best-fit models for these rates to predict changes in organism mass in response to temperature. These predictions follow a concave relationship, which complicates attempts to model the impacts of increasing global temperatures on species body size.

  19. Dissociation between verbal response initiation and suppression after prefrontal lesions.

    PubMed

    Volle, Emmanuelle; de Lacy Costello, Angela; Coates, Laure M; McGuire, Catrin; Towgood, Karren; Gilbert, Sam; Kinkingnehun, Serge; McNeil, Jane E; Greenwood, Richard; Papps, Ben; van den Broeck, Martin; Burgess, Paul W

    2012-10-01

    Some of the most striking symptoms after prefrontal damage are reduction of behavioral initiation and inability to suppress automatic behaviors. However, the relation between these 2 symptoms and the location of the lesions that cause them are not well understood. This study investigates the cerebral correlates of initiation and suppression abilities assessed by the Hayling Sentence Completion Test, using the human lesion approach. Forty-five patients with focal brain lesions and 110 healthy matched controls were examined. We combined a classical group approach with 2 voxel-based lesion methods. The results show several critical prefrontal regions to Hayling Test performance, associated with either common or differential impairment in "initiation" and "suppression" conditions. A crucial role for medial rostral prefrontal cortex (BA 10) in the initiation condition was shown by both group and lesion-mapping methods. A posterior inferolateral lesion provoked both initiation and suppression slowness, although to different degrees. An orbitoventral region was associated with errors in the suppression condition. These findings are important for clinical practice since they indicate that the brain regions required to perform a widely used and sensitive neuropsychological test but also shed light on the regions crucial for distinct components of adaptative behaviors, in particular, rostral prefrontal cortex.

  20. A validated bioluminescence-based assay for the rapid determination of the initial rate of kill for discovery antimalarials.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Imran; Sharma, Raman; Biagini, Giancarlo A; Horrocks, Paul

    2017-03-01

    A future treatment for uncomplicated malaria will contain at least one component that exerts a rapid rate of kill. We describe here the validation and application of a simple, robust and rapid bioluminescence-based assay for the determination of the initial rate of kill in intra-erythrocytic asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum . A modification to the concentration-response bioluminescence [here termed bioluminescence relative rate of kill (BRRoK)] assay, utilizing exposure to fold-IC 50 concentrations (0.33× to  9×), was used to monitor the immediate cytocidal effect of 372 open-source compounds for antimalarial drug discovery available through the Medicines for Malaria Venture Malaria Box. Antimalarial drugs that exert a rapid cytocidal effect produce a concentration-dependent loss of bioluminescence signal that correlates with available in vitro and in vivo estimates of parasite clearance time and parasite reduction ratio. Following the measurement of IC 50 for the Malaria Box compounds in Dd2 luc , the BRRoK assay was used to identify and rank 372 compounds for their initial cytocidal activity. Fifty-three compounds in the Malaria Box show an initial relative rate of kill greater than that of chloroquine, with 17 of these having an initial relative rate of kill greater than that of dihydroartemisinin. The BRRoK assay provides a rapid assay format for the estimation of a key pharmacodynamic property of antimalarial drug action. The simplicity and robustness of the assay suggests it would be readily scalable for high-throughput screening and a critical decision-making tool for antimalarial drug development.

  1. Component duration and relative response rates in multiple schedules1

    PubMed Central

    Todorov, João Claudio

    1972-01-01

    Pigeons were trained on a multiple variable-interval 30-sec, variable-interval 90-sec schedule with each component presented alternately for an equal (on the average) duration. This average duration of exposure to each component was varied from 5 to 300 sec. The main concern was with rate of response in the variable-interval 30-sec component relative to rate of response in the variable-interval 90-sec component. In all cases, rate of response was higher in the variable-interval 30 sec component, but the discrepancy in the rate produced by the two schedules tended to be greatest when the duration of component presentation was brief. The mean proportion of responses emitted during the variable-interval 30-sec component (responses in variable-interval 30-sec component divided by total responses) varied from about 0.60 to 0.71, where 0.75 would be expected on the basis of a matching rule, and 0.59 was that obtained by Lander and Irwin (1968). These results are in agreement with data reported by Shimp and Wheatley (1971) from a similar experiment. PMID:16811566

  2. Initiation & completion rates of hepatitis A vaccination among US pediatric populations born between 2005 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Thomas; Zhang, Dongmu; Borse, Nagesh N; Walter, Emmanuel B

    2015-11-27

    To estimate hepatitis A vaccine series initiation and completion rates, assess time to vaccination, identify missed opportunities for the hepatitis A vaccine series, and examine factors associated with hepatitis A vaccine series initiation and completion. We conducted a retrospective, observational study using three healthcare claims databases separately. The study population was comprised of children born between years 2005 and 2009 that were continuously enrolled for at least three and a half years from the date of birth. Every child was followed from date of birth for three and a half years for hepatitis A vaccination. There were 93,735 eligible children from Clinformatics Data Mart, 202,513 from MarketScan Commercial, and 207,545 from MarketScan Medicaid. The overall hepatitis A vaccine series initiation rate was 63.8-79.4% and completion rate was 45.1-66.8% across the three databases. About 62.8-90.1% of the children who never initiated hepatitis A vaccine had at least one well visit from 1 year to three and a half years old. Children were more likely to initiate and complete the hepatitis A vaccine series if they were from more recent birth cohorts, from states with a hepatitis A vaccination recommendation prior to the ACIP universal recommendation, from states with daycare/school entry requirements, were enrolled in an HMO health plan, had pediatricians as primary providers, had more doctor's office/well visits and received MMR/Varicella vaccines. In this study, approximately one in every three to five children remained unvaccinated against hepatitis A. Although the hepatitis A vaccine series initiation and completion improved from 2005 to 2009, vaccine coverage has stabilized in recent years. It is important for providers to identify every opportunity for hepatitis A vaccination and to assure that children get protection from this vaccine-preventable disease. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Map and Track: State Initiatives To Encourage Responsible Fatherhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knitzer, Jane; Bernard, Stanley

    This report details current state efforts to promote responsible fatherhood, identifies and profiles specific strategies to encourage fathers to be responsible, and summarizes state father-related data. Chapter 1, "Setting the Context," provides a rationale for the policy interest in fathers and presents the methodology for the study.…

  4. Map and Track: State Initiatives To Encourage Responsible Fatherhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knitzer, Jane; Bernard, Stanley

    This report details current state efforts to promote responsible fatherhood, identifies and profiles specific strategies to encourage fathers to be responsible, and summarizes state father-related data. Chapter 1, "Setting the Context," provides a rationale for the policy interest in fathers and presents the methodology for the study.…

  5. Reinforcer magnitude and resistance to disruption of forgetting functions and response rates.

    PubMed

    Berry, Meredith S; Odum, Amy L

    2014-05-01

    The present experiment investigated the effects of reinforcer magnitude on resistance to disruption of remembering and response rates. Pigeons were exposed to a variable-interval (VI), delayed-matching-to-sample (DMTS) procedure with two components (rich and lean, distinguished by differing discriminative stimuli and hopper presentation duration). Completion of a VI 20 s schedule resulted in DMTS trials. In a DMTS trial, a choice of one of two comparison stimuli resulted in food if the choice matched the color of the previously presented sample stimulus. Separable aspects of the forgetting functions (initial discrimination and rate of forgetting) were examined by determining accuracy across a range of delays. Response rates and accuracy were higher in the rich relative to the lean component during baseline, and were more persistent during disruptors (extinction and prefeeding). During DMTS trials, extinction decreased initial discrimination more in the lean than the rich component, but had no systematic effect on rate of forgetting. During prefeeding, the rate of forgetting increased more in the lean than the rich component, but initial discrimination was not systematically affected. These results show persistence of response rates and remembering are positively related to reinforcer magnitude. The type of disruptor also influences the way in which remembering is disrupted.

  6. Emotion suppression affects cardiovascular responses to initial and subsequent laboratory stressors.

    PubMed

    Quartana, Phillip J; Burns, John W

    2010-09-01

    The study of anger suppression and risk for cardiovascular disease has relied predominately on inspection of correlations between trait anger-in and cardiovascular risk factors and disease. This approach tells us little about whether inhibitory processes have anything to do with outcomes, and cannot speak to whether suppression of anger per se affects cardiovascular parameters. Drawing on the broader emotion regulation literature, we examined the effects of experimentally induced anger and general negative emotion in the context of expressive and experiential suppression on cardiovascular responses to initial and subsequent laboratory stressors. Of all participants, 201 healthy participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions formed by crossing emotion (anxiety, anger) and suppression (experiential, expressive, control) conditions. Participants completed a mental arithmetic task with anxiety or anger induction under their respective suppression manipulation instructions, and subsequently were exposed to a cold pressor task. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate values were obtained for each experimental epoch. More robust SBP responses to the initial stressor were evidenced for those in the expressive versus the control condition. In response to the subsequent stressor, those in the experiential suppression condition showed the most pronounced SBP responses, suggesting pronounced delayed effects of this type of suppression. Effects of suppression on SBP reactivity were indistinguishable across anxiety and anger conditions. Effortful suppression of negative emotion has immediate and delayed consequences for stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity. Theoretical and clinical significance of these findings are discussed.

  7. R-rated Movie Viewing, Growth in Sensation Seeking and Alcohol Initiation: Reciprocal and Moderation Effects

    PubMed Central

    Stoolmiller, Mike; Gerrard, Meg; Worth, Keilah A.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2010-01-01

    The current study employed parallel process and discrete time hazard regressions to examine the interplay among exposure to R-rated movies, sensation seeking, and initiation of alcohol use in a national U.S. sample (N=6255) of adolescents, ages 10–14, who were followed over four waves spanning 2 years. There was a short-term reciprocal relation between watching R-rated movies and sensation seeking, but over the 2-year observation period, exposure to R-rated movies was associated with increases in sensation seeking and not vice versa. Sensation seeking also moderated the effect of watching R-rated movies on initiation of alcohol consumption such that exposure was associated with greater increases in initiation of alcohol use among low sensation than among high sensation seeking adolescents. The study provides empirical evidence of an environmental media effect on sensation seeking, and important new information about the relations among sensation seeking, media exposure, and adolescent alcohol use. PMID:19655251

  8. Predictions of vacuum loss of evacuated vials from initial air leak rates.

    PubMed

    Prisco, Michael R; Ochoa, Jorge A; Yardimci, Atif M

    2013-08-01

    Container closure integrity is a critical factor for maintaining product sterility and stability. Therefore, closure systems (found in vials, syringes, and cartridges) are designed to provide a seal between rubber stoppers and glass containers. To ensure that the contained product has maintained its sterility and stability at the time of deployment, the seal must remain intact within acceptable limits. To this end, a mathematical model has been developed to describe vacuum loss in evacuated drug vials. The model computes equivalent leak diameter corresponding to initial air leak rate as well as vacuum loss as a function of time and vial size. The theory accounts for three flow regimes that may be encountered. Initial leak rates from 10(-8) to 10(3) sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute) were investigated for vials ranging from 1 to 100 mL. Corresponding leak diameters of 0.25-173 μm were predicted. The time for a vial to lose half of its vacuum, the T50 value, ranged from many years at the lowest leak rates and largest vials, to fractions of a second at the highest leak rates and smallest vials. These results may be used to determine what level of initial vacuum leak is acceptable for a given product. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Response elimination, reinforcement rate and resurgence of operant behavior.

    PubMed

    Cançado, Carlos R X; Lattal, Kennon A

    2013-11-01

    The effects of reinforcement rate of alternative responding on resurgence were studied in six experiments with pigeons. In Experiment 1A, key pecking was maintained on a multiple variable-interval (VI) VI schedule in the Training phase. In the Response-Elimination phase, a variable differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (DRO) schedule was in effect in each component. Reinforcement rates were equal and then, higher in one (rich) component, and lower in the other (lean), than in the Training phase. More resurgence occurred in the lean component, but this could have resulted from response-rate differences between components in the Training-phase. Experiment 1B was a replication of Experiment 1A, but with experimentally-naïve pigeons. Response-Elimination phase reinforcement rates were manipulated systematically in subsequent experiments: In Experiment 2, reinforcement rate was equal, in one component, and lower or higher in the other, than in the Training phase. In Experiment 3, reinforcers were discontinued before differential reinforcement rates were effected. In Experiment 4, reinforcement rates first were differential and, then, equal to those in the Training phase. In Experiments 5 and 6, differential reinforcement rates were arranged by using fixed-DROs and VIs for pecking a different key, respectively. Even though resurgence was not obtained with every pigeon, at least some small-magnitude resurgence occurred in each experiment and was not related systematically to reinforcement rates of alternative responding. Schedule differences, response topography, order of conditions and the length of each phase were not sufficient to account for these results.

  10. 76 FR 25328 - New Mexico Green Initiatives, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission New Mexico Green Initiatives, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of New Mexico Green Initiatives, LLC's application for...

  11. Loading rate increases during barefoot running in habitually shod runners: Individual responses to an unfamiliar condition.

    PubMed

    Tam, Nicholas; Astephen Wilson, Janie L; Coetzee, Devon R; van Pletsen, Leanri; Tucker, Ross

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of barefoot running on initial loading rate (LR), lower extremity joint kinematics and kinetics, and neuromuscular control in habitually shod runners with an emphasis on the individual response to this unfamiliar condition. Kinematics and ground reaction force data were collected from 51 habitually shod runners during overground running in a barefoot and shod condition. Joint kinetics and stiffness were calculated with inverse dynamics. Inter-individual initial LR variability was explored by separating individuals by a barefoot/shod ratio to determine acute responders/non-responders. Mean initial LR was 54.1% greater in the barefoot when compared to the shod condition. Differences between acute responders/non-responders were found at peak and initial contact sagittal ankle angle and at initial ground contact. Correlations were found between barefoot sagittal ankle angle at initial ground contact and barefoot initial LR. A large variability in biomechanical responses to an acute exposure to barefoot running was found. A large intra-individual variability was found in initial LR but not ankle plantar-dorsiflexion between footwear conditions. A majority of habitually shod runners do not exhibit previously reported benefits in terms of reduced initial LRs when barefoot. Lastly, runners who increased LR when barefoot reduced LRs when wearing shoes to levels similar seen in habitually barefoot runners who do adopt a forefoot-landing pattern, despite increased dorsiflexion.

  12. Initial response of pondberry released from heavy shade

    Treesearch

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Emile S. Gardiner; Theodor D. Leininger

    2015-01-01

    Pondberry [Lindera melissifolia (Walt.) Blume] is a federally endangered woody shrub in the Lauraceae family. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service developed a recovery plan in 1993 that emphasized the need to study pondberry biology and ecology and to develop management practices that would promote recovery and conservation of this species. We initiated a large-scale...

  13. Rates and technologies for mass-market demand response

    SciTech Connect

    Herter, Karen; Levy, Roger; Wilson, John; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2002-07-21

    Demand response programs are often quickly and poorly crafted in reaction to an energy crisis and disappear once the crisis subsides, ensuring that the electricity system will be unprepared when the next crisis hits. In this paper, we propose to eliminate the event-driven nature of demand response programs by considering demand responsiveness a component of the utility obligation to serve. As such, demand response can be required as a condition of service, and the offering of demand response rates becomes a requirement of utilities as an element of customer service. Using this foundation, we explore the costs and benefits of a smart thermostat-based demand response system capable of two types of programs: (1) a mandatory, system-operator controlled, contingency program, and (2) a voluntary, customer controlled, bill management program with rate-based incentives. Any demand response program based on this system could consist of either or both of these components. Ideally, these programs would be bundled, providing automatic load management through customer-programmed price response, plus up to 10 GW of emergency load shedding capability in California. Finally, we discuss options for and barriers to implementation of such a program in California.

  14. Assessing recognition memory using confidence ratings and response times

    PubMed Central

    Kahana, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Classification of stimuli into categories (such as ‘old’ and ‘new’ in tests of recognition memory or ‘present’ versus ‘absent’ in signal detection tasks) requires the mapping of internal signals to discrete responses. Introspective judgements about a given choice response are regularly employed in research, legal and clinical settings in an effort to measure the signal that is thought to be the basis of the classification decision. Correlations between introspective judgements and task performance suggest that such ratings often do convey information about internal states that are relevant for a given task, but well-known limitations of introspection call the fidelity of this information into question. We investigated to what extent response times can reveal information usually assessed with explicit confidence ratings. We quantitatively compared response times to confidence ratings in their ability to qualify recognition memory decisions and found convergent results suggesting that much of the information from confidence ratings can be obtained from response times. PMID:27152209

  15. Cooperative Lamb shift and the cooperative decay rate for an initially detuned phased state

    SciTech Connect

    Friedberg, Richard; Manassah, Jamal T.

    2010-04-15

    The cooperative Lamb shift (CLS) is hard to measure because in samples much larger than a resonant wavelength it is much smaller, for an initially prepared resonantly phased state, than the cooperative decay rate (CDR). We show, however, that if the phasing of the initial state is detuned so that the spatial wave vector is k{sub 1} congruent with k{sub 0{+-}}O((1/R)) (where k{sub 0}={omega}{sub 0}/c is the resonant frequency), the CLS grows to 'giant' magnitudes making it comparable to the CDR. Moreover, for certain controlled values of detuning, the initial CDR becomes small so that the dynamical Lamb shift (DLS) can be measured over a considerable period of time.

  16. Initial results of Alloy 600 crack growth rate testing in PWR environments

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, J.P.; Bamford, W.H.; Pathania, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    Initial crack growth rate results on the effects of stress intensity factor, temperature, material heat and experimental methods were studied on Alloy 600 control rod drive head penetrations using fracture mechanics samples. Crack growth rate data were obtained using the reverse DC potential difference crack monitoring method on 1/2T CT samples tested at temperatures of 310 to 330 C in 1200 ppm B + 2 ppm Li + 25 cc/kg H{sub 2} water. The results are consistent with a crack growth rate estimation model developed by Scott. Most of the heats tested to date are consistent with the Scott model; however, enhanced crack growth rates were exhibited by two heats with low grain boundary carbide coverage.

  17. Rapid policy change to single-embryo transfer while maintaining pregnancy rates per initiated cycle.

    PubMed

    Vélez, M P; Kadoch, I-J; Phillips, S J; Bissonnette, F

    2013-05-01

    Public financing of IVF aims at increasing access to treatment while decreasing the expenses associated with multiple pregnancies. Critics argue that it is associated with lower pregnancy rates. This study compared cycles performed during 2009 (before implementation of Quebec's public IVF programme; period I) to those performed in the year following implementation (period II) in a single IVF centre. First fresh cycles in period I (499 women) and first fresh cycles (815 women) along with their corresponding first vitrified-warmed transfer (271 women) in period II were evaluated. From period I to period II, single-embryo transfer increased from 17.3% to 85.0% (P<0.001), multiple ongoing pregnancy rate decreased from 25.8% to 1.6% (P<0.001) and ongoing pregnancy rate decreased from 31.9% to 23.3% (P=0.001). During period II, the ongoing pregnancy rate per vitrified-warmed embryo transfer was 19.2%, leading to a cumulative ongoing pregnancy rate per initiated cycle of 29.7%, which was not different to the pregnancy rate per fresh cycle during period I (31.9%). To conclude, Quebec's public IVF programme decreased multiple pregnancy rates while maintaining an acceptable cumulative ongoing pregnancy rate, a more precise outcome to evaluate the impact of public IVF programmes.

  18. Fast two-position initial alignment for SINS using velocity plus angular rate measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Guobin

    2015-10-01

    An improved two-position initial alignment model for strapdown inertial navigation system is proposed. In addition to the velocity, angular rates are incorporated as measurements. The measurement equations in full three channels are derived in both navigation and body frames and the latter of which is found to be preferred. The cross-correlation between the process and the measurement noises is analyzed and addressed in the Kalman filter. The incorporation of the angular rates, without introducing additional device or external signal, speeds up the convergence of estimating the attitudes, especially the heading. In the simulation study, different algorithms are tested with different initial errors, and the advantages of the proposed method compared to the conventional one are validated by the simulation results.

  19. Infection rates following initial cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement across pediatric hospitals in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Tamara D.; Hall, Matthew; Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Albert, J. Elaine; Jeffries, Howard E.; LaFleur, Bonnie; Dean, J. Michael; Kestle, John R. W.

    2010-01-01

    Object Reported rates of CSF shunt infection vary widely across studies. The study objective was to determine the CSF shunt infection rates after initial shunt placement at multiple US pediatric hospitals. The authors hypothesized that infection rates between hospitals would vary widely even after adjustment for patient, hospital, and surgeon factors. Methods This retrospective cohort study included children 0–18 years of age with uncomplicated initial CSF shunt placement performed between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2005, and recorded in the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) longitudinal administrative database from 41 children's hospitals. For each child with 24 months of follow-up, subsequent CSF shunt infections and procedures were determined. Results The PHIS database included 7071 children with uncomplicated initial CSF shunt placement during this time period. During the 24 months of follow-up, these patients had a total of 825 shunt infections and 4434 subsequent shunt procedures. Overall unadjusted 24-month CSF shunt infection rates were 11.7% per patient and 7.2% per procedure. Unadjusted 24-month cumulative incidence rates for each hospital ranged from 4.1 to 20.5% per patient and 2.5–12.3% per procedure. Factors significantly associated with infection (p < 0.05) included young age, female sex, African-American race, public insurance, etiology of intraventricular hemorrhage, respiratory complex chronic condition, subsequent revision procedures, hospital volume, and surgeon case volume. Malignant lesions and trauma as etiologies were protective. Infection rates for each hospital adjusted for these factors decreased to 8.8–12.8% per patient and 1.4–5.3% per procedure. Conclusions Infections developed in > 11% of children who underwent uncomplicated initial CSF shunt placements within 24 months. Patient, hospital, and surgeon factors contributed somewhat to the wide variation in CSF shunt infection rates across hospitals. Additional

  20. Innovative use of influential prenatal counseling may improve breastfeeding initiation rates among WIC participants.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Deana A; McCarthy, Pam; Tipton, Debi; Merriman, Connie; Schrank, Melody; Newport, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether integrating influence strategies (reciprocation, consistency, consensus, feeling liked, authority, and scarcity) throughout Chickasaw Nation Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics (1) changed participants' perception of the WIC experience and (2) affected breastfeeding initiation rates. Two-part, quasi-experimental design. Four WIC clinics. Parents and caregivers of children birth to 3 years. Behavior change intervention based on Social Cognitive Theory using Caildini's Principles of Influence. Traditional-model groups (control) received services prior to the intervention; influence-model groups (experimental) received services after initiation of the intervention. The preliminary demonstration project surveyed 2 groups to measure changes in their perceptions of the WIC environment. Secondary data analysis measured changes in breastfeeding initiation in 2 groups of postpartum women. Frequency analysis, independent sample t tests, chi-square for independence, step-wise logistic regression. The demonstration project resulted in 5 improved influence measures (P < .02), aligning with the influence principle of "feeling liked." The model had a small effect (φ = 0.10) in distinguishing breastfeeding initiation; women in the influence model were 1.5 times more likely (95% CI, 1.19-1.86; P < .05) to initiate breastfeeding compared with women in the traditional model, controlling for parity, mother's age, and race. Consistent with Social Cognitive Theory, changing the WIC environment by integrating influence principles may positively affect women's infant feeding decisions and behaviors, specifically breastfeeding initiation rates. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A mesoscopic reaction rate model for shock initiation of multi-component PBX explosives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y R; Duan, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Ou, Z C; Huang, F L

    2016-11-05

    The primary goal of this research is to develop a three-term mesoscopic reaction rate model that consists of a hot-spot ignition, a low-pressure slow burning and a high-pressure fast reaction terms for shock initiation of multi-component Plastic Bonded Explosives (PBX). Thereinto, based on the DZK hot-spot model for a single-component PBX explosive, the hot-spot ignition term as well as its reaction rate is obtained through a "mixing rule" of the explosive components; new expressions for both the low-pressure slow burning term and the high-pressure fast reaction term are also obtained by establishing the relationships between the reaction rate of the multi-component PBX explosive and that of its explosive components, based on the low-pressure slow burning term and the high-pressure fast reaction term of a mesoscopic reaction rate model. Furthermore, for verification, the new reaction rate model is incorporated into the DYNA2D code to simulate numerically the shock initiation process of the PBXC03 and the PBXC10 multi-component PBX explosives, and the numerical results of the pressure histories at different Lagrange locations in explosive are found to be in good agreements with previous experimental data.

  2. Linking initial microstructure and local response during quasistatic granular compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, R. C.; Lind, J.; Pagan, D. C.; Homel, M. A.; Akin, M. C.; Herbold, E. B.

    2017-07-01

    We performed experiments combining three-dimensional x-ray diffraction and x-ray computed tomography to explore the relationship between microstructure and local force and strain during quasistatic granular compaction. We found that initial void space around a grain and contact coordination number before compaction can be used to predict regions vulnerable to above-average local force and strain at later stages of compaction. We also found correlations between void space around a grain and coordination number, and between grain stress and maximum interparticle force, at all stages of compaction. Finally, we observed grains that fracture to have an above-average initial local void space and a below-average initial coordination number. Our findings provide (1) a detailed description of microstructure evolution during quasistatic granular compaction, (2) an approach for identifying regions vulnerable to large values of strain and interparticle force, and (3) methods for identifying regions of a material with large interparticle forces and coordination numbers from measurements of grain stress and local porosity.

  3. Prenatal intravenous cocaine and the heart rate-orienting response: a dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Foltz, Tara L; Snow, Diane M; Strupp, Barbara J; Booze, Rosemarie M; Mactutus, Charles F

    2004-01-01

    Attentional dysfunction is a persistent behavioral abnormality that is emerging as one of the cardinal features in the investigations of the teratogenic effects of cocaine in humans and rodents. The present study sought to extend this work by using a dose-response design with an alternate strain of rat. Virgin Long-Evans female rats, implanted with an IV access port prior to breeding were administered saline, 0.5, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg of cocaine HCl from gestational day (GD) GD8-21 (1x per day-GD8-14, 2x per day-GD15-21). Cocaine had no significant effect on maternal or litter parameters. At 14-15 days of age, 1 male and 1 female from each litter were tested to evaluate the heart rate orienting response (HR-OR). Following 20 min for acclimation, pups were presented an olfactory stimulus for 20s per trial, across four trials, and with an intertrial interval of 2 min. The initial baseline HR was not significantly different across the treatment groups, although cocaine did alter the stability of the QRS complex duration. The magnitude of the HR-OR averaged across trials increased as a linear function of dosage of cocaine. A more complex (quadratic) interaction between cocaine dose and sex of the offspring was also noted. When examined across trials, the controls failed to display any significant within-session variation in the HR-OR; in contrast all of the prenatal cocaine treated groups displayed either sensitization (low and high dose) or habituation of the response (middle dose). Analysis of the peak HR-OR confirmed that the controls were indeed displaying the response on at least one trial of the session, albeit not consistently on any specific trial. The more vigorous HR-OR of the prenatal cocaine groups, relative to vehicle controls, most likely reflects an alteration in development of the neural basis of response; as previously shown, the most vigorous response to the olfactory stimulus is seen early (12 days of age) and progressively decreases across the

  4. Effect of cupric ions on the initiation protein synthesis rate in the human endometrium.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Perez, O; Luna, G; Mercado, E; Delgado, N; Rosado, A

    1989-12-01

    The effect of cupric ions on the initiation protein synthesis rate of the human endometrium was studied. Addition of copper to the complete ribosomal system decreased the binding of [3H]Met-tRNA(i) to the isolated ribosomes with a plateau at about 70% inhibition with concentrations higher than 150 microM. The initiation activity was GTP-dependent with a maximum at 2 mM. This activity was very rapid, requiring 5 min to complete the reaction. Incubation of isolated initiation factors with copper (300 microM) inhibited the formation of the ternary complex. When the complete system was reconstituted with salt-washed ribosomes after ternary complex formation, no significant change on the inhibition pattern was observed. Addition of initiation factors to 5-min preincubated salt-washed ribosomes with 300 microM copper, after the elimination of excess copper, induced only a 12% decrease on Met-tRNA(i) binding. This effect was not modified by the presence of Sparsomycin, an elongation inhibitor. It was concluded that copper interferes with the initiation process, probably at the ternary complex formation level.

  5. Spall Response of Tantalum at Extreme Strain-Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Eric; Germann, Tim; Meyers, Marc

    Strain-rate and microstructure play a significant role in the ultimate mechanical response of materials. Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we characterize the ductile tensile failure of single and nanocrystalline tantalum over multiple orders of magnitude of strain-rate. This comparison is extended to over nine orders of magnitude including experimental results from resent laser shock campaigns. Spall strength primarily follows a power law dependence with strain-rate over this extensive range. In all cases, voids nucleate heterogeneously at pre-existing defects. Predictions based on traditional theory suggest that, as strain-rate increases, tensile strength should increase. Alternatively, as grain size decreases, tensile strength may decrease due to an increased propensity to fail at a growing volume fraction of grain boundaries. Strain-rate and grain size dictate void nucleation sites by changing the type and density of available defects: vacancies, dislocations, twins, and grain boundaries.

  6. Heart Rate Variability: Effect of Exercise Intensity on Postexercise Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David V. B.; Munson, Steven C.; Maldonado-Martin, Sara; De Ste Croix, Mark B. A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of two exercise intensities (moderate and severe) on heart rate variability (HRV) response in 16 runners 1 hr prior to (-1 hr) and at +1 hr, +24 hr, +48 hr, and +72 hr following each exercise session. Time domain indexes and a high frequency component showed a significant decrease…

  7. Increasing Response Rates to Web-Based Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Martha C.; Adams, Damian C.

    2012-01-01

    We review a popular method for collecing data--Web-based surveys. Although Web surveys are popular, one major concern is their typically low response rates. Using the Dillman et al. (2009) approach, we designed, pre-tested, and implemented a survey on climate change with Extension professionals in the Southeast. The Dillman approach worked well,…

  8. Increasing Response Rates to Web-Based Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Martha C.; Adams, Damian C.

    2012-01-01

    We review a popular method for collecing data--Web-based surveys. Although Web surveys are popular, one major concern is their typically low response rates. Using the Dillman et al. (2009) approach, we designed, pre-tested, and implemented a survey on climate change with Extension professionals in the Southeast. The Dillman approach worked well,…

  9. Mechanical Response of Gun Propellant Beds at Low Strain Rates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS IL161 102AH43 Mechanical Response of Gun Propellant Beds at Low Strain Rates So AUTHOR(S) Robert J. Lieb and Michael G. Leadore...REFERENCES 1. K. P. Resnik , "Charge Development for Advanced 105-mm Penetrator," 22nd JANNAF Com- bustion Meeting, CPIA Publication 432, Vol. II, pp

  10. High Interview Response Rates: Much Ado about Nothing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdie, Doug R.

    The question of how high a response rate is needed in order for telephone surveys to obtain data that accurately represent the entire sample, was investigated via reevaluating results of three previously published studies and reporting on three 1989 studies for the first time. The three previous studies indicated that, if the sample…

  11. Heart Rate Variability: Effect of Exercise Intensity on Postexercise Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David V. B.; Munson, Steven C.; Maldonado-Martin, Sara; De Ste Croix, Mark B. A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of two exercise intensities (moderate and severe) on heart rate variability (HRV) response in 16 runners 1 hr prior to (-1 hr) and at +1 hr, +24 hr, +48 hr, and +72 hr following each exercise session. Time domain indexes and a high frequency component showed a significant decrease…

  12. Initial human response to nuclear radiation. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Anno, G.H.; Brode, H.L.; Washton-Brown, R.

    1982-04-01

    This report documents the results of the first phase of an investigation into the nuclear effects on military troop performance. Both signs and symptoms associated with radiation sickness were examined to develop models of human response to radiation as a function of dose, time and symptom severity. Data on the early symptomatic effects of radiation exposure were gathered from some 150 books, articles and monographs. The analysis of this data focused on human data collected from the victims of nuclear accidents and therapy patients. Data from the survivors of the Japanese atomic bombs were excluded because of data imprecision and questions raised about the accuracy of reported exposure levels. A hypothetical exposed population was divided of reported groups based on the sensitivity of individuals to radiation: hyper-, hypo-, and normsensitives. The population was also classified by the severity of their symptoms; unaffected and mildly, moderately and severely affected. Using this data, relationships for the onset time and duration of acute symptoms after a given radiation dose were developed. Conceptual models were then derived for (1) individual response as a function of dose, time after exposure, and severity of symptoms, (2) population response (percentage affected in various degrees), and (3) links between individual and population responses.

  13. A comparison of heart rate responses in racquet games.

    PubMed Central

    Docherty, D.

    1982-01-01

    The present study investigated the heart rate response to playing tennis with special reference to the skill levels and ages of the participants. Data obtained in a similar manner during earlier studies of badminton and squash players were compared with that obtained during tennis. The number of rallies, mean rally time and actual playing time in 30 minutes of play was also compared for the different skill levels and sports. Results showed that playing tennis raised the players' heart rates to 68-70% of their predicted maximum heart rate (PMHR). Playing squash and badminton could raise heart rates to 80-85% of the players' PMHR which was significantly higher than the values obtained for tennis. The actual skill level of the participants within their chosen sport did not have a significant effect in predicting the physical demands of squash or tennis but was important in predicting the heart rate response of badminton players. The more skillful the badminton player the greater the cardiac response as a result of game play. Analysis of time spent in actual play revealed that tennis players were involved in play for only five of the thirty minutes of game play, compared to 15 and 10 min respectively for squash and badminton. Skill level within each sport was only a significant factor in predicting length of play for squash players in which the medium and highly skilled groups played significantly longer than those of a lower level of skill. Images p96-a PMID:7104564

  14. Lower Response Rates on Alumni Surveys Might Not Mean Lower Response Representativeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Amber D.; Miller, Angie L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore some possible issues with response representativeness in alumni surveys. While alumni surveys can provide important information, they often have lower response rates due to bad contact information and other reasons. In this study we investigate potential differences between responses on the National…

  15. Using Web Surveys to Reach Community College Students: An Analysis of Response Rates and Response Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sax, Linda J.; Gilmartin, Shannon K.; Lee, Jenny J.; Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to examine response rates and bias among a sample of community college students who received a district-wide survey by standard mail or e-mail. Findings suggest that predictors of response and types of responses are not appreciably different across paper and online mail-out samples when these samples are "matched" in terms…

  16. Compliance with the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative and impact on breastfeeding rates.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Stern, Ariel Dora; Baum, Christopher F; Gillman, Matthew W

    2014-03-01

    To examine compliance with the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) as well as evaluate the BFHI and its components on breastfeeding initiation and duration overall and according to maternal education level. Quasi-experimental study using data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) from 2004 to 2008. Birth facilities in Maine. 915 mothers who gave birth in four hospitals that were BFHI-accredited or became accredited and 1099 mothers from six matched non-BFHI facilities. Mothers reported on seven (of 10) BFHI practices (breastfeeding practice score 0-7) and receipt of a gift pack with formula (yes/no). Self-report of breastfeeding initiation, any breast feeding for ≥4 weeks, exclusive breast feeding for ≥4 weeks. 34.6% of mothers from BFHI-accredited facilities reported experiencing all seven BFHI breastfeeding practices, while 28.4% reported being given a gift pack with formula. Among mothers with lower education, the BFHI increased breastfeeding initiation by 8.6 percentage points (adjusted coefficient, 0.086 [95% CI, 0.01 to 0.16]) and, independently, each additional breastfeeding practice was associated with an average increase in breastfeeding initiation of 16.2 percentage points (adjusted coefficient, 0.162 [95% CI, 0.15 to 0.18]). Among all mothers and mothers with higher education, there was no effect of the BFHI on breastfeeding rates. Compliance with BFHI practices among BFHI-accredited facilities is not optimal and needs to be monitored, as greater compliance may have an even larger impact on breastfeeding rates and potentially reduce socio-economic disparities in breast feeding.

  17. Compliance with the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative and impact on breastfeeding rates

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Stern, Ariel Dora; Baum, Christopher F; Gillman, Matthew W

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine compliance with the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) as well as evaluate the BFHI and its components on breastfeeding initiation and duration overall and according to maternal education level. Design Quasi-experimental study using data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) from 2004 to 2008. Setting Birth facilities in Maine. Participants 915 mothers who gave birth in four hospitals that were BFHI-accredited or became accredited and 1099 mothers from six matched non-BFHI facilities. Mothers reported on seven (of 10) BFHI practices (breastfeeding practice score 0–7) and receipt of a gift pack with formula (yes/no). Main outcome measures Self-report of breastfeeding initiation, any breast feeding for ≥4 weeks, exclusive breast feeding for ≥4 weeks. Results 34.6% of mothers from BFHI-accredited facilities reported experiencing all seven BFHI breastfeeding practices, while 28.4% reported being given a gift pack with formula. Among mothers with lower education, the BFHI increased breastfeeding initiation by 8.6 percentage points (adjusted coefficient, 0.086 [95% CI, 0.01 to 0.16]) and, independently, each additional breastfeeding practice was associated with an average increase in breastfeeding initiation of 16.2 percentage points (adjusted coefficient, 0.162 [95% CI, 0.15 to 0.18]). Among all mothers and mothers with higher education, there was no effect of the BFHI on breastfeeding rates. Conclusions Compliance with BFHI practices among BFHI-accredited facilities is not optimal and needs to be monitored, as greater compliance may have an even larger impact on breastfeeding rates and potentially reduce socio-economic disparities in breast feeding. PMID:24277661

  18. The freedom and the responsibility of investigator-initiated research.

    PubMed

    Brown, G E

    1994-06-01

    Since World War II, scientific inquiry and research have been based on the premise that the more investigator-initiated research is conducted, the more automatic benefits for society are created. It is finally becoming clear to many that this belief is neither rational, true, nor healthy; in short, we as a society have been indiscriminately embracing whatever we are able to do instead of doing those things that will take society where it needs to go. Trickle-down science and technology do not work any better than the famous trickle-down economics worked. The author praises the accomplishments of scientific research but gives several examples, including those involving health care, of the widening gap that unguided science and technology have helped to foster between the advantaged and disadvantaged populations in most of the world, including the United States. He proposes that while investigator-initiated research is crucial, it must be done in the context of strategic paths and a set of values that direct it toward achieving the goals for the nation and the world that must be reached if the planet and its increasing population are to survive. He emphasizes that such strategic paths provide the compass; they do not control the journey. For example, he is not saying that biomedical researchers should be directed to specific experiments, but rather that as researchers they must realize the moving from remediation to prevention is a primary national and international goal for human health.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Rates and technologies for mass-market demand response

    SciTech Connect

    Herter, Karen; Levy, Roger; Wilson, John; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2002-07-21

    Demand response programs are often quickly and poorlycrafted in reaction to an energy crisis and disappear once the crisissubsides, ensuring that the electricity system will be unprepared whenthe next crisis hits. In this paper, we propose to eliminate theevent-driven nature of demand response programs by considering demandresponsiveness a component of the utility obligation to serve. As such,demand response can be required as a condition of service, and theoffering of demand response rates becomes a requirement of utilities asan element of customer service. Using this foundation, we explore thecosts and benefits of a smart thermostat-based demand response systemcapable of two types of programs: (1) a mandatory, system-operatorcontrolled, contingency program, and (2) a voluntary, customercontrolled, bill management program with rate-based incentives. Anydemand response program based on this system could consist of either orboth of these components. Ideally, these programs would be bundled,providing automatic load management through customer-programmed priceresponse, plus up to 10 GW of emergency load shedding capability inCalifornia. Finally, we discuss options for and barriers toimplementation of such a program in California.

  20. Effect of initial acceleration on the development of the flow field of an airfoil pitching at constant rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koochesfahani, M. M.; Smiljanovski, V.; Brown, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    We present results from a series of experiments where an airfoil is pitched at constant rate from 0 to 60 degrees angle of attack. It is well documented that the dynamic stall behavior of such an airfoil strongly depends on the nondimensional pitch rate K = dot-alpha C/(2U(sub infinity)), where C is the chord, dot-alpha the constant pitch rate, and U(sub infinity) the free stream speed. In reality, the actual motion of the airfoil deviates from the ideal ramp due to the finite acceleration and deceleration periods imposed by the damping of drive system and response characteristics of the airfoil. It is possible that the pitch rate alone may not suffice in describing the flow and that the details of the motion trajectory before achieving a desired constant pitch rate may also affect the processes involved in the dynamic stall phenomenon. The effects of acceleration and deceleration periods are investigated by systematically varing the acceleration magnitude and its duration through the initial acceleration phase to constant pitch rate. The magnitude and duration of deceleration needed to bring the airfoil motion to rest is similarly controlled.

  1. Host Immune Responses That Promote Initial HIV Spread

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    established pathogens. A mathematical model was created in [35] to describe the interaction of HIV and tuberculosis (TB) with the immune system (T cells and...promote and inhibit a successful antiviral response in different species. Specifically, SIV pathogenesis is greatly reduced in African green monkeys...2007. [35] D. Kirschner. Dynamics of co-infection with M. tuberculosis and HIV-1. Theoretical Population Biology, 55:94–109, 1999. [36] D.E

  2. The Sepsis Early Recognition and Response Initiative (SERRI)

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Stephen L.; Ashton, Carol M.; Kiehne, Lisa; Gigliotti, Elizabeth; Bell-Gordon, Charyl; Pinn, Teresa T.; Tran, Shirley K.; Nicolas, Juan C.; Rose, Alexis L.; Shirkey, Beverly A.; Disbot, Maureen; Masud, Faisal; Wray, Nelda P.

    2016-01-01

    Duration of Initiative 48 months and currently ongoing. Setting The Houston Methodist Hospital System and affiliated hospitals (3 facilities with 2 hospital-run skilled nursing facilities in and around Houston), St. Joseph’s Regional Health Center (1 acute care hospital and 2 skilled nursing facilities in Bryan, Texas), Hospital Corporation of America (2 acute care facilities in Houston, 1 acute care facility in McAllen, Texas [Rio Grande Valley]), Kindred Healthcare (2 long term acute care facilities in Houston), Select Medical Specialty Hospitals (2 long term acute care facilities in Houston). Whom This Should Concern Hospital administrators, quality and safety officers, performance improvement and patient safety professionals, clinic managers, infection control and prevention staff, and other physicians, nurses, and clinical staff. PMID:26892701

  3. The National Aerospace Initiative (NAI): Technologies For Responsive Space Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbertson, Andrew; Bhat, Biliyar N.

    2003-01-01

    The Secretary of Defense has set new goals for the Department of Defense (DOD) to transform our nation's military forces. The Director for Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E) has responded to this challenge by defining and sponsoring a transformational initiative in Science and Technology (S&T) - the National Aerospace Initiative (NAI) - which will have a fundamental impact on our nation's military capabilities and on the aerospace industry in general. The NAI is planned as a joint effort among the tri-services, DOD agencies and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It is comprised of three major focus areas or pillars: 1) High Speed Hypersonics (HSH), 2) Space Access (SA), and 3) Space Technology (ST). This paper addresses the Space Access pillar. The NAI-SA team has employed a unique approach to identifying critical technologies and demonstrations for satisfying both military and civilian space access capabilities needed in the future. For planning and implementation purposes the NAI-SA is divided into five technology subsystem areas: Airframe, Propulsion, Flight Subsystems, Operations and Payloads. Detailed technology roadmaps were developed under each subsystem area using a time-phased, goal oriented approach that provides critical space access capabilities in a timely manner and involves subsystem ground and flight demonstrations. This S&T plan addresses near-term (2009), mid-term (2016), and long-term (2025) goals and objectives for space access. In addition, system engineering and integration approach was used to make sure that the plan addresses the requirements of the end users. This paper describes in some detail the technologies in NAI-Space Access pillar. Some areas of emphasis are: high temperature materials, thermal protection systems, long life, lightweight, highly efficient airframes, metallic and composite cryotanks, advanced liquid rocket engines, integrated vehicle health monitoring and management, highly operable systems and

  4. Acute ethanol treatment induces a bimodal response of phospholipid acylation rates in rat red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Verine, A.; Valette, A.; Richard, D.; Boyer, J. )

    1991-01-01

    A single intraperitoneal injection of ethanol in rats elicited a bimodal response of acylation rates in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine of intact red blood cells. Within an initial period, ethanol inhibited acylation rates. The inhibition then reversed, leading to increased values which persisted as long as ethanol was present in plasma. Acylation rates were not correlated to ethanol concentrations in plasma. The authors suggest that red cells first desensitize to, then overcompensate for the inhibitory effect of ethanol on acylation reactions. These adaptive changes may be one of the events mediating membrane tolerance to ethanol.

  5. Response of human fibroblasts to low dose rate gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dritschilo, A.; Brennan, T.; Weichselbaum, R.R.; Mossman, K.L.

    1984-11-01

    Cells from 11 human strains, including fibroblasts from patients with the genetic diseases of ataxia telangiectasia (AT), xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), and Fanconi's anemia (FA), were exposed to ..gamma.. radiation at high (1.6-2.2 Gy/min) and at low (0.03-0.07 Gy/min) dose rates. Survival curves reveal an increase inthe terminal slope (D/sub 0/) when cells are irradiated at low dose rates compared to high dose rates. This was true for all cell lines tested, although the AT, FA, and XP cells are reported or postulated to have radiation repair deficiencies. From the response of these cells, it is apparent that radiation sensitivities differ; however, at low dose rate, all tested human cells are able to repair injury.

  6. Response rate, response time, and economic costs of survey research: A randomized trial of practicing pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Hardigan, Patrick C; Popovici, Ioana; Carvajal, Manuel J

    2016-01-01

    There is a gap between increasing demands from pharmacy journals, publishers, and reviewers for high survey response rates and the actual responses often obtained in the field by survey researchers. Presumably demands have been set high because response rates, times, and costs affect the validity and reliability of survey results. Explore the extent to which survey response rates, average response times, and economic costs are affected by conditions under which pharmacist workforce surveys are administered. A random sample of 7200 U.S. practicing pharmacists was selected. The sample was stratified by delivery method, questionnaire length, item placement, and gender of respondent for a total of 300 observations within each subgroup. A job satisfaction survey was administered during March-April 2012. Delivery method was the only classification showing significant differences in response rates and average response times. The postal mail procedure accounted for the highest response rates of completed surveys, but the email method exhibited the quickest turnaround. A hybrid approach, consisting of a combination of postal and electronic means, showed the least favorable results. Postal mail was 2.9 times more cost effective than the email approach and 4.6 times more cost effective than the hybrid approach. Researchers seeking to increase practicing pharmacists' survey participation and reduce response time and related costs can benefit from the analytical procedures tested here. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving response rate and quality of survey data with a scratch lottery ticket incentive

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The quality of data collected in survey research is usually indicated by the response rate; the representativeness of the sample, and; the rate of completed questions (item-response). In attempting to improve a generally declining response rate in surveys considerable efforts are being made through follow-up mailings and various types of incentives. This study examines effects of including a scratch lottery ticket in the invitation letter to a survey. Method Questionnaires concerning oral health were mailed to a random sample of 2,400 adults. A systematically selected half of the sample (1,200 adults) received a questionnaire including a scratch lottery ticket. One reminder without the incentive was sent. Results The incentive increased the response rate and improved representativeness by reaching more respondents with lower education. Furthermore, it reduced item nonresponse. The initial incentive had no effect on the propensity to respond after the reminder. Conclusion When attempting to improve survey data, three issues become important: response rate, representativeness, and item-response. This study shows that including a scratch lottery ticket in the invitation letter performs well on all the three. PMID:22515335

  8. High initiation rates at the ribosomal gene promoter do not depend upon spacer transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Labhart, P; Reeder, R H

    1989-01-01

    We report experiments that test the model that in Xenopus laevis, RNA polymerase I is "handed over" in a conservative fashion from the T3 terminator to the adjacent gene promoter. We have introduced transcription-terminating lesions into the ribosomal DNA repeat by irradiating cultured cells with ultraviolet light. We used isolated nuclei to measure the effect of such lesions on transcription. UV damage sufficient to prevent all elongating RNA polymerase from reaching T3 from upstream had no adverse effect on the density of RNA polymerase at the very 5' end of the gene. We conclude that high rates of transcription initiation at the gene promoter do not depend upon polymerase passing from one repeat to the next or on polymerase initiating at the spacer promoters. Images PMID:2470092

  9. Resting autonomic modulations and the heart rate response to exercise.

    PubMed

    Nunan, David; Jakovljevic, Djordje G; Donovan, Gay; Singleton, Lynette D; Sandercock, Gavin R H; Brodie, David A

    2010-08-01

    Identify the underlying role of resting heart rate variability (HRV) in the hearts response to graded exercise testing (GXT). Resting 5-min HRV and heart rate (HR) measurements were made in 33 volunteers (19 males, median age 34, range 25-63 years and 14 females median age 48, range 21-63 years). Measures of VO2 peak and HR obtained during a maximal GXT and heart rate recovery (HRR) post-GXT were assessed for associations with resting HRV. Differences and effect size (d) for measures of HRV were assessed between groups based on established risk cut-points for resting, exercise and recovery HR responses. Small associations were observed for the majority of resting HRV and GXT HR responses (best r value = -0.27, P > 0.05). Measures of HRV demonstrated moderate associations with HRR (best r value = 0.46, P < 0.05) and were able to predict a negative risk HRR. In contrast to other dependent variables, measures of HRV were consistently able to demonstrate significant and moderate to large (d = 0.9-2.0) differences between groups based on literature defined prognostic HR cut-points. Small associations with HR responses to exercise prevent their accurate prediction from resting HRV. Data support the use of vagally mediated resting HRV in predicting better HRR. Lower resting autonomic modulations underlined high risk resting and exercise HR responses. Resting short-term HRV measurements should be considered when assessing cardiac autonomic health from the HR response before, during and/or after exercise.

  10. Parallel Track Initiation for Optical Space Surveillance Using Range and Range Rate Bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, P.; Roscoe, C.; Wilkins, M.

    2013-09-01

    As new optical sensors come online and more optical observations become available for space objects previously too small or too far away to detect, the space surveillance community is presented with the computationally challenging problem of generating initial orbit solutions (data association hypotheses) for a large number of short-arc line-of-sight observations. Traditional methods of angles-only orbit determination do not scale well to large problems because of the large number of combinations of observations that must be evaluated, since these methods require at least 3 observations for each initial orbit determination (IOD). On the other hand, if unique ranges are known (or assumed) then IOD can be performed with 2 observations using a Lambert-based approach. Furthermore, if angles and angle rates are available and range and range rate are both known (or assumed) then a complete orbit solution can be obtained for a single observation and the IOD computational load is only O(N). One possible method to deal with line-of-sight data is to assign a number of range hypotheses to each angles-only observation and develop data association hypotheses to be either confirmed or eliminated for each one. This approach would allow the use of the already proven Search and Determine (SAD) algorithm and software that was designed for generating and testing data association hypotheses for position-type observations typical of radar sensors. If the number of range hypotheses can be limited then this method will be more computationally efficient than performing pure angles-only IOD. If angle rates are available or can be derived from the observation data then another possible approach is to assign range and range rate hypotheses to each angle-angle rate pair and develop data association hypotheses based on their corresponding orbit solutions, which will be extremely efficient if the range-range rate hypothesis set can be limited. For both of these methods, once range and range

  11. Heart rate increases linearly in response to acute isovolemic anemia.

    PubMed

    Weiskopf, Richard B; Feiner, John; Hopf, Harriet; Viele, Maurene K; Watson, Jessica J; Lieberman, Jeremy; Kelley, Scott; Toy, Pearl

    2003-02-01

    The cardiovascular response to acute isovolemic anemia in humans is thought to differ from that of other species. Studies of anesthetized humans have found either no change or a decreased heart rate. A previous study showed that in 32 healthy unmedicated humans, heart rate increased during acute isovolemic anemia. The hypothesis that heart rate in humans increases in response to acute isovolemic anemia and that the increase is affected by gender was tested. Acute isovolemic anemia to a Hb concentration of approximately 5 g per dL in 95 unmedicated healthy humans was produced by simultaneous withdrawal of blood and IV replacement with 5-percent HSA and autologous platelet-rich plasma. The relationship between heart rate and Hb concentration was examined using a mixed-effects linear regression model that allowed each person to have a fitted line with its own slope and intercept. Cubic and quadratic terms were added to determine if these improved the goodness of fit. The effect of gender was tested by including it and its interactions with Hb in the mixed model. The relationship between heart rate and Hb concentration was linear (p < 0.001) and consistent among the population studied: heart rate = 116.0-4.0 [Hb] (slope 95% CI: -4.2 to -3.8 beats/min/g Hb). Adding a cubic or quadratic term did not significantly improve the goodness of fit of the mathematical expression to the data, confirming the linear nature of the relationship between heart rate and Hb concentration. For women, the slope of the heart rate response was significantly greater than it was for males (difference +/- SE: 0.70 +/- 0.23, p < 0.005). In 95 unmedicated, healthy humans, heart rate was a linear function of Hb during acute isovolemic anemia. Females had a significantly greater slope of increase in heart rate with decreasing Hb concentration than did males. The relationship is consistent among individuals, is similar to that reported for conscious dogs, and differs from that found previously in

  12. Responsive PET nano/microfibers via surface-initiated polymerization.

    PubMed

    Özçam, A Evren; Roskov, Kristen E; Genzer, Jan; Spontak, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is one of the most important thermoplastics in ubiquitous use today because of its mechanical properties, clarity, solvent resistance, and recyclability. In this work, we functionalize the surface of electrospun PET microfibers by growing poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) brushes through a chemical sequence that avoids PET degradation to generate thermoresponsive microfibers that remain mechanically robust. Amidation of deposited 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, followed by hydrolysis, yields silanol groups that permit surface attachment of initiator molecules, which can be used to grow PNIPAAm via "grafting from" atom-transfer radical polymerization. Spectroscopic analyses performed after each step confirm the expected reaction and the ultimate growth of PNIPAAm brushes. Water contact-angle measurements conducted at temperatures below and above the lower critical solution temperature of PNIPAAm, coupled with adsorption of Au nanoparticles from aqueous suspension, demonstrate that the brushes retain their reversible thermoresponsive nature, thereby making PNIPAAm-functionalized PET microfibers suitable for filtration media, tissue scaffolds, delivery vehicles, and sensors requiring robust microfibers. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  13. Dynamic response to initial stage blindness in visual system development.

    PubMed

    Long, Erping; Zhang, Xiayin; Liu, Zhenzhen; Wu, Xiaohang; Tan, Xuhua; Lin, Duoru; Cao, Qianzhong; Chen, Jingjing; Lin, Zhuoling; Wang, Dongni; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Jing; Wang, Jinghui; Li, Wangting; Lin, Haotian; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi

    2017-07-01

    Sensitive periods and experience-dependent plasticity have become core issues in visual system development. Converging evidence indicates that visual experience is an indispensable factor in establishing mature visual system circuitry during sensitive periods and the visual system exhibits substantial plasticity while facing deprivation. The mechanisms that underlie the environmental regulation of visual system development and plasticity are of great interest but need further exploration. Here, we investigated a unique sample of human infants who experienced initial stage blindness (beginning at birth and lasting for 2-8 months) before the removal of bilateral cataracts. Retinal thickness (RT), axial length (AL), refractive status, visual grating acuity and genetic integrity were recorded during the preoperative period or at surgery and then during follow-up. The results showed that the development of the retina is malleable and associated with external environmental influences. Our work supported that the retina might play critical roles in the development of the experience-dependent visual system and its malleability might partly contribute to the sensitive period plasticity. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Changes in cortisol release and heart rate and heart rate variability during the initial training of 3-year-old sport horses.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Alice; Aurich, Jörg; Möstl, Erich; Müller, Jürgen; Aurich, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Based on cortisol release, a variety of situations to which domestic horses are exposed have been classified as stressors but studies on the stress during equestrian training are limited. In the present study, Warmblood stallions (n=9) and mares (n=7) were followed through a 9 respective 12-week initial training program in order to determine potentially stressful training steps. Salivary cortisol concentrations, beat-to-beat (RR) interval and heart rate variability (HRV) were determined. The HRV variables standard deviation of the RR interval (SDRR), RMSSD (root mean square of successive RR differences) and the geometric means standard deviation 1 (SD1) and 2 (SD2) were calculated. Nearly each training unit was associated with an increase in salivary cortisol concentrations (p<0.01). Cortisol release varied between training units and occasionally was more pronounced in mares than in stallions (p<0.05). The RR interval decreased slightly in response to lunging before mounting of the rider. A pronounced decrease occurred when the rider was mounting, but before the horse showed physical activity (p<0.001). The HRV variables SDRR, RMSSD and SD1 decreased in response to training and lowest values were reached during mounting of a rider (p<0.001). Thereafter RR interval and HRV variables increased again. In contrast, SD2 increased with the beginning of lunging (p<0.05) and no changes in response to mounting were detectable. In conclusion, initial training is a stressor for horses. The most pronounced reaction occurred in response to mounting by a rider, a situation resembling a potentially lethal threat under natural conditions.

  15. Initial rates of degradation of protein fractions from fresh, wilted, and ensiled alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Makoni, N F; Shelford, J A; Fisher, L J

    1994-06-01

    Initial rates of in vitro degradation of alfalfa proteins were studied. Fresh, 24-h wilted, and ensiled forages were homogenized before analysis for total proteins. Some of the homogenates were fractionated by differential solubility in 10 and 40% ammonium sulfate, followed by ultrafiltration of the 40% salt-saturated solution. The protein fractions obtained were chloroplast membrane proteins (fraction 3), soluble proteins from plant cell cytoplasm and the chloroplast (fraction 2), and proteins remaining soluble in the extracted 40% salt-saturated solution (fraction 2B), respectively. Total and fraction 3 silage proteins were degraded faster than the respective fresh and wilted proteins. There were no treatment effects on the rates of degradation of the soluble proteins of fractions 2 and 2B. Protein fractions from fresh and 24-h wilted alfalfa degraded, from greatest to least, in the following order: fractions 2, 2B, and 3. Degradation rates for fractions 2 and 2B of ensiled forages were similar but greater than that of fraction 3. Alfalfa proteins were degraded rapidly in the rumen, and soluble proteins were degraded faster than the chloroplast membrane proteins. Ensiling of alfalfa increased the rate of degradation of chloroplast membrane proteins, but neither wilting nor ensiling affected degradation rates of the soluble protein fractions 2 and 2B.

  16. On the response of Escherichia coli to high rates of deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzmaurice, B. C.; Painter, J. D.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Wood, D. C.; Hazael, R.; McMillan, P. F.

    2017-01-01

    While a large body of work exists on the low strain-rate loading of biological systems such as bacteria, there is a paucity of information on the response of such organisms at high rates of deformation. Here, the response of a readily accessible strain of bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), has been examined under shock loading conditions. Although previous studies have shown greatly reduced growth in shock conditions up to several GPa, relationships between loading conditions and bacterial response have yet to be fully elucidated. Initial results of a more rigorous investigation into the 1D shock loading response of E. coli are presented here, expectantly leading to a more comprehensive view of its behaviour when exposed to high pressures. Comparison has been drawn to provide insight into the importance of the nature of the loading regime to the survival of these biological systems.

  17. Phenobarbital for Neonatal Seizures: Response Rate and Predictors of Refractoriness.

    PubMed

    Spagnoli, Carlotta; Seri, Stefano; Pavlidis, Elena; Mazzotta, Silvia; Pelosi, Annalisa; Pisani, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    Background Phenobarbital is the first-line choice for neonatal seizures treatment, despite a response rate of approximately 45%. Failure to respond to acute anticonvulsants is associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcome, but knowledge on predictors of refractoriness is limited. Objective To quantify response rate to phenobarbital and to establish variables predictive of its lack of efficacy. Methods We retrospectively evaluated newborns with electrographically confirmed neonatal seizures admitted between January 1999 and December 2012 to the neonatal intensive care unit of Parma University Hospital (Italy), excluding neonates with status epilepticus. Response was categorized as complete (cessation of clinical and electrographic seizures after phenobarbital administration), partial (reduction but not cessation of electrographic seizures with the first bolus, response to the second bolus), or absent (no response after the second bolus). Multivariate analysis was used to identify independent predictors of refractoriness. Results Out of 91 newborns receiving phenobarbital, 57 (62.6%) responded completely, 15 (16.5%) partially, and 19 (20.9%) did not respond. Seizure type (p = 0.02), background electroencephalogram (EEG; p ≤ 0.005), and neurologic examination (p  ≤  0.005) correlated with response to phenobarbital. However, EEG (p  ≤  0.02) and seizure type (p  ≤  0.001) were the only independent predictors. Conclusion Our results suggest a prominent role of neurophysiological variables (background EEG and electrographic-only seizure type) in predicting the absence of response to phenobarbital in high-risk newborns. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Initial foot contact and related kinematics affect impact loading rate in running.

    PubMed

    Breine, Bastiaan; Malcolm, Philippe; Van Caekenberghe, Ine; Fiers, Pieter; Frederick, Edward C; De Clercq, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed kinematic differences between different foot strike patterns and their relationship with peak vertical instantaneous loading rate (VILR) of the ground reaction force (GRF). Fifty-two runners ran at 3.2 m · s(-1) while we recorded GRF and lower limb kinematics and determined foot strike pattern: Typical or Atypical rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS) of forefoot strike (FFS). Typical RFS had longer contact times and a lower leg stiffness than Atypical RFS and MFS. Typical RFS showed a dorsiflexed ankle (7.2 ± 3.5°) and positive foot angle (20.4 ± 4.8°) at initial contact while MFS showed a plantar flexed ankle (-10.4 ± 6.3°) and more horizontal foot (1.6 ± 3.1°). Atypical RFS showed a plantar flexed ankle (-3.1 ± 4.4°) and a small foot angle (7.0 ± 5.1°) at initial contact and had the highest VILR. For the RFS (Typical and Atypical RFS), foot angle at initial contact showed the highest correlation with VILR (r = -0.68). The observed higher VILR in Atypical RFS could be related to both ankle and foot kinematics and global running style that indicate a limited use of known kinematic impact absorbing "strategies" such as initial ankle dorsiflexion in MFS or initial ankle plantar flexion in Typical RFS.

  19. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative - Projected Linear Heat Generation Rate and Burnup Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Richard G. Ambrosek; Gray S. Chang; Debbie J. Utterbeck

    2005-02-01

    This report provides documentation of the physics analysis performed to determine the linear heat generation rate (LHGR) and burnup calculations for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) tests, AFC-1D, AFC-1H, and AFC-1G. The AFC-1D and AFC-1H tests consists of low-fertile metallic fuel compositions and the AFC-1G test consists of non-fertile and low-fertile nitride compositions. These tests will be irradiated in the East Flux Trap (EFT) positions E1, E2, and E3, respectively, during Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 135B.

  20. 75 FR 19643 - West Oaks Energy LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...-000] West Oaks Energy LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request...-referenced proceeding of West Oaks Energy LP's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  1. 75 FR 19644 - West Oaks Energy NY/NE, LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...] West Oaks Energy NY/NE, LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...-referenced proceeding of West Oaks Energy NY/NE LP's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  2. 75 FR 359 - Google Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...] Google Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Google Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  3. 77 FR 19010 - Zone J Tolling Co., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ...-000] Zone J Tolling Co., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes... proceeding of Zone J Tolling Co., LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  4. 77 FR 37035 - SunPower Corporation, Systems; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    .... ER12-1989-000] SunPower Corporation, Systems; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of SunPower Corporation, Systems's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  5. 76 FR 63614 - Agua Caliente Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...-000] Agua Caliente Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes... proceeding of Agua Caliente Solar, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  6. 77 FR 54575 - Frontier El Dorado Refining LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ...-000] Frontier El Dorado Refining LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Frontier El Dorado Refining LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  7. 75 FR 10245 - S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...-735-000] S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... the above-referenced proceeding of S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.'s application for market-based rate...

  8. 75 FR 52321 - Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ...-1720-000] Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... the above-referenced proceeding, of Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC application for market-based rate...

  9. Qigong Effects on Heart Rate Variability and Peripheral Vasomotor Responses.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Ying

    2015-11-01

    Population aging is occurring worldwide, and preventing cardiovascular event in older people is a unique challenge. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 12-week qigong (eight-form moving meditation) training program on the heart rate variability and peripheral vasomotor response of middle-aged and elderly people in the community. This was a quasi-experimental study that included the pre-test, post-test, and nonequivalent control group designs. Seventy-seven participants (experimental group = 47; control group = 30) were recruited. The experimental group performed 30 min of eight-form moving meditation 3 times per week for 12 weeks, and the control group continued their normal daily activities. After 12 weeks, the interaction effects indicated that compared with the control group, the experimental group exhibited significantly improved heart rate variability and peripheral vasomotor responses.

  10. Planar Strain-Rate-Free Diffusion Flames: Initiation, Properties, and Extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fendell, Francis; Gokoglu, Suleyman; Rungaldier, Harald; Schultz, Donald

    1999-01-01

    An effectively strain-rate-free diffusion flame constitutes the most vigorous laminar combustion of initially unmixed reactive gases. Such a diffusion flame is characterized by a relatively long residence time and by a relatively large characteristic length scale. If such a flame were also planar, providing high symmetry, it would be particularly suitable for experimental and theoretical investigations of key combustion phenomena, such as multicomponent diffusion, chemical kinetics, and soot inception, growth, and oxidation. Unfortunately, a planar strain-rate-free diffusion flame is highly disrupted in earth-gravity (e.g., in a counterflow-diffusion-flame apparatus) because of the very rapid onset (approx. 100 ms) of gravity-induced instability. Accordingly, a specially dedicated apparatus was designed, fabricated, and initially checked out for the examination of a planar strain-rate-free diffusion flame in microgravity. Such a diffusion flame may be formed within a hollowed-out squat container (initially configured as 25 cm x 25 cm x 9 cm), with isothermal, noncatalytic, impervious walls. At test initiation, a thin metallic sheet (approx. 1 mm in thickness) that separates the internal volume into two equal portions, each of dimensions 25 cm x 25 cm x 4.5 cm, is withdrawn, by uniform translation (approx. 50 cm/s) in its own plane, through a tightly fitting slit in one side wall. Thereupon, diluted fuel vapor (initially confined to one half-volume of the container) gains access to diluted oxygen (initially with the same pressure, density, and temperature as the fuel, but initially confined to the other half-volume). After a brief delay (approx. 10 ms), to permit limited but sufficient-for-flammability diffusional interpenetration of fuel vapor and oxidizer, burning is initiated by discharge of a line igniter, located along that side wall from which the trailing edge of the separator withdraws. The ignition spawns a triple-flame propagation across the 25 cm x 25 cm

  11. Planar Strain-Rate-Free Diffusion Flames: Initiation, Properties, and Extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fendell, Francis; Gokoglu, Suleyman; Rungaldier, Harald; Schultz, Donald

    1999-01-01

    An effectively strain-rate-free diffusion flame constitutes the most vigorous laminar combustion of initially unmixed reactive gases. Such a diffusion flame is characterized by a relatively long residence time and by a relatively large characteristic length scale. If such a flame were also planar, providing high symmetry, it would be particularly suitable for experimental and theoretical investigations of key combustion phenomena, such as multicomponent diffusion, chemical kinetics, and soot inception, growth, and oxidation. Unfortunately, a planar strain-rate-free diffusion flame is highly disrupted in earth-gravity (e.g., in a counterflow-diffusion-flame apparatus) because of the very rapid onset (approx. 100 ms) of gravity-induced instability. Accordingly, a specially dedicated apparatus was designed, fabricated, and initially checked out for the examination of a planar strain-rate-free diffusion flame in microgravity. Such a diffusion flame may be formed within a hollowed-out squat container (initially configured as 25 cm x 25 cm x 9 cm), with isothermal, noncatalytic, impervious walls. At test initiation, a thin metallic sheet (approx. 1 mm in thickness) that separates the internal volume into two equal portions, each of dimensions 25 cm x 25 cm x 4.5 cm, is withdrawn, by uniform translation (approx. 50 cm/s) in its own plane, through a tightly fitting slit in one side wall. Thereupon, diluted fuel vapor (initially confined to one half-volume of the container) gains access to diluted oxygen (initially with the same pressure, density, and temperature as the fuel, but initially confined to the other half-volume). After a brief delay (approx. 10 ms), to permit limited but sufficient-for-flammability diffusional interpenetration of fuel vapor and oxidizer, burning is initiated by discharge of a line igniter, located along that side wall from which the trailing edge of the separator withdraws. The ignition spawns a triple-flame propagation across the 25 cm x 25 cm

  12. Orthostatic heart rate responses after prolonged space flights.

    PubMed

    Tank, Jens; Baevsky, Roman M; Funtova, Irina I; Diedrich, André; Slepchenkova, Irina N; Jordan, Jens

    2011-04-01

    Orthostatic tachycardia (POTS) can occur after space flights. We determined orthostatic heart rate responses in 18 cosmonauts before and 3-5 days after long-term space missions. Cosmonauts undergoing a cardiovascular training program in space experienced only moderate POTS after their return to earth. Cardiovascular countermeasures may have attenuated POTS. Another possible interpretation is that cardiovascular deconditioning is not sufficient to elicit full blown POTS in the absence of additional genetic or environmental factors.

  13. Community Colleges Maintain Modest Response Rates to Prospective Student Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadinger, David; Sherry, Kristin M.; Smith, Hollie L.; Clark, Emilie C.

    2016-01-01

    None of the community colleges in this study responded with a text message, as requested in the prospective student's inquiry. Only 1.38% (n = 3) of the institutions responded to the inquiry with a telephone call. This research realized a slightly higher rate of e-mail response within five working days; 54.98% (n = 116) as opposed to the 2009…

  14. Community Colleges Maintain Modest Response Rates to Prospective Student Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadinger, David; Sherry, Kristin M.; Smith, Hollie L.; Clark, Emilie C.

    2016-01-01

    None of the community colleges in this study responded with a text message, as requested in the prospective student's inquiry. Only 1.38% (n = 3) of the institutions responded to the inquiry with a telephone call. This research realized a slightly higher rate of e-mail response within five working days; 54.98% (n = 116) as opposed to the 2009…

  15. Measured Glomerular Filtration Rate at Dialysis Initiation and Clinical Outcomes of Indian Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Prasad, N; Patel, M R; Chandra, A; Rangaswamy, D; Sinha, A; Bhadauria, D; Sharma, R K; Kaul, A; Gupta, A

    2017-01-01

    The optimal time for dialysis initiation remains controversial. Studies have failed to show better outcomes with early initiation of hemodialysis; even a few had shown increased adverse outcomes including poorer survival. Few studies have examined the same in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) not creatinine-based estimated GFR is recommended as the measure of kidney function in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. The objective of this observational study was to compare the outcomes of Indian patients initiated on PD with different residual renal function (RRF) as measured by 24-h urinary clearance method. A total of 352 incident patients starting on chronic ambulatory PD as the first modality of renal replacement therapy were followed prospectively. Patients were categorized into three groups as per mGFR at the initiation of PD (≤5, >5-10, and >10 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Patient survival and technique survival were compared among the three groups. Patients with GFR of ≤5 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (hazard ratio [HR] - 3.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] - 1.85-6.30, P = 0.000) and >5-10 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (HR - 2.16, 95% CI - 1.26-3.71, P = 0.005) had higher risk of mortality as compared to those with GFR of >10 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Each increment of 1 ml/min/1.73 m(2) in baseline GFR was associated with 10% reduced risk of death (HR - 0.90, 95% CI - 0.85-0.96, P = 0.002). Technique survival was poor in those with an initial mGFR of ≤5 ml/min/1.73 m(2) as compared to other categories. RRF at the initiation was also an important factor predicting nutritional status at 1 year of follow-up. To conclude, initiation of PD at a lower baseline mGFR is associated with poorer patient and technique survival in Indian ESRD patients.

  16. Ovarian response to gonadotropin treatment initiated relative to wave emergence in ultrasonographically monitored ewes.

    PubMed

    Rubianes, E; Ungerfeld, R; Viñoles, C; Rivero, A; Adams, G P

    1997-06-01

    Follicular recruitment and luteal response to superovulatory treatment initiated relative to the status of the first wave of the ovine estrous cycle (Wave 1) were studied. All ewes (n = 25) received an intravaginal progestagen sponge to synchronize estrous cycles, and ewes were monitored daily by transrectal ultrasonography. Multiple-dose FSH treatment (total dose = 100 mg NIH-FSH-P1) was initiated on the day of ovulation (Day 0 group) in 16 ewes. In the remaining 9 ewes, FSH treatment was started 3 d after emergence of the largest follicle of Wave 1 (Day 3 group). Ewes received PGF(2alpha) with the last 2 FSH treatments to induce luteolysis. Daily blood samples were taken to determine progesterone profiles and to evaluate the luteal response subsequent to superovulation. The ovulation rate was determined by ultrasonography and correlated with direct observation of the ovaries during laparotomy 5 to 6 d after superovulatory estrus when the uterus was flushed to collect embryos. Results confirmed that follicular recruitment was suppressed by the presence of a large, growing follicle. In the Day 0 and Day 3 groups, respectively, mean numbers (+/- SEM) of large follicles (>/= 4 mm) recruited were 6.4 +/- 0.6 and 2.7 +/- 0.7 (P < 0.01) at 48 h after the onset of treatment, and 6.7 +/- 0.5 and 5.1 +/- 0.6 (P = 0.08) at 72 h after the onset of treatment. Ovulation rates were 5.6 +/- 0.8 and 3.3 +/- 0.8 in the respective groups (P < 0.05). The number of transferable embryos was 1.8 +/- 0.5 and 0.3 +/- 0.2 in the respective groups (P < 0.05). Short luteal phases (initiated at the time of emergence of Wave 1 induced a superovulatory response in ewes. Response was influenced by the status of the follicular wave. The presence of a large growing follicle

  17. Keratinocytes can modulate and directly initiate nociceptive responses

    PubMed Central

    Baumbauer, Kyle M; DeBerry, Jennifer J; Adelman, Peter C; Miller, Richard H; Hachisuka, Junichi; Lee, Kuan Hsien; Ross, Sarah E; Koerber, H Richard; Davis, Brian M; Albers, Kathryn M

    2015-01-01

    How thermal, mechanical and chemical stimuli applied to the skin are transduced into signals transmitted by peripheral neurons to the CNS is an area of intense study. Several studies indicate that transduction mechanisms are intrinsic to cutaneous neurons and that epidermal keratinocytes only modulate this transduction. Using mice expressing channelrhodopsin (ChR2) in keratinocytes we show that blue light activation of the epidermis alone can produce action potentials (APs) in multiple types of cutaneous sensory neurons including SA1, A-HTMR, CM, CH, CMC, CMH and CMHC fiber types. In loss of function studies, yellow light stimulation of keratinocytes that express halorhodopsin reduced AP generation in response to naturalistic stimuli. These findings support the idea that intrinsic sensory transduction mechanisms in epidermal keratinocytes can directly elicit AP firing in nociceptive as well as tactile sensory afferents and suggest a significantly expanded role for the epidermis in sensory processing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09674.001 PMID:26329459

  18. Effects of syllable-initial voicing and speaking rate on the temporal characteristics of monosyllabic words.

    PubMed

    Allen, J S; Miller, J L

    1999-10-01

    Two speech production experiments tested the validity of the traditional method of creating voice-onset-time (VOT) continua for perceptual studies in which the systematic increase in VOT across the continuum is accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the duration of the following vowel. In experiment 1, segmental durations were measured for matched monosyllabic words beginning with either a voiced stop (e.g., big, duck, gap) or a voiceless stop (e.g., pig, tuck, cap). Results from four talkers showed that the change from voiced to voiceless stop produced not only an increase in VOT, but also a decrease in vowel duration. However, the decrease in vowel duration was consistently less than the increase in VOT. In experiment 2, results from four new talkers replicated these findings at two rates of speech, as well as highlighted the contrasting temporal effects on vowel duration of an increase in VOT due to a change in syllable-initial voicing versus a change in speaking rate. It was concluded that the traditional method of creating VOT continua for perceptual experiments, although not perfect, approximates natural speech by capturing the basic trade-off between VOT and vowel duration in syllable-initial voiced versus voiceless stop consonants.

  19. The Sensitivity of Response Rate to the Rate of Variable-Interval Reinforcement for Pigeons and Rats: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shull, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    The relation between the rate of a response ("B") and the rate of its reinforcement ("R") is well known to be approximately hyperbolic: B = kR/(R + R[subscript o]), where k represents the maximum response rate, and R[subscript o] indicates the rate of reinforcers that will engender a response rate equal to half its maximum value. A review of data…

  20. The Sensitivity of Response Rate to the Rate of Variable-Interval Reinforcement for Pigeons and Rats: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shull, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    The relation between the rate of a response ("B") and the rate of its reinforcement ("R") is well known to be approximately hyperbolic: B = kR/(R + R[subscript o]), where k represents the maximum response rate, and R[subscript o] indicates the rate of reinforcers that will engender a response rate equal to half its maximum value. A review of data…

  1. Idiosyncratic heart rate response in men during sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Rowland, David L; Crawford, Sara B

    2011-05-01

    Heart rate, sensitive to sympathetic activation, is known to change during sexual arousal and therefore may be a useful tool for investigating psychosomatic differences between sexually functional and dysfunctional men. However, heart rate during arousal also tends to be highly variable across individual men, making its predictability based on group patterns relatively poor. We wanted to determine whether individual men show idiosyncratic heart rate patterns during sexual arousal, that is, whether they exhibit consistent patterns across similar (though not identical) stimulus situations. Agreement between heart rates under the two conditions, visual sexual stimulation (VSS) and VSS + vibrotactile (VIB), was assessed using the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC).   Thirty-eight men, 25 of whom were diagnosed with premature ejaculation (PE), were monitored for penile response and heart rate under two similar (though not identical) conditions: a 9-minute erotic video (VSS), then a 9-minute erotic video combined with vibrotactile penile stimulation (VSS + VIB). CCC for men with PE was 0.65; for the sexually functional comparison group, CCC was 0.82. For both groups combined, CCC was 0.71. For all groupings, the CCC was relatively high, indicating agreement in heart rate from one session to the next within individual men. Despite high intersubject variation in heart rate patterns, individual men show signature heart rates across similar sexual stimulus sessions. Such stereotypy helps explain previous inconsistent findings and may also serve as a marker for the effectiveness of treatments designed to improve ejaculatory control in men with PE. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. On the Firing Rate Dependency of the Phase Response Curve of Rat Purkinje Neurons In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Couto, João; Linaro, Daniele; De Schutter, E; Giugliano, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Synchronous spiking during cerebellar tasks has been observed across Purkinje cells: however, little is known about the intrinsic cellular mechanisms responsible for its initiation, cessation and stability. The Phase Response Curve (PRC), a simple input-output characterization of single cells, can provide insights into individual and collective properties of neurons and networks, by quantifying the impact of an infinitesimal depolarizing current pulse on the time of occurrence of subsequent action potentials, while a neuron is firing tonically. Recently, the PRC theory applied to cerebellar Purkinje cells revealed that these behave as phase-independent integrators at low firing rates, and switch to a phase-dependent mode at high rates. Given the implications for computation and information processing in the cerebellum and the possible role of synchrony in the communication with its post-synaptic targets, we further explored the firing rate dependency of the PRC in Purkinje cells. We isolated key factors for the experimental estimation of the PRC and developed a closed-loop approach to reliably compute the PRC across diverse firing rates in the same cell. Our results show unambiguously that the PRC of individual Purkinje cells is firing rate dependent and that it smoothly transitions from phase independent integrator to a phase dependent mode. Using computational models we show that neither channel noise nor a realistic cell morphology are responsible for the rate dependent shift in the phase response curve. PMID:25775448

  3. Effect of parental R-rated movie restriction on adolescent smoking initiation: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D; Beach, Michael L; Dalton, Madeline A; Ernstoff, Linda Titus; Gibson, Jennifer J; Tickle, Jennifer J; Heatherton, Todd F

    2004-07-01

    To determine if young adolescents who report that their parents restrict viewing R-rated movies have a lower risk of trying smoking in the future. Prospective observational study. Students from 15 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, randomly selected from all middle schools with >150 students, were surveyed in 1999. Baseline never-smokers were surveyed again by telephone 13 to 26 months later to determine smoking status. Trying smoking during the follow-up period. The majority of the 2596 students were white, with ages ranging from 10 to 14 years. Nineteen percent reported that their parents never allowed them to view R-rated movies, 29% were allowed once in a while, and 52% were allowed sometimes or all the time. Ten percent of students tried smoking during the follow-up period. Smoking-initiation rates increased as parental restriction of R-rated movies decreased (2.9% for adolescents reporting that their parents never allowed them to view R-rated movies, 7.0% for those allowed to view them once in a while, and 14.3% for those allowed to view them sometimes or all the time). There was a strong and statistically significant effect of parental R-rated movie restriction on adolescent smoking even after controlling for sociodemographics, social influences (friend smoking, receptivity to tobacco promotions), parenting style (maternal support and control, parental disapproval of smoking), and characteristics of the adolescent (school performance, sensation seeking, rebelliousness, self-esteem). Compared with adolescents whose parents never allowed them to view R-rated movies, the adjusted relative risk for trying smoking was 1.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1, 3.1) for those allowed to watch them once in a while and 2.8 (95% CI: 1.6, 4.7) for those allowed to watch them sometimes or all the time. The effect was especially strong among adolescents not exposed to family (parent or sibling) smoking, among whom the adjusted relative risk for smoking was 4.3 (95% CI

  4. The Mechanical Response of Advanced Claddings during Proposed Reactivity Initiated Accident Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Cinbiz, Mahmut N; Brown, Nicholas R; Terrani, Kurt A; Lowden, Rick R; ERDMAN III, DONALD L

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the failure mechanisms of advanced nuclear fuel cladding of FeCrAl at high-strain rates, similar to design basis reactivity initiated accidents (RIA). During RIA, the nuclear fuel cladding was subjected to the plane-strain to equibiaxial tension strain states. To achieve those accident conditions, the samples were deformed by the expansion of high strength Inconel alloy tube under pre-specified pressure pulses as occurring RIA. The mechanical response of the advanced claddings was compared to that of hydrided zirconium-based nuclear fuel cladding alloy. The hoop strain evolution during pressure pulses were collected in situ; the permanent diametral strains of both accident tolerant fuel (ATF) claddings and the current nuclear fuel alloys were determined after rupture.

  5. Cholesterol enhances classical conditioning of the rabbit heart rate response.

    PubMed

    Schreurs, Bernard G; Smith-Bell, Carrie A; Darwish, Deya S; Wang, Desheng; Burhans, Lauren B; Gonzales-Joekes, Jimena; Deci, Stephen; Stankovic, Goran; Sparks, D Larry

    2007-07-19

    The cholesterol-fed rabbit is a model of atherosclerosis and has been proposed as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease. Feeding rabbits cholesterol has been shown to increase the number of beta amyloid immunoreactive neurons in the cortex. Addition of copper to the drinking water of cholesterol-fed rabbits can increase this number still further and may lead to plaque-like structures. Classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response in cholesterol-fed rabbits is retarded in the presence of these plaque-like structures but may be facilitated in their absence. In a factorial design, rabbits fed 2% cholesterol or a normal diet (0% cholesterol) for 8 weeks with or without copper added to the drinking water were given trace classical conditioning using a tone and periorbital electrodermal stimulation to study the effects of cholesterol and copper on classical conditioning of heart rate and the nictitating membrane response. Cholesterol-fed rabbits showed significant facilitation of heart rate conditioning and conditioning-specific modification of heart rate relative to normal diet controls. Consistent with previous research, cholesterol had minimal effects on classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response when periorbital electrodermal stimulation was used as the unconditioned stimulus. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a significant increase in the number of beta amyloid positive neurons in the cortex, hippocampus and amygdala of the cholesterol-fed rabbits. Supplementation of drinking water with copper increased the number of beta amyloid positive neurons in the cortex of cholesterol-fed rabbits but did not produce plaque-like structures or have a significant effect on heart rate conditioning. The data provide additional support for our finding that, in the absence of plaques, dietary cholesterol may facilitate learning and memory.

  6. Cholesterol enhances classical conditioning of the rabbit heart rate response

    PubMed Central

    Schreurs, Bernard G.; Smith-Bell, Carrie A.; Darwish, Deya S.; Wang, Desheng; Burhans, Lauren B.; Gonzales-Joekes, Jimena; Deci, Stephen; Stankovic, Goran; Sparks, D. Larry

    2007-01-01

    The cholesterol-fed rabbit is a model of atherosclerosis and has been proposed as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease. Feeding rabbits cholesterol has been shown to increase the number of beta amyloid immunoreactive neurons in the cortex. Addition of copper to the drinking water of cholesterol-fed rabbits can increase this number still further and may lead to plaque-like structures. Classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response in cholesterol-fed rabbits is retarded in the presence of these plaque-like structures but may be facilitated in their absence. In a factorial design, rabbits fed 2% cholesterol or a normal diet (0% cholesterol) for 8 weeks with or without copper added to the drinking water were given trace classical conditioning using a tone and periorbital electrodermal stimulation to study the effects of cholesterol and copper on classical conditioning of heart rate and the nictitating membrane response. Cholesterol-fed rabbits showed significant facilitation of heart rate conditioning and conditioning-specific modification of heart rate relative to normal diet controls. Consistent with previous research, cholesterol had minimal effects on classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response when periorbital electrodermal stimulation was used as the unconditioned stimulus. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a significant increase in the number of beta amyloid positive neurons in the cortex, hippocampus and amygdala of the cholesterol-fed rabbits. Supplementation of drinking water with copper increased the number of beta amyloid positive neurons in the cortex of cholesterol-fed rabbits but did not produce plaque-like structures or have a significant effect on heart rate conditioning. The data provide additional support for our finding that, in the absence of plaques, dietary cholesterol may facilitate learning and memory. PMID:17466388

  7. Entrainment to Periodic Initiation and Transition Rates in a Computational Model for Gene Translation

    PubMed Central

    Margaliot, Michael; Sontag, Eduardo D.; Tuller, Tamir

    2014-01-01

    Periodic oscillations play an important role in many biomedical systems. Proper functioning of biological systems that respond to periodic signals requires the ability to synchronize with the periodic excitation. For example, the sleep/wake cycle is a manifestation of an internal timing system that synchronizes to the solar day. In the terminology of systems theory, the biological system must entrain or phase-lock to the periodic excitation. Entrainment is also important in synthetic biology. For example, connecting several artificial biological systems that entrain to a common clock may lead to a well-functioning modular system. The cell-cycle is a periodic program that regulates DNA synthesis and cell division. Recent biological studies suggest that cell-cycle related genes entrain to this periodic program at the gene translation level, leading to periodically-varying protein levels of these genes. The ribosome flow model (RFM) is a deterministic model obtained via a mean-field approximation of a stochastic model from statistical physics that has been used to model numerous processes including ribosome flow along the mRNA. Here we analyze the RFM under the assumption that the initiation and/or transition rates vary periodically with a common period . We show that the ribosome distribution profile in the RFM entrains to this periodic excitation. In particular, the protein synthesis pattern converges to a unique periodic solution with period . To the best of our knowledge, this is the first proof of entrainment in a mathematical model for translation that encapsulates aspects such as initiation and termination rates, ribosomal movement and interactions, and non-homogeneous elongation speeds along the mRNA. Our results support the conjecture that periodic oscillations in tRNA levels and other factors related to the translation process can induce periodic oscillations in protein levels, and may suggest a new approach for re-engineering genetic systems to obtain a

  8. The Development and Initial Validation of the Student Measure of Culturally Responsive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Ginger L.; Chun, Heejung; Fernandez, Ivelisse Torres

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and initial validation of a measure of middle school students' perspectives of culturally responsive teaching practices. The Student Measure of Culturally Responsive Teaching (SMCRT) was developed by modifying items on the Culturally Responsive Teaching Self-Efficacy (CRTSE), which measures teachers'…

  9. The Development and Initial Validation of the Student Measure of Culturally Responsive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Ginger L.; Chun, Heejung; Fernandez, Ivelisse Torres

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and initial validation of a measure of middle school students' perspectives of culturally responsive teaching practices. The Student Measure of Culturally Responsive Teaching (SMCRT) was developed by modifying items on the Culturally Responsive Teaching Self-Efficacy (CRTSE), which measures teachers'…

  10. Effects of signaling on temporal control of behavior in response-initiated fixed intervals.

    PubMed

    Fox, Adam E; Kyonka, Elizabeth G E

    2016-11-01

    Behavior and events distributed in time can serve as markers that signal delays to future events. The majority of timing research has focused on how behavior changes as the time to some event, usually food availability, decreases. The primary objective of the two experiments presented here was to assess how behavior changes as time passes between two time markers when the first time marker was manipulated but the second, food delivery, was held constant. Pigeons were exposed to fixed-interval, response-initiated fixed-interval, and signaled response-initiated fixed-interval 15- and 30-s schedules of reinforcement. In Experiment 1, first-response latencies were systematically shorter in the signaled response-initiated schedules than response-initiated schedules, suggesting that the first response was a more effective time marker when it was signaled. In Experiment 2, responding in no-food (i.e. "peak") trials indicated that timing accuracy was equivalent in the three schedule types. Compared to fixed interval schedules, timing precision was reduced in the signaled response-initiated schedules and was lowest in response-initiated schedules. Results from Experiments 1 and 2 coupled with previous research suggest that the overall "informativeness" of a time marker relative to other events and behaviors in the environment may determine its efficacy.

  11. Influences of organic carbon supply rate on uranium bioreduction in initially oxidizing, contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Wan, Jiamin; Kim, Yongman; Daly, Rebecca A; Brodie, Eoin L; Hazen, Terry C; Herman, Don; Firestone, Mary K

    2008-12-01

    Remediation of uranium-contaminated sediments through in situ stimulation of bioreduction to insoluble UO2 is a potential treatment strategy under active investigation. Previously, we found that newly reduced U(IV) can be reoxidized under reducing conditions sustained by a continuous supply of organic carbon (OC) because of residual reactive Fe(III) and enhanced U(VI) solubilitythrough complexation with carbonate generated through OC oxidation. That finding motivated this investigation directed at identifying a range of OC supply rates that is optimal for establishing U bioreduction and immobilization in initially oxidizing sediments. The effects of OC supply rate, from 0 to 580 mmol of OC (kg of sediment)(-1) year(-1), and OC form (lactate and acetate) on U bioreduction were tested in flow-through columns containing U-contaminated sediments. An intermediate supply rate on the order of 150 mmol of OC (kg of sediment)(-1) year(-1) was determined to be most effective at immobilizing U. At lower OC supply rates, U bioreduction was not achieved, and U(VI) solubilitywas enhanced by complexation with carbonate (from OC oxidation). At the highest OC supply rate, the resulting highly carbonate-enriched solutions also supported elevated levels of U(VI), even though strongly reducing conditions were established. Lactate and acetate were found to have very similar geochemical impacts on effluent U concentrations (and other measured chemical species), when compared at equivalent OC supply rates. While the catalysts of U(VI) reduction to U(IV) are presumably bacteria, the composition of the bacterial community,the Fe-reducing community, and the sulfate-reducing community had no direct relationship with effluent U concentrations. The OC supply rate has competing effects of driving reduction of U(VI) to low-solubility U(IV) solids, as well as causing formation of highly soluble U(VI)-carbonato complexes. These offsetting influences will require careful control of OC supply rates

  12. Influences of Organic Carbon Supply Rate on Uranium Bioreduction in Initially Oxidizing, Contaminated Sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Wan, Jiamin; Kim, Yongman; Daly, Rebecca A.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Herman, Don; Firestone, Mary K.

    2008-06-10

    Remediation of uranium (U) contaminated sediments through in-situ stimulation of bioreduction to insoluble UO{sub 2} is a potential treatment strategy under active investigation. Previously, we found that newly reduced U(IV) can be reoxidized under reducing conditions sustained by a continuous supply of organic carbon (OC) because of residual reactive Fe(III) and enhanced U(VI) solubility through complexation with carbonate generated through OC oxidation. That finding motivated this investigation directed at identifying a range of OC supply rates that is optimal for establishing U bioreduction and immobilization in initially oxidizing sediments. The effects of OC supply rate, from 0 to 580 mmol OC (kg sediment){sup -1} year{sup -1}, and OC form (lactate and acetate) on U bioreduction were tested in flow-through columns containing U-contaminated sediments. An intermediate supply rate on the order of 150 mmol OC (kg sediment){sup -1} year{sup -1} was determined to be most effective at immobilizing U. At lower OC supply rates, U bioreduction was not achieved, and U(VI) solubility was enhanced by complexation with carbonate (from OC oxidation). At the highest OC supply rate, resulting highly carbonate-enriched solutions also supported elevated levels of U(VI), even though strongly reducing conditions were established. Lactate and acetate were found to have very similar geochemical impacts on effluent U concentrations (and other measured chemical species), when compared at equivalent OC supply rates. While the catalysts of U(VI) reduction to U(IV) are presumably bacteria, the composition of the bacterial community, the Fe reducing community, and the sulfate reducing community had no direct relationship with effluent U concentrations. The OC supply rate has competing effects of driving reduction of U(VI) to low solubility U(IV) solids, as well as causing formation of highly soluble U(VI)-carbonato complexes. These offsetting influences will require careful control of OC

  13. Functional response models to estimate feeding rates of wading birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collazo, J.A.; Gilliam, J.F.; Miranda-Castro, L.

    2010-01-01

    Forager (predator) abundance may mediate feeding rates in wading birds. Yet, when modeled, feeding rates are typically derived from the purely prey-dependent Holling Type II (HoII) functional response model. Estimates of feeding rates are necessary to evaluate wading bird foraging strategies and their role in food webs; thus, models that incorporate predator dependence warrant consideration. Here, data collected in a mangrove swamp in Puerto Rico in 1994 were reanalyzed, reporting feeding rates for mixed-species flocks after comparing fits of the HoII model, as used in the original work, to the Beddington-DeAngelis (BD) and Crowley-Martin (CM) predator-dependent models. Model CM received most support (AIC c wi = 0.44), but models BD and HoII were plausible alternatives (AIC c ??? 2). Results suggested that feeding rates were constrained by predator abundance. Reductions in rates were attributed to interference, which was consistent with the independently observed increase in aggression as flock size increased (P < 0.05). Substantial discrepancies between the CM and HoII models were possible depending on flock sizes used to model feeding rates. However, inferences derived from the HoII model, as used in the original work, were sound. While Holling's Type II and other purely prey-dependent models have fostered advances in wading bird foraging ecology, evaluating models that incorporate predator dependence could lead to a more adequate description of data and processes of interest. The mechanistic bases used to derive models used here lead to biologically interpretable results and advance understanding of wading bird foraging ecology.

  14. Response of Escherichia coli growth rate to osmotic shock.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Enrique; Theriot, Julie A; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2014-05-27

    It has long been proposed that turgor pressure plays an essential role during bacterial growth by driving mechanical expansion of the cell wall. This hypothesis is based on analogy to plant cells, for which this mechanism has been established, and on experiments in which the growth rate of bacterial cultures was observed to decrease as the osmolarity of the growth medium was increased. To distinguish the effect of turgor pressure from pressure-independent effects that osmolarity might have on cell growth, we monitored the elongation of single Escherichia coli cells while rapidly changing the osmolarity of their media. By plasmolyzing cells, we found that cell-wall elastic strain did not scale with growth rate, suggesting that pressure does not drive cell-wall expansion. Furthermore, in response to hyper- and hypoosmotic shock, E. coli cells resumed their preshock growth rate and relaxed to their steady-state rate after several minutes, demonstrating that osmolarity modulates growth rate slowly, independently of pressure. Oscillatory hyperosmotic shock revealed that although plasmolysis slowed cell elongation, the cells nevertheless "stored" growth such that once turgor was reestablished the cells elongated to the length that they would have attained had they never been plasmolyzed. Finally, MreB dynamics were unaffected by osmotic shock. These results reveal the simple nature of E. coli cell-wall expansion: that the rate of expansion is determined by the rate of peptidoglycan insertion and insertion is not directly dependent on turgor pressure, but that pressure does play a basic role whereby it enables full extension of recently inserted peptidoglycan.

  15. Response of Escherichia coli growth rate to osmotic shock

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Enrique; Theriot, Julie A.; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2014-01-01

    It has long been proposed that turgor pressure plays an essential role during bacterial growth by driving mechanical expansion of the cell wall. This hypothesis is based on analogy to plant cells, for which this mechanism has been established, and on experiments in which the growth rate of bacterial cultures was observed to decrease as the osmolarity of the growth medium was increased. To distinguish the effect of turgor pressure from pressure-independent effects that osmolarity might have on cell growth, we monitored the elongation of single Escherichia coli cells while rapidly changing the osmolarity of their media. By plasmolyzing cells, we found that cell-wall elastic strain did not scale with growth rate, suggesting that pressure does not drive cell-wall expansion. Furthermore, in response to hyper- and hypoosmotic shock, E. coli cells resumed their preshock growth rate and relaxed to their steady-state rate after several minutes, demonstrating that osmolarity modulates growth rate slowly, independently of pressure. Oscillatory hyperosmotic shock revealed that although plasmolysis slowed cell elongation, the cells nevertheless “stored” growth such that once turgor was reestablished the cells elongated to the length that they would have attained had they never been plasmolyzed. Finally, MreB dynamics were unaffected by osmotic shock. These results reveal the simple nature of E. coli cell-wall expansion: that the rate of expansion is determined by the rate of peptidoglycan insertion and insertion is not directly dependent on turgor pressure, but that pressure does play a basic role whereby it enables full extension of recently inserted peptidoglycan. PMID:24821776

  16. Effect of flow rate and initial aperture on fractured cement plug subjected to CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdoulghafour, H.; Luquot, L.; Gouze, P.

    2012-04-01

    Effect of flow rate and initial aperture on fractured cement plugs subjected to CO2 rich brine under geo-sequestration conditions Abdoulghafour Halidi, Linda Luquot and Philippe Gouze Laboratoire Géosciences Montpellier, UMR 5243, Montpellier, France (1,3), CSIC Barcelona, Spain(2) Laboratory studies conducted on cement materials under CO2 sequestration conditions, showed evidence of alteration due to CO2 attack.Therefore cement alteration is controlled by hydrodynamic parameters and chemical processes. In this study we present three percolation experiments conducted on fractured cement plugs using the same thermodynamic conditions (T = 60°C, P = 10MPa).Such experiment allow to simulate leakage limestone reservoirs. Hydro-chemical processes were determined based on fluid flow velocity and initial fracture aperture. During experiment conducted on most opened fracture (a0 = 43µm), with high flow rate of 2ml/min and lasted 25h, in situ permeability remains constant for 18h exposure, then decreases to the end of experiment. Similar observation has been seen for experiment conducted on more or less closed fracture (a0~7µm), with very slow flow (0.05) where slow increase of permeability was recorded followed by progressive decrease from 13h to the end of experiment (28h). On the other hand, we performed short-term experiment lasted 6h on intermediate opened fracture (a0 = 27µm), using high flow rate of 2ml/min. Permeability change was recorded during the first hour experiment, then remains constant still the end of CO2 exposure. Chemical analysis performed on outlet fluid match with permeability evolution as they showed the effect of flow rate on dissolution as well as precipitation. From this data set we could evidence the determining role of local velocity of fluid renewal on reaction processes, leading to structures and hydrodynamic changes. Presented results were reproduced using coupled reactive-transport model highlighting the important role of transport

  17. Initiation age and incision rates of inner gorges: Do they record multiple glacial-interglacial cycles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delunel, Romain; Casagrande, Jan; Schlunegger, Fritz; Akçar, Naki; Kubik, Peter W.

    2015-04-01

    Inner gorges represent some of the most conspicuous landforms in the European Alps. They form narrow and deep active-channel incisions that link hanging tributaries with trunk valleys in glacially-conditioned environments. Despite abundant research carried out on these objects, both their origin and evolution have remained unclear. In particular, the age of initiation, the rate of incision, and the respective contribution of fluvial and subglacial processes in the evolution of inner gorges have still been a matter of scientific debate. Indeed, answering these questions has been complicated by the lack of appropriate quantitative methods and/or suitable sampling strategies for studying inner gorges. Here, we report 10Be concentrations measured in alluvial sediments that have been collected along the main stream of a ~20-km2-catchment in the Swiss foreland (Central European Alps). This catchment hosts a ca. 100-m-deep and 2-km-long inner gorge that has been cut mainly in glacial till. Catchment wide denudation rates inferred from 10Be analyses (n = 15) vary from ~120 to 650 mm/ka and show a general downstream increasing trend. Additional field observations and GIS analyses reveal that the denudation rates within the catchment increase from the headwaters, characterized by relict glacial/periglacial landscapes, to the downstream end of the basin where the inner gorge has been formed. Using a 10Be-based sediment budget approach and the delineation of topographic domains from a 2-m-resolution LIDAR, we provide an estimate of erosion rates within the gorge that are higher than 2.5 m/ka and can reach up to ~ 7 m/ka. Combining these estimated erosion rates with the reconstruction of eroded volumes within the gorge, we obtain a rough initiation age in the early Holocene, in general agreement with previous studies reporting a postglacial origin for the inner gorges. Our results therefore appear contradictory with recent findings arguing for a gradual formation of inner

  18. Quantifying Rates of Evolutionary Adaptation in Response to Ocean Acidification

    PubMed Central

    Sunday, Jennifer M.; Crim, Ryan N.; Harley, Christopher D. G.; Hart, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The global acidification of the earth's oceans is predicted to impact biodiversity via physiological effects impacting growth, survival, reproduction, and immunology, leading to changes in species abundances and global distributions. However, the degree to which these changes will play out critically depends on the evolutionary rate at which populations will respond to natural selection imposed by ocean acidification, which remains largely unquantified. Here we measure the potential for an evolutionary response to ocean acidification in larval development rate in two coastal invertebrates using a full-factorial breeding design. We show that the sea urchin species Strongylocentrotus franciscanus has vastly greater levels of phenotypic and genetic variation for larval size in future CO2 conditions compared to the mussel species Mytilus trossulus. Using these measures we demonstrate that S. franciscanus may have faster evolutionary responses within 50 years of the onset of predicted year-2100 CO2 conditions despite having lower population turnover rates. Our comparisons suggest that information on genetic variation, phenotypic variation, and key demographic parameters, may lend valuable insight into relative evolutionary potentials across a large number of species. PMID:21857962

  19. On the response of rubbers at high strain rates.

    SciTech Connect

    Niemczura, Johnathan Greenberg

    2010-02-01

    In this report, we examine the propagation of tensile waves of finite deformation in rubbers through experiments and analysis. Attention is focused on the propagation of one-dimensional dispersive and shock waves in strips of latex and nitrile rubber. Tensile wave propagation experiments were conducted at high strain-rates by holding one end fixed and displacing the other end at a constant velocity. A high-speed video camera was used to monitor the motion and to determine the evolution of strain and particle velocity in the rubber strips. Analysis of the response through the theory of finite waves and quantitative matching between the experimental observations and analytical predictions was used to determine an appropriate instantaneous elastic response for the rubbers. This analysis also yields the tensile shock adiabat for rubber. Dispersive waves as well as shock waves are also observed in free-retraction experiments; these are used to quantify hysteretic effects in rubber.

  20. Ribosome Traffic on mRNAs Maps to Gene Ontology: Genome-wide Quantification of Translation Initiation Rates and Polysome Size Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ciandrini, Luca

    2013-01-01

    To understand the complex relationship governing transcript abundance and the level of the encoded protein, we integrate genome-wide experimental data of ribosomal density on mRNAs with a novel stochastic model describing ribosome traffic dynamics during translation elongation. This analysis reveals that codon arrangement, rather than simply codon bias, has a key role in determining translational efficiency. It also reveals that translation output is governed both by initiation efficiency and elongation dynamics. By integrating genome-wide experimental data sets with simulation of ribosome traffic on all Saccharomyces cerevisiae ORFs, mRNA-specific translation initiation rates are for the first time estimated across the entire transcriptome. Our analysis identifies different classes of mRNAs characterised by their initiation rates, their ribosome traffic dynamics, and by their response to ribosome availability. Strikingly, this classification based on translational dynamics maps onto key gene ontological classifications, revealing evolutionary optimisation of translation responses to be strongly influenced by gene function. PMID:23382661

  1. Ribosome traffic on mRNAs maps to gene ontology: genome-wide quantification of translation initiation rates and polysome size regulation.

    PubMed

    Ciandrini, Luca; Stansfield, Ian; Romano, M Carmen

    2013-01-01

    To understand the complex relationship governing transcript abundance and the level of the encoded protein, we integrate genome-wide experimental data of ribosomal density on mRNAs with a novel stochastic model describing ribosome traffic dynamics during translation elongation. This analysis reveals that codon arrangement, rather than simply codon bias, has a key role in determining translational efficiency. It also reveals that translation output is governed both by initiation efficiency and elongation dynamics. By integrating genome-wide experimental data sets with simulation of ribosome traffic on all Saccharomyces cerevisiae ORFs, mRNA-specific translation initiation rates are for the first time estimated across the entire transcriptome. Our analysis identifies different classes of mRNAs characterised by their initiation rates, their ribosome traffic dynamics, and by their response to ribosome availability. Strikingly, this classification based on translational dynamics maps onto key gene ontological classifications, revealing evolutionary optimisation of translation responses to be strongly influenced by gene function.

  2. Extinction under a Behavioral Microscope: Isolating the Sources of Decline in Operant Response Rate

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Timothy H C; Neisewander, Janet L; Sanabria, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Extinction performance is often used to assess underlying psychological processes without the interference of reinforcement. For example, in the extinction/reinstatement paradigm, motivation to seek drug is assessed by measuring responding elicited by drug-associated cues without drug reinforcement. Nonetheless, extinction performance is governed by several psychological processes that involve motivation, memory, learning, and motoric functions. These processes are confounded when overall response rate is used to measure performance. Based on evidence that operant responding occurs in bouts, this paper proposes an analytic procedure that separates extinction performance into several behavioral components: 1) the baseline bout initiation rate, within-bout response rate, and bout length at the onset of extinction; 2) their rates of decay during extinction; 3) the time between extinction onset and the decline of responding; 4) the asymptotic response rate at the end of extinction; 5) the refractory period after each response. Data that illustrate the goodness of fit of this analytic model are presented. This paper also describes procedures to 1) isolate behavioral components contributing to extinction performance; 2) make inferences about experimental effects on these components. This microscopic behavioral analysis allows the mapping of different psychological processes to distinct behavioral components implicated in extinction performance, which may further our understanding of the psychological effects of neurobiological treatments. PMID:22425782

  3. Extinction under a behavioral microscope: isolating the sources of decline in operant response rate.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Timothy H C; Neisewander, Janet L; Sanabria, Federico

    2012-05-01

    Extinction performance is often used to assess underlying psychological processes without the interference of reinforcement. For example, in the extinction/reinstatement paradigm, motivation to seek drug is assessed by measuring responding elicited by drug-associated cues without drug reinforcement. However, extinction performance is governed by several psychological processes that involve motivation, memory, learning, and motoric functions. These processes are confounded when overall response rate is used to measure performance. Based on evidence that operant responding occurs in bouts, this paper proposes an analytic procedure that separates extinction performance into several behavioral components: (1-3) the baseline bout initiation rate, within-bout response rate, and bout length at the onset of extinction; (4-6) their rates of decay during extinction; (7) the time between extinction onset and the decline of responding; (8) the asymptotic response rate at the end of extinction; (9) the refractory period after each response. Data that illustrate the goodness of fit of this analytic model are presented. This paper also describes procedures to isolate behavioral components contributing to extinction performance and make inferences about experimental effects on these components. This microscopic behavioral analysis allows the mapping of different psychological processes to distinct behavioral components implicated in extinction performance, which may further our understanding of the psychological effects of neurobiological treatments.

  4. Micro-mechanism and rate constants for OH-initiated degradation of methomyl in atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiuchao; Sun, Xiaomin; Zhang, Chenxi; Gong, Chen; Hu, Jingtian

    2014-07-01

    The atmospheric degradation reactions of the two isomers of methomyl (MTL) initiated by OH radical in the presence of O2, NO and H2O have been investigated by density functional theory (DFT). The calculations were all carried out at MPWB1K level. The geometrical parameters and vibrational frequencies of stationary points were calculated with 6-31+G (d, p) basis sets. Single-point energy calculations were performed with 6-311+G (3df, 2p) basis sets. Profiles of the potential energy surface were constructed and all possible channels involved in the reactions were discussed. The rate constants of main elementary reactions were calculated over a temperature range of 200-400 K and mostly fitted to Arrhenius formulas. The atmospheric lifetimes of reaction species were discussed for the first time, which can be applied to the study on model simulation and management of hazardous materials.

  5. In Situ Rates of Sulfate Reduction in Response to Geochemical Perturbations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kneeshaw, T.A.; McGuire, J.T.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Smith, E.W.

    2011-01-01

    Rates of in situ microbial sulfate reduction in response to geochemical perturbations were determined using Native Organism Geochemical Experimentation Enclosures (NOGEEs), a new in situ technique developed to facilitate evaluation of controls on microbial reaction rates. NOGEEs function by first trapping a native microbial community in situ and then subjecting it to geochemical perturbations through the introduction of various test solutions. On three occasions, NOGEEs were used at the Norman Landfill research site in Norman, Oklahoma, to evaluate sulfate-reduction rates in wetland sediments impacted by landfill leachate. The initial experiment, in May 2007, consisted of five introductions of a sulfate test solution over 11 d. Each test stimulated sulfate reduction with rates increasing until an apparent maximum was achieved. Two subsequent experiments, conducted in October 2007 and February 2008, evaluated the effects of concentration on sulfate-reduction rates. Results from these experiments showed that faster sulfate-reduction rates were associated with increased sulfate concentrations. Understanding variability in sulfate-reduction rates in response to perturbations may be an important factor in predicting rates of natural attenuation and bioremediation of contaminants in systems not at biogeochemical equilibrium. Copyright ?? 2011 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2011 National Ground Water Association.

  6. Ensemble Monte Carlo calculation of the hole initiated impact ionization rate in bulk GaAs and silicon using a k-dependent, numerical transition rate formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oguzman, Ismail H.; Wang, Yang; Kolnik, Jan; Brennan, Kevin F.

    1995-01-01

    The hole initiated impact ionization rate in bulk silicon and GaAs is calculated using a numerical formulation of the impact ionization transition rate incorporated into an ensemble Monte Carlo simulation. The transition rate is calculated from Fermi's golden rule using a two-body screened Coulomb interaction including a wavevector dependent dielectric function. It is found that the effective threshold for hole initiated ionization is relatively soft in both materials, that the split-off band dominates the ionization process in GaAs. and that no clear dominance by any one band is observed in silicon, though the rate out of the light hole band is greatest.

  7. A Quality Improvement Initiative: Improving Exclusive Breastfeeding Rates of Preterm Neonates.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Amanpreet; Joshi, Meena; Thukral, Anu; Singh Dalal, Jagjit; Kumar Deorari, Ashok

    2017-04-01

    This study is a single center quality improvement (QI) initiative in a tertiary care neonatal intensive care unit which was done with an objective to increase the proportion of neonates receiving mother's own milk (at postnatal age of 7 d) from the current rate of 12.5% to 30% over a period of six weeks. Additional objectives were to evaluate the proportion of mothers' expressing breast milk within 3 h of birth, on day one and three and the amount of expressed breast milk (EBM) on day one and day seven. A team was formulated to evaluate the reasons for inadequate breast milk expression and to plan the steps for promoting the same. Comprehensive postnatal breast feeding counseling (CPNC) to promote early breast milk expression was initiated soon after the birth of a preterm neonate. CPNC was done for next fifteen mothers and their breast feeding support was streamlined. The effect of CPNC and teamwork was discussed amongst the team members every day and adjustments incorporated (Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle). The proportion of neonates receiving mother's only milk (MOM) on day 7 increased to 80% (12/15) after 4 wk of QI. Thus, a simple and feasible CPNC package lead to improved breast milk output in mothers.

  8. Targeting tumour-initiating cells to improve the cure rates for triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Stratford, Anna L; Reipas, Kristen; Maxwell, Christopher; Dunn, Sandra E

    2010-07-26

    Tumour recurrence is one of the biggest challenges in breast cancer management because it affects 25-30% of women with breast cancer and the tumours are often incurable. Women with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC--lacking expression of the oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and the receptor HER2/ERBB2) have the highest rates of early recurrence relative to other breast cancer subtypes. Early recurrence might be due to tumour-initiating cells (TICs), which are resistant to conventional therapies, can remain dormant and can subsequently give rise to secondary tumours. In breast cancer, TICs are identified by the cell-surface markers CD44+/CD24-/EpCAM+ and/or possess ALDH1 enzyme activity. This subpopulation has the ability to self-renew, grow as mammospheres and initiate tumour formation. Fuelling the problem of relapse is the fact that chemotherapy and radiation can induce or select for TICs; this was reported in preclinical models and more recently in women being treated for breast cancer. Thus, new therapeutic agents for TNBC are presently being sought to overcome this problem. Here we review the roles of receptor tyrosine kinases, signalling intermediates and transcription factors in sustaining the TIC subpopulation. Particular emphasis is placed on targeting these molecules in order to eliminate and/or prevent the induction of TICs and ultimately reduce the frequency of TNBC recurrence.

  9. The Initial Rate of C Substrate Utilization and Longer-Term Soil C Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeff L.; Bell, Jennifer M.; Bolton, Harvey; Bailey, Vanessa L.

    2007-12-01

    Increasing soil C storage is viewed as a legitimate mechanism to offset current increases in atmospheric CO2 from anthropogenic sources. However, microbial transformation and turnover of soil carbon inputs will influence the magnitude of net soil C storage. The purpose of this study was to investigate several simple model C compounds to determine their decomposition rates in soil and the relationship between their initial decomposition rate and longer-term C sequestration. Pure 14C compounds of glucose, acetate, arginine, oxalate, phenylalanine and urea were incubated in soil for 125 days at 24 and 34oC. Respired 14CO2 and specific activity was quantitatively measured every day for 15 days and residual soil 14C after 125 days. At both temperatures, the percent 14C remaining in the soil after 125 days of incubation was positively and significantly correlated with the percent substrate utilized in the first day. For the two temperatures, the correlation of total 14CO2 and specific activity was significant (R2=.86,.78) as was the percent remaining after 125 days (C34oC = 0.75 x C24oC, R2 = 0.90). The 14C in the microbial biomass ranged from 4-15% after 15 days and declined through day 125 contributing significantly to the 14C evolved. Priming of 12C SOM was negative at day 3 but became positive, reaching a maximum on day 12, the total increase in soil C from substrates was greater than the primed C. The data support the concept that the more rapidly a substrate is initially mineralized the more persistent it will be in the soil.

  10. Initiation/Response/Follow-Up, and Response to Intervention: Combining Two Models to Improve Teacher and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miao, Pei; Heining-Boynton, Audrey L.

    2011-01-01

    The communication pattern of Initiation/Response/Follow-Up (IRF) has long been an important instructional sequence in language classrooms. When language teachers combine IRF with the Response to Intervention (RTI) approach, they create a powerful model to evaluate student oral practice and self-assess effectiveness in creating language communities…

  11. A strong response to selection on mass-independent maximal metabolic rate without a correlated response in basal metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Wone, B W M; Madsen, P; Donovan, E R; Labocha, M K; Sears, M W; Downs, C J; Sorensen, D A; Hayes, J P

    2015-04-01

    Metabolic rates are correlated with many aspects of ecology, but how selection on different aspects of metabolic rates affects their mutual evolution is poorly understood. Using laboratory mice, we artificially selected for high maximal mass-independent metabolic rate (MMR) without direct selection on mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR). Then we tested for responses to selection in MMR and correlated responses to selection in BMR. In other lines, we antagonistically selected for mice with a combination of high mass-independent MMR and low mass-independent BMR. All selection protocols and data analyses included body mass as a covariate, so effects of selection on the metabolic rates are mass adjusted (that is, independent of effects of body mass). The selection lasted eight generations. Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (11.2%) in lines selected for increased MMR, and BMR was slightly, but not significantly, higher (2.5%). Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (5.3%) in antagonistically selected lines, and BMR was slightly, but not significantly, lower (4.2%). Analysis of breeding values revealed no positive genetic trend for elevated BMR in high-MMR lines. A weak positive genetic correlation was detected between MMR and BMR. That weak positive genetic correlation supports the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy in the sense that it fails to falsify a key model assumption. Overall, the results suggest that at least in these mice there is significant capacity for independent evolution of metabolic traits. Whether that is true in the ancestral animals that evolved endothermy remains an important but unanswered question.

  12. A strong response to selection on mass-independent maximal metabolic rate without a correlated response in basal metabolic rate

    PubMed Central

    Wone, B W M; Madsen, P; Donovan, E R; Labocha, M K; Sears, M W; Downs, C J; Sorensen, D A; Hayes, J P

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic rates are correlated with many aspects of ecology, but how selection on different aspects of metabolic rates affects their mutual evolution is poorly understood. Using laboratory mice, we artificially selected for high maximal mass-independent metabolic rate (MMR) without direct selection on mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR). Then we tested for responses to selection in MMR and correlated responses to selection in BMR. In other lines, we antagonistically selected for mice with a combination of high mass-independent MMR and low mass-independent BMR. All selection protocols and data analyses included body mass as a covariate, so effects of selection on the metabolic rates are mass adjusted (that is, independent of effects of body mass). The selection lasted eight generations. Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (11.2%) in lines selected for increased MMR, and BMR was slightly, but not significantly, higher (2.5%). Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (5.3%) in antagonistically selected lines, and BMR was slightly, but not significantly, lower (4.2%). Analysis of breeding values revealed no positive genetic trend for elevated BMR in high-MMR lines. A weak positive genetic correlation was detected between MMR and BMR. That weak positive genetic correlation supports the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy in the sense that it fails to falsify a key model assumption. Overall, the results suggest that at least in these mice there is significant capacity for independent evolution of metabolic traits. Whether that is true in the ancestral animals that evolved endothermy remains an important but unanswered question. PMID:25604947

  13. Improving Question-Asking Initiations in Young Children with Autism Using Pivotal Response Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koegel, Robert L.; Bradshaw, Jessica L.; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Koegel, Lynn Kern

    2014-01-01

    Social initiations make up a core deficit for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, initiated questions during social interactions are often minimal or absent in this population. In the context of a multiple baseline design, the efficacy of using the motivational procedures of Pivotal Response Treatment to increase social…

  14. Improving Question-Asking Initiations in Young Children with Autism Using Pivotal Response Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koegel, Robert L.; Bradshaw, Jessica L.; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Koegel, Lynn Kern

    2014-01-01

    Social initiations make up a core deficit for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, initiated questions during social interactions are often minimal or absent in this population. In the context of a multiple baseline design, the efficacy of using the motivational procedures of Pivotal Response Treatment to increase social…

  15. 75 FR 25235 - Mint Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION Mint Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Mint Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  16. The Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Project: Detection Rates and Initial Management.

    PubMed

    Waisbourd, Michael; Pruzan, Noelle L; Johnson, Deiana; Ugorets, Angela; Crews, John E; Saaddine, Jinan B; Henderer, Jeffery D; Hark, Lisa A; Katz, L Jay

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the detection rates of glaucoma-related diagnoses and the initial treatments received in the Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Project, a community-based initiative aimed at improving the detection, treatment, and follow-up care of individuals at risk for glaucoma. Retrospective analysis. A total of 1649 individuals at risk for glaucoma who were examined and treated in 43 community centers located in underserved communities of Philadelphia. Individuals were enrolled if they were African American aged ≥50 years, were any other adult aged ≥60 years, or had a family history of glaucoma. After attending an informational glaucoma workshop, participants underwent a targeted glaucoma examination including an ocular, medical, and family history; visual acuity testing, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, and corneal pachymetry; slit-lamp and optic nerve examination; automated visual field testing; and fundus color photography. If indicated, treatments included selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT), laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI), or IOP-lowering medications. Follow-up examinations were scheduled at the community sites after 4 to 6 weeks or 4 to 6 months, depending on the clinical scenario. Detection rates of glaucoma-related diagnoses and types of treatments administered. Of the 1649 individuals enrolled, 645 (39.1%) received a glaucoma-related diagnosis; 20.0% (n = 330) were identified as open-angle glaucoma (OAG) suspects, 9.2% (n = 151) were identified as having narrow angles (or as a primary angle closure/suspect), and 10.0% (n = 164) were diagnosed with glaucoma, including 9.0% (n = 148) with OAG and 1.0% (n = 16) with angle-closure glaucoma. Overall, 39.0% (n = 64 of 164) of those diagnosed with glaucoma were unaware of their diagnosis. A total of 196 patients (11.9%) received glaucoma-related treatment, including 84 (5.1%) who underwent LPI, 13 (0.8%) who underwent SLT, and 103 (6.2%) who were prescribed IOP

  17. Effects of a swimming program on infants' heart rate response.

    PubMed

    Costa, Mario J; Barbosa, Tiago M; Ramos, Alberto; Marinho, Daniel A

    2016-04-01

    The physiological response has been used to characterize or estimate physical demands while exercising. The aim of this study was to analyze the infant's physiological adaptations over an intervention water program. Fourteen infants (36±5.08 months old) were tested before (M1) and 4 months after (M2) a well-designed swimming program aiming to develop aquatic readiness, cognitive behavior and social interaction. The physiological response was assessed based on heart rate measurements (HR, bpm) at a sampling rate of 1 Hz during several basic aquatic motor skills: 1) individual displacement in ventral position (HR@InD); 2) Individual displacement in vertical position (HR@VD); 3) immersion (HR@Im); 4) voluntary underwater displacement (HR@UnD); 5) jump from the deck (HR@JD); 6) jump from the swimming mat (HR@JM); 7) from a swimming slider (HR@Sli). The HR@Im showed the lowest values (~119 bpm) at the end of the program. Main trend was for a HR decreased over time (HR@Im: -14.17±17.76%; HR@InD: -8.16±9.16%; HR@JD: -10.36±12.70%; HR@Sli: -3.48±6.40%. In all other skills, HR remained unchanged. Our findings suggest that infants experience significant hear rate adaptations while participating on a swimming program. The HR decreases suggests a higher capability to perform the basic aquatic motor skills and a less stressful behavior through the lessons.

  18. Effect of lung transplantation on heart rate response to exercise.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Hilary F; Gonzalez-Costello, Jose; Thirapatarapong, Wilawan; Jorde, Ulrich P; Bartels, Matthew N

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate if patients have a change in percent of predicted heart rate reserve used at peak exercise (%HRR) after lung transplantation, even at matching workloads. Lung disease of obstructive, restrictive, and mixed types may be associated with an autonomic imbalance. Lung transplantation may improve the effects of pulmonary disease on cardiac function. However, the effect of lung transplantation on heart rate responses during exercise has not been investigated in detail. Retrospective review of patients who underwent lung transplantation. Pre and post transplant cardiopulmonary exercise tests were reviewed. The %HRR significantly improved by a median of 37% (p < 0.001) following lung transplantation. When matching workloads were analyzed, the %HRR also decreased from a median of 36% to 24% (p < 0.001). Corresponding to an increase in peak exercise capacity, percentage of heart rate reserve used improves significantly after lung transplantation, even at matching workloads, indicating a likely improvement in autonomic modulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Premixed flame response to unsteady strain-rate and curvature

    SciTech Connect

    Najm, H.N.; Wyckoff, P.S.

    1996-05-01

    The interaction of a premixed stoichiometric methane-air flame with a counter-rotating vortex-pair is studied using a skeletal C{sub 1} chemical description of the reaction process. The focus is on the modification to flame structure and dynamics due to unsteady strain-rate and curvature. The detailed description of flame structure and dynamics in response to unsteady flow is necessary to establish relevant extinction criteria in unsteady multi-dimensional flow, which, based on recent experimental evidence, may be significantly different from those of steady one-dimensional counterflow stagnation flames. Present results suggest that the increasing unsteady tangential strain-rate causes modification of flame structure that leads to reduced reaction rates of key chain-branching reactions which are active on the products side of the flame. This causes a reduction in the concentrations of active radicals, such as H, OH, and O, which are necessary for the breakdown of hydrocarbons on the reactants side of the flame.

  20. The Impact of Food Viscosity on Eating Rate, Subjective Appetite, Glycemic Response and Gastric Emptying Rate

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Hsu, Walter H.; Hollis, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV) and a high viscosity (HV) semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P = 0.020), with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P = 0.019 and P<0.001 respectively) while fullness was higher (P<0.001). In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001), higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001) and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001). However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods. PMID:23818981

  1. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu")

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu) in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork). We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu") in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert level 5, and regional differences in these responses. Methods 328 respondents completed a cross-sectional Internet or paper-based questionnaire study in Malaysia (N = 180) or Europe (N = 148). Measures assessed changes in transport usage, purchase of preparatory goods for a pandemic, perceived risk groups, indicators of anxiety, assessed estimated mortality rates for seasonal flu, effectiveness of seasonal flu vaccination, and changes in pork consumption Results 26% of the respondents were 'very concerned' about being a flu victim (42% Malaysians, 5% Europeans, p < .001). 36% reported reduced public transport use (48% Malaysia, 22% Europe, p < .001), 39% flight cancellations (56% Malaysia, 17% Europe, p < .001). 8% had purchased preparatory materials (e.g. face masks: 8% Malaysia, 7% Europe), 41% Malaysia (15% Europe) intended to do so (p < .001). 63% of Europeans, 19% of Malaysians had discussed the pandemic with friends (p < .001). Groups seen as at 'high risk' of infection included the immune compromised (mentioned by 87% respondents), pig farmers (70%), elderly (57%), prostitutes/highly sexually active (53%), and the homeless (53%). In data collected only in Europe, 64% greatly underestimated the mortality rates of seasonal flu, 26% believed seasonal flu vaccination gave protection against swine flu. 7% had reduced/stopped eating pork. 3% had purchased anti-viral drugs for use at home, while 32% intended to do so if the pandemic worsened. Conclusion Initial responses to Influenza A

  2. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu").

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Robin; Haque, Shamsul; Neto, Felix; Myers, Lynn B

    2009-10-06

    The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu) in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork). We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu") in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert level 5, and regional differences in these responses. 328 respondents completed a cross-sectional Internet or paper-based questionnaire study in Malaysia (N = 180) or Europe (N = 148). Measures assessed changes in transport usage, purchase of preparatory goods for a pandemic, perceived risk groups, indicators of anxiety, assessed estimated mortality rates for seasonal flu, effectiveness of seasonal flu vaccination, and changes in pork consumption 26% of the respondents were 'very concerned' about being a flu victim (42% Malaysians, 5% Europeans, p < .001). 36% reported reduced public transport use (48% Malaysia, 22% Europe, p < .001), 39% flight cancellations (56% Malaysia, 17% Europe, p < .001). 8% had purchased preparatory materials (e.g. face masks: 8% Malaysia, 7% Europe), 41% Malaysia (15% Europe) intended to do so (p < .001). 63% of Europeans, 19% of Malaysians had discussed the pandemic with friends (p < .001). Groups seen as at 'high risk' of infection included the immune compromised (mentioned by 87% respondents), pig farmers (70%), elderly (57%), prostitutes/highly sexually active (53%), and the homeless (53%). In data collected only in Europe, 64% greatly underestimated the mortality rates of seasonal flu, 26% believed seasonal flu vaccination gave protection against swine flu. 7% had reduced/stopped eating pork. 3% had purchased anti-viral drugs for use at home, while 32% intended to do so if the pandemic worsened. Initial responses to Influenza A show large regional differences in

  3. Shock initiated thermal and chemical responses of HMX crystal from ReaxFF molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tingting; Song, Huajie; Liu, Yi; Huang, Fenglei

    2014-07-21

    To gain an atomistic-level understanding of the thermal and chemical responses of condensed energetic materials under thermal shock, we developed a thermal shock reactive dynamics (TS-RD) computational protocol using molecular dynamics simulation coupled with ReaxFF force field. β-Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) was selected as a a target explosive due to its wide usage in the military and industry. The results show that a thermal shock initiated by a large temperature gradient between the "hot" region and the "cold" region results in thermal expansion of the particles and induces a thermal-mechanical wave propagating back and forth in the system with an averaged velocity of 3.32 km s(-1). Heat propagating along the direction of thermal shock leads to a temperature increment of the system and thus chemical reaction initiation. Applying a continuum reactive heat conduction model combined with the temperature distribution obtained from the RD simulation, a heat conduction coefficient is derived as 0.80 W m(-1) K(-1). The chemical reaction mechanisms during thermal shock were analyzed, showing that the reaction is triggered by N-NO2 bond breaking followed by HONO elimination and ring fission. The propagation rates of the reaction front and reaction center are obtained to be 0.069 and 0.038 km s(-1), based on the time and spatial distribution of NO2. The pressure effect on the thermal shock was also investigated by employing uniaxial compression before the thermal shock. We find that compression significantly accelerates thermal-mechanical wave propagation and heat conduction, resulting in higher temperature and more excited molecules and thus earlier initiation and faster propagation of chemical reactions.

  4. Pretreatment Growth Rate Predicts Radiation Response in Vestibular Schwannomas

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Nina N.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Larvie, Mykol; Curtin, Hugh; Loeffler, Jay S.; McKenna, Michael J.; Shih, Helen A.

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are often followed without initial therapeutic intervention because many tumors do not grow and radiation therapy is associated with potential adverse effects. In an effort to determine whether maximizing initial surveillance predicts for later treatment response, the predictive value of preirradiation growth rate of VS on response to radiation therapy was assessed. Methods and Materials: Sixty-four patients with 65 VS were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiation surgery or fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. Pre- and postirradiation linear expansion rates were estimated using volumetric measurements on sequential magnetic resonance images (MRIs). In addition, postirradiation tumor volume change was classified as demonstrating shrinkage (ratio of volume on last follow-up MRI to MRI immediately preceding irradiation <80%), stability (ratio 80%-120%), or expansion (ratio >120%). The median pre- and postirradiation follow-up was 20.0 and 27.5 months, respectively. Seven tumors from neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients were excluded from statistical analyses. Results: In the 58 non-NF2 patients, there was a trend of correlation between pre- and postirradiation volume change rates (slope on linear regression, 0.29; P=.06). Tumors demonstrating postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 89%/year, and those without postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 41%/year (P=.02). As the preirradiation growth rate increased, the probability of postirradiation expansion also increased. Overall, 24.1% of tumors were stable, 53.4% experienced shrinkage, and 22.5% experienced expansion. Predictors of no postirradiation tumor expansion included no prior surgery (P=.01) and slower tumor growth rate (P=.02). The control of tumors in NF2 patients was only 43%. Conclusions: Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for VS, but tumors that grow quickly preirradiation may be

  5. The elongation factor Spt5 facilitates transcription initiation for rapid induction of inflammatory-response genes

    PubMed Central

    Diamant, Gil; Bahat, Anat; Dikstein, Rivka

    2016-01-01

    A subset of inflammatory-response NF-κB target genes is activated immediately following pro-inflammatory signal. Here we followed the kinetics of primary transcript accumulation after NF-κB activation when the elongation factor Spt5 is knocked down. While elongation rate is unchanged, the transcript synthesis at the 5′-end and at the earliest time points is delayed and reduced, suggesting an unexpected role in early transcription. Investigating the underlying mechanism reveals that the induced TFIID–promoter association is practically abolished by Spt5 depletion. This effect is associated with a decrease in promoter-proximal H3K4me3 and H4K5Ac histone modifications that are differentially required for rapid transcriptional induction. In contrast, the displacement of TFIIE and Mediator, which occurs during promoter escape, is attenuated in the absence of Spt5. Our findings are consistent with a central role of Spt5 in maintenance of TFIID–promoter association and promoter escape to support rapid transcriptional induction and re-initiation of inflammatory-response genes. PMID:27180651

  6. Clast Selection and Metallographic Cooling Rates: Initial Results on Type 1A and 2A Mesosiderites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baecker, B.; Cohen, B. A.; Rubin, A. E.; Frasl, B.; Corrigan, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    We initiated a comprehensive study on selected clasts and metal of mesosiderites using SEM, electron microprobe and the complete suite of noble gases. Here we report initial results on the petrography of selected clasts and metallographic cooling rates using the central Ni method used in sev-eral publications. We focus on the approach of selecting grains in least recrystallized mesosiderites. Hence, especially (lithic) clasts in type 1A, 1B, 2A and 2B are the first choice. They provide highest primitive-ness and least annealing/metamorphism. All grains selected should be in close proximity to each other. Lithic clasts in mesosiderites are of high interest be-cause of their igneous texture and similarity to eucrites and howardite petrography. We find pyrox-enes (px) and plagioclase (plag) attached to each other which implies a common formation history. It will be interesting to see differences and similarities in their noble gas inventory (CRE ages, trapped components and closure temperature). In addition, we will investi-gate variations of the lithic clasts toward similar grains in the thick sections which are not igneous. Plag grains are the best bases for noble gas measurements con-cerning He to Ar and Ar-Ar dating since it delivers im-portant target elements. We focus on plag grains in close contact to olivine (olv) / px grains to assess weth-er both grains show noble gas patterns being similar or different. Phosphate grains are suitable for Kr and Xe measurements since they yield REE abundances (tar-get elements).

  7. Mismatch Responses to Lexical Tone, Initial Consonant, and Vowel in Mandarin-Speaking Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chia-Ying; Yen, Huei-ling; Yeh, Pei-wen; Lin, Wan-Hsuan; Cheng, Ying-Ying; Tzeng, Yu-Lin; Wu, Hsin-Chi

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates how age, phonological saliency, and deviance size affect the presence of mismatch negativity (MMN) and positive mismatch response (P-MMR). This work measured the auditory mismatch responses to Mandarin lexical tones, initial consonants, and vowels in 4- to 6-year-old preschoolers using the multiple-deviant oddball…

  8. 77 FR 73650 - Electricity NH, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ...] Electricity NH, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of...

  9. 76 FR 44901 - Vermont Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ...] Vermont Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Vermont Wind...

  10. Kinetics of intramolecular chemical exchange by initial growth rates of spin saturation transfer difference experiments (SSTD NMR).

    PubMed

    Quirós, M Teresa; Angulo, Jesús; Muñoz, María Paz

    2015-06-25

    We report here the Initial Growth Rates SSTD NMR method, as a new powerful tool to obtain the kinetic parameters of intramolecular chemical exchange in challenging small organic and organometallic molecules.

  11. The influence of the initial state of hydration on endocrine responses to exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Brandenberger, G; Candas, V; Follenius, M; Kahn, J M

    1989-01-01

    This study examines the effect of the initial state of hydration on hormone responses to prolonged exercise in the heat. Five subjects at two initial hydration levels (hypohydrated and hyperhydrated) were exposed to a 36 degrees C environment for 3 h of intermittent exercise. During exercise, the subjects were either fluid-deprived, or rehydrated with water or an isotonic electrolyte sucrose solution (ISO). Both the stress hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol, and the main fluid regulatory hormones, aldosterone, renin activity (PRA) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), were measured in blood samples taken every hour. Prior hyperhydration significantly reduced initial AVP, aldosterone and PRA levels. However, except for AVP, which responded to exercise significantly less in previously hyperhydrated subjects (p less than 0.05), the initial hydration state did not influence the subsequent vascular and hormonal responses when the subjects were fluid-deprived while exercising. Concurrent rehydration, either with water or with ISO, reduced or even abolished the hormonal responses. There were no significant differences according to the initial hydration state, except for PRA responses, which were significantly lower (p less than 0.01) in previously hyperhydrated subjects who also received water during exercise. These results indicate that prior hydration levels influence only slightly the hormonal responses to prolonged exercise in the heat. Progressive rehydration during exercise, especially when extra electrolytes are given, is more efficient in maintaining plasma volume and osmolarity and in reducing the hormonal responses.

  12. Heart rate, startle response, and intrusive trauma memories

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chia-Ying; Marca, Roberto La; Steptoe, Andrew; Brewin, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    The current study adopted the trauma film paradigm to examine potential moderators affecting heart rate (HR) as an indicator of peritraumatic psychological states and as a predictor of intrusive memories. We replicated previous findings that perifilm HR decreases predicted the development of intrusive images and further showed this effect to be specific to images rather than thoughts, and to detail rather than gist recognition memory. Moreover, a group of individuals showing both an atypical sudden reduction in HR after a startle stimulus and higher trait dissociation was identified. Only among these individuals was lower perifilm HR found to indicate higher state dissociation, fear, and anxiety, along with reduced vividness of intrusions. The current findings emphasize how peritraumatic physiological responses relate to emotional reactions and intrusive memory. The moderating role of individual difference in stress defense style was highlighted. PMID:24397333

  13. ANALYTICAL THEORY FOR THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION. III. TIME DEPENDENCE AND STAR FORMATION RATE

    SciTech Connect

    Hennebelle, Patrick

    2013-06-20

    The present paper extends our previous theory of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) by including time dependence and by including the impact of the magnetic field. The predicted mass spectra are similar to the time-independent ones with slightly shallower slopes at large masses and peak locations shifted toward smaller masses by a factor of a few. Assuming that star-forming clumps follow Larson-type relations, we obtain core mass functions in good agreement with the observationally derived IMF, in particular, when taking into account the thermodynamics of the gas. The time-dependent theory directly yields an analytical expression for the star formation rate (SFR) at cloud scales. The SFR values agree well with the observational determinations of various Galactic molecular clouds. Furthermore, we show that the SFR does not simply depend linearly on density, as is sometimes claimed in the literature, but also depends strongly on the clump mass/size, which yields the observed scatter. We stress, however, that any SFR theory depends, explicitly or implicitly, on very uncertain assumptions like clump boundaries or the mass of the most massive stars that can form in a given clump, making the final determinations uncertain by a factor of a few. Finally, we derive a fully time dependent model for the IMF by considering a clump, or a distribution of clumps accreting at a constant rate and thus whose physical properties evolve with time. In spite of its simplicity, this model reproduces reasonably well various features observed in numerical simulations of converging flows. Based on this general theory, we present a paradigm for star formation and the IMF.

  14. Prenotification, Ink Color and Return Deadline: Effects on Response Rates and Sincerity of Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitiyanuwat, Somwung; Phattharayuttawat, Sucheera

    The effects of prenotification, ink color, and return deadline on sincerity and rates of response to mailed questionnaires concerning desirable characteristics of teachers were investigated in Thailand. Questionnaires were mailed to 800 public secondary school teachers in Bangkok. Some teachers received prenotification of the survey by mail, while…

  15. Analysis of the Soviet response to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Student report

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, D.E.

    1987-04-01

    Since President Reagan announced the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) in March 1983, the Soviet Union has consistently condemned it. This study examines the Soviet response to SDI and provides an explanation for their response. The study identifies military, political, and economic factors that influence the Soviet response to SDI. The author concludes that the Soviets have a genuine concern about SDI, and they will continue their attempts to stop the SDI program at the arms-control negotiations.

  16. Community-Based Participatory Initiatives to Increase Breastfeeding Rates in Indiana.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Carol A; Hormuth, Laura J; Cardarelli, Tina L

    2015-11-01

    In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention awarded the Indiana State Department of Health funding for breastfeeding activities. The grant, issued in part in response to the 2011 Surgeon General's Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding, focused on providing funding and technical support to small community-based organizations to address challenges encountered by breastfeeding mothers. Indiana used the funds to develop the Community Breastfeeding Support Initiative (CBSI). The goal was to provide funding and technical support to small community-based organizations to carry out self-selected projects in their communities. The 13 CBSI programs served 1345 individual clients (n = 3664 visits) during the 9-month period. This article provides valuable information about collaboration at the state level and the supporting infrastructure in place to carry out this project. Our findings about the number of clients served, number of visits, community-specific programs and activities, and lessons learned can be used by other organizations as they plan breastfeeding support programs for their community. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Electronic reminders did not improve postal questionnaire response rates or response times: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Man, Mei-See; Tilbrook, Helen E; Jayakody, Shalmini; Hewitt, Catherine E; Cox, Helen; Cross, Ben; Torgerson, David J

    2011-09-01

    We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of electronic reminders (ERs) to improve the response rates and time to response of postal questionnaires in a health research setting. This pragmatic randomized controlled trial (RCT) was nested within a multicenter RCT of yoga for lower back pain. Participants who provided an electronic mail address and/or mobile phone number were randomized to receive an ER or no reminder (controls) on the day they were due to receive a follow-up questionnaire. One hundred twenty-five participants (32 males and 93 females) mean age 46 (standard deviation: 11, range: 20-65) were randomized to ER (n=62) or controls (n=63). Overall 85.6% of participants returned postal questionnaires (87.1% ER group and 84.1% from controls). No significant differences were found between the two groups for response rate (difference between groups=3.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI]=-10, 16; P=0.64) or time to response after adjusting for age, gender, and treatment allocation (χ(2) ([3df])=7.10; P=0.07). In the present RCT, we found little evidence for the effectiveness of ERs to increase response rates or time to respond for the return of questionnaires in this study population group. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reproducibility of the heart rate response to low-strain Valsalva manoeuvre in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Looga, Robert

    2002-11-19

    To elucidate whether the intrastrain cardio-acceleration and cardio-deceleration responses to low-strain Valsalva manoeuvre at expiratory pressures 10 and 20 mmHg (VM10,VM20) are reproducible, a beat-to-beat heart rate study was undertaken in 46 subjects (40 male undergraduates aged 19-25 years and six laboratory workers (four females and two males aged 28-55 years). The intensity of the heart rate response (HRR) was assessed by a ratio of the mean value of the pre-strain heart rate (Valsalva means' ratio VMR). In each subject the HRR to VM10 and VM20 was measured by repeating each manoeuvre three times. Reproducibility was evaluated on a short-term (1 h), medium-term (1 and 6 months), and long-term (6 and 11 years) basis. With the individual differences the initial short-term reproducibility study revealed either an cardio-acceleration or cardio-deceleration response to VM10 and VM20, which persisted well in the repeated tests. On the ground of this result three individual modes of HRRs to VM10 and VM20 were distinguished: (i) Mode A, a deceleration response appeared both to VM10 and VM20; (ii) Mode B, a deceleration response appeared to VM10 and an acceleration response to VM20; (iii) Mode C, an acceleration response appeared both to VM10 and VM 20. All of these modes, as well as the separate acceleration and deceleration responses, were well reproducible at any cited time points. We suggest that the individual modes of HRR are induced by different states of autonomic cardiovascular reactivity: Mode A probably expresses a parasympathotonic (vagotonic), Mode C--a sympathotonic, and Mode B--an intermediate autonomic state. Thus, the individual modes of HRR to VM10 and to VM20 could be used as a method of non-invasive determination of cardiovascular autonomic reactivity.

  19. Application of the Initial Rate Method in Anaerobic Digestion of Kitchen Waste.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; Gao, Yuan; Kou, Wei; Lang, Xianming; Liu, Yiwei; Li, Rundong; Yu, Meiling; Shao, Lijie; Wang, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes a methane production approach through sequenced anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste, determines the hydrolysis constants and reaction orders at both low total solid (TS) concentrations and high TS concentrations using the initial rate method, and examines the population growth model and first-order hydrolysis model. The findings indicate that the first-order hydrolysis model better reflects the kinetic process of gas production. During the experiment, all the influential factors of anaerobic fermentation retained their optimal values. The hydrolysis constants and reaction orders at low TS concentrations are then employed to demonstrate that the first-order gas production model can describe the kinetics of the gas production process. At low TS concentrations, the hydrolysis constants and reaction orders demonstrated opposite trends, with both stabilizing after 24 days at 0.99 and 1.1252, respectively. At high TS concentrations, the hydrolysis constants and the reaction orders stabilized at 0.98 (after 18 days) and 0.3507 (after 14 days), respectively. Given sufficient reaction time, the hydrolysis involved in anaerobic fermentation of kitchen waste can be regarded as a first-order reaction in terms of reaction kinetics. This study serves as a good reference for future studies regarding the kinetics of anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste.

  20. Chemical consequences of low star formation rates: stochastically sampling the initial mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carigi, L.; Hernandez, X.

    2008-10-01

    When estimating the abundances which result from a given star formation event, it is customary to treat the initial mass function (IMF) as a series of weight factors to be applied to the stellar yields, as a function of mass, implicitly assuming one is dealing with an infinite population. However, when the stellar population is small, the standard procedure would imply the inclusion of fractional numbers of stars at certain masses. We study the effects of small number statistics on the resulting abundances by performing a statistical sampling of the IMF to form a stellar population out of discrete numbers of stars. A chemical evolution code then follows the evolution of the population, and traces the resulting abundances. The process is repeated to obtain a statistical distribution of the resulting abundances and their evolution. We explore the manner in which different elements are affected, and how different abundances converge to the infinite population limit as the total mass increases. We include a discussion of our results in the context of dwarf spheroidal galaxies and show the recently reported internal dispersions in abundance ratios for dSph galaxies might be partly explained through the stochastic effects introduced by a low star formation rate, which can account for dispersions of over 2 dex in [C/O], [N/O], [C/Fe], [N/Fe] and [O/Fe].

  1. Application of the Initial Rate Method in Anaerobic Digestion of Kitchen Waste

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Xianming; Liu, Yiwei; Li, Rundong; Yu, Meiling; Shao, Lijie; Wang, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes a methane production approach through sequenced anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste, determines the hydrolysis constants and reaction orders at both low total solid (TS) concentrations and high TS concentrations using the initial rate method, and examines the population growth model and first-order hydrolysis model. The findings indicate that the first-order hydrolysis model better reflects the kinetic process of gas production. During the experiment, all the influential factors of anaerobic fermentation retained their optimal values. The hydrolysis constants and reaction orders at low TS concentrations are then employed to demonstrate that the first-order gas production model can describe the kinetics of the gas production process. At low TS concentrations, the hydrolysis constants and reaction orders demonstrated opposite trends, with both stabilizing after 24 days at 0.99 and 1.1252, respectively. At high TS concentrations, the hydrolysis constants and the reaction orders stabilized at 0.98 (after 18 days) and 0.3507 (after 14 days), respectively. Given sufficient reaction time, the hydrolysis involved in anaerobic fermentation of kitchen waste can be regarded as a first-order reaction in terms of reaction kinetics. This study serves as a good reference for future studies regarding the kinetics of anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste. PMID:28546964

  2. Overexpression of the yeast transcription activator Msn2 confers furfural resistance and increases the initial fermentation rate in ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Watanabe, Daisuke; Ukibe, Ken; Inai, Tomomi; Ohtsu, Iwao; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-04-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a promising source for bioethanol production, because it is abundant worldwide and has few competing uses. However, the treatment of lignocelllulosic biomass with weak acid to release cellulose and hemicellulose generates many kinds of byproducts including furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which inhibit fermentation by yeast, because they generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells. In order to acquire high tolerance to oxidative stress in bioethanol yeast strains, we focused on the transcription activator Msn2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which regulates numerous genes involved in antioxidative stress responses, and constructed bioethanol yeast strains that overexpress Msn2 constitutively. The Msn2-overexpressing bioethanol strains showed tolerance to oxidative stress, probably due to the high-level expression of various antioxidant enzyme genes. Unexpectedly, these strains showed ethanol sensitivity compared with the control strain, probably due to imbalance of the expression level between Msn2 and Msn4. In the presence of furfural, the engineered strains exhibited reduced intracellular ROS levels, and showed rapid growth compared with the control strain. The fermentation test in the presence of furfural revealed that the Msn2-overexpressing strains showed improvement of the initial rate of fermentation. Our results indicate that overexpression of the transcription activator Msn2 in bioethanol yeast strains confers furfural tolerance by reducing the intracellular ROS levels and enhances the initial rate of fermentation in the presence of furfural, suggesting that these strains are capable of adapting rapidly to various compounds that inhibit fermentation by inducing ROS accumulation. Our results not only promise to improve bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass, but also provide novel insights for molecular breeding of industrial yeast strains.

  3. Habituation of parasympathetic-mediated heart rate responses to recurring acoustic startle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Hua; Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steven W; Grafft, Amanda; Chapleau, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    Startle habituation is a type of implicit and automatic emotion regulation. Diminished startle habituation is linked to several psychiatric or neurological disorders. Most previous studies quantified startle habituation by assessing skin conductance response (SCR; reflecting sympathetic-mediated sweating), eye-blink reflex, or motor response. The habituation of parasympathetic-mediated heart rate responses to recurrent startle stimuli is not well understood. A variety of methods and metrics have been used to quantify parasympathetic activity and its effects on the heart. We hypothesized that these different measures reflect unique psychological and physiological processes that may habituate differently during repeated startle stimuli. We measured cardiac inter-beat intervals (IBIs) to recurring acoustic startle probes in 75 eight year old children. Eight acoustic stimuli of 500 ms duration were introduced at intervals of 15-25 s. Indices of parasympathetic effect included: (1) the initial rapid decrease in IBI post-startle mediated by parasympathetic inhibition (PI); (2) the subsequent IBI recovery mediated by parasympathetic reactivation (PR); (3) rapid, beat-to-beat heart rate variability (HRV) measured from the first seven IBIs following each startle probe. SCR and motor responses to startle were also measured. Results showed that habituation of PR (IBI recovery and overshoot) and SCRs were rapid and robust. In addition, changes in PR and SCR were significantly correlated. In contrast, habituation of PI (the initial decrease in IBI) was slower and relatively modest. Measurement of rapid HRV provided an index reflecting the combination of PI and PR. We conclude that different measures of parasympathetic-mediated heart rate responses to repeated startle probes habituate in a differential manner.

  4. Habituation of parasympathetic-mediated heart rate responses to recurring acoustic startle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuan-Hua; Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steven W.; Grafft, Amanda; Chapleau, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Startle habituation is a type of implicit and automatic emotion regulation. Diminished startle habituation is linked to several psychiatric or neurological disorders. Most previous studies quantified startle habituation by assessing skin conductance response (SCR; reflecting sympathetic-mediated sweating), eye-blink reflex, or motor response. The habituation of parasympathetic-mediated heart rate responses to recurrent startle stimuli is not well understood. A variety of methods and metrics have been used to quantify parasympathetic activity and its effects on the heart. We hypothesized that these different measures reflect unique psychological and physiological processes that may habituate differently during repeated startle stimuli. We measured cardiac inter-beat intervals (IBIs) to recurring acoustic startle probes in 75 eight year old children. Eight acoustic stimuli of 500 ms duration were introduced at intervals of 15–25 s. Indices of parasympathetic effect included: (1) the initial rapid decrease in IBI post-startle mediated by parasympathetic inhibition (PI); (2) the subsequent IBI recovery mediated by parasympathetic reactivation (PR); (3) rapid, beat-to-beat heart rate variability (HRV) measured from the first seven IBIs following each startle probe. SCR and motor responses to startle were also measured. Results showed that habituation of PR (IBI recovery and overshoot) and SCRs were rapid and robust. In addition, changes in PR and SCR were significantly correlated. In contrast, habituation of PI (the initial decrease in IBI) was slower and relatively modest. Measurement of rapid HRV provided an index reflecting the combination of PI and PR. We conclude that different measures of parasympathetic-mediated heart rate responses to repeated startle probes habituate in a differential manner. PMID:25477830

  5. Motor intention determines sensory attenuation of brain responses to self-initiated sounds.

    PubMed

    Timm, Jana; SanMiguel, Iria; Keil, Julian; Schröger, Erich; Schönwiesner, Marc

    2014-07-01

    One of the functions of the brain is to predict sensory consequences of our own actions. In auditory processing, self-initiated sounds evoke a smaller brain response than passive sound exposure of the same sound sequence. Previous work suggests that this response attenuation reflects a predictive mechanism to differentiate the sensory consequences of one's own actions from other sensory input, which seems to form the basis for the sense of agency (recognizing oneself as the agent of the movement). This study addresses the question whether attenuation of brain responses to self-initiated sounds can be explained by brain activity involved in movement planning rather than movement execution. We recorded ERPs in response to sounds initiated by button presses. In one condition, participants moved a finger to press the button voluntarily, whereas in another condition, we initiated a similar, but involuntary, finger movement by stimulating the corresponding region of the primary motor cortex with TMS. For involuntary movements, no movement intention (and no feeling of agency) could be formed; thus, no motor plans were available to the forward model. A portion of the brain response evoked by the sounds, the N1-P2 complex, was reduced in amplitude following voluntary, self-initiated movements, but not following movements initiated by motor cortex stimulation. Our findings demonstrate that movement intention and the corresponding feeling of agency determine sensory attenuation of brain responses to self-initiated sounds. The present results support the assumptions of a predictive internal forward model account operating before primary motor cortex activation.

  6. Cerebral regions associated with verbal response initiation, suppression and strategy use.

    PubMed

    de Zubicaray, G I; Zelaya, F O; Andrew, C; Williams, S C; Bullmore, E T

    2000-01-01

    Cerebral activation associated with performance on a novel task involving two conditions was investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the response initiation condition, subjects nominated the general superordinate category to which each of a series of exemplars (concrete nouns) belonged. In the response suppression condition, subjects were required to nominate a general superordinate category to which each exemplar did not belong, with the instruction that they were not to nominate the same category response twice in a row. Both conditions produced distinct patterns of activation relative to an articulation control condition employing identical stimuli. When initiation and suppression conditions were directly compared, response suppression produced activation in the right frontal pole, orbital frontal cortex and anterior cingulate, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate, and bilaterally in the precuneus, visual association cortex and cerebellum. Response latencies were significantly longer in the suppression condition. Two broadly-defined strategies associated with the correct production of words during the suppression condition were a self-ordered selection from among the superordinate categories identified during the first section of the task and the generation of novel category responses. The neuroanatomical correlates of response initiation, suppression and strategy use are discussed, as are the respective roles of response suppression and strategy generation.

  7. 75 FR 42743 - Ally Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Ally Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... above-referenced proceeding of Ally Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  8. 76 FR 15307 - Holcim (US) Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Holcim (US) Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Holcim (US) Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  9. 75 FR 48665 - White Oak Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission White Oak Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of White Oak Energy LLC's application for market-based rate...

  10. 78 FR 36768 - Electron Hydro, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Electron Hydro, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Electron Hydro, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  11. 75 FR 82381 - ABN Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ABN Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... the above-referenced proceeding of ABN Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  12. 78 FR 29131 - Electricity MASS, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Electricity MASS, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Electricity MASS, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  13. 76 FR 9348 - Sand Drag LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sand Drag LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Sand Drag LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  14. 77 FR 36529 - Patton Wind Farm, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Patton Wind Farm, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Patton Wind Farm, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  15. 77 FR 20380 - Wildcat Wind Farm I, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Wildcat Wind Farm I, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Wildcat Wind Farm I, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  16. 75 FR 80486 - Sustainable Star, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sustainable Star, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Sustainable Star, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  17. 77 FR 66976 - Star Energy Partners LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Star Energy Partners LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Star Energy Partners LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  18. 75 FR 44787 - RED-Scotia, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission RED-Scotia, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... above-referenced proceeding of RED-Scotia, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  19. 75 FR 76727 - Red Mesa Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Red Mesa Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Red Mesa Wind, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  20. 75 FR 16097 - NFI Solar LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission NFI Solar LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... above-referenced proceeding of NFI Solar, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an... proceeding are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the appropriate link in the...

  1. 78 FR 18973 - Alta Wind XI, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Alta Wind XI, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of Alta Wind XI, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  2. 77 FR 53195 - H.A. Wagner LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission H.A. Wagner LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of H.A. Wagner LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  3. 77 FR 20380 - Iron Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Iron Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Iron Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  4. 78 FR 62615 - RE Rosamond Two LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission RE Rosamond Two LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of RE Rosamond Two LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  5. 78 FR 28837 - Land O'Lakes, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Land O'Lakes, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Land O'Lakes, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with...

  6. 76 FR 26283 - Blue Chip Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Blue Chip Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Blue Chip Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  7. 78 FR 47315 - Solar Partners VIII, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Solar Partners VIII, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Solar Partners VIII, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an... proceeding(s) are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the appropriate link in...

  8. 77 FR 27767 - Galaxy Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Galaxy Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Galaxy Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  9. 77 FR 53195 - C.P. Crane LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission C.P. Crane LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of C.P. Crane LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  10. 77 FR 71587 - Badger Creek Limited; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Badger Creek Limited; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Badger Creek Limited's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  11. 75 FR 59259 - Turner Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Turner Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Turner Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  12. 78 FR 78352 - Plant-E Corp; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Plant-E Corp; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of Plant-E Corp's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  13. 78 FR 54464 - ABC Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ABC Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of ABC Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  14. 77 FR 28593 - Rippey Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Rippey Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Rippey Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  15. 77 FR 28594 - Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Bethel Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  16. 77 FR 33211 - Horse Butte Wind I LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Horse Butte Wind I LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Horse Butte Wind I LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  17. 77 FR 23711 - NRG Solar Alpine LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission NRG Solar Alpine LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of NRG Solar Alpine LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an... proceeding are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the appropriate link in...

  18. 78 FR 16495 - Switch Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Switch Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of Switch Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  19. 78 FR 66353 - EAM Nelson Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission EAM Nelson Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of EAM Nelson Holdings, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  20. 77 FR 50100 - AP&G Holdings LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AP&G Holdings LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of AP&G Holdings LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  1. 76 FR 35211 - Palmco Power DC, LLC; Supplemental Notice THAT Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Palmco Power DC, LLC; Supplemental Notice THAT Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Palmco Power DC, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...., Washington, DC 20426, in accordance with Rules 211 and 214 of the Commission's Rules of Practice and...

  2. 75 FR 44788 - AP Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AP Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... above-referenced proceeding of AP Holdings, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  3. 78 FR 28834 - Salton Sea Power L.L.C.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Salton Sea Power L.L.C.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Salton Sea Power L.L.C.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  4. 77 FR 66975 - Black Bear SO, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Black Bear SO, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Black Bear SO, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  5. 78 FR 2984 - Silver Bear Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Silver Bear Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Silver Bear Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  6. 76 FR 31604 - Lyonsdale Biomass LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lyonsdale Biomass LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Lyonsdale Biomass LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  7. 75 FR 61469 - RJF-Morin Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission RJF-Morin Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of RJF-Morin Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  8. 77 FR 35375 - Duke Energy Stuart, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Duke Energy Stuart, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Duke Energy Stuart, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  9. 76 FR 54764 - Marathon Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Marathon Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Marathon Power LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  10. 78 FR 27218 - CCFC Sutter Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission CCFC Sutter Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of CCFC Sutter Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  11. 76 FR 56193 - KAP Analytics, LLC ; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission KAP Analytics, LLC ; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of KAP Analytics, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an... Room in Washington, DC. There is an eSubscription link on the Web site that enables subscribers...

  12. 75 FR 57016 - Maple Analytics, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Maple Analytics, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Maple Analytics, LLC's application for market-based rate... Reference Room in Washington, DC. There is an eSubscription link on the Web site that enables subscribers...

  13. 78 FR 38027 - Novo BioPower LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Novo BioPower LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of Novo BioPower LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  14. 78 FR 28832 - CalEnergy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission CalEnergy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of CalEnergy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  15. 76 FR 13401 - Vectren Retail, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Vectren Retail, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Vectren Retail, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  16. 78 FR 18972 - Alta Wind X, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Alta Wind X, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of Alta Wind X, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  17. 77 FR 20380 - Desert View Power, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Desert View Power, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Desert View Power, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with...

  18. 78 FR 45521 - Desert Sunlight 250, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Desert Sunlight 250, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Desert Sunlight 250, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  19. 78 FR 45922 - Desert Sunlight 300, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Desert Sunlight 300, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Desert Sunlight 300, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  20. 77 FR 67642 - EBC Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission EBC Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of EBC Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  1. 77 FR 6109 - Phillips 66 Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Phillips 66 Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Phillips 66 Company's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  2. 76 FR 9347 - Coyote Canyon Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Coyote Canyon Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Coyote Canyon Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  3. 76 FR 9346 - Sun City Project LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sun City Project LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Sun City Project LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  4. 75 FR 61745 - Athens Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Athens Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Athens Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  5. 77 FR 47626 - Spinning Spur Wind LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Spinning Spur Wind LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Spinning Spur Wind LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  6. 77 FR 71189 - AES Beaver Valley, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AES Beaver Valley, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of AES Beaver Valley, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  7. 77 FR 62509 - Big Blue Wind Farm, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Big Blue Wind Farm, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Big Blue Wind Farm, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an.... Dated: October 5, 2012. Nathaniel J. Davis, Sr., Deputy Secretary. BILLING CODE 6717-01-P...

  8. 78 FR 59923 - Mammoth Three LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mammoth Three LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of Mammoth Three LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  9. 77 FR 74658 - Mammoth One, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mammoth One, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Mammoth One, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  10. 78 FR 50409 - Merlin One, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Merlin One, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Merlin One, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... . To facilitate electronic service, persons with Internet access who will eFile a document and/or be...

  11. 78 FR 49507 - OriGen Energy LLC ; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission OriGen Energy LLC ; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of OriGen Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  12. 77 FR 56839 - GenOn Marsh Landing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission GenOn Marsh Landing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of GenOn Marsh Landing, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  13. 77 FR 20381 - Alliance NYGT, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Alliance NYGT, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Alliance NYGT, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  14. 77 FR 67811 - Porter-Walker LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Porter-Walker LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Porter-Walker LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  15. 78 FR 56690 - All Dams Generation, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission All Dams Generation, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of All Dams Generation, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  16. 78 FR 56690 - PE Hydro Generation, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PE Hydro Generation, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of PE Hydro Generation, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  17. 77 FR 279 - Brea Generation LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brea Generation LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Brea Generation LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  18. 75 FR 61471 - PalletOne Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PalletOne Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of PalletOne Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  19. 77 FR 1484 - Spring Valley Wind LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Spring Valley Wind LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Spring Valley Wind LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  20. 78 FR 38310 - Kiwi Energy Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Kiwi Energy Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of Kiwi Energy Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with...

  1. 77 FR 35376 - Big Savage, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Big Savage, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Big Savage, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  2. 76 FR 40722 - Mojave Solar LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mojave Solar LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Mojave Solar LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  3. 77 FR 64979 - BITH Solar 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission BITH Solar 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of BITH Solar 1, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  4. 77 FR 48148 - NRG Solar Borrego I LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission NRG Solar Borrego I LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of NRG Solar Borrego I LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  5. 77 FR 36528 - K Road Modesto Solar LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission K Road Modesto Solar LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of K Road Modesto Solar LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  6. 77 FR 48148 - Helvetia Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Helvetia Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Helvetia Solar, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  7. 78 FR 34373 - Campo Verde Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Campo Verde Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Campo Verde Solar, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  8. 77 FR 58827 - Catalina Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Catalina Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Catalina Solar, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  9. 78 FR 61999 - Simon Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Simon Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of Simon Solar, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  10. 76 FR 55377 - Bellevue Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bellevue Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Bellevue Solar, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  11. 78 FR 49508 - Solar Partners I, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Solar Partners I, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Solar Partners I, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  12. 78 FR 49507 - Genesis Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Genesis Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Genesis Solar, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  13. 77 FR 41400 - AV Solar Ranch 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AV Solar Ranch 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of AV Solar Ranch 1, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  14. 77 FR 26538 - Topaz Solar Farms LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Topaz Solar Farms LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Topaz Solar Farms LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  15. 78 FR 62301 - Mountain View Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mountain View Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Mountain View Solar, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  16. 76 FR 70439 - Global Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Global Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Global Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an... . To facilitate electronic service, persons with Internet access who will eFile a document and/or...

  17. 78 FR 28833 - CE Leathers Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission CE Leathers Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of CE Leathers Company's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  18. 77 FR 38048 - Blue Sky East, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Blue Sky East, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Blue Sky East, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  19. 75 FR 70742 - AES Laurel Mountain, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AES Laurel Mountain, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of AES Laurel Mountain, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  20. 75 FR 60444 - Arizona Solar One LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Arizona Solar One LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Arizona Solar One LLC's application for market-based rate... authorization, under 18 CFR Part 34, of future issuances of securities and assumptions of liability. Any...

  1. 75 FR 68351 - Camp Reed Wind Park, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Camp Reed Wind Park, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Camp Reed Wind Park, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  2. 76 FR 26282 - NRG Solar Roadrunner LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission NRG Solar Roadrunner LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of NRG ] Solar Roadrunner LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  3. 76 FR 3624 - 3C Solar LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 3C Solar LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... the above-referenced proceeding 3C Solar LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  4. 78 FR 14530 - ATO Power, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ATO Power, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of ATO Power, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  5. 76 FR 7558 - GBC Metals LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission GBC Metals LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of GBC Metals LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  6. 77 FR 52015 - LVI Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission LVI Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of LVI Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  7. 78 FR 15718 - Palmco Power CA, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Palmco Power CA, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Palmco Power CA, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  8. 75 FR 37430 - Community Power & Utility LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Community Power & Utility LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Community Power & Utility LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting that such application includes...

  9. 77 FR 57082 - DR Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission DR Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of DR Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  10. 76 FR 22392 - Command Power Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Command Power Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Command Power Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority, with...

  11. 78 FR 67359 - PowerOne Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PowerOne Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of PowerOne Corporation's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  12. 77 FR 42301 - W Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission W Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of W Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  13. 75 FR 25234 - EquiPower Resources Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission EquiPower Resources Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of EquiPower Resources Management, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate ] tariff, noting that such application includes...

  14. 77 FR 42301 - Power Dave Fund LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Power Dave Fund LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Power Dave Fund LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  15. 77 FR 6108 - Essential Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Essential Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Essential Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  16. 76 FR 46287 - Hudson Ranch Power I LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hudson Ranch Power I LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Hudson Ranch Power I LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  17. 77 FR 15096 - Liberty Hill Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Liberty Hill Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Liberty Hill Power LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  18. 75 FR 82379 - Pinetree Power-Tamworth, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pinetree Power--Tamworth, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Pinetree Power-Tamworth, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting that such application includes...

  19. 77 FR 52016 - Power Dave Fund LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Power Dave Fund LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Power Dave Fund LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  20. 76 FR 13611 - Coolidge Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Coolidge Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Coolidge Power LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  1. 75 FR 63168 - Ridgewind Power Partners, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Ridgewind Power Partners, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Ridgewind Power Partners, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting that such application includes...

  2. 78 FR 77670 - AlphaGen Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AlphaGen Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of AlphaGen Power LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  3. 78 FR 18583 - EconoPower, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission EconoPower, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of EconoPower, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  4. 76 FR 70438 - Manzana Wind LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Manzana Wind LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Manzana Wind LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  5. 78 FR 73858 - FPL Energy Wyoming, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FPL Energy Wyoming, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of FPL Energy Wyoming, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  6. 78 FR 60270 - Platinum Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Platinum Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Platinum Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  7. 78 FR 69409 - Elgin Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Elgin Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Elgin Energy Center, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  8. 77 FR 62510 - Niagara Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Niagara Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Niagara Wind Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  9. 77 FR 36529 - Apple Group LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Apple Group LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Apple Group LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  10. 77 FR 57082 - Prairie Rose Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Prairie Rose Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Prairie Rose Wind, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  11. 75 FR 26747 - Meadow Lake Wind Farm IV LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ...] Meadow Lake Wind Farm IV LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...-referenced proceeding of Meadow Lake Wind Farm IV LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an... proceeding are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the appropriate link in the...

  12. 75 FR 26747 - Meadow Lake Wind Farm III LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ...-1176-000] Meadow Lake Wind Farm III LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... above-referenced proceeding of Meadow Lake Wind Farm III LLC's application for market-based rate... clicking on the appropriate link in the above list. They are also available for review in the Commission's...

  13. 75 FR 52528 - FC Landfill Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FC Landfill Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of FC Landfill Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  14. 78 FR 61946 - Pheasant Run Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pheasant Run Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Pheasant Run Wind, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  15. Tobacco and e-cigarette products initiate Kupffer cell inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, David A; Hom, Sarah; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Yin, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Kupffer cells are liver resident macrophages that are responsible for screening and clearing blood of pathogens and foreign particles. It has recently been shown that Kupffer cells interact with platelets, through an adhesion based mechanism, to aid in pathogen clearance and then these platelets re-enter the general systemic circulation. Thus, a mechanism has been identified that relates liver inflammation to possible changes in the systemic circulation. However, the role that Kupffer cells play in cardiovascular disease initiation/progression has not been elucidated. Thus, our objective was to determine whether or not Kupffer cells are responsive to a classical cardiovascular risk factor and if these changes can be transmitted into the general systemic circulation. If Kupffer cells initiate inflammatory responses after exposure to classical cardiovascular risk factors, then this provides a potential alternative/synergistic pathway for cardiovascular disease initiation. We aimed to elucidate the prevalence of this potential pathway. We hypothesized that Kupffer cells would initiate a robust inflammatory response after exposure to tobacco cigarette or e-cigarette products and that the inflammatory response would have the potential to antagonize other salient cells for cardiovascular disease progression. To test this, Kupffer cells were incubated with tobacco smoke extracts, e-cigarette vapor extracts or pure nicotine. Complement deposition onto Kupffer cells, Kupffer cell complement receptor expression, oxidative stress production, cytokine release and viability and density were assessed after the exposure. We observed a robust inflammatory response, oxidative stress production and cytokine release after Kupffer cells were exposed to tobacco or e-cigarette extracts. We also observed a marginal decrease in cell viability coupled with a significant decrease in cell density. In general, this was not a function of the extract formulation (e.g. tobacco vs. e

  16. The information gained from witnesses' responses to an initial "blank" lineup.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Matthew A; Brewer, Neil; Weber, Nathan

    2012-10-01

    Wells ("The psychology of lineup identifications," Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 1984, 14, 89-103) proposed that a blank lineup (an initial lineup of known-to-be-innocent foils) can be used to screen eyewitnesses; witnesses who chose from a blank lineup (initial choosers) were more likely to make an error on a second lineup that contained a suspect than were witnesses who rejected a blank lineup (initial nonchoosers). Recent technological advances (e.g., computer-administered lineups) may overcome many of the practical difficulties cited as a barrier to the use of blank lineups. Our research extended knowledge about the blank lineup procedure by investigating the underlying causes of the difference in identification performance between initial choosers and initial nonchoosers. Studies 1a and 1b (total, N = 303) demonstrated that initial choosers were more likely to reject a second lineup than initial nonchoosers and witnesses who did not view a blank lineup, implying that cognitive biases (e.g., confirmation bias and commitment effects) influenced initial choosers' identification decisions. In Study 2 (N = 200), responses on a forced-choice identification test provided evidence that initial choosers have, on average, poorer memories for the culprit than do initial nonchoosers. We also investigated the usefulness of blank lineups for interpreting identification evidence. Diagnosticity ratios suggested that suspect identifications made by initial nonchoosers (cf. initial choosers) should have a greater impact on estimates of the likely guilt of the suspect. Furthermore, for initial nonchoosers, higher confidence in blank lineup rejections was associated with higher diagnosticity for subsequent suspect identifications. These results have implications for policy to guide the collection and interpretation of identification evidence. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Vitamin D Deficiency Reduces the Immune Response, Phagocytosis Rate, and Intracellular Killing Rate of Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Onken, Marie Luise; Schütze, Sandra; Redlich, Sandra; Götz, Alexander; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Bertsch, Thomas; Ribes, Sandra; Hanenberg, Andrea; Schneider, Simon; Bollheimer, Cornelius; Sieber, Cornel; Nau, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Escherichia coli are associated with high rates of mortality and neurological sequelae. A high prevalence of neurological disorders has been observed in geriatric populations at risk of hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D has potent effects on human immunity, including induction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and suppression of T-cell proliferation, but its influence on microglial cells is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of vitamin D deficiency on the phagocytosis rate, intracellular killing, and immune response of murine microglial cultures after stimulation with the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists tripalmitoyl-S-glyceryl-cysteine (TLR1/2), poly(I·C) (TLR3), lipopolysaccharide (TLR4), and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (TLR9). Upon stimulation with high concentrations of TLR agonists, the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) was decreased in vitamin D-deficient compared to that in vitamin D-sufficient microglial cultures. Phagocytosis of E. coli K1 after stimulation of microglial cells with high concentrations of TLR3, -4, and -9 agonists and intracellular killing of E. coli K1 after stimulation with high concentrations of all TLR agonists were lower in vitamin D-deficient microglial cells than in the respective control cells. Our observations suggest that vitamin D deficiency may impair the resistance of the brain against bacterial infections. PMID:24686054

  18. Transcriptional responses to glucose at different glycolytic rates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Elbing, Karin; Ståhlberg, Anders; Hohmann, Stefan; Gustafsson, Lena

    2004-12-01

    The addition of glucose to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells causes reprogramming of gene expression. Glucose is sensed by membrane receptors as well as (so far elusive) intracellular sensing mechanisms. The availability of four yeast strains that display different hexose uptake capacities allowed us to study glucose-induced effects at different glycolytic rates. Rapid glucose responses were observed in all strains able to take up glucose, consistent with intracellular sensing. The degree of long-term responses, however, clearly correlated with the glycolytic rate: glucose-stimulated expression of genes encoding enzymes of the lower part of glycolysis showed an almost linear correlation with the glycolytic rate, while expression levels of genes encoding gluconeogenic enzymes and invertase (SUC2) showed an inverse correlation. Glucose control of SUC2 expression is mediated by the Snf1-Mig1 pathway. Mig1 dephosphorylation upon glucose addition is known to lead to repression of target genes. Mig1 was initially dephosphorylated upon glucose addition in all strains able to take up glucose, but remained dephosphorylated only at high glycolytic rates. Remarkably, transient Mig1-dephosphorylation was accompanied by the repression of SUC2 expression at high glycolytic rates, but stimulated SUC2 expression at low glycolytic rates. This suggests that Mig1-mediated repression can be overruled by factors mediating induction via a low glucose signal. At low and moderate glycolytic rates, Mig1 was partly dephosphorylated both in the presence of phosphorylated, active Snf1, and unphosphorylated, inactive Snf1, indicating that Mig1 was actively phosphorylated and dephosphorylated simultaneously, suggesting independent control of both processes. Taken together, it appears that glucose addition affects the expression of SUC2 as well as Mig1 activity by both Snf1-dependent and -independent mechanisms that can now be dissected and resolved as early and late/sustained responses.

  19. Heart rate responses to Taekwondo training in experienced practitioners.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Craig A; Jones, Michelle A; Hitchen, Peter; Sanchez, Xavier

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the heart rate (HR) responses of specific Taekwondo training activities, practiced by experienced practitioners in a natural training environment. Eight male experienced Taekwondo practitioners, with 3- 13 years (5.4 +/- 3.2 years) experience took part in a 5-day Taekwondo training camp. Continuous HR measures were recorded at 5-second intervals during 6 training sessions; each session was observed and notated, and a diary of training activities was recorded. The HR responses were assimilated into 8 fundamental training activities for analysis: elastics, technical combinations, step sparring, pad work, forms, basic techniques and forms, sparring drills, and free sparring. Taekwondo training elicited HR into 64.7-81.4% of HR maximum (%HRmax). Moderate relative exercise intensities (64.7-69.4%HRmax) were elicited by elastics, technical combinations, and step sparring. The remaining 5 training activities elicited hard relative exercise intensities (74.7-81.4%HRmax). One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance with post hoc analysis revealed that elastics, technical combinations, and step sparring elicited significantly lower relative intensities than the remaining training activities (p < 0.05). Furthermore, forms, basic techniques and forms, sparring drills, and free sparring elicited significantly higher relative intensities than the remaining training activities (p < 0.05). In conclusion, all Taekwondo training activities in this study seemed suitable for cardiovascular conditioning, although different training activities stressed the cardiovascular system to different degrees. Practically, this suggests coaches need to structure Taekwondo training sessions based not only on the technical and tactical needs of practitioners but also in a manner that enables sufficient cardiovascular conditioning for competition.

  20. Investigating the Strain Rate Effect on the Equivalent Initial Crack Size in a Particulate Composite Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-06

    Equivalent Initial Flaw Size Distribution," Proceeding of the 18th...Symposium of ICAF, Melbourne, Australia, 385-403. (2) Yang, J.N., Manning, S.D., and Newman, J.C., Jr., (1997), " Equivalent Initial Flaw Size Distribution for...Kyoto, Japan. (3) Liu, C. T. and Yang, J. N. (2000), "Determination of Equivalent Initial Flaw Size in a Particulate Composite Material," Proceeding

  1. Dose titration of BAF312 attenuates the initial heart rate reducing effect in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Legangneux, Eric; Gardin, Anne; Johns, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Aim Previous studies have shown transient decreases in heart rate (HR) following administration of sphingosine 1‐phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators including BAF312. This study was conducted to determine whether dose titration of BAF312 reduces or eliminates these effects. Methods Fifty‐six healthy subjects were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive BAF312 in one of two dose titration (DT) regimens (DT1 and DT2: 0.25–10 mg over 9–10 days), no titration (10 mg starting dose) or placebo. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed. Results Neither DT1 nor DT2 resulted in clinically significant bradycardia or atrioventricular conduction effects. Both titration regimens showed a favourable difference on each of days 1–12 vs. the non‐titration regimen on day 1 for HR effects (P < 0.0001). On day 1, the geometric mean ratio of the fraction from the previous day in minimum daily HR between DT1 and non‐titration was 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13, 1.23) and 1.14 (95% CI 1.09, 1.18) for DT2 (both P < 0.05) with significant differences noted through to day 12. Non‐titration HRs showed considerable separation from placebo throughout the study. There was no statistically significant reduction in HR vs. placebo on day 1 in either titration regimen. On days 3–7 subjects in DT1 and DT2 experienced minor reductions in HR vs. placebo (approximately 5 beats min−1; P ≤ 0.0001). From days 9–12, HRs in both titration regimens were comparable with placebo. Conclusion Both titration regimens effectively attenuated the initial bradyarrhythmia observed on day 1 of treatment with BAF312 10 mg. PMID:22845008

  2. Dose titration of BAF312 attenuates the initial heart rate reducing effect in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Legangneux, Eric; Gardin, Anne; Johns, Donald

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown transient decreases in heart rate (HR) following administration of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators including BAF312. This study was conducted to determine whether dose titration of BAF312 reduces or eliminates these effects. Fifty-six healthy subjects were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive BAF312 in one of two dose titration (DT) regimens (DT1 and DT2: 0.25-10 mg over 9-10 days), no titration (10 mg starting dose) or placebo. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed. Neither DT1 nor DT2 resulted in clinically significant bradycardia or atrioventricular conduction effects. Both titration regimens showed a favourable difference on each of days 1-12 vs. the non-titration regimen on day 1 for HR effects (P < 0.0001). On day 1, the geometric mean ratio of the fraction from the previous day in minimum daily HR between DT1 and non-titration was 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13, 1.23) and 1.14 (95% CI 1.09, 1.18) for DT2 (both P < 0.05) with significant differences noted through to day 12. Non-titration HRs showed considerable separation from placebo throughout the study. There was no statistically significant reduction in HR vs. placebo on day 1 in either titration regimen. On days 3-7 subjects in DT1 and DT2 experienced minor reductions in HR vs. placebo (approximately 5 beats min⁻¹; P ≤ 0.0001). From days 9-12, HRs in both titration regimens were comparable with placebo. Both titration regimens effectively attenuated the initial bradyarrhythmia observed on day 1 of treatment with BAF312 10 mg. © 2012 Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research (NIBIR). British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Running demands and heart rate response in rugby sevens referees.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Calvo-Lluch, África; Portillo, Javier; Sánchez, Francisco; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine for the first time the match running demands and heart rate (HR) responses associated with elite rugby sevens referees. Twelve referees were analyzed over 38 games, using Global Positioning System. Referees covered an average distance of 1665.2 ± 203.5 m per game (15.1 ± 0.5 minutes). Over this distance, 22.3% (371.8 ± 48.9 m) was spent standing and walking, 25.9% (431.2 ± 92.6 m) jogging, 12.4% (206.5 ± 53.2 m) cruising, 23.8% (395.6 ± 94.3 m) striding, 8% (133.3 ± 61.6 m) high-intensity running, and 7.6% (126.7 ± 87.3 m) sprinting. The average maximal distance of sprints, the number of sprints, and the mean sprint distance over the game were 31.3 ± 13.4 m, 5.76 ± 3.6 sprints, and 19.9 ± 7.8 m, respectively. The referee's work-to-rest ratio was 3.5:1. There were no statistical differences between the first and second half in any of the running variables analyzed. The average HR in the second half (160 ± 9 b·min(-1); 86 ± 5% maximal heart rate (HRmax) of the estimated) was higher (p < 0.05) than the HR recorded in the first half (154 ± 11 b·min(-1); 83 ± 6% of the estimated HRmax). This study also suggests that the physical demands of referring in rugby sevens are quite different from those encountered in other rugby codes, and the training regimes need to meet the increased overall running demands and high-intensity running activity.

  4. Influence of Dose Rate on the Cellular Response to Low- and High-LET Radiations.

    PubMed

    Wozny, Anne-Sophie; Alphonse, Gersende; Battiston-Montagne, Priscillia; Simonet, Stéphanie; Poncet, Delphine; Testa, Etienne; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Rancoule, Chloé; Magné, Nicolas; Beuve, Michael; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treatment failure is mostly explained by locoregional progression or intrinsic radioresistance. Radiotherapy (RT) has recently evolved with the emergence of heavy ion radiations or new fractionation schemes of photon therapy, which modify the dose rate of treatment delivery. The aim of the present study was then to evaluate the in vitro influence of a dose rate variation during conventional RT or carbon ion hadrontherapy treatment in order to improve the therapeutic care of patient. In this regard, two HNSCC cell lines were irradiated with photons or 72 MeV/n carbon ions at a dose rate of 0.5, 2, or 10 Gy/min. For both radiosensitive and radioresistant cells, the change in dose rate significantly affected cell survival in response to photon exposure. This variation of radiosensitivity was associated with the number of initial and residual DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). By contrast, the dose rate change did not affect neither cell survival nor the residual DNA DSBs after carbon ion irradiation. As a result, the relative biological efficiency at 10% survival increased when the dose rate decreased. In conclusion, in the RT treatment of HNSCC, it is advised to remain very careful when modifying the classical schemes toward altered fractionation. At the opposite, as the dose rate does not seem to have any effects after carbon ion exposure, there is less need to adapt hadrontherapy treatment planning during active system irradiation.

  5. Influence of Dose Rate on the Cellular Response to Low- and High-LET Radiations

    PubMed Central

    Wozny, Anne-Sophie; Alphonse, Gersende; Battiston-Montagne, Priscillia; Simonet, Stéphanie; Poncet, Delphine; Testa, Etienne; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Rancoule, Chloé; Magné, Nicolas; Beuve, Michael; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treatment failure is mostly explained by locoregional progression or intrinsic radioresistance. Radiotherapy (RT) has recently evolved with the emergence of heavy ion radiations or new fractionation schemes of photon therapy, which modify the dose rate of treatment delivery. The aim of the present study was then to evaluate the in vitro influence of a dose rate variation during conventional RT or carbon ion hadrontherapy treatment in order to improve the therapeutic care of patient. In this regard, two HNSCC cell lines were irradiated with photons or 72 MeV/n carbon ions at a dose rate of 0.5, 2, or 10 Gy/min. For both radiosensitive and radioresistant cells, the change in dose rate significantly affected cell survival in response to photon exposure. This variation of radiosensitivity was associated with the number of initial and residual DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). By contrast, the dose rate change did not affect neither cell survival nor the residual DNA DSBs after carbon ion irradiation. As a result, the relative biological efficiency at 10% survival increased when the dose rate decreased. In conclusion, in the RT treatment of HNSCC, it is advised to remain very careful when modifying the classical schemes toward altered fractionation. At the opposite, as the dose rate does not seem to have any effects after carbon ion exposure, there is less need to adapt hadrontherapy treatment planning during active system irradiation. PMID:27014633

  6. Initial phylogenetic relatedness of saprotrophic fungal communities affects subsequent litter decomposition rates.

    PubMed

    Kivlin, Stephanie N; Treseder, Kathleen K

    2015-05-01

    Ecosystem-level consequences of biodiversity loss of macroorganisms are well understood, while the repercussions of species extirpation in microbial systems are not. We manipulated species richness and phylogenetic relatedness of saprotrophic fungi in situ in a boreal forest to address this issue. Litter decomposition rates (as total mass loss) after 2 months were significantly higher in the least phylogenetically related fungal assemblages. Likewise, cellulose loss was also highest in the most distantly related treatments after 1 year. There were marginal effects of species richness on mass loss that only affected decomposition after 2 months. At the end of 1 year of decomposition, most fungal communities had collapsed from their original diversity to two species, mainly in the Penicillium or Hypocrea clades. Two concurrent processes may explain these results: competition between closely related fungal taxa and phylogenetic conservation in cellulose decomposition. Our results suggest that phylogenetic relatedness of fungal communities may be a more appropriate metric than species richness or community composition to predict functional responses of fungal communities to global change.

  7. Numbering questionnaires had no impact on the response rate and only a slight influence on the response content of a patient safety culture survey: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Kundig, François; Staines, Anthony; Kinge, Thompson; Perneger, Thomas V

    2011-11-01

    In self-completed surveys, anonymous questionnaires are sometimes numbered so as to avoid sending reminders to initial nonrespondents. This number may be perceived as a threat to confidentiality by some respondents, which may reduce the response rate, or cause social desirability bias. In this study, we evaluated whether using nonnumbered vs. numbered questionnaires influenced the response rate and the response content. During a patient safety culture survey, we randomized participants into two groups: one received an anonymous nonnumbered questionnaire and the other a numbered questionnaire. We compared the survey response rates and distributions of the responses for the 42-questionnaire items across the two groups. Response rates were similar in the two groups (nonnumbered, 75.2%; numbered, 72.8%; difference, 2.4%; P=0.28). Five of the 42 questions had statistically significant differences in distributions, but these differences were small. Unexpectedly, in all five instances, the patient safety culture ratings were more favorable in the nonnumbered group. Numbering of mailed questionnaires had no impact on the response rate. Numbering influenced significantly the response content of several items, but these differences were small and ran against the hypothesis of social desirability bias. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Item Response Theory Analyses of the Parent and Teacher Ratings of the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson

    2008-01-01

    The graded response model (GRM), which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in an ADHD rating scale. To accomplish this, parents and teachers completed the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale (DARS; Gomez et al., "Journal of Child Psychology and…

  9. Improving Question-Asking Initiations in Young Children with Autism Using Pivotal Response Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Koegel, Robert; Bradshaw, Jessica; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Koegel, Lynn Kern

    2013-01-01

    Social initiations make up a core deficit for children with autism spectrum disorder. In particular, initiated questions during social interactions are often minimal or absent in this population. In the context of a multiple baseline design, the efficacy of using the motivational procedures of Pivotal Response Treatment to increase social question asking for three young children with autism was assessed. Results indicated that participants initiated a greater number of targeted questions following intervention. Additionally, all children exhibited increases in initiation of untargeted questions during social interaction in novel settings. Furthermore, post intervention data revealed collateral gains in communication and adaptive behavior. Theoretical implications of incorporating motivational strategies into intervention to improve social initiations in young children with ASD are discussed. PMID:24014174

  10. The initial phase of a Longleaf Pine-Wiregrass Savanna restoration: species establishment and community responses.

    SciTech Connect

    Aschenbach, Todd, A; Foster, Bryan, L.; Imm, Donald, W.

    2010-09-01

    AbstractAbstract The significant loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem in the southeastern United States has serious implications for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. In response to this loss, we have initiated a long-term and landscape-scale restoration experiment at the 80,125 ha (310 mi2) Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. Aristida beyrichiana (wiregrass), an important and dominant grass (i.e., a “matrix” species) of the longleaf pine savanna understory, and 31 other herbaceous “non-matrix” species were planted at six locations throughout SRS in 2002 and 2003. Of the 36,056 transplanted seedlings, 75% were still alive in June 2004, while mean 1–2 year survival across all planted species was 48%. Lespedeza hirta (hairy lespedeza) exhibited the greatest overall survival per 3 ×3 m cell at 95%, whereas Schizachyrium spp. (little bluestem) exhibited the greatest mean cover among individual species at 5.9%. Wiregrass survival and cover were significantly reduced when planted with non-matrix species. Aggregate cover of all planted species in restored cells averaged 25.9% in 2006. High rates of survival and growth of the planted species resulted in greater species richness (SR), diversity, and vegetative cover in restored cells. Results suggest that the loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem may be ameliorated through restoration efforts and illustrate the positive impact of restoration plantings on biodiversity and vegetative cover.

  11. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 4, Comments and Responses.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This volume of the Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts Final Environmental Impact Statement (Final EIS) contains public comments addressing the Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts Draft EIS, August 1990 and Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) responses. The Introduction provides information about the process BPA follows in addressing these comments. Part I contains a listing of the Alternative Actions evaluated in the Final EIS; Part II is organized by Alternatives and includes summaries of the comments and BPA responses; Part III provides copies of the original comments letters, and, for ease of identification, are coded in the margins according to the alternative(s) addressed.

  12. Nicotine increases initial blood flow responses to local heating of human non-glabrous skin.

    PubMed

    Warner, David O; Joyner, Michael J; Charkoudian, Nisha

    2004-09-15

    Nicotine affects the regulation of skin blood flow (SkBF), but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that acute exposure to nicotine inhibits both the initial neurally mediated component and the later sustained component of SkBF responses to local heating of non-glabrous skin in humans. SkBF (measured by laser-Doppler) responses to local heating of forearm skin from 32 to 42 degrees C were measured in 11 chronic smokers. Heating occurred at one site over 15 min (RAMP) and over 90 s (STEP) at another site, and was maintained for an additional 30 min. STEP heating was also applied to a site pretreated with bretylium via iontophoresis to inhibit noradrenergic neurotransmission. Responses were measured before and after acute administration of nicotine via cigarettes or nasal spray in two experimental sessions. Nicotine decreased resting skin blood flow (P < 0.05); this response was inhibited by bretylium. During RAMP, nicotine increased the initial SkBF at 42 degrees C (by approximately 12%, P < 0.05). For STEP, nicotine increased the initial peak response (by approximately 25%, P < 0.05), and decreased the sustained plateau value (by approximately 10%, P < 0.05). In skin pretreated with bretylium, the increase caused by nicotine in the initial peak value persisted, but the plateau value was not different from pre-nicotine. These data suggest that in abstinent cigarette smokers, nicotine augments initial responses to both gradual and rapid non-painful heating of non-glabrous skin by sensitizing the sensory nerves that mediate the axon reflex associated with rapid vasodilatation. In contrast, nicotine decreases SkBF responses to prolonged heating by activating noradrenergic nerves.

  13. Initial response as a predictor of 12-week buprenorphine-naloxone treatment response in a prescription opioid-dependent population.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Katherine A; Griffin, Margaret L; Connery, Hilary S; Hilario, E Yvette; Fiellin, David A; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Weiss, Roger D

    2015-02-01

    Initial medication response has been shown to predict treatment outcome across a variety of substance use disorders, but no studies have examined the predictive power of initial response to buprenorphine-naloxone in the treatment of prescription opioid dependence. We therefore conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study to determine whether initial response to buprenorphine-naloxone predicted 12-week treatment outcome in a prescription opioid-dependent population. Using data from a multisite, randomized controlled trial of buprenorphine-naloxone plus counseling for DSM-IV prescription opioid dependence (June 2006-July 2009), we conducted a secondary analysis to investigate the relationship between initial medication response and 12-week treatment outcome to establish how soon the efficacy of buprenorphine-naloxone could be predicted (N = 360). Outcomes were determined from the Substance Use Report, a self-report measure of substance use, and confirmatory urinalysis. Predictive values were calculated to determine the importance of abstinence versus use at various time points within the first month of treatment (week 1, weeks 1-2, 1-3, or 1-4) in predicting successful versus unsuccessful treatment outcome (based on abstinence or near-abstinence from opioids) in the last 4 weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone treatment (weeks 9-12). Outcome was best predicted by medication response after 2 weeks of treatment. Two weeks of initial abstinence was moderately predictive of treatment success (positive predictive value = 71%), while opioid use in both of the first 2 weeks was strongly predictive of unsuccessful treatment outcome (negative predictive value [NPV] = 84%), especially when successful outcome was defined as total abstinence from opioids in weeks 9-12 (NPV = 94%). Evaluating prescription opioid-dependent patients after 2 weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone treatment may help determine the likelihood of successful outcome at

  14. Initial response as a predictor of 12-week buprenorphine-naloxone treatment response in a prescription opioid dependent population

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Katherine A.; Griffin, Margaret L.; Connery, Hilary S.; Hilario, E. Yvette; Fiellin, David A.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Weiss, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Initial medication response has been shown to predict treatment outcome across a variety of substance use disorders, but no studies have examined the predictive power of initial response to buprenorphine-naloxone in the treatment of prescription opioid dependence. We therefore conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study to determine whether initial response to buprenorphine-naloxone predicted 12-week treatment outcome in a prescription opioid-dependent population. Method Using data from a multi-site, randomized controlled trial of buprenorphine-naloxone plus counseling for DSM-IV prescription opioid dependence (June 2006–July 2009), we conducted a secondary analysis to investigate the relationship between initial medication response and 12-week treatment outcome to establish how soon the efficacy of buprenorphine-naloxone could be predicted. Outcomes were determined from the Substance Use Report, a self-report measure of substance use, and confirmatory urinalysis. Predictive values were calculated to determine the importance of abstinence vs. use at various time points within the first month of treatment (week 1, weeks 1–2, 1–3, or 1–4) in predicting successful vs. unsuccessful treatment outcome (based on abstinence or near-abstinence from opioids) in the last 4 weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone treatment (weeks 9–12). Results Outcome was best predicted by medication response after two weeks of treatment. Two weeks of initial abstinence was moderately predictive of treatment success (positive predictive value = 71%), while opioid use in both of the first two weeks was strongly predictive of unsuccessful treatment outcome (negative predictive value (NPV) = 84%), especially when successful outcome was defined as total abstinence from opioids in weeks 9–12 (NPV = 94%). Conclusion Evaluating prescription opioid-dependent patients after two weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone treatment may help determine

  15. Regional differences in sweat rate response of steers to short-term heat stress.

    PubMed

    Scharf, B; Wax, L E; Aiken, G E; Spiers, D E

    2008-11-01

    Six Angus steers (319 +/- 8.5 kg) were assigned to one of two groups (hot or cold exposure) of three steers each, and placed into two environmental chambers initially maintained at 16.5-18.8 degrees C air temperature (Ta). Cold chamber Ta was lowered to 8.4 degrees C, while Ta within the hot chamber was increased to 32.7 degrees C over a 24-h time period. Measurements included respiration rate, and air and body (rectal and skin) temperatures. Skin temperature was measured at shoulder and rump locations, with determination of sweat rate using a calibrated moisture sensor. Rectal temperature did not change in cold or hot chambers. However, respiration rate nearly doubled in the heat (P < 0.05), increasing when Ta was above 24 degrees C. Skin temperatures at the two locations were highly correlated (P < 0.05) with each other and with Ta. In contrast, sweat rate showed differences at rump and shoulder sites. Sweat rate of the rump exhibited only a small increase with Ta. However, sweat rate at the shoulder increased more than four-fold with increasing Ta. Increased sweat rate in this region is supported by an earlier report of a higher density of sweat glands in the shoulder compared to rump regions. Sweat rate was correlated with several thermal measurements to determine the best predictor. Fourth-order polynomial expressions of short-term rectal and skin temperature responses to hot and cold exposures produced r values of 0.60, 0.84, and 0.98, respectively. These results suggest that thermal inputs other than just rectal or skin temperature drive the sweat response in cattle.

  16. Regional differences in sweat rate response of steers to short-term heat stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharf, B.; Wax, L. E.; Aiken, G. E.; Spiers, D. E.

    2008-11-01

    Six Angus steers (319 ± 8.5 kg) were assigned to one of two groups (hot or cold exposure) of three steers each, and placed into two environmental chambers initially maintained at 16.5-18.8°C air temperature ( T a). Cold chamber T a was lowered to 8.4°C, while T a within the hot chamber was increased to 32.7°C over a 24-h time period. Measurements included respiration rate, and air and body (rectal and skin) temperatures. Skin temperature was measured at shoulder and rump locations, with determination of sweat rate using a calibrated moisture sensor. Rectal temperature did not change in cold or hot chambers. However, respiration rate nearly doubled in the heat ( P < 0.05), increasing when T a was above 24°C. Skin temperatures at the two locations were highly correlated ( P < 0.05) with each other and with T a. In contrast, sweat rate showed differences at rump and shoulder sites. Sweat rate of the rump exhibited only a small increase with T a. However, sweat rate at the shoulder increased more than four-fold with increasing T a. Increased sweat rate in this region is supported by an earlier report of a higher density of sweat glands in the shoulder compared to rump regions. Sweat rate was correlated with several thermal measurements to determine the best predictor. Fourth-order polynomial expressions of short-term rectal and skin temperature responses to hot and cold exposures produced r values of 0.60, 0.84, and 0.98, respectively. These results suggest that thermal inputs other than just rectal or skin temperature drive the sweat response in cattle.

  17. Early treatment initiation in lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes produces an earlier and higher rate of transfusion independence.

    PubMed

    Cogle, Christopher R; Reddy, Sheila R; Chang, Eunice; Papoyan, Elya; Broder, Michael S; McGuire, Michael; Binder, Gary

    2017-09-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis resulting in refractory cytopenias. Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions can improve anemia; however, prolonged transfusion dependence (TD) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for MDS can reduce transfusion requirements, although the optimum timing of DMT initiation is unclear. This retrospective study analyzed linked SEER registry and Medicare claims (2006-2012) to estimate the impact of DMT-initiation (azacitidine, decitabine, or lenalidomide) timing (≤ 3 vs.>3months from start of TD) on the likelihood of achieving transfusion independence (TI) among 508 TD patients with MDS. Mean time to DMT was 28days for early initiators (n=351) and 187days for late initiators (n=157). Fewer early initiators used erythropoiesis-stimulating agents before achieving TI versus late initiators (61.5% vs. 73.9%; P=0.007). In multivariate analyses, early DMT initiation predicted TI achievement (HR, 1.69; P<0.001); patients who met minimum active therapy-exposure requirements were more likely to achieve TI (HR, 2.12; P<0.001). Higher rates of TI were associated with reduced time between onset of TD and DMT initiation. Similarly, patients meeting the minimum treatment-exposure threshold had higher TI rates. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Venipuncture procedure affects heart rate variability and chronotropic response.

    PubMed

    Kliszczewicz, Brian; Esco, Michael R; Bechke, Emily; Feito, Yuri; Williamson, Cassie; Brown, Danielle; Price, Brandi

    2017-08-28

    Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has been shown to be influenced by several factors such as noise, sleep status, light, and emotional arousal; however, little evidence is available concerning autonomic responses to a venipuncture. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes of HRV indexes and heart rate (HR) during, and following a venipuncture procedure among healthy individuals. 33 healthy individuals (22.8 ± 0.56 yrs, 167 ± 1.56 cm, 69.5 ± 2.61 kg) participated. Testing included 10-minute HRV analysis prior to the venipuncture, a one-minute venipuncture procedure followed by a 10-minute analysis of HRV, a total recording of 21-minutes. The first 5-minutes of the 21-minute recordings were discarded, and the remaining 5-minutes of the resting segment was analyzed (PRE), and the last 5-minutes of the 21-minute recording (POST). The log transformation of the time domain Root Mean Squared of Successive Differences (lnRMSSD) and the frequency domains High Frequency (lnHF) and Low Frequency (lnLF) and LF/HF ratio (lnLF/HF) were used to quantify autonomic activity. HR was measured in 1-minute segments at 2-minutes prior (PRE), venipuncture (STICK), and post (P1-5). HR significantly increased at STICK (p = 0.002), and fell below resting at P-5 (p < 0.001). lnRMSSD and lnHF increased significantly by POST (p < 0.001, p = 0.005). lnLF/HF ratio significantly decreased at POST (p = 0.047), while no significant changes occurred for lnLF (p = 0.590). HRV and HR are influenced for ten-minutes following the venipuncture procedure. Practitioners and researchers who are interested in collecting blood and measuring HRV need to account for the influence of the venipuncture. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Fast and singular muscle responses initiate the startle response of Pantodon buchholzi (Osteoglossomorpha).

    PubMed

    Starosciak, A K; Kalola, R P; Perkins, K P; Riley, J A; Saidel, W M

    2008-01-01

    The startle response of Pantodon buchholzi, the African butterfly fish, is a complete or incomplete ballistic jump resulting from abduction of the pectoral fins. This study analyzed the neuromuscular basis for such a jump by recording in vivo electromyograms (emgs) from the muscles of abduction, the muscularis abductor superficialis (MAS) and the muscularis abductor profundus (MAP). The motor neurons innervating the MAS muscle were localized by retrograde transport of biocytin. The latency between stimulus and the evoked emg in the MAS was less than 5 ms; the latency of the MAP was about 6.5 ms. A single emg was recorded per jump. High speed video demonstrated that onset of a startle movement began within 10 ms of the onset of fin abduction. The emg associated with this movement is short (<2 ms) and followed by a variably-shaped, slower and smaller potential of 10-30 ms duration. The brief period between stimulus and startle response of Pantodon suggests a Mauthner neuron-related response, only with the behavior occurring in the vertical plane. The MAS may act only in a startle response, whereas the MAP might have a role in other behaviors. Elicited jumping habituates after a single trial. Electrophysiological evidence is presented indicating that the innervating motor neurons are suppressed for seconds following a stimulus. The neurons innervating the MAS are located at the medullary-spinal cord junction and possess an average radius of approximately 17.9 mum. These fish have been historically described as 'fresh water' flying fish. As a single emg occurs per startle response, repetitive pectoral activity generating flying cannot be supported. Pantodon 'flight' is ballistic.

  20. Advanced neuroblastoma: improved response rate using a multiagent regimen (OPEC) including sequential cisplatin and VM-26.

    PubMed

    Shafford, E A; Rogers, D W; Pritchard, J

    1984-07-01

    Forty-two children, all over one year of age, were given vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and sequentially timed cisplatin and VM-26 (OPEC) or OPEC and doxorubicin (OPEC-D) as initial treatment for newly diagnosed stage III or IV neuroblastoma. Good partial response was achieved in 31 patients (74%) overall and in 28 (78%) of 36 patients whose treatment adhered to the chemotherapy protocol, compared with a 65% response rate achieved in a previous series of children treated with pulsed cyclophosphamide and vincristine with or without doxorubicin. Only six patients, including two of the six children whose treatment did not adhere to protocol, failed to respond, but there were five early deaths from treatment-related complications. Tumor response to OPEC, which was the less toxic of the two regimens, was at least as good as tumor response to OPEC-D. Cisplatin-induced morbidity was clinically significant in only one patient and was avoided in others by careful monitoring of glomerular filtration rate and hearing. Other centers should test the efficacy of OPEC or equivalent regimens in the treatment of advanced neuroblastoma.

  1. 18 CFR 154.202 - Filings to initiate a new rate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... since the certificate order was issued; or, show that the rate change is in accordance with the terms of... new rate schedule. 154.202 Section 154.202 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND...

  2. The role of scheduled second TACE in early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma with complete response to initial TACE

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Hee; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Shin, Sung Wook; Cho, Sung Ki; Kang, Wonseok; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Paik, Yong-Han; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon; Choi, Moon Seok

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims We investigated the outcomes of early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who showed a complete response (CR) to initial transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), with a focus on the role of scheduled TACE repetition. Methods A total of 178 patients with early-stage HCC who were initially treated with TACE and showed a CR based on the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST) criteria on one month follow-up computed tomography (CT) were analyzed. Among them, 90 patients underwent scheduled repetition of TACE in the absence of viable tumor on CT. Results During a median follow-up period of 4.6 years (range: 0.4-8.8 years), mortality was observed in 71 patients (39.9%). The overall recurrence-free and local recurrence-free survival rates at 1 year were 44.4% and 56.2%. In the multivariable model, scheduled repetition of TACE was an independent factor associated with survival (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.56 [0.34-0.93], P=0.025). When stratified using Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) stage, scheduled repetition of TACE was associated with a favorable survival rate in BCLC stage A patients, but not in BCLC 0 patients. Conclusions Scheduled repetition of TACE was associated with better survival for early-stage HCC patients showing a CR after initial TACE, especially in BCLC stage A patients. PMID:28263954

  3. 77 FR 48148 - Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC's application for market...

  4. 77 FR 57082 - Rayonier Performance Fibers, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Rayonier Performance Fibers, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Rayonier Performance Fibers, LLC's application for...

  5. 75 FR 41855 - Stream Energy Pennsylvania, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Stream Energy Pennsylvania, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Stream Energy Pennsylvania, LLC's application...

  6. 77 FR 9226 - Physical Systems Integration, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Physical Systems Integration, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Physical Systems Integration, LLC's application for...

  7. 77 FR 52016 - Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC's application...

  8. 75 FR 70741 - Innovative Energy Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Innovative Energy Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding Innovative Energy Systems, LLC's application for...

  9. 78 FR 40474 - Sustaining Power Solutions LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sustaining Power Solutions LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Sustaining Power Solutions LLC's application for...

  10. 78 FR 40473 - Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC's application for market...

  11. 75 FR 35017 - Brookfield Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brookfield Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Brookfield Energy Marketing LP's application...

  12. 77 FR 24697 - Somerset Operating Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Somerset Operating Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Somerset Operating Company, LLC's application for...

  13. 77 FR 57083 - American Illuminating Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission American Illuminating Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of American Illuminating Company, LLC's application for...

  14. 75 FR 13534 - Grays Ferry Cogeneration Partnership; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grays Ferry Cogeneration Partnership; Supplemental Notice That Initial... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Grays Ferry Cogeneration Partnership application for...

  15. 77 FR 28871 - Renewable Power Strategies, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Renewable Power Strategies, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Renewable Power Strategies, LLC's application for...

  16. [Evaluation of the influence of humidity and temperature on the drug stability by initial average rate experiment].

    PubMed

    He, Ning; Sun, Hechun; Dai, Miaomiao

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the influence of temperature and humidity on the drug stability by initial average rate experiment, and to obtained the kinetic parameters. The effect of concentration error, drug degradation extent, humidity and temperature numbers, humidity and temperature range, and average humidity and temperature on the accuracy and precision of kinetic parameters in the initial average rate experiment was explored. The stability of vitamin C, as a solid state model, was investigated by an initial average rate experiment. Under the same experimental conditions, the kinetic parameters obtained from this proposed method were comparable to those from classical isothermal experiment at constant humidity. The estimates were more accurate and precise by controlling the extent of drug degradation, changing humidity and temperature range, or by setting the average temperature closer to room temperature. Compared with isothermal experiments at constant humidity, our proposed method saves time, labor, and materials.

  17. Recurrence of gestational diabetes mellitus: rates and risk factors from initial GDM and one abnormal GTT value.

    PubMed

    Nohira, Tomoyoshi; Kim, Seiichi; Nakai, Hiromi; Okabe, Kazuhiro; Nohira, Tomoo; Yoneyama, Kuniyoshi

    2006-01-01

    The recurrence rate of GDM among women in Japan who had GDM or one abnormal value on 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OAV) during an initial pregnancy is unclear. We therefore sought to determine the recurrence rate and risk factors of recurrent GDM by evaluating 32 patients with GDM and 37 with OAV in their index pregnancies. Medical records and chemical data were compared between patients with and without GDM in their subsequent pregnancies. The recurrence rate from index GDM and OAV were 65.6% and 40.5%. Age, BMI before pregnancy, an increased weight gain between pregnancies and a short interval between pregnancies were risk factors for recurrence from the initial GDM. An increased weight gain between pregnancies and a short interval between pregnancies were risk factors of development to GDM from the initial OAV. We concluded that the control of weight gain and interval between pregnancies could be important to reduce GDM recurrence.

  18. Characterization of Nonlinear Rate Dependent Response of Shape Memory Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Brent; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.; Chen, Yi-Chao; Whitley, Karen S.

    2007-01-01

    Shape Memory Polymers (SMPs) are a class of polymers, which can undergo deformation in a flexible state at elevated temperatures, and when cooled below the glass transition temperature, while retaining their deformed shape, will enter and remain in a rigid state. Upon heating above the glass transition temperature, the shape memory polymer will return to its original, unaltered shape. SMPs have been reported to recover strains of over 400%. It is important to understand the stress and strain recovery behavior of SMPs to better develop constitutive models which predict material behavior. Initial modeling efforts did not account for large deformations beyond 25% strain. However, a model under current development is capable of describing large deformations of the material. This model considers the coexisting active (rubber) and frozen (glass) phases of the polymer, as well as the transitions between the material phases. The constitutive equations at the continuum level are established with internal state variables to describe the microstructural changes associated with the phase transitions. For small deformations, the model reduces to a linear model that agrees with those reported in the literature. Thermomechanical characterization is necessary for the development, calibration, and validation of a constitutive model. The experimental data reported in this paper will assist in model development by providing a better understanding of the stress and strain recovery behavior of the material. This paper presents the testing techniques used to characterize the thermomechanical material properties of a shape memory polymer (SMP) and also presents the resulting data. An innovative visual-photographic apparatus, known as a Vision Image Correlation (VIC) system was used to measure the strain. The details of this technique will also be presented in this paper. A series of tensile tests were performed on specimens such that strain levels of 10, 25, 50, and 100% were applied to

  19. Early growth response 1 mediates the systemic and hepatic inflammatory response initiated by hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Prince, Jose M; Ming, Mei Jian; Levy, Ryan M; Liu, Shubing; Pinsky, David J; Vodovotz, Yoram; Billiar, Timothy R

    2007-02-01

    Hemorrhagic shock (HS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in trauma patients. The early growth response 1 (Egr-1) transcription factor is induced by a variety of cellular stresses, including hypoxia, and may function as a master switch to trigger the expression of numerous key inflammatory mediators. We hypothesized that HS would induce hepatic expression of Egr-1 and that Egr-1 upregulates the inflammatory response after HS. The Egr-1 mice and wild-type (WT) controls (n>or=5 for all groups) were subjected to HS alone or HS followed by resuscitation (HS/R). Other mice were subjected to a sham procedure which included general anesthesia and vessel cannulation but no shock (sham). After the HS, HS/R, or sham procedures, mice were euthanized for determination of serum concentrations of interleukin (IL) 6, IL-10, and alanine aminotransferase. Northern blot analysis was performed to evaluate Egr-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. Liver whole cell lysates were evaluated for Egr-1 protein expression by Western blot analysis. Hepatic expression of IL-6, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 mRNA was determined by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The Egr-1 DNA binding was assessed using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Hemorrhagic shock results in a rapid and transient hepatic expression of Egr-1 mRNA in WT mice by 1 h, whereas protein and DNA binding activity was evident by 2.5 h. The Egr-1 mRNA expression diminished after 4 h of resuscitation, whereas Egr-1 protein expression and DNA binding activity persisted through resuscitation. The Egr-1 mice exhibited decreased levels of hepatic inflammatory mediators compared with WT controls with a decrease in hepatic mRNA levels of IL-6 by 42%, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor by 39%, and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 by 43%. Similarly, Egr-1 mice demonstrated a decreased systemic inflammatory response and hepatic injury after HS

  20. Children's Initiations and Teachers' Responses in Regular Preschool Classrooms in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Shu Hsien

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates teacher responses in Taiwan to children's initiations in regular classrooms and the differences between children with and without developmental delays. The sample consisted of 107 teacher-child dyads, including 53 children with developmental delays and 54 typically developing peers. Teacher-child interactions were…