Science.gov

Sample records for injection fast shutdowns

  1. The behavior of runaway current in massive gas injection fast shutdown plasmas in J-TEXT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z. Y.; Huang, D. W.; Luo, Y. H.; Tang, Y.; Dong, Y. B.; Zeng, L.; Tong, R. H.; Wang, S. Y.; Wei, Y. N.; Wang, X. H.; Jian, X.; Li, J. C.; Zhang, X. Q.; Rao, B.; Yan, W.; Ma, T. K.; Hu, Q. M.; Yang, Z. J.; Gao, L.; Ding, Y. H.; Wang, Z. J.; Zhang, M.; Zhuang, G.; Pan, Y.; Jiang, Z. H.; J-TEXT Team

    2016-11-01

    Runaway currents following disruptions have an important effect on the first wall in current tokamaks and will be more severe in next generation tokamaks. The behavior of runaway currents in massive gas injection (MGI) induced disruptions have been investigated in the J-TEXT tokamak. The cold front induced by the gas jet penetrates helically along field lines, preferentially toward the high field side and stops at a location near the q  =  2 surface before the disruption. When the cold front reaches the q  =  2 surface it initiates magnetohydrodynamic activities and results in disruption. It is found that the MGI of He or Ne results in runaway free shutdown in a large range of gas injections. Mixture injection of He and Ar (90% He and 10%Ar) consistently results in runaway free shutdown. A moderate amount of Ar injection could produce significant runaway current. The maximum runaway energy in the runaway plateau is estimated using a simplified model which neglects the drag forces and other energy loss mechanisms. The maximum runaway energy increases with decreasing runaway current. Imaging of the runaway beam using a soft x-ray array during the runaway current plateau indicates that the runaway beam is located in the center of the plasma. Resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) is applied to reduce the runaway current successfully during the disruption phase in a small scale tokamak, J-TEXT. When the runaway current builds up, the application of RMP cannot decouple the runaway beam due to the lower sensitivity of the energetic runaway electrons to the magnetic perturbation.

  2. Fast Plasma Shutdowns Obtained With Massive Hydrogenic, Noble and Mixed-Gas Injection in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Wesley, J; Hollmann, E; Jernigan, T; Van Zeeland, M; Baylor, L; Boedo, J; Combs, S; Evans, T; Groth, M; Humphreys, D; Hyatt, A; Izzo, V; James, A; Moyer, R; Parks, P; Rudakov, D; Strait, E; Wu, W; Yu, J

    2008-10-14

    Massive gas injection (MGI) experiments with H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, He, Ne and Ar and 'mixed' (H{sub 2} + Ar and D{sub 2} + Ne) gases injected into 'ITER-similar' 1.3-MA H-mode plasmas are described. Gas species, injected quantity Q, delivery time, t{sub inj}, rate-of-rise and intrinsic and added impurities are found to affect the attributes and 'disruption mitigation' efficacies of the resulting fast plasma shutdowns. With sufficient Q and t{sub inj} < {approx}2 ms, all species provide fast (within {le} {approx}3 ms), more-or-less uniform radiative dissipation of the 0.7-MJ plasma thermal energy and fast but benign current decays with reduced vacuum vessel vertical force impulse. With pure and mixed low-Z gases, free-electron densities up to 2 x 10{sup 21} m{sup -3} are obtained. While these densities are high relative to normal tokamak densities, they are still an order of magnitude smaller than the densities required for unconditional mitigation of the runaway electron avalanche process. Key information relevant to the design of effective MGI systems for larger tokamaks and ITER has been obtained and the collective species and Q-variation data provides a rich basis for validation of emerging 2D + t MHD/transport/radiation models.

  3. A fast shutdown system for SRS (Savannah River Site) reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, N.P.

    1990-01-01

    Power has been sharply reduced at Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors in large part to ensure that no bulk boiling occurs during hypothesized loss of coolant accidents. A fast shutdown system is essential to regain much of this lost power. Computations and experiments indicate that a He-3 injection system will serve this function. Instrumented tests of a full system are planned for early 1991 for one of the SRS reactors. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Fast Thermal Shutdown of Tokamak Discharges Without Runaway Electron Avalanching

    SciTech Connect

    Bakhtiari, M.; Yoshino, R.; Nishida, Y

    2002-03-15

    The possibility of using massive quantities of injected deuterium with and without additional admixture of lesser quantities of higher-Z impurities to effect fast thermal shutdown of a tokamak discharge without causing runaway electron avalanching is systematically studied. It is found that various combinations of deuterium alone and deuterium with impurities (helium, nitrogen, argon, and krypton) can provide acceptable runaway-free thermal shutdown. The admixture of impurities cited reduces the quantity of deuterium needed and also reduces the radiative cooling time needed for the plasma to reach final thermal equilibrium, where radiation losses balance ohmic input. In contrast, the addition of neon does not appreciably reduce deuterium quantity or promote faster cooling. This difference relative to the other impurity studies can be understood from the radiation versus plasma temperature characteristics for neon.

  5. SSME technology test bed fast shutdown assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebman, A.; Vilja, J. O.

    1988-01-01

    The fastest practical shutdown sequence for the Technology Test Bed Engine is developed. A sequence is defined and key issues addressed. The conclusion of the study is that a fastest shutdown sequence within the existing SSME design capability is practical and can cut oxidizer consumption by 50 percent. However, the revised sequence would not have prevented any of the prior experienced SSME incidents and would introduce development risk to the program.

  6. The Fast Flux Test Facility shutdown program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Guttenberg, S.; Jones, D.H.; Midgett, J.C.; Nielsen, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is a 400 MWt sodium-cooled research reactor owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The decision was made by the DOE in December, 1993, to initiate shutdown of the FFTF. This paper describes the FFTF Transition Project Plan (1) (formerly the FFTF Shutdown Program Plan) which provides the strategy, major elements, and project baseline for transitioning the FFTF to an industrially and radiologically safe shutdown condition. The Plan, and its resource loaded schedule, indicate this transition can be achieved in a period of six to seven years at a cost of approximately $359 million. The transition activities include reactor defueling, fuel offload to dry cask storage, sodium drain and reaction, management of sodium residuals, shutdown of auxiliary systems, and preparation of appropriate environmental and regulatory documentation. Completion of these activities will involve resolution of many challenging and unique issues associated with shutdown of a large sodium reactor facility. At the conclusion of these activities, the FFTF will be in a safe condition for turnover to the Hanford Site Environmental Restoration Contractor for a long term surveillance and maintenance phase and decommissioning.

  7. A CFD Model for High Pressure Liquid Poison Injection for CANDU-6 Shutdown System No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bo Wook Rhee; Chang Jun Jeong; Hye Jeong Yun; Dong Soon Jang

    2002-07-01

    In CANDU reactor one of the two reactor shutdown systems is the liquid poison injection system which injects the highly pressurized liquid neutron poison into the moderator tank via small holes on the nozzle pipes. To ensure the safe shutdown of a reactor it is necessary for the poison curtains generated by jets provide quick, and enough negative reactivity to the reactor during the early stage of the accident. In order to produce the neutron cross section necessary to perform this work, the poison concentration distribution during the transient is necessary. In this study, a set of models for analyzing the transient poison concentration induced by this high pressure poison injection jet activated upon the reactor trip in a CANDU-6 reactor moderator tank has been developed and used to generate the poison concentration distribution of the poison curtains induced by the high pressure jets injected into the vacant region between the pressure tube banks. The poison injection rate through the jet holes drilled on the nozzle pipes is obtained by a 1-D transient hydrodynamic code called, ALITRIG, and this injection rate is used to provide the inlet boundary condition to a 3-D CFD model of the moderator tank based on CFX4.3, a CFD code, to simulate the formation of the poison jet curtain inside the moderator tank. For validation, an attempt was made to validate this model against a poison injection experiment performed at BARC. As conclusion this set of models is judged to be appropriate. (authors)

  8. Measurements of Impurity and Heat Dynamics During Noble Gas Jet-Initiated Fast Plasma Shutdown for Disruption Mitigation in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Hollmann, E M; Jernigan, T C; Groth, M; Whyte, D G; Gray, D S; Brennan, D P; Brooks, N H; Evans, T E; Humphreys, D A; Lasnier, C J; Moyer, R A; McClean, A; Parks, P B; Rozhansky, V; Rudakov, D L; Strait, E J; West, W P

    2004-12-01

    Impurity deposition and mixing during gas jet-initiated plasma shutdown is studied using a rapid ({approx}2 ms), massive ({approx}10{sup 22} particles) injection of neon or argon into stationary DIII-D H-mode discharges. Fast-gated camera images indicate that the bulk of the jet neutrals do not penetrate far into the plasma pedestal. Nevertheless, high ({approx}90%) thermal quench radiated power fractions are achieved; this appears to be facilitated through a combination of fast ion mixing and fast heat transport, both driven by large-scale MHD activity. Also, runaway electron suppression is achieved for sufficiently high gas jet pressures. These experiments suggest that massive gas injection could be viable for disruption mitigation in future tokamaks even if core penetration of jet neutrals is not achieved.

  9. Experimental investigation of a new method for advanced fast reactor shutdown cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakholkov, V. V.; Kandaurov, A. A.; Potseluev, A. I.; Rogozhkin, S. A.; Sergeev, D. A.; Troitskaya, Yu. I.; Shepelev, S. F.

    2017-07-01

    We consider a new method for fast reactor shutdown cooling using a decay heat removal system (DHRS) with a check valve. In this method, a coolant from the decay heat exchanger (DHX) immersed into the reactor upper plenum is supplied to the high-pressure plenum and, then, inside the fuel subassemblies (SAs). A check valve installed at the DHX outlet opens by the force of gravity after primary pumps (PP-1) are shut down. Experimental studies of the new and alternative methods of shutdown cooling were performed at the TISEY test facility at OKBM. The velocity fields in the upper plenum of the reactor model were obtained using the optical particle image velocimetry developed at the Institute of Applied Physics (Russian Academy of Sciences). The study considers the process of development of natural circulation in the reactor and the DHRS models and the corresponding evolution of the temperature and velocity fields. A considerable influence of the valve position in the displacer of the primary pump on the natural circulation of water in the reactor through the DHX was discovered (in some modes, circulation reversal through the DHX was obtained). Alternative DHRS designs without a shell at the DHX outlet with open and closed check valve are also studied. For an open check valve, in spite of the absence of a shell, part of the flow is supplied through the DHX pipeline and then inside the SA simulators. When simulating power modes of the reactor operation, temperature stratification of the liquid was observed, which increased in the cooling mode via the DHRS. These data qualitatively agree with the results of tests at BN-600 and BN-800 reactors.

  10. Gas-injection-start and shutdown characteristics of a 2-kilowatt to 15-kilowatt Brayton power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantoni, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Two methods of starting the Brayton power system have been considered: (1) using the alternator as a motor to spin the Brayton rotating unit (BRU), and (2) spinning the BRU by forced gas injection. The first method requires the use of an auxiliary electrical power source. An alternating voltage is applied to the terminals of the alternator to drive it as an induction motor. Only gas-injection starts are discussed in this report. The gas-injection starting method requires high-pressure gas storage and valves to route the gas flow to provide correct BRU rotation. An analog computer simulation was used to size hardware and to determine safe start and shutdown procedures. The simulation was also used to define the range of conditions for successful startups. Experimental data were also obtained under various test conditions. These data verify the validity of the start and shutdown procedures.

  11. Fast shut-down protection system for radio frequency breakdown and multipactor testing.

    PubMed

    Graves, T P; Hanson, P; Michaelson, J M; Farkas, A D; Hubble, A A

    2014-02-01

    Radio frequency (RF) breakdown such as multipactor or ionization breakdown is a device-limiting phenomenon for on-orbit spacecraft used for communication, navigation, or other RF payloads. Ground testing is therefore part of the qualification process for all high power components used in these space systems. This paper illustrates a shut-down protection system to be incorporated into multipactor/ionization breakdown ground testing for susceptible RF devices. This 8 channel system allows simultaneous use of different diagnostic classes and different noise floors. With initiation of a breakdown event, diagnostic signals increase above a user-specified level, which then opens an RF switch to eliminate RF power from the high power amplifier. Examples of this system in use are shown for a typical setup, illustrating the reproducibility of breakdown threshold voltages and the lack of multipactor conditioning. This system can also be utilized to prevent excessive damage to RF components in tests with sensitive or flight hardware.

  12. First demonstration of rapid shutdown using neon shattered pellet injection for thermal quench mitigation on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commaux, N.; Shiraki, D.; Baylor, L. R.; Hollmann, E. M.; Eidietis, N. W.; Lasnier, C. J.; Moyer, R. A.; Jernigan, T. C.; Meitner, S. J.; Combs, S. K.; Foust, C. R.

    2016-04-01

    Shattered pellet injection (SPI) is one of the prime candidates for the ITER disruption mitigation system because of its deeper penetration and larger particle flux than massive gas injection (MGI) (Taylor et al 1999 Phys. Plasmas 6 1872) using deuterium (Commaux et al 2010 Nucl. Fusion 50 112001, Combs et al 2010 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38 400, Baylor et al 2009 Nucl. Fusion 49 085013). The ITER disruption mitigation system will likely use mostly high Z species such as neon because of more effective thermal mitigation and pumping constraints on the maximum amount of deuterium or helium that could be injected. An upgrade of the SPI on DIII-D enables ITER relevant injection characteristics in terms of quantities and gas species. This upgraded SPI system was used on DIII-D for the first time in 2014 for a direct comparison with MGI using identical quantities of neon. This comparison enabled the measurements of density perturbations during the thermal quench (TQ) and radiated power and heat loads to the divertor. It showed that SPI using similar quantities of neon provided a faster and stronger density perturbation and neon assimilation, which resulted in a lower conducted energy to the divertor and a faster TQ onset. Radiated power data analysis shows that this was probably due to the much deeper penetration of the neon in the plasma inducing a higher core radiation than in the MGI case. This experiment shows also that the MHD activity during an SPI shutdown (especially during the TQ) is quite different compared to MGI. This favorable TQ energy dissipation was obtained while keeping the current quench (CQ) duration within acceptable limits when scaled to ITER.

  13. First demonstration of rapid shutdown using neon shattered pellet injection for thermal quench mitigation on DIII-D

    DOE PAGES

    Commaux, Nicolas J. C.; Shiraki, Daisuke; Baylor, Larry R.; ...

    2016-03-02

    Shattered pellet injection (SPI) is one of the prime candidates for the ITER disruption mitigation system because of its deeper penetration and larger particle flux than massive gas injection (MGI) (Taylor et al 1999 Phys. Plasmas 6 1872) using deuterium (Commaux et al 2010 Nucl. Fusion 50 112001, Combs et al 2010 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38 400, Baylor et al 2009 Nucl. Fusion 49 085013). The ITER disruption mitigation system will likely use mostly high Z species such as neon because of more effective thermal mitigation and pumping constraints on the maximum amount of deuterium or helium that couldmore » be injected. An upgrade of the SPI on DIII-D enables ITER relevant injection characteristics in terms of quantities and gas species. This upgraded SPI system was used on DIII-D for the first time in 2014 for a direct comparison with MGI using identical quantities of neon. This comparison enabled the measurements of density perturbations during the thermal quench (TQ) and radiated power and heat loads to the divertor. It showed that SPI using similar quantities of neon provided a faster and stronger density perturbation and neon assimilation, which resulted in a lower conducted energy to the divertor and a faster TQ onset. Radiated power data analysis shows that this was probably due to the much deeper penetration of the neon in the plasma inducing a higher core radiation than in the MGI case. This experiment shows also that the MHD activity during an SPI shutdown (especially during the TQ) is quite different compared to MGI. Furthermore, this favorable TQ energy dissipation was obtained while keeping the current quench (CQ) duration within acceptable limits when scaled to ITER.« less

  14. A study of passive safety features by utilizing intra-subassembly-equipped self-actuated shutdown mechanism for future large fast breeder reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Uto, N.; Niwa, H.; Ieda, Y.; Satoh, K.

    1996-08-01

    Passive prevention of core disruptive accidents (CDAs) is desired in terms of enhancement of safety for future fast breeder reactors. In addition, mitigation of CDA`s consequences should be required because mitigation measures have a potential of applying to all accidents, while prevention measures are prepared for specific accident initiators. In this paper, the Intra-Subassembly-equipped Self-Actuated Shutdown System (IS-SASS) , which is considered effective on passive prevention and mitigation of CDAs, is described. The IS-SASS is introduced in a fuel subassembly and consists of absorber materials at the top of the active core and an inner duct through which molten fuel can be excluded out of the core. The determination of the appropriate number of the IS-SASS units, their arrangement in the core and their suitable structure are found to be suited to prevention and mitigation of CDAs for liquid metal-cooled large fast breeder reactors.

  15. Investigations on natural circulation in reactor models and shutdown heat removal systems for LMFBRs (liquid metal fast breeder reactors)

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, H.; Weinberg, D.; Marten, K. ); Ieda, Yoshiaki )

    1989-11-01

    For sodium-cooled pool-type reactors, studies have been undertaken to remove the decay heat by natural convection alone, as in the case of failure of all power supplies. For this purpose, four immersion coolers (ICs), two each installed at a 180-deg circumferential position with respect to the others, are arranged within the reactor tank. They are connected with natural-drift air coolers through independent intermediate circuits. The primary sodium in the tank as well as the secondary sodium in the intermediate loop circulate by natural convection. The general functioning of this passive shutdown decay heat removal (DHR) system is demonstrated in 1:20 and 1:5 scale test models using water as a simulant fluid for sodium. The model design is based on the thermohydraulics similarity criteria. In the RAMONA three-dimensional 1:20 scale model, experiments were carried out to clarify the steady-state in-vessel thermohydraulics for different parameter combinations (core power, radial power distribution across the core, DHR by 2 or 4 ICs in operation, above-core structure geometry and position, different IC designs). For all mentioned parameters, temperatures and their fluctuations were measured and used to indicate isotherms and lines of identical temperature fluctuations. The flow patterns were observed visually. The experiments were recalculated by an updated version of the single-phase three-dimensional thermohydraulics code COMMIX.

  16. Fast ion behavior during neutral beam injection in ATF

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, M.R.; Thomas, C.E.; Colchin, R.J.; Rome, J.A.; England, A.C.; Fowler, R.H.; Aceto, S.C.

    1993-09-01

    In stellarators, single-particle confinement properties can be more complex than in their tokamak counterparts. Fast-ion behavior in tokamaks has been well characterized through an abundance of measurements on various devices and in general has been shown to be consistent with classical slowing-down theory, although anomalous ion behavior has been observed during intense beam injection in ISX-B, during fishbone instabilities in PDX, and in experiments on TFR. In contrast, fast ion behavior in stellarators is not as wel established experimentally with the primary experiments to date focusing o near-perpendicular or perpendicular neutral beam injection (NBI) on the Wendelstein 7-A stellarator (91 and Heliotron-E. This paper addresses fast-ion confinement properties in a large-aspect-ratio, moderate-shear stellarator, the Advanced Toroidal Facility, during tangential NBI. The primary data used in this study are the experimentally measured energy spectra of charge-exchange neutrals escaping from the plasma, using a two-dimensional scanning neutral particle analyzer. This diagnostic method is well established, having been used on several devices since the early 1970`s. Various aspects of fast-ion behavior are investigated by comparing these data with computed theoretical spectra based on energeticion distributions derived from the fastion Fokker-Planck equation. Ion orbits are studied by computer orbit following, by the computation of J* surfaces, and by Monte Carlo calculations.

  17. Fast prototyping of injection molded polymer microfluidic chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen Hansen, Thomas; Selmeczi, David; Larsen, Niels B.

    2010-01-01

    We present fast prototyping of injection molding tools by the definition of microfluidic structures in a light-curable epoxy (SU-8) directly on planar nickel mold inserts. Optimized prototype mold structures could withstand injection molding of more than 300 replicas in cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) without any signs of failure or release. The key parameters to avoid mold failure are maximum adhesion strength of the epoxy to the nickel insert and minimum interfacial energy of the epoxy pattern to the molded polymer. Optimal molding of microstructures with vertical sidewalls was found for nickel inserts pre-coated by silicon oxide before applying the structured epoxy, followed by coating of the epoxy by a fluorocarbon layer prior to injection molding. Further improvements in the mold stability were observed after homogeneous coating of the patterned epoxy by a second reflowed layer of epoxy, likely due to the resulting reduction in sidewall steepness. We employed the latter method for injection molding bondable polymer microfluidic chips with integrated conducting polymer electrode arrays that permitted the culture and on-chip analysis of cell spreading by impedance spectroscopy.

  18. FAST INJECTION SYSTEM R&D FOR THE APS UPGRADE

    SciTech Connect

    Lenkszus, F.; Carwardine, J.; Cours, A.; Decker, G.; Morrison, L.; Sun, X.; Westferro, F.; Yao, C. Y.; Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2015-06-01

    The MBA upgrade for the APS will operate with bunch swap out and on axis injection. The planned 324 bunch fill pattern places difficult demands on the injection and extraction kickers. The present concept uses dual stripline kickers driven by high Voltage pulsers. Minimizing perturbation on adjacent bunches requires very fast rise and fall times with relatively narrow ~20 nsec, 15 kV pulses. To achieve these requirements we have initiated a multifaceted R&D program. The R&D includes the HV pulser, stripline kicker and HV feedthrough. We have purchased a commercial dual channel HV pulser and are evaluating its performance and reliability. In addition, we are investigating the feasibility of using nonlinear ferrite loaded coaxial cables (shockwave transmission line) to sharpen the leading and trailing edges of high voltage pulses. We are also developing a prototype kicker and high voltage feedthrough. The requirements for injection and extraction, progress on prototype development and results of our HV pulser investigations will be reported.

  19. Fast camera observations of injected and intrinsic dust in TEXTOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalpegin, A.; Vignitchouk, L.; Erofeev, I.; Brochard, F.; Litnovsky, A.; Bozhenkov, S.; Bykov, I.; den Harder, N.; Sergienko, G.

    2015-12-01

    Stereoscopic fast camera observations of pre-characterized carbon and tungsten dust injection in TEXTOR are reported, along with the modelling of tungsten particle trajectories with MIGRAINe. Particle tracking analysis of the video data showed significant differences in dust dynamics: while carbon flakes were prone to agglomeration and explosive destruction, spherical tungsten particles followed quasi-inertial trajectories. Although this inertial nature prevented any validation of the force models used in MIGRAINe, comparisons between the experimental and simulated lifetimes provide a direct evidence of dust temperature overestimation in dust dynamics codes. Furthermore, wide-view observations of the TEXTOR interior revealed the main production mechanism of intrinsic carbon dust, as well as the location of probable dust remobilization sites.

  20. Safety shutdown separators

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley; Farrell, Greg Robert

    2015-06-30

    The present invention pertains to electrochemical cells which comprise (a) an anode; (b) a cathode; (c) a solid porous separator, such as a polyolefin, xerogel, or inorganic oxide separator; and (d) a nonaqueous electrolyte, wherein the separator comprises a porous membrane having a microporous coating comprising polymer particles which have not coalesced to form a continuous film. This microporous coating on the separator acts as a safety shutdown layer that rapidly increases the internal resistivity and shuts the cell down upon heating to an elevated temperature, such as 110.degree. C. Also provided are methods for increasing the safety of an electrochemical cell by utilizing such separators with a safety shutdown layer.

  1. Slow versus fast subcutaneous heparin injections for prevention of bruising and site-pain intensity.

    PubMed

    Akbari Sari, Ali; Janani, Leila; Mohammady, Mina; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2014-07-18

    Heparin is an anticoagulant medication that is normally injected subcutaneously. Subcutaneous administration of heparin may result in complications such as bruising, haematoma and pain at the injection site. One of the factors that may affect pain, haematoma and bruising is injection speed. To assess the effects of the duration (speed) of subcutaneous heparin injection on pain, haematoma and bruising at the injection site in people admitted to hospitals or clinics who require treatment with unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin. The Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (last searched August 2013) and CENTRAL (2013, Issue 7). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and two Persian databases Iranmedex and SID (August 2013). We sought randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of different durations of subcutaneous injections of heparin on pain, bruising and haematoma at the injection site. Two review authors, working independently, extracted data onto a structured form and assessed study quality. We used the criteria recommended by the Cochrane Handbook to assess the quality of included studies. The study outcomes were summarised using quantitative and qualitative methods. One RCT was identified which met the inclusion criteria, involving 50 participants with a mean age of 55.25 (± 12.37) years. In this trial it was not possible to blind the participants and care givers. The method of sequence generation and allocation concealment was not described. The overall quality of the evidence was moderate due to the single small included study. Each participant had two injections, one in the left side and one in right side of the abdomen. One of these was injected slowly (intervention) and the other was injected fast (control). The second injection was 12 hours after the first injection. The duration of fast injection was 10 seconds and the duration of slow injection was 30

  2. High-throughput chemical residue analysis by fast extraction and dilution flow injection mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nanita, Sergio C

    2011-01-21

    Fast extraction and dilution flow injection mass spectrometry (FED-FI-MS) is presented as a technique to increase throughput in quantitative multiresidue screening in complex matrices, while meeting current analytical method quality requirements.

  3. Confinement and dynamics of neutral beam injected fast ions in the MST Reversed Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Almagri, F.; Anderson, J. K.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Sarff, J. S.; Waksman, J.; Fiksel, G.; Deichuli, P.; Davydenko, V. I.; Ivanov, A. A.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Stupishin, N.; Andre, R.; McCune, D.

    2010-11-01

    The new 1MW neutral beam injector (97% H, 3% D) on MST provides a good test-bed for study of fast ions in the RFP. Analysis of the D-D fusion neutron flux decay at beam turn-off reveals that the confinement time of the fast ions is at least 10 ms, ten-fold larger than the thermal conferment times for particles and energy in standard stochastic plasmas. Also, the fast ion confinement increases with magnetic field strength. Dependence of fast ion confinement on plasma parameters, beam energy, and injection direction will be characterized and compared with TRANSP simulations. In addition, an advanced neutral particle analyzer and a prototype of fast ion charge exchange spectroscopy are under construction to measure neutralized fast ions and induced Doppler-shifted Hα light, respectively, thereby resolving fast ion density and energy distribution. Initial measurements of fast-ion dynamics during magnetic reconnection events will be presented.

  4. Nuclear reactor shutdown system

    DOEpatents

    Bhate, Suresh K.; Cooper, Martin H.; Riffe, Delmar R.; Kinney, Calvin L.

    1981-01-01

    An inherent shutdown system for a nuclear reactor having neutron absorbing rods affixed to an armature which is held in an upper position by a magnetic flux flowing through a Curie temperature material. The Curie temperature material is fixedly positioned about the exterior of an inner duct in an annular region through which reactor coolant flows. Elongated fuel rods extending from within the core upwardly toward the Curie temperature material are preferably disposed within the annular region. Upon abnormal conditions which result in high neutron flux and coolant temperature, the Curie material loses its magnetic permeability, breaking the magnetic flux path and allowing the armature and absorber rods to drop into the core, thus shutting down the fissioning reaction. The armature and absorber rods are retrieved by lowering the housing for the electromagnet forming coils which create a magnetic flux path which includes the inner duct wall. The coil housing then is raised, resetting the armature.

  5. Shutdown- All Hands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-30

    Monday, September 30, 2013 - NASA Goddard civil servant and contractor employees were invited to an all hands meeting with Center Director Chris Scolese and members of the senior management team to learn the latest information about a possible partial government shutdown that could happen as early as midnight. Credit: NASA/Goddard/Bill Hrybyk NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  6. Design and implementation of fast allergy skin test detector for traditional Chinese medicine injections

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Yubin; Xie, Yanming

    2017-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injections are prepared from active substances extracted from TCMs and other natural medicines to establish scientific and technological methods, based on TCM hypotheses and experiences. A device was designed to provide a fast allergy skin test detector for TCM injections that could be applied to drugs of a single component or complex components. A novel fast allergy skin test detector for TCM injections was developed combining direct-current main, drug solution permeation devices of various shape that were compatible with the skin test electrode, nano-sponge patch adsorption, and flexible liposome coverage technologies with high-amplitude pulse. The detector was characterized by simple structure, easy manipulation, low dose of drug required for the skin test, no irritation to human skin, and low-false positive rate. According to the pilot clinical use, it was able to meet the clinical demand and was promising for the prevention of allergy to TCM injections. PMID:28565781

  7. Optimal shutdown management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottasso, C. L.; Croce, A.; Riboldi, C. E. D.

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents a novel approach for the synthesis of the open-loop pitch profile during emergency shutdowns. The problem is of interest in the design of wind turbines, as such maneuvers often generate design driving loads on some of the machine components. The pitch profile synthesis is formulated as a constrained optimal control problem, solved numerically using a direct single shooting approach. A cost function expressing a compromise between load reduction and rotor overspeed is minimized with respect to the unknown blade pitch profile. Constraints may include a load reduction not-to-exceed the next dominating loads, a not-to-be-exceeded maximum rotor speed, and a maximum achievable blade pitch rate. Cost function and constraints are computed over a possibly large number of operating conditions, defined so as to cover as well as possible the operating situations encountered in the lifetime of the machine. All such conditions are simulated by using a high-fidelity aeroservoelastic model of the wind turbine, ensuring the accuracy of the evaluation of all relevant parameters. The paper demonstrates the capabilities of the novel proposed formulation, by optimizing the pitch profile of a multi-MW wind turbine. Results show that the procedure can reliably identify optimal pitch profiles that reduce design-driving loads, in a fully automated way.

  8. Startup, Shutdown, & Malfunction (SSM) Emissions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA issued a final action to ensure states have plans in place that are fully consistent with the Clean Air Act and recent court decisions concerning startup, shutdown and malfunction (SSM) operations.

  9. Control rod drive for reactor shutdown

    DOEpatents

    McKeehan, Ernest R.; Shawver, Bruce M.; Schiro, Donald J.; Taft, William E.

    1976-01-20

    A means for rapidly shutting down or scramming a nuclear reactor, such as a liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactor, and serves as a backup to the primary shutdown system. The control rod drive consists basically of an in-core assembly, a drive shaft and seal assembly, and a control drive mechanism. The control rod is driven into the core region of the reactor by gravity and hydraulic pressure forces supplied by the reactor coolant, thus assuring that common mode failures will not interfere with or prohibit scramming the reactor when necessary.

  10. Effect of venous injection site on accuracy of fast computed tomography (CT) estimation of myocardial perfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, M.R.; Rumberger, J.A.; Lerman, L.O.; Behrenbeck, T.; Sheedy, P.F.; Ritman, E.L. )

    1990-02-26

    Measurement of myocardial perfusion with fast CT, using venous injections of contrast, underestimates high flow rates. Accounting for intramyocardial blood volume improves the accuracy of such measurements but the additional influence of different contrast injection sites is unknown. To examine this, eight closed chest anesthetized dogs (18-24 kg) underwent fast CT studies of regional myocardial perfusion which were compared to microspheres (M). Dilute iohexol (0.5 mL/kg) was injected over 2.5 seconds, via, in turn, the pulmonary artery (PA), proximal inferior vena cava (IVC) and femoral vein (FV) during CT scans performed at rest and after vasodilation with adenosine (M flow range: 52-399 mL/100 g/minute). Correlations made with M were not significantly different for PA vs IVC (n = 24), PA vs FV (n = 22) and IVC vs FV (n = 44). To determine the relative influence of injection site on accuracy of measurements above normal flow rates (> 150mL/100g/minute), CT flow (mL/100g/minute; mean {+-}SD) was compared to M. Thus, at normal flow, some CT overestimation of myocardial perfusion occurred with PA injections but FV or IVC injections provided for accurate measurements. At higher flow rates only PA and IVC injections enabled accurate CT measurements of perfusion. This may be related to differing transit kinetics of the input bolus of contrast.

  11. Physiological adaptive indicators in fasted neonate broiler chicks in response to calcium gluconate injection.

    PubMed

    Khosravinia, H

    2016-06-01

    Four hundred and eighty mixed-sex broiler chicks aged 3 h after hatching were allotted according to a completely random design in a 6 × 2 × 2 factorial schedule into two groups of 12 replications of 20 chicks each. The main experimental factors were fasting for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h after chick placement and calcium gluconate (Ca-glu) injection (0 and 0.6 ml). Live body weight (BW) of chicks decreased linearly (Y = 43.36-0.109BW0 h , r(2)  = 0.876) as neonatal fasting extended. Injection of 0.6 ml Ca-glu at 3 h post-hatching did not affect weight loss of chicks. Yolk residuals (YR) utilized linearly (Y = 5.75-0.062YR, r(2)  = 0.956) by 0.062 g/h in neonate fasted chicks up to 48 h, showing no effect of Ca-glu injection. Neonatal fasting periods longer than 12 h increased liver weight (p < 0.05). The mean absolute and proportional (% of BW0 h ) breast and leg weight were reduced linearly as neonatal fasting extended (p < 0.05). Serum glucose concentration increased up to 6 h and then reduced linearly to 150 mg/dl after 48-h fasting. The Ca-glu treatment influenced serum glucose level for a short period up to 6 h of fasting. Serum Ca concentration sharply increased up to threefolds in the birds received Ca-glu injection resulting in acute hypercalcemia, then decreased to the initial level after 24-h feed withdrawal (p < 0.05). The mean serum level for creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, HDL, albumins and total proteins significantly increased during the fasting periods of 6 to 48 h and significantly elevated in the birds receiving 0.6-ml Ca-glu injection compared with the non-treated chicks (p < 0.05). It was concluded that subcutaneous administration of 0.6 ml Ca-glu in the chick's neck did not suitably support the increased metabolic demands for glucose and calcium in feed-deprived neonate chicks.

  12. Confirmation of shutdown cooling effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kotaro; Tabuchi, Masato; Sugimura, Naoki; Tatsumi, Masahiro

    2015-12-01

    After the Fukushima accidents, all nuclear power plants in Japan have gradually stopped their operations and have long periods of shutdown. During those periods, reactivity of fuels continues to change significantly especially for high-burnup UO2 fuels and MOX fuels due to radioactive decays. It is necessary to consider these isotopic changes precisely, to predict neutronics characteristics accurately. In this paper, shutdown cooling (SDC) effects of UO2 and MOX fuels that have unusual operation histories are confirmed by the advanced lattice code, AEGIS. The calculation results show that the effects need to be considered even after nuclear power plants come back to normal operation.

  13. Confirmation of shutdown cooling effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Kotaro Tabuchi, Masato; Sugimura, Naoki; Tatsumi, Masahiro

    2015-12-31

    After the Fukushima accidents, all nuclear power plants in Japan have gradually stopped their operations and have long periods of shutdown. During those periods, reactivity of fuels continues to change significantly especially for high-burnup UO{sub 2} fuels and MOX fuels due to radioactive decays. It is necessary to consider these isotopic changes precisely, to predict neutronics characteristics accurately. In this paper, shutdown cooling (SDC) effects of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels that have unusual operation histories are confirmed by the advanced lattice code, AEGIS. The calculation results show that the effects need to be considered even after nuclear power plants come back to normal operation.

  14. EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Paget, J.A.; Koutz, S.L.; Stone, R.S.; Stewart, H.B.

    1963-12-24

    An emergency shutdown or scram apparatus for use in a nuclear reactor that includes a neutron absorber suspended from a temperature responsive substance that is selected to fail at a preselected temperature in excess of the normal reactor operating temperature, whereby the neutron absorber is released and allowed to fall under gravity to a preselected position within the reactor core is presented. (AEC)

  15. Pharmacokinetic Properties of Fast-Acting Insulin Aspart Administered in Different Subcutaneous Injection Regions.

    PubMed

    Hövelmann, Ulrike; Heise, Tim; Nosek, Leszek; Sassenfeld, Bettina; Thomsen, Karen Margrete Due; Haahr, Hanne

    2017-05-01

    Fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart) is insulin aspart set in a new formulation with faster initial absorption after subcutaneous administration. This study investigated the pharmacokinetic properties, including the absolute bioavailability, of faster aspart when administered subcutaneously in the abdomen, upper arm or thigh. In a randomised, open-label, crossover trial, 21 healthy male subjects received a single injection of faster aspart at five dosing visits: 0.2 U/kg subcutaneously in the abdomen, upper arm and thigh, intramuscularly in the thigh and 0.02 U/kg intravenously. Blood sampling for pharmacokinetics was performed pre-dose and frequently thereafter until 12 h post-dose (8 h after intravenous administration). Onset of appearance (~3 min), time to 50% of maximum concentration (t Early 50% Cmax; ~20 min) and time to maximum concentration (t max; ~55 min) were all similar between injection regions. Early exposure within the first 2 h after injection (AUCIAsp,0-1h and AUCIAsp,0-2h) as well as maximum concentration (C max) were comparable for the abdomen and upper arm, but were ~25% lower for the thigh as seen previously for other mealtime insulin products. Total exposure (AUCIAsp,0-t) was similar for the abdomen, upper arm and thigh, and absolute bioavailability was ~80% after subcutaneous administration of faster aspart in all three injection regions. The current study supports the ultra-fast pharmacokinetic characteristics of faster aspart across different injection regions, with administration in the abdomen and upper arm resulting in greater early exposure than in the thigh. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02089451.

  16. A fast model for spreading of neutral particles injected locally into hot plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tokar, M. Z.

    2014-08-15

    A fast model for calculation of non-stationary 3-D profiles of the density for neutral particles locally released into a hot plasma is elaborated. The approach reduces non-stationary three-dimensional transport equations to a set of one-dimensional ones describing the time evolution of the radial profiles for several parameters characterizing adequately the three-dimensional structure. The method is applied to model the spreading process of carbon atoms released by laser desorption in an experimental device and the local injection of working gas into a fusion reactor. The associated heat loads onto the first wall are assessed.

  17. Fast high-throughput screening of temoporfin-loaded liposomal formulations prepared by ethanol injection method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kewei; Delaney, Joseph T; Schubert, Ulrich S; Fahr, Alfred

    2012-03-01

    A new strategy for fast, convenient high-throughput screening of liposomal formulations was developed, utilizing the automation of the so-called ethanol-injection method. This strategy was illustrated by the preparation and screening of the liposomal formulation library of a potent second-generation photosensitizer, temoporfin. Numerous liposomal formulations were efficiently prepared using a pipetting robot, followed by automated size characterization, using a dynamic light scattering plate reader. Incorporation efficiency of temoporfin and zeta potential were also detected in selected cases. To optimize the formulation, different parameters were investigated, including lipid types, lipid concentration in injected ethanol, ratio of ethanol to aqueous solution, ratio of drug to lipid, and the addition of functional phospholipid. Step-by-step small liposomes were prepared with high incorporation efficiency. At last, an optimized formulation was obtained for each lipid in the following condition: 36.4 mg·mL(-1) lipid, 13.1 mg·mL(-1) mPEG(2000)-DSPE, and 1:4 ethanol:buffer ratio. These liposomes were unilamellar spheres, with a diameter of approximately 50 nm, and were very stable for over 20 weeks. The results illustrate this approach to be promising for fast high-throughput screening of liposomal formulations.

  18. Reactor shutdown delays medical procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A longer-than-expected maintenance shutdown of the Canadian nuclear reactor that produces North America's entire supply of molybdenum-99 - from which the radioactive isotopes technetium-99 and iodine-131 are made - caused delays to the diagnosis and treatment of thousands of seriously ill patients last month. Technetium-99 is a key component of nuclear-medicine scans, while iodine-131 is used to treat cancer and other diseases of the thyroid. Production eventually resumed, but only after the Canadian government had overruled the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), which was still concerned about the reactor's safety.

  19. The FY2014 Government Shutdown: Economic Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    11 Jeffrey Jones, “U.S. Economic Confidence Continues to Slide Amid Shutdown,” Gallup Economy, October 15... Sachs initially predicted that the shutdown would reduce quarterly growth by 0.2 percentage points per week of its duration. After DOD recalled...furloughed workers, Goldman Sachs reduced its estimate to 0.14 percentage points per week for the remainder of the shutdown.32 They predicted that

  20. Fast magnetospheric echoes of artificially injected electrons observed above a bright auroral arc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, K.; Bernstein, W.

    1983-01-01

    Rocket-borne electron beam experiments confirmed earlier observations of fast magnetospheric echoes of artificially injected energetic electrons. A total of 234 echoes were observed at pitch angles from 9 to 10 deg at energies of 1.87 and 3.90 keV. Of these, 102 echoes are unambiguously related to preceding accelerator operations at 2, 4 or 8 keV energy and highest current levels resulting in the determination of transit times of typically 300 to 400 msec. When echoes are present in both energy channels, higher energy electrons lead lower energy ones by 50 to 70 msec. Adiabatic theory applied to the observations yields a reflection height of 3000 to 4000 km.

  1. Fast simultaneous determination of niobium and tantalum by Kalman Filter analysis with flow injection chemiluminescence method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxia; Li, Junfeng; Chen, Zhengxia; Liu, Mingyang; Wang, Hongyan

    2005-09-01

    A fast and highly efficient Kalman Filter analysis-flow injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method was developed to simultaneously determine trace amounts of niobium and tantalum in geological samples. The method, without the boring process of separation and dear instruments, is suitable for field scene analysis. The mixed chemiluminescence kinetic curve was analyzed by a Kalman Filter (KF) in this method to realize the simultaneous determination of niobium and tantalum. Possible interference elements in the determination were investigated. Under the selected conditions, the detection limits (3sigma, n = 11) of niobium(V) and tantalum(V) were 2.1 x 10(-3) microg g(-1) and 4.0 x 10(-3) microg g(-1), respectively, and the relative standard deviations were 4.9% and 3.3% (n = 9). The method was applied to the determination of niobium and tantalum in geological samples with satisfactory results.

  2. Gas injection and fast pressure-rise measurements for the Linac4 H- source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahner, E.; Chiggiato, P.; Lettry, J.; Mattei, S.; O'Neil, M.; Neupert, H.; Pasquino, C.; Schmitzer, C.

    2013-02-01

    In the era of the Large Hadron Collider, the CERN injector complex comprising the 34 years old Linac2 with its primary proton source, is presently upgraded with a new linear accelerator for H- (Linac4). The design, construction, and test of volume production and cesiated RF-driven H- ion sources is presently ongoing with the final goal of producing an H- beam with 80 mA beam current, 45 keV beam energy, 500 μs pulse length, and a repetition rate of 2 Hz. In order to have quantitative information of the hydrogen gas density at the moment of plasma ignition the dynamic vacuum properties of the plasma generator were studied experimentally. We describe the experimental setup and present fast pressure-rise measurements for different parameters of the gas injection system, such as gas species (H2, He, N2, Ar), piezo valve voltage pulse length (200 - 500 μs), and injection pressure (400 - 2800 mbar). The obtained data are compared with a conductance model of the plasma generator.

  3. Fast Acting Eddy Current Driven Valve for Massive Gas Injection on ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Lyttle, Mark S; Baylor, Larry R; Carmichael, Justin R; Combs, Stephen Kirk; Ericson, Milton Nance; Ezell, N Dianne Bull; Meitner, S. J.; Rasmussen, David A; Warmack, Robert J Bruce; Maruyama, So; Kiss, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    Tokamak plasma disruptions present a significant challenge to ITER as they can result in intense heat flux, large forces from halo and eddy currents, and potential first-wall damage from the generation of multi-MeV runaway electrons. Massive gas injection (MGI) of high Z material using fast acting valves is being explored on existing tokamaks and is planned for ITER as a method to evenly distribute the thermal load of the plasma to prevent melting, control the rate of the current decay to minimize mechanical loads, and to suppress the generation of runaway electrons. A fast acting valve and accompanying power supply have been designed and first test articles produced to meet the requirements for a disruption mitigation system on ITER. The test valve incorporates a flyer plate actuator similar to designs deployed on TEXTOR, ASDEX upgrade, and JET [1 3] of a size useful for ITER with special considerations to mitigate the high mechanical forces developed during actuation due to high background magnetic fields. The valve includes a tip design and all-metal valve stem sealing for compatibility with tritium and high neutron and gamma fluxes.

  4. 33 CFR 155.780 - Emergency shutdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emergency shutdown. 155.780..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.780 Emergency shutdown. (a) A tank vessel with a capacity of 250 or more barrels that is carrying oil or hazardous material as cargo must have on board an emergency means...

  5. 33 CFR 155.780 - Emergency shutdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency shutdown. 155.780..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.780 Emergency shutdown. (a) A tank vessel with a capacity of 250 or more barrels that is carrying oil or hazardous material as cargo must have on board an emergency means...

  6. 33 CFR 155.780 - Emergency shutdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emergency shutdown. 155.780..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.780 Emergency shutdown. (a) A tank vessel with a capacity of 250 or more barrels that is carrying oil or hazardous material as cargo must have on board an emergency means...

  7. 33 CFR 155.780 - Emergency shutdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency shutdown. 155.780..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.780 Emergency shutdown. (a) A tank vessel with a capacity of 250 or more barrels that is carrying oil or hazardous material as cargo must have on board an emergency means...

  8. Investigation of fast-ion instabilities and tearing-mode reduction during neutral beam injection in a reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, L.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Anderson, J. K.; Capecchi, W.; Eilerman, S.; Koliner, J. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Reusch, J.; Sarff, J. S.; Liu, D.

    2014-10-01

    Neutral beam injection into the MST-RFP is observed to drive instabilities that induce fast-ion transport and quench the fast-ion density below classical predictions. These instabilities are detected for both super- and sub-Alfvénic fast ions, indicating that free energy arises from the real space gradient. As plasma current and fast-ion species are changed, the mode number of the dominant instability varies to maintain the wave-particle resonance condition. The dominant instability also exhibits a dependence on fast-ion velocity (v). As v increases, the mode frequency linearly increases and the spatial asymmetry of associated density fluctuations becomes more pronounced. These features link the observed instabilities to continuum modes destabilized by strong drive. In addition to driving instabilities, fast ions are observed to affect intrinsic tearing modes. For certain plasma scenarios, fast ions reduce the core-resonant tearing mode amplitude by 60% while enhancing the kinetic dynamo arising from coherent interactions between density and radial magnetic fluctuations. This implies the potential importance of kinetic dynamo in the tearing mode suppression. Tearing modes can also impact fast-ion redistribution as suggested by edge-resonant tearing mode triggering of a chirping fast-ion mode. Work supported by US DOE.

  9. ACS SBC Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    This proposal is designed to permit recovery of the SBC {FUV MAMA} detector after an anomalous shutdown. Anomalous shutdowns can occur as a result of bright object violations which trigger the Bright Scene Detection or Software Global Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur as a result of SBC hardware problems. The recovery from anomalous shutdown procedure consists of four tests: a signal processing electronics check, a slow high voltage ramp-up to an intermediate voltage, a slow high-voltage ramp-up to the full operating voltage, and lastly, a Fold Test. During the two high-voltage ramp-ups, dark ACCUM exposures are taken. At high voltage, dark ACCUM exposures and diagnostics are taken. This proposal is based on proposal 11884, visits 1 to 4.

  10. ACS SBC Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit recovery of the SBC {FUV MAMA} detector after an anomalous shutdown. Anomalous shutdowns can occur as a result of bright object violations which trigger the Bright Scene Detection or Software Global Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur as a result of SBC hardware problems. The recovery from anomalous shutdown procedure consists of four tests: 1} a signal processing electronics check, 2} a slow high voltage ramp-up to an intermediate voltage, 3} a slow high-voltage ramp-up to the full operating voltage, and 4} a Fold Test. During the two high-voltage ramp-ups, dark ACCUM exposures are taken. At high voltage, dark ACCUM exposures and diagnostics are taken. This proposal is based on Proposal 12738 from Cycle 19.

  11. Perspectives on Low Power and Shutdown Risk

    SciTech Connect

    CAMP,ALLEN L.; WHITEHEAD,DONNIE W.; WHEELER,TIMOTHY A.; LEHNER,JOHN; CHU,TSONG-LUN; LOIS,ERASMAI; DROUIN,MARY

    2000-07-06

    This paper presents results from a program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to examine the risks from low power and shutdown operations. Significant progress has been made by the industry in reducing such risks; however, important operational events continue to occur. Current perceptions of low power and shutdown risks are discussed in the paper along with an assessment of the current methods for understanding important events and quantifying their associated risk.

  12. Fast simultaneous determination of BHA and TBHQ antioxidants in biodiesel by batch injection analysis using pulsed-amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Tormin, Thiago F; Cunha, Rafael R; Richter, Eduardo M; Munoz, Rodrigo A A

    2012-09-15

    We report the first amperometric method for the simultaneous determination of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) in biodiesel using batch-injection analysis (BIA) coupled to pulsed-amperometry. A sequence of potential pulses was selected in order to detect TBHQ and BHA separately in a single injection step at a glassy-carbon electrode. Samples were diluted in 50% v/v hydroethanolic solution with 0.1 mol L(-1) HClO(4) (supporting electrolyte) before injection using an electronic pipette. The method is highly precise (RSD<1%, n=10), fast (170 injections h(-1)), accurate (recovery between 100 and 110%), presents low detection limits (73 and 75 nmol L(-1) BHA and TBHQ, respectively), and can be easily adapted for on-site determinations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 40 CFR 63.1111 - Startup, shutdown, and malfunction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Startup, shutdown, and malfunction. 63... Control Technology Standards § 63.1111 Startup, shutdown, and malfunction. (a) Startup, shutdown, and... develop a written startup, shutdown, and malfunction plan that describes, in detail, procedures...

  14. Fast piezoelectric valve offering controlled gas injection in magnetically confined fusion plasmas for diagnostic and fuelling purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griener, M.; Schmitz, O.; Bald, K.; Bösser, D.; Cavedon, M.; De Marné, P.; Eich, T.; Fuchert, G.; Herrmann, A.; Kappatou, A.; Lunt, T.; Rohde, V.; Schweer, B.; Sochor, M.; Stroth, U.; Terra, A.; Wolfrum, E.

    2017-03-01

    In magnetically confined fusion plasmas controlled gas injection is crucial for plasma fuelling as well as for various diagnostic applications such as active spectroscopy. We present a new, versatile system for the injection of collimated thermal gas beams into a vacuum chamber. This system consists of a gas pressure chamber, sealed by a custom made piezo valve towards a small capillary for gas injection. The setup can directly be placed inside of the vacuum chamber of fusion devices as it is small and immune against high magnetic fields. This enables gas injection close to the plasma periphery with high duty cycles and fast switch on/off times ≲ 0.5 ms. In this work, we present the design details of this new injection system and a systematic characterization of the beam properties as well as the gas flowrates which can be accomplished. The thin and relatively short capillary yields a small divergence of the injected beam with a half opening angle of 20°. The gas box is designed for pre-fill pressures of 10 mbar up to 100 bars and makes a flowrate accessible from 1018 part/s up to 1023 part/s. It hence is a versatile system for both diagnostic as well as fuelling applications. The implementation of this system in ASDEX Upgrade will be described and its application for line ratio spectroscopy on helium will be demonstrated on a selected example.

  15. Fast piezoelectric valve offering controlled gas injection in magnetically confined fusion plasmas for diagnostic and fuelling purposes.

    PubMed

    Griener, M; Schmitz, O; Bald, K; Bösser, D; Cavedon, M; De Marné, P; Eich, T; Fuchert, G; Herrmann, A; Kappatou, A; Lunt, T; Rohde, V; Schweer, B; Sochor, M; Stroth, U; Terra, A; Wolfrum, E

    2017-03-01

    In magnetically confined fusion plasmas controlled gas injection is crucial for plasma fuelling as well as for various diagnostic applications such as active spectroscopy. We present a new, versatile system for the injection of collimated thermal gas beams into a vacuum chamber. This system consists of a gas pressure chamber, sealed by a custom made piezo valve towards a small capillary for gas injection. The setup can directly be placed inside of the vacuum chamber of fusion devices as it is small and immune against high magnetic fields. This enables gas injection close to the plasma periphery with high duty cycles and fast switch on/off times ≲ 0.5 ms. In this work, we present the design details of this new injection system and a systematic characterization of the beam properties as well as the gas flowrates which can be accomplished. The thin and relatively short capillary yields a small divergence of the injected beam with a half opening angle of 20°. The gas box is designed for pre-fill pressures of 10 mbar up to 100 bars and makes a flowrate accessible from 10(18) part/s up to 10(23) part/s. It hence is a versatile system for both diagnostic as well as fuelling applications. The implementation of this system in ASDEX Upgrade will be described and its application for line ratio spectroscopy on helium will be demonstrated on a selected example.

  16. STIS MAMA Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the STIS FUV MAMA or NUV MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flags are used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of three separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high voltage ramp-up, and 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage followed by a fold analysis test {See STIS ISR 98-02R}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 20 proposal 13150.

  17. ACS SBC Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the SBC {FUV MAMA} detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage. The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, high-voltage ramp-up to an intermediate voltage, 3} a slow high-voltage ramp-up to the nominal operating HV, and 4} fold analysis test. Each must be completed successfully before proceeding onto the next. During the two high-voltage ramp-ups, dark ACCUM exposures are taken. At high voltage, dark ACCUM exposures and diagnostics are taken. This proposal is based on Proposal 13163 from Cycle 20. For additional MAMA recovery information, see STIS ISR 98-02R.

  18. COS NUV Detector Recovery after Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the NUV-MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high-voltage ramp-up, 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage, and 4} fold analysis test {See COS TIR 2010-01}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 20 proposal 13129. Adjustments were made the the Software Global Monitor {SGM} to account for an increase in the dark counts due to window glow and to align the SGM to previously obtained Fold Analysis event data.

  19. COS NUV Detector Recovery After Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the NUV-MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMAâ??s health after an anomalous shutdown: signal processing electronics check, slow, intermediate voltage high-voltage ramp-up, ramp-up to full operating voltage, and fold analysis test {See COS TIR 2010-01}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 18 proposal 12430.

  20. STIS MAMA Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the STIS FUV MAMA or NUV MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flags are used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of three separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMAâ_Ts health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high voltage ramp-up, and 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage followed by a fold analysis test {See STIS ISR 98-02R}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 19 proposal 12779.

  1. COS NUV Detector Recovery After Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the NUV-MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMAâ_Ts health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high-voltage ramp-up, 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage, and 4} fold analysis test {See COS TIR 2010-01}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes almost the same steps as Cycle 19 proposal 12723. Adjustments were made the the Software Global Monitor {SGM} to account for an increase in the dark counts due to window glow and to align the SGM to previously obtained Fold Analysis event data.

  2. Shutdown system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Groh, Edward F.; Olson, Arne P.; Wade, David C.; Robinson, Bryan W.

    1984-01-01

    An ultimate shutdown system is provided for termination of neutronic activity in a nuclear reactor. The shutdown system includes bead chains comprising spherical containers suspended on a flexible cable. The containers are comprised of mating hemispherical shells which provide a ruggedized enclosure for reactor poison material. The bead chains, normally suspended above the reactor core on storage spools, are released for downward travel upon command from an external reactor monitor. The chains are capable of horizontal movement, so as to flow around obstructions in the reactor during their downward motion.

  3. Shutdown system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Groh, E.F.; Olson, A.P.; Wade, D.C.; Robinson, B.W.

    1984-06-05

    An ultimate shutdown system is provided for termination of neutronic activity in a nuclear reactor. The shutdown system includes bead chains comprising spherical containers suspended on a flexible cable. The containers are comprised of mating hemispherical shells which provide a ruggedized enclosure for reactor poison material. The bead chains, normally suspended above the reactor core on storage spools, are released for downward travel upon command from an external reactor monitor. The chains are capable of horizontal movement, so as to flow around obstructions in the reactor during their downward motion. 8 figs.

  4. Intermittent fasting modulation of the diabetic syndrome in streptozotocin-injected rats.

    PubMed

    Belkacemi, Louiza; Selselet-Attou, Ghalem; Hupkens, Emeline; Nguidjoe, Evrard; Louchami, Karim; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of intermittent overnight fasting in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). Over 30 days, groups of 5-6 control or STZ rats were allowed free food access, starved overnight, or exposed to a restricted food supply comparable to that ingested by the intermittently fasting animals. Intermittent fasting improved glucose tolerance, increased plasma insulin, and lowered Homeostatis Model Assessment index. Caloric restriction failed to cause such beneficial effects. The β-cell mass, as well as individual β-cell and islet area, was higher in intermittently fasting than in nonfasting STZ rats, whilst the percentage of apoptotic β-cells appeared lower in the former than latter STZ rats. In the calorie-restricted STZ rats, comparable findings were restricted to individual islet area and percentage of apoptotic cells. Hence, it is proposed that intermittent fasting could represent a possible approach to prevent or minimize disturbances of glucose homeostasis in human subjects.

  5. Fast ion confinement and stability in a neutral beam injected reversed field pincha)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. K.; Almagri, A. F.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Eilerman, S.; Forest, C. B.; Koliner, J. J.; Mirnov, V. V.; Morton, L. A.; Nornberg, M. D.; Parke, E.; Reusch, J. A.; Sarff, J. S.; Waksman, J.; Belykh, V.; Davydenko, V. I.; Ivanov, A. A.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Tsidulko, Y. A.; Lin, L.; Liu, D.; Fiksel, G.; Sakakita, H.; Spong, D. A.; Titus, J.

    2013-05-01

    The behavior of energetic ions is fundamentally important in the study of fusion plasmas. While well-studied in tokamak, spherical torus, and stellarator plasmas, relatively little is known in reversed field pinch plasmas about the dynamics of fast ions and the effects they cause as a large population. These studies are now underway in the Madison Symmetric Torus with an intense 25 keV, 1 MW hydrogen neutral beam injector (NBI). Measurements of the time-resolved fast ion distribution via a high energy neutral particle analyzer, as well as beam-target neutron flux (when NBI fuel is doped with 3-5% D2) both demonstrate that at low concentration the fast ion population is consistent with classical slowing of the fast ions, negligible cross-field transport, and charge exchange as the dominant ion loss mechanism. A significant population of fast ions develops; simulations predict a super-Alfvénic ion density of up to 25% of the electron density with both a significant velocity space gradient and a sharp radial density gradient. There are several effects on the background plasma including enhanced toroidal rotation, electron heating, and an altered current density profile. The abundant fast particles affect the plasma stability. Fast ions at the island of the core-most resonant tearing mode have a stabilizing effect, and up to 60% reduction in the magnetic fluctuation amplitude is observed during NBI. The sharp reduction in amplitude, however, has little effect on the underlying magnetic island structure. Simultaneously, beam driven instabilities are observed as repetitive ˜50 μs bursts which coincide with fast particle redistribution; data indicate a saturated core fast ion density well below purely classical predictions.

  6. Fast ion confinement and stability in a neutral beam injected reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J. K.; Almagri, A. F.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Eilerman, S.; Forest, C. B.; Koliner, J. J.; Mirnov, V. V.; Morton, L. A.; Nornberg, M. D.; Parke, E.; Reusch, J. A.; Sarff, J. S.; Waksman, J.; Belykh, V.; Davydenko, V. I.; Ivanov, A. A.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Tsidulko, Y. A.; Lin, L.; Liu, D.; and others

    2013-05-15

    The behavior of energetic ions is fundamentally important in the study of fusion plasmas. While well-studied in tokamak, spherical torus, and stellarator plasmas, relatively little is known in reversed field pinch plasmas about the dynamics of fast ions and the effects they cause as a large population. These studies are now underway in the Madison Symmetric Torus with an intense 25 keV, 1 MW hydrogen neutral beam injector (NBI). Measurements of the time-resolved fast ion distribution via a high energy neutral particle analyzer, as well as beam-target neutron flux (when NBI fuel is doped with 3–5% D{sub 2}) both demonstrate that at low concentration the fast ion population is consistent with classical slowing of the fast ions, negligible cross-field transport, and charge exchange as the dominant ion loss mechanism. A significant population of fast ions develops; simulations predict a super-Alfvénic ion density of up to 25% of the electron density with both a significant velocity space gradient and a sharp radial density gradient. There are several effects on the background plasma including enhanced toroidal rotation, electron heating, and an altered current density profile. The abundant fast particles affect the plasma stability. Fast ions at the island of the core-most resonant tearing mode have a stabilizing effect, and up to 60% reduction in the magnetic fluctuation amplitude is observed during NBI. The sharp reduction in amplitude, however, has little effect on the underlying magnetic island structure. Simultaneously, beam driven instabilities are observed as repetitive ∼50 μs bursts which coincide with fast particle redistribution; data indicate a saturated core fast ion density well below purely classical predictions.

  7. The 2013 US Government Shutdown (#Shutdown) and health: an emerging role for social media.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Raina M; Ha, Yoonhee P; Wong, Charlene A; Schwartz, H Andrew; Sap, Maarten; Ungar, Lyle H; Asch, David A

    2014-12-01

    In October 2013, multiple United States (US) federal health departments and agencies posted on Twitter, "We're sorry, but we will not be tweeting or responding to @replies during the shutdown. We'll be back as soon as possible!" These "last tweets" and the millions of responses they generated revealed social media's role as a forum for sharing and discussing information rapidly. Social media are now among the few dominant communication channels used today. We used social media to characterize the public discourse and sentiment about the shutdown. The 2013 shutdown represented an opportunity to explore the role social media might play in events that could affect health.

  8. Evaluation of injection methods for fast, high peak capacity separations with low thermal mass gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Brian D; Mannion, Brandyn C; To, Khang; Hoac, Trinh; Synovec, Robert E

    2015-05-01

    Low thermal mass gas chromatography (LTM-GC) was evaluated for rapid, high peak capacity separations with three injection methods: liquid, headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME), and direct vapor. An Agilent LTM equipped with a short microbore capillary column was operated at a column heating rate of 250 °C/min to produce a 60s separation. Two sets of experiments were conducted in parallel to characterize the instrumental platform. First, the three injection methods were performed in conjunction with in-house built high-speed cryo-focusing injection (HSCFI) to cryogenically trap and re-inject the analytes onto the LTM-GC column in a narrower band. Next, the three injection methods were performed natively with LTM-GC. Using HSCFI, the peak capacity of a separation of 50 nl of a 73 component liquid test mixture was 270, which was 23% higher than without HSCFI. Similar peak capacity gains were obtained when using the HSCFI with HS-SPME (25%), and even greater with vapor injection (56%). For the 100 μl vapor sample injected without HSCFI, the preconcentration factor, defined as the ratio of the maximum concentration of the detected analyte peak relative to the analyte concentration injected with the syringe, was determined to be 11 for the earliest eluting peak (most volatile analyte). In contrast, the preconcentration factor for the earliest eluting peak using HSCFI was 103. Therefore, LTM-GC is demonstrated to natively provide in situ analyte trapping, although not to as great an extent as with HSCFI. We also report the use of LTM-GC applied with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) detection for rapid, high peak capacity separations from SPME sampled banana peel headspace.

  9. 33 CFR 127.1205 - Emergency shutdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... piping system used to transfer LHG or its vapors to or from a vessel must have a quick-closing shutoff... controlled closing; and, (4) If the piping system is used to transfer a flammable LHG, either have fusible elements that melt at less than 105 °C (221 °F) and activate the emergency shutdown, or have a sensor that...

  10. 33 CFR 127.205 - Emergency shutdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.205 Emergency shutdown. Each transfer... automatically when the fixed sensors under § 127.201(b) measure LNG concentrations exceeding 40% of the...

  11. 33 CFR 127.1205 - Emergency shutdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1205 Emergency shutdown. (a) Each... valve to stop the flow of liquid and vapor from the waterfront facility handling LHG if a transfer...

  12. COS FUV Recovery after Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This proposal consists of the steps for turning on and ramping up the COS FUV high voltage in a conservative manner after a HV anomalous shutdown by executing a "reduced set" of visits from Cycle 19 Proposal 12810. The nature of the shutdown, i.e., over-light, HV current transient {"crackle"}, ion feedback {induced by a high energy particle}, or field emission {possibly caused by dust or other particulate on the QE grid or other close-by structure or hardware}, and the value of the commanded HV at the time of the shutdown will determine what visits are executed. Because of gain sag, commanded HV settings updates may be required. First, prior to execution of this proposal or selected visits from this proposal, all preliminary steps should be exercised to gather the necessary diagnostic data, e.g., science data evaluation {if a science exposure was in progress and the science data is available}, memory dumps {DCE, EXEC RAM, and possibly the CS BUFFER}, engineering telemetry, or other information that might provide insight as to the nature of the shutdown and estimated count rate. The complete step-by-step procedure is detailed in the Observing Description, but in summary, the following is done:Day 01 activities, visits 01-07, contain both QE grid off and on HV ramping to HVLow {100/100} with diagnostics {DCE dumps} and darks to exclude QE grid involvement in the shutdown. Subsequent to day 01, all HV ramping will be with the QE grid on with the same diagnostics and exposures. All days end with the setting of COS event flag 3 to prevent any FUV HV commanding.Time is allotted for cognizant detector and COS instrument scientist and engineers to examine data dumps, science exposures, and engineering telemetry. If all is well, the go-ahead will be given to clear flag 3 for the next day's visits.This proposal is modeled after the Cycle 19 Proposal 12718.

  13. Depression of fast axonal transport in axons demyelinated by intraneural injection of a neurotoxin from K. humboldtiana.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Martínez, E J; Cuéllar-Pedroza, L H; Rubio-Franchini, C; Jáuregui-Rincón, J; Joseph-Nathan, P

    1994-11-01

    Tullidinol, a neurotoxin extracted from the Karwinskia humboldtiana fruit, dissolved in peanut oil was injected into the right sciatic nerve of adult cats. The contralateral sciatic nerve received an equivalent volume of peanut oil alone. The fast axonal transport of labeled ([3H]Leucine) protein was studied in sensory and motor axons of both sciatic nerves. The radioactive label was pressure injected either into the L7 dorsal root ganglion or the ventral region of the same spinal cord segment. Several days after the toxin injection, the cat limped and the Achilles tendon reflex was nearly absent in the right hind limb. The amount of transported label was decreased distal to the site of toxin injection. Proximal to this site, the transported material was damned. Sensory and motor axons showed similar changes. In addition, the toxin produced demyelination and axonal degeneration. Axonal transport and the structure of the axons were normal in the contralateral nerve. Both, Schwann cells and axons of the right sciatic nerve showed globular inclusions, presumably oil droplets containing the toxin. We conclude that Schwann cells and axons as well are tullidinol targets.

  14. Investigation of transverse jet injections in a supersonic crossflow using fast-responding pressure-sensitive paint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crafton, Jim; Forlines, Alan; Palluconi, Steve; Hsu, Kuang-Yu; Carter, Campbell; Gruber, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Traditional pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) systems can provide data with high spatial resolution; however, the bandwidth is limited to a few Hz by the response time of the paint. Fast-responding paints have demonstrated response times of up to 100 kHz. Ultra-bright LEDs and fast-framing cameras combined with a porous polymer PSP can be used to produce a system capable of both high spatial resolution and high temporal bandwidth. Measurements of mean and unsteady pressure have been acquired on an experimental setup composed of a Mach-2 channel flow with transverse jet injection. The unsteady pressure data clearly resolve structures not present in the mean pressure data, including multiple lambda shocks upstream of a strong bow shock, high-frequency perturbations in the location of these shocks, and significant deformations of the bow shock structure. Time series of data can be extracted at each pixel, and the spectral content and phase relationship of the flow can be presented as maps of pressure fluctuations at specific frequencies or as correlation coefficients between a control point and the remaining flow. This type of map can be created using arrays of fast pressure transducers; here, we present data representing an array of over 26,000 fast pressure transducers.

  15. Fast electron spin resonance controlled manipulation of spin injection into quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, Andreas Siller, Jan; Schittny, Robert; Krämmer, Christoph; Kalt, Heinz; Hetterich, Michael

    2014-06-23

    In our spin-injection light-emitting diodes, electrons are spin-polarized in a semimagnetic ZnMnSe spin aligner and then injected into InGaAs quantum dots. The resulting electron spin state can be read out by measuring the circular polarization state of the emitted light. Here, we resonantly excite the Mn 3d electron spin system with microwave pulses and perform time-resolved measurements of the spin dynamics. We find that we are able to control the spin polarization of the injected electrons on a microsecond timescale. This electron spin resonance induced spin control could be one of the ingredients required to utilize the quantum dot electrons or the Mn spins as qubits.

  16. The AGS new fast extraction system for the g-2 experiment and RHIC injection

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1991-01-01

    The AGS requires a new fast extraction beam (NewFEB) system for the muon g-2 experiment and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The proposed NewFEB system will consist of a new fast multi-pulsing kicker placed at straight section G10 and an ejector septum magnet at H10, together will local orbit bumps generated by powering backleg windings on the AGS main magnets. The new system is capable of performing single bunch multiple extraction as often as every 8 ms up to 12 times per AGS cycle, in addition to the standard single turn fast extraction. The conceptual design of the NewFEB system will be discussed. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. 40 CFR 1037.660 - Automatic engine shutdown systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic engine shutdown systems... § 1037.660 Automatic engine shutdown systems. This section specifies requirements that apply for certified automatic engine shutdown systems (AES) that are modeled under § 1037.520. It does not apply for...

  18. 40 CFR 1037.660 - Automatic engine shutdown systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic engine shutdown systems... § 1037.660 Automatic engine shutdown systems. This section specifies requirements that apply for certified automatic engine shutdown systems (AES) that are modeled under § 1037.520. It does not apply for...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1272 - Startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions... Facilities § 63.1272 Startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions. (a) The provisions set forth in this subpart shall apply at all times except during startups or shutdowns, during malfunctions, and during periods...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1272 - Startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions... Facilities § 63.1272 Startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions. (a) The provisions set forth in this subpart shall apply at all times except during startups or shutdowns, during malfunctions, and during periods...

  1. 40 CFR 63.762 - Startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions... Facilities § 63.762 Startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions. (a) The provisions set forth in this subpart shall apply at all times except during startups or shutdowns, during malfunctions, and during periods of...

  2. 40 CFR 63.762 - Startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions... Facilities § 63.762 Startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions. (a) The provisions set forth in this subpart shall apply at all times except during startups or shutdowns, during malfunctions, and during periods of...

  3. Controlled shutdown of a fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Keskula, Donald H.

    2002-01-01

    A method is provided for the shutdown of a fuel cell system to relieve system overpressure while maintaining air compressor operation, and corresponding vent valving and control arrangement. The method and venting arrangement are employed in a fuel cell system, for instance a vehicle propulsion system, comprising, in fluid communication, an air compressor having an outlet for providing air to the system, a combustor operative to provide combustor exhaust to the fuel processor.

  4. Fasting plasma lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in Nigerian women using combined oral and progestin-only injectable contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Oyelola, O O

    1993-05-01

    Fasting plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein (apo) profiles were determined in Nigerian women using a low-dose combined oral (Lo-Feminal + Fe) (n = 18), a progestin-only injectable (Depo-Provera) (n = 16) contraceptives and matched controls (n = 18). The mean of plasma total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apo B and Lp(a) were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in women using contraceptives than the controls. The mean of total and LDL-cholesterol and apo B were also significantly higher in the oral contraceptive users than those on progestin-only injectables. Furthermore, the mean of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk indices, total/HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05) and LDL/HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.01), were significantly higher in women on oral contraceptives than the controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the indices in the women using progestin-only injectables and the controls. Based on this finding, it is concluded that the use of steroidal contraceptives is associated with alterations of lipid and apolipoprotein profiles in Nigerian women and that the use of low-dose combined oral contraceptives may be associated with an increased CVD risk.

  5. COS FUV Recovery after Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This proposal consists of the steps for turning on and ramping up the COS FUV high voltage in a safe and conservative manner after a HV anomalous shutdown by executing a "reduced set" of visits from Cycle 19 Proposal 12810. The nature of the shutdown, i.e., over-light, HV current transient {"crackle"}, ion feedback {induced by a high energy particle}, or field emission {possibly caused by dust or other particulate on the QE grid or other close-by structure or hardware}, and the value of the commanded HV at the time of the shutdown will determine what visits are executed. Because of gain sag, commanded HV settings updates may be required. First, prior to execution of this proposal or selected visits from this proposal, all preliminary steps should be exercised to gather the necessary diagnostic data, e.g., science data evaluation {if a science exposure was in progress and the science data is available}, memory dumps {DCE, EXEC RAM, and possibly the CS BUFFER}, engineering telemetry, or other information that might provide insight as to the nature of the shutdown and estimated count rate. The complete step-by-step procedure is detailed in the Observing Description, but in summary, the following is done:Day 01 activities, visits 01-07, contain both QE grid off and on HV ramping to HVLow {100/100} with diagnostics {DCE dumps} and darks to exclude QE grid involvement in the shutdown. Subsequent to day 01, all HV ramping will be with the QE grid on with the same diagnostics and exposures. All days end with the setting of COS event flag 3 to prevent any FUV HV commanding.Time is allotted for cognizant detector and COS instrument scientist and engineers to examine data dumps, science exposures, and engineering telemetry. If all is well, the go-ahead will be given to clear flag 3 for the next day's visits.This proposal is modeled after the Cycle 20 Proposal 13129.

  6. The 2013 US Government Shutdown (#Shutdown) and Health: An Emerging Role for Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Yoonhee P.; Wong, Charlene A.; Schwartz, H. Andrew; Sap, Maarten; Ungar, Lyle H.; Asch, David A.

    2014-01-01

    In October 2013, multiple United States (US) federal health departments and agencies posted on Twitter, “We’re sorry, but we will not be tweeting or responding to @replies during the shutdown. We’ll be back as soon as possible!” These “last tweets” and the millions of responses they generated revealed social media’s role as a forum for sharing and discussing information rapidly. Social media are now among the few dominant communication channels used today. We used social media to characterize the public discourse and sentiment about the shutdown. The 2013 shutdown represented an opportunity to explore the role social media might play in events that could affect health. PMID:25322303

  7. Fast screening of stabilizers in polymeric materials by flow injection-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Beißmann, Susanne; Reisinger, Michael; Toelgyesi, Laszlo; Klampfl, Christian; Buchberger, Wolfgang

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, the applicability of rapid flow injection-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for simultaneous qualitative screening of different classes of stabilizers in polymeric materials is demonstrated. Electrospray ionization and atmospherical pressure chemical ionization were compared, whereby the latter yielded generally poorer detection limits and only single charged ions that were for some analytes beyond the mass range of the quadrupole mass spectrometry. Positive electrospray ionization allowed the interference-free monitoring of multiple reaction monitoring transitions selective for 36 commonly used stabilizers without chromatographic separation. Real polymer samples were extracted by toluene and the method allowed the detection of analytes down to 0.00001-0.025 wt% depending on the stabilizer.

  8. Phase characteristics of rare earth elements in metallic fuel for a sodium-cooled fast reactor by injection casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuk, Seoung Woo; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Oh, Seok Jin; Park, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Chan Bock; Youn, Young-Sang; Kim, Jong-Yun

    2017-04-01

    Uranium-zirconium-rare earth (U-Zr-RE) fuel slugs for a sodium-cooled fast reactor were manufactured using a modified injection casting method, and investigated with respect to their uniformity, distribution, composition, and phase behavior according to RE content. Nd, Ce, Pr, and La were chosen as four representative lanthanide elements because they are considered to be major RE components of fuel ingots after pyroprocessing. Immiscible layers were found on the top layers of the melt-residue commensurate with higher fuel slug RE content. Scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) data showed that RE elements in the melt-residue were distributed uniformly throughout the fuel slugs. RE element agglomeration did not contaminate the fuel slugs but strongly affected the RE content of the slugs.

  9. Fast online emission monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in wastewater and product streams (using stripping with direct steam injection).

    PubMed

    Schocker, Alexander; Lissner, Bert

    2012-03-01

    Open-loop stripping analysis (also referred to as dynamic headspace) is a very flexible and robust technology for online monitoring of volatile organic compounds in wastewater or coolant. However, the quality and reliability of the analytical results depend strongly on the temperature during the stripping process. Hence, the careful and constant heating of the liquid phase inside the stripping column is a critical parameter. In addition, this stripping at high temperatures extends the spectrum of traceable organics to less volatile and more polar compounds with detection limits down to the ppm-level. This paper presents a novel and promising approach for fast, efficient, and constant heating by the direct injection of process steam into the strip medium. The performance of the system is demonstrated for temperatures up to 75 °C and traces of various hydrocarbons in water (e.g., tetrahydrofuran, methanol, 1-propanol, n-butanol, ethylbenzene).

  10. Radiation asymmetry and MHD activity in gas jet rapid shutdowns on Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olynyk, Geoffrey; Granetz, Robert; Whyte, Dennis; Alcator C-Mod Team

    2013-10-01

    Radiative rapid shutdown via massive noble gas injection (MGI) is an integral part of the ITER disruption mitigation system (DMS). However, observations have shown that the radiation during MGI rapid shutdowns may be spatially asymmetric, particularly during the initial phase when the plasma's thermal energy is converted to radiation. ITER requires the radiation peaking factor (PF) to be less than approximately 2.0 to 2.5 in this thermal quench (TQ) phase in order to prevent melting of the beryllium wall even in the case of a successful MGI rapid shutdown. We report on observations of rotating MHD modes in single- and multiple-gas-jet rapid shutdowns on Alcator C-Mod, and discuss the role of mode rotation during the TQ in setting the radiation peaking factor. The implications for the ITER DMS are discussed. This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FC02-99ER54512 and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada PGS D program.

  11. Inability of unpacked gooseneck liners to stop the sample liquid after injection with band formation (fast autosampler) into hot GC injectors.

    PubMed

    Bieri, Stefan; Christen, Philippe; Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni

    2004-03-15

    With the introduction of the fast autosampler, the rules on how to perform splitless injection should have been revisited: the fast autosampler releases the sample liquid as a band that is no longer nebulized by solvent vapors as in previous injection techniques. In empty gooseneck liners, the sample liquid is shot to the bottom of the injector and jumps around in a largely uncontrolled manner. Visual experiments showed that the liquid is partially rejected. Another portion passes by the column inlet into the column attachment region, while the last part may directly enter the column. The impact on chromatography was investigated by using a mixture of n-alkanes: the higher boiling components passing by the column entrance into the zone of the column attachment were largely lost, i.e., were discriminated against the volatile components. It was concluded that empty gooseneck liners are not suitable for injection by fast autosamplers.

  12. Fast in situ enzymatic gelation of PPO-PEO block copolymer for injectable intraocular lens in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hanna; Oh, Han Jin; Yoon, Kyung Chul; Tae, Giyoong; Kim, Young Ha

    2014-04-01

    Foldable intraocular lenses (IOLs) have been utilized to substitute natural lens of cataract patients. In this study, we developed a fast, in situ gelable hydrogel requiring no toxic agent as an injectable IOL material. A 4-armed PPO/PEO-phenol conjugate by a non-degradable linker was synthesized to form a hydrogel in situ by horseradish peroxidase. The gelation time and modulus could be controlled, ranging from 20 s to 2 min and from 1 to 43 kPa. The adhesion of human lens epithelial cells on the hydrogel was significantly reduced compared to that on commercial IOLs. The hydrogels were injected into the rabbit eyes to evaluate the in vivo biocompatibility for 8 weeks. Corneal endothelial cell loss and central corneal thickness were comparable with the common IOL implantation procedure. Histologically, the cornea and retina showed the intact structure. The change of refraction after application of pilocarpine was +0.42 D preoperatively and +0.83 D postoperatively, which may indicate the maintenance of accommodation amplitude.

  13. Quality assurance program plan fuel supply shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, I.L.

    1998-09-21

    This Quality Assurance Program plan (QAPP) describes how the Fuel Supply Shutdown (FSS) project organization implements the quality assurance requirements of HNF-MP-599, Project Hanford Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) and the B and W Hanford Company Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP), FSP-MP-004. The QAPP applies to facility structures, systems, and components and to activities (e.g., design, procurement, testing, operations, maintenance, etc.) that could affect structures, systems, and components. This QAPP also provides a roadmap of applicable Project Hanford Policies and Procedures (PHPP) which may be utilized by the FSS project organization to implement the requirements of this QAPP.

  14. Experimental area power monitoring during shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Pathiyil, J.

    1989-03-01

    The power consumption at the site is increasing every year and the power consumption in the fixed target beam lines is constantly changing for each run. Since we do not have an energy monitoring program in effect in the experimental areas; we are not in a position to tell whether we are using the electrical energy efficiently. The purpose of this study is to find the summer and winter base load of the three experimental areas while the beamlines are off and also to identify what kind loads are on. The most important purpose was to find the base loads in each of the big experimental halls during the shutdown.

  15. Rodded shutdown system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.; Govi, Aldo R.

    1978-01-01

    A top mounted nuclear reactor diverse rodded shutdown system utilizing gas fed into a pressure bearing bellows region sealed at the upper extremity to an armature. The armature is attached to a neutron absorber assembly by a series of shafts and connecting means. The armature is held in an uppermost position by an electromagnet assembly or by pressurized gas in a second embodiment. Deenergizing the electromagnet assembly, or venting the pressurized gas, causes the armature to fall by the force of gravity, thereby lowering the attached absorber assembly into the reactor core.

  16. Technical Assessment: WRAP 1 HVAC Passive Shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D.E.; Nash, C.R.; Stroup, J.L.

    1993-08-12

    As the result of careful interpretation of DOE Order 6430.lA and other DOE Orders, the HVAC system for WRAP 1 has been greatly simplified. The HVAC system is now designed to safely shut down to Passive State if power fails for any reason. The fans cease functioning, allowing the Zone 1 and Zone 2 HVAC Confinement Systems to breathe with respect to atmospheric pressure changes. Simplifying the HVAC system avoided overdesign. Construction costs were reduced by eliminating unnecessary equipment. This report summarizes work that was done to define the criteria, physical concepts, and operational experiences that lead to the passive shutdown design for WRAP 1 confinement HVAC systems.

  17. Automated system for fast and accurate analysis of SF6 injected in the surface ocean.

    PubMed

    Koo, Chul-Min; Lee, Kitack; Kim, Miok; Kim, Dae-Ok

    2005-11-01

    This paper describes an automated sampling and analysis system for the shipboard measurement of dissolved sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in surface marine environments into which SF6 has been deliberately released. This underway system includes a gas chromatograph associated with an electron capture detector, a fast and highly efficient SF6-extraction device, a global positioning system, and a data acquisition system based on Visual Basic 6.0/C 6.0. This work is distinct from previous studies in that it quantifies the efficiency of the SF6-extraction device and its carryover effect and examines the effect of surfactant on the SF6-extraction efficiency. Measurements can be continuously performed on seawater samples taken from a seawater line installed onboard a research vessel. The system runs on an hourly cycle during which one set of four SF6 standards is measured and SF6 derived from the seawater stream is subsequently analyzed for the rest of each 1 h period. This state-of-art system was successfully used to trace a water mass carrying Cochlodinium polykrikoides, which causes harmful algal blooms (HAB) in the coastal waters of southern Korea. The successful application of this analysis system in tracing the HAB-infected water mass suggests that the SF6 detection method described in this paper will improve the quality of the future study of biogeochemical processes in the marine environment.

  18. 49 CFR 192.167 - Compressor stations: Emergency shutdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY... Components § 192.167 Compressor stations: Emergency shutdown. (a) Except for unattended field compressor...

  19. Letter report seismic shutdown system failure mode and effect analysis

    SciTech Connect

    KECK, R.D.

    1999-09-01

    The Supply Ventilation System Seismic Shutdown ensures that the 234-52 building supply fans, the dry air process fans and vertical development calciner are shutdown following a seismic event. This evaluates the failure modes and determines the effects of the failure modes.

  20. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  1. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  2. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  3. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  4. 30 CFR 250.603 - Emergency shutdown system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....603 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... Well-Workover Operations § 250.603 Emergency shutdown system. When well-workover operations are conducted on a well with the tree removed, an emergency shutdown system (ESD) manually controlled...

  5. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor...

  6. Nuclear reactor shutdown control rod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bilibin, Konstantin

    1988-01-01

    A temperature responsive, self-actuated nuclear reactor shutdown control rod assembly 10. The upper end 18 of a lower drive line 17 fits within the lower end of an upper drive line 12. The lower end (not shown) of the lower drive line 17 is connected to a neutron absorber. During normal temperature conditions the lower drive line 17 is supported by detent means 22,26. When an overtemperature condition occurs thermal actuation means 34 urges ring 26 upwardly sufficiently to allow balls 22 to move radially outwardly thereby allowing lower drive line 17 to move downwardly toward the core of the nuclear reactor resulting in automatic reduction of the reactor powder.

  7. Self-actuating reactor shutdown system

    DOEpatents

    Barrus, Donald M.; Brummond, Willian A; Peterson, Leslie F.

    1988-01-01

    A control system for the automatic or self-actuated shutdown or "scram" of a nuclear reactor. The system is capable of initiating scram insertion by a signal from the plant protection system or by independent action directly sensing reactor conditions of low-flow or over-power. Self-actuation due to a loss of reactor coolant flow results from a decrease of pressure differential between the upper and lower ends of an absorber element. When the force due to this differential falls below the weight of the element, the element will fall by gravitational force to scram the reactor. Self-actuation due to high neutron flux is accomplished via a valve controlled by an electromagnet and a thermionic diode. In a reactor over-power, the diode will be heated to a change of state causing the electromagnet to be shorted thereby actuating the valve which provides the changed flow and pressure conditions required for scramming the absorber element.

  8. Magnetic latch trigger for inherent shutdown assembly

    DOEpatents

    Sowa, Edmund S.

    1976-01-01

    An inherent shutdown assembly for a nuclear reactor is provided. A neutron absorber is held ready to be inserted into the reactor core by a magnetic latch. The latch includes a magnet whose lines of force are linked by a yoke of material whose Curie point is at the critical temperature of the reactor at which the neutron absorber is to be inserted into the reactor core. The yoke is in contact with the core coolant or fissionable material so that when the coolant or the fissionable material increase in temperature above the Curie point the yoke loses its magnetic susceptibility and the magnetic link is broken, thereby causing the absorber to be released into the reactor core.

  9. The Shutdown Dissociation Scale (Shut-D)

    PubMed Central

    Schalinski, Inga; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary model of the defense cascade by Schauer and Elbert (2010) provides a theoretical frame for a short interview to assess problems underlying and leading to the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder. Based on known characteristics of the defense stages “fright,” “flag,” and “faint,” we designed a structured interview to assess the vulnerability for the respective types of dissociation. Most of the scales that assess dissociative phenomena are designed as self-report questionnaires. Their items are usually selected based on more heuristic considerations rather than a theoretical model and thus include anything from minor dissociative experiences to major pathological dissociation. The shutdown dissociation scale (Shut-D) was applied in several studies in patients with a history of multiple traumatic events and different disorders that have been shown previously to be prone to symptoms of dissociation. The goal of the present investigation was to obtain psychometric characteristics of the Shut-D (including factor structure, internal consistency, retest reliability, predictive, convergent and criterion-related concurrent validity). A total population of 225 patients and 68 healthy controls were accessed. Shut-D appears to have sufficient internal reliability, excellent retest reliability, high convergent validity, and satisfactory predictive validity, while the summed score of the scale reliably separates patients with exposure to trauma (in different diagnostic groups) from healthy controls. The Shut-D is a brief structured interview for assessing the vulnerability to dissociate as a consequence of exposure to traumatic stressors. The scale demonstrates high-quality psychometric properties and may be useful for researchers and clinicians in assessing shutdown dissociation as well as in predicting the risk of dissociative responding. PMID:25976478

  10. Fuel cell system logic for differentiating between rapid and normal shutdown commands

    DOEpatents

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2000-01-01

    A method of controlling the operation of a fuel cell system wherein each shutdown command for the system is subjected to decision logic which determines whether the command should be a normal shutdown command or rapid shutdown command. If the logic determines that the shutdown command should be a normal shutdown command, then the system is shutdown in a normal step-by-step process in which the hydrogen stream is consumed within the system. If the logic determines that the shutdown command should be a rapid shutdown command, the hydrogen stream is removed from the system either by dumping to atmosphere or routing to storage.

  11. An injectable and fast-degradable poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel fabricated via bioorthogonal strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huafang; Qin, Siyong; Dong, Hui; Lei, Qi; Su, Xin; Zhuo, Renxi; Zhong, Zhenlin

    2015-08-14

    Biocompatible and degradable injectable materials prepared via bioorthogonal reactions are highly promising for biomedical applications because they can be formed in situ and administered in a minimally invasive way. In this work, a PEG-based injectable hydrogel was fabricated via a copper-free, strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) click chemistry. Azide and cyclooctyne moieties on the PEG backbones underwent a rapid click reaction to trigger the formation of the hydrogel within several minutes. Resulting from the introduction of ester groups into the cross-linked network, the hydrogel presented pH-dependent hydrolysis and biological fast degradability. Good biocompatibility of the hydrogel was verified by in vitro cytotoxicity assay and in vivo studies. The hydrogel formed in situ after subcutaneously injecting the gel precursors into Kungming (KM) mice. The implanted hydrogel caused a mild inflammatory response in vivo, and the surrounding tissues fully recovered a week after the injection. The injectable and fast-degradable hydrogel fabricated by the bioorthogonal click reaction may be useful as biomaterials such as embolic agents for interventional therapy.

  12. Multicommuted flow injection method for fast photometric determination of phenolic compounds in commercial virgin olive oil samples.

    PubMed

    Lara-Ortega, Felipe J; Sainz-Gonzalo, Francisco J; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-01-15

    A multicommuted flow injection method has been developed for the determination of phenolic species in virgin olive oil samples. The method is based on the inhibitory effect of antioxidants on a stable and colored radical cation formation from the colorless compound N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD(•+)) in acidic medium in the presence of Fe(III) as oxidant. The signal inhibition by phenolic species and other antioxidants is proportional to their concentration in the olive oil sample. Absorbance was recorded at 515nm by means of a modular fiber optic spectrometer. Oleuropein was used as the standard for phenols determination and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (trolox) was the reference standard used for total antioxidant content calculation. Linear response was observed within the range of 250-1000mg/kg oleuropein, which was in accordance with phenolic contents observed in commercial extra virgin olive oil in the present study. Fast and low-volume liquid-liquid extraction of the samples using 60% MeOH was made previous to their insertion in the flow multicommuted system. The five three-way solenoid valves used for multicommuted liquid handling were controlled by a homemade electronic interface and Java-written software. The proposed approach was applied to different commercial extra virgin olive oil samples and the results were consistent with those obtained by the Folin Ciocalteu (FC) method. Total time for the sample preparation and the analysis required in the present approach can be drastically reduced: the throughput of the present analysis is 8 samples/h in contrast to 1sample/h of the conventional FC method. The present method is easy to implement in routine analysis and can be regarded as a feasible alternative to FC method.

  13. Influence of composition on setting kinetics of new injectable and/or fast setting tricalcium silicate cements.

    PubMed

    Setbon, H M; Devaux, J; Iserentant, A; Leloup, G; Leprince, J G

    2014-12-01

    New commercial tricalcium silicate based cements were elaborated to improve handling properties and setting time. The goals of the present work were: (i) to determine the composition of the new injectable and/or fast setting calcium silicate based cements, and (ii) to investigate the impact of the differences in composition on their setting kinetics. The materials considered were Angelus MTA™, Biodentine™, MM-MTA™, MTA-Caps™, and ProRoot MTA™ as control. Elemental composition of materials was studied by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy and X-ray Energy Dispersive analysis, whereas phases in presence were analyzed by Micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction analysis and cement surface by Scanning Electron Microscope. Setting kinetics was evaluated using rheometry. Elemental analysis revealed, for all cements, the presence of three major components: calcium, silicon and oxygen. Chlorine was detected in MM-MTA, MTA-Caps and Biodentine. Different radio-opacifiers were identified: bismuth oxide in ProRoot MTA, Angelus MTA and MM-MTA, zirconium oxide in Biodentine and calcium tungstate (CaWO4) in MTA-Caps. All cements were composed of di- and tri-calcium silicate, except Biodentine for which only the latter was detected. Major differences in setting kinetics were observed: a modulus of 8×10(8)Pa is reached after 12min for Biodentine, 150min for MM-MTA, 230min for Angelus MTA and 320min for ProRoot MTA. The maximum modulus reached by MTA-Caps was 7×10(8)Pa after 150min. Even if these cements possess some common compounds, major differences in their composition were observed between them, which directly influence their setting kinetics. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 40 CFR 1065.525 - Engine starting, restarting, and shutdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Performing an Emission Test Over Specified Duty Cycles § 1065.525 Engine starting, restarting, and shutdown. (a) For test intervals that require...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.525 - Engine starting, restarting, and shutdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Performing an Emission Test Over Specified Duty Cycles § 1065.525 Engine starting, restarting, and shutdown. (a) For test intervals that require...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.930 - Engine starting, restarting, and shutdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Field Testing and Portable Emission Measurement Systems § 1065.930 Engine starting, restarting, and shutdown. Unless the standard-setting part specifies...

  17. Fuel cell system shutdown with anode pressure control

    DOEpatents

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Doan, Tien M.; Keskula, Donald H.

    2002-01-01

    A venting methodology and pressure sensing and vent valving arrangement for monitoring anode bypass valve operating during the normal shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in vehicle propulsion systems. During a normal shutdown routine, the pressure differential between the anode inlet and anode outlet is monitored in real time in a period corresponding to the normal closing speed of the anode bypass valve and the pressure differential at the end of the closing cycle of the anode bypass valve is compared to the pressure differential at the beginning of the closing cycle. If the difference in pressure differential at the beginning and end of the anode bypass closing cycle indicates that the anode bypass valve has not properly closed, a system controller switches from a normal shutdown mode to a rapid shutdown mode in which the anode inlet is instantaneously vented by rapid vents.

  18. Startup, Shutdown, & Malfunction (SSM) Emissions at Industrial Facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA issued a final action to ensure states have plans in place that are fully consistent with the Clean Air Act and recent court decisions concerning startup, shutdown and malfunction (SSM) operations.

  19. Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility Interim Operational Safety Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-09-06

    The Interim Operational Safety Requirements for the Fuel Supply Shutdown (FSS) Facility define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management of administrative controls to ensure safe operation of the facility.

  20. 46 CFR 153.296 - Emergency shutdown stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., a cargo pump, or a water spray system, must be of a type that will not defeat the operation of other... this part. (e) Each emergency shutdown station must have the controls necessary to stop all cargo...

  1. The analysis of ballistic capabilities for countering disturbances associated with temporary emergency electric propulsion shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinov, M. S.; Nguyen, D. N.

    2016-12-01

    The paper analyzes the possibility for countering ballistic perturbations of the interplanetary transfer trajectory of the spacecraft with electric propulsion (EP) associated with the temporary impossibility of the normal use of the EP in phases of the heliocentric transfer. The main result of the present study is the method for the determination of a new nominal trajectory, at any point of which the allowed duration of the emergency shutdown of electric propulsion is large enough. The numerical analysis is given for one of the possible scenarios of spacecraft injection into the operational heliocentric orbit for solar research.

  2. Experiments in DIII-D toward achieving rapid shutdown with runaway electron suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Hollmann, E. M.; Commaux, Nicolas JC; Eidietis, N. W.; Evans, T. E.; Humphreys, D. A.; James, A. N.; Jernigan, T. C.; Parks, P. B.; Strait, E. J.; Wesley, J. C.; Yu, J.H.; Austin, M. E.; Baylor, Larry R; Brooks, N. H.; Izzo, V. A.; Jackson, G. L.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Wu, W.

    2010-01-01

    Experiments have been performed in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] toward understanding runaway electron formation and amplification during rapid discharge shutdown, as well as toward achieving complete collisional suppression of these runaway electrons via massive delivery of impurities. Runaway acceleration and amplification appear to be well explained using the zero-dimensional (0D) current quench toroidal electric field. 0D or even one-dimensional modeling using a Dreicer seed term, however, appears to be too small to explain the initial runaway seed formation. Up to 15% of the line-average electron density required for complete runaway suppression has been achieved in the middle of the current quench using optimized massive gas injection with multiple small gas valves firing simultaneously. The novel rapid shutdown techniques of massive shattered pellet injection and shell pellet injection have been demonstrated for the first time. Experiments using external magnetic perturbations to deconfine runaways have shown promising preliminary results. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3309426

  3. Experiments in DIII-D toward achieving rapid shutdown with runaway electron suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Hollmann, E. M.; James, A. N.; Yu, J. H.; Izzo, V. A.; Commaux, N.; Jernigan, T. C.; Baylor, L. R.; Eidietis, N. W.; Parks, P. B.; Wesley, J. C.; Brooks, N. H.; Jackson, G. L.; Zeeland, M. A. van; Wu, W.; Evans, T. E.; Humphreys, D. A.; Strait, E. J.; Austin, M. E.

    2010-05-15

    Experiments have been performed in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] toward understanding runaway electron formation and amplification during rapid discharge shutdown, as well as toward achieving complete collisional suppression of these runaway electrons via massive delivery of impurities. Runaway acceleration and amplification appear to be well explained using the zero-dimensional (0D) current quench toroidal electric field. 0D or even one-dimensional modeling using a Dreicer seed term, however, appears to be too small to explain the initial runaway seed formation. Up to 15% of the line-average electron density required for complete runaway suppression has been achieved in the middle of the current quench using optimized massive gas injection with multiple small gas valves firing simultaneously. The novel rapid shutdown techniques of massive shattered pellet injection and shell pellet injection have been demonstrated for the first time. Experiments using external magnetic perturbations to deconfine runaways have shown promising preliminary results.

  4. Risk impact of BWR technical specifications requirements during shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Staple, B.D.; Kirk, H.K.; Yakle, J.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents an application of probabilistic models and risk based criteria for determining the risk impact of the Limiting Conditions of Operations (LCOs) in the Technical Specifications (TSs) of a boiling water reactor during shutdown. This analysis studied the risk impact of the current requirements of Allowed Outage Times (AOTs) and Surveillance Test Intervals (STIs) in eight Plant Operational States (POSs) which encompass power operations, shutdown, and refueling. This report also discusses insights concerning TS action statements.

  5. Acceptance test report for the safety class shutdown system

    SciTech Connect

    Zuroff, W.F.

    1996-10-17

    This document provides the Acceptance Test Report for the successful testing of the Safety Shutdown Circuit. The test was done in accordance with the requirements that were defined in WHC-SD-WM-SCH-003, Interim Stabilization Safety Class Trip Circuit CGI Dedication Criteria. The actual test procedure document was contained in WHC-SD-WM-ATP-185, Acceptance Test Procedure for the Safety Class Shutdown System.

  6. Passive shut-down heat removal system

    DOEpatents

    Hundal, Rolv; Sharbaugh, John E.

    1988-01-01

    An improved shut-down heat removal system for a liquid metal nuclear reactor of the type having a vessel for holding hot and cold pools of liquid sodium is disclosed herein. Generally, the improved system comprises a redan or barrier within the reactor vessel which allows an auxiliary heat exchanger to become immersed in liquid sodium from the hot pool whenever the reactor pump fails to generate a metal-circulating pressure differential between the hot and cold pools of sodium. This redan also defines an alternative circulation path between the hot and cold pools of sodium in order to equilibrate the distribution of the decay heat from the reactor core. The invention may take the form of a redan or barrier that circumscribes the inner wall of the reactor vessel, thereby defining an annular space therebetween. In this embodiment, the bottom of the annular space communicates with the cold pool of sodium, and the auxiliary heat exchanger is placed in this annular space just above the drawn-down level that the liquid sodium assumes during normal operating conditions. Alternatively, the redan of the invention may include a pair of vertically oriented, concentrically disposed standpipes having a piston member disposed between them that operates somewhat like a pressure-sensitive valve. In both embodiments, the cessation of the pressure differential that is normally created by the reactor pump causes the auxiliary heat exchanger to be immersed in liquid sodium from the hot pool. Additionally, the redan in both embodiments forms a circulation flow path between the hot and cold pools so that the decay heat from the nuclear core is uniformly distributed within the vessel.

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.

    2013-09-30

    This report fulfills the M2 milestone M2FT-13PN0912022, “Stranded Sites De-Inventorying Report.” In January 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013). Among the elements contained in this strategy is an initial focus on accepting used nuclear fuel from shutdown reactor sites. This focus is consistent with the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, which identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses (BRC 2012). Shutdown sites are defined as those commercial nuclear power reactor sites where the nuclear power reactors have been shut down and the site has been decommissioned or is undergoing decommissioning. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from 12 shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. These sites have no other operating nuclear power reactors at their sites and have also notified the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission that their reactors have permanently ceased power operations and that nuclear fuel has been permanently removed from their reactor vessels. Shutdown reactors at sites having other operating reactors are not included in this evaluation.

  8. Reducing patient discomfort during digital blockade: The subcutaneous single injection digital block – A simple, safe and fast procedure

    PubMed Central

    Brutus, JP; Nikolis, A; Baeten, Y; Chahidi, N; Kinnen, L; Ledoux, P; Moermans, JP

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Regional anesthesia of a single finger is commonly achieved by the traditional ring block, which requires at least two painful injections in the digit. Single injection digital block techniques have been described to avoid this problem. Among these, the subcutaneous technique described by Harbison appears to be safe and to allow most procedures to be carried out with good tolerance. OBJECTIVES: A prospective study was designed to evaluate the results of the subcutaneous technique in terms of patient tolerance, distribution of anesthesia and efficiency. METHODS: All blocks were performed by a single investigator. A visual analog scale was used to evaluate pain associated with the injection. Prick testing was used to evaluate the quality of anesthesia at the volar and dorsal aspects of the phalanxes. Tolerance to the surgical procedure and the need for additional injections were also recorded. RESULTS: This technique allowed surgery to be performed without complementary injection most of the time and was very well tolerated. The dorsum of the proximal phalanx, however, was unpredictably included in the anesthetized territory. CONCLUSION: The subcutaneous single injection digital block is safe, efficient and easy to perform. It allows the treatment of all conditions on the volar aspect of the finger and on the dorsal aspect of the distal and middle phalanxes. For surgery on the dorsal aspect of the proximal phalanx, a combined single injection technique or a supplementary dorsal block should be used. PMID:24115847

  9. An influence of long-lasting and gradual magnetic flux transport on fate of magnetotail fast plasma flows: An energetic particle injection substorm event study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowada, Motoharu; Fu, Suiyan; Parks, George K.; Pulkkinen, Tuija I.; Pu, Zuyin

    2014-10-01

    Based on multi-satellite and ground observations, we investigated an influence of long-lasting and gradual enhancements of magnetic flux transport rate on the magnetotail fast flow duration. On March 10th, 2009, THEMIS-B, which was located in the central plasma sheet of middle distant magnetotail (XGSM ~-25.8 RE), observed the fast flows with the velocity exceeding 300 km/s, lasting over 3 h for intense southward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) period. During long-lasting fast flows, AL index variations were very extensive and their recovery was much slow. Pi 2 waves were observed at the ground observatories around the THEMIS's footpoints and at low-/mid-latitudes. The aspect for these AL variations suggests Steady Magnetospheric Convection (SMC), but clear substorm signatures were also observed. Further magnetic dipolarization was detected by THEMIS-A at XGSM ~-8.2 RE and its nearby THEMIS-E. Only THEMIS-A observed the associated energetic electron flux enhancements. Therefore, the fast flows occurred during substorm with energetic particle injections at “imitative” SMC, which would be driven by prolonged intense southward IMF. The cumulative transport rates of magnetic and Poynting fluxes consecutively and gradually enhanced. On the other hand, THEMIS-C detected much shorter fast flows with the duration of 37 min at XGSM ~-18.1 RE and weak/gradual substorm-associated dipolarization. However, the cumulative magnetic flux transport rate was enhanced only during the fast flow interval and was saturated after the fast flows. From different magnetic transport rate profiles at THEMIS-B and THEMIS-C, the realms of dipolar-configured field lines expanded to near THEMIS-C's position responsible for long-lasting fast flow-associated consecutive and gradual magnetic flux pileup. Because the resultant “high-speed flow braking” region was retreated into a few RE tailward direction, long-lasting fast flows were almost stemmed. These results suggest that the

  10. Staged venting of fuel cell system during rapid shutdown

    DOEpatents

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2004-09-14

    A venting methodology and system for rapid shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in a vehicle propulsion system. H.sub.2 and air flows to the fuel cell stack are slowly bypassed to the combustor upon receipt of a rapid shutdown command. The bypass occurs over a period of time (for example one to five seconds) using conveniently-sized bypass valves. Upon receipt of the rapid shutdown command, the anode inlet of the fuel cell stack is instantaneously vented to a remote vent to remove all H.sub.2 from the stack. Airflow to the cathode inlet of the fuel cell stack gradually diminishes over the bypass period, and when the airflow bypass is complete the cathode inlet is also instantaneously vented to a remote vent to eliminate pressure differentials across the stack.

  11. Staged venting of fuel cell system during rapid shutdown

    DOEpatents

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Doan, Tien M.; Keskula, Donald H.

    2002-01-01

    A venting methodology and system for rapid shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in a vehicle propulsion system. H.sub.2 and air flows to the fuel cell stack are slowly bypassed to the combustor upon receipt of a rapid shutdown command. The bypass occurs over a period of time (for example one to five seconds) using conveniently-sized bypass valves. Upon receipt of the rapid shutdown command, the anode inlet of the fuel cell stack is instantaneously vented to a remote vent to remove all H.sub.2 from the stack. Airflow to the cathode inlet of the fuel cell stack gradually diminishes over the bypass period, and when the airflow bypass is complete the cathode inlet is also instantaneously vented to a remote vent to eliminate pressure differentials across the stack.

  12. International Collaboration with the Shutdown of the BN-350 Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. Michelbacher; P.B. Wells; N. Organ; D. Wells

    2005-08-01

    Representatives from the United States and the United Kingdom discussed areas where collaboration on the shutdown of the BN-350 Reactor in Aktau, Kazakhstan would benefit not only Kazakhstan, but would also help to assure the successful shutdown of the reactor. A fundamental understanding of the basis for collaboration has been for each side to ‘add value’ to each of the project areas, rather than simply substitute for each other’s experience. This approach has brought distinct technical and management benefits to the decommissioning activities in Kazakhstan.

  13. Puget Sound acidity levels drop after ASARCO shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    The levels of acidity in Puget Sound region rainfall have decreased significantly since the shutdown of the ASARCO copper smelter in Tacoma, Washington, according to a study funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Results indicate that sulfate and hydrogen ion concentrations obtained from samples taken before the closure were significantly different than those collected after the shutdown. Rainwater samples collected downwind during smelter operation were also significantly different from those collected upwind. Sulfur dioxide is considered to be one of the principal contributors to acid rain. The smelter was a major source of sulfur dioxide emissions in the Puget Sound region before it shut down in March 1985.

  14. Evaluation of reactivity shutdown margin for nuclear fuel reload optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Hing-Ip; Maldonado, G.I.

    1995-12-31

    The FORMOSA-P code is a nuclear fuel management optimization package that combines simulated annealing (SA) and nodal generalized perturbation theory (GPT). Recent studies at Electricite de France (EdF-Clamart) have produced good results for power-peaking minimizations under multiple limiting control rod configurations. However, since the reactivity shutdown margin is not explicitly treated as an objective or constraint function, then any optimal loading patterns (LPs) are not guaranteed to yield an adequate shutdown margin (SDM). This study describes the implementation of the SDM calculation within a FORMOSA-P optimization. Maintaining all additional computational requirements to a minimum was a key consideration.

  15. Fast Flux Test Facility project plan. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hulvey, R.K.

    1995-11-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Transition Project Plan, Revision 2, provides changes to the major elements and project baseline for the deactivation activities necessary to transition the FFTF to a radiologically and industrially safe shutdown condition.

  16. Exploring Liquid Sequential Injection Chromatography to Teach Fundamentals of Separation Methods: A Very Fast Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penteado, Jose C.; Masini, Jorge Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Influence of the solvent strength determined by the addition of a mobile-phase organic modifier and pH on chromatographic separation of sorbic acid and vanillin has been investigated by the relatively new technique, liquid sequential injection chromatography (SIC). This technique uses reversed-phase monolithic stationary phase to execute fast…

  17. Exploring Liquid Sequential Injection Chromatography to Teach Fundamentals of Separation Methods: A Very Fast Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penteado, Jose C.; Masini, Jorge Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Influence of the solvent strength determined by the addition of a mobile-phase organic modifier and pH on chromatographic separation of sorbic acid and vanillin has been investigated by the relatively new technique, liquid sequential injection chromatography (SIC). This technique uses reversed-phase monolithic stationary phase to execute fast…

  18. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.; Massaro, Lawrence M.; Jensen, Philip J.

    2016-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power plant sites was performed. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: Characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory A description of the on-site infrastructure at the shutdown sites An evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and transportation experience at the shutdown sites An evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of SNF and GTCC waste were the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel inventory database, industry publications such as StoreFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of on-site infrastructure and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included information collected during site visits, information provided by managers at the shutdown sites, Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005, Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994, industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions, and Google Earth. State staff, State Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative have participated in nine of the shutdown site visits. Every shutdown site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an

  19. Fast NDE of Superconducting Magnet Wires using a Flow-Through SQUID Microscope with Coaxial Current Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, J.; Wellstood, F. C.; Weinstock, H.

    2007-03-01

    We have developed a cryocooled high-Tc SQUID microscope for fast non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of long wires, designed for detecting defects in superconducting magnet wire. A feedthrough mechanism pulls the wire at speeds of up to 20 cm/s through a thin mylar tube that separates the room temperature wire from the SQUID. In order to null the magnetic field from bulk current flow the current return path is coaxial with the wire. We present results on test wires and samples of NbTi superconducting wire. By comparison with analytical and numerical models, we extract information from the data, such as defect size and location, and also outline a method for fast automated detection of defects in long wires.

  20. Repetitive Solid Spherical Pellet Injection and Irradiation toward the Repetitive-mode Fast-Ignition Fusion miniReactor CANDY.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HANAYAMA, Ryohei; KOMEDA, Osamu; NISHIMURA, Yasuhiko; MORI, Yoshitaka; ISHII, Katsuhiro; NAKAYAMA, Suisei; OKIHARA, Shinichiro; FUJITA, Kazuhisa; SEKINE, Takashi; SATO, Nakahiro; KURITA, Takashi; KAWASHIMA, Toshiyuki; KAN, Hirofumi; NAKAMURA, Naoki; KONDO, Takuya; FUJINE, Manabu; AZUMA, Hirozumi; HIOKI, Tatsumi; KAKENO, Mitsutaka; MOTOHIRO, Tomoyoshi; SUNAHARA, Atsushi; SENTOKU, Yasuhiko; MIURA, Eisuke; KITAGAWA, Yoneyoshi

    2016-03-01

    Pellet injection and repetitive laser illumination are key technologies for realizing inertial fusion energy[1-4]. Neutron generator using lasers also requires a repeating pellet target supplier. Here we present the first demonstration of target injection and neutron generation[5]. We injected more than 1300 spherical deuterated polystyrene(C8D8) bead pellet targets during 23 minutes at 1 Hz(Fig. 1). After the pellet targets fell for a distance of 18 cm, we applied the synchronized laser-diode-pumped ultra-intense laser HAMA. The laser intensity at the focal point is 5 x 1018 W/cm2, which is high enough to generate neutrons. As a result of the irradiation, we produced 2.45-MeV DD neutrons. Figure 2 shows the neutron time-of-flight signals detected by plastic scintillators coupled to photomultipliers. The neutron energy was calculated by the time-of-flight method. The maximum neutron yield was 9.5 x 104/4π sr. The result is a step toward fusion power and also suggests possible industrial neutron sources.

  1. 46 CFR 153.296 - Emergency shutdown stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shutdown station must contain a single remote actuator for all quick closing shutoff valves required by... on the tankship. (f) Any remote emergency actuator, such as that for a quick closing shut-off valve... remote emergency actuators. The emergency action must occur whether one or several actuators are...

  2. 30 CFR 250.603 - Emergency shutdown system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emergency shutdown system. 250.603 Section 250.603 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Workover...

  3. 30 CFR 250.503 - Emergency shutdown system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emergency shutdown system. 250.503 Section 250.503 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion...

  4. 30 CFR 250.503 - Emergency shutdown system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency shutdown system. 250.503 Section 250.503 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.503...

  5. 30 CFR 250.603 - Emergency shutdown system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emergency shutdown system. 250.603 Section 250.603 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Workover...

  6. 30 CFR 250.603 - Emergency shutdown system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency shutdown system. 250.603 Section 250.603 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.603 Emergency...

  7. 30 CFR 250.503 - Emergency shutdown system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emergency shutdown system. 250.503 Section 250.503 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion...

  8. 30 CFR 250.503 - Emergency shutdown system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emergency shutdown system. 250.503 Section 250.503 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion...

  9. Avoiding compressor surge during emergency shutdown hybridturbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pezzini, Paolo; Tucker, David; Traverso, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    A new emergency shutdown procedure for a direct-fired fuel cell turbine hybrid power system was evaluated using a hardware-based simulation of an integrated gasifier/fuel cell/turbine hybrid cycle (IGFC), implemented through the Hybrid Performance (Hyper) project at the National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy (NETL). The Hyper facility is designed to explore dynamic operation of hybrid systems and quantitatively characterize such transient behavior. It is possible to model, test, and evaluate the effects of different parameters on the design and operation of a gasifier/fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid system and provide a means of quantifying risk mitigation strategies. An open-loop system analysis regarding the dynamic effect of bleed air, cold air bypass, and load bank is presented in order to evaluate the combination of these three main actuators during emergency shutdown. In the previous Hybrid control system architecture, catastrophic compressor failures were observed when the fuel and load bank were cut off during emergency shutdown strategy. Improvements were achieved using a nonlinear fuel valve ramp down when the load bank was not operating. Experiments in load bank operation show compressor surge and stall after emergency shutdown activation. The difficulties in finding an optimal compressor and cathode mass flow for mitigation of surge and stall using these actuators are illustrated.

  10. 2004 Fermilab fall shutdown p-bar water issues

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, Albert; Schneider, Frank; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    I was assigned to Frank Schneider, who works within the Accelerator Division Water Group. Frank would educate me with issues pertaining to water flow cooling at the P-Bar facility. Also during the shutdown period, water issues in the Pre-Vault Stub Room would be addressed.

  11. Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-25

    call CRS at 7-5700; or • see the “Key Policy Staff” table at the end of this report. For analysis of potential effects of a shutdown on the...21 Key Policy Staff...appropriations acts (e.g., entitlements like Social Security and other mandatory spending) also may be affected by a funding gap, if program execution

  12. 30 CFR 250.503 - Emergency shutdown system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....503 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... Well-Completion Operations § 250.503 Emergency shutdown system. When well-completion operations are conducted on a platform where there are other hydrocarbon-producing wells or other hydrocarbon flow,...

  13. A fast screening method for the presence of atrazine and other triazines in water using flow injection with chemiluminescent detection.

    PubMed

    Beale, David J; Porter, Nichola A; Roddick, Felicity A

    2009-04-30

    Atrazine is a triazine herbicide which contains two secondary aliphatic amine groups. Previous studies have shown that aliphatic amines react with tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(III) to produce chemiluminescence. This paper describes the application of tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(III) to the detection of atrazine and related triazine herbicides in water by flow injection chemiluminescence analysis. The optimised experimental conditions were determined to be: sample and carrier flow rates of 4.6 mL min(-1), sample at pH 9 buffered with 50mM borax, and reagent concentration of 1mM tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(III) in 20mM H(2)SO(4) (pH 1). Under these conditions, the logarithm of the chemiluminescence intensity versus concentration was linear in the range of 2.15-2150 microg L(-1) for samples in MilliQ water, and the limit of detection of atrazine in water was determined to be 1.3+/-0.1 microg L(-1). Validation of the method was performed using direct injection HPLC. The presence of natural organic matter (NOM) significantly increased the chemiluminescence, masking the signal generated by atrazine. Isolating the target analyte via solid phase extraction (SPE) prior to analysis removed this interference and concentrated the samples, resulting in a greatly improved sensitivity with a detection limit of 14+/-2 ng L(-1).

  14. [Optimization of reaction conditions and methodological investigation on microtox-based fast testing system for traditional Chinese medicine injection].

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong-Li; Li, Xiao-Rong; Yan, Liang-Chun; Zhao, Jun-Ning

    2016-05-01

    Vibrio fischeri CS234 was used to establish and optimize microtox assay system, laying a foundation for the application of this method in comprehensive acute toxicity test of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injections. Firstly, the Plackett-Burman method was carried out to optimize the factors which would affect Vibrio fischeri CS234 luminescence. Secondly, ZnSO4•7H2O was chosen as reference substance to establish its reaction system with quality control samples. The optimal luminescence conditions were achieved as follows: ①At a temperature of (15±1) ℃, Vibrio fischeri CS234 lyophilized powders were balanced for 15 min, then, 1 mL resuscitation fluid was added and blended for 10 min. 100 μL bacteria suspension was taken to measure the initial luminescence intensity, and then 1 mL resuscitation fluid or test sample was immediately added; after reaction for 10 min, corresponding luminescence intensity was measured again. Resuscitation diluent, osmotic pressure regulator and ZnSO4•7H2O stock solution showed no interference to the determination of Vibrio fischeri CS234 luminescence intensity, so this method was of good specificity. The within-and between-batch precisions of quality controls and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) samples were <5% and <10% respectively, while the accuracy ranged between 85.8% and 103.2%. The standard curve equation of ZnSO4•7H2O ranged from 3.86 mg•L⁻¹ to 77.22 mg•L⁻¹ (final concentrations) was y=21.78lnx-15.14, R2=0.998; meanwhile, IC₅₀ of ZnSO4•7H2O to Vibrio fischeri CS234 was 19.90 mg•L⁻¹. ZnSO4•7H2O stock solution and its quality controls were continuously investigated for 120 h and 8 h respectively, and their RSD was lower than 2%, indicating stability at room temperature and 4 ℃ storage conditions. Between pH 4.5-8.0, luminescence intensity of Vibrio fischeri CS234 was controlled within ±10%, and such pH value range could meet the testing needs of the vast majority of traditional

  15. Fast determination of 40 drugs in water using large volume direct injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Boix, Clara; Ibáñez, María; Sancho, Juan V; Rambla, Javier; Aranda, José L; Ballester, Salomé; Hernández, Félix

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a rapid analytical method based on direct sample injection of water samples for the simultaneous identification/quantification of 40 emerging compounds, including pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse. The water samples were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS/MS QqQ). Taking profit of the increasing sensitivity of nowadays tandem mass spectrometers, direct sample injection of large volumes has been an attractive alternative to pre-concentration steps. In this work, the developed methodology has been validated at three concentration levels (10, 100 and 1000 ng/L) in 10 different water samples of different types (5 effluent wastewater and 5 surface water samples). The majority of compounds could be satisfactory validated at these concentrations, showing good recoveries and precision. With only few exceptions, the limits of quantification (LOQs), estimated from the sample chromatogram at lowest spiked level tested, were below 3 ng/L. The method was applied to the analysis of 10 effluent wastewater and 10 surface water samples. Venlafaxine was the compound most frequently detected (80%) in surface water, followed by acetaminophen (70%). Regarding effluent wastewater, valsartan and 4-acetyl aminoantipyrine were detected in 9 out of 10 samples analyzed. These two compounds together with 4-formyl aminoantipyrine and naproxen showed the highest concentrations (>2000 ng/L). In these cases, a dilution step was required for a correct quantification. As an additional evaluation of the method performance, the same water samples were analyzed in another laboratory by a second analytical methodology, based on on-line solid-phase-extraction coupled to LC-MS/MS (QqQ).

  16. Dissolution in anisotropic porous media: Modelling convection regimes from onset to shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paoli, Marco; Zonta, Francesco; Soldati, Alfredo

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we use direct numerical simulations to examine the role of non-isotropic permeability on solutal convection in a fluid-saturated porous medium. The dense solute injected from the top boundary is driven downwards by gravity and follows a complex time-dependent dynamics. The process of solute dissolution, which is initially controlled by diffusion, becomes dominated by convection as soon as fingers appear, grow, and interact. The dense solute finally reaches the bottom boundary where, due to the prescribed impermeable boundary, it starts filling the domain so to enter the shutdown stage. We present the entire transient dynamics for large Rayleigh-Darcy numbers, Ra, and non-isotropic permeability. We also try to provide suitable and reliable models to parametrize it. With the conceptual setup presented here, we aim at mimicking the process of liquid CO2 sequestration into geological reservoirs.

  17. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.; Massaro, Lawrence M.; Jensen, Philip J.

    2014-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel (UNF) from 12 shutdown nuclear power plant sites. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites are Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. The evaluation was divided into four components: characterization of the UNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory; a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of UNF and GTCC waste; an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing UNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information; and, an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove UNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of UNF and GTCC waste are the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) RW-859 used nuclear fuel inventory database, industry sources such as StoreFUEL and SpentFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of site and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included observations and information collected during visits to the Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion sites; information provided by managers at the shutdown sites; Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005; Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994; industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions; and Google Earth. State and Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative participated in six of the shutdown site

  18. Experimental and analytical studies of passive shutdown heat removal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, D.; Tessier, J.; Heineman, J.; Stewart, R.; Anderson, T.; August, C.; Chawla, T.; Cheung, F.B.; Despe, O.; Haupt, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Using a naturally circulating air stream to remove shutdown decay heat from a nuclear reactor vessel is a key feature of advanced liquid metal reactor (LMR) concepts developed by potential vendors selected by the Department of Energy. General Electric and Rockwell International continue to develop innovative design concepts aimed at improving safety, lowering plant costs, simplifying plant operation, reducing construction times, and most of all, enhancing plant licensability. The reactor program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical support to both organizations. The method of shutdown heat removal proposed employs a totally passive cooling system that rejects heat from the reactor by radiation and natural convection to air. The system is inherently reliable since it is not subject failure modes associated with active decay cooling systems. The system is designed to assure adequate cooling of the reactor under abnormal operating conditions associated with loss of heat removal through other heat transport paths.

  19. The shutdown reactor: Optimizing spent fuel storage cost

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    Several studies have indicated that the most prudent way to store fuel at a shutdown reactor site safely and economically is through the use of a dry storage facility licensed under 10CFR72. While such storage is certainly safe, is it true that the dry ISFSI represents the safest and most economical approach for the utility? While no one is really able to answer that question definitely, as yet, Holtec has studied this issue for some time and believes that both an economic and safety case can be made for an optimization strategy that calls for the use of both wet and dry ISFSI storage of spent fuel at some plants. For the sake of brevity, this paper summarizes some of Holtec`s findings with respect to the economics of maintaining some fuel in wet storage at a shutdown reactor. The safety issue, or more importantly the perception of safety of spent fuel in wet storage, still varies too much with the eye of the beholder, and until a more rigorous presentation of safety analyses can be made in a regulatory setting, it is not practically useful to argue about how many angels can sit on the head of a safety-related pin. Holtec is prepared to present such analyses, but this does not appear to be the proper venue. Thus, this paper simply looks at certain economic elements of a wet ISFSI at a shutdown reactor to make a prima facie case that wet storage has some attractiveness at a shutdown reactor and should not be rejected out of hand. Indeed, an optimization study at certain plants may well show the economic vitality of keeping some fuel in the pool and converting the NRC licensing coverage from 10CFR50 to 10CFR72. If the economics look attractive, then the safety issue may be confronted with a compelling interest.

  20. Use of flow injection atmospheric pressure photoionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for fast olive oil fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ariza, J L; Arias-Borrego, A; García-Barrera, T

    2006-01-01

    The recently introduced technique of an atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QqTOFMS) has been applied to fast olive oil fingerprinting on the basis of the accurate mass measurements obtained with this instrumentation. The key compounds can be characterized as [M+H]+ (produced by proton transfer) or as [M]+* (by charge transfer) ions in the mass spectra. [M+H]+ ions, however, show higher abundance, especially for triacylglycerols. Other ions present in APPI-MS are the acylium ion [RiCO]+ and [RiCO-H2O]+. This latter ion is absent in the electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS spectra, and this represents valuable complementary information. Several critical parameters in the APPI source were optimized such as LC eluent composition, ion spray voltage and, especially, declustering potential. APPI-QqTOFMS allows easy discrimination among different edible oils: olive, extra virgin olive, olive-pomace, hazelnut, sunflower, corn and several mixed oils, with high throughput (approximately 1 min per sample). Cluster analysis was applied to obtain the best experimental conditions for oil discrimination on the basis of declustering potential. Principal components analyses of these APPI-MS spectra show that the approach can be used for studies of olive oil adulteration with other oils, even in the case of hazelnut oil that exhibits a high chemical similarity with olive oil. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Two-column sequential injection chromatography for fast isocratic separation of two analytes of greatly differing chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Šatínský, Dalibor; Chocholouš, Petr; Válová, Olga; Hanusová, Lucia; Solich, Petr

    2013-09-30

    This paper deals with a novel approach to separate two analytes with different chemical properties and different lipophilicity. The newly described methodology is based on the two column system that was used for isocratic separation of two analytes with very different lipophilicity-dexamethasone and cinchocaine. Simultaneous separation of model compounds cinchocaine and dexamethasone was carried under the following conditions in two-column sequential injection chromatography system (2-C SIC). A 25×4.6 mm C-18 monolithic column was used in the first dimension for retention and separation of dexamethasone with mobile phase acetonitrile:water 30:70 (v/v), flow rate 0.9 mL min(-1) and consumption of 1.7 mL. A 10×4.6 mm C-18 monolithic column with 5×4.6 mm C-18 precolumn was used in the second dimension for retention and separation of cinchocaine using mobile phase acetonitrile:water 60:40 (v/v), flow rate 0.9 mL min(-1) and consumption 1.5 mL. Whole analysis time including both mobile phase's aspirations and both column separations was performed in less than 4 min. The method was fully validated and used for determination of cinchocaine and dexamethasone in pharmaceutical otic drops. The developed 2-C SIC method was compared with HPLC method under the isocratic conditions of separation on monolithic column (25×4.6 mm C-18). Spectrophotometric detection of both compounds was performed at wavelength 240 nm. System repeatability and method precision were found in the range (0.39-3.12%) for both compounds. Linearity of determination was evaluated in the range 50-500 μg mL(-1) and coefficients of determination were found to be r(2)=0.99912 for dexamethasone and r(2)=0.99969 for cinchocaine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dynamic responses of a semi-type offshore floating wind turbine during normal state and emergency shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhi-qiang; Li, Liang; Wang, Jin; Hu, Qiu-hao; Shen, Ma-cheng

    2016-03-01

    This paper addresses joint wind-wave induced dynamic responses of a semi-type offshore floating wind turbine (OFWT) under normal states and fault event conditions. The analysis in this paper is conducted in time domain, using an aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation code-FAST. Owing to the unique viscous features of the reference system, the original viscous damping model implemented in FAST is replaced with a quadratic one to gain an accurate capture of viscous effects. Simulation cases involve free-decay motion in still water, steady motions in the presence of regular waves and wind as well as dynamic response in operational sea states with and without wind. Simulations also include the cases for transient responses induced by fast blade pitching after emergency shutdown. The features of platform motions, local structural loads and a typical mooring line tension force under a variety of excitations are obtained and investigated.

  3. 40 CFR 60.1220 - What happens to the emission limits during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 60.1220 Section 60.1220 Protection of Environment... Emission Limits § 60.1220 What happens to the emission limits during periods of startup, shutdown, and... waste combustion unit startup, shutdown, or malfunction. (b) Each startup, shutdown, or malfunction...

  4. 40 CFR 62.15150 - What happens to the operating requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 62.15150 Section 62.15150 Protection of... § 62.15150 What happens to the operating requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and... municipal waste combustion unit startup, shutdown, or malfunction. (b) Each startup, shutdown,...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1695 - What happens to the operating requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 60.1695 Section 60.1695 Protection of... Requirements § 60.1695 What happens to the operating requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and... municipal waste combustion unit startup, shutdown, or malfunction. (b) Each startup, shutdown,...

  6. 40 CFR 60.1220 - What happens to the emission limits during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 60.1220 Section 60.1220 Protection of Environment... Emission Limits § 60.1220 What happens to the emission limits during periods of startup, shutdown, and... waste combustion unit startup, shutdown, or malfunction. (b) Each startup, shutdown, or malfunction...

  7. 40 CFR 62.15150 - What happens to the operating requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 62.15150 Section 62.15150 Protection of... § 62.15150 What happens to the operating requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and... municipal waste combustion unit startup, shutdown, or malfunction. (b) Each startup, shutdown,...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1695 - What happens to the operating requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 60.1695 Section 60.1695 Protection of... Requirements § 60.1695 What happens to the operating requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and... municipal waste combustion unit startup, shutdown, or malfunction. (b) Each startup, shutdown,...

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.; Massaro, Lawrence M.; Jensen, Philip J.

    2015-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power reactor sites was conducted. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: (1) characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory, (2) a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of SNF and GTCC waste, (3) an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing SNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information, and (4) an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. Every site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an important source of information used to identify the transportation mode options for the sites. Especially important in conducting the evaluation were site visits, through which information was obtained that would not have been available otherwise. Extensive photographs taken during the site visits proved to be particularly useful in documenting the current conditions at or near the sites. It is expected that additional site visits will be conducted to add to the information presented in the evaluation.

  10. Compressor station recycle system dynamics during emergency shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Botros, K.K.; Jungowski, W.M.; Richards, D.J.

    1996-07-01

    Transient phenomena associated with gas recycling during compressor emergency shutdown (ESD) have been studied both experimentally and numerically. A scaled-down laboratory test rig has been constructed to study the influence of various underlying parameters on ESD operation. Three different configurations representing different design scenarios were tested. The first configuration has a long recycle system with a volume capacitance representing an air-cooled heat exchanger in the recycle loop, and the recycle valve located close to the discharge side. The second one is the same as the first except the recycle valve is placed close to the suction side. In the third configuration, the cooler capacitance was removed from the recycle loop and the piping capacitance on the discharge side was further reduced. Shutdown tests were carried out from different steady-state initial conditions varying the recycle valve opening time, and the synchronization time between the compressor ESD signal and valve opening signal. Numerical simulations based on the solution of the full one-dimensional conservation equations using the method of characteristics were also conducted for the above configurations. Good agreement was obtained between measurements and simulation results. Numerical simulations were used to analyze other cases, which were not investigated experimentally, to further investigate the interaction between equipment and flow parameters. Results indicate that the valve prestroke time is more crucial than the stroke time and that it should be made short to avoid surging the compressor during ESD. Locating the recycle valve as close as possible to the suction or discharge of the compressor helps reduce unit surge during shutdown.

  11. Shutdown plus 3 - a look at Yankee decommissioning experience

    SciTech Connect

    Szymczak, W.J.

    1995-12-31

    In three years, the Yankee Nuclear Power Station has not only made the transition from a facility with a full power operating license to a shut down facility but to a facility with a mature and experienced organization poised to effectively and efficiently decommission the remainder of the plant. Opportunities were acted upon to reduce the cost of running and dismantling a shut-down facility. This paper describes some of those opportunities and Yankee`s future strategy for dismantling in an environment with limited waste disposal availability.

  12. 40 CFR 60.2918 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Training and Qualification Emission Limitations and Operating Limits § 60.2918 What happens during periods... times except during OSWI unit startups, shutdowns, or malfunctions. Performance Testing...

  13. Bipolar square-wave current source for transient electromagnetic systems based on constant shutdown time.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shilong; Yin, Changchun; Lin, Jun; Yang, Yu; Hu, Xueyan

    2016-03-01

    Cooperative work of multiple magnetic transmitting sources is a new trend in the development of transient electromagnetic system. The key is the bipolar current waves shutdown, concurrently in the inductive load. In the past, it was difficult to use the constant clamping voltage technique to realize the synchronized shutdown of currents with different peak values. Based on clamping voltage technique, we introduce a new controlling method with constant shutdown time. We use the rising time to control shutdown time and use low voltage power source to control peak current. From the viewpoint of the circuit energy loss, by taking the high-voltage capacitor bypass resistance and the capacitor of the passive snubber circuit into account, we establish the relationship between the rising time and the shutdown time. Since the switch is not ideal, we propose a new method to test the shutdown time by the low voltage, the high voltage and the peak current. Experimental results show that adjustment of the current rising time can precisely control the value of the clamp voltage. When the rising time is fixed, the shutdown time is unchanged. The error for shutdown time deduced from the energy consumption is less than 6%. The new controlling method on current shutdown proposed in this paper can be used in the cooperative work of borehole and ground transmitting system.

  14. Decision making support system for emergency shutdown of gas lifeline system

    SciTech Connect

    Takada, Shiro; Fukui, Shinji

    1995-12-31

    Quick recovery of the lifeline function and serviceability after big earthquakes is very important to avoid a secondary disaster. Emergency shutdown of the lifeline systems is a possible way for this purpose. The present paper proposes a computer aided decision making system for a proper timing of an emergency shutdown. The AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) method has been employed to consider relative evaluation of the various factors associated with the decision making. The proposed method is useful especially for an emergency shutdown of the gas supply system which would cause severe effects due to the shutdown.

  15. Climatic and biotic thresholds of coral-reef shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Lauren T.; Aronson, Richard B.; Cobb, Kim M.; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Grothe, Pamela R.; Sayani, Hussein R.

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is now the leading cause of coral-reef degradation and is altering the adaptive landscape of coral populations. Increasing sea temperatures and declining carbonate saturation states are inhibiting short-term rates of coral calcification, carbonate precipitation and submarine cementation. A critical challenge to coral-reef conservation is understanding the mechanisms by which environmental perturbations scale up to influence long-term rates of reef-framework construction and ecosystem function. Here we reconstruct climatic and oceanographic variability using corals sampled from a 6,750-year core from Pacific Panamá. Simultaneous reconstructions of coral palaeophysiology and reef accretion allowed us to identify the climatic and biotic thresholds associated with a 2,500-year hiatus in vertical accretion beginning ~4,100 years ago. Stronger upwelling, cooler sea temperatures and greater precipitation--indicators of La Niña-like conditions--were closely associated with abrupt reef shutdown. The physiological condition of the corals deteriorated at the onset of the hiatus, corroborating theoretical predictions that the tipping points of radical ecosystem transitions should be manifested sublethally in the biotic constituents. Future climate change could cause similar threshold behaviours, leading to another shutdown in reef development in the tropical eastern Pacific.

  16. Sodium storage and injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, A. R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A sodium storage and injection system for delivering atomized liquid sodium to a chemical reactor employed in the production of solar grade silicon is disclosed. The system is adapted to accommodate start-up, shut-down, normal and emergency operations, and is characterized by (1) a jacketed injection nozzle adapted to atomize liquefied sodium and (2) a supply circuit connected to the nozzle for delivering the liquefied sodium. The supply circuit is comprised of a plurality of replaceable sodium containment vessels, a pump interposed between the vessels and the nozzle, and a pressurizing circuit including a source of inert gas connected with the vessels for maintaining the sodium under pressure.

  17. 77 FR 75198 - Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1272, ``Standard Format and Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report.'' This guide describes a method that the NRC staff considers acceptable for use in complying with the Commission's requirements regarding the submission of a post-shutdown decommissioning activities......

  18. 78 FR 38739 - Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing Revision 1 of Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.185, ``Standard Format and Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report.'' This guide describes a method that the NRC staff considers acceptable for use in complying with the Commission's requirements regarding the submission of a post-shutdown decommissioning activities report...

  19. 77 FR 10576 - Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... COMMISSION Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft... Draft NUREG/CR-7114, Revision 0, ``Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA.'' In response to request... quantitatively analyzing fire risk in commercial nuclear power plants during low power operation and...

  20. 76 FR 81998 - Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... COMMISSION Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft... public comment a draft NUREG/CR, NUREG/CR-7114, Revision 0, ``Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA... quantitatively analyzing fire risk in commercial nuclear power plants during low power operation and...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2918 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens during periods of startup... of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? The emission limitations and operating limits apply at all times except during OSWI unit startups, shutdowns, or malfunctions. Performance Testing ...

  2. 40 CFR 60.3025 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens during periods of startup... during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? The emission limitations and operating limits apply at all times except during OSWI unit startups, shutdowns, or malfunctions. Model Rule—Performance...

  3. 40 CFR 60.2685 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens during periods of startup... happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? (a) The emission limitations and operating limits apply at all times except during CISWI unit startups, shutdowns, or malfunctions. (b) Each...

  4. 40 CFR 62.14645 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens during periods of startup... Limits § 62.14645 What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? (a) The emission limitations and operating limits apply at all times except during periods of CISWI unit startup, shutdown, or...

  5. 40 CFR 62.14645 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 62.14645 Section 62.14645 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Limits § 62.14645 What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? (a) The...

  6. 40 CFR 65.6 - Startup, shutdown, and malfunction plan and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Startup, shutdown, and malfunction... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE General Provisions § 65.6 Startup... Group 2A or Group 2B process vents. (b) Startup, shutdown, and malfunction plan—(1) Description...

  7. 25 CFR 226.28 - Shutdown, abandonment, and plugging of wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Cessation of Operations § 226.28 Shutdown, abandonment... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shutdown, abandonment, and plugging of wells. 226.28...) Prior to permanent abandonment of any well, the oil lessee or the gas lessee, as the case may be,...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2918 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 60.2918 Section 60.2918 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Emission Limitations and Operating Limits § 60.2918 What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and...

  9. Failure and Reliability Analysis for the Master Pump Shutdown System

    SciTech Connect

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-09-05

    The Master Pump Shutdown System (MPSS) will be installed in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site to monitor and control the transfer of liquid waste between tank farms and between the 200 West and 200 East areas through the Cross-Site Transfer Line. The Safety Function provided by the MPSS is to shutdown any waste transfer process within or between tank farms if a waste leak should occur along the selected transfer route. The MPSS, which provides this Safety Class Function, is composed of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), interconnecting wires, relays, Human to Machine Interfaces (HMI), and software. These components are defined as providing a Safety Class Function and will be designated in this report as MPSS/PLC. Input signals to the MPSS/PLC are provided by leak detection systems from each of the tank farm leak detector locations along the waste transfer route. The combination of the MPSS/PLC, leak detection system, and transfer pump controller system will be referred to as MPSS/SYS. The components addressed in this analysis are associated with the MPSS/SYS. The purpose of this failure and reliability analysis is to address the following design issues of the Project Development Specification (PDS) for the MPSS/SYS (HNF 2000a): (1) Single Component Failure Criterion, (2) System Status Upon Loss of Electrical Power, (3) Physical Separation of Safety Class cables, (4) Physical Isolation of Safety Class Wiring from General Service Wiring, and (5) Meeting the MPSS/PLC Option 1b (RPP 1999) Reliability estimate. The failure and reliability analysis examined the system on a component level basis and identified any hardware or software elements that could fail and/or prevent the system from performing its intended safety function.

  10. Effect of shutdown on styrene removal in a biofilter inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. SR-5.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jong Hee; Hirai, Mitsuyo; Shoda, Makoto

    2006-02-28

    Styrene gas removal was carried out in a biofilter inoculated with a styrene-degrading Pseudomonas sp. SR-5 using a mixed packing material of peat and ceramic under the non-sterile condition. More than 86% removal efficiency was obtained at styrene load of 5-93 g m(-3) h(-1) for 62 days operation period and 78% carbon of removed styrene was converted to CO2. Thereafter, three kinds of styrene shutdown experiments were conducted: (i) air and mineral medium were supplied for 4 days, (ii) complete shutdown, namely no styrene, air and moisture supply was conducted for 3 days, and (iii) only air was supplied for 11 days. When styrene gas was re-supplied after (i) and (iii) shutdown experiments, styrene removal efficiency rapidly recovered, but after (ii) shutdown, recovery of styrene removal was significantly delayed. Supply of air during shutdown period was found to be enough to resume microbial activity to degrade styrene.

  11. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel From Nine Shutdown Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul

    2013-04-30

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from nine shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites included Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion. At these sites a total of 7649 used nuclear fuel assemblies and a total of 2813.2 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of used nuclear fuel are contained in 248 storage canisters. In addition, 11 canisters containing greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste are stored at these sites. The evaluation was divided in four components: • characterization of the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste inventory at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the onsite transportation conditions at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to the shipping of transportation casks containing used nuclear fuel from the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from the shutdown sites. Using these evaluations the authors developed time sequences of activities and time durations for removing the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from a single shutdown site, from three shutdown sites located close to each other, and from all nine shutdown sites.

  12. Power transient analyses of experimental in-reflector devices during safety shutdown in Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR)

    SciTech Connect

    Camprini, P. C.; Sumini, M.; Artioli, C.; Gonnier, C.; Pouchin, B.; Bourdon, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) is designed to be a 100 MW material testing reactor (MTR) and it is expected to become the reference facility in the framework of European nuclear research activity. As the core neutron spectrum is quite fast, several experimental devices concerning fuel studies have been conceived to be placed in the reflector in order to exploit a proper thermal neutron flux irradiation. Since the core power is relatively high, the neutronic coupling between the reactor core and the reflector devices has to be taken into account for different rod insertions. In fact the thermal power produced within the fuel samples is considerable. Heat removal during shutdown is a main topic in nuclear safety and it is worth to analyse thermal power transients in fuel samples as well. Here a thermal hydraulic model for JHR core is proposed aiming at a simple and representative description as far as reactivity feedbacks are concerned. Then it is coupled with a neutronic pointwise kinetics analysis by means of the DULCINEE code to compute core power transient calculations. Moreover, some reflector-core coupling evaluations are performed through Monte Carlo method using the TRIPOLI 4.7 code. The JHR equilibrium cycle is considered with respect to four fuel compositions namely Beginning of Cycle (BOC), Xenon Saturation Point (XSP), Middle of Cycle (MOC) and End of Cycle (EOC). Then thermal power transients in the experimental reflector devices are evaluated during safety shutdowns and they are verified for all these cycle steps. (authors)

  13. Intracerebroventricular injection of propionic acid, an enteric metabolite implicated in autism, induces social abnormalities that do not differ between seizure-prone (FAST) and seizure-resistant (SLOW) rats.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Sandy R; Aziz, Noor A B; Yang, Li; Sun, Mujun; MacFabe, Derrick F; O'Brien, Terence J

    2015-02-01

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by social abnormalities. Genetic, dietary and gut-related factors are implicated in autism, however the causal properties of these factors and how they may interact are unclear. Propionic acid (PPA) is a product of gut microbiota and a food preservative. PPA has been linked to autism, and PPA administration to rats is an animal model of the condition. Seizure-prone (FAST) and seizure-resistant (SLOW) rats were initially developed to investigate differential vulnerability to developing epilepsy. However, FAST rats also display autistic-like features, and have been proposed as a genetic model of autism. Here we examined the effects of PPA on social behavior in FAST and SLOW rats. A single intracerebroventricular injection of PPA, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), was administered to young-adult male FAST and SLOW rats. Immediately after treatment, rats were placed in same-treatment and same-strain pairs, and underwent social behavior testing. PPA induced social abnormalities in both FAST and SLOW rat strains. While there was no evidence of social impairment in FAST rats that were not treated with PPA, these rats were hyperactive relative to SLOW rats. Post-mortem immunofluorescence analysis of brain tissue indicated that PPA treatment resulted in increased astrogliosis in the corpus callosum and cortex compared to PBS treatment. FAST rats had increased astrogliosis in the cortex compared to SLOW rats. Together these findings support the use of PPA as a rat model of autism, but indicate there are no interactive effects between the PPA and FAST models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 40 CFR 62.15165 - What happens to the emission limits during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 62.15165 Section 62.15165 Protection of Environment... emission limits during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? (a) The emission limits of this subpart apply at all times except during periods of municipal waste combustion unit startup, shutdown,...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1205 - What happens to the operating requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 60.1205 Section 60.1205 Protection of... requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? (a) The operating requirements of this subpart apply at all times except during periods of municipal waste combustion unit startup, shutdown,...

  16. 40 CFR 60.1710 - What happens to the emission limits during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 60.1710 Section 60.1710 Protection of Environment... during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? (a) The emission limits of this subpart apply at all times except during periods of municipal waste combustion unit startup, shutdown, or...

  17. 40 CFR 60.1710 - What happens to the emission limits during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 60.1710 Section 60.1710 Protection of Environment... during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? (a) The emission limits of this subpart apply at all times except during periods of municipal waste combustion unit startup, shutdown, or...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1205 - What happens to the operating requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 60.1205 Section 60.1205 Protection of... requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? (a) The operating requirements of this subpart apply at all times except during periods of municipal waste combustion unit startup, shutdown,...

  19. 40 CFR 62.15165 - What happens to the emission limits during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 62.15165 Section 62.15165 Protection of Environment... emission limits during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? (a) The emission limits of this subpart apply at all times except during periods of municipal waste combustion unit startup, shutdown,...

  20. 1-D Modeling of Massive Particle Injection (MPI) in Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W.; Parks, P. B.; Izzo, V. A.

    2008-11-01

    A 1-D Fast Current Quench (FCQ) model is developed to study current evolution and runaway electron suppression under massive density increase. The model consists of coupled toroidal electric field and energy equations, and it is solved numerically for DIII-D and ITER operating conditions. Simulation results suggest that fast shutdown by D2 liquid jet/pellet injection is in principle achievable for the desired plasma cooling time (˜15 ms for DIII-D and ˜50 ms for ITER) under ˜150x or higher densification. The current density and pressure profile are practically unaltered during the initial phase of jet propagation when dilution cooling dominates. With subsequent radiation cooling, the densified discharge enters the strongly collisional regime where Pfirsch-Schluter thermal diffusion can inhibit current contraction on the magnetic axis. Often the 1/1 kink instability, addressed by Kadomtsev's magnetic reconnection model, can be prevented. Our results are compared with NIMROD simulations in which the plasma is suddenly densified by ˜100x and experiences instantaneous dilution cooling, allowing for use of actual (lower) Lundquist numbers.

  1. Advanced wind turbine with lift-destroying aileron for shutdown

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Clint; Juengst, Theresa M.; Zuteck, Michael D.

    1996-06-18

    An advanced aileron configuration for wind turbine rotors featuring an aileron with a bottom surface that slopes upwardly at an angle toward the nose region of the aileron. The aileron rotates about a center of rotation which is located within the envelope of the aileron, but does not protrude substantially into the air flowing past the aileron while the aileron is deflected to angles within a control range of angles. This allows for strong positive control of the rotation of the rotor. When the aileron is rotated to angles within a shutdown range of deflection angles, lift-destroying, turbulence-producing cross-flow of air through a flow gap, and turbulence created by the aileron, create sufficient drag to stop rotation of the rotor assembly. The profile of the aileron further allows the center of rotation to be located within the envelope of the aileron, at or near the centers of pressure and mass of the aileron. The location of the center of rotation optimizes aerodynamically and gyroscopically induced hinge moments and provides a fail safe configuration.

  2. Advanced wind turbine with lift cancelling aileron for shutdown

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Clint; Juengst, Theresa M.; Zuteck, Michael D.

    1996-06-18

    An advanced aileron configuration for wind turbine rotors featuring an independent, lift generating aileron connected to the rotor blade. The aileron has an airfoil profile which is inverted relative to the airfoil profile of the main section of the rotor blade. The inverted airfoil profile of the aileron allows the aileron to be used for strong positive control of the rotation of the rotor while deflected to angles within a control range of angles. The aileron functions as a separate, lift generating body when deflected to angles within a shutdown range of angles, generating lift with a component acting in the direction opposite the direction of rotation of the rotor. Thus, the aileron can be used to shut down rotation of the rotor. The profile of the aileron further allows the center of rotation to be located within the envelope of the aileron, at or near the centers of pressure and mass of the aileron. The location of the center of rotation optimizes aerodynamically and gyroscopically induced hinge moments and provides a fail safe configuration.

  3. Startup, shutdown and malfunction plans coming for large industrial boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Kasarabada, A.N.

    2007-08-15

    The US Boiler MACT (maximum achievable control technology) regulations (codified under 40 CFR Part 63) in its current form requires existing large coal-fired industrial and utility boilers (under 25 MW) to meet emission limits for particulate matter or total selected metals, mercury and hydrogen chloride, as well as other operational limits. The MACT provision also requires affected facilities to develop startup, shutdown and malfunction plans (SSMP). The original date for Boiler MACT compliance for existing units had been 13 September 2007. However, on 8 June the US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia issued an order effectively killing all existing MACT rules for industrial boilers. The Court instructed the US EPA to rewrite two sets of regulations. (Prior to April 2006 the MACT general provisions said the SSMPs needed to be 'developed and implemented'.) It seems unlikely that any new revision of the Boiler MACT by the EPA will take effect before mid-2008. Regardless of which direction the MACT rule is headed, now is the time to be prepared to comply with the SSMP requirements. The article sets out recommended steps for developing an effective SSMP.

  4. Channel shutdown: a response of hippocampal neurons to adverse environments.

    PubMed

    Somjen, G G; Faas, G C; Vreugdenhil, M; Wadman, W J

    1993-12-31

    Stretch-activated ion channels have been discovered in the membrane of many types of cells, but their presence in neurons is uncertain. We used freshly dissociated rat hippocampal neurons to study the effect of hypotonic swelling but, surprisingly, the isolated neurons did not swell. Voltage-dependent whole-cell membrane currents mediated by K+, Na+ and Ca2+ were rapidly and reversibly suppressed during sudden exposure to strongly hypo-osmotic, hyper-osmotic or glucose deficient solutions. The amplitudes of the sustained components of K+ and Ca2+ currents were more depressed than transient currents, but the rate of decay of transient K+ current greatly accelerated. The voltage dependence of activation and of steady state inactivation of residual K+ and Ca2+ currents were not shifted. The current holding membrane potential at -70 mV and therefore the conductance at that voltage were unchanged or somewhat decreased. Capacitive (charging) membrane current was not affected. Changes in tail current suggested moderate loss of cytosolic K+ in some but not in all cells. We conclude that channel shutdown is a uniform response of neuron somata and proximal dendrites to various adverse environments. Hypothetically we propose that swelling was prevented in anisosmotic conditions because membrane water permeability decreased.

  5. Development of fast Fourier transform continuous cyclic voltammetry at Au microelectrode in flowing solutions as a novel method for sub-nanomolar monitoring of lidocaine in injection and biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Norouzi, P; Ganjali, M R; Daneshgar, P; Dinarvand, R; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Saboury, A A

    2007-05-02

    In this work a novel method for the fast monitoring of lidocaine in flow-injection systems has been developed. The fast Fourier transform continuous cyclic voltammetry (FFTCV) at gold microelectrode in flowing solution system was used for determination of lidocaine in its pharmaceutical formulation. The presented technique was very simple, precise, accurate, time saving and economical, compared with all of the previously reported methods. The recommended technique demonstrated some advantages over other reported methods. Firstly, there was no need for the oxygen removal from the test solution. Secondly, a picomolar detection limit was achieved, and additionally, the method was fast enough for the determination of any such compound, in a wide variety of chromatographic methods. The method was linear across the concentration range of 240-1.1 x 10(5) pg mL(-1) (r=0.996) with a limit of detection and quantitation 117.3 and 240 pg mL(-1), respectively. As a conclusion this system offers the requisite accuracy, sensitivity, precision and selectivity to assay lidocaine in injections.

  6. Despite the Shutdown, Rescheduled NIH Research Festival Brings Science to the Forefront | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Andrea Frydl, Contributing Writer Although it was delayed by almost a month because of the federal shutdown, the NIH Research Festival still took place at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, Md., and attendance was high.

  7. 78 FR 49553 - Three Mile Island, Unit 2; Post Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Three Mile Island, Unit 2; Post Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY: Nuclear...) for Three Mile Island, Unit 2 (TMI-2). The PSDAR provides an overview of GPUN's...

  8. Despite the Shutdown, Rescheduled NIH Research Festival Brings Science to the Forefront | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Andrea Frydl, Contributing Writer Although it was delayed by almost a month because of the federal shutdown, the NIH Research Festival still took place at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, Md., and attendance was high.

  9. 40 CFR 63.2852 - What is a startup, shutdown, and malfunction plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Solvent Extraction for Vegetable Oil Production Compliance Requirements § 63.2852 What is a startup, shutdown, and malfunction plan? You...

  10. Analysis of PIUS reactor passive shutdown using PC-based model

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.S.; Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    A simplified model of the PIUS 600 Reactor System is described and results form two event simulations are discussed, and compared with ABB's predicted results. The model is based on a BWR Plant Analyzer developed by BNL, with PIUS-specific models added for the density locks. Initial results support the effectiveness of the passive reactor shutdown, although some significant power oscillations occur before the shutdown is completed.

  11. Analysis of PIUS reactor passive shutdown using PC-based model

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.S.; Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1992-09-01

    A simplified model of the PIUS 600 Reactor System is described and results form two event simulations are discussed, and compared with ABB`s predicted results. The model is based on a BWR Plant Analyzer developed by BNL, with PIUS-specific models added for the density locks. Initial results support the effectiveness of the passive reactor shutdown, although some significant power oscillations occur before the shutdown is completed.

  12. Characterization of MHD activity and its influence on radiation asymmetries during massive gas injection in DIII-D

    DOE PAGES

    Shiraki, Daisuke; Commaux, Nicolas; Baylor, Larry R.; ...

    2015-06-26

    Measurements from the DIII-D tokamak show that toroidal radiation asymmetries during fast shutdown by massive gas injection (MGI) are largely driven by n = 1 magnetohydrodynamic modes during the thermal quench. The phenomenology of these modes, which are driven unstable by pro le changes as the thermal energy is quenched, is described based on detailed magnetic measurements. Here, the toroidal evolution of the dominantly n = 1 perturbation is understood to be a function of three parameters: the location of the MGI port, pre-MGI plasma rotation, and n = 1 error elds. Here, the resulting level of radiation asymmetry inmore » these DIII-D plasmas is modest, with a toroidal peaking factor (TPF) of 1:2 ± 0:1 for the total thermal quench energy and 1:4 ± 0:3 for the peak radiated power, both of which are below the estimated limit for ITER (TPF ≈ 2).« less

  13. Characterization of MHD activity and its influence on radiation asymmetries during massive gas injection in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraki, Daisuke; Commaux, Nicolas; Baylor, Larry R.; Eidietis, Nicholas W.; Hollmann, Eric M.; Izzo, Valerie A.; Moyer, Richard A.; Paz-Soldan, Carlos

    2015-06-26

    Measurements from the DIII-D tokamak show that toroidal radiation asymmetries during fast shutdown by massive gas injection (MGI) are largely driven by n = 1 magnetohydrodynamic modes during the thermal quench. The phenomenology of these modes, which are driven unstable by pro le changes as the thermal energy is quenched, is described based on detailed magnetic measurements. Here, the toroidal evolution of the dominantly n = 1 perturbation is understood to be a function of three parameters: the location of the MGI port, pre-MGI plasma rotation, and n = 1 error elds. Here, the resulting level of radiation asymmetry in these DIII-D plasmas is modest, with a toroidal peaking factor (TPF) of 1:2 ± 0:1 for the total thermal quench energy and 1:4 ± 0:3 for the peak radiated power, both of which are below the estimated limit for ITER (TPF ≈ 2).

  14. Benchmark specifications for EBR-II shutdown heat removal tests

    SciTech Connect

    Sofu, T.; Briggs, L. L.

    2012-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is hosting an IAEA-coordinated research project on benchmark analyses of sodium-cooled fast reactor passive safety tests performed at the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II). The benchmark project involves analysis of a protected and an unprotected loss of flow tests conducted during an extensive testing program within the framework of the U.S. Integral Fast Reactor program to demonstrate the inherently safety features of EBR-II as a pool-type, sodium-cooled fast reactor prototype. The project is intended to improve the participants' design and safety analysis capabilities for sodium-cooled fast reactors through validation and qualification of safety analysis codes and methods. This paper provides a description of the EBR-II tests included in the program, and outlines the benchmark specifications being prepared to support the IAEA-coordinated research project. (authors)

  15. Benefits of actinide-only burnup credit for shutdown PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, D.; Fuentes, E.; Kang, C.; Rivard, D.

    1998-02-01

    Owners of PWRs that are shutdown prior to resolution of interim storage or permanent disposal issues have to make difficult decisions on what to do with their spent fuel. Maine Yankee is currently evaluating multiple options for spent fuel storage. Their spent fuel pool has 1,434 assemblies. In order to evaluate the value to a utility of actinide-only burnup credit, analysis of the number of canisters required with and without burnup credit was made. In order to perform the analysis, loading curves were developed for the Holtec Hi-Star 100/MPC-32. The MPC-32 is hoped to be representative of future burnup credit designs from many vendors. The loading curves were generated using the actinide-only burnup credit currently under NRC review. The canister was analyzed for full loading (32 assemblies) and with partial loadings of 30 and 28 assemblies. If no burnup credit is used the maximum capacity was assumed to be 24 assemblies. this reduced capacity is due to the space required for flux traps which are needed to sufficiently reduce the canister reactivity for the fresh fuel assumption. Without burnup credit the 1,343 assemblies would require 60 canisters. If all the fuel could be loaded into the 32 assembly canisters only 45 canisters would be required. Although the actinide-only burnup credit approach is very conservative, the total number of canisters required is only 47 which is only two short of the minimum possible number of canisters. The utility is expected to buy the canister and the storage overpack. A reasonable cost estimate for the canister plus overpack is $500,000. Actinide-only burnup credit would save 13 canisters and overpacks which is a savings of about $6.5 million. This savings is somewhat reduced since burnup credit requires a verification measurement of burnup. The measurement costs for these assemblies can be estimated as about $1 million. The net savings would be $5.5 million.

  16. Method development and application of offline two-dimensional liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-fast data directed analysis for comprehensive characterization of the saponins from Xueshuantong Injection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenzhi; Zhang, Jingxian; Yao, Changliang; Qiu, Shi; Chen, Ming; Pan, Huiqin; Shi, Xiaojian; Wu, Wanying; Guo, Dean

    2016-09-05

    Xueshuantong Injection (XSTI), derived from Notoginseng total saponins, is a popular traditional Chinese medicine injection for the treatment of thrombus-resultant diseases. Current knowledge on its therapeutic basis is limited to five major saponins, whereas those minor ones are rarely investigated. We herein develop an offline two-dimensional liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-fast data directed analysis (offline 2D LC/QTOF-Fast DDA) approach to systematically characterize the saponins contained in XSTI. Key parameters affecting chromatographic separation in 2D LC (including stationary phase, mobile phase, column temperature, and gradient elution program) and the detection by QTOF MS (involving spray voltage, cone voltage, and ramp collision energy) were optimized in sequence. The configured offline 2D LC system showed an orthogonality of 0.84 and a theoretical peak capacity of 8976. Total saponins in XSTI were fractionated into eleven samples by the first-dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatography, which were further analyzed by reversed-phase UHPLC/QTOF-Fast DDA in negative ion mode. The fragmentation features evidenced from 36 saponin reference standards, high-accuracy MS and Fast-DDA-MS(2) data, elemental composition (C<80, H<120, O<50), double-bond equivalent (DBE 5-15), and searching an in-house library of Panax notoginseng, were simultaneously utilized for structural elucidation. Ultimately, 148 saponins were separated and characterized, and 80 have not been isolated from P. notoginseng. An in-depth depiction of the chemical composition of XSTI was achieved. The results obtained would benefit better understanding of the therapeutic basis and significant promotion on the quality standard of XSTI as well as other homologous products.

  17. Increases in urea synthesis and the ornithine-urea cycle capacity in the giant African snail, Achatina fulica, during fasting or aestivation, or after the injection with ammonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Hiong, Kum Chew; Loong, Ai May; Chew, Shit Fun; Ip, Yuen Kwong

    2005-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine whether a full complement of ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) enzymes is present in the hepatopancreas of the giant African snail Achatina fulica, and to investigate whether the rate of urea synthesis and the OUC capacity can be up-regulated during 23 days of fasting or aestivation, or 24 hr post-injection with NH(4)Cl (10 micromol g(-1) snail) into the foot muscle. A. fulica is ureotelic and a full complement of OUC enzymes, including carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III (CPS III), was detected from its hepatopancreas. There were significant increases in the excretion of NH(4)(+), NH(3) and urea in fasting A. fulica. Fasting had no significant effect on the tissue ammonia contents, but led to a progressive accumulation of urea, which was associated with an 18-fold increase in the rate of urea synthesis. Because fasting took place in the presence of water and because there was no change in water contents in the foot muscle and hepatopancreas, it can be concluded that the function of urea accumulation in fasting A. fulica was unrelated to water retention. Aestivation in arid conditions led to a non-progressive accumulation of urea in A. fulica. During the first 4 days and the last 3 days of the 23-day aestivation period, experimental snails exhibited significantly greater rates of urea synthesis compared with fasted snails. These increases were associated with significant increases in activities of various OUC enzymes, except CPS III, in the hepatopancreas. However, the overall urea accumulation in snails aestivated and snails fasted for 23 days were comparable. Therefore, the classical hypothesis that urea accumulation occurred to prevent water loss through evaporation during aestivation in terrestrial pulmonates may not be valid. Surprisingly, there were no accumulations of ammonia in the foot muscle and hepatopancreas of A. fulica 12 or 24 hr after NH(4)Cl was injected into the foot muscle. In contrast, the urea content in

  18. Development and Validation of a Fast Procedure to Analyze Amoxicillin in River Waters by Direct-Injection LC-MS/MS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homem, Vera; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lu´cia

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory application with a strong component in analytical chemistry was designed for undergraduate students, in order to introduce a current problem in the environmental science field, the water contamination by antibiotics. Therefore, a simple and rapid method based on direct injection and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass…

  19. Development and Validation of a Fast Procedure to Analyze Amoxicillin in River Waters by Direct-Injection LC-MS/MS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homem, Vera; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lu´cia

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory application with a strong component in analytical chemistry was designed for undergraduate students, in order to introduce a current problem in the environmental science field, the water contamination by antibiotics. Therefore, a simple and rapid method based on direct injection and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass…

  20. Rapid Decline in HIV Incidence Among Persons Who Inject Drugs During a Fast-Track Combination Prevention Program After an HIV Outbreak in Athens.

    PubMed

    Sypsa, Vana; Psichogiou, Mina; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Tsiara, Chrissa; Paraskeva, Dimitra; Micha, Katerina; Malliori, Meni; Pharris, Anastasia; Wiessing, Lucas; Donoghoe, Martin; Friedman, Samuel; Jarlais, Don Des; Daikos, Georgios; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2017-05-15

    A "seek-test-treat" intervention (ARISTOTLE) was implemented in response to an outbreak of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Athens. We assess trends in HIV incidence, prevalence, risk behaviors and access to prevention/treatment. Methods included behavioral data collection, provision of injection equipment, HIV testing, linkage to opioid substitution treatment (OST) programs and HIV care during 5 rounds of respondent-driven sampling (2012-2013). HIV incidence was estimated from observed seroconversions. Estimated coverage of the target population was 88% (71%-100%; 7113 questionnaires/blood samples from 3320 PWID). The prevalence of HIV infection was 16.5%. The incidence per 100 person-years decreased from 7.8 (95% confidence interval, 4.6-13.1) (2012) to 1.7 (0.55-5.31) (2013; P for trend = .001). Risk factors for seroconversion were frequency of injection, homelessness, and history of imprisonment. Injection at least once daily declined from 45.2% to 18.8% (P < .001) and from 36.8% to 26.0% (P = .007) for sharing syringes, and the proportion of undiagnosed HIV infection declined from 84.3% to 15.0% (P < .001). Current OST increased from 12.2% to 27.7% (P < .001), and 48.4% of unlinked seropositive participants were linked to HIV care through 2013. Repeat participants reported higher rates of adequate syringe coverage, linkage to HIV care and OST. Multiple evidence-based interventions delivered through rapid recruitment in a large proportion of the population of PWID are likely to have helped mitigate this HIV outbreak.

  1. Irisin in goldfish (Carassius auratus): Effects of irisin injections on feeding behavior and expression of appetite regulators, uncoupling proteins and lipoprotein lipase, and fasting-induced changes in FNDC5 expression.

    PubMed

    Butt, Zahndra Diann; Hackett, Jessica Dalton; Volkoff, Hélène

    2017-04-01

    Irisin is a peptide cleaved from the fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5 (FNDC5) gene that is secreted predominantly by muscle cells but also by other tissues including brain and intestine. In mammals, irisin has been shown to have thermogenic actions via the modulation of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and to affect feeding and energy homeostasis via actions in brain, adipose tissue, liver, muscle and gastrointestinal tract. To examine the role of irisin on feeding and metabolism in fish, the effects of peripheral (intraperitoneal) injections of irisin on feeding behavior, glucose levels and the mRNA expressions of appetite regulators (cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript CART, agouti related protein AgRP, orexin), UCPs and lipoprotein lipase LPL and brain factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor , BDNF and tyrosine hydroxylase TH) were assessed in brain, white muscle and intestine. Irisin injections (100ng/g) induced a decrease in food intake and increases in brain orexin, CART1 and CART2, UCP2, BDNF, muscle UCP2 and intestine LPL mRNA expressions but did not affect blood glucose levels, brain AgRP, TH, UCP1, UCP3 and LPL or muscle UCP1, UCP3 and LPL expressions. A partial goldfish FNDC5 cDNA was isolated and the expressions of FDNC5, UCPs, LPL and BDNF were also compared between fed and fasted fish. Fasting induced decreases FNDC5 mRNA expression in the brain and intestine, but not in muscle. Fasting also induced increases in brain BDNF and LPL expressions and increases in UCP1, UCP2, UCP3 and LPL expressions in muscle. Our result suggest that irisin is an anorexigenic factor in fish and its actions might be in part mediated by appetite-regulating factors such as CART and orexins as well as UCP2 and brain factors such as BDNF.

  2. Fast direct injection mass-spectrometric characterization of stimuli for insect electrophysiology by proton transfer reaction-time of flight mass-spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS).

    PubMed

    Tasin, Marco; Cappellin, Luca; Biasioli, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Electrophysiological techniques are used in insect neuroscience to measure the response of olfactory neurons to volatile odour stimuli. Widely used systems to deliver an olfactory stimulus to a test insect include airstream guided flow through glass cartridges loaded with a given volatile compound on a sorbent support. Precise measurement of the quantity of compound reaching the sensory organ of the test organism is an urgent task in insect electrophysiology. In this study we evaluated the performances of the recent realised proton transfer reaction-time of flight mass-spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) as a fast and selective gas sensor. In particular, we characterised the gas emission from cartridges loaded with a set of volatile compounds belonging to different chemical classes and commonly used in electrophysiological experiments. PTR-ToF-MS allowed a fast monitoring of all investigated compounds with sufficient sensitivity and time resolution. The detection and the quantification of air contaminants and solvent or synthetic standards impurities allowed a precise quantification of the stimulus exiting the cartridge. The outcome of this study was twofold: on one hand we showed that PTR-ToF-MS allows monitoring fast processes with high sensitivity by real time detection of a broad number of compounds; on the other hand we provided a tool to solve an important issue in insect electrophysiology.

  3. 46 CFR 154.540 - Quick-closing shut-off valves: Emergency shut-down system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quick-closing shut-off valves: Emergency shut-down... shut-down system. The quick-closing shut-off valves under §§ 154.530, 154.532, and 154.538 must have an emergency shut-down system that: (a) Closes all the valves; (b) Is actuated by a single control in at...

  4. 46 CFR 154.540 - Quick-closing shut-off valves: Emergency shut-down system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quick-closing shut-off valves: Emergency shut-down... shut-down system. The quick-closing shut-off valves under §§ 154.530, 154.532, and 154.538 must have an emergency shut-down system that: (a) Closes all the valves; (b) Is actuated by a single control in at...

  5. 46 CFR 154.540 - Quick-closing shut-off valves: Emergency shut-down system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quick-closing shut-off valves: Emergency shut-down... shut-down system. The quick-closing shut-off valves under §§ 154.530, 154.532, and 154.538 must have an emergency shut-down system that: (a) Closes all the valves; (b) Is actuated by a single control in at...

  6. 46 CFR 154.540 - Quick-closing shut-off valves: Emergency shut-down system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quick-closing shut-off valves: Emergency shut-down... shut-down system. The quick-closing shut-off valves under §§ 154.530, 154.532, and 154.538 must have an emergency shut-down system that: (a) Closes all the valves; (b) Is actuated by a single control in at...

  7. Etanercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection comes as a solution (liquid) in a prefilled syringe and an automatic injection device, and as a ... etanercept injection.If your medication comes in a prefilled syringe or automatic injection device, use each syringe or ...

  8. Impacts of flare emissions from an ethylene plant shutdown to regional air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ziyuan; Wang, Sujing; Xu, Qiang; Ho, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Critical operations of chemical process industry (CPI) plants such as ethylene plant shutdowns could emit a huge amount of VOCs and NOx, which may result in localized and transient ozone pollution events. In this paper, a general methodology for studying dynamic ozone impacts associated with flare emissions from ethylene plant shutdowns has been developed. This multi-scale simulation study integrates process knowledge of plant shutdown emissions in terms of flow rate and speciation together with regional air-quality modeling to quantitatively investigate the sensitivity of ground-level ozone change due to an ethylene plant shutdown. The study shows the maximum hourly ozone increments can vary significantly by different plant locations and temporal factors including background ozone data and solar radiation intensity. It helps provide a cost-effective air-quality control strategy for industries by choosing the optimal starting time of plant shutdown operations in terms of minimizing the induced ozone impact (reduced from 34.1 ppb to 1.2 ppb in the performed case studies). This study provides valuable technical supports for both CPI and environmental policy makers on cost-effective air-quality controls in the future.

  9. Multiple well-shutdown tests and site-scale flow simulation in fractured rocks.

    PubMed

    Tiedeman, Claire R; Lacombe, Pierre J; Goode, Daniel J

    2010-01-01

    A new method was developed for conducting aquifer tests in fractured-rock flow systems that have a pump-and-treat (P&T) operation for containing and removing groundwater contaminants. The method involves temporary shutdown of individual pumps in wells of the P&T system. Conducting aquifer tests in this manner has several advantages, including (1) no additional contaminated water is withdrawn, and (2) hydraulic containment of contaminants remains largely intact because pumping continues at most wells. The well-shutdown test method was applied at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, New Jersey, where a P&T operation is designed to contain and remove trichloroethene and its daughter products in the dipping fractured sedimentary rocks underlying the site. The detailed site-scale subsurface geologic stratigraphy, a three-dimensional MODFLOW model, and inverse methods in UCODE_2005 were used to analyze the shutdown tests. In the model, a deterministic method was used for representing the highly heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity distribution and simulations were conducted using an equivalent porous media method. This approach was very successful for simulating the shutdown tests, contrary to a common perception that flow in fractured rocks must be simulated using a stochastic or discrete fracture representation of heterogeneity. Use of inverse methods to simultaneously calibrate the model to the multiple shutdown tests was integral to the effectiveness of the approach.

  10. Multiple well-shutdown tests and site-scale flow simulation in fractured rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiedeman, Claire R.; Lacombe, Pierre J.; Goode, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    A new method was developed for conducting aquifer tests in fractured-rock flow systems that have a pump-and-treat (P&T) operation for containing and removing groundwater contaminants. The method involves temporary shutdown of individual pumps in wells of the P&T system. Conducting aquifer tests in this manner has several advantages, including (1) no additional contaminated water is withdrawn, and (2) hydraulic containment of contaminants remains largely intact because pumping continues at most wells. The well-shutdown test method was applied at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, New Jersey, where a P&T operation is designed to contain and remove trichloroethene and its daughter products in the dipping fractured sedimentary rocks underlying the site. The detailed site-scale subsurface geologic stratigraphy, a three-dimensional MODFLOW model, and inverse methods in UCODE_2005 were used to analyze the shutdown tests. In the model, a deterministic method was used for representing the highly heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity distribution and simulations were conducted using an equivalent porous media method. This approach was very successful for simulating the shutdown tests, contrary to a common perception that flow in fractured rocks must be simulated using a stochastic or discrete fracture representation of heterogeneity. Use of inverse methods to simultaneously calibrate the model to the multiple shutdown tests was integral to the effectiveness of the approach.

  11. Intermediate leak protection/automatic shutdown for B and W helical coil steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The report summarizes a follow-on study to the multi-tiered Intermediate Leak/Automatic Shutdown System report. It makes the automatic shutdown system specific to the Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) helical coil steam generator and to the Large Development LMFBR Plant. Threshold leak criteria specific to this steam generator design are developed, and performance predictions are presented for a multi-tier intermediate leak, automatic shutdown system applied to this unit. Preliminary performance predictions for application to the helical coil steam generator were given in the referenced report; for the most part, these predictions have been confirmed. The importance of including a cover gas hydrogen meter in this unit is demonstrated by calculation of a response time one-fifth that of an in-sodium meter at hot standby and refueling conditions.

  12. Two-column sequential injection chromatography--new approach for fast and effective analysis and its comparison with gradient elution chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chocholous, Petr; Satínský, Dalibor; Sklenárová, Hana; Solich, Petr

    2010-05-23

    This work presents novel approach in low-pressure chromatography flow systems--two-column Sequential Injection Chromatography (2-C SIC) and its comparison with gradient elution chromatography on the same instrument. The system was equipped with two different chromatographic columns (connected to selection valve in parallel design) for isocratic separation and determination of all components in composed anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical preparation (tablets). The sample was first injected on the first column of length 30 mm where less retained analytes were separated and then the sample was injected on the second column of length 10 mm where more retained analytes were separated. The SIC system was based on a commercial SIChrom manifold (8-port high-pressure selection valve and medium-pressure syringe pump with 4 mL reservoir) (FIAlab, USA) with two commercially available monolithic columns the "first column" Chromolith Flash RP-18e (25 mm x 4.6 mm i.d. with guard column 5 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.) and the "second column" Chromolith RP-18e (10 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.) and CCD UV-vis detector USB 4000 with micro-volume 1.0 cm Z flow cell. Two mobile phases were used for analysis (one for each column). The mobile phase 1 used for elution of paracetamol, caffeine and salicylic acid (internal standard) was acetonitrile/water (10:90, v/v, the water part of pH 3.5 adjusted with acetic acid), flow rate was 0.9 mL min(-1) (volume 3.0 mL of mobile phase per analysis). The mobile phase 2 used for elution of propyphenazone was acetonitrile/water (30:70, v/v); flow rate was 1.2 mL min(-1) (volume 1.5 mL of mobile phase per analysis). Absorbance was monitored at 210 nm. Samples were prepared by dissolving of one tablet in 30% acetonitrile and 10 microL of filtered supernatant was injected on each column (2 x 10 microL). The chromatographic resolution between all compounds was >1.45 and analysis time was 5.5 min under the optimal conditions. Limits of detection were determined at 0.4 microg m

  13. 78 FR 63309 - New Filing Deadlines for Material Due To Be Submitted During the Federal Government Shutdown

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... notice that any material due to be submitted to the Board during the Federal government shutdown will now... shutdown of the Federal government, from October 1, 2013, through October 16, 2013, all deadlines...

  14. Development of an ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of cefazedone and etimicin in beagle dog plasma: Application to the pharmacokinetic study of the combination of cefazedone and etimicin injections.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yan; Ma, Ning; Li, Xiaoyan; Lv, Chunxiao; Li, Mingjie; Li, Minghua; Song, Liangwei; Liu, Mingxia; Li, Qing; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-10-23

    A new, sensitive and efficient ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of cefazedone and etimicin in beagle dog plasma. After addition of the internal standard (IS) metronidazole, plasma samples were treated by protein precipitation procedure, and then separated on a Venusil MP C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 3.0μm) (Venusil, China) using gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of 0.01% heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA) in acetonitrile and 0.01% HFBA in water at a flow rate of 0.4mLmin(-1). The detection of the analytes was performed on 4000Q UFLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in the positive ion and multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM) mode. The linear range was 1.0-200μgmL(-1) for cefazedone and 0.5-100μgmL(-1) for etimicin, with lower limits of quantification of 1.0 and 0.5μgmL(-1), respectively. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were within 7.2% and 4.3%, respectively for both analytes, and the accuracy (relative error, RE, %) was less than 10.7% and 12.7%, respectively. The mean absolute extraction recoveries of analytes and IS from beagle dog plasma were all more than 73.22%. The validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of cefazedone and etimicin in beagle dog after intravenous administration of cefazedone injection combined with etimicin injection and the two single injections alone, respectively. The results indicated there were not obvious differences between the pharmacokinetic behaviors between the combined group and either of the single groups.

  15. Development of the fast, simple and fully validated high performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detector for quantification of testosterone esters in an oil-based injectable dosage form.

    PubMed

    Kozlik, Petr; Tircova, Barbora

    2016-11-01

    Counterfeit steroids are available on the black market, ultimately to consumers who believe they are buying a legitimate pharmaceutical item from the labeled company. In many cases, counterfeit steroids can contain lower doses or some products can be overdosed. This can unwittingly expose users to a significant health risks. The mixture of testosterone propionate, phenylpropionate, isocaproate and decanoate in an oil-based injectable dosage form belongs to the one of the most misused illicit drugs by a variety of athletes. This study developed a new, fast, simple and reliable HPLC method combined with a simple sample preparation step to determine testosterone propionate, phenylpropionate, isocaproate and decanoate in an oil-based injectable dosage form without the use of sophisticated and expensive instrumentation. The developed analytical procedure provides high throughput of samples where LC analysis takes only 6min and sample preparation of oil matrix in one step takes approximately 10min with precision ranging from 1.03 to 3.38% (RSD), and accuracy (relative error %) within ±2.01%. This method was found to be precise, linear, accurate, sensitive, selective and robust for routine application in screening of commercial pharmaceutical products based on content of mentioned testosterone esters in their oil-based injectable dosage form for counterfeit drugs. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of nine samples of commercial testosterone mixtures purchased from various sources and will be further used as an effective screening method for determination of previously mentioned testosterone esters in samples confiscated by Institute of Forensic Science (Slovakia) during the illegal trade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 78 FR 60260 - Order of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission Relating to the Continuation, Shutdown, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... related to the orderly operation of the futures markets, the Commissioners will be supported by essential... Resumption of Certain Commission Operations in the Event of a Lapse in Appropriations AGENCY: Commodity... provide for the continuation, shutdown, and resumption of certain operations of the Commodity...

  17. Preventing the Shut-Down: Embodied Critical Care in a Teacher Educator's Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Muffet; Basford, Letitia

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the practice of one teacher educator to understand how she mitigates student resistance to prevent what we call "the shut-down" when teaching mostly White students about systemic forms of oppression. Engaging students in conversations about oppression does not in itself disrupt systems of power and privilege in…

  18. 40 CFR 60.2120 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens during periods of startup... 1, 2001 Emission Limitations and Operating Limits § 60.2120 What happens during periods of startup... during CISWI unit startups, shutdowns, or malfunctions. (b) Each malfunction must last no longer than 3...

  19. 25 CFR 226.28 - Shutdown, abandonment, and plugging of wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Cessation of Operations § 226.28 Shutdown, abandonment... production of oil and/or gas has been demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Superintendent. Lessee shall... the means by which the well bore is to be protected, and the contemplated eventual disposition of...

  20. 46 CFR 38.15-20 - Remote shutdowns-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Remote shutdowns-TB/ALL. 38.15-20 Section 38.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Special Requirements § 38.15-20 Remote shutdowns—TB/ALL. (a) All machinery associated with cargo loading, unloading,...

  1. 46 CFR 38.15-20 - Remote shutdowns-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remote shutdowns-TB/ALL. 38.15-20 Section 38.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Special Requirements § 38.15-20 Remote shutdowns—TB/ALL. (a) All machinery associated with cargo loading, unloading,...

  2. 40 CFR 63.310 - Requirements for startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... occurred. (j) The owner or operator of a nonrecovery coke oven battery subject to the work practice... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.310 Requirements for startups, shutdowns... or operator shall operate and maintain the coke oven battery and its pollution control equipment...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1336-84 - Engine starting, restarting, and shutdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... performed in accordance with manufacturer's specifications. (e) Test equipment malfunction—(1) Gasoline- and... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1336-84 Engine starting, restarting, and shutdown. (a) The engine shall be... to start occurs during the cold portion of the test and is caused by an engine malfunction...

  4. 40 CFR 60.2918 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 60.2918 Section 60.2918 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Training and Qualification Emission Limitations and Operating Limits § 60.2918 What happens during...

  5. 40 CFR 60.3025 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 60.3025 Section 60.3025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Emission Limitations and Operating Limits § 60.3025 What...

  6. 77 FR 72294 - Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 RIN 2060-AR62 Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired...

  7. Preventing the Shut-Down: Embodied Critical Care in a Teacher Educator's Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Muffet; Basford, Letitia

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the practice of one teacher educator to understand how she mitigates student resistance to prevent what we call "the shut-down" when teaching mostly White students about systemic forms of oppression. Engaging students in conversations about oppression does not in itself disrupt systems of power and privilege in…

  8. 40 CFR 65.6 - Startup, shutdown, and malfunction plan and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Startup, shutdown, and malfunction plan and procedures. 65.6 Section 65.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE General Provisions § 65.6 Startup...

  9. Renal Shutdown as a Complication of Severe Preeclampsia with Premature Separation of the Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Weekes, Leroy R.

    1980-01-01

    The author, with long experience in the management of toxemia of pregnancy and its multiple complications, is reporting his first case of complete renal shutdown after severe preeclampsia complicated by premature separation of the placenta, and complications of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. Multiple hemodialyses provided a breakthrough to what appears to be a complete reversal and return of normal renal function. PMID:7381954

  10. Trends vs. reactor size of passive reactivity shutdown and control performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, D.C.; Fujita, E.K.

    1988-01-01

    The focus of the US advanced reactor program since the cancellation of CRBR has been on inherent safety and cost reduction. The notion is to so design the reactor that in the event of an off normal condition, it brings itself to a safe shutdown condition and removes decay heat by reliance on ''inherent processes'' i.e., without reliance on devices requiring switching and outside sources of power. Such a reactor design would offer the potential to eliminate costly ''Engineered Safety Features,'' to lower capital costs, and to assuage public unease concerning reactor safety. For LMR concepts, the goal of passive reactivity shutdown has been approached in the US by designing the reactors for favorable relationships among the power, power/flow, and inlet temperature coefficients of reactivity, for high internal conversion ratio (yielding small burnup control swing), and for a primary pump coastdown time appropriately matched to the delayed neutron hold back of power decay upon negative reactivity input. The use of sodium bonded metallic fuel pins has facilitated the achievement of the passive shutdown design goals as a consequence of their high thermal conductivity and high effective heavy metal density. Alternately, core designs based on derated oxide pins may be able to achieve the passive shutdown features at the cost of larger core volume and increased initial fissile inventory. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  11. 40 CFR 60.3025 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 60.3025 Section 60.3025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Emission Limitations and Operating Limits § 60.3025 What happens...

  12. Impact of Government Shutdown on Child Care and Early Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2013

    2013-01-01

    Congress did not enact a continuing resolution bill by midnight September 30, 2013, thereby triggering a partial government shutdown effective October 1, 2013. October 1 began the federal fiscal year 2014. Most discretionary programs, those that are subject to the annual Congressional appropriations process, will not receive 2014 funding. Most,…

  13. 40 CFR 60.2685 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., shutdown, and malfunction? 60.2685 Section 60.2685 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... minimize the impact of the excess emissions on ambient air quality, the environment and human health; and... emissions resulting from the malfunction event at issue. The analysis shall also specify, using...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2120 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., shutdown, and malfunction? 60.2120 Section 60.2120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... minimize the impact of the excess emissions on ambient air quality, the environment and human health; and... emissions resulting from the malfunction event at issue. The analysis shall also specify, using...

  15. 40 CFR 63.310 - Requirements for startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plan, the owner or operator may use the standard operating procedures manual for the battery, provided... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.310 Requirements for startups, shutdowns... or operator shall operate and maintain the coke oven battery and its pollution control...

  16. 40 CFR 63.310 - Requirements for startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... plan, the owner or operator may use the standard operating procedures manual for the battery, provided... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.310 Requirements for startups, shutdowns... or operator shall operate and maintain the coke oven battery and its pollution control...

  17. Pegfilgrastim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pegfilgrastim comes as a solution (liquid) in prefilled injection syringes and in a pre-filled automatic injection device (On-body Injector) to inject subcutaneously (under the skin). If you are using pegfilgrastim to ...

  18. Cabazitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used along with prednisone to treat prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive organ) that has ... cabazitaxel injection is usually used in men with prostate cancer. If used by pregnant women, cabazitaxel injection can ...

  19. Ondansetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Zofran® Injection ... Ondansetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and surgery. Ondansetron is in a ... medications: or any of the ingredients in ondansetron injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ...

  20. Fast injection of the relativistic electrons into the inner zone and the formation of the split-zone structure during the Bastille Day storm in July 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung-Chan; Shprits, Yuri Y.; Blake, J. Bernard

    2016-09-01

    During the July 2000 geomagnetic storm, known as the Bastille Day storm, Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX)/Heavy Ion Large Telescope (HILT) observed a strong injection of 1 MeV electrons into the slot region (L 2.5) during the storm main phase. Then, during the following month, electrons were clearly seen diffusing inward down to L = 2 and forming a pronounced split structure encompassing a narrow, newly formed slot region around L = 3. SAMPEX observations are first compared with electron and proton observations on HEO-3 and NOAA-15 to validate that the observed unusual dynamics was not caused by proton contamination of the SAMPEX instrument. The time-dependent 3-D Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) simulation of 1 MeV electron flux evolution is compared with the SAMPEX/HILT observations. The results show that the VERB code predicts overall time evolution of the observed split structure. The simulated split structure is produced by pitch angle scattering into the Earth atmosphere of 1 MeV electrons by plasmaspheric hiss.

  1. Interinstrumental transfer of a fast short-end injection capillary electrophoresis method: Application to the separation of niobium, tantalum, and their substituted ions.

    PubMed

    De Cock, Bart; Oliver, James D; Delaunay, Nathalie; Deblonde, Gauthier; Mangelings, Debby; Vander Heyden, Yvan

    2017-08-01

    The interinstrumental transfer of a short-end CE method was studied. A model separation of the hexameric forms of niobium, tantalum, and their substituted ions (Nb6-x Tax with 0 ≤ x ≤ 6) was selected as test case. The method was first optimized on a Beckman instrument and in a second step transferred to an Agilent instrument. The transfer needed updated guidelines that tackled differences in effective capillary length, 8.5 (Agilent) versus 10 cm (Beckman), because of instrumental different capillary cartridges. Differences in effective length lead to migration time and separation efficiency inequalities, illustrated by a decrease in resolution between the substituted ions. The difference in effective length was overcome by adapting the lift offset parameter of the Agilent instrument. The lift offset default setting is 4 mm and by increasing this parameter both the inlet and outlet lifts are lowered and thus the detection window can be displaced and consequently the effective length was increased. The decrease in effective length difference and the effect on the separation efficiency was investigated and led finally to a restored separation of the substituted ions. The adaptation of the lift offset parameter during short-end injection methods was added to earlier developed guidelines to facilitate interinstrumental method transfer of CE methods. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Shutdown and Closure of the Experimental Breeder Reactor - II

    SciTech Connect

    Michelbacher, John A.; Baily, Carl E.; Baird, Daniel K.; Henslee, S. Paul; Knight, Collin J.; Rosenberg, Kenneth E.

    2002-07-01

    The Department of Energy mandated the termination of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program, effective October 1, 1994. To comply with this decision, Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) prepared a plan providing detailed requirements to maintain the Experimental Breeder Reactor - II (EBR-II) in a radiologically and industrially safe condition, including removal of all irradiated fuel assemblies from the reactor plant, and removal and stabilization of the primary and secondary sodium, a liquid metal used to transfer heat within the reactor plant. The EBR-II is a pool-type reactor. The primary system contained approximately 325 m{sup 3} (86,000 gallons) of sodium and the secondary system contained 50 m{sup 3} (13,000 gallons). In order to properly dispose of the sodium in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), a facility was built to react the sodium to a solid sodium hydroxide monolith for burial as a low level waste in a land disposal facility. Deactivation of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) presents unique concerns. Residual amounts of sodium remaining in circuits and components must be passivated, inerted, or removed to preclude future concerns with sodium-air reactions that could generate potentially explosive mixtures of hydrogen and leave corrosive compounds. The passivation process being implemented utilizes a moist carbon dioxide gas that generates a passive layer of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate over any quantities of residual sodium. Tests being conducted will determine the maximum depths of sodium that can be reacted using this method, defining the amount that must be dealt with later to achieve RCRA clean closure. Deactivation of the EBR-II complex is on schedule for a March, 2002, completion. Each system associated with EBR-II has an associated lay-up plan defining the system end state, as well as instructions for achieving the lay-up condition. A goal of system-by-system lay-up is to minimize

  3. Fast heating induced impulse halogenation of refractory sample components in electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry by direct injection of a liquid halogenating agent.

    PubMed

    György, Krisztina; Ajtony, Zsolt; Van Meel, Katleen; Van Grieken, René; Czitrovszky, Aladár; Bencs, László

    2011-09-15

    A novel electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) method was developed for the halogenation of refractory sample components (Er, Nd and Nb) of lithium niobate (LiNbO(3)) and bismuth tellurite (Bi(2)TeO(5)) optical single crystals to overcome memory effects and carry-over. For this purpose, the cleaning step of a regular graphite furnace heating program was replaced with a halogenation cycle. In this cycle, after the graphite tube cooled to room temperature, a 20 μL aliquot of liquid carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) was dispensed with a conventional autosampler into the graphite tube. The CCl(4) was partially dried at 80°C under the mini-flow (40 cm(3) min(-1)) condition of the Ar internal furnace gas (IFG), then the residue was decomposed (pyrolyzed) by fast furnace heating at 1900-2100°C under interrupted flow of the IFG. This step was followed by a clean-out stage at 2100°C under the maximum flow of the IFG. The advantage of the present method is that it does not require any alteration to the graphite furnace gas supply system in contrast to most of the formerly introduced halogenation techniques. The effectiveness of the halogenation method was verified with the determination of Er and Nd dopants in the optical crystals. In these analyses, a sensitivity decrease was observed, which was likely due to the enhanced deterioration of the graphite tube surface. Therefore, the application of mathematical correction (resloping) of the calibration was also required. The calibration curves were linear up to 1.5 and 10 μmol L(-1) for Er and Nd, respectively. Characteristic masses of 18 and 241 pg and the limit of detection (LOD) values of 0.017 and 0.27 μmol L(-1) were found for Er and Nd, respectively. These LOD data correspond to 0.68 μmol mol(-1) Er and 11 μmol mol(-1) Nd in solid bismuth tellurite samples. The analytical results were compared with those obtained by a conventional ETAAS method and validated with X-ray fluorescence spectrometry analysis.

  4. Ibandronate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Boniva® Injection ... Ibandronate injection is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and break ... Ibandronate injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be injected into a vein by a doctor or nurse in ...

  5. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Leuprolide injection comes as a long-acting suspension (Lupron) that is injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) by a doctor or nurse in a medical ... Depot-4 month, Lupron Depot-6 Month). Leuprolide injection also comes as a long-acting suspension (Eligard) that is injected subcutaneously (just under ...

  6. Rigorous-two-Steps scheme of TRIPOLI-4® Monte Carlo code validation for shutdown dose rate calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaboulay, Jean-Charles; Brun, Emeric; Hugot, François-Xavier; Huynh, Tan-Dat; Malouch, Fadhel; Mancusi, Davide; Tsilanizara, Aime

    2017-09-01

    After fission or fusion reactor shutdown the activated structure emits decay photons. For maintenance operations the radiation dose map must be established in the reactor building. Several calculation schemes have been developed to calculate the shutdown dose rate. These schemes are widely developed in fusion application and more precisely for the ITER tokamak. This paper presents the rigorous-two-steps scheme implemented at CEA. It is based on the TRIPOLI-4® Monte Carlo code and the inventory code MENDEL. The ITER shutdown dose rate benchmark has been carried out, results are in a good agreement with the other participant.

  7. Impact of the Digital Coil Protection System and Plasma Shutdown Handler on NSTX-U Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhardt, Stefan; Battaglia, D.; Boyer, M.; Erickson, K.; Mueller, D.; Myers, C.; Mueller, D.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2016-10-01

    In order to prevent excessive forces on the NSTX-U vessel and coils, a digital coil protection system (DCPS) has been implemented. This system computes approximately 400 different forces/torques/stresses, and terminates the discharge if limits on those quantities are exceeded. It is desirable, however, to prevent these coil system trips from ever happening. Given that many of these limits would be reached during transients associated with disruptions, as ``discharge shutdown handler'' was coded in the plasma control system to automatically control the plasma shutdown. This is a state machine with five states, and a set of rules for transitioning between states. The first use of these systems during plasma operations on NSTX-U will be described, with a focus on operational experiences and directions for future improvements. Work Supported by U.S.D.O.E. Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  8. Evaluation of respiratory variables in smelter and control workers before and during a shutdown period

    SciTech Connect

    Holness, D.L.; Batten, B.; Broder, I.; Corey, P.; Mintz, S.

    1985-05-01

    Thirty-six smelter workers examined in this pilot study were found to have a higher prevalence of cough and dyspnea and lower baseline lung function than did 31 controls. They also experienced decreases in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) over the workweek while the controls did not. Baseline airflow rates and change in FVC and FEV1 over the workweek varied with levels of sulfur dioxide and particulates. Twenty-three smelter workers and 21 controls were seen on a second occasion, six months into an extended shutdown. The smelter workers continued to have a higher prevalence of cough and dyspnea and lower baseline lung function than the controls. There was, however, a slight increase in lung function in both the exposed workers and the controls during the shutdown. The results suggest that smelter workers may develop both acute and chronic work-related pulmonary effects and that the chronic effects may be nonreversible.

  9. Shutdown characteristics of the Mod-O wind turbine with aileron controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R.; Corrigan, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    Horizontal-axis wind turbines utilize partial or full variable blade pitch to regulate rotor speed. The weight and costs of these systems indicated a need for alternate methods of rotor control. Aileron control is an alternative which has potential to meet this need. The NASA Lewis Research Center has been experimentally testing aileron control rotors on the Mod-U wind turbine to determine their power regulation and shutdown characteristics. Experimental and analytical shutdown test results are presented for a 38 percent chord aileron-control rotor. These results indicated that the 38 percent chord ailerons provided overspeed protection over the entire Mod-O operational windspeed range, and had a no-load equilibrium tip speed ratio of 1.9. Thus, the 38 percent chord ailerons had much improved aerodynamic braking capability when compared with the first aileron-control rotor having 20 percent chord ailerons.

  10. Shutdown-functionalized nonwoven separator with improved thermal and electrochemical properties for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngkwon; Lee, Won-Yeol; Kim, Ki Jae; Yu, Ji-Sang; Kim, Young-Jun

    2016-02-01

    A shutdown-functionalized nonwoven separator (SFNS) with improved thermal and electrochemical stabilities is prepared by a simple dip coating method for use in lithium-ion battery (LiB) applications. The SFNS shows thermal stability at 200 °C, while providing shutdown functionality at approximately 140 °C, similar to commercial porous polyethylene separators. The surface-coated polymer prevents leakage current problems and in addition, shows air permeability values similar to that of bare nonwoven separators, while maintaining a thickness of about 20 μm, which is a desired attribute of effective separators for LiBs. The SFNS also shows increased electrolyte uptake and higher conductivity, compared to a bare polyethylene separator. Therefore, a cell with the SFNS exhibits higher discharge capacity and better cycle property than that with a porous polyethylene separator. These results suggest that SFNS is an effective separator for high-performance LiBs.

  11. Shutdown Dose Rate Analysis for the long-pulse D-D Operation Phase in KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin Hun; Han, Jung-Hoon; Kim, D. H.; Joo, K. S.; Hwang, Y. S.

    2017-09-01

    KSTAR is a medium size fully superconducting tokamak. The deuterium-deuterium (D-D) reaction in the KSTAR tokamak generates neutrons with a peak yield of 3.5x1016 per second through a pulse operation of 100 seconds. The effect of neutron generation from full D-D high power KSTAR operation mode to the machine, such as activation, shutdown dose rate, and nuclear heating, are estimated for an assurance of safety during operation, maintenance, and machine upgrade. The nuclear heating of the in-vessel components, and neutron activation of the surrounding materials have been investigated. The dose rates during operation and after shutdown of KSTAR have been calculated by a 3D CAD model of KSTAR with the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 (neutron flux and decay photon), the inventory code FISPACT (activation and decay photon) and the FENDL 2.1 nuclear data library.

  12. Government Shutdown: Operations of the Department of Defense During a Lapse in Appropriations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-15

    of Fallen Soldiers Act, to provide for payment of death gratuities and other funeral expenses. Both houses had passed the bill unanimously...On October 10, 2013, the President signed H.J.Res. 91, which provides for the payment of death gratuities and other funeral expenses for military...http://www.defense.gov/ home /features/2013/0913_govtshutdown/ (continued...) Government Shutdown: Operations of the Department of Defense During a Lapse

  13. Investigation into the High Voltage Shutdown of the Oxygen Generator System in the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Joyce E.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Diderich, Greg S.; Roy, Robert J.; Golden, John L.; VanKeuren, Steve; Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony J.; Varsik, Jerome D.; Montefusco, Daniel J.; Wilson, Mark E.; Worthy, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    The Oxygen Generation System (OGS) Hydrogen Dome Assembly Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) serial number 00001 suffered a cell stack high-voltage shutdown on July 5, 2010. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was removed and replaced with the on-board spare ORU serial number 00002 to maintain OGS operation. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was returned from ISS on STS-133/ULF-5 in March 2011 with test, teardown and evaluation (TT&E) and failure analysis to follow.

  14. Water transport during startup and shutdown of polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Tajiri, K.; Ahluwalia, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-10-01

    A dynamic three-phase transport model is developed to analyze water uptake and transport in the membrane and catalyst layers of polymer electrolyte fuel cells during startup from subfreezing temperatures and subsequent shutdown. The initial membrane water content (?, the number of water molecules per sulfonic acid site) is found to be an important parameter that determines whether a successful unassisted self-start is possible. For a given initial subfreezing temperature at startup, there is a critical ? (?h), above which self-start is not possible because the product water completely engulfs the catalyst layers with ice before the stack can warm-up to 0 C. There is a second value of ? (?l), below which the stack can be self-started without forming ice. Between ?l and ?h, the stack can be self-started, but with intermediate formation of ice that melts as the stack warms up to 0 C. Both ?l and ?h are functions of the initial stack temperature, cell voltage at startup, membrane thickness, catalyst loading, and stack heat capacity. If the stack is purged during the previous shutdown by flowing air in the cathode passages, then depending on the initial amount of water in the membrane and gas diffusion layers and the initial stack temperature, it may not be possible to dry the membrane to the critical ? for a subsequent successful startup. There is an optimum ? for robust and rapid startup and shutdown. Startup and shutdown time and energy may be unacceptable if the ? is much less than the optimum. Conversely, a robust startup from subfreezing temperatures cannot be assured if the ? is much higher than this optimum.

  15. Impacts of U.S. Government Shutdown on Earth Science Teaching and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ramesh P.

    2013-11-01

    The federal government shutdown, apart from the impact on the U.S. economy and cancellation of some important nationally funded research, greatly affected scientists studying Earth and space science across the nation. Much coverage has highlighted how the fallout from this will influence large research projects, but the fallout goes beyond this. In particular, Earth science education involving natural hazards in the United States and in developing countries was put on hold.

  16. Computer study of emergency shutdowns of a 60-kilowatt reactor Brayton space power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, R. C.; Jefferies, K. S.

    1974-01-01

    A digital computer study of emergency shutdowns of a 60-kWe reactor Brayton power system was conducted. Malfunctions considered were (1) loss of reactor coolant flow, (2) loss of Brayton system gas flow, (3)turbine overspeed, and (4) a reactivity insertion error. Loss of reactor coolant flow was the most serious malfunction for the reactor. Methods for moderating the reactor transients due to this malfunction are considered.

  17. Design criteria for a self-actuated shutdown system to ensure limitation of core damage. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Deane, N.A.; Atcheson, D.B.

    1981-09-01

    Safety-based functional requirements and design criteria for a self-actuated shutdown system (SASS) are derived in accordance with LOA-2 success criteria and reliability goals. The design basis transients have been defined and evaluated for the CDS Phase II design, which is a 2550 MWt mixed oxide heterogeneous core reactor. A partial set of reactor responses for selected transients is provided as a function of SASS characteristics such as reactivity worth, trip points, and insertion times.

  18. Enhanced autonomic shutdown of Li-ion batteries by polydopamine coated polyethylene microspheres

    DOE PAGES

    Baginska, Marta; Blaiszik, Benjamin J.; Rajh, Tijana; ...

    2014-07-17

    Thermally triggered autonomic shutdown of a Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is demonstrated using polydopamine (PDA)-coated polyethylene microspheres applied onto a battery anode. The microspheres are dispersed in a buffered 10 mM dopamine salt solution and the pH is raised to initiate the polymerization and coat the microspheres. Coated microspheres are then mixed with an aqueous binder, applied onto a battery anode surface, dried, and incorporated into Li-ion coin cells. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy are used to verify the presence of the polydopamine on the surface of the microspheres. Scanning electron microscopy is used to examine microsphere surface morphology and resulting anodemore » coating quality. Charge and discharge capacity, as well as impedance, are measured for Li-ion coin cells as a function of microsphere content. Autonomous shutdown is achieved by applying 1.7 mg cm–2 of PDA-coated microspheres to the electrode. Furthermore, the PDA coating significantly reduces the mass of microspheres for effective shutdown compared to our prior work with uncoated microspheres.« less

  19. The Blood Flow Shutdown Induced by Combretastatin A4 Impairs Gemcitabine Delivery in a Mouse Hepatocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fruytier, Anne-Catherine; Le Duff, Cecile S.; Po, Chrystelle; Magat, Julie; Bouzin, Caroline; Neveu, Marie-Aline; Feron, Olivier; Jordan, Benedicte F.; Gallez, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In recent clinical studies, vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) are mainly used in combination with chemotherapy. However, an often overlooked concern in treatment combination is the VDA-induced impairment of chemotherapy distribution in the tumor. The work presented here investigated the impact of blood flow shutdown induced by Combretastatin A4 (CA4) on gemcitabine uptake into mouse hepatocarcinoma. At 2 h after CA4 treatment, using DCE-MRI, a significant decrease in the perfusion-relevant parameters Ktrans and Vp were observed in treated group compared with the control group. The blood flow shutdown was indeed confirmed by a histology study. In a third experiment, the total gemcitabine uptake was found to be significantly lower in treated tumors, as assessed in a separate experiment using ex vivo fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The amount of active metabolite gemcitabine triphosphate was also lower in treated tumors. In conclusion, the blood flow shutdown induced by VDAs can impact negatively on the delivery of small cytotoxic agents in tumors. The present study outlines the importance of monitoring the tumor vascular function when designing drug combinations. PMID:28066252

  20. Enhanced autonomic shutdown of Li-ion batteries by polydopamine coated polyethylene microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baginska, Marta; Blaiszik, Benjamin J.; Rajh, Tijana; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.

    2014-12-01

    Thermally triggered autonomic shutdown of a Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is demonstrated using polydopamine (PDA)-coated polyethylene microspheres applied onto a battery anode. The microspheres are dispersed in a buffered 10 mM dopamine salt solution and the pH is raised to initiate the polymerization and coat the microspheres. Coated microspheres are then mixed with an aqueous binder, applied onto a battery anode surface, dried, and incorporated into Li-ion coin cells. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy are used to verify the presence of the polydopamine on the surface of the microspheres. Scanning electron microscopy is used to examine microsphere surface morphology and resulting anode coating quality. Charge and discharge capacity, as well as impedance, are measured for Li-ion coin cells as a function of microsphere content. Autonomous shutdown is achieved by applying 1.7 mg cm-2 of PDA-coated microspheres to the electrode. The PDA coating significantly reduces the mass of microspheres for effective shutdown compared to our prior work with uncoated microspheres.

  1. PCDD/F emissions during startup and shutdown of a hazardous waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Wang, Chao; Cen, Kefa; Ni, Mingjiang; Li, Xiaodong

    2017-08-01

    Compared with municipal solid waste incineration, studies on the PCDD/F emissions of hazardous waste incineration (HWI) under transient conditions are rather few. This study investigates the PCDD/F emission level, congener profile and removal efficiency recorded during startup and shutdown by collecting flue gas samples at the bag filter inlet and outlet and at the stack. The PCDD/F concentration measured in the stack gas during startup and shutdown were 0.56-4.16 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3) and 1.09-3.36 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3), respectively, far exceeding the present codes in China. The total amount of PCDD/F emissions, resulting from three shutdown-startup cycles of this HWI-unit is almost equal to that generated during one year under normal operating conditions. Upstream the filter, the PCDD/F in the flue gas is mainly in the particle phase; however, after being filtered PCDD/F prevails in the gas phase. The PCDD/F fraction in the gas phase even exceeds 98% after passing through the alkaline scrubber. Especially higher chlorinated PCDD/F accumulate on inner walls of filters and ducts during these startup periods and could be released again during normal operation, significantly increasing PCDD/F emissions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Trends vs. reactor size of passive reactivity shutdown and control performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, D.C.; Fujita, E.K.

    1987-01-01

    For LMR concepts, the goal of passive reactivity shutdown has been approached in the US by designing the reactors for favorable relationships among the power, power/flow, and inlet temperature coefficients of reactivity, for high internal conversion ratio (yielding small burnup control swing), and for a primary pump coastdown time appropriately matched to the delayed neutron hold back of power decay upon negative reactivity input. The use of sodium bonded metallic fuel pins has facilitated the achievement of the massive shutdown design goals as a consequence of their high thermal conductivity and high effective heavy metal density. Alternately, core designs based on derated oxide pins may be able to achieve the passive shutdown features at the cost of larger core volume and increased initial fissile inventory. For LMR concepts, the passive decay heat removal goal of inherent safety has been approached in US designs by use of pool layouts, larger surface to volume ratio of the reactor vessel with natural draft air cooling of the vessel surface, elevations and redans which promote natural circulation through the core, and thermal mass of the pool contents sufficient to absorb that initial transient decay heat which exceeds the natural draft air cooling capacity. This paper describes current US ''inherently safe'' reactor design.

  3. shutdown is a component of the Drosophila piRNA biogenesis machinery

    PubMed Central

    Preall, Jonathan B.; Czech, Benjamin; Guzzardo, Paloma M.; Muerdter, Felix; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    In animals, the piRNA pathway preserves the integrity of gametic genomes, guarding them against the activity of mobile genetic elements. This innate immune mechanism relies on distinct genomic loci, termed piRNA clusters, to provide a molecular definition of transposons, enabling their discrimination from genes. piRNA clusters give rise to long, single-stranded precursors, which are processed into primary piRNAs through an unknown mechanism. These can engage in an adaptive amplification loop, the ping-pong cycle, to optimize the content of small RNA populations via the generation of secondary piRNAs. Many proteins have been ascribed functions in either primary biogenesis or the ping-pong cycle, though for the most part the molecular functions of proteins implicated in these pathways remain obscure. Here, we link shutdown (shu), a gene previously shown to be required for fertility in Drosophila, to the piRNA pathway. Analysis of knockdown phenotypes in both the germline and somatic compartments of the ovary demonstrate important roles for shutdown in both primary biogenesis and the ping-pong cycle. shutdown is a member of the FKBP family of immunophilins. Shu contains domains implicated in peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity and in the binding of HSP90-family chaperones, though the relevance of these domains to piRNA biogenesis is unknown. PMID:22753781

  4. Enhanced autonomic shutdown of Li-ion batteries by polydopamine coated polyethylene microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Baginska, Marta; Blaiszik, Benjamin J.; Rajh, Tijana; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.

    2014-07-17

    Thermally triggered autonomic shutdown of a Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is demonstrated using polydopamine (PDA)-coated polyethylene microspheres applied onto a battery anode. The microspheres are dispersed in a buffered 10 mM dopamine salt solution and the pH is raised to initiate the polymerization and coat the microspheres. Coated microspheres are then mixed with an aqueous binder, applied onto a battery anode surface, dried, and incorporated into Li-ion coin cells. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy are used to verify the presence of the polydopamine on the surface of the microspheres. Scanning electron microscopy is used to examine microsphere surface morphology and resulting anode coating quality. Charge and discharge capacity, as well as impedance, are measured for Li-ion coin cells as a function of microsphere content. Autonomous shutdown is achieved by applying 1.7 mg cm–2 of PDA-coated microspheres to the electrode. Furthermore, the PDA coating significantly reduces the mass of microspheres for effective shutdown compared to our prior work with uncoated microspheres.

  5. How Fast Is Fast?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korn, Abe

    1994-01-01

    Presents an activity that enables students to answer for themselves the question of how fast a body must travel before the nonrelativistic expression must be replaced with the correct relativistic expression by deciding on the accuracy required in describing the kinetic energy of a body. (ZWH)

  6. Simultaneous Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Multiple Chemical Constituents in YiQiFuMai Injection by Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunhua; Ju, Aichun; Zhou, Dazheng; Li, Dekun; Kou, Junping; Yu, Boyang; Qi, Jin

    2016-05-18

    YiQiFuMai injection (YQFM) is a modern lyophilized powder preparation derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Sheng-mai san (SMS) used for treating cardiovascular diseases, such as chronic heart failure. However, its chemical composition has not been fully elucidated, particularly for the preparation derived from Ophiopogon japonicus. This study aimed to establish a systematic and reliable method to quickly and simultaneously analyze the chemical constituents in YQFM by ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-IT-TOF/MS). Sixty-five compounds in YQFM were tentatively identified by comparison with reference substances or literature data. Furthermore, twenty-one compounds, including three ophiopogonins, fifteen ginsenosides and three lignans were quantified by UFLC-IT-TOF/MS. Notably, this is the first determination of steroidal saponins from O. japonicus in YQFM. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra- and inter-day precision, reproducibility and stability were <4.9% and all analytes showed good linearity (R² ≥ 0.9952) and acceptable recovery of 91.8%-104.2% (RSD ≤ 5.4%), indicating that the methods were reliable. These methods were successfully applied to quantitative analysis of ten batches of YQFM. The developed approach can provide useful and comprehensive information for quality control, further mechanistic studies in vivo and clinical application of YQFM.

  7. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... body and causes pain, swelling, and damage) including: rheumatoid arthritis (condition in which the body attacks its own ... doctor.If golimumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it may also be injected intravenously (into a ...

  8. Adalimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes pain, swelling, and damage) including the following: rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... If you are using adalimumab injection to treat rheumatoid arthritis, your doctor may tell you to inject the ...

  9. Ipilimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while receiving ipilimumab injection, call your doctor. Ipilimumab injection may cause your baby to be born too early or to die before birth.

  10. Teniposide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in men. You should not become pregnant or breast-feed while you are receiving teniposide injection. If you or your partner become pregnant while receiving teniposide injection, call your doctor. Teniposide may harm the fetus.

  11. Dexrazoxane Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who ... with doxorubicin. Dexrazoxane injection (Totect) is used to decrease damage to the skin and tissues that may ...

  12. Colistimethate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Colistimethate injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work ...

  13. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  14. Natalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... your condition. Keep all appointments to receive natalizumab injection even if you feel well. ... tests to check your body's response to natalizumab injection.It is important ... you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  15. Methylnaltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... taking opioid medications, you should stop using methylnaltrexone injection as well.You should stop taking other laxative medications when you start using methylnaltrexone injection. However, be sure to let your doctor know ...

  16. Triptorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to treat the symptoms associated with advanced prostate cancer. Triptorelin injection (Triptodur) is used to treat central ... a medical office or clinic. When used for prostate cancer, an injection of 3.75 mg of triptorelin ( ...

  17. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  18. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of birth control but does not prevent the spread of human ... you have been using a different method of birth control and are switching to medroxyprogesterone injection, your doctor ...

  19. Dolasetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Dolasetron injection should not be used to prevent ... a single injection just before the end of surgery or as soon as nausea or vomiting occurs. ...

  20. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Levoleucovorin injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of cancer. Levoleucovorin injection is also used to treat people ...

  1. Etelcalcetide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Etelcalcetide injection is used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism (condition in which the body produces too much parathyroid ... blood when the kidneys are not working properly.) Etelcalcetide injection is in a class of medications called ...

  2. Dupilumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat the symptoms of eczema (atopic dermatitis; a skin disease that causes the ... use other medications for their condition or whose eczema has not responded to other medications. Dupilumab injection ...

  3. Methylprednisolone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic reactions. Methylprednisolone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis (a disease in which the ... laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are using methylprednisolone injection.If you ...

  4. Clindamycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... your treatment with clindamycin injection or during the first several months after your treatment is finished: watery or bloody stools, diarrhea, stomach cramps, or fever.Talk to your doctor about the risks of receiving clindamycin injection.

  5. Obinutuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Obinutuzumab injection is used with chlorambucil (Leukeran) to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Obinutuzumab injection is in a class of medications called ...

  6. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Ferumoxytol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  7. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pralatrexate injection is used to treat peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL; a form of cancer that begins in a ... come back after treatment with other medications. Pralatrexate injection has not been shown to help people who ...

  8. Cyanocobalamin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cyanocobalamin injection is used to treat and prevent a lack of vitamin B12 that may be caused by any ... organs) and permanent damage to the nerves. Cyanocobalamin injection also may be given as a test to ...

  9. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Paclitaxel injection manufactured with human albumin is used to treat breast cancer that has not improved or that has come back after treatment with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to ...

  10. Peramivir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Peramivir injection is used to treat some types of influenza infection ('flu') in people who have had symptoms of ... flu for no longer than 2 days. Peramivir injection is in a class of medications called neuraminidase ...

  11. Cefotetan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cefotetan injection is used to treat infections of the lungs, skin, bones, joints, stomach area, blood, female reproductive organs, and urinary tract. Cefotetan injection is also used before surgery to prevent infections. ...

  12. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Mipomersen injection is used to decrease levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood in people who ... that removes LDL from the blood), but mipomersen injection should not be used along with this treatment. ...

  13. Romiplostim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Romiplostim injection is used to increase the number of platelets (cells that help the blood to clot) in order ... low number of platelets in the blood). Romiplostim injection should only be used in people who cannot ...

  14. Hydrocortisone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocortisone injection is used to treat symptoms of low corticosteroid levels (lack of certain substances that are usually produced ... also used to treat severe allergic reactions. Hydrocortisone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis ( ...

  15. Palivizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Palivizumab injection is used to help prevent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; common virus that can cause serious lung infections) ... or have certain heart or lung diseases. Palivizumab injection is not used to treat the symptoms of ...

  16. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large amounts of alcohol to avoid drinking again. Naltrexone injection is also used along with counseling and social ...

  17. Tesamorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Tesamorelin injection is used to decrease the amount of extra fat in the stomach area in adults with human ... fat in certain areas of the body). Tesamorelin injection is not used to help with weight loss. ...

  18. Tigecycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Tigecycline injection used to treat certain serious infections including community acquired pneumonia (a lung infection that developed in a ... area between the chest and the waist). Tigecycline injection should not be used to treat pneumonia that ...

  19. Eculizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Eculizumab injection is used to treat paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH: a type of anemia in which too many red ... oxygen to all parts of the body). Eculizumab injection is also used to treat atypical hemolytic uremic ...

  20. Pembrolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pembrolizumab injection is used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that cannot be treated with surgery or ... spread to other parts of the body. Pembrolizumab injection is also used to treat a certain type ...

  1. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria. Oxacillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work ...

  2. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  3. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Nafcillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as nafcillin injection will not work ...

  4. Doripenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract, kidney, and abdomen that are caused by bacteria. Doripenem injection is not approved by the Food ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work ...

  5. Shutdown and low-power operation at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The report contains the results of the NRC Staff`s evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants. The report describes studies conducted by the staff in the following areas: Operating experience related to shutdown and low-power operations, probabilistic risk assessment of shutdown and low-power conditions and utility programs for planning and conducting activities during periods the plant is shut down. The report also documents evaluations of a number of technical issues regarding shutdown and low-power operations performed by the staff, including the principal findings and conclusions. Potential new regulatory requirements are discussed, as well as potential changes in NRC programs. A draft report was issued for comment in February 1992. This report is the final version and includes the responses to the comments along with the staff regulatory analysis of potential new requirements.

  6. Five years operating experience at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Baumhardt, R. J.; Bechtold, R. A.

    1987-04-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is a 400 Mw(t), loop-type, sodium-cooled, fast neutron reactor. It is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the United States Department of Energy at Richland, Washington. The FFTF is a multipurpose test reactor used to irradiate fuels and materials for programs such as Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) research, fusion research, space power systems, isotope production and international research. FFTF is also used for testing concepts to be used in Advanced Reactors which will be designed to maximize passive safety features and not require complex shutdown systems to assure safe shutdown and heat removal. The FFTF also provides experience in the operation and maintenance of a reactor having prototypic components and systems typical of large LMR (LMFBR) power plants. The 5 year operational performance of the FFTF reactor is discussed in this report. 6 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Cidofovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in babies whose mothers received cidofovir injection during pregnancy. You should not use cidofovir injection while you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant unless your doctor decides that this is the best treatment for your condition.Cidofovir injection has caused tumors ...

  8. Albiglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood) when other medications did not control levels well enough. Albiglutide injection is not used to treat type 1 diabetes ( ... does not cure it. Continue to use albiglutide injection even if you feel well. Do not stop using albiglutide injection without talking ...

  9. Nalbuphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of nalbuphine injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side effects that you experience. Talk to your doctor about how you are feeling ... nalbuphine injection.You may receive nalbuphine injection in a hospital, ...

  10. Liraglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood) when other medications did not control levels well enough. Liraglutide injection (Victoza) is not used to treat type 1 ... does not cure it. Continue to use liraglutide injection even if you feel well. Do not stop using liraglutide injection without talking ...

  11. Meperidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of meperidine injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side effects that you experience. Talk to your doctor about how you are feeling ... meperidine injection.If you have used meperidine injection for longer ...

  12. Dulaglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood) when other medications did not control levels well enough. Dulaglutide injection is not used to treat type 1 diabetes ( ... does not cure it. Continue to use dulaglutide injection even if you feel well. Do not stop using dulaglutide injection without talking ...

  13. Morphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of morphine injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side effects that you experience. Talk to your doctor about how you are feeling ... with morphine injection.If you have used morphine injection for longer ...

  14. Busulfan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Busulfex® Injection ... Busulfan injection is used to treat a certain type of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML; a type of cancer of ... of 16 doses) before bone marrow transplant.Busulfan injection may cause seizures during therapy with the medication. ...

  15. Safety design of prototype fast breeder reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bhoje, S.B.; Chetal, S.C.; Singh, Om Pal

    2004-07-01

    The basic design and safety design of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is presented. Design aspects covered include safety classification, seismic categorization, design basis conditions, design safety limits, core physics, core monitoring, shutdown system, decay heat removal system, protection against sodium leaks and tube leaks in steam generator, plant layout, radiation protection, event analysis, beyond design basis accidents, integrity of primary containment, reactor containment building and design pressure resulting from core disruptive accident. The measures provided in the design represent a robust case of the safety of the reactor. (authors)

  16. Fast-acting nuclear reactor control device

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.; West, Phillip B.

    1993-01-01

    A fast-acting nuclear reactor control device for moving and positioning a fety control rod to desired positions within the core of the reactor between a run position in which the safety control rod is outside the reactor core, and a shutdown position in which the rod is fully inserted in the reactor core. The device employs a hydraulic pump/motor, an electric gear motor, and solenoid valve to drive the safety control rod into the reactor core through the entire stroke of the safety control rod. An overrunning clutch allows the safety control rod to freely travel toward a safe position in the event of a partial drive system failure.

  17. Modeling of rapid shutdown in the DIII-D tokamak by core deposition of high-Z material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzo, V. A.; Parks, P. B.

    2017-06-01

    MHD modeling of encapsulated payload pellet injection (shell pellet injection) for disruption mitigation is carried out under the assumption of idealized delivery of the radiating payload to the core, neglecting the physics of shell ablation. The shell-pellet method is designed to produce an inside-out thermal quench in which core thermal heat is radiated while outer flux surfaces remain intact, protecting the divertor from large conducted heat loads. In the simulation, good outer surfaces remain until the thermal quench is nearly complete, and a high radiated energy fraction is achieved. When the outermost surfaces are destroyed, runaway electron test orbits indicate that the rate of runaway electron loss is very fast compared with prior massive gas injection simulations, which is attributed to the very different current profile evolution that occurs with central cooling.

  18. New perspectives on substorm injections

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, G.D.

    1998-12-01

    There has been significant progress in understanding substorm injections since the Third International Conference on Substorms in 1996. Progress has come from a combination of new theories, quantitative modeling, and observations--particularly multi-satellite observations. There is now mounting evidence that fast convective flows are the mechanism that directly couples substorm processes in the mid tail, where reconnection occurs, with substorm processes the inner magnetosphere where Pi2 pulsations, auroral breakups, and substorm injections occur. This paper presents evidence that those flows combined with an earthward-propagating compressional wave are responsible for substorm injections and discusses how that model can account for various substorm injection signatures.

  19. A fully automated and fast method using direct sample injection combined with fused-core column on-line SPE-HPLC for determination of ochratoxin A and citrinin in lager beers.

    PubMed

    Lhotská, Ivona; Šatínský, Dalibor; Havlíková, Lucie; Solich, Petr

    2016-05-01

    A new fast and sensitive method based on on-line solid-phase extraction on a fused-core precolumn coupled to liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection has been developed for ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) determination in lager beer samples. Direct injection of 100 μL filtered beer samples into an on-line SPE-HPLC system enabled fast and effective sample extraction including separation in less than 6 min. Preconcentration of OTA and CIT from beer samples was performed on an Ascentis Express RP C18 guard column (5 × 4.6 mm), particle size 2.7 μm, with a mobile phase of methanol/0.5% aqueous acetic acid pH 2.8 (30:70, v/v) at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1). The flow switch from extraction column to analytical column in back-flush mode was set at 2.0 min and the separation was performed on the fused-core column Ascentis Express Phenyl-Hexyl (100 × 4.6 mm), particle size 2.7 μm, with a mobile phase acetonitrile/0.5% aqueous acetic acid pH 2.8 in a gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) and temperature of 50 °C. Fluorescence excitation/emission detection wavelengths were set at 335/497 nm. The accuracy of the method, defined as the mean recoveries of OTA and CIT from light and dark beer samples, was in the range 98.3-102.1%. The method showed high sensitivity owing to on-line preconcentration; LOQ values were found to be 10 and 20 ng L(-1) for OTA and CIT, respectively. The found values of OTA and CIT in all tested light, dark and wheat beer samples were significantly below the maximum tolerable limits (3.0 μg kg(-1) for OTA and 2000 μg kg(-1) for CIT) set by the European Union.

  20. Analysis of the Hydrologic Response Associated with Shutdown and Restart of the 200-ZP-1 Pump-and-Treat System

    SciTech Connect

    Spane, Frank A.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2000-09-08

    A number of programs have been implemented on the Hanford Site that utilize the pumping and treatment of contaminated groundwater as part of their remediation strategy. Often the treated water is reinjected into the aquifer at injection well sites. The implementation of remedial pump and treat systems, however, results in hydraulic pressure responses, both areally and vertically (i.e., with depth) within the pumped aquifer. The area within the aquifer affected by the pump and treat system (i.e., radius of influence) is commonly estimated based on detecting associated water-level responses within surrounding monitor wells. Natural external stresses, such as barometric pressure fluctuations, however, can have a discernible impact on well water-level measurements. These temporal barometric effects may significantly mask water-level responses within more distant wells that are only slightly affected (< 0.10 m) by the test system. External stress effects, therefore, can lead to erroneous indications of the radius of influence of the imposed pump and treat system remediation activities and can greatly diminish the ability to analyze the associated well responses for hydraulic property characterization. When these extraneous influences are significant, adjustments or removal of the barometric effects from the test-response record may be required for quantitative hydrologic assessment. This report examines possible hydrologic effects of pump and treat remediation actions and provides a detailed analysis of water-level measurements for selected 200-ZP-1 pump and treat system monitor wells during the recent Y2K shutdown (December 1999) and restart activity (January 2000). The general findings presented in this report have universal application for unconfined and confined aquifer systems.

  1. Tevatron anti-proton injection kicker waveform analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, B.; Finley, D.; /Fermilab

    1996-08-01

    This note describes the measurements of the waveform of the Tevatron antiproton injection kicker using the 150 Gev proton beam. This new horizontal kicker was installed at D48 during the summer of 1995 shutdown. These measurements were taken in two sessions [1] starting on October 10 and October 18, 1995. The measurements use the Tevatron BPM and flying wire systems. This note is a companion to the Tevatron proton injection kicker note published recently [2]. The design specifications for the kicker are given in Dinkel et al. [3].

  2. Abrupt shutdown of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and rainfall patterns in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Lopez, B.; Garcia, C. Gay

    2010-03-01

    Abrupt shutdown of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and rainfall patterns in Mexico. Model simulations agree that the warming and the resulting freshening of the surface waters will significantly reduce deep water formation in the Labrador Sea during the next decades. A complete collapse of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) would be associated with a strong cooling of several degrees in the North Atlantic region (Winton 2003). The future response of the AMOC, however, is predictable only within a broad range due to the existence of a critical threshold in the system and the large uncertainty about both the location of this threshold on the freshwater axis and the freshwater forcing (Zickfeld et al., 2007). According to Meehl et al. (2007), the probability of an abrupt slowdown or shutdown of the AMOC triggered by greenhouse gas forcing is low, but it is considered a high-impact event (Wood et al., 2003). An abrupt change in the AMOC could occur so unexpectedly and quickly that natural systems would have difficulty adapting to them (NRC, 2002). In this work we use coupled ocean-atmosphere models to asses the response of rainfall patterns in Mexico to an abrupt shutdown of the AMOC. First, a cooling pattern, triggered by a freshwater flux perturbation in the North Atlantic, is simulated by an isopycnic ocean model coupled to an atmospheric energy balance model. Then, this anomalous surface temperature pattern is used as a surface boundary condition for a numerical experiment performed using the simplified global atmospheric circulation model PUMA (Portable University Model of the Atmosphere; Fraedrich et al., 1998), which compute the perturbed rainfall patterns in Mexico.

  3. A safety and regulatory assessment of generic BWR and PWR permanently shutdown nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, R.J.; Davis, R.E.; Grove, E.J.; Azarm, M.A.

    1997-08-01

    The long-term availability of less expensive power and the increasing plant modification and maintenance costs have caused some utilities to re-examine the economics of nuclear power. As a result, several utilities have opted to permanently shutdown their plants. Each licensee of these permanently shutdown (PSD) plants has submitted plant-specific exemption requests for those regulations that they believe are no longer applicable to their facility. This report presents a regulatory assessment for generic BWR and PWR plants that have permanently ceased operation in support of NRC rulemaking activities in this area. After the reactor vessel is defueled, the traditional accident sequences that dominate the operating plant risk are no longer applicable. The remaining source of public risk is associated with the accidents that involve the spent fuel. Previous studies have indicated that complete spent fuel pool drainage is an accident of potential concern. Certain combinations of spent fuel storage configurations and decay times, could cause freshly discharged fuel assemblies to self heat to a temperature where the self sustained oxidation of the zircaloy fuel cladding may cause cladding failure. This study has defined four spent fuel configurations which encompass all of the anticipated spent fuel characteristics and storage modes following permanent shutdown. A representative accident sequence was chosen for each configuration. Consequence analyses were performed using these sequences to estimate onsite and boundary doses, population doses and economic costs. A list of candidate regulations was identified from a screening of 10 CFR Parts 0 to 199. The continued applicability of each regulation was assessed within the context of each spent fuel storage configuration and the results of the consequence analyses.

  4. Requirements Analysis Study for Master Pump Shutdown System Project Development Specification [SEC 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-03-24

    This document has been updated during the definitive design portion of the first phase of the W-314 Project to capture additional software requirements and is planned to be updated during the second phase of the W-314 Project to cover the second phase of the Project's scope. The objective is to provide requirement traceability by recording the analysis/basis for the functional descriptions of the master pump shutdown system. This document identifies the sources of the requirements and/or how these were derived. Each requirement is validated either by quoting the source or an analysis process involving the required functionality, performance characteristics, operations input or engineering judgment.

  5. Modeling startup and shutdown transient of the microlinear piezo drive via ANSYS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azin, A. V.; Bogdanov, E. P.; Rikkonen, S. V.; Ponomarev, S. V.; Khramtsov, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    The article describes the construction-design of the micro linear piezo drive intended for a peripheral cord tensioner in the reflecting surface shape regulator system for large-sized transformable spacecraft antenna reflectors. The research target -the development method of modeling startup and shutdown transient of the micro linear piezo drive. This method is based on application software package ANSYS. The method embraces a detailed description of the calculation stages to determine the operating characteristics of the designed piezo drive. Based on the numerical solutions, the time characteristics of the designed piezo drive are determined.

  6. Investigation and modeling of space shuttle main engine shutdown transient chugging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, P. E., II

    1986-01-01

    The space shuttle main engines experience a low frequency pressure pulsation in both the fuel and oxidizer preburners during the shutdown transient. This pressure pulsation, called chugging, has been linked to undesirable bearing loads and possible damage to the spark ignitor supply piping for the fuel preburner. The problem is briefly described and a model is proposed that includes: (1) a transient stirred tank reactor model for the combustion chamber, (2) a resistance capacitance model for the supply piping and (3) purge gas/liquid oxygen interface tracking.

  7. Hydromorphone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of hydromorphone injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side ... to have pain after you finish the hydromorphone injection, call your doctor.It ... you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  8. Ixabepilone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor will order laboratory tests to see how well your liver is working before and during your treatment. If the tests show that you have liver problems, your doctor will probably not give you ixabepilone injection and capecitabine (Xeloda). Treatment with both ixabepilone injection ...

  9. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... group of cancers of the immune system that first appear as skin rashes) in people who have already been treated with at least one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications called histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. It ...

  10. Nusinersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Nusinersen injection is used for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (an inherited condition that reduces muscle strength and movement). Nusinersen injection is in a class of medications called antisense ... a certain protein necessary for the muscles and nerves to work normally.

  11. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  12. Development of Probabilistic Risk Assessment Model for BWR Shutdown Modes 4 and 5 Integrated in SPAR Model

    SciTech Connect

    S. T. Khericha; S. Sancakter; J. Mitman; J. Wood

    2010-06-01

    Nuclear plant operating experience and several studies show that the risk from shutdown operation during modes 4, 5, and 6 can be significant This paper describes development of the standard template risk evaluation models for shutdown modes 4, and 5 for commercial boiling water nuclear power plants (BWR). The shutdown probabilistic risk assessment model uses full power Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) model as the starting point for development. The shutdown PRA models are integrated with their respective internal events at-power SPAR model. This is accomplished by combining the modified system fault trees from SPAR full power model with shutdown event tree logic. For human reliability analysis (HRA), the SPAR HRA (SPAR-H) method is used which requires the analysts to complete relatively straight forward worksheet, including the performance shaping factors (PSFs). The results are then used to estimate HEP of interest. The preliminary results indicate the risk is dominated by the operator’s ability to diagnose the events and provide long term cooling.

  13. Control assembly for controlling a fuel cell system during shutdown and restart

    DOEpatents

    Venkataraman, Ramki; Berntsen, George; Carlson, Glenn L.; Farooque, Mohammad; Beachy, Dan; Peterhans, Stefan; Bischoff, Manfred

    2010-06-15

    A fuel cell system and method in which the fuel cell system receives and an input oxidant gas and an input fuel gas, and in which a fuel processing assembly is provided and is adapted to at least humidify the input fuel gas which is to be supplied to the anode of the fuel cell of the system whose cathode receives the oxidant input gas via an anode oxidizing assembly which is adapted to couple the output of the anode of the fuel cell to the inlet of the cathode of the fuel cell during normal operation, shutdown and restart of the fuel cell system, and in which a control assembly is further provided and is adapted to respond to shutdown of the fuel cell system during which input fuel gas and input oxidant gas cease to be received by the fuel cell system, the control assembly being further adapted to, when the fuel cell system is shut down: control the fuel cell system so as to enable a purging gas to be able to flow through the fuel processing assembly to remove humidified fuel gas from the processing assembly and to enable a purging gas to be able to flow through the anode of the fuel cell.

  14. U.S. Government shutdown degrades aviation radiation monitoring during solar radiation storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Gersey, Brad; Wilkins, Richard; Mertens, Chris; Atwell, William; Bailey, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Government shutdown from 1 to 17 October 2013 significantly affected U.S. and global aviation radiation monitoring. The closure occurred just as a S2 radiation storm was in progress with an average dose rate of 20 μSv h-1. We estimate that during the radiation event period, one-half million passengers were flying in the affected zone and, of this population, four would have received sufficient dose to contract fatal cancer in their lifetimes. The radiation environment can be treated like any other risk-prone weather event, e.g., rain, snow, icing, clear air turbulence, convective weather, or volcanic ash, and should be made available to flight crews in a timely way across the entire air traffic management system. The shutdown highlighted the need for active operational monitoring of the global radiation environment. Aviation radiation risk mitigation steps are simple and straightforward, i.e., fly at a lower altitude and/or use a more equatorward route. Public tools and media methods are also needed from the space weather scientific and operational communities to provide this information in a timely and accessible manner to the flying public.

  15. Electricity-market price and nuclear power plant shutdown: Evidence from California

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, C.K.; Ho, T.; Zarnikau, J.; Olson, A.; Jones, R.; Chait, M.; Horowitz, I.; Wang, J.

    2014-10-01

    Japan's Fukushima nuclear disaster, triggered by the March 11, 2011 earthquake, has led to calls for shutting down existing nuclear plants. To maintain resource adequacy for a grid's reliable operation, one option is to expand conventional generation, whose marginal unit is typically fueled by natural-gas. Two timely and relevant questions thus arise for a deregulated wholesale electricity market: (1) what is the likely price increase due to a nuclear plant shutdown? and (2) what can be done to mitigate the price increase? To answer these questions, we perform a regression analysis of a large sample of hourly real-time electricity-market price data from the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) for the 33-month sample period of April 2010-December 2012. Our analysis indicates that the 2013 shutdown of the state's San Onofre plant raised the CAISO real-time hourly market prices by $6/MWH to $9/MWH, and that the price increases could have been offset by a combination of demand reduction, increasing solar generation, and increasing wind generation.

  16. Modeling of rapid shutdown in the DIII-D tokamak by core deposition of high-Z material

    DOE PAGES

    Izzo, Valerie A.; Parks, Paul B.

    2017-06-22

    MHD modeling of shell-pellet injection for disruption mitigation is carried out under the assumption of idealized delivery of the radiating payload to the core, neglecting the physics of shell ablation. The shell pellet method is designed to produce an inside-out thermal quench in which core thermal heat is radiated while outer flux surfaces remain intact, protecting the divertor from large conducted heat loads. In the simulation, good outer surfaces remain until the thermal quench is nearly complete, and a high radiated energy fraction is achieved. As a result, when the outermost surfaces are destroyed, runaway electron test orbits indicate thatmore » the rate of runaway electron loss is very fast compared with prior massive gas injection simulations, which is attributed to the very different current profile evolution that occurs with central cooling.« less

  17. Abaloparatide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a natural human hormone called parathyroid hormone (PTH). It works by causing the body to build ... container.You should know that abaloparatide injection may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, and fainting when you get up ...

  18. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to treat the ... children. Store it at room temperature, away from light, excess heat, and moisture (not in the bathroom). ...

  19. Certolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... has not improved when treated with other medications, rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... continues. When certolizumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it is usually given every other week and ...

  20. Acyclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... chickenpox in the past) in people with weak immune systems. It is also used to treat first-time ... from time to time) in people with normal immune systems. Acyclovir injection is used to treat herpes simplex ...

  1. Doxercalciferol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Doxercalciferol injection is used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism (a condition in which the body produces too much parathyroid hormone [PTH; a natural substance needed to control the amount of calcium in ...

  2. Evolocumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... how to inject this medication.Remove the prefilled syringe or prefilled autoinjector from the refrigerator and allow it to ... before using it. Do not warm the prefilled syringe or prefilled autoinjector in hot water, microwave, or place in ...

  3. Ixekizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a as a solution (liquid) in a prefilled syringe, and as a prefilled autoinjector to inject subcutaneously ( ... dispose of the puncture-resistant container.Remove the prefilled syringe or autoinjector from the refrigerator. Place it on ...

  4. Alirocumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... how to inject this medication.Remove the prefilled syringe or prefilled dosing pen from the refrigerator and allow it ... hours or longer. Do not put the prefilled syringe or prefilled dosing pen back in the refrigerator after it ...

  5. Daclizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Daclizumab comes as a solution (liquid) in a prefilled syringe to inject subcutaneously (under the skin). It is ... or tattooed.Never reuse or share needles or prefilled syringes of medication. Throw away used syringes in a ...

  6. Sarilumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... receive any vaccines. You should not receive any vaccinations while you are using sarilumab injection without talking ... pregnant, tellyour doctor before the baby receives any vaccinations.if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, ...

  7. Zidovudine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... zidovudine injection does not cure HIV, it may decrease your chance of developing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) ... sex and making other life-style changes may decrease the risk of transmitting (spreading) the HIV virus ...

  8. Rasburicase Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as tumors break down) in people with certain types of cancer who are being treated with chemotherapy medications. Rasburicase injection is in a class of medications called enzymes. It works by breaking down uric acid so ...

  9. Haloperidol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... release injection are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of ... medications); medications for anxiety, depression, irritable bowel disease, mental illness, motion sickness, Parkinson's disease, seizures, ulcers, or urinary ...

  10. Risperidone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of ... ropinirole (Requip); medications for anxiety, blood pressure, or mental illness; medications for seizures such as carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Epitol, ...

  11. Thiotepa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... that begins in the female reproductive organs where eggs are formed), breast, and bladder cancer. It is ... comes as a powder to be mixed with liquid to be injected intravenously (into a vein) by ...

  12. Methotrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Methotrexate injection is also used to treat severe psoriasis (a skin disease in which red, scaly patches ... slowing the growth of cancer cells. Methotrexate treats psoriasis by slowing the growth of skin cells to ...

  13. Cefazolin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including skin, bone, joint, genital, blood, heart valve, ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work ...

  14. Trastuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... completed for up to 52 weeks. When trastuzumab injection is used to treat stomach cancer, it is usually given once every 3 weeks. The length of your treatment depends on how well your body responds to the medication and the ...

  15. Bendamustine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Bendamustine injection is also used to treat a ... NHL: cancer that begins in a type of white blood cell that normally fights infection) that is slow spreading, ...

  16. Palonosetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may occur several days after receiving certain chemotherapy medications. Palonosetron injection is in a class of medications called 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. It works by blocking the action of serotonin, a natural ...

  17. Doxycycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause ... are allergic to doxycycline, minocycline (Dynacin, Minocin, Solodyn), tetracycline (Achromycin V), any other medications, or any of ...

  18. Dexamethasone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe allergic reactions. It is used in the management of certain types of edema (fluid retention and ... needed for normal body functioning) and in the management of certain types of shock. Dexamethasone injection is ...

  19. Levofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections. Levofloxacin injection is also used to prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air and treat and prevent ...

  20. Omalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... steroids. Omalizumab is also used to treat chronic hives without a known cause that cannot successfully be ... is not used to treat other forms of hives or allergic conditions. Omalizumab injection is in a ...

  1. Plerixafor Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... used along with a granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) medication such as filgrastim (Neupogen) or pegfilgrastim ( ... injection will begin after you have received a G-CSF medication once a day for 4 days, ...

  2. Avelumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor or nurse in a medical facility or infusion center. It is usually given once every 2 ... Avelumab injection may cause serious reactions during the infusion of the medication. You may be given other ...

  3. Alemtuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection, the medication is usually given three times weekly on alternate days (usually Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) ... that you eat foods that are rich in iron such as meats, leafy green vegetables, and fortified ...

  4. Dinutuximab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat neuroblastoma (a cancer that begins in nerve cells) in children who have responded to other treatments. Dinutuximab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies. It works by killing cancer cells.

  5. Cyclosporine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... transplanted organ by the immune system of the person receiving the organ) in people who have received kidney, liver, and heart transplants. Cyclosporine injection should only be used to treat people who are unable to take cyclosporine by mouth. ...

  6. Denosumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... menstrual periods), who have an increased risk for fractures (broken bones) or who cannot take or did ... receiving certain treatments that increase their risk for fractures. Denosumab injection (Xgeva) is used to reduce fractures ...

  7. Epinephrine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emergency medical treatment to treat life-threatening allergic reactions caused by insect bites or stings, foods, medications, ... at the first sign of a serious allergic reaction. Use epinephrine injection exactly as directed; do not ...

  8. Aflibercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD; an ongoing disease of the eye that ... that leads to blurry vision and vision loss), diabetic macular edema (an eye disease caused by diabetes that can ...

  9. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the leg), which can lead to pulmonary embolism (PE; a blood clot in the lung), in people ... with warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) to treat DVT or PE. Fondaparinux injection is in a class of medications ...

  10. Panitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a solution (liquid) to be given by infusion (injected into a vein). It is usually given ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. Panitumumab is usually given once every 2 ...

  11. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... organs where eggs are formed) and small cell lung cancer (a type of cancer that begins in the ... topotecan injection is used to treat ovarian or lung cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  12. Gemcitabine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with surgery. Gemcitabine is also used to treat cancer of the pancreas that has spread to other parts of the ... 4 weeks. When gemcitabine is used to treat cancer of pancreas it may be injected once every week. The ...

  13. Lacosamide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other medications to control certain types of seizures in people who cannot take oral medications. Lacosamide ... If you suddenly stop using lacosamide injection, your seizures may happen more often. Your doctor will probably ...

  14. Pegloticase Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (an inherited blood disease). Your doctor may test you for G6PD deficiency before you start to receive pegloticase injection. If ...

  15. Ibritumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive ibritumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  16. Oxytocin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Oxytocin injection is used to begin or improve contractions during labor. Oxytocin also is used to reduce bleeding after childbirth. ... other medications or procedures to end a pregnancy. Oxytocin is in a class of medications called oxytocic ...

  17. Edaravone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Edaravone injection is used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease; a condition in which the nerves that control muscle movement slowly die, causing the muscles to shrink and ...

  18. Pentamidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pentamidine injection is used to treat pneumonia caused by a fungus called Pneumocystis carinii. It is in a class of medications called antiprotozoals. It works by stopping the growth of protozoa that can cause pneumonia.

  19. Diphenhydramine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... or along with other medications to control abnormal movements in people who have Parkinsonian syndrome (a disorder of the nervous system that causes difficulties with movement, muscle control, and balance). Diphenhydramine injection should not ...

  20. Docetaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to docetaxel injection or drugs made with polysorbate 80, an ingredient found in some medications. Ask ... if a medication you are allergic to contains polysorbate 80. If you experience any of the following ...

  1. Octreotide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... hormone (a natural substance) produced by people with acromegaly (condition in which the body produces too much ... Octreotide long-acting injection is used to control acromegaly, carcinoid tumors, and VIP-omas in people who ...

  2. Vedolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for several hours afterward. A doctor or ... of the following symptoms during or after your infusion: rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, mouth, ...

  3. Granisetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may occur after surgery. Granisetron extended-release (long-acting) injection is used with other medications to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy that may occur immediately ...

  4. Fluconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat fungal infections, including yeast infections of the mouth, throat, esophagus (tube leading ... by fungus. Fluconazole is also used to prevent yeast infections in patients who are likely to become ...

  5. Intravitreal injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may have this procedure if you have: Macular degeneration : An eye disorder that slowly destroys sharp, central ... injection References American Academy of Ophthalmology. Age-related macular degeneration PPP - updated 2015. Aao.org web site. Updated ...

  6. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia; and infections of the skin, ... of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin injection ...

  7. Tobramycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as tobramycin injection will not work ...

  8. Ceftriaxone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted disease), pelvic ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work ...

  9. Moxifloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia; ; and , skin, and abdominal (stomach ... antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as moxifloxacin injection ...

  10. Daptomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in adults or serious skin infections caused by bacteria in adults and children 1 year of age ... called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as daptomycin injection will not work ...

  11. Amikacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as amikacin injection will not work ...

  12. Meropenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin and abdominal (stomach area) infections caused by bacteria and meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround ... of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection ...

  13. Cefepime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia, and skin, urinary tract, and kidney ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work ...

  14. Ertapenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. It is also used for the prevention of ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work ...

  15. Aztreonam Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria, including respiratory tract (including pneumonia and bronchitis), urinary ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. Aztreonam injection also may be used before, during, ...

  16. Ceftaroline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections and pneumonia (lung infection) caused by certain bacteria. Ceftaroline is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work ...

  17. Cefotaxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime injection will not work ...

  18. Cefuroxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefuroxime injection will not work ...

  19. Ampicillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ampicillin injection will not work ...

  20. Gentamicin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as gentamicin injection will not work ...

  1. MEDICAL INJECTION

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-06-10

    S62-08371 (1962) --- The automatic medical injectors carried on the Mercury-Atlas 9 flight. The injectors provide the astronaut with injection tubes of Tigan, for preventing motion sickness and Demerol, for relieving pain. The tubes encased in the block are stowed in the astronauts survival kit. The single injection tubes are placed in a pocket of the astronauts spacesuit. Photo credit: NASA

  2. Irinotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... afterward: runny nose, increased saliva, shrinking pupils (black circles in the middle of the eyes), watery eyes, ... breath; fast heartbeat; headache; dizziness;pale skin; confusion; extreme tiredness, or unusual bleeding or bruising.Keep all ...

  3. Injection overview

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, S.

    1983-12-01

    The test program was initiated at the Raft River Geothermal Field in southern Idaho in September 1982. A series of eight short-term injection and backflow tests, followed by a long-term injection test, were conducted on one well in the field. Tracers were added during injection and monitored during backflow as well. The principal objective was to determine if tracers could be effectively used as a means to assess reservoir characteristics in a one-well test. The test program resulted in a unique data set which shows promise as a means to improve understanding of the reservoir characteristics. In December 1982, an RFP was issued to obtain an industrial partner to obtain follow-on data on the injection/backflow technique in a second field, and to study any alternate advanced concepts for injection testing which the industrial community might recommend. The East Mesa Geothermal Field was selected for the second test series. Two wells were utilized for testing, and a series of ten tests were conducted in July and August 1983, aimed principally at further evaluation of the injection/backflow technique.

  4. 46 CFR 32.50-35 - Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine... for Cargo Handling § 32.50-35 Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels—TB/ALL. (a) Any tank vessel which is equipped with an internal combustion...

  5. 46 CFR 32.50-35 - Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine... for Cargo Handling § 32.50-35 Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels—TB/ALL. (a) Any tank vessel which is equipped with an internal combustion...

  6. 46 CFR 32.50-35 - Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine... for Cargo Handling § 32.50-35 Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels—TB/ALL. (a) Any tank vessel which is equipped with an internal combustion...

  7. 46 CFR 32.50-35 - Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine... for Cargo Handling § 32.50-35 Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels—TB/ALL. (a) Any tank vessel which is equipped with an internal combustion...

  8. 46 CFR 32.50-35 - Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine... for Cargo Handling § 32.50-35 Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels—TB/ALL. (a) Any tank vessel which is equipped with an internal combustion...

  9. Requirements Analysis Study for Master Pump Shutdown System Project Development Specification [SEC 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-09-20

    This study is a requirements document that presents analysis for the functional description for the master pump shutdown system. This document identifies the sources of the requirements and/or how these were derived. Each requirement is validated either by quoting the source or an analysis process involving the required functionality, performance characteristics, operations input or engineering judgment. The requirements in this study apply to the first phase of the W314 Project. This document has been updated during the definitive design portion of the first phase of the W314 Project to capture additional software requirements and is planned to be updated during the second phase of the W314 Project to cover the second phase of the project's scope.

  10. Low-power and shutdown models for the accident sequence precursor (ASP) program

    SciTech Connect

    Sattison, M.B.; Thatcher, T.A.; Knudsen, J.K.

    1997-02-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has been using full-power. Level 1, limited-scope risk models for the Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program for over fifteen years. These models have evolved and matured over the years, as have probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and computer technologies. Significant upgrading activities have been undertaken over the past three years, with involvement from the Offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR), Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD), and Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES), and several national laboratories. Part of these activities was an RES-sponsored feasibility study investigating the ability to extend the ASP models to include contributors to core damage from events initiated with the reactor at low power or shutdown (LP/SD), both internal events and external events. This paper presents only the LP/SD internal event modeling efforts.

  11. The management of large cabling campaigns during the Long Shutdown 1 of LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meroli, S.; Machado, S.; Formenti, F.; Frans, M.; Guillaume, J. C.; Ricci, D.

    2014-03-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN entered into its first 18 month-long shutdown period in February 2013. During this period the entire CERN accelerator complex will undergo major consolidation and upgrade works, preparing the machines for LHC operation at nominal energy (7 TeV/beam). One of the most challenging activities concerns the cabling infrastructure (copper and optical fibre cables) serving the CERN data acquisition, networking and control systems. About 1000 kilometres of cables, distributed in different machine areas, will be installed, representing an investment of about 15 MCHF. This implies an extraordinary challenge in terms of project management, including resource and activity planning, work execution and quality control. The preparation phase of this project started well before its implementation, by defining technical solutions and setting financial plans for staff recruitment and material supply. Enhanced task coordination was further implemented by deploying selected competences to form a central support team.

  12. Microwave system performance for a solar power satellite during startup/shutdown operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. D.; Berlin, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper investigates the system performance and antenna characteristics under startup/shutdown conditions for the high power beam from a solar power satellite. Attention is given to the present microwave system reference configuration together with the dc power distribution system in the solar array and in the antenna. The pattern characteristics for the main beam, sidelobes, and grating lobes are examined for eight types of energizing configurations which include: random sequences, two types of concentric circles, and three types of line strips. In conclusion, it is noted that a proper choice of sequences should not cause environmental problems due to increased microwave radiation levels during the short time periods of energizing and de-energizing the antenna.

  13. The Multi-Step CADIS method for shutdown dose rate calculations and uncertainty propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Grove, Robert E.; Peterson, Joshua L.; Johnson, Seth R.

    2015-12-01

    Shutdown dose rate (SDDR) analysis requires (a) a neutron transport calculation to estimate neutron flux fields, (b) an activation calculation to compute radionuclide inventories and associated photon sources, and (c) a photon transport calculation to estimate final SDDR. In some applications, accurate full-scale Monte Carlo (MC) SDDR simulations are needed for very large systems with massive amounts of shielding materials. However, these simulations are impractical because calculation of space- and energy-dependent neutron fluxes throughout the structural materials is needed to estimate distribution of radioisotopes causing the SDDR. Biasing the neutron MC calculation using an importance function is not simple because it is difficult to explicitly express the response function, which depends on subsequent computational steps. Furthermore, the typical SDDR calculations do not consider how uncertainties in MC neutron calculation impact SDDR uncertainty, even though MC neutron calculation uncertainties usually dominate SDDR uncertainty.

  14. The Multi-Step CADIS method for shutdown dose rate calculations and uncertainty propagation

    DOE PAGES

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Grove, Robert E.; ...

    2015-12-01

    Shutdown dose rate (SDDR) analysis requires (a) a neutron transport calculation to estimate neutron flux fields, (b) an activation calculation to compute radionuclide inventories and associated photon sources, and (c) a photon transport calculation to estimate final SDDR. In some applications, accurate full-scale Monte Carlo (MC) SDDR simulations are needed for very large systems with massive amounts of shielding materials. However, these simulations are impractical because calculation of space- and energy-dependent neutron fluxes throughout the structural materials is needed to estimate distribution of radioisotopes causing the SDDR. Biasing the neutron MC calculation using an importance function is not simple becausemore » it is difficult to explicitly express the response function, which depends on subsequent computational steps. Furthermore, the typical SDDR calculations do not consider how uncertainties in MC neutron calculation impact SDDR uncertainty, even though MC neutron calculation uncertainties usually dominate SDDR uncertainty.« less

  15. Photosystem-II shutdown evolved with Nitrogen fixation in the unicellular diazotroph Crocosphaera watsonii.

    PubMed

    Rabouille, Sophie; Claquin, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    Protection of nitrogenase from oxygen in unicellular Cyanobacteria is obtained by temporal separation of photosynthesis and diazotrophy through transcriptional and translational regulations of nitrogenase. But diazotrophs can face environmental situations in which N2 fixation occurs significantly in the light, and we believe that another control operates to make it possible. The night-time shutdown of PSII activity is a peculiar behaviour that discriminates Crocosphaera watsonii WH8501 from any other phototroph, whether prokaryote or eukaryote. This phenomenon is not only due to the plastoquinone pool redox status, and suggests that the sentinel D1 protein, expressed in periods of nitrogen fixation, is inactive. Results demonstrate a tight constraint of oxygen evolution in C. watsonii as additional protection of nitrogenase activity and suggest a possible recycling of cellular components.

  16. Replacement energy, capacity, and reliability costs for permanent nuclear reactor shutdowns

    SciTech Connect

    VanKuiken, J.C., Buehring, W.A.; Hamilton, S.; Kavicky, J.A.; Cavallo, J.D.; Veselka, T.D.; Willing, D.L.

    1993-10-01

    Average replacement power costs are estimated for potential permanent shutdowns of nuclear electricity-generating units. Replacement power costs are considered to include replacement energy, capacity, and reliability cost components. These estimates were developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in evaluating regulatory issues that potentially affect changes in serious reactor accident frequencies. Cost estimates were derived from long-term production-cost and capacity expansion simulations of pooled utility-system operations. Factors that affect replacement power cost, such as load growth, replacement sources of generation, and capital costs for replacement capacity, were treated in the analysis. Costs are presented for a representative reactor and for selected subcategories of reactors, based on estimates for 112 individual reactors.

  17. Risk contribution from low power, shutdown, and other operational modes beyond full power

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, D.W.; Brown, T.D.; Chu, T.L.

    1995-04-01

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (a pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (a boiling water reactor), were selected for study by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, respectively. The program objectives included assessing the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power and comparing estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences, and other qualitative and quantitative results with full power accidents as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope included a Level 3 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for traditional internal events and a Level 1 PRA on fire, flooding, and seismically induced core damage sequences. A phased approach was used in Level 1. In Phase 1 the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to provide a better representation of the plant as it transitions from power to nonpower operation. This included a coarse screening analysis of all POSs to identify vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) potential frequencies of core damage accidents, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. In Phase 2, selected POSs from both Grand Gulf and Surry were chosen for detailed analysis. For Grand Gulf, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected. For Surry, three POSs representing the time the plant spends in midloop operation were chosen for analysis. These included POS 6 and POS 10 of a refueling outage and POS 6 of a drained maintenance outage. Level 1 and Level 2/3 results from both the Surry and Grand Gulf analyses are presented.

  18. The First Step in the Final Shutdown of UP1 Plant: Rinsing with Chemical Reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Moulin, J.-P.; Hubert, N.; Huot, M.; Chany, P.; Oriol, C.; Vignau, B.

    2002-02-25

    The COGEMA UP1 reprocessing plant commissioned at Marcoule, France in 1958 handled roughly 20,000 metric tons of fuel from gas-cooled and research reactors. The commercial reprocessing activities of the UP1 plant ended in December 1997. CODEM , a joint venture created by the former users of the UP1 plant, including the utility Electricite de France (EDF), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and COGEMA, was established to fund and supervise decommissioning of the plant. COGEMA was selected as the industrial operator of the decommissioning project, which is scheduled to span a period of about 40 years. COGEMA, with its CODEM partners, had made the decision to proceed to a ''Final Shutdown'' of the plant within a few years after the end of commercial operation. Final shutdown is intended to remove remaining fissile matter and highly radioactive materials, as well as some equipment, from the plant to ease the plant monitoring requirements compared with those applied when the plant was in operation. A two-step approach has been devised, including first the rinsing of the equipment with selected reagents in order to decrease the radiation exposure rate and contamination risk enough to allow further mechanical decontamination operations, such as high-pressure water scrubbing and equipment cutting. The reagents to be used and the methods employed to optimize their use in terms of quantities and sequence of use were selected by leveraging available experience, and by setting up a large-scale R&D program to test reagents both for general decontamination and for hot spots. This program also included treatment of the decontamination waste to demonstrate that this waste could be made compatible with solidification facilities of the UP1 plant, i. e., vitrification in the AVM facility and bituminization. The R&D results are described, as well as the initial results of plant decontamination.

  19. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Berteau, Cecile; Filipe-Santos, Orchidée; Wang, Tao; Rojas, Humberto E; Granger, Corinne; Schwarzenbach, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Aim The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC) injection pain tolerance. Methods The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8–10, and 15–20 cP) combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s). All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS) (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain). The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Results Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003). Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm) than medium (VAS =16.6 mm) or low (VAS =22.1 mm) viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002). Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89). Slow (0.02 mL/s) or fast (0.30 mL/s) injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79). In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15–20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High viscosity injections were shown to be the most tolerated, whereas injection volume and flow rates did not impact perceived pain. PMID:26635489

  20. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance.

    PubMed

    Berteau, Cecile; Filipe-Santos, Orchidée; Wang, Tao; Rojas, Humberto E; Granger, Corinne; Schwarzenbach, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC) injection pain tolerance. The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8-10, and 15-20 cP) combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s). All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS) (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain). The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003). Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm) than medium (VAS =16.6 mm) or low (VAS =22.1 mm) viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002). Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89). Slow (0.02 mL/s) or fast (0.30 mL/s) injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79). In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15-20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High viscosity injections were shown to be the most tolerated, whereas injection volume and flow rates did not impact perceived pain.

  1. Fast Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, S.; Pisanti, O.

    The following sections are included: * Elementary Considerations * The Integral Equation to the Neutron Distribution * The Critical Size for a Fast Reactor * Supercritical Reactors * Problems and Exercises

  2. Type and Timing of Childhood Maltreatment and Severity of Shutdown Dissociation in Patients with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Schalinski, Inga; Teicher, Martin H.

    2015-01-01

    Dissociation, particularly the shutting down of sensory, motor and speech systems, has been proposed to emerge in susceptible individuals as a defensive response to traumatic stress. In contrast, other individuals show signs of hyperarousal to acute threat. A key question is whether exposure to particular types of stressful events during specific stages of development can program an individual to have a strong dissociative response to subsequent stressors. Vulnerability to ongoing shutdown dissociation was assessed in 75 inpatients (46M/29F, M = 31±10 years old) with schizophrenia spectrum disorder and related to number of traumatic events experienced or witnessed during childhood or adulthood. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE) scale was used to collect retrospective recall of exposure to ten types of maltreatment during each year of childhood. Severity of shutdown dissociation was related to number of childhood but not adult traumatic events. Random forest regression with conditional trees indicated that type and timing of childhood maltreatment could predictably account for 31% of the variance (p < 0.003) in shutdown dissociation, with peak vulnerability occurring at 13-14 years of age and with exposure to emotional neglect followed by various forms of emotional abuse. These findings suggest that there may be windows of vulnerability to the development of shutdown dissociation. Results support the hypothesis that experienced events are more important than witnessed events, but challenge the hypothesis that “life-threatening” events are a critical determinant. PMID:25992568

  3. Shutdown-induced tensile stress in monolithic miniplates as a possible cause of plate pillowing at very high burnup

    SciTech Connect

    Medvedev, Pavel G; Ozaltun, Hakan; Robinson, Adam Brady; Rabin, Barry H

    2014-04-01

    Post-irradiation examination of Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR)-12 miniplates showed that in-reactor pillowing occurred in at least 4 plates, rendering performance of these plates unacceptable. To address in-reactor failures, efforts are underway to define the mechanisms responsible for in-reactor pillowing, and to suggest improvements to the fuel plate design and operational conditions. To achieve these objectives, the mechanical response of monolithic fuel to fission and thermally-induced stresses was modeled using a commercial finite element analysis code. Calculations of stresses and deformations in monolithic miniplates during irradiation and after the shutdown revealed that the tensile stress generated in the fuel increased from 2 MPa to 100 MPa at shutdown. The increase in tensile stress at shutdown possibly explains in-reactor pillowing of several RERTR-12 miniplates irradiated to the peak local burnup of up to 1.11x1022 fissions/cm3 . This paper presents the modeling approach and calculation results, and compares results with post-irradiation examinations and mechanical testing of irradiated fuel. The implications for the safe use of the monolithic fuel in research reactors are discussed, including the influence of fuel burnup and power on the magnitude of the shutdown-induced tensile stress.

  4. 78 FR 79709 - Duke Energy Florida, Inc., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant Post-Shutdown...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... Florida, Inc., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities... System (ADAMS) Accession No. ML13340A009), for the Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant (CR-3..., January 16, 2014, from 7 p.m. until 9 p.m., EST, at the Crystal River Nuclear Plant Training Center...

  5. 46 CFR 154.540 - Quick-closing shut-off valves: Emergency shut-down system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design... emergency shut-down system that: (a) Closes all the valves; (b) Is actuated by a single control in at least two locations remote from the quick-closing valves; (c) Is actuated by a single control in each cargo...

  6. Ganciclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests to check your body's response to ganciclovir injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  7. Pertuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests to check your body's response to pertuzumab injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  8. Mitoxantrone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the treatment.If you are using mitoxantrone injection for MS, you should know that it controls MS but does not cure it. Continue to receive treatments even if you feel well. Talk to your doctor if you no longer ...

  9. Olaratumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... your pharmacist any questions you have about olaratumab injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  10. Reslizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the infusion or for a short period of time after the infusion has finished.You will receive each injection of reslizumab in a doctor's office or medical facility. You will stay in the office for some time after you receive the medication so your doctor ...

  11. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome in people who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in a class of medications called glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) analogs. It works by improving the absorption of fluids and nutrients in the intestines.

  12. Pegaptanib Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you have or have ever had diabetes, high blood pressure, a heart attack, or a stroke.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while using pegaptanib injection, ...

  13. End-of-injection fuel dribble of multi-hole diesel injector: Comprehensive investigation of phenomenon and discussion on control strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Seoksu; Huang, Weidi; Li, Zhilong; Wang, Jin

    2016-10-01

    The needle shutdown of fuel injectors leads to an undesired fuel dribble that forms unburned hydrocarbons and decreases the engine thermal efficiency in modern engines. Understanding of the fuel dribbling process is of great importance to establish its minimization strategy for optimal use of conventional fuels. However, the detailed needle dynamics and in- and near-nozzle flow characteristics governing the fuel dribble process have not been thoroughly understood. In this study, the needle dynamics, in- and near-nozzle flow characteristics and fuel dribble of a mini-sac type three-hole diesel injector were investigated using a highspeed X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique at different injection pressures. The results showed that an increase in injection pressure increased the flow evacuation velocity at the needle close that induced a more intense fuel cavitation and air ingestion inside the nozzle. The fuel dribbling process showed a high shot-toshot deviation. A statistical analysis of 50-shot results exhibited two breakup modes of fuel dribble determined by the flow evacuation velocity at the needle close and presence of air ingestion. In the first mode, the fast breakup with a short residence time of fuel dribble occurred. Meanwhile, the dripping of undisturbed liquid column with a long residence time of fuel dribble occurred in the second mode. An increase in injection pressure increased the population of the first mode due to more intense air ingestion that primarily caused by an increase in needle closing speed other than an increase in peak injection velocity. Based on the results, the formation mechanism and control strategies of the fuel dribble from modern diesel injectors were discussed.

  14. Subcutaneous (SQ) injections

    MedlinePlus

    SQ injections; Sub-Q injections; Diabetes subcutaneous injection; Insulin subcutaneous injection ... NIH. Giving a subcutaneous injection . Rockville, MD. National ... of Health and Human Services NIH publications; 2015. Available ...

  15. Topical report: Natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) evaluation for generating additional reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) data.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Tzanos, C.P.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R.W.; Pointer, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2005-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Generation IV roadmapping activity, the Very High Temperature gas cooled Reactor (VHTR) has been selected as the principal concept for hydrogen production and other process-heat applications such as district heating and potable water production. On this basis, the DOE has selected the VHTR for additional R&D with the ultimate goal of demonstrating emission-free electricity and hydrogen production with this advanced reactor concept. One of the key passive safety features of the VHTR is the potential for decay heat removal by natural circulation of air in a Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS). The air-cooled RCCS concept is notably similar to the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) that was developed for the General Electric PRISM sodium-cooled fast reactor. As part of the DOE R&D program that supported the development of this fast reactor concept, the Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) was developed at ANL to provide proof-of-concept data for the RVACS under prototypic natural convection flow, temperature, and heat flux conditions. Due to the similarity between RVACS and the RCCS, current VHTR R&D plans call for the utilization of the NSTF to provide RCCS model development and validation data, in addition to supporting design validation and optimization activities. Both air-cooled and water-cooled RCCS designs are to be included. In support of this effort, ANL has been tasked with the development of an engineering plan for mechanical and instrumentation modifications to NSTF to ensure that sufficiently detailed temperature, heat flux, velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained to adequately qualify the codes under the expected range of air-cooled RCCS flow conditions. Next year, similar work will be carried out for the alternative option of a water-cooled RCCS design. Analysis activities carried out in support of this experiment planning task have shown that: (a) in the RCCS, strong

  16. Parametric study of injection rates with solenoid injectors in an injection quantity and rate measuring device

    DOE PAGES

    Busch, Stephen; Miles, Paul C.

    2015-03-31

    A Moehwald HDA (HDA is a German acronym: Hydraulischer Druckanstieg: hydraulic pressure increase) injection quantity and rate measuring unit is used to investigate injection rates obtained with a fast-acting, preproduction diesel solenoid injector. Experimental parametric variations are performed to determine their impact on measured injection rate traces. A pilot–main injection strategy is investigated for various dwell times; these preproduction injectors can operate with very short dwell times with distinct pilot and main injection events. Dwell influences the main injection rate shape. Furthermore, a comparison between a diesel-like fuel and a gasoline-like fuel shows that injection rates are comparable for amore » single injection but dramatically different for multiple injections with short dwells.« less

  17. Parametric study of injection rates with solenoid injectors in an injection quantity and rate measuring device

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, Stephen; Miles, Paul C.

    2015-03-31

    A Moehwald HDA (HDA is a German acronym: Hydraulischer Druckanstieg: hydraulic pressure increase) injection quantity and rate measuring unit is used to investigate injection rates obtained with a fast-acting, preproduction diesel solenoid injector. Experimental parametric variations are performed to determine their impact on measured injection rate traces. A pilot–main injection strategy is investigated for various dwell times; these preproduction injectors can operate with very short dwell times with distinct pilot and main injection events. Dwell influences the main injection rate shape. Furthermore, a comparison between a diesel-like fuel and a gasoline-like fuel shows that injection rates are comparable for a single injection but dramatically different for multiple injections with short dwells.

  18. Fast quench reactor method

    SciTech Connect

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.; Berry, R.A.

    1999-08-10

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream. 8 figs.

  19. Fast quench reactor method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.; Berry, R.A.

    1999-08-10

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream. 8 figs.

  20. Fast quench reactor method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.; Berry, Ray A.

    1999-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

  1. An analysis of multiple particle settling for LMR backup shutdown systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, Richard Wayne

    1992-05-01

    Backup shutdown systems proposed for future LMRs may employ discreet absorber particles to provide the negative reactivity insertion. When actuated, these systems release a dense packing of particles from an out-of-core region to settle into an in-core region. The multiple particle settling behavior is analyzed by the method of continuity waves. This method provides predictions of the dynamic response of the system including the average particle velocity and volume fraction of particles vs. time. Although hindered settling problems have been previously analyzed using continuity wave theory, this application represents an extension of the theory to conditions of unrestrained settling. Typical cases are analyzed and numerical results are calculated based on a semi-empirical drift-flux model. For 1/4-inch diameter boron-carbide particles in hot liquid sodium, the unrestrained settling problem assumes a steady-state solution when the average volume fraction of particles is 0.295 and the average particle velocity is 26.0 cm/s.

  2. Current status of experimental breeder reactor-II [EBR-II] shutdown planning

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, M. D.; Griffin, C. D.; Michelbacher, J. A.; Earle, O. K.

    2000-05-08

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor--II (EBR-II) at Argonne National Laboratory--West (ANL-W) in Idaho, was shutdown in September, 1994 as mandated by the US Department of Energy. This sodium cooled reactor had been in service since 1964, and was to be placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for ultimate decommissioning. The deactivation of a liquid metal reactor presents unique concerns. The first major task associated with the project was the removal of all fueled assemblies. In addition, sodium must be drained from systems and processed for ultimate disposal. Residual quantities of sodium remaining in systems must be deactivated or inerted to preclude future hazards associated with pyrophoricity and generation of potentially explosive hydrogen gas. A Sodium Process Facility was designed and constructed to react the elemental sodium from the EBR-II primary and secondary systems to sodium hydroxide for disposal. This facility has a design capacity to allow the reaction of the complete inventory of sodium at ANL-W in less than two years. Additional quantities of sodium from the Fermi-1 reactor are also being treated at the Sodium Process Facility. The sodium environment and the EBR-II configuration, combined with the radiation and contamination associated with thirty years of reactor operation, posed problems specific to liquid metal reactor deactivation. The methods being developed and implemented at EBR-II can be applied to other similar situations in the US and abroad.

  3. Shutdown Dose Rate Analysis Using the Multi-Step CADIS Method

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Peterson, Joshua L.; Grove, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    The Multi-Step Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (MS-CADIS) hybrid Monte Carlo (MC)/deterministic radiation transport method was proposed to speed up the shutdown dose rate (SDDR) neutron MC calculation using an importance function that represents the neutron importance to the final SDDR. This work applied the MS-CADIS method to the ITER SDDR benchmark problem. The MS-CADIS method was also used to calculate the SDDR uncertainty resulting from uncertainties in the MC neutron calculation and to determine the degree of undersampling in SDDR calculations because of the limited ability of the MC method to tally detailed spatial and energy distributions. The analysis that used the ITER benchmark problem compared the efficiency of the MS-CADIS method to the traditional approach of using global MC variance reduction techniques for speeding up SDDR neutron MC calculation. Compared to the standard Forward-Weighted-CADIS (FW-CADIS) method, the MS-CADIS method increased the efficiency of the SDDR neutron MC calculation by 69%. The MS-CADIS method also increased the fraction of nonzero scoring mesh tally elements in the space-energy regions of high importance to the final SDDR.

  4. Calculational approach and results of the safe shutdown earthquake event for the pebble bed modular reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Van Heerden, G.; Sen, S.; Reitsma, F.

    2006-07-01

    The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) concept can be described as a high-temperature helium-cooled, graphite-moderated pebble-bed reactor with a multi-pass fuelling scheme. The fuel is contained in 6 cm diameter graphite spheres containing carbon-based coated UO{sub 2} kernels. An online fuel reload scheme is applied with the fuel spheres being circulated through the reactor. The pebble-bed reactor core thus consists of fuel pebbles packed in the core cavity in a random way. The packing densities and pebble flow is well known through analysis and tests done in the German experimental and development program. The pebble-bed typically has a packing fraction of 0.61. In the event of an earthquake this packing fraction may increase with the effect that the core geometry and core reactivity will change. The Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) analysis performed for the PBMR 400 MW design is described in this paper, and it specifically covers SSE-induced pebble-bed packing fractions of 0.62 and 0.64. The main effects governing the addition of reactivity in the SSE event are the changes in core neutronic leakage due to the decreased core size and the decreased effectiveness of the control rods as the pebble-bed height decreases. This paper describes the models, methods and tools used to analyse the event, the results obtained for the different approaches and the consequences and safety implications of such an event. (authors)

  5. Control of radio-iodine at the German reprocessing plant WAK during operation and after shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Kuhn, K.D.

    1997-08-01

    During 20 years of operation 207 metric tons of oxide fuel from nuclear power reactors with 19 kg of iodine-129 had been reprocessed in the WAK plant near Karlsruhe. In January 1991 the WAK Plant was shut down. During operation iodine releases of the plant as well as the iodine distribution over the liquid and gaseous process streams had been determined. Most of the iodine is evolved into the dissolver off-gas in volatile form. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and especially gaseous process and waste streams. After shut down of the plant in January 1991, iodine measurements in the off-gas streams have been continued up to now. Whereas the iodine-129 concentration in the dissolver off-gas dropped during six months after shutdown by three orders of magnitude, the iodine concentrations in the vessel ventilation system of the PUREX process and the cell vent system decreased only by a factor of 10 during the same period. Iodine-129 releases of the liquid high active waste storage tanks did not decrease distinctly. The removal efficiencies of the silver impregnated iodine filters in the different off-gas streams of the WAK plant depend on the iodine concentration in the off-gas. The reason of the observed dependence of the DF on the iodine-129 concentration might be due to the presence of organic iodine compounds which are difficult to remove. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Shutdown Dose Rate Analysis Using the Multi-Step CADIS Method

    DOE PAGES

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Peterson, Joshua L.; ...

    2015-01-01

    The Multi-Step Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (MS-CADIS) hybrid Monte Carlo (MC)/deterministic radiation transport method was proposed to speed up the shutdown dose rate (SDDR) neutron MC calculation using an importance function that represents the neutron importance to the final SDDR. This work applied the MS-CADIS method to the ITER SDDR benchmark problem. The MS-CADIS method was also used to calculate the SDDR uncertainty resulting from uncertainties in the MC neutron calculation and to determine the degree of undersampling in SDDR calculations because of the limited ability of the MC method to tally detailed spatial and energy distributions. The analysismore » that used the ITER benchmark problem compared the efficiency of the MS-CADIS method to the traditional approach of using global MC variance reduction techniques for speeding up SDDR neutron MC calculation. Compared to the standard Forward-Weighted-CADIS (FW-CADIS) method, the MS-CADIS method increased the efficiency of the SDDR neutron MC calculation by 69%. The MS-CADIS method also increased the fraction of nonzero scoring mesh tally elements in the space-energy regions of high importance to the final SDDR.« less

  7. Dust survey following the final shutdown of TEXTOR: metal particles and fuel retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortuna-Zaleśna, E.; Weckmann, A.; Grzonka, J.; Rubel, M.; Esser, H. G.; Freisinger, M.; Kreter, A.; Sergienko, G.; Ström, P.

    2016-02-01

    The work presents results of a broad TEXTOR dust survey in terms of its composition, structure, distribution and fuel content. The dust particles were collected after final shutdown of TEXTOR in December 2013. Fuel retention, as determined by thermal desorption, varied significantly, even by two orders of magnitude, dependent on the dust location in the machine. Dust structure was examined by means of scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, focused ion beam and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Several categories of dust have been identified. Carbon-based stratified and granular deposits were dominating, but the emphasis in studies was on metal dust. They were found in the form of small particles, small spheres, flakes and splashes which formed ‘comet’-like structures, clearly indicating directional effects in the impact on surfaces of plasma-facing components. Nickel-rich alloys from the Inconel liner and iron-based ones from various diagnostic holders were the main components of metal-containing dust, but also molybdenum and tungsten debris were detected. Their origin is discussed.

  8. Effect of the shutdown of a large coal-fired power plant on ambient mercury species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yungang; Huang, Jiaoyan; Hopke, Philip K; Rattigan, Oliver V; Chalupa, David C; Utell, Mark J; Holsen, Thomas M

    2013-07-01

    In the spring of 2008, a 260MWe coal-fired power plant (CFPP) located in Rochester, New York was closed over a 4month period. Using a 2-years data record, the impacts of the shutdown of the CFPP on nearby ambient concentrations of three Hg species were quantified. The arithmetic average ambient concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and particulate mercury (PBM) during December 2007-November 2009 were 1.6ngm(-3), 5.1pgm(-3), and 8.9pgm(-3), respectively. The median concentrations of GEM, GOM, and PBM significantly decreased by 12%, 73%, and 50% after the CFPP closed (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.001). Positive Matrix Factorization (EPA PMF v4.1) identified six factors including O3-rich, traffic, gas phase oxidation, wood combustion, nucleation, and CFPP. When the CFPP was closed, median concentrations of GEM, GOM, and PBM apportioned to the CFPP factor significantly decreased by 25%, 74%, and 67%, respectively, compared to those measured when the CFPP was still in operation (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.001). Conditional probability function (CPF) analysis showed the greatest reduction in all three Hg species was associated with northwesterly winds pointing toward the CFPP. These changes were clearly attributable to the closure of the CFPP.

  9. Risk-based evaluation of Allowed Outage Times (AOTs) considering risk of shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Mankamo, T. ); Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K. )

    1992-01-01

    When safety systems fail during power operation, Technical Specifications (TS) usually limit the repair within Allowed Outage Time (AOT). If the repair cannot be completed within the AOT, or no AOT is allowed, the plant is required to be shut down for the repair. However, if the capability to remove decay heat is degraded, shutting down the plant with the need to operate the affected decay-heat removal systems may impose a substantial risk compared to continued power operation over a usual repair time. Thus, defining a proper AOT in such situations can be considered as a risk-comparison between the repair in frill power state with a temporarily increased level of risk, and the altemative of shutting down the plant for the repair in zero power state with a specific associated risk. The methodology of the risk-comparison approach, with a due consideration of the shutdown risk, has been further developed and applied to the AOT considerations of residual heat removal and standby service water systems of a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant. Based on the completed work, several improvements to the TS requirements for the systems studied can be suggested.

  10. Risk-based evaluation of Allowed Outage Times (AOTs) considering risk of shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Mankamo, T.; Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.

    1992-12-31

    When safety systems fail during power operation, Technical Specifications (TS) usually limit the repair within Allowed Outage Time (AOT). If the repair cannot be completed within the AOT, or no AOT is allowed, the plant is required to be shut down for the repair. However, if the capability to remove decay heat is degraded, shutting down the plant with the need to operate the affected decay-heat removal systems may impose a substantial risk compared to continued power operation over a usual repair time. Thus, defining a proper AOT in such situations can be considered as a risk-comparison between the repair in frill power state with a temporarily increased level of risk, and the altemative of shutting down the plant for the repair in zero power state with a specific associated risk. The methodology of the risk-comparison approach, with a due consideration of the shutdown risk, has been further developed and applied to the AOT considerations of residual heat removal and standby service water systems of a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant. Based on the completed work, several improvements to the TS requirements for the systems studied can be suggested.

  11. Clustering for unsupervised fault diagnosis in nuclear turbine shut-down transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraldi, Piero; Di Maio, Francesco; Rigamonti, Marco; Zio, Enrico; Seraoui, Redouane

    2015-06-01

    Empirical methods for fault diagnosis usually entail a process of supervised training based on a set of examples of signal evolutions "labeled" with the corresponding, known classes of fault. However, in practice, the signals collected during plant operation may be, very often, "unlabeled", i.e., the information on the corresponding type of occurred fault is not available. To cope with this practical situation, in this paper we develop a methodology for the identification of transient signals showing similar characteristics, under the conjecture that operational/faulty transient conditions of the same type lead to similar behavior in the measured signals evolution. The methodology is founded on a feature extraction procedure, which feeds a spectral clustering technique, embedding the unsupervised fuzzy C-means (FCM) algorithm, which evaluates the functional similarity among the different operational/faulty transients. A procedure for validating the plausibility of the obtained clusters is also propounded based on physical considerations. The methodology is applied to a real industrial case, on the basis of 148 shut-down transients of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) steam turbine.

  12. Summary of Information Presented at an NRC-Sponsored Low-Power Shutdown Public Workshop, April 27, 1999, Rockville, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, Timothy A.; Whitehead, Donnie W.; Lois, Erasmia

    1999-07-01

    This report summarizes a public workshop that was held on April 27, 1999, in Rockville, Maryland. The workshop was conducted as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) efforts to further develop its understanding of the risks associated with low power and shutdown operations at US nuclear power plants. A sufficient understanding of such risks is required to support decision-making for risk-informed regulation, in particular Regulatory Guide 1.174, and the development of a consensus standard. During the workshop the NRC staff discussed and requested feedback from the public (including representatives of the nuclear industry, state governments, consultants, private industry, and the media) on the risk associated with low-power and shutdown operations.

  13. Improving the action requirements of technical specifications: A risk-comparison of continued operation and plant shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.; Mankamo, T.

    1995-04-01

    When the systems needed to remove decay heat are inoperable or degraded, the risk of shutting down the plant may be comparable to, or even higher than, that of continuing power operation with the equipment inoperable while giving priority to repairs. This concern arises because the plant may not have sufficient capability for removing decay heat during the shutdown. However, Technical Specifications (TSs) often require {open_quotes}immediate{close_quotes} shutdown of the plant. In this paper, we present risk-based analyses of the various operational policy alternatives available in such situations, with an example application to the standby service water (SSW) system of a BWR. These analyses can be used to define risk-effective requirements for those standby safety systems under discussion.

  14. Trending Fibrinolytic Dysregulation: Fibrinolysis Shutdown in the Days After Injury Is Associated With Poor Outcome in Severely Injured Children.

    PubMed

    Leeper, Christine M; Neal, Matthew D; McKenna, Christine J; Gaines, Barbara A

    2017-09-01

    To trend fibrinolysis after injury and determine the influence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and massive transfusion on fibrinolysis status. Admission fibrinolytic derangement is common in injured children and adults, and is associated with poor outcome. No studies examine fibrinolysis days after injury. Prospective study of severely injured children at a level 1 pediatric trauma center. Rapid thromboelastography was obtained on admission and daily for up to 7 days. Standard definitions of hyperfibrinolysis (HF; LY30 ≥3), fibrinolysis shutdown (SD; LY30 ≤0.8), and normal (LY30 = 0.9-2.9) were applied. Antifibrinolytic use was documented. Outcomes were death, disability, and thromboembolic complications. Wilcoxon rank-sum and Fisher exact tests were performed. Exploratory subgroups included massively transfused and severe TBI patients. In all, 83 patients were analyzed with median (interquartile ranges) age 8 (4-12) and Injury Severity Score 22 (13-34), 73.5% blunt mechanism, 47% severe TBI, 20.5% massively transfused. Outcomes were 14.5% mortality, 43.7% disability, and 9.8% deep vein thrombosis. Remaining in or trending to SD was associated with death (P = 0.007), disability (P = 0.012), and deep vein thrombosis (P = 0.048). Median LY30 was lower on post-trauma day (PTD)1 to PTD4 in patients with poor compared with good outcome; median LY30 was lower on PTD1 to PTD3 in TBI patients compared with non-TBI patients. HF without associated shutdown was not related to poor outcome, but extreme HF (LY30 >30%, n = 3) was lethal. Also, 50% of massively transfused patients in hemorrhagic shock demonstrated SD physiology on admission. All with HF (fc31.2%) corrected after hemostatic resuscitation without tranexamic acid. Fibrinolysis shutdown is common postinjury and predicts poor outcomes. Severe TBI is associated with sustained shutdown. Empiric antifibrinolytics for children should be questioned; thromboelastography-directed selective use should be considered for

  15. Fast valve

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyke, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing.

  16. Fast valve

    DOEpatents

    Van Dyke, W.J.

    1992-04-07

    A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing. 4 figs.

  17. Site Characterization Report ORGDP Diffusion Facilities Permanent Shutdown K-700 Power House and K-27 Switch Yard/Switch House

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas R.J., Blanchard R.D.

    1988-06-13

    The K-700 Power House area, initially built to supply power to the K-25 gaseous diffusion plant was shutdown and disassembled in the 1960s. This shutdown was initiated by TVA supplying economical power to the diffusion plant complex. As a result of world wide over production of enriched, reactor grade U{sup 235}, the K-27 switch yard and switch house area was placed in standby in 1985. Subsequently, as the future production requirements decreased, the cost of production increased and the separation technologies for other processes improved, the facility was permanently shutdown in December, 1987. This Site Characterization Report is a part of the FY-88 engineering Feasibility Study for placing ORGDP Gaseous Diffusion Process facilities in 'Permanent Shutdown'. It is sponsored by the Department of Energy through Virgil Lowery of Headquarters--Enrichment and through Don Cox of ORO--Enrichment Operations. The primary purpose of these building or site characterization reports is to document, quantify, and map the following potential problems: Asbestos; PCB containing fluids; Oils, coolants, and chemicals; and External contamination. With the documented quantification of the concerns (problems) the Engineering Feasibility Study will then proceed with examining the potential solutions. For this study, permanent shutdown is defined as the securing and/or conditioning of each facility to provide 20 years of safe service with minimal expenditures and, where feasible, also serving DOE's needs for long-term warehousing or other such low-risk use. The K-700 power house series of buildings were either masonry construction or a mix of masonry and wood. The power generating equipment was removed and sold as salvage in the mid 1960s but the buildings and auxiliary equipment were left intact. The nine ancillary buildings in the power house area use early in the Manhattan Project for special research projects, were left intact minus the original special equipment. During the late

  18. Project FAST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essexville-Hampton Public Schools, MI.

    Described are components of Project FAST (Functional Analysis Systems Training) a nationally validated project to provide more effective educational and support services to learning disordered children and their regular elementary classroom teachers. The program is seen to be based on a series of modules of delivery systems ranging from mainstream…

  19. Fast CRCs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    or any other computing topic, please visit our Digital Library at www.computer.org/publications/ dlib . NGUYEN: FAST CRCS 1331 Authorized licensed use... Library at http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/ TC.2009.83. The notation ðk; l; dÞ denotes a systematic code with k ¼ the total bit length of

  20. ``Sleeping reactor`` irradiations: Shutdown reactor determination of short-lived activation products

    SciTech Connect

    Jerde, E.A.; Glasgow, D.C.

    1998-09-01

    At the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the principal irradiation system has a thermal neutron flux ({phi}) of {approximately} 4 {times} 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s, permitting the detection of elements via irradiation of 60 s or less. Irradiations of 6 or 7 s are acceptable for detection of elements with half-lives of as little as 30 min. However, important elements such as Al, Mg, Ti, and V have half-lives of only a few minutes. At HFIR, these can be determined with irradiation times of {approximately} 6 s, but the requirement of immediate counting leads to increased exposure to the high activity produced by irradiation in the high flux. In addition, pneumatic system timing uncertainties (about {+-} 0.5 s) make irradiations of < 6 s less reliable. Therefore, the determination of these ultra-short-lived species in mixed matrices has not generally been made at HFIR. The authors have found that very short lived activation products can be produced easily during the period after reactor shutdown (SCRAM), but prior to the removal of spent fuel elements. During this 24- to 36-h period (dubbed the ``sleeping reactor``), neutrons are produced in the beryllium reflector by the reaction {sup 9}Be({gamma},n){sup 8}Be, the gamma rays principally originating in the spent fuel. Upon reactor SCRAM, the flux drops to {approximately} 1 {times} 10{sup 10} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s within 1 h. By the time the fuel elements are removed, the flux has dropped to {approximately} 6 {times} 10{sup 8}. Such fluxes are ideal for the determination of short-lived elements such as Al, Ti, Mg, and V. An important feature of the sleeping reactor is a flux that is not constant.

  1. Interpretations of de-orbit, deactivation, and shutdown guidelines applicable to GEO satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, L.; Perkins, J.; Sun, Sheng

    As the population of space debris in orbit around the Earth grows, the probability for catastrophic collisions increases. Many agencies such as the IADC, FCC, and UN have proposed space debris mitigation guidelines or recommendations. For example, a minimum increase in perigee altitude of 235km + (1000 Cr A / m) where Cr is the solar radiation pressure coefficient, A/m is the aspect area to dry mass ratio, and 235 km is the sum of the upper altitude of the geostationary orbit (GEO) protected region (200 km) and the maximum descent of a re-orbited spacecraft due to lunar-solar & geopotential perturbations (35 km) with an eccentricity less than or equal to 0.003. While this particular recommendation is reasonably straightforward, the assumptions an operator chooses may change the result by 25 km. Other recommendations are more ambiguous. For example, once the space vehicle has been de-orbited to the required altitude, all on-board stored energy sources must be discharged by venting propellants and pressurants, discharging batteries and disabling the ability to charge them, and performing other appropriate measures. “ Vented” is not usually defined. In addition, the broadcasting capability of the spacecraft must be disabled. Boeing and its customers are working together to devise de-orbit and deactivation sequences that meet the spirit of the recommendations. This paper derives and proposes a generic minimum deorbit altitude, appropriate depletion and venting pressures based on tank design, propellant and pressurant type, and an acceptable shutdown procedure and final configuration that avoid interference with those still in the GEO belt well into the future. The goal of this paper is to open a dialogue with the global community to establish reasonable guidelines that are straightforward, safe, and achievable before an absolute requirement is set.

  2. Office of Inspector General report on audit of shutdown and transition of the Mound Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-24

    With the end of the Cold War, the Department of Energy (Department) has greatly reduced the production of nuclear weapons and redirected the capabilities and focus of the weapons complex. As part of this redirection, the Mound Plant was transferred from a Defense Program site to an Environmental Management site with emphasis on accelerated cleanup and transition of facilities and personal property to the local community. This audit was initiated to determine if the shutdown and transition of the Mound Plant was progressing effectively and efficiently. The Department prepared a Nonnuclear Consolidation Plan (NCP) designed to reduce its costs of operation by closing and consolidating facilities. In contrast to the goal of the NCP, the Department plans to keep a portion of the Mound Plant open solely to perform work for other Federal agencies. Specifically, the Department has decided to continue assembling and testing isotopic heat sources and radioisotope thermoelectric generators (HS/RTG) at the Mound Plant despite the transfer or planned transfer of all other production operations.The Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology decided to continue its HS/RTG operations at the Mound Plant without adequately considering the overall economic goals of the Department. As a result, the Department may not achieve the savings envisioned by the NCP. Also, the Department may incur between $4 million and $8.5 million more than necessary each year to continue its HS/RTG operations at the Mound Plant. Additionally, if the HS/RTG operations stay at the Mound Plant, the Department will spend more than $3 million to consolidate these operations into one location.

  3. Evolution of the ATLAS distributed computing system during the LHC long shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campana, S.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing project (ADC) was established in 2007 to develop and operate a framework, following the ATLAS computing model, to enable data storage, processing and bookkeeping on top of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) distributed infrastructure. ADC development has always been driven by operations and this contributed to its success. The system has fulfilled the demanding requirements of ATLAS, daily consolidating worldwide up to 1 PB of data and running more than 1.5 million payloads distributed globally, supporting almost one thousand concurrent distributed analysis users. Comprehensive automation and monitoring minimized the operational manpower required. The flexibility of the system to adjust to operational needs has been important to the success of the ATLAS physics program. The LHC shutdown in 2013-2015 affords an opportunity to improve the system in light of operational experience and scale it to cope with the demanding requirements of 2015 and beyond, most notably a much higher trigger rate and event pileup. We will describe the evolution of the ADC software foreseen during this period. This includes consolidating the existing Production and Distributed Analysis framework (PanDA) and ATLAS Grid Information System (AGIS), together with the development and commissioning of next generation systems for distributed data management (DDM/Rucio) and production (Prodsys-2). We will explain how new technologies such as Cloud Computing and NoSQL databases, which ATLAS investigated as R&D projects in past years, will be integrated in production. Finally, we will describe more fundamental developments such as breaking job-to-data locality by exploiting storage federations and caches, and event level (rather than file or dataset level) workload engines.

  4. Heterogeneous Recycling in Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forget, Benoit; Pope, Michael; Piet, Steven J.; Driscoll, Michael

    2012-07-30

    Current sodium fast reactor (SFR) designs have avoided the use of depleted uranium blankets over concerns of creating weapons grade plutonium. While reducing proliferation risks, this restrains the reactor design space considerably. This project will analyze various blanket and transmutation target configurations that could broaden the design space while still addressing the non-proliferation issues. The blanket designs will be assessed based on the transmutation efficiency of key minor actinide (MA) isotopes and also on mitigation of associated proliferation risks. This study will also evaluate SFR core performance under different scenarios in which depleted uranium blankets are modified to include minor actinides with or without moderators (e.g. BeO, MgO, B4C, and hydrides). This will be done in an effort to increase the sustainability of the reactor and increase its power density while still offering a proliferation resistant design with the capability of burning MA waste produced from light water reactors (LWRs). Researchers will also analyze the use of recycled (as opposed to depleted) uranium in the blankets. The various designs will compare MA transmutation efficiency, plutonium breeding characteristics, proliferation risk, shutdown margins and reactivity coefficients with a current reference sodium fast reactor design employing homogeneous recycling. The team will also evaluate the out-of-core accumulation and/or burn-down rates of MAs and plutonium isotopes on a cycle-by-cycle basis. This cycle-by-cycle information will be produced in a format readily usable by the fuel cycle systems analysis code, VISION, for assessment of the sustainability of the deployment scenarios.

  5. Francis-99: Transient CFD simulation of load changes and turbine shutdown in a model sized high-head Francis turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mössinger, Peter; Jester-Zürker, Roland; Jung, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    With increasing requirements for hydropower plant operation due to intermittent renewable energy sources like wind and solar, numerical simulations of transient operations in hydraulic turbo machines become more important. As a continuation of the work performed for the first workshop which covered three steady operating conditions, in the present paper load changes and a shutdown procedure are investigated. The findings of previous studies are used to create a 360° model and compare measurements with simulation results for the operating points part load, high load and best efficiency. A mesh motion procedure is introduced, allowing to represent moving guide vanes for load changes from best efficiency to part load and high load. Additionally an automated re-mesh procedure is added for turbine shutdown to ensure reliable mesh quality during guide vane closing. All three transient operations are compared to PIV velocity measurements in the draft tube and pressure signals in the vaneless space. Simulation results of axial velocity distributions for all three steady operation points, during both load changes and for the shutdown correlated well with the measurement. An offset at vaneless space pressure is found to be a result of guide vane corrections for the simulation to ensure similar velocity fields. Short-time Fourier transformation indicating increasing amplitudes and frequencies at speed-no load conditions. Further studies will discuss the already measured start-up procedure and investigate the necessity to consider the hydraulic system dynamics upstream of the turbine by means of a 1D3D coupling between the 3D flow field and a 1D system model.

  6. ATLAS Distributed Computing Operation Shift Teams experience during the discovery year and beginning of the Long Shutdown 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedov, Alexey; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Negri, Guidone; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Smirnov, Iouri; Vartapetian, Armen; Yu, Jaehoon; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    ATLAS Distributed Computing Operation Shifts evolve to meet new requirements. New monitoring tools as well as operational changes lead to modifications in organization of shifts. In this paper we describe the structure of shifts, the roles of different shifts in ATLAS computing grid operation, the influence of a Higgs-like particle discovery on shift operation, the achievements in monitoring and automation that allowed extra focus on the experiment priority tasks, and the influence of the Long Shutdown 1 and operational changes related to the no beam period.

  7. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    2002-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  8. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  9. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    2002-09-24

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  10. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.

    1998-05-12

    A fast quench reactor includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This ``freezes`` the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage. 7 figs.

  11. The Injection Facility at Ketzin: Technical Installations & Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, F.; Bannach, A.; Becker, W.; Koehler, S.

    2009-04-01

    The injection facility consists of 5 main plunger pumps (0…1.000 kg/h), a heating device (305 kWel.) and two intermediate storage tanks (50 to, each). One additional smaller pump has been installed to allow for smaller injection rates (around 300 kg/h). The facility is designed to implement a CO2 stream of 300 kg/h to 3.250 kg/h (200 kg/h stepwise) at 50 °C at the heater outlet, resulting in a maximum amount of 78 to per day. An overall control and automation system is in place for steering the entire injection process and monitoring the relevant parameters (i.e. CO2 flow, temperature along the injection string, pressure data from the formation and the wellheads etc.). All emergency shut-down (ESD) functionality is software independent and has been certified by local authorities and technical control boards. Besides the presentation of of the technical facilities the talk will give an overview on the legal organisation of the injection operation and will light on so far experienced wellbore and reservoir behaviour.

  12. Surface air quality implications of volcanic injection heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Manu Anna; Brännström, Niklas; Persson, Christer; Grahn, Håkan; von Schoenberg, Pontus; Robertson, Lennart

    2017-10-01

    Air quality implications of volcanic eruptions have gained increased attention recently in association with the 2010 Icelandic eruption that resulted in the shut-down of European air space. The emission amount, injection height and prevailing weather conditions determine the extent of the impact through the spatio-temporal distribution of pollutants. It is often argued that in the case of a major eruption in Iceland, like Laki in 1783-1784, that pollutants injected high into the atmosphere lead to substantially increased concentrations of sulfur compounds over continental Europe via long-range transport in the jet stream and eventual large-scale subsidence in a high-pressure system. Using state-of-the-art simulations, we show that the air quality impact of Icelandic volcanoes is highly sensitive to the injection height. In particular, it is the infinitesimal injections into the lower half of the troposphere, rather than the substantial injections into the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere that contribute most to increased pollutant concentrations, resulting in atmospheric haze over mainland Europe/Scandinavia. Besides, the persistent high pressure system over continental Europe/Scandinavia traps the pollutants from dispersing, thereby prolonging the haze.

  13. Complex of technologies and prototype systems for eco-friendly shutdown of the power-generating, process, capacitive, and transport equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorodin, A. I.; Red'kin, V. V.; Frolov, Y. D.; Korobkov, A. A.; Kemaev, O. V.; Kulik, M. V.; Shabalin, O. V.

    2015-07-01

    A set of technologies and prototype systems for eco-friendly shutdown of the power-generating, process, capacitive, and transport equipment is offered. The following technologies are regarded as core technologies for the complex: cryogenic technology nitrogen for displacement of hydrogen from the cooling circuit of turbine generators, cryo blasting of the power units by dioxide granules, preservation of the shutdown power units by dehydrated air, and dismantling and severing of equipment and structural materials of power units. Four prototype systems for eco-friendly shutdown of the power units may be built on the basis of selected technologies: Multimode nitrogen cryogenic system with four subsystems, cryo blasting system with CO2 granules for thermal-mechanical and electrical equipment of power units, and compressionless air-drainage systems for drying and storage of the shutdown power units and cryo-gas system for general severing of the steam-turbine power units. Results of the research and pilot and demonstration tests of the operational units of the considered technological systems allow applying the proposed technologies and systems in the prototype systems for shutdown of the power-generating, process, capacitive, and transport equipment.

  14. Darbepoetin Alfa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to inject it.Darbepoetin alfa injection comes in prefilled syringes and in vials to be used with disposable ... solution before injecting it. Be sure that the prefilled syringe or vial is labeled with the correct name ...

  15. An integrated modeling approach for temperature driven water transport in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack after shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Manish; Mench, M. M.

    The concept of using controlled temperature gradients to non-parasitically remove excess water from porous media during PEFC stack shutdown has been numerically investigated. An integrated modeling approach focusing both at stack and single cell level is presented. The stack thermal model is developed to obtain detailed temperature distribution across the PEFC stack. The two-phase unit fuel cell model is developed to investigate the detailed water and thermal transport in the PEFC components after shutdown, which for the first time includes thermo-osmotic flow in the membrane. The model accounts for capillary and phase-change induced flow in the porous media, and thermo-osmotic and diffusive flow in the polymer membrane. The single cell model is used to estimate the local water distribution with land or channel boundary condition, and the experimentally validated stack thermal model provided the transient temperature boundary conditions. Two different stack designs are compared to quantify the residual water in the stack. Model results indicate that a favorable temperature gradient can be formed in the stack to enhance the water drainage rate, esp. at anode end cell locations, where freeze/thaw damage has been observed to occur.

  16. Understanding the hydrologic impacts of wastewater treatment plant discharge to shallow groundwater: Before and after plant shutdown

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, Laura E.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Barber, Larry B.; Duris, Joseph; Hutchinson, Kasey J.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Effluent-impacted surface water has the potential to transport not only water, but wastewater-derived contaminants to shallow groundwater systems. To better understand the effects of effluent discharge on in-stream and near-stream hydrologic conditions in wastewater-impacted systems, water-level changes were monitored in hyporheic-zone and shallow-groundwater piezometers in a reach of Fourmile Creek adjacent to and downstream of the Ankeny (Iowa, USA) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Water-level changes were monitored from approximately 1.5 months before to 0.5 months after WWTP closure. Diurnal patterns in WWTP discharge were closely mirrored in stream and shallow-groundwater levels immediately upstream and up to 3 km downstream of the outfall, indicating that such discharge was the primary control on water levels before shutdown. The hydrologic response to WWTP shutdown was immediately observed throughout the study reach, verifying the far-reaching hydraulic connectivity and associated contaminant transport risk. The movement of WWTP effluent into alluvial aquifers has implications for potential WWTP-derived contamination of shallow groundwater far removed from the WWTP outfall.

  17. Quantitative analysis of carbon corrosion during fuel cell start-up and shut-down by anode purging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linse, Nicolas; Scherer, Günther G.; Wokaun, Alexander; Gubler, Lorenz

    2012-12-01

    The corrosion of the carbon support during start-up and shut-down of polymer electrolyte fuel cells was systematically quantified to elucidate effects related to the propagation of the gas front through the anode compartment and to determine the influence of relevant operating parameters. Measurements with different reactant gas concentrations and gas flow rates suggest that the gas exchange process is dominated by a homogeneous displacement of the anode gas in case of start/stop operation at OCV. The influence of additional effects such as direct recombination of hydrogen and oxygen, diffusion on the channel and land scale and pseudocapacitive effects seems to be negligible under the investigated conditions. With an external load applied during the gas exchange process (discharge mode), shut-down induced carbon corrosion strongly differs from the behavior at OCV. The virtually constant corrosion rates obtained below a critical purge gas flow rate in the discharge mode are attributed to a significant contribution of electrochemical hydrogen consumption. Temperature and humidity variation measurements demonstrate that the carbon corrosion behavior during real start/stop processes can differ considerably from the correlations obtained under controlled potential conditions in H2/N2 mode. Thus, potential cycling experiments only provide limited information about start/stop durability under application relevant conditions.

  18. Environmental consequences of a power plant shut-down: a three-dimensional water quality model of Dublin Bay.

    PubMed

    Bedri, Zeinab; Bruen, Michael; Dowley, Aodh; Masterson, Bartholomew

    2013-06-15

    A hydro-environmental model is used to investigate the effect of cessation of thermal discharges from a power plant on the bathing water quality of Dublin Bay. Before closing down, cooling water from the plant was mixed with sewage effluent prior to its discharge, creating a warmer, less-saline buoyant pollutant plume that adversely affects the water quality of Dublin Bay. The model, calibrated to data from the period prior to the power-plant shut-down (Scenario1), assessed the water quality following its shut-down under two scenarios; (i) Scenario2: continued abstraction of water to dilute sewage effluents before discharge, and (ii) Scnenario3: sewage effluents are discharged directly into the Estuary. Comparison between scenarios was based on distribution of Escherichia coli (E. coli), a main bathing quality indicator. Scenarios1 and 2, showed almost similar E. coli distribution patterns while Scenario3 displayed significantly higher E. coli concentrations due to the increased stratification caused by the lack of prior dilution.

  19. Epidural Injections for Spinal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Epidural Injections An epidural injection provides temporary or prolonged relief ... limitations of Epidural Injection? What is an Epidural Injection? An epidural injection is an injection of medication ...

  20. Limitations of extended gas delivery tubes used for fuelling mitigated plasma disruptions, and a unique injection concept for prompt gas delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, P. B.; Wu, W.

    2011-07-01

    Modelling high-pressure gas flows through long extended delivery tubes used for massive particle fuelling of tokamaks during a major disruptive instability or a preemptive fast plasma shutdown is presented using analytical theory and simulation. For steady-state flows, expressions were derived and compared with experiments for the transition diameter and inlet Mach number of a straight tube (pipe) attached to a 'nozzle-like' inlet valve, such that increases in pipe diameter have no effect on the flow rate (valve-limited flow), and decreases below the transition diameter cause decreasing flow rates (friction-limited flow). Analytical expressions for the exit outflow rate and other gas dynamic variables during the initial unsteady gas flow buildup were developed from the classical 1D centred expansion wave problem and compared with 2D axisymmetric FLUENT simulations with wall friction, and good agreement was found for sufficiently high-conductance pipes. The intrinsic time delay before steady-state outflow is reached can seriously limit plasma density increases during the disruption, as the disruption time scale is similar to the delay time or 'rise time' of the outflow at the exit plane. Thus, conditions required for strong collisional dissipation of destructive runaway electron currents can be compromised. A unique gas injection scheme 'burst membrane gas injection' is also presented in which a steady-state outflow at the exit plane can be established promptly once the membrane bursts. It is shown that the theoretically ideal rise time of the gas at the exit plane will be zero if the membrane had an instantaneous opening time, therefore the true rise time will be limited only by the rupture time of a real bursting disc. The duration of the initial steady-state gas delivery phase can be matched to the relevant disruption time scales (or runaway formation time) by simply adjusting the tube length.