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Sample records for injection moulded santoprene

  1. Mould temperature control during injection moulding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postawa, Przemyslaw; Stachowiak, Tomasz

    2015-05-01

    Mould temperature is one of the most important parameter in injection moulding process of thermoplastic polymers in particular semi crystalline polymers. There are a lots of methods of control mould temperature but it is not simple and easy to measure heat transfer precisely. Injection moulds have usually a large mass and this is equal also to large heat capacity of tools and its thermal inertia. Measuring temperature by using contact equipment causes a lot of mistakes, because that method is based on heat transfer between thermocouple and measured area of mould. Result of research of 3 different method of temperature control of mould surface were present in the publication. For this purpose a special experimental mould was made. Mould has eight independent cooling circuits which were connected to the thermo controller Wittmann with two circuits. The main aim of research was to determine the effect of normal process of injection moulding on temperature changing in different area of mould. Under the cavity 4 thermocouple were placed and connect to the recorder what gave a possibility of uploading data during injection process. For that research mould temperature was change in many different layouts. Data and sequences of changes in temperature collected during tests gave very interesting result for discussion. Furthermore use of differences in temperature profile of the mould causes different temperature profile recorded during injection moulding. Tests were made by using fallowing equipment: Krauss Maffei injection moulding machine KM65-C4 and thermo controller Wittmann TPplus2, Shini Rotameter, infrared camera TESTO-890 and thermocouple signal recorder with 4 thermocouples of diameter 1mm located in injection mould 3mm under cavity surface. Draft of experimental mould and thermocouple location were presented in the article, and results of research as a drafts and charts of temperature changing in different area of mould were included.

  2. Injection moulded hydroxyapatite ceramics.

    PubMed

    Cihlár, J; Trunec, M

    1996-10-01

    The injection moulding of hydroxyapatite (HA) and properties (relative density, shrinkage, microstructure, thermal strength and phase composition) of HA ceramics sintered at temperatures of 1373-1773 K were studied. Particles of oval shape and size of 0.5 microns were most suitable for injection moulding. Polymer/HA mixture contained 63 vol% of the HA powder. Maximum relative density (98.7%) and shrinkage (16%) of HA ceramics were obtained at a sintering temperature of 1523 K. Maximum flexural strength (60 MPa) of HA ceramics occurred at a sintering temperature of 1473 K. The strength of these ceramics decreased at sintering temperatures higher than 1473 K. Loss in strength was owing to the grain growth and decomposition of HA ceramics. The relationship between grain size and strength is described by the equation: sigma = 53.3d1/2. The calculated activation energy of grain growth obtained was 215kJ mol-1 K-1. The decomposition of HA to alpha-tricalcium phosphate was important at temperatures greater than 1573 K.

  3. Multi-shot injection moulding.

    PubMed

    Tinson, J

    1998-04-01

    Medical device manufacturers are beginning to combine multi-colour and multi-material moulding techniques with soft-touch materials to gain competitive advantage. This trend is driven by the availability of machines that can inject as many as six different materials simultaneously. This article looks at the multi-shot moulding process and uses examples to highlight the benefits of the technique.

  4. Diesel Effect Problem Solving During Injection Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Košík, Miroslav; Likavčan, Lukáš; Bílik, Jozef; Martinkovič, Maroš

    2014-12-01

    Study describes principles of diesel effect creation during thermoplastic injection moulding as a consequence of wrong injection conditions and poor venting system design. On real example, study shows sequence of all steps to eliminate this sort of material degradation with minimal costs in phase when mould is already made. As a first, process parameters were optimized by CAE simulation to minimize cavity internal gasses creation. Finally the specific mould modifications were suggested to improve the effectiveness of venting system.

  5. Injection moulding of biodegradable implants.

    PubMed

    von Oepen, R; Michaeli, W

    1992-01-01

    In medical engineering, degradable polymers represent an attractive alternative for conventional materials to be used as implants in the body. They are used as drug deliveries or as plates and screws to fix broken bones. Since they are completely broken down by the human body, the second operation, which is generally required, can be avoided. A central problem is the processing of these polymers, because no stabilisers are allowed. This causes a partially relevant loss in molecular weight, which correlates directly with the mechanical properties. Tests carried out on an injection moulding machine and on a conical plate rheometer show the influence of temperature, shear, residence time and moisture on molecular weight reduction and mechanical properties.

  6. Micro Injection Moulding of Polymeric Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotta, G.; Surace, R.; Modica, F.; Spina, R.; Fassi, I.

    2011-01-01

    Micro components and micro devices are strongly used in several fields: IT components, biomedical and medical products, automotive industry, telecommunication area and aerospace. A micro component is characterized by small dimensions of the product itself or small dimensions of the functional features. The development of new micro parts is highly dependent on manufacturing systems that can reliably and economically produce micro components in large quantities. In this context, micro-electrical discharge machining (EDM) for mould production and micro-injection moulding of polymer materials are the key technologies for micro manufacturing. This paper will focus on the production and quality evaluation of polymeric micro components manufactured by micro injection moulding. In particular the authors want to investigate the process parameters on the overall quality of the product. The factors affecting micro flow behavior, components weights and dimension definition are experimentally studied basing on DoE approach and then discussed.

  7. Injection moulding of optical functional micro structures using laser structured, PVD-coated mould inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Schöngart, M.; Schäfer, C.; Bobzin, K.; Bagcivan, N.; Brögelmann, T.; Theiß, S.; Münstermann, T.; Steger, M.

    2015-05-01

    Micro structured optical plastics components are intensively used i. e. in consumer electronics, for optical sensors in metrology, innovative LED-lighting or laser technology. Injection moulding has proven to be successful for the large-scale production of those parts. However, the production of those parts still causes difficulties due to challenges in the moulding and demoulding of plastics parts created with laser structured mould inserts. A complete moulding of the structures often leads to increased demoulding forces, which then cause a breaking of the structures and a clogging of the mould. An innovative approach is to combine PVD-coated (physical vapour deposition), laser structured inserts and a variothermal moulding process to create functional mic8iüro structures in a one-step process. Therefore, a PVD-coating is applied after the laser structuring process in order to improve the wear resistance and the anti-adhesive properties against the plastics melt. In a series of moulding trials with polycarbonate (PC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) using different coated moulds, the mould temperature during injection was varied in the range of the glass transition and the melt temperature of the polymers. Subsequently, the surface topography of the moulded parts is evaluated by digital 3D laser-scanning microscopy. The influence of the moulding parameters and the coating of the mould insert on the moulding accuracy and the demoulding behaviour are being analysed. It is shown that micro structures created by ultra-short pulse laser ablation can be successfully replicated in a variothermal moulding process. Due to the mould coating, significant improvements could be achieved in producing micro structured optical plastics components.

  8. Injection moulding of optical functional micro structures using laser structured, PVD-coated mould inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Schöngart, M.; Schäfer, C.; Bobzin, K.; Bagcivan, N.; Brögelmann, T.; Theiß, S.; Münstermann, T.; Steger, M.

    2015-05-22

    Micro structured optical plastics components are intensively used i. e. in consumer electronics, for optical sensors in metrology, innovative LED-lighting or laser technology. Injection moulding has proven to be successful for the large-scale production of those parts. However, the production of those parts still causes difficulties due to challenges in the moulding and demoulding of plastics parts created with laser structured mould inserts. A complete moulding of the structures often leads to increased demoulding forces, which then cause a breaking of the structures and a clogging of the mould. An innovative approach is to combine PVD-coated (physical vapour deposition), laser structured inserts and a variothermal moulding process to create functional mic8iüro structures in a one-step process. Therefore, a PVD-coating is applied after the laser structuring process in order to improve the wear resistance and the anti-adhesive properties against the plastics melt. In a series of moulding trials with polycarbonate (PC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) using different coated moulds, the mould temperature during injection was varied in the range of the glass transition and the melt temperature of the polymers. Subsequently, the surface topography of the moulded parts is evaluated by digital 3D laser-scanning microscopy. The influence of the moulding parameters and the coating of the mould insert on the moulding accuracy and the demoulding behaviour are being analysed. It is shown that micro structures created by ultra-short pulse laser ablation can be successfully replicated in a variothermal moulding process. Due to the mould coating, significant improvements could be achieved in producing micro structured optical plastics components.

  9. Multilayer injection moulding of thick-walled optical plastics parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Neuss, A.; Weber, M.; Walach, P.

    2014-05-01

    Optical components are often thick-walled. The cycle time of precise polymer optics with a wall thickness of more than 20 mm exceeds several minutes. The multilayer injection moulding or compression moulding lowers the cycle time and increases the quality of the moulded parts. For the production of multilayer moulded lenses the mould design plays an important role. An innovative mould concept is presented with the possiblity to produce double or triple layer lenses. To ensure the quality and the endurance of multilayer moulded optical components in their applications, the cohesion in the interface is important. Tensile shear tests show the ability of multilayer moulded parts with high cohesion values for optical applications.

  10. Investigation on the achievable flow length in injection moulding of polymeric materials with dynamic mould tempering.

    PubMed

    Meister, Steve; Drummer, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    A variety of parts in microsystems technology are manufactured by injection moulding of polymeric materials. In Particular the high cooling velocity affects negatively the process and the resulting part properties. The scope of this paper is to investigate the influence on the reachable flow length in injection moulding of different polymeric materials. The results indicate that the mould temperature has less impact on the achievable flow length of the polymer melt as the injection pressure. A higher mould temperature leads only to a slight increase in flow length. In addition, a transcending of the glass or the crystallization temperature of polymeric materials with the mould temperature shows no effect on the achievable flow length of the material.

  11. Investigation on the Achievable Flow Length in Injection Moulding of Polymeric Materials with Dynamic Mould Tempering

    PubMed Central

    Drummer, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    A variety of parts in microsystems technology are manufactured by injection moulding of polymeric materials. In Particular the high cooling velocity affects negatively the process and the resulting part properties. The scope of this paper is to investigate the influence on the reachable flow length in injection moulding of different polymeric materials. The results indicate that the mould temperature has less impact on the achievable flow length of the polymer melt as the injection pressure. A higher mould temperature leads only to a slight increase in flow length. In addition, a transcending of the glass or the crystallization temperature of polymeric materials with the mould temperature shows no effect on the achievable flow length of the material. PMID:23970840

  12. Cost analysis in injection moulded plastic parts designing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turc, CG; Cărăuşu, C.; Belgiu, G.

    2017-08-01

    One of the major problem in plastic part design consists in the cost optimization. The designer should take into consideration some relevant aspects that are related to the functional role of the part, the mechanical and thermal loads, and the part cost. The part cost depends on three main components: the mould cost, the equipment operation cost and the material cost. The injection cycle time, the part volume and the material nature can estimate the last two components of the part cost. The mould cost is more difficult to estimate, and current CAD software did not integrate such a feature. The paper present a methodology to estimate the mould cost, taking into consideration the part geometry and its dimensional prescriptions. In addition, a spreadsheet is provided in order to estimate the mould cost.

  13. Injection Moulding of Wood Powder with Low Binder Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, Tsunehisa; Takakura, Norio; Iizuka, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko; Imanishi, Hiroshi; Kanayama, Kouzou

    This study is aimed at exploring possibilities to improve the injectability of wood powder and the mechanical properties of the injected product while keeping the amount of binder to its minimum. In the preliminary experiment, injection moulding of Japanese cedar wood powder was conducted. The effects of binder content (PE; pellet-size) and nozzle temperature on the tensile strength and strain at break of the product were investigated. Results showed that under such conditions, injection moulding of wood powder only was not possible due to insufficient fluidity. Increasing the binder content and the nozzle temperature resulted to a decrease in the maximum injection pressure and improvement in the fluidity of the powder. Using the same PE content, increasing the temperature resulted to an increase in tensile strength of the injected product. However, the strain at break was decreased. Moreover, at PE content below 50%, the strength and strain decreased considerably.

  14. Self-optimizing MPC of melt temperature in injection moulding.

    PubMed

    Dubay, R

    2002-01-01

    The parameters in plastic injection moulding are highly nonlinear and interacting. Good control of plastic melt temperature for injection moulding is very important in reducing operator setup time, assuring consistent product quality, and preventing thermal degradation of the melt. Step response testing was performed on the barrel heating zones on an industrial injection moulding machine (IMM). The open loop responses indicated a high degree of process coupling between the heating zones. From these experimental step responses, a multiple-input-multiple-output model predictive control strategy was developed and practically implemented. The requirement of negligible overshoot is important to the plastics industry for preventing material overheating and wastage, and reducing machine operator setup time. A generic learning and self-optimizing MPC methodology was developed and implemented on the IMM to control melt temperature for any polymer to be moulded on any machine having different electrical heater capacities. The control performance was tested for varying setpoint trajectories typical of normal machine operations. The results showed that the predictive controller provided good control of melt temperature for all zones with negligible oscillations, and, therefore, eliminated material degradation and extended machine setup time.

  15. Simulation of the injection moulding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J.; Christensen, T.

    1993-12-01

    Simulation of the injection molding process is a helpful way for the engineers who work with plastics processing. By simulation, they will get some important parameters which sometimes are highly necessary for the mold design and processing. Thus, the engineers will save much time to do experiments for the parameters. Two simulation programs are used in this report, namely CADMOULD and CADMOULD MEFISTO which are designed by Institut fur Kunststoffverarbeitung (IKV) in Aachen, W. Germany. CADMOULD works with 2-D geometry and is specialized for rheological, thermal and mechanical calculation. It is installed on a personal computer, while CADMOULD MEFISTO works in 3-D and is installed on a VAX 8530 computer at SINTEF. A PC version of this program is also available. This report deals with CADMOULD and CADMOULD MEFISTO. The construction of flow lines, balancing of sprue system, the optimizing of injection time, and gate(s) optimizing are mainly included.

  16. Decreasing the Functioning Consumptions of Plastics Injection Moulding Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilache, V.; Vasilache, M.; Vasilache, A.

    2017-06-01

    A share of about 75% in the cost of a plastic moulded part is held by the energy consumption of the injection machine. It is the heating system of the plasticising unit which is responsible for the energophague character of the process. The transfer rate from the heating elements to the plasticising cylinder depends hardly on the geometry of the system. A new heating system is designed, replacing the classical systems which are applied on the exterior of the cylinder with an “engrooved system”. Proposed heating system leads to decreasing of energy consumption up to 30 % and maintenance costs up to 10 %. A supplementary possibility to decrease the maintenance costs is to modify the geometry of the injection torpedo. The proposed geometry eliminates the possibility of any breaking or gripping related to the injection torpedo.

  17. Multiphase and multiscale approaches for modelling the injection of textured moulds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhoul, Rebecca; Laure, Patrice; Silva, Luisa; Vincent, Michel

    2016-10-01

    Micro-injection moulding is frequently used for the mass production of devices in micro-medical technologies, micro-optics and micro-mechanics. This work focuses mainly on offering numerical tools to model the injection of micro-textured moulds. Such tools can predict the different filling scenarios of the micro-details and consequently offer optimal operating conditions (mould and melt temperatures, melt flow, stresses, etc.) to analyse the final part quality. To do so, a full Eulerian approach is used to model the injection of textured moulds at both the macroscopic and microscopic scales as usual industrial software cannot handle the filling of micro details. Since heat transfers with the mould are very relevant due to high cooling rates, the coupling between micro- and macro- simulations is primordial to insure a complete and accurate representation of textured mould injection.

  18. Rotational moulding.

    PubMed

    Crawford, R J; Kearns, M P

    2003-10-01

    Rotational moulding promises designers attractive economics and a low-pressure process. The benefits of rotational moulding are compared here with other manufacturing methods such as injection and blow moulding.

  19. Development of Metal/Polymer Mixtures for Micro Powder Injection Moulding

    SciTech Connect

    Quinard, C.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-04-07

    Important research tasks at ENSMM/LMA are concerned for the development of mixtures of Fine powders associated to polymer binders dedicated to the powder injection moulding (PIM) and to the powder injection micro-moulding ({mu}PIM) in accordance with many works already carried out with different feedstock suppliers dedicated to the macro-components.

  20. Development of Metal/Polymer Mixtures for Micro Powder Injection Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinard, C.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-04-01

    Important research tasks at ENSMM/LMA are concerned for the development of mixtures of Fine powders associated to polymer binders dedicated to the powder injection moulding (PIM) and to the powder injection micro-moulding (μPIM) in accordance with many works already carried out with different feedstock suppliers dedicated to the macro-components.

  1. Morphology and mechanical properties relationships in non-conventional melt manipulation injection moulding techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouyumdzhiev, Anton D.; Viana, Júlio C.

    2007-04-01

    Shear Controlled Orientation in Injection Moulding and Push-Pull Injection Moulding with abbreviations respectively SCORIM and PPIM, are two non-conventional injection moulding techniques based on the concept of in-mould shear manipulation of the melt during the solidification phase. In this work a diversity of microstructures were developed by SCORIM and PPIM by systematic variations of the processing conditions (total of 16 moulding conditions). The microstructures were observed by polarized light microscopy, being assessed the multi-laminated skin-to-core ratio. The level of molecular orientation of the skin and the relative degree of crystallinity of the core were evaluated by Wide-Angle X-ray scattering. The mechanical behaviour was assessed by flexural, tensile and fracture tests. The relationships between the morphology and the mechanical properties of the mouldings were established, regardless the processing technique, combining the results of both SCORIM and PPIM.

  2. TiB2 nanostructured coating for GFRP injection moulds.

    PubMed

    Martinho, R P; Silva, F J G; Alexandre, R J D; Baptista, A P M

    2011-06-01

    In the injection moulding of polypropylene reinforced with hard glass fibres, die materials are commonly subjected to severe abrasive wear. In order to improve its wear resistance, an unbalanced magnetron sputtering PVD compositional monolayered coating has been produced. The film was composed by a nanostructured TiB2 monolayer. Microstructure characterization and thickness evaluation were conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Film topography and roughness were accessed by SEM and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The phase analyse was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), using Cu Kalpha radiation. Scratch tests were conducted in order to study the film adhesion to the substrate. Load-Displacement curves (nanoindentation analysis) allowed measuring the film hardness and Young's modulus. A ball-cratering tribometer was used to determine the micro-abrasion laboratorial wear resistance, under different tests conditions, using SiC particles in distilled water slurry. At the end of these tests, the worn surfaces were analyzed by SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) in order to compare these results with some other coatings already tested in the same conditions. To test the practical wear resistance, 135000 injection cycles were done in a plastic injection industrial mould. Coated samples were put on the plastic feed canal, after a turbulent zone. In these tests, a 30% (wt) glass fibres reinforced polypropylene was used. Worn sample surfaces were analyzed by SEM after 45.000 and 90.000 cycles. Image analyses were made in order to evaluate the damage increases and to observe the wear mechanisms involved.

  3. Injection blow moulding single stage process: Validation of the numerical simulation through tomography analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biglione, Jordan; Béreaux, Yves; Charmeau, Jean-Yves

    2016-10-01

    The injection blow moulding single stage process has been made available on standard injection moulding machine. Both the injection moulding stage and the blow moulding stage are being taken care of in an injection mould. Thus the dimensions of this mould are those of a conventional injection moulding mould. The fact that the two stages are located in the same mould leads to a process more constrained than the conventional one. This process introduces temperature gradients, molecular orientation, high stretch rates and high cooling rates. These constraints lead to a small processing window. In practice, the preform has to remain sufficiently melted to be blown so that the process takes place between the melting temperature and the crystallization temperature. In our numerical approach, the polymer is supposed to be blown in its molten state. Hence we have identified the mechanical behaviour of the polymer in its molten state through dynamical rheology experiments. A viscous Cross model has been proved to be relevant to the problem. Thermal dependence is assumed by an Arrhenius law. The process is simulated through a finite element code (POLYFLOW software) in the Ansys Workbench framework. Thickness measurements using image analysis of tomography data are performed and comparisons with the simulation results show good agreements.

  4. GTE blade injection moulding modeling and verification of models during process approbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanenko, I. S.; Khaimovich, A. I.

    2017-02-01

    The simulation model for filling the mould was developed using Moldex3D, and it was experimentally verified in order to perform further optimization calculations of the moulding process conditions. The method described in the article allows adjusting the finite-element model by minimizing the airfoil profile difference between the design and experimental melt motion front due to the differentiated change of power supplied to heating elements, which heat the injection mould in simulation. As a result of calibrating the injection mould for the gas-turbine engine blade, the mean difference between the design melt motion profile and the experimental airfoil profile of no more than 4% was achieved.

  5. Isotachophoretic analysis using injection-moulded polystyrene chip devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prest, Jeff E.; Fielden, Peter R.; Goddard, Nicholas J.; Treves Brown, Bernard J.

    2008-06-01

    A new type of miniaturized separation chip for performing isotachophoresis has been produced. The design uses polystyrene as a substrate material and incorporates carbon fibre loaded polystyrene drive and conductivity detection electrodes. This fully polymeric composition allows for the devices to be produced using injection moulding. Ultrasonic welding is used for sealing to give robust chips that can potentially be easily transported and used outside of a laboratory environment. A batch of devices was produced and tested with a number of inorganic cationic species as samples. The entire batch of 22 devices were successfully used for isotachophoretic separations. Good reproducibility was observed in the qualitative behaviour of the devices. For example, with lithium a relative step height ± standard deviation of 1.49 ± 0.01 was observed on a run-to-run basis with a single chip and of 1.47 ± 0.03 on a chip-to-chip basis over the entire batch of devices.

  6. Integrated Simulation of an Aspheric Lens Combining Injection Moulding Analysis with Ray Tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Keun; Joo, Wonjong

    2007-05-01

    The present study covers an integrated simulation method for injection-moulded plastic lenses by combining a ray tracing simulation with a finite element (FE) analysis of injection moulding. Traditional ray tracing methods have based on the assumption that the optical properties of a lens are homogeneous throughout the entire volume. This assumption is to a certain extent unrealistic for injection-moulded plastic lenses because material properties vary at every point due to the injection moulding effects. To take into account the effects of the inhomogeneous optical properties of the moulded lens, a new ray tracing scheme is proposed in conjunction with an FE analysis of the injection moulding. A numerical scheme is developed to estimate the distribution of refractive indices from injection moulding analysis, and to calculate ray paths on every element layer with more realistic information of the refractive indices. A fully three-dimensional FE analysis is then performed for the aspheric lens moulding process. Through the FE analysis, the distribution of the refractive indices of the lens can be obtained on every mesh point. This information is then used to calculate the ray paths based on the FE mesh of which nodal points have unique index values. The proposed tracing scheme is implemented on the tracing of an aspheric lens, and its validity is ascertained through experimental verification.

  7. Optimisation of warpage on plastic injection moulding part with MGSS conformal cooling channels moulds using response surface methodology (RSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazwan, M. H. M.; Shayfull, Z.; Sharif, S.; Zainal, N.; Nasir, S. M.

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays, there are various methods of optimisation works that have been explored by many researchers to find the appropriate processing parameters setting of injection moulding process. From the previous researches, it was reported that the optimisation work improved the moulded part quality. Apart from quality, the productivity in the injection moulding process also plays an important role. Therefore, some of the researchers have introduced the conformal cooling channels which have been proven to improve the quality and productivity of the moulded part. However, the application of optimisation work to determine an appropriate processing parameters setting in previous researches are only focusing on the conventional straight-drilled cooling channels and the application in conformal cooling channels are still lacking. In this study, the application of optimisation work to improve warpage of the front panel housing part with Milled Groove Square Shape (MGSS) conformal cooling channels has been explored. By selecting cooling time, cooling temperature, packing pressure and melt temperature as the variables, design of experiment (DOE) has been constructed by using the central composite design (CCD) approach. By performing Response Surface Methodology (RSM) optimisation approach, warpage of the moulded part has been optimised. Based on the results warpage has optimised by 46.5%. The finding shows that the application of optimisation work on the conformal cooling channels offers the best outcome.

  8. Modeling of short fiber reinforced injection moulded composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, A.; Aswini, N.; Dandekar, C. R.; Makhe, S.

    2012-09-01

    A micromechanics based finite element model (FEM) is developed to facilitate the design of a new production quality fiber reinforced plastic injection molded part. The composite part under study is composed of a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) matrix reinforced with 30% by volume fraction of short carbon fibers. The constitutive material models are obtained by using micromechanics based homogenization theories. The analysis is carried out by successfully coupling two commercial codes, Moldflow and ANSYS. Moldflow software is used to predict the fiber orientation by considering the flow kinetics and molding parameters. Material models are inputted into the commercial software ANSYS as per the predicted fiber orientation and the structural analysis is carried out. Thus in the present approach a coupling between two commercial codes namely Moldflow and ANSYS has been established to enable the analysis of the short fiber reinforced injection moulded composite parts. The load-deflection curve is obtained based on three constitutive material model namely an isotropy, transversely isotropy and orthotropy. Average values of the predicted quantities are compared to experimental results, obtaining a good correlation. In this manner, the coupled Moldflow-ANSYS model successfully predicts the load deflection curve of a composite injection molded part.

  9. Design and Production of the Injection Mould with a Cax Assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likavčan, Lukáš; Frnčík, Martin; Zaujec, Rudolf; Satin, Lukáš; Martinkovič, Maroš

    2016-09-01

    This paper is focused on the process of designing the desired plastic component and injection mould by using the 3D CAD systems. The subsequent FEM analysis of the injection mould process was carried out in order to define shrinkage and deformation of the plastic material by CAE system. The dimensions of the mould were then modified to compensate the shrinkage effect. Machining process (milling and the laser texturing) of the mould was performed by using CAM systems. Finally, after the production of the plastic components by the injection mould technology, the inspection of the plastic component dimensions was carried out by CAQ in order to define the accuracy of the whole CAx chain. It was also demonstrated that CAx systems are an integral part of pre-production and production process.

  10. Fabrication of nano-structure anti-reflective lens using platinum nanoparticles in injection moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, K.; Saitou, Y.; Souma, N.; Makihara, S.; Kato, H.; Nakano, T.

    2015-01-01

    We provide a lens mould to attain an anti-reflection sub-wavelength structure (SWS) for plastic replica in the injection moulding process. To obtain the SWS on the lens mould, platinum nanoparticles formed by decomposition of a platinum oxide were employed. The fabricated platinum nanoparticles were estimated to be 90 nm in diameter, on average, and the dispersion of the particle diameter was evaluated to be ±20 nm. Through nanostructure replication by injection moulding, antireflection of less than 0.5% was achieved, and transmittance increased over 98%. In addition, a high-replication durability of over 10 000 times was attained. The variation of the minimum reflection ratio was evaluated to be 0.38% ± 0.04%. The usefulness of the proposed SWS mould for mass-production was confirmed, as it allows for high durability and SWS formation on the lens surface.

  11. Tailoring the heat transfer on the injection moulding cavity by plasma sprayed ceramic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Hopmann, Ch; Öte, M.; Knoch, M. A.; Alkhasli, I.; Dornebusch, H.; Schmitz, M.

    2017-03-01

    Inhomogeneous material shrinkage in injection moulding can cause warpage in thermoplastic components. To minimise the deformations of the injection moulding parts, the heat transfer during the cooling phase can be adjusted according to the local cooling demand on the surface of the mould cavity by means of plasma sprayed coatings with locally variable thermal resistance over the surface of the mould. Thermal resistance is a function of thermal conductivity and thickness of the coatings, where thermal conductivity of thermal barrier coatings can be adjusted by altering the chemical composition and the microstructure, which is depending on the thickness. This work evaluates the application of plasma sprayed coatings with variable thickness as thermal barrier coatings in the mould cavity. The thermal resistance of the coating and thereby the heat transfer from the melt into the mould will be influenced locally by varying the coating thickness over the cavity area according to the local cooling demand. Using the laser flash method, the thermal conduction of coatings with different thicknesses will be determined. On the basis of the experimentally determined thermal conduction, the effect of the coatings on the temperature field of the mould cavity will be numerically calculated and the required thickness distribution of the coating for an optimal temperature gradient will be determined.

  12. Influence of the recycled material percentage on the rheological behaviour of HDPE for injection moulding process.

    PubMed

    Javierre, C; Clavería, I; Ponz, L; Aísa, J; Fernández, A

    2007-01-01

    The amount of polymer material wasted during thermoplastic injection moulding is very high. It comes from both the feed system of the part, and parts necessary to set up the mould, as well as the scrap generated along the process due to quality problems. The residues are managed through polymer recycling that allows reuse of the materials in the manufacturing injection process. Recycling mills convert the parts into small pieces that are used as feed material for injection, by mixing the recycled feedstock in different percentages with raw material. This mixture of both raw and recycled material modifies material properties according to the percentage of recycled material introduced. Some of the properties affected by this modification are those related to rheologic behaviour, which strongly conditions the future injection moulding process. This paper analyzes the rheologic behaviour of material with different percentages of recycled material by means of a capillary rheometer, and evaluates the influence of the corresponding viscosity curves obtained on the injection moulding process, where small variations of parameters related to rheological behaviour, such as pressure or clamping force, can be critical to the viability and cost of the parts manufactured by injection moulding.

  13. Electrical, Thermal, and Machining Behaviour of Injection Moulded Polymeric CNT Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoodi, Mehdi

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising additives for thermoplastics, resulting from their superior electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. Due to the desirable properties of CNT/polymer composites and their wide application in technological devices, these materials have attracted a great deal of attention from both academia and industry. A considerable amount of research has been devoted to the processing of CNT-filled nanocomposites, but only a few investigations have focussed on the injection moulding of these nanocomposites. This research was aimed at the study of the flow-induced alignment of CNT/polymer nanocomposites through the injection moulding process. We focussed on the understanding of the alignment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a thermoplastic matrix and the investigation of the alignment's effect on the electrical, thermal and machining characteristics of the injection moulded nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were first prepared with a melt mixing technique (i.e. twin screw extrusion), and they were then injection moulded under various processing conditions and mould geometries. High aspect ratio nanotubes could be partially aligned in the parallel-to-flow direction, resulting from the in-plane shear flow exerted on the polymeric melt in the injection cavity. It can be concluded that the volume resistivity of the moulded samples could be varied up to 7 orders of magnitude by changing the processing conditions and gate type in the injection moulding process. The electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) of the moulded composites was studied by considering the alignment of the MWCNTs. The EMI SE decreased with an increase in the alignment of the injection moulded MWCNTs in the polymer matrix. Anisotropic thermal conductivity was observed for the injection moulded nanocomposites. It was shown that thermal conductivity can be enhanced by aligning the nanotubes in the parallel-to-flow direction. The post

  14. Experimental Investigation of Process Conditions in Injection Stretch Blow Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomeia, Y.; Menary, G.; Armstrong, C. G.

    2007-04-01

    Various processing parameters influence the final product properties in the stretch blow moulding process. These properties are highly dependent on the balance between the stretching of the polymer and blowing times as well as the level of the pressure inside the bottle. A data acquisition system capable of accurately measuring the process conditions within an industrial environment is discussed. Experimental work has been conducted on an industrial stretch blow moulding machine by means of replacing the original stretch rod with one that contains a force cell and a pressure transducer. Correlation between the stretching force, displacement of the rod and the pressure inside the bottle give a better understanding of the process and should allow a more precise final element simulation of the process to be developed.

  15. Impact of Viscosity on Filling the Injection Mould Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satin, Lukáš; Bílik, Jozef

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to look closer at the rheological properties of plastics and their impact on technology in the plastics processing industry. The paper focuses on the influence of viscosity of the material on filling the mould cavity. Four materials were tested with the settings of process parameters with different viscosity. Using simulation software of Moldex3D, we can see the effect of change in viscosity in the material to be filled.

  16. Injection moulding of micro-parts: applications to micro-gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.; Michel, G.; Sahli, M.; Quinard, C.

    2007-04-01

    The paper is concerned with the development of the injection molding process for micro-parts with an application to injection moulding of micro-gears with the volume less than 0.2 mm3. First the paper describes the equipment that is used consisting in a micro-injection equipment that that is used consisting in a micro-injection that permits simultaneously bi-polymer injection. A polypropylene polymer is then used and characterized. The mould cavity corresponding to a micro-gear and related equipment is related. Finally the micro-injections are realized and the geometry of the micro-gears is reported in using an optical measurement system.

  17. Iso- and variothermal injection compression moulding of polymer micro- and nanostructures for optical and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rytka, C.; Kristiansen, P. M.; Neyer, A.

    2015-06-01

    The surfaces of medical and optical polymer products are being increasingly functionalized with micro- and nanostructures using mass replication methods like injection moulding. We compared the filling behaviour and replication quality of such structures using four different moulding processes with two polymers of different viscosity and wetting behaviour. For this purpose, we replicated three representative 2D and 3D micro- and nanostructures into polymethylmethacrylate and amorphous polyamide by isothermal and variothermal injection moulding with and without compression, respectively, using the same mould. The parallel compression phase reduced the internal pressure in the cavity, leading to fewer demoulding issues but without significant influence on the replication fidelity. Variothermal heating of the mould in combination with a polymer of low viscosity and good wetting behaviour was favourable especially for filling of high aspect-ratio structures. For microstructure replication, melt viscosity and no-flow temperature were clearly more relevant than wetting as flow resistance and frozen layer formation are the main reasons for incomplete filling at this length scale. In nanostructures, the capillary effect becomes increasingly dominant depending on the surface energy of the polymer.

  18. Application Of Moldex3D For Thin-wall Injection Moulding Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šercer, Mladen; Godec, Damir; Bujanić, Božo

    2007-05-01

    The benefits associated with decreasing wall thicknesses below their current values are still measurable and desired even if the final wall thickness is nowhere near those of the aggressive portable electronics industry. It is important to note that gains in wall section reduction do not always occur without investment, in this case, in tooling and machinery upgrades. Equally important is the fact that productivity and performance benefits of reduced material usage, fast cycle times, and lighter weight can often outweigh most of the added costs. In order to eliminate unnecessary mould trials, minimize product development cycle, reduce overall costs and improve product quality, polymeric engineers use new CAE technology (Computer Aided Engineering). This technology is a simulation tool, which combines proven theories, material properties and process conditions to generate realistic simulations and produce valuable recommendations. Based on these recommendations, an optional combination of product design, material and process conditions can be identified. In this work, Moldex3D software was used for simulation of injection moulding in order to avoid potential moulding problems. The results gained from the simulation were used for the optimization of an existing product design, for mould development and for optimization of processing parameters, e.g. injection pressure, mould cavity temperature, etc.

  19. Olfactory loss in poly (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) plastic injection-moulding workers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shu-Fang; Chen, Mei-Lien; Hung, Po-Chen; Chen, Chiou-Jong; Mao, I-Fang

    2004-10-01

    Plastics manufacturing factories are the fifth largest category of factories in industrial estates in Taiwan. It is known that complex airborne compounds and pungent odours are emitted during plastic injection-moulding processes. Workers exposed to acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) thermal decomposition products (TDP) may have olfactory loss. This study examined olfactory loss in injection-moulding workers exposed to ABS TDP. The method recommended by the Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center (CCCRC) was used to test the olfactory function of subjects, including 1-butanol threshold and odour identification, both pre- and post-work. The study sample included 52 ABS plastic injection-moulding workers (exposed group), as well as 72 workers from other departments (reference group). The results revealed that the exposed group had lower olfactory function after work than the reference group. The decrease in olfactory function after 1 workday was statistically significant. The prevalence of abnormal olfactory function post-work in the exposed group was higher than in the reference group. The findings of this study implied the ABS plastic injection-moulding process may worsen olfactory function among workers. Notably, this effect decreased olfactory threshold scores, not odour identification scores.

  20. Optimisation of warpage on plastic injection moulding part using response surface methodology (RSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazwan, M. H. M.; Shayfull, Z.; Sharif, S.; Nasir, S. M.; Zainal, N.

    2017-04-01

    Todays, there are various of optimisation methods that have been studied by many researchers in order to find the appropriate combination of processing parameters setting in the injection moulding process. From the previous literatures, the optimisation works have been proven will improve the moulded part quality. In this study, the application of optimisation work to improve warpage of front panel housing has been explored. By selecting cooling time, coolant temperature, packing pressure and melt temperature as the variable parameters, design of experiment (DOE) have been constructed by using the rotatable central composite design (CCD) approach. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was performed in order to define the optimal processing parameters setting which will optimise the warpage condition. Based on the results, melt temperature is the most significant factor contribute to the warpage condition and warpage have optimised by 47.1% after optimisation. The findings show that the application of optimisation work offers the best quality of moulded part produced.

  1. Development of Metal/Polymer Mixtures Dedicated to Macro and Micro powder Injection Moulding : Experiments and Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Quinard, C.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.; Song, J. P.; Cheng, Z. Q.; Liu, B. S.

    2007-05-17

    Important research tasks at ENSMM/LMA are concerned for the development of mixtures of fine powders associated to polymer binders dedicated to the powder injection moulding (PIM) and to the powder injection micro-moulding ({mu}PIM) in accordance with many works already carried out with different feedstock suppliers dedicated to the macro-components. These research tasks are completed with the simulations of injection and sintering for solid state diffusion for to validate the mumerical models.

  2. A concept for non-invasive temperature measurement during injection moulding processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hopmann, Christian; Spekowius, Marcel Wipperfürth, Jens; Schöngart, Maximilian

    2016-03-09

    Current models of the injection moulding process insufficiently consider the thermal interactions between melt, solidified material and the mould. A detailed description requires a deep understanding of the underlying processes and a precise observation of the temperature. Because todays measurement concepts do not allow a non-invasive analysis it is necessary to find new measurement techniques for temperature measurements during the manufacturing process. In this work we present the idea of a set up for a tomographic ultrasound measurement of the temperature field inside a plastics melt. The goal is to identify a concept that can be installed on a specialized mould for the injection moulding process. The challenges are discussed and the design of a prototype is shown. Special attention is given to the spatial arrangement of the sensors. Besides the design of a measurement set up a reconstruction strategy for the ultrasound signals is required. We present an approach in which an image processing algorithm can be used to calculate a temperature distribution from the ultrasound scans. We discuss a reconstruction strategy in which the ultrasound signals are converted into a spartial temperature distribution by using pvT curves that are obtained by dilatometer measurements.

  3. A concept for non-invasive temperature measurement during injection moulding processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Christian; Spekowius, Marcel; Wipperfürth, Jens; Schöngart, Maximilian

    2016-03-01

    Current models of the injection moulding process insufficiently consider the thermal interactions between melt, solidified material and the mould. A detailed description requires a deep understanding of the underlying processes and a precise observation of the temperature. Because todays measurement concepts do not allow a non-invasive analysis it is necessary to find new measurement techniques for temperature measurements during the manufacturing process. In this work we present the idea of a set up for a tomographic ultrasound measurement of the temperature field inside a plastics melt. The goal is to identify a concept that can be installed on a specialized mould for the injection moulding process. The challenges are discussed and the design of a prototype is shown. Special attention is given to the spatial arrangement of the sensors. Besides the design of a measurement set up a reconstruction strategy for the ultrasound signals is required. We present an approach in which an image processing algorithm can be used to calculate a temperature distribution from the ultrasound scans. We discuss a reconstruction strategy in which the ultrasound signals are converted into a spartial temperature distribution by using pvT curves that are obtained by dilatometer measurements.

  4. Effect analysis for compensating viscosity fluctuations by means of a self-optimising injection moulding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Reßmann, A.

    2015-05-01

    As the conventional control of the injection moulding process is based on machine variables which cannot compensate process fluctuations, a constant part quality cannot be guaranteed. The aim of the self-optimising processing method is to compensate the effects of process fluctuations, to ensure a repeatable forming of the moulded part and therefore achieve a constant part quality. The so called pvT-optimisation allows, in combination with a closed-loop cavity pressure control, a systematic consideration of variable boundary conditions of the process. In addition, the effort required for setting up the process can be significantly reduced. The pvT-optimised processing method enables the compensation of thermal disturbances and pressure fluctuations. Additionally, the influence of variations in material viscosity on the process variables, caused by the usage of recycled material, is addressed. Changing temperature and pressure of the material during the process compensates for the variations in material viscosity. An effect analyses of the influence of viscosity-relevant process parameters such as melt temperature, mould temperature and injection velocity on quality criteria such as part weight is conducted. The effect analysis shows a strong correlation between injection velocity and the weight. Thus, the part weight can be controlled by adapting the injection velocity.

  5. Ways of Comparation of the Fibre Orientation in Injection Moulding Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likavčan, Lukáš; Martinkovič, Maroš; Bílik, Jozef; Košík, Miroslav

    2014-12-01

    The fibre orientation in short fibre reinforced thermoplastics depends on injection moulding technology parameters. The aim of this paper is to propose possibilities for comparing fibre orientation of the real sample and the result from simulation software. Fibre orientation of selected injection moulding part is simulated. In some selected points secondorder tensor of orientation was estimated. Stereological metallography was used for possibility of comparison these results with experimental ones. An experimental result of estimation of degree of fibre orientation is described. The use of stereological metallography allows very simple and effective experimental estimation of short glass fibre orientation, which can be used for experimental verification of numerical simulation model, which can be optimized to obtained coincidence with experiments.

  6. Part weight verification between simulation and experiment of plastic part in injection moulding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amran, M. A. M.; Idayu, N.; Faizal, K. M.; Sanusi, M.; Izamshah, R.; Shahir, M.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the main objective is to determine the percentage difference of part weight between experimental and simulation work. The effect of process parameters on weight of plastic part is also investigated. The process parameters involved were mould temperature, melt temperature, injection time and cooling time. Autodesk Simulation Moldflow software was used to run the simulation of the plastic part. Taguchi method was selected as Design of Experiment to conduct the experiment. Then, the simulation result was validated with the experimental result. It was found that the minimum and maximum percentage of differential of part weight between simulation and experimental work are 0.35 % and 1.43 % respectively. In addition, the most significant parameter that affected part weight is the mould temperature, followed by melt temperature, injection time and cooling time.

  7. Numerical Predictions on the Final Properties of Metal Injection Moulded Components after Sintering Process

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-04-07

    A macroscopic model based on a viscoplastic constitutive law is presented to describe the sintering process of metallic powder components obtained by injection moulding. The model parameters are identified by the gravitational beam-bending tests in sintering and the sintering experiments in dilatometer. The finite element simulations are carried out to predict the shrinkage, density and strength after sintering. The simulation results have been compared to the experimental ones, and a good agreement has been obtained.

  8. Effect of the crystallization on the surface temperature of a polymer during injection moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, Ronan; Delaunay, Didier

    2007-04-01

    We present experimental results and theoretical analysis of heat transfer during injection moulding of a fibber reinforced semi-crystalline thermoplastic (IXEF). This one is a PA MXD6, with a mass fibber ratio of 30% and 50%. We illustrate the influence of the source term of crystallization on the surface temperature of the polymer, inducing strong influence of the pressure and of the shear during filling on this temperature.

  9. Free flow isotachophoresis in an injection moulded miniaturised separation chamber with integrated electrodes.

    PubMed

    Stone, Victoria N; Baldock, Sara J; Croasdell, Laura A; Dillon, Leonard A; Fielden, Peter R; Goddard, Nick J; Thomas, C L Paul; Treves Brown, Bernard J

    2007-07-06

    An injection moulded free flow isotachophoresis (FFITP) microdevice with integrated carbon fibre loaded electrodes with a separation chamber of 36.4mm wide, 28.7 mm long and 100 microm deep is presented. The microdevice was completely fabricated by injection moulding in carbon fibre loaded polystyrene for the electrodes and crystal polystyrene for the remainder of the chip and was bonded together using ultrasonic welding. Two injection moulded electrode designs were compared, one with the electrode surface level with the separation chamber and one with a recessed electrode. Separations of two anionic dyes, 0.2mM each of amaranth and acid green and separations of 0.2mM each of amaranth, bromophenol blue and glutamate were performed on the microdevice. Flow rates of 1.25 ml min(-1) for the leading and terminating electrolytes were used and a flow rate of 0.63 ml min(-1) for the sample. Electric fields of up to 370 V cm(-1) were applied across the separation chamber. Joule heating was not found to be significant although out-gassing was observed at drive currents greater than 3 mA.

  10. Hot Melt Extruded and Injection Moulded Dosage Forms: Recent Research and Patents.

    PubMed

    Major, Ian; McConville, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Hot Melt Extrusion (HME) and Injection Moulding (IM) are becoming more prevalent in the drug delivery field due to their continuous nature and advantages over current pharmaceutical manufacturing techniques. Hot melt extrusion (HME) is a process that involves the use of at least one reciprocating screw to force a thermoplastic resin along a heated barrel and through a die, while injection moulding is a forming process were molten polymer is forced at high pressure to enter a mould. HME offers a number of advantages over conventional pharmaceutical manufacturing techniques such as increased solubility and bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs, a solvent free and continuous process, improved content uniformity and flexibility in manufacture. Injection moulding (IM) has been recognised as a rapid and versatile manufacturing technique, which has the advantages of being a continuous process, which is easily scaled up by the use of larger equipment and moulds. However, despite their advantages and the significant number of publications and patents on HME and IM drug delivery devices there are very few marketed formulations. These marketed products range from oral dosage forms which improve bioavailability and reduce pill burden to vaginal rings which provide long-term controlled release thus improving patient compliance. The patenting strategy for IM and HME seems to be focused towards patenting the finished product, more so than patenting the manufacturing process. This is probably due to the fact that the IM and HME processes have already been patented. HME is a process where raw materials (i.e. polymer, plasticizer, drug etc.) are mixed and pumped along by a rotating screw(s) at elevated temperatures through a die to produce a product of uniform shape. IM is similar to HME except that the raw materials are pushed into a mould which is set at lower temperatures. Interest in the use of HME and IM within the pharmaceutical industry is growing with as steady

  11. Development of bio-sourced binder to metal injection moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Alexandre; Barrière, Thierry; Gelin, Jean-Claude

    2016-10-01

    In the MIM process the binder play the most important role. It provides fluidity of the feedstock mixture for injection molding and adhesion of the powder to keep the molded shape. The binder must provide strength and cohesion for the molded part, must be easy to be removed from the molded part, and must be the recyclable, environmentally friendly and economical ones. The goal of this study is to develop a binder environmentally friendly. For this, a study of formulation based on polyethylene glycol, because of is water debinding properties, was made. Polylactic acid and Polyhydroxyalkanoates were investigated as bio sourced polymers. The chemical, miscibility and rheological behavior of the binder formulation were investigated.

  12. Study of Recycled and Virgin Compounded Metal Injection Moulded Feedstock for Stainless Steel 630

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manonukul, Anchalee; Likityingwara, Warakij; Rungkiatnawin, Phataraporn; Muenya, Nattapol; Amoranan, Suttha; Kittinantapol, Witoo; Surapunt, Suphachai

    Fine rounded powders preferable for metal injection moulding (MIM) are expensive. This forces MIM makers to recycle green scraps, for example, the runner system and defected green parts. This is particularly necessary for injection moulded small parts where parts are only a small portion of the injection short size. There is very little published data, although recycling feedstock has been practise throughout the industry. This work aims at investigating the effects of recycled stainless steel 630 feedstock content on the density, mechanical properties, dimensional changes and microstructure. Five batches of compounded virgin and recycled feedstock were studies from 0% to 100% recycled feedstock with the increment of 25%. Homogenously compounded feedstock was injected using the same injection condition. Subsequently, green parts were debinded and sintered at 1325°C for 2 hours in argon atmosphere. The results suggest that the green density increases linearly with increasing percentage of recycled feedstock because the polymeric binder was broken down during previous process. However, the sintered density remains nominally constant. As a result, the mechanical properties and microstructure of sintered parts are independent of recycled feedstock content. However, the volumetric and linear shrinkage decreases linearly with the increase in percentage of recycled feedstock. The difference in shrinkage is vital to dimensional control during commercial production. For example, only 4.5% of recycled feedstock can be added to virgin feedstock if a tolerance of ±0.3 mm is required for a 25 mm MIM part.

  13. A New Approach For The Validation Of Filling Simulations In Micro Injection Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gava, A.; Tosello, G.; Hansen, H. N.; Salvador, M.; Lucchetta, G.

    2007-05-01

    In manufacturing polymer micro products, numerical simulations are used with the same purposes as in conventional injection moulding, mainly the optimization of micro components design, the optimization of process parameters and the decrease of production costs. Dedicated simulations softwares fail to correctly describe the melt flow in microstructures, mainly because phenomena such as tendency of polymers to slip in micro-channels, micro scale surface effects, and micro scale rheological behaviour are not considered. Therefore, accuracy of computer aided engineering simulations still needs to be improved. The main objective of this work is to evaluate whether the present numerical codes are suitable to characterize melt flow patterns in a micro cavity. In order to test the accuracy of the software, real and simulated experiments were performed and used to investigate the filling of a micro moulded component.

  14. 3D filling simulation of micro- and nanostructures in comparison to iso- and variothermal injection moulding trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rytka, C.; Lungershausen, J.; Kristiansen, P. M.; Neyer, A.

    2016-06-01

    Flow simulations can cut down both costs and time for the development of injection moulded polymer parts with functional surfaces used in life science and optical applications. We simulated the polymer melt flow into 3D micro- and nanostructures with Moldflow and Comsol and compared the results to real iso- and variothermal injection moulding trials below, at and above the transition temperature of the polymer. By adjusting the heat transfer coefficient and the transition temperature in the simulation it was possible to achieve good correlation with experimental findings at different processing conditions (mould temperature, injection velocity) for two polymers, namely polymethylmethacrylate and amorphous polyamide. The macroscopic model can be scaled down in volume and number of elements to save computational time for microstructure simulation and to enable first and foremost the nanostructure simulation, as long as local boundary conditions such as flow front speed are transferred correctly. The heat transfer boundary condition used in Moldflow was further evaluated in Comsol. Results showed that the heat transfer coefficient needs to be increased compared to macroscopic moulding in order to represent interfacial polymer/mould effects correctly. The transition temperature is most important in the packing phase for variothermal injection moulding.

  15. A bio-inspired microstructure induced by slow injection moulding of cylindrical block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Stasiak, Joanna; Brubert, Jacob; Serrani, Marta; Nair, Sukumaran; de Gaetano, Francesco; Costantino, Maria Laura; Moggridge, Geoff D

    2014-08-28

    It is well known that block copolymers with cylindrical morphology show alignment with shear, resulting in anisotropic mechanical properties. Here we show that well-ordered bi-directional orientation can be achieved in such materials by slow injection moulding. This results in a microstructure, and anisotropic mechanical properties, similar to many natural tissues, making this method attractive for engineering prosthetic fibrous tissues. An application of particular interest to us is prosthetic polymeric heart valve leaflets, mimicking the shape, microstructure and hence performance of the native valve. Anisotropic layers have been observed for cylinder-forming block copolymers centrally injected into thin circular discs. The skin layers exhibit orientation parallel to the flow direction, whilst the core layer shows perpendicularly oriented domains; the balance of skin to core layers can be controlled by processing parameters such as temperature and injection rate. Heart valve leaflets with a similar layered structure have been prepared by injection moulding. Numerical modelling demonstrates that such complex orientation can be explained and predicted by the balance of shear and extensional flow.

  16. An efficient parallel algebraic multigrid method for 3D injection moulding simulation based on finite volume method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zixiang; Zhang, Yun; Liang, Junjie; Shi, Songxin; Zhou, Huamin

    2014-07-01

    Elapsed time is always one of the most important performance measures for polymer injection moulding simulation. Solving pressure correction equations is the most time-consuming part in the mould filling simulation using finite volume method with SIMPLE-like algorithms. Algebraic multigrid (AMG) is one of the most promising methods for this type of elliptic equations. It, thus, has better performance by contrast with some common one-level iterative methods, especially for large problems. And it is also suitable for parallel computing. However, AMG is not easy to be applied due to its complex theory and poor generality for the large range of computational fluid dynamics applications. This paper gives a robust and efficient parallel AMG solver, A1-pAMG, for 3D mould filling simulation of injection moulding. Numerical experiments demonstrate that, A1-pAMG has better parallel performance than the classical AMG, and also has algorithmic scalability in the context of 3D unstructured problems.

  17. Utilizing of inner porous structure in injection moulds for application of special cooling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, M.; Bobek, J.; Šafka, J.; Habr, J.; Nováková, I.; Běhálek, L.

    2016-04-01

    The article is focused on impact evaluation of controlled inner structure of production tools and new cooling method on regulation of thermal processes for injection moulding technology. The mould inserts with porous structure were cooled by means of liquid CO2 which is very progressive cooling method and enables very fast and intensive heat transfer among the plastic product, the production tool and cooling medium. The inserts were created using rapid prototype technology (DLSM) and they had a bi-component structure consisting of thin compact surface layer and defined porous inner structure of open cell character where liquid CO2 was flowing through. This analyse includes the evaluation of cooling efficiency for different inner structures and different time profiles for dosing of liquid CO2 into the porous structure. The thermal processes were monitored using thermocouples and IR thermal analyse of product surface and experimental device. Intensive heat removal influenced also the final structure and the shape and dimensional accuracy of the moulded parts that were made of semi-crystalline polymer. The range of final impacts of using intensive cooling method on the plastic parts was defined by DSC and dimensional analyses.

  18. Polyolefin backbone substitution in binders for low temperature powder injection moulding feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Kuritka, Ivo; Bleyan, Davit

    2014-02-27

    This paper reports the substitution of polyolefin backbone binder components with low melting temperature carnauba wax for powder injection moulding applications. The effect of various binder compositions of Al₂O₃ feedstock on thermal degradation parameters is investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. Within the experimental framework 29 original feedstock compositions were prepared and the superiority of carnauba wax over the polyethylene binder backbone was demonstrated in compositions containing polyethylene glycol as the initial opening agent and governing the proper mechanism of the degradation process. Moreover, the replacement of synthetic polymer by the natural wax contributes to an increase of environmental sustainability of modern industrial technologies.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Sintering Process in Ceramic Powder Injection Moulded Components

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-05-17

    A phenomenological model based on viscoplastic constitutive law is presented to describe the sintering process of ceramic components obtained by powder injection moulding. The parameters entering in the model are identified through sintering experiments in dilatometer with the proposed optimization method. The finite element simulations are carried out to predict the density variations and dimensional changes of the components during sintering. A simulation example on the sintering process of hip implant in alumina has been conducted. The simulation results have been compared with the experimental ones. A good agreement is obtained.

  20. Investigation of Plasma Treatment on Micro-Injection Moulded Microneedle for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Karthik; Whiteside, Benjamin; Grant, Colin; Patel, Rajnikant; Tuinea-Bobe, Cristina; Norris, Keith; Paradkar, Anant

    2015-01-01

    Plasma technology has been widely used to increase the surface energy of the polymer surfaces for many industrial applications; in particular to increase in wettability. The present work was carried out to investigate how surface modification using plasma treatment modifies the surface energy of micro-injection moulded microneedles and its influence on drug delivery. Microneedles of polyether ether ketone and polycarbonate and have been manufactured using micro-injection moulding and samples from each production batch have been subsequently subjected to a range of plasma treatment. These samples were coated with bovine serum albumin to study the protein adsorption on these treated polymer surfaces. Sample surfaces structures, before and after treatment, were studied using atomic force microscope and surface energies have been obtained using contact angle measurement and calculated using the Owens-Wendt theory. Adsorption performance of bovine serum albumin and release kinetics for each sample set was assessed using a Franz diffusion cell. Results indicate that plasma treatment significantly increases the surface energy and roughness of the microneedles resulting in better adsorption and release of BSA. PMID:26529005

  1. Optimization of Gate, Runner and Sprue in Two-Plate Family Plastic Injection Mould

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amran, M. A.; Hadzley, M.; Amri, S.; Izamshah, R.; Hassan, A.; Samsi, S.; Shahir, K.

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes the optimization size of gate, runner and sprue in two-plate family plastic injection mould. An Electronic Cash Register (ECR) plastic product was used in this study, which there are three components in electronic cast register plastic product consist of top casing, bottom casing and paper holder. The objectives of this paper are to find out the optimum size of gate, runner and sprue, to locate the optimum layout of cavities and to recognize the defect problems due to the wrong size of gate, runner and sprue. Three types of software were used in this study, which Unigraphics software as CAD tool was used to design 3D modeling, Rhinoceros software as post processing tool was used to design gate, runner and sprue and Moldex software as simulation tool was used to analyze the plastic flow. As result, some modifications were made on size of feeding system and location of cavity to eliminate the short- shot, over filling and welding line problems in two-plate family plastic injection mould.

  2. Fabrication and modelling of injection moulded all-polymer capillary microvalves for passive microfluidic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Esben Poulsen, Carl; Østergaard, Peter Friis; Haugshøj, Kenneth Brian; Taboryski, Rafael; Wolff, Anders; Fougt Hansen, Mikkel

    2014-12-01

    Rapid prototyping is desirable when developing products. One example of such a product is all-polymer, passive flow controlled lab-on-a-chip systems that are preferential when developing low-cost disposable chips for point-of-care use. In this paper we investigate the following aspects of going from rapid prototyping to pilot (mass) production. (1) Fabrication of an all-polymer microfluidic system using a rapid prototyped master insert for injection moulding and ultrasonic welding, including a systematic experimental characterisation of chip featured geometric capillary microvalve test structures. (2) Numerical modelling of the microvalve burst pressures. Numerical modelling of burst pressures is challenging due to its non-equilibrium nature. We have implemented and tested the level-set method modified with a damped driving term and show that the introduction of the damping term leads to numerically robust results with limited computational demands and a low number of iterations. Numerical and simplified analytical results are validated against the experimental results. We find that injection moulding and ultrasonic welding are effective for chip production and that the experimental burst pressures could be estimated with an average accuracy of 5% using the presented numerical model.

  3. Selection of appropriate polyoxymethylene based binder for feedstock material used in powder injection moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Gutierrez, J.; Stringari, G. B.; Megen, Z. M.; Oblak, P.; von Bernstorff, B. S.; Emri, I.

    2015-04-01

    Polyoxymethylene (POM) has found applications as a binder material in Powder Injection Moulding (PIM) due to its ability to depolymerize rapidly under acidic conditions. Such ability represents an advantage during the binder removal step of PIM. However, currently available POM has high viscosity that can complicate the injection moulding process of parts with complex geometry. For this reason it is necessary to investigate methods of lowering the viscosity of POM-based binders, but without affecting their solid mechanical properties (i.e. creep compliance). In this investigation, the addition of a low molecular weight polymer, and the reduction of the average molecular weight of POM were investigated as possible ways of decreasing the viscosity of PIM binders. The addition of the low molecular weight additive (WAX) caused a small decrease in the viscosity of the POM-based binder and a small increase in its solid creep compliance. On the other hand, lowering the average molecular weight of POM caused a large decrease in viscosity, but also an acceptable increase in creep compliance. Therefore, by selecting an appropriate molecular weight of POM, it is possible to improve the performance of POM-based binders for PIM.

  4. Investigation of Plasma Treatment on Micro-Injection Moulded Microneedle for Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Nair, Karthik; Whiteside, Benjamin; Grant, Colin; Patel, Rajnikant; Tuinea-Bobe, Cristina; Norris, Keith; Paradkar, Anant

    2015-10-30

    Plasma technology has been widely used to increase the surface energy of the polymer surfaces for many industrial applications; in particular to increase in wettability. The present work was carried out to investigate how surface modification using plasma treatment modifies the surface energy of micro-injection moulded microneedles and its influence on drug delivery. Microneedles of polyether ether ketone and polycarbonate and have been manufactured using micro-injection moulding and samples from each production batch have been subsequently subjected to a range of plasma treatment. These samples were coated with bovine serum albumin to study the protein adsorption on these treated polymer surfaces. Sample surfaces structures, before and after treatment, were studied using atomic force microscope and surface energies have been obtained using contact angle measurement and calculated using the Owens-Wendt theory. Adsorption performance of bovine serum albumin and release kinetics for each sample set was assessed using a Franz diffusion cell. Results indicate that plasma treatment significantly increases the surface energy and roughness of the microneedles resulting in better adsorption and release of BSA.

  5. Injection moulding of ultra high aspect ratio nanostructures using coated polymer tooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stormonth-Darling, J. M.; Pedersen, R. H.; How, C.; Gadegaard, N.

    2014-07-01

    Replication-based nanofabrication techniques offer rapid, cost effective ways to produce nanostructured devices for a host of applications in engineering, biological research and beyond. In this work we developed a method to replicate ultra high aspect ratio (UHAR) nanopillars by injection molding with failure rates lower than one pillar in a thousand. We provide a review of the literature in which replication of difficult micro- and nanostructures is facilitated through the use of different tooling materials and surface coatings, before describing the non-adhesive surface coatings which we used to translate a previously developed technique from low to high aspect ratios. This development involved a systematic study of nine different surface coatings on polymer tooling initially patterned by nanoimprint lithography. Using this method we were able to produce injection moulded pillar-like nanostructures with aspect ratios of up to 20:1, more than 6 times that reported elsewhere in the literature for this type of feature.

  6. Thermal Debinding and Sintering of water atomised SS316L Metal Injection Moulding Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, A. M.; Ibrahim, M. H. I.; Asmawi, R.; Mustaffa, N.; Hashim, M. Y.

    2017-08-01

    Thermal debinding of SS316L metal injection moulding samples was done with temperatures of 400°C, 500°C and 600°C was done. Weight loss, density and shrinkage values of the brown part being analysed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to monitor the carburization and oxidation of the thermal debound samples. It is found that, samples under thermal debound temperature of 400°C was less oxidation and carburising as compare to other temperature. Weight loss also indicates higher in percentage although the percentage shrinkage is less. XRD pattern also indicates minor affected in peaks changes as compare to other temperature. Sintering of the thermal debound samples of 400°C temperature shows good microstructure formation and mechanical properties.

  7. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation of shear-induced powder migration in injection moulding.

    PubMed

    Kauzlarić, David; Pastewka, Lars; Meyer, Hagen; Heldele, Richard; Schulz, Michael; Weber, Oxana; Piotter, Volker; Hausselt, Jürgen; Greiner, Andreas; Korvink, Jan G

    2011-06-13

    We present the application of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) discretization scheme to Phillips' model for shear-induced particle migration in concentrated suspensions. This model provides an evolution equation for the scalar mean volume fraction of idealized spherical solid particles of equal diameter which is discretized by the SPH formalism. In order to obtain a discrete evolution equation with exact conservation properties we treat in fact the occupied volume of the solid particles as the degree of freedom for the fluid particles. We present simulation results in two- and three-dimensional channel flow. The two-dimensional results serve as a verification by a comparison to analytic solutions. The three-dimensional results are used for a comparison with experimental measurements obtained from computer tomography of injection moulded ceramic microparts. We observe the best agreement of measurements with snapshots of the transient simulation for a ratio D(c)/D(η)=0.1 of the two model parameters.

  8. Miniaturised free flow isotachophoresis of bacteria using an injection moulded separation device.

    PubMed

    Prest, Jeff E; Baldock, Sara J; Fielden, Peter R; Goddard, Nicholas J; Goodacre, Royston; O'Connor, Richard; Treves Brown, Bernard J

    2012-08-15

    A new design of miniaturised free flow electrophoresis device has been produced. The design contains a separation chamber that is 45 mm long by 31.7 mm wide with a depth of 50 μm and has nine inlet and nine outlet holes to allow for fraction collection. The devices were formed of polystyrene with carbon fibre loaded polystyrene drive electrodes and produced using injection moulding. This means that the devices are low cost and can potentially be mass produced. The devices were used for free flow isotachophoresis (FFITP), a technique that can be used for focussing and concentrating analytes contained within complex sample matrices. The operation of the devices was demonstrated by performing separations of dyes and bacterial samples. Analysis of the output from FFITP separations of samples containing the bacterium Erwinia herbicola, a biological pathogen, by cell culturing and counting showed that fractionation of the output was achieved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Material- and feature-dependent effects on cell adhesion to micro injection moulded medical polymers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong Ying; Habimana, Olivier; Flood, Peter; Reynaud, Emmanuel G; Rodriguez, Brian J; Zhang, Nan; Casey, Eoin; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2016-09-01

    Two polymers, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), containing a range of nano- to micron- roughness surfaces (Ra 0.01, 0.1, 0.4, 1.0, 2.0, 3.2 and 5.0μm) were fabricated using electrical discharge machining (EDM) and replicated using micro injection moulding (μIM). Polymer samples were characterized using optical profilometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water surface contact angle. Cell adhesion tests were carried out using bacterial Pseudomonas fluorescens and mammalian Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells to determine the effect of surface hydrophobicity, surface roughness and stiffness. It is found that there are features which gave insignificant differences (feature-dependent effect) in cell adhesion, albeit a significant difference in the physicochemical properties (material-dependent effect) of substrata. In bacterial cell adhesion, the strongest feature-dependence is found at Ra 0.4μm surfaces, with material-dependent effects strongest at Ra 0.01μm. Ra 0.1μm surfaces exhibited strongest feature-dependent effects and Ra 5.0μm has strongest material-dependent effects on mammalian cell adhesion. Bacterial cell adhesion is found to be favourable to hydrophobic surfaces (COC), with the lowest adhesion at Ra 0.4μm for both materials. Mammalian cell adhesion is lowest in Ra 0.1μm and highest in Ra 1.0μm, and generally favours hydrophilic surfaces (PMMA). These findings can be used as a basis for developing medical implants or microfluidic devices using micro injection moulding for diagnostic purposes, by tuning the cell adhesion on different areas containing different surface roughnesses on the diagnostic microfluidic devices or medical implants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of injection moulded matrix tablets based on mixtures of ethylcellulose and low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose.

    PubMed

    Quinten, Thomas; Gonnissen, Yves; Adriaens, Els; De Beer, Thomas; Cnudde, Veerle; Masschaele, Bert; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Siepmann, Juergen; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris

    2009-06-28

    The objective of this study was to produce sustained-release matrix tablets by means of injection moulding and to evaluate the influence of matrix composition, process temperature and viscosity grade of ethylcellulose on processability and drug release by means of a statistical design. The matrix tablets were physico-chemically characterized and the drug release mechanism and kinetics were studied. Formulations containing metoprolol tartrate (30%, model drug), ethylcellulose with dibutylsebacate (matrix former and plasticizer) and L-HPC were extruded and subsequently injection moulded into tablets (375mg, 10mm diameter, convex-shaped) at different temperatures (110, 120 and 130 degrees C). Dissolution tests were performed and tablets were characterized by means of DSC, X-ray powder diffraction studies, X-ray tomography, porosity and hardness. Tablets containing 30% metoprolol and 70% ethylcellulose (EC 4cps) showed an incomplete drug release within 24h (<50%). Formulations containing L-HPC and EC in a ratio of 20/50 and 27.5/42.5 resulted in nearly zero-order drug release, while the drug release rate was not constant when 35% L-HPC was included. Processing of these formulations was possible at all temperatures, but at higher processing temperatures the drug release rate decreased and tablet hardness increased. Higher viscosity grades of EC resulted in a faster drug release and a higher tablet hardness. The statistical design confirmed a significant influence of the EC and L-HPC concentration on drug release, while the processing temperature and EC viscosity grade did not affect drug release. Tablet porosity was low (<5%), independent of the formulation and process conditions. DSC and XRD demonstrated the formation of a solid dispersion. The hydration front in the tablets during dissolution was visualized by dynamic X-ray tomography, this technique also revealed an anisotropic pore structure through the tablet.

  11. Evaluation of injection moulding as a pharmaceutical technology to produce matrix tablets.

    PubMed

    Quinten, Thomas; De Beer, Thomas; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop sustained-release matrix tablets by means of injection moulding and to evaluate the influence of process temperature, matrix composition (EC and HPMC concentration) and viscosity grade of ethylcellulose (EC) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) on processability and drug release. The drug release data were analyzed to get insight in the release kinetics and mechanism. Formulations containing metoprolol tartrate (30%, model drug), EC with dibutyl sebacate (matrix former and plasticizer) and hydrophilic polymer HPMC were extruded and subsequently injection moulded into tablets (375 mg, 10 mm diameter, convex-shaped) at temperatures ranging from 110 to 140 degrees C. Tablets containing 30% metoprolol and 70% ethylcellulose (EC 4mPa s) showed an incomplete drug release within 24 h (<50%). Increasing production temperatures resulted in a lower drug release rate. Substituting part of the EC fraction by HPMC (HPMC/EC-ratio: 20/50 and 35/35) resulted in faster and constant drug release rates. Formulations containing 50% HPMC had a complete and first-order drug release profile with drug release controlled via the combination of diffusion and swelling/erosion. Faster drug release rates were observed for higher viscosity grades of EC (Mw>20 mPa s) and HPMC (4000 and 10,000 mPa s). Tablet porosity was low (<4%). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction studies (X-RD) showed that solid dispersions were formed during processing. Using thermogravimetrical analysis (TGA) and gel-permeation chromatography no degradation of drug and matrix polymer was observed. The surface morphology was investigated with the aid of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showing an influence of the process temperature. Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that the drug is distributed in the entire matrix, however, some drug clusters were identified.

  12. Study of injection moulded long glass fibre-reinforced polypropylene and the effect on the fibre length and orientation distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parveeen, B.; Caton-Rose, P.; Costa, F.; Jin, X.; Hine, P.

    2014-05-01

    Long glass fibre (LGF) composites are extensively used in manufacturing to produce components with enhanced mechanical properties. Long fibres with length 12 to 25mm are added to a thermoplastic matrix. However severe fibre breakage can occur in the injection moulding process resulting in shorter fibre length distribution (FLD). The majority of this breakage occurs due to the melt experiencing extreme shear stress during the preparation and injection stage. Care should be taken to ensure that the longer fibres make it through the injection moulding process without their length being significantly degraded. This study is based on commercial 12 mm long glass-fibre reinforced polypropylene (PP) and short glass fibre Nylon. Due to the semi-flexiable behaviour of long glass fibres, the fibre orientation distribution (FOD) will differ from the orientation distribution of short glass fibre in an injection molded part. In order to investigate the effect the change in fibre length has on the fibre orientation distribution or vice versa, FOD data was measured using the 2D section image analyser. The overall purpose of the research is to show how the orientation distribution chnages in an injection moulded centre gated disc and end gated plaque geometry and to compare this data against fibre orientation predictions obtained from Autodesk Moldflow Simulation Insight.

  13. Influence of wood species on properties of injection mould natural flour-HDPE composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratanawilai, Thanate; Leeyoa, Massalan; Tiptong, Yoawanat

    2016-05-01

    Four combinations of wood flour, HDPE, and maleic anhydride (MA) include; (1) rubberwood:HDPE (30:70), (2) rubberwood: HDPE:MA (30:67:3), (3) palm oil:HDPE (30:70), and (4) palm oil:HDPE:MA (30:67:3) were studied. The injection moulding machine was used to produce wood plastic composites (WPCs). Maleic anhydride is an ingredient in bonding agents used to manufacture wood plastic composites. Extrusion molding process was conducted to prefabricate WPCs. Consequently, the effect of temperature and pressure ranging from 180, 190, 200°C and 2300, 2400, 2500 bar on injection molding was evaluated. Mechanical properties were tested including flexural testing and tensile testing according to ASTM D790 and D638, respectively. Hardness testing according to ASTM D2240 and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were also performed. Five replications were done on each test. The result showed that rubberwood:HDPE (30:70) gave a highest strength. The values of ultimate tensile strength, flexural strength, and hardness are 24.9 MPa, 33.3 MPa and 67.2 shore D, respectively. Finally, the uniform distribution of particle in WPCs, examined through SEM was achieved.

  14. Hot melt extruded and injection moulded disulfiram-loaded PLGA millirods for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme via stereotactic injection.

    PubMed

    McConville, Christopher; Tawari, Patricia; Wang, Weiguang

    2015-10-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has a poor prognosis and is one of the most common primary malignant brain tumours in adults. Stereotactic injections have been used to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs directly into brain tumours. This paper describes the development of disulfiram (DSF)-loaded biodegradable millirods manufactured using hot melt extrusion (HME) and injection moulding (IM). The paper demonstrates that the stability of the DSF within the millirods is dependent on the manufacturing technique used as well as the drug loading. The physical state of the DSF within the millirods was dependent on the fabrication process, with the DSF in the HME millirods being either completely amorphous within the PLGA, while the DSF within the IM millirods retained between 54 and 66% of its crystallinity. Release of DSF from the millirods was dependent on the degradation rate of the PLGA, the manufacturing technique used as well as the DSF loading. DSF in the 10% (w/w) DSF loaded HME millirods and the 20% (w/w) DSF-loaded HME and IM millirods had a similar cytotoxicity against a GBM cell line compared to the unprocessed DSF control. However, the 10% (w/w) DSF-loaded IM millirods had a significantly lower cytotoxicity when compared to the unprocessed control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Streamline-Upwind Model for Filling Front Advection in Powder Injection Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Guillaume; Cheng, Zhi Qiang; Barriere, Thierry; Liu, Bao Sheng; Gelin, Jean-Claude

    2010-06-01

    The filling process of powder injection molding is modeled by the flows of two variably adjacent domains in the mold cavity. The feedstock is filled into the cavity while the air is expelled out by the injected feedstock [1]. Eulerian description is adopted. The filling patterns are determined by the solution of an advection equation, governed by the velocity field in both the feedstock flow and air flow [2]. In the real physics, the advance of filling front depends mainly on the flow of feedstock that locates behind the front. The flow of air in front of the injected material plays in fact no meaningful effect. However, the actual algorithm for solution of the advection equation takes equally the importance for both the flow of viscous feedstock and that of the slight air. Under such a condition, the injection flow of feedstock in simulation may be misdirected unrealistically by the velocity field in the air portion of the mold cavity. To correct this defect, an upwind scheme is proposed to reinforce the effect of upwind flow and reduce the effect of downstream flow. The present paper involves the investigation of an upwind algorithm for simulation of the filling state during powder injection molding. A Petrov-Galerkin upwind based method (SUPG) is adopted for numerical simulation of the transport equation instead of the Taylor-Galerkin method in previous work. In the proposed implementation of the Streamline-Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) approach. A stabilization method is used to prevent oscillations in the convection-dominated problems. It consists in the introduction of an artificial diffusion in streamline direction. Suitable modification of the test function is the important issue. It ensures the stable simulation of filling process and results in the more realistic prediction of filling patterns. The implementation of upwind scheme in mould filling state simulation, based on an advection equation and the whole velocity field of feedstock and air flow, makes

  16. High Power Picosecond Laser Surface Micro-texturing of H13 Tool Steel and Pattern Replication onto ABS Plastics via Injection Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otanocha, Omonigho B.; Li, Lin; Zhong, Shan; Liu, Zhu

    2016-03-01

    H13 tool steels are often used as dies and moulds for injection moulding of plastic components. Certain injection moulded components require micro-patterns on their surfaces in order to modify the physical properties of the components or for better mould release to reduce mould contamination. With these applications it is necessary to study micro-patterning to moulds and to ensure effective pattern transfer and replication onto the plastic component during moulding. In this paper, we report an investigation into high average powered (100 W) picosecond laser interactions with H13 tool steel during surface micro-patterning (texturing) and the subsequent pattern replication on ABS plastic material through injection moulding. Design of experiments and statistical modelling were used to understand the influences of laser pulse repetition rate, laser fluence, scanning velocity, and number of scans on the depth of cut, kerf width and heat affected zones (HAZ) size. The characteristics of the surface patterns are analysed. The process parameter interactions and significance of process parameters on the processing quality and efficiency are characterised. An optimum operating window is recommended. The transferred geometry is compared with the patterns generated on the dies. A discussion is made to explain the characteristics of laser texturing and pattern replication on plastics.

  17. Ultrasound based monitoring of the injection moulding process - Methods, applications and limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Praher, B. E-mail: klaus.straka@jku.at E-mail: georg.steinbichler@jku.at; Straka, K. E-mail: klaus.straka@jku.at E-mail: georg.steinbichler@jku.at; Usanovic, J. E-mail: klaus.straka@jku.at E-mail: georg.steinbichler@jku.at; Steinbichler, G. E-mail: klaus.straka@jku.at E-mail: georg.steinbichler@jku.at

    2014-05-15

    We developed novel non-invasive ultrasound based systems for the measurement of temperature distributions in the screw-ante chamber, the detection of unmelted granules and for the monitoring of the plasticizing process along the screw channel. The temperature of the polymer melt stored in the screw ante-chamber after the plasticization should be homogeneous. However, in reality the polymer melt in the screw ante-chamber is not homogeneous. Due to the fact the sound velocity in a polymer melt is temperature depending, we developed a tomography system using the measured transit times of ultrasonic pulses along different sound paths for calculating the temperature distribution in radial direction of a polymer melt in the screw ante-chamber of an injection moulding machine. For the detection of unmelted granules in the polymer melt we implemented an ultrasound transmission measurement. By analyzing the attenuation of the received pulses it is possible to detect unwanted inclusions. For the monitoring of the plasticizing process in the channels of the screw an ultrasonic pulse is transmitted into the barrel. By analyzing the reflected pulses it is possible to estimate solid bed and melt regions in the screw channel. The proposed systems were tested for accuracy and validity by simulations and test measurements.

  18. Development of crayfish bio-based plastic materials processed by small-scale injection moulding.

    PubMed

    Felix, Manuel; Romero, Alberto; Cordobes, Felipe; Guerrero, Antonio

    2015-03-15

    Protein has been investigated as a source for biodegradable polymeric materials. This work evaluates the development of plastic materials based on crayfish and glycerol blends, processed by injection moulding, as a fully biodegradable alternative to conventional polymer-based plastics. The effect of different additives, namely sodium sulfite or bisulfite as reducing agents, urea as denaturing agent and L-cysteine as cross-linking agent, is also analysed. The incorporation of any additive always yields an increase in energy efficiency at the mixing stage, but its effect on the mechanical properties of the bioplastics is not so clear, and even dampened. The additive developing a greater effect is L-cysteine, showing higher Young's modulus values and exhibiting a remnant thermosetting potential. Thus, processing at higher temperature yields a remarkable increase in extensibility. This work illustrates the feasibility of crayfish-based green biodegradable plastics, thereby contributing to the search for potential value-added applications for this by-product. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. A review of biocompatible metal injection moulding process parameters for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, M F F A; Harun, W S W; Samykano, M; Ghani, S A C; Ghazalli, Z; Ahmad, F; Sulong, A B

    2017-09-01

    Biocompatible metals have been revolutionizing the biomedical field, predominantly in human implant applications, where these metals widely used as a substitute to or as function restoration of degenerated tissues or organs. Powder metallurgy techniques, in specific the metal injection moulding (MIM) process, have been employed for the fabrication of controlled porous structures used for dental and orthopaedic surgical implants. The porous metal implant allows bony tissue ingrowth on the implant surface, thereby enhancing fixation and recovery. This paper elaborates a systematic classification of various biocompatible metals from the aspect of MIM process as used in medical industries. In this study, three biocompatible metals are reviewed-stainless steels, cobalt alloys, and titanium alloys. The applications of MIM technology in biomedicine focusing primarily on the MIM process setting parameters discussed thoroughly. This paper should be of value to investigators who are interested in state of the art of metal powder metallurgy, particularly the MIM technology for biocompatible metal implant design and development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An automated optofluidic biosensor platform combining interferometric sensors and injection moulded microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Szydzik, C; Gavela, A F; Herranz, S; Roccisano, J; Knoerzer, M; Thurgood, P; Khoshmanesh, K; Mitchell, A; Lechuga, L M

    2017-08-08

    A primary limitation preventing practical implementation of photonic biosensors within point-of-care platforms is their integration with fluidic automation subsystems. For most diagnostic applications, photonic biosensors require complex fluid handling protocols; this is especially prominent in the case of competitive immunoassays, commonly used for detection of low-concentration, low-molecular weight biomarkers. For this reason, complex automated microfluidic systems are needed to realise the full point-of-care potential of photonic biosensors. To fulfil this requirement, we propose an on-chip valve-based microfluidic automation module, capable of automating such complex fluid handling. This module is realised through application of a PDMS injection moulding fabrication technique, recently described in our previous work, which enables practical fabrication of normally closed pneumatically actuated elastomeric valves. In this work, these valves are configured to achieve multiplexed reagent addressing for an on-chip diaphragm pump, providing the sample and reagent processing capabilities required for automation of cyclic competitive immunoassays. Application of this technique simplifies fabrication and introduces the potential for mass production, bringing point-of-care integration of complex automated microfluidics into the realm of practicality. This module is integrated with a highly sensitive, label-free bimodal waveguide photonic biosensor, and is demonstrated in the context of a proof-of-concept biosensing assay, detecting the low-molecular weight antibiotic tetracycline.

  1. Micro-CT based modelling for characterising injection-moulded porous titanium implants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junning; Chen, Liangjian; Chang, Che-Cheng; Zhang, Zhongpu; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael V; Li, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Design of prosthetic implants to ensure rapid and stable osseointegration remains a significant challenge, and continuous efforts have been directed to new implant materials, structures and morphology. This paper aims to develop and characterise a porous titanium dental implant fabricated by metallic powder injection-moulding. The surface morphology of the specimens was first examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), followed by microscopic computerised tomography (μ-CT) scanning to capture its 3D microscopic features non-destructively. The nature of porosity and pore sizes were determined statistically. A homogenisation technique based on the Hills-energy theorem was adopted to evaluate its directional elastic moduli, and the conservation of mass theorem was employed to quantify the oxygen diffusivity for bio-transportation feature. This porous medium was found to have pore sizes varying from 50 to 400 µm and the average porosity of 46.90 ± 1.83%. The anisotropic principal elastic moduli were found fairly close to the upper range of cortical bone, and the directional diffusivities could potentially enable radial osseous tissue ingrowth and vascularisation. This porous titanium successfully reduces the elastic modulus mismatch between implant and bone for dental and orthopaedic applications, and provides improved capacity for transporting oxygen, nutrient and waste for pre-vascular network formation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Modelling the deformation of nickel foil during manufacturing of nanostructures on injection moulding tool inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonne, M. R.; Cech, J.; Pranov, H.; Kofod, G.; Garnæs, J.; Lam, Y. C.; Hattel, J. H.; Taboryski, R.

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, a manufacturing process for transferring nanostructures from a glass wafer, to a double-curved insert for injection moulding is demonstrated. A nanostructure consisting of sinusoidal cross-gratings with a period of 426 nm is successfully transferred to hemispheres on an aluminium substrate with three different radii; 500 µm, 1000 µm and 2000 µm, respectively. The nanoimprint is performed using a 50 µm thick nickel foil, manufactured using electroforming. During the imprinting process, the nickel foil is stretched due to the curved surface of the aluminium substrate. Experimentally, it is possible to address this stretch by counting the periods of the cross-gratings via SEM characterization. A model for the deformation of the nickel foil during nanoimprint is developed, utilizing non-linear material and geometrical behaviour. Good agreement between measured and numerically calculated stretch ratios on the surface of the deformed nickel foil is found, and it is shown, that from the model it is also possible to predict the geometrical extend of the nanostructured area on the curved surfaces.

  3. Ultrasound based monitoring of the injection moulding process - Methods, applications and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praher, B.; Straka, K.; Usanovic, J.; Steinbichler, G.

    2014-05-01

    We developed novel non-invasive ultrasound based systems for the measurement of temperature distributions in the screw-ante chamber, the detection of unmelted granules and for the monitoring of the plasticizing process along the screw channel. The temperature of the polymer melt stored in the screw ante-chamber after the plasticization should be homogeneous. However, in reality the polymer melt in the screw ante-chamber is not homogeneous. Due to the fact the sound velocity in a polymer melt is temperature depending, we developed a tomography system using the measured transit times of ultrasonic pulses along different sound paths for calculating the temperature distribution in radial direction of a polymer melt in the screw ante-chamber of an injection moulding machine. For the detection of unmelted granules in the polymer melt we implemented an ultrasound transmission measurement. By analyzing the attenuation of the received pulses it is possible to detect unwanted inclusions. For the monitoring of the plasticizing process in the channels of the screw an ultrasonic pulse is transmitted into the barrel. By analyzing the reflected pulses it is possible to estimate solid bed and melt regions in the screw channel. The proposed systems were tested for accuracy and validity by simulations and test measurements.

  4. In vitro bioactivity of micro metal injection moulded stainless steel with defined surface features.

    PubMed

    Bitar, Malak; Friederici, Vera; Imgrund, Philipp; Brose, Claudia; Bruinink, Arie

    2012-05-04

    Micrometre- and nanometre-scale surface structuring with ordered topography features may dramatically enhance orthopaedic implant integration. In this study we utilised a previously optimised micron metal injection moulding (µ-MIM) process to produce medical grade stainless steel surfaces bearing micrometre scale, protruding, hemispheres of controlled dimensions and spatial distribution. Additionally, the structured surfaces were characterised by the presence of submicrometre surface roughness resulting from metal grain boundary formation. Following cytocompatibility (cytotoxicity) evaluation using 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line, the effect on primary human cell functionality was assessed focusing on cell attachment, shape and cytoskeleton conformation. In this respect, and by day 7 in culture, significant increase in focal adhesion size was associated with the microstructured surfaces compared to the planar control. The morphological conformation of the seeded cells, as revealed by fluorescence cytoskeleton labelling, also appeared to be guided in the vertical dimension between the hemisphere bodies. Quantitative evaluation of this guidance took place using live cytoplasm fluorescence labelling and image morphometry analysis utilising both, compactness and elongation shape descriptors. Significant increase in cell compactness was associated with the hemisphere arrays indicating collective increase in focused cell attachment to the hemisphere bodies across the entire cell population. Micrometre-scale hemisphere array patterns have therefore influenced cell attachment and conformation. Such influence may potentially aid in enhancing key cellular events such as, for example, neo-osteogenesis on implanted orthopaedic surfaces.

  5. Preparation and evaluation of sustained-release matrix tablets based on metoprolol and an acrylic carrier using injection moulding.

    PubMed

    Quinten, T; Andrews, G P; De Beer, T; Saerens, L; Bouquet, W; Jones, D S; Hornsby, P; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2012-12-01

    Sustained-release matrix tablets based on Eudragit RL and RS were manufactured by injection moulding. The influence of process temperature; matrix composition; drug load, plasticizer level; and salt form of metoprolol: tartrate (MPT), fumarate (MPF) and succinate (MPS) on ease of processing and drug release were evaluated. Formulations composed of 70/30% Eudragit RL/MPT showed the fastest drug release, substituting part of Eudragit RL by RS resulted in slower drug release, all following first-order release kinetics. Drug load only affected drug release of matrices composed of Eudragit RS: a higher MPT concentration yielded faster release rates. Adding triethyl citrate enhanced the processability, but was detrimental to long-term stability. The process temperature and plasticizer level had no effect on drug release, whereas metoprolol salt form significantly influenced release properties. The moulded tablets had a low porosity and a smooth surface morphology. A plasticizing effect of MPT, MPS and MPF on Eudragit RS and Eudragit RL was observed via DSC and DMA. Solubility parameter assessment, thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction demonstrated the formation of a solid solution immediately after production, in which H-bonds were formed between metoprolol and Eudragit as evidenced by near-infrared spectroscopy. However, high drug loadings of MPS and MPF showed a tendency to recrystallise during storage. The in vivo performance of injection-moulded tablets was strongly dependent upon drug loading.

  6. Injection and injection-compression moulding replication capability for the production of polymer lab-on-a-chip with nano structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calaon, M.; Tosello, G.; Garnaes, J.; Hansen, H. N.

    2017-10-01

    The manufacturing precision and accuracy in the production of polymer lab-on-a-chip components with 100–130 nm deep nanochannels are evaluated using a metrological approach. Replication fidelity on corresponding process fingerprint test nanostructures over different substrates (nickel tool and polymer part) is quantified through traceable atomic force microscope measurements. Dimensions of injection moulded (IM) and injection-compression moulded (ICM) thermoplastic cyclic olefin copolymer nanofeatures are characterized depending on process parameters and four different features positions on a 30  ×  80 mm2 area. Replication capability of IM and ICM technologies are quantified and the products tolerance at the nanometre dimensional scale verified.

  7. Controlled delivery achieved with bi-layer matrix devices produced by co-injection moulding.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Cláudia M; van Doeveren, Patrick F N M; Dias, Gustavo R; Reis, Rui L; Cunha, António M

    2004-08-09

    The aim of this study was to design new soy protein-based bi-layered co-injection moulded matrix systems aimed to achieve controlled drug delivery. The devices consisted of a drug-free outer layer (skin) and a drug-containing core. The systems overcame the inherent disadvantage of non-linear release associated with diffusion-controlled single-layer matrix devices by providing additional releasing area with time to compensate for the decreasing release rate. As expected, the bi-layer devices presented a significant decrease in drug release rate when compared with a correspondent single layer matrix system. The skin thickness and the degree of crosslinking of the core appeared to be very important tools to tailor the release patterns. Furthermore, due to the amphoteric nature of the soy protein, the developed devices evidenced a pH-dependent behaviour. The mechanisms of drug release were also elucidated at two different pH values: i) pH 5.0, near the isoelectric point of soy (low matrix solubility); and ii) pH 7.4, physiological pH (high matrix solubility). Consequently, changing the release medium from pH 5.0 to pH 7.4 after two hours, led to an abrupt increase in drug release and the devices presented a typical controlled drug delivery profile: slow release/fast release. These evidences may provide for the development of individual systems with different release onsets that in combination may exhibit drug releases at predetermined times in a pre-programmed way. Another possibility is the production of three-layer devices presenting bimodal release profiles (fast release/slow release/fast release) by similar technologies. Scanning electron micrograph of a developed bi-layer device.

  8. A new approach based on injection moulding to produce biodegradable starch-based polymeric scaffolds: morphology, mechanical and degradation behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gomes, M E; Ribeiro, A S; Malafaya, P B; Reis, R L; Cunha, A M

    2001-05-01

    One of the present challenges in polymer scaffold processing is the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) architectures with an adequate mechanical performance to be used in the tissue engineering of hard tissues. This paper describes a preliminary study on the development of a new method to produce biodegradable scaffolds from a range of corn-starch-based polymers. In some cases, hydroxlapatite was also used as a reinforcement of the biodegradable polymers. The developed methodology consists of a standard conventional injection moulding process, on which a solid blowing agent based on carboxylic acids is used to generate the foaming of the bulk of the moulded part. The proposed route allows for the production of scaffolds with a compact skin and a porous core, with promising mechanical properties. By using the developed method it is possible to manufacture biodegradable polymer scaffolds in an easy (melt-based processing) and reproducible manner. The scaffolds can be moulded into complex shapes, and the blowing additives do not affect the non-cytotoxic behaviour of the starch-based materials. The materials produced using this method were evaluated with respect to the morphology of the porous structure, and the respective mechanical properties and degradation behaviour. It was demonstrated that it is possible to obtain, by a standard melt based processing route, 3D scaffolds with complex shapes that exhibit an appropriate morphology, without decreasing significantly the mechanical properties of the materials. It is believed that the optimisation of the proposed processing methodology may lead to the production of scaffolds that might be used on the regeneration of load-bearing tissues.

  9. Influence of binding composition on the structure and properties of steel work-pieces obtained by injection moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darenskaia, E. A.; Vaulina, O. Yu; Myachin, Yu V.; Kulkov, S. N.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the results of the research analyzing the influence of binding composition on the structure and properties of the stainless steel samples obtained by injection moulding technique. It have been determined the tailored composition of binding, which provides sufficient feedstock viscosity, low porosity of work-pieces, etc. Three binding compositions polypropylene and paraffin wax have been studied: 1:6, 1:2, 2:1, respectively. Stearic acid has been used as a SAS (surface active substance). The results have shown that the binding compositions between 1:6 and 1:2 polypropylene and paraffin wax provides sufficient viscosity feedstock, dimensional stability during debinding and sintering, and the high density of the final product.

  10. Approach to control of fibre orientation on FRTP in injection moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Tsuneo; Katayama, Tsutao; Hirai, Mitomo

    The present method for prediction and control of fiber orientation in the process of injection molding for reinforced thermoplastic-matrix components, where matrix flow patterns determine product mechanical properties, imposes a restriction to flow at the flow front throughout the fields of fiber orientation. This restriction has been found to create not only a stable flow front, but stable flow throughout the mold cavity. Attention is given to the instrumentation used in experimental visualizations of fiber orientation during injection molding.

  11. Modelling the deformations during the manufacturing of nanostructures on non-planar surfaces for injection moulding tool inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonne, M. R.; Cech, J.; Pranov, H.; Kofod, G.; Garnæs, J.; Lam, Y. C.; Hattel, J. H.; Taboryski, R.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a new manufacturing process for transferring nanostructures from a glass wafer to a curved aluminium insert for polymer injection moulding. A nanostructure consisting of sinusoidal cross-gratings with a period of 426 nm is successfully transferred to hemispheres with different radii via an embossing process. The embossing is done into a glass-like resist called HSQ, using a 50 μm thick nickel foil, manufactured with electroforming. During the imprinting process the nickel foil is stretched due to the curved surface of the aluminium substrate and it is experimentally possible to characterize this stretch by counting the periods of the cross-gratings via SEM characterization. A numerical model for simulating the deformation of the nickel foil during nanoimprint is also developed, utilizing non-linear material and geometrical behaviour. Good agreement between measured and numerically calculated stretch ratios on the surface of the deformed nickel foil is shown, and from the model it is also possible to predict the limiting boundary of the nanostructures on the curved surfaces, with decreasing radii.

  12. Injection-moulded models of major and minor arteries: the variability of model wall thickness owing to casting technique.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, T; Morris, L; O'Donnell, M; Walsh, M; McGloughlin, T

    2005-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease of major and minor arteries is a common cause of death in Western society. The wall mechanics and haemodynamics within the arteries are considered to be important factors in the disease formation process. This paper is concerned with the development of an efficient computer-integrated technique to manufacture idealized and realistic models of diseased major and minor arteries from radiological images and to address the issue of model wall thickness variability. Variations in wall thickness from the original computer models to the final castings are quantified using a CCD camera. The results found that wall thickness variation from the major and minor idealized artery models to design specification were insignificant, up to a maximum of 16 per cent. In realistic models, however, differences were up to 23 per cent in the major arterial models and 58 per cent in the minor arterial models, but the wall thickness variability remained within the limits of previously reported wall thickness results. It is concluded that the described injection moulding procedure yields idealized and realistic castings suitable for use in experimental investigations, with idealized models giving better agreement with design. Wall thickness is variable and should be assessed after the models are manufactured.

  13. Miniaturization of a micro-optics array for highly sensitive and parallel detection on an injection moulded lab-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Hung, Tran Quang; Sun, Yi; Poulsen, Carl Esben; Linh-Quyen, Than; Chin, Wai Hoe; Bang, Dang Duong; Wolff, Anders

    2015-06-07

    A miniaturised array of supercritical angle fluorescence (SAF) micro-optics embedded in a microfluidic chamber was fabricated by injection moulding. The fabricated chip could enhance the fluorescence signal around 46 times compared to a conventional microscope. Collection of the fluorescence signal from the SAF array is almost independent of the numerical aperture, and the limit of detection was improved 36-fold using a simple and inexpensive optical detection system.

  14. Foam injection moulding of a TPO/TPC-blend and the effect of different nucleating agents on the resulting foam structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, J.; Spoerrer, A.; Altstaedt, V.

    2014-05-01

    The manufacturing of car interior parts with a soft touch surface is possible in a one-step injection moulding process, in which an injection moulded carrier is overmoulded with a compatible foamed thermoplastic elastomer (TPE). In contrast to the complex conventional process the structural foaming of the TPE component allows a saving of one material component as it combines a compact skin and a foamed core. Furthermore the manufacturing process can be achieved on a two component injection moulding machine which offers a much higher economic efficiency. One approach to reach an adhesion between a reinforced PP carrier and the foamed TPE component including good surface resistance is the use of an olefinic-/polyester-based TPE blend (TPO/TPC-blend). This paper is going to show the possibility to process a TPO/TPC-blend system by foam injection moulding with MuCell® and how the resulting foam structure can be influenced by various nucleating agents. For this purpose particles which differ in type, form and size were added in various concentrations to the TPE-blend. Before the structure elucidation of the foamed samples the particle dispersion and their effects on the polymers rheological properties were investigated. Finally abrasion tests were performed to investigate the influence of the particles on the performance characteristics of the foamed blend system. The results showed that the foam structure as well as the surface quality of the foamed TPO/TPC-blend can be improved with the use of suitable nucleating agents. Furthermore the abrasion properties can be advanced with appropriate additives in the right dosage.

  15. Evolution of unique nano-cylindrical structure in poly(styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene) prepared under "dynamic packing injection moulding".

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongsheng; Su, Bin; Chen, Feng; Fu, Qiang

    2015-03-21

    This work reports the evolution of ordered nano-cylindrical structures in a thermoplastic elastomer, poly(styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene) (SIS), utilizing a newly designed processing technique, so-called "dynamic-packing injection moulding". In this injection moulding technique, controlled oscillating shears with different shear cessation times under constant pressure were applied on the moulded samples during cooling. It was found that these additional controlled oscillating shears resulted in a change of orientation in skin-core structures in these samples, compared with corresponding "reference" samples processed via traditional injection moulding (without controlled oscillating shears). For the "reference" samples, a highly oriented PS cylindrical structure combined with relatively weak lateral ordering was observed in their skin layers, whereas the lateral ordering of the PS nano-cylinders gradually disappeared when entering the core region. On the other hand, for the SIS samples obtained via "dynamic-packing injection moulding", the orientation of the PS nano-cylinders in the skin layers was similar to the case of the "reference" sample due to their extremely fast cooling rate. However, the lateral ordering of these cylinders had been extended to the core region. With an increase in the cessation time, the lateral ordering of the PS nano-cylinders was further improved and finally resulted in hexagonal lateral packing along the flow direction in the mould. Furthermore, a mixture of parallel/perpendicular orientation of the cylinders relative to the flow direction was found, particularly when the cessation time was short (such as 3 s). We speculated that this specific perpendicular orientation was a transient state for development of a final parallel orientation aligned with the flow direction with increasing cessation time, accompanied by a further enhancement of the nano-cylindrical parallel orientation. This study could provide a better understanding of the

  16. Influence of Mold Surface Treatments on Flow of Polymer in Injection Moulding. Application to Weldlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chailly, M.; Charmeau, J.-Y.; Bereaux, Y.; Monasse, B.

    2007-04-01

    Due to increasing expectations from the market, the aspect of molded parts has to be improved constantly. Some of the defects observed on these parts such as weldlines are related to the filling stage. To limit this, we investigated the influence on weldlines using various surface deposits on the mold surface, mainly PVD and PACVD deposits : Chromium nitride (CrN), Titanium nitride (TiN), Diamond like Carbon (DLC), Chromium and polished steel (PG) on an instrumented plate mold. Injection campaign was led on three polymers which differ in terms of nature (amorphous, semi-crystalline, copolymers). We studied the evolution of the dimensions of weldlines appearing on the plate using the same injection parameters for a given polymer, but with various deposits and thicknesses. Another aspect that had been investigated is the morphology of the weldline through the thickness of the part, depending on polymer nature. Adhesion of polymer at the flow front with the mold surface proved to change. The modification of the initial contact in the filling stage and thus the thermal resistance at the mold implied a change in the process, increasing or reducing the pressure loss in the flow and differential shrinkage in the final part. The induced impact on dimensions of the weldlines allowed to distinguish which surface treatments were able to reduce the defect. A complementary study was led on both polymers in molten state and deposits in terms of wetting using a sessile drop method to confirm the adhesion at the polymer/mold interface. This study proved the influence of the use of surface treatments has clearly an impact on the filling stage of the injection molding process, and it is necessary to get a better knowledge of the interactions between physical adhesion, tribology of polymer/mold contact, and thermal properties of the coatings and their impact on solidification of the polymer.

  17. The influence of different screw concepts while processing fibre reinforced thermoplastics with the concept of inline-compounding on an injection moulding machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritzer, E.; Müller, E.; Kleeschulte, R.

    2014-05-01

    Today, the global market poses major challenges for industrial product development. Complexity, the wide range of variants, flexibility and individuality are just some of the features that products have to fulfil. Product series additionally have shorter and shorter lifetimes. Because of their high capacity for adaptation, polymers are increasingly able to substitute traditional materials such as wood, glass and metals in various fields of application [1]. But polymers can only substitute other materials if they are optimally suited to the applications in question. Hence, product-specific material development is becoming increasingly important [2]. The problem is that the traditional development process for new polymer formulations is much too complex, too slow and therefore too expensive. Product-specific material development is thus out of the question for most processors. Integrating the compounding step in the injection moulding process would lead to a more efficient and faster development process for a new polymer formulation, providing an opportunity to create new product-specific materials. This process is called inline-compounding on an injection moulding machine. In order to develop this innovative formulation concept, with the focus on fibre reinforced thermoplastics, different screw-concepts are compared with regard to the resultant performance characteristics in the part, such as mechanical properties and fibre length distribution.

  18. Artificial neural networks to model formulation-property correlations in the process of inline-compounding on an injection moulding machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritzer, Elmar; Müller, Ellen; Martin, Yannick; Kleeschulte, Rainer

    2015-05-01

    Today the global market poses great challenges for industrial product development. Complexity, diversity of variants, flexibility and individuality are just some of the features that products have to offer today. In addition, the product series have shorter lifetimes. Because of their high capacity for adaption, polymers are increasingly able to displace traditional materials such as wood, glass and metals from various fields of application. Polymers can only be used to substitute other materials, however, if they are optimally suited to the applications in question. Hence, product-specific material development is becoming increasingly important. Integrating the compounding step in the injection moulding process permits a more efficient and faster development process for a new polymer formulation, making it possible to create new product-specific materials. This process is called inline-compounding on an injection moulding machine. The entire process sequence is supported by software from Bayer Technology called Product Design Workbench (PDWB), which provides assistance in all the individual steps from data management, via analysis and model compilation, right through to the optimization of the formulation and the design of experiments. The software is based on artificial neural networks and can model the formulation-property correlations and thus enable different formulations to be optimized. In the study presented, the workflow and the modelling with the software are presented.

  19. Effect of Biaxial Stretching at Temperatures and Strain Histories Comparable to Injection Stretch Blow Moulding on Tensile Modulus for Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. W.; Menary, G. H.; Harkin-Jones, E. M. A.; Armstrong, C. G.; Martin, P. J.

    2007-04-01

    This study is particularly relevant to the injection stretch blow moulding (ISBM) process where PET material is typically biaxially stretched to form bottles for the water and carbonated soft drinks industry. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of biaxial stretching on the mechanical properties of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) using a custom built biaxial testing machine. An initially amorphous PET sample was prepared via injection moulding to form a square sample (76mm × 76mm) suitable for stretching on the machine. This sample was then subjected to a series of biaxial tests (simultaneous and sequential) within a temperature range between 85°C and 110 °C, strain rates in the range of 1s-1 to 32s-1 and stretch ratios in the range of 1.5 to 3. Specimens were subsequently cut from the biaxial stretched sheets and used to measure the tensile modulus. Results showed that there is almost no effect found for strain rate and temperature on modulus development whilst stretch ratio and mode of deformation played the most important role on modulus development on PET under biaxial deformation.

  20. Creating micro and nano structures in polymers by moulding.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, R

    2007-09-01

    Moulding micro and nano surface features and discrete micro components in polymers reproducibly and in large volumes is now possible. The factors involved in successful micro injection moulding operations, including component size, aspect ratio and surface area, are examined.

  1. Micro Powder Injection Moulding of 316L Stainless Steel Feedstock and Numerical Simulation of the Sintering Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, X.; Quinard, C.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J.-C.

    2010-06-01

    Manufacturing of 3D micro-components by powder injection molding process consists of four main stages: preparation of the feedstock of metal powders and binders, injection of powder/binder feedstock using micro-injection molding equipment, thermal or solvent debinding and sintering by solid state diffusion. For our research pruposes, the feedstocks have been realized with stainless steel 316L powders of 3.4 μm (D50) and polymer binders. Finite element method has been used for the simulation in order to estimate shrinkage, relative density and evolution of the shapes of the micro-components, the parameters used in the sintering model have been identified in using Matlab® procedures before to be used in the simulation with Abaqus®.

  2. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Skotte Sørensen, Karen; Wolff, Anders; Fougt Hansen, Mikkel

    2015-04-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/μg and 1.72(14) nL/μg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively.

  3. A multi-technique characterization of the stability of surfactant containing solid dispersion based buccal patches prepared by hot melt injection moulding.

    PubMed

    Alhijjaj, Muqdad; Belton, Peter; Qi, Sheng

    2017-08-07

    This study investigates the stability of typically complex multi-component hydrophilic solid dispersions that could be used in a clinical application. Felodipine solid dispersions in two types of blends consisting of PEG, PEO and Tween 80 or Vit E TPGS were prepared by hot melt-injection moulding (HMIM) across a range of drug loadings and subjected to a range of storage conditions. Microscopy, thermal analysis, spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the systems. The semi-solid surfactant TPGS showed a better solubilizing effect on the drug than the liquid surfactant Tween 80 in the fresh state and offered some degree of protection over the chemical degradation of PEG/PEO. Better storage stability was observed for the systems with low drug loading. Crystallization of a new metastable polymorphic form of felodipine in the patches with drug loadings at and above the saturation point was observed. Quantitative comparison of the data sets was achieved by a normalisation process and calculation of statistical variance. TPGS containing patches were more sensitive to the aging process than Tween containing patches. For both surfactants, such instability is more responsive to the storage temperature than humidity. This study established a methodology for probing the complex stabilities of multi-component dispersions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sustained-release and swelling characteristics of xanthan gum/ethylcellulose-based injection moulded matrix tablets: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Quinten, T; De Beer, T; Onofre, F O; Mendez-Montealvo, G; Wang, Y J; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2011-07-01

    Sustained-release matrix tablets were developed by injection moulding using metoprolol tartrate (MPT) and ethylcellulose (EC) as sustained-release agent. Dibutyl sebacate was selected as plasticiser. The influence of matrix composition, plasticiser concentration, and drug load on drug release was evaluated. The influence of plasticiser addition was assessed on processability and drug release: Dibutyl sebacate was added to a dichloromethane/EC solution and subsequently spray-dried, or was mixed as a liquid with EC powder. Hydrated tablets were evaluated by frequency sweep and creep rheological tests to correlate the results with drug release. Xanthan gum (XG) was added to the formulation because drug release was too slow (<50%, 24 h) from EC/MPT matrices (70%/30%, w/w). Increasing XG concentrations provided faster MPT release rates characterised by zero-order release kinetics, no burst release was observed. Lower plasticiser concentrations and higher drug loads increased drug release substantially. The plasticiser addition method did not affect drug release. Matrix composition, drug load, and plasticiser level affected the rheological properties of the swollen matrix tablets. X-ray diffraction demonstrated the formation of solid dispersions. Formulations composed of XG/EC (ratio 1:1.5) and 30% (w/w) MPT had a low relative bioavailability compared with the commercial product Lopressor®, which significantly improved at higher MPT concentration (50%, w/w). Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  5. Sandwich moulding using sequenced screw loading.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    Sequenced screw loading is an alternative method for injection moulding two materials. This article explains the process and outlines the advantages it offers product designers. Benefits can include reduced cycle times and product cost.

  6. Development of Mould of Rheology Test Sample via CadMould 3D-F Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, M. H.; Yusof, M. A. M.; Hasan, S.; Ibrahim, M. H. I.; Amin, S. Y. M.; Marwah, O. M. F.; Shaari, M. F.; Johar, M. A.; Shahbudin, S. N. A.

    2017-08-01

    This research was about the development of mould for rheology test sample via simulation. The development work concerned with stages of design, simulation, analysis, and fabrication of the mould to produce good quality samples. In the design stage, three mould concepts have been prepared via Solid Works software. The simulation of injection moulding was conducted by using CadMould 3D-F software. Then, in the analysis stage, the main factor that has been studied were the cavity system, runner system and the gating system. For each design, different type of systems were applied to compare different simulation result. Through the simulation software, it was rectified that the parameter such as the number of cavities, filling time, shear stress were the main factors to contribute good rheological properties of the sample. The final result shows that Design 2 was chosen as the suitable mould due to number of cavities and good results in the analysis, as compare to other mould design. Finally, Design 2 have been fabricated and undergo fitting test to see whether the dimension had been done correctly. Based on this research findings, it was proven that to develop a mould suitable for rheology sample, the mould design selection should be made based on the type of system in simulations.

  7. Effects of fixed orthodontic treatment using conventional (two-piece) versus metal injection moulding brackets on hair nickel and chromium levels: a double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Khaneh Masjedi, Mashallah; Haghighat Jahromi, Nima; Niknam, Ozra; Hormozi, Elham; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2017-02-01

    Although nickel and chromium are known as allergen and cytotoxic orthodontic metals, very few and controversial studies have assessed the effect of orthodontic treatment on their systemic levels especially those reflected by their best biomarker of exposure, hair. Additionally, metal injection moulding (MIM) brackets are not studied, and there is no study on systemic ion changes following their usage. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, scalp hair samples of 24 female and 22 male fixed orthodontic patients [as two groups of conventional (two-piece) versus MIM brackets, n = 23×2] were collected before treatment and 6 months later. Randomization was carried out using a computer-generated random number table. The patients, laboratory expert, and author responsible for analyses were blinded of the bracket allocations. Hair nickel and chromium levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The effects of treatment, bracket types, gender, and age on hair ions were analysed statistically (α = 0.05, β ≤ 0.02). In both groups combined (n = 46), nickel increased from 0.1600±0.0890 µg/g dry hair mass (pre-treatment) to 0.3199±0.1706 (6th month). Chromium increased from 0.1657±0.0884 to 0.3066±0.1362 µg/g. Both of these increases were significant (paired t-test, P = 0.0000). Bracket types, age, and gender had no significant influence on ion levels (P > 0.05). ANCOVA indicated different patterns of chromium increases in different genders (P = 0.033) and ages (P = 0.056). Sample size determination should have accounted for the grouping as well. Hair nickel and chromium levels might increase about 185-200% after 6 months. They might not be affected by bracket types. Gender and age might not influence the baseline or 6th-month levels of both metals. Gender might however interact with orthodontic treatment, only in the case of chromium. The research is registered offline (thesis) and online (IR.AJUMS.REC.1394.516). The protocol was pre

  8. Slime mould biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayne, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Slime mould computing is an inherently multi-disciplinary subfield of unconventional computing that draws upon aspects of not only theoretical computer science and electronics, but also the natural sciences. This chapter focuses on the biology of slime moulds and expounds the viewpoint that a deep, intuitive understanding of slime mould life processes is a fundamental requirement for understanding -- and, hence, harnessing -- the incredible behaviour patterns we may characterise as "computation"...

  9. On creativity of slime mould

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Armstrong, Rachel; Jones, Jeff; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2013-07-01

    Slime mould Physarum polycephalum is large single cell with intriguingly smart behaviour. The slime mould shows outstanding abilities to adapt its protoplasmic network to varying environmental conditions. The slime mould can solve tasks of computational geometry, image processing, logics and arithmetics when data are represented by configurations of attractants and repellents. We attempt to map behavioural patterns of slime onto the cognitive control vs. schizotypy spectrum phase space and thus interpret slime mould's activity in terms of creativity.

  10. Stochastic Flow Modeling for Resin Transfer Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desplentere, Frederik; Verpoest, Ignaas; Lomov, Stepan

    2009-07-01

    Liquid moulding processes suffer from inherently present scatter in the textile reinforcement properties. This variability can lead to unwanted filling patterns within the mould resulting in bad parts. If thermoplastic resins are used with the in-situ polymerisation technique, an additional difficulty appears. The time window to inject the material is small if industrial processing parameters are used (<5 minutes). To model the stochastic nature of RTM, Darcy's description of the mould filling process has been used with the permeability distribution of the preform given as a random field. The random field of the permeability is constructed as a correlated field with an exponential correlation function. Optical microscopy and X-ray micro-CT have been used to study the stochastic parameters of the geometry for 2D and 3D woven textile preforms. The parameters describing the random permeability field (average, standard deviation and correlation length) are identified based on the stochastic parameters of the geometry for the preforms, analytical estimations and CFD modelling of the permeability. In order to implement the random field for the permeability and the variability for the resin viscosity, an add-on to the mould filling simulation software PAM-RTM™ has been developed. This analysis has been validated on case studies.

  11. Silicone moulding for pressure sore debridement.

    PubMed

    Erba, P; Wettstein, R; Schumacher, R; Schwenzer-Zimmerer, K; Pierer, G; Kalbermatten, D F

    2010-03-01

    The radicality of wound debridement is an important feature of the surgical treatment of pressure sores. Several methods such as injection of methylene blue or hydrogen peroxide have been proposed to facilitate and optimise the surgical debridement technique, but none of them proved to be sufficient. We present an innovative modification of the pseudo-tumour technique consisting in the injection of fluid silicone. Vulcanization of the silicone leads to pressure-sore moulding, permitting a more radical and sterile excision. In a series of 10 paraplegic patients presenting with ischial pressure sores, silicone moulding was used to facilitate debridement. Radical en bloc debridement was achieved in all patients. After a minimal follow-up of 2 years, no complications and recurrences occurred. A three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the silicone prints objectified the pyramidal shape of ischial pressure sores. Our study showed that complete resection without capsular lesion can be easily achieved. Further, it allows the surgeon to analyse the shape and size of the resected defect, which might be helpful to select the appropriate defect coverage technique. (c) 2008 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A bio-inspired microstructure induced by slow injection moulding of cylindrical block copolymers† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Azimuthal intensity profiles for X-axis scans (a, b and c) and Y-axis scans (d, e and f) and various sample thicknesses: 0.95 mm (a and d), 0.45 mm (b and e), 0.23 mm (c and f). The injection point was at X = 0 and Y = 0 and the injection rate was 7 × 10–8 m3 s–1. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sm00884g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Stasiak, Joanna; Brubert, Jacob; Serrani, Marta; Nair, Sukumaran; de Gaetano, Francesco; Costantino, Maria Laura

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that block copolymers with cylindrical morphology show alignment with shear, resulting in anisotropic mechanical properties. Here we show that well-ordered bi-directional orientation can be achieved in such materials by slow injection moulding. This results in a microstructure, and anisotropic mechanical properties, similar to many natural tissues, making this method attractive for engineering prosthetic fibrous tissues. An application of particular interest to us is prosthetic polymeric heart valve leaflets, mimicking the shape, microstructure and hence performance of the native valve. Anisotropic layers have been observed for cylinder-forming block copolymers centrally injected into thin circular discs. The skin layers exhibit orientation parallel to the flow direction, whilst the core layer shows perpendicularly oriented domains; the balance of skin to core layers can be controlled by processing parameters such as temperature and injection rate. Heart valve leaflets with a similar layered structure have been prepared by injection moulding. Numerical modelling demonstrates that such complex orientation can be explained and predicted by the balance of shear and extensional flow. PMID:25005426

  13. Efficient machining of ultra precise steel moulds with freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulla, B.; Robertson, D. J.; Dambon, O.; Klocke, F.

    2013-09-01

    Ultra precision diamond turning of hardened steel to produce optical quality surfaces can be realized by applying an ultrasonic assisted process. With this technology optical moulds used typically for injection moulding can be machined directly from steel without the requirement to overcoat the mould with a diamond machinable material such as Nickel Phosphor. This has both the advantage of increasing the mould tool lifetime and also reducing manufacture costs by dispensing with the relatively expensive plating process. This publication will present results we have obtained for generating free form moulds in hardened steel by means of ultrasonic assisted diamond turning with a vibration frequency of 80 kHz. To provide a baseline with which to characterize the system performance we perform plane cutting experiments on different steel alloys with different compositions. The baseline machining results provides us information on the surface roughness and on tool wear caused during machining and we relate these to material composition. Moving on to freeform surfaces, we will present a theoretical background to define the machine program parameters for generating free forms by applying slow slide servo machining techniques. A solution for optimal part generation is introduced which forms the basis for the freeform machining experiments. The entire process chain, from the raw material through to ultra precision machining is presented, with emphasis on maintaining surface alignment when moving a component from CNC pre-machining to final machining using ultrasonic assisted diamond turning. The free form moulds are qualified on the basis of the surface roughness measurements and a form error map comparing the machined surface with the originally defined surface. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of efficient free form machining applying ultrasonic assisted diamond turning of hardened steel.

  14. On chirality of slime mould.

    PubMed

    Dimonte, Alice; Adamatzky, Andrew; Erokhin, Victor; Levin, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Left-right patterning and lateralised behaviour is an ubiquitous aspect of plants and animals. The mechanisms linking cellular chirality to the large-scale asymmetry of multicellular structures are incompletely understood, and it has been suggested that the chirality of living cells is hardwired in their cytoskeleton. We examined the question of biased asymmetry in a unique organism: the slime mould Physarum polycephalum, which is unicellular yet possesses macroscopic, complex structure and behaviour. In laboratory experiment using a T-shape, we found that Physarum turns right in more than 74% of trials. The results are in agreement with previously published studies on asymmetric movement of muscle cells, neutrophils, liver cells and growing neural filaments, and for the first time reveal the presence of consistently-biased laterality in the fungi kingdom. Exact mechanisms of the slime mould's direction preference remain unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Allergenic potential of moulds isolated from buildings.

    PubMed

    Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Sobczak, Paweł; Krasowska, Ewelina; Zwoliński, Jacek; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Galińska, Elżbieta M

    2013-01-01

    Moulds are the one of the known biological factors that have a negative impact on human health. Moulds are commonly present in residential and work environments. Materials plentiful in organic compounds, such as building materials or paints, are a splendid substrate for the development of moulds. The first documented mention of a study describing the harmful effects caused by moulds in buildings emerged in the early nineteenth century. In Copenhagen and then in Padua, moulds of the genus Penicillium, Cladosporium and Mucor were found in buildings. To present the current state of the allergic properties and other negative health effects caused by moulds isolated from buildings. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE STATE OF KNOWLEDGE: The literature and own research clearly shows that moulds and their secondary metabolites can evoke toxic effects on human and animal health, and cause symptoms similar to allergic diseases. These allergens have been noted in spores as well as other fungal fragments; however, most allergens are located in germinating spores, in the hyphal tips and in mycelia. Fungal allergy can express in different ways: asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, urticaria and atopic dermatitis. Fungal allergy antigen is bound to IgE-dependent reactions but also to reactions independent of IgE. Moulds are a significant but difficult to detect etiologic agent of different allergic diseases. Prevention of this diseases is important for patients with suspected connection between common allergic symptoms and affinity with moulds.

  16. Alternative technology for fabrication of nano- or microstructured mould inserts used for optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissmann, M.; Guttmann, M.; Hartmann, M.

    2010-02-01

    For mass production of multiscale-optical components, micro- and nanostructured moulding tools are needed. Metal tools are used for hot embossing or injection moulding of microcomponents in plastics. Tools are typically produced by classical forming processes such as mechanical manufacturing e.g. turning or milling, laser manufacturing or electrical discharge machining (EDM). Microstructures with extremely tight specifications, e.g. low side wall roughness and high aspect ratios are generally made by lithographic procedures such as LIGA or DPW technology. However, these processes are unsuitable for low-cost mass production. They are limited by the exposure area and structure design. In cooperation with international partners alternative manufacturing methods of moulding tools have been developed at the Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT). In a new replication procedure, mould inserts are fabricated using micro- and nanoscale optics. The multiscale structured prototypes, either in plastics, glass, metal or material combinations are used as sacrificial parts. Using joining technology, electroforming and EDM technology, a negative copy of a prototype is transferred into metal to be used as a moulding tool. The benefits of this replication technique are rapid and economical production of moulding tools with extremely precise micro- and nanostructures, large structured area and long tool life. Low-cost mass replication is possible with these moulding tools. In this paper, an established manufacturing chain will be presented. Multiscale and multimaterial optical prototypes e.g. out-of-plane coupler or microinterferometer were made by DPW or laser technology. The mould insert fabrication of each individual manufacturing step will be shown. The process reliability and suitability for mass production was tested by hot embossing.

  17. Corona Discharge Influence on Moulds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholtz, Vladimir

    2004-09-01

    It is known that the electric discharge has bacteriocid effect. We are interesting on influence of corona discharge on moulds and searching for it's fungicide effect. In this work we study the mould penicillium digitatum by using an easy apparatus, where may be situated two measured samples. One in the burning corona discharge and one in the area with ozone generated by this corona only. We expose the spores of penicillium digitatum on a metal plate and on a cultivating medium on cca 0.01mA, 5kV corona discharge and on generated ozone only for time cca two days. It is the time needed for sprouting of spores and growing of they to a visible size. The pilot results show, that the ozone generated by the corona discharge has none or very low influence on the sprouting and growing of the spores. Direct corona discharge inhibit the sprouting only, but does not kill the spores. In next experiments we will try to find some minimum inhibit and killing concentration of ozone and try to expose the sprout inhibition.

  18. Diversity of slime mould circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grube, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Once fused from single amoebae to form an initial plasmodium, P. polycephalum and related species in the order Physarales continue growth via synchronous cell division and extension of the megacells by a contractile plasmodial vein network. These display the phenomenon of shuttle streaming, a rhythmic back-and-forth flow of the protoplasm within a tubular system at a period of approximately 1 to 2 min, with the frequency depending on the nutritional benefits. With time, this develops as a microfluidic circuitry that adapts patterns of contraction to size to optimise the transport throughout an organism. This control of fluid also creates dynamic changes in network architecture seen over time in an individual. Food quality is of considerable importance for slime mould growth dynamics...

  19. Rotational moulding in the production of prostheses.

    PubMed

    Coombs, A G; Lawrence, R B; Davies, R M

    1985-04-01

    This paper discusses the place of rotational moulding in the provision of prosthetic shanks and shank sections. It covers the selection of thermoplastic material, the moulding conditions and their automation in a machine process, and the development of a suitable range of moulds. Also covered is the question of interfacing between the moulded shank sections and other limb components, fatigue strength as tested to date and early results of patient field trials. The most developed of the possible prosthetic options available consists of a hollow tapered column having inserts at each end by which it is clamped through alignment couplings to the socket and foot respectively. For a below-knee application, the complete tapered column prosthesis weighs typically 1 kg. Static and fatigue testing of representative samples by the simultaneous application of compressive and bending loads to the maximum values specified by international standards exposed no failures by the time a million cycles had been reached. This method of fabrication has the merit of being capable of implementation locally on an "as required" basis. Additional advantages include the low cost of the mould tooling and the flexibility to mould a variety of shapes. Prosthetic feet are a possibility as are special shoes and orthotic parts. These may require other materials and experimentation is proceeding using structural and resilient foams.

  20. Investigations on the processing of solid silicon rubber in blow moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Funk, A.; Windeck, C.

    2015-05-01

    Complex hollow parts made of thermoplastics are often produced in the extrusion blow moulding process. This cost-efficient production technique with a high reproducibility, a high degree of automation and short cycle times has not been adapted for rubber processing until now. Current research activities at IKV focus on the processing of silicone rubber in extrusion blow moulding with an adapted processing and rapid cross-linking systems. The blow moulding process allows an automated and effective production of complex hollow parts made of solid silicone rubber in one step. The use of expensive core techniques, which lead to comparatively high reject rates in injection moulding, is not necessary. Expensive and time-consuming assembly steps can be reduced. This substantially increases the efficiency of the process. A systematic material selection of different solid silicone rubber compounds and cross-linking systems for the extrusion blow moulding process is a major focus of investigation. In this context, the term blow mouldability of polymers is defined and the suitability of solid silicone rubbers in combination with cross-linking systems for the blow moulding process is analysed. Characteristic mechanical and physical properties allow the identification of suitable material systems and give advice for the implementation of the new process. Extrusion blow moulding of solid silicone rubber is a new and innovative manufacturing concept to produce elastomeric hollow parts. Influences on the forming process are not known for silicone rubber yet. Therefore, to obtain a detailed process description is another focus of the research project. This includes the forming process, the processing and the influences of the material and the curing reaction on the processing. In the first instance, the investigation and description of the forming process as well as the detailed analysis of the processing parameters, such as curing time, mould temperature, wall thickness of the

  1. Slime mould processors, logic gates and sensors.

    PubMed

    Adamatzky, A

    2015-07-28

    A heterotic, or hybrid, computation implies that two or more substrates of different physical nature are merged into a single device with indistinguishable parts. These hybrid devices then undertake coherent acts on programmable and sensible processing of information. We study the potential of heterotic computers using slime mould acting under the guidance of chemical, mechanical and optical stimuli. Plasmodium of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a gigantic single cell visible to the unaided eye. The cell shows a rich spectrum of behavioural morphological patterns in response to changing environmental conditions. Given data represented by chemical or physical stimuli, we can employ and modify the behaviour of the slime mould to make it solve a range of computing and sensing tasks. We overview results of laboratory experimental studies on prototyping of the slime mould morphological processors for approximation of Voronoi diagrams, planar shapes and solving mazes, and discuss logic gates implemented via collision of active growing zones and tactile responses of P. polycephalum. We also overview a range of electronic components--memristor, chemical, tactile and colour sensors-made of the slime mould. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Mould insert fabrication of a single-mode fibre connector alignment structure optimized by justified partial metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissmann, Markus; Barié, Nicole; Guttmann, Markus; Schneider, Marc; Kolew, Alexander; Besser, Heino; Pfleging, Wilhelm; Hofmann, Andreas; Van Erps, Jürgen; Beri, Stefano; Watté, Jan

    2015-03-01

    For mass production of multiscale-optical components, microstructured moulding tools are needed. Metal tools are used for hot embossing or injection moulding of microcomponents made of a thermoplastic polymer. Microstructures with extremely tight specifications, e.g. low side wall roughness and high aspect ratios are generally made by lithographic procedures such as x-ray lithography or deep proton writing. However, these processes are unsuitable for low-cost mass production. An alternative manufacturing method of moulding tools has been developed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). This article describes a mould insert fabrication and a new replication process for self-centring fibre alignment structures for low loss field installable single-mode fibre connectors, developed and fabricated by the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) in collaboration with TE Connectivity. These components are to be used in fibre-to-the-home networks and support the deployment and maintenance of fibre optic links. The special feature of this particular fibre connector is a self-centring fibre alignment, achieved by means of a through hole with deflectable cantilevers acting as micro-springs. The particular challenge is the electroforming of through holes with a centre hole diameter smaller than 125 µm. The fibre connector structure is prototyped by deep proton writing in polymethylmethacrylate and used as a sacrificial part. Using joining, physical vapour deposition and electroforming technology, a negative copy of the prototyped connector is transferred into nickel to be used as a moulding tool. The benefits of this replication technique are a rapid and economical fabrication of moulding tools with high-precision microstructures and a long tool life. With these moulding tools low-cost mass production is possible. We present the manufacturing chain we have established. Each individual manufacturing step of the mould insert fabrication will be shown in this report. The

  3. Geometry Induced Delays of Slime Mould Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    Slime mould Physarum polycephalum propagates on nutrient substrates similarly to auto-waves in nonlinear media. In experimental laboratory studies we uncover that the width of geometrically constrained substrate affects the speed of Physarum propagation. We show that Physarum slows down when the width of the substrate increases. The slime mould propagates quicker from the vertex of a triangle to its base than from the base to the vertex. Physarum grows quicker in narrow channels than in wider channels. One can also slow down Physarum propagation by making a finite size expansion of the otherwise narrow channel. In computational experiments with a binary state cellular automaton model we demonstrate that a limitation on the slime mould's body mass production rate could be an underlying mechanism for the width-dependent slowdown of Physarum propagation.

  4. Are mould hepatotoxins responsible for kava hepatotoxicity?

    PubMed

    Rowe, Anthony; Ramzan, Iqbal

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies with kava components such as kavalactones, pipermethystine and flavokavain B have demonstrated hepatotoxicity from these constituents. Regardless, there has recently been speculation that adulterants or impurities such as the mould hepatotoxin aflatoxin are a more likely cause of kava hepatotoxicity, despite a paucity of supporting evidence. Although there is limited similarity between acute kava hepatotoxicity and acute aflatoxicosis, and background levels of aflatoxin have been detected in kava samples, unless epidemiological investigations can uncover direct evidence implicating mould hepatotoxins, it remains more likely that chemical constituents of kava are the cause of the hepatotoxicity from kava.

  5. Ion beam modification of injection moulded polymere materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, G. K.; Kersten, H. J.

    1998-05-01

    Ion beam based treatments and processes are an ecologically friendly alternative for the metallization of polymers. Nowadays mainly chemical and electrochemical and plasma assisted techniques are used. In this contribution the copper metallization of high temperature thermoplasts using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) was studied. The applications in mind were magnetic shielding of cases for sensors. The influence of ion beam intensity and energy, deposition rate, preconditioning and substrate material on the Cu adhesion was investigated. As materials PPS (Polyphenylene sulfide) and LCP (Liquid Crystal Polymer) with different filling materials were used. It could be shown that the adhesion reacts very critical to the type of polymer and the type and concentration of filling material. The IBAD parameters giving best results are I/A ratios of 0.005-0.01 and energies of 0.5-2 keV. The highest adhesion force (≈27 N/mm 2) was measured on PPS. For LCP thin Ti interlayers increased the adhesion force ≈50% up to values above 10 N/mm 2.

  6. Slime mould gates, roads and sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    The photographs present a wide range of problems solved by the slime mould P. polycephalum: imitation of human-made transport pathways, realisation of Boolean logical gates, fabrication of self-repairing routable biowires, implementation of delay elements in computing circuits, computational geometry, sensors and a would-be nervous system...

  7. Occurrence of moulds in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hageskal, G; Gaustad, P; Heier, B T; Skaar, I

    2007-03-01

    In order to determine the occurrence of filamentous fungi in public drinking water systems in Norway, water from 14 water supply networks from all over the country was sampled and analysed. Networks with both ground and surface water sources were included in this study. During a one-year period, 273 water samples were collected. Frequencies of fungi in samples from raw water, treated water and from home and hospital installations were determined on the basis of incubation of 100 ml membrane-filtered samples on dichloran 18% glycerol agar media. Filamentous fungi were recovered from 62% of all samples. In ground water 42.3% of the samples were positive for mould growth, while surface waters yielded 69.7% positive samples. The risk to recover moulds from surface water is three times higher compared with ground water. It is more likely to detect moulds in cold waters and showers than in hot waters. By analysing the water reaching the consumers, the results reported in present study indicate that filamentous fungi in drinking water is not negligible, and that moulds should be considered as part of the microbiological analysis parameters in drinking water.

  8. A Process for Semi-Solid Moulding of High Viscosity Thermoplastic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, Achim; Rochman, Arif; Martin, Peter

    2011-05-01

    A new moulding process for manufacturing micro parts made from high viscosity polymers has been developed as a result of a feasibility study. The process basically involves compression moulding of a polymeric preform by heating it up to its semi-solid state, i.e. between its glass transition temperature and melting temperature. The apparatus is made up of three main parts: a forming device, a single cavity micro mould and an induction heating system. The processing technique was successfully tested in the manufacturing of 10 mm round discs with a flange and inner bore using high viscosity polymers such as polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), polyetheretherketone (PEEK), ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW PE) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). In a further miniaturization study, U-shaped micro seals with an outer diameter up to 2.5 mm were also successfully manufactured from non-injection mouldable PTFE. Thus, the new process is a realistic alternative technique to the existing micro moulding processes with respect to its capability to process a huge variety of polymers, even ultra high viscosity materials and the possibility to create micro parts with non-uniform wall thickness distributions.

  9. Mathematical model of the metal mould surface temperature optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Mlynek, Jaroslav Knobloch, Roman; Srb, Radek

    2015-11-30

    The article is focused on the problem of generating a uniform temperature field on the inner surface of shell metal moulds. Such moulds are used e.g. in the automotive industry for artificial leather production. To produce artificial leather with uniform surface structure and colour shade the temperature on the inner surface of the mould has to be as homogeneous as possible. The heating of the mould is realized by infrared heaters located above the outer mould surface. The conceived mathematical model allows us to optimize the locations of infrared heaters over the mould, so that approximately uniform heat radiation intensity is generated. A version of differential evolution algorithm programmed in Matlab development environment was created by the authors for the optimization process. For temperate calculations software system ANSYS was used. A practical example of optimization of heaters locations and calculation of the temperature of the mould is included at the end of the article.

  10. Mathematical model of the metal mould surface temperature optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynek, Jaroslav; Knobloch, Roman; Srb, Radek

    2015-11-01

    The article is focused on the problem of generating a uniform temperature field on the inner surface of shell metal moulds. Such moulds are used e.g. in the automotive industry for artificial leather production. To produce artificial leather with uniform surface structure and colour shade the temperature on the inner surface of the mould has to be as homogeneous as possible. The heating of the mould is realized by infrared heaters located above the outer mould surface. The conceived mathematical model allows us to optimize the locations of infrared heaters over the mould, so that approximately uniform heat radiation intensity is generated. A version of differential evolution algorithm programmed in Matlab development environment was created by the authors for the optimization process. For temperate calculations software system ANSYS was used. A practical example of optimization of heaters locations and calculation of the temperature of the mould is included at the end of the article.

  11. Mould spores: the unusual suspects in hay fever.

    PubMed

    Cross, S

    1997-05-01

    Microfungi are microscopic plants that lack chlorophyll and depend on plant or animal material for nourishment. Moulds will only proliferate in a humid atmosphere. Moulds produce vast numbers of small spores, varying in diameter from 2 to 5 microns, which become airborne. Some common moulds in the UK include Cladosporium, Alternaria and Aspergillus, of which several species are pathogenic to humans. The frequency of mould allergy is uncertain, but it appears to be higher in children than in adults. Wet weather favours mould growth, and sunny, windy weather favours spore release, while snow reduces both considerably. In warm, humid climates, fungi are present in large quantities all the year round. In temperate zones, spore counts are highest during the late summer. Indoor exposure largely depends upon the level of humidity. Mould growth can be immense in badly constructed houses and can contribute to sick-house syndrome. Occupational exposure can occur during manufacture of bread, cheese, beer and wine. In recent years, the use of moulds has been extended to include antibiotic, enzyme and steroid manufacture. Inhalation of small quantities of mould spores can evoke an IgE response and asthma. Massive exposure to some moulds growing in the airway can evoke an IgE and IgG response in people with bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. The inhalation of large amounts of mould antigen in organic dust can cause an IgG response and extrinsic allergic alveolitis

  12. [Invasive mould disease in haematological patients].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Camps, Isabel; Jarque, Isidro

    2014-01-01

    Invasive mould infections (IMI) are a persistent problem with high morbidity and mortality rates among patients receiving chemotherapy for hematological malignancies and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Management of IMI in this setting has become increasingly complex with the advent of new antifungal agents and diagnostic tests, which have resulted in different therapeutic strategies (prophylactic, empirical, pre-emptive, and directed). A proper assessment of the individual risk for IMI appears to be critical in order to use the best prophylactic and therapeutic approach and increase the survival rates. Among the available antifungal drugs, the most frequently used in the hematologic patient are fluconazole, mould-active azoles (itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole), candins (anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin), and lipid formulations of amphotericin B. Specific recommendations for their use, and criteria for selecting the antifungal agents are discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  13. Influence Of The Microinjection Moulding Process On The Crystalline Orientation And Morphology Of Semicrystalline Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhab, Nada Bou; Régnier, Gilles

    2011-05-01

    Microinjection moulding (μIM) seems to be a key for the large scale production of polymer microparts. For semicrystalline polymers, the crystallisation under high shear and cooling rates induces specific morphologies and properties and thus takes tremendous importance in microinjection process compared to classical injection moulding (IM) process where wall thicknesses are generally larger than 1mm. Two semicrystalline polymers were microinjected, a high density polyethylene and a polyamide 12 in plaque cavities having thicknesses of 0.3 and 0.5mm. Analyses obtained by optical microscopy show that the crystalline morphologies vary between micro- and macro- parts. While a `skin-core' morphology is present for the macropart, the μpart exhibits a specific morphology. The X-ray scattering at small angles (SAXS) studies show an orientation of HDPE lamellae whatever the conditions of microinjection whereas the orientation of PA12 lamellae is either isotropic or anisotropic depending on the thickness of molded parts.

  14. View northwest of mould loft with full size pattern storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest of mould loft with full size pattern storage at right. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structural Assembly Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. Condensation and mould: the Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Rayner, K F

    1996-04-01

    It has been estimated that up to 20% of the UK housing stock is significantly affected by dampness and associated with mould growth. The effects on the health of the occupants of affected homes are well documented. The recent imposition of VAT at 17.5% on domestic fuel is generally regarded as likely to worsen the problem. However, this deteriorating situation puts me in mind of a recent study tour to Canada where the problem of dampness in housing is being tackled very differently to the United Kingdom. Are there any lessons to be learnt?

  16. Colorimetric micro-assay for accelerated screening of mould inhibitors

    Treesearch

    Carol A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang

    2013-01-01

    Since current standard laboratory methods are time-consuming macro-assays that rely on subjective visual ratings of mould growth, rapid and quantitative laboratory methods are needed to screen potential mould inhibitors for use in and on cellulose-based products. A colorimetric micro-assay has been developed that uses XTT tetrazolium salt to enzymatically assess...

  17. Sooty Mould Disease Caused by Leptoxyphium kurandae on Kenaf

    PubMed Central

    Choi, In-Young; Kang, Chan-Ho; Lee, Geon-Hwi; Park, Ji-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    In September 2013, we discovered sooty mould growing on kenaf with the extrafloral nectaries in Iksan, Korea and identified the causative fungus as Leptoxyphium kurandae based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses. This is the first report of sooty mould caused by L. kurandae on kenaf in Korea and globally. PMID:26539054

  18. Advances in precision machining and moulding technology bring design opportunities.

    PubMed

    Glendening, Paul

    2008-09-01

    Machining of materials for medical applications has moved to a new level of precision. In parallel with this, moulding technology has improved through the increased use of sensors in moulds, enhanced design simulation and processes such as micromoulding. This article examines the opportunities offered by these developments and includes examples of mass produced parts that demonstrate the new capabilities useful to product designers.

  19. Thermoforming mechanism of precision glass moulding.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weidong; Zhang, Liangchi

    2015-08-01

    Precision glass moulding (PGM) enables the production of an aspherical lens and irregular optical products in a single step, but its product quality depends highly on the control of both material properties and process parameters. This paper investigates the thermoforming mechanism of a glass lens in PGM. To precisely describe the material behavior in PGM, a modulus-based constitutive model was framed and integrated with the finite element analysis. This model can be parameterized conveniently by an impulse excitation technique. Key processing parameters that influence the final profile and residual stresses of a lens were identified with the aid of dimensional analysis. The study found that the cooling stage above the glass transition temperature can bring about large geometry deviations of a lens. The residual stresses in a lens depend mainly on the temperature history in the supercooled liquid region caused by the variability and heterogeneity of thermal expansion. However, the stresses can be reduced effectively by decreasing the cooling rate from moulding temperature to glass transition temperature.

  20. Disposable integrated microfluidic biochip for blood typing by plastic microinjection moulding.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Sung; Lee, Se Hwan; Ahn, Chong H; Lee, Jae Y; Kwon, Tai Hun

    2006-06-01

    Blood typing is the most important test for both transfusion recipients and blood donors. In this paper, a low cost disposable blood typing integrated microfluidic biochip has been designed, fabricated and characterized. In the biochip, flow splitting microchannels, chaotic micromixers, reaction microchambers and detection microfilters are fully integrated. The loaded sample blood can be divided by 2 or 4 equal volumes through the flow splitting microchannel so that one can perform 2 or 4 blood agglutination tests in parallel. For the purpose of obtaining efficient reaction of agglutinogens on red blood cells (RBCs) and agglutinins in serum, we incorporated a serpentine laminating micromixer into the biochip, which combines two chaotic mixing mechanisms of splitting/recombination and chaotic advection. Relatively large area reaction microchambers were also introduced for the sake of keeping the mixture of the sample blood and serum during the reaction time before filtering. The gradually decreasing multi-step detection microfilters were designed in order to effectively filter the reacted agglutinated RBCs, which show the corresponding blood group. To achieve the cost-effectiveness of the microfluidic biochip for disposability, the biochip was realized by the microinjection moulding of COC (cyclic olefin copolymer) and thermal bonding of two injection moulded COC substrates in mass production with a total fabrication time of less than 20 min. Mould inserts of the biochip for the microinjection moulding were fabricated by SU-8 photolithography and the subsequent nickel electroplating process. Human blood groups of A, B and AB have been successfully determined with the naked eye, with 3 microl of the whole sample bloods, by means of the fabricated biochip within 3 min.

  1. Modelling the effect of reinforcement deformation on the filling phase during liquid composite moulding

    SciTech Connect

    Long, A.C.; Rudd, C.D.; Blanchard, P.J.; Smith, P.; Chan, A.W.

    1997-12-31

    In recent years a number of researchers have developed simulations of the filling phase during liquid composite moulding (LCM). These rely on an accurate knowledge of the reinforcement permeability, which is usually determined experimentally using a simple flow experiment based on roll-stock reinforcement samples. However this neglects the effects of reinforcement deformation, which may result in a highly nonuniform distribution of fibre orientations and volume fractions. This paper attempts to account for these variations by integrating fabric drape modelling and LCM flow simulation software packages. Using this approach, the effects of reinforcement deformation on the filling phase are demonstrated on a generic component geometry using alternative injection strategies.

  2. Unpredictable susceptibility of emerging clinical moulds to tri-azoles: review of the literature and upcoming challenges for mould identification.

    PubMed

    Araujo, R; Oliveira, M; Amorim, A; Sampaio-Maia, B

    2015-07-01

    Tri-azoles represent the front-line drugs for the treatment of mould diseases; nevertheless, some emerging moulds, such as Fusarium spp., Scedosporium spp., Mucorales and others, may be less susceptible or resistant to these antifungals. A review of the literature was conducted on the susceptibility of rare moulds to the tri-azoles itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole. Particular attention was paid to isolates identified by molecular analyses. The range of susceptibility values described for the three tri-azoles was frequently large (from 0.06 to >16), and a high variability was found within each species; isolates were rarely reported as entirely susceptible to all tri-azoles. In addition, the susceptibility of 76 emerging moulds from our collection (including Hypocreales, Dothideomycetes, Scedosporium spp., Mucorales and rare Aspergillus spp.) to itraconazole and voriconazole was determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 and European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) methods. Susceptibility discrepancies (of two dilutions) were found comparing CLSI and EUCAST for Dothideomycetes; the values for the remaining moulds were similar. More practical, faster and inexpensive susceptibility tools are welcome for testing emerging moulds, as these tests still represent a critical tool to support clinicians on the selection of proper antifungal treatment. The susceptibility of emerging moulds to tri-azoles cannot be predicted exclusively following mould identification, as the isolates' susceptibilities showed highly variable values. Some emerging moulds still remain very difficult to identity, even following standard molecular analyses which result in complex fungal collections. This fact limits the definition of epidemiological cut-offs and clinical breakpoints that are still imperative for emerging moulds.

  3. CAE applications in a thermoforming mould design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjuki, AR; Mohd Ghazali, FA; Ismail, N. M.; Sulaiman, S.; Mohd Khairuddin, I.; Majeed, Anwar P. P. A.; Jaafar, AA; Mustapha, F.; Basri, S.

    2016-02-01

    Preparation of honeycomb layer is a critical step for successful fabrications of thermoformed based sandwiched structures. This paper deals with an initial investigation on the rapid manufacturing process of corrugated sheet with 120° dihedral angles. Time history of local displacements and thickness, assuming viscous dominated material model for a 1mm thick thermoformable material, was computed by using ANSYS® Polyflow solver. The quality of formed surfaces was evaluated for selection of mould geometry and assessment of two common variants of thermoforming process. Inadequate mesh refinement of a membrane elements produces satisfactorily detailing and incomplete forming. A perfectly uniform material distribution was predicted using drape forming process. However, the geometrical properties of vacuum formed part are poorly distributed and difficult to control with increasing inflation volumes. Details of the discrepancies and the contributions of the CAE tool to complement traditional trial and error methodology in the process and design development are discussed.

  4. Secondary chemicals protect mould from fungivory.

    PubMed

    Rohlfs, Marko; Albert, Martin; Keller, Nancy P; Kempken, Frank

    2007-10-22

    The vast repertoire of toxic fungal secondary metabolites has long been assumed to have an evolved protective role against fungivory. It still remains elusive, however, whether fungi contain these compounds as an anti-predator adaptation. We demonstrate that loss of secondary metabolites in the soil mould Aspergillus nidulans causes, under the attack of the fungivorous springtail Folsomia candida, a disadvantage to the fungus. Springtails exhibited a distinct preference for feeding on a mutant deleted for LaeA, a global regulator of Aspergillus secondary metabolites. Consumption of the mutant yielded a reproductive advantage to the arthropod but detrimental effects on fungal biomass compared with a wild-type fungus capable of producing the entire arsenal of secondary metabolites. Our results demonstrate that fungal secondary metabolites shape food choice behaviour, can affect population dynamics of fungivores, and suggest that fungivores may provide a selective force favouring secondary metabolites synthesis in fungi.

  5. Hybrid slime mould-based system for unconventional computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzina, T.; Dimonte, A.; Cifarelli, A.; Erokhin, V.

    2015-04-01

    Physarum polycephalum is considered to be promising for the realization of unconventional computational systems. In this work, we present results of three slime mould-based systems. We have demonstrated the possibility of transporting biocompatible microparticles using attractors, repellents and a DEFLECTOR. The latter is an external tool that enables to conduct Physarum motion. We also present interactions between slime mould and conducting polymers, resulting in a variation of their colour and conductivity. Finally, incorporation of the Physarum into the organic memristive device resulted in a variation of its electrical characteristics due to the slime mould internal activity.

  6. Slime mould foraging behaviour as optically coupled logical operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayne, R.; Adamatzky, A.

    2015-04-01

    Physarum polycephalum is a macroscopic plasmodial slime mould whose apparently 'intelligent' behaviour patterns may be interpreted as computation. We employ plasmodial phototactic responses to construct laboratory prototypes of NOT and NAND logical gates with electrical inputs/outputs and optical coupling in which the slime mould plays dual roles of computing device and electrical conductor. Slime mould logical gates are fault tolerant and resettable. The results presented here demonstrate the malleability and resilience of biological systems and highlight how the innate behaviour patterns of living substrates may be used to implement useful computation.

  7. Direct nanoprinting by liquid-bridge-mediated nanotransfer moulding.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae K; Cho, Sangho; Dang, Jeong M; Kwak, Eun B; Song, Keunkyu; Moon, Jooho; Sung, Myung M

    2010-10-01

    Several techniques for the direct printing of functional materials have been developed to fabricate micro- and nanoscale structures and devices. We report a new direct patterning method, liquid-bridge-mediated nanotransfer moulding, for the formation of two- or three-dimensional structures with feature sizes as small as tens of nanometres over large areas up to 4 inches across. Liquid-bridge-mediated nanotransfer moulding is based on the direct transfer of various materials from a mould to a substrate through a liquid bridge between them. We demonstrate its usefulness by fabricating nanowire field-effect transistors and arrays of pentacene thin-film transistors.

  8. Micro moulding: the route to a successful product.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, B; Manser, P

    2009-01-01

    This account of a company's struggle to take its product from concept to market reality details how micro moulding techniques can help meet difficult design requirements and create successful products with increased output.

  9. Sharp tipped plastic hollow microneedle array by microinjection moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yung, K. L.; Xu, Yan; Kang, Chunlei; Liu, H.; Tam, K. F.; Ko, S. M.; Kwan, F. Y.; Lee, Thomas M. H.

    2012-01-01

    A method of producing sharp tipped plastic hollow microneedle arrays using microinjection moulding is presented in this paper. Unlike traditional approaches, three mould inserts were used to create the sharp tips of the microneedles. Mould inserts with low surface roughness were fabricated using a picosecond laser machine. Sharp tipped plastic hollow microneedles 500 µm in height were fabricated using a microinjection moulding machine developed by the authors’ group. In addition, the strength of the microneedle was studied by simulation and penetration experiments. Results show that the microneedles can penetrate into skin, delivering liquid successfully without any breakage or severe deformation. Techniques presented in this paper can be used to fabricate sharp tipped plastic hollow microneedle arrays massively with low cost.

  10. View northeast of mould loft and plating cutting shop in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast of mould loft and plating cutting shop in structural assembly shop (building no. 541) - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structural Assembly Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 44. LOOKING SOUTH IN MOULD CONDITIONING BUILDING, WITH HOT TOPPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. LOOKING SOUTH IN MOULD CONDITIONING BUILDING, WITH HOT TOPPING PLATFORM ON LEFT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  12. 43. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF MOULD CONDITIONING BUILDING AND BOP SHOP, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF MOULD CONDITIONING BUILDING AND BOP SHOP, WITH OPEN HEARTH No. 2 BUILDING ON LEFT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  13. 45. SOUTHERN INTERIOR VIEW OF MOULD CONDITIONING BUILDING SHOWING FINK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. SOUTHERN INTERIOR VIEW OF MOULD CONDITIONING BUILDING SHOWING FINK TRUSSES AND CORRUGATED METAL SHEETING. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  14. Influence of silver nanoparticles on metabolism and toxicity of moulds.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Katarzyna; Twarużek, Magdalena; Czyżowska, Agata; Kosicki, Robert; Gutarowska, Beata

    2015-01-01

    The unique antimicrobial features of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are commonly applied in innumerable products. The lack of published studies on the mechanisms of AgNPs action on fungi resulted in identification of the aim of this study, which was: the determination of the influence of AgNPs on the mould cytotoxicity for swine kidney cells (MTT test) and the production of selected mycotoxins, organic acids, extracellular enzymes by moulds. The conducted study had shown that silver nanoparticles can change the metabolism and toxicity of moulds. AgNPs decrease the mycotoxin production of Aspergillus sp. (81-96%) and reduce mould cytotoxicity (50-75%). AgNPs influence the organic acid production of A. niger and P. chrysogenum by decreasing their concentration (especially of the oxalic and citric acid). Also, a change in the extracellular enzyme profile of A. niger and P. chrysogenum was observed, however, the total enzymatic activity was increased.

  15. DETAIL OF CORNICE MOULDING WITH RAM'S HEAD MOTIF. EIGHT SHADES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CORNICE MOULDING WITH RAM'S HEAD MOTIF. EIGHT SHADES OF GOLD LEAF AND BURNISHED GOLD LEAF WERE USED FOR THE INTERIOR FINISHES. - Anaconda Historic District, Washoe Theater, 305 Main Street, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  16. 10. DETAIL OF CORNICE MOULDING WITH RAM'S HEAD MOTIF. EIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL OF CORNICE MOULDING WITH RAM'S HEAD MOTIF. EIGHT SHADES OF GOLD LEAF AND BURNISHED GOLD LEAF WERE USED FOR THE INTERIOR FINISHES - Anaconda Historic District, Washoe Theater, 305 Main Street, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  17. Slime Mould Analogue Models of Space Exploration and Planet Colonisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamatzky, A.; Armstrong, R.; De Lacy Costello, B.; Deng, Y.; Jones, J.; Mayne, R.; Schubert, T.; Sirakoulis, G. Ch.; Zhang, X.

    Slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a single cell that is visible by the unaided eye. When spanning sources of nutrients the slime mould builds a network of protoplasmic tubes which is sometimes considered to be optimal in terms of the minimization of metabolite transportation time and distance away from repellents. Previously we have shown that the slime mould is efficient in imitating the formation of man-made road networks in major countries, where major urban areas are sources of nutrients. We used a similar approach to grow slime mould on a three-dimensional template of the Moon to speculate on potential colonisation scenarios. The slime mould imitated the propagation of colonisation in an exploratory mode, i.e. without any definite targets. Additional transportation hubs/targets were added after the initial network was formed, to imitate the development of colonies in parallel with slime mould growth. We provide analyses of proximity graphs representing colonisation networks and support the findings with Physarum-inspired algorithms to inform supply chain design. We speculate on how living Physarum, or its incorporation into a polymer hybrid material, can be used as a wearable smart wetware based on laboratory experiments interacting with chemical components.

  18. Energy optimization aspects by injection process technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulbure, A.; Ciortea, M.; Hutanu, C.; Farcas, V.

    2016-08-01

    In the proposed paper, the authors examine the energy aspects related to the injection moulding process technology in the automotive industry. Theoretical considerations have been validated by experimental measurements on the manufacturing process, for two types of injections moulding machines, hydraulic and electric. Practical measurements have been taken with professional equipment separately on each technological operation: lamination, compression, injection and expansion. For results traceability, the following parameters were, whenever possible, maintained: cycle time, product weight and the relative time. The aim of the investigations was to carry out a professional energy audit with accurate losses identification. Base on technological diagram for each production cycle, at the end of this contribution, some measure to reduce the energy consumption were proposed.

  19. Maize silage: incidence of moulds during conservation.

    PubMed

    Pelhate, J

    1977-01-01

    The basic principle of silage making--preservation under anaerobiosis--is recognized. With this environment the substrate can harbour a spontaneous and active microflora that can be divided into two sequential phases; a bacterial phase followed by a yeast phase. The imperfections of the techniques used in making silage, however, frequently result in invasion by fungi. The moulds that are responsible for serious changes (loss of nutrients, mycotoxins) are classified into a dozen characteristic divisions (species or groups of ecologically related species). These appear in a definite chronological order and form a relatively simple model of the development of the flora. This dynamic transformation can also be utilized profitably to determine the quality of the fodder and estimate the storage life. A simple mycological puncture analysis reveals in fact the stage reached in the fixed sequence, and the results enable extrapolations to be made regarding the history and the future of the material. It is also hoped that a better knowledge of the biotope will lead to complete control of the floral equilibrium, good conservation and high quality foodstuffs.

  20. Rebuilding Iberian motorways with slime mould.

    PubMed

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Alonso-Sanz, Ramon

    2011-07-01

    Plasmodium of a cellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a unique living substrate proved to be efficient in solving many computational problems with natural spatial parallelism. The plasmodium solves a problem represented by a configuration of source of nutrients by building an efficient foraging and intra-cellular transportation network. The transportation networks developed by the plasmodium are similar to transport networks built by social insects and simulated trails in multi-agent societies. In the paper we are attempting to answer the question "How close plasmodium of P. polycephalum approximates man-made motorway networks in Spain and Portugal, and what are the differences between existing motorway structure and plasmodium network of protoplasmic tubes?". We cut agar plates in a shape of Iberian peninsula, place oat flakes at the sites of major urban areas and analyse the foraging network developed. We compare the plasmodium network with principle motorways and also analyse man-made and plasmodium networks in a framework of planar proximity graphs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Moulds in containers with biological wastes.

    PubMed

    Reiss, J

    1995-03-01

    The collection of biological wastes in separate bio-containers can lead to a favoured development of thermophilic and thermotolerant moulds, especially of mucoraceous species and aspergilli, among which the human pathogen A. fumigatus is especially frequent. The abundantly produced spores are released into the air and can evoke severe infections in persons with immune-deficiencies. In two series of experiments it was demonstrated that the following procedures can reduce the number of spores in the air in the bio-containers above the biological wastes: (1) wrapping the wastes in portions in newsprint: the number of colony-forming units (CFU) decreases for about 50-70%; (2) cleaning of the container after each emptying with diluted vinegar: the number of CFU is reduced for up to 80%; (3) placing the container at shady sites: the temperature of the air inside the bio-containers at shady sites is approximately 5-8 degrees C lower than at sunny places with the consequence that the number of CFU in the air above the biological wastes is decreased. Based on these results principles for the handling of biological wastes are set up.

  2. Christmas tree allergy: mould and pollen studies.

    PubMed

    Wyse, D M; Malloch, D

    1970-12-05

    A history of respiratory or other allergic symptoms during the Christmas season is occasionally obtained from allergic patients and can be related to exposure to conifers at home or in school. Incidence and mechanism of production of these symptoms were studied. Of 1657 allergic patients, respiratory and skin allergies to conifers occurred in 7%. This seasonal syndrome includes sneezing, wheezing and transitory skin rashes. The majority of patients develop their disease within 24 hours, but 15% experience symptoms after several days' delay. Mould and pollen studies were carried out in 10 test sites before, during and after tree placement in the home. Scrapings from pine and spruce bark yielded large numbers of Penicillium, Epicoccum and Alternaria, but these failed to become airborne. No significant alteration was discovered in the airborne fungi in houses when trees were present. Pollen studies showed release into air of weed, grass and tree pollens while Christmas trees were in the house. Oleoresins of the tree balsam are thought to be the most likely cause of the symptoms designated as Christmas tree allergy.

  3. The first report on mushroom green mould disease in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hatvani, Lóránt; Sabolić, Petra; Kocsubé, Sándor; Kredics, László; Czifra, Dorina; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Kaliterna, Joško; Ivić, Dario; Đermić, Edyta; Kosalec, Ivan

    2012-12-01

    Green mould disease, caused by Trichoderma species, is a severe problem for mushroom growers worldwide, including Croatia. Trichoderma strains were isolated from green mould-affected Agaricus bisporus (button or common mushroom) compost and Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) substrate samples collected from Croatian mushroom farms. The causal agents of green mould disease in the oyster mushroom were T. pleurotum and T. pleuroticola, similar to other countries. At the same time, the pathogen of A. bisporus was exclusively the species T. harzianum, which is different from earlier findings and indicates that the range of mushroom pathogens is widening. The temperature profiles of the isolates and their hosts overlapped, thus no range was found that would allow optimal growth of the mushrooms without mould contamination. Ferulic acid and certain phenolic compounds, such as thymol showed remarkable fungistatic effect on the Trichoderma isolates, but inhibited the host mushrooms as well. However, commercial fungicides prochloraz and carbendazim were effective agents for pest management. This is the first report on green mould disease of cultivated mushrooms in Croatia.

  4. Pulsed light inactivation of naturally occurring moulds on wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Aron Maftei, Nicoleta; Ramos-Villarroel, Ana Y; Nicolau, Anca I; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert

    2014-03-15

    Pulsed light (PL) is emerging as a non-thermal technology with excellent prospects for the decontamination of foods and food contact surfaces. Its application for mould inactivation on cereal grains would allow a reduction of storage losses as well as the prevention of mycotoxin contamination at a post-harvest level. The potential of PL for the decontamination of naturally occurring moulds on wheat grain was investigated in this study. Treatments of up to 40 flashes of a fluence of 0.4 J cm⁻² per pulse were applied to both sides of the grain, with an overall energy release ranging from 6.4 to 51.2 J g⁻¹. The most powerful treatment applied to wheat in this study (51.2 J g⁻¹) resulted in a mould reduction of approximately 4 log cycles on samples displaying an initial mould contamination level of 2.2 × 10⁵ CFU g⁻¹. At the same time, the seed germination percentage was only slightly affected. For PL treatments causing an inactivation of 3-4 log cycles, only 14-15% of the germination power of the wheat seeds was lost. The PL treatments attained greater microbial reductions for higher treatment times and lower initial mould loads. The absence of the UV portion of the radiation spectrum was found to significantly reduce the treatment effectiveness. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Multilayered Glass Fibre-reinforced Composites In Rotational Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W. C.; Harkin-Jones, E.; Kearns, M.; McCourt, M.

    2011-05-01

    The potential of multiple layer fibre-reinforced mouldings is of growing interest to the rotational moulding industry because of their cost/performance ratio. The particular problem that arises when using reinforcements in this process relate to the fact that the process is low shear and good mixing of resin and reinforcement is not optimum under those conditions. There is also a problem of the larger/heavier reinforcing agents segregating out of the powder to lay up on the inner part surface. In this study, short glass fibres were incorporated and distributed into a polymer matrix to produce fibre-reinforced polymer composites using the rotational moulding process and characterised in terms of morphology and mechanical properties.

  6. On hybrid circuits exploiting thermistive properties of slime mould

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Xavier Alexis; Horsfield, Ian; Mayne, Richard; Ieropoulos, Ioannis A.; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a single cell visible by the unaided eye. Let the slime mould span two electrodes with a single protoplasmic tube: if the tube is heated to approximately ≈40 °C, the electrical resistance of the protoplasmic tube increases from ≈3 MΩ to ≈10,000 MΩ. The organism’s resistance is not proportional nor correlated to the temperature of its environment. Slime mould can therefore not be considered as a thermistor but rather as a thermic switch. We employ the P. polycephalum thermic switch to prototype hybrid electrical analog summator, NAND gates, and cascade the gates into Flip-Flop latch. Computing operations performed on this bio-hybrid computing circuitry feature high repeatability, reproducibility and comparably low propagation delays. PMID:27048713

  7. Collective behaviour and swarm intelligence in slime moulds.

    PubMed

    Reid, Chris R; Latty, Tanya

    2016-11-01

    The study of collective behaviour aims to understand how individual-level behaviours can lead to complex group-level patterns. Collective behaviour has primarily been studied in animal groups such as colonies of insects, flocks of birds and schools of fish. Although less studied, collective behaviour also occurs in microorganisms. Here, we argue that slime moulds are powerful model systems for solving several outstanding questions in collective behaviour. In particular, slime mould may hold the key to linking individual-level mechanisms to colony-level behaviours. Using well-established principles of collective animal behaviour as a framework, we discuss the extent to which slime mould collectives are comparable to animal groups, and we highlight some potentially fruitful areas for future research.

  8. Multilayered Glass Fibre-reinforced Composites In Rotational Moulding

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, W. C.; Harkin-Jones, E.; Kearns, M.; McCourt, M.

    2011-05-04

    The potential of multiple layer fibre-reinforced mouldings is of growing interest to the rotational moulding industry because of their cost/performance ratio. The particular problem that arises when using reinforcements in this process relate to the fact that the process is low shear and good mixing of resin and reinforcement is not optimum under those conditions. There is also a problem of the larger/heavier reinforcing agents segregating out of the powder to lay up on the inner part surface. In this study, short glass fibres were incorporated and distributed into a polymer matrix to produce fibre-reinforced polymer composites using the rotational moulding process and characterised in terms of morphology and mechanical properties.

  9. On hybrid circuits exploiting thermistive properties of slime mould

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Xavier Alexis; Horsfield, Ian; Mayne, Richard; Ieropoulos, Ioannis A.; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a single cell visible by the unaided eye. Let the slime mould span two electrodes with a single protoplasmic tube: if the tube is heated to approximately ≈40 °C, the electrical resistance of the protoplasmic tube increases from ≈3 MΩ to ≈10,000 MΩ. The organism’s resistance is not proportional nor correlated to the temperature of its environment. Slime mould can therefore not be considered as a thermistor but rather as a thermic switch. We employ the P. polycephalum thermic switch to prototype hybrid electrical analog summator, NAND gates, and cascade the gates into Flip-Flop latch. Computing operations performed on this bio-hybrid computing circuitry feature high repeatability, reproducibility and comparably low propagation delays.

  10. Collective behaviour and swarm intelligence in slime moulds.

    PubMed

    Reid, Chris R; Latty, Tanya

    2016-08-29

    The study of collective behaviour aims to understand how individual-level behaviours can lead to complex group-level patterns. Collective behaviour has primarily been studied in animal groups such as colonies of insects, flocks of birds and schools of fish. Although less studied, collective behaviour also occurs in microorganisms. Here, we argue that slime moulds are powerful model systems for solving several outstanding questions in collective behaviour. In particular, slime mould may hold the key to linking individual-level mechanisms to colony-level behaviours. Using well-established principles of collective animal behaviour as a framework, we discuss the extent to which slime mould collectives are comparable to animal groups, and we highlight some potentially fruitful areas for future research.

  11. On hybrid circuits exploiting thermistive properties of slime mould.

    PubMed

    Walter, Xavier Alexis; Horsfield, Ian; Mayne, Richard; Ieropoulos, Ioannis A; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2016-04-06

    Slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a single cell visible by the unaided eye. Let the slime mould span two electrodes with a single protoplasmic tube: if the tube is heated to approximately ≈40 °C, the electrical resistance of the protoplasmic tube increases from ≈3 MΩ to ≈10,000 MΩ. The organism's resistance is not proportional nor correlated to the temperature of its environment. Slime mould can therefore not be considered as a thermistor but rather as a thermic switch. We employ the P. polycephalum thermic switch to prototype hybrid electrical analog summator, NAND gates, and cascade the gates into Flip-Flop latch. Computing operations performed on this bio-hybrid computing circuitry feature high repeatability, reproducibility and comparably low propagation delays.

  12. [Identification of toxigenic mould in soft drink causing food poisoning].

    PubMed

    Wang, Z G

    1992-01-01

    In a soft drink caused food poisoning, white floccus was found and mould count was 6.0 x 10(2) CFU/ml. The Mycoflora was made of only one kind of mould which was identified as Penicillium janthinellum Biourge. This isolate can grow under anaerobic condition. The culture liquid of the isolate was fed to mice orally for toxicity test, which made the mice lose weight. An extract of the culture liquid was tested in weaned mice inaberitoneally for toxicity and all mice died in 24h. The toxic symptoms were tic, sway and paralysis of right rear-leg. Gross anatomy changes were gastrectosis, flatulence and intestinal edema. The conclusion is: the P. janthinellum isolate from the soft drink was the toxigenic mould.

  13. Bioconversion and binding of sterols by thermophilic moulds.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, T; Chavant, L

    1987-01-01

    None of the fourteen thermophilic moulds was able to break down the aliphatic side chain of sterols, viz. cholesterol, lanosterol, sitosterol, and stigmasterol so as to yield 4-androstene-3,17-dione, 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione and progesterone. In Acremonium alabamensis and Talaromyces emersonii, cholestenone was detected as a product of fermentation of cholesterol whereas the former yielded stigmastadienone from stigmasterol and sitosterol. Lanosterol appeared to be resistant to fungal bioconversion. All the thermophilic moulds exhibited avidity for binding sterols to the mycelium, but the ability to bind sterol seemed to depend upon the nature of the organism and the sterol.

  14. Presurgical nasal moulding in a neonate with cleft lip

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Anshula; Shah, Dixit; Macwan, Chirag S

    2014-01-01

    The concept of presurgical nasoalveolar moulding (PNM) was developed to improve the aesthetic result of surgically corrected cleft lip. This paper presents the method of fabrication of PNM appliance and the case of a 30-day-old neonate with unilateral cleft lip in whom nasal moulding was performed. Treatment was initiated at 30 days and continued for 60 days after which the surgical correction of cleft lip was performed. Significant improvement in aesthetics and symmetry of the nose was achieved at the end of the treatment. PMID:24928928

  15. Milling of Sand Blocks to Make Casting Moulds

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez de Lacalle, L. N.; Rodriguez, A.; Lamikiz, A.; Penafiel, F. J.

    2011-01-17

    In this paper a full procedure to make moulds in sand for direct casting of metallic parts is presented. The technology aims at unique pieces or art pieces, where only one prototype or components is required, but lead times are much reduced. The key of the procedure is to achieve enough tool life when milling with carbide tools, avoiding the risk of sand destruction or damage.The use of inverse techniques is a common input due to the industrial sectors where the direct milling is interesting. Two examples of moulds are presented, evaluating times and costs. A special study of tool wear is also presented.

  16. Milling of Sand Blocks to Make Casting Moulds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lacalle, L. N. López; Rodríguez, A.; Lamikiz, A.; Peñafiel, F. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a full procedure to make moulds in sand for direct casting of metallic parts is presented. The technology aims at unique pieces or art pieces, where only one prototype or components is required, but lead times are much reduced. The key of the procedure is to achieve enough tool life when milling with carbide tools, avoiding the risk of sand destruction or damage. The use of inverse techniques is a common input due to the industrial sectors where the direct milling is interesting. Two examples of moulds are presented, evaluating times and costs. A special study of tool wear is also presented.

  17. Replication of microchannel structures in WC-Co feedstock using elastomeric replica moulds by hot embossing process.

    PubMed

    Sahli, M; Gelin, J-C; Barrière, T

    2015-10-01

    Hot embossing is a net shaping process that is able to produce the micro-components of polymers with intrinsic and complex shapes at lower cost compared with machining and injection moulding. However, the emboss of hard metals, such as WC-Co, is more challenging due to their high thermal conductivity and ease of agglomeration. Thus, a WC-Co alloy mixed with a wax-based binder feedstock was selected. The formed feedstock exhibited pseudo-plastic flow and was successfully embossed (green part). Here, we developed a novel process that is used to replicate polymer microfluidic chips while simultaneously reducing the channel surface roughness of the mould insert, yielding optical-grade (less than 100 nm surface roughness) channels and reservoirs. This paper concerns the replication of metallic microfluidic mould inserts in WC-Co and the parameters associated with feedstock formation via a hot embossing process. A suitable formulation for micro-powder hot embossing has been established and characterised by thermogravimetric analyses and measurements of mixing torques to verify and quantify the homogeneity of the proposed feedstocks. The relative density of the samples increased with processing temperature, and almost fully dense materials were obtained. In this work, the effects of the sintering temperature on the physical properties were systematically analysed. The evolution of the metal surface morphology during the hot embossing process was also investigated. The results indicate that the feedstock can be used to manufacture micro-fluidic die mould cavities with a low roughness, proper dimensions and good shape retention. The shrinkage of the sintered part was approximately 19-24% compared with that of the brown part. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploring Value-Added Options - Opportunities in Mouldings and Millwork

    Treesearch

    Bob Smith; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    The millwork industry, which includes manufacture of doors, windows, stair parts, blinds, mouldings, picture frame material, and assorted trim, can be a lucrative value-added opportunity for sawmills. Those entering the value-added millwork market often find that it is a great opportunity to generate greater profits from upper grades and utility species, such as yellow...

  19. High Explosive Moulding Powders from RDX and Aqueous Polyurethane Dispersions,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    polybutadiene (17] type by reaction with low molecular weight diisocyanates in the absence of water. Explosive moulding powders incorporating...polyaddition reaction . The final polymers have predominantly hydrophobic long chain segments of the polyether or polyester type and also contain some...reacted with isocyanate groups in reaction sequences which ultimately yield either polyurethane or polyurethane-urea polymers. Three of the methods for

  20. Wood working: planing and moulding in the last frontier

    Treesearch

    David Nicholls

    2007-01-01

    Planing and moulding is an important step in the value-added manufacture of wood products, and recent advances in Alaska have been noteworthy. Just a few years ago, most planing occurred on simple shop planers, producing lumber for retail sale or for wood working uses such as cabinet stock. Currently there are at least 26 planers and 13 moulders in-production at...

  1. Indirect slumping of D263 glass on Fused Silica mould

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proserpio, Laura; Wen, Mingwu; Breunig, Elias; Burwitz, Vadim; Friedrich, Peter; Madarasz, Emanuel

    2016-07-01

    The Slumped Glass Optic (SGO) group of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial physics (MPE) is studying the indirect slumping technology for its application to X-ray telescope manufacturing. Several aspects of the technology have been analyzed in the past. During the last months, we concentrated our activities on the slumping of Schott D263 glass on a precise machined Fused Silica mould: The concave mould was produced by the Italian company Media Lario Technologies with the parabola and hyperbola side of the typical Wolter I design in one single piece. Its shape quality was estimated by optical metrology to be around 6 arcsec Half Energy Width (HEW) in double reflection. The application of an anti-sticking Boron Nitride layer was necessary to avoid the adhesion of the glass on the mould during the forming process at high temperatures. The mould has been used for the slumping of seven mirror segments 200 mm long, 100 mm wide, and with thickness of 200 μm or 400 μm. The influence of the holding time at maximum temperature was explored in this first run of tests. The current results of the activities are described in the paper and plans for further investigations are outlined.

  2. Antifungal properties of silver nanoparticles against indoor mould growth.

    PubMed

    Ogar, Anna; Tylko, Grzegorz; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2015-07-15

    The presence of moulds in indoor environments causes serious diseases and acute or chronic toxicological syndromes. In order to inhibit or prevent the growth of microorganisms on building materials, the disruption of their vital processes or the reduction of reproduction is required. The development of novel techniques that impair the growth of microorganisms on building materials is usually based on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). It makes them an alternative to other biocides. AgNPs have proven antibacterial activity and became promising in relation to fungi. The aim of the study was to assess growth and morphology of mycelia of typical indoor fungal species: Penicillium brevicompactum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium cladosporoides, Chaetomium globosum and Stachybotrys chartarum as well as Mortierella alpina, cultured on agar media. The antifungal activity of AgNPs was also tested in relation to C. globosum and S. chartarum grown on the surface of gypsum drywall. It was found that the presence of AgNPs in concentrations of 30-200mg/l significantly decreased the growth of fungi. However, in the case of M. alpina, AgNPs stimulated its growth. Moreover, strong changes in moulds morphology and colour were observed after administration of AgNPs. Parameters of conidiophores/sporangiophores varied depending on mould region and changed significantly after treatment with AgNPs. The experiments have shown antifungal properties of AgNPs against common indoor mould species. Their application to building materials could effectively protect indoor environments from mould development. However, consideration must be given to the fact that the growth of some fungal strains might be stimulated by AgNPs.

  3. In Vitro Antifungal Activities against Moulds Isolated from Dermatological Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Nizam, Tzar; Binting, Rabiatul Adawiyah AG.; Mohd Saari, Shafika; Kumar, Thivyananthini Vijaya; Muhammad, Marianayati; Satim, Hartini; Yusoff, Hamidah; Santhanam, Jacinta

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of various antifungal agents against moulds isolated from dermatological specimens. Methods We identified 29 moulds from dermatological specimens between October 2012 and March 2013 by conventional methods. We performed antifungal susceptibility testing on six antifungal agents, amphotericin B, clotrimazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole and terbinafine, according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines contained in the M38-A2 document. Results Most antifungal agents were active against the dermatophytes, except for terbinafine against Trichophyton rubrum (geometric mean MIC, MICGM 3.17 μg/mL). The dematiaceous moulds were relatively susceptible to amphotericin B and azoles (MICGM 0.17–0.34 μg/mL), but not to terbinafine (MICGM 3.62 μg/mL). Septate hyaline moulds showed variable results between the relatively more susceptible Aspergillus spp. (MICGM 0.25–4 μg/mL) and the more resistant Fusarium spp. (MICGM 5.66–32 μg/mL). The zygomycetes were susceptible to amphotericin B (MICGM 0.5 μg/mL) and clotrimazole (MICGM 0.08 μg/mL), but not to other azoles (MICGM 2.52–4 μg/mL). Conclusion Amphotericin B and clotrimazole were the most effective antifungal agents against all moulds excepting Fusarium spp., while terbinafine was useful against dermatophytes (except T. rubrum) and Aspergillus spp. However, a larger study is required to draw more solid conclusions. PMID:27418867

  4. Flow Dynamics of green sand in the DISAMATIC moulding process using Discrete element method (DEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovad, E.; Larsen, P.; Walther, J. H.; Thorborg, J.; Hattel, J. H.

    2015-06-01

    The DISAMATIC casting process production of sand moulds is simulated with DEM (discrete element method). The main purpose is to simulate the dynamics of the flow of green sand, during the production of the sand mould with DEM. The sand shot is simulated, which is the first stage of the DISAMATIC casting process. Depending on the actual casting geometry the mould can be geometrically quite complex involving e.g. shadowing effects and this is directly reflected in the sand flow during the moulding process. In the present work a mould chamber with “ribs” at the walls is chosen as a baseline geometry to emulate some of these important conditions found in the real moulding process. The sand flow is simulated with the DEM and compared with corresponding video footages from the interior of the chamber during the moulding process. The effect of the rolling resistance and the static friction coefficient is analysed and discussed in relation to the experimental findings.

  5. Emission of organic compounds from mould and core binders used for casting iron, aluminium and bronze in sand moulds.

    PubMed

    Tiedje, Niels; Crepaz, Rudolf; Eggert, Torben; Bey, Niki

    2010-12-01

    Emissions from mould and core sand binders commonly used in the foundry industry have been investigated. Degradation of three different types of binders was investigated: Furfuryl alcohol (FA), phenolic urethane (PU) and resol-CO2 (RC). In each group of binders, at least two different binder compositions were tested. A test method that provides uniform test conditions is described. The method can be used as a general test method to analyse off gases from binders. Moulds, containing a standard size casting, were produced and the amount and type of organic compounds, resulting from thermal degradation of binders, was monitored when cast iron, bronze and aluminium was poured in the moulds. Binder degradation was measured by collecting off gases in a specially designed ventilation hood at a constant flow rate. Samples were taken from the ventilation system and analysed for hydrocarbons and CO content. It is shown how off-gases vary with time after pouring and shake out. Also the composition of off-gases is analysed and shown. It is further shown how the composition of off-gasses varies between different types of binders and with varying composition of the binders as well as function of the thermal load on the moulding sand.

  6. Etanercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection comes as a solution (liquid) in a prefilled syringe and an automatic injection device, and as a ... etanercept injection.If your medication comes in a prefilled syringe or automatic injection device, use each syringe or ...

  7. The Technology of Mould Steel for Online Pre-hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dongmei; Liu, Guoyong; Li, Mouwei; Zhang, Shaojun; Bian, Xinxiao; Wanglin; Quan, Wang; Dai, Jinguo; Xubin; Wei, Chaocheng; Cai, Lijuan; Liu, Zuofeng; Gong, Shichuang; An, Zhengang

    This article describes a production method of mould steel pre-hardening, and focus on the advantage of this method, The technical core of method is the variable frequency and variable amplitude pulse uniform high-precision temperature control, which achieved by using strong-medium-weak water cooling, gas-water cooling and gas mist cooling composite cooling control technology. Optimizing the cooling rate path is a good method of optimizing quenched organization and structure.

  8. Airborne moulds and actinomycetes in work environment of farmers.

    PubMed

    Kotimaa, M H; Terho, E O; Husman, K

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this series of studies was to investigate the quality and quantity of farmers' exposure to airborne spores during the handling of hay or grain. In the beginning, the Petri dish method and later a six-stage Andersen sampler were used to collect the samples. The number of spores of mesophilic fungi, thermotolerant fungi, thermophilic actinomycetes and fungi of the Aspergillus glaucus group were determined in order to find possible causative agents of farmer's lung disease. The level of exposure varied from 10(4) cfu/m3 to 10(7) cfu/m3 (cfu = colony forming unit). In hay, fungi of the A. glaucus group usually dominated. In grain the most common moulds were Cladosporium spp. and Penicillium spp. In both hay and grain the most common thermophilic actinomycete was Thermoactinomyces vulgaris; Micropolyspora faeni was found less frequently. Silaging was found to be the best method to prevent moulding of hay. Chemicals added during baling did not satisfactorily prevent moulding of hay. For stored grain, however, the best results were obtained with propionic acid treatment. The quality and quantity of airborne spores found suggests that farm work exposes farmers to a high risk of becoming sensitized, which leads to the development of asthma or farmer's lung. Few of the methods presently available for making or storing hay and grain can satisfactorily prevent moulding. So far, use of personal dust respirators with a type P2 (previously II b) filter seems to be the only way to effectively diminish exposure to spores.

  9. Two underestimated threats in food transportation: mould and acceleration

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, S.; Pankoke, I.; Klus, K.; Schmitt, K.; Stephan, U.; Wöllenstein, J.

    2014-01-01

    Two important parameters are often neglected in the monitoring of perishable goods during transport: mould contamination of fresh food and the influence of acceleration or vibration on the quality of a product. We assert the claim that it is necessary to focus research on these two topics in the context of intelligent logistics in this opinion paper. Further, the technical possibilities for future measurement systems are discussed. By measuring taste deviations, we verified the effect on the quality of beer at different vibration frequencies. The practical importance is shown by examining transport routes and market shares. The general feasibility of a mobile mould detection system is established by examining the measurement resolution of semiconductor sensors for mould-related gases. Furthermore, as an alternative solution, we present a concept for a miniaturized and automated culture-medium-based system. Although there is a lack of related research to date, new efforts can make a vital contribution to the reduction of losses in the logistic chains for several products. PMID:24797139

  10. Two underestimated threats in food transportation: mould and acceleration.

    PubMed

    Janssen, S; Pankoke, I; Klus, K; Schmitt, K; Stephan, U; Wöllenstein, J

    2014-06-13

    Two important parameters are often neglected in the monitoring of perishable goods during transport: mould contamination of fresh food and the influence of acceleration or vibration on the quality of a product. We assert the claim that it is necessary to focus research on these two topics in the context of intelligent logistics in this opinion paper. Further, the technical possibilities for future measurement systems are discussed. By measuring taste deviations, we verified the effect on the quality of beer at different vibration frequencies. The practical importance is shown by examining transport routes and market shares. The general feasibility of a mobile mould detection system is established by examining the measurement resolution of semiconductor sensors for mould-related gases. Furthermore, as an alternative solution, we present a concept for a miniaturized and automated culture-medium-based system. Although there is a lack of related research to date, new efforts can make a vital contribution to the reduction of losses in the logistic chains for several products.

  11. Silver nanoparticles: a mechanism of action on moulds.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Katarzyna; Glińska, Sława; Gapińska, Magdalena; Ruman, Tomasz; Nowak, Adriana; Aydin, Egemen; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-12-07

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in all branches of industry. However, their mechanisms of action towards moulds have not been studied yet. Thus we conducted this study in which we have used laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-ToF-MS) analysis to determine metabolomic changes, and microscopic analysis (transmission electron microscopy, fluorescent microscopy) to observe changes in mould cells. The AgNP treatment caused the downregulation of 162 (15 ppm) and 284 (62 ppm), and 19 (15 ppm) and 29 (62 ppm) metabolites of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum, respectively. All influenced features were below m/z 600 (mass-to-charge ratio). We have observed silver ions and their clusters (Ag, Ag2, and Ag3) accumulated in the mould mycelium. As well as, mono-silver ion adducts with nucleotide derivatives (Coenzyme A), amino acids (phenylglycine), peptides (LeuSerAlaLeuGlu) and lipids (fatty acids, diacylglycerophosphoglycerols, monoglicerides and glycerophospholipids). The ultrastructure analysis revealed many sever alterations due to the action of AgNPs, such us shortening and condensation of hyphae, ultrastructural reorganisation, cell plasmolysis, increased vacuolisation, numerous membranous structures, collapsed cytoplasm, accumulation of lipid material, condensed mitochondria, disintegration of organelles, nuclear deformation, condensation and fragmentation of chromatin, creation of apoptotic bodies, as well as a new inside cell wall in P. chrysogenum.

  12. Mechanical properties of micro-injected HDPE composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiorno, A.; Pagano, C.; Agnelli, S.; Baldi, F.; Fassi, I.

    2016-03-01

    Micro-injection moulding is one of the key manufacturing technologies for the mass production of high value polymeric miniaturized-components. However, this process is not just a straightforward down scaling of the conventional injection moulding technique. Indeed, during the micro-injection the polymer melt is forced to flow at high strain rates through very small channels in non-isothermal conditions, and this can lead to complex microstructures and to parts with unexpected performances. In this work, the relationships among the processing conditions, the mechanical properties and the microstructural characteristics of miniaturized specimens obtained by injection moulding were investigated. Two model systems were considered with the same filler content of 15% wt. (HDPE-talc and HDPE-glass beads), representative of two different types of micro-composites: containing lamellar and spherical micro-particles, respectively. The attention was focused on the influence of the filler type and the process conditions on the mechanical behaviour, examined by uniaxial tensile tests and dynamic-mechanical analyses, and on the morphological characteristics of the specimens, examined by microscopy analyses. The results highlight that mechanical response of the miniaturized specimens is significantly affected by both the filler and the process conditions that can have an influence on the polymer microstructure. Lamellar composites showed the best performance due to the orientation of the talc particles during the micro-injection process, while, different morphologies of the skin/core transition region in dependence on the process temperatures were observable.

  13. Parental experience caring for cleft lip and palate infants with nasoalveolar moulding.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Emily E; Gazza, Elizabeth; Marazita, Mary L

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experience of parents caring for an infant with a cleft lip and palate receiving nasoalveolar moulding. Nasoalveoral moulding is a pre-surgical orthopedic appliance used to approximate an infant's cleft lip and palate, mould the nose and reduce surgical correction. Use of nasoalveolar moulding can be intensive, costly and lengthy requiring parental commitment to the process since it involves several months of weekly visits for appliance adjustment. Although extensive research has been conducted on surgical outcomes after use, little evidence exists pertaining to parental experiences caring for an infant undergoing the nasoalveolar moulding treatment process. The qualitative design phenomenology was used to best capture parents' lived experiences. Eight mothers and four fathers participated in informal, semi-structured interviews during the months of April-May 2010. Four themes were identified: (1) You do what you have to do; (2) We weren't left alone in the dark; (3) It's just amazing to see the difference; and (4) It's like nothing ever happened. Findings indicated that despite some difficulties, parents' were dedicated to the treatment process and expressed the benefits exceeded any additional work nasoalveolar moulding required. Multiple recommendations to assist parents with the nasoalveolar moulding treatment process were identified. Improving nasoalveolar moulding education and providing support can substantially improve challenges that are experienced by parents throughout this process - strengthening the importance of their role for successful nasoalveolar moulding outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Comparison of methods for the quantitative detection of moulds in foods. II. Communication: effect of homogenisation conditions on mould plate count (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Blaser, P

    1978-05-01

    The different effects of homogenisation of four commonly used homogenisating apparatus, such as Stomacher, Ultraturrax, Waring-Blender, Bühler-homogenisator) were compared with each other by applying 1 artificially and 6 naturally moulded, non-fluid food products. Furthermore the influence of sedimentation in the homogenisate as well as the time of homogenisation was examined. One part of the examination was the direct microscopic observation on stained Breed-smears, the other part the cultural methods (number of mould plate count on malt extract agar). The homogenisation effect of the Stomacher was as good as with all other mentioned apparatus with the food products applied, except for the home-made smoked sausage. With this home made smoked sausage, much better results were obtained by these homogenisating apparatus, especially by the Bühler Homogenisator. This is due to the fact that the sausage was minced to a much higher degree and thus the inner mould flora was set free.--A more tender effect of the Stomacher on hyphal elements could not be achieved.--Prolonging the time of homogenisation from 1 minute to 2 up to 4 minutes did not give any better results.--A short sedimentation of coarser food particles facilitates the pipetting of the homogenisates without influencing the mould counts.--The naturally moulded foods, which were kept at room temperature for several weeks, showed a significantly smaller number of plate count than of total mould count in contrary to those foods moulded just before experimental beginning.

  15. Pegfilgrastim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pegfilgrastim comes as a solution (liquid) in prefilled injection syringes and in a pre-filled automatic injection device (On-body Injector) to inject subcutaneously (under the skin). If you are using pegfilgrastim to ...

  16. Cabazitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used along with prednisone to treat prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive organ) that has ... cabazitaxel injection is usually used in men with prostate cancer. If used by pregnant women, cabazitaxel injection can ...

  17. Ondansetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Zofran® Injection ... Ondansetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and surgery. Ondansetron is in a ... medications: or any of the ingredients in ondansetron injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ...

  18. Plasticising and injecting lowest quantities of plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Neuß, A.; Weber, M.; Fischer, T.

    2014-05-01

    For an economic production of thermoplastic micro parts a reproducible quality is one of the key aspects. Therefore, injection moulding is one of the most common production technologies. The material and process oriented plasticising of the required amount of plastic material are still challenging. Due to the concept of standard injection moulding machines the plasticising screw with a non-return valve is used as the injection plunger. This principle can only realise injection volumes which arise directly from the screw diameter D and the injection stroke. Miniaturisation of this design is limited, since the screw core must absorb the required torque while a feeding of the granules is to ensure by a sufficient flight depth. Even the smallest standard diameters of 14 mm and minimum injection strokes result in shot volumes, which account for multiples of the component volume of common micro parts. At present a new plasticising concept is developed by the Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV), Aachen, Germany. The concept is characterised by the position of the screw flights, which are attached to the inside of the plasticising cylinder. The injection piston is mounted coaxially within the cylinder. The so-called 'inverted plastication' is based on the kinematic reversal of the screw flights' arrangement. As the injection piston does not have to feature neither a special feed section nor screw flights, it is exposed to lower mechanical stresses. It therefore features a smaller diameter than common plasticising screws. Thus, the entire plasticising unit can be adapted to the volume of micro parts. Currently, an experimental setup is built which allows a systematical analysis of the different influencing parameters.

  19. 3D-printed surface mould applicator for high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Mark; Lasso, Andras; Cumming, Ian; Rankin, Adam; Falkson, Conrad B.; Schreiner, L. John; Joshi, Chandra; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-03-01

    In contemporary high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment of superficial tumors, catheters are placed in a wax mould. The creation of current wax models is a difficult and time consuming proces.The irradiation plan can only be computed post-construction and requires a second CT scan. In case no satisfactory dose plan can be created, the mould is discarded and the process is repeated. The objective of this work was to develop an automated method to replace suboptimal wax moulding. We developed a method to design and manufacture moulds that guarantee to yield satisfactory dosimetry. A 3D-printed mould with channels for the catheters designed from the patient's CT and mounted on a patient-specific thermoplastic mesh mask. The mould planner was implemented as an open-source module in the 3D Slicer platform. Series of test moulds were created to accommodate standard brachytherapy catheters of 1.70mm diameter. A calibration object was used to conclude that tunnels with a diameter of 2.25mm, minimum 12mm radius of curvature, and 1.0mm open channel gave the best fit for this printer/catheter combination. Moulds were created from the CT scan of thermoplastic mesh masks of actual patients. The patient-specific moulds have been visually verified to fit on the thermoplastic meshes. The masks were visually shown to fit onto the thermoplastic meshes, next the resulting dosimetry will have to be compared with treatment plans and dosimetry achieved with conventional wax moulds in order to validate our 3D printed moulds.

  20. Mould exposure at home relates to inflammatory markers in blood.

    PubMed

    Beijer, L; Thorn, J; Rylander, R

    2003-02-01

    Living in damp buildings has been associated with airway symptoms, suspected to be due to inflammatory reactions. The relationship between home exposure to mould and signs of inflammation was, therefore, studied. Nonsmoking subjects with a high (G-high, > 4.0 ng x m(-3), n = 17) or low (G-low, < 2.0 ng x m(-3), n = 18) amount of airborne beta(1 --> 3)-D-glucan, an indicator of mould biomass, in the home were recruited. Blood samples were analysed for granulocytic enzymes, T-cell subsets and the secretion of cytokines from in vitro incubated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In the G-high group, the proportion of cytotoxic T-cells (CD8+S6F1+) was lower and secretion of tumour necrosis factor-alpha from PBMCs higher than in the G-low group. There were no significant differences in secretion of interferon gamma and interleukin (IL)-4 from PBMCs between the two groups. Among nonatopic subjects, the ratio between interferon gamma and IL-4 was significantly higher in the G-high group than in the G-low group and was related to the amount of beta(1 --> 3)-D-glucan in the home. No significant differences were found regarding secretion of IL-10 or IL-Ibeta from PBMCs, eosinophil cationic protein or myeloperoxidase in serum, or differential cell counts in blood. The effects found on inflammatory markers in relation to beta(1 --> 3)-D-glucan in the home suggest upregulation of some parts of the inflammatory/immunological system due to mould exposure.

  1. Microbial quality and presence of moulds in Kuflu cheese.

    PubMed

    Hayaloglu, A A; Kirbag, S

    2007-04-20

    The chemical and microbial qualities, including fungal flora, of 30 samples of Kuflu cheese randomly purchased from different markets in Turkey were investigated. The gross composition of the cheese samples ranged between 37.65-53.65% moisture, 6.21-40.09% fat-in-dry matter, 4.70-10.07% salt-in-moisture and 26.18-44.85% protein. The mean pH value of the cheeses was 6.29+/-0.28 and pH values ranged from 5.52 to 7.22. Variations between the samples in terms of their gross composition suggested a lack of quality standards in cheesemilk, cheesemaking procedure and ripening conditions. The levels of main microbial groups including total mesophilic and coliform bacteria, yeasts and moulds and the presence of some potentially pathogenic microorganisms (E. coli, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus) were determined. The high numbers of all microbial groups and presence of potentially pathogenic organisms in the cheese samples suggested that the production and maturation of Kuflu cheese should be improved by better hygiene. Moulds at the cheese surface were isolated and identified. A total of 24 different mould species were detected and the genus most frequently isolated was Penicillium spp. which represented 70.25% of total isolates. Penicillium commune, P. roqueforti and P. verrucosum were the most abundant species in the cheeses sampled. The other dominant fungal groups were Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium expansum and P. chrysogenum. Other genera isolated from the cheese were Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Geotrichum, Mucor, Rhizopus and Trichoderma. The potentially toxigenic species, including some Penicillum spp. and Aspergillus flavus, were also detected.

  2. Degradation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide by the slime mould Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Saddler, J N; Coote, J G; Wardlaw, A C

    1979-02-01

    A strain of the acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum degraded lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from a variety of bacteria. The anticomplementary (AC) activity of LPS was greatly reduced, as was the content of lauric, myristic, and palmitic acids, and the ability to sensitize erythrocytes to agglutination by antibody. These results indicate that Physarum has enzymes which reduce the lipid A moiety of LPS. In contrast, 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-manno-actanoic acid (KDO), immunodominant sugars, and beta-hydroxymyristic acid were scarcely affected. Both supernates and plasmodial extracts of Physarum had LPS-degradative activity and were able to attack both purified LPS and LPS in killed bacteria.

  3. Reliability of sheet moulding composites (SMC) for the automotive industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamanna, Giuseppe; Ceparano, Angelo; Sartore, Luciana

    2014-05-01

    The reliability of Sheet Moulding Composite (SMC) has been analysed by means of mechanical static and fatigue tests. SMCs showed substantial in-plane anisotropy either in terms of stiffness or strength reflecting the preferential orientation of the short fibres along the direction of the conveyor belt during the processing operations. The static data were modelled on a statistical basis assuming that the monotonic tensile strength follows a two-parameter Weibull distribution, while for the fatigue test we adopted a two parameters model already validated for Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics (GFRP). Overall, the procedure indicated that he material reliability and its applicability limits can be achieved with a minimum of experimental tests.

  4. Ibandronate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Boniva® Injection ... Ibandronate injection is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and break ... Ibandronate injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be injected into a vein by a doctor or nurse in ...

  5. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Leuprolide injection comes as a long-acting suspension (Lupron) that is injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) by a doctor or nurse in a medical ... Depot-4 month, Lupron Depot-6 Month). Leuprolide injection also comes as a long-acting suspension (Eligard) that is injected subcutaneously (just under ...

  6. Multi-agent model of slime mould for computing and robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jeff

    2015-03-01

    This chapter features results from a multi-agent model of slime mould. Slime mould is a remarkable organism because it possesses no nervous system, no skeleton, no organised musculature and no special senses. Despite these limitations, slime mould is capable of remarkable biological and computational feats by dynamically adapting its body plan in response to environmental stimuli. Because slime mould consists of simple component parts, its behaviour requires no specialised or critical components and the mechanisms which govern its behaviour are distributed throughout -- and embedded within -- the organism itself. This multi-agent approach to modelling slime mould is a bottom-up model and attempts to specifically use the same -- apparently limiting -- properties found in the organism itself: simple component parts, local interactions and self-organised collective emergent behaviour. The aim of the model is to show how the complexity of slime mould can emerge from these very simple local interactions. The model has successfully been applied to reproducing the biological behaviour of slime mould (growth patterns, network adaptation, oscillatory phenomena) and also the computational and robotic behaviour of slime mould. The images in this chapter give a flavour of the model with topics relating to the complex pattern formation phenomena, amoeboid movement and collective transport phenomena, and its utilisation as a spatially represented unconventional computing substrate...

  7. Research on the influence of moulding-casting technology on the quality of castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josan, A.; Pinca Bretotean, C.; Raţiu, S.; Ardelean, E.; Ardelean, M.

    2017-05-01

    The quality of castings has a particularly role in the Romanian foundries. In this context, quality assurance is the overall objective of the foundries. The paper presents the critical analysis performed on moulding-casting technology of the type Lifting mechanism. This casting is a subset of the lifting and rotating mechanism of the furnace vault. The casting analysed is a medium size, with weight of 114 kg. The current moulding-casting technology involves moulding into three mould-parts leading to the occurrence of defects (decentering of the core, displacement of the lower mould and the middle mould and occurrence of burrs in area separated. Thus, to reduce the percentage of defects registered in industrial practice is necessary to change the moulding-casting technology. This requires the use of two mould-parts, re-dimensioning of the core and the core box and dimensioning of the runner network. The adoption of these changes in industrial practice has direct implications on the cost of casting and foundry costs default.

  8. Is the risk of allergic hypersensitivity to fungi increased by indoor exposure to moulds?

    PubMed

    Wiszniewska, Marta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Gutarowska, Beata; Krakowiak, Anna; Pałczyński, Cezary

    2009-01-01

    Moulds are frequently found in the indoor environment of residential houses. An association between domestic mould contamination and respiratory symptoms has been reported, but mould exposure as a risk factor for allergy to moulds is not well documented. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of allergic hypersensitivity to moulds. A group of 243 participants was examined. Of these 118 lived in dwellings with evident signs of fungal contamination (study group) and 125 in non-contaminated sites (controls). An interview, skin prick tests to common and fungal allergens, evaluation of total serum IgE and specific IgE to moulds, resting spirometry as well as mycological analysis in building were performed for each participant. 19.8% subjects were sensitized to at least one mould allergen. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the history of respiratory and skin symptoms, smoking cigarettes in the past and positive skin prick tests (SPT) to common allergens (dust mite and grass pollens) or the presence of a cat as a pet animal were the significant associated factors of hypersensitivity to moulds. The association between indoor fungal exposure and the development of fungal allergy was not confirmed in our study.

  9. Determining the suitability of Lactobacilli antifungal metabolites for inhibiting mould growth

    Treesearch

    Vina W. Yang; Carol A. Clausen

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, public concern about indoor mould growth has increased dramatically in the United States. In this study, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are known to produce antimicrobial compounds important in the biopreservation of food, were evaluated to determine if the same antimicrobial properties can be used to inhibit mould fungi that typically colonize wood...

  10. 78 FR 12357 - Brockway Mould, Inc., a Division of Ross International Ltd. Including Robert Lerch From BJR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration Brockway Mould, Inc., a Division of Ross International Ltd. Including... Brockway Mould, Inc., a division of Ross International Ltd, Brockport, Pennsylvania (subject firm). The...,862 is hereby issued as follows: ``All workers from Brockway Mould, Inc., a division of...

  11. Beneficiation of graphite fines from moulding factory wastes.

    PubMed

    Koca, Sabina; Koca, Huseyin

    2005-08-01

    As the costs of waste disposal increase, more attention is being placed upon the re-use and recycling of valuable minerals contained within the waste streams. In this article, the waste streams from a moulding factory were treated by physical methods to obtain a re-usable graphite fraction. Multi-gravity separators (MGS) and shaking tables (ST) are being used in coal processing and heavy minerals beneficiation. In the present study, the possibility of using an MGS and ST to separate graphite from moulding sand was analysed as part of such investigations. The effects of changes in different process variables on the concentrate sand content and graphite recovery values were studied. Several parameters, thought to have an effect on the separation were tested. After the ST experiments, a graphite concentrate was obtained having 4.5% sand content with 60.8% recovery. After the investigations carried out by MGS, a graphite concentrate was obtained having 0.95% sand content with 68.0% recovery. The results demonstrated that recovered graphite fractions can be re-used in the factory, thus reducing the quantity of waste and costs.

  12. Habituation in non-neural organisms: evidence from slime moulds.

    PubMed

    Boisseau, Romain P; Vogel, David; Dussutour, Audrey

    2016-04-27

    Learning, defined as a change in behaviour evoked by experience, has hitherto been investigated almost exclusively in multicellular neural organisms. Evidence for learning in non-neural multicellular organisms is scant, and only a few unequivocal reports of learning have been described in single-celled organisms. Here we demonstrate habituation, an unmistakable form of learning, in the non-neural organism Physarum polycephalum In our experiment, using chemotaxis as the behavioural output and quinine or caffeine as the stimulus, we showed that P. polycephalum learnt to ignore quinine or caffeine when the stimuli were repeated, but responded again when the stimulus was withheld for a certain time. Our results meet the principle criteria that have been used to demonstrate habituation: responsiveness decline and spontaneous recovery. To distinguish habituation from sensory adaptation or motor fatigue, we also show stimulus specificity. Our results point to the diversity of organisms lacking neurons, which likely display a hitherto unrecognized capacity for learning, and suggest that slime moulds may be an ideal model system in which to investigate fundamental mechanisms underlying learning processes. Besides, documenting learning in non-neural organisms such as slime moulds is centrally important to a comprehensive, phylogenetic understanding of when and where in the tree of life the earliest manifestations of learning evolved. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. 3D digitising using structured illumination: application to mould redesign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granero, L.; Sánchez, J.; Micó, V.; Esteve, J. J.; Hervás, J.; Simón, S.; Pérez, E.

    2007-06-01

    Conventional techniques applied to three dimensional (3D) acquisition of information has significant limitations depending on the features of the piece under test. Thus, complex curvatures, deeper concavities and higher volumes are some examples of critical factors in which contact digitising systems are not suitable to undertake such kind of task. In these cases, the usage of optical 3D digitization systems implies a more appropriate way to obtain 3D information about the sample. In particular, structured illumination by means of white light provides point-to-point object acquisition with accuracy and resolution that are always below the manufactured tolerances. Moreover, when the object under test is too large, structured illumination can be mixed with photogrammetrical techniques in order to avoid errors by means of the delimitation of the overall working volume. This proceeding presents several real cases applied to mould industry in which 3D shape measurement using white light structured illumination is combined with finite element method (FEM) and laser cladding techniques to allow the repair of the mould.

  14. Habituation in non-neural organisms: evidence from slime moulds

    PubMed Central

    Boisseau, Romain P.; Vogel, David; Dussutour, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Learning, defined as a change in behaviour evoked by experience, has hitherto been investigated almost exclusively in multicellular neural organisms. Evidence for learning in non-neural multicellular organisms is scant, and only a few unequivocal reports of learning have been described in single-celled organisms. Here we demonstrate habituation, an unmistakable form of learning, in the non-neural organism Physarum polycephalum. In our experiment, using chemotaxis as the behavioural output and quinine or caffeine as the stimulus, we showed that P. polycephalum learnt to ignore quinine or caffeine when the stimuli were repeated, but responded again when the stimulus was withheld for a certain time. Our results meet the principle criteria that have been used to demonstrate habituation: responsiveness decline and spontaneous recovery. To distinguish habituation from sensory adaptation or motor fatigue, we also show stimulus specificity. Our results point to the diversity of organisms lacking neurons, which likely display a hitherto unrecognized capacity for learning, and suggest that slime moulds may be an ideal model system in which to investigate fundamental mechanisms underlying learning processes. Besides, documenting learning in non-neural organisms such as slime moulds is centrally important to a comprehensive, phylogenetic understanding of when and where in the tree of life the earliest manifestations of learning evolved. PMID:27122563

  15. Mucoraceous moulds involved in the commercial fermentation of Sufu Pehtze.

    PubMed

    Han, Bei-Zhong; Kuijpers, Angelina F A; Thanh, Nguyen V; Nout, M J Robert

    2004-04-01

    Sufu is a fermented cheese-like soybean product in China and Vietnam, obtained by fungal solid-state fermentation of soybean curd (tofu), which results in moulded tofu or 'pehtze'. The final product sufu is obtained by maturing pehtze in a brine containing alcohol and salt during a period of several months. The present report deals with the identity and phylogenetic relationships of mould starter cultures used for the preparation ofpehtze. Starter cultures used in commercial pehtze fermentation were obtained from factories located in several provinces of China and Vietnam, isolated from their pehtze and some were obtained from culture collections. They were identified as Actinomucor repens, Actinomucor taiwanensis, Mucor circinelloides, Mocur hiemalis, Mocur racemosus, and Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus. Phylogenetic relations based on sequencing of genomic DNA of these starters and of relevant control strains from collections indicate that the genera Mucor, Actinomucor and Rhizopus form distinct and homogenous clusters, with Mucor and Actinomucor showing a slightly closer relationship with each other than with Rhizopus.

  16. Ergosterol as an indicator of mould growth on building materials.

    PubMed

    Hippelein, Martin; Rügamer, Melanie

    2004-09-01

    Ergosterol was used as a specific indicator of fungal biomass to determine and assess mould growth on damp building material. The samples were saponified, cleaned up on a silica gel column and the sterols silylated and analysed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in MS/MS mode. Ninety-one samples of building materials from damp rooms were analysed including plaster, plaster/paint, paint, wood-chip wallpaper and paper wall covering. The concentrations of ergosterol ranged from 0.1 to 130 microg/g dry mass and depended on carbon content of the material. The highest concentrations were determined for wallpaper, the lowest for plaster and intermediate ones for paint. Based on ergosterol content and inspection of the room during sampling a rough classification of mould infestation is presented. The applicability of the ergosterol method was further tested in two case studies on the spatial distribution of fungi on damp walls and irregular distributions were found. With few exceptions the concentration of ergosterol in building materials was found to be a suitable indicator to estimate fungal biomass.

  17. Metal Injection Moulding: A Near Net Shape Fabrication Method for the Manufacture of Turbine Engine Component

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    annealing. 1 INTRODUCTION Nickel superalloys such as Inconel 625 were developed to withstand the intense conditions present in gas turbine engines...where carbides present. Acicular (delta) Blocky irregular (Laves) 866°C-1033°C (1100°F-1400°F) γ’’ Plate of disc shaped particles...1991), The Influence of Processing Variables on the Microstructure and Properties of PM 625 Alloy, Superalloys 718, 625, 706 and Various Derivatives

  18. Slip-additive migration, surface morphology, and performance on injection moulded high-density polyethylene closures.

    PubMed

    Dulal, Nabeen; Shanks, Robert; Gengenbach, Thomas; Gill, Harsharn; Chalmers, David; Adhikari, Benu; Pardo Martinez, Isaac

    2017-11-01

    The amount and distribution of slip agents, erucamide, and behenamide, on the surface of high-density polyethene, is determined by integral characteristics of slip agent structure and polymer morphology. A suite of surface analysis techniques was applied to correlate physicochemical properties with slip-additive migration behaviour and their surface morphology. The migration, surface morphology and physicochemical properties of the slip additives, crystallinity and orientation of polyethene spherulites and interaction between slip additives and high-density polyethene influence the surface characteristics. The high-density polyethene closures were produced with erucamide and behenamide separately and stored until they produced required torque. Surface composition was determined employing spectroscopy and gas chromatography. The distribution of additives was observed under optical, scanning electron and atomic force microscopes. The surface energy, crystallinity and application torque were measured using contact angle, differential scanning calorimeter and a torque force tester respectively. Each slip additive produced a characteristic amide peak at 1645cm(-1) in infrared spectroscopy and peaks of oxygen and nitrogen in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, suggesting their presence on the surface. The erucamide produced placoid scale-like structures and behenamide formed denticulate structures. The surface erucamide and behenamide responsible for reducing the torque was found to be 15.7µg/cm(2) and 1.7µg/cm(2). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Laser welding process in PP moulding parts: Evaluation of seam performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, N.; Pontes, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Polypropylene is one of the most versatile polymer materials used in the industry. Due to this versatility, it is possible to use it in different products. This material can also be mixed with several additives namely glass fiber, carbon nanotubes, etc. This compatibility with different additives allows also obtaining products with characteristics that goes from an impact absorber to an electricity conductor. When is necessary to join components in PP they could be welded through hot plate, ultrasonic weld and also by laser. This study had the objective of study the influence of several variables, capable of influence the final quality of the seam. In this case were studied variables of the injection molding process as mold temperature and cooling time. Was also studied laser welding variables and different materials. The results showed that the variables that have the most influence were mould temperature, laser velocity and laser diameter. The seams were analyzed using Optical Microscopy technique. The seams showed perfect contact between the materials analyzed, despite the high standard variation presented in the mechanical testes.

  20. Organic dust induced pulmonary disease - the role of mould derived beta-glucan.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Ragnar

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the role of the mould cell wall agent beta-glucan in environmentally related pulmonary disease. All published articles where beta-glucan was administered by the airways, either as intratracheal injection or as inhalation were utilised as data sources. Data reporting consisted of analysis of data reports concerning the effects of beta-glucan on the immune system on the cellular level, particularly on the aggregation of inflammatory cells or production of inflammatory cytokines. High doses of soluble and particulate beta-glucan cause an inflammatory response characterized by cytokine activation and neutrophil invasion in the lung tissue. At lower doses, closer to environmental exposure levels, the predominant effect is an influence on the response to antigens, the reactivity of eosinophils and other Th2 driven immune responses. It is concluded that, beta-glucan can induce Th1 as well asTh2 driven immune responses. The pathology of atopy/allergy, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and toxic penumonitis might be induced by exposure to beta-glucan. Measurements of beta-glucan in different environments are useful for risk control and prevention.

  1. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... body and causes pain, swelling, and damage) including: rheumatoid arthritis (condition in which the body attacks its own ... doctor.If golimumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it may also be injected intravenously (into a ...

  2. Adalimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes pain, swelling, and damage) including the following: rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... If you are using adalimumab injection to treat rheumatoid arthritis, your doctor may tell you to inject the ...

  3. Ipilimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while receiving ipilimumab injection, call your doctor. Ipilimumab injection may cause your baby to be born too early or to die before birth.

  4. Teniposide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in men. You should not become pregnant or breast-feed while you are receiving teniposide injection. If you or your partner become pregnant while receiving teniposide injection, call your doctor. Teniposide may harm the fetus.

  5. Dexrazoxane Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who ... with doxorubicin. Dexrazoxane injection (Totect) is used to decrease damage to the skin and tissues that may ...

  6. Colistimethate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Colistimethate injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work ...

  7. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  8. Natalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... your condition. Keep all appointments to receive natalizumab injection even if you feel well. ... tests to check your body's response to natalizumab injection.It is important ... you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  9. Methylnaltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... taking opioid medications, you should stop using methylnaltrexone injection as well.You should stop taking other laxative medications when you start using methylnaltrexone injection. However, be sure to let your doctor know ...

  10. Triptorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to treat the symptoms associated with advanced prostate cancer. Triptorelin injection (Triptodur) is used to treat central ... a medical office or clinic. When used for prostate cancer, an injection of 3.75 mg of triptorelin ( ...

  11. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  12. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of birth control but does not prevent the spread of human ... you have been using a different method of birth control and are switching to medroxyprogesterone injection, your doctor ...

  13. Dolasetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Dolasetron injection should not be used to prevent ... a single injection just before the end of surgery or as soon as nausea or vomiting occurs. ...

  14. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Levoleucovorin injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of cancer. Levoleucovorin injection is also used to treat people ...

  15. Etelcalcetide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Etelcalcetide injection is used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism (condition in which the body produces too much parathyroid ... blood when the kidneys are not working properly.) Etelcalcetide injection is in a class of medications called ...

  16. Dupilumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat the symptoms of eczema (atopic dermatitis; a skin disease that causes the ... use other medications for their condition or whose eczema has not responded to other medications. Dupilumab injection ...

  17. Methylprednisolone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic reactions. Methylprednisolone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis (a disease in which the ... laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are using methylprednisolone injection.If you ...

  18. Clindamycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... your treatment with clindamycin injection or during the first several months after your treatment is finished: watery or bloody stools, diarrhea, stomach cramps, or fever.Talk to your doctor about the risks of receiving clindamycin injection.

  19. Obinutuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Obinutuzumab injection is used with chlorambucil (Leukeran) to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Obinutuzumab injection is in a class of medications called ...

  20. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Ferumoxytol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  1. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pralatrexate injection is used to treat peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL; a form of cancer that begins in a ... come back after treatment with other medications. Pralatrexate injection has not been shown to help people who ...

  2. Cyanocobalamin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cyanocobalamin injection is used to treat and prevent a lack of vitamin B12 that may be caused by any ... organs) and permanent damage to the nerves. Cyanocobalamin injection also may be given as a test to ...

  3. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Paclitaxel injection manufactured with human albumin is used to treat breast cancer that has not improved or that has come back after treatment with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to ...

  4. Peramivir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Peramivir injection is used to treat some types of influenza infection ('flu') in people who have had symptoms of ... flu for no longer than 2 days. Peramivir injection is in a class of medications called neuraminidase ...

  5. Cefotetan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cefotetan injection is used to treat infections of the lungs, skin, bones, joints, stomach area, blood, female reproductive organs, and urinary tract. Cefotetan injection is also used before surgery to prevent infections. ...

  6. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Mipomersen injection is used to decrease levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood in people who ... that removes LDL from the blood), but mipomersen injection should not be used along with this treatment. ...

  7. Romiplostim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Romiplostim injection is used to increase the number of platelets (cells that help the blood to clot) in order ... low number of platelets in the blood). Romiplostim injection should only be used in people who cannot ...

  8. Hydrocortisone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocortisone injection is used to treat symptoms of low corticosteroid levels (lack of certain substances that are usually produced ... also used to treat severe allergic reactions. Hydrocortisone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis ( ...

  9. Palivizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Palivizumab injection is used to help prevent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; common virus that can cause serious lung infections) ... or have certain heart or lung diseases. Palivizumab injection is not used to treat the symptoms of ...

  10. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large amounts of alcohol to avoid drinking again. Naltrexone injection is also used along with counseling and social ...

  11. Tesamorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Tesamorelin injection is used to decrease the amount of extra fat in the stomach area in adults with human ... fat in certain areas of the body). Tesamorelin injection is not used to help with weight loss. ...

  12. Tigecycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Tigecycline injection used to treat certain serious infections including community acquired pneumonia (a lung infection that developed in a ... area between the chest and the waist). Tigecycline injection should not be used to treat pneumonia that ...

  13. Eculizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Eculizumab injection is used to treat paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH: a type of anemia in which too many red ... oxygen to all parts of the body). Eculizumab injection is also used to treat atypical hemolytic uremic ...

  14. Pembrolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pembrolizumab injection is used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that cannot be treated with surgery or ... spread to other parts of the body. Pembrolizumab injection is also used to treat a certain type ...

  15. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria. Oxacillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work ...

  16. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  17. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Nafcillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as nafcillin injection will not work ...

  18. Doripenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract, kidney, and abdomen that are caused by bacteria. Doripenem injection is not approved by the Food ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work ...

  19. Cidofovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in babies whose mothers received cidofovir injection during pregnancy. You should not use cidofovir injection while you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant unless your doctor decides that this is the best treatment for your condition.Cidofovir injection has caused tumors ...

  20. Albiglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood) when other medications did not control levels well enough. Albiglutide injection is not used to treat type 1 diabetes ( ... does not cure it. Continue to use albiglutide injection even if you feel well. Do not stop using albiglutide injection without talking ...

  1. Nalbuphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of nalbuphine injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side effects that you experience. Talk to your doctor about how you are feeling ... nalbuphine injection.You may receive nalbuphine injection in a hospital, ...

  2. Liraglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood) when other medications did not control levels well enough. Liraglutide injection (Victoza) is not used to treat type 1 ... does not cure it. Continue to use liraglutide injection even if you feel well. Do not stop using liraglutide injection without talking ...

  3. Meperidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of meperidine injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side effects that you experience. Talk to your doctor about how you are feeling ... meperidine injection.If you have used meperidine injection for longer ...

  4. Dulaglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood) when other medications did not control levels well enough. Dulaglutide injection is not used to treat type 1 diabetes ( ... does not cure it. Continue to use dulaglutide injection even if you feel well. Do not stop using dulaglutide injection without talking ...

  5. Morphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of morphine injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side effects that you experience. Talk to your doctor about how you are feeling ... with morphine injection.If you have used morphine injection for longer ...

  6. Busulfan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Busulfex® Injection ... Busulfan injection is used to treat a certain type of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML; a type of cancer of ... of 16 doses) before bone marrow transplant.Busulfan injection may cause seizures during therapy with the medication. ...

  7. Studies on mould growth and biomass production using waste banana peel.

    PubMed

    Essien, J P; Akpan, E J; Essien, E P

    2005-09-01

    Hyphomycetous (Aspergillus fumigatus) and Phycomycetous (Mucor hiemalis) moulds were cultivated in vitro at room temperature (28 + 20 degrees C) to examined their growth and biomass production on waste banana peel agar (BPA) and broth (BPB) using commercial malt extract agar (MEA) and broth (MEB) as control. The moulds grew comparatively well on banana peel substrates. No significant difference (p > 0.05) in radial growth rates was observed between moulds cultivated on PBA and MEA, although growth rates on MEA were slightly better. Slight variations in sizes of asexual spores and reproductive hyphae were also observed between moulds grown on MEA and BPA. Smaller conidia and sporangiospores, and shorter aerial hyphae (conidiophores and sporangiophores) were noticed in moulds grown on BPA than on MEA. The biomass weight of the test moulds obtained after one month of incubation with BPB were only about 1.8 mg and 1.4 mg less than values recorded for A. fumigatus and M. hiemalis respectively, grown on MEB. The impressive performance of the moulds on banana peel substrate may be attributed to the rich nutrient (particularly the crude protein 7.8% and crude fat 11.6% contents) composition of banana peels. The value of this agricultural waste can therefore be increased by its use not only in the manufacture of mycological medium but also in the production of valuable microfungal biomass which is rich in protein and fatty acids.

  8. Myceliophthora thermophila syn. Sporotrichum thermophile: a thermophilic mould of biotechnological potential.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bijender

    2016-01-01

    Myceliophthora thermophila syn. Sporotrichum thermophile is a ubiquitous thermophilic mould with a strong ability to degrade organic matter during optimal growth at 45 °C. Both genome analysis and experimental data have suggested that the mould is capable of hydrolyzing all major polysaccharides found in biomass. The mould is able to secrete a large number of hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, laccases, xylanases, pectinases, lipases, phytases and some other miscellaneous enzymes) employed in various biotechnological applications. Characterization of the biomass-hydrolyzing activity of wild and recombinant enzymes suggests that this mould is highly efficient in biomass decomposition at both moderate and high temperatures. The native enzymes produced by the mould are more efficient in activity than their mesophilic counterparts beside their low enzyme titers. The mould is able to synthesize various biomolecules, which are used in multifarious applications. Genome sequence data of M. thermophila also supported the physiological data. This review describes the biotechnological potential of thermophilic mould, M. thermophila supported by genomic and experimental evidences.

  9. Development and initial testing of a novel slime mould biosensor.

    PubMed

    Whiting, James G H; de Lacy Costello, Ben; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A plurality of whole cell biosensors have been developed using many different cell types. Biosensors incorporate biomolecular components or whole cells to facilitate specific analyte interaction; research documented here presents a novel whole cell biosensor based on the slime mould Physarum polycephalum (PP). The electrical response of PP when exposed to multiple chemicals are measured and quantified in terms of amplitude and frequency response. The PP biosensor is capable of detecting the tested chemicals and individually identifying a large number in terms of a specific shift in either oscillation frequency or amplitude. However, it does exhibit a sensitivity to environmental changes such as light level and temperature which may interfere with the detection of the target analyte but could also be used for wider sensing applications. It is proposed that this novel biosensor is capable of detecting many organic chemicals beyond those presented in this work and that the biosensor may be used for environmental monitoring and toxicity evaluation.

  10. Electric moulding of dispersed lipid nanotubes into a nanofluidic device

    PubMed Central

    Frusawa, Hiroshi; Manabe, Tatsuhiko; Kagiyama, Eri; Hirano, Ken; Kameta, Naohiro; Masuda, Mitsutoshi; Shimizu, Toshimi

    2013-01-01

    Hydrophilic nanotubes formed by lipid molecules have potential applications as platforms for chemical or biological events occurring in an attolitre volume inside a hollow cylinder. Here, we have integrated the lipid nanotubes (LNTs) by applying an AC electric field via plug-in electrode needles placed above a substrate. The off-chip assembly method has the on-demand adjustability of an electrode configuration, enabling the dispersed LNT to be electrically moulded into a separate film of parallel LNT arrays in one-step. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer technique as well as the digital microscopy visualised the overall filling of gold nanoparticles up to the inner capacity of an LNT film by capillary action, thereby showing the potential of this flexible film for use as a high-throughput nanofluidic device where not only is the endo-signalling and product in each LNT multiplied but also the encapsulated objects are efficiently transported and reacted. PMID:23835525

  11. Moulded infrared optics making night vision for cars within reach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourget, Antoine; Guimond, Yann; Franks, John; Van Den Bergh, Marleen

    2005-02-01

    Sustainable mobility is a major public concern, making increased safety one of the major challenges for the car of the future. About half of all serious traffic accidents occur at night, while only a minority of journeys is at night. Reduced visibility is one of the main reasons for these striking statistics and this explains the interest of the automobile industry in Enhanced Night Vision Systems. As an answer to the need for high volume, low cost optics for these applications, Umicore has developed GASIR. This material is transparent in the NEAR and FAR infrared, and is mouldable into high quality finished spherical, aspherical and diffractive lenses. Umicore's GASIR moulded lenses are an ideal solution for thermal imaging for cars (Night Vision) and for sensing systems like pedestrian detection, collision avoidance, occupation detection, intelligent airbag systems etc.

  12. [Moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks].

    PubMed

    Ancasi, E G; Carrillo, L; Benítez Ahrendts, M R

    2006-01-01

    Some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. The contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. The methods of Déak & Beuchat and Pitt & Hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. The agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The microorganisms found in sugar were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, P. anomala and Rhizopus stolonifer. Paecilomyces fulvus and Penicillium glabrum were observed in carbonated water.

  13. Optimising efficiency in diamond turned Fresnel mould masters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allsop, John L.; Mateboer, Arjen; Shore, Paul

    2011-05-01

    Radial and Linear Fresnel Lenses are finding application as light concentrators for Concentrated Photovoltaic and Concentrated Solar Thermal power applications. The efficiency of these diffractive lenses directly affects the yield of such systems. Peaks and valleys of the optical facets of the Fresnel lens must be sharp in order to prevent diffusion and transmission loss due to rounding. For diamond turned mould masters, optical facet tip sharpness is affected by machining accuracy, tool-path and tool wear/mileage. Strategies to optimise optical facet tip sharpness are presented which enable production of large lenses with minimal degradation of optical quality. Radial Fresnel produced with diameters over 500mm and Linear Fresnel over 1m long are discussed with data on structure fidelity and tool wear.

  14. Improved design and development of a functional moulded prosthetic foot.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Govindarajan; Gnanasundaram, Saraswathy; Ranganathan, Mohan; Ranganathan, Rajaraman; Gopalakrishna, Gautham; Das, Bhabendra Nath; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2016-01-01

    In the Indian scenario, the Jaipur foot is a low-cost breakthrough that enabled the disabled person to adapt to the Indian environment. The aim of this study is to modify the present foot in terms of ankle support design and method of fabrication, foot moulds profile and the inner core material in order to improve the performance and durability. The optimized design of ankle support and flat foot profile moulds suitable for both left and right foot were developed through CAD/CAM and prosthetic feet were fabricated using ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) foam as an appropriate alternative core material for microcellular rubber (MCR). The developed prosthetic feet were tested for rigidity by load-deflection analysis in universal testing machine. EVA foot had shown better rigidity than conventional MCR foot, which will help in weight transfer during walking and increase the durability. The CAD modeled ankle support and single block EVA had made the manufacturing process easy and reduced the weight of foot and improved Gait to the person fitted with it due to improved flat foot profile. The new artificial foot had proven to be efficacious technically as well as functionally, which is clearly borne out from the extremely positive feedback given by the amputees. Implications of Rehabilitation Persons with below knee amputation are usually provided with transtibial prosthesis, which allows for easier ambulation and helps them to get back to their normal life. Transtibial prosthesis is an artificial limb that replaces a lower limb that is amputated below the knee. In our study, a new prosthetic foot with a modified ankle support and flat foot profile using better inner-core material than the conventional Jaipur foot was developed and the process was also optimized for mass production. The developed prosthetic foot can be fitted with both above and below knee exoskeleton type of prosthesis.

  15. Using the head as a mould for cranioplasty with methylmethacrylate.

    PubMed

    Bot, G M; Ismail, N J; Usman, B; Shilong, D J; Obande, J O; Aliu, S; Sale, D; Shehu, B B

    2013-10-01

    Methacrylate is a valuable tool to the neurosurgeon, even though it is currently being replaced by custom bone. During cranioplasty in the absence of custom bone, which is preformed based on the patients imaging, one has to make a cast to cover the cranial defect with or without the use of a mould. A good artificial skull outline is necessary for prevention of implant extrusion and acceptable cosmetic outcome. Using the patients head as a mould is a simple, cheap, and useful technique. An incision is made, and either a craniectomy or an attempt at skull elevation or separation of the scalp from dura is done based on the indication for the cranioplasty. The methacrylate monomer is mixed with its solvent. It is placed in between a sliced glove and then thinned out. Several layers of drapes are placed on the patients head, the acrylate which is in between the gloves is then placed on the drapes. As soon as it starts setting and the required shape obtained, it is removed and place on the sterile tray. It is then anchored and the wound closed. This technique produces good cosmetic outcome. However, the head must be properly protected from the risk of burns from the exothermic reaction. The technique is described in a 40-year-old driver who had a compound depressed skull fracture. He had a methylmethacrylate cranioplasty in the 9(th) week post trauma after allowing for wound healing. We recommend that this technique may be used in centers where custom bone is either too expensive or not available during cranioplasty in order to obtain a good outcome.

  16. Cellular automaton model of crowd evacuation inspired by slime mould

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogeiton, V. S.; Papadopoulos, D. P.; Georgilas, I. P.; Sirakoulis, G. Ch.; Adamatzky, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    In all the living organisms, the self-preservation behaviour is almost universal. Even the most simple of living organisms, like slime mould, is typically under intense selective pressure to evolve a response to ensure their evolution and safety in the best possible way. On the other hand, evacuation of a place can be easily characterized as one of the most stressful situations for the individuals taking part on it. Taking inspiration from the slime mould behaviour, we are introducing a computational bio-inspired model crowd evacuation model. Cellular Automata (CA) were selected as a fully parallel advanced computation tool able to mimic the Physarum's behaviour. In particular, the proposed CA model takes into account while mimicking the Physarum foraging process, the food diffusion, the organism's growth, the creation of tubes for each organism, the selection of optimum tube for each human in correspondence to the crowd evacuation under study and finally, the movement of all humans at each time step towards near exit. To test the model's efficiency and robustness, several simulation scenarios were proposed both in virtual and real-life indoor environments (namely, the first floor of office building B of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Democritus University of Thrace). The proposed model is further evaluated in a purely quantitative way by comparing the simulation results with the corresponding ones from the bibliography taken by real data. The examined fundamental diagrams of velocity-density and flow-density are found in full agreement with many of the already published corresponding results proving the adequacy, the fitness and the resulting dynamics of the model. Finally, several real Physarum experiments were conducted in an archetype of the aforementioned real-life environment proving at last that the proposed model succeeded in reproducing sufficiently the Physarum's recorded behaviour derived from observation of the aforementioned

  17. Rapid fabrication of microdevices using laser direct writing and replica moulding technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antończak, A. J.; Stepak, B. D.; Abramski, K. M.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a method that enables fast and low-cost fabrication of microchannels with oval cross-section. The procedure is based on formation of a concave meniscus at the interface between an initially cured PDMS and a polymeric mould fabricated using excimer laser. The replica is formed by expanding gas trapped within the structures of the mould during thermal curing. A second shaping factor is connected with surface phenomena at the interface between the mould, gas and partially cured PDMS. The final shape of the meniscus is determined when the PDMS reaches the high cure extent.

  18. Laser cleaning of the contaminations on the surface of tire mould

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yayun; Jia, Baoshen; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Yilan; Tang, Hongping; Wang, Haijun; Luan, Xiaoyu; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Chuanchao; Yao, Caizhen

    2017-07-01

    During the manufacturing of tires, surface pollutants on tire mould will lead to the production of unqualified tires. Tire moulds need to be regularly cleaned. Laser cleaning is recognized as a non-destructive, effective, precise and environmental friendly method. In this paper, laser cleaning was used to remove contaminants on tire mould surface. First, laser induced damage experiments were performed. The results showed that the roughness and hardness of the cast steel sample surface seldom changed under the energy range of 140.1-580.2 mJ laser irradiation 1 pulse and the energy range of 44.7-168.9 mJ laser irradiation 100 pulses. In the laser cleaning experiments, the cleaning thresholds and the optimal cleaning parameters were obtained. Results indicated that laser cleaning was safe and effective for tire mould contamination removal.

  19. Using the anti-adherence paints to manufacturing of the moulds intended for iron castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josan, A.; Pinca Bretotean, C.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the critical technology for obtaining of the lamellar graphite grey cast iron castings (Supporting roll type). Are presented the stages of achievement of the mould and the elaboration technology of the liquid alloy. A view to improving the qualitative characteristics of the castings and reducing the defects due to achievement of moulds it is necessary to use the antiadherence paints for moulds and cores. From the point of view of the cost the antiadherence paints belong to the expensive material category. But these expenses are done with their acquisition are amortized into account of improving the commercial aspect of the castings and shortening of the cleaning-finishing operations. Due to increase the resistance of the moulds and cores which they apply it is possible to decrease the machining allowance.

  20. Penile cancer brachytherapy HDR mould technique used at the Holycross Cancer Center

    PubMed Central

    Kubicka-Mendak, Iwona; Łyczek, Jarosław; Pawłowski, Piotr; Stawiarska, Iwona; Miedzinska, Joanna; Banatkiewicz, Paweł; Łaskawska-Wiatr, Aldona; Wittych, Justyna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this pictorial essay is to present the mould based HDR brachytherapy technique used at the Holycross Cancer Center for penile cancer patients. We use images to describe this method step by step. PMID:23346132

  1. Penile cancer brachytherapy HDR mould technique used at the Holycross Cancer Center.

    PubMed

    Matys, Robert; Kubicka-Mendak, Iwona; Lyczek, Jarosław; Pawłowski, Piotr; Stawiarska, Iwona; Miedzinska, Joanna; Banatkiewicz, Paweł; Laskawska-Wiatr, Aldona; Wittych, Justyna

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this pictorial essay is to present the mould based HDR brachytherapy technique used at the Holycross Cancer Center for penile cancer patients. We use images to describe this method step by step.

  2. Impression technique for monitoring and virtual treatment planning in nasoalveolar moulding.

    PubMed

    Loeffelbein, Denys J; Rau, Andrea; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich

    2013-12-01

    We describe our experience with various silicone materials for making one-step and two-step impressions of the cleft-lip-palate-nose complex during nasoalveolar moulding. Our technique is superior to common alginate-based impression techniques, as it provides precise reproduction of the complex anatomy of the cleft, and is compatible with the latest available methods of planning treatment with nasoalveolar moulding, such as computer-aided reverse engineering and rapid prototyping.

  3. Use of the selective agar medium CREAD for monitoring the level of airborne spoilage moulds in cheese production.

    PubMed

    Kure, Cathrine Finne; Borch, Elisabeth; Karlsson, Ingela; Homleid, Jens Petter; Langsrud, Solveig

    2008-02-29

    It was investigated if a selective medium for common cheese spoiling moulds (CREAD) could give more relevant information than a general mould medium in hygienic air-sampling in cheese factories. A total of 126 air-samples were taken in six Nordic cheese factories using the general mould medium DG18 and CREAD. The level and genera of air-borne mould was determined. Identification to species-level was performed for a selection of samples. In five cheese factories the mycobiota was dominated by Penicillium spp. and in one cheese factory by Cladosporium spp. The concentration of air-borne moulds varied between the cheese factories ranging from 1 to 270 cfu/m3 on DG18 with a median value of 17. The number of mould colonies was in general lower at CREAD. Identification indicated that CREAD supported growth of common spoilage moulds for cheese, such as Penicillium palitans and P. commune. The mycobiota on DG18 also consisted of moulds not commonly associated with spoilage of cheese, such as Cladosporium spp., P. brevicompactum and P. chrysogenum. Contamination of cheese with mould is periodically a problem in production of semi-hard cheese and the level of air-borne mould is therefore routinely monitored in cheese factories. A clear correlation between the total number of moulds in air and mould growth on products is not always found. The conclusion from the investigation is that it is recommended to use a selective medium for cheese spoilage moulds, such as CREAD in hygienic monitoring.

  4. Metabolic activity of moulds as a factor of building materials biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Gutarowska, Beata

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the effect of building materials on the growth and metabolic activity of moulds. In cultures of Aspergillus and Penicillium moulds grown on a model medium with the addition of building materials, the biomass of mycelium, its cellular components--glucan, chitin, ergosterol and the spectrum of enzymes and organic acids produced in the medium were investigated. It was found that on the medium with wallpaper moulds produced more biomass and extracellular enzymes, mainly glycolytic ones. On medium with mortar the growth of mycelium was impeded, production of biomass was 60% smaller, the quantity of chitin, glucan and ergosterol decreased 13-41%, and the activity of most enzymes was reduced; however the moulds intensively produced organic acids: malic, succinic and oxalic acid. The largest acid production activity was found in medium with addition of mortar; moulds produced the greatest variety of acids and in greater quantities than in the control medium. Metabolic activity of the moulds depends on the type of building material, and may lead to biodeterioration of these materials.

  5. Hydromorphone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of hydromorphone injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side ... to have pain after you finish the hydromorphone injection, call your doctor.It ... you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  6. Ixabepilone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor will order laboratory tests to see how well your liver is working before and during your treatment. If the tests show that you have liver problems, your doctor will probably not give you ixabepilone injection and capecitabine (Xeloda). Treatment with both ixabepilone injection ...

  7. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... group of cancers of the immune system that first appear as skin rashes) in people who have already been treated with at least one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications called histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. It ...

  8. Nusinersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Nusinersen injection is used for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (an inherited condition that reduces muscle strength and movement). Nusinersen injection is in a class of medications called antisense ... a certain protein necessary for the muscles and nerves to work normally.

  9. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  10. Fire Retardancy of Natural Fibre Reinforced Sheet Moulding Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapuarachchi, T. D.; Ren, G.; Fan, M.; Hogg, P. J.; Peijs, T.

    2007-07-01

    Due to environmental awareness and economical considerations, natural fibre reinforced polymer composites seem to present a viable alternative to synthetic fibre reinforced polymer composites such as glass fibres. This is a feasibility study to asses the potential application of natural fibre reinforced sheet moulding compound materials (NF-SMC) for the use in building applications, with particular emphases to their reaction to fire. The reinforcing fibres in this study were industrial hemp fibres. The cone calorimeter which asses the fire hazard of materials by Heat Release Rate (HRR) was used, radiant heat fluxes of 25 and 50 kW/m2 were utilised to simulate an ignition source and fully developed room fire conditions respectively. The results acquired here demonstrate that the NF-SMC can compete with current building materials in terms of their fire behaviour. The peak heat release value for the fire retardant (FR) NF-SMC was 176 kW/m2 conversely for a non-FR NF-SMC was 361 kW/m2.

  11. Effectiveness of phenolic compounds against citrus green mould.

    PubMed

    Sanzani, Simona M; Schena, Leonardo; Ippolito, Antonio

    2014-08-18

    Stored citrus fruit suffer huge losses because of the development of green mould caused by Penicillium digitatum. Usually synthetic fungicides are employed to control this disease, but their use is facing some obstacles, such public concern about possible adverse effects on human and environmental health and the development of resistant pathogen populations. In the present study quercetin, scopoletin and scoparone--phenolic compounds present in several agricultural commodities and associated with response to stresses--were firstly tested in vitro against P. digitatum and then applied in vivo on oranges cv. Navelina. Fruits were wound-treated (100 µg), pathogen-inoculated, stored and surveyed for disease incidence and severity. Although only a minor (≤13%) control effect on P. digitatum growth was recorded in vitro, the in vivo trial results were encouraging. In fact, on phenolic-treated oranges, symptoms appeared at 6 days post-inoculation (DPI), i.e., with a 2 day-delay as compared to the untreated control. Moreover, at 8 DPI, quercetin, scopoletin, and scoparone significantly reduced disease incidence and severity by 69%-40% and 85%-70%, respectively, as compared to the control. At 14 DPI, scoparone was the most active molecule. Based on the results, these compounds might represent an interesting alternative to synthetic fungicides.

  12. Modelling mould growth under suboptimal environmental conditions and inoculum size.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Daiana; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, Vicente; Marín, Sonia

    2010-10-01

    Predictive models can be a tool to develop strategies to prevent mould development and consequently mycotoxin production. The aims of this work were to assess the impact of a) high/low levels of inoculum and b) optimal/suboptimal environmental conditions on fungal responses based on both kinetic and probabilistic models. Different levels of spore suspensions of Aspergillus carbonarius and Penicillium expansum were prepared and inoculated centrally with a needlepoint load on malt extract agar (MEA) with 50 replicates. While optimum conditions led to a colony diameter increase which followed Baranyi's function, suboptimal conditions led to different grow functions. In general, growth rate (mu) and lag phase (lambda) were normally distributed. Specifically, the growth rate (mu) showed similar distributions under optimal growth conditions, regardless of the inoculum level, while suboptimal a(w) and temperature conditions led to higher kurtosis distributions, mainly when the inoculum levels were low. Regarding lambda, more skewed distributions were observed, mainly when the inoculum levels were low. Probability models were not much affected by the inoculum size. Lower probabilities of growth were in general predicted under marginal conditions at a given time for both strains. The slopes of the probability curves were smaller under suboptimal growth conditions due to wider distributions. Results showed that a low inoculum level and suboptimal conditions lead to high variability of the estimated growth parameters and growth probability.

  13. Deep phylogeny and evolution of slime moulds (mycetozoa).

    PubMed

    Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Nikolaev, Sergey I; Nelson, Michaela; Pawlowski, Jan; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Baldauf, Sandra L

    2010-01-01

    Mycetozoa, characterized by spore-bearing fruiting bodies, are the most diverse Amoebozoa. They traditionally comprise three taxa: Myxogastria, Dictyostelia and Protostelia. Myxogastria and Dictyostelia typically have multispored fruiting bodies, but controversy exists whether they are related or arose independently from different unicellular ancestors. Protostelid slime moulds, with single-spored fruiting bodies, are possible evolutionary intermediates between them and typical amoebae, but have received almost no molecular study. Protostelid morphology is so varied that they might not be monophyletic. We therefore provide 38 new 18S rRNA and/or EF-1alpha gene sequences from Mycetozoa and related species, including four protostelids and the enigmatic Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa. Phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of Dictyostelia, Myxogastria, and Ceratiomyxa (here collectively called "macromycetozoa") and show that protostelids are Amoebozoa, mostly related to non-fruiting amoebae of the class Variosea, but may not be monophyletic; some phylogenetic relationships remain poorly resolved. Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa, originally regarded as a myxogastrid, but in recent decades included in Protostelia, is a deeply diverging sister to Myxogastria. The protostelids studied here plus varipodid amoebae and the flagellates Phalansterium and Multicilia together probably form the outgroup to macromycetozoa plus Archamoebae. Thus protostelids and Variosea are especially significant for understanding the evolutionary transition from solitary amoebae to macromycetozoa.

  14. Exposure to the airborne mould Botrytis and its health effects.

    PubMed

    Jurgensen, Claudia Wurtz; Madsen, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Most investigations into the correlation between exposure to fungi and detrimental health effects focus on the 2-4 most prevalent genera in ambient air, both outdoors and indoors. Yet over 80 genera of fungi have been shown to have allergenic potential. Also, there is no agreement about threshold values for exposure to fungi. One of the fungal genera expected to be less prevalent in ambient air and known to cause allergy is Botrytis. In this review, we investigate the airborne exposure level and health effect of Botrytis, both at general exposure and in occupational settings. The surveyed papers show that Botrytis is found globally with different spore seasons depending on the region investigated. The levels of Botrytis in the percentage of all fungi have a calculated median of around 1.1% in the different environments, confirming that it is among the less prevalent fungi. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of patients and workers are allergic to Botrytis cinerea, and when B. cinerea was included in extended test panels additional allergic patients were found. Thus, B. cinerea is as important as the more prevalent mould genera Cladosporium and Alternaria and we suggest that it should be included in standard allergic tests panels.

  15. Early diagnosis of invasive mould infections and disease.

    PubMed

    Lamoth, Frédéric; Calandra, Thierry

    2017-03-01

    Invasive mould infections (IMIs), such as invasive aspergillosis or mucormycosis, are a major cause of death in patients with haematological cancer and in patients receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy. Early diagnosis and prompt initiation of antifungal therapy are crucial steps in the management of patients with IMI. The diagnosis of IMI remains a major challenge, with an increased spectrum of fungal pathogens and a diversity of clinical and radiological presentations within the expanding spectrum of immunocompromised hosts. Diagnosis is difficult to establish and is expressed on a scale of probability (proven, probable and possible). Imaging (CT scan), microbiological tools (direct examination, culture, PCR, fungal biomarkers) and histopathology are the pillars of the diagnostic work-up of IMI. None of the currently available diagnostic tests provides sufficient sensitivity and specificity alone, so the optimal approach relies on a combination of multiple diagnostic strategies, including imaging, fungal biomarkers (galactomannan and 1,3-β-d-glucan) and molecular tools. In recent years, the development of PCR for filamentous fungi (primarily Aspergillus or Mucorales) and the progress made in the standardization of fungal PCR technology, may lead to future advances in the field. The appropriate diagnostic approach for IMI should be individualized to each centre, taking into account the local epidemiology of IMI and the availability of diagnostic tests.

  16. [Comparison of methods for the quantitative detection of moulds in foods. I. Communication: selective staining procedures for the directmicroscopic mould count (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Blaser, P

    1978-01-01

    The most important proposed direct microscopic method for the detection of moulds were critically compared in 9 different nonfluid foods, of which 7 were naturally and 2 were artifically moulded.--Neither the Rot fragment test, nor the Howard Mould count or the NaOH treatment method proposed by Mossel (1975) were satisfying with non-fluid foods.--A significant improvement of the direct microscopic detection in the Breed-smear could be achieved by selective product specific staining of the fungi elements.--For low protein foods, a modified Pianese staining, and for low polysaccharide foods the Perjod-Schiff reaction proved to be appropriate and easy to carry out.--The slides of the selectively stained Breed-smears also allow a microscopic examination with high magnifications, so that a differenciation of fungus spores and hyphaes is possible.--Fungus spores, yeast cells and hyphal fragments can be counted by the method of Seck (1976). Hyphal fragments can also be recorded according to the prescription of the Howard Mould Count method.

  17. Effect of trehalose on the biocontrol efficacy of Pichia caribbica against post-harvest grey mould and blue mould decay of apples.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lina; Zhang, Hongyin; Lin, Hetong; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2013-08-01

    The influence of adding trehalose to the culture medium on the efficacy of Pichia caribbica (JSU-1) in controlling post-harvest grey mould and blue mould decay of apples and the possible mechanisms involved were investigated. The antagonistic activity of P. caribbica harvested from nutrient yeast dextrose broth (NYDB) amended with trehalose at 5 mg mL(-1) to post-harvest grey mould and blue mould decay was improved greatly compared with that without trehalose. The intracellular trehalose content of P. caribbica harvested from NYDB amended with trehalose at 5 mg mL(-1) was higher than that of P. caribbica harvested from NYDB. The population of P. caribbica could rapidly colonise and grow in apple wounds. Moreover, the application of P. caribbica cultivated in the culture medium of the trehalose supplement (5 mg mL(-1) ) induced higher polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity of apples compared with that cultivated by P. caribbica in the NYDB. SEM results suggested that P. caribbica harvested from NYDB amended with trehalose at 5 mg mL(-1) showed stronger inhibition efficacy to Botrytis cinerea than P. caribbica harvested from NYDB. The antagonistic activity of P. caribbica can be enhanced by adding trehalose to the medium. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Influence of a Reclaimed Sand Addition to Moulding Sand with Furan Resin on Its Impact on the Environment.

    PubMed

    Holtzer, Mariusz; Dańko, Rafał; Kmita, Angelika

    Metalcasting involves having a molten metal poured in a hollow mould to produce metal objects. These moulds are generally made of sand and are chemically bonded, clay-bonded, or even unbounded. There are many binder systems used. Binders based on furfuryl resins constitute currently the highest fraction in the binders no-bake group. Moulding sand, after knocking out the cast, is partially reclaimed, and the remaining part, known as waste foundry sand is used or stored outside the foundry. In this case, the environment hazardous organic compounds and metals can be leached from the moulding sand, thus causing pollution of water and soil. Also during the casting moulds with molten metal, they emit pyrolysis gases containing many different compounds, often dangerous from the BTEX and PAH group, which has adverse impacts on the environment and workers. The article presents the results of research on the impact of the regenerate addition to the moulding sand matrix on emitted gases and the degree of threat to the environment due to leaching of hazardous components. Therefore, for the total assessment of the moulding sands harmfulness, it is necessary to perform investigations concerning the dangerous substances elution into the environment during their management and storage, as well as investigations concerning emissions of hazardous substances (especially from the BTEX and PAHs group) during moulds pouring, cooling, and casting knocking out. Both kinds of investigations indicated that reclaimed sand additions to moulding sands have significantly negative influence on the environment and working conditions.

  19. Development of Rapid Pipe Moulding Process for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics by Direct Resistance Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kazuto; Harada, Ryuki; Uemura, Toshiki; Katayama, Tsutao; Kuwahara, Hideyuki

    To deal with environmental issues, the gasoline mileage of passenger cars can be improved by reduction of the car weight. The use of car components made of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) is increasing because of its superior mechanical properties and relatively low density. Many vehicle structural parts are pipe-shaped, such as suspension arms, torsion beams, door guard bars and impact beams. A reduction of the car weight is expected by using CFRP for these parts. Especially, when considering the recyclability and ease of production, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics are a prime candidate. On the other hand, the moulding process of CFRTP pipes for mass production has not been well established yet. For this pipe moulding process an induction heating method has been investigated already, however, this method requires a complicated coil system. To reduce the production cost, another system without such complicated equipment is to be developed. In this study, the pipe moulding process of CFRTP using direct resistance heating was developed. This heating method heats up the mould by Joule heating using skin effect of high-frequency current. The direct resistance heating method is desirable from a cost perspective, because this method can heat the mould directly without using any coils. Formerly developed Non-woven Stitched Multi-axial Cloth (NSMC) was used as semi-product material. NSMC is very suitable for the lamination process due to the fact that non-crimp stitched carbon fiber of [0°/+45°/90°/-45°] and polyamide 6 non-woven fabric are stitched to one sheet, resulting in a short production cycle time. The use of the pipe moulding process with the direct resistance heating method in combination with the NSMC, has resulted in the successful moulding of a CFRTP pipe of 300 mm in length, 40 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness.

  20. Indoor air quality and health: validity and determinants of reported home dampness and moulds.

    PubMed

    Dales, R E; Miller, D; McMullen, E

    1997-02-01

    Questionnaire-based surveys from several countries have consistently detected adverse health associated with home dampness and mould growth. To test the validity of questions commonly used to indicate the presence of indoor mould, questionnaires were administered in 403 homes where dust samples were taken for viable fungi and air samples for ergosterol. Geometric mean concentrations of the total viable fungi were 255 (SE 116) x 10(3) CFU/g when mouldy odours were reported and 155 (SE 55) when odours were not reported (P = 0.01). Similarly, reported water damage was associated with a 50% increase (P = 0.06). Geometric mean concentrations of the predominantly indoor-source fungi, Aspergillus plus Penicillium, were twice as high when mould or mildew was reported than when not mentioned (P = 0.01). The presence of reported mould or water damage was unrelated to the presence of detectable levels of ergosterol. There was evidence for reporting bias: in the presence of low concentrations of viable fungi in dust, respondents reporting allergies were more likely to report visible mould growth (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9-3.5, P = 0.10. In the presence of elevated concentrations of dust fungi, respondents who smoked were less likely to report visible mould growth, (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.7, P = 0.005). Reported mould, water damage, and mouldy odours were associated with elevated levels of indoor fungi. However, inaccuracy was high and there was evidence of a systematic reporting bias. Future research should concentrate on developing accurate objective measures of exposure to fungi, and then use this information to develop valid questionnaires. Currently, objective measures not questionnaires, are recommended to clarify the health effects of indoor fungi.

  1. A framework of cloud supported collaborative design in glass lens moulds based on aspheric measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yongjian; Wang, Yu; Na, Jingxin; Zhi, Yanan; Fan, Yufeng

    2013-09-01

    Aspheric mould design includes the top-down design and reversal design. In this paper, a new framework of reversal design is proposed combining with cloud supported collaborative design (CSCD) based on aspheric measurement. The framework is a kind of collaborative platform, which is composed of eight modules, including the computerized aspheric precision measurement module (CAPM), computer-aided optical design of aspheric lens system (CAOD), computer-aided design of lens mould (CADLM), FEM(finite element method) simulation of lens molding module (FEMLM), computer-aided manufacture of lens and moulds (CAMLM), measurement data analysis module (MDAM), optical product lifecycle management module (OPLM) and cloud computing network module (CCNM). In this framework, the remote clients send an improved requirement or fabrication demand about optical lens system through CCNM, which transfers this signal to OPLM. In OPLM, one main server is in charge of the task distribution and collaborative work of other six modules. The first measurement data of aspheric lens are produced by clients or our proposed platform CAPM, then are sent to CAOD for optimization and the electronic drawings of lens moulds are generated in CADLM module. According the design drawings, the FEMLM could give the lens-molding simulation parameters through FEM software. The simulation data are used for the second design of moulds in CADLM module. In this case, the moulds could be fabricated in CAMLM by ultra-precision machine, and the aspheric lens could be also produced by lens-molding machine in CAMLM. At last, the final shape of aspheric lens could be measured in CAPM and the data analysis could be conducted in MDAM module. Through the proposed framework, all the work described above could be performed coordinately. And the optimum design data of lens mould could be realized and saved, then shared by all the work team.

  2. Abaloparatide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a natural human hormone called parathyroid hormone (PTH). It works by causing the body to build ... container.You should know that abaloparatide injection may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, and fainting when you get up ...

  3. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to treat the ... children. Store it at room temperature, away from light, excess heat, and moisture (not in the bathroom). ...

  4. Certolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... has not improved when treated with other medications, rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... continues. When certolizumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it is usually given every other week and ...

  5. Acyclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... chickenpox in the past) in people with weak immune systems. It is also used to treat first-time ... from time to time) in people with normal immune systems. Acyclovir injection is used to treat herpes simplex ...

  6. Doxercalciferol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Doxercalciferol injection is used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism (a condition in which the body produces too much parathyroid hormone [PTH; a natural substance needed to control the amount of calcium in ...

  7. Evolocumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... how to inject this medication.Remove the prefilled syringe or prefilled autoinjector from the refrigerator and allow it to ... before using it. Do not warm the prefilled syringe or prefilled autoinjector in hot water, microwave, or place in ...

  8. Ixekizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a as a solution (liquid) in a prefilled syringe, and as a prefilled autoinjector to inject subcutaneously ( ... dispose of the puncture-resistant container.Remove the prefilled syringe or autoinjector from the refrigerator. Place it on ...

  9. Alirocumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... how to inject this medication.Remove the prefilled syringe or prefilled dosing pen from the refrigerator and allow it ... hours or longer. Do not put the prefilled syringe or prefilled dosing pen back in the refrigerator after it ...

  10. Daclizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Daclizumab comes as a solution (liquid) in a prefilled syringe to inject subcutaneously (under the skin). It is ... or tattooed.Never reuse or share needles or prefilled syringes of medication. Throw away used syringes in a ...

  11. Sarilumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... receive any vaccines. You should not receive any vaccinations while you are using sarilumab injection without talking ... pregnant, tellyour doctor before the baby receives any vaccinations.if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, ...

  12. Zidovudine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... zidovudine injection does not cure HIV, it may decrease your chance of developing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) ... sex and making other life-style changes may decrease the risk of transmitting (spreading) the HIV virus ...

  13. Rasburicase Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as tumors break down) in people with certain types of cancer who are being treated with chemotherapy medications. Rasburicase injection is in a class of medications called enzymes. It works by breaking down uric acid so ...

  14. Haloperidol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... release injection are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of ... medications); medications for anxiety, depression, irritable bowel disease, mental illness, motion sickness, Parkinson's disease, seizures, ulcers, or urinary ...

  15. Risperidone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of ... ropinirole (Requip); medications for anxiety, blood pressure, or mental illness; medications for seizures such as carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Epitol, ...

  16. Thiotepa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... that begins in the female reproductive organs where eggs are formed), breast, and bladder cancer. It is ... comes as a powder to be mixed with liquid to be injected intravenously (into a vein) by ...

  17. Methotrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Methotrexate injection is also used to treat severe psoriasis (a skin disease in which red, scaly patches ... slowing the growth of cancer cells. Methotrexate treats psoriasis by slowing the growth of skin cells to ...

  18. Cefazolin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including skin, bone, joint, genital, blood, heart valve, ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work ...

  19. Trastuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... completed for up to 52 weeks. When trastuzumab injection is used to treat stomach cancer, it is usually given once every 3 weeks. The length of your treatment depends on how well your body responds to the medication and the ...

  20. Bendamustine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Bendamustine injection is also used to treat a ... NHL: cancer that begins in a type of white blood cell that normally fights infection) that is slow spreading, ...

  1. Palonosetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may occur several days after receiving certain chemotherapy medications. Palonosetron injection is in a class of medications called 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. It works by blocking the action of serotonin, a natural ...

  2. Doxycycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause ... are allergic to doxycycline, minocycline (Dynacin, Minocin, Solodyn), tetracycline (Achromycin V), any other medications, or any of ...

  3. Dexamethasone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe allergic reactions. It is used in the management of certain types of edema (fluid retention and ... needed for normal body functioning) and in the management of certain types of shock. Dexamethasone injection is ...

  4. Levofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections. Levofloxacin injection is also used to prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air and treat and prevent ...

  5. Omalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... steroids. Omalizumab is also used to treat chronic hives without a known cause that cannot successfully be ... is not used to treat other forms of hives or allergic conditions. Omalizumab injection is in a ...

  6. Plerixafor Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... used along with a granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) medication such as filgrastim (Neupogen) or pegfilgrastim ( ... injection will begin after you have received a G-CSF medication once a day for 4 days, ...

  7. Avelumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor or nurse in a medical facility or infusion center. It is usually given once every 2 ... Avelumab injection may cause serious reactions during the infusion of the medication. You may be given other ...

  8. Alemtuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection, the medication is usually given three times weekly on alternate days (usually Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) ... that you eat foods that are rich in iron such as meats, leafy green vegetables, and fortified ...

  9. Dinutuximab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat neuroblastoma (a cancer that begins in nerve cells) in children who have responded to other treatments. Dinutuximab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies. It works by killing cancer cells.

  10. Cyclosporine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... transplanted organ by the immune system of the person receiving the organ) in people who have received kidney, liver, and heart transplants. Cyclosporine injection should only be used to treat people who are unable to take cyclosporine by mouth. ...

  11. Denosumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... menstrual periods), who have an increased risk for fractures (broken bones) or who cannot take or did ... receiving certain treatments that increase their risk for fractures. Denosumab injection (Xgeva) is used to reduce fractures ...

  12. Epinephrine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emergency medical treatment to treat life-threatening allergic reactions caused by insect bites or stings, foods, medications, ... at the first sign of a serious allergic reaction. Use epinephrine injection exactly as directed; do not ...

  13. Aflibercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD; an ongoing disease of the eye that ... that leads to blurry vision and vision loss), diabetic macular edema (an eye disease caused by diabetes that can ...

  14. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the leg), which can lead to pulmonary embolism (PE; a blood clot in the lung), in people ... with warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) to treat DVT or PE. Fondaparinux injection is in a class of medications ...

  15. Panitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a solution (liquid) to be given by infusion (injected into a vein). It is usually given ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. Panitumumab is usually given once every 2 ...

  16. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... organs where eggs are formed) and small cell lung cancer (a type of cancer that begins in the ... topotecan injection is used to treat ovarian or lung cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  17. Gemcitabine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with surgery. Gemcitabine is also used to treat cancer of the pancreas that has spread to other parts of the ... 4 weeks. When gemcitabine is used to treat cancer of pancreas it may be injected once every week. The ...

  18. Lacosamide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other medications to control certain types of seizures in people who cannot take oral medications. Lacosamide ... If you suddenly stop using lacosamide injection, your seizures may happen more often. Your doctor will probably ...

  19. Pegloticase Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (an inherited blood disease). Your doctor may test you for G6PD deficiency before you start to receive pegloticase injection. If ...

  20. Ibritumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive ibritumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  1. Oxytocin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Oxytocin injection is used to begin or improve contractions during labor. Oxytocin also is used to reduce bleeding after childbirth. ... other medications or procedures to end a pregnancy. Oxytocin is in a class of medications called oxytocic ...

  2. Edaravone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Edaravone injection is used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease; a condition in which the nerves that control muscle movement slowly die, causing the muscles to shrink and ...

  3. Pentamidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pentamidine injection is used to treat pneumonia caused by a fungus called Pneumocystis carinii. It is in a class of medications called antiprotozoals. It works by stopping the growth of protozoa that can cause pneumonia.

  4. Diphenhydramine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... or along with other medications to control abnormal movements in people who have Parkinsonian syndrome (a disorder of the nervous system that causes difficulties with movement, muscle control, and balance). Diphenhydramine injection should not ...

  5. Docetaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to docetaxel injection or drugs made with polysorbate 80, an ingredient found in some medications. Ask ... if a medication you are allergic to contains polysorbate 80. If you experience any of the following ...

  6. Octreotide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... hormone (a natural substance) produced by people with acromegaly (condition in which the body produces too much ... Octreotide long-acting injection is used to control acromegaly, carcinoid tumors, and VIP-omas in people who ...

  7. Vedolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for several hours afterward. A doctor or ... of the following symptoms during or after your infusion: rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, mouth, ...

  8. Granisetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may occur after surgery. Granisetron extended-release (long-acting) injection is used with other medications to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy that may occur immediately ...

  9. Fluconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat fungal infections, including yeast infections of the mouth, throat, esophagus (tube leading ... by fungus. Fluconazole is also used to prevent yeast infections in patients who are likely to become ...

  10. Intravitreal injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may have this procedure if you have: Macular degeneration : An eye disorder that slowly destroys sharp, central ... injection References American Academy of Ophthalmology. Age-related macular degeneration PPP - updated 2015. Aao.org web site. Updated ...

  11. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia; and infections of the skin, ... of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin injection ...

  12. Tobramycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as tobramycin injection will not work ...

  13. Ceftriaxone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted disease), pelvic ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work ...

  14. Moxifloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia; ; and , skin, and abdominal (stomach ... antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as moxifloxacin injection ...

  15. Daptomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in adults or serious skin infections caused by bacteria in adults and children 1 year of age ... called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as daptomycin injection will not work ...

  16. Amikacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as amikacin injection will not work ...

  17. Meropenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin and abdominal (stomach area) infections caused by bacteria and meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround ... of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection ...

  18. Cefepime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia, and skin, urinary tract, and kidney ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work ...

  19. Ertapenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. It is also used for the prevention of ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work ...

  20. Aztreonam Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria, including respiratory tract (including pneumonia and bronchitis), urinary ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. Aztreonam injection also may be used before, during, ...

  1. Ceftaroline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections and pneumonia (lung infection) caused by certain bacteria. Ceftaroline is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work ...

  2. Cefotaxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime injection will not work ...

  3. Cefuroxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefuroxime injection will not work ...

  4. Ampicillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ampicillin injection will not work ...

  5. Gentamicin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as gentamicin injection will not work ...

  6. MEDICAL INJECTION

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-06-10

    S62-08371 (1962) --- The automatic medical injectors carried on the Mercury-Atlas 9 flight. The injectors provide the astronaut with injection tubes of Tigan, for preventing motion sickness and Demerol, for relieving pain. The tubes encased in the block are stowed in the astronauts survival kit. The single injection tubes are placed in a pocket of the astronauts spacesuit. Photo credit: NASA

  7. Injection overview

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, S.

    1983-12-01

    The test program was initiated at the Raft River Geothermal Field in southern Idaho in September 1982. A series of eight short-term injection and backflow tests, followed by a long-term injection test, were conducted on one well in the field. Tracers were added during injection and monitored during backflow as well. The principal objective was to determine if tracers could be effectively used as a means to assess reservoir characteristics in a one-well test. The test program resulted in a unique data set which shows promise as a means to improve understanding of the reservoir characteristics. In December 1982, an RFP was issued to obtain an industrial partner to obtain follow-on data on the injection/backflow technique in a second field, and to study any alternate advanced concepts for injection testing which the industrial community might recommend. The East Mesa Geothermal Field was selected for the second test series. Two wells were utilized for testing, and a series of ten tests were conducted in July and August 1983, aimed principally at further evaluation of the injection/backflow technique.

  8. Presurgical nasoalveolar moulding in unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Zuhaib, Mohammed; Bonanthaya, Krishnamurthy; Parmar, Renu; Shetty, Pritham N; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Presurgical nasoalveolar moulding (PNAM) is a non-surgical method of reshaping the cleft lip, alveolus, palate and the nose to minimize the severity of the cleft deformity, before primary cheiloplastyand palatoplasty. In this context, PNAM proves to be an invaluable asset in the management of unilateral cleft lip and palate. The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of PNAM in the management of unilateral cleft lip and palate with the following objectives: (1) To assess and compare the degree of reduction in the size of cleft palate and alveolus (pre-PNAM and post-PNAM). (2) To evaluate and compare the improvement in columellar length and correction of columellar deviation (pre-PNAM and post-PNAM). (3) To assess the changes in the position of the alar base and the alar cartilages. Prospective study. A prospective study consisting of, which included 20 patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate was conducted. The age at the start of PNAM treatment of the infants ranged from 2 to 44 days of age reporting to our institute between December 2011 and August 2013. All the patients underwent PNAM therapy before primary cheiloplasty at 6 months of age; clinical parameters were assessed pre- and post-therapy using photographs and dental study models of the maxilla. Student's t-test for paired comparisons. Results of the study showed a promising reduction in the cleft size before the surgery, significant improvement in nasal symmetry, including the columellar length on the cleft side. PNAM is a valuable adjunct to our surgical armamentarium in dealing with the challenges of primary closure of unilateral cleft lip and palate thereby enhancing the overall surgical outcome. The advantages of this method include the simplicity of the procedure and improving the quality of surgical repair, particularly in obtaining tension free muscle closure in unilateral clefts.

  9. Remediation of mould damaged building materials--efficiency of a broad spectrum of treatments.

    PubMed

    Peitzsch, Mirko; Bloom, Erica; Haase, Rocco; Must, Aime; Larsson, Lennart

    2012-03-01

    We compared the efficiency of some commercially available products and methods used for remediation of mould-contaminated building materials. Samples of gypsum board and pinewood were artificially contaminated with toxin-producing isolates of Stachybotrys chartarum and Aspergillus versicolor, respectively, then, ten different remediation treatments were applied according to the manufacturers' instructions. Microbial and chemical analyses of the infested materials were carried out both immediately before and after treatment, after six weeks of drying at room temperature, and after another six weeks of remoistening. The aim of the study was to determine whether the investigated methods could inhibit the mould growth and destroy some selected mycotoxins produced by the moulds. None of the decontamination methods tested could completely eliminate viable moulds. Some methods, especially boron based chemicals, ammonium based chemicals, and oxidation reduced the contents of mycotoxins produced by S. chartarum (satratoxin G and H, verrucarol), whereas the one which uses an ammonium based chemical reduced the amount of sterigmatocystin produced by A. versicolor with statistical significance. No remediation treatment eliminated all the toxins from the damaged materials. These results emphasize the importance to work preventively with moisture safety throughout the construction processes and management to prevent mould growth on building materials. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  10. [Mould infection causing obstructive bronchitis. Diagnostik and therapeutic approaches (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Osváth, P; Micskey, E; Dobolyi, C; micskey, E; Fornai, K

    1977-04-01

    The authors compared the results of mycologic examinations of asthmatic and control patient's throat. Fungi other than Candida were cultivated from the throat in 15% of asthmatic children and 3% of controls. In secrets from the lower respiratory tract gained by bronchoscopy, laryngoscopy, or through tracheostomy there were moulds in 34% among the asthmatics and in 15% of the other cases. Allergic respiratory tract diseases facilitate the harbouring of moulds in the respiratory tract but do not influence the presence of Candida albicans. Moulds could often be cultivated even in patient not allergic to them. However there are chronic cases caused by immun reaction to the moulds in the patients' respiratory tract. Microscopic detection of budding and branching, myceliform fungi in the secret produced by coughing supports the diagnosis of mould causing chronic asthmoid bronchitis. New peroral broad spectrum antimycotics facilitate the treatment of such cases. The authors succesfully treated some patients with Clotrimazol (Canesten, Bayer) and all cases responded well to 5-Fluorocytosan (Ancotyl, Roche).

  11. Fungi associated with black mould on baobab trees in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Cruywagen, Elsie M; Crous, Pedro W; Roux, Jolanda; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    There have been numerous reports in the scientific and popular literature suggesting that African baobab (Adansonia digitata) trees are dying, with symptoms including a black mould on their bark. The aim of this study was to determine the identity of the fungi causing this black mould and to consider whether they might be affecting the health of trees. The fungi were identified by sequencing directly from mycelium on the infected tissue as well as from cultures on agar. Sequence data for the ITS region of the rDNA resulted in the identification of four fungi including Aureobasidium pullulans, Toxicocladosporium irritans and a new species of Rachicladosporium described here as Rachicladosporium africanum. A single isolate of an unknown Cladosporium sp. was also found. These fungi, referred to here as black mould, are not true sooty mould fungi and they were shown to penetrate below the bark of infected tissue, causing a distinct host reaction. Although infections can lead to dieback of small twigs on severely infected branches, the mould was not found to kill trees.

  12. Less invasive new vaginoplasty using laparoscopy, atelocollagen sponge, and hand-made mould.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Yoshiya; Yoshida, Shigeki; Shirakawa, Tokuro; Makihara, Natsuko; Niiya, Kiyoshi; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Yamada, Hideto

    2013-03-19

    The purpose of this study was to validate the therapeutic efficacy of the innovative surgical approach using laparoscopy, atelocollagen sponge, and hand-made mould on the achievement of a satisfactory neovagina in patients with vaginal agenesis. The current study involved four patients diagnosed as having Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. After creating a vaginal tunnel, the mould wrapped with atelocollagen sponge was placed within the neovagina. The hand-made mould made of expanded polystyrene was started to insert into the neovagina at 7 days after operation. Since this mould is lighter and easier to adjust compared with the previous commercialized ones, it was less stressful for the patients to master the procedure than previous methods. Average operation time was 124 minutes with average blood loss being 45 ml. Average hospital stay was 23 days. The mean length of the neovagina one week postoperation was 8 cm with two fingers in width in all patients. No remarkable postoperative complications were noted. At two months after surgery, the neovagina was confirmed to be completely epithelialized in all patients, assessed by Schiller's test. This innovative surgical procedure using a mould wrapped with atelocollagen sponge may be a more useful approach for the treatment of vaginal agenesis.

  13. [Study on the quantitative and qualitative composition of moulds colonizing sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus L.)].

    PubMed

    Janda, Katarzyna; Wolska, Jolanta; Debia, Kamila

    2015-01-01

    The aim of study was to estimate the qualitative and quantitative composition of moulds colonizing sunflower seeds on RBCA, YpSs, DG18 media at 25, 37, and 45°C. Twenty samples of sunflower seeds (not roasted and not salted) were used for the analysis. The highest number of moulds were xerophilic species isolated on DG18 at 25°C (33), followed by mesophilic species (29) on RBCA medium at 25°C, and mesophilic (22) and thermophilic species (10) on YpSs medium at 37, and 45°C, respectively. Eurotium herbariorum was isolated from all samples. A total of 287 strains belonging to 52 mould species were isolated from sunflower seeds. The study revealed new species not previously isolated from sunflower seeds mycobiota.

  14. Spatial characteristics of white mould epidemics and the development of sequential sampling plans in Australian bean fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    White mould, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, causes losses to bean through reducing the marketable yield of pods by flower infections and stem rot. In Australia, entire fields may be rejected due to high disease incidence. The spatial characteristics of white mould epidemics were characterised...

  15. Application of HS-SPME-GC-MS method for the detection of active moulds on historical parchment.

    PubMed

    Sawoszczuk, Tomasz; Syguła-Cholewińska, Justyna; Del Hoyo-Meléndez, Julio M

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this work was to analyse the profile of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) emitted by moulds growing on parchment samples, in search of particular volatiles mentioned in the literature as indicators of active mould growth. First, the growth of various moulds on samples of parchment was assessed. Those species that showed collagenolytic activity were then inoculated on two types of media: samples of parchment placed on media and on media containing amino acids that are elements of the structure of collagen. All samples were prepared inside 20-ml vials (closed system). In the first case, the media did not contain any sources of organic carbon, nitrogen, or sulphur, i.e. parchment was the only nutrient for the moulds. A third type of sample was historical parchment prepared in a Petri dish without a medium and inoculated with a collagenolytically active mould (open system). The MVOCs emitted by moulds were sampled with the headspace-SPME method. Volatiles extracted on DVB/CAR/PDMS fibres were analysed in a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of chromatograms were carried out in search of indicators of metabolic activity. The results showed that there are three groups of volatiles that can be used for the detection of active forms of moulds on parchment objects. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to measure MVOCs emitted by moulds growing on parchment.

  16. COMPARISON OF POPULATIONS OF MOULD SPECIES IN HOMES IN THE UK AND US USING MOLD-SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE PCR (MSQPCR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this research was to compare the populations of 81 mold species in homes in USA and UK using mould specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (MSQPCR) technology. Dust samples were obtained from randomly selected homes in Great Britain (n=11). The mould populat...

  17. Mathieu beams as versatile light moulds for 3D micro particle assemblies.

    PubMed

    Alpmann, C; Bowman, R; Woerdemann, M; Padgett, M; Denz, C

    2010-12-06

    We present tailoring of three dimensional light fields which act as light moulds for elaborate particle micro structures of variable shapes. Stereo microscopy is used for visualization of the 3D particle assemblies. The powerful method is demonstrated for the class of propagation invariant beams, where we introduce the use of Mathieu beams as light moulds with non-rotationally-symmetric structure. They offer multifarious field distributions and facilitate the creation of versatile particle structures. This general technique may find its application in micro fluidics, chemistry, biology, and medicine, to create highly efficient mixing tools, for hierarchical supramolecular organization or in 3D tissue engineering.

  18. Ganciclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests to check your body's response to ganciclovir injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  19. Pertuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests to check your body's response to pertuzumab injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  20. Mitoxantrone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the treatment.If you are using mitoxantrone injection for MS, you should know that it controls MS but does not cure it. Continue to receive treatments even if you feel well. Talk to your doctor if you no longer ...

  1. Olaratumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... your pharmacist any questions you have about olaratumab injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  2. Reslizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the infusion or for a short period of time after the infusion has finished.You will receive each injection of reslizumab in a doctor's office or medical facility. You will stay in the office for some time after you receive the medication so your doctor ...

  3. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome in people who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in a class of medications called glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) analogs. It works by improving the absorption of fluids and nutrients in the intestines.

  4. Pegaptanib Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you have or have ever had diabetes, high blood pressure, a heart attack, or a stroke.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while using pegaptanib injection, ...

  5. Investigating the effects of laser beams (532 and 660 nm) in annihilation of pistachio mould fungus using spectrophotometry analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghafi, S.; Penjweini, R.; Becker, K.; Kratky, K. W.; Dodt, H.-U.

    2010-09-01

    When moulds are illuminated by visible electromagnetic-EM radiations, several effects on nucleus materials and nucleotides can be detected. These effects have a significant influence on mould generation or destruction. This paper presents the effects and implications of a red diode laser beam (660 nm), a second-harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser emitting green beam (532 nm), or the combination of both, on the eradication of Pistachio mould fungus. Incident doses (ID) of both beams are kept identical throughout the experiment. The absorption spectrums of irradiated mouldy samples and the bright-greenish-yellow-fluorescence (BGYF) of fungus occurring in mould texture due to electronic excitation are investigated. We found that a combination of a green and a red laser beam with an ID of 0.5 J/cm2 provides the optimal effects on Pistachio mould fungus eradication.

  6. The fuzzy algorithm in the die casting mould for the application of multi-channel temperature control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jin-gen; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Jia-nan

    2017-01-01

    Mould manufacturing is one of the most basic elements in the production chain of China. The mould manufacturing technology has become an important symbol to measure the level of a country's manufacturing industry. The die-casting mould multichannel intelligent temperature control method is studied by cooling water circulation, which uses fuzzy control to realize, aiming at solving the shortcomings of slow speed and big energy consumption during the cooling process of current die-casting mould. At present, the traditional PID control method is used to control the temperature, but it is difficult to ensure the control precision. While , the fuzzy algorithm is used to realize precise control of mould temperature in cooling process. The design is simple, fast response, strong anti-interference ability and good robustness. Simulation results show that the control method is completely feasible, which has higher control precision.

  7. SU-E-T-04: 3D Printed Patient-Specific Surface Mould Applicators for Brachytherapy Treatment of Superficial Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Cumming, I; Lasso, A; Rankin, A; Fichtinger, G; Joshi, C P; Falkson, C; Schreiner, L John

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the feasibility of constructing 3D-printed patient-specific surface mould applicators for HDR brachytherapy treatment of superficial lesions. Methods: We propose using computer-aided design software to create 3D printed surface mould applicators for brachytherapy. A mould generation module was developed in the open-source 3D Slicer ( http://www.slicer.org ) medical image analysis platform. The system extracts the skin surface from CT images, and generates smooth catheter paths over the region of interest based on user-defined start and end points at a specified stand-off distance from the skin surface. The catheter paths are radially extended to create catheter channels that are sufficiently wide to ensure smooth insertion of catheters for a safe source travel. An outer mould surface is generated to encompass the channels. The mould is also equipped with fiducial markers to ensure its reproducible placement. A surface mould applicator with eight parallel catheter channels of 4mm diameters was fabricated for the nose region of a head phantom; flexible plastic catheters of 2mm diameter were threaded through these channels maintaining 10mm catheter separations and a 5mm stand-off distance from the skin surface. The apparatus yielded 3mm thickness of mould material between channels and the skin. The mould design was exported as a stereolithography file to a Dimension SST1200es 3D printer and printed using ABS Plus plastic material. Results: The applicator closely matched its design and was found to be sufficiently rigid without deformation during repeated application on the head phantom. Catheters were easily threaded into channels carved along catheter paths. Further tests are required to evaluate feasibility of channel diameters smaller than 4mm. Conclusion: Construction of 3D-printed mould applicators show promise for use in patient specific brachytherapy of superficial lesions. Further evaluation of 3D printing techniques and materials is required

  8. Techniques for Controlling Heat Transfer in the Mould-Strand Gap in Order to Use Fluoride Free Mould Powder for Continuous Casting of Peritectic Steel Grades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Adam; Stewart, Bridget

    When casting peritectic steel grades, control of heat transfer from the steel shell is critical for minimising surface defects. Cuspidine (3CaO.2SiO2.CaF2) is the preferred crystal phase to control horizontal heat flux, due to its high crystallisation temperature and low incubation time. However, the presence of fluoride creates environmental and operational problems. Research into fluoride-free mould powder for peritectic steel grades has still to yield a fully effective substitute.

  9. Subcutaneous (SQ) injections

    MedlinePlus

    SQ injections; Sub-Q injections; Diabetes subcutaneous injection; Insulin subcutaneous injection ... NIH. Giving a subcutaneous injection . Rockville, MD. National ... of Health and Human Services NIH publications; 2015. Available ...

  10. Force controller design and evaluation for robot-assisted die and mould polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güvenç, Levent; Srinivasan, Krishnaswamy

    1995-01-01

    A significant portion of the total manufacturing time for a die or a mould, both used extensively in producing complex shaped parts, is spent on surface finishing operations following the primary machining of the die or mould cavity. Hence, there is considerable incentive in pursuing even partial automation of die or mould surface finishing operations. This paper concentrates on the control issues that arise during automation of die and mould surface finishing using industrial robot held tools, with particular attention being devoted to the design and evaluation of force controllers to maintain the desired tool-workpiece interaction. Simplified models of the polishing process including the effect of robot structural compliance are presented first, for analysing and designing controllers. A through-the-arm robot force control implementation using off-the-shelf tooling is discussed next. However, the major focus of this paper is on active end effector force control since there are limitations in the performance of the through-the-arm force control loop. Active end effector force controller design requirements and a simple robust stability test in the face of model uncertainty are given and applied to several design examples. Results of force controller analysis and design are verified by experiments where force regulation during polishing and trajectory tracking are demonstrated.

  11. The Influence of Mixed Composition and Hole Mould on the Quality of Chicken Feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasyid, S.; Susanto, T. A.; Nur, R.

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of feed mixturecomposition and shape of mould hole on the quality pellets using a pellet moulding machine with the roller wheel system. Methods of testing were performed to obtain the composition of the feed mixture that was optimal. The method was following: 250 grams of feed ingredients are added to the adhesive (starch) of 50 grams and then mixed with warm water (± 90°C) in quantities of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 cc. Furthermore, the feed mixture materials printed on pellet machines with roller wheel system. Parameter testing is 400 rpm engine rev diameter mould hole 5 mm, and the shape of the hole to a second print. The test results on the optimal material composition testing the feed mixture will be used as a parameter to the next test is a variation form of holes. Measuring the quality of feed pellets based heavily shaped pellet intact and non-intact. A ratio of feed ingredients best to produce pellets occurred in the composition of the feed mixture of 250 grams of feed, 50 grams of adhesive, and 250 grams of warm water with percentage shaped feed pellets of 91%. While the best pellet quality resulting from pellet machine roller wheel system occurs in the form of mould 2nd hole with a percentage of 90% pellets.

  12. Mold, Mould, Mole-d: The Three M's of Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Norman E.

    2008-01-01

    The author explores a creative idea development process wherein one begins by applying the image of "breaking the mold" to career development and then extending the process further by considering other related images. In this article, the related images include synonyms for mold such as mould and mole-d (the mole is a small burrowing animal with…

  13. Protecting wood from mould, decay, and termites with multi-component biocide systems

    Treesearch

    Carol A. Clausen

    2007-01-01

    Biocides must be developed for controlling mould establishment on cellulose-based building materials. Accordingly, biocides intended for indoor applications must be non- toxic, non-volatile, odourless, hypoallergenic, and able to provide long-term protection under conditions of high humidity. Multi-component biocide systems were tested in American Wood-Preservers’...

  14. Occurrence of mycotoxins and yeasts and moulds identification in corn silages in tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, B F; Ávila, C L S; Krempser, P M; Batista, L R; Pereira, M N; Schwan, R F

    2016-05-01

    This study was aimed to identify yeasts and moulds as well as to detect mycotoxin in corn silages in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil. Corn silages from 36 farms were sampled to analyse dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, ash, neutral detergent fibre, nonfibre carbohydrates and mycotoxins contents, yeasts and moulds population, pH and temperature values. The mycotoxins found in high frequency were aflatoxin in 77·7% of analysed samples, ochratoxin (33·3%) and zearalenone (22·2%). There was no significant correlation between the mycotoxin concentration and the presence of moulds. The pH was negatively correlated with ochratoxin concentration. Aspergillus fumigatus was identified in all silages that presented growth of moulds. Ten different yeast species were identified using the culture-dependent method: Candida diversa, Candida ethanolica, Candida rugosa, Issatchenkia orientalis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia manshurica, Pichia membranifaciens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichosporon asahii and Trichosporon japonicum. Another six different yeast species were identified using the culture-independent method. A high mycotoxin contamination rate (91·6% of the analysed silages) was observed. The results indicated that conventional culturing and PCR-DGGE should be combined to optimally describe the microbiota associated with corn silage. This study provides information about the corn silage fermentation dynamics and our findings are relevant to optimization of this silage fermentation. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Antifungal activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil and thymol against moulds from damp dwellings.

    PubMed

    Segvić Klarić, M; Kosalec, I; Mastelić, J; Piecková, E; Pepeljnak, S

    2007-01-01

    To characterize antifungal activities of essential oil of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and pure thymol, as comparative substance, on different mould species isolated from damp dwellings. Fifty samples of wall scrapes were collected from damp dwellings in Zagreb, the capital of Croatia. The members of the following mould genera were recovered from the samples: Aspergillus (44%), Penicillium (18%) Alternaria, Ulocladium, Absidia and Mucor (8%) Cladosporium, Trichoderma and Rhizopus (6%), and Chaetomium (2%). Two strains of Stachybotrys chartarum were isolated from damp dwellings in Slovakia. Antifungal activities of the thyme essential oil, which contains p-cymene (36.5%), thymol (33.0%) and 1,8-cineole (11.3%) as main components, and pure thymol were determined by the dilution method and exposure to vaporous phase of the oil. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of both thymol and essential oil were bellow 20 microg ml(-1), except for Mucor spp. (50.20 microg ml(-1)). Thymol exhibited approximately three-times stronger inhibition than essential oil of thyme. The vaporous phase of the thyme essential oil (82 microg l(-1)) in glass chambers strongly suppressed the sporulation of moulds during 60 days of exposure. The thyme essential oil possesses a wide range spectrum of fungicidal activity. The vaporous phase of the oil exhibited long-lasting suppressive activity on moulds from damp dwellings. Essential oil of thyme and thymol could be used for disinfection of mouldy walls in the dwellings in low concentration.

  16. Site-specific risk factors of white mould epidemics in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Tasmania

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Tasmania, Australia, if more than 5% of bean pods are found to be affected by white mould (caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) entire crops can be rejected by contracting processors. This strict quality standard is one of the main reasons for prophylactic application of fungicides over flowering...

  17. Transient thermal behavior of multilayer media: Modeling and application to stratified moulds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazard, M.

    2006-07-01

    Transient and steady-state heat transfer in multilayer media is investigated by the thermal quadrupole method. A semi-analytical solution is proposed for the cases of layers parallel or orthogonal to the main heat-flux direction. The principal application is the study of the effect of the brazing metal used in stratified steel moulds.

  18. Characterisation and detection of spoilage mould responsible for black spot in dry-cured fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Ojalvo, Daniel; Rodríguez, Alicia; Cordero, Mirian; Bernáldez, Victoria; Reyes-Prieto, Mariana; Córdoba, Juan J

    2015-02-01

    Moulds responsible for black spot spoilage of dry-cured fermented sausages were characterised. For this purpose, samples were taken from those dry-cured fermented sausages which showed black spot alteration. Most of the mould strains were first tentatively identified as Penicillium spp. due to their morphological characteristics in different culture conditions, with one strain as Cladosporium sp. The Cladosporium strain was the only one which provoked blackening in culture media. This strain was further characterised by sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA and β-tubulin genes. This mould strain was able to reproduce black spot formation in dry-cured fermented sausage 'salchichón' throughout the ripening process. In addition, a specific and sensitive real-time PCR method was also developed to detect Cladosporium oxysporum responsible for the black spot formation in sausages. This method could be of great interest for the meat industry to detect samples contaminated with this mould before spoilage of product avoiding economic losses for this sector.

  19. Study on the mould-resistant properties of moso bamboo treated with high pressure and amylase

    Treesearch

    Xiao-Dong Huang; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2014-01-01

    Starch of moso bamboo mainly exists in the elongated parenchyma cells, and it is difficult for amylase to enter moso bamboo and dissolve the starch. Therefore, the mould resistance capability of moso bamboo's products cannot meet the need for bamboo to resist fungal decay. In this experiment, moso bamboo blocks were first treated at six levels of pressure and for...

  20. Mold, Mould, Mole-d: The Three M's of Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Norman E.

    2008-01-01

    The author explores a creative idea development process wherein one begins by applying the image of "breaking the mold" to career development and then extending the process further by considering other related images. In this article, the related images include synonyms for mold such as mould and mole-d (the mole is a small burrowing animal with…

  1. Evolving Transport Networks With Cellular Automata Models Inspired by Slime Mould.

    PubMed

    Tsompanas, Michail-Antisthenis I; Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch; Adamatzky, Andrew I

    2015-09-01

    Man-made transport networks and their design are closely related to the shortest path problem and considered amongst the most debated problems of computational intelligence. Apart from using conventional or bio-inspired computer algorithms, many researchers tried to solve this kind of problem using biological computing substrates, gas-discharge solvers, prototypes of a mobile droplet, and hot ice computers. In this aspect, another example of biological computer is the plasmodium of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum (P. polycephalum), which is a large single cell visible by an unaided eye and has been proven as a reliable living substrate for implementing biological computing devices for computational geometry, graph-theoretical problems, and optimization and imitation of transport networks. Although P. polycephalum is easy to experiment with, computing devices built with the living slime mould are extremely slow; it takes slime mould days to execute a computation. Consequently, mapping key computing mechanisms of the slime mould onto silicon would allow us to produce efficient bio-inspired computing devices to tackle with hard to solve computational intelligence problems like the aforementioned. Toward this direction, a cellular automaton (CA)-based, Physarum-inspired, network designing model is proposed. This novel CA-based model is inspired by the propagating strategy, the formation of tubular networks, and the computing abilities of the plasmodium of P. polycephalum. The results delivered by the CA model demonstrate a good match with several previously published results of experimental laboratory studies on imitation of man-made transport networks with P. polycephalum. Consequently, the proposed CA model can be used as a virtual, easy-to-access, and biomimicking laboratory emulator that will economize large time periods needed for biological experiments while producing networks almost identical to the tubular networks of the real-slime mould.

  2. Mould and yeast flora in fresh berries, grapes and citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Tournas, V H; Katsoudas, Eugenia

    2005-11-15

    Fresh fruits are prone to fungal contamination in the field, during harvest, transport, marketing, and with the consumer. It is important to identify fungal contaminants in fresh fruits because some moulds can grow and produce mycotoxins on these commodities while certain yeasts and moulds can cause infections or allergies. In this study, 251 fresh fruit samples including several varieties of grapes, strawberries, blueberries, raspberries, blackberries, and various citrus fruits were surface-disinfected, incubated at room temperature for up to 14 days without supplemental media, and subsequently examined for mould and yeast growth. The level of contamination (percent of contaminated items/sample) varied depending on the type of fruit. All raspberry and blackberry samples were contaminated at levels ranging from 33% to 100%, whereas 95% of the blueberry samples supported mould growth at levels between 10% and 100% of the tested berries, and 97% of strawberry samples showed fungal growth on 33-100% of tested berries. The most common moulds isolated from these commodities were Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus (in strawberries), Alternaria, Penicillium, Cladosporium and Fusarium followed by yeasts, Trichoderma and Aureobasidium. Thirty-five percent of the grape samples tested were contaminated and supported fungal growth; the levels of contamination ranged from 9% to 80%. The most common fungi spoiling grapes were Alternaria, B. cinerea and Cladosporium. Eighty-three percent of the citrus fruit samples showed fungal growth at levels ranging from 25% to 100% of tested fruits. The most common fungi in citrus fruits were Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Fusarium and yeasts. Less common were Trichoderma, Geotrichum and Rhizopus.

  3. Surface topography study of prepared 3D printed moulds via 3D printer for silicone elastomer based nasal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Abdul Manaf; Din, Tengku Noor Daimah Tengku; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Rahim, Tuan Noraihan Azila Tuan; Akil, Hazizan Md; Rajion, Zainul Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Conventional prosthesis fabrication is highly depends on the hand creativity of laboratory technologist. The development in 3D printing technology offers a great help in fabricating affordable and fast yet esthetically acceptable prostheses. This study was conducted to discover the potential of 3D printed moulds for indirect silicone elastomer based nasal prosthesis fabrication. Moulds were designed using computer aided design (CAD) software (Solidworks, USA) and converted into the standard tessellation language (STL) file. Three moulds with layer thickness of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3mm were printed utilizing polymer filament based 3D printer (Makerbot Replicator 2X, Makerbot, USA). Another one mould was printed utilizing liquid resin based 3D printer (Objet 30 Scholar, Stratasys, USA) as control. The printed moulds were then used to fabricate maxillofacial silicone specimens (n=10)/mould. Surface profilometer (Surfcom Flex, Accretech, Japan), digital microscope (KH77000, Hirox, USA) and scanning electron microscope (Quanta FEG 450, Fei, USA) were used to measure the surface roughness as well as the topological properties of fabricated silicone. Statistical analysis of One-Way ANOVA was employed to compare the surface roughness of the fabricated silicone elastomer. Result obtained demonstrated significant differences in surface roughness of the fabricated silicone (p<0.01). Further post hoc analysis also revealed significant differences in silicone fabricated using different 3D printed moulds (p<0.01). A 3D printed mould was successfully prepared and characterized. With surface topography that could be enhanced, inexpensive and rapid mould fabrication techniques, polymer filament based 3D printer is potential for indirect silicone elastomer based nasal prosthesis fabrication.

  4. The Influence of Injection Molding Parameter on Properties of Thermally Conductive Plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafizah Azis, N.; Zulafif Rahim, M.; Sa'ude, Nasuha; Rafai, N.; Yusof, M. S.; Tobi, ALM; Sharif, ZM; Rasidi Ibrahim, M.; Ismail, A. E.

    2017-05-01

    Thermally conductive plastic is the composite between metal-plastic material that is becoming popular because if it special characteristic. Injection moulding was regarded as the best process for mass manufacturing of the plastic composite due to its low production cost. The objective of this research is to find the best combination of the injection parameter setting and to find the most significant factor that effect the strength and thermal conductivity of the composite. Several parameter such as the volume percentage of copper powder, nozzle temperature and injection pressure of injection moulding machine were investigated. The analysis was done using Design Expert Software by implementing design of experiment method. From the analysis, the significant effects were determined and mathematical models of only significant effect were established. In order to ensure the validity of the model, confirmation run was done and percentage errors were calculated. It was found that the best combination parameter setting to maximize the value of tensile strength is volume percentage of copper powder of 3.00%, the nozzle temperature of 195°C and the injection pressure of 65%, and the best combination parameter settings to maximize the value of thermal conductivity is volume percentage of copper powder of 7.00%, the nozzle temperature of 195°C and the injection pressure of 65% as recommended..

  5. Modelling of the rotational moulding process for the manufacture of plastic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoon, Lim Kok

    The present research is mainly focused on two-dimensional non-linear thermal modelling, numerical procedures and software development for the rotational moulding process. The RotoFEM program is developed for the rotational moulding process using finite element procedures. The program is written in the MATLAB environment. The research includes the development of new slip flow models, phase change study, warpage study and process analyses. A new slip flow methodology is derived for the heat transfer problem inside the enclosed rotating mould during the heating stage of the tumbling powder. The methodology enables the discontinuous powder to be modelled by the continuous-based finite element method. The Galerkin Finite Element Method is incorporated with the lumped-parameter system and the coincident node technique in finding the multi-interacting heat transfer solutions inside the mould. Two slip flow models arise from the slip flow methodology; they are SDM (single-layered deposition method) and MDM (multi-layered deposition method). These two models have differences in their thermal description for the internal air energy balance and the computational procedure for the deposition of the molten polymer. The SDM model assumes the macroscopic deposition of the molten polymer bed exists only between the bed and the inner mould surface. On the other hand, the MDM model allows the layer-by-layer deposition of the molten polymer bed macroscopically. In addition, the latter has a more detailed heat transfer description for the internal air inside the mould during the powder heating cycle. In slip flow models, the semi-implicit approach has been introduced to solve the final quasi-equilibrium internal air temperature during the heating cycle. A notable feature of this slip flow methodology is that the slip flow models are capable of producing good results for the internal air at the heating powder stage, without the consideration of the powder movement and changeable powder

  6. Microbiological contamination with moulds in work environment in libraries and archive storage facilities.

    PubMed

    Zielinska-Jankiewicz, Katarzyna; Kozajda, Anna; Piotrowska, Malgorzata; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, Irena

    2008-01-01

    Microbiological contamination with fungi, including moulds, can pose a significant health hazard to those working in archives or museums. The species involved include Aspergillus, Penicillium, Geotrichum, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Fusarium which are associated mostly with allergic response of different types. The aim of the study was to analyse, both in quantitative and qualitative terms, workplace air samples collected in a library and archive storage facilities. Occupational exposure and the related health hazard from microbiological contamination with moulds were assessed in three archive storage buildings and one library. Air samples (total 60) were collected via impact method before work and at hourly intervals during work performance. Surface samples from the artifacts were collected by pressing a counting (RODAC) plate filled with malt extract agar against the surface of the artifacts. The air sample and surface sample analyses yielded 36 different mould species, classified into 19 genera, of which Cladosporium and Penicillium were the most prevalent. Twelve species were regarded as potentially pathogenic for humans: 8 had allergic and 11 toxic properties, the latter including Aspergillus fumigatus. Quantitative analysis revealed air microbiological contamination with moulds at the level ranging from 1.8 x 10(2)-2.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3). In surface samples from library and archive artifacts, 11 fungal species were distinguished; the number of species per artifact varying from 1-6 and colony count ranging from 4 x 10(1) to 8-10(1) cfu/100 cm(2). Higher contamination levels were found only for Cladosporium cladosporioides (1.48 x 10(3) cfu/100 cm(2)) and Paecillomyces varioti (1.2 x 10(2) cfu/100 cm(2)). At the workposts examined, although no clearly visible signs of mould contamination could be found, the study revealed abundant micromycetes, with the predominant species of Cladosporium and Penicillium. The detected species included

  7. Fibre laser machining for glassy carbon master mould and soft lithography based two-step printing for Ag nanoparticle structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qin; Chopra, Pranav

    2011-04-01

    Traditional manufacturing techniques widely used in semiconductor industries involve many processing steps that consume both time and material and lead to high cost. Soft Lithography (SL) offers a new way to print micro/nano structures, which is a fast and low cost alternative to the conventional route, although the high processing temperature of metals, semiconductors and ceramics limits the application SL techniques. In this paper we report the use of Ag nanoparticles as building blocks to make structures by combing the merits of SL, nanotechnology and laser engineering, which provide a simple additive route with low capital investment. Glassy carbon (GC) was chosen as the material for the rigid master mould, as no release coating is needed for replicating the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mould. GC moulds were machined by a nanosecond-pulsed Yb fibre laser. The machined GC moulds were further cleaned by PDMS and the same fibre laser system to remove the process debris. The master mould was further replicated by PDMS. PDMS replicas with either positive or negative features from the master mould were attainable. A two-step strategy was used to print patterns using PDMS mould and Ag nanoparticle paste. Metal patterns were formed on various substrates, and the PDMS mould was left clean and ready for reuse. The resultant printed patterns were found to be uniform over millimetre range, with negligible residual layer, and the thickness of up to several micrometres. The thermal responses of Ag nanoparticles at various sintering temperatures were investigated. The factors affecting the resolution of printed structures were discussed.

  8. Biocontrol of ochratoxigenic moulds (Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium nordicum) by Debaryomyces hansenii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera during speck production.

    PubMed

    Iacumin, Lucilla; Manzano, Marisa; Andyanto, Debbie; Comi, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    Speck is a meat product obtained from the deboned leg of pork that is salted, smoked and seasoned for four to six months. During speck seasoning, Eurotium rubrum and Penicillium solitum grow on the surface and collaborate with other moulds and tissue enzymes to produce the typical aroma. Both of these strains usually predominate over other moulds. However, moulds producing ochratoxins, such as Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium nordicum, can also co-grow on speck and produce ochratoxin A (OTA). Consequently, speck could represent a potential health risk for consumers. Because A. ochraceus and P. nordicum could represent a problem for artisanal speck production, the aim of this study was to inhibit these mould strains using Debaryomyces hansenii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera. Six D. hansenii and six S. fibuligera strains were tested in vitro to inhibit A. ochraceus and P. nordicum. The D. hansenii DIAL 1 and S. fibuligera DIAL 3 strains demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity and were selected for in vivo tests. The strains were co-inoculated on fresh meat cuts for speck production with both of the OTA-producing moulds prior to drying and seasoning. At the end of seasoning (six months), OTA was not detected in the speck treated with both yeast strains. Because the yeasts did not adversely affect the speck odour or flavour, the strains are proposed as starters for the inhibition of ochratoxigenic moulds.

  9. Non-dermatophyte mould onychomycosis: a clinical and epidemiological study at a dermatology referral centre in Bogota, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Morales-Cardona, Camilo A; Valbuena-Mesa, Martha C; Alvarado, Zulma; Solorzano-Amador, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Worldwide prevalence of non-dermatophyte mould onychomycosis has increased in recent years; however, available information on the topic is confusing and oftentimes contradictory, probably due to the small number of reported cases. The aim of this study was to determine and describe the aetiological agents, as well as the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of non-dermatophyte mould onychomycosis in a dermatology referral centre in Bogota, Colombia. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted between January 2001 and December 2011 among patients who attend the National Institute of Dermatology with a confirmed diagnosis of onychomycosis by non-dermatophytes moulds. There were 317 confirmed cases of non-dermatophyte mould onychomycosis in 196 women and 121 men whose average age was 43 years. Twenty-seven per cent of them had a history of systemic disease. The habit of walking and showering barefoot was the major infection-related factor. Distal and lateral subungual presentation was the most common pattern of clinical presentation. The most frequent non-dermatophyte mould was Neoscytalidium dimidiatum followed by Fusarium spp. No relationship was observed with predisposing factors previously reported in the literature. Clinical features found in this population are indistinguishable from onychomycosis caused by dermatophytes. High prevalence of N. dimidiatum found here was in contrast to a large number of studies where other types of moulds predominate.

  10. Simulation on the Effect of Bottle Wall Thickness Distribution using Blow Moulding Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suraya, S.; Azman, M. D.; Fatchurrohman, N.; Jaafar, A. A.; Yusoff, A. R.

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the deformation behavior of a polymeric material during a blow moulding process. Transient computations of two dimensional model of a PP bottle were performed using ANSYS Polyflow computer code to predict the wall thickness distribution at four different parison's diameter; 8mm, 10mm, 18mm, and 20mm. Effects on the final wall thickness diameter and time step are studied. The simulated data shows that the inflation performance degrades with increasing parison diameter. It is concluded that the blow moulding process using 10mm parison successfully meet the product processing requirements. Factors that contribute to the variation in deformation behaviour of the plastic during the manufacturing process are discussed.

  11. Lipid composition of thermophilic moulds Acremonium alabamensis and Thermomucor indicae-seudaticae.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, T; Sancholle, M; Chavant, L

    1987-01-01

    The total lipid content of Acremonium alabamensis and Thermomucor indicae-seudaticae ranged 2.6-7.3 and 8.5-13.0% of dry mycelium, respectively during development. Neutral lipid fraction increased during growth while polar and phospholipids declined. Both moulds contained palmitic, oleic, linoleic and palmitoleic acids as major fatty acid components in lipids. Degree of unsaturation of lipids of A. alabamensis was greater than that of T. indicae-seudaticae. Neutral lipids were more unsaturated than the polar lipids. The ratio of unsaturation index of polar lipids to neutral lipids was either one or less than one. The principal phospholipids of these moulds were phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidic acid. However, phosphatidic acid was not found in very high amounts as observed in Humicola grisea var. thermoidea.

  12. Melt state behaviour of PEEK and processing window interpretation for fast compression moulding process

    SciTech Connect

    Bessard, Emeline; De Almeida, Olivier; Bernhart, Gerard

    2011-01-17

    Fast mould heating is nowadays possible by using induction technology for example with the Cage System registered developed by RocTool. It allows heating and cooling kinetics of about 100 deg. C per minute and new perspectives are thus possible to optimize the compression moulding process of long fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites. Indeed, a high forming temperature may favour polymer creep and so on composite consolidation. Nevertheless, the processing time of PEEK composite above melt temperature must be reduced to a few minutes due to the fast thermal degradation of the matrix. On the other hand, high cooling rates may have negative effect on matrix crystallinity. The proposed procedure consist in performing a few minutes isotherm around 300 deg. C during the fast cooling. It would favour a high degree of crystallinity of PEEK without extending the cycle time.

  13. Melt state behaviour of PEEK and processing window interpretation for fast compression moulding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessard, Emeline; De Almeida, Olivier; Bernhart, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    Fast mould heating is nowadays possible by using induction technology for example with the Cage System® developed by RocTool. It allows heating and cooling kinetics of about 100° C per minute and new perspectives are thus possible to optimize the compression moulding process of long fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites. Indeed, a high forming temperature may favour polymer creep and so on composite consolidation. Nevertheless, the processing time of PEEK composite above melt temperature must be reduced to a few minutes due to the fast thermal degradation of the matrix. On the other hand, high cooling rates may have negative effect on matrix crystallinity. The proposed procedure consist in performing a few minutes isotherm around 300° C during the fast cooling. It would favour a high degree of crystallinity of PEEK without extending the cycle time.

  14. A photoreceptor with characteristics of phytochrome triggers sporulation in the true slime mould Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Starostzik, C; Marwan, W

    1995-08-14

    Phytochrome is a ubiquitous photoreceptor in plants that controls a variety of responses to light, including gene expression, differential cell growth and intracellular movement of organelles. All phytochromes analysed so far are reversibly interconverted by light between an inactive and an active conformation, each of which has a different and characteristic absorbance spectrum. Based on photophysiological measurements we provide evidence, that a photoreceptor with these unique properties of phytochrome triggers sporulation in the true slime mould Physarum polycephalum.

  15. Optimizing Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding (VARTM) Processing Parameters to Improve Part Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polowick, Christopher

    The Low Cost Composites (LCC) group at Carleton University is studying out-of-autoclave composite manufacturing processes such as Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding (VARTM) and Closed Cavity Bag Moulding (CCBM). These processes are used to produce inexpensive and high performance components for the GeoSurv II, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) being developed at Carleton University. This research has focused on optimizing VARTM processing parameters to reduce the weight and improve the strength and surface finish of GeoSurv II composite components. A simulation was developed to model resin flow through in VARTM infusions and was used to simulate mould filling and resin emptying of the GeoSurv II inverted V-empennage and mission avionics hatch. The resin infusion schemes of these parts were designed to ensure full preform resin saturation, and minimize thickness variations. An experimental study of the effects of the presence of a corner on composite thickness, void content, and strength was conducted. It was found that inside corners result in local increases in thickness and void content due to poor preform compaction. A novel bagging technique was developed to improve corner compaction, and this technique was shown to reduce thickness variability and void content. The strength, void content, and thickness variation were found to be heavily dependent on corner radius, with corner radii greater than 6.4 mm displaying the greatest improvement in performance for the layups considered. The design of the empennage and hatch mould incorporated the results of this study to improve the quality of these components.

  16. A new immunoassay to quantify fungal antigens from the indoor mould Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Zahradnik, Eva; Kespohl, Sabine; Sander, Ingrid; Schies, Ursula; Khosravie-Hohn, Janett; Lorenz, Wolfgang; Engelhart, Steffen; Kolk, Annette; Schneider, Gerd; Brüning, Thomas; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika

    2013-06-01

    Aspergillus versicolor is among the most commonly found moulds in moisture-damaged buildings and can be associated with adverse health effects in humans. This paper reports the development, validation and application of an enzyme immunoassay to quantify A. versicolor antigens. A sandwich ELISA was developed using polyclonal antibodies that recognize a broad range of A. versicolor proteins present in fungal spores and in mycelia fragments. To validate the new method, A. versicolor antigens were quantified in samples collected from homes with visible mould growth, including dust from vacuumed walls and bulk samples of building materials. Antigen concentrations were compared to the results of a commercial ELISA based on monoclonal antibodies (AveX ELISA, Indoor Biotechnologies, Charlottesville, USA) and correlated with colony forming units (CFU) of A. versicolor. The A. versicolor ELISA was very sensitive with a lower detection limit of 120 pg ml(-1). The assay also showed some reactivity to other moulds with strongest reactions with other Aspergillus species (1-3% reactivity). The new assay detected A. versicolor antigens in a much higher percentage of dust samples (88% vs. 27%) and bulk samples (89% vs. 24%) than the AveX assay. A significant correlation (r = 0.67, and p < 0.0001) was found between antigen concentrations and CFU of A. versicolor. Based on its low detection limit and good correlation with the culture-based method, this new immunoassay seems to be a useful tool for the measurement of A. versicolor exposure levels and a reliable complement to the traditional monitoring techniques, such as mould cultivation or microscopy.

  17. [Waste sorting plants--recognition of exposure to biological agents (moulds)].

    PubMed

    Kozajda, Anna; Sowiak, Małgorzata; Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to recognize exposure to biological agents in the air of waste sorting plants. This publication contains the characteristics of technical solutions in use during sorting of waste and the results of quantitative analysis in terms of the presence of moulds and inhalable dust in the air. The study was conducted in the summertime inside two waste sorting plants with different production capacity ("big" and "small"). To evaluate inhalable dust in the air, 53 samples were collected using personal samplers on glass fiber filters. To assess mycological contamination of the air, 30 triple samples were directly collected on Petri dishes (Malt Extract Agar medium), using the volumetric impact method in the worker's respiratory zone. Samples were incubated for 5 days at 30 degrees C. Outcomes of the total number of moulds were provided in cfu/m3 (cfu--colony forming units). The mean concentration of inhalable dust, determined in the "big" waste sorting plant, was 2.38 mg/m3 and in the "small" plant 1.12 mg/m3. The quantitative analysis revealed the following values of the total number of moulds present in the air: 1) "big" waste sorting plant, 2.9 x 10(4) cfu/m3 (work premises) and 3.6 x 10(3) jtk/m3 (office premises); 2) "small" waste sorting plant, 7.8 x 10(4) cfu/m3 (work premises) and 2.5 x 10(3) jtk/m3 (office premises). Mould concentrations determined in the environment of waste sorting plants were high. To protect health of workers in this kind of plants, preventive programs focused on the protection of the skin and respiratory system should be implemented. Offices should be properly isolated from work premises to minimize spreading of inhalable dust.

  18. Determination of Mould and Aflatoxin Contamination in Tarhana, a Turkish Fermented Food

    PubMed Central

    Colak, Hilal; Hampikyan, Hamparsun; Bingol, Enver Baris; Cetin, Omer; Akhan, Meryem; Turgay, Sumeyre Ipek

    2012-01-01

    Tarhana is a popular traditional Turkish cereal-based fermented food product mainly produced at home or at home-scale level. Some certain mould species can grow even at low moisture and pH values and produce aflatoxins in food. This study was conducted to determine aflatoksin levels in tarhana. For this purpose, a total of 138 tarhana powder samples were collected from bazaars in Istanbul and analyzed for aflatoxins, mould contamination, and some physco-chemical parameters. As a result, 32 out of 138 tarhana samples (23.2%) were found to be contaminated with aflatoxins in the range of 0.7–16.8 μg/kg, whereas 29 samples contained Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) ranging from 0.2–13.2 μg/kg. All samples (100%) contaminated with moulds in the range of 1.4 × 101 –5.8 × 107cfu/g. The average pH, moisture and aw results were detected as 3.82, 12.71%, and 0.695, respectively. PMID:22623886

  19. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Jessica L.; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L.; Duffy, Grant A.

    2015-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the ‘suctorial’ mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods. PMID:26153104

  20. Brainless but Multi-Headed: Decision Making by the Acellular Slime Mould Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Beekman, Madeleine; Latty, Tanya

    2015-11-20

    Because of its peculiar biology and the ease with which it can be cultured, the acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum has long been a model organism in a range of disciplines. Due to its macroscopic, syncytial nature, it is no surprise that it has been a favourite amongst cell biologists. Its inclusion in the experimental tool kit of behavioural ecologists is much more recent. These recent studies have certainly paid off. They have shown that, for an organism that lacks a brain or central nervous system, P. polycephalum shows rather complex behaviour. For example, it is capable of finding the shortest path through a maze, it can construct networks as efficient as those designed by humans, it can solve computationally difficult puzzles, it makes multi-objective foraging decisions, it balances its nutrient intake and it even behaves irrationally. Are the slime mould's achievements simply "cute", worthy of mentioning in passing but nothing to take too seriously? Or do they hint at the fundamental processes underlying all decision making? We will address this question after reviewing the decision-making abilities of the slime mould. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Mould Coating on Skin Formation and Nodule Characteristics of Thin Wall Ductile Iron Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaneswara, D.; Suharno, B.; Aprilio, A.; Ariobimo, R. D. S.; Sofyan, N.

    2017-05-01

    Thin wall ductile iron (TWDI) has the potential alternative for lightweight aluminium use in automotive parts. The main problem in TWDI, however, is the formation of skin during the casting, which may reduce its mechanical properties. This casting skin is formed by the decomposition of nodular graphite at the mould interface during the casting process. One of the ways to work around this problem is by using mould coating to control the cooling process. In this work, three variables of mould coatings were used, i.e. graphite, MgO, and MgO/graphite double layers. The results showed that the average casting skin thickness in double layer coating was the lowest (30.41 μm), 57% lower than that of in MgO (71.46 μm) and 60% lower than that of graphite (74.44 μm). The reduction of casting skin thickness increased the mechanical properties of TWDI (346 MPa), 69% higher than that of MgO (223 MPa) and 26% higher than that of graphite (297 MPa). The same is true for ductility (2.7%), which was higher than that of MgO (1.43%) and that of graphite (1.43%).

  2. The contribution of moulds and yeasts to the fermentation of 'agbelima' cassava dough.

    PubMed

    Amoa-Awua, W K; Frisvad, J C; Sefa-Dedeh, S; Jakobsen, M

    1997-09-01

    Agbelima, a fermented cassava meal widely consumed in Ghana, Togo and Benin, is produced by fermenting grated cassava with one of several types of traditional cassava dough inoculum. During fermentation a smooth textured sour dough is produced, the toxicity of cassava is reduced and there is a build up of volatile aroma compounds. Four types of inocula were included in the present investigation. In one type moulds were found to form a dominant part of the microbiota, the species present being Penicillium sclerotiorum, P. citrinum, P. nodulum, Geotrichum candidum and a basidiomycete. All these moulds were found to possess cellulase activity which was responsible for the hydrolysis of cassava tuber cellulose during fermentation leading to a breakdown of the coarse texture of cassava dough. The yeasts Candida krusei, C. tropicalis and Zygosaccharomyces spp. were present in high numbers in the four types of inocula including the moudly inoculum. The yeasts C. tropicalis and some strains of Zygosaccharomyces, all of which possessed cellulase activity, were also found to contribute to the modification of cassava texture during fermentation. All yeasts and moulds exhibited linamarase activity and were therefore capable of breaking down the cyanogenic glucosides present in cassava.

  3. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Jessica L; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L; Duffy, Grant A

    2015-07-08

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the 'suctorial' mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods.

  4. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskins, Jessica L.; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L.; Duffy, Grant A.

    2015-07-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the ‘suctorial’ mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods.

  5. Herbal hepatotoxicity by kava: update on pipermethystine, flavokavain B, and mould hepatotoxins as primarily assumed culprits.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Qiu, Samuel X; Lebot, Vincent

    2011-09-01

    Herbal hepatotoxicity by the anxiolytic kava (Piper methysticum Forst. f.) emerged unexpectedly and was observed in a few patients worldwide. Liver injury occurred after the use of traditional aqueous kava extracts in the South Pacific region and of acetonic and ethanolic extracts in Western countries in rare cases, suggesting that the solvents used play no major causative role. In this review, we discuss actual pathogenetic issues of kava hepatotoxicity with special focus on developments regarding pipermethystine, flavokavain B, and mould hepatotoxins as possible culprits. There is abundant data of in vitro cytotoxicity including apoptosis by pipermethystine and flavokavain B added to the incubation media, yet evidence is lacking of in vivo hepatotoxicity in experimental animals under conditions similar to human kava use. Furthermore, in commercial Western kava extracts, pipermethystine was not detectable and flavokavain B was present as a natural compound in amounts much too low to cause experimental liver injury. There is concern, however, that due to high temperature and humidity in the South Pacific area, kava raw material might have been contaminated by mould hepatotoxins such as aflatoxins after harvest and during storage. Whether kava hepatotoxicity may be due to aflatoxicosis or other mould hepatotoxins, requires further studies.

  6. Foundry waste recycling in moulding operations and in the ceramic industry.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Maria Chiara; Fiore, Silvia

    2003-06-01

    An industrial treatment was performed by the Sasil plant of Brusnengo (Biella, Northern Italy), which is part of the Gruppo Minerali S.p.A. (Novara, Northern Italy), to consider the reclamation of bentonite bonded moulding sands obtained from the Teksid Italia S.p.A. cast iron foundry plant in Crescentino (Vercelli, Northern Italy). An evaluation of the fine particles produced by the wet-mechanical regeneration treatment was made with the purpose of proposing their recycling as binding agents in moulding operations in the cast iron foundry and for the production of tiles in the ceramic industry. The pre-mixed product sold by bentonite suppliers (35% coal dust and 65% bentonite, 0.15 Euro/kg) could be made from the recovered fine fraction below 0.025 mm with the addition of active clay and coal dust, thus obtaining a product that will have physico-chemical properties similar to those of calcic bentonite. The improvements due to the addition of the fine particles to the usually employed clay for tile production were also underlined from the results of several baking tests. The recovery and recycling of sands and fine particles obtained from the reclamation of bentonite moulding sands will lead to a saving of raw materials and landfill space, with economic and environmental advantages.

  7. Differential Control Efficacies of Vitamin Treatments against Bacterial Wilt and Grey Mould Diseases in Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Kim, Hyeon Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yang, Hye Ji; Kim, Do Hoon; Sung, Chang Hyun; Park, Chang-Jin; Chang, Seog Won

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial wilt and grey mould in tomato plants are economically destructive bacterial and fungal diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. Various approaches including chemical and biological controls have been attempted to arrest the tomato diseases so far. In this study, in vitro growths of bacterial R. solanacearum and fungal B. cinerea were evaluated using four different vitamins including thiamine (vitamin B1), niacin (vitamin B3), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), and menadione (vitamin K3). In planta efficacies of the four vitamin treatments on tomato protection against both diseases were also demonstrated. All four vitamins showed different in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in dose-dependent manners. However, treatment with 2 mM thiamine was only effective in reducing bacterial wilt of detached tomato leaves without phytotoxicity under lower disease pressure (106 colony-forming unit [cfu]/ml). Treatment with the vitamins also differentially reduced in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea. The four vitamins slightly reduced the conidial germination, and thiamine, pyridoxine and menadione inhibited the mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Menadione began to drastically suppress the conidial germination and mycelial growth by 5 and 0.5 mM, respectively. Grey mould symptoms on the inoculated tomato leaves were significantly reduced by pyridoxine and menadione pretreatments one day prior to the fungal challenge inoculation. These findings suggest that disease-specific vitamin treatment will be integrated for eco-friendly management of tomato bacterial wilt and grey mould. PMID:27721697

  8. Inhibition of ochratoxigenic moulds by Debaryomyces hansenii strains for biopreservation of dry-cured meat products.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Maria J; Thorsen, Line; Rodríguez, Alicia; Córdoba, Juan J; Jespersen, Lene

    2014-01-17

    The ability of the osmotolerant yeast Debaryomyces hansenii to inhibit Penicillium nordicum, the most common ochratoxigenic mould encountered in dry-cured meat products, was evaluated. The antagonistic effect of ten D. hansenii strains isolated from dry-cured ham was screened in vitro using malt extract media and meat extract peptone media with the water activity (a(w)) adjusted to 0.97 and 0.90. A significant inhibition of the two tested P. nordicum strains by D. hansenii cells and cell-free supernatants was observed. At 0.97 a(w), increasing D. hansenii inoculum concentrations significantly improved the inhibition of mould growth on solid medium, whereas at 0.90 a(w) this was not always the case. As observed by bright field microscopy, most D. hansenii strains were able to delay P. nordicum spore germination when co-cultured in malt extract broth. D. hansenii FHSCC 253H showed the highest overall in vitro inhibition of ochratoxigenic mould growth, and was therefore chosen for co-cultivation assays in dry-cured ham slices incubated at 0.94 and 0.84 a(w) simulating ham ripening. Regardless of the experimental conditions tested, lower levels of the inoculated P. nordicum strain were detected in co-cultivation batches compared with batches without D. hansenii. The highest level of mould growth inhibition was observed in batches at 0.94 a(w). Ochratoxin A (OTA) production in ham samples was detected by HPLC-MS. Co-culturing of P. nordicum with D. hansenii FHSCC 253H resulted in lower OTA levels compared with control samples without D. hansenii. The decrease of the mycotoxin presence due to D. hansenii FHSCC 253H was more efficient at 0.94 a(w) (OTA was below the detection limit). In conclusion, D. hansenii is potentially suitable as a biopreservative agent for preventing ochratoxigenic mould growth and OTA accumulation in dry-cured meat products. The inoculation of D. hansenii should be made at the beginning of processing (at the end of post salting) when the a(w) of

  9. FE-Analysis of Stretch-Blow Moulded Bottles Using an Integrative Process Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, C.; Michaeli, W.; Rasche, S.

    2011-05-01

    The two-stage stretch-blow moulding process has been established for the large scale production of high quality PET containers with excellent mechanical and optical properties. The total production costs of a bottle are significantly caused by the material costs. Due to this dominant share of the bottle material, the PET industry is interested in reducing the total production costs by an optimised material efficiency. However, a reduced material inventory means decreasing wall thicknesses and therewith a reduction of the bottle properties (e.g. mechanical properties, barrier properties). Therefore, there is often a trade-off between a minimal bottle weight and adequate properties of the bottle. In order to achieve the objectives Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) techniques can assist the designer of new stretch-blow moulded containers. Hence, tools such as the process simulation and the structural analysis have become important in the blow moulding sector. The Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) at RWTH Aachen University, Germany, has developed an integrative three-dimensional process simulation which models the complete path of a preform through a stretch-blow moulding machine. At first, the reheating of the preform is calculated by a thermal simulation. Afterwards, the inflation of the preform to a bottle is calculated by finite element analysis (FEA). The results of this step are e.g. the local wall thickness distribution and the local biaxial stretch ratios. Not only the material distribution but also the material properties that result from the deformation history of the polymer have significant influence on the bottle properties. Therefore, a correlation between the material properties and stretch ratios is considered in an integrative simulation approach developed at IKV. The results of the process simulation (wall thickness, stretch ratios) are transferred to a further simulation program and mapped on the bottles FE mesh. This approach allows a local

  10. Influence of the material for preformed moulds on the polymerization temperature of resin materials for temporary FPDs.

    PubMed

    Pott, Philipp-Cornelius; Schmitz-Wätjen, Hans; Stiesch, Meike; Eisenburger, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Temperature increase of 5.5 ℃ can cause damage or necrosis of the pulp. Increasing temperature can be caused not only by mechanical factors, e.g. grinding, but also by exothermic polymerization reactions of resin materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate influences of the form material on the intrapulpal temperature during the polymerization of different self-curing resin materials for temporary restorations. 30 provisonal bridges were made of 5 resin materials: Prevision Temp (Pre), Protemp 4 (Pro), Luxatemp Star (Lux), Structure 3 (Str) and an experimental material (Exp). Moulds made of alginate (A) and of silicone (S) and vacuum formed moulds (V) were used to build 10 bridges each on a special experimental setup. The intrapulpal temperatures of three abutment teeth (a canine, a premolar, and a molar,) were measured during the polymerization every second under isothermal conditions. Comparisons of the maximum temperature (TMax) and the time until the maximum temperature (tTMax) were performed using ANOVA and Tukey Test. Using alginate as the mould material resulted in a cooling effect for every resin material. Using the vacuum formed mould, TMax increased significantly compared to alginate (P<.001) and silicone (P<.001). In groups Lux, Pro, and Pre, tTMax increased when the vacuum formed moulds were used. In groups Exp and Str, there was no influence of the mould material on tTMax. All of the mould materials are suitable for clinical use if the intraoral application time does not exceed the manufacturer's instructions for the resin materials.

  11. Influence of the material for preformed moulds on the polymerization temperature of resin materials for temporary FPDs

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz-Wätjen, Hans; Stiesch, Meike; Eisenburger, Michael

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE Temperature increase of 5.5 ℃ can cause damage or necrosis of the pulp. Increasing temperature can be caused not only by mechanical factors, e.g. grinding, but also by exothermic polymerization reactions of resin materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate influences of the form material on the intrapulpal temperature during the polymerization of different self-curing resin materials for temporary restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 provisonal bridges were made of 5 resin materials: Prevision Temp (Pre), Protemp 4 (Pro), Luxatemp Star (Lux), Structure 3 (Str) and an experimental material (Exp). Moulds made of alginate (A) and of silicone (S) and vacuum formed moulds (V) were used to build 10 bridges each on a special experimental setup. The intrapulpal temperatures of three abutment teeth (a canine, a premolar, and a molar,) were measured during the polymerization every second under isothermal conditions. Comparisons of the maximum temperature (TMax) and the time until the maximum temperature (tTMax) were performed using ANOVA and Tukey Test. RESULTS Using alginate as the mould material resulted in a cooling effect for every resin material. Using the vacuum formed mould, TMax increased significantly compared to alginate (P<.001) and silicone (P<.001). In groups Lux, Pro, and Pre, tTMax increased when the vacuum formed moulds were used. In groups Exp and Str, there was no influence of the mould material on tTMax. CONCLUSION All of the mould materials are suitable for clinical use if the intraoral application time does not exceed the manufacturer's instructions for the resin materials. PMID:28874997

  12. Tyrophagus putrescentiae mites grown in dog food cultures and the effect mould growth has on mite survival and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Canfield, Michael S; Wrenn, William J

    2010-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine whether the storage mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, could survive and thrive on dog food and if mould growth was important to their survival. All of the chambers (n = 42) were started with 10 female mites and evaluated every other day for mite survival and for the spontaneous development of mould. Ten chambers tested the effect of low moisture on mite survival. Eight chambers were used as positive and negative controls (n = 4 each); positive control mites were fed Fleischmann's((R)) yeast and negative controls had no food source. Three dog foods were evaluated in the same manner. Four chambers had food but mould development was limited by replacing the food kernel every 48 h and four chambers were allowed to grow mould. Mites grown in chambers without moisture died from desiccation within 5 days. The termination point was day 34 when all mites in the negative control group (moisture but no food) died. Although T. putrescentiae survived and grew on all three commercial dog foods, there was no statistically significant difference in mites counts among the dog foods (P < 0.10). Mite counts in the 'no' mould and mould groups ranged from 8 to 11 and 144 to 245, respectively, and differences were significant (P < 0.0001). This study found that T. putrescentiae is a fungivorous storage mite that can grow and flourish on dog food. The study demonstrated that the presence of mould positively influences mite viability, while low relative humidity can result in detrimental consequences for T. putrescentiae.

  13. Darbepoetin Alfa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to inject it.Darbepoetin alfa injection comes in prefilled syringes and in vials to be used with disposable ... solution before injecting it. Be sure that the prefilled syringe or vial is labeled with the correct name ...

  14. Allergen-specific IgE levels against crude mould and storage mite extracts and recombinant mould allergens in sera from horses affected with chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Eder, C; Crameri, R; Mayer, C; Eicher, R; Straub, R; Gerber, H; Lazary, S; Marti, E

    2000-03-15

    Immunoglobulin E antibody (IgE) levels against four recombinant (r) mould allergens (r-Aspergillus fumigatus [rAsp f] 7, 8 and 9; r-Alternaria alternata 1 [rAlta1]) and crude mould (Aspergillus fumigatus, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium notatum) and storage mite extracts were determined by ELISA in sera from 24 pulmonary sound control horses and 26 horses suffering from chronic bronchitis/bronchiolitis (CB), also called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Serum IgG and IgA titres were also determined against Aspergillus fumigatus extract and rAsp f 8.IgE against the crude extracts could be measured in all sera, but there was no significant difference between CB-affected and control horses. In contrast, only 8-30% of the horses, depending on the r-allergen tested, had detectable IgE levels in serum against the r-allergens. Horses with CB had significantly more often detectable IgE levels than controls against rAlt a 1 (10/26 and 3/24, respectively, p=0. 054), rAsp f 7 (13/26 and 2/24, respectively, p<0.01) and rAsp f 8 (11/26 and 1/24, respectively, p<0.01). Only four horses (three CB-affected and one healthy, p0.05) had detectable IgE levels against rAsp f 9. Furthermore, CB-affected horses were often sensitised against two or more r-allergens (13/26 of the CB-affected horses) while only one of the 24 healthy horses had positive IgE levels against more than one r-allergens. Similarly to IgE levels, no significant differences between CB-affected and healthy horses were found for IgG titres against the Aspergillus fumigatus extract. However, horses with CB had significantly higher serum IgG titres against rAsp f 8 than healthy controls (median=28 versus 10 relative ELISA units [REU], p<0.01). Additionally, horses with detectable IgE titres against rAsp f 8 had significantly higher IgG titres against this r-allergen than horses with undetectable IgE titres (median IgG titres=46 and 13 REU, respectively; p<0.01). For serum IgA titres, neither differences

  15. Aspergillus fumigatus and mesophilic moulds in air in the surrounding environment downwind of non-hazardous waste landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Olivier; Robert, Samuel; Debeaupuis, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Non-hazardous waste landfilling has the potential to release biological agents into the air, notably mould spores. Some species, such as Aspergillus fumigatus, may be a cause of concern for at-risk nearby residents. However, air concentration in the surrounding environment of non-hazardous waste landfill sites is poorly documented. An extensive sampling programme was designed to investigate the relationship between culturable mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus concentrations in air and distance downwind of non-hazardous waste landfill sites. On-site and off-site repeated measurements were performed at four landfill sites during cold and warm seasons. A high-flow air-sampler device was selected so as to allow peak concentration measurement. Linear mixed-effects models were used to explain variability in the concentrations in air over time and across sites, seasons, instantaneous meteorological conditions and discharged waste tonnage. Concentrations of mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus at off-site upwind sampling locations were compared with concentrations at each of the downwind sampling locations. At the tipping face location, peak concentration reached 480,000CFUm(-3) for mesophilic moulds and 9300CFUm(-3) for A. fumigatus. Compared with upwind background levels, these concentrations were, on average, approximately 20 and 40 times higher respectively. A steep decline in the concentration of both mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus was observed between the tipping face location and the downwind property boundary (reduction by 77% and 84% respectively), followed by a low decline leading to a 90% and 94% reduction in concentration at 200m from the property boundary and beyond. With the 200m and 500m downwind sampling point values added together, the 97.5th percentile of concentration was 6013CFUm(-3) and 87CFUm(-3) for mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus, respectively. Other determining factors were the discharged waste tonnage, the season, instantaneous temperature

  16. Effect of ethanol on growth of Chrysonilia sitophila ('the red bread mould') and Hyphopichia burtonii ('the chalky mould') in sliced bread.

    PubMed

    Berni, E; Scaramuzza, N

    2013-10-01

    Contamination of food industrial environments and recontamination of finished products by Chrysonilia sitophila and Hyphopichia burtonii have long represented serious problems for the bakery industries. As one of the most common ways to slow down or avoid fungal spoilage on bakery products is the use of ethanol, in the present work the effect of this substance has been assessed on growth of two of the most frequently occurring associated moulds, C. sitophila and H. burtonii, by means of tests on both synthetic media and sliced bread. Test on synthetic media: H. burtonii was less markedly affected in lag-phase duration and radial growth rates by the addition of ethanol to DG18 and the reduction in incubation temperature than C. sitophila that failed to grow at the highest concentrations of ethanol tested (2·0 and 4·0% at 15°C; 4·0% at 25°C). Test on sliced bread: ethanol proved to be effective to prevent spoilage by C. sitophila even at the lowest concentration tested (0·8%, w/w), while higher concentrations (2·0%, w/w) were needed to prevent spoilage by H. burtonii. This study shows that ethanol could represent an effective barrier to prevent spoilage of bakery products by associated moulds such as Chrysonilia sitophila and Hyphopichia burtonii, whose growth on packed and sliced bread was inhibited at very low (0·8%) or medium (2·0%) ethanol concentrations, respectively. The results obtained represent a fundamental point of reference for the bakery industries, as they can apply them in the productive practice to avoid spoilage by C. sitophila and H. burtonii on their products. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Recognition of Mould Colony on Unhulled Paddy Based on Computer Vision using Conventional Machine-learning and Deep Learning Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ke; Wang, Zhengjie; Tu, Kang; Wang, Shaojin; Pan, Leiqing

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the potential of conventional and deep learning techniques to recognize the species and distribution of mould in unhulled paddy, samples were inoculated and cultivated with five species of mould, and sample images were captured. The mould recognition methods were built using support vector machine (SVM), back-propagation neural network (BPNN), convolutional neural network (CNN), and deep belief network (DBN) models. An accuracy rate of 100% was achieved by using the DBN model to identify the mould species in the sample images based on selected colour-histogram parameters, followed by the SVM and BPNN models. A pitch segmentation recognition method combined with different classification models was developed to recognize the mould colony areas in the image. The accuracy rates of the SVM and CNN models for pitch classification were approximately 90% and were higher than those of the BPNN and DBN models. The CNN and DBN models showed quicker calculation speeds for recognizing all of the pitches segmented from a single sample image. Finally, an efficient uniform CNN pitch classification model for all five types of sample images was built. This work compares multiple classification models and provides feasible recognition methods for mouldy unhulled paddy recognition. PMID:27897236

  18. On the process capability of the solid free-form fabrication: a case study of scaffold moulds for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Liu, C Z; Han, Z W; Hourd, P; Czernuszka, J T

    2008-04-01

    This study applies the methodology and procedure of process capability to investigate a solid free-form fabrication technique as a manufacturing method to produce scaffold moulds for tissue engineering. The process capability Cpk and process performance Ppk of scaffold mould manufacture using a solid free-form fabrication technique has been analysed with respect to the dimension deviations. A solid free-form fabrication machine T66 was used to fabricate scaffold moulds in this study and is able to create features that ranged from 200 microm to 1000 microm. The analysis showed that the printing process under the normal cooling conditions of the printing chamber was in statistical control but gave low process capability indices, indicating that the process was 'inadequate' for production of 'dimension-consistent' scaffold moulds. The study demonstrates that, by lowering the temperature of the cooling conditions, the capability Cpk of the printing process can be improved (about threefold) sufficiently to ensure the consistent production of scaffold moulds with dimension characteristics within their specification limits.

  19. Recognition of Mould Colony on Unhulled Paddy Based on Computer Vision using Conventional Machine-learning and Deep Learning Techniques.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ke; Wang, Zhengjie; Tu, Kang; Wang, Shaojin; Pan, Leiqing

    2016-11-29

    To investigate the potential of conventional and deep learning techniques to recognize the species and distribution of mould in unhulled paddy, samples were inoculated and cultivated with five species of mould, and sample images were captured. The mould recognition methods were built using support vector machine (SVM), back-propagation neural network (BPNN), convolutional neural network (CNN), and deep belief network (DBN) models. An accuracy rate of 100% was achieved by using the DBN model to identify the mould species in the sample images based on selected colour-histogram parameters, followed by the SVM and BPNN models. A pitch segmentation recognition method combined with different classification models was developed to recognize the mould colony areas in the image. The accuracy rates of the SVM and CNN models for pitch classification were approximately 90% and were higher than those of the BPNN and DBN models. The CNN and DBN models showed quicker calculation speeds for recognizing all of the pitches segmented from a single sample image. Finally, an efficient uniform CNN pitch classification model for all five types of sample images was built. This work compares multiple classification models and provides feasible recognition methods for mouldy unhulled paddy recognition.

  20. Mycotoxin production capability of Penicillium roqueforti in strains isolated from mould-ripened traditional Turkish civil cheese.

    PubMed

    Cakmakci, Songul; Gurses, Mustafa; Hayaloglu, A Adnan; Cetin, Bulent; Sekerci, Pinar; Dagdemir, Elif

    2015-01-01

    Mould-ripened civil is a traditional cheese produced mainly in eastern Turkey. The cheese is produced with a mixture of civil and whey curd cheeses (lor). This mixture is pressed into goat skins or plastic bags and is ripened for more than three months. Naturally occurring moulds grow on the surface and inside of the cheese during ripening. In this research, 140 Penicillium roqueforti strains were isolated from 41 samples of mould-ripened civil cheese collected from Erzurum and around towns in eastern Turkey. All strains were capable of mycotoxin production and were analysed using an HPLC method. It was established that all the strains (albeit at very low levels) produced roquefortine C, penicillic acid, mycophenolic acid and patulin. The amounts of toxins were in the ranges 0.4-47.0, 0.2-43.6, 0.1-23.1 and 0.1-2.3 mg kg(-1), respectively. Patulin levels of the samples were lower than the others. The lowest level and highest total mycotoxin levels were determined as 1.2 and 70.1 mg kg(-1) respectively. The results of this preliminary study may help in the choice of secondary cultures for mould-ripened civil cheese and other mould-ripened cheeses.

  1. Deep reactive ion etching of silicon moulds for the fabrication of diamond x-ray focusing lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, A. M.; Fox, O. J. L.; Alianelli, L.; Korsunsky, A. M.; Stevens, R.; Loader, I. M.; Wilson, M. C.; Pape, I.; Sawhney, K. J. S.; May, P. W.

    2013-12-01

    Diamond is a highly desirable material for use in x-ray optics and instrumentation. However, due to its extreme hardness and resistance to chemical attack, diamond is difficult to form into a structure suitable for x-ray lenses. Refractive lenses are capable of delivering x-ray beams with nanoscale resolution. A moulding technique for the fabrication of diamond lenses is reported. High-quality silicon moulds were made using photolithography and deep reactive ion etching. The study of the etch process conducted to achieve silicon moulds with vertical sidewalls and minimal surface roughness is discussed. Issues experienced when attempting to deposit diamond into a high-aspect-ratio mould by chemical vapour deposition are highlighted. Two generations of lenses have been successfully fabricated using this transfer-moulding approach with significant improvement in the quality and performance of the optics observed in the second iteration. Testing of the diamond x-ray optics on the Diamond Light Source Ltd synchrotron B16 beamline has yielded a line focus of sub-micrometre width.

  2. Recognition of Mould Colony on Unhulled Paddy Based on Computer Vision using Conventional Machine-learning and Deep Learning Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ke; Wang, Zhengjie; Tu, Kang; Wang, Shaojin; Pan, Leiqing

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the potential of conventional and deep learning techniques to recognize the species and distribution of mould in unhulled paddy, samples were inoculated and cultivated with five species of mould, and sample images were captured. The mould recognition methods were built using support vector machine (SVM), back-propagation neural network (BPNN), convolutional neural network (CNN), and deep belief network (DBN) models. An accuracy rate of 100% was achieved by using the DBN model to identify the mould species in the sample images based on selected colour-histogram parameters, followed by the SVM and BPNN models. A pitch segmentation recognition method combined with different classification models was developed to recognize the mould colony areas in the image. The accuracy rates of the SVM and CNN models for pitch classification were approximately 90% and were higher than those of the BPNN and DBN models. The CNN and DBN models showed quicker calculation speeds for recognizing all of the pitches segmented from a single sample image. Finally, an efficient uniform CNN pitch classification model for all five types of sample images was built. This work compares multiple classification models and provides feasible recognition methods for mouldy unhulled paddy recognition.

  3. [About the identification of sources and routes of mould contamination of bread in large bakeries (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Spicher, G

    1980-01-01

    In order to identify sources and routes of the contamination of bread by moulds, the microbial germ content of the air and machine surfaces was investigated in 25 large bakeries of different geographical position and size. On its way from the baking oven to the delivery station, the bread passes through production areas likely to be loaded with more than 90,000 mould spores/cbm air. With a germ content of the air in the bread storage rooms from 85 to 5,000 mould spores per cbm, bread contamination by 10 to 400 mould spores per 100 sq.cm must be expected to take place in the course of one hour. The germ content of the air in bread factories depends, among other factors, on the dust content of the air, the producton processes, the time and type of cleaning as well as on the fresh-air supply system for the production and storage areas. Especially in the bread slicing and packaging areas, a number of production-related sources of microbial spread exist which should be eliminated. The "knife oils" used for the slicing tools are occasionally found to be heavily contaminated with mould and yeast already at their arrival at the bakery. The continuous use of these oils leads to a considerable enrichment with microbial germs.

  4. Epidural Injections for Spinal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Epidural Injections An epidural injection provides temporary or prolonged relief ... limitations of Epidural Injection? What is an Epidural Injection? An epidural injection is an injection of medication ...

  5. Skin-prick test findings in students from moisture- and mould-damaged schools: a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Immonen, J; Meklin, T; Taskinen, T; Nevalainen, A; Korppi, M

    2001-04-01

    Dampness and moisture problems in a building may cause growth of moulds, leading to sensitization and symptoms in the inhabitants. The mechanism by which sensitization to moulds takes place has remained obscure; in particular, the role of atopy is not clear. In 1996, 622 pupils (7-13 years of age) attending a school with a moisture problem (index school; 414 pupils) and a control school (208 pupils) were screened using a questionnaire. Two-hundred and twelve children had doctor-diagnosed asthma, parental-reported wheezing or prolonged cough, and they participated in a clinical study, which included skin prick tests (SPT) to 12 moulds. An identical, follow-up study was performed 3 years later in 1999. In the follow-up study, 144 of the original 212 students participated. They were now attending four different schools: the index primary school had been renovated and the control school remained unchanged, but the two secondary schools had moisture and mould problems. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of mould allergy in children of school age and to compare sensitization to moulds in relation to age, exposure, asthma, and atopy. In 1999, SPT responses to moulds were demonstrated in 17 (12%) of the 144 children. Six children had SPT reactions > or = 3 mm and all but one were older than 14 years. During the 3-year follow-up period, mould allergy developed in five children and disappeared in two children. Five of the six children with reactions > or = 3 mm to moulds had positive responses to other allergens, five had clinical atopy but only two had asthma. Likewise, all six children had been exposed to moisture and dampness in the school buildings. In conclusion, mould allergy diagnosed by SPTs was rare in students. Most reactions to moulds were in students older than 14 years with multiple SPT reactions to common allergens, and there was no significant association with asthma.

  6. Exposure to moulds and actinomycetes in Alpine farms: a nested environmental study of the PASTURE cohort.

    PubMed

    Roussel, S; Sudre, B; Reboux, G; Waser, M; Buchele, G; Vacheyrou, M; Dalphin, J C; Millon, L; Braun-Fahrländer, C; von Mutius, E; Piarroux, R

    2011-08-01

    Several studies have suggested that children exposed to a farm environment are protected against allergies and asthma. The present work is an environmental study nested within the PASTURE cohort and includes 97 farmers and 74 non-farmers in three regions of the Alpine Arc (Switzerland, France and Germany). The objectives were to determine and compare the fungi and actinomycetes present in farming and non-farming environments (children's bedrooms and cowsheds), and to identify the agricultural practices associated with an increase in airborne fungi and actinomycetes in cowsheds. Air samples were collected by air pump and were analysed by culture and by direct counting of spores on membranes. During their stay in bedrooms, children living on farms were exposed to significantly greater amounts of Absidia spp., Eurotium spp., Cladosporium spp., Penicillium spp. and mesophilic actinomycetes than children who did not live on farms. Depending on the season, the levels of moulds, yeasts and actinomycetes were from 14 to 82 times higher in cowsheds before feeding the cattle than in children's bedrooms, and from 12 to 464 times higher in cowsheds after feeding than in children's bedrooms. Feeding cattle in cowsheds was associated with a significant peak in airborne moulds and actinomycetes, and this peak was higher in winter than in summer. Silage distribution was associated with low amounts of moulds and actinomycetes. Other significant agricultural factors were the type of cowshed, cowshed volume, method of food distribution to cattle and use of fresh grass. An assessment of the microbiological diversity on farms and in children's rooms may help to determine the factors protecting children from asthma and atopic diseases.

  7. Use of Moroccan medicinal plant extracts as botanical fungicide against citrus blue mould.

    PubMed

    Askarne, L; Talibi, I; Boubaker, H; Boudyach, E H; Msanda, F; Saadi, B; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to find an alternative to chemical fungicides currently used in the control of postharvest citrus fruit diseases. In this study, we screened eight Moroccan medicinal and aromatic plants extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol for their anti-fungal activity against Penicillium italicum, the causal agent of citrus blue mould. The anti-fungal activity of these extracts was tested based on the disc diffusion method. Petroleum ether extracts of Inula viscosa, Asteriscus graveolens, Bubonium odorum and Thymus leptobotrys and chloroformic extract of Anvillea radiata revealed the highest significant anti-fungal activity with inhibition zones that ranged between 25·83 and 28·33 mm in diameter. In the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) study, we observed that petroleum ether extract of I. viscosa was the most effective extract with both the significantly largest halo (27·50 mm) and the lowest MIC (1 mg ml(-1)). The most active plant extracts in in vitro studies were tested in vivo, and results indicated that solvent extracts of the selected plant species significantly decreased the incidence and severity of blue mould, after 7 and 10 days of storage at 20°C. In addition, Halimium umbellatum methanol extract and T. leptobotrys petroleum ether extract completely inhibited the development of P. italicum under both storage periods, and no phytotoxic effects were recorded on citrus fruit. This study demonstrates that plant extracts have a high potential to control blue mould of citrus and will provide a starting point for discovering new compounds with better activity than chemical fungicides currently available. Such natural products therefore represent a sustainable alternative to the use of chemical fungicides. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Slime mould fluids and networks from an artist's point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Theresa

    2015-03-01

    Slime mould is a fascinating creature. It is the largest acellular organism known on this planet and a primordial being that had no need to undergo evolution. In nature, this proves it to be a very successful creature. As a biological curiosity, the species P. polycephalum serves as a model for network optimisation and cell motility in scientific experiments. It can be interpreted as an "agent" which distributively solves geometrical problems. The starting points for the experiments displayed here are sophisticated setups or growing environments that allow the organism to propagate and grow, yet under conditions that the artist has predefined, sometimes with interaction between human organisms...

  9. Monitoring of vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM) process with superimposed Fiber-Bragg-gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triollet, S.; Robert, L.; Marin, E.; Ouerdane, Y.

    2011-05-01

    We report the instrumentation of a manufacturing composite process using an optical fiber sensor based on Bragg gratings. The sensor is made of superimposed Long Period (LPG) and short period (FBG) Bragg gratings written in the same fiber section. The monitoring of the process needs simultaneous measurements of temperature and strain. It has been shown that these two solicitations can be determined and discriminated with a superimposed FBG/LPG sensor [1]. In this paper we present the device based on the dual superimposed gratings. The sensor is embedded in a composite specimen manufactured by Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding (VARTM) process for monitoring purpose.

  10. Determination of moulds and mycotoxins in dry dog and cat food using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Błajet-Kosicka, A; Kosicki, R; Twarużek, M; Grajewski, J

    2014-01-01

    In this study moulds and 12 mycotoxins in dry pet food samples (25 for dogs and 24 for cats) were determined. Primary moulds identified were Aspergillus, Mucor and Penicillium, found in 55% of the samples. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone (ZEN) were detected in all samples with mean respective concentrations being 97.3 and 38.3 µg kg(-1) in cat food and 114 and 20.1 µg kg(-1) in dog food. T-2 and HT-2 toxins were present in 88% and 84% of the samples, respectively. Two samples contained fumonisins, with a maximum concentration of 108 µg kg(-1). Aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A were detected in 8% and 45% of the samples, respectively. The measured mould and mycotoxin levels were consistent with results obtained by other studies. However, potential exposure to relatively high concentrations of an oestrogen mycotoxin as is ZEN, especially when in combination with other mycotoxins, needs attention.

  11. From the patient to the clinical mycology laboratory: how can we optimise microscopy and culture methods for mould identification?

    PubMed

    Vyzantiadis, Timoleon-Achilleas A; Johnson, Elizabeth M; Kibbler, Christopher C

    2012-06-01

    The identification of fungi relies mainly on morphological criteria. However, there is a need for robust and definitive phenotypic identification procedures in order to evaluate continuously evolving molecular methods. For the future, there is an emerging consensus that a combined (phenotypic and molecular) approach is more powerful for fungal identification, especially for moulds. Most of the procedures used for phenotypic identification are based on experience rather than comparative studies of effectiveness or performance and there is a need for standardisation among mycology laboratories. This review summarises and evaluates the evidence for the major existing phenotypic identification procedures for the predominant causes of opportunistic mould infection. We have concentrated mainly on Aspergillus, Fusarium and mucoraceous mould species, as these are the most important clinically and the ones for which there are the most molecular taxonomic data.

  12. Integration of a macro/micro architectured compartmentalised neuronal culture device using a rapid prototyping moulding process.

    PubMed

    Arundell, Martin; Perry, V Hugh; Newman, Tracey A

    2011-09-07

    The rapid prototyping of a reversible and one step moulded compartmentalised neuron glass/PDMS device with a thin wall barrier directly adjacent to the reservoirs is presented. A simple moulding technique to produce these devices results in a barrier of 560 μm where the 3 μm deep by 8 μm wide channels can be reversibly fabricated in either the glass base or PDMS compartmentalised mould depending on the type of application required. Using glass substrates with commercially laser engraved microchannels, both the PDMS planar and PDMS channelled device can be easily fabricated in a standard laboratory. The compartmentalised device has several advantages including good experimental accessibility and versatility with a variety of end user applications.

  13. Yield improvement for lost mould rapid infiltration forming process by a multistage fractional factorial split plot design.

    PubMed

    Yuangyai, Chumpol; Nembhard, Harriet Black; Hayes, Gregory; Antolino, Nicholas; Adair, James H

    2009-07-01

    Statistical design of experiments is widely used among scientists and engineers to understand influential factors in a laboratory or manufacturing process. One of the underlying principles of using the statistical design of experiments method is randomisation, each run of experimental settings will be determined completely unsystematically. In practice, especially in a complicated process that consists of multiple stages, randomisation may pose too high a burden on time and cost.In this study, the multistage fraction factorial split plot design is proposed for green yield improvement in a lost mould rapid infiltration process that has been developed to fabricate zirconia ceramic parts. This design allows a relaxation of the randomisation principle so that certain experimental runs can be carried out in convenient groups. The results indicate that the type of immersion chemical and mould coating play a role in improving process yield. Additionally, the results suggest that a mould infiltration machine should be used to improve the reproducibility of the process.

  14. Beam Injection into RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mackay, W. W.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. We describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks, the application program to steer the beam and the injection kickers. We report on the commissioning of the injection systems and on measurements of the kickers.

  15. The use of sodium carbonate to improve curing treatments against green and blue moulds on citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Pilar; Usall, Josep; Torres, Rosario; Abadias, Maribel; Smilanick, Joseph L; Viñas, Immaculada

    2004-08-01

    The effectiveness of curing oranges and lemons at 33 degrees C for 65h followed by storage under ambient and cold-storage conditions was investigated. This treatment effectively reduced the incidence of Penicillium digitatum (Pers) Sacc and P italicum Wehmer decay on inoculated and naturally infected oranges and lemons stored at 20 degrees C for 7 days. However, it failed to control green and blue mould infections on fruits placed in long-term cold storage, except green mould on oranges, which was effectively controlled. Dipping fruits in a sodium carbonate solution (20 g litre(-1)) for 2.5 min following a curing treatment at 33 degrees C for 65 h satisfactorily reduced green and blue mould incidence during subsequent long-term storage at 4 degrees C on oranges and at 10 degrees C on lemons. The efficacy was greater on injured fruits inoculated after the combination of treatments was applied, achieving a 60-80% reduction in decay in comparison with the curing treatment alone in all cases. A significant reduction of blue mould was also observed on fruits inoculated both before the treatments and on those re-inoculated after the treatments, demonstrating both protectant and eradicant activity. Thus, combining curing at 33 degrees C for 65 h with sodium carbonate treatment effectively controlled these post-harvest diseases on artificially inoculated citrus fruits and protected against re-infection. With naturally inoculated lemons, curing followed by sodium carbonate significantly reduced both green and blue mould incidence, but was not superior to curing alone. With naturally infected oranges, curing significantly reduced blue mould, but decay was not reduced further when followed by sodium carbonate treatment.

  16. Elastomeric inverse moulding and vacuum casting process characterization for the fabrication of arrays of concave refractive microlenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmet, L.; Van Overmeire, S.; Van Erps, J.; Ottevaere, H.; Debaes, C.; Thienpont, H.

    2007-01-01

    We present a complete and precise quantitative characterization of the different process steps used in an elastomeric inverse moulding and vacuum casting technique. We use the latter replication technique to fabricate concave replicas from an array of convex thermal reflow microlenses. During the inverse elastomeric moulding we obtain a secondary silicone mould of the original silicone mould in which the master component is embedded. Using vacuum casting, we are then able to cast out of the second mould several optical transparent poly-urethane arrays of concave refractive microlenses. We select ten particular representative microlenses on the original, the silicone moulds and replica sample and quantitatively characterize and statistically compare them during the various fabrication steps. For this purpose, we use several state-of-the-art and ultra-precise characterization tools such as a stereo microscope, a stylus surface profilometer, a non-contact optical profilometer, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, a Twyman-Green interferometer and an atomic force microscope to compare various microlens parameters such as the lens height, the diameter, the paraxial focal length, the radius of curvature, the Strehl ratio, the peak-to-valley and the root-mean-square wave aberrations and the surface roughness. When appropriate, the microlens parameter under test is measured with several different measuring tools to check for consistency in the measurement data. Although none of the lens samples shows diffraction-limited performance, we prove that the obtained replicated arrays of concave microlenses exhibit sufficiently low surface roughness and sufficiently high lens quality for various imaging applications.

  17. A three-dimensional hybrid finite element-volume tracking model for mould filling in casting processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, D. M.

    1999-04-01

    Metal casting is a complicated process in which flow momentum plays a crucial role in the mould filling process due to the high velocity of the liquid metal. Inertia and gravity effects may cause splashing, jetting or undesirable filling of the metal flow into the mould cavity. When considering complex parts, the accurate prediction of mould filling behaviour using empirical knowledge and intuition is nearly impossible. Therefore, numerical modelling and simulation are essential to predict such a complex physical problem and assist in part with mould design. A mould filling analysis can help the mould designer to determine the size and location of the gate as well as a proper runner system design for ensuring a complete and balanced filling of the part. Such an analysis can also be used to predict potential product defects, such as air entrapment, porosities, and help in correct positioning of overflows and venting systems. A three-dimensional finite element model combined with a volume tracking method has been developed in this work to simulate the cavity filling for casting processes. A mixed formulation based on a four node tetrahedral element with a bubble function at the centroid (P1+/P1) is employed to solve the flow equations. Such a finite element provides a small dimension of the element matrices and satisfies the Brezzi-Babuska condition to ensure a stable solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. A slip boundary condition combined with a friction model is implemented to better simulate the metal flow near the mould walls. An algebraic model is used to account for the turbulence effects during the mould filling. The flow fronts are tracked by a volume tracking method developed for the tetrahedral elements. This method can handle complicated flow front shapes and complex situations like merging and separation of flow fronts. The combination of a volume tracking technique with a FEM flow solver in three-dimensional unstructured meshes constitutes the major

  18. Numerical simulation of casting processes: coupled mould filling and solidification using VOF and enthalpy-porosity method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Ole; Turnow, Johann; Kornev, Nikolai; Hassel, Egon

    2016-12-01

    Within the scope of industrial casting applications a numerical model for the simultaneous mould filling and solidification process has been formulated, implemented in a finite volume code and successfully validated using analytical and experimental data. In order to account for the developing of free surface flow and the liquid/solid phase change, respectively, the volume-of-fluid and enthalpy-porosity method have been coupled under a volume averaging framework on a fixed Eulerian grid. The coupled method captures the basic physical effects of a combined mould filling and solidification process and provides a trustful method for comprehensive casting simulations.

  19. Numerical simulation of casting processes: coupled mould filling and solidification using VOF and enthalpy-porosity method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Ole; Turnow, Johann; Kornev, Nikolai; Hassel, Egon

    2017-06-01

    Within the scope of industrial casting applications a numerical model for the simultaneous mould filling and solidification process has been formulated, implemented in a finite volume code and successfully validated using analytical and experimental data. In order to account for the developing of free surface flow and the liquid/solid phase change, respectively, the volume-of-fluid and enthalpy-porosity method have been coupled under a volume averaging framework on a fixed Eulerian grid. The coupled method captures the basic physical effects of a combined mould filling and solidification process and provides a trustful method for comprehensive casting simulations.

  20. Characterization of highly oriented organoclay/ poly(methyl methacrylate) moulded nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Realinho, V; Velasco, J I; Antunes, M; Sánchez-Soto, M S; Maspoch, M Ll

    2010-02-01

    In the present paper, the effects of nanoparticles' content and orientation were studied on the structure, phase morphology and thermo-mechanical properties of highly oriented montmorillonite/ poly(methyl methacrylate) moulded nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were compounded using a co-rotating high-shear twin-screw extruder. Square plates were prepared by a two-stage compression-moulding process from the previously extruded materials, with the test specimens being directly machined in both parallel and perpendicular directions with respect to the plate's surface. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) revealed a highly-ordered structure of silicate platelets parallel to the plate's surface. Observations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) supported this analysis, demonstrating the high anisotropy degree of the nanocomposites. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) showed that the perpendicular specimens were stiffer than the parallel ones, with the presence of the oriented nanoparticles decreasing PMMA's mobility during the glass transition, although no significant differences were registered in the T(g) temperatures with increasing the amount of clay content or with orientation. Remarkable improvements regarding the fracture energy were observed for the perpendicular specimens, with the 20 wt% oMMT nanocomposite showing a fracture energy almost 10 times that of pure PMMA.

  1. Compression moulding simulations of SMC using a multiobjective surrogate-based inverse modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjavaara, B. D.; Ebermark, S.; Lundström, T. S.

    2009-09-01

    A multiobjective surrogate-based inverse modeling technique to predict the spatial and temporal pressure distribution numerically during the fabrication of sheet moulding compounds (SMCs) is introduced. Specifically, an isotropic temperature-dependent Newtonian viscosity model of a SMC charge is fitted to experimental measurements via numerical simulations in order to mimic the temporal pressure distribution at two spatial locations simultaneously. The simulations are performed by using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code ANSYS CFX-10.0, and the multiobjective surrogate-based fitting procedure proposed is carried out with a hybrid formulation of the NSGA-IIa evolutionary algorithm and the response surface methodology in Matlab. The outcome of the analysis shows the ability of the optimization framework to efficiently reduce the total computational load of the problem. Furthermore, the viscosity model assumed seems to be able to re solve the temporal pressure distribution and the advancing flow front accurately, which can not be said of the spatial pressure distribution. Hence, it is recommended to improve the CFD model proposed in order to better capture the true behaviour of the mould flow.

  2. Modeling and optimization of shape change in shell spatial cross-sections under superplastic moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumachenko, E. N.

    2008-08-01

    The necessity to develop and optimize new technological processes of gas moulding of shells under the superplasticity conditions, which ensure large elongation and complexity of the shape of end items, makes the specialists in the field of mathematical simulation to pose and solve problems of constant improvement of the imitation models. Because of a large number of "embedded" nonlinearities (the physical properties of the material, friction, and unknown boundaries), the solution of such problems requires large computer resources, high qualification of designers, and large amount of labor. In the present paper, we consider the problems of express analysis of pattern change of spatial shells on the basis of estimation of the behavior of their critical cross-sections. We solve problems of moulding of titan shells (made of VT6 alloy) in a matrix of complicated shape. We theoretically and experimentally justify the methods for predicting and constructing the optimal technological processes of shell deformation under conditions close to superplasticity by using the 2.5D designing procedures.

  3. Speed-accuracy trade-offs during foraging decisions in the acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Latty, Tanya; Beekman, Madeleine

    2011-02-22

    Speed-accuracy trade-offs (SATs) are thought to be a fundamental feature of biological information processing, yet most evidence of SATs comes from animals. Here, we examine SATs in the foraging decisions of an acellular, amoeboid organism: the slime mould Physarum polycephalum. Slime moulds were given a simple discrimination task: selecting the highest-quality food item from a set of three options. We investigated the effect of two stressors, light exposure and hunger, on the speed and accuracy of decision-making. We also examined the effect of task difficulty. When given a difficult discrimination task, stressed individuals tend to make faster decisions than non-stressed individuals. This effect was reversed in plasmodia given easy discrimination tasks, where stressed individuals made slower decisions than non-stressed individuals. We found evidence of SATs, such that individuals who made fast decisions were more likely to make costly errors by selecting the worst possible food option. Our results suggest that SATs occur in a wider range of taxa than previously considered.

  4. A morphological adaptation approach to path planning inspired by slime mould

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jeff

    2015-04-01

    Path planning is a classic problem in computer science and robotics which has recently been implemented in unconventional computing substrates such as chemical reaction-diffusion computers. These novel computing schemes utilise the parallel spatial propagation of information and often use a two-stage method involving diffusive propagation to discover all paths and a second stage to highlight or visualise the path between two particular points in the arena. The true slime mould Physarum polycephalum is known to construct efficient transport networks between nutrients in its environment. These networks are continuously remodelled as the organism adapts its body plan to changing spatial stimuli. It can be guided towards attractant stimuli (nutrients, warm regions) and it avoids locations containing hazardous stimuli (light irradiation, repellents, or regions occupied by predatory threats). Using a particle model of slime mould we demonstrate scoping experiments which explore how path planning may be performed by morphological adaptation. We initially demonstrate simple path planning by a shrinking blob of virtual plasmodium between two attractant sources within a polygonal arena. We examine the case where multiple paths are required and the subsequent selection of a single path from multiple options. Collision-free paths are implemented via repulsion from the borders of the arena. Finally, obstacle avoidance is implemented by repulsion from obstacles as they are uncovered by the shrinking blob. These examples show proof-of-concept results of path planning by morphological adaptation which complement existing research on path planning in novel computing substrates.

  5. [Effectiveness of aqueous extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants against tomato grey mould in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Kasmi, Manal; Aourach, Mohammed; El Boukari, Mohammed; Barrijal, Said; Essalmani, Haiat

    2017-08-01

    Grey mould is a major disease threatening the Moroccan tomato; this disease is often controlled by fungicides. However, the latter are a real danger to human health and environment. Thus, this study is part of the research of harmless alternatives such extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants (Lavandula officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon citratus, and Melissa officinalis). In this study, the extracts of four medicinal and aromatic plants were tested for their antifungal potency in vitro and in vivo in order to select the most effective. The results show that, in vitro, the Lavandula officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Cymbopogon citratus aqueous extracts all possess significant antifungal activity, whereas Melissa officinalis shows the least effective. Also in vivo only the aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus proves most effective against B. cinerea on tomato fruit. The test of the plants confirms that aqueous extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Thymus vulgaris are most effective, while the aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis and Lavandula officinalis always seem to be the least effective. Therefore, the aqueous extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Thymus vulgaris are the most envisaged for the biological control of grey mould. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Speed–accuracy trade-offs during foraging decisions in the acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum

    PubMed Central

    Latty, Tanya; Beekman, Madeleine

    2011-01-01

    Speed–accuracy trade-offs (SATs) are thought to be a fundamental feature of biological information processing, yet most evidence of SATs comes from animals. Here, we examine SATs in the foraging decisions of an acellular, amoeboid organism: the slime mould Physarum polycephalum. Slime moulds were given a simple discrimination task: selecting the highest-quality food item from a set of three options. We investigated the effect of two stressors, light exposure and hunger, on the speed and accuracy of decision-making. We also examined the effect of task difficulty. When given a difficult discrimination task, stressed individuals tend to make faster decisions than non-stressed individuals. This effect was reversed in plasmodia given easy discrimination tasks, where stressed individuals made slower decisions than non-stressed individuals. We found evidence of SATs, such that individuals who made fast decisions were more likely to make costly errors by selecting the worst possible food option. Our results suggest that SATs occur in a wider range of taxa than previously considered. PMID:20826487

  7. Optical measurement and modelling of parison sag and swell in blow moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béreaux, Yves; Charmeau, Jean-Yves; Balcaen, Jean

    2011-05-01

    Blow moulding is a process whereby a cylindrical parison is extruded first, then pinched between the two halves of a mould and, finally, blown into the product. Parison size and shape result from complex interactions between mandrel and die geometries, processing parameters and viscoelastic properties of the polymeric material. Moreover, parison size changes with time due to sag. An innovative, contactless and online measurement technique of the parison is shown to be an effective tool to measure precisely parison diameter and thickness and to capture dimensional changes with time. This technique employs laser lighting of the parison and hinges on the refractive properties of molten polymer. Images taken with a digital camera are processed to give a precise measurement of diameter and thickness, at different time step during extrusion. Thus, parison swell and sag have been recorded for a commercial HDPE. Influence of processing parameters such as the rotational screw speed or die gap width can be brought forward. Thickness swell is found to possess a different behaviour from diameter swell. Swell is a purely viscoelastic phenomenon, therefore requiring a numerical modelling with an integral viscoelastic constitutive equation. On the other hand, sag has been measured and could be modelled from a Newtonian perspective using one dimensional convected coordinates. A sagging susceptibility coefficient of the polymer is deduced.

  8. Global transcriptome changes in perennial ryegrass during early infection by pink snow mould

    PubMed Central

    Kovi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Abdelhalim, Mohamed; Kunapareddy, Anil; Ergon, Åshild; Tronsmo, Anne Marte; Brurberg, May Bente; Hofgaard, Ingerd Skow; Asp, Torben; Rognli, Odd Arne

    2016-01-01

    Lack of resistance to pink snow mould (Microdochium nivale) is a major constraint for adaptation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to continental regions with long-lasting snow cover at higher latitudes. Almost all investigations of genetic variation in resistance have been performed using cold acclimated plants. However, there may be variation in resistance mechanisms that are functioning independently of cold acclimation. In this study our aim was to identify candidate genes involved in such resistance mechanisms. We first characterized variation in resistance to M. nivale among non-acclimated genotypes from the Norwegian cultivar ‘Fagerlin’ based on relative regrowth and fungal quantification by real-time qPCR. One resistant and one susceptible genotype were selected for transcriptome analysis using paired-end sequencing by Illumina Hiseq 2000. Transcriptome profiles, GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis indicate that defense response related genes are differentially expressed between the resistant and the susceptible genotype. A significant up-regulation of defense related genes, as well as genes involved in cell wall cellulose metabolic processes and aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity, was observed in the resistant genotype. The candidate genes identified in this study might be potential molecular marker resources for breeding perennial ryegrass cultivars with improved resistance to pink snow mould. PMID:27346054

  9. Fabrication of scalable and structured tissue engineering scaffolds using water dissolvable sacrificial 3D printed moulds.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Larsen, Layla Bashir; Trifol, Jon; Szabo, Peter; Burri, Harsha Vardhan Reddy; Canali, Chiara; Dufva, Marin; Emnéus, Jenny; Wolff, Anders

    2015-10-01

    One of the major challenges in producing large scale engineered tissue is the lack of ability to create large highly perfused scaffolds in which cells can grow at a high cell density and viability. Here, we explore 3D printed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a sacrificial mould in a polymer casting process. The PVA mould network defines the channels and is dissolved after curing the polymer casted around it. The printing parameters determined the PVA filament density in the sacrificial structure and this density resulted in different stiffness of the corresponding elastomer replica. It was possible to achieve 80% porosity corresponding to about 150 cm(2)/cm(3) surface to volume ratio. The process is easily scalable as demonstrated by fabricating a 75 cm(3) scaffold with about 16,000 interconnected channels (about 1m(2) surface area) and with a channel to channel distance of only 78 μm. To our knowledge this is the largest scaffold ever to be produced with such small feature sizes and with so many structured channels. The fabricated scaffolds were applied for in-vitro culturing of hepatocytes over a 12-day culture period. Smaller scaffolds (6×4 mm) were tested for cell culturing and could support homogeneous cell growth throughout the scaffold. Presumably, the diffusion of oxygen and nutrient throughout the channel network is rapid enough to support cell growth. In conclusion, the described process is scalable, compatible with cell culture, rapid, and inexpensive.

  10. Comparison of the toxicity of reference mycotoxins and spore extracts of common indoor moulds.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Torsten; Senkpiel, Klaus; Ohgke, Helge

    2004-07-01

    There is an unclear endangering potential by toxic influences of inhaled conidiospores and therefore the conidia of indoor mould species were cultured and toxicologically examined after their mechanical disintegration. For this purpose high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and three colorimetric bioassays, the PTGT (pollen tube growth test), the MB (methylene blue) and the MTT (methylthiazoltetrazolium) assay were applied. The sensitivity of the biological methods was evaluated by using 12 reference mycotoxins and 3 structural cell wall components. Only in one extract of disintegrated spores (Aspergillus fumigatus) a mycotoxin (0.22 microg gliotoxin/6.2 x 10(8) spores) was determined. All nine spore extracts, however, turned out to be cytotoxic and in this case the MTT assay was remarkably more sensitive than the two other test methods. The IC50 values of six different spore extracts determined by the MTT assay were lower than 10(6) spores/well (well = 0.2 ml) whereas the IC50 values determined by the MB assay and PTGT were higher than 10(6) spores per 0.2 ml for each spore extract. An examination of four spore extracts, which were fractionated depending on their polarity by HPLC, showed that single substances as well as synergistic effects contribute to the toxic properties of the spores. The results of this work indicate a health hazard due to toxic effects after the inhalation of extremely high spore concentrations of indoor moulds. This risk will also exist if the spores do not contain any mycotoxins.

  11. Global transcriptome changes in perennial ryegrass during early infection by pink snow mould.

    PubMed

    Kovi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Abdelhalim, Mohamed; Kunapareddy, Anil; Ergon, Åshild; Tronsmo, Anne Marte; Brurberg, May Bente; Hofgaard, Ingerd Skow; Asp, Torben; Rognli, Odd Arne

    2016-06-27

    Lack of resistance to pink snow mould (Microdochium nivale) is a major constraint for adaptation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to continental regions with long-lasting snow cover at higher latitudes. Almost all investigations of genetic variation in resistance have been performed using cold acclimated plants. However, there may be variation in resistance mechanisms that are functioning independently of cold acclimation. In this study our aim was to identify candidate genes involved in such resistance mechanisms. We first characterized variation in resistance to M. nivale among non-acclimated genotypes from the Norwegian cultivar 'Fagerlin' based on relative regrowth and fungal quantification by real-time qPCR. One resistant and one susceptible genotype were selected for transcriptome analysis using paired-end sequencing by Illumina Hiseq 2000. Transcriptome profiles, GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis indicate that defense response related genes are differentially expressed between the resistant and the susceptible genotype. A significant up-regulation of defense related genes, as well as genes involved in cell wall cellulose metabolic processes and aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity, was observed in the resistant genotype. The candidate genes identified in this study might be potential molecular marker resources for breeding perennial ryegrass cultivars with improved resistance to pink snow mould.

  12. Epidemiology and outcomes of patients with invasive mould infections: a retrospective observational study from a single centre (2005-2009).

    PubMed

    Klingspor, Lena; Saaedi, Baharak; Ljungman, Per; Szakos, Attila

    2015-08-01

    Invasive mould infection (IMI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. However, Swedish epidemiology data are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology and outcome of IMI. Cases of proven/probable IMI at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, from 2005 to 2009, were included. A total of 100 patients with 104 episodes of IMI were enrolled. Identified isolates included 101 mould isolates. The majority of the isolates were Aspergillus spp. (74.3%), followed by Mucorales spp. (13.9%), Fusarium spp. (4.9%) and other mould spp. (6.9%). In 13% of the episodes, more than one mould caused the IMI. The lung was most often affected (88.5%). The most frequent underlying disease was haematological malignancies (70%). Following diagnosis, 83.7% initially received antifungal monotherapy, 9.6% received combination therapy and 6.7% no treatment. The overall 90-day and 1-year overall survival was 49% and 46% respectively. Survival at 90 days post diagnosis was 71.4% in the solid tumour cohort, 62.5% in patients with solid organ transplants, 43.5% in haematological malignancy (HMs) and 37% in those undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Overall survival was poor in the studied cohort, but is variable among different host categories, with particular opportunities for improvement in patients with underlying HMs and allogeneic HSCT.

  13. Detection of aflatoxin and surface mould contaminated figs by using Fourier transform near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Durmuş, Efkan; Güneş, Ali; Kalkan, Habil

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites that are mainly produced by members of the Aspergillus section Flavi on many agricultural products. Certain agricultural products such as figs are known to be high risk products for aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxin contaminated figs may show a bright greenish yellow fluorescence (BGYF) under ultraviolet (UV) light at a wavelength of 365 nm. Traditionally, BGYF positive figs are manually selected by workers. However, manual selection depends on the expertise level of the workers and it may cause them skin-related health problems due to UV radiation. In this study, we propose a non-invasive approach to detect aflatoxin and surface mould contaminated figs by using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) reflectance spectroscopy. A classification accuracy of 100% is achieved for classifying the figs into aflatoxin contaminated/uncontaminated and surface mould contaminated/uncontaminated categories. In addition, a strong correlation has been found between aflatoxin and surface mould. Combined with pattern classification methods, the NIR spectroscopy can be used to detect aflatoxin contaminated figs non-invasively. Furthermore, a positive correlation between surface mould and aflatoxin contamination leads to a promising alternative indicator for the detection of aflatoxin-contaminated figs. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Fresh vegetables and ready-to eat salads: phenotypic characterization of moulds and molecular characterization of yeasts.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, L; Maggi, O; Aurigemma, C; Tufi, D; De Giusti, M

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to characterize and quantify mould and yeast isolates in fresh vegetables (FV) and ready to eat salads (RTES). During 2007, a random set of 194 samples, including 56 samples of FV and 138 samples of RTES, were analyzed for a total of 388 mycological determinations. Yeasts and moulds identification was carried out on 18/56 whole FV and 42/138 RTES. Yeasts were the predominant organisms in the FV (mean values: 6.20 log cfu g-1-8.00 log cfu g-) while moulds showed lower mean values (4.70 log cfu g-l-6.79 log cfu g-l). After processing, FV samples showed a statistically significant decreases (p-value <0.001) in the contamination of fungi. Most of the species identified were found both in the FV and RTES samples. Many of moulds species isolated belong to toxigenic genera Penicillium, Stachybotrys, Phoma, Fusarium indicating a potential mycotoxin production and a potential risk for consumers.

  15. Bolted Joints in Three Axially Braided Carbon Fibre/Epoxy Textile Composites with Moulded-in and Drilled Fastener Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataş, Akın; Gautam, Mayank; Soutis, Constantinos; Potluri, Prasad

    2016-10-01

    Experimental behaviour of bolted joints in triaxial braided (0°/±45°) carbon fibre/epoxy composite laminates with drilled and moulded-in fastener holes has been investigated in this paper. Braided laminates were manufactured by vacuum infusion process using 12 K T700S carbon fibres (for bias and axial tows) and Araldite LY-564 epoxy resin. Moulded-in fastener holes were formed using guide pins which were inserted in the braided structure prior to the vacuum infusion process. The damage mechanism of the specimens was investigated using ultrasonic C-Scan technique. The specimens were dimensioned to obtain a bearing mode of failure. The bearing strength of the specimens with moulded-in hole was reduced in comparison to the specimens with drilled hole, due to the increased fibre misalignment angle following the pin insertion procedure. An improvement on the bearing strength of moulded-in hole specimens might be developed if the specimen dimensions would be prepared for a net-tension mode of failure where the fibre misalignment would not have an effect as significant as in the case of bearing failure mode, but this mode should be avoided since it leads to sudden catastrophic failures.

  16. Industrial application of a numerical model to simulate lubrication, mould oscillation, solidification and defect formation during continuous casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez Lopez, Pavel E.; Sjöström, Ulf; Jonsson, Thomas; Lee, Peter D.; Mills, Kenneth C.; Petäjäjärvi, Marko; Pirinen, Jarno

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, the addition of the slag phase to numerical models of the Continuous Casting (CC) process has opened the door to a whole new range of predictions. These include the estimation of slag infiltration and powder consumption (lubrication), heat transfer and cooling through the cooper mould (solidification) and investigating the effect of operational parameters such as mould oscillation and powder composition on surface quality / defect formation. This work presents 2D and 3D CC models capable of describing the dynamic behaviour of the liquid/solid slag in both the shell mould-gap and bed as well as its effects on heat extraction and shell formation. The present paper also illustrates the application of the model to a variety of casters and the challenges faced during its implementation. The model attained good agreement on the prediction of mould temperatures and shell thicknesses as well as slag film formation and heat flux variations during the casting sequence. The effect of different oscillation strategies (sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal) was explored in order to enhance powder consumption and surface quality. Furthermore, the modelling approach allows one to predict the conditions leading to irregular shell growth and uneven lubrication; these are responsible for defects such as, stickers, cracking and, in the worst case scenario, to breakouts. Possible mechanisms for defect formation are presented together with strategies to enhance process stability and productivity of the CC machine.

  17. Comparison of the moulding ability of Plaster of Paris and polyester cast material in the healthy adult forearm.

    PubMed

    Bullen, Michael; Kinealy, John; Blanchard, Romane; Rodda, Christine; Pivonka, Peter

    2017-08-16

    To quantify the moulding ability of Plaster of Paris and polyester cast materials as assessed by the novel use of peripheral quantitative computed tomography. A prospective crossover study was performed in 25 healthy volunteers aged 18-65 years. Participants' non-dominant wrist was immobilized using a synthetic polyester cast followed by a Plaster of Paris cast with three point moulding to simulate reduction of a dorsally angulated distal radius fracture. The novel use of peripheral quantitative computed tomography was used to measure the closeness of fit of each cast on an axial tomographic slice. Plaster of Paris casts were able to achieve a closer mould than polyester when measured between the bone and the cast (p=0.002), as well as between the skin and the cast (p=0.001). There was no difference when stratified on BMI. Using pQCT assessment, a closely moulded fit was able to be more consistently achieved when using Plaster of Paris when compared to polyester casts of the distal radius. III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bolted Joints in Three Axially Braided Carbon Fibre/Epoxy Textile Composites with Moulded-in and Drilled Fastener Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataş, Akın; Gautam, Mayank; Soutis, Constantinos; Potluri, Prasad

    2017-04-01

    Experimental behaviour of bolted joints in triaxial braided (0°/±45°) carbon fibre/epoxy composite laminates with drilled and moulded-in fastener holes has been investigated in this paper. Braided laminates were manufactured by vacuum infusion process using 12 K T700S carbon fibres (for bias and axial tows) and Araldite LY-564 epoxy resin. Moulded-in fastener holes were formed using guide pins which were inserted in the braided structure prior to the vacuum infusion process. The damage mechanism of the specimens was investigated using ultrasonic C-Scan technique. The specimens were dimensioned to obtain a bearing mode of failure. The bearing strength of the specimens with moulded-in hole was reduced in comparison to the specimens with drilled hole, due to the increased fibre misalignment angle following the pin insertion procedure. An improvement on the bearing strength of moulded-in hole specimens might be developed if the specimen dimensions would be prepared for a net-tension mode of failure where the fibre misalignment would not have an effect as significant as in the case of bearing failure mode, but this mode should be avoided since it leads to sudden catastrophic failures.

  19. Antigen injection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Leprosy is caused by the organism Mycobacterium leprae . The leprosy test involves injection of an antigen just under ... if your body has a current or recent leprosy infection. The injection site is labeled and examined ...

  20. Amphotericin B Liposomal Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Amphotericin B liposomal injection is used to treat fungal infections such as cryptococcal meningitis (a fungal infection of the ... infections in people who cannot receive conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B liposomal injection is in a ...

  1. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  2. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  3. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  4. Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is used to treat Dupuytren's contracture (a painless thickening and tightening of tissue [cord] beneath ... of tissue can be felt upon examination. Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is also used to treat Peyronie's ...

  5. Brentuximab Vedotin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... healthy bone marrow) or at least two treatment periods of chemotherapy. Brentuximab vedotin injection is also used ... lymphoma) who did not respond to another treatment period of chemotherapy. Brentuximab vedotin injection is in a ...

  6. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  7. OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Botox® Cosmetic ... OnabotulinumtoxinA injection (Botox, Botox Cosmetic) is used to treat a number of conditions.OnabotulinumtoxinA injection (Botox) is used to relieve the symptoms of cervical dystonia ( ...

  8. Slit injection device

    DOEpatents

    Alger, Terry W.; Schlitt, Leland G.; Bradley, Laird P.

    1976-06-15

    A laser cavity electron beam injection device provided with a single elongated slit window for passing a suitably shaped electron beam and means for varying the current density of the injected electron beam.

  9. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    Intrinsic sphincter deficiency repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... Urine leakage that gets worse Pain where the injection was done Allergic reaction to the material Implant ...

  10. Hip joint injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007633.htm Hip joint injection To use the sharing features on this ... injection is a shot of medicine into the hip joint. The medicine helps relieve pain and inflammation. It ...

  11. Biological control of Botrytis gray mould on tomato cultivated in greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Fiume, F; Fiume, G

    2006-01-01

    Research was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the biological control of the Botrytis gray mould, caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers., one of the most important fungal diseases of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Biological control was performed by using Trichoderma harzianum Rifai, an antagonist that is a naturally occurring fungus found on some plants and in the soil worldwide. Trichoderma spp. are fungi diffused in nearly all agricultural soils and in other environments such as decaying wood. The object of this research is to find control strategies to reduce chemical treatments that cause damage to the environment and increase the pathogen resistance, applying the biological control by using T. harzianum against B. cinerea. A commercial product containing a natural isolate of T. harzianum is trichodex (Makhteshim Chemical Works, LTD). The research was performed in laboratory and in greenhouse. In laboratory, radial growth reduction of B. cinerea, in presence of T. harzianum, was calculated in relation to the growth of the pathogen control, by using a specific formula that measures the percentage of the inhibition of the radial mycelial growth. In greenhouse, starting from the tomato fruit setting, the research was carried out comparing, by a randomized complete block experiment design, replicated four times, the following treatments:1) untreated control; 2) pyrimethanil (400 g/L of a.i.), at 200 cc/hL of c.i. (pyrimidine fungicides); 3) trichodex at 100g/hL (1 kg/ha); 4) trichodex at 200 g/hL (2 kg/ha); 5) trichodex at 400 g/hL (4 kg/ha). Before fruit setting, the plots were all treated against Botrytis gray mould with iprodione 50% (100 g/hL), procymidone 50% (100 g/hL) and switch (Novartis plant protection) at 80 g/hL. In dual culture, the inhibition of B. cinerea radial mycelial growth was 76%. No inhibition halo was observed between B. cinerea and T. harzianum colonies but, after 3 days, the pathogen colony radius resulted no more than 1

  12. Rich catalytic injection

    SciTech Connect

    Veninger, Albert

    2008-12-30

    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  13. High diversity of non-sporulating moulds in respiratory specimens of immunocompromised patients: should all the species be reported when diagnosing invasive aspergillosis?

    PubMed

    Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Alanio, Alexandre; Cabaret, Odile; Olivi, Martine; Foulet, Françoise; Cordonnier, Catherine; Costa, Jean-Marc; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2015-09-01

    Non-sporulating moulds (NSMs) isolated from respiratory specimens are usually discarded without further testing although they may have pathogenic effects in immunocompromised patients. The objective of this study was to determine the identity and frequency of NSMs in patients with haematological malignancies. We analysed the mycological results of 251 consecutive respiratory samples from 104 haematology patients. Yeast and sporulating moulds were identified at the genus/species level according to their phenotypic features. NSMs were identified by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. We detected 179 positive samples, of which 10.1% (18/179) were mixtures of moulds and 26.3% (47/179) were mixtures of moulds and yeast. We identified 142 moulds belonging to 11 different genera/species or groups, with Aspergillus fumigatus (n = 50), Penicillium spp. (n = 31) and NSM (n = 24) being the most frequently isolated species. Twenty-two NSMs were successfully sequenced: 18 were basidiomycetes and six were ascomycetes, corresponding to 16 different genera/species. NSMs were isolated with A. fumigatus in the same sample or in a subsequent sample in five patients with probable invasive aspergillosis. The conclusion is that the respiratory specimens of immunocompromised patients frequently contain very diverse mould species that may increase the virulence of pathogenic species. Reporting all mould species isolated when diagnosing invasive fungal infection could test this hypothesis.

  14. Beam injection into RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, W.

    1997-07-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam.

  15. Dosimetric analysis and clinical outcomes in CT-based mould brachytherapy in early oral cancers in patients unfit for surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mourougan, Sinnatamby; Saravannan, Kandasamy; Vivekanandam, Singhavajala; Reddy, K. Sathyanarayana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Brachytherapy in the oral cavity is an important alternative to conventional treatment, and provides a high localized dose and short overall treatment time. A rapid fall of dose beyond radioactive source makes it possible for increased tumour control and sparing surrounding tissue, while short overall treatment duration reduces risk of tumour repopulation. Moulds are fabricated to hold the catheters in position as closely as possible to tumour surface to provide adequate dose coverage of tumour volume and increase distance to other normal surrounding structures. Image based planning and dose optimisation help in better defining target volume and dose coverage. Material and methods A retrospective analysis of patients of early squamous cell carcinomas of lip and buccal mucosa from September 2011 to June 2014 to study response to mould brachytherapy. Double plane moulds were prepared for all lip cancer cases and single plane for buccal mucosa cases. Patients are being followed up till disease recurrence. In this study evaluation was done of the technique used, planning details, response to therapy, and reactions encountered. Results Nine patients treated by mould therapy were reviewed; seven cases were of lip and two of buccal mucosal cancers. Dose delivered ranged from 12.5-48 Gy in fraction sizes of 2.5-3.5 Gy. Equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) ranged from 18-64 Gy. Maximum dose to organs at risk (OAR) was 91% of prescribed dose. Local mucositis was only reaction in all cases, which resolved in 3-6 weeks. Median follow-up was 19 months. Eight out of nine patients are in remission at a minimum of 7 months (1 case, rest over 14 months) post therapy and only patient had nodal recurrence at 18 months. Conclusions Mould therapy is an effective treatment method for selected early and superficial squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity, although indications are limited. PMID:26034496

  16. Inhibitory activity of Indian spice plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts against Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata, the pathogenic dematiaceous moulds.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ajay K; Mishra, Amita; Kehri, H K; Sharma, Bechan; Pandey, Abhay K

    2009-03-07

    Dematiaceous moulds are pathogenic microorganisms and act as etiological agents of mycoses with different degrees of severity in humans and animals. These moulds also cause loss of food crops and storage food products. The information regarding antimicrobial efficacy of the plant preparations on these moulds is scanty. The present study reveals phytochemical characterization and the effect of bark and leaf extracts of Indian spice plant, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cz), against the growth of two species of dematiaceous moulds, Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata. Cz bark and leaf samples were sequentially extracted in different solvents using Soxhlet apparatus. Phytochemical analyses of extracts were done as per standard protocols. The antifungal bioassay of extracts was done by hanging drop technique. The inhibition of fungal spore germination was monitored under influence of three different concentrations of extracts. The lowest test concentration (50 microg/ml) of extracts of Cz bark prepared into acetone and that of Cz leaf into petroleum ether and ethanol exhibited complete inhibition (100%) of spore germination in both the moulds. At 100 microg/ml concentration all the extracts showed about 50 to 100% inhibition. However, the treatment of the spores of the two fungal species with highest concentration (500 microg/ml) of bark and leaf extracts in all the solvents showed 100% fungicidal activity as it completely arrested the germination of spores. Relatively lower activity of aqueous extracts at 50 and 100 microg/ml concentrations suggests that the antifungal ingredients present in Cz bark and leaf are more soluble in organic solvents than water. The results demonstrated that the Cz bark and leaves contain certain fungicidal constituents exhibiting potential antimould activity against A. solani and C. lunata.

  17. Inhibitory activity of Indian spice plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts against Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata, the pathogenic dematiaceous moulds

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Ajay K; Mishra, Amita; Kehri, HK; Sharma, Bechan; Pandey, Abhay K

    2009-01-01

    Background Dematiaceous moulds are pathogenic microorganisms and act as etiological agents of mycoses with different degrees of severity in humans and animals. These moulds also cause loss of food crops and storage food products. The information regarding antimicrobial efficacy of the plant preparations on these moulds is scanty. The present study reveals phytochemical characterization and the effect of bark and leaf extracts of Indian spice plant, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cz), against the growth of two species of dematiaceous moulds, Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata. Methods Cz bark and leaf samples were sequentially extracted in different solvents using Soxhlet apparatus. Phytochemical analyses of extracts were done as per standard protocols. The antifungal bioassay of extracts was done by hanging drop technique. The inhibition of fungal spore germination was monitored under influence of three different concentrations of extracts. Results The lowest test concentration (50 μg/ml) of extracts of Cz bark prepared into acetone and that of Cz leaf into petroleum ether and ethanol exhibited complete inhibition (100%) of spore germination in both the moulds. At 100 μg/ml concentration all the extracts showed about 50 to 100% inhibition. However, the treatment of the spores of the two fungal species with highest concentration (500 μg/ml) of bark and leaf extracts in all the solvents showed 100% fungicidal activity as it completely arrested the germination of spores. Relatively lower activity of aqueous extracts at 50 and 100 μg/ml concentrations suggests that the antifungal ingredients present in Cz bark and leaf are more soluble in organic solvents than water. Conclusion The results demonstrated that the Cz bark and leaves contain certain fungicidal constituents exhibiting potential antimould activity against A. solani and C. lunata. PMID:19267932

  18. Metabolic stability of the extrachromosomal ribosomal RNA genes in the slime mould Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Hall, L; Gubler, U; Braun, R

    1978-05-01

    The rRNA genes of the slime mould Physarum polycephalum are located on free, linear DNA molecules of a discrete size, Mr=38X10(6). Using an isotope dilution technique we have examined the metabolic stability of these extrachromosomal genes during active, balanced growth. Microplasmodia, prelabelled with [3H]thymidine, were used to prepare synchronous surface plasmodial cultures which were subsequently grown on unlabelled medium. The gross synthesis of ribosomal DNA was then determined over three consecutive mitotic divisions from the ratio of 3H to 14C in a hybrid formed between the extracted ribosomal [3H]DNA and a [14C]rRNA probe. It was found that ribosomal DNA, like chromosomal DNA, is completely stable during active growth.

  19. Improved phytase production by a thermophilic mould Sporotrichum thermophile in submerged fermentation due to statistical optimization.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bijender; Satyanarayana, T

    2008-03-01

    Culture variables affecting phytase production by a thermophilic mould Sporotrichum thermophile in submerged fermentation were optimized. Soluble starch, peptone, Tween-80 and sodium phytate were identified by Plackett-Burman design as the most significant factors to affect phytase production. The 2(4) full factorial central composite design of response surface methodology was applied for optimizing the concentrations of the significant variables and to delineate their interactions. Starch, Tween-80, peptone and sodium phytate at 0.4%, 1.0%, 0.3% and 0.3% supported maximum enzyme titres, respectively. An overall 3.73-fold improvement in phytase production was achieved due to optimization. When sodium phytate was substituted with wheat bran (3%), the phytase titre in the former was comparable with that in the latter.

  20. Clinical studies in workers engaged in maintenance of watermark moulds in a paper mill.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A K; Gupta, B N; Bihari, V; Mathur, N; Gaur, J S; Mahendra, P N; Kumar, P; Bharti, R S

    1992-01-01

    Thirty subjects engaged in maintenance and repair of moulds used for producing watermarks on paper were studied, along with 27 control subjects from the same paper mill. The workers were simultaneously exposed to copper, chromium, zinc, xylol, and fumes of sulphuric acid in the course of their work. The study subjects were investigated for clinical, occupational, radiological haematological and psychological details. The aforementioned combined exposure was found to be responsible for a high prevalence of symptoms pertaining to the respiratory system and higher nervous functions. Breathlessness (26.7%), expectoration (10.0%) and emphysema (10.0%) were significantly higher among the exposed subjects. The exposed subjects also showed lowered visuomotor coordination and delayed reaction to light and sound stimuli.