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Sample records for injection nebulizer din

  1. Measurement of elemental speciation by liquid chromatography -- inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) with the direct injection nebulizer (DIN)

    SciTech Connect

    Shum, Sam

    1993-05-01

    This thesis is divided into 4 parts: elemental speciation, speciation of mercury and lead compounds by microbore column LC-ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization, spatially resolved measurements of size and velocity distributions of aerosol droplets from a direct injection nebulizer, and elemental speciation by anion exchange and size exclusion chromatography with detection by ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization.

  2. A comparison of continuous pneumatic nebulization and flow injection-direct injection nebulization for sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Crain, J.S.; Kiely, J.T.

    1995-08-01

    Dilute nitric acid blanks and solutions containing Ni, Cd, Pb, and U (including two laboratory waste samples) were analyzed eighteen times over a two-month period using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two different sample introduction techniques were employed: flow injection-direct injection nebulization (FI-DIN) and continuous pneumatic nebulization (CPN). Using comparable instrumental measurement procedures, FI-DIN analyses were 33% faster and generated 52% less waste than CPN analyses. Instrumental limits of detection obtained with FI-DIN and CPN were comparable but not equivalent (except in the case of Pb) because of nebulizer-related differences in sensitivity (i.e., signal per unit analyte concentration) and background. Substantial and statistically significant differences were found between FI-DIN and CPN Ni determinations, and in the case of the laboratory waste samples, there were also small but statistically significant differences between Cd determinations. These small (2 to 3%) differences were not related to polyatomic ion interference (e.g., {sup 95}Mo{sup 16}O{sup +}), but in light of the time savings and waste reduction to be realized, they should not preclude the use of FI-DIN in place of CPN for determination of Cd, Pb, U and chemically.

  3. A comparison of continuous pneumatic nebulization and flow injection-direction injection nebulization for sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Crain, J.S.; Kiely, J.T.

    1997-08-01

    Samples containing Ni, Cd, Pb, and U were analyzed eighteen times over a two-month period using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Sample introduction was accomplished by either flow injection-direct injection nebulization (FI-DIN) or continuous pneumatic nebulization (CPN). Using comparable instrumental measurement procedures, FI-DIN analyses were 33% faster and generated 52% less waste than CPN analyses. Instrumental limits of detection obtained with FI-DIN and CPN were comparable but not equivalent (except in the case of Pb) because of nebulizer-related differences in sensitivity (i.e., signal per unit analyte concentration) and background. Substantial and statistically significant differences were found between FI-DIN and CPN Ni determinations, and in the case of laboratory waste samples, there were also small but statistically significant differences between Cd determinations. These small (2 to 3%) differences were not related to polyatomic ion interference (e.g., {sup 95}Mo{sup 16}O{sup +}), but in light of the time and waste savings to be realized, they should not preclude the use of FI-DIN in place of CPN for determination of Cd, Pb, U, and similar elements present at trace concentrations.

  4. Spatially resolved measurements of size and velocity distributions of aerosol droplets from a direct injection nebulizer

    SciTech Connect

    Shum, S.C.K.; Johnson, S.K.; Pang, H.M.; Houk, R.S. )

    1993-05-01

    Aerosol droplet sizes and velocities from a direct injection nebulizer (DIN) are measured with radial and axial spatial resolution by phase Doppler particle analysis (PDPA). The droplets on the central axis of the spray become finer and their size becomes more uniform when [approx]20% methanol is added to the usual aqueous solvent. This could explain why the analyte signal is a maximum at this solvent composition when the DIN is used for inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Mean droplet velocities are 12 to 22 m s[sup [minus]1] with standard deviations of [plus minus]4 to [plus minus]7 m s[sup [minus]1]. The outer fringes of the aerosol plume tend to be enriched in large droplets. The Sauter mean diameter (D[sub 3,2]) and velocity of the droplets also vary substantially with axial position in the aerosol plume. 35 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  5. THE DEVELOPMENT OF IODINE BASED IMPINGER SOLUTIONS FOR THE EFFICIENT CAPTURE OF HG USING DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION - INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) with direct injection nebulization (DIN) was used to evaluate novel impinger solution compositions capable of capturing elemental mercury (Hgo) in EPA Method 5 type sampling. An iodine based impinger solutoin proved to be ver...

  6. Evaluation of a direct injection nebulizer interface for flow injection analysis and high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, K.E.

    1986-06-01

    A direct injection nebulizer (DIN) was designed, developed, and evaluated to determine its potential utilization as an effective interface for flow injection analysis (FIA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection. The analytical figures of merit for the DIN when used as an interface for FIA-ICP-AES were found to be comparable to or better than those obtained with conventional pneumatic nebulization in terms of limits of detection (LODs), reproducibility, linearity, and interelement effects. Stable plasma operation was maintained for the DIN sample introduction of a variety of pure organic solvents, including acetonitrile, methanol, methylisobutylketone, and pyridine. The HPLC-DIN-ICP-AES facility was specifically applied for the speciation of inorganic and organometallic species contained in synthetic mixtures, vanilla extracts, and a variety of energy-related materials, such as shale oil process water, coal extracts, shale oil, crude oil, and an SRC II. Suggestions for future research are also considered. 227 refs., 44 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. MICROSCALE FLOW INJECTION AND MICROBORE HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATORGRAPHY COUPLED WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY VIA A HIGH-EFFICIENCY NEBULIZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A high-effeciency nebulizer has been used for coupling microscale flow injection and microbore high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The microscale flow injection system was configured to minimize band broadening between...

  8. Demountable direct injection high efficiency nebulizer for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Montaser, Akbar; Westphal, Craig S.; Kahen, Kaveh; Rutkowski, William F.; Acon, Billy W.

    2006-12-05

    A nebulizer adapted for adjusting a position of a capillary tube contained within the nebulizer is provided. The nebulizer includes an elongated tubular shell having a gas input port and a gas output port, a capillary adjustment adapter for displacing the capillary tube in a lateral direction via a rotational force, and a connector for connecting the elongated tubular shell, the capillary adjustment adapter and the capillary tube.

  9. Determination of As, Cd, Pb, and Hg in urine using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with the direct injection high efficiency nebulizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnich, Michael G.; Miller, Derek C.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2008-03-01

    The application of the large-bore direct injection high efficiency nebulizer (LB-DIHEN) for the determination of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) in urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is described. The LB-DIHEN is compared with the standard method using a concentric pneumatic nebulizer and cyclonic spray chamber. In addition to the toxicological significance of As, Cd, Pb, and Hg, these elements represent a cross-section of analytical issues including spectral interferences (e.g., 40Ar 35Cl + on 75As + and 98Mo 16O + on 114Cd +) and memory effects (Hg). In this study, the low sample consumption of the LB-DIHEN is used to reduce the volume of urine needed for analysis, and to reduce the volume of final diluted sample required for analysis. Eliminating the spray chamber and reducing the dead volume of the nebulizer reduces memory effects, especially for analytes such as Hg. The Dynamic Reaction Cell (DRC) is used in this study to attenuate the background level of ArCl + in spite of the increase in the solvent load and, in turn, the urine matrix (chloride) delivered to the plasma by the LB-DIHEN. This is the first report on coupling the LB-DIHEN to a standard autosampler for unattended sample analysis. The robustness of direct injection nebulization for routine analysis and the issues associated with automation of the sample introduction process are discussed. Although the figures of merit (sensitivity, limit of detection, and precision) determined for both nebulizers are slightly poorer for the LB-DIHEN than for the concentric pneumatic nebulizer, there is not a clinically significant difference between the results for both sample introduction systems. The accuracy of results is assessed using archived urine materials that are circulated by several different proficiency testing (PT) programs and external quality assessment schemes (EQAS). Results obtained using the LB-DIHEN were within the acceptable range

  10. Nebulizer device

    DOEpatents

    Greenspan, Bernard J.; Moss, Owen R.; Schleiffer, Keith E.; Eick, James L.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention constitutes a portable nebulizer capable of producing a finely divided aerosol having uniformly sized droplets. The nebulizer includes a source of fluid such as a capillary tube coupled to a fluid reservoir to which a high voltage is applied in order to generate the aerosol by electrical atomization. The nebulizer further includes a piezoelectric crystal and a mechanism for deforming the crystal so as to generate the required voltage. The nebulizer further includes a means for mechanical positive displacement fluid control for controlling the amount of fluid atomized. By using electrical atomization to generate the aerosol and by piezoelectrically generating the voltage required for atomization, a nebulizer is provided which may be of small size so as to be suitable for hand-held operations, yet is capable of producing measured amounts of finely divided aerosols which are substantially monodispersed.

  11. Evaluation of nebulizer performance within the ICP-MS measurement system for analysis of SRS radiological waste tank simulated solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, V.D.

    1998-12-31

    High level radioactive waste tanks at the Savannah River Site are high in salt content. The average Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) content is approximately 25%. For ICP-MS optimum signal stability and to reduce blockage of nebulizers and sampling orifices, it is usual to limit analyte solutions to a TDS content of nominally < 0.2%. Dilution to this level to reduce the matrix effect may push some analytes of interest below detectable levels. Five commercially available nebulizers were evaluated in a field study as part of the ICP-MS measurement system for their performance in a high salt matrix. The nebulizers surveyed were a meinhard concentric, cross-flow, micro-concentric (MCN), V-groove, and a direct injection nebulizer (DIN). Analytes spiked into non-radioactive diluted salt solutions ranging from nominal 0.25--1.0% TDS were repetitively analyzed with the goal of determining stability of response signal and magnitude of any signal loss/suppression resulting from the diluted salt matrix. The cross-flow nebulizer provided the most stable signal for all salt matrices with the smallest signal loss/suppression due to this matrix. The DIN exhibited a serious lack of tolerance for TDS; possibly due to physical de-tuning of the nebulizer efficiency.

  12. Nebulizer device

    DOEpatents

    Greenspan, Bernard J.; Moss, Owen R.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention constitutes a portable neubulizer capable of producing a finely divided aerosol having uniformly sized droplets. The nebulizer includes a source of fluid such as a capillary tube coupled to a fluid reservoir to which a high voltage is applied in order to generate the aerosol by electrical atomization. The nebulizer further includes a piezoelectric crystal and a mechanism for deforming the crystal so as to generate the required voltage. By using electrical atomization to generate the aerosol and by piezoelectrically generating the voltage required for atomization, a nebulizer is provided which may be of small size so as to be suitable for hand held operations yet is capable of producing measured amounts of finely divided aerosols which are substantially monodispersed.

  13. Rapid determination of zinc and iron in foods by flow-injection analysis with flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometry and slurry nebulization.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, J C; Strong, F C; Martin, N J

    1990-07-01

    A rapid method of determining zinc and iron in food by flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometry with slurry nebulization into an air-acetylene flame has been developed. A V-groove, clog-free Babington-type nebulizer, coupled to a single-line flow-injection analysis (FIA) system, was employed to introduce the slurry into the spray chamber. Under the FIA conditions described, an injection frequency of 120/hr is possible, with negligible carry-over and memory effects. The calibration graphs were obtained by using various concentrations (up to 0.1 g/ml) of white bean homogenate as standards, rather than solutions. The method has been applied to various kinds of foods, including grains, vegetables, fruits and sausage. Homogenization of semi-prepared samples to form slurries took only 4 min. Relative deviations between results by the slurry and solution methods for both elements averaged 2-3%. Detection limits by the slurry method were 0.3 mug/ml Zn and 0.6 mug/ml Fe.

  14. Apparatus for ultrasonic nebulization

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Kenneth W.; Haas, Jr., William J.; Fassel, Velmer A.

    1978-08-29

    An improved apparatus for ultrasonic nebulization of liquid samples or suspensions in which the piezoelectric transducer is protected from chemical attack and erosion. The transducer is protected by being bonded to the inner surface of a glass plate which forms one end wall of a first hollow body provided with apparatus for circulating a fluid for cooling and stabilizing the transducer. The glass plate, which is one-half wavelength in thickness to provide an acoustically coupled outer nebulizing surface, seals an opening in a second hollow body which encloses an aerosol mixing chamber. The second body includes apparatus for delivering the sample solution to the nebulizing surface, a gas inlet for providing a flow of carrier gas for transporting the aerosol of the nebulized sample and an aerosol outlet.

  15. ICP-MS nebulizer performance for analysis of SRS high salt simulated radioactive waste tank solutions ({number_sign}3053)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, V.D.

    1997-11-01

    High Level Radioactive Waste Tanks at the Savannah River Site are high in salt content. The cross-flow nebulizer provided the most stable signal for all salt matrices with the smallest signal loss/suppression due to this matrix. The DIN exhibited a serious lack of tolerance for TDS; possibly due to physical de-tuning of the nebulizer efficiency.

  16. EVALUATION OF IODINE BASED IMPINGER SOLUTIONS FOR THE EFFICIENT CAPTURE OF HG USING DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY (DIN-ICP/MS) ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently there are no EPA reference sampling methods that have been promulgated for measuring stack emissions of Hg from coal combustion sources, however, EPA Method 29 is most commonly applied. The draft ASTM Ontario Hydro Method for measuring oxidized, elemental, particulate-b...

  17. IMPINGER SOLUTIONS FOR THE EFFICIENT CAPTURE OF GASEOUS MERCURY SPECIES USING DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY (DIN-ICP/MS) ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently there are no EPA reference sampling mehtods that have been promulgated for measuring Hg from coal combustion sources. EPA Method 29 is most commonly applied. The ASTM Ontario Hydro Draft Method for measuring oxidized, elemental, particulate-bound and total Hg is now und...

  18. Formulations and nebulizer performance.

    PubMed

    O'Riordan, Thomas G

    2002-11-01

    To deliver a drug by nebulization, the drug must first be dispersed in a liquid (usually aqueous) medium. After application of a dispersing force (either a jet of gas or ultrasonic waves), the drug particles are contained within the aerosol droplets, which are then inhaled. Some drugs readily dissolve in water, whereas others need a cosolvent such as ethanol or propylene glycol. Some drugs are delivered as suspensions, and the efficiency of nebulizers can be different for solutions and suspensions. Solutions are delivered more efficiently with most devices. In general, conventional ultrasonic nebulizers should not be used to aerosolize suspensions, because of low efficiency. Newer strategies to improve the delivery of non-water-soluble drugs include the use of liposomes and the milling of the drug into very small "nanoparticles." In addition to the active therapeutic ingredient and solvents, drug formulations may include buffers (the solubility of some medications is influenced by pH), stabilizers, and, in the case of multi-dose preparations, antibacterial agents. Though formulations are designed to optimize drug solubility and stability, changes in formulation can also affect inhaled mass, particle size, and treatment time, though the differences between nebulizer brands probably have a greater impact than differences in formulation. Ultrasonic and jet nebulizers may damage protein and other complex agents through heat or shear stress. Additives to multi-dose formulations, especially antimicrobial and chelating agents, may cause adverse events, so there is a trend towards single-use, preservative-free vials.

  19. How to use a nebulizer

    MedlinePlus

    ... nebulizers are small, so they are easy to transport. Also, most nebulizers also work by using air ... March 2013. www.nhlbi.nih.gov/files/docs/public/lung/asthma_tipsheets.pdf . Accessed April 11, 2016. ...

  20. Nebulization Reflux Concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Collins, V. G.

    1986-01-01

    Nebulization reflux concentrator extracts and concentrates trace quantities of water-soluble gases for subsequent chemical analysis. Hydrophobic membrane and nebulizing nozzles form scrubber for removing trace quantities of soluble gases or other contaminants from atmosphere. Although hydrophobic membrane virtually blocks all transport of droplets, it offers little resistance to gas flow; hence, device permits relatively large volumes of gas scrubbed efficiently with very small volumes of liquid. This means analyzable quantities of contaminants concentrate in extracting solutions in much shorter times than with conventional techniques.

  1. Characterization of nebulized buparvaquone nanosuspensions--effect of nebulization technology.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Trejo, Norma; Kayser, Oliver; Steckel, Hartwig; Müller, Rainer H

    2005-01-01

    The poorly soluble drug buparvaquone is proposed as an alternative treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) lung infections. Physically stable nanosuspensions were formulated in order to deliver the drug at the site of infection using nebulization. The aerosolization characteristics of two buparvaquone nanosuspensions were determined with commercial jet and ultrasonic nebulizer devices. Aerosol droplet size distribution was determined with laser diffractometry (LD). Nebulization of the nanosuspensions and dispersion media surfactant solutions produced aerosol droplets diameters in the range from 3 to 5 microm for Respi-jet Kendall, Pari Turbo Boy system and Multisonic nebulizers and particles around 9-10 microm with Omron U1. Fractions of the nanosuspensions from the nebulizer reservoir and of aerosol produced were collected to investigate changes in the size of the drug nanocrystals influenced by the nebulization technology. Comparisons were performed measuring the drug nanocrystals with photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and LD of the samples. Drug particle aggregates were detected in the fractions of aerosol collected from jet nebulizers. Nebulizer technology (jet vs. ultrasonic) showed influence on the stability of the drug particle size distribution of buparvaquone nanocrystals during the nebulization time evaluated.

  2. Nebulized therapy. SEPAR year.

    PubMed

    Olveira, Casilda; Muñoz, Ana; Domenech, Adolfo

    2014-12-01

    Inhaled drugs are deposited directly in the respiratory tract. They therefore achieve higher concentrations with faster onset of action and fewer side effects than when used systemically. Nebulized drugs are mainly recommended for patients that require high doses of bronchodilators, when they need to inhale drugs that only exist in this form (antibiotics or dornase alfa) or when they are unable to use other inhalation devices. Technological development in recent years has led to new devices that optimize pulmonary deposits and reduce the time needed for treatment. In this review we focus solely on drugs currently used, or under investigation, for nebulization in adult patients; basically bronchodilators, inhaled steroids, antibiotics, antifungals, mucolytics and others such as anticoagulants, prostanoids and lidocaine.

  3. Nebulization reflux concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, V. G.; Cofer, W. R., III

    1986-01-01

    A nebulization reflux concentrator for removing trace gas contaminants from a sample gas is described. Sample gas from a gas supply is drawn by a suction source into a vessel. The gas enters the vessel through an atomizing nozzle, thereby atomizing and entraining a scrubbing liquid solvent drawn through a siphon tube from a scrubbing liquid reservoir. The gas and entrained liquid rise through a concentrator and impinge upon a solvent phobic filter, whereby purified gas exits through the filter housing and contaminated liquid coalesces on the solvent phobic filter and falls into the reservoir.

  4. [Benefits of nebulized therapy: basic concepts].

    PubMed

    Máiz Carro, Luis; Wagner Struwing, Carolin

    2011-06-01

    The main advantage of nebulized drugs is that they are deposited directly into the respiratory tract and thus higher drug concentrations can be achieved in the bronchial tree and pulmonary bed with fewer adverse effects than when the systemic route is used. The effectiveness of nebulization depends on many factors, including the characteristics of the drug to be nebulized (particle size, form, density, and surface tension), the anatomy of the airways, the patient's inhalation technique and the nebulization system employed, among others. The factors determining the particle size produced by a nebulizer include both the characteristics of the solution and the flow velocity of the nebulization system. The higher the flow velocity, the smaller the aerosol particles. The parameter most widely used to measure aerosolized particle size is the mass median aerodynamic diameter. Particles of between 1 and 5 μm are those with the greatest probability of reaching the site of infection in the bronchial tree and of achieving the desired therapeutic effect. Nebulization systems or apparatus are composed of a nebulization chamber where the liquid to be nebulized is introduced and aerosol and an energy source required to make the nebulizer work are generated. There are three types of nebulization systems: ultrasonic, jet and mesh nebulizers. Of the three, the most effective are mesh nebulizers. These nebulizers are also the most compact, quietest and most rapid, which translates into better patient compliance.

  5. Fabrication of an integrated piezo-electric micro-nebulizer for biochemical sample analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, C. T.; Shiea, J.; Shen, S. C.

    2007-03-01

    This paper proposes a new micro-nebulizer integrating piezo-electric actuator, micro-nozzle plate, and the cavity of a micro-pump to achieve a high-quality nebulizing effect. With this micro-nebulizer, the size distribution of nebulized droplet particles is finer and more uniform than that of commercial ultrasonic and pneumatic ones. Besides, the system power consumption and volume size are lower and smaller than those of the ultrasonic and pneumatic types. Its whole size is about 18 mm × 32 mm × 35 mm in volume and power consumption is about 1 Watt. The fabrication process of a micro-nozzle plate includes multi-exposure and single develop (MESD), high-hardness nickel-cobalt (Ni-Co) alloy micro-electroplating and high-speed precise microinjection molding. A mold with hardness of Vicker (Hv) 550 is obtained. With such hardness, it endures the high-speed injection molding without deformation. The dimensions of nozzle plates are 4 mm in width, 7 mm in length 8 µm in nozzle-hole diameter and 100 µm in total thickness. The lowest thickness around a nozzle hole is 40 µm. The aspect ratio is about 5. When the working frequency of a piezo-electric micro-nebulizer is set at 16 KHz, a nebulizing rate of 1.8 cc min-1 is obtained. The developed piezo-electric micro-nebulizer at 16 KHz frequency oscillation shows an excellent mass median diameter (MMD or D[4][3]) value of 6.13 µm. This micro-nebulizer is applied to nebulize a test sample of myoglobin into a micro-droplet for the analysis of fused-droplet electrospray ionization (FD-ESI) mass spectrometry. Methyl-alcohol solvents of different consistencies are used to react with myoglobin for FD-ESI mass spectrometry analysis. The result reveals that this developed micro-nebulizer shows a better result of mass spectrometry compared to the commercial ultrasonic and pneumatic ones. This micro-nebulizer is applicable to the FD-ESI mass spectrometry analysis.

  6. New ipratropium formulation to decrease nebulization time.

    PubMed

    Majoral, Caroline; Vecellio, Laurent; Grimbert, Daniel; de Monte, Michèle; le Guellec, Chantal; Ingremeau, Valérie; Minois, Carole; Cordeau, Emeline; Paintaud, Gilles; Steinberg, Anouck; Diot, Patrice

    2007-02-01

    A new anticholinergic aerosol containing 0.5mg ipratropium bromide dissolved in 1mL of solution has been produced with the purpose of decreasing nebulization time for patients compared to the traditional formulation which is twice as voluminal (0.5mg/2mL, Boehringer-Ingelheim, France). The aim of this study was to compare aerosol characteristics (inhaled mass, particle size distribution and nebulization time) of these two formulations of ipratropium bromide, nebulized alone and with terbutaline (5mg/2mL, Astra Zeneca, Sweden), to determine whether the new formulation was equivalent to the old one. Four different jet nebulizers were used: PariLC+, Atomisor NL9M, Sidestream and Mistyneb. Statistical analysis of the results showed that for all types of nebulizer, the inhaled mass of ipratropium bromide 0.5mg/1mL was significantly lower than the inhaled mass of ipratropium bromide 0.5mg/2mL, and that there was no statistical difference between the inhaled mass of ipratropium bromide 0.5mg/1mL+terbutaline 5mg/2mL and the inhaled mass of ipratropium bromide 0.5mg/2mL+terbutaline 5mg/2mL. The study also showed that the new formulation of ipratropium bromide (0.5mg/1mL) mixed with terbutaline allowed a 26% decrease in nebulization time compared to the old formulation (0.5mg/2mL) mixed with terbutaline without changing aerosol characteristics (inhaled mass and particle size distribution). This leads to the conclusion that a 2mL minimum volume is required for nebulization, and that nebulization of ipratropium bromide 0.5mg/1mL alone must be avoided.

  7. Aerosol characterization of nebulized intranasal glucocorticoid formulations.

    PubMed

    Berlinski, A; Waldrep, J C

    2001-01-01

    Inhaled glucocorticoids (GCs) are the mainstay of long-term therapy for asthma. The lack of suitable preparations in the United States has induced clinicians to use intranasal (IN) GC formulations as "nebulizer suspensions" for off-label therapy. However, no data are available regarding aerosol production and characteristics. The aim of this study was to characterize drug outputs and aerodynamic profiles of four nebulized IN GC formulations with further analysis of flunisolide (Flu), and to test the influence of different delivery system/formulation combinations. The aerodynamic profiles and drug outputs were determined by impaction and chemical analysis. The solution output was determined by the gravimetric technique. Triamcinole acetonide (TAA), fluticasone propionate (Flut), beclomethasone dipropionate (Bec), and Flu (550, 500, 840, and 250 microg, respectively) diluted to 4 mL with saline solution were tested with the Sidestream (SID) and Aero-Tech II (AT2) nebulizers. Subsequently, Flu was tested with four additional nebulizers (Pari LC + [PARI] Acorn II, Hudson T Up-draft II, and Raindrop). All the aerosols were heterodisperse and had a particle size range optimal for peripheral airway deposition (1.85 to 3.67 microm). Flu had the highest drug output in the respirable range (22.8 and 20.3 microg/min with the AT and SID, respectively). Flu was 5-11 times more efficiently nebulized than the other formulations tested. No differences were detected in the solution outputs (0.25 to 0.3 mL/min). In subsequent testing of Flu, the PARI, AT, and SID showed the best performances. The LC+ achieved the highest drug and solution output (27.4 microg/min and 0.89 mL/min, respectively). In conclusion, Flu showed the best aerosol performance characteristics. These data do not endorse the off-label utilization of nebulized IN GC, but underscores the importance of in vitro testing before selecting any formulation/nebulizer combinations for clinical use.

  8. Glass frit nebulizer for atomic spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layman, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    The nebuilizatlon of sample solutions Is a critical step In most flame or plasma atomic spectrometrlc methods. A novel nebulzatlon technique, based on a porous glass frit, has been Investigated. Basic operating parameters and characteristics have been studied to determine how thte new nebulizer may be applied to atomic spectrometrlc methods. The results of preliminary comparisons with pneumatic nebulizers Indicate several notable differences. The frit nebulizer produces a smaller droplet size distribution and has a higher sample transport efficiency. The mean droplet size te approximately 0.1 ??m, and up to 94% of the sample te converted to usable aerosol. The most significant limitations In the performance of the frit nebulizer are the stow sample equMbratton time and the requirement for wash cycles between samples. Loss of solute by surface adsorption and contamination of samples by leaching from the glass were both found to be limitations only In unusual cases. This nebulizer shows great promise where sample volume te limited or where measurements require long nebullzatlon times.

  9. Irritant contact facial dermatitis due to nebulizer therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Eedy, D. J.; Barton, K.; Stanford, C. F.

    1988-01-01

    A case is reported of a patient with long-standing, severe airflow obstruction requiring long-term nebulizer therapy developing a facial dermatitis in the area bounded by the nebulizer mask. The facial dermatitis seems to be the result of the combined irritancy of the nebulizer solutions and moisture, and prophylactic measures are suggested for patients requiring long-term nebulizer therapy. Images Figure 1 PMID:2973007

  10. Diagnostic studies on desolvated aerosols from ultrasonic nebulizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, Robert H.; Sohal, Preeti; Liu, Huiying; Montaser, Akbar

    1992-08-01

    Dual-beam, light-scattering interferometry was used for simultaneous measurements of particle-size and particle-velocity distributions, size-velocity correlation, particle number density, and volume flux and span of desolvated aerosols. A commercial ultrasonic nebulizer (USN) and a low-cost, humidifier-based USN were used to nebulize pure water, or aqueous solutions containing H 2SO 4, HNO 3, or NaCl. In general, Sauter mean diameter, velocity of droplets, and volume flux of desolvated aerosol were larger when Ar was used as the injector gas instead of He. Sauter mean diameter increased with acid concentration, but it was independent of salt concentration. The velocity of desolvated droplets did not change with analyte concentration or the temperature of the heating tube. Pulsations and clustering of particles were observed for the first time by time-resolved measurements on the aerosol before injection into an inductively coupled plasma. In certain cases, the local number density of the desolvated particles within the clusters and the diameter of the dry particles varied by a factor of ten on a millisecond time scale. The implications of these observations in plasma spectrochemical measurements are discussed.

  11. MDI versus Nebulizers for Acute Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Raissy, Hengameh H.; Kelly, H. William

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate studies comparing metered dose inhalers with holding chambers to nebulizers in the emergency department for the treatment of asthma exacerbation. DATA SOURCE: Primary articles and systematic review provided by the Cochrane Airways Review Group of the Cochrane Library identified by MEDLINE search (1966–February 2004) and through secondary sources. DATA SYNTHESIS: The Cochrane review included 21 randomized clinical trials conducted in hospital emergency departments comparing clinical outcomes following β2 agonist administration via a nebulizer or a metered dose inhaler with holding chamber. Although the relative risk ratio of hospital admission with metered dose inhaler and holding chamber did not differ in children or in adults compared to the nebulizer delivery, none of the individual studies reviewed were powered to detect a difference in the rate of hospital admission. Specific factors in the treatment of acute asthma such as assessment of severity, appropriate outcome selection, appropriate dose selection, and appropriate delivery systems need to be considered to critically evaluate the literature. CONCLUSION: Although available randomized clinical trials suggest equivalency of metered dose inhaler plus holding chambers and nebulized delivery of inhaled β2 agonists, these trials are biased to show no difference in response. There is no data to support the advantage of one method over the other in mild to moderate asthmatic patients either clinically or economically. PMID:23118701

  12. Nebulized Gentamicin as an Alternative to Nebulized Tobramycin for Tracheitis in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Martin-McNew, Brittany L.; Lubsch, Lisa M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Tracheitis is an infection of the lower respiratory tract and is defined by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) based on signs and symptoms with no radiographic evidence of pneumonia. One method of treatment involves the use of tobramycin given by nebulizer. The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of nebulized gentamicin with nebulized tobramycin. METHODS This study was conducted in patients under 21 years of age who received greater than or equal to 1 day of gentamicin, 80 mg, or tobramycin, 300 mg, given twice a day by nebulization within the 14-month study period. The primary endpoint was amount of time until the patient no longer met the CDC definition of tracheitis. RESULTS There were 19 patients who presented with 60 separate encounters. The average age of the patients within the gentamicin group was 7.2 and 5 years old within the tobramycin group. The average duration of time for the gentamicin treatment encounters to be free of the CDC definition of tracheitis was 3.36 days compared to 3.17 days with tobramycin. No adverse effects were observed that were attributable to aminoglycoside nebulization. CONCLUSIONS No differences were detected between the safety and efficacy of intravenous gentamicin administered twice a day by nebulizer and that of tobramycin inhalation solution given twice daily in children without cystic fibrosis. PMID:28337076

  13. Feedback mechanism for smart nozzles and nebulizers

    DOEpatents

    Montaser, Akbar [Potomac, MD; Jorabchi, Kaveh [Arlington, VA; Kahen, Kaveh [Kleinburg, CA

    2009-01-27

    Nozzles and nebulizers able to produce aerosol with optimum and reproducible quality based on feedback information obtained using laser imaging techniques. Two laser-based imaging techniques based on particle image velocimetry (PTV) and optical patternation map and contrast size and velocity distributions for indirect and direct pneumatic nebulizations in plasma spectrometry. Two pulses from thin laser sheet with known time difference illuminate droplets flow field. Charge coupled device (CCL)) captures scattering of laser light from droplets, providing two instantaneous particle images. Pointwise cross-correlation of corresponding images yields two-dimensional velocity map of aerosol velocity field. For droplet size distribution studies, solution is doped with fluorescent dye and both laser induced florescence (LIF) and Mie scattering images are captured simultaneously by two CCDs with the same field of view. Ratio of LIF/Mie images provides relative droplet size information, then scaled by point calibration method via phase Doppler particle analyzer.

  14. Reduction of Matrix-Induced Oxide Interferences on Rare Earth Elements and Platinum Using a Desolvating Nebulizer System with Quadrupole Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, F.

    2013-12-01

    This paper will examine the use of a specialized low-flow desolvating nebulizer system for reduction of oxide mass spectral interferences that can occur in quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS). This nebulizer system uses an inert low-flow nebulizer (100 microliters/min) coupled to an inert, heated membrane desolvator for efficient water vapor removal before sample aerosol injection to the Q-ICP-MS instrument. Water vapor from conventional nebulizer / spray chamber systems used with Q-ICP-MS can cause numerous mass spectral interferences. One general example is metal oxides formed from the combination of oxygen (from injected water) with sample matrix components. Two specific examples of metal oxide interferences will be investigated with and without membrane desolvation: Ba and Ce oxides on several low-mass rare earth elements (Sm, Eu, and Gd) and Hf oxides on platinum. Rare earth elements are critically important components of modern electronics (ex. magnets, lasers, cell phones, computers) and platinum is a widely used catalyst. Figures of merit for both a conventional nebulizer/spray chamber and the desolvating nebulizer systems will include operating conditions, interference intensities and reduction factors, background equivalent concentrations (BECs), and instrument detection limits (IDLs).

  15. Case study: Training a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) to use a nebulizer to aid the treatment of airsacculitis.

    PubMed

    Gresswell, Claire; Goodman, Gidona

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial airsacculitis has been reported in a variety of nonhuman primates, and is widely treated using a combination of surgery and oral antibiotics. This case study details an alternative method of administering antibiotics (via the use of a nebulizer) when the chimpanzee subject developed resistance to all available oral preparations. Training the chimpanzee to use the nebulizer was performed using positive reinforcement techniques (PRT). It took a total of 89 sessions (<7 hr 25 min) to train the chimpanzee to use the nebulizer. The airsacculitis infection was treated using colistin in the nebulizer twice a day for 9 days. Out of 18 potential treatment sessions, full doses were administered on 13 occasions. The final dose of colistin was given via slow brachial intravenous injection under general anesthesia. The infection was successfully treated with colistin. Although there was a training time investment involved, it was felt to be outweighed by the success of the treatment. Also in the likelihood of the infection re-occurring at a later date, the now learnt behavior of using a nebulizer means that future treatment should now be considerably quicker. This is another example of how PRT is a useful tool in the successful welfare and management of captive animals.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of nebulized terbinafine in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    Emery, Lee C; Cox, Sherry K; Souza, Marcy J

    2012-09-01

    Aspergillosis is one of the most difficult diseases to treat successfully in avian species. Terbinafine hydrochloride offers numerous potential benefits over traditionally used antifungals for treatment of this disease. Adding nebulized antifungals to treatment strategies is thought to improve clinical outcomes in lung diseases. To determine plasma concentrations of terbinafine after nebulization, 6 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were randomly divided into 2 groups of 3. Each bird was nebulized for 15 minutes with 1 of 2 terbinafine solutions, one made with a crushed tablet and the second with raw drug powder. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at multiple time points up to 720 minutes after completing nebulization. Plasma and nebulization solutions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The terbinafine concentration of the solution made with a crushed tablet (0.87 +/- 0.05 mg/mL) was significantly lower than was that made with raw powder (1.02 +/- 0.09 mg/mL). Plasma concentrations of terbinafine did not differ significantly between birds in the 2 groups. Plasma terbinafine concentrations in birds were maintained above in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations for approximately 1 hour in birds nebulized with the crushed tablet solution and 4 hours in birds nebulized with the raw powder solution. Higher concentrations of solution, longer nebulization periods, or more frequent administration are likely needed to reach therapeutic plasma concentrations of terbinafine for clinically relevant periods in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

  17. Biopharmaceutical Characterization of Nebulized Antimicrobial Agents in Rats: 3. Tobramycin

    PubMed Central

    Marchand, Sandrine; Grégoire, Nicolas; Brillault, Julien; Lamarche, Isabelle; Gobin, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the biopharmaceutical characteristics of tobramycin (TOB) after nebulization in rats. TOB was administered by intravenous (i.v.) bolus or intratracheal nebulization (3 mg · kg−1), and concentrations were determined in plasma and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The ratio of the TOB concentration in ELF to the plasma area under the curve (AUC) was more than 200 times as high after NEB as after i.v. bolus administration, indicating that TOB nebulization offers a biopharmaceutical advantage over i.v. administration. PMID:26239992

  18. Identification and validation of nebulized aerosol devices for sputum induction

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Warren J; Dennis, John; The, Stephanie; Litoski, Belinda; Pieron, Cora; Leigh, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Induced sputum cell count measurement has proven reliability for evaluating airway inflammation in patients with asthma and other airway diseases. Although the use of nebulizer devices for sputum induction is commonplace, they are generally labelled as single-patient devices by the manufacturer and, therefore, cannot be used for multiple patients in large clinical sputum induction programs due to infect ion-control requirements. Accordingly, this study investigated the aerosol characteristics of alternative devices that could be used in such programs. BACKGROUND: Induced sputum cell counts are a noninvasive and reliable method for evaluating the presence, type and degree of airway inflammation in patients with asthma. Currently, standard nebulizer devices used for sputum induction in multiple patients are labelled as single-patient devices by the manufacturer, which conflicts with infection prevention and control requirements. As such, these devices cannot feasibly be used in a clinical sputum induction program. Therefore, there is a need to identify alternative nebulizer devices that are either disposable or labelled for multi-patient use. OBJECTIVE: To apply validated rigorous, scientific testing methods to identify and validate commercially available nebulizer devices appropriate for use in a clinical sputum induction program. METHODS: Measurement of nebulized aerosol output and size for the selected nebulizer designs followed robust International Organization for Standardization methods. Sputum induction using two of these nebulizers was successfully performed on 10 healthy adult subjects. The cytotechnologist performing sputum cell counts was blinded to the type of nebulizer used. RESULTS: The studied nebulizers had variable aerosol outputs. The AeroNeb Solo (Aerogen, Ireland), Omron NE-U17 (Omron, Japan) and EASYneb II (Flaem Nuova, Italy) systems were found to have similar measurements of aerosol size. There was no significant difference in induced sputum

  19. Biopharmaceutical Characterization of Nebulized Antimicrobial Agents in Rats. 4. Aztreonam

    PubMed Central

    Grégoire, Nicolas; Brillault, Julien; Lamarche, Isabelle; Gobin, Patrice; Couet, William

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine aztreonam (ATM) membrane permeability using Calu-3 cells and its plasma and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) pharmacokinetics in rats after intratracheal nebulization and intravenous administration (15 mg · kg−1). ATM exhibits low Calu-3 permeability (0.07 ± 0.02 × 10−6 cm · s−1), and a high area under the ELF/unbound plasma concentration time curve between 0 and infinity (AUCELF/AUCu,plasma) ratio of 1,069 was observed after nebulization in rats. These results confirm that ATM is a low-permeability molecule and a good candidate for nebulization. PMID:26926626

  20. Characterization of aerosols containing Legionella generated upon nebulization.

    PubMed

    Allegra, Séverine; Leclerc, Lara; Massard, Pierre André; Girardot, Françoise; Riffard, Serge; Pourchez, Jérémie

    2016-09-27

    Legionella pneumophila is, by far, the species most frequently associated with Legionnaires' disease (LD). Human infection occurs almost exclusively by aerosol inhalation which places the bacteria in juxtaposition with alveolar macrophages. LD risk management is based on controlling water quality by applying standardized procedures. However, to gain a better understanding of the real risk of exposure, there is a need (i) to investigate under which conditions Legionella may be aerosolized and (ii) to quantify bacterial deposition into the respiratory tract upon nebulization. In this study, we used an original experimental set-up that enables the generation of aerosol particles containing L. pneumophila under various conditions. Using flow cytometry in combination with qPCR and culture, we determined (i) the size of the aerosols and (ii) the concentration of viable Legionella forms that may reach the thoracic region. We determined that the 0.26-2.5 μm aerosol size range represents 7% of initial bacterial suspension. Among the viable forms, 0.7% of initial viable bacterial suspension may reach the pulmonary alveoli. In conclusion, these deposition profiles can be used to standardize the size of inoculum injected in any type of respiratory tract model to obtain new insights into the dose response for LD.

  1. Characterization of aerosols containing Legionella generated upon nebulization

    PubMed Central

    Allegra, Séverine; Leclerc, Lara; Massard, Pierre André; Girardot, Françoise; Riffard, Serge; Pourchez, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is, by far, the species most frequently associated with Legionnaires’ disease (LD). Human infection occurs almost exclusively by aerosol inhalation which places the bacteria in juxtaposition with alveolar macrophages. LD risk management is based on controlling water quality by applying standardized procedures. However, to gain a better understanding of the real risk of exposure, there is a need (i) to investigate under which conditions Legionella may be aerosolized and (ii) to quantify bacterial deposition into the respiratory tract upon nebulization. In this study, we used an original experimental set-up that enables the generation of aerosol particles containing L. pneumophila under various conditions. Using flow cytometry in combination with qPCR and culture, we determined (i) the size of the aerosols and (ii) the concentration of viable Legionella forms that may reach the thoracic region. We determined that the 0.26–2.5 μm aerosol size range represents 7% of initial bacterial suspension. Among the viable forms, 0.7% of initial viable bacterial suspension may reach the pulmonary alveoli. In conclusion, these deposition profiles can be used to standardize the size of inoculum injected in any type of respiratory tract model to obtain new insights into the dose response for LD. PMID:27671446

  2. Characterization of aerosols containing Legionella generated upon nebulization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allegra, Séverine; Leclerc, Lara; Massard, Pierre André; Girardot, Françoise; Riffard, Serge; Pourchez, Jérémie

    2016-09-01

    Legionella pneumophila is, by far, the species most frequently associated with Legionnaires’ disease (LD). Human infection occurs almost exclusively by aerosol inhalation which places the bacteria in juxtaposition with alveolar macrophages. LD risk management is based on controlling water quality by applying standardized procedures. However, to gain a better understanding of the real risk of exposure, there is a need (i) to investigate under which conditions Legionella may be aerosolized and (ii) to quantify bacterial deposition into the respiratory tract upon nebulization. In this study, we used an original experimental set-up that enables the generation of aerosol particles containing L. pneumophila under various conditions. Using flow cytometry in combination with qPCR and culture, we determined (i) the size of the aerosols and (ii) the concentration of viable Legionella forms that may reach the thoracic region. We determined that the 0.26–2.5 μm aerosol size range represents 7% of initial bacterial suspension. Among the viable forms, 0.7% of initial viable bacterial suspension may reach the pulmonary alveoli. In conclusion, these deposition profiles can be used to standardize the size of inoculum injected in any type of respiratory tract model to obtain new insights into the dose response for LD.

  3. Concentric micro-nebulizer for direct sample insertion

    DOEpatents

    Fassel, Velmer A.; Rice, Gary W.; Lawrence, Kimberly E.

    1986-03-11

    A concentric micro-nebulizer and method for introducing liquid samples into a plasma established in a plasma torch including a first tube connected to a source of plasma gas. The concentric micro-nebulizer has inner and outer concentric tubes extending upwardly within the torch for connection to a source of nebulizer gas and to a source of liquid solvent and to a source of sample liquid. The inner tube is connected to the source of liquid solvent and to the source of sample liquid and the outer tube is connected to the source of nebulizer gas. The outer tube has an orifice positioned slightly below the plasma when it is established, with the inner and outer tubes forming an annulus therebetween with the annular spacing between the tubes at said orifice being less than about 0.05 mm. The dead volume of the inner tube is less than about 5 microliters.

  4. Concentric micro-nebulizer for direct sample insertion

    DOEpatents

    Fassel, V.A.; Rice, G.W.; Lawrence, K.E.

    1984-03-06

    A concentric micro-nebulizer and method for introducing liquid samples into a plasma established in a plasma torch including a first tube connected to a source of plasma gas. The concentric micro-nebulizer has inner and outer concentric tubes extending upwardly within the torch for connection to a source of nebulizer gas and to a source of liquid solvent and to a source of sample liquid. The inner tube is connected to the source of liquid solvent and to the source of sample liquid and the outer tube is connected to the source of nebulizer gas. The outer tube has an orifice positioned slightly below the plasma when it is established, with the inner and outer tubes forming an annulus therebetween with the annular spacing between the tubes at said orifice being less than about 0.05mm. The dead volume of the inner tube is less than about 5 microliters.

  5. Fabrication of a Babington-type nebulizer for ICP sources

    SciTech Connect

    Wolcott, J.F.; Sobel, C.B.

    1982-11-01

    We describe a method for fabricating a Babington-type nebulizer which can be used for the analysis of clear, dilute solutions, solutions with suspended solids, and solutions containing high percentages of dissolved solids. The forerunner of this nebulizer has previously been described and although it performed satisfactorily, it was relatively difficult to fabricate and orifice sizes were limited by the problems associated with using very small diamond drills. (AIP)

  6. Biopharmaceutical characterization of nebulized antimicrobial agents in rats: 2. Colistin.

    PubMed

    Gontijo, Aline Vidal Lacerda; Grégoire, Nicolas; Lamarche, Isabelle; Gobin, Patrice; Couet, William; Marchand, Sandrine

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of colistin following intrapulmonary administration of colistin sulfate in rats. Colistin was infused or delivered in nebulized form at a dose of 0.35 mg/kg of body weight in rats, and plasma drug concentrations were measured for 4 h after administration. Bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were also conducted at 0.5, 2, and 4 h after intravenous (i.v.) administration and administration via nebulized drug to estimate epithelial lining fluid (ELF) drug concentrations. Unbound colistin plasma concentrations at distribution equilibrium (2 h postdosing) were almost identical after i.v. infusion and nebulized drug inhalation. ELF drug concentrations were undetectable in BAL samples after i.v. administration, but they were about 1,800 times higher than unbound plasma drug levels at 2 h and 4 h after administration of the nebulized drug. Simultaneous pharmacokinetic modeling of plasma and ELF drug concentrations was performed with a model characterized by a fixed physiological volume of ELF (VELF), a passive diffusion clearance (QELF) between plasma and ELF, and a nonlinear influx transfer from ELF to the central compartment, which was assessed by reducing the nebulized dose of colistin by 10-fold (0.035 mg kg(-1)). The km was estimated to be 133 μg ml(-1), and the Vmax, in-to-Km ratio was equal to 2.5 × 10(-3) liter h(-1) kg(-1), which was 37 times higher than the QELF (6.7 × 10(-5) liter h(-1) kg(-1)). This study showed that with the higher ELF drug concentrations after administration via nebulized aerosol than after intravenous administration, for antibiotics with low permeability such as colistin, nebulization offers a real potential over intravenous administration for the treatment of pulmonary infections.

  7. Biopharmaceutical Characterization of Nebulized Antimicrobial Agents in Rats: 2. Colistin

    PubMed Central

    Gontijo, Aline Vidal Lacerda; Grégoire, Nicolas; Lamarche, Isabelle; Gobin, Patrice; Marchand, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of colistin following intrapulmonary administration of colistin sulfate in rats. Colistin was infused or delivered in nebulized form at a dose of 0.35 mg/kg of body weight in rats, and plasma drug concentrations were measured for 4 h after administration. Bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were also conducted at 0.5, 2, and 4 h after intravenous (i.v.) administration and administration via nebulized drug to estimate epithelial lining fluid (ELF) drug concentrations. Unbound colistin plasma concentrations at distribution equilibrium (2 h postdosing) were almost identical after i.v. infusion and nebulized drug inhalation. ELF drug concentrations were undetectable in BAL samples after i.v. administration, but they were about 1,800 times higher than unbound plasma drug levels at 2 h and 4 h after administration of the nebulized drug. Simultaneous pharmacokinetic modeling of plasma and ELF drug concentrations was performed with a model characterized by a fixed physiological volume of ELF (VELF), a passive diffusion clearance (QELF) between plasma and ELF, and a nonlinear influx transfer from ELF to the central compartment, which was assessed by reducing the nebulized dose of colistin by 10-fold (0.035 mg kg−1). The km was estimated to be 133 μg ml−1, and the Vmax, in-to-Km ratio was equal to 2.5 × 10−3 liter h−1 kg−1, which was 37 times higher than the QELF (6.7 × 10−5 liter h−1 kg−1). This study showed that with the higher ELF drug concentrations after administration via nebulized aerosol than after intravenous administration, for antibiotics with low permeability such as colistin, nebulization offers a real potential over intravenous administration for the treatment of pulmonary infections. PMID:24798284

  8. Physicochemical Characterization of Nebulized Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs)

    PubMed Central

    Graczyk, Halshka; Bryan, Louise C.; Lewinski, Nastassja; Suarez, Guillaume; Coullerez, Geraldine; Bowen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Aerosol-mediated delivery of nano-based therapeutics to the lung has emerged as a promising alternative for treatment and prevention of lung diseases. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have attracted significant attention for such applications due to their biocompatibility and magnetic properties. However, information is lacking about the characteristics of nebulized SPIONs for use as a therapeutic aerosol. To address this need, we conducted a physicochemical characterization of nebulized Rienso, a SPION-based formulation for intravenous treatment of anemia. Methods: Four different concentrations of SPION suspensions were nebulized with a one-jet nebulizer. Particle size was measured in suspension by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and in the aerosol by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Results: The average particle size in suspension as measured by TEM, PCS, and NTA was 9±2 nm, 27±7 nm, and 56±10 nm, respectively. The particle size in suspension remained the same before and after the nebulization process. However, after aerosol collection in an impinger, the suspended particle size increased to 159±46 nm as measured by NTA. The aerosol particle concentration increased linearly with increasing suspension concentration, and the aerodynamic diameter remained relatively stable at around 75 nm as measured by SMPS. Conclusions: We demonstrated that the total number and particle size in the aerosol were modulated as a function of the initial concentration in the nebulizer. The data obtained mark the first known independent characterization of nebulized Rienso and, as such, provide critical information on the behavior of Rienso nanoparticles in an aerosol. The data obtained in this study add new knowledge to the existing body of literature on potential applications of SPION suspensions as inhaled aerosol therapeutics. PMID

  9. Pulmonary monoclonal antibody delivery via a portable microfluidic nebulization platform

    PubMed Central

    Cortez-Jugo, Christina; Qi, Aisha; Rajapaksa, Anushi; Friend, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Nebulizers have considerable advantages over conventional inhalers for pulmonary drug administration, particularly because they do not require coordinated breath actuation to generate and deliver the aerosols. Nevertheless, besides being less amenable to miniaturization and hence portability, some nebulizers are prone to denature macromolecular drugs due to the large forces generated during aerosolization. Here, we demonstrate a novel portable acoustomicrofluidic device capable of nebulizing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies into a fine aerosol mist with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of approximately 1.1 μm, optimal for deep lung deposition via inhalation. The nebulized monoclonal antibodies were tested for their stability, immunoactivity, and pharmacological properties, which confirmed that nebulization did not cause significant degradation of the antibody. In particular, flow cytometry demonstrated that the antigen binding capability of the antibody is retained and able to reduce phosphorylation in cells overexpressing the EGFR, indicating that the aerosols generated by the device were loaded with stable and active monoclonal antibodies. The delivery of antibodies via inhalation, particularly for the treatment of lung cancer, is thus expected to enhance the efficacy of this protein therapeutic by increasing the local concentration where they are needed. PMID:25945147

  10. Comparison of nebulized and sprayed topical anaesthesia for fibreoptic bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Keane, D; McNicholas, W T

    1992-10-01

    We compared the efficacy of nebulized (N) and sprayed (S) topical anaesthesia prior to fibreoptic bronchoscopy in a blinded study involving 54 patients aged 57 +/- 26 yrs (mean +/- SD). Cough frequency, recorded on cassette tape, was the index of efficacy. All patients received 100 mg lignocaine sprayed into the pharynx, or nebulized in random order prior to bronchoscopy, and all received intravenous diazepam sedation. Each patient received a further 100 mg of lignocaine solution through the bronchoscope onto the vocal cords and major airways during the procedure. No significant difference was found in overall cough frequency between N and S groups (8.7 +/- 6.9 coughs.min-1 N vs 10.5 +/- 6.0 S), and cough frequency was also similar between N and S during the periods above and below the vocal cords. Furthermore, no differences were found in cough frequency between N and S among smokers, patients with asthma and COPD, and patients who had a biopsy procedure, although a trend was seen in all comparisons towards a lower cough frequency with the nebulized route. Most patients in the S group found the spray unpleasant, whereas only one in the N group complained. We conclude that nebulized and sprayed lignocaine have similar efficacy as topical anaesthetics in fibreoptic bronchoscopy, but patient preference favours the nebulized route.

  11. Nebulization performance of biodegradable sildenafil-loaded nanoparticles using the Aeroneb Pro: formulation aspects and nanoparticle stability to nebulization.

    PubMed

    Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Kleimann, Pia; Gessler, Tobias; Seeger, Werner; Kissel, Thomas; Schmehl, Thomas

    2012-01-17

    Polymeric nanoparticles meet the increasing interest for drug delivery applications and hold great promise to improve controlled drug delivery to the lung. Here, we present a series of investigations that were carried out to understand the impact of formulation variables on the nebulization performance of novel biodegradable sildenafil-loaded nanoparticles designed for targeted aerosol therapy of life-threatening pulmonary arterial hypertension. Narrowly distributed poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (size: ∼200 nm) were prepared by a solvent evaporation technique using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as stabilizer. The aerodynamic and output characteristics using the Aeroneb Pro nebulizer correlated well with the dynamic viscosity of the employed fluids for nebulization. The nebulization performance was mainly affected by the amount of employed stabilizer, rather than by the applied nanoparticle concentration. Nanoparticles revealed physical stability against forces generated during aerosolization, what is attributed to the adsorbed PVA layer around the nanoparticles. Sildenafil was successfully encapsulated into nanoparticles (encapsulation efficiency: ∼80%). Size, size distribution and sildenafil content of nanoparticles were not affected by nebulization and the in vitro drug release profile demonstrated a sustained sildenafil release over ∼120 min. The current study suggests that the prepared sildenafil-loaded nanoparticles are a promising pharmaceutical for the therapy of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

  12. A review of nebulized drug delivery in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Tashkin, Donald P

    2016-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend inhaled pharmacologic therapy as the preferred route of administration for treating COPD. Bronchodilators (β2-agonists and antimuscarinics) are the mainstay of pharmacologic therapy in patients with COPD, with long-acting agents recommended for patients with moderate to severe symptoms or those who are at a higher risk for COPD exacerbations. Dry powder inhalers and pressurized metered dose inhalers are the most commonly used drug delivery devices, but they may be inadequate in various clinical scenarios (eg, the elderly, the cognitively impaired, and hospitalized patients). As more drugs become available in solution formulations, patients with COPD and their caregivers are becoming increasingly satisfied with nebulized drug delivery, which provides benefits similar to drugs delivered by handheld inhalers in both symptom relief and improved quality of life. This article reviews recent innovations in nebulized drug delivery and the important role of nebulized therapy in the treatment of COPD. PMID:27799757

  13. Baby bottle steam sterilizers for disinfecting home nebulizers inoculated with non-tuberculous mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Towle, D; Callan, D A; Lamprea, C; Murray, T S

    2016-03-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTMb), present in environmental water sources, can contribute to respiratory infection in patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Contaminated nebulizers are a potential source of respiratory infection. Treatment with baby bottle steam sterilizers disinfects home nebulizers inoculated with bacterial pathogens but whether this method works for disinfection of NTMb is unclear. Baby bottle steam sterilization was compared with vigorous water washing for disinfecting home nebulizers inoculated with NTMb mixed with cystic fibrosis sputum. No NTMb was recovered from any nebulizers after steam treatment whereas viable NTMb grew after water washing, demonstrating that steam sterilization effectively disinfects NTMb-inoculated nebulizers.

  14. Comparison of jet and ultrasonic nebulizer pulmonary aerosol deposition during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Harvey, C J; O'Doherty, M J; Page, C J; Thomas, S H; Nunan, T O; Treacher, D F

    1997-04-01

    Increased delivery of aerosol to a model lung (attached to a mechanical ventilator) has been demonstrated with an ultrasonic nebulizer as compared to a jet nebulizer. This study examined whether the increased aerosol deposition with an ultrasonic nebulizer could also be demonstrated in vivo. Seven patients (6 male and 1 female) were studied during mechanical ventilalion (Siemens Servo 900C, Middlesex, UK) after open heart surgery. Two studies were performed in each patient. In the first study, aerosol was delivered via a Siemens Servo 945 nebulizer system (high setting) driving a System 22 Acorn jet nebulizer (Medic-Aid, Sussex, UK) containing 3 mL (99m)technetium-labelled human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) (50 microg; activity 74 MBq). In the second study, a DP100 ultrasonic nebulizer (DP Medical, Meylan, France) containing 12 mL 99mTc-HSA (50 microg; activity 185 MBq) was used. Pulmonary deposition was quantified using a gamma camera. The humidification of the circuit and the ventilator settings were kept constant according to the patient's clinical requirements. The total lung aerosol deposition (mean+/-SD), as a percentage of initial nebulizer activity, was greater using the ultrasonic nebulizer than using the jet nebulizer (53+/-1.4 vs 2.3+/-0.9%; p<0.002). The ultrasonic nebulizer was also associated with a reduction in the time required to complete nebulization (9 vs 21 min, respectively) (p<0.0001). Use of the DP100 ultrasonic nebulizer more than doubled lung deposition compared with the System 22 jet nebulizers in mechanically-ventilated patients. Their efficiency, speed of drug delivery, and compatibility with mechanical ventilator circuits make ultrasonic nebulizers potentially attractive for use during mechanical ventilation.

  15. Optimization of nebulized delivery of linezolid, daptomycin, and vancomycin aerosol

    PubMed Central

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Kioumis, Ioannis; Lampaki, Sofia; Organtzis, John; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Spyratos, Dionysios; Pitsiou, Georgia; Petridis, Dimitris; Pataka, Athanasia; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Yarmus, Lonny; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Pezirkianidis, Nikolaos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Background At this time, several antibiotics have been investigated as possibilities for aerosol administration, but local therapy has been found to be more efficient in several diseases. Materials and methods The drugs linezolid (Zyvox), vancomycin (Voncon), and daptomycin (Cubicin) were tested with three jet nebulizers with seven different residual cups and different loadings. Moreover, three ultrasound nebulizers were again tested with these drugs, with different loadings and mouthpiece attachments. Results When drugs are combined with particular cup designs, they significantly lower the droplet size to 1.60 and 1.80 μm, which represents the best combination of Zyvox and cup G and Cubicin and cup D, respectively. Cup design D is suggested as the most effective cup for lowering the droplet size (2.30 μm) when considering a higher loading level (8 mL). Conclusion Modification of current drugs from dry powder to solution is possible, and the residual cup design plays the most important role in droplet size production when the nebulization systems have the same properties. PMID:25143711

  16. Nasal high flow nebulization in infants and toddlers: An in vitro and in vivo scintigraphic study.

    PubMed

    Réminiac, François; Vecellio, Laurent; Loughlin, Ronan Mac; Le Pennec, Deborah; Cabrera, Maria; Vourc'h, Nathalie Heuzé; Fink, James B; Ehrmann, Stephan

    2017-03-01

    Aerosol therapy in infants and toddlers is challenging. Nebulization within a nasal high flow (NHF) circuit is attractive. The aim of this study was to quantify aerosol lung deposition when combined with NHF as compared with standard practice. Lung doses were measured scintigraphically after nebulization with jet and mesh nebulizer placed within a NHF circuit in a spontaneously breathing non-human primate model (macaque) and in the anatomical bench SAINT model, respectively representing a full-term newborn and a 9-month-old toddler. In the SAINT model, lung depositions observed with the mesh nebulizer placed in the NHF circuit set at 2 and 4 L/min were 3.3% and 4.2% of the nebulizer charge, respectively, and similar to the 1.70% observed with the control standard facemask jet nebulization (6 L/min flow). In the macaque model, the depositions observed with the mesh nebulizer in the NHF circuit set at 2 and 4 L/min were 0.49% and 0.85%, respectively, also similar to the control measurement (0.71%). Mesh nebulization within a NHF circuit set at 8 L/min and jet nebulization either within a NHF circuit or placed on top of the cannula (NHF set at 2 L/min; total flow of 8 L/min), resulted in a significantly lower lung depositions. Mesh nebulization within a NHF circuit delivering up to 4 L/min gas is likely to be at least as effective than jet nebulization with a facemask in infants and toddlers. Aerosol facemask placement on top of cannulas or jet nebulization within the NHF circuit may be less effective. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:337-344. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Comparative efficacy of combined nebulized salbutamol with ipratropium bromide and nebulized adrenaline to treat children with acute bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Kadir, M A; Mollah, A H; Basak, R; Choudhury, A M; Ahmed, S

    2009-07-01

    As the efficacy of combined nebulized salbutamol & ipratropium bromide as well as L-adrenaline to treat acute bronchiolitis is not well studied among the Bangladeshi infants, this study was carried out to see their efficacy in acute bronchiolitis and to compare their effectiveness. This randomized clinical trial was done among 60 children aged less than 02 years, admitted in the department of Pediatrics, Dhaka Medical College Hospital, during January through December 2005 with acute bronchiolitis. After a quick initial assessment, nebulization were done twice at 6 hours interval with the mentioned drugs, group wise (one group with salbutamol plus ipratropium bromide and other group with L-adrenaline alone) and the outcomes were assessed after 30 minutes of each nebulization in respect to oxygen saturation and clinical modified respiratory distress assessment instrument (MRDAI) scores. The results were analyzed by using SPSS version 10.0 and at a p value of nebulizations by the studied drugs, a significant improvement in respect to oxygen saturation and MRDAI score were noted among the children in both the groups, compared to their baseline status (p=0.000). However, L-adrenaline showed more efficacy (MRDAI, p=0.021; SaO2, p=0.034) than combined Salbutamol & Ipratropium bromide. Both L-adrenaline and combined salbutamol & ipratropium bromide were found effective in acute bronchiolitis but L-adrenaline was found more effective. A large multi-centre clinical trial is recommended.

  18. Inhalation Properties and Stability of Nebulized Naked siRNA Solution for Pulmonary Therapy.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Kohei; Hashimoto, Wakana; Takeuchi, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    The use of naked unmodified small interfering RNA (N-siRNA) without vector has previously been investigated as a pulmonary therapy. However, little is known regarding stabilities and aerodynamic particle sizes of N-siRNA-containing droplets; nebulizers have not yet been optimized for N-siRNA solutions. Thus, in this study, we investigated the feasibility of inhaled N-siRNA solutions for pulmonary therapy using nebulization. Various nebulizers and N-siRNA concentrations were assessed in terms of siRNA integrity after nebulization, and inhalation properties including aerodynamic particle size were examined. In comparison with ultrasonic-, air-jet-, and vibrating-mesh nebulizers, N-siRNA integrity was not affected by nebulization. Thus, in further experiments, performances of N-siRNA aerosols with different nebulizers and N-siRNA concentrations were evaluated and screened using an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) which employed the time-of-flight principle or a cascade impactor. Mean mass aerodynamic diameters of N-siRNA-containing droplets from vibrating-mesh nebulizers tended to decrease with increasing N-siRNA concentrations, reflecting the influence of N-siRNA solutions on surface tension, as indicated by contact angles. These data indicate the utility of APS instruments for investigating the nebulized characteristics of expensive drugs including siRNAs and may facilitate the development of N-siRNA inhalation formulations.

  19. High-performance flow atomic spectrometry: New nebulization techniques, on-line speciation and on-line sample pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Berndt, H; Yáñez, J

    1996-06-01

    An interface-free combination of HPLC separation techniques and methods for element determination by atomic spectrometry can be achieved by hydraulic high-pressure nebulization (HHPN). With high-temperature HHPN (300 ( degrees )C) super heated liquids can be nebulized providing aerosol yields of up to 90% in flame AAS. This new nebulization method combines the advantages of HHPN and thermospray techniques (very small aerosol droplets, high aerosol yield, nebulization of saturated salt solutions).

  20. History of aerosol therapy: liquid nebulization to MDIs to DPIs.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Paula J

    2005-09-01

    Inhaled therapies have been used since ancient times and may have had their origins with the smoking of datura preparations in India 4,000 years ago. In the late 18th and in the 19th century, earthenware inhalers were popular for the inhalation of air drawn through infusions of plants and other ingredients. Atomizers and nebulizers were developed in the mid-1800s in France and were thought to be an outgrowth of the perfume industry as well as a response to the fashion of inhaling thermal waters at spas. Around the turn of the 20th century, combustible powders and cigarettes containing stramonium were popular for asthma and other lung complaints. Following the discovery of the utility of epinephrine for treating asthma, hand-bulb nebulizers were developed, as well as early compressor nebulizers. The marketing of the first pressurized metered-dose inhaler for epinephrine and isoproterenol, by Riker Laboratories in 1956, was a milestone in the development of inhaled drugs. There have been remarkable advances in the technology of devices and formulations for inhaled drugs in the past 50 years. These have been influenced greatly by scientific developments in several areas: theoretical modeling and indirect measures of lung deposition, particle sizing techniques and in vitro deposition studies, scintigraphic deposition studies, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which banned chlorofluorocarbon propellants. We are now in an era of rapid technologic progress in inhaled drug delivery and applications of aerosol science, with the use of the aerosolized route for drugs for systemic therapy and for gene replacement therapy, use of aerosolized antimicrobials and immunosuppressants, and interest in specific targeting of inhaled drugs.

  1. DINS - Lessons learned and successes achieved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traeger, J.; Quasius, G.

    It is pointed out that the Dormant Inertial Navigation System (DINS) is the first Ring Laser gyro system developed for maneuvering reentry vehicles. The DINS is a pure strapdown system. It provides attitude reference, navigation, and flight control information to the maneuvering reentry vehicle. Two flight tests in which DINS was aboard the Advanced Maneuvering Reentry Vehicle were highly successful. The tests involved the launch of the vehicle by a Minuteman I for a flight from VAFB to Kwajalein. Attention is given to a DINS mission description, a DINS system description, ground test programs, and the flight test program.

  2. Topical airway anesthesia for awake fiberoptic intubation: Comparison between airway nerve blocks and nebulized lignocaine by ultrasonic nebulizer

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Babita; Kohli, Santvana; Farooque, Kamran; Jalwal, Gopal; Gupta, Deepak; Sinha, Sumit; Chandralekha

    2014-01-01

    Overview: Awake fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) guided intubation is the gold standard of airway management in patients with cervical spine injury. It is essential to sufficiently anesthetize the upper airway before the performance of awake FOB guided intubation in order to ensure patient comfort and cooperation. This randomized controlled study was performed to compare two methods of airway anesthesia, namely ultrasonic nebulization of local anesthetic and performance of airway blocks. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 adult patients with cervical spine injury were randomly allocated into two groups. Group L received airway anesthesia through ultrasonic nebulization of 10 ml of 4% lignocaine and Group NB received airway blocks (bilateral superior laryngeal and transtracheal recurrent laryngeal) each with 2 ml of 2% lignocaine and viscous lignocaine gargles. FOB guided orotracheal intubation was then performed. Hemodynamic variables at baseline and during the procedure, patient recall, vocal cord visibility, ease of intubation, coughing/gagging episodes, and signs of lignocaine toxicity were noted. Results: The observations did not reveal any significant differences in demographics or hemodynamic parameters at any time during the study. However, the time taken for intubation was significantly lower in Group NB as compared with the Group L. Group L had an increased number of coughing/gagging episodes as compared with Group NB. Vocal cord visibility and ease of intubation were better in patients who received airway blocks and hence the amount of supplemental lignocaine used was less in this group. Overall patient comfort was better in Group NB with fewer incidences of unpleasant recalls as compared with Group L. Conclusion: Upper airway blocks provide better quality of anesthesia than lignocaine nebulization as assessed by patient recall of procedure, coughing/gagging episodes, ease of intubation, vocal cord visibility, and time taken to intubate. PMID:25538514

  3. Ultrasonic nebulization atmospheric pressure glow discharge - Preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greda, Krzysztof; Jamroz, Piotr; Pohl, Pawel

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge (μAPGD) generated between a small-sized He nozzle jet anode and a flowing liquid cathode was coupled with ultrasonic nebulization (USN) for analytical optical emission spectrometry (OES). The spatial distributions of the emitted spectra from the novel coupled USN-μAPGD system and the conventional μAPGD system were compared. In the μAPGD, the maxima of the intensity distribution profiles of the atomic emission lines Ca, Cd, In, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na and Sr were observed in the near cathode region, whereas, in the case of the USN-μAPGD, they were shifted towards the anode. In the novel system, the intensities of the analytical lines of the studied metals were boosted from several to 35 times. As compared to the conventional μAPGD-OES with the introduction of analytes through the sputtering and/or the electrospray-like nebulization of the flowing liquid cathode solution, the proposed method with the USN introduction of analytes in the form of a dry aerosol provides improved detectability of the studied metals. The detection limits of metals achieved with the USN-μAPGD-OES method were in the range from 0.08 μg L- 1 for Li to 52 μg L- 1 for Mn.

  4. Effect that an educational program for cystic fibrosis patients and caregivers has on the contamination of home nebulizers*

    PubMed Central

    Zuana, Adriana Della; Garcia, Doroti de Oliveira; Juliani, Regina Célia Turola Passos; da Silva, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the pathogens found in home nebulizers and in respiratory samples of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and to evaluate the effect that a standardized instruction regarding cleaning and disinfection of nebulizers has on the frequency of nebulizer contamination. METHODS: We included 40 CF patients (22 males), all of whom used the same model of nebulizer. The median patient age was 11.2 ± 3.74 years. We collected samples from the nebulizer mouthpiece and cup, using a sterile swab moistened with sterile saline. Respiratory samples were collected by asking patients to expectorate into a sterile container or with oropharyngeal swabs after cough stimulation. Cultures were performed on selective media, and bacteria were identified by classical biochemical tests. Patients received oral and written instructions regarding the cleaning and disinfection of nebulizers. All determinations were repeated an average of two months later. RESULTS: Contamination of the nebulizer (any part) was detected in 23 cases (57.5%). The nebulizer mouthpiece and cup were found to be contaminated in 16 (40.0%) and 19 (47.5%), respectively. After the standardized instruction had been given, there was a significant decrease in the proportion of contaminated nebulizers (43.5%). CONCLUSIONS: In our sample of CF patients, nebulizer contamination was common, indicating the need for improvement in patient practices regarding the cleaning and disinfection of their nebulizers. A one-time educational intervention could have a significant positive impact. PMID:24831395

  5. Characterization of microconcentric nebulizer uptake rates for capillary electrophoresis inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanes, Enrique G.; Miller-Ihli, Nancy J.

    2003-05-01

    There is demonstrated interest in combining capillary electrophoresis (CE) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for speciation determinations. When self-aspirating nebulizers are used for this application, it is important to offset the suction effect to avoid degradation of the separation. In this study, sample uptake rates for three microconcentric nebulizers of the same model, in combination with a cyclonic spray chamber, were characterized and compared for future utilization in CE-ICP-MS interfaces. The specific model studied was a MicroMist with a nominal uptake rate of 100 μl/min at 1 l/min argon gas flow rate per the manufacturer's specifications. Sample uptake rates at various nebulizer gas flows were measured by aspirating water from a weighed container and calculating the uptake rate in microliter per minute. The nebulizers studied provided good reproducibility from day to day, but a comparison of the different nebulizers reflected a significant difference in performance. A characteristic observed during the study was that uptake rates decreased with increasing nebulizer gas flow. This can be used for sample introduction for CE-ICP-MS. Interestingly, very different performance was observed when comparing the three different nebulizers of the same model. Uptake rates showed strong dependence on argon gas flow rates and the dimensions of the sample uptake tubing.

  6. Determination of nebulizer droplet size distribution: a method based on impactor refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Berg, Elna; Svensson, Jan Olof; Asking, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Size distributions of droplets generated by nebulizers are difficult to determine because of evaporation after aerosolization. We describe a method whereby a Next Generation Pharmaceutical Impactor (NGI; MSP Corporation, Shoreview, MN) is refrigerated at 5 degrees C before connecting it to the nebulizer in order to ensure an environment inside the NGI at close to 100% relative humidity (RH). This, in turn, reduces droplet evaporation between the nebulizer and impaction. The method development was performed with a Pari LC Plus jet nebulizer operated at 2.0 bar, with the NGI set at a flow rate of 15 L/min and with salbutamol 5.0 mg/mL as the test solution. The droplet size distributions were expressed in terms of mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and geometric standard deviation (GSD). Variation in test conditions showed that the NGI should be cooled for at least 90 min, that nebulization should be started within 5 min after removal from the refrigerator, and that coating of collecting cups to prevent "bouncing" is not necessary. Variation of ambient temperature and humidity had no relevant effect on results. MMAD and GSD results showed that refrigeration of the NGI resulted in droplet size distributions that are likely to reflect those originally delivered at the mouthpiece by the nebulizer. The method was shown to be robust, accurate with recovery of test solutions exceeding 99%, reproducible, and to be suitable for use with a wide range of commercially available nebulizers.

  7. Effective pulmonary delivery of an aerosolized plasmid DNA vaccine via surface acoustic wave nebulization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary-delivered gene therapy promises to mitigate vaccine safety issues and reduce the need for needles and skilled personnel to use them. While plasmid DNA (pDNA) offers a rapid route to vaccine production without side effects or reliance on cold chain storage, its delivery to the lung has proved challenging. Conventional methods, including jet and ultrasonic nebulizers, fail to deliver large biomolecules like pDNA intact due to the shear and cavitational stresses present during nebulization. Methods In vitro structural analysis followed by in vivo protein expression studies served in assessing the integrity of the pDNA subjected to surface acoustic wave (SAW) nebulisation. In vivo immunization trials were then carried out in rats using SAW nebulized pDNA (influenza A, human hemagglutinin H1N1) condensate delivered via intratracheal instillation. Finally, in vivo pulmonary vaccinations using pDNA for influenza was nebulized and delivered via a respirator to sheep. Results The SAW nebulizer was effective at generating pDNA aerosols with sizes optimal for deep lung delivery. Successful gene expression was observed in mouse lung epithelial cells, when SAW-nebulized pDNA was delivered to male Swiss mice via intratracheal instillation. Effective systemic and mucosal antibody responses were found in rats via post-nebulized, condensed fluid instillation. Significantly, we demonstrated the suitability of the SAW nebulizer to administer unprotected pDNA encoding an influenza A virus surface glycoprotein to respirated sheep via aerosolized inhalation. Conclusion Given the difficulty of inducing functional antibody responses for DNA vaccination in large animals, we report here the first instance of successful aerosolized inhalation delivery of a pDNA vaccine in a large animal model relevant to human lung development, structure, physiology, and disease, using a novel, low-power (<1 W) surface acoustic wave (SAW) hand-held nebulizer to produce droplets of p

  8. Nebulized antibiotics. An adequate option for treating ventilator-associated respiratory infection?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Barcenilla, F

    2015-03-01

    Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) is a frequent complication in critical patients. The 90% of those who develop it receive broad-spectrum antibiotic (ATB) treatment, without any strong evidence of its favorable impact. The use of nebulized ATB could be a valid treatment option, to reduce the use of systemic ATB and the pressure of selection on the local flora. Several studies suggest that an adequate nebulization technique can ensure high levels of ATB even in areas of lung consolidation, and to obtain clinical and microbiological cure. New studies are needed to properly assess the impact of treatment with nebulized ATB on the emergence of resistance.

  9. Investigation of Factors Affecting Aerodynamic Performance of Nebulized Nanoemulsion

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Hosein; Abbasi, Shayan; Amini, Mohammad Ali; Amani, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to prepare a nanoemulsion preparation containing budesonide and assess its aerodynamic behavior in comparison with suspension of budesonide. In-vitro aerodynamic performance of the corresponding micellar solution (ie. nanoemulsion preparation without oil) was investigated too. Nanoemulsions of almond oil containing budesonide, as a hydrophobic model drug molecule, were prepared and optimized. Then, the effect of variation of surfactant/co-surfactant concentration on the aerodynamic properties of the nebulized aerosol was studied. The results indicated that the most physically stable formulation makes the smallest aerodynamic size. The concentration of co-surfactant was also shown to be critical in determination of aerodynamic size. Furthermore, the optimized sample, with 3% w/w almond oil, 20% w/w Tween 80+Span 80 and 2% w/w ethanol showed a smaller MMAD in comparison with the commercially available suspension and the micellar solution. PMID:28243265

  10. Diné (Navajo) Ethno- and Archaeoastronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, Von Del

    The Navajo (Diné) are an Athabascan-speaking people who migrated from the far northwest of America into the desert southwest where they became the largest surviving Native American culture. Three words portray Diné philosophy - beauty, harmony, and balance. Their traditions are rich with astronomical symbolism found in literature, ceremony, iconography, artifacts, rock art, and the sacred landscape. This chapter summarizes Diné astronomical traditions, identification of stars known to be important to the Diné, and how these are depicted on artifacts and rock art.

  11. Peritoneal Nebulization of Ropivacaine during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Dose Finding and Pharmacokinetic Study

    PubMed Central

    Allegri, Massimo; Ornaghi, Martina; Meghani, Yash; Calcinati, Serena; Lovisari, Federica; Radhakrishnan, Krishnaprabha; Cusato, Maria; Scalia Catenacci, Stefano; Somaini, Marta; Fanelli, Guido; Ingelmo, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Background. Intraperitoneal nebulization of ropivacaine reduces postoperative pain and morphine consumption after laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this multicenter double-blind randomized controlled trial was to assess the efficacy of different doses and dose-related absorption of ropivacaine when nebulized in the peritoneal cavity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. Patients were randomized to receive 50, 100, or 150 mg of ropivacaine 1% by peritoneal nebulization through a nebulizer. Morphine consumption, pain intensity in the abdomen, wound and shoulder, time to unassisted ambulation, discharge time, and adverse effects were collected during the first 48 hours after surgery. The pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography. Results. Nebulization of 50 mg of ropivacaine had the same effect of 100 or 150 mg in terms of postoperative morphine consumption, shoulder pain, postoperative nausea and vomiting, activity resumption, and hospital discharge timing (>0.05). Plasma concentrations did not reach toxic levels in any patient, and no significant differences were observed between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions. There is no enhancement in analgesic efficacy with higher doses of nebulized ropivacaine during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. When administered with a microvibration-based aerosol humidification system, the pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine is constant and maintains an adequate safety profile for each dosage tested. PMID:28316464

  12. Bronchoscopy for foreign body aspiration and effects of nebulized albuterol and budesonide combination

    PubMed Central

    Akcora, Bulent; Celikkaya, Mehmet Emin; Ozer, Cahit

    2017-01-01

    Objective: A foreign body aspiration in the tracheobronchial tree is a dangerous medical condition in the childhood period. Although rigid bronchoscopy is a safe procedure, it may cause complications. The aim of this study was to present our bronchoscopy experience and to evaluate the efficacy of pre-operative administration of nebulized albuterol and budesonide combination for reducing intra-operative complications in foreign body aspirated cases. Methods: In this retrospective study our pediatric cases in which a foreign body was removed from tracheobronchial tree in last 8 years were analyzed. After excluding the patients who needed emergent and negative bronchoscopies, the remaining clinically stable 84 patients were compared for the effects of preoperative administration of nebulized albuterol and budesonide combination on bronchoscopy complications. Results: There were 51 boys (60.3%) and 33 girls (39.7%). There were 38 children in the non-nebulized group and 46 children in the nebulized group. We found that the combined albuterol and budesonide nebulization decrease complications such as arterial oxygen desaturation (p<0.05), and bronchospasm (p<0.05) during the bronchoscopic intervention. Conclusion: Preoperative nebulization of albuterol and budesonide combination may decrease perioperative complications of bronchoscopy. PMID:28367177

  13. Global survey on nebulization of antimicrobial agents in mechanically ventilated patients: a call for international guidelines.

    PubMed

    Solé-Lleonart, C; Roberts, J A; Chastre, J; Poulakou, G; Palmer, L B; Blot, S; Felton, T; Bassetti, M; Luyt, C-E; Pereira, J M; Riera, J; Welte, T; Qiu, H; Rouby, J-J; Rello, J

    2016-04-01

    Nebulized antimicrobial agents are increasingly administered for treatment of respiratory infections in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients. A structured online questionnaire assessing the indications, dosages and recent patterns of use for nebulized antimicrobial agents in MV patients was developed. The questionnaire was distributed worldwide and completed by 192 intensive care units. The most common indications for using nebulized antimicrobial agent were ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT; 58/87), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP; 56/87) and management of multidrug-resistant, Gram-negative (67/87) bacilli in the respiratory tract. The most common prescribed nebulized agents were colistin methanesulfonate and sulfate (36/87, 41.3% and 24/87, 27.5%), tobramycin (32/87, 36.7%) and amikacin (23/87, 26.4%). Colistin methanesulfonate, amikacin and tobramycin daily doses for VAP were significantly higher than for VAT (p < 0.05). Combination of parenteral and nebulized antibiotics occurred in 50 (86%) of 58 prescriptions for VAP and 36 (64.2%) of 56 of prescriptions for VAT. The use of nebulized antimicrobial agents in MV patients is common. There is marked heterogeneity in clinical practice, with significantly different in use between patients with VAP and VAT. Randomized controlled clinical trials and international guidance on indications, dosing and antibiotic combinations to improve clinical outcomes are urgently required.

  14. Toward modern inhalational bacteriophage therapy: nebulization of bacteriophages of Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    PubMed

    Golshahi, Laleh; Seed, Kimberley D; Dennis, Jonathan J; Finlay, Warren H

    2008-12-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections have renewed interest in finding substitute methods of treatment. The purpose of the present in vitro study was to investigate the possibility of respiratory delivery of a Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) bacteriophage by nebulized aerosol administration. Bacteriophages in isotonic saline were aerosolized with Pari LC star and eFlow nebulizers, at titers with mean value (standard deviation) of 2.15 x 10(8) (1.63 x 10(8)) plaque-forming unit (PFU)/mL in 2.5-mL nebulizer fills. The breathing pattern of an adult was simulated using a pulmonary waveform generator. During breath simulation, the size distributions of the nebulized aerosol were measured using phase doppler anemometry (PDA). Efficiency of nebulizer delivery was subsequently determined by collection of aerosol on low resistance filters and measurement of bacteriophage titers. These filter titers were used as input data to a mathematical lung deposition model to predict regional deposition of bacteriophages in the lung and initial bacteriophage titers in the liquid surface layer of each conducting airway generation. The results suggest that BCC bacteriophages can be nebulized successfully within a reasonable delivery time and predicted titers in the lung indicate that this method may hold potential for treatment of bacterial lung infections common among cystic fibrosis patients.

  15. Short torch design for direct liquid sample introduction using conventional and micro-nebulizers for plasma spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Montaser, Akbar; Westphal, Craig S.; Kahen, Kaveh; Rutkowski, William F.

    2008-01-08

    An apparatus and method for providing direct liquid sample introduction using a nebulizer are provided. The apparatus and method include a short torch having an inner tube and an outer tube, and an elongated adapter having a cavity for receiving the nebulizer and positioning a nozzle tip of the nebulizer a predetermined distance from a tip of the outer tube of the short torch. The predetermined distance is preferably about 2-5 mm.

  16. Surface acoustic wave nebulization facilitating lipid mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sung Hwan; Huang, Yue; Edgar, J Scott; Ting, Ying S; Heron, Scott R; Kao, Yuchieh; Li, Yanyan; Masselon, Christophe D; Ernst, Robert K; Goodlett, David R

    2012-08-07

    Surface acoustic wave nebulization (SAWN) is a novel method to transfer nonvolatile analytes directly from the aqueous phase to the gas phase for mass spectrometric analysis. The lower ion energetics of SAWN and its planar nature make it appealing for analytically challenging lipid samples. This challenge is a result of their amphipathic nature, labile nature, and tendency to form aggregates, which readily precipitate clogging capillaries used for electrospray ionization (ESI). Here, we report the use of SAWN to characterize the complex glycolipid, lipid A, which serves as the membrane anchor component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and has a pronounced tendency to clog nano-ESI capillaries. We also show that unlike ESI SAWN is capable of ionizing labile phospholipids without fragmentation. Lastly, we compare the ease of use of SAWN to the more conventional infusion-based ESI methods and demonstrate the ability to generate higher order tandem mass spectral data of lipid A for automated structure assignment using our previously reported hierarchical tandem mass spectrometry (HiTMS) algorithm. The ease of generating SAWN-MS(n) data combined with HiTMS interpretation offers the potential for high throughput lipid A structure analysis.

  17. Effect of nebulizer/spray chamber interfaces on simultaneous, axial view inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for the direct determination of As and Se species separated by ion exchange high-performance liquid chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettar, Raquel T.; Smichowski, Patricia; Garavaglia, Ricardo N.; Farías, Silvia; Batistoni, Daniel A.

    2005-06-01

    Different nebulizer/expansion chamber combinations were evaluated to assess their performance for sample introduction in the direct coupling with an axial view inductively coupled plasma multielement spectrometer for on-line determination of As and Se species previously separated by ion exchange-high performance liquid chromatography. The column effluents were injected into the plasma without prior derivatization. The instrument operation software was adapted for data acquisition and processing to allow multi-wavelength recording of the transient chromatographic peaks. After optimization of the chromatographic operating conditions, separation of mixtures of inorganic As and Se species, and of inorganic and two organic As species (monomethylarsonic and dimethylarsinic acids), was achieved with excellent resolution. Species discrimination from mixtures of As and Se oxyanions was further improved by the simultaneous element detection at specific analytical wavelengths. Three nebulizers and three spray chambers, employed in seven combinations, were tested as interfaces. Concentric nebulizers associated to a glass cyclonic chamber appear most suitable regarding sensitivity and signal to noise ratio. Measured element detection limits (3 σ) were around 10 ng ml - 1 for all the species considered, making the method a viable alternative to similar procedures that employ volatile hydride generation previous to sample injection into the plasma. Analytical recoveries both for inorganic and organic species ranged between 92 and 107%. The method was demonstrated to be apt for the analysis of surface waters potentially subjected to natural contamination with arsenic.

  18. Physical stability and aerosol properties of liposomes delivered using an air-jet nebulizer and a novel micropump device with large mesh apertures.

    PubMed

    Elhissi, A M A; Faizi, M; Naji, W F; Gill, H S; Taylor, K M G

    2007-04-04

    The aerosol properties of liposomes and their physical stability to aerosolization were evaluated using an air-jet nebulizer (Pari LC Plus) and a customized large aperture vibrating-mesh nebulizer (Aeroneb Pro-8microm). Soya phosphatidylcholine: cholesterol (1:1 mole ratio) multilamellar liposomes (MLVs) entrapping salbutamol sulfate were nebulized directly, or after being reduced in size by extrusion through 1 or 0.4microm polycarbonate membrane filters. MLVs were very unstable to jet nebulization and stability was not markedly enhanced when vesicles were extruded before nebulization, such that drug losses from delivered liposomes using the Pari nebulizer were up to 88% (i.e. only 12% retained in liposomes). The Aeroneb Pro-8microm nebulizer was less disruptive to liposomes, completed nebulization in a much shorter time, and produced greater mass output rate than the Pari nebulizer. However, aerosol droplets were larger, total drug and mass outputs were lower and aerosolization performance was dependent on formulation. Vibrating-mesh nebulization was less disruptive to liposomes extruded through the 1microm membranes compared with the non-extruded MLVs, so that the retained entrapment of the drug in the nebulized vesicles was 56% and 37%, respectively. However, extrusion of liposomes to 0.4microm resulted in reduced stability of liposomes to vibrating-mesh nebulization (retained entrapment=41%) which was attributed to the reduced liposome lamellarity and subsequent reduced resistance to nebulization-induced shearing. This study has shown that vibrating-mesh nebulization using the customized large aperture mesh nebulizer (Aeroneb Pro-8microm) had a less disruptive effect on liposomes and produced a higher output rate compared with the Pari LC Plus air-jet nebulizer. On the other hand, the air-jet nebulizer produced higher total mass and drug outputs and smaller aerosol droplets.

  19. Testing and Results of Human Metabolic Simulation Utilizing Ultrasonic Nebulizer Technology for Water Vapor Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbe, Matthew; Curley, Su

    2010-01-01

    Life support technology must be evaluated thoroughly before ever being implemented into a functioning design. A major concern during that evaluation is safety. The ability to mimic human metabolic loads allows test engineers to evaluate the effectiveness of new technologies without risking injury to any actual humans. The main function of most life support technologies is the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) vapor. As such any good human metabolic simulator (HMS) will mimic the human body s ability to produce these items. Introducing CO2 into a test chamber is a very straightforward process with few unknowns so the focus of this particular new HMS design was on the much more complicated process of introducing known quantities of H2O vapor on command. Past iterations of the HMS have utilized steam which is very hard to keep in vapor phase while transporting and injecting into a test chamber. Also steam adds large quantities of heat to any test chamber, well beyond what an actual human does. For the new HMS an alternative approach to water vapor generation was designed utilizing ultrasonic nebulizers as a method for creating water vapor. Ultrasonic technology allows water to be vibrated into extremely tiny pieces (2-5 microns) and evaporate without requiring additional heating. Doing this process inside the test chamber itself allows H2O vapor generation without the unwanted heat and the challenging process of transporting water vapor. This paper presents the design details as well as results of all initial and final acceptance system testing. Testing of the system was performed at a range of known human metabolic rates in both sea-level and reduced pressure environments. This multitude of test points fully defines the systems capabilities as they relate to actual environmental systems testing.

  20. Safety and efficacy of using high-dose topical and nebulized anesthesia to obtain endobronchial cultures.

    PubMed

    Berger, R; McConnell, J W; Phillips, B; Overman, T L

    1989-02-01

    We evaluated the safety and efficacy of high-dose topical and nebulized airway anesthesia in normal volunteers and in patients undergoing diagnostic fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Lidocaine solution (4 percent) was used for gargling, for spraying the palate and oropharynx with an atomizer, and for nebulization with an air-powered nebulizer (mean total dose, 1,682 mg) and 2 percent lidocaine (Xylocaine) jelly for anesthetizing nasal passages. In six normal subjects and in eight patients, lidocaine blood levels were measured at baseline, after gargling, after spraying, after nebulization, and then at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min; 19 normal subjects and ten patients underwent the same anesthesia protocol but had no blood drawn. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed in 21 normal volunteers and in 18 patients and cultures obtained using the protected specimen brush. Additional endobronchial lidocaine (mean 256 mg) was given to the 18 patients after collecting the microbiology specimens. Peak lidocaine blood levels remained below 6 micrograms/ml in all cases. Cough and discomfort during bronchoscopic examination was absent or minimal in 17 of 21 normal subjects (80 percent) and in 14 of 18 patients (77 percent) and was severe in only one instance (5 percent). There were no related complications. Using only topical and nebulized anesthesia is safe and effective for performing fiberoptic bronchoscopy, especially when bacterial cultures are to be obtained and endobronchial instillation of lidocaine must be avoided.

  1. Sound levels inside incubators and oxygen hoods used with nebulizers and humidifiers.

    PubMed

    Beckham, R W; Mishoe, S C

    1982-01-01

    Degree of hearing loss in the infant is related to high-intensity or high-frequency sound (noise). We measured sound levels of 6 models of pneumatic nebulizers and 8 models of humidifiers at various flowrates, FIO2 settings, and water levels, when they were attached to incubators and oxygen hoods; we also evaluated sound levels from 2 models of ultrasonic nebulizers at various output settings. Among the pneumatic nebulizers, the recommended 58-dbA maximum sound level was exceeded by the Aquapak 621, Ohio Deluxe, and Puritan All-Purpose devices. The Bard Parker, Foregger, and Inspiron pneumatic nebulizers' sound levels were 58 dbA or below except during the dry water-level condition. Among the humidifiers, all produced sound levels below the recommended 58-dbA maximum except the Travenol humidifier; the Bennett Cascade, Conchapak, Foregger, and Hudson humidifiers produced mean sound levels in the 43.0- to 43.5-dbA range. Sound levels increased under all conditions when the devices were used with oxygen hoods. The ultrasonic nebulizers produced low sound levels, but the high-frequency ultrasound they also produce may be undesirable for infants; this question requires further investigation.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of nebulized and subcutaneously implanted terbinafine in cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus).

    PubMed

    Kane, L P; Allender, M C; Archer, G; Leister, K; Rzadkowska, M; Boers, K; Souza, M; Cox, S

    2017-04-06

    Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, the causative agent of snake fungal disease, is proposed as a serious threat to the conservation of several snake populations. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of terbinafine administered through nebulization and a sustained subcutaneous implant as potential treatments of Ophidiomyces in reptiles. Seven adult cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus) were used in single-dose trials. Each snake was nebulized with terbinafine (2 mg/ml) for 30 min and had blood collected before nebulization and up to 12 hr after nebulization. Following a 5-month washout, the same snakes were administered a subcutaneous implant containing 24.5 mg terbinafine; blood was collected at baseline, 1 day postimplant placement, and then once weekly for 9 weeks. Plasma for both studies was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The mean plasma concentrations of nebulized terbinafine peaked between 0.5 and 4 hr. The subcutaneously implanted terbinafine reached therapeutic concentrations on day 1 and maintained therapeutic for over 6 weeks. These methods and doses are recommended as potential treatment options for snake fungal disease in reptiles.

  3. A preliminary study of painless and effective transdermal botulinum toxin A delivery by jet nebulization for treatment of primary hyperhidrosis

    PubMed Central

    Iannitti, Tommaso; Palmieri, Beniamino; Aspiro, Anna; Di Cerbo, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Background Hyperhidrosis is a chronic disease characterized by increased sweat production. Local injections of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) have been extensively used for treatment of primary hyperhidrosis (idiopathic). The current treatment for this condition involves several intradermal injections, resulting in poor patient compliance due to injection-related pain. Therefore, new protocols, including an improved anesthetic regimen, are required. Aim We designed the present study to determine whether JetPeel™-3, a medical device used for transdermal delivery of drugs by jet nebulization, could be used to deliver lidocaine prior to the standard multiple BTX-A injections or deliver lidocaine together with BTX-A in order to determine the protocol giving better results in terms of procedure-related pain, sweating, and patient satisfaction in subjects affected by primary axillary, palmar or plantar hyperhidrosis. Materials and methods Twenty patients with a visual analog scale (VAS) sweating score ≥ 8 cm were randomized to receive lidocaine 2% (5 mL) delivered by JetPeel™-3 followed by multiple injections of BTX-A (100 units) or lidocaine 2% (5 mL) and BTX-A (50 units) delivered together by JetPeel™-3. Effect of treatment on sweating was measured by VAS (0= minimum sweating; 10= maximum sweating) at 3-month follow-up. Pain induced by the procedure was assessed by VAS (0= minimum pain; 10= maximum pain) immediately after the procedure. Patient satisfaction was assessed at 3-month follow-up using a 5-point scale (1= not at all satisfied; 2= not satisfied; 3= partially satisfied; 4= satisfied; 5= highly satisfied). Results Both treatment modalities reduced sweating at 3-month follow-up, if compared with baseline (all P<0.001). Delivery of lidocaine and BTX-A by JetPeel™-3 resulted in lower procedure-related pain and reduced sweating, if compared with lidocaine delivered by JetPeel™-3 followed by multiple BTX-A injections (all P<0.001). Patient satisfaction with

  4. A nebulizer chronolog to monitor compliance with inhaler use.

    PubMed

    Tashkin, D P; Rand, C; Nides, M; Simmons, M; Wise, R; Coulson, A H; Li, V; Gong, H

    1991-10-21

    The Lung Health Study is a 10-center 5-year clinical trial sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to evaluate the effectiveness of early intervention in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The specific objectives of the trial are to determine whether the accelerated decline in lung function characteristic of COPD and morbidity due to COPD can be reduced by special intervention at a relatively early stage in the evolution of the disease. Special intervention consists of a smoking-cessation program and the use of an inhaled bronchodilator to suppress airway hyperreactivity. The use of the inhaler canister is monitored every 4 months by canister weighing and, at two of the 10 centers, by an electronic recording device, the Nebulizer Chronolog. Among trial participants assigned the latter device, results from the first 4 months of the study indicate that only 52% of trial participants who were uninformed as to the nature of the chronolog used their inhaler at least twice daily as measured by the chronolog, compared with 87% as determined by self-report. Satisfactory or good compliance was achieved by 52% of these subjects as measured by the chronolog compared with 85% as assessed by canister weighing. Eighteen percent of uninformed participants "dumped" their inhalers within a 3-hour time period, contributing to the inaccuracy of canister weights as an indicator of compliance. Feedback of information to the participants from the chronolog improved the level of compliance and eliminated the "dumping" phenomenon. We conclude that, when accurate determinations of compliance are important, as in a drug trial, objective medication monitors should be considered. Electronic monitoring of inhaler use can provide valuable feedback, which encourages improved compliance.

  5. Budesonide inhalation suspension: a nebulized corticosteroid for persistent asthma.

    PubMed

    Szefler, Stanley J; Eigen, Howard

    2002-04-01

    Guidelines for managing asthma in pediatric patients published by the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend the use of inhaled corticosteroids for the management of persistent asthma in infants and young children. When these guidelines were published, pressurized metered-dose inhalers and dry-powder inhalers were the only delivery devices available for inhaled corticosteroids in the United States. These devices can be difficult for young children to use correctly. Furthermore, no inhaled corticosteroid was approved in the United States for the treatment of children younger than 4 years. Budesonide inhalation suspension (Pulmicort Respules; AstraZeneca LP, Wilmington, Del) was developed to meet the medication delivery needs of infants and young children with persistent asthma. Pulmicort Respules is the first inhaled corticosteroid approved for administration by means of a nebulizer and the only inhaled corticosteroid approved in the United States for infants as young as 12 months. Budesonide has been studied extensively worldwide. In the United States the tolerability and efficacy of budesonide inhalation suspension were confirmed in 3 placebo-controlled multicenter trials. These studies demonstrated that both once- and twice-daily dosing of budesonide inhalation suspension (0.25-1 mg) improved pulmonary function and ameliorated asthma symptoms in infants and young children with persistent asthma. Budesonide inhalation suspension was well tolerated, and the incidences of reported adverse events were similar among patients in the budesonide, placebo, and conventional asthma therapy groups. This article reviews the results of these studies, as well as the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical use of budesonide inhalation suspension.

  6. Characterization of Surface Acoustic Wave Nebulization: Atomization dynamics and resulting droplet size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Alicia; Aliseda, Alberto; Heron, Scott; Huang, Yue; Goodlett, David

    2012-11-01

    High-speed imaging and Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements are used to characterize the size and velocity distributions of micron-sized droplets produced by a surface acoustic wave (SAW) microelectronic nebulizer. The effects of drop composition, electric field amplitude and pulsation frequency, and initial drop volume have been experimentally studied. We observe that the droplets created in pure water are smaller, ~2 μm, and the plume more concentrated near the nebulizer, with small second probability peak for large diameters, ~100 μm. Pure methanol droplets have larger diameters, ~ 5 μm, and lower volume concentration in the nebulizer plume, as corresponds to less efficient atomization process. The influence of fluid viscosity and surface tension will be discussed. Measurements of the velocity distribution show a strong dependency with excitation amplitude and duty factor.

  7. Comparison of numerical simulations to experiments for atomization in a jet nebulizer.

    PubMed

    Lelong, Nicolas; Vecellio, Laurent; Sommer de Gélicourt, Yann; Tanguy, Christian; Diot, Patrice; Junqua-Moullet, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The development of jet nebulizers for medical purposes is an important challenge of aerosol therapy. The performance of a nebulizer is characterized by its output rate of droplets with a diameter under 5 µm. However the optimization of this parameter through experiments has reached a plateau. The purpose of this study is to design a numerical model simulating the nebulization process and to compare it with experimental data. Such a model could provide a better understanding of the atomization process and the parameters influencing the nebulizer output. A model based on the Updraft nebulizer (Hudson) was designed with ANSYS Workbench. Boundary conditions were set with experimental data then transient 3D calculations were run on a 4 µm mesh with ANSYS Fluent. Two air flow rate (2 L/min and 8 L/min, limits of the operating range) were considered to account for different turbulence regimes. Numerical and experimental results were compared according to phenomenology and droplet size. The behavior of the liquid was compared to images acquired through shadowgraphy with a CCD Camera. Three experimental methods, laser diffractometry, phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) and shadowgraphy were used to characterize the droplet size distributions. Camera images showed similar patterns as numerical results. Droplet sizes obtained numerically are overestimated in relation to PDA and diffractometry, which only consider spherical droplets. However, at both flow rates, size distributions extracted from numerical image processing were similar to distributions obtained from shadowgraphy image processing. The simulation then provides a good understanding and prediction of the phenomena involved in the fragmentation of droplets over 10 µm. The laws of dynamics apply to droplets down to 1 µm, so we can assume the continuity of the distribution and extrapolate the results for droplets between 1 and 10 µm. So, this model could help predicting nebulizer output with defined geometrical and

  8. Comparison of Numerical Simulations to Experiments for Atomization in a Jet Nebulizer

    PubMed Central

    Lelong, Nicolas; Vecellio, Laurent; Sommer de Gélicourt, Yann; Tanguy, Christian; Diot, Patrice; Junqua-Moullet, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The development of jet nebulizers for medical purposes is an important challenge of aerosol therapy. The performance of a nebulizer is characterized by its output rate of droplets with a diameter under 5 µm. However the optimization of this parameter through experiments has reached a plateau. The purpose of this study is to design a numerical model simulating the nebulization process and to compare it with experimental data. Such a model could provide a better understanding of the atomization process and the parameters influencing the nebulizer output. A model based on the Updraft nebulizer (Hudson) was designed with ANSYS Workbench. Boundary conditions were set with experimental data then transient 3D calculations were run on a 4 µm mesh with ANSYS Fluent. Two air flow rate (2 L/min and 8 L/min, limits of the operating range) were considered to account for different turbulence regimes. Numerical and experimental results were compared according to phenomenology and droplet size. The behavior of the liquid was compared to images acquired through shadowgraphy with a CCD Camera. Three experimental methods, laser diffractometry, phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) and shadowgraphy were used to characterize the droplet size distributions. Camera images showed similar patterns as numerical results. Droplet sizes obtained numerically are overestimated in relation to PDA and diffractometry, which only consider spherical droplets. However, at both flow rates, size distributions extracted from numerical image processing were similar to distributions obtained from shadowgraphy image processing. The simulation then provides a good understanding and prediction of the phenomena involved in the fragmentation of droplets over 10 µm. The laws of dynamics apply to droplets down to 1 µm, so we can assume the continuity of the distribution and extrapolate the results for droplets between 1 and 10 µm. So, this model could help predicting nebulizer output with defined geometrical and

  9. Biopharmaceutical Characterization of Nebulized Antimicrobial Agents in Rats: 5. Oseltamivir Carboxylate

    PubMed Central

    Galindo Bedor, Danilo Cesar; Lamarche, Isabelle; Laroche, Julian; Pereira de Santana, Davi; Couet, William

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the biopharmaceutical characteristics of oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) after pulmonary delivery. After OC bolus and intratracheal nebulization (NEB) in rats, blood was collected and bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs) were performed. Epithelial lining fluid (ELF) concentrations were estimated from BAL fluid. The area under the curve (AUC) ratio for ELF to plasma was 842 times higher after NEB than after intravenous (i.v.) administration, indicating that OC nebulization offers a biopharmaceutical advantage over i.v. administration. PMID:27297482

  10. Nebulized sodium cromoglycate in young asthmatic children. Double-blind trial.

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, E J; Milner, A D; Lenney, W

    1977-01-01

    Seventeen asthmatic children under 5 years of age took part in a double-blind controlled trial of nebulized sodium cromoglycate solution. Daily symptom scores kept by the parents showed improvement in 11 children during active treatment, and a significant improvement in scores for cough by day and night was obtained for the group as a whole. PMID:413493

  11. The Effects of Three Nebulized Osmotic Agents in the Dry Larynx

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Kristine; Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M.; Elstad, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation examined the effects of nebulized hypertonic saline, isotonic saline (IS), and sterile (hypotonic) water on phonation threshold pressure (PTP) and self-perceived phonatory effort (PPE) following a surface laryngeal dehydration challenge. Method: In a double-blind, randomized experimental trial, 60 vocally healthy women…

  12. Design, fabrication and test of a microfluidic nebulizer chip for desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sen, A K; Darabi, J; Knapp, D R

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents design, microfabrication, and test of a microfluidic nebulizer chip for desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) in proteomic analysis. The microfluidic chip is fabricated using cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) substrates. The fluidic channels are thermally embossed onto a base substrate using a nickel master and then a top substrate is thermally bonded to seal the channels. Carbon ink embossed into the top COC substrate is used to established electrical connection between the external power supply and the liquid in the channel. The microfluidic chip to external capillary connection is fabricated using Nanoport™ interconnection system. Preliminary leakage test was performed to demonstrate the interconnection system is leak-free and pressure test was performed to evaluate the burst pressure. Finally, the nebulizer chip was used to perform DESI-MS for analyzing peptides (BSA and bradykinin) and reserpine on the nanoporous alumina surface. DESI-MS performance of the microfluidic nebulizer chip is compared with that obtained using a conventional DESI nebulizer. PMID:20161284

  13. Promoting adherence to nebulized therapy in cystic fibrosis: poster development and a qualitative exploration of adherence

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Stephen; Babiker, Nathan; Gardner, Emma; Royle, Jane; Curley, Rachael; Hoo, Zhe Hui; Wildman, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) health care professionals recognize the need to motivate people with CF to adhere to nebulizer treatments, yet little is known about how best to achieve this. We aimed to produce motivational posters to support nebulizer adherence by using social marketing involving people with CF in the development of those posters. Methods The Sheffield CF multidisciplinary team produced preliminary ideas that were elaborated upon with semi-structured interviews among people with CF to explore barriers and facilitators to the use of nebulized therapy. Initial themes and poster designs were refined using an online focus group to finalize the poster designs. Results People with CF preferred aspirational posters describing what could be achieved through adherence in contrast to posters that highlighted the adverse consequences of nonadherence. A total of 14 posters were produced through this process. Conclusion People with CF can be engaged to develop promotional material to support adherence, providing a unique perspective differing from that of the CF multidisciplinary team. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these posters to support nebulizer adherence. PMID:26346635

  14. Effects of Temperature and Humidity on Laser Diffraction Measurements to Jet Nebulizer and Comparison with NGI.

    PubMed

    Song, Xinghan; Hu, Junhua; Zhan, Shuyao; Zhang, Rui; Tan, Wen

    2016-04-01

    Laser diffraction (LD) and next generation impactor (NGI) are commonly used for the evaluation of inhaled drug formulations. In this study, the effect of temperature and humidity on the assessment of the nebulizer particle size distribution (PSD) by LD was investigated, and the consistency between NGI and LD measurements was evaluated. There was an increase in particle size with higher temperature or lower humidity. The particle population with a diameter less than 1 μm was significant at a temperature of 5°C or at relative humidity >90%; however, the same particle population became undetectable when temperature increased to 39°C or at relative humidity of 30-45%. The results of the NGI and LD measurements of aerosol generated from three types of jet nebulizers were compared. A poor correlation between the NGI and LD measurements was observed for PARI LC (2.2 μm) (R (2) = 0.893) and PARI LC (2.9 μm) (R (2) = 0.878), while a relatively good correlation (R (2) = 0.977) was observed for the largest particle size nebulizer (PARI TIA (8.6 μm)). We conclude that the ambient environment and the nebulizer have significant impacts on the performance and consistency between these instruments. These factors should be controlled in the evaluation of inhaled aerosol drug formulations when these instruments are used individually or in combination.

  15. In vitro characterization of nebulizer delivery of liposomal amphotericin B aerosols.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Barbara D; Winkler, Thomas P; Shi, Shuai; Dodds Ashley, Elizabeth S; Hickey, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    Pharmaceutical aerosols have the potential to prevent pulmonary infectious diseases. Liposomal amphotericin B (LAMB, Ambisome, Astellas Pharma US, Deerfield, IL, USA) is approved as an intravenous infusion for empiric treatment of presumed fungal infections in neutropenic, febrile patients, as well as patients infected with Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, and other fungal pathogens. In this study, four different nebulizers were tested for their ability to deliver LAMB in aerodynamic droplet-size ranges relevant to lung deposition by an inertial sampling technique Mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and fine particle fraction percent <3.3 μm (FPF(3.3)) and <5.8 μm (FPF(5.8)) were determined by cascade impaction during a 2 min sampling period for each of three trials of all nebulizers. The MMADs for all nebulizers ranged from 1.72 ± 0.11 μm to 2.89 ± 0.12 μm; FPF(3.3) and FPF(5.8) were approximately 80% and 90%, respectively. Although all nebulizers appear acceptable for delivery of LAMB, the Pari LC Star and the Aeroeclipse II were considered the best in terms of delivery of aerosol efficiently and the proportion suitable for lung deposition. Additional research on pulmonary delivery and clinical tolerability is warranted.

  16. Nebulized Fentanyl for Dyspnea in a Hospice Patient with True Allergy to Morphine and Hydromorphone.

    PubMed

    Wahler, Robert G; Smith, David B; Mulcahy, Kimberly B

    2017-03-01

    An 86-year-old white female was admitted to hospice care with lung cancer. Even with optimal medical management, she suffered from dyspnea and required opioid therapy. However, the patient had a true morphine and hydromorphone allergy. She was administered nebulized fentanyl for symptomatic relief of dyspnea with good effect and she did not experience any allergic response.

  17. Ovine progressive pneumonia virus is transmitted more effectively via aerosol nebulization than oral administration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new method of experimental infection of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), aerosol nebulization (Nb), was compared to intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) methods of experimental infection. Seven month old lambs were given 3.5 × 107 TCID50 of Dubois OPPV LMH19 isolate using IV, PO, or Nb methods ...

  18. Efficacy of nebulized liposomal amphotericin B in treatment of experimental pulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Gavaldà, Joan; Martín, María-Teresa; López, Pedro; Gomis, Xavier; Ramírez, José-Luís; Rodríguez, Dolors; Len, Oscar; Puigfel, Yolanda; Ruíz, Isabel; Pahissa, Albert

    2005-07-01

    The efficacy of therapeutic aerosolized amphotericin B (AMB) was studied in a steroid-immunosuppressed murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Nebulized liposomal AMB can be a valid approach to the treatment of this infection, with subjects showing significantly improved survival relative to that of subjects given intravenous deoxycholate AMB, as well as lower lung weights and pulmonary glucosamine levels.

  19. ULTRASONIC NEBULIZATION AND ARSENIC VALENCE STATE CONSIDERATIONS PRIOR TO DETERMINATION VIA INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ultrasonic nebulizer (USN) was utilized as a sample introduction device for an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in an attempt to increase the sensitivity for As. The USN produced a valence state response difference for As. The As response was suppressed approximate...

  20. Nebulized Isotonic Saline versus Water following a Laryngeal Desiccation Challenge in Classically Trained Sopranos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Kristine; Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M.; Muntz, Faye; Houtz, Daniel R.; Sauder, Cara; Elstad, Mark; Wright-Costa, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of nebulized isotonic saline (IS) versus sterile water (SW) on self-perceived phonatory effort (PPE) and phonation threshold pressure (PTP) following a surface laryngeal dehydration challenge in classically trained sopranos. Method: In a double-blind, within-subject crossover design, 34 sopranos breathed dry air…

  1. Delivery of albuterol and ipratropium bromide from two nebulizer systems in chronic stable asthma. Efficacy and pulmonary deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.A.; Newman, S.P.; Bloom, R.; Talaee, N.; Clarke, S.W.

    1989-07-01

    Bronchodilator responses to both nebulized albuterol (salbutamol) and ipratropium bromide and aerosol delivery to the tracheobronchial tree have been assessed in eight patients with chronic stable asthma (mean baseline FEV1, 50 percent; reversibility greater than 20 percent). Two commercially available nebulizer systems were used, namely, a Turret nebulizer operated at a compressed gas flow rate of 12 L/min (droplet MMD, 3.3 mu) and an Inspiron nebulizer driven at 6 L/min (MMD, 7.7 mu). Albuterol was given as doses of 250 micrograms, 250 micrograms, 500 micrograms, and 1,000 micrograms (cumulative dose, 2 mg) and ipratropium bromide as doses of 50 micrograms, 50 micrograms, 100 micrograms, and 200 micrograms (cumulative dose, 400 micrograms) at intervals of 35 minutes. For albuterol, bronchodilatation was significantly (p less than 0.05) greater at all dosage levels with the Turret. For ipratropium, bronchodilatation was similar for both nebulizers. Measurements of aerosol deposition using /sup 99m/Tc-labelled pentetic acid (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid; DTPA) showed that 9.1 +/- 1.1 percent and 2.7 +/- 0.2 percent of the dose reached the lungs during nebulization to dryness for Turret and Inspiron, respectively (p less than 0.01); distribution within the lungs was similar for the two aerosols. Selection of nebulizer apparatus can influence delivery of aerosol and subsequent bronchodilator response to albuterol in patients with chronic stable asthma but is less important for aerosol delivery of ipratropium bromide in these patients.

  2. Impact of atomization technique on the stability and transport efficiency of nebulized liposomes harboring different surface characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lehofer, Bernhard; Bloder, Florian; Jain, Pritesh P; Marsh, Leigh M; Leitinger, Gerd; Olschewski, Horst; Leber, Regina; Olschewski, Andrea; Prassl, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of nebulization on liposomes with specific surface characteristics by applying three commercially available inhaler systems (air-jet, ultrasonic and vibrating-mesh). Conventional liposome formulations composed of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol were compared to sterically stabilized PEGylated liposomes and cationic polymer coated liposomes.Liposomes of similar size (between 140 and 165 nm in diameter with polydispersity indices <0.1) were prepared by dry lipid film rehydration followed by size extrusion. Their stability upon nebulization was determined in terms of size, polydispersity index and leakage using a fluorescence quenching system. The transport efficiencies of the nebulizer devices and the influences of both salt and liposomes on the droplet size distribution of the aerosol were investigated. While the droplet size of the aerosol decreased with increasing salt concentration the liposomes had no influence on the droplet size distribution. The output of the nebulizers in terms of liposomal transport efficiencies differed significantly among the nebulizer principles (20–100%, p < 0.05), with the vibrating-mesh nebulizers being the most effective. The integrity of the conventional liposomes was almost unaffected by the atomization process, while polymer coated and especially positively charged liposomes showed enhanced leakage. The release rates for the hydrophilic model drug system were highest for the vibrating-mesh nebulizers regardless of the surface characteristics of the liposomes (increasing from 10% to 20% and 50% for the conventional, PEGylated and positively charged formulations, respectively). In view of surface modified liposomes our data suggest that drug delivery via nebulization necessitates the finding of a compromise between nebulizer efficiency, formulation stability and drug release profile to accomplish the development of tailored formulations suitable for advanced inhalation

  3. Production of Inhalable Submicrometer Aerosols from Conventional Mesh Nebulizers for Improved Respiratory Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Longest, P Worth; Spence, Benjamin M; Holbrook, Landon T; Mossi, Karla M; Son, Yoen-Ju; Hindle, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Submicrometer and nanoparticle aerosols may significantly improve the delivery efficiency, dissolution characteristics, and bioavailability of inhaled pharmaceuticals. The objective of this study was to explore the formation of submicrometer and nanometer aerosols from mesh nebulizers suitable for respiratory drug delivery using experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Mesh nebulizers were coupled with add-on devices to promote aerosol drying and the formation of submicrometer particles, as well as to control the inhaled aerosol temperature and relative humidity. Cascade impaction experiments were used to determine the initial mass median aerodynamic diameters of 0.1% albuterol aerosols produced by the AeroNeb commercial (4.69 μm) and lab (3.90 μm) nebulizers and to validate the CFD model in terms of droplet evaporation. Through an appropriate selection of flow rates, nebulizers, and model drug concentrations, submicrometer and nanometer aerosols could be formed with the three devices considered. Based on CFD simulations, a wire heated design was shown to overheat the airstream producing unsafe conditions for inhalation if the aerosol was not uniformly distributed in the tube cross-section or if the nebulizer stopped producing droplets. In comparison, a counter-flow heated design provided sufficient thermal energy to produce submicrometer particles, but also automatically limited the maximum aerosol outlet temperature based on the physics of heat transfer. With the counter-flow design, submicrometer aerosols were produced at flow rates of 5, 15, and 30 LPM, which may be suitable for various forms of oral and nasal aerosol delivery. Thermodynamic conditions of the aerosol stream exiting the counter-flow design were found be in a range of 21-45 °C with relative humidity greater than 40% in some cases, which was considered safe for direct inhalation and advantageous for condensational growth delivery.

  4. Production of Inhalable Submicrometer Aerosols from Conventional Mesh Nebulizers for Improved Respiratory Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Longest, P. Worth; Spence, Benjamin M.; Holbrook, Landon T.; Mossi, Karla M.; Son, Yoen-Ju; Hindle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Submicrometer and nanoparticle aerosols may significantly improve the delivery efficiency, dissolution characteristics, and bioavailability of inhaled pharmaceuticals. The objective of this study was to explore the formation of submicrometer and nanometer aerosols from mesh nebulizers suitable for respiratory drug delivery using experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Mesh nebulizers were coupled with add-on devices to promote aerosol drying and the formation of submicrometer particles, as well as to control the inhaled aerosol temperature and relative humidity. Cascade impaction experiments were used to determine the initial mass median aerodynamic diameters of 0.1% albuterol aerosols produced by the AeroNeb commercial (4.69 μm) and lab (3.90 μm) nebulizers and to validate the CFD model in terms of droplet evaporation. Through an appropriate selection of flow rates, nebulizers, and model drug concentrations, submicrometer and nanometer aerosols could be formed with the three devices considered. Based on CFD simulations, a wire heated design was shown to overheat the airstream producing unsafe conditions for inhalation if the aerosol was not uniformly distributed in the tube cross-section or if the nebulizer stopped producing droplets. In comparison, a counter-flow heated design provided sufficient thermal energy to produce submicrometer particles, but also automatically limited the maximum aerosol outlet temperature based on the physics of heat transfer. With the counter-flow design, submicrometer aerosols were produced at flow rates of 5, 15, and 30 LPM, which may be suitable for various forms of oral and nasal aerosol delivery. Thermodynamic conditions of the aerosol stream exiting the counter-flow design were found be in a range of 21-45 °C with relative humidity greater than 40% in some cases, which was considered safe for direct inhalation and advantageous for condensational growth delivery. PMID:22707794

  5. Determination of trace elements on polysilicates by ID-ICP-MS with ultrasonic nebulization/membrane desolvation

    SciTech Connect

    Bonchin-Cleland, S.; Olivares, J.A.; Miller, G.G.; Gallegos, L.; Dawson, H.J.

    1996-06-01

    This work investigates the performance of an ID-ICP-MS (isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) system with USN/MD (ultrasonic nebulization/membrane desolvation) sample introduction for the determination of trace metal impurities in polysilicon.

  6. Chromosomal locations of three Bacillus subtilis din genes

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, K.; Yasbin, R.E.

    1987-07-01

    Previously isolated DNA damage-inducible (din) genes of Bacillus subtilis have been mapped on the bacterial chromosome by bacteriophage PBS1-mediated transduction. The din genes have been localized to three positions on the B. subtilis map. dinA cotransduction with the hisA locus was 80%, while dinC cotransduction with this marker was about 56%. dinB is unlinked to hisA, but its cotransduction with the dal-1 and purB loci was 84 and 22%, respectively.

  7. Production of amorphous nanoparticles by supersonic spray-drying with a microfluidic nebulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amstad, Esther; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Holtze, Christian; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Brenner, Michael P.; Spaepen, Frans; Weitz, David A.

    2015-08-01

    Amorphous nanoparticles (a-NPs) have physicochemical properties distinctly different from those of the corresponding bulk crystals; for example, their solubility is much higher. However, many materials have a high propensity to crystallize and are difficult to formulate in an amorphous structure without stabilizers. We fabricated a microfluidic nebulator that can produce amorphous NPs from a wide range of materials, even including pure table salt (NaCl). By using supersonic air flow, the nebulator produces drops that are so small that they dry before crystal nuclei can form. The small size of the resulting spray-dried a-NPs limits the probability of crystal nucleation in any given particle during storage. The kinetic stability of the a-NPs—on the order of months—is advantageous for hydrophobic drug molecules.

  8. Collison nebulizer as a new soft ionization source for mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervukhin, V. V.; Sheven', D. G.; Kolomiets, Yu. N.

    2016-08-01

    We have proposed that a Collison-type nebulizer be used as an ionization source for mass spectrometry with ionization under atmospheric pressure. This source does not require the use of electric voltage, radioactive sources, heaters, or liquid pumps. It has been shown that the number of ions produced by the 63Ni radioactive source is three to four times larger than the number of ions produced by acoustic ionization sources. We have considered the possibility of using a Collison-type nebulizer in combination with a vortex focusing system as an ion source for extractive ionization of compounds under atmospheric pressure. The ionization of volatile substances in crossflows of a charged aerosol and an analyte (for model compounds of the amine class, viz., diethylaniline, triamylamine, and cocaine) has been investigated. It has been shown that the limit of detecting cocaine vapor by this method is on the level of 4.6 × 10-14 g/cm3.

  9. Improvement on droplet production rate of ultrasonic - nebulizer in spray pyrolysis process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panatarani, Camellia; Demen, Tuti Aryati; Men, Liu Kin; Maulana, Dwindra Wilham; Hidayat, Darmawan; Joni, I. Made

    2013-09-01

    Atomization is an important part in Spray Pyrolysis (SP) process which is applied to synthesize submicron or nano sized particles or to deposit thin film. Ultrasonic Nebulizer (UN) is usually use in SP due to its homogeneous droplets production with size between 1-5 μm. The drawback of the UN is low droplets production rate. In this research, we successfully developed a Digital Ultrasonic Nebulizer (DUN) with high droplets production rate using two ultrasonic traducers with applied frequency of 2.4 MHz. The result of DUN atomization was improved 4-6 fold compare to the conventional UN. The DUN also has an additional digital features such as pushbutton, LCD and microcontroller which is allow to set duration and applied voltage.

  10. Effects of nebulized sodium cromoglycate on adult patients with severe refractory asthma.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yasuyuki; Adachi, Mitsuru; Kiuchi, Takahiro; Miyamoto, Terumasa

    2006-03-01

    Many patients with severe refractory asthma, which is insufficiently controlled by additional high-dose of inhaled corticosteroids, require oral corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressant. Clinicians should seek for suitable medications, for its' chronic use may induce high risk of side effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nebulized sodium cromoglycate (3-4 times/day) in adult severe asthmatic patients with poorly controlled asthmatic symptoms, despite treatments with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids. Adult patients with severe asthma (n=251) were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial at 30 medical centers in Japan. Isotonic saline was used as placebo. The study was conducted for 10 weeks; with initial 2 weeks of observation followed by 8 weeks of treatments. Efficacy was primarily evaluated based on improvements in morning peak expiratory flow after treatment. All patients who applied inhalation of nebulized sodium cromoglycate (SCG group) or saline (Controls) were treated with high-dose of inhaled corticosteroids (median of beclomethasone dipropionate equivalent dose: 1600 microg/days) and second-line control therapy including oral corticosteroids. There was no significant difference in morning peak expiratory flow between SCG group and controls. However, when patients were stratified into atopic and non-atopic groups, morning peak expiratory flow had significantly improved in the atopic SCG group compared to atopic Controls. Additional inhalation of nebulized sodium cromoglycate with inhaled corticosteroids is effective even in patients with severe atopic asthma. This finding shows that nebulized sodium cromoglycate is expected to be new second-line therapeutic option in severe asthma.

  11. Online Standard Additions Technique for La-ICP-MS Using a Desolvating Nebulizer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, J.; Asogan, D.; Moody, S.; Clarke, D.

    2014-12-01

    Historically, quantification with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been limited to the ability to matrix match both standards and samples. This can prove problematic when a particular matrix matched standard is not readily available. Liquid standard addition has been shown1-4 as an alternative technique for quantification that does not require matrix matching; however, further fundamental study is needed especially considering the different mass flow rates delivered to the plasma from traditional pneumatic nebulizers and laser ablation itself. In this work, the authors combine a specialized low-flow desolvating nebulizer system with LA-ICP-MS. This nebulizer system efficiently removes water vapour, thereby significantly reducing oxide based mass spectral interferences. For the instrument setup, the output from the laser is combined with the dried aerosol from the nebulizer system prior to entering the ICP-MS source. By using two sources of dry aerosol, mixing efficiency is improved whilst minimising plasma power lost to solvent (water vapour) processing. The method was applied to both USGS Green River Shale and an Arkansas Womble Shale. The results showed a number of elements that were correctly quantified using the technique as compared to reference values. References Gunther, D., Cousin, H., Magyar, B., Leopold, I., J. Anal. Atom. Spectrom., 1997, 12, 165 - 170. Leach, J.J., Allen, L. A., Aeschliman, D.B., Houk, R.S., Anal. Chem., 1999, 71, 440 - 445. O'Conner, C.J.P., Sharp, B.L, Evans, P.J., Anal. Atom. Spectrom., 2006, 21, 556. Yang, C.K., Chi, P.H., Lin, Y.C., Sun, Y.C., Yang, M.H., Talanta, 2010, 80, 1222 - 1227.

  12. Biopharmaceutical Characterization of Nebulized Antimicrobial Agents in Rats: 1. Ciprofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, and Grepafloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Gontijo, Aline Vidal Lacerda; Brillault, Julien; Grégoire, Nicolas; Lamarche, Isabelle; Gobin, Patrice; Marchand, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biopharmaceutical characteristics of three fluoroquinolones (FQs), ciprofloxacin (CIP), moxifloxacin (MXF), and grepafloxacin (GRX), after delivery via a nebulized aerosol to rats. Bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were conducted 0.5, 2, 4, and 6 h after FQ intravenous administration and nebulized aerosol delivery to estimate epithelial lining fluid (ELF) drug concentrations. Plasma drug concentrations were also measured, and profiles of drug concentrations versus time after intravenous administration and nebulized aerosol delivery were virtually superimposable, attesting for rapid and complete systemic absorption of FQs. ELF drug concentrations were systematically higher than corresponding plasma drug concentrations, whatever the route of administration, and average ELF-to-unbound plasma drug concentration ratios post-distribution equilibrium did not change significantly between the ways of administration and were equal: 4.0 ± 5.3 for CIP, 12.6 ± 7.3 for MXF, and 19.1 ± 10.5 for GRX (means ± standard deviations). The impact of macrophage lysis on estimated ELF drug concentrations was significant for GRX but reduced for MXF and CIP; therefore, simultaneous pharmacokinetic modeling of plasma and ELF drug concentrations was only performed for the latter two drugs. The model was characterized by a fixed volume of ELF (VELF), passive diffusion clearance (QELF), and active efflux clearance (CLout) between plasma and ELF, indicating active efflux transport systems. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that ELF drug concentrations of these three FQs are several times higher than plasma drug concentrations, probably due to the presence of efflux transporters at the pulmonary barrier level, but no biopharmaceutical advantage of FQ nebulization was observed compared with intravenous administration. PMID:24798283

  13. Biopharmaceutical characterization of nebulized antimicrobial agents in rats: 1. Ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and grepafloxacin.

    PubMed

    Gontijo, Aline Vidal Lacerda; Brillault, Julien; Grégoire, Nicolas; Lamarche, Isabelle; Gobin, Patrice; Couet, William; Marchand, Sandrine

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biopharmaceutical characteristics of three fluoroquinolones (FQs), ciprofloxacin (CIP), moxifloxacin (MXF), and grepafloxacin (GRX), after delivery via a nebulized aerosol to rats. Bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were conducted 0.5, 2, 4, and 6 h after FQ intravenous administration and nebulized aerosol delivery to estimate epithelial lining fluid (ELF) drug concentrations. Plasma drug concentrations were also measured, and profiles of drug concentrations versus time after intravenous administration and nebulized aerosol delivery were virtually superimposable, attesting for rapid and complete systemic absorption of FQs. ELF drug concentrations were systematically higher than corresponding plasma drug concentrations, whatever the route of administration, and average ELF-to-unbound plasma drug concentration ratios post-distribution equilibrium did not change significantly between the ways of administration and were equal: 4.0 ± 5.3 for CIP, 12.6 ± 7.3 for MXF, and 19.1 ± 10.5 for GRX (means ± standard deviations). The impact of macrophage lysis on estimated ELF drug concentrations was significant for GRX but reduced for MXF and CIP; therefore, simultaneous pharmacokinetic modeling of plasma and ELF drug concentrations was only performed for the latter two drugs. The model was characterized by a fixed volume of ELF (VELF), passive diffusion clearance (QELF), and active efflux clearance (CLout) between plasma and ELF, indicating active efflux transport systems. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that ELF drug concentrations of these three FQs are several times higher than plasma drug concentrations, probably due to the presence of efflux transporters at the pulmonary barrier level, but no biopharmaceutical advantage of FQ nebulization was observed compared with intravenous administration.

  14. Evaluation effects of nebulized gentamicin in exacerbation of chronic obstructive lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Soltaninejad, Forogh; Kheiri, Soleiman; Habibian, Roya; Amra, Arshia; Asgari-Savadjani, Shahin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Exacerbation of COPD has negative effect on quality of life. Therapeutic effect of nebulized antibiotics in pulmonary infections has been reported previously. Hence, we evaluated the effect of nebulized gentamicin in acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study, 86 hospitalized patients with AECOPD were divided into two groups for using nebulized gentamicin twice daily (case group) and placebo (control group) for 5 days in addition to standard treatment. On admission and on the 6th day, respiratory rate (RR), white blood cell (WBC), spirometry, and SPO2 (arterial O2 saturation by pulse oxymetry) were measured in groups. The severity of dyspnea was evaluated by the Medical Research Council scale. Results: In both groups, changes of SpO2, RR, forced an expiratory volume of first second (FEV1), and forced vital capacity (FVC) were significant during the times of intervention (P < 0.05). However, changes of FEV1 and FVC were significantly different between two groups (P < 0.05). So that increments of FEV1 and FVC were higher in the case group than control group. WBC decreased significantly in the case group (P < 0.05) compared to control group. There was no significant difference between groups in severity of dyspnea after intervention (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Treatment with Nebulized Gentamicin in AECOPD exacerbation resulted in further improvement of FVC and FEV1 on the 6th day. PMID:27904601

  15. Clinical use of nebulized budesonide inhalation suspension in a child with asthma.

    PubMed

    Skoner, D P; Angelini, B L; Friday, G; Gentile, D

    1999-10-01

    Childhood asthma contributes to significant morbidity among patients and significantly impacts the quality of life and daily routines of their caregivers. The parents or caregivers assume responsibility for tasks that children are too young to perform; this often includes daily administration of controller medications and nightly administration of reliever medications. Most young children do not have the coordination or understanding to effectively use pressurized metered-dose inhalers or inhalation-driven devices; thus nebulizer therapy often is preferred for children younger than 4 years of age. Budesonide inhalation suspension will be the first inhaled corticosteroid available for children younger than 4 years of age and the first inhaled corticosteroid for delivery by nebulization in the United States. This is a case report of a 3-year-old boy who received budesonide inhalation suspension as part of several double-blind and open-label studies evaluating the drug. Before study entry, the boy was experiencing more breakthrough wheezing episodes at night than the parents were used to, resulting in an increase in nighttime awakenings that required nebulizer therapy. These nighttime awakenings had a substantial impact on the quality of life of the entire family and interfered with the parents' ability to function at work. Even though they wanted to have more children, this situation discouraged them from doing so. Budesonide inhalation suspension improved overall asthma control and was well tolerated. The boy had a decrease in nighttime symptoms and an increase in both height and weight percentiles for his age. Importantly, use of budesonide inhalation suspension in this boy eased the management of severe asthma and improved the quality of life of the entire family. The parents subsequently decided to have a second child. Budesonide inhalation suspension represents a major breakthrough for infants and young children by providing a formulation that, on approval, can

  16. Enhancement of pneumatic nebulization efficiency through application of an electric field.

    PubMed

    Savage, R N; Hieftje, G M

    1978-10-01

    A technique is described for reducing the size of aerosol droplets produced by a pneumatic nebulizer of the kind commonly used in flame or plasma spectrometry. The technique involves the application of an electric field to the tip of the nebulizer, resulting in an induced surface charge on the liquid being nebulized. In turn, the surface charge reduces the liquid's surface tension and results in the generation of a finer aerosol. In this study, the effect of the electric field is quantified in terms of the spatial dispersion and size distribution of aerosol droplets formed in the presence and absence of the field. Droplet size distributions, obtained using the MgO impression technique and analyzed using log-normal and upper-limit functions, reveal a 63% decrease in the volume mean droplet diameter in the field's presence. As a result, this system is expected to be useful in both flame and plasma spectrometry, where reduced droplet size can yield improved precision and freedom from interferences.

  17. Effect of formulation on the stability and aerosol performance of a nebulized antibody

    PubMed Central

    Respaud, Renaud; Marchand, Denis; Parent, Christelle; Pelat, Thibaut; Thullier, Philippe; Tournamille, Jean-François; Viaud-Massuard, Marie-Claude; Diot, Patrice; Si-Tahar, Mustapha; Vecellio, Laurent; Heuzé-Vourc’h, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Most monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are administered to patients intravenously to ensure high bioavailability as rapidly as possible. The airways, however, are an attractive delivery route for mAbs for the treatment of lung diseases, making it possible to increase their concentration in the target organ while limiting their systemic passage. Several challenges must be overcome for translation into clinical practice. For example, the drug and device must be paired for the efficient and reliable deposition of a pharmacologically active and safe mAb in the lung region of interest. Mesh nebulizers appear to be the most effective aerosol-producing devices for delivering large amounts of biopharmaceutical while limiting protein instability during nebulization. We used metrological and analytic methods to analyze the effect of both antibody concentration and surfactant addition on aerosol performance and antibody integrity. These two factors had a limited effect on aerosol performance, but affected antibody aggregation. The addition of surfactants to antibody formulations at concentrations appropriate for lung administration markedly reduced the formation of medium or large aggregates, as shown by dynamic light scattering and fluorescence microscopy. Aggregation was also dependent on the type of mesh nebulizer, highlighting the need to optimize drug and device together. PMID:25517319

  18. Effect of formulation on the stability and aerosol performance of a nebulized antibody.

    PubMed

    Respaud, Renaud; Marchand, Denis; Parent, Christelle; Pelat, Thibaut; Thullier, Philippe; Tournamille, Jean-François; Viaud-Massuard, Marie-Claude; Diot, Patrice; Si-Tahar, Mustapha; Vecellio, Laurent; Heuzé-Vourc'h, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Most monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are administered to patients intravenously to ensure high bioavailability as rapidly as possible. The airways, however, are an attractive delivery route for mAbs for the treatment of lung diseases, making it possible to increase their concentration in the target organ while limiting their systemic passage. Several challenges must be overcome for translation into clinical practice. For example, the drug and device must be paired for the efficient and reliable deposition of a pharmacologically active and safe mAb in the lung region of interest. Mesh nebulizers appear to be the most effective aerosol-producing devices for delivering large amounts of biopharmaceutical while limiting protein instability during nebulization. We used metrological and analytic methods to analyze the effect of both antibody concentration and surfactant addition on aerosol performance and antibody integrity. These two factors had a limited effect on aerosol performance, but affected antibody aggregation. The addition of surfactants to antibody formulations at concentrations appropriate for lung administration markedly reduced the formation of medium or large aggregates, as shown by dynamic light scattering and fluorescence microscopy. Aggregation was also dependent on the type of mesh nebulizer, highlighting the need to optimize drug and device together.

  19. Effect of ultrasonic nebulization on arterial oxygen saturation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Flick, M R; Moody, L E; Block, A J

    1977-03-01

    Twenty patients with mild to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease received ultrasonic nebulization to assess the danger of short-term changes in blood gas levels during this therapy. The status of arterial oxygenation was monitored during 20 minutes of therapy and for 20 minutes following therapy. In nine patients with periodic studies of arterial blood, the mean change in arterial oxygen pressure from base line was a decrease of 0.8 mm Hg at ten minutes into therapy, 2.8 mm Hg at the conclusion of therapy, and 2.9 mm Hg 20 minutes after therapy. In all 20 patients, ear oximetric studies showed only a small mean change at ten minutes into therapy, at the end of therapy, and at 20 minutes after therapy. Changes in the status of arterial oxygenation during and after therapy with ultrasonic nebulization in a group of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are generally small and of no statistical and limited clinical significance; however, alarming falls in arterial oxygenation can occur and cannot be predicted by base-line testing of pulmonary function or studies of arterial blood. It would be prudent to monitor patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during therapy with ultrasonic nebulization or to withhold therapy altogether.

  20. Epinephrine Improves the Efficacy of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline in Moderate Bronchiolitis: A Randomised Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Comino-Vazquez, Paloma; Palma-Zambrano, Encarnación; Bulo-Concellón, Rocio; Santos-Sánchez, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims There is no evidence that the epinephrine-3% hypertonic saline combination is more effective than 3% hypertonic saline alone for treating infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. We evaluated the efficacy of nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline. Patients and Methods We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 208 infants hospitalized with acute moderate bronchiolitis. Infants were randomly assigned to receive nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with either 3 mL of epinephrine or 3 mL of placebo, administered every four hours. The primary outcome measure was the length of hospital stay. Results A total of 185 infants were analyzed: 94 in the epinephrine plus 3% hypertonic saline group and 91 in the placebo plus 3% hypertonic saline group. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Length of hospital stay was significantly reduced in the epinephrine group as compared with the placebo group (3.94 ±1.88 days vs. 4.82 ±2.30 days, P = 0.011). Disease severity also decreased significantly earlier in the epinephrine group (P = 0.029 and P = 0.036 on days 3 and 5, respectively). Conclusions In our setting, nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline significantly shortens hospital stay in hospitalized infants with acute moderate bronchiolitis compared to 3% hypertonic saline alone, and improves the clinical scores of severity from the third day of treatment, but not before. Trial Registration EudraCT 2009-016042-57 PMID:26575036

  1. Efficiency of a New Mesh-Type Nebulizer (NE-SM1 NEPLUS) for Intrapulmonary Delivery of Ipratropium Bromide in Surgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Hun; Kwon, Gu-Youn; Park, Do-Yang; Bang, Ji-Yeon; Jang, Dong-Min; Lee, Soo-Han; Lee, Eun-Kyung; Choi, Byung-Moon; Noh, Gyu-Jeong

    2016-04-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the efficiency of a new mesh-type nebulizer for the intrapulmonary delivery of ipratropium bromide in surgical patients under mechanical ventilation. A total of 20 patients were randomly allocated to receive 0.5 mg ipratropium bromide using either a control (Pariboy SX, Pari, Co., Starnberg, Germany, n = 10) or test (NE-SM1 NEPLUS, KTMED INC., Seoul, Korea, n = 10) nebulizer during general anaesthesia. Ipratropium bromide was nebulized continuously for 20 min. in each group. Plasma concentrations of ipratropium bromide were obtained from blood samples at preset intervals. Non-compartmental analysis of ipratropium bromide was performed to compare the efficiency of pulmonary drug delivery in both nebulizers. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of ipratropium bromide was performed. Additionally, the noise level during the nebulizer operation and the aerosol particle size for each device were measured. The dose-normalized AUC(last) was 0.10 min/L for both nebulizers. The pharmacokinetics of nebulized ipratropium bromide can be described best by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption. The apparent volume of distribution and metabolic clearance were 1340 L and 6.78 L/min, respectively. Type of nebulizer was a significant covariate for absorption rate constant. The equivalent sound level and median aerosol particle diameter were 35.0 dB and 4.52 μm for the test nebulizer, and 60.2 dB and 3.85 μm for the control nebulizer, respectively. From the standpoint of the dose-normalized AUC(last) , a new vibrating mesh-type nebulizer shows similar performance in the intrapulmonary delivery of ipratropium bromide to that of a jet-type nebulizer in surgical patients.

  2. Dynamics of aerosol size during inhalation: hygroscopic growth of commercial nebulizer formulations.

    PubMed

    Haddrell, Allen E; Davies, James F; Miles, Rachael E H; Reid, Jonathan P; Dailey, Lea Ann; Murnane, Darragh

    2014-03-10

    The size of aerosol particles prior to, and during, inhalation influences the site of deposition within the lung. As such, a detailed understanding of the hygroscopic growth of an aerosol during inhalation is necessary to accurately model the deposited dose. In the first part of this study, it is demonstrated that the aerosol produced by a nebulizer, depending on the airflows rates, may experience a (predictable) wide range of relative humidity prior to inhalation and undergo dramatic changes in both size and solute concentration. A series of sensitive single aerosol analysis techniques are then used to make measurements of the relative humidity dependent thermodynamic equilibrium properties of aerosol generated from four common nebulizer formulations. Measurements are also reported of the kinetics of mass transport during the evaporation or condensation of water from the aerosol. Combined, these measurements allow accurate prediction of the temporal response of the aerosol size prior to and during inhalation. Specifically, we compare aerosol composed of pure saline (150 mM sodium chloride solution in ultrapure water) with two commercially available nebulizer products containing relatively low compound doses: Breath®, consisting of a simple salbutamol sulfate solution (5 mg/2.5 mL; 1.7 mM) in saline, and Flixotide® Nebules, consisting of a more complex stabilized fluticasone propionate suspension (0.25 mg/mL; 0.5 mM in saline. A mimic of the commercial product Tobi© (60 mg/mL tobramycin and 2.25 mg/mL NaCl, pH 5.5-6.5) is also studied, which was prepared in house. In all cases, the presence of the pharmaceutical was shown to have a profound effect on the magnitude, and in some cases the rate, of the mass flux of water to and from the aerosol as compared to saline. These findings provide physical chemical evidence supporting observations from human inhalation studies, and suggest that using the growth dynamics of a pure saline aerosol in a lung inhalation model

  3. Concept analysis of Diné Hózhó: a Diné wellness philosophy.

    PubMed

    Kahn-John, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    American Indian Alaska Native people of the United States face challenges in attaining physical, mental, spiritual, and environmental health. This article presents a concept analysis of Diné Hózhó, a complex and misunderstood wellness concept the Diné (Navajo) strive to attain. Findings from a literature review are presented to explore anthropological definitions and uses of the concept Hózhó. The method of concept analysis of Walker and Avant is utilized, model cases are presented. Recommendations for application in nursing practice are presented.

  4. Effect of Nebulized Morphine on Dyspnea of Mustard Gas-Exposed Patients: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial Study

    PubMed Central

    Shohrati, Majid; Ghanei, Mostafa; Harandi, Asghar Amini; Foroghi, Soniya; Harandi, Ali Amini

    2012-01-01

    Background. Dyspnea is one of the main complaints in a group of COPD patients due to exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) and is refractory to conventional therapies. We designed this study to evaluate effectiveness of nebulized morphine in such patients. Materials and Methods. In a double-blind clinical trial study, 40 patients with documented history of exposure to SM were allocated to two groups: group 1 who received 1 mg morphine sulfate diluted by 4 cc normal saline 0.5% using nebulizer once daily for 5 days and group 2 serving as control who received normal saline as placebo. They were visited by pulmonologist 7 times per day to check symptoms and signs and adverse events. Different parameters including patient-scored peak expiratory flow using pick flow meter, visual analogue scale (VAS) for dyspnea, global quality of life and cough, and number of respiratory rate, night time awaking for dyspnea and cough have been assessed. Results. The scores of VAS for dyspnea, cough and quality of life and also respiratory rate, heart rate, and night time awaking due to dyspnea and night time awaking due to cough improved significantly after morphine nebulization without any major adverse events. Also pick expiratory flow has been improved significantly after nebulization in each day. Conclusion. Our results showed the clinical benefit of nebulized morphine on respiratory complaints of patients due to exposure to SM without significant side effects. PMID:22530119

  5. Selection of dinB Alleles Suppressing Survival Loss upon dinB Overexpression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Ryan W.; Cafarelli, Tiziana M.; Rands, Thomas J.; Lin, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains overproducing DinB undergo survival loss; however, the mechanisms regulating this phenotype are poorly understood. Here we report a genetic selection revealing DinB residues essential to effect this loss-of-survival phenotype. The selection uses strains carrying both an antimutator allele of DNA polymerase III (Pol III) α-subunit (dnaE915) and either chromosomal or plasmid-borne dinB alleles. We hypothesized that dnaE915 cells would respond to DinB overproduction differently from dnaE+ cells because the dnaE915 allele is known to have an altered genetic interaction with dinB+ compared to its interaction with dnaE+. Notably, we observe a loss-of-survival phenotype in dnaE915 strains with either a chromosomal catalytically inactive dinB(D103N) allele or a low-copy-number plasmid-borne dinB+ upon DNA damage treatment. Furthermore, we find that the loss-of-survival phenotype occurs independently of DNA damage treatment in a dnaE915 strain expressing the catalytically inactive dinB(D103N) allele from a low-copy-number plasmid. The selective pressure imposed resulted in suppressor mutations that eliminated growth defects. The dinB intragenic mutations examined were either base pair substitutions or those that we inferred to be loss of function (i.e., deletions and insertions). Further analyses of selected novel dinB alleles, generated by single-base-pair substitutions in the dnaE915 strain, indicated that these no longer effect loss of survival upon overproduction in dnaE+ strains. These mutations are mapped to specific areas of DinB; this permits us to gain insights into the mechanisms underlying the DinB-mediated overproduction loss-of-survival phenotype. PMID:24914188

  6. Technical note: Air compared to nitrogen as nebulizing and drying gases for electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mielczarek, P; Silberring, J; Smoluch, M

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we tested the application of compressed air instead of pure nitrogen as the nebulizing and drying gas, and its influence on the quality of electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectra. The intensities of the signals corresponding to protonated molecules were significantly (twice) higher when air was used. Inspection of signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios revealed that, in both cases, sensitivity was comparable. A higher ion abundance after the application of compressed air was followed by a higher background. Another potential risk of using air in the ESI source is the possibility for sample oxidation due to the presence of oxygen. To test this, we selected five easily oxidizing compounds to verify their susceptibility to oxidation. In particular, the presence of methionine was of interest. For all the compounds studied, no oxidation was observed. Amodiaquine oxidizes spontaneously in water solutions and its oxidized form can be detected a few hours after preparation. Direct comparison of the spectra where nitrogen was used with the corresponding spectra obtained when air was applied did not show significant differences. The only distinction was slightly different patterns of adducts when air was used. The difference concerns acetonitrile, which forms higher signals when air is the nebulizing gas. It is also important that the replacement of nitrogen with air does not affect quantitative data. The prepared calibration curves also visualize an intensity twice as high (independent of concentration within tested range) of the signal where air was applied. We have used our system continuously for three months with air as the nebulizing and drying gas and have not noticed any unexpected signal deterioration caused by additional source contamination from the air. Moreover, compressed air is much cheaper and easily available using oil-free compressors or pumps.

  7. Individualized supervised resistance training during nebulization in adults with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Ina; Kinsey, Janine E.; Richards, Roxanne; Shaw, Brandon S.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objective: Since dyspnea limits exercise adherence and intensity in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, engaging in resistance training (RT), which causes less dyspnea than other exercise modalities, while using nebulizers could not only overcome this barrier, but also enhance long-term adaptations to treatment. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of RT during nebulization on spirometry, anthropometry, chest wall excursion, respiratory muscle strength and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods: Fourteen male and female CF patients were assigned to a four-week, 20-minute, 5-day per week proof-of-concept RT group (RTG) (n=7) or non-exercising control group (CON) (n=7), with 3 CON patients later dropping out of the study. Patients performed whole body exercises for 3 sets of 10 reps using resistance bands, since such bands have previously demonstrated a greater effect on functional exercise capacity than conventional RT in lung patients. Results: The RTG displayed significant (p≤0.05) increases in FEV1, FEV1/FVC, latissimusdorsi strength, pectoralis major clavicular portion strength, pectoralis major sternocostal portion strength and emotional and digestion HRQOL domains, while decreasing pectoralis minor strength on the left and social, body image and respiration HRQOL domains. Conclusion: This small scale proof-of-concept investigation demonstrates the multiple and simultaneous benefits of RT during nebulization in CF patients. The improvements in pulmonary measures are particularly promising especially since this study only made use of a four-week experimental period. This study provides an important alternative, time-saving treatment for the CF patient that does not add to the treatment burden of CF patients. PMID:27882012

  8. Nebulized lidocaine blunts airway hyper-responsiveness in experimental feline asthma.

    PubMed

    Nafe, Laura A; Guntur, Vamsi P; Dodam, John R; Lee-Fowler, Tekla M; Cohn, Leah A; Reinero, Carol R

    2013-08-01

    Nebulized lidocaine may be a corticosteroid-sparing drug in human asthmatics, reducing airway resistance and peripheral blood eosinophilia. We hypothesized that inhaled lidocaine would be safe in healthy and experimentally asthmatic cats, diminishing airflow limitation and eosinophilic airway inflammation in the latter population. Healthy (n = 5) and experimentally asthmatic (n = 9) research cats were administered 2 weeks of nebulized lidocaine (2 mg/kg q8h) or placebo (saline) followed by a 2-week washout and crossover to the alternate treatment. Cats were anesthetized to measure the response to inhaled methacholine (MCh) after each treatment. Placebo and doubling doses of methacholine (0.0625-32.0000 mg/ml) were delivered and results were expressed as the concentration of MCh increasing baseline airway resistance by 200% (EC200Raw). Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed after each treatment and eosinophil numbers quantified. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) % eosinophils and EC200Raw within groups after each treatment were compared using a paired t-test (P <0.05 significant). No adverse effects were noted. In healthy cats, lidocaine did not significantly alter BALF eosinophilia or the EC200Raw. There was no difference in %BALF eosinophils in asthmatic cats treated with lidocaine (36±10%) or placebo (33 ± 6%). However, lidocaine increased the EC200Raw compared with placebo 10 ± 2 versus 5 ± 1 mg/ml; P = 0.043). Chronic nebulized lidocaine was well-tolerated in all cats, and lidocaine did not induce airway inflammation or airway hyper-responsiveness in healthy cats. Lidocaine decreased airway response to MCh in asthmatic cats without reducing airway eosinophilia, making it unsuitable for monotherapy. However, lidocaine may serve as a novel adjunctive therapy in feline asthmatics with beneficial effects on airflow obstruction.

  9. Three-phase plasma arc atomic-emission spectrometric analysis of environmental samples using an ultrasonic nebulizer.

    PubMed

    Ghatass, Zekry F; Roston, Gamal D; Mohamed, Moustafa M

    2003-06-01

    Combination of an ultrasonic nebulizer and plasma excitation sources for spectrochemical analysis offers desirable features of low detection limits, high sample throughput, wide dynamic range of operation, acceptable precision and accuracy, and simultaneous quantitative analytical capabilities. Moreover, the ultrasonic nebulizer does not require sample preconcentration. Recently we have developed a three-phase plasma arc (TPPA) for atomic emission spectrochemical analysis. In the present work, to increase the analytical utility of the three-phase plasma system, an ultrasonic nebulizer was used for sample introduction. The effects of the argon gas flow rate, current, excitation temperature have been studied. The analytical calibration curves are obtained for Ca, Cr, Fe, Mg and Mn, and detection limits have been calculated. The present technique is used to determine the concentration of the elements Ca, Cr, Fe, Mg and Mn in airborne samples.

  10. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Green River Shale By Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Using a Desolvating Nebulizer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, F.; Clarke, D.; Moody, S.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is applied to a geological sample for the determination of rare earth elements (REEs) using a specialized nebulizer system. The low flow desolvating nebulizer has been shown to decrease metal oxide formation which leads to a reduction in mass spectral interferences. Traditional nebulizers and spray chambers may be suitable for similar sample types, but reduction of water vapor loading to the plasma can improve REE detection limits for quadrupole-based ICP-MS. The Green River formation holds the largest oil shale deposits in the world and understanding the elemental composition of these samples is important in its study. A certified reference material, USGS Green River Shale (SGR-1), was microwave digested prior to analysis, and recoveries of REEs compared to historical values are discussed.

  11. Management of plastic bronchitis with nebulized tissue plasminogen activator: another brick in the wall.

    PubMed

    Colaneri, Massimo; Quarti, Andrea; Pozzi, Marco; Gasparini, Stefano; Carloni, Ines; de Benedictis, Fernando Maria

    2014-02-13

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare complication of a variety of respiratory diseases and congenital heart disease surgery, particularly Fontan procedure. Bronchial casts with rubber-like consistency develop acutely and may cause severe life-threatening respiratory distress. The management of plastic bronchitis is yet not well defined. Early intermittent, self-administered nebulization of tissue plasminogen activator was found to be effective in preventing deterioration of acute respiratory symptoms in a patient with primary ciliary dyskinesia and recurrent cast formation. Further investigation into new therapeutic strategies for this devastating disease is advocated.

  12. Use of nebulized adrenaline to aid expulsion of intra-nasal foreign bodies in children.

    PubMed

    Douglas, A R

    1996-06-01

    Foreign bodies in the noses of children may often be expelled by simple nose blowing. Success of this manoeuvre depends on how firmly the object is lodged, and on the co-operation and skill of the child. Attempts at direct removal using instruments frequently result in the patient becoming distressed and resort to general anaesthesia is sometimes required. This short communication describes a series of cases in which nebulized adrenaline helped loosen firmly impacted foreign bodies, thereby facilitating removal, minimizing upset for the child, and avoiding anaesthetic risk.

  13. Cabazitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used along with prednisone to treat prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive organ) that has ... cabazitaxel injection is usually used in men with prostate cancer. If used by pregnant women, cabazitaxel injection can ...

  14. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... fondaparinux injection.Talk to your doctor about the risk of using fondaparinux injection. ... Fondaparinux injection is used to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT; a blood ... Xa inhibitors. It works by decreasing the clotting ability of the blood.

  15. Morphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Morphine injection is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Morphine is in a class of medications called opiate ( ... Morphine injection comes as a solution (liquid) to inject intramuscularly (into a muscle) or intravenously (into a ...

  16. Dexamethasone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Dexamethasone injection is used to treat severe allergic reactions. It is used in the management of certain types of ... gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Dexamethasone injection is also used for diagnostic testing. Dexamethasone injection ...

  17. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Romidepsin injection is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL; a group of cancers of the immune system ... one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications ...

  18. Ondansetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Zofran® Injection ... Ondansetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and surgery. Ondansetron is in a ... medications: or any of the ingredients in ondansetron injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ...

  19. Aerodynamic characteristics of nebulized terbutaline sulphate using the Andersen Cascade Impactor compared to the Next Generation Impactor.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahim, Mohamed E

    2011-04-01

    Characterization of the aerosol emitted from nebulizers is determined using the Next Generation Impactor (NGI). The Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI) was previously used but the limitation of high flow rate used decreased its uses. We have investigated the use of ACI with different operational conditions compared to the NGI methodology. NGI was operated at a flow rate of 15 L min⁻¹ after cooling at 5°C for 90 min. ACI was operated using flow rates 15 and 28.3 L min⁻¹ at room (ROOM) temperature and after cooling at 5 °C for 60 min (COLD). ACI was also operated using a flow rate 15 L min⁻¹ through the nebulizer T-piece with a flow rate 28.3 L min⁻¹ through ACI (15 Mix) using the mixing valve at ROOM and COLD. Two nebulizer systems, the Sidestream (SIDE) and the Aeroneb Pro (AERO) were used to nebulize terbutaline sulphate respiratory solution. Overall there was a highly significant difference (P < 0.001) between different ACI operating conditions for FPF and MMAD of both nebulizer systems. The ACI at higher flow rate increased the evaporation effect whilst cooling minimized evaporation of both nebulizer systems. Hence cooling and using slow flow rate minimizes evaporation effects with ACI. The ACI 15COLD results were similar to that of NGI. That supports the use of ACI at inhalation flow rate 15 L min⁻¹ without fear of domination of gravity on ACI stages.

  20. Parallel path nebulizer: Critical parameters for use with microseparation techniques combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanes, Enrique G.; Miller-Ihli, Nancy J.

    2005-04-01

    Four different, low flow parallel path Mira Mist CE nebulizers were evaluated and compared in support of an ongoing project related to the use of microseparation techniques interfaced to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the quantification of cobalamin species (Vitamin B12). For the characterization of the different Mira Mist CE nebulizers, the nebulizer orientation as well as the effect of methanol on analytical response was the focus of the study. The position of the gas outlet on the nebulizer which consistently provided the maximum signal was when it was rotated to the 11 o'clock position when the nebulizer is viewed end-on. With this orientation the increased signal may be explained by the fact that the cone angle of the aerosol is such that the largest percentage of the aerosol is directed to the center of the spray chamber and consequently into the plasma. To characterize the nebulizer's performance, the signal response of a multielement solution containing elements with a variety of ionization potentials was used. The selection of elements with varying ionization energies and degrees of ionization was essential for a better understanding of observed increases in signal enhancement when methanol was used. Two different phenomena contribute to signal enhancement when using methanol: the first is improved transport efficiency and the second is the "carbon enhancement effect". The net result was that as much as a 30-fold increase in signal was observed for As and Mg when using a make-up solution of 20% methanol at a 15 μL/min flow rate which is equivalent to a net volume of 3 μL/min of pure methanol.

  1. Ultrasonic Nebulizer Assisted LIBS: a Promising Metal Elements Detection Method for Aqueous Sample Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shilei; Zheng, Ronger; Lu, Yuan; Cheng, Kai; Xiu, Junshan

    2015-11-01

    A newly developed approach for trace metal elements detection for aqueous samples analysis is presented in this paper. The idea of this approach is to improve ablation efficiency by transforming the liquid sample into a dense cloud of droplets using an ultrasonic nebulizer. The resulting droplets are then subjected to analysis by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). A purpose-built ultrasonic nebulizer assisted LIBS (UN-LIBS) system has been applied to the analysis of aqueous samples at trace levels of concentration. Experimental investigations of solution samples were carried out with various dissolved trace metal elements (Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, Mg and Na) using this approach. The characteristics of UN-LIBS signal of the elements were investigated regarding the lifetime and S/B ratio and the calibration curves for trace metal elements analyses. The obtained LODs are comparable or much better than the LODS of the reported signal enhancement approaches when the laser pulse energy was as low as 30 mJ. The good linearity of calibration curves and the low LODs shows the potential ability of this method for metal elements analysis application. The density of the electrons was calculated by measuring the Stark width of the line of Hα. The possible mechanism of the LIBS signal enhancement of this approach was briefly discussed. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11104153)

  2. Ibandronate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Boniva® Injection ... Ibandronate injection is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and break ... Ibandronate injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be injected into a vein by a doctor or nurse in ...

  3. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Leuprolide injection comes as a long-acting suspension (Lupron) that is injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) by a doctor or nurse in a medical ... Depot-4 month, Lupron Depot-6 Month). Leuprolide injection also comes as a long-acting suspension (Eligard) that is injected subcutaneously (just under ...

  4. Selected parameters affecting characterization of nebulized aqueous solutions by inertial impaction and comparison with phase-Doppler analysis.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, C A; Hickey, A J

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate selected parameters affecting the characterization of air-jet nebulized aqueous solutions by inertial impaction. Parameters affecting characterization of the droplet size distribution by inertial impaction were considered to be nebulizer T-piece connecting tube length, solute concentration, droplet charge accumulation, sample time and marker concentration. Parametric effects on nebulizer output characteristics were evaluated using a fractional factorial design. Response factors were defined as mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), relative span factor (Delta), fine particle mass and delivery rate of solute. Connecting tube length, grounding the impaction stages and marker concentration did not significantly affect the response factors (0.05). Mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and delivery rate of solute were significantly affected by solute concentration (p<0.05). Fine particle mass was significantly affected by the interaction between solute concentration and sampling time. Droplets attained an equilibrium size with an MMAD=1.0 microm, Delta=2.12 (0.9% solute) and MMAD=1.7 microm, Delta=2.00 (9. 0% solute) before the exit of the nebulizer T-piece. The droplet size distributions obtained by inertial impaction were compared with data obtained by phase-Doppler analysis.

  5. Ernst Rüdin: Hitler's Racial Hygiene Mastermind.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jay; Wetzel, Norbert A

    2013-01-01

    Ernst Rüdin (1874-1952) was the founder of psychiatric genetics and was also a founder of the German racial hygiene movement. Throughout his long career he played a major role in promoting eugenic ideas and policies in Germany, including helping formulate the 1933 Nazi eugenic sterilization law and other governmental policies directed against the alleged carriers of genetic defects. In the 1940s Rüdin supported the killing of children and mental patients under a Nazi program euphemistically called "Euthanasia." The authors document these crimes and discuss their implications, and also present translations of two publications Rüdin co-authored in 1938 showing his strong support for Hitler and his policies. The authors also document what they see as revisionist historical accounts by leading psychiatric genetic authors. They outline three categories of contemporary psychiatric genetic accounts of Rüdin and his work: (A) those who write about German psychiatric genetics in the Nazi period, but either fail to mention Rüdin at all, or cast him in a favorable light; (B) those who acknowledge that Rüdin helped promote eugenic sterilization and/or may have worked with the Nazis, but generally paint a positive picture of Rüdin's research and fail to mention his participation in the "euthanasia" killing program; and (C) those who have written that Rüdin committed and supported unspeakable atrocities. The authors conclude by calling on the leaders of psychiatric genetics to produce a detailed and complete account of their field's history, including all of the documented crimes committed by Rüdin and his associates.

  6. Variability in delivered dose and respirable delivered dose from nebulizers: are current regulatory testing guidelines sufficient to produce meaningful information?

    PubMed Central

    Hatley, Ross HM; Byrne, Sarah M

    2017-01-01

    Background To improve convenience to patients, there have been advances in the operation of nebulizers, resulting in fast treatment times and less drug lost to the environment. However, limited attention has been paid to the effects of these developments on the delivered dose (DD) and respirable delivered dose (RDD). Published pharmacopoeia and ISO testing guidelines for adult-use testing utilize a single breathing pattern, which may not be sufficient to enable effective comparisons between the devices. Materials and methods The DD of 5 mg of salbutamol sulfate into adult breathing patterns with inhalation:exhalation (I:E) ratios between 1:1 and 1:4 was determined. Droplet size was determined by laser diffraction and RDD calculated. Nine different nebulizer brands with different modes of operation (conventional, venturi, breath-enhanced, mesh, and breath-activated) were tested. Results Between the non-breath-activated nebulizers, a 2.5-fold difference in DD (~750–1,900 µg salbutamol) was found; with RDD, there was a more than fourfold difference (~210–980 µg). With increasing time spent on exhalation, there were progressive reductions in DD and RDD, with the RDD at an I:E ratio of 1:4 being as little as 40% of the dose with the 1:1 I:E ratio. The DD and RDD from the breath-activated mesh nebulizer were independent of the I:E ratio, and for the breath-activated jet nebulizer, there was less than 20% change in RDD between the I:E ratios of 1:1 and 1:4. Conclusion Comparing nebulizers using the I:E ratio recommended in the guidelines does not predict relative performance between the devices at other ratios. There was significant variance in DD or RDD between different brands of non-breath-activated nebulizer. In future, consideration should be given to revision of the test protocols included in the guidelines, to reflect more accurately the potential therapeutic dose that is delivered to a realistic spectrum of breathing patterns. PMID:28203110

  7. Albuterol delivery in a neonatal ventilated lung model: Nebulization versus chlorofluorocarbon- and hydrofluoroalkane-pressurized metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Lugo, R A; Kenney, J K; Keenan, J; Salyer, J W; Ballard, J; Ward, R M

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare albuterol delivery in a neonatal ventilated lung model, using three delivery methods: 1) jet nebulizer; 2) chlorofluorocarbon-pressurized metered dose inhaler (CFC-MDI) actuated into an ACE(R) spacer; and 3) hydrofluoroalkane-pressurized MDI (HFA-MDI) actuated into an ACE(R) spacer. The bench model consisted of a mechanically ventilated infant test lung with ventilator settings to simulate a very low birth weight neonate with moderate lung disease. Albuterol solution (0.5%) was nebulized at the humidifier and temperature port, 125 cm and 30 cm from the Y-piece, respectively. Albuterol metered dose inhalers (MDIs) were actuated into an ACE(R) spacer that was tested in two positions: 1) inline between the endotracheal (ET) tube and the Y-piece; and 2) attached to the ET tube and administered by manual ventilation. Albuterol was collected on a filter at the distal end of the ET tube and was quantitatively analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Albuterol delivery by CFC-MDI (position 1, 4.8 +/- 1.0%, vs. position 2, 3.8 +/- 1.6%, P > 0.05) and HFA-MDI (position 1, 5.7 +/- 1.6%, vs. position 2, 5.5 +/- 2.4%, P > 0.05) were significantly greater than delivery by nebulization at 30 cm (0.16 +/- 0.07%) and 125 cm (0.15 +/- 0.03%) from the Y-piece (P < 0.001). A single actuation of albuterol MDI delivered the equivalent of nebulizing 2.5-3.7 mg of albuterol solution. We conclude that albuterol administered by MDI and ACE(R) spacer resulted in more efficient delivery than by nebulization in this mechanically ventilated neonatal lung model. There was no significant difference in drug delivery between CFC-MDI and HFA-MDI; nor did the placement of the spacer significantly affect drug delivery.

  8. Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction of volatile and semivolatile compounds from the seed of Cuminum cyminum L.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huihui; Shi, Yuhua; Wei, Shigang; Wang, Yinghua; Zhang, Hanqi

    2011-08-15

    Ultrasonic nebulization extraction (UNE) coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction (HS-SDME) was developed. In the UNE process, the analytes were transferred from the aqueous phase to the gas phase. Then the analytes were transferred from the gas phase to the solvent phase by the carrier gas and extracted and enriched with suspended microdrop solvent. Finally, the microdrop solvent injected into GC-MS system. The parameters affecting extraction performance, such as type of suspended solvent, microdrop volume, flow rate of carrier gas, temperature of extraction vessel and extraction time were investigated and optimized. The proposed method can be applied for the extraction and enrichment of the volatile and semivolatile compounds simultaneously. The extraction efficiency of the proposed method was compared with that of ultrasonic extraction (UE) and UE-HS-SDME. Compared with UE-HS-SDME, the contents of constituents in the extract obtained by the proposed method were closer to those obtained by hydrodistillation (HD), which is a standard extraction method.

  9. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... body and causes pain, swelling, and damage) including: rheumatoid arthritis (condition in which the body attacks its own ... doctor.If golimumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it may also be injected intravenously (into a ...

  10. Adalimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes pain, swelling, and damage) including the following: rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... If you are using adalimumab injection to treat rheumatoid arthritis, your doctor may tell you to inject the ...

  11. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... aripiprazole injection and aripiprazole extended-release injection developed gambling problems or other intense urges or behaviors that ... even if you do not realize that your gambling or any other intense urges or unusual behaviors ...

  12. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... mix and inject it.Teduglutide comes as a kit containing vials of teduglutide powder for injection, prefilled syringes containing diluent (liquid to be mixed with teduglutide powder), needles to attach to the diluent syringe, dosing syringes ...

  13. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  14. Cyclosporine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used with other medications to prevent transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by the ... people who have received kidney, liver, and heart transplants. Cyclosporine injection should only be used to treat ...

  15. Colistimethate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Colistimethate injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work ...

  16. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  17. Estrogen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... If you are using estrogen injection to treat hot flushes, your symptoms should improve within 1 to ...

  18. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of birth control but does not prevent the spread of human ... you have been using a different method of birth control and are switching to medroxyprogesterone injection, your doctor ...

  19. Etanercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... areas causing pain and joint damage), chronic plaque psoriasis (a skin disease in which red, scaly patches ... etanercept injection is used to treat chronic plaque psoriasis, it may be injected twice a week during ...

  20. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Levoleucovorin injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of cancer. Levoleucovorin injection is also used to treat people ...

  1. Leucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Leucovorin injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall; cancer chemotherapy medication) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of cancer. Leucovorin injection is used to ...

  2. Teniposide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in men. You should not become pregnant or breast-feed while you are receiving teniposide injection. If you or your partner become pregnant while receiving teniposide injection, call your doctor. Teniposide may harm the fetus.

  3. Ipilimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while receiving ipilimumab injection, call your doctor. Ipilimumab injection may cause your baby to be born too early or to die before birth.

  4. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pralatrexate injection is used to treat peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL; a form of cancer that begins in a ... come back after treatment with other medications. Pralatrexate injection has not been shown to help people who ...

  5. Cyanocobalamin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cyanocobalamin injection is used to treat and prevent a lack of vitamin B12 that may be caused by any ... organs) and permanent damage to the nerves. Cyanocobalamin injection also may be given as a test to ...

  6. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Paclitaxel injection manufactured with human albumin is used to treat breast cancer that has not improved or that has come back after treatment with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to ...

  7. Diphenhydramine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Diphenhydramine injection is used to treat allergic reactions, especially for people who are unable to take diphenhydramine by mouth. ... is used also to treat motion sickness. Diphenhydramine injection is also used alone or along with other ...

  8. Peramivir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Peramivir injection is used to treat some types of influenza infection ('flu') in people who have had symptoms of ... flu for no longer than 2 days. Peramivir injection is in a class of medications called neuraminidase ...

  9. Cefotetan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cefotetan injection is used to treat infections of the lungs, skin, bones, joints, stomach area, blood, female reproductive organs, and urinary tract. Cefotetan injection is also used before surgery to prevent infections. ...

  10. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Mipomersen injection is used to decrease levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood in people who ... that removes LDL from the blood), but mipomersen injection should not be used along with this treatment. ...

  11. Romiplostim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Romiplostim injection is used to increase the number of platelets (cells that help the blood to clot) in order ... low number of platelets in the blood). Romiplostim injection should only be used in people who cannot ...

  12. Hydrocortisone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocortisone injection is used to treat symptoms of low corticosteroid levels (lack of certain substances that are usually produced ... also used to treat severe allergic reactions. Hydrocortisone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis ( ...

  13. Palivizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Palivizumab injection is used to help prevent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; common virus that can cause serious lung infections) ... or have certain heart or lung diseases. Palivizumab injection is not used to treat the symptoms of ...

  14. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large amounts of alcohol to avoid drinking again. Naltrexone injection is also used along with counseling and social ...

  15. Tesamorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Tesamorelin injection is used to decrease the amount of extra fat in the stomach area in adults with human ... fat in certain areas of the body). Tesamorelin injection is not used to help with weight loss. ...

  16. Testosterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and testosterone pellet (Testopel) are forms of testosterone injection used to treat symptoms of low testosterone in ... are low before you begin to use testosterone injection. Testosterone enanthate (Delatestryl) and testosterone pellet (Testopel) are ...

  17. Tigecycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Tigecycline injection used to treat certain serious infections including community acquired pneumonia (a lung infection that developed in a ... area between the chest and the waist). Tigecycline injection should not be used to treat pneumonia that ...

  18. Eculizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Eculizumab injection is used to treat paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH: a type of anemia in which too many red ... oxygen to all parts of the body). Eculizumab injection is also used to treat atypical hemolytic uremic ...

  19. Pembrolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pembrolizumab injection is used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that cannot be treated with surgery or ... spread to other parts of the body. Pembrolizumab injection is also used to treat a certain type ...

  20. Methylprednisolone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic reactions. Methylprednisolone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis (a disease in which the ... laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are using methylprednisolone injection.If you ...

  1. Obinutuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Obinutuzumab injection is used with chlorambucil (Leukeran) to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Obinutuzumab injection is in a class of medications called ...

  2. Preliminary characterization of a low-powered microwave induced flame plasma for direct organic solvent nebulization

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Kin C.; Bucay, Phil

    2011-12-15

    A low powered (<90 W) microwave-induced plasma has been generated at atmospheric pressure by using a Beenakker cavity, a laboratory constructed torch, and a gas mixture of argon (400 ml/min), hydrogen (100 ml/min), and air (130 ml/min). This plasma has an excitation temperature of 3300-3500 K, electron number density of 7 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}, and easily accepts direct methanol and ethanol introduction with a 1 ml/min solution nebulization rate. Detection limits (3{sigma}) obtained from the atomic emission signals of Li, Sr, and Cr in water are 15, 120, and 290 ng/ml, respectively. Similarly, detection limits for the metals in methanol are 15, 120, and 260 ng/ml, respectively, and in ethanol they are 25, 360, and 330 ng/ml, respectively. The linear dynamic range is greater than three orders of magnitude.

  3. Ground deformation monitoring using RADARSAT-2 DInSAR-MSBAS at the Aquistore CO2 storage site in Saskatchewan (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnogorska, M.; Samsonov, S.; White, D.

    2014-11-01

    The research objectives of the Aquistore CO2 storage project are to design, adapt, and test non-seismic monitoring methods for measurement, and verification of CO2 storage, and to integrate data to determine subsurface fluid distributions, pressure changes and associated surface deformation. Aquistore site is located near Estevan in Southern Saskatchewan on the South flank of the Souris River and west of the Boundary Dam Power Station and the historical part of Estevan coal mine in southeastern Saskatchewan, Canada. Several monitoring techniques were employed in the study area including advanced satellite Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) technique, GPS, tiltmeters and piezometers. The targeted CO2 injection zones are within the Winnipeg and Deadwood formations located at > 3000 m depth. An array of monitoring techniques was employed in the study area including advanced satellite Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) with established corner reflectors, GPS, tiltmeters and piezometers stations. We used airborne LIDAR data for topographic phase estimation, and DInSAR product geocoding. Ground deformation maps have been calculated using Multidimensional Small Baseline Subset (MSBAS) methodology from 134 RADARSAT-2 images, from five different beams, acquired during 20120612-20140706. We computed and interpreted nine time series for selected places. MSBAS results indicate slow ground deformation up to 1 cm/year not related to CO2 injection but caused by various natural and anthropogenic causes.

  4. An empirical method to cluster objective nebulizer adherence data among adults with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hoo, Zhe H; Campbell, Michael J; Curley, Rachael; Wildman, Martin J

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of using preventative inhaled treatments in cystic fibrosis is to improve health outcomes. Therefore, understanding the relationship between adherence to treatment and health outcome is crucial. Temporal variability, as well as absolute magnitude of adherence affects health outcomes, and there is likely to be a threshold effect in the relationship between adherence and outcomes. We therefore propose a pragmatic algorithm-based clustering method of objective nebulizer adherence data to better understand this relationship, and potentially, to guide clinical decisions. Methods to cluster adherence data This clustering method consists of three related steps. The first step is to split adherence data for the previous 12 months into four 3-monthly sections. The second step is to calculate mean adherence for each section and to score the section based on mean adherence. The third step is to aggregate the individual scores to determine the final cluster (“cluster 1” = very low adherence; “cluster 2” = low adherence; “cluster 3” = moderate adherence; “cluster 4” = high adherence), and taking into account adherence trend as represented by sequential individual scores. The individual scores should be displayed along with the final cluster for clinicians to fully understand the adherence data. Three illustrative cases We present three cases to illustrate the use of the proposed clustering method. Conclusion This pragmatic clustering method can deal with adherence data of variable duration (ie, can be used even if 12 months’ worth of data are unavailable) and can cluster adherence data in real time. Empirical support for some of the clustering parameters is not yet available, but the suggested classifications provide a structure to investigate parameters in future prospective datasets in which there are accurate measurements of nebulizer adherence and health outcomes.

  5. Nanomaterial size distribution analysis via liquid nebulization coupled with ion mobility spectrometry (LN-IMS).

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seongho; Oberreit, Derek R; Van Schooneveld, Gary; Hogan, Christopher J

    2016-02-21

    We apply liquid nebulization (LN) in series with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS, using a differential mobility analyzer coupled to a condensation particle counter) to measure the size distribution functions (the number concentration per unit log diameter) of gold nanospheres in the 5-30 nm range, 70 nm × 11.7 nm gold nanorods, and albumin proteins originally in aqueous suspensions. In prior studies, IMS measurements have only been carried out for colloidal nanoparticles in this size range using electrosprays for aerosolization, as traditional nebulizers produce supermicrometer droplets which leave residue particles from non-volatile species. Residue particles mask the size distribution of the particles of interest. Uniquely, the LN employed in this study uses both online dilution (with dilution factors of up to 10(4)) with ultra-high purity water and a ball-impactor to remove droplets larger than 500 nm in diameter. This combination enables hydrosol-to-aerosol conversion preserving the size and morphology of particles, and also enables higher non-volatile residue tolerance than electrospray based aerosolization. Through LN-IMS measurements we show that the size distribution functions of narrowly distributed but similarly sized particles can be distinguished from one another, which is not possible with Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis in the sub-30 nm size range. Through comparison to electron microscopy measurements, we find that the size distribution functions inferred via LN-IMS measurements correspond to the particle sizes coated by surfactants, i.e. as they persist in colloidal suspensions. Finally, we show that the gas phase particle concentrations inferred from IMS size distribution functions are functions of only of the liquid phase particle concentration, and are independent of particle size, shape, and chemical composition. Therefore LN-IMS enables characterization of the size, yield, and polydispersity of sub-30 nm particles.

  6. Busulfan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Busulfex® Injection ... Busulfan injection is used to treat a certain type of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML; a type of cancer of ... of 16 doses) before bone marrow transplant.Busulfan injection may cause seizures during therapy with the medication. ...

  7. A randomized, clinical trial comparing the efficacy of continuous nebulized albuterol (15 mg) versus continuous nebulized albuterol (15 mg) plus ipratropium bromide (2 mg) for the treatment of acute asthma.

    PubMed

    Salo, David; Tuel, Mark; Lavery, Robert F; Reischel, Ulrich; Lebowitz, Jeff; Moore, Terry

    2006-11-01

    Multiple studies have examined adding nebulized ipratropium bromide to intermittent albuterol for the treatment of acute asthma. Although continuous nebulized treatments in themselves offer benefits; few data exist regarding the efficacy of adding ipratropium bromide to a continuous nebulized system. To compare continuous nebulized albuterol alone (A) vs. albuterol and ipratropium bromide (AI) in adult Emergency Department (ED) patients with acute asthma, a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted on a convenience sample of patients (IRB approved). The setting was an urban ED. Consenting patients > 18 years of age with peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) < 70% predicted, between October 15 and December 28, 1999, were randomized to albuterol (7.5 mg/h) + ipratropium bromide (1.0 mg/h), or albuterol alone via continuous nebulization using the Hope Nebulizer (B&B Technologies Inc., Orangevale, CA) for 2 h. Main outcome measures were changed in mean improvement at 60 and 120 min PEFR compared to baseline (time 0). Secondary measures were admission rates. Data were analyzed using appropriate parametric and non-parametric tests (p < 0.05 statistically significant). Sixty-two patients (30 women) completed enrollment: 32 in (AI) and (30) in (A). Four (A) and 2 (AI) patients are without 120 min data: 3 (A) and 1 (AI) were discharged after 60 min, whereas one each (A) and (AI) worsened and were admitted before 120 min. There were no statistically significant differences between treatment groups in age, sex, predicted or initial PEFR. Thirteen (19.4%) patients were admitted. There was no statistically significant difference in improvement of mean PEFR at 60 min or 120 min compared to baseline, between groups, using repeated measures analysis of variance. Mean improvement in PEFR at 60 min compared to baseline (time 0): (A) = 93.2 L/min (95% confidence interval [CI] 64.5-121.8), (AI) = 86.6 L/min (95% CI 58.9-114.3); mean improvement in PEFR

  8. A COMPARISON OF URINARY ARSENIC SPECIATION VIA DIRECT NEBULIZATION AND ON-LINE PHOTOOXIDATION-HYDRIDE GENERATION WITH DETECTION BY INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic speciation continues to be important in assessing human and environmental exposure risk. Urinary arsenic analysis provides information on recent arsenic exposure. In this study, two sample introduction pathways: direct nebulization (DN) and hydride generation (HG) were ut...

  9. Dual-beam, light-scattering interferometry for simultaneous measurements of droplet-size and velocity distributions of aerosols from commonly used nebulizers

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, R.H.; Ishii, I.; Montaser, A. ); Meyer, G.A. )

    1990-02-15

    Dual-beam, light-scattering interferometry is introduced for simultaneous measurement of droplet-size and droplet-velocity distributions. The technique was tested in the characterization of tertiary aerosols produced by five nebulization systems (a pneumatic, an ultrasonic, and three frit-type nebulizers) used in inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. In general, the Sauter mean diameter (D{sub 3,2}) of tertiary aerosol produced by frit-type nebulizer was smaller than those of ultrasonic and pneumatic nebulizers. At higher injector gas flow, D{sub 3,2} was reduced for the pneumatic nebulizer but was increased for the ultrasonic nebulizer. At the same injector gas flow rate, droplets move slightly faster if helium is used as injector gas instead of argon. For all practical purposes, the D{sub 3,2} values measured for tertiary aerosol with dual-beam, light-scattering interferometry are comparable to the same data obtained by laser Fraunhofer diffraction. Compared to laser Fraunhofer diffraction, the proposed technique possesses two unique advantages. First, droplet velocity distribution can be measured. Second, spatially resolved information on droplet-size and velocity distributions may be obtained directly and rapidly.

  10. Unilateral pupillary mydriasis from nebulized ipratropium bromide: A false sign of brain herniation in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Priyanka; Friedman, Deborah I; Yu, Wengui

    2014-03-01

    Although there are many causes of anisocoria in the intensive care setting, the development of unilateral mydriasis in patients with intracranial hemorrhage or tumor is a neurological emergency, as it may herald the onset of uncal herniation. We describe two patients with a hemiparesis from neurosurgical disorder who subsequently developed a fixed and dilated pupil. The pupillary abnormality was caused by nebulized ipratropium bromide in both cases, and resolved when the medication was discontinued. Nebulized ipratropium may leak from the mask into ipsilateral eye and cause mydriasis in patients with facial weakness. This benign cause of anisocoria in the intensive care setting is distinguished from uncal herniation by the laterality of neurologic findings, and lack of mental status change, ptosis, and extraocular movement impairment.

  11. Comparison of Initial Response of Nebulized Salbutamol and Adrenaline in Infants and young Children Admitted with Acute Bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, S; Thapa, P; Rao, K S; Bk, G

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute bronchiolitis is common cause of hospitalization in infants and young children. There are widespread variations in the diagnosis and management. Despite the use of bronchodilators for decades, there is lack of consensus for the benefit of one above another. Objective To compare initial response of nebulized adrenaline and salbutamol. Method Children aged two months to two years admitted with acute bronchiolitis in the department of Paediatrics of Manipal teaching hospital, Pokhara, Nepal, from 1st March 2014 to 28th February 2015 were enrolled. Patients fulfilling inclusion criteria received either adrenaline or salbutamol nebulization. Data were collected in a predesigned proforma. Respiratory distress assessment instrument (RDAI) scores were considered primary outcome measure and respiratory rate at 48 hours, duration of hospital stay, requirement of supplemental oxygen and intravenous fluid were considered secondary outcome measure. Result A total of 40 patients were enrolled in each study group. Mean RDAI scores at admission was in 9.75 with (CI- 9.01, 10.49) in adrenaline and 9.77 (CI- 9.05, 10.50) in salbutamol group. There was gradual decline in mean RDAI scores in both the groups over 48 hours to 4.15 (CI- 3.57,4.73) and 4.13 (CI- 3.69,4.56) in adrenaline and salbutamol group respectively. Hospital stay was 5.32 days in adrenaline and 5.68 days in salbutamol group. Patients nebulized with adrenaline required oxygen for 33.30 hours compared with 36.45 hours in salbutamol. Intravenous fluid duration was also less in adrenaline group compared to salbutamol group (33.15 vs 37.80 hours). Conclusion Patients of acute bronchiolitis nebulized with either salbutamol or adrenaline experienced similar decline in RDAI scores in the first 48 hours. Duration of supplementary oxygen and intravenous fluid was less in adrenaline group compared with salbutamol group.

  12. [Ernst Rüdin: distinguished scientist, radical racial hygienist].

    PubMed

    Roelcke, V

    2012-03-01

    Ernst Rüdin (1874–1952) was one of the founders of psychiatric genetics. From 1931 until 1945, he was Director of the German Institute for Psychiatric Research (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Psychiatrie, DFA) and from 1935 until 1945 President of the German Association of Neurologists and Psychiatrists. The historical knowledge on Rüdin is reconsidered, using new sources, and with a focus on Rüdin’s involvement in the Nazi program of patient killings („euthanasia"). It is documented that (1) it is a misconception to interpret psychiatric genetics as „instrumentalised" by the Nazi regime; (2) Rüdin belonged to the group of psychiatric perpetrators who worked to give the Nazi selection policies scientific authority; (3) Rüdin knew early on about the patient killings and refused to support others in their efforts to stop them; and (4) the research in the context of the patient killings carried out by Julius Deussen, a member of Rüdin’s team at the DFA, was initiated and actively supported by Rüdin, and co-financed by the DFA.

  13. Experimental nebulization of American bison (Bison bison) with low doses of ovine herpesvirus 2 from sheep nasal secretions.

    PubMed

    Gailbreath, Katherine L; O'Toole, Donal; Taus, Naomi S; Knowles, Donald P; Oaks, J Lindsay; Li, Hong

    2010-07-14

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), is an important cause of mortality in ranched American bison and domestic cattle in North America. Previous studies showed that bison can be infected by intranasal nebulization with sheep nasal secretions containing OvHV-2 and provided preliminary information on viral doses required for infection and disease progression. The goals of this study were to establish optimal minimal infectious and minimal lethal doses of OvHV-2 by the intranasal route in bison, evaluate the influence of dose on incubation period and other clinical parameters and determine if bison seropositive for antibody against MCF-group viruses are resistant to developing MCF after intranasal challenge. In this study, the minimal infectious dose and minimal lethal dose overlap, suggesting that experimental production of subclinically infected bison is impractical. Dose is inversely related to both incubation period and the period between nebulization and first detection of >1000 OvHV-2 DNA copies/500 ng total DNA in peripheral blood leukocytes. Interestingly, all of the bison seropositive for anti-MCF-group viral antibody prior to inoculation died of MCF after nebulization. We conclude that previous exposure to an MCF-group virus does not necessarily provide resistance to OvHV-2-induced MCF in bison.

  14. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  15. Nebulized C1-Esterase Inhibitor does not Reduce Pulmonary Complement Activation in Rats with Severe Streptococcus Pneumoniae Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Friso; Lagrand, Wim; Glas, Gerie J; Beurskens, Charlotte J P; van Mierlo, Gerard; Wouters, Diana; Zeerleder, Sacha; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Juffermans, Nicole P; Horn, Janneke; Schultz, Marcus J

    2016-12-01

    Complement activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pneumonia. We hypothesized that inhibition of the complement system in the lungs by repeated treatment with nebulized plasma-derived human C1-esterase inhibitor reduces pulmonary complement activation and subsequently attenuates lung injury and lung inflammation. This was investigated in a rat model of severe Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. Rats were intra-tracheally challenged with S. pneumoniae to induce pneumonia. Nebulized C1-esterase inhibitor or saline (control animals) was repeatedly administered to rats, 30 min before induction of pneumonia and every 6 h thereafter. Rats were sacrificed 20 or 40 h after inoculation with bacteria. Brochoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue were obtained for measuring levels of complement activation (C4b/c), lung injury and inflammation. Induction of pneumonia was associated with pulmonary complement activation (C4b/c at 20 h 1.24 % [0.56-2.59] and at 40 h 2.08 % [0.98-5.12], compared to 0.50 % [0.07-0.59] and 0.03 % [0.03-0.03] in the healthy control animals). The functional fraction of C1-INH was detectable in BALF, but no effect was found on pulmonary complement activation (C4b/c at 20 h 0.73 % [0.16-1.93] and at 40 h 2.38 % [0.54-4.19]). Twenty hours after inoculation, nebulized C1-esterase inhibitor treatment reduced total histology score, but this effect was no longer seen at 40 h. Nebulized C1-esterase inhibitor did not affect other markers of lung injury or lung inflammation. In this negative experimental animal study, severe S. pneumoniae pneumonia in rats is associated with pulmonary complement activation. Repeated treatment with nebulized C1-esterase inhibitor, although successfully delivered to the lungs, does not affect pulmonary complement activation, lung inflammation or lung injury.

  16. Effect of nebulized eucalyptus on contamination of microbial plaque of endotracheal tube in ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Nazanin; Rezaei, Korosh; Yazdannik, Ahmadreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Formation of biofilm and bacterial colonization within the endotracheal tube (ETT) are significant sources of airway contamination and play a role in the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). This study was conducted to examine the effect of nebulized eucalyptus (NE) on bacterial colonization of ETT biofilm. Materials and Methods: We performed a randomized clinical trial in three intensive care units (ICUs) of an educational hospital. Seventy intubated patients were selected and randomly divided into intervention (n = 35) and control (n = 35) groups. The intervention group received 4 ml (5%) of eucalyptus in 6 ml normal saline every 8 h. The placebo group received only 10 ml of normal saline in the same way. On extubation, the interior of the tube was immediately sampled using a sterile swab for standard microbiological analysis. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analysis in SPSS. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: In both samples, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii were the most frequently isolated bacteria. In the control group, heavy colonization was greater than in the intervention group (P = 0.002). The frequency of isolation of K. pneumoniae in the intervention group was lower than in the control group (P < 0.001). However, there was no difference between the two groups in other isolated bacteria. Conclusions: NE can reduce microbial contamination of the endotracheal tube biofilm in ventilated patients. Moreover, K. pneumoniae was the most sensitive to NE. PMID:27095990

  17. The cough response to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in heart-lung transplantation patients

    SciTech Connect

    Higenbottam, T.; Jackson, M.; Woolman, P.; Lowry, R.; Wallwork, J.

    1989-07-01

    As a result of clinical heart-lung transplantation, the lungs are denervated below the level of the tracheal anastomosis. It has been questioned whether afferent vagal reinnervation occurs after surgery. Here we report the cough frequency, during inhalation of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, of 15 heart-lung transplant patients studied 6 wk to 36 months after surgery. They were compared with 15 normal subjects of a similar age and sex. The distribution of the aerosol was studied in five normal subjects using /sup 99m/technetium diethylene triamine pentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) in saline. In seven patients, the sensitivity of the laryngeal mucosa to instilled distilled water (0.2 ml) was tested at the time of fiberoptic bronchoscopy by recording the cough response. Ten percent of the aerosol was deposited onto the larynx and trachea, 56% on the central airways, and 34% in the periphery of the lung. The cough response to the aerosol was strikingly diminished in the patients compared with normal subjects (p less than 0.001), but all seven patients coughed when distilled water was instilled onto the larynx. As expected, the laryngeal mucosa of heart-lung transplant patients remains sensitive to distilled water. However, the diminished coughing when the distilled water is distributed by aerosol to the central airways supports the view that vagal afferent nerves do not reinnervate the lungs after heart-lung transplantation, up to 36 months after surgery.

  18. Performance of the vibrating membrane aerosol generation device: Aeroneb Micropump Nebulizer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guifang; David, Anand; Wiedmann, Timothy Scott

    2007-01-01

    The output and particle size distribution of several series of aqueous solutions were measured to define quantitatively the practical limits of the solution properties acceptable for aerosol production by the aeroneb micropump nebulizer. Aerosol output measurements were made gravimetrically and the particle size distributions were obtained by laser diffractometry. Solution properties were obtained from the literature by interpolation of the best-fit curve of the property plotted as a function of composition. For nonionic solutes, addition of sodium chloride dramatically increased the output rate and also decreased the droplet size at low solute concentrations. Increasing viscosity also caused a significant decrease in output. Cesium chloride displayed increased output rate with concentration due to the rising density. Based on calculations with the number of apertures and oscillatory frequency, low output rates appeared to be a consequence of apertures failing to produce a droplet with each oscillation. Overall, ionic strength, density, surface tension, and viscosity affected the output rate in a manner that can be now empirically predicted.

  19. Low positive end-expiratory pressure does not exacerbate nebulized-acid lung injury in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pellett, Andrew A; Welsh, David A; deBoisblanc, Bennett P; Lipscomb, Gary; Johnson, Royce W; Lord, Kevin C; Levitzky, Michael G

    2005-03-01

    It is not clear if low end-expiratory pressures contribute to ventilator-induced lung injury in large animals. We sought to determine whether ventilation with a low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) worsens preexisting permeability lung injury in dogs. Lung injury was initiated in 20 mongrel dogs by ventilating with nebulized 3N hydrochloric acid until a lower inflection point (LIP) appeared on the respiratory system pressure-volume loop. One group of 10 dogs was then ventilated for 4 hours with PEEP set below the LIP (low PEEP), whereas the remaining group of dogs was ventilated for the same time period with similar tidal volumes but with PEEP set above the LIP (high PEEP). We found histologic evidence of reduced alveolar volumes in the low-PEEP animals. However, there were no differences in neutrophil infiltration, lung lobe weights, pulmonary capillary hemorrhage or congestion, or arterial endothelin-1 concentration between the 2 protocol groups. In conclusion, we were unable to demonstrate that ventilation with PEEP set below the LIP exacerbates hydrochloric acid-induced lung injury in dogs.

  20. Surface acoustic wave nebulization device with dual interdigitated transducers improves SAWN-MS performance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Heron, Scott R; Clark, Alicia M; Edgar, J Scott; Yoon, Sung Hwan; Kilgour, David P A; Turecek, Frantisek; Aliseda, Alberto; Goodlett, David R

    2016-06-01

    We compared mass spectrometric (MS) performance of surface acoustic wave nebulization (SAWN) generated by a single interdigitated transducer (IDT) designed to produce a progressive wave (PW) to one with a dual IDT that can in theory generate standing waves (SW). Given that devices using dual IDTs had been shown to produce fewer large size droplets on average, we hypothesized they would improve MS performance by improving the efficiency of desolvation. Indeed, the SW-SAWN chip provided an improved limit of detection of 1 femtomole of peptide placed on chip making it 100× more sensitive than the PW design. However, as measured by high-speed image recording and phase Doppler particle analyzer measurements, there was only a 26% increase in the small diameter (1-10 µm) droplets produced from the new device, precluding a conclusion that the decrease in droplet size was solely responsible for the improvement in MS signal/noise. Given that the dual IDT design produced a more instantaneous plume than the PW design, the more likely contributor to improved MS signal/noise was concluded to be a higher ion flux entering the mass spectrometer for the dual IDT designs. Notably, the dual IDT device allowed production of much higher quality protein mass spectra up to about 20 kDa, compared with the single IDT device. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Slurry nebulization for the analysis of gypsum and cement by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    McCrindle, Robert I; Marjanovic, Ljiljana

    2002-12-01

    The usual form of presentation for a sample to be analyzed by an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer is in the form of a liquid. For the analysis of solids, this involves a dissolution step and in the case of complex matrices this may be long and difficult. Should it be possible to analyse the sample without prior dissolution, then the problems associated with obtaining a solution would be resolved. A method for analyzing samples is to make use of slurry nebulization. Samples with complex matrices, such as cement and gypsum were selected and analysed as in the form of a slurry. Using different concentrations of a certified reference materials, calibration curves were obtained, from which the unknown samples could be determined directly. Use of aqueous solutions for calibration was also investigated. The method was evaluated using other reference materials or results obtained by an independent laboratory using different technique for the analysis. The slurry method was found to be accurate and precise.

  2. Pneumatic nebulization gas-solid extraction of triazine herbicides in vegetable.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Jin, Haiyan; Nian, Li; Wang, Yeqiang; Lei, Lei; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Yong

    2013-08-23

    The pneumatic nebulization gas-solid extraction (PN-GSE) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed and applied to the extraction, separation and determination of triazine herbicides in vegetables. The herbicides were ultrasonically extracted from vegetables with 70% methanol in water. Then the extract was introduced to PN-GSE system to further clean-up. The experimental parameters, including type and concentration of extraction solvent, ratio of solvent to sample, pH value of sample solution and PN-GSE solution, extraction time, temperature, type of sorbent, flow rate of carrier gas, pumping rate of gas, and kind and volume of elution solvent, were investigated and optimized. The limits of detection for seven herbicides range from 0.59 to 1.05μg/kg. The recoveries of the herbicides are in the range of 86.2-110.6% and relative standard deviations are equal or less than 7.51%, when the present method was applied to the analysis of spiked samples. The present method was applied to the analysis of real samples and the results were satisfactory.

  3. Determination of trace elements in heroin by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry using ultrasonic nebulization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budič, Bojan; Klemenc, Sonja

    2000-06-01

    A method for the determination of Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S, Sr and Zn in heroin samples by ICP-AES using ultrasonic nebulization is described. The samples were microwave digested with HNO 3. To improve the detection limits and minimise the matrix interferences the experimental parameters were optimised by variation of the operating power, carrier gas flow rate and observation height above the load coil. Optimum operating conditions for most of the analytes were at operating power 1550 W, carrier gas flow rate between 0.8 and 1.0 l min -1 and observation height between 10 and 12 mm above load coil. The limits of detection were below 0.5 μg g -1 (dry mass) for most of the elements investigated. The analytical recoveries of spiked samples were in the range between 94 and 103% and precision was on average better than 6%. The analysis of heroin samples shows that the method is simple, rapid and capable of providing accurate results for all the analytes investigated with the exception of nickel which was below the limit of detection in the analyzed samples.

  4. Effect of nebulized budesonide on respiratory mechanics and oxygenation in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome: Randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Hatem Saber; Meguid, Mona Mohamed Abdel

    2017-01-01

    Background: We tested the hypothesis that nebulized budesonide would improve lung mechanics and oxygenation in patients with early acute lung injury (ALI) and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) during protective mechanical ventilation strategy without adversely affecting systemic hemodynamics. Methods: Patients with ALI/ARDS were included and assigned into two groups; budesonide group (30 cases) in whom 1 mg–2 ml budesonide suspension was nebulized through the endotracheal tube and control group (30 cases) in whom 2 ml saline (placebo) were nebulized instead of budesonide. This regimen was repeated every 12 h for three successive days alongside with constant ventilator settings in both groups. Hemodynamics, airway pressures, and PaO2/FiO2 were measured throughout the study period (72 h) with either nebulized budesonide or saline. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were analyzed serologically as markers of inflammation at pre- and post-nebulization sessions. Results: We found a significant difference between the two groups regarding PaO2/FiO2 (P = 0.023), peak (P = 0.021), and plateau (P = 0.032) airway pressures. Furthermore, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were significantly reduced after budesonide nebulizations. No significant difference was found between the two groups regarding hemodynamic variables. Conclusion: Nebulized budesonide improved oxygenation, peak, and plateau airway pressures and significantly reduced inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) without affecting hemodynamics. Trial Registry: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ANZCTR) at the number: ACTRN12615000373572. PMID:28217046

  5. Certolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... has not improved when treated with other medications, rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... continues. When certolizumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it is usually given every other week and ...

  6. Natalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent episodes of symptoms in people who have Crohn's disease (a condition in which the body attacks the ... If you are receiving natalizumab injection to treat Crohn's disease, your symptoms should improve during the first few ...

  7. Vedolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for several hours afterward. A doctor or ... of the following symptoms during or after your infusion: rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, mouth, ...

  8. Panitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a solution (liquid) to be given by infusion (injected into a vein). It is usually given ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. Panitumumab is usually given once every 2 ...

  9. Methotrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... woman's uterus while she is pregnant), breast cancer, lung cancer, certain cancers of the head and neck; certain ... Methotrexate injection is also used along with rest, physical therapy and ... treat rheumatoid arthritis by decreasing the activity of the immune system.

  10. Alirocumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used along with diet and certain cholesterol-lowering medications (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors [statins]) in ... familial heterozygous hypercholesterolemia (an inherited condition in which cholesterol cannot be removed from the body normally) or ...

  11. Evolocumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used along with diet and certain cholesterol-lowering medications, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), in ... heterozygous hypercholesterolemia (HeFH; an inherited condition in which cholesterol cannot be removed from the body normally) or ...

  12. Pentamidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pentamidine injection is used to treat pneumonia caused by a fungus called Pneumocystis carinii. It is in a class of medications called antiprotozoals. It works by stopping the growth of protozoa that can cause pneumonia.

  13. Oxytocin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Oxytocin injection is used to begin or improve contractions during labor. Oxytocin also is used to reduce bleeding after childbirth. ... other medications or procedures to end a pregnancy. Oxytocin is in a class of medications called oxytocic ...

  14. Ibritumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive ibritumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  15. Ganciclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems, eye problems other than CMV retinitis, or kidney disease.tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. Ganciclovir injection may cause infertility (difficulty becoming pregnant). However, if you are a ...

  16. Bendamustine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Bendamustine injection is also used to treat a ... that begins in a type of white blood cell that normally fights infection) that is slow spreading, ...

  17. Vancomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications called glycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as vancomycin injection ... infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics.

  18. Levofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as levofloxacin injection ... infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics.

  19. Doxycycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as doxycycline injection ... infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics.

  20. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to treat the ... children. Store it at room temperature, away from light, excess heat, and moisture (not in the bathroom). ...

  1. Alemtuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection, the medication is usually given three times weekly on alternate days (usually Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) ... that you eat foods that are rich in iron such as meats, leafy green vegetables, and fortified ...

  2. Epinephrine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Epinephrine injection is used along with emergency medical treatment to treat life-threatening allergic reactions caused by ... or stings, foods, medications, latex, and other causes. Epinephrine is in a class of medications called alpha- ...

  3. Mitoxantrone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications to relieve pain in people with advanced prostate cancer who did not respond to other medications. Mitoxantrone ... doses). When mitoxantrone injection is used to treat prostate cancer, it is usually given once every 21 days. ...

  4. Trastuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other medications to treat certain types of stomach cancer that have spread to other parts of the ... weeks. When trastuzumab injection is used to treat stomach cancer, it is usually given once every 3 weeks. ...

  5. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... organs where eggs are formed) and small cell lung cancer (a type of cancer that begins in the ... topotecan injection is used to treat ovarian or lung cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  6. Palonosetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may occur several days after receiving certain chemotherapy medications. Palonosetron injection is in a class of medications called 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. It works by blocking the action of serotonin, a natural ...

  7. Meropenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin and abdominal (stomach area) infections caused by bacteria and meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround ... of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection ...

  8. Amikacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as amikacin injection will not work ...

  9. Ertapenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. It is also used for the prevention of ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work ...

  10. Moxifloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia; ; and , skin, and abdominal (stomach ... antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as moxifloxacin injection ...

  11. Cefepime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia, and skin, urinary tract, and kidney ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work ...

  12. Cefazolin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including skin, bone, joint, genital, blood, heart valve, ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work ...

  13. Daptomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood infections or serious skin infections caused by bacteria. Daptomycin injection is in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for treating colds, flu, ...

  14. Aztreonam Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria, including respiratory tract (including pneumonia and bronchitis), urinary ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. Aztreonam injection also may be used before, during, ...

  15. Ceftazidime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work ...

  16. Tobramycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as tobramycin injection will not work ...

  17. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia; and infections of the skin, ... of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin injection ...

  18. Gentamicin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as gentamicin injection will not work ...

  19. Ceftaroline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections and pneumonia (lung infection) caused by certain bacteria. Ceftaroline is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work ...

  20. Daclizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... injections. Before you use daclizumab yourself the first time, read the written instructions that come with it. ...

  1. Risperidone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... do not already have diabetes. If you have schizophrenia, you are more likely to develop diabetes than ...

  2. Acyclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... chickenpox in the past) in people with weak immune systems. It is also used to treat first-time ... from time to time) in people with normal immune systems. Acyclovir injection is used to treat herpes simplex ...

  3. Omalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... steroids. Omalizumab is also used to treat chronic hives without a known cause that cannot successfully be ... is not used to treat other forms of hives or allergic conditions. Omalizumab injection is in a ...

  4. Pegloticase Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (an inherited blood disease). Your doctor may test you for G6PD deficiency before you start to receive pegloticase injection. If ...

  5. Lacosamide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other medications to control certain types of seizures in people who cannot take oral medications. Lacosamide ... If you suddenly stop using lacosamide injection, your seizures may happen more often. Your doctor will probably ...

  6. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to oxacillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  7. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to nafcillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  8. Ampicillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to ampicillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin (Ancef, ...

  9. Naloxone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emergency medical treatment to reverse the life-threatening effects of a known or suspected opiate (narcotic) overdose. ... is also used after surgery to reverse the effects of opiates given during surgery. Naloxone injection is ...

  10. Omacetaxine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cannot take these medications due to side effects. Omacetaxine injection is in a class of medications ... a treatment cycle if you experience serious side effects of the medication or if blood tests show ...

  11. Methylnaltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat constipation caused by opioid (narcotic) pain medications in patients with chronic (on-going) pain that is not caused by ... by protecting the bowel from the effects of opioid (narcotic) medications.

  12. Denosumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... menstrual periods), who have an increased risk for fractures (broken bones) or who cannot take or did ... receiving certain treatments that increase their risk for fractures. Denosumab injection (Xgeva) is used to reduce fractures ...

  13. Rasburicase Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... break down) in people with certain types of cancer who are being treated with chemotherapy medications. Rasburicase injection is in a class of medications called enzymes. It works by breaking down uric acid so that the body can eliminate it.

  14. Gemcitabine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with surgery. Gemcitabine is also used to treat cancer of the pancreas that has spread to other parts of the ... 4 weeks. When gemcitabine is used to treat cancer of pancreas it may be injected once every week. The ...

  15. Doxercalciferol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Doxercalciferol injection is used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism (a condition in which the body produces too much parathyroid hormone [PTH; a natural substance needed to control the amount of calcium in ...

  16. Granisetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may occur after surgery. Granisetron extended-release (long-acting) injection is used with other medications to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy that may occur immediately ...

  17. Fluconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat fungal infections, including yeast infections of the mouth, throat, esophagus (tube leading ... by fungus. Fluconazole is also used to prevent yeast infections in patients who are likely to become ...

  18. Docetaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to docetaxel injection or drugs made with polysorbate 80, an ingredient found in some medications. Ask ... if a medication you are allergic to contains polysorbate 80. If you experience any of the following ...

  19. Haloperidol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emotions). Haloperidol injection is also used to control motor tics (uncontrollable need to repeat certain body movements) ... people who have Tourette's disorder (condition characterized by motor or verbal tics). Haloperidol is in a class ...

  20. Injection overview

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, S.

    1983-12-01

    The test program was initiated at the Raft River Geothermal Field in southern Idaho in September 1982. A series of eight short-term injection and backflow tests, followed by a long-term injection test, were conducted on one well in the field. Tracers were added during injection and monitored during backflow as well. The principal objective was to determine if tracers could be effectively used as a means to assess reservoir characteristics in a one-well test. The test program resulted in a unique data set which shows promise as a means to improve understanding of the reservoir characteristics. In December 1982, an RFP was issued to obtain an industrial partner to obtain follow-on data on the injection/backflow technique in a second field, and to study any alternate advanced concepts for injection testing which the industrial community might recommend. The East Mesa Geothermal Field was selected for the second test series. Two wells were utilized for testing, and a series of ten tests were conducted in July and August 1983, aimed principally at further evaluation of the injection/backflow technique.

  1. Dinámica de objetos transplutonianos: resultados preliminares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, S.; Brizuela, H.; Roig, F.; Varela, O.

    Se presentan los resultados de una integración numérica de las ecuaciones de movimiento para objetos transplutonianos. Se han calculado los tiempos de Lyapunov para esos objetos y se analiza el comportamiento dinámico de los mismos.

  2. Liquid Nebulization-Ion Mobility Spectrometry Based Quantification of Nanoparticle-Protein Conjugate Formation.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seongho; Oberreit, Derek R; Van Schooneveld, Gary; Hogan, Christopher J

    2016-08-02

    Despite the importance of examining the formation of nanoparticle-protein conjugates, there is a dearth of routine techniques for nanoparticle-protein conjugate characterization. The most prominent change to a nanoparticle population upon conjugate formation is a shift in the nanoparticle size distribution function. However, commonly employed dynamic light scattering based approaches for size distribution characterization are ineffective for nonmonodisperse samples, and further they are relatively insensitive to size shifts of only several nanometers, which are common during conjugate formation. Conversely, gas phase ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) techniques can be used to reliably examine polydisperse samples, and are sensitive to ∼1 nm size distribution function shifts; the challenge with IMS is to convert nanoparticle-protein conjugates to aerosol particles without bringing about nonspecific aggregation or conjugate formation. Except in limited circumstances, electrospray based aerosolization has proven difficult to apply for this purpose. Here we show that via liquid nebulization (LN) with online, high-flow-rate dilution (with dilution factors up to 10 000) it is possible to aerosolize nanoparticle-protein conjugates, enabling IMS measurements of their conjugate size distribution functions. We specifically employ the LN-IMS system to examine bovine serum albumin binding to gold nanoparticles. Inferred maximum protein surface coverages (∼0.025 nm(-2)) from measurements are shown to be in excellent agreement with reported values for gold from quartz crystal microbalance measurements. It is also shown that LN-IMS measurements can be used to detect size distribution function shifts on the order of 1 nm, even in circumstances where the size distribution function itself has a standard deviation of ∼5 nm. In total, the reported measurements suggest that LN-IMS is a potentially simple and robust technique for nanoparticle-protein conjugate characterization.

  3. Nebulized anti-IL-13 monoclonal antibody Fab' fragment reduces allergen-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Hacha, Jonathan; Tomlinson, Kate; Maertens, Ludovic; Paulissen, Geneviève; Rocks, Natacha; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Noel, Agnès; Palframan, Roger; Gueders, Maud; Cataldo, Didier D

    2012-11-01

    IL-13 is a prototypic T helper type 2 cytokine and a central mediator of the complex cascade of events leading to asthmatic phenotype. Indeed, IL-13 plays key roles in IgE synthesis, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, mucus hypersecretion, subepithelial fibrosis, and eosinophil infiltration. We assessed the potential efficacy of inhaled anti-IL-13 monoclonal antibody Fab' fragment on allergen-induced airway inflammation, hyperresponsiveness, and remodeling in an experimental model of allergic asthma. Anti-IL-13 Fab' was administered to mice as a liquid aerosol generated by inExpose inhalation system in a tower allowing a nose-only exposure. BALB/c mice were treated by PBS, anti-IL-13 Fab', or A33 Fab' fragment and subjected to ovalbumin exposure for 1 and 5 weeks (short-term and long-term protocols). Our data demonstrate a significant antiasthma effect after nebulization of anti-IL-13 Fab' in a model of asthma driven by allergen exposure as compared with saline and nonimmune Fab fragments. In short- and long-term protocols, administration of the anti-IL-13 Fab' by inhalation significantly decreased bronchial responsiveness to methacholine, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid eosinophilia, inflammatory cell infiltration in lung tissue, and many features of airway remodeling. Levels of proinflammatory mediators and matrix metalloprotease were significantly lower in lung parenchyma of mice treated with anti-IL-13 Fab'. These data demonstrate that an inhaled anti-IL-13 Fab' significantly reduces airway inflammation, hyperresponsiveness, and remodeling. Specific neutralization of IL-13 in the lungs using an inhaled anti-IL-13 Fab' could represent a novel and effective therapy for the treatment of asthma.

  4. Protective effect of levodropropizine against cough induced by inhalation of nebulized distilled water in patients with obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Bariffi, F; Tranfa, C; Vatrella, A; Ponticiello, A

    1992-01-01

    Levodropropizine is a recently developed, peripherally active antitussive agent which is widely used in clinical practice. In order to obtain further information on the spectrum of activity of this compound in experimental clinical models, a double-blind controlled study was carried out to evaluate the potential effect of the drug against cough and bronchoconstriction induced by inhalation of an ultrasonically nebulized solution of distilled water in patients with obstructive lung disease. Twenty patients were randomly divided into two groups, which received levodropropizine (60 mg t.i.d.) or placebo respectively for 7 consecutive days. Parameters evaluated at baseline and on the last day of treatment included (i) results of respiratory function tests (FEV1, IVC, FVC, TIFF, PEF, MEF75, MEF50, MEF25) performed before the stimulation test with nebulized water; (ii) total number of coughs during a 2-hour period after the stimulation test; (iii) bronchial responsiveness, quantified by calculating the volume of nebulized water required to induce a 20% reduction of FEV1 below the basal level. At pretreatment, the tussive response was very similar in the two groups. A significant decrease in number of coughs (from 34.4 +/- 8.4 at baseline to 15.6 +/- 4.9 post-treatment, p less than 0.01) was observed after administration of levodropropizine, whereas placebo treatment produced no significant effect (number of coughs: 29.6 +/- 4.9 at baseline vs 24.8 +/- 9.6 post-treatment, N.S.). Bronchial responsiveness decreased significantly (compared to baseline) in both treatment groups, without any significant difference between drug and placebo. Respiratory function tests were not significantly affected by either treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Particle transport in a He-microchip plasma atomic emission system with an ultrasonic nebulizer for aqueous sample introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Joosuck; Lim, H. B.

    2008-11-01

    The transport efficiency of dried particles generated from an ultrasonic nebulizer (USN) was studied to improve the analytical performance of a lab-made, He-microchip plasma system, in which a quartz tube (~ 1 mm i.d.) was positioned inside the central channel of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) polymer chip. The polymer microchip plasma has the advantages of low cost, small size, easy handling and design, and self-ignition with long stabilization (> 24 h). However, direct introduction of aqueous solution into the microplasma for the detection of metals remains problematic due to plasma instability. In addition, the much smaller size of the system can cause signal suppression due to low transport efficiency. Therefore, knowledge of particle transport efficiency in this microplasma system is required to enhance the sensitivity and stability. The weight of transported particles in the range of 0.02 to 10 mg m - 3 was measured using a piezobalance with a precision of 0.4-17.8%, depending on the operating conditions. The significant effects of the USN operating conditions and the physical properties of the tubing, namely, length, inner diameter and surface characteristics, on the number of particles transported from the nebulizer to the microplasma were studied. When selected metals, such as Na, Mg and Pb, at a concentration of 5 mg L - 1 were nebulized, transported particles were obtained with a mass range of 0.5-5 mg m - 3 , depending on atomic weights. For application of the He-rf-microplasma, the atomic emission system was optimized by changing both the radio frequency (rf) power (60-200 W) and cooling temperature of the USN (- 12-9 °C). The limits of detection obtained for K, Na and Cu were 0.26, 0.22, and 0.28 mg L - 1 , respectively. These results confirmed the suitable stability and sensitivity of the He-rf-PDMS microchip plasma for application as an atomization source.

  6. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; use of a modified ultrasonic nebulizer for the analysis of low ionic-strength water by inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Carl M.; Litteral, Charles J.; Damrau, Donna L.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory has developed a method for the determination of dissolved calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, silica, and sodium using a modified ultrasonic nebulizer sample-introduction system to an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer. The nebulizer's spray chamber has been modified to avoid carryover and memory effects common in some conventional ultrasonic designs. The modified ultrasonic nebulizer is equipped with a high-speed rinse cycle to remove previously analyzed samples from the spray chamber without excessive flush times. This new rinse cycle decreases sample washout times by reducing carryover and memory effects from salt or analytes in previously analyzed samples by as much as 45 percent. Plasma instability has been reduced by repositioning the argon carrier gas inlet on the spray chamber and by directly pumping waste from the chamber, instead of from open drain traps, thereby maintaining constant pressure to the plasma. The ultrasonic nebulizer improves signal intensities, which are 8 to 16 times greater than for a conventional cross-flow pneumatic nebulizer, without being sensitive to clogging from salt buildup as in cross-flow nebulizers. Detection limits for the ultrasonic nebulizer are 4 to 18 times less than detection limits achievable using a cross-flow pneumatic nebulizer, with equivalent sample analysis time.

  7. Inhalation and deposition of nebulized sodium cromoglycate in two different particle size distributions in children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Nerbrink, O L; Lindström, M; Meurling, L; Svartengren, M

    2002-11-01

    The relative deposition of two inhaled droplet size distributions of sodium cromoglycate produced by a Hudson Updraft II nebulizer was evaluated, using a setup modified from the proposed Comité Européen Normalisé (CEN) standard prEN 13544-1. The modified setup comprised an Andersen 296 impactor and a Spira Electro 2 dosimeter. The setup was characterized prior to use in children with sodium cromoglycate (SCG) and sodium fluoride as tracer aerosol. The main in vivo study was designed to allow nine children with a mean age of 10 years to inhale SCG aerosol at two different relative humidities (RH), a high RH (> 90%) and a low RH (13%), which in turn resulted in two different droplet size distributions. The nebulizer/dosimeter was set to provide 1-sec nebulization during 50 inhalations. Throughout the exposures, the children were instructed to inhale in a consistent manner with target tidal volumes (0.5 L) and inhalation flows (0.4 L/sec). Blood samples were taken at predefined time intervals, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. A lung deposition program, TGLD2, was used to calculate the expected deposition, using the droplet sizes and inhalation parameters obtained during in vivo exposures. The in vivo monitoring of droplet size distribution during the exposure showed that the low, intermediate (room air), and high RHs gave a mean droplet size distribution with a mass median aerosol diameter (MMAD) of 1.2, 1.7, and 2.0 microm, respectively. The average tidal volume over all exposures was 0.51 +/- 0.12 L. The total deposition fraction was 33.4% of the estimated nebulizer output. A correlation was found between tidal volume and the calculated deposited fraction. The results indicate that there is a difference in total deposition, depending on the size of the droplet size distribution, with the larger droplet size distribution (MMAD, 2.0 microm) having a higher total deposition than the smaller droplet size distribution (MMAD, 1.2 microm). The

  8. Add-on treatment with nebulized hypertonic saline in a child with plastic bronchitis after the Glenn procedure.

    PubMed

    Lis, Grzegorz; Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Jedynak-Wasowicz, Urszula; Glowacka, Edyta

    2014-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis (PB), although a rare cause of airway obstruction, has mortality rates up to 50% in children after Fontan-type cardiac surgery. We present the case of an 18-month-old female patient with PB following pneumonia. At 6 months of age, the patient underwent the Glenn procedure due to functionally univentricular heart. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed complete blockage of the left bronchus by mucoid casts. Pharmacotherapy consisted of glucocorticosteroids, azithromycin, and enalapril maleate. The child also received nebulized 3% NaCl solution, which proved to be beneficial. In children submitted to Fontan-type procedures, physicians must be alert for PB, which can be triggered by respiratory tract infection.

  9. Comparison of fluticasone propionate with budesonide administered via nebulizer: a randomized controlled trial in patients with severe persistent asthma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ping; Liu, Chuntao; Kang, Jian; Xiao, Wei; Chen, Zhengxian; Tang, Huaping; Du, Xin; Liu, Cindy; Luo, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Background This study compared the efficacy and safety of fluticasone propionate (FP) inhalation n solution with budesonide (BUD) suspension for inhalation administered via nebulizer, in Chinese adult patients with severe, persistent asthma. Methods This was a multicenter, randomized, active-controlled, single-blind, parallel-group study, conducted at 26 clinical sites in China. Participants were randomized 1:1 to FP nebules 1 mg twice daily or BUD 2 mg twice daily via nebulizer for 12 weeks. Results A total of 317 adult patients were randomized. The primary endpoint was mean change in morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) over weeks 1–12 from baseline, and analyzed in the ITT (n=315) and PP populations (n=283). Week 12 PEF increase from baseline was 26.7 L/min (14.1%) and 28.0 L/min (15.3%) in the ITT population, and 29.1 L/min (15.7%) and 30.1 L/min (16.2%) in the PP population, in the FP and BUD groups, respectively; all improvements were of clinical significance. Lower limits of the two-sided 95% CIs for the least squares (LS) mean treatment difference (FP minus BUD) were −12.19 L/min (ITT) and −12.95 L/min (PP), both above the pre-specified non-inferiority criteria −12.00 L/min and not clinically meaningful. There was no significant difference in the week 12 mean FEV1 increase between the FP and BUD groups (0.237 L/16.79% vs. 0.236 L/17.73%). Lower limits of the 95% CIs for LS mean treatment difference in morning PEF change from baseline over weeks 1–4 in a post hoc analysis were −10.41 and −11.96 L/min in the ITT and PP populations respectively; both above −12.00 L/min. A review of safety data indicated that rates of AEs, SAEs, and drug-related AEs were similar between two groups. Conclusions The 12-week treatment of FP inhalation solution administered via nebulizer is safe and effectively for treating severe, persistent asthma in Chinese patients over 12 week. PMID:28275486

  10. Humidity control of an incubator using the microcontroller-based active humidifier system employing an ultrasonic nebulizer.

    PubMed

    Güler, I; Burunkaya, M

    2002-01-01

    Relative humidity levels of an incubator were measured and controlled. An ultrasonic nebulizer system as an active humidifier was used to humidify the incubator environment. An integrated circuit-type humidity sensor was used to measure the humidity level of the incubator environment. Measurement and control processes were achieved by a PIC microcontroller. The high-performance and high-speed PIC provided the flexibility of the system. The developed system can be used effectively for the intensive care of newborns and/or premature babies. Since the humidifier generates an aerosol in ambient conditions, it is possible to provide the high relative humidity level for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes in medicine.

  11. Attenuation of the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation with fentanyl, lignocaine nebulization, and a combination of both: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Abhyuday; Seth, Anita; Prakash, Smita; Deganwa, Mangilal; Gogia, Anoop Raj

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study was undertaken to compare and evaluate the efficacy of intravenous (IV) fentanyl and lignocaine airway nebulization and a combination of both in attenuating the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six patients of either sex aged between 18 and 65 years of age, belonging to the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) health status Classes I and II, undergoing elective surgery requiring general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into three groups. Group F received IV fentanyl 2 μg/kg, Group L received nebulization with 3 mg/kg of 4% lignocaine, and Group FL received both nebulization with 3 mg/kg of 4% lignocaine and IV fentanyl 2 μg/kg before intubation. Hemodynamic parameters were noted before and immediately after induction, 1 min after intubation, and every minute after intubation for 10 min. Results: Hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation was not completely abolished in any of the groups. Nebulized lignocaine was least effective in attenuating hemodynamic response to intubation, and hemodynamic parameters were significantly high after intubation as compared to other groups. Fentanyl alone or in combination with nebulized lignocaine was most effective, and Group F and Group FL were comparable. The maximum increase in mean blood pressure after intubation from baseline in Groups F, L, and FL was 7.4%, 14.6%, and 5.4%, respectively. Conclusion: In our study, IV fentanyl 2 μg/kg administered 5 min before induction was found to be the most effective in attenuating the hemodynamic response. There was no advantage to the use of nebulized lignocaine in attenuating the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation. PMID:27746569

  12. Use of a parallel path nebulizer for capillary-based microseparation techniques coupled with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer for speciation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanes, Enrique G.; Miller-Ihli, Nancy J.

    2004-06-01

    A low flow, parallel path Mira Mist CE nebulizer designed for capillary electrophoresis (CE) was evaluated as a function of make-up solution flow rate, composition, and concentration, as well as the nebulizer gas flow rate. This research was conducted in support of a project related to the separation and quantification of cobalamin (vitamin B-12) species using microseparation techniques combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. As such, Co signals were monitored during the nebulizer characterization process. Transient effects in the ICP were studied to evaluate the suitability of using gradients for microseparations and the benefit of using methanol for the make-up solution was demonstrated. Co signal response changed significantly as a function of changing methanol concentrations of the make-up solution and maximum signal enhancement was seen at 20% methanol with a 15 μl/min flow rate. Evaluation of the effect of changing the nebulizer gas flow rates showed that argon flows from 0.8 to 1.2 l/min were equally effective. The Mira Mist CE parallel path nebulizer was then evaluated for interfacing capillary microseparation techniques including capillary electrophoresis (CE) and micro high performance liquid chromatography (μHPLC) to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A mixture of four cobalamin species standards (cyanocobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and 5' deoxyadenosylcobalamin) and the corrinoid analogue cobinamide dicyanide were successfully separated using both CE-ICP-MS and μHPLC-ICP-MS using the parallel path nebulizer with a make-up solution containing 20% methanol with a flow rate of 15 μl/min.

  13. Pegaptanib Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you have or have ever had diabetes, high blood pressure, a heart attack, or a stroke.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while using pegaptanib injection, ...

  14. Ramucirumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had high blood pressure, a wound that has not healed, or liver disease.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. Ramucirumab injection may harm your unborn baby. You ...

  15. Reslizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the infusion or for a short period of time after the infusion has finished.You will receive each injection of reslizumab in a doctor's office or medical facility. You will stay in the office for some time after you receive the medication so your doctor ...

  16. Dexrazoxane Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane ... Dexrazoxane injection may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: pain or swelling in the place ...

  17. Characterization of three mycobacterial DinB (DNA polymerase IV) paralogs highlights DinB2 as naturally adept at ribonucleotide incorporation

    PubMed Central

    Ordonez, Heather; Uson, Maria Loressa; Shuman, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    This study unveils Mycobacterium smegmatis DinB2 as the founder of a clade of Y-family DNA polymerase that is naturally adept at incorporating ribonucleotides by virtue of a leucine in lieu of a canonical aromatic steric gate. DinB2 efficiently scavenges limiting dNTP and rNTP substrates in the presence of manganese. DinB2's sugar selectivity factor, gauged by rates of manganese-dependent dNMP versus rNMP addition, is 2.7- to 3.8-fold. DinB2 embeds ribonucleotides during DNA synthesis when rCTP and dCTP are at equimolar concentration. DinB2 can incorporate at least 16 consecutive ribonucleotides. In magnesium, DinB2 has a 26- to 78-fold lower affinity for rNTPs than dNTPs, but only a 2.6- to 6-fold differential in rates of deoxy versus ribo addition (kpol). Two other M. smegmatis Y-family polymerases, DinB1 and DinB3, are characterized here as template-dependent DNA polymerases that discriminate strongly against ribonucleotides, a property that, in the case of DinB1, correlates with its aromatic steric gate side chain. We speculate that the unique ability of DinB2 to utilize rNTPs might allow for DNA repair with a ‘ribo patch’ when dNTPs are limiting. Phylogenetic analysis reveals DinB2-like polymerases, with leucine, isoleucine or valine steric gates, in many taxa of the phylum Actinobacteria. PMID:25200080

  18. Development and validation of a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of albuterol, budesonide, and ipratropium bromide in compounded nebulizer solutions.

    PubMed

    Blewett, Anthony J; Varma, Deepti; Gilles, Tiffany; Butcher, Rashidi; Jacob, Jaini; Amazan, Jean; Jansen, Susan A

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a large increase in the use of pharmaceutical compounding to prepare medications that are not commercially available. The treatment of asthma typically includes the use of albuterol (ALB), ipratropium bromide (IPB), and/or budesonide (BUD) nebulizer solutions. There is currently no commercially available nebulizer solution containing all three of these compounds, and patients must rely on often-unregulated compounding. There is a distinct need for methodologies that can be used to analyze compounded formulations to ensure patient safety. We report an HPLC-UV method to separate and quantitate ALB, IPB, and BUD in nebulizer solutions. The method used a gradient elution to achieve separation via an RP C18 column. The method was validated, showed good selectivity, and was linear over several orders of magnitude. The method was applied to the analysis of nebulizer solutions and determination of their storage stability. Significant ALB-dependent degradation occurred within 5 h in solutions formulated with the free base of ALB, while those containing the sulfate salt of ALB produced no degradation. Alkali solutions can cause base-catalyzed hydrolysis of IPB and degradation of BUD. Compounded formulations containing ALB need to include an acid to control pH and prevent degradation.

  19. Determination of metals in lubricating oils by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using a single-bore high-pressure pneumatic nebulizer.

    PubMed

    Mora, J; Todolí, J L; Sempere, F J; Canals, A; Hernandis, V

    2000-12-01

    The behaviour of a single-bore high-pressure pneumatic nebulizer (SBHPPN) as a tool for the analysis of lubricating oils by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was investigated. The effects of the sample oil content [from 10% to 100% (w/w) oil in 4-methylpentan-2-one, IBMK] and the carrier nature (IBMK and methanol) on the characteristics of the aerosols generated, on the analyte transport efficiency and on the analytical figures of merit in FAAS were studied. A pneumatic concentric nebulizer (PCN) was used for comparison. Increasing the oil content increases the viscosity of the sample. With the PCN this gives rise to coarser aerosols, making it impossible to nebulize samples with an oil content higher than 70% (w/w). Using the SBHPPN, the viscosity of the sample scarcely affects the characteristics of the primary aerosols. Hence, the SBHPPN is able, by using the appropriate carrier, to nebulize pure lubricating oils. Among the carriers tested, IBMK is the most advisable because it is fully miscible with all the oil samples. The SBHPPN provides higher sensitivities and lower limits of detection than the PCN. Compared with a method based on organic dilution, the use of the SBHPPN for the direct analysis of lubricating oils by FAAS makes it possible, in addition to increasing the analysis throughput, to detect elements at lower concentrations. Moreover, the SBHPPN provides similar results to those obtained using a previous acid digestion step.

  20. Flame AAS/flame AES for trace determination in fresh and used lubricating oils with sample introduction by hydraulic high-pressure nebulization.

    PubMed

    Berndt, H; Schaldach, G; Kägler, S H

    1996-04-01

    In hydraulic high-pressure nebulization (HHPN) an aerosol is produced by means of an HPLC-pump and a special nebulization nozzle, applying a pressure of about 200 bar. This spray technique has been employed for sample introduction of mineral oil samples in flame atomic absorption/flame emission spectrometry. The determination of the trace elements Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Na, Ni, Pb, Si and V has been investigated. Viscosity hardly acts upon the sensitivity of the determination, thereby avoiding a time consuming dilution of oil samples. By means of two interconnecting sampling valves a calibration method based on the standard addition technique can be performed which is both simple and easy to carry out. In samples of used oils, results for Cu and Pb equalled those of XRF-analysis. Regarding Fe traces, data obtained from AAS and XRF measurement correlate. In comparison with sample uptake by pneumatic nebulization, which is restricted to diluted oil samples, detection limits decrease by a factor of 2 to 4, indicating the dilution required in pneumatic nebulization.

  1. Analytical evaluation of nebulizers for the introduction of acetic acid extracts aiming at the determination of trace elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gois, Jefferson S.; Maranhão, Tatiane de A.; Oliveira, Fernando J. S.; Frescura, Vera L. A.; Curtius, Adilson J.; Borges, Daniel L. G.

    2012-11-01

    Most of the official procedures aiming at classification of solid waste toxicity take into account metal solubility and bioavailability by means of extraction experiments using acetic acid solutions. Hence, the aim of this work was to investigate and optimize conditions to suppress the effect of acetic acid on the determination of trace elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The performance of four nebulizers (cross-flow (CFN), ultrasonic (USN), Meinhard (MN) and MicroMist (MMN)) were compared as to their efficiency in minimizing spectral and non-spectral effects on the determination of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb and Se, with the ultimate goal to analyze acetic acid extracts obtained from solid waste residues. Operating conditions (desolvation temperatures for USN, RF power and nebulizer gas flow rates) were optimized individually for each nebulizer and for all analytes maintained in 0.14 mol L- 1 HNO3 solutions and in solutions prepared with acetic acid and acetic acid + NaOH, adjusted to pH 2.88 and 4.93, respectively. Pronounced non-spectral interferences for 75As and 82Se were observed in the presence of acetic acid for CF and MN, although to a less extent also for MMN and USN. Signal increase for blank solutions measured at m/z 208 (208Pb) for CFN and MN, 107 (107Ag) for USN and MN coupled to a cyclonic chamber and, m/z 82 (82Se) for USN was observed, indicating an increased risk of spectral interference upon an increase in the concentration of acetic acid. Signal increase at specific m/z ratios, however, was not significant when the MMN was used, with the exception of m/z 52 (52Cr) in acetic acid solutions, arising from the formation of 40Ar12C+. This same effect was noticed for all nebulizers, although at noticeably different intensities. A signal stability study was performed, demonstrating that variations in the analytical signal were within a 20% range for all analytes, with the exception of Hg, after continuous aspiration for 70 min

  2. Direct liquid sample introduction for flow injection analysis and liquid chromatography with inductively coupled argon plasma spectrometric detection

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, K.E.; Rice, G.W.; Fassel, V.A.

    1984-02-01

    The coupling of flow injection analysis (FIA) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) offers new and attractive approaches for the determination of elemental concentrations in a wide variety of sample matrices. One of the most attractive features that FIA offers is a rapid and precise means of automating sample introduction into an ICP for simultaneous, multielement analysis at the trace, minor, and major constituent level with minimal sample consumption. The utilization of the ICP as a detector for HPLC retains most of the advantages of FIA-ICP, while providing the analyst with a powerful and versatile means of compound separation. This added dimension becomes particularly important when metal speciation is of primary interest, rather than total metal content. To date, the coupling of FIA and HPLC to the ICP has only been accomplished using conventional cross-flow, concentric, or Babington-type pneumatic nebulizers. Limits of detection under these conditions have generally been observed to be poorer when compared to conventional continuous sample flow conditions. These limitations have been attributed to the large dead-volume and the sample losses associated with conventional nebulizers and band broadening of eluents from FIA transfer tubing or HPLC columns prior to entering the nebulizer unit. In an effort to resolve these difficulties, a microconcentric nebulizer has been developed which is inserted directly into the tip of a conventional sample introduction tube of an ICP torch. Preliminary data on the potential utility of direct liquid sample introduction into the ICP are presented. 12 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  3. Doctor Shoja-ad-Din Sheikholeslamzadeh and his Achievements

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Ahmadreza; Ziaei, Majid Eyvaz; Ahmadi, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Doctor Shoja-ad-Din Sheikholeslamzadeh (also known as Dr. Sheikh) (1931-2014) was an outstanding orthopedic surgeon. He is credited for the establishment of the Iranian Association of Rehabilitation, Shafa Yahyaian Hospital as an Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Center, the Social Welfare Organization, Iran's emergency dispatch center (115) and many other major projects that led to the upgrading of health care services in Iran. He also served as the Minister of Social Welfare and Minister of Health and Welfare before the Islamic revolution. The history of modern health care management and modern orthopedic surgery in Iran are indebted to the great leadership and executive abilities of Dr. Sheikh. PMID:25692161

  4. Aerosolization of two strains (ice+ and ice-) of Pseudomonas syringae in a Collison nebulizer at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietsch, Renee; David, Ray; Marr, Linsey; Vinatzer, Boris; Schmale, David

    2015-04-01

    The aerosolization of microorganisms from aquatic environments is understudied. In this study, an ice nucleation active (ice+) strain and a non-ice nucleation active (ice-) strain of the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae were aerosolized from aqueous suspensions under artificial laboratory conditions using a Collison nebulizer. The aerosolization of P. syringae was not influenced by water temperatures between 5° and 30°C. In general, the culturability (viability) of P. syringae in aerosols increased with temperature between 5 and 30°C. The ice+ strain was aerosolized in greater numbers than the ice- strain at all temperatures studied, suggesting a possible connection between the ice nucleation phenotype and aerosol production. Together, our results suggest that P. syringae has the potential to be aerosolized from natural aquatic environments, such as streams, rivers, ponds, and lakes; known reservoirs of P. syringae. Future work is needed to elucidate the mechanisms of aerosolization of P. syringae from natural aquatic systems.

  5. Add-on treatment with nebulized hypertonic saline in a child with plastic bronchitis after the Glenn procedure*, **

    PubMed Central

    Lis, Grzegorz; Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Jedynak-Wasowicz, Urszula; Glowacka, Edyta

    2014-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis (PB), although a rare cause of airway obstruction, has mortality rates up to 50% in children after Fontan-type cardiac surgery. We present the case of an 18-month-old female patient with PB following pneumonia. At 6 months of age, the patient underwent the Glenn procedure due to functionally univentricular heart. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed complete blockage of the left bronchus by mucoid casts. Pharmacotherapy consisted of glucocorticosteroids, azithromycin, and enalapril maleate. The child also received nebulized 3% NaCl solution, which proved to be beneficial. In children submitted to Fontan-type procedures, physicians must be alert for PB, which can be triggered by respiratory tract infection. PMID:24626275

  6. The combination of nebulized sodium cromoglycate and salbutamol in the treatment of moderate-to-severe asthma in children.

    PubMed

    Furusho, Kenshi; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Sei; Akasaka, Toru; Arita, Masahiko; Edwards, Alan

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this multi-centre prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of the combination of sodium cromoglycate (SCG) and salbutamol (administered as a nebulized solution), compared to SCG alone and salbutamol alone, in the management of severe, intractable asthma in childhood. The study was an open, randomized, cross-over trial of 12 weeks' duration in children with moderate-to-severe intractable asthma. All treatments were administered twice daily by powered nebulizer. The primary outcome measure was the change in asthma severity, as measured by the mean asthma score during the last 2 weeks of a baseline period and the last 2 weeks of each treatment. Secondary outcome measure was the patient's opinion of the effectiveness of treatment. The change in asthma scores from baseline values were significantly greater with the combination treatment compared to each component administered separately. The mean difference in asthma score between the combination and salbutamol was: -7.5; 95% CI, -11.70 to -3.29 (p < 0.0001). The mean difference between the combination and SCG was: -8.53; 95% CI, -14.03 to -3.25 (p < 0.0001). Patients were also significantly in favor of combination treatment (p < 0.001 vs. salbutamol; p < 0.01 vs. SCG). Two patients reported adverse effects. We concluded that regular twice-daily inhalation of a combination of SCG and salbutamol gave better control of symptoms than previous treatments in patients with severe, intractable asthma. Few adverse effects with this therapy suggest that it is extremely useful, safe, and effective.

  7. An in-vitro assessment of a NanoCrystal beclomethasone dipropionate colloidal dispersion via ultrasonic nebulization.

    PubMed

    Ostrander, K D; Bosch, H W; Bondanza, D M

    1999-11-01

    Short duration ultrasonic nebulization of a concentrated NanoCrystal colloidal dispersion of beclomethasone dipropionate demonstrated an increased respirable fraction and decreased throat deposition when evaluated in an Andersen 8-stage cascade impactor in comparison to the commercially available propellant-based product Vanceril. An aqueous-based 1.25% w/w colloidal dispersion of beclomethasone dipropionate when aerosolized via an Omron NE-U03 ultrasonic nebulizer generated a respirable drug dose from 22.6 to 39.4 micrograms per 2 s actuation period, compared to 12.8 micrograms for a single actuation of Vanceril. When viewed as a percentage of the emitted dose (through the actuator or mouthpiece), the respirable fraction ranged from 56 to 72% for the nanocrystalline formulation versus 36% for the propellant system. In addition, the throat deposition as seen in the induction port was 9-10% of the emitted dose for the novel suspension, as compared to 53% for the commercial product. Thus, when used with the device outlined herein, a nanocrystalline colloidal suspension of beclomethasone dipropionate affords greater potential drug delivery to the conductive airways of the lung in both quantity and as a percent of emitted dose. Additionally, lower potential throat deposition values were observed which may retard the development of undesirable side effects, such as candidiasis, when compared to a propellant based delivery system. Lastly, the ability to atomize aqueous-based nanocrystalline colloidal dispersions represents an environmentally sound alternative to the current chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-based products and may avoid the technical difficulties of reformulating with chlorine-free propellants.

  8. Quantification aspects of constant pressure (ultra) high pressure liquid chromatography using mass-sensitive detectors with a nebulizing interface.

    PubMed

    Verstraeten, M; Broeckhoven, K; Lynen, F; Choikhet, K; Landt, K; Dittmann, M; Witt, K; Sandra, P; Desmet, G

    2013-01-25

    The present contribution investigates the quantitation aspects of mass-sensitive detectors with nebulizing interface (ESI-MSD, ELSD, CAD) in the constant pressure gradient elution mode. In this operation mode, the pressure is controlled and maintained at a set value and the liquid flow rate will vary according to the inverse mobile phase viscosity. As the pressure is continuously kept at the allowable maximum during the entire gradient run, the average liquid flow rate is higher compared to that in the conventional constant flow rate operation mode, thus shortening the analysis time. The following three mass-sensitive detectors were investigated: mass spectrometry detector (MS), evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) and charged aerosol detector (CAD) and a wide variety of samples (phenones, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, wine, cocoa butter) has been considered. It was found that the nebulizing efficiency of the LC-interfaces of the three detectors under consideration changes with the increasing liquid flow rate. For the MS, the increasing flow rate leads to a lower peak area whereas for the ELSD the peak area increases compared to the constant flow rate mode. The peak area obtained with a CAD is rather insensitive to the liquid flow rate. The reproducibility of the peak area remains similar in both modes, although variation in system permeability compromises the 'long-term' reproducibility. This problem can however be overcome by running a flow rate program with an optimized flow rate and composition profile obtained from the constant pressure mode. In this case, the quantification remains reproducibile, despite any occuring variations of the system permeability. Furthermore, the same fragmentation pattern (MS) has been found in the constant pressure mode compared to the customary constant flow rate mode.

  9. CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS COUPLED ON-LINE WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR ELEMENTAL SPECIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel interface to connect a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICPMS) detector is reported here. The interface was built using a direct injection nebulizer (DIN) system. In this interface, the CE capillary was placed co...

  10. An efficient compressive sensing based PS-DInSAR method for surface deformation estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. T.; Xu, H. P.; Shan, L.; Liu, W.; Chen, G. Z.

    2016-11-01

    Permanent scatterers differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (PS-DInSAR) is a technique for detecting surface micro-deformation, with an accuracy at the centimeter to millimeter level. However, its performance is limited by the number of SAR images available (normally more than 20 are needed). Compressive sensing (CS) has been proven to be an effective signal recovery method with only a very limited number of measurements. Applying CS to PS-DInSAR, a novel CS-PS-DInSAR method is proposed to estimate the deformation with fewer SAR images. By analyzing the PS-DInSAR process in detail, first the sparsity representation of deformation velocity difference is obtained; then, the mathematical model of CS-PS-DInSAR is derived and the restricted isometry property (RIP) of the measurement matrix is discussed to validate the proposed CS-PS-DInSAR in theory. The implementation of CS-PS-DInSAR is achieved by employing basis pursuit algorithms to estimate the deformation velocity. With the proposed method, DInSAR deformation estimation can be achieved by a much smaller number of SAR images, as demonstrated by simulation results.

  11. A ΔdinB mutation that sensitizes Escherichia coli to the lethal effects of UV- and X-radiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei-Chong W; Franco, Magdalena; Vargas, Doris M; Hudman, Deborah A; White, Steven J; Fowler, Robert G; Sargentini, Neil J

    2014-01-01

    The DinB (PolIV) protein of Escherichia coli participates in several cellular functions. We investigated a dinB mutation, Δ(dinB-yafN)883(::kan) [referred to as ΔdinB883], which strongly sensitized E. coli cells to both UV- and X-radiation killing. Earlier reports indicated dinB mutations had no obvious effect on UV radiation sensitivity which we confirmed by showing that normal UV radiation sensitivity is conferred by the ΔdinB749 allele. Compared to a wild-type strain, the ΔdinB883 mutant was most sensitive (160-fold) in early to mid-logarithmic growth phase and much less sensitive (twofold) in late log or stationary phases, thus showing a growth phase-dependence for UV radiation sensitivity. This sensitizing effect of ΔdinB883 is assumed to be completely dependent upon the presence of UmuDC protein; since the ΔdinB883 mutation did not sensitize the ΔumuDC strain to UV radiation killing throughout log phase and early stationary phase growth. The DNA damage checkpoint activity of UmuDC was clearly affected by ΔdinB883 as shown by testing a umuC104 ΔdinB883 double-mutant. The sensitivities of the ΔumuDC strain and the ΔdinB883 ΔumuDC double-mutant strain were significantly greater than for the ΔdinB883 strain, suggesting that the ΔdinB883 allele only partially suppresses UmuDC activity. The ΔdinB883 mutation partially sensitized (fivefold) uvrA and uvrB strains to UV radiation, but did not sensitize a ΔrecA strain. A comparison of the DNA sequences of the ΔdinB883 allele with the sequences of the Δ(dinB-yafN)882(::kan) and ΔdinB749 alleles, which do not sensitize cells to UV radiation, revealed ΔdinB883 is likely a "gain-of-function" mutation. The ΔdinB883 allele encodes the first 54 amino acids of wild-type DinB followed by 29 predicted residues resulting from the continuation of the dinB reading frame into an adjacent insertion fragment. The resulting polypeptide is proposed to interfere directly or indirectly with UmuDC function(s) involved

  12. Mycobacterium smegmatis DinB2 misincorporates deoxyribonucleotides and ribonucleotides during templated synthesis and lesion bypass

    PubMed Central

    Ordonez, Heather; Shuman, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium smegmatis DinB2 is the founder of a clade of Y-family DNA polymerase that is naturally adept at utilizing rNTPs or dNTPs as substrates. Here we investigate the fidelity and lesion bypass capacity of DinB2. We report that DinB2 is an unfaithful DNA and RNA polymerase with a distinctive signature for misincorporation of dNMPs, rNMPs and oxoguanine nucleotides during templated synthesis in vitro. DinB2 has a broader mutagenic spectrum with manganese than magnesium, though low ratios of manganese to magnesium suffice to switch DinB2 to its more mutagenic mode. DinB2 discrimination against incorrect dNTPs in magnesium is primarily at the level of substrate binding affinity, rather than kpol. DinB2 can incorporate any dNMP or rNMP opposite oxo-dG in the template strand with manganese as cofactor, with a kinetic preference for synthesis of an A:oxo-dG Hoogsteen pair. With magnesium, DinB2 is adept at synthesizing A:oxo-dG or C:oxo-dG pairs. DinB2 effectively incorporates deoxyribonucleotides, but not ribonucleotides, opposite an abasic site, with kinetic preference for dATP as the substrate. We speculate that DinB2 might contribute to mycobacterial mutagenesis, oxidative stress and quiescence, and discuss the genetic challenges to linking the polymerase biochemistry to an in vivo phenotype. PMID:25352547

  13. A breakthrough in neuroscience needs a "Nebulous Cartesian System" Oscillations, quantum dynamics and chaos in the brain and vegetative system.

    PubMed

    Başar, Erol; Güntekin, Bahar

    2007-04-01

    The Cartesian System is a fundamental conceptual and analytical framework related and interwoven with the concept and applications of Newtonian Dynamics. In order to analyze quantum processes physicist moved to a Probabilistic Cartesian System in which the causality principle became a probabilistic one. This means the trajectories of particles (obeying quantum rules) can be described only with the concept of cloudy wave packets. The approach to the brain-body-mind problem requires more than the prerequisite of modern physics and quantum dynamics. In the analysis of the brain-body-mind construct we have to include uncertain causalities and consequently multiple uncertain causalities. These multiple causalities originate from (1) nonlinear properties of the vegetative system (e.g. irregularities in biochemical transmitters, cardiac output, turbulences in the vascular system, respiratory apnea, nonlinear oscillatory interactions in peristalsis); (2) nonlinear behavior of the neuronal electricity (e.g. chaotic behavior measured by EEG), (3) genetic modulations, and (4) additional to these physiological entities nonlinear properties of physical processes in the body. The brain shows deterministic chaos with a correlation dimension of approx. D(2)=6, the smooth muscles approx. D(2)=3. According to these facts we propose a hyper-probabilistic approach or a hyper-probabilistic Cartesian System to describe and analyze the processes in the brain-body-mind system. If we add aspects as our sentiments, emotions and creativity to this construct, better said to this already hyper-probabilistic construct, this "New Cartesian System" is more than hyper-probabilistic, it is a nebulous system, we can predict the future only in a nebulous way; however, despite this chain of reasoning we can still provide predictions on brain-body-mind incorporations. We tentatively assume that the processes or mechanisms of the brain-body-mind system can be analyzed and predicted similar to the

  14. A highly sensitive LC-tandem MS assay for the measurement in plasma and in urine of salbutamol administered by nebulization during mechanical ventilation in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sidler-Moix, Anne-Laure; Mercier, Thomas; Decosterd, Laurent A; Di Paolo, Ermindo R; Berger-Gryllaki, Markoulina; Cotting, Jacques; Pannatier, André

    2012-05-01

    The new-generation nebulizers are commonly used for the administration of salbutamol in mechanically ventilated patients. The different modes of administration and new devices have not been compared. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of concentrations as low as 0.05 ng/mL of salbutamol, corresponding to the desired plasma concentration after inhalation. Salbutamol quantification was performed by reverse-phase HPLC. Analyte quantification was performed by electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry using selected reaction monitoring detection ESI in the positive mode. The method was validated over concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 100 ng/mL in plasma and from 0.18 to 135 ng/mL in urine. The method is precise, with mean inter-day coefficient of variation (CV%) within 3.1-8.3% in plasma and 1.3-3.9% in urine, as well as accurate. The proposed method was found to reach the required sensitivity for the evaluation of different nebulizers as well as nebulization modes. The present assay was applied to examine whether salbutamol urine levels, normalized with the creatinine levels, correlated with the plasma concentrations. A suitable, convenient and noninvasive method of monitoring patients receiving salbutamol by mechanical ventilation could be implemented.

  15. Rehydrated sterically stabilized phospholipid nanomicelles of budesonide for nebulization: physicochemical characterization and in vitro, in vivo evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Sahib, Mohanad Naji; Darwis, Yusrida; Peh, Kok Khiang; Abdulameer, Shaymaa Abdalwahed; Tan, Yvonne Tze Fung

    2011-01-01

    Background Inhaled corticosteroids provide unique systems for local treatment of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the use of poorly soluble drugs for nebulization has been inadequate, and many patients rely on large doses to achieve optimal control of their disease. Theoretically, nanotechnology with a sustained-release formulation may provide a favorable therapeutic index. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using sterically stabilized phospholipid nanomicelles of budesonide for pulmonary delivery via nebulization. Methods PEG5000-DSPE polymeric micelles containing budesonide (BUD-SSMs) were prepared by the coprecipitation and reconstitution method, and the physicochemical and pharmacodynamic characteristics of BUD-SSMs were investigated. Results The optimal concentration of solubilized budesonide at 5 mM PEG5000-DSPE was 605.71 ± 6.38 μg/mL, with a single-sized peak population determined by photon correlation spectroscopy and a particle size distribution of 21.51 ± 1.5 nm. The zeta potential of BUD-SSMs was −28.43 ± 1.98 mV. The percent entrapment efficiency, percent yield, and percent drug loading of the lyophilized formulations were 100.13% ± 1.09%, 97.98% ± 1.95%, and 2.01% ± 0.02%, respectively. Budesonide was found to be amorphous by differential scanning calorimetry, and had no chemical interaction with PEGylated polymer according to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopic images of BUD-SSMs revealed spherical nanoparticles. BUD-SSMs exhibited prolonged dissolution behavior compared with Pulmicort Respules® (P < 0.05). Aerodynamic characteristics indicated significantly higher deposition in the lungs compared with Pulmicort Respules®. The mass median aerodynamic, geometric standard deviation, percent emitted dose, and the fine particle fraction were 2.83 ± 0.08 μm, 2.33 ± 0.04 μm, 59.13% ± 0.19%, and 52.31% ± 0.25%, respectively. Intratracheal administration

  16. Bipolar Mass Spectrometry of Labile Coordination Complexes, Redox Active Inorganic Compounds, and Proteins Using a Glass Nebulizer for Sonic-Spray Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonakis, Manolis M.; Tsirigotaki, Alexandra; Kanaki, Katerina; Milios, Constantinos J.; Pergantis, Spiros A.

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we report on the development of a novel nebulizer configuration for sonic-spray ionization (SSI) mass spectrometry (MS), more specifically for a version of SSI that is referred to as Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization (V-EASI) MS. The developed nebulizer configuration is based on a commercially available pneumatic glass nebulizer that has been used extensively for aerosol formation in atomic spectrometry. In the present study, the nebulizer was modified in order to achieve efficient V-EASI-MS operation. Upon evaluating this system, it has been demonstrated that V-EASI-MS offers some distinct advantages for the analysis of coordination compounds and redox active inorganic compounds over the predominantly used electrospray ionization (ESI) technique. Such advantages, for this type of compounds, are demonstrated here for the first time. More specifically, a series of labile heptanuclear heterometallic [CuII 6LnIII] clusters held together with artificial amino acid ligands, in addition to easily oxidized inorganic oxyanions of selenium and arsenic, were analyzed. The observed advantages pertain to V-EASI appearing to be a "milder" ionization source than ESI, not requiring electrical potentials for gas phase ion formation, thus eliminating the possibility of unwanted redox transformations, allowing for the "simultaneous" detection of negative and positive ions (bipolar analysis) without the need to change source ionization conditions, and also not requiring the use of syringes and delivery pumps. Because of such features, especially because of the absence of ionization potentials, EASI can be operated with minimal requirements for source parameter optimization. We observed that source temperature and accelerating voltage do not seem to affect labile compounds to the extent they do in ESI-MS. In addition, bipolar analysis of proteins was demonstrated here by acquiring both positive and negative ion mass spectra from the same protein solutions

  17. Epidural Injections for Spinal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Epidural Injections An epidural injection provides temporary or prolonged relief ... limitations of Epidural Injection? What is an Epidural Injection? An epidural injection is an injection of medication ...

  18. Lateral resolution of desorption nanoelectrospray: a nanospray tip without nebulizing gas as a source of primary charged droplets.

    PubMed

    Hartmanová, L; Lorencová, I; Volný, M; Fryčák, P; Havlíček, V; Chmelíčková, H; Ingr, T; Lemr, K

    2016-04-07

    Desorption nanoelectrospray (nanoDESI) was described in 2007 and it represents a miniaturized version of desorption electrospray without the assistance of the nebulizing gas. Compared to DESI, a nanoelectrospray tip (2 ± 1 μm I.D.) generates primary charged droplets of smaller sizes and lower spray liquid flow rates. This is the first report on utilization of nanoDESI for mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Its new coupling with a Q-TOF instrument allowed faster mass spectra acquisition (4 Hz) essential for MSI of fine surface details. To evaluate nanoDESI potential for mass spectrometry imaging, etched glass substrates with Rhodamine B patterns of different dimensions were prepared. The Rhodamine B lines were analysed in 1D scanning mode and their width was determined experimentally by nanoDESI measurement. The experimental data revealed that the lateral resolution of nanoDESI is close to 30 μm along the x-axis (orthogonal to the inlet). 2D scanning mode confirmed good resolution along both axes as dye squares with dimensions about 60 μm × 60 μm were easily distinguished. The low flow rate of the spray liquid reduced undesirable analyte washing effects, which allowed repeated scanning analysis of the surface. The presented results demonstrate the applicability of nanoDESI for high surface resolution mass spectrometry imaging.

  19. An Improved Pneumatic Nebulization Gas-Solid Microextraction Device Used to Detect Triazine Herbicides in White Spirit.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Fei, Qiang; Shan, Hongyan; Huan, Yanfu; Mi, Hongyu; Zhang, Hanqi; Li, Guanghua; Feng, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    The pneumatic nebulization gas-solid microextraction device fascinating us is because it directly atomized organic samples to cross a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) cartridge without any pretreatment. In this work, both the spray chamber and SPME column of the extraction device were heated. We found that this would significantly improve the extraction efficiency of this method. Then, this method was used to detect seven triazine herbicides (atraton, desmetryn, atrazine, terbumeton, terbuthylazine, terbutryn, and dipropetryn) in drinking alcohol samples. The experimental results indicated that this extraction procedure could conveniently, efficiently and accurately concentrate any triazine herbicides from drinking alcohol samples. The limits of detection (LODs) were from 0.08 to 0.23 μg L(-1), the limits of quantification (LOQs) were from 0.27 to 0.78 μg L(-1). We used this method to detect triazine herbicides in five white spirit samples. Four concentrations were chosen (5, 25, 50 and 100 μg L(-1)) as the amounts of spikes to investigate the recovery and precision of the present PN-GSME method. The recoveries ranged from 95.91 to 106.67%. The relative standard deviations were not more than 6.51%. Also this method matches the requirement of the maximum residue limits of the European Union.

  20. Use of ICP/MS with ultrasonic nebulizer for routine determination of uranium activity ratios in natural water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraemer, T.F.; Doughten, M.W.; Bullen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    A method is described that allows precise determination of 234U/238U activity ratios (UAR) in most natural waters using commonly available inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) instrumentation and accessories. The precision achieved by this technique (??0.5% RSD, 1 sigma) is intermediate between thermal ionization mass spectrometry (??0.25% RSID, 1 sigma) and alpha particle spectrometry (??5% RSD, 1 sigma). It is precise and rapid enough to allow analysis of a large number of samples in a short period of time at low cost using standard, commercially available quadrupole instrumentation with ultrasonic nebulizer and desolvator accessories. UARs have been analyzed successfully in fresh to moderately saline waters with U concentrations of from less than 1 ??g/L to nearly 100 ??g/L. An example of the uses of these data is shown for a study of surface-water mixing in the North Platte River in western Nebraska. This rapid and easy technique should encourage the wider use of uranium isotopes in surface-water and groundwater investigations, both for qualitative (e.g. identifying sources of water) and quantitative (e.g. determining end-member mixing ratios purposes.

  1. THE DETERMINATION OF MERCURY SPECIES AND MULTIPLE METALS IN COAL COMBUSTION EMISSIONS USING IODINE-BASED IMPINGERS AND DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION - INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury (Hg) emissions from coal utilities are difficult to control. Hg eludes capture by most air pollution control devices (APCDs). To determine the gaseous Hg species in stack gases, U.S. EPA Method 5 type sampling is used. In this type of sampling a hole is drilled into th...

  2. Beam Injection into RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mackay, W. W.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. We describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks, the application program to steer the beam and the injection kickers. We report on the commissioning of the injection systems and on measurements of the kickers.

  3. Manufacturing of microcomponents in a research institute under DIN EN ISO 9001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, Dieter; Karl, Bernhard; Saile, Volker; Schulz, Joachim

    2000-08-01

    The Institute for Microstructure Technology at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe has implemented a rigorous quality management system and was certified according to the DIN ISO EN 9001 standard in January 2000.

  4. Feasibility study of a gadolinium-loaded DIN-based liquid scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sook Hyung; Joo, Kyung Kwang; So, Sun Heang; Yeo, In Sung

    2013-09-01

    DIN (di-isopropylnaphthalene) has a high flashpoint and can be used as a base solvent in liquid scintillators. It reduces safety concerns to humans and the environment. (PPO, 3 g/ ℓ) and (bis-MSB, 30 mg/ ℓ) were dissolved to formulate a DIN-based liquid scintillator (LS). A gadolinium (Gd) complex with carboxylic acid was synthesized using a neutralized chemical reaction. Then, 0.1% Gd was loaded into the LS. This Gd-loaded DIN-based LS using a solvent-solvent extraction method is the first attempt at a LS. In this study, we investigated the physical and the optical properties of this LS, and we will summarize all the characteristics of the Gd-loaded DIN-based LS.

  5. Dinámica de planetas extrasolares resonantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauge, C.

    Actualmente se han detectado 117 planetas alrededor de estrellas de Secuencia Principal, incluyendo 12 sistemas planetarios, cada uno con dos o tres miembros. De estos últimos, ocho poseen planetas en órbitas próximas y sus perturbaciones gravitacionales se convierten en un factor fundamental para la estabilidad orbital del sistema. Todos se encuentran en configuraciones resonantes, desde la conmensurabilidad de movimientos 2/1 de Gliese 876, hasta la resonancia secular de Ups And. En esta presentación analizamos varios aspectos de la dinámica resonante de los planetas extrasolares, incluyendo la existencia de soluciones de equilibrio, construcción de modelos analógicos y métodos para la determinación de masas individuales. También discutimos por qué las resonancias son tan frecuentes en estos sistemas, comparado con nuestro propio Sistema Solar. Por último, intentamos relacionar estos modelos con la hipótesis de migración planetaria, buscando límites en su extensión y en los posibles mecanismos que le dieron origen.

  6. Discrimination against major groove adducts by Y-family polymerases of the DinB subfamily.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jason M; Ippoliti, Paul J; Ronayne, Erin A; Rozners, Eriks; Beuning, Penny J

    2013-09-01

    Y-family DNA polymerases bypass DNA adducts in a process known as translesion synthesis (TLS). Y-family polymerases make contacts with the minor groove side of the DNA substrate at the nascent base pair. The Y-family polymerases also contact the DNA major groove via the unique little finger domain, but they generally lack contacts with the major groove at the nascent base pair. Escherichia coli DinB efficiently and accurately copies certain minor groove guanosine adducts. In contrast, we previously showed that the presence in the DNA template of the major groove-modified base 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenothiazine (tC) inhibits the activity of E. coli DinB. Even when the DNA primer is extended up to three nucleotides beyond the site of the tC analog, DinB activity is strongly inhibited. These findings prompted us to investigate discrimination against other major groove modifications by DinB and its orthologs. We chose a set of pyrimidines and purines with modifications in the major groove and determined the activity of DinB and several orthologs with these substrates. DinB, human pol kappa, and Sulfolobus solfataricus Dpo4 show differing specificities for the major groove adducts pyrrolo-dC, dP, N(6)-furfuryl-dA, and etheno-dA. In general, DinB was least efficient for bypass of all of these major groove adducts, whereas Dpo4 was most efficient. DinB activity was essentially completely inhibited by the presence of etheno-dA, while pol kappa activity was strongly inhibited. All three of these DNA polymerases were able to bypass N(6)-furfuryl-dA with modest efficiency, with DinB being the least efficient. We also determined that the R35A variant of DinB enhances bypass of N(6)-furfuryl-dA but not etheno-dA. In sum, we find that whereas DinB is specific for bypass of minor groove adducts, it is specifically inhibited by major groove DNA modifications.

  7. Paradoxical bronchospasm from benzalkonium chloride (BAC) preservative in albuterol nebulizer solution in a patient with acute severe asthma. A case report and literature review of airway effects of BAC.

    PubMed

    George, Mathew; Joshi, Saumya Vinod; Concepcion, Emily; Lee, Haesoon

    2017-01-01

    Nebulized bronchodilator solutions are available in the United States as both nonsterile and sterile-filled products. Sulfites, benzalkonium chloride (BAC), or chlorobutanol are added to nonsterile products to prevent bacterial growth. Bronchoconstriction from inhaled BAC is cumulative, prolonged, and correlates directly with basal airway responsiveness. The multi-dose dropper bottle of albuterol sulfate solution contains 50 μg BAC per/2.5 mg of albuterol, which may be below or at the lower limit of the threshold dose for bronchoconstriction. However, with repeated albuterol nebulization, the effect can be additive and cumulative, often exceeding the bronchoconstriction threshold. We report a case of a 17 years old patient, who received 32 mg of BAC via nebulization over a period of 3.5 days that probably caused persistent bronchospasm evidenced by failure to improve clinically and to increase peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) from 125 L/min (27% of predicted value) to 300 L/min (68% of predicted value) within 2 hours of withdrawing BAC. The patient's respiratory status and PEFR improved dramatically once the nebulization solution was switched to BAC free lev-albuterol solution. The pediatric providers, particularly the emergency department physicians, intensivists and pulmonologists need to be aware of this rare albeit possible toxicity to the respiratory system caused by BAC used as a preservative in albuterol nebulizer solution.

  8. The Escherichia coli SOS gene dinF protects against oxidative stress and bile salts.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Beltrán, Jerónimo; Rodríguez-Rojas, Alexandro; Guelfo, Javier R; Couce, Alejandro; Blázquez, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    DNA is constantly damaged by physical and chemical factors, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide radical (O(2)(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and hydroxyl radical (•OH). Specific mechanisms to protect and repair DNA lesions produced by ROS have been developed in living beings. In Escherichia coli the SOS system, an inducible response activated to rescue cells from severe DNA damage, is a network that regulates the expression of more than 40 genes in response to this damage, many of them playing important roles in DNA damage tolerance mechanisms. Although the function of most of these genes has been elucidated, the activity of some others, such as dinF, remains unknown. The DinF deduced polypeptide sequence shows a high homology with membrane proteins of the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family. We describe here that expression of dinF protects against bile salts, probably by decreasing the effects of ROS, which is consistent with the observed decrease in H(2)O(2)-killing and protein carbonylation. These results, together with its ability to decrease the level of intracellular ROS, suggests that DinF can detoxify, either direct or indirectly, oxidizing molecules that can damage DNA and proteins from both the bacterial metabolism and the environment. Although the exact mechanism of DinF activity remains to be identified, we describe for the first time a role for dinF.

  9. Trace element determination in seawater by ICP-SFMS coupled with a microflow nebulization/desolvation system.

    PubMed

    Turetta, Clara; Cozzi, Giulio; Barbante, Carlo; Capodaglio, Gabriele; Cescon, Paolo

    2004-09-01

    Direct and simultaneous determination of Al, Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sb, U, V and Zn in diluted (1:10 v:v) seawater from the Antarctic Ocean and the Venice Lagoon at the ng mL(-1) and pg mL(-1) level has been performed by using an inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometer (ICP-SFMS). Samples were analysed by using a PFA microflow nebulizer coupled with a desolvation system or a PFA microflow nebulizer coupled with a Teflon spray chamber, respectively. Measurements were carried out at low (LR, m/Delta m=300), medium (MR, m/Delta m=3,000) and high (HR, m/Delta m=7,500) resolutions depending on the studied isotope. To avoid contamination, sample pre-treatment was carried out in a clean laboratory equipped with a Class 100 vertical laminar flow hood. Concentration ranges (minimum-maximum in ng mL(-1)) found in the Antarctic seawater samples (in depth profiles) were: Ag 0.0004-0.0018, As 0.69-1.32, Cd 0.031-0.096, Co 0.018-0.065, Cr 0.18-0.46, Cu 0.04-1.58, Fe 0.13-1.63, Mn 0.02-0.12, Mo 5.97-12.46, Pb 0.007-0.074, Sb 0.033-0.088, U 0.5-1.9, V 0.6-2.5 and Zn 0.16-0.80. Concentration ranges (min-max in ng mL(-1)) found in the Venice Lagoon water samples (temporal profile from a benthic chamber experiment) were: Al 0.24-0.61, Ag 0.007-0.031, As 1.42-2.27, Cd 0.050-0.182, Co 0.440-1.461, Cr 0.15-0.34, Cu 0.81-2.46, Fe 0.25-1.66, Mn 11.6-31.7, Mo 6.50-10.6, Pb 0.047-0.225, Sb 0.240-0.492, U 1.7-3.3, V 1.3-2.8 and Zn 5.20-21.5. The detection limits range between 0.06 pg mL(-1) for Ag and U to 15 pg mL(-1) for Fe. In order to check the accuracy of the analytical procedure, measurements of the trace elements in a certified reference material (coastal Atlantic seawater, CASS-4-NRCC) were compared with the certified values. In addition, the results from the Antarctic and Venice Lagoon samples were compared with those obtained by using different analytical techniques.

  10. Investigation of a combined microdroplet generator and pneumatic nebulization system for quantitative determination of metal-containing nanoparticles using ICPMS.

    PubMed

    Ramkorun-Schmidt, Benita; Pergantis, Spiros A; Esteban-Fernández, Diego; Jakubowski, Norbert; Günther, Detlef

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a routinely applicable approach is presented to characterize metal NPs. Individual droplets generated from a microdroplet generator (MDG) were merged into an aerosol generated by a pneumatic nebulizer (PN) and introduced into an ICPMS. The MDG offers high transport efficiency of individual and discrete droplets and was therefore used to establish a calibration function for mass quantification of NPs which were introduced through the PN following the single particle procedure as described elsewhere. The major advantages of such a combined configuration include fast processing of large sample volumes, fast exchanges of different sample matrixes, and the calibration of the NP signal using traceable elemental standards, thus avoiding the need to use NP reference materials or other, not always thoroughly characterized, commercially available NPs. The transport efficiency of the sample introduction is calculated based on the fact that 100% of the calibrant reaches the plasma through the MDG, whereas for the PN a NP suspension containing a known number concentration is used. Alternatively, bulk analysis of the NP material allows transport efficiency determination without any additional information from reference NPs. With this method, we could determine the size of standard silver NPs at 60.4 ± 1.0 nm and 80.0 ± 1.4 nm, respectively, which agrees with the size ranges given by the supplier (60.8 ± 6.6 nm and 79.8 ± 5.4 nm). Furthermore, we were also able to determine the NPs number concentration of the sample (Ag/Au) with a deviation of 3.2% the expected value.

  11. Levodropropizine (LD) activity in allergic asthmatic patients, challenged with ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, metacholine and allergen-induced bronchospasm.

    PubMed

    Bossi, R; Banfi, P; Filipazzi, V; Castelli, C; Braga, P C

    1994-04-01

    The antitussive compound Levodropropizine (LD) is active in animal bronchoconstriction induced by histamine and capsaicin and in man protects from bronchoconstriction induced by capsaicin. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of action of LD given at 60 mg t.i.d. as oral drops, for 8 days by means of specific bronchial challenges (allergens) and of aspecific challenges acting via different receptors and fibers (i.e. metacholine via cholinergic receptors and ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (UNDW) via histamine and neuropeptide release). The study design is randomized, double-blind, cross-over versus placebo in 30 allergic asthmatic patients. Baseline bronchial tone and bronchoconstrictor response to metacholine (MCh) were not modified by active treatment nor by placebo. On the contrary, in airway responsiveness to UNDW, the active treatment showed an antagonist effect against induced bronchoconstriction of 59% [activity ratio (AR) as antilog = 0.41; 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.54; p < or = 0.05] in comparison to no effect for placebo. Similarly, in airway responsiveness to specific allergen, active treatment antagonized the bronchoconstrictor effect of grass pollen by 83% and of various allergens (dermatophagoides and grass pollen) by 72%, i.e. AR of 0.17 (95% confidence interval 0.045-0.65; p < 0.01) and of 0.28 (95% confidence interval 0.07-1.04; p < 0.05), respectively. No antagonist effect was evident with placebo at all times. Besides inhibiting cough, LD is also partially effective in inhibiting bronchial hyperreactive response against specific allergen and UNDW bronchoconstriction. Hence, LD might act by partly inhibiting histamine and neuropeptide release.

  12. Apportioning riverine DIN load to export coefficients of land uses in an urbanized watershed.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yu-Ting; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Huang, Jr-Chuan; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Chang

    2016-08-01

    The apportionment of riverine dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) load to individual land use on a watershed scale demands the support of accurate DIN load estimation and differentiation of point and non-point sources, but both of them are rarely quantitatively determined in small montane watersheds. We introduced the Danshui River watershed of Taiwan, a mountainous urbanized watershed, to determine the export coefficients via a reverse Monte Carlo approach from riverine DIN load. The results showed that the dynamics of N fluctuation determines the load estimation method and sampling frequency. On a monthly sampling frequency basis, the average load estimation of the methods (GM, FW, and LI) outperformed that of individual method. Export coefficient analysis showed that the forest DIN yield of 521.5kg-Nkm(-2)yr(-1) was ~2.7-fold higher than the global riverine DIN yield (mainly from temperate large rivers with various land use compositions). Such a high yield was attributable to high rainfall and atmospheric N deposition. The export coefficient of agriculture was disproportionately larger than forest suggesting that a small replacement of forest to agriculture could lead to considerable change of DIN load. The analysis of differentiation between point and non-point sources showed that the untreated wastewater (non-point source), accounting for ~93% of the total human-associated wastewater, resulted in a high export coefficient of urban. The inclusion of the treated and untreated wastewater completes the N budget of wastewater. The export coefficient approach serves well to assess the riverine DIN load and to improve the understanding of N cascade.

  13. Iron Sucrose Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Iron sucrose injection is used treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Iron sucrose injection is in a class of medications called iron ...

  14. Antigen injection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Leprosy is caused by the organism Mycobacterium leprae . The leprosy test involves injection of an antigen just under ... if your body has a current or recent leprosy infection. The injection site is labeled and examined ...

  15. Corticotropin, Repository Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... age; episodes of symptoms in people who have multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which the nerves do ... When corticotropin repository injection is used to treat multiple sclerosis, it is usually injected once a day for ...

  16. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  17. Amphotericin B Liposomal Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Amphotericin B liposomal injection is used to treat fungal infections such as cryptococcal meningitis (a fungal infection of the ... infections in people who cannot receive conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B liposomal injection is in a ...

  18. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to ...

  19. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    Intrinsic sphincter deficiency repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... Urine leakage that gets worse Pain where the injection was done Allergic reaction to the material Implant ...

  20. Slit injection device

    DOEpatents

    Alger, Terry W.; Schlitt, Leland G.; Bradley, Laird P.

    1976-06-15

    A laser cavity electron beam injection device provided with a single elongated slit window for passing a suitably shaped electron beam and means for varying the current density of the injected electron beam.

  1. Hip joint injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007633.htm Hip joint injection To use the sharing features on this ... injection is a shot of medicine into the hip joint. The medicine helps relieve pain and inflammation. It ...

  2. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  3. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  4. Rich catalytic injection

    DOEpatents

    Veninger, Albert

    2008-12-30

    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  5. Beam injection into RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, W.

    1997-07-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam.

  6. Strategies for safe injections.

    PubMed Central

    Battersby, A.; Feilden, R.; Stoeckel, P.; Da Silva, A.; Nelson, C.; Bass, A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, faced with growing international concern, WHO set out an approach for achieving injection safety that encompassed all elements from patients' expectations and doctors' prescribing habits to waste disposal. This article follows that lead and describes the implications of the approach for two injection technologies: sterilizable and disposable. It argues that focusing on any single technology diverts attention from the more fundamental need for health services to develop their own comprehensive strategies for safe injections. National health authorities will only be able to ensure that injections are administered safely if they take an approach that encompasses the whole system, and choose injection technologies that fit their circumstances. PMID:10680247

  7. Ultrasonic nebulization extraction-heating gas flow transfer-headspace single drop microextraction of essential oil from pericarp of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shigang; Zhang, Huihui; Wang, Yeqiang; Wang, Lu; Li, Xueyuan; Wang, Yinghua; Zhang, Hanqi; Xu, Xu; Shi, Yuhua

    2011-07-22

    The ultrasonic nebulization extraction-heating gas flow transfer coupled with headspace single drop microextraction (UNE-HGFT-HS-SDME) was developed for the extraction of essential oil from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied to the determination of the constituents in the essential oil. The contents of the constituents from essential oil obtained by the proposed method were found to be more similar to those obtained by hydro-distillation (HD) than those obtained by ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction (UNE-HS-SDME). The heating gas flow was firstly used in the analysis of the essential oil to transfer the analytes from the headspace to the solvent microdrop. The relative standard deviations for determining the five major constituents were in the range from 1.5 to 6.7%. The proposed method is a fast, sensitive, low cost and small sample consumption method for the determination of the volatile and semivolatile constituents in the plant materials.

  8. Effect of heavy-equipment aided environmental nebulization on Aedes aegypti vectors of Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Piovezan, R; Acorinthe, J Paulo O; Visockas, A; de Azevedo, T S; Von Zuben, C J

    2016-12-15

    The control of dengue constitutes a great challenge for public health; however, the methods normally used have shown themselves to be insufficient to keep the indices of infestation of Aedes aegypti under control. Recently, beyond the large number of cases and deaths associated with dengue, new risks have arisen such as those represented by chikungunya fever and Zika. In the light of the great significance of these problems within the public health context, two areas in a municipality in the interior of the State of São Paulo, Brazil were selected in 2014. One of them, Bairro Cidade Nova, was submitted to the conventional method of nebulization with portable equipment, and the other, Bairro Jardim Europa, received the application of the insecticide by means of heavy-equipment coupled to the vehicle. During the project, 1355 mosquito eggs were collected, 1105 of them in Bairro Cidade Nova and 205 in Bairro Jardim Europa. After the applications with heavy-equipment in the months of March and April, the number of cases of the disease reported in the month of April for Bairro Jardim Europa was less than half that of Bairro Cidade Nova, which had received the conventional treatment. The nebulization with the heavy-equipment may constitute a viable and effective strategy for achieving better results in the control of Ae. aegypti.

  9. The Effect of Diluted Penetration Enhancer in Nebulized Mist versus Liquid Drop Preparation Forms on Retrobulbar Blood Flow in Healthy Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Primus, Sally; Januleviciene, Ingrida; Siesky, Brent; Gerber, Austin; Egan, Patrick; Amireskandari, Annahita; Siaudvytyte, Lina; Barsauskaite, Ruta; Harris, Alon

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of nebulized mist and liquid drop applications on retrobulbar blood flow. A prospective, non-randomized clinical trial was used to collect data from 40 healthy human eyes. Color Doppler Imaging determined peak systolic (PSV) and end diastolic (EDV) blood flow velocities and resistance index (RI) in the ophthalmic artery after both applications. Measurements were taken at baseline and at 1 min post-treatment in both eyes with 5 min measurements in the treatment eye only. p values ≤ 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Mist application to treatment eye produced an increase in 1 min and 5 min PSV and EDV (0.001 < p < 0.03) and a decrease in 5 min RI (p = 0.01), with no significant changes in PSV, EDV or RI of control eye or in treatment eye 1 min RI (p > 0.05). Drop application to treatment eye produced an increase in PSV (p < 0.001) and EDV (p = 0.01) at 1 min, with an increase in control eye 1 min PSV and EDV (p = 0.03). There were no statistically significant changes in treatment eye PSV, EDV and RI after 5 min (p > 0.05). The use of nebulized mist may provide an effective alternative to liquid drop medication application. PMID:24300298

  10. Estudio dinámico de un potencial perturbador dependiente de dos parámetros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; Brunini, A.

    El objeto del presente trabajo consiste en el estudio dinámico de un sistema dinámico caracterizado por la función hamiltoniana correspondiente a un satélite planetario perturbado por la acción del Sol y del achatamiento del planeta madre. Cuando dicha Hamiltoniana se promedia respecto de los términos de corto período, esta queda con dos grados de libertad, y su estudio puede ser realizado con las herramientas clásicas de la dinámica no-lineal. Se tratará de determinar regiones regulares y caóticas de movimiento. En el caso de estas últimas, es de particular interés la determinación de su orígen.

  11. Redox control of the DNA damage-inducible protein DinG helicase activity via its iron-sulfur cluster.

    PubMed

    Ren, Binbin; Duan, Xuewu; Ding, Huangen

    2009-02-20

    The Escherichia coli DNA damage-inducible protein DinG, a member of the superfamily 2 DNA helicases, has been implicated in the nucleotide excision repair and recombinational DNA repair pathways. Combining UV-visible absorption, EPR, and enzyme activity measurements, we demonstrate here that E. coli DinG contains a redox-active [4Fe-4S] cluster with a midpoint redox potential (E(m)) of -390 +/- 23 mV (pH 8.0) and that reduction of the [4Fe-4S] cluster reversibly switches off the DinG helicase activity. Unlike the [4Fe-4S] cluster in E. coli dihydroxyacid dehydratase, the DinG [4Fe-4S] cluster is stable, and the enzyme remains fully active after exposure to 100-fold excess of hydrogen peroxide, indicating that DinG could be functional under oxidative stress conditions. However, the DinG [4Fe-4S] cluster can be efficiently modified by nitric oxide (NO), forming the DinG-bound dinitrosyl iron complex with the concomitant inactivation of helicase activity in vitro and in vivo. Reassembly of the [4Fe-4S] cluster in NO-modified DinG restores helicase activity, indicating that the iron-sulfur cluster in DinG is the primary target of NO cytotoxicity. The results led us to propose that the iron-sulfur cluster in DinG may act as a sensor of intracellular redox potential to modulate its helicase activity and that modification of the iron-sulfur cluster in DinG and likely in other DNA repair enzymes by NO may contribute to NO-mediated genomic instability.

  12. Fuel injection apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Omori, T.; Sakakibara, S.; Kato, M.; Masuda, A.

    1986-06-10

    A fuel injection apparatus is described for supplying fuel from a fuel tank to at least one combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, comprising: an injector housing defining therein a pressure cylinder bore, an injection cylinder bore and a timing cylinder bore connected in series with the pressure cylinder bore; a pressure plunger, fitted in the pressure cylinder bore and having one end defining, in the pressure cylinder bore, a pressure pump chamber communicating with the injection cylinder bore and the timing cylinder bore; first fuel supply means for supplying fuel from the fuel tank to the pressure pump chamber; pressurizing means for reciprocating the pressure plunger in the pressure cylinder bore in synchronism with the engine operation so as to pressurize fuel in the pressure pump chamber; an injection plunger, having a diameter smaller than the pressure plunger, fitted in the injection cylinder bore and having two ends defining, in the injection cylinder bore, an injection pump chamber and a first communicating chamber communicating with the pressure pump chamber; second fuel supply means for adjusting the quantity of the fuel from the fuel tank in accordance with engine operation conditions so as to supply the adjusted fuel quantity to the injection pump chamber; injection valve means for injecting the fuel into the fuel pump chamber toward a combustion chamber of the engine when the pressure in the pressure pump chamber is applied to the injection plunger through the first communicating chamber, and the fuel pressure in the injection pump chamber reaches a predetermined injection pressure.

  13. Epidural injections for back pain

    MedlinePlus

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... pillow under your stomach. If this position causes pain, you either sit up or lie on your ...

  14. Injection-water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, C.C. )

    1990-10-01

    Ideally, injection water should enter the reservoir free of suspended solids or oil. It should also be compatible with the reservoir rock and fluids and would be sterile and nonscaling. This paper discusses how the objective of any water-injection operation is to inject water into the reservoir rock without plugging or permeability reduction from particulates, dispersed oil, scale formation, bacterial growth, or clay swelling. In addition, souring of sweet reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria should be prevented if possible.

  15. [Stability of liensinine injection].

    PubMed

    Hu, X M; Zhou, B H; Luo, S D

    1993-06-01

    The stability of liensinine injection was studied by accelarating test with classical isothermal method. Results of the study showed that the decomposition of the injection was found to be a first-order reaction. The activation energy was 75030 J.mol-1. The shelf life at 10 degrees C and 25 degrees C was predicted to be about 15 months and 3 months respectively. This experiment provides a reference for the storage of the injection.

  16. Nebulizer use - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , editorial process and privacy policy . A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  17. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    MedlinePlus

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox-larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography-guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy- ...

  18. Underground Injection Control (UIC)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provide information on: individual injection well classes; regulations specific to each well class; technical guidance; compliance assistance; federal, state, and tribal/territory roles and responsibilities.

  19. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  20. A novel cis-acting element required for DNA damage-inducible expression of yeast DIN7

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshitani, Ayako; Yoshida, Minoru; Ling Feng

    2008-01-04

    Din7 is a DNA damage-inducible mitochondrial nuclease that modulates the stability of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. How DIN7 gene expression is regulated, however, has remained largely unclear. Using promoter sequence alignment, we found a highly conserved 19-bp sequence in the promoter regions of DIN7 and NTG1, which encodes an oxidative stress-inducible base-excision-repair enzyme. Deletion of the 19-bp sequence markedly reduced the hydroxyurea (HU)-enhanced DIN7 promoter activity. In addition, nuclear fractions prepared from HU-treated cells were used in in vitro band shift assays to reveal the presence of currently unidentified trans-acting factor(s) that preferentially bound to the 19-bp region. These results suggest that the 19-bp sequence is a novel cis-acting element that is required for the regulation of DIN7 expression in response to HU-induced DNA damage.

  1. Estimation of the formation rates of polyatomic species of heavy metals in plutonium analyses using a multicollector ICP-MS with a desolvating nebulizer

    SciTech Connect

    Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Olsen, Khris B.; Thomas, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    The analyses of IAEA and environmental samples for Plutonium isotopic content are conducted normally at very low concentrations of Pu–usually in the range of part per trillion level and even more often at the parts per quadrillion level. To analyze such low concentrations, the interferences in the analytical solution must be reduced as much as possible. Polyatomic interferences (PIs), formed by the heavy metals (HMs) from Hf to Bi are known to create the problems for Pu isotopic analyses, because even the relatively high resolution of a modern multicollector ICP-MS is not enough to separate Pu isotopes from this PIs in most of the cases. Desolvating nebulizers (DSN) (e.g. APEX and AridusII) reduce significantly the formation of PIs compare to the use of wet plasma. The purpose of this work was to investigate the rate of formation of PIs, produced by HMs, when high resolution MC ICP-MS with desolvating nebulizer was used for Pu isotopic analyses and to estimate the influence of the metals present in the sample on the results of analyses. The NU Plasma HR Multicollector and AridusII desolvating nebulizer were used in this investigation. This investigation was done for all Pu isotopes normally analyzed by ICP-MS, including ²⁴⁴Pu, with the exception of ²³⁸Pu, which most of the time can’t be analyzed by ICP-MS, because of the overwhelming presence of ²³⁸U in the solutions. The PI formation rates were determined and reported for all 12 HMs from Hf to Bi. Selected IAEA samples were scanned for the presence of HMs and the influence of HMs on the results of Pu isotopic analyses was evaluated. It was found that the implemented separation procedure provides sufficient separation of HM from Pu, although the effect of PIs on the measurement of low level isotopes like ²⁴¹Pu and ²⁴²Pu in some cases can still be observed.

  2. Connection and Community: Diné College Emphasizes Real-World Experience in Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Summer Research Enhancement Program (SREP) at Diné College provides students with a solid foundation of public health research methods and includes a hands-on internship in their home community to test their newly acquired skills while enhancing the communities' health. Focusing on health issues prioritized by Navajo health leaders, from…

  3. Gas injected vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Hardin, K. Dan

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a gas injected vacuum switch comprising a housing having an interior chamber, a conduit for evacuating the interior chamber, within the chamber an anode and a cathode spaced from the anode, and a detonator for injecting electrically conductive gas into the chamber between the anode and the cathode to provide a current path therebetween.

  4. Injection rate control cam

    SciTech Connect

    Perr, J.P.; Liang, E.; Yu, R.C.; Ghuman, A.S.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a cam for controlling the injection rate of fuel in a fuel injection system of an engine. The fuel injection system including a cyclically operating unit injector having a body, an injector plunger mounted for reciprocating movement in the injector body between an advanced position and a retracted portion to pump into the engine during each cycle a variable quantity of fuel up to a maximum quantity under rated engine conditions, and a drive train for converting rotational movement of the cam into reciprocating movement of the pumping plunger depending on the profile of the cam. The cam profile comprises at least a plunger retraction segment and a plunger advancement segment for controlling the velocity if injector plunger retraction and advancement, respectively, the plunger advancement segment including a pre-injection subsequent shaped to cause an initial quantity of fuel to be injected into the engine during each cycle at rated engine conditions while the pre-injection subsegment is in contact with the drive train, and an injection subsegment following the pre-injection subsegment.

  5. Health Instruction Packages: Injections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkleman, Ellie; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of four learning modules designed to instruct nursing students in techniques and equipment utilized for intramuscular injections. The first module, "Equipment for Intramuscular Injections" by Ellie Dunkleman, presents guidelines for selecting needles of the proper length and…

  6. Improvement of HSPF watershed model in plant uptake and DIN export from forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Linker, L. C.

    2001-12-01

    Correct simulation of nutrient export in response to flow is important in watershed models. In HSPF, plant uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) affects the export of DIN from sloped soil layers to a stream. Plant uptake depends on soil moisture. When moisture is deficient, increasing moisture may increase mass uptake; when moisture is over-sufficient, increasing moisture may dilute solution concentrations and decrease mass uptake in unit time. Detailed analysis of the effect of moisture on plant uptake and DIN export is presented. The two different relationships of soil moisture and uptake can be simulated by using the Michaelis-Menton saturation kinetics with two different mechanisms by applying different units of the maximum plant uptake rate, respectively. HSPF version 11 uses a single mechanism for all ranges of moisture conditions. This paper firstly compares two methods in plant uptakes. 1) The HSPF version 11 uses concentration (per unit time) as the unit of maximum uptake rate, which results in higher uptake in higher moisture conditions. It is good in moisture deficient condition, but is not good for moisture over-sufficient condition and results in some strange high DIN loads in some moderate low flow days. 2) The Alternative Method uses mass (per unit area per unit time) as the unit of maximum uptake rate, which is good in moisture sufficient condition and results in a better DIN load-flow relationship, because significant DIN load is usually associated with excessive moisture conditions. However, it overestimates uptake in moisture deficient condition and slightly underestimates DIN load associated with some very low flows. A sensitivity analysis is conducted with different precipitation factors to generate different flows. The HSPF version 11 yields lower yearly loads in the runs with greater precipitation factors, whereas, the Alternative Method yields higher load in the runs with greater factors. Overall, the Alternative Method provides

  7. Ultrasonic nebulization extraction assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography for the simultaneous determination of six parabens in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongmin; Yang, Jinjuan; Zhang, Hanqi; Shi, Yuhua

    2014-09-01

    A simple, rapid, and efficient method of ultrasonic nebulization extraction assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the simultaneous determination of six parabens in cosmetic products. The analysis was carried out by gas chromatography. Water was used as the dispersive solvent instead of traditional organic disperser. The experimental factors affecting the extraction yield, such as the extraction solvent and volume, extraction time, dispersive solvent and volume, ionic strength, and centrifuging condition were studied and optimized in detail. The limit of detections for the target analytes were in the range of 2.0-9.5 μg/g. Good linear ranges were obtained with the coefficients ranging from 0.9934 to 0.9969. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of six parabens in 16 cosmetic products. The recoveries of the target analytes in real samples ranged from 81.9 to 108.7%, and the relative standard deviations were <5.3%.

  8. Metal-insulator transition characteristics of vanadium dioxide thin films synthesized by ultrasonic nebulized spray pyrolysis of an aqueous combustion mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathi, R.; Naorem, Rameshwari; Umarji, A. M.

    2015-08-01

    We report the synthesis of high quality vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films by a novel spray pyrolysis technique, namely ultrasonic nebulized spray pyrolysis of aqueous combustion mixture (UNSPACM). This simple and cost effective two step process involves synthesis of a V2O5 film on an LaAlO3 substrate followed by a controlled reduction to form single phase VO2. The formation of M1 phase (P21/c) is confirmed by Raman spectroscopic studies. A thermally activated metal-insulator transition (MIT) was observed at 61 ^\\circ C, where the resistivity changes by four orders of magnitude. Activation energies for the low conduction phase and the high conduction phase were obtained from temperature variable resistance measurements. The infrared spectra also show a dramatic change in reflectance from 13% to over 90% in the wavelength range of 7-15 μ m. This indicates the suitability of the films for optical switching applications at infrared frequencies.

  9. Assessment of DInSAR Potential in Simulating Geological Subsurface Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouladi Moghaddam, N.; Rudiger, C.; Samsonov, S. V.; Hall, M.; Walker, J. P.; Camporese, M.

    2013-12-01

    High resolution geophysical surveys, including seismic, gravity, magnetic, etc., provide valuable information about subsurface structuring but they are very costly and time consuming with non-unique and sometimes conflicting interpretations. Several recent studies have examined the application of DInSAR to estimate surface deformation, monitor possible fault reactivation and constrain reservoir dynamic behaviour in geothermal and groundwater fields. The main focus of these studies was to generate an elevation map, which represents the reservoir extraction induced deformation. This research study, however, will focus on developing methods to simulate subsurface structuring and identify hidden faults/hydraulic barriers using DInSAR surface observations, as an innovative and cost-effective reconnaissance exploration tool for planning of seismic acquisition surveys in geothermal and Carbon Capture and Sequestration regions. By direct integration of various DInSAR datasets with overlapping temporal and spatial coverage we produce multi-temporal ground deformation maps with high resolution and precision to evaluate the potential of a new multidimensional MSBAS technique (Samsonov & d'Oreye, 2012). The technique is based on the Small Baseline Subset Algorithm (SBAS) that is modified to account for variation in sensor parameters. It allows integration of data from sensors with different wave-band, azimuth and incidence angles, different spatial and temporal sampling and resolutions. These deformation maps then will be used as an input for inverse modelling to simulate strain history and shallow depth structure. To achieve the main objective of our research, i.e. developing a method for coupled InSAR and geophysical observations and better understanding of subsurface structuring, comparing DInSAR inverse modelling results with previously provided static structural model will result in iteratively modified DInSAR structural model for adequate match with in situ observations

  10. Straightforward way to enhance robustness in ultrasonic nebulization-axial view inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry via an additional N2 gas stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffler, Guilherme Luiz; Pozebon, Dirce

    2015-11-01

    In the present study a low flow of N2 is mixed with the aerosol produced by ultrasonic nebulization (USN) prior analysis using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). The foreign gas is added for improving plasma characteristics in axially-viewed ICP. By computing the Mg ionic to atomic ratio (plasma robustness) it was concluded that N2 dissociates closer to the load coil when USN is used as sample introduction system. The maximum emission intensity of Mg(II) for pneumatic nebulization (PN) was observed at 11 mm from the load coil while it was 8 mm for USN, indicating earlier aerosol desolvation, atomization and excitation processes in the ICP. Emission profiles of Ar(I) 415.861 nm, Ba(II) 486.601 nm and Ba(II) 233.527 nm indicated that metastable Ar species are overpopulated in the ICP under the N2 flow. Copper and manganese ionic lines with energy close to 16 eV (Ar ionization) were monitored to evaluate spatially dependent charge-transfer reaction along the ICP axis in the presence and absence of the N2 flow. The Cu(II) signal profiles indicated abundance of Ar+ species at low distances from the load coil when N2 was added. On the other hand, differences were not observed at longer distances from the load coil for both plasmas (mixed-gas and pure Ar-ICP). The calculated limits of detection (LODs) for both plasmas had the same order of magnitude. Analysis of certified reference samples demonstrated that the accuracy was preserved by adding the low flow of N2. It was concluded that adding a low flow of N2 to the aerosol produced by USN is a simple way to increase plasma robustness, which is usually lower than that achieved using conventional PN.

  11. THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  12. Common injections in musculoskeletal medicine.

    PubMed

    Monseau, Aaron J; Nizran, Parminder Singh

    2013-12-01

    Musculoskeletal injections are a common procedure in primary care and sports medicine but can be intimidating for some clinicians. This article addresses current evidence for corticosteroid injections, and common injection indications and techniques, namely knee, subacromial bursa, glenohumeral joint, lateral epicondyle, de Quervain tenosynovitis, and greater trochanteric bursa injections. Preparation for injections and some evidence for ultrasound guidance are also reviewed.

  13. [Reform of the Law DIN EN ISO 9001:2000. Commentary on the new requirements on quality management systems].

    PubMed

    Eckert, H; Böhmer, K

    2000-09-01

    Since January this year the German translation of the third draft to the reform of the DIN EN ISO 9000 is available. The draft reveals an approximation to the models of Business Excellence. Most important changes are a far stronger customer orientation, orientation on the processes and resource management. The norms DIN EN ISO 9002 and 9003 have been removed, ISO 8402 has been integrated in the reformed DIN EN ISO 9000. Apart from that the compatibility with other management systems has been improved. It was the aim of the reform to improve the applicability for all types of business, products and services.

  14. OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... years of age and older; treat severe underarm sweating in people 18 years of age and older ... the muscle. When onabotulinumtoxinA is injected into a sweat gland, it decreases the activity of the gland ...

  15. Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease (a thickening of tissue [plaque] inside the penis that causes the penis to curve). Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is in ... the plaque of thickened tissue and allows the penis to be straightened.

  16. Sipuleucel-T Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. It is usually given once every 2 ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for about 30 minutes afterwards. A doctor ...

  17. Albumin injection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a nuclear scan test that is performed to measure the supply of blood through the lungs. After the injection, the lungs are scanned to detect the location of the radioactive particles as blood flows through the lungs.

  18. Talimogene Laherparepvec Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Talimogene laherparepvec injection is used to treat certain melanoma (a type of skin cancer) tumors that cannot ... had radiation treatment in the area of the melanoma tumors, multiple myeloma (cancer of the plasma cells ...

  19. Iron Dextran Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the area where the medication was injected brown skin discoloration numbness, burning, or tingling in the arms, hands, feet, or legs sweating changes in taste Some side effects can be serious. If you experience these symptoms ...

  20. Supersonic Pulsed Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, A. D.; Harding, G. C.; Diskin, G. S.

    2001-01-01

    An injector has been developed to provide high-speed high-frequency (order 10 kHz) pulsed a supersonic crossflow. The injector nozzle is formed between the fixed internal surface of the nozzle and a freely rotating three- or four-sided wheel embedded within the device. Flow-induced rotation of the wheel causes the nozzle throat to open and close at a frequency proportional to the speed of sound of the injected gas. Measurements of frequency and mass flow rate as a function of supply pressure are discussed for various injector designs. Preliminary results are presented for wall-normal injection of helium into a Mach-2 ducted airflow. The data include schlieren images in the injectant plume in a plane normal to the flow, downstream of injection.

  1. Co-trimoxazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria such as infection of the intestine, lungs (pneumonia), ... of medications called sulfonamides. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as co-trimoxazole injection will not ...

  2. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  3. Premixed direct injection disk

    SciTech Connect

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  4. Epoetin Alfa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery to decrease the chance that blood transfusions (transfer of one person's blood to another person's body) ... wheezing difficulty breathing or swallowing hoarseness lack of energy dizziness fainting Epoetin alfa injection may cause other ...

  5. AbobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the area of injection and cause symptoms of botulism, including severe or life-threatening difficulty breathing or ... effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch ...

  6. RimabotulinumtoxinB Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the area of injection and cause symptoms of botulism, including severe or life-threatening difficulty breathing or ... effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch ...

  7. IncobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the area of injection and cause symptoms of botulism, including severe or life threatening difficulty breathing or ... effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch ...

  8. Fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Herth, H.; Kraus, B.; Sautter, W.; Wessel, W.

    1983-03-15

    A fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine includes electromagnetic injection valves controlled by a fuel control unit which receives signals from a camshaft actuated switch, a position-dependent throttle transducer and an oxygen sensor. When the oxygen sensor changes output levels, the transmission of this information is delayed, by the action of a switching transistor controlled by a monostable multivibrator, for a period of time equal to the internal time constant of the multivibrator.

  9. Gas chromatograph injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, G. E.; Henderson, M. E.; Donaldson, R. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An injection system for a gas chromatograph is described which uses a small injector chamber (available in various configurations). The sample is placed in the chamber while the chamber is not under pressure and is not heated, and there is no chance of leakage caused by either pressure or heat. It is injected into the apparatus by changing the position of a valve and heating the chamber, and is volatilized and swept by a carrier gas into the analysis apparatus.

  10. Session 20: Injection Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, Susan

    1983-12-01

    The test program was initiated at the Raft River Geothermal Field in southern Idaho in September 1982. A series of eight short-term injection and backflow tests, followed by a long-term injection test, were conducted on one well in the field. Tracers were added during injection and monitored during backflow as well. The principal objective was to determine if tracers could be effectively used as a means to assess reservoir characteristics in a one-well test. The test program resulted in a unique data set which shows promise as a means to improve understanding of the reservoir characteristics. In December 1982, an RFP was issued to obtain an industrial partner to obtain follow-on data on the injection/backflow technique in a second field, and to study any alternate advanced concepts for injection testing which the industrial community might recommend. The East Mesa Geothermal Field was selected for the second test series. Two wells were utilized for testing, and a series of ten tests were conducted in July and August 1983, aimed principally at further evaluation of the injection/backflow technique.

  11. Fuel injection nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Tojo, S.; Arai, K.

    1986-07-22

    A fuel injection nozzle is described connected to a fuel injection pump to inject fuel into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine consisting of: a nozzle housing defining therein a fuel sump chamber, an injection hole communicating with the sump chamber and opened at the outer surface of the nozzle housing, a stepped cylinder bore having a smaller diameter bore section and a larger diameter bore section and a fuel passage communicating at one end with the sump chamber and at the other end with the smaller diameter bore section of the stepped cylinder bore; a stepped plunger fitted in the stepped cylinder bore and having a smaller diameter plunger section fitted into the smaller diameter bore section and a larger diameter plunger section fitted into the larger diameter bore section in which the smaller diameter bore section together with the end face of the smaller diameter plunger section defines a pump chamber communicating with the fuel passage and the larger diameter bore section together with the end face of the larger diameter plunger section defines a main fuel chamber into which a main fuel is supplied from the fuel injection pump; auxiliary fuel supply means for supplying an auxiliary fuel into the sump chamber and pump chamber through the fuel passage; valve means for opening and closing an injection hole; communication means for permitting the main fuel chamber to communicate with the fuel passage when the main fuel is supplied from the injection pump into the main fuel chamber to cause the stepped plunger to be moved a predetermined distance in a direction in which the auxiliary fuel in the pump chamber is pressurized.

  12. ALOS-PALSAR Performances on a Multiple Sensor DInSAR Scenario for Deformation Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Pablo; Arbiol, Roman; Pala, Vicenc

    2008-11-01

    The Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya (ICC) has developed its own DInSAR processing chain during the past years. Initial topographic interferometry applications have evolved into Multi Image Differential Interferometry (MI DInSAR) for terrain deformation monitoring purposes. The appearance of the JAXA's L-band sensor ALOS-PALSAR opens new possibilities to increase the amount of useful information which serve as input to these techniques and brings complementarity to the already successful C-band missions as ESA's ERS and ENVISAT. In the frame of deformation monitoring, PALSAR benefits and L-C band combination strategies are here investigated. L-band coherence enhancement in rural areas is addressed, allowing information retrieval on areas that would be inaccessible at C-band. Furthermore, PALSAR polarimetric channels combination is investigated in order to increase the number of pixels from whom deformation values can be extracted. Deformation results employing PALSAR and ENVISAT data are presented.

  13. "We're still in a struggle": Diné resilience, survival, historical trauma, and healing.

    PubMed

    Goodkind, Jessica R; Hess, Julia Meredith; Gorman, Beverly; Parker, Danielle P

    2012-08-01

    As part of a community/university collaborative effort to promote the mental health and well-being of Diné (Navajo) youth, we explored the relevance of addressing historical trauma and current structural stressors, and of building on individual and community strengths through healing and social transformation at multiple levels. Qualitative analyses of 74 ethnographic interviews with 37 Diné youth, parents, and grandparents suggested that a focus on historical trauma as a conceptual frame for behavioral health inequities, understood within the context of resilience and survival, is appropriate. Our findings also highlight the salience of current stressors such as poverty and violence exposure. We explore the fit of an historical trauma healing framework and present implications for intervention and transformation through revitalization of traditional knowledge, culturally based healing practices, intergenerational education, and social change strategies designed to eliminate social inequities.

  14. Railway deformation detected by DInSAR over active sinkholes in the Ebro Valley evaporite karst, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galve, J. P.; Castañeda, C.; Gutiérrez, F.

    2015-11-01

    Subsidence was measured for the first time on railway tracks in the central sector of Ebro Valley (NE Spain) using Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques. This area is affected by evaporite karst and the analysed railway corridors traverse active sinkholes that produce deformations in these infrastructures. One of the railway tracks affected by slight settlements is the Madrid-Barcelona high-speed line, a form of transport infrastructure highly vulnerable to ground deformation processes. Our analysis based on DInSAR measurements and geomorphological surveys indicates that this line shows dissolution-induced subsidence and compaction of anthropogenic deposits (infills and embankments). Significant sinkhole-related subsidence was also measured by DInSAR techniques on the Castejón-Zaragoza conventional railway line. This study demonstrates that DInSAR velocity maps, coupled with detailed geomorphological surveys, may help in the identification of the railway track sections that are affected by active subsidence.

  15. Effects of different N sources on riverine DIN export and retention in a subtropical high-standing island, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jr-Chuan; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Lin, Teng-Chiu; Hein, Thomas; Lee, Li-Chin; Shih, Yu-Ting; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Shiah, Fuh-Kwo; Lin, Neng-Huei

    Increases in nitrogen (N) availability and mobility resulting from anthropogenic activities have substantially altered the N cycle, both locally and globally. Taiwan characterized by the subtropical montane landscape with abundant rainfall, downwind of the most rapidly industrializing eastern coast of China, can be a demonstration site for extremely high N input and riverine DIN (dissolved inorganic N) export. We used 49 watersheds with similar climatic and landscape settings but classified into low, moderate, and highly disturbed categories based on population density to illustrate their differences in nitrogen inputs (through atmospheric N deposition, synthetic fertilizers, and human emission) and DIN export ratios. Our results showed that the island-wide average riverine DIN export is ~ 3800 kg N km(-2) yr(-1), approximately 18 times the global average. The average riverine DIN export ratios are 0.30-0.51, which are much higher than the averages of 0.20-0.25 of large rivers around the world, indicating excessive N input relative to ecosystem demand or retention capacity. The low disturbed watersheds have a high N retention capacity and DIN export ratios of 0.06-0.18 in spite of the high N input (~ 4900 kg N km(-2) yr(-1)). The high retention capacity is likely due to effective uptake by secondary forests in the watersheds. The moderately disturbed watersheds show a linear increase in DIN export with increases in total N inputs and mean DIN export ratios of 0.20 to 0.31. The main difference in land use between low and moderately disturbed watersheds is the greater proportion of agricultural land cover in the moderately disturbed watersheds. Thus, their greater DIN export could be attributed to N fertilizers used in the agricultural lands. The greater export ratios also imply that agricultural lands have a lower proportional N retention capacity and that reforestation could be an effective land management practice to reduce riverine DIN export. The export ratios

  16. Effects of different N sources on riverine DIN export and retention in a subtropical high-standing island, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang-Chuan, Jr.; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Lin, Teng-Chiu; Hein, Thomas; Lee, Li-Chin; Shih, Yu-Ting; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Shiah, Fuh-Kwo; Lin, Neng-Huei

    2016-03-01

    Increases in nitrogen (N) availability and mobility resulting from anthropogenic activities have substantially altered the N cycle, both locally and globally. Taiwan characterized by the subtropical montane landscape with abundant rainfall, downwind of the most rapidly industrializing eastern coast of China, can be a demonstration site for extremely high N input and riverine DIN (dissolved inorganic N) export. We used 49 watersheds with similar climatic and landscape settings but classified into low, moderate, and highly disturbed categories based on population density to illustrate their differences in nitrogen inputs (through atmospheric N deposition, synthetic fertilizers, and human emission) and DIN export ratios. Our results showed that the island-wide average riverine DIN export is ˜ 3800 kg N km-2 yr-1, approximately 18 times the global average. The average riverine DIN export ratios are 0.30-0.51, which are much higher than the averages of 0.20-0.25 of large rivers around the world, indicating excessive N input relative to ecosystem demand or retention capacity. The low disturbed watersheds have a high N retention capacity and DIN export ratios of 0.06-0.18 in spite of the high N input (˜ 4900 kg N km-2 yr-1). The high retention capacity is likely due to effective uptake by secondary forests in the watersheds. The moderately disturbed watersheds show a linear increase in DIN export with increases in total N inputs and mean DIN export ratios of 0.20 to 0.31. The main difference in land use between low and moderately disturbed watersheds is the greater proportion of agricultural land cover in the moderately disturbed watersheds. Thus, their greater DIN export could be attributed to N fertilizers used in the agricultural lands. The greater export ratios also imply that agricultural lands have a lower proportional N retention capacity and that reforestation could be an effective land management practice to reduce riverine DIN export. The export ratios of the

  17. Effects of different N sources on riverine DIN export and retention in a subtropical high-standing island, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jr-Chuan; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Lin, Teng-Chiu; Hein, Thomas; Lee, Li-Chin; Shih, Yu-Ting; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Shiah, Fuh-Kwo; Lin, Neng-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Increases in nitrogen (N) availability and mobility resulting from anthropogenic activities have substantially altered the N cycle, both locally and globally. Taiwan characterized by the subtropical montane landscape with abundant rainfall, downwind of the most rapidly industrializing eastern coast of China, can be a demonstration site for extremely high N input and riverine DIN (dissolved inorganic N) export. We used 49 watersheds with similar climatic and landscape settings but classified into low, moderate, and highly disturbed categories based on population density to illustrate their differences in nitrogen inputs (through atmospheric N deposition, synthetic fertilizers, and human emission) and DIN export ratios. Our results showed that the island-wide average riverine DIN export is ~ 3800 kg N km−2 yr−1, approximately 18 times the global average. The average riverine DIN export ratios are 0.30−0.51, which are much higher than the averages of 0.20−0.25 of large rivers around the world, indicating excessive N input relative to ecosystem demand or retention capacity. The low disturbed watersheds have a high N retention capacity and DIN export ratios of 0.06−0.18 in spite of the high N input (~ 4900 kg N km−2 yr−1). The high retention capacity is likely due to effective uptake by secondary forests in the watersheds. The moderately disturbed watersheds show a linear increase in DIN export with increases in total N inputs and mean DIN export ratios of 0.20 to 0.31. The main difference in land use between low and moderately disturbed watersheds is the greater proportion of agricultural land cover in the moderately disturbed watersheds. Thus, their greater DIN export could be attributed to N fertilizers used in the agricultural lands. The greater export ratios also imply that agricultural lands have a lower proportional N retention capacity and that reforestation could be an effective land management practice to reduce riverine DIN export. The export

  18. Syringe injectable electronics

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  19. Fuel injection nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Nakatsuka, H.; Tojo, S.; Arai, K.

    1986-12-09

    A fuel injection nozzle is described which is adapted to be connected to a fuel injection pump and which serves to inject fuel into a combustion chamber in an internal combustion engine. The nozzle consists of: a body in which a suction passage and an accumulating chamber are defined, the suction passage being adapted to be connected with a fuel injection pump and the accumulating chamber being connected with the suction passage; a non-return valve means for allowing the fuel to flow from the suction passage to the accumulating chamber but prohibiting the fuel from flowing from the accumulating chamber to the suction passage; a needle valve means for injecting the fuel stored in the accumulating chamber into a combustion chamber in an engine, the needle valve means including a nozzle needle arranged coaxially and in series with the valve with end portions thereof being adjacent; a damping plunger coaxially fitted into the valve member in the manner that the damping plunger is urged toward the nozzle needle and has one end protruding into the damping chamber and engageable by the nozzle needle, throttle means disposed in the through hole in the damping plunger, for restricting the fuel flow between the damping chamber and the connector recess.

  20. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Luscomb, D.A.

    1984-05-22

    A fuel injection pump including a plunger and a piston movably disposed in a pumping chamber, means for initiating fuel injection and means for terminating fuel injection, the plunger periodically pressurizing fuel in a pressure chamber and the piston spaced from the plunger and allowing a metering chamber to fill with a metered quantity of fuel to be injected to an engine. The means for initiating injection comprises a pilot valve having a solenoid to selectively operate between either of two states and a control valve movable between first and second positions in response to the state of pilot valve, the first position filling the metering chamber with the metered quantity of fuel. The pilot valve determines the fuel quantity to be delivered to the engine relative to a signal from an electronic controller. An accumulator is pressurized during each cycle of the plunger to provide pressurized fuel during a metering phase. A variable orifice adjusts the rate of flow during the time fuel is being metered to metering chamber.

  1. Syringe-injectable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  2. Storage ring injection

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Some basic issues involved in injecting the beam into storage rings with the principal parameters of those studied at the workshop have been considered. The main conclusion is that straightforward adjustments of the storage ring parameters makes injection easy. The largest number of injected turns is fourteen, and the phase space dilution allowance seems adequate to ensure very small beam loss during injection. The adjustments also result in lower bending magnet fields, and high field superconducting magnets (e.g., 5 Tesla) are not necessary. The design changes do not necessarily affect the Keil-Schnell criterion for stability of the longitudinal microwave instability, although that criterion appears to be irrelevant. Because the beams are expected to be unstable, but with slow growth rates, the vacuum chamber impedances required to give equal risetimes for the various designs are compared for systems posing various degrees of difficulty for injection. Finally, the impact of the parameters on cost is noted, and a system is considered that cuts the length of the linac in half by using doubly charged ions.

  3. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  4. DNA-damage-inducible (din) loci are transcriptionally activated in competent Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Love, P.E.; Lyle, M.J.; Yasbin, R.E.

    1985-09-01

    DNA damage-inducible (din) operon fusions were generated in Bacillus subtilis by transpositional mutagenesis. These YB886(din::Tn917-lacZ) fusion isolates produced increased ..beta..-galactosidase when exposed to mitomycin C, UV radiation, or ethyl methanesulfonate, indicating that the lacZ structural gene had inserted into host transcriptional units that are induced by a variety of DNA-damaging agents. One of the fusion strains was DNA-repair deficient and phenotypically resembled a UV-sensitive mutant of B. subtilis. Induction of ..beta..-galactosidase also occurred in the competent subpopulation of each of the din fusion strains, independent of exposure to DNA-damaging agents. Both the DNA-damage-inducible and competence-inducible components of ..beta..-galactosidase expression were abolished by the recE4 mutation, which inhibits SOS-like (SOB) induction but does not interfere with the development of the component state. The results indicate that gene expression is stimulated at specific loci within the B. subtilis chromosome both by DNA-damaging agents and by the development of competence and that this response is under the control of the SOB regulatory system. Furthermore, they demonstrate that at the molecular level SOB induction and the development of competence are interrelated cellular events.

  5. New A-DInSAR study of La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. Results and interpretation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escayo, Joaquín; Bru, Guadalupe; Camacho, Antonio; Prieto, Juan F.; Mallorquí, Jordi J.; Fernández, José

    2016-04-01

    We present new results on the deformation field for La Palma Island in the Canary Archipelago using the complete archive of Envisat (2004-2010). The recent volcanic activity registered in La Palma (at historical and subhistorical times, there have been seven eruptions, in ca. A.D. 1480, 1585, 1646, 1677, 1712, 1949 and 1971) and the absence of any geodetic monitoring system implemented in the Island at the 90's converts A-DInSAR studies in an basic information source for the study of surface displacements. From late 90's several geodetic studies using GNSS, gravimetry and InSAR techniques has been carried out in the island (see Fernández et al., 2015 for a summary). We improve previous radar satellite results by increasing the temporal coverage and using more images, which generates a greater interferogram set, and using a recently developed A-DInSAR processing technique which includes an error estimation for the LOS mean velocity and deformation time series ("Subsidence" software, developed by the "Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, see e.g., Blanco-Sánchez et al., 2008, and Centolanza, 2015). Our A-DInSAR results are compared with previous InSAR ones and with GNSS results obtained from campaigns. A discussion and interpretation of the results is also presented. Radar images have been provided by ESA through Cat.-1 13933 project.

  6. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Hishinuma, O.; Masuda, A.; Ohmori, T.; Miyaki, M.; Takemoto, E.

    1987-06-09

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine comprising: a housing having a cylindrical inner surface; a shaft having a portion disposed in rotatably sliding engagement with the cylindrical inner surface and having a first axial bore and a second radial bore therein; at least one pumping plunger slidably disposed in the second radial bore to cooperate therewith to define a compression chamber; a pumping plunger is adapted to be moved in the second radial bore to vary the volume of the compression chamber; an injection plunger slidably disposed in the first axial, bore to cooperate in defining the first and second pressure chambers separated from each other by the injection plunger.

  7. A nebulized complex traditional Chinese medicine inhibits Histamine and IL-4 production by ovalbumin in guinea pigs and can stabilize mast cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicines have been used for anti-asthma treatment for several centuries in many Asian countries, and have been shown to effectively relieve symptoms. Our previous study demonstrated that a complex traditional Chinese medicine (CTCM) administered in nebulized form through the intratracheal route is effective against early-phase air-flow obstruction and can inhibit IL-5 production in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized guinea pigs. However, the antiasthmatic mechanisms of CTCMs are still unclear. Methods In this study, we examined the underlying mechanism of a CTCM that we used in our previous study in order to ascertain its function in the early-phase response to OVA challenge. In each group, 10–12 unsensitized or OVA-sensitized guinea pigs were treated with nebulized CTCM before OVA challenge, and the airway responses of the animals to OVA were recorded. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were collected 5 min after OVA challenge, and the histamine and IL-4 contents in the BALF were measured. P815 cells (a mouse mast cell line) were untreated or pretreated with CTCM or cromolyn sodium (a mast cell stabilizer), and incubated with Compound 48/80 (mast cell activator) for 9 hr. The levels of histamine and IL-4 released from the cells were quantified. Results We found that the inhibition of bronchoconstriction by the CTCM was attenuated by pretreatment with propranolol, suggesting that the CTCM has a bronchodilator effect that is associated with beta-adrenergic receptor. Our results also showed that the CTCM inhibited histamine and IL-4 secretion in the OVA-induced airway hypersensitivity in guinea pigs at 5 min post-OVA challenge, and in vitro study revealed that the CTCM is able to stabilize mast cells. Conclusion In conclusion, our results suggested that the CTCM is a kind of bronchodilator and also a mast cell stabilizer. Our findings provide useful information regarding the possible mechanism of the CTCM, and show its potential

  8. Water Injected Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    From antiquity, water has been a source of cooling, lubrication, and power for energy transfer devices. More recent applications in gas turbines demonstrate an added facet, emissions control. Fogging gas turbine inlets or direct injection of water into gas turbine combustors, decreases NOx and increases power. Herein we demonstrate that injection of water into the air upstream of the combustor reduces NOx by factors up to three in a natural gas fueled Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) and up to two in a liquid JP-8 fueled (TVC) for a range in water/fuel and fuel/air ratios.

  9. Fuel injection device

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmori, T.; Nakatsuka, H.; Kanou, H.

    1987-03-31

    A fuel injection device is described for injecting fuel into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, comprising: a body having first and second bores formed therein and extending in the axial direction thereof; a delivering plunger fitted into the first bore and defining a delivering pump chamber therein; driving means for reciprocating the delivering plunger in synchronism to the engine; pressurized medium supplying means for supplying a pressurized medium under a constant pressure to the delivering pump chamber, the pressurized medium supplying means including a pressurized medium source and a control passage linking the pressurized medium source to the delivering pump chamber; an electromagnetic valve provided on the control passage for opening and closing the control passage; and an injection plunger fitted into the second bore and defining, in the second bore, a linking chamber communicating with the delivering pump chamber and an injection pump chamber, the linking chamber and the delivering chamber becoming a liquid-tight chamber when the electromagnetic valve closes the control passage.

  10. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you have or have ever had asthma, allergies, hay fever, hives, or kidney disease.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. If you become pregnant while receiving penicillin G procaine injection, call your doctor.

  11. Penicillin G Benzathine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you have or have ever had asthma, allergies, hay fever, hives, or kidney disease.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. If you become pregnant while receiving penicillin G benzathine injection, call your doctor.

  12. More than just someone to inject drugs with: injecting within primary injection partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Meghan D.; Bates, Anna; Andrew, Erin; Hahn, Judith; Page, Kimberly; Maher, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies have shown intimate injection partners engage in higher rates of syringe and injecting equipment sharing. We examined the drug use context and development of injection drug use behaviors within intimate injection partnerships. Methods In-depth interviews (n=18) were conducted with both members of nine injecting partnerships in Sydney, Australia. Content analysis identified key domains related to the reasons for injecting with a primary injection partner and development of drug injection patterns. Main Findings Most partnerships (n=5) were also sexual; three were blood-relatives and one a friend dyad. The main drug injected was heroin (66%) with high rates of recent sharing behaviors (88%) reported within dyads. Injecting within a primary injection partnership provided perceived protection against overdose events, helped reduce stress, increased control over when, where, and how drugs were used, and promoted the development of an injecting pattern where responsibilities could be shared. Unique to injecting within primary injection partnerships was the social connection and companionship resulted in a feeling of fulfillment while also blinding one from recognizing risky behavior. Conclusions Findings illuminated the tension between protection and risks within primary injection partnerships. Primary injection partnerships provide a potential platform to expand risk reduction strategies. PMID:26460140

  13. Ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis of the essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Ziming; Zhang, Huihui; Li, Xueyuan; Zhang, Hanqi

    2009-08-04

    A novel method for analysis of essential oil in Cuminum cyminum L. using simultaneous ultrasonic nebulization extraction and headspace single drop microextraction (UNE-HS-SDME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed. Experimental parameters, including the kind of suspended solvent, microdrop volume, sample amount, extraction time, enrichment time and salt concentration were examined and optimized. Compared with hydrodistillation (HD), UNE-HS-SDME provides the advantages of a small amount of sample (50 mg), time-saving (20 min), simplicity, cheapness and low toxicity. In addition, UNE-HS-SDME also provided higher enrichment efficiency and sensitivity compared with stirring extraction (SE)-HS-SDME, ultrasonic assistant extraction (UAE) and UNE. Some constituents in the essential oil, were identified and the detection limits for beta-pinene, p-cymene and gamma-terpinene range from 6.67 pLL(-1) to 14.8 pLL(-1). The results indicated that the UNE-HS-SDME is simple and highly efficient extraction and enrichment technique.

  14. Effect of doping on the surface modification of nebulizer sprayed Ba x Zn1‑x O nanocrystalline thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopala Krishnan, V.; Elango, P.; Ragavendar, M.; Sathish, P.; Gowrisankar, G.

    2017-03-01

    The influence of Ba doped zinc oxide films were investigated by nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique at 673 K. X-ray diffraction reveals the polycrystalline hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure with (0 0 2) preferential orientation. Energy dispersive spectroscopy confirms the presence of Ba, Zn and O elements in the films. Field emission scanning electron microscopy shows that the surface morphology of the nanocrystalline films were changed from spherical shape structure to flake net-like shape and sprout like spherical structure with average grain size is ~100 nm due to the critical doping concentration. PL spectra prominent peaks corresponding to near band edge UV emission and intrinsic defect of the visible blue light region and defect related deep level green emission regions were discussed. The films are highly transparent in the visible region with a transmittance higher than 74%, and have an optical band gap energy values are increased from 3.22 eV to 4.02 eV depending on the Ba doping concentration. Interparticle like grains, grain boundary effect of deposited films is studied by complex impedance spectroscopy.

  15. The INfrared Survey of Young Nebulous Clusters (IN-SYNC): Surveying the Dynamics and Star Formation Histories of Young Clusters with APOGEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, Kevin R.; Cottaar, Michiel; Foster, Jonathan B.; Da Rio, Nicola; Tan, Jonathan; Meyer, Michael; Nidever, David L.; Flaherty, Kevin M.; Arce, Hector G.; Rebull, Luisa M.; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Hearty, Fred R.; Majewski, Steven R.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Stassun, Keivan; Wilson, John C.; Zasowski, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Young clusters are the most prolific sites of star formation in the Milky Way, but demographic studies indicate that relatively few of the Milky Way's stellar clusters persist as bound structures for 100 Myrs or longer. Uniform & precise measurements of the stellar populations and internal dynamics of these regions are difficult to obtain, however, particularly for extremely young clusters whose optical visibility is greatly hampered by their parental molecular cloud. The INfrared Survey of Young Nebulous Clusters (IN-SYNC), an SDSS-III ancillary science program, leverages the stability and multiplex capability of the APOGEE spectrograph to obtain high resolution spectra at near-infrared wavelengths, where photospheric emission is better able to penetrate the dusty shrouds that surround sites of active star formation. We summarize our recent measurements of the kinematics and stellar populations of IC 348 and NGC 1333, two young clusters in the Perseus Molecular Cloud, and of the members of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) and L1641 filament in the Orion molecular complex. These measurements highlight the dynamically 'warm' environment within these young clusters, and suggest a range of stellar radii within these quasi-single-age populations. We close with a preview of plans for continuing this work as part of the APOGEE-2 science portfolio: self-consistent measurements of the kinematics and star formation histories for clusters spanning a range of initial conditions and ages will provide a opportunity to disentangle the mechanisms that drive the formation and dissolution of sites of active star formation.

  16. A Kinematic Survey in the Perseus Molecular Cloud: Results from the APOGEE Infrared Survey of Young Nebulous Clusters (IN-SYNC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, Kevin R.; Cottaar, M.; Foster, J. B.; Nidever, D. L.; Meyer, M.; Tan, J.; Da Rio, N.; Flaherty, K. M.; Stassun, K.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Majewski, S.; APOGEE IN-SYNC Team

    2014-01-01

    Demographic studies of stellar clusters indicate that relatively few persist as bound structures for 100 Myrs or longer. If cluster dispersal is a 'violent' process, it could strongly influence the formation and early evolution of stellar binaries and planetary systems. Unfortunately, measuring the dynamical state of 'typical' (i.e., ~300-1000 member) young star clusters has been difficult, particularly for clusters still embedded within their parental molecular cloud. The near-infrared spectrograph for the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), which can measure precise radial velocities for 230 cluster stars simultaneously, is uniquely suited to diagnosing the dynamics of Galactic star formation regions. We give an overview of the INfrared Survey of Young Nebulous Clusters (IN-SYNC), an APOGEE ancillary science program that is carrying out a comparative study of young clusters in the Perseus molecular cloud: NGC 1333, a heavily embedded cluster, and IC 348, which has begun to disperse its surrounding molecular gas. These observations appear to rule out a significantly super-virial velocity dispersion in IC 348, contrary to predictions of models where a cluster's dynamics is strongly influenced by the dispersal of its primordial gas. We also summarize the properties of two newly identified spectroscopic binaries; binary systems such as these play a key role in the dynamical evolution of young clusters, and introduce velocity offsets that must be accounted for in measuring cluster velocity dispersions.

  17. Synergistic effects of Mo and F doping on the quality factor of ZnO thin films prepared by a fully automated home-made nebulizer spray technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, K.; Dineshbabu, N.; Arun, T.; Manivasaham, A.; Sindhuja, E.

    2017-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxide films of undoped, Mo doped, Mo + F co-doped ZnO were deposited using a facile homemade nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique. The effects of Mo and F doping on the structural, optical, electrical and surface morphological properties were investigated using XRD, UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, I-V and Hall probe techniques, FESEM and AFM, and XPS, respectively. The XRD analysis confirms that all the films are well crystallized with hexagonal wurtzite structure. All the synthesized samples exhibit high transmittance (above 85%) in the visible region. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics show the ohmic conduction nature of the films. The Hall probe measurements show that the synergistic effects of Mo and F doping cause desirable improvements in the quality factor of the ZnO films. A minimum resistivity of 5.12 × 10-3 Ω cm with remarkably higher values of mobility and carrier concentration is achieved for Mo (2 at.%) + F (15 at.%) co-doped ZnO films. A considerable variation in the intensity of deep level emission caused by Mo and F doping is observed in the photoluminescence (PL) studies. The presence of the constituent elements in the samples is confirmed by XPS analysis.

  18. Multiple Signaling Pathways in Gene Expression during Sugar Starvation. Pharmacological Analysis of din Gene Expression in Suspension-Cultured Cells of Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Fujiki, Yuki; Ito, Masaki; Nishida, Ikuo; Watanabe, Akira

    2000-01-01

    We have identified many dark-inducible (din) genes that are expressed in Arabidopsis leaves kept in the dark. In the present study we addressed the question of how plant cells sense the depletion of sugars, and how sugar starvation triggers din gene expression in suspension-cultured cells of Arabidopsis. Depletion of sucrose in the medium triggered marked accumulation of din transcripts. Suppression of din gene expression by 2-deoxy-Glc, and a non-suppressive effect exerted by 3-O-methyl-Glc, suggested that sugar-repressible expression of din genes is mediated through the phosphorylation of hexose by hexokinase, as exemplified in the repression of photosynthetic genes by sugars. We have further shown that the signaling triggered by sugar starvation involves protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events, and have provided the first evidence that multiple pathways of protein dephosphorylation exist in sugar starvation-induced gene expression. An inhibitor of serine/threonine protein kinase, K-252a, inhibited din gene expression in sugar-depleted cells. Okadaic acid, which may preferentially inhibit type 2A protein phosphatases over type 1, enhanced the transcript levels of all din genes, except din6 and din10, under sugar starvation. Conversely, a more potent inhibitor of type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases, calyculin A, increased transcripts from din2 and din9, but decreased those from other din genes, in sugar-depleted cells. On the other hand, calyculin A, but not okadaic acid, completely inhibited the gene expression of chlorophyll a/b-binding protein under sugar starvation. These results indicate that multiple signaling pathways, mediated by different types of protein phosphatases, regulate gene expression during sugar starvation. PMID:11080291

  19. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality.

  20. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  1. EPOSAR: an innovative service to provide EPOS community with advanced DInSAR products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manunta, Michele; De Luca, Claudio; Elefante, Stefano; Lanari, Riccardo; Pepe, Antonio; Zinno, Ivana; Casu, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The quantitative evaluation of ground deformation is traditionally based on in-situ surveying techniques that, through the intensive use of GPS stations, automatic total stations and levelling benchmarks, can measure up to sub-centimetre displacements. In the last decades, the extensive use of satellite remote sensing data, such as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, has represented an important breakthrough in the context of non-invasive ground deformation analyses over large areas, thanks to their large spatial coverage and relatively short revisit time, as well as to their medium-high ground resolution. In such a context, the well-known Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) technique allows us to map and measure deformation phenomena due to both natural and man-made causes with centimetre to millimetre accuracy. The Earth Science community has a wide interest in the use of DInSAR displacement maps both for crisis management and risk mitigation activities, and for surveillance, monitoring and analysis of geophysical phenomena. In areas characterized by high level of hazards the availability of routinely generated advanced DInSAR products would allow a fast analysis of their current status, providing a near real time monitoring. Similarly, an on-demand service would allow the customization of the products by selecting the area of interest, the SAR data to be processed, and other processing parameters to be set by the users to edit/correct/improve the final products. In this work we discuss the Satellite Data Thematic Core Service of EPOS and we present the EPOSAR service. In particular, the EPOSAR service, based on the well-known DInSAR approach referred to as Small Baseline Subset (SBAS), accomplishes a shared and synergic Earth Observation (EO) service aimed at designing, implementing and harmonizing efficient satellite data processing chains capable of ingesting the significantly increased data stream expected from the ESA Sentinel-1 satellites. EPOSAR

  2. INJECTION-MOLDING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Lobell, G.M.

    1958-02-11

    This patent is drawn to an injection molding apparatus for producing a tube closed at one end wherein the normally unsupported end of the core located in the cavity during the injection of the molten material to fill the space between the core and cavity wall, which supporting means is automatically removed from operation during the forming of the closed end of the tube. This support means is a plug extending through the end of the core into a recess in the bottom of the cavity where the closed end of the tube is to be formed. The plug is spring pressed into said recess and is forced out of the recess by a slidable bushing at the top of the cavity which is moved against the force of the spring by the molten material when it fills the uppormost open end portion of the cavity, thereby permitting the closed end of the tube to be formed.

  3. Injectable nanocarriers for biodetoxification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, Jean-Christophe

    2007-11-01

    Hospitals routinely treat patients suffering from overdoses of drugs or other toxic chemicals as a result of illicit drug consumption, suicide attempts or accidental exposures. However, for many life-threatening situations, specific antidotes are not available and treatment is largely based on emptying the stomach, administering activated charcoal or other general measures of intoxication support. A promising strategy for managing such overdoses is to inject nanocarriers that can extract toxic agents from intoxicated tissues. To be effective, the nanocarriers must remain in the blood long enough to sequester the toxic components and/or their metabolites, and the toxin bound complex must also remain stable until it is removed from the bloodstream. Here, we discuss the principles that govern the use of injectable nanocarriers in biodetoxification and review the pharmacological performance of a number of different approaches.

  4. SPEAR 3 INJECTION KICKER

    SciTech Connect

    Armett, Donald W.

    2002-08-20

    The design of the SPEAR 3 injection kicker system is presented. This system will include three kicker magnets and their associated pulsers. The magnet design is based on the DELTA kicker magnets, which present a low RF impedance to the beam, and are relatively straight-forward to construct. The pulsers use cascaded IGBT stages that are based on the modulator pulsers developed by a SLAC/LLNL collaboration for the NLC. Design considerations and the results of prototype tests will be discussed.

  5. Workshop on injectable contraceptives.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    At a workshop in Dhaka on February 10, 1994, district and thana level managers discussed the problems associated with a project that delivers injectable contraceptives to the doorsteps of clients. The workshop, which was organized by the Bangladesh government and the Maternal and Child Health-Family Planning (MCH-FP) Extension Project of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), identified lack of appropriate training, inefficient supervision, and inadequate knowledge about and facilities for the disposal of used syringes and needles as problems. There was agreement among participants that use of the injectables, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN), had led to increases in contraceptive use. The 6-month old project had been initiated in 8 thanas by the Directorate of Family Planning of the government of Bangladesh, with the technical assistance of the MCH-FP Extension Project, after ICDDR,B noticed that the rates of use for all types of contraceptives had increased in the rural areas of Matlab, Abhoynagar, and Sirajganj with doorstep delivery by field workers. During the same period, use of injectables that were offered by female paramedics at static centers had remained low. At the workshop, Dr. Rushikesh Maru of the Extension Project spoke about the effective administration of the injectables within 15 days before or after the due date. Mr. AKM Rafiquz Zaman, former director general of Family Planning, government of Bangladesh, requested further expansion in at least 1 thana of each district and in all municipalities and urban slums.

  6. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, W.

    1988-04-01

    A set of tradeoff equations was simplified to obtain scaling laws for magnetron injection guns (MIGs). The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum-peak-power capabilities of MIGs. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations in which each MIG is designed to double the beam power of an existing design by adjusting one of the four fundamental parameters.

  7. Alkaline flooding injection strategy

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to improved alkali-surfactant flooding methods, and this includes determining the proper design of injection strategy. Several different injection strategies have been used or suggested for recovering heavy oils with surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding methods. Oil recovery was compared for four different injection strategies: (1) surfactant followed by polymer, (2) surfactant followed by alkaline polymer, (3) alkaline surfactant followed by polymer, and (4) alkali, surfactant, and polymer mixed in a single formulation. The effect of alkaline preflush was also studied under two different conditions. All of the oil recovery experiments were conducted under optimal conditions with a viscous, non-acidic oil from Hepler (KS) oil field. The coreflood experiments were conducted with Berea sandstone cores since field core was not available in sufficient quantity for coreflood tests. The Tucker sand of Hepler field is a Class I fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir, as classified by the Department of Energy, which has been selected as the site of a DOE-sponsored field pilot test.

  8. Air injection system diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Kotzan, J.M.; Labus, G.E.

    1992-05-19

    This patent describes a method for diagnosing failures in an air control system that controls a quantity of air admitted into an exhaust path of an internal combustion engine. It comprises sensing the oxygen content of the exhaust gas of the engine at predetermined time intervals at a first predetermined point in the exhaust path of the engine, the oxygen content normally oscillating between a rich oxygen condition and a lean oxygen condition in the absence of air injected into the exhaust path above the first predetermined point; injecting a quantity of air into the exhaust path of the engine at a second predetermined point in the exhaust port, the second predetermined point being above the first predetermined point; counting the number of intervals at which the sensed oxygen content indicates a rich oxygen condition over a predetermined period of time; comparing the counted number of rich oxygen intervals to a predetermined threshold value, the threshold value being greater than a counted number of rich oxygen intervals over the predetermined period of time resulting from the normal oscillations between rich and lean oxygen conditions in the absence of air injected into the exhaust path; indicating the existence of a fault in the air control system when the number of rich oxygen intervals does not exceed the predetermined threshold value.

  9. Injection-induced earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, William L

    2013-07-12

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  10. Snowplow Injection Front Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Buzulukova, N.; Collinson, G. A.; Kepko, E. L.; Garcia-Sage, K. S.; Henderson, M. G.; Sitnov, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    As the Polar spacecraft apogee precessed through the magnetic equator in 2001, Polar encountered numerous substorm events in the region between geosynchronous orbit and 10 RE geocentric distance; most of them in the plasma sheet boundary layers. Of these, a small number was recorded near the neutral sheet in the evening sector. Polar/Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment provides a unique perspective on the lowest-energy ion plasma, showing that these events exhibited a damped wavelike character, initiated by a burst of radially outward flow transverse to the local magnetic field at approximately 80 km/s. They then exhibit strongly damped cycles of inward/outward flow with a period of several minutes. After one or two cycles, they culminated in a hot plasma electron and ion injection, quite similar to those observed at geosynchronous orbit. Cold plasmaspheric plasmas comprise the outward flow cycles, while the inward flow cycles contain counterstreaming field-parallel polar wind-like flows. The observed wavelike structure, preceding the arrival of an earthward moving substorm injection front, suggests an outward displacement driven by the inward motion at local times closer to midnight, that is, a "snowplow" effect. The damped in/out flows are consistent with interchange oscillations driven by the arrival at the observed local time by an injection originating at greater radius and local time.

  11. Injection-induced earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellsworth, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  12. Effects of different N sources on riverine DIN export and retention in subtropical high-standing island, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.-C.; Lee, T.-Y.; Lin, T.-C.; Hein, T.; Lee, L.-C.; Shih, Y.-T.; Kao, S.-J.; Shiah, F.-K.; Lin, N.-H.

    2015-10-01

    Increases in nitrogen (N) availability and mobility resulting from anthropogenic activities has substantially altered N cycle both locally and globally. Taiwan characterized by the subtropical montane landscape with abundant rainfall, downwind to the most rapidly industrializing east coast of China can be a demonstration site for extreme high N input and riverine DIN (dissolved inorganic N) export. We used 49 watersheds classified into low-, moderate-, and highly-disturbed categories based on population density to illustrate their differences in nitrogen inputs through atmospheric N deposition, synthetic fertilizers and human emission and DIN export ratios. Our results showed that the island-wide average riverine DIN export is ~ 3800 kg N km-2 yr-1, approximately 18-fold higher than the global average mostly due to the large input of synthetic fertilizers. The average riverine DIN export ratio is 0.30-0.51, which is much higher than the average of 0.20-0.25 of large rivers around the world indicating excessive N input relative to ecosystem demand or retention capacity. The low-disturbed watersheds, despite of high N input, only export 0.06-0.18 of the input so were well buffered to changes in input quantity suggesting high efficiency of nitrogen usage or high N retention capacity of the less disturbed watersheds. The high retention capacity probably is due to the effective uptake by secondary forests in the watersheds. The moderate-disturbed watersheds show a linear increase of output with increases in total N inputs and a mean DIN export ratio of 0.20 to 0.31. The main difference in land use between low and moderately disturbed watershed is the relative proportions of agricultural land and forests, not the built-up lands. Thus, their greater DIN export quantity could be attributed to N fertilizers used in the agricultural lands. The greater export ratios also imply that agricultural lands have lower proportional N retention capacity and that reforestation could be

  13. Evolución Dinámica de Cúmulos Estelares Abiertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente Marcos, R.

    Las estrellas que observamos no se formaron aisladamente, sino que lo hicieron en grupos o cúmulos. Estos sistemas estelares recibenel nombre de cúmulos estelares abiertos o galácticos cuando están constituidos por estrellas de la Población I. Los cúmulos abiertos se localizan preferentemente en el plano galáctico, y en muchos de ellos está teniendo lugar aún una activa formación estelar. El propósito principal de esta tesis doctoral es el estudio de la evolución dinámica de estos sistemas estelares por medio de simulaciones numéricas y de la comparación de sus resultados con datos observacionales. Con este fin se analizan los efectos que, sobre la dinámica de los cúmulos, ejercen varios fenómenos de interés astrofísico tales como el campo gravitatorio galáctico, la pérdida de masa causada por la evolución estelar y la presencia de binarias primordiales. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de más de un centenar de modelos de cúmulos, con poblaciones comprendidas en el intervalo [100, 10.000] estrellas, calculados con NBODY5, un programa estándar en el campo de la Dinámica Estelar Experimental. De los mismos se deduce que el mecanismo principal que rige la dinámica de los cúmulos abiertos es la evolución estelar de su distribución de masas, encontrándose un comportamiento diferencial fuertemente dependiente de la población inicial del cúmulo. Los mecanismos responsables de la desintegración de los cúmulos abiertos son analizados en detalle, proponiéndose un modelo analítico que ajusta razonablemente los resultados de las simulaciones. Además, y con el fin de explicar el elevado número de sistemas múltiples observados en cúmulos abiertos, se estudian los efectos que, sobre los mismos, ejerce la presencia de una cierta fracción de binarias primordiales. El papel de las binarias tambiín depende de la riqueza del cúmulo y sus efectos se interrelacionan con aquellos debidos a la evolución estelar. Por último, se

  14. [Quality assurance in student training. Prerequisites for DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 in teaching].

    PubMed

    Ochsner, W; Kaiser, C; Schirmer, U

    2007-07-01

    Standards of quality assurance according to DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 have been implemented in many university hospital departments, but often teaching activities are not included. This work presents a method that allows, after having defined the various teaching activities as sub-processes of one single core process, to include the manifold teaching activities of university hospital departments into the certification process. The stepwise description of the prerequisites for including teaching activities into ISO 9001 certification is illustrated by a concrete implementation example.

  15. Interferon Alfa-2b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medication either subcutaneously or intramuscularly three times a week. HBV, inject the medication either subcutaneously or intramuscularly three times a week usually for 16 weeks. hairy cell leukemia, inject ...

  16. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... interferon beta-1b injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  17. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... peginterferon beta-1a injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  18. Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/007678.htm Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint To use the sharing features on this page, ... often painful. It can be injected into a joint, tendon, or bursa. Description Your health care provider ...

  19. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did ... respond or are unable to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in ...

  20. Gaseous Fuel Injection Modeling using a Gaseous Sphere Injection Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Hessel, R P; Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L

    2006-03-06

    The growing interest in gaseous fuels (hydrogen and natural gas) for internal combustion engines calls for the development of computer models for simulation of gaseous fuel injection, air entrainment and the ensuing combustion. This paper introduces a new method for modeling the injection and air entrainment processes for gaseous fuels. The model uses a gaseous sphere injection methodology, similar to liquid droplet in injection techniques used for liquid fuel injection. In this paper, the model concept is introduced and model results are compared with correctly- and under-expanded experimental data.

  1. Portable Liquid-Injecting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuck, T.; Chin, F.; Hansen, M.

    1988-01-01

    Portable injecting-gun system dispenses predetermined amount of liquid at moderately high pressure. Tool belt holds components of liquid-injecting system. Pump and four-way valve combined in nylon housing. Connected to injecting nozzle and other components by polyvinyl tubing.

  2. Reductant injection and mixing system

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Matt; Henry, Cary A.; Ruth, Michael J.

    2016-02-16

    A gaseous reductant injection and mixing system is described herein. The system includes an injector for injecting a gaseous reductant into an exhaust gas stream, and a mixer attached to a surface of the injector. The injector includes a plurality of apertures through which the gaseous reductant is injected into an exhaust gas stream. The mixer includes a plurality of fluid deflecting elements.

  3. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI) technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method. PMID:28326222

  4. Neutral beam injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Duesing, G.; Altmann, H.; Falter, H.; Goede, A.; Haange, R.; Hemsworth, R.S.; Kupschus, P.; Stork, D.; Thompson, E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of the neutral injection (NI) system for the Joint European Torus and its status in 1985 are reported. First the system parameters are discussed and the layout is described, followed by a summary of the physics design calculations, the development, production, and testing of the components and the subsystem assembly. The system commissioning is presented, including a description of the function and the realization of the NI test bed. A summary of performance predictions for 80-keV beam heating experiments, and of the experimental evidence on balanced versus coinjection, is presented. The operational experience with the first injector and the plasma physics results obtained so far are summarized.

  5. An in-depth evaluation of accuracy and precision in Hg isotopic analysis via pneumatic nebulization and cold vapor generation multi-collector ICP-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rua-Ibarz, Ana; Bolea-Fernandez, Eduardo; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) isotopic analysis via multi-collector inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) can provide relevant biogeochemical information by revealing sources, pathways, and sinks of this highly toxic metal. In this work, the capabilities and limitations of two different sample introduction systems, based on pneumatic nebulization (PN) and cold vapor generation (CVG), respectively, were evaluated in the context of Hg isotopic analysis via MC-ICP-MS. The effect of (i) instrument settings and acquisition parameters, (ii) concentration of analyte element (Hg), and internal standard (Tl)-used for mass discrimination correction purposes-and (iii) different mass bias correction approaches on the accuracy and precision of Hg isotope ratio results was evaluated. The extent and stability of mass bias were assessed in a long-term study (18 months, n = 250), demonstrating a precision ≤0.006% relative standard deviation (RSD). CVG-MC-ICP-MS showed an approximately 20-fold enhancement in Hg signal intensity compared with PN-MC-ICP-MS. For CVG-MC-ICP-MS, the mass bias induced by instrumental mass discrimination was accurately corrected for by using either external correction in a sample-standard bracketing approach (SSB) or double correction, consisting of the use of Tl as internal standard in a revised version of the Russell law (Baxter approach), followed by SSB. Concomitant matrix elements did not affect CVG-ICP-MS results. Neither with PN, nor with CVG, any evidence for mass-independent discrimination effects in the instrument was observed within the experimental precision obtained. CVG-MC-ICP-MS was finally used for Hg isotopic analysis of reference materials (RMs) of relevant environmental origin. The isotopic composition of Hg in RMs of marine biological origin testified of mass-independent fractionation that affected the odd-numbered Hg isotopes. While older RMs were used for validation purposes, novel Hg isotopic data are provided for the

  6. Heliox-Driven Nebulization Has a Positive Effect on the Lung Function in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenwen; Chen, Xi; Liu, Xiaohan; Liu, Chengyuan; Lu, Gendi

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that severely threatens people’s health. This study aimed to investigate the effects of heliox-driven nebulization (HDN) on lung function and arterial blood gases in a COPD rat model. Material/Methods Twelve healthy male Wistar rats were selected as controls and 34 rats were used to establish a COPD model induced by lipopolysaccharide. Then 6 rats each from the control and model groups were selected for their symptoms to be observed. The remaining 6 normal rats were used as control group (group A) and the remaining 28 experimental COPD rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: experimental COPD group (group B), medical oxygen group (group C), and heliox groups (group D, He/O2=63%/37%; group E, He/O2=71%/29%). The lung function indicators and arterial blood gases were analyzed to evaluate the effects of different driving gases on COPD rats. Results The COPD model was successfully established with slow growth and severe lung dysfunction. Inspiratory resistance, expiratory resistance, and forced expiratory volume at 0.10 s (FEV0.10)/FVC were significantly decreased, whereas dynamic lung compliance was significantly increased in groups D and E, compared with the experimental COPD group (group B; P<0.05). Meanwhile, compared with the model group, the values of partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood were significantly higher, whereas the potential of hydrogen values were significantly lower after atomization in groups C and D but not in group E (P<0.05). The obvious increase in arterial oxygen saturation was found only in group E (P<0.05). Conclusions HDN improved the lung function and arterial blood gas analysis results in experimental COPD rats, with an optimal percentage of He/O2=71%/29%. PMID:27794584

  7. [Determination of sodium, magnesium, calcium, lithium and strontium in natural mineral drinking water by microwave plasma torch spectrometer with nebulization sample introduction system].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Xiong, Hai-long; Feng, Guo-dong; Yu, Ai-min; Chen, Huan-wen

    2014-06-01

    The microwave plasma torch (MPT) was used as the emission light source. Aqueous samples were introduced with a nebulizer and a desolvation system. A method for the determination of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr in natural mineral drinking water by argon microwave plasma torch spectrometer (ArMPT spectrometer) was established. The effects of microwave power, flow rate of carrier gas and support gas were investigated in detail and these parameters were optimized. Under the optimized condition, the experiments for the determination of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr in 11 kinds of bottled mineral drinking water were carried out by ArMPT spectrometer. The limit-of-detection (LOD) of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr was found to be 4.4, 21, 56, 11 and 84 μg x mL(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviation (n = 6) was in the range of 1.30%-5.45% and standard addition recoveries were in the range of 84.6%-98.5%. MPT spectrometer was simpler, more convenient and of lower cost as compared to ICP unit. MPT spectrometer demonstrated its rapid analysis speed, accuracy, sensitivity and simultaneous multi element analysis ability during the analysis process. The results showed that MPT spectrometer was suitable for metal elements detection for natural mineral drinking water. This approach provides not only one way for resisting the illegal dealings, but also a security for the quality of drinking water. Moreover, the usability of MPT spectrometer in the field of food security; drug safety; clinical diagnostic is promised.

  8. Relationship between airway reactivity induced by methacholine or ultrasonically nebulized distilled cold water and BAL fluid cellular constituents in patients with sulfur mustard gas-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Emad, Ali; Emad, Yasaman

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this article was to evaluate the relationship between the bronchial reactivity to methacholine and distilled cold water and inflammatory bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) cells in mustard gas-induced asthma. This was a randomized, crossover clinical study set in a university hospital. The patients were 17 veterans with mustard gas-induced asthma and 17 normal veterans as a control group. Inhalation challenges with ultrasonically nebulized distilled water and methacholine and BAL via bronchoscopy and were performed in all patients and subjects. All patients did sustain a 20% fall in FEV(1) after methacholine, whereas two of them did not with distilled cold water. The patients were sensitive to distilled cold water with a median PD20 of 8.44 +/- 6.55 mL and sensitive to methacholine with the median PC20 of 4.88 +/- 4.22 mg/mL. Significant correlation was found between PC20 of methacholine and PD20 of distilled cold water (r = -0.74, p = 0.005). The proportion of BAL macrophages was significantly lower in patients with asthma than in the control group (p = 0.001). The proportions of lymphocytes and neutrophils were similar in the two groups. The percentage of eosinophils was higher in BAL fluid from the asthmatics compared with that in BAL fluid from the control group (p < 0.001). The percentage of the BAL eosinophils significantly correlated with both PC20 of methacholine (r = - 0.58, p = 0.01) and PD20 of distilled cold water (r = -0.81, p = 0.002). No relationship between PC20 of methacholine or PD20 of distilled cold water was found for other inflammatory BAL cells. This study showed that in patients with mustard gas-induced asthma, the degree of airway responsiveness to both methacholine and distilled water was associated with the percentage of BAL eosinophils.

  9. DIN retention-transport through four hydrologically connected zones in a headwater catchment of the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Triska, F.J.; Duff, J.H.; Sheibley, R.W.; Jackman, A.P.; Avanzino, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) retention-transport through a headwater catchment was synthesized from studies encompassing four distinct hydrologic zones of the Shingobee River Headwaters near the origin of the Mississippi River. The hydrologic zones included: (1) hillslope ground water (ridge to bankside riparian); (2) alluvial riparian ground water; (3) ground water discharged through subchannel sediments (hyporheic zone); and (4) channel surface water. During subsurface hillslope transport through Zone 1, DIN, primarily nitrate, decreased from ???3 mg-N/l to <0.1 mg-N/l. Ambient seasonal nitrate:chloride ratios in hillslope flow paths indicated both dilution and biotic processing caused nitrate loss. Biologically available organic carbon controlled biotic nitrate retention during hillslope transport. In the alluvial riparian zone (Zone 2) biologically available organic carbon controlled nitrate depletion although processing of both ambient and amended nitrate was faster during the summer than winter. In the hyporheic zone (Zone 3) and stream surface water (Zone 4) DIN retention was primarily controlled by temperature. Perfusion core studies using hyporheic sediment indicated sufficient organic carbon in bed sediments to retain ground water DIN via coupled nitrification-denitrification. Numerical simulations of seasonal hyporheic sediment nitrification-denitrification rates from perfusion cores adequately predicted surface water ammonium but not nitrate when compared to 5 years of monthly field data (1989-93). Mass balance studies in stream surface water indicated proportionally higher summer than winter N retention. Watershed DIN retention was effective during summer under the current land use of intermittently grazed pasture. However, more intensive land use such as row crop agriculture would decrease nitrate retention efficiency and increase loads to surface water. Understanding DIN retention capacity throughout the system, including special channel

  10. Diné (Navajo) parents' and community leaders' perceptions of agriculture-related injury risk to youth: a social narrative.

    PubMed

    Shumway, K; Pate, M L; McNeal, L G

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a formative needs assessment of Diné (Navajo) parents for the prevention of childhood injuries resulting from livestock and horses. The research objectives were to identify parents' perceived livestock and horse related injury risks to Diné children and describe Diné community stakeholder input on prevention interventions for reducing injury risks to children associated with livestock and horse related activities on farms or ranches. The assessment used a survey constructed of closed and open-response questions to gauge Diné farmers' and ranchers' perceptions of injury risks to children who live or work on agricultural operations. Additional questions were asked to gauge Diné acceptance of an online training program as a prevention intervention to reduce livestock and horse related injuries to children. A total of 96 individuals agreed to participate in the survey and provided usable responses. A total of 53.2% (f = 50) of participants were female. Sixty-three percent of participants (f = 58) perceived that youth who work with intact male livestock were at high risk for injury. A total of 25 individuals perceived that youth who ride horses without equestrian helmets were at high risk for injury. Approximately 96% (f = 89) of those surveyed agreed or strongly agreed that they would use an online training program to promote agricultural health and safety for Diné youth. When participants were asked if there were safety issues associated with having youth working on a farm or ranch, a very large portion felt that the biggest issue was a lack of education and instruction from elders. A recommendation for an injury prevention practice included developing a user-friendly online network, giving parents and community leaders access to resources to assist in educating youth in local agricultural traditions integrated with safety training.

  11. Deformation analysis through the SBAS-DInSAR technique and geotechnical methods for structural damage assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonano, M.; Arangio, S.; Calò, F.; Di Mauro, M.; Manunta, M.; Marsella, M.; Sansosti, E.; Sonnessa, A.; Tagliafierro, V.; Lanari, R.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring of displacements affecting single buildings or human-made infrastructures is of key importance for their diagnostic and damage assessment. The evaluation of the structural damage in urban areas is a critical problem related to the complexity of soil-structure interaction. Indeed, the structural damage is influenced by several factors, such as the uniformity of the settlements, the variability on the soil property, the type of foundations, the rigidity and type of the considered structure, as well as the rate at which the settlements occur. Concerning this latter issue, settlements occurring very slowly over periods of decades or more may be tolerable by masonry or reinforced concrete structures; on the other hand, the same settlements related to a few months or a few years would result in severe structural damage. In this context, remote sensing techniques allow non-invasive and non-destructive deformation analyses over large areas by properly exploiting a large number of space-borne radar data. Within this framework, Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) has emerged as a valuable microwave methodology to detect and monitor ground displacements, with centimeter to millimeter accuracy, by exploiting the phase difference (interferogram) between two SAR images relevant to the same area. Recent developments of advanced DInSAR techniques are aimed at investigating not only single event deformation phenomena, but also the temporal evolution of the detected displacements through the generation of deformation time-series. These approaches benefit of the availability of huge archives of SAR data, including the ones acquired over the last 20 years by the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors on-board the ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT satellites of the European Space Agency (ESA). Among these advanced DInSAR approaches, we focus on the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) algorithm (Berardino et al., 2002) that implements an easy combination of DInSAR data pairs characterized by

  12. Sentinel-1 DInSAR processing chain within Geohazard Exploitation Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinno, Ivana; Bonano, Manuela; Buonanno, Sabatino; Casu, Francesco; De Luca, Claudio; Fusco, Adele; Lanari, Riccardo; Manunta, Michele; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Ojha, Chandrakanta; Pepe, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The Sentinel-1A (S1A) satellite has been launched on April 2014 to acquire SAR data in continuity with the ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT missions. It presents advanced characteristics in terms of revisit time, spatial coverage and service reliability. Such a satellite will be paired during 2016 with the Sentinel-1B twin system that will reduce the constellation revisit time from 12 to 6 days. Accordingly, a huge and ever-increasing data flow relevant to extended areas on Earth will be delivered with a "free and open access" data policy. The S1-A sensor is equipped with a C-band SAR instrument that is conceived for interferometric applications, thus allowing us to analyze Earth's surface displacements through the Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) technique. In particular, S1A SAR data are collected through the Terrain Observation by Progressive Scans (TOPS) mode, which generates Interferometric Wide Swath (IWS) acquisitions. To properly handle S1A TOPS data, the existing DInSAR processing chains have to be adapted with new procedures, which properly take into account the characteristics of this new acquisition mode. Furthermore, another critical point to be taken into account in designing a S1A DInSAR processing chain is the achievement of a good computational efficiency. Indeed, the capability to process in reduced time frames the huge data stream expected by S1A (and, very soon, also by S1B) is a key aspect to fully exploit S1 data archives. In this work we present an efficient interferometric processing chain, based on the advanced DInSAR algorithm referred to as Parallel Small BAseline Subset (P-SBAS), for the generation of S1A IWS surface deformation time-series. It ingests the Single Look Complex data and generates, in unsupervised way, interferograms and displacement time-series. This processing chain is able to exploit distributed computing architectures taking advantage of both multi-node and multi-threading programming techniques. The proposed S1A P

  13. Surface deformation analysis of the Istanbul (Turkey) city retrieved via the SBAS-DInSAR technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzo, Mariarosaria; Lanari, Riccardo; Manconi, Andrea; Solaro, Giuseppe; Walter, Thomas R.; Zschau, Jochen

    2010-05-01

    Remote sensing techniques make possible to collect information on dangerous or inaccessible areas. In this context, space-based geodetic techniques as Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) have been used in several areas in order to obtain co-seismic surface deformation maps in a few days or even hours following large earthquakes. The retrieved surface deformation can be used to constrain analytical and/or numerical models to derive parameters such as depth, dimension, orientation, and slip occurred on the fault plane. Moreover, advanced DInSAR techniques allow observing the temporal evolution of the surface displacements, and are thus able to furnish a picture of the pre-seismic state as well as of the post-seismic effects. In this work, we present DInSAR analyses of the deformation patterns in areas that are affected by seismic hazard. In particular, we focus on ground displacements occurred in the greater city area of Istanbul (Turkey) in the last 17 years. To this aim, we exploited the advanced DInSAR algorithm, referred to as Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) technique (Berardino et al., 2002). Displacement time series are retrieved from data acquired by the ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT (Pepe et al., 2005) satellites of the European Space Agency (ESA) between 1992 and 2009. First, we show the results of an analysis carried out at a spatial resolution of about 100 x 100 m. This shows, in addition to the co-seismic displacement caused by the Izmit earthquake (17 August 1999) and associated events, several areas that are subject to subsidence (often in excess of 10 cm per decade) within the city of Istanbul. Moreover, in selected case studies, we further exploited localized phenomena by "zooming" in the areas of interest and carrying out analyses at full spatial resolution scale (10 x 10 m) (Lanari et al., 2004). This additional effort allowed us to discriminate among deformation phenomena occurring at regional and at the building scale. This study provides an updated

  14. Epidemiology of Injection Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Nelson; Bruneau, Julie; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2016-01-01

    After more than 30 years of research, numerous studies have shown that injection drug use is associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes such as drug overdoses, drug-related suicidal behaviours, comorbid psychiatric disorders, bloodborne pathogens and other infectious diseases, and traumas. This review explores new trends and prominent issues associated with injection drug use. The dynamic nature of injection drug use is underlined by examining its recent trends and changing patterns in Canada and other “high-income countries.” Three research topics that could further contribute to the development of comprehensive prevention and intervention strategies aimed at people who inject drugs are also discussed: risk behaviours associated with the injection of prescription opioids, binge injection drug use, and mental health problems as determinants of injection risk behaviours. PMID:27254088

  15. Rain underscores need for injection

    SciTech Connect

    Stelling, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1987, steam production totals at The Geysers Geothermal field have fallen and water injection totals have remained quite stable, except for the unusually dry winter months of 1994 when injection fell by a record amount. The heavy rainfall in the first half of 1995 altered the long-term production and injection patterns and underscored the need to increase injection in the field. From January to June 1995, steam production at The Geysers was reduced by 37 percent form the amount produced during the same period in 1994--because the rain increased availability of hydroelectric power. At the same time, water injection in the field rose by 25 percent because more rainwater was available for injection. Consequently, both reservoir pressure and available steam reserves grew, and most power plants that returned on line in the second half of the year produced more megawatts with less steam. This confirmed findings form several injection studies at The Geyser`s.

  16. Fully Automatic In-Syringe Magnetic Stirring-Assisted Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Hyphenated to High-Temperature Torch Integrated Sample Introduction System-Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometer with Direct Injection of the Organic Phase.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Raquel; Horstkotte, Burkhard; Fikarová, Kateřina; Sklenářová, Hana; Maestre, Salvador; Miró, Manuel; Todolí, Jose-Luis

    2017-03-21

    A proof of concept study involving the online coupling of automatic dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) with direct introduction and analysis of the organic extract is herein reported for the first time. The flow-based analyzer features a lab-in-syringe (LIS) setup with an integrated stirring system, a Meinhard nebulizer in combination with a heated single-pass spray chamber, and a rotary injection valve, used as an online interface between the microextraction system and the detection instrument. Air-segmented flow was used for delivery of a fraction of the nonwater miscible extraction phase, 12 μL of xylene, to the nebulizer. All sample preparative steps including magnetic stirring assisted DLLME were carried out inside the syringe void volume as a size-adaptable yet sealed mixing and extraction chamber. Determination of trace level concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead, and silver as model analytes has been demonstrated by microextraction as diethyldithiophosphate (DDTP) complexes. The automatic LIS-DLLME method features quantitative metal extraction, even in troublesome sample matrixes, such as seawater, salt, and fruit juices, with relative recoveries within the range of 94-103%, 93-100%, and 92-99%, respectively. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences at the 0.05 significance level were found between concentration values experimentally obtained and the certified values of two serum standard reference materials.

  17. Propagating substorm injection fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Feynman, J.; Hardy, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    It is argued that a series of two-satellite observations leads to a clarification of substorm plasma injection, in which boundary motion plays a major role. Emphasis is put on a type of event characterized by abrupt, dispersionless changes in electron intensity and a coincident perturbation that consists of both a field magnitude increase and a small rotation toward more dipolar orientation. Comparing plasma observations at two points, it is found that in active, preinjection conditions the two most important features of the plasma sheet are: (1) the low-energy convection boundary for near-zero energy particles, determined by the magnitude of the large-scale convection electric field; and (2) the precipitation-flow boundary layer between the hot plasma sheet and the atmospherically contaminated inner plasma sheet.

  18. Fuel injection pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, P.

    1985-04-02

    A fuel injection pump of the rotary distributor type includes a cam actuated plunger housing in a bore and an adjustable fuel control member which varies the amount of fuel supplied to the bore. The pump also includes a timing piston connected to the cam, the piston being biased by a spring against the action of fuel under pressure. In order to vary the timing under certain conditions a control piston serves as an abutment for the spring and the application of pressure to the control piston is controlled by a valve which has a valve element coupled to a throttle member of the pump the valve having a housing which is secured on the exterior of the pump.

  19. Particle beam injection system

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.; Kulsrud, Russell M.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a poloidal divertor for stacking counterstreaming ion beams to provide high intensity colliding beams. To this end, method and apparatus are provided that inject high energy, high velocity, ordered, atomic deuterium and tritium beams into a lower energy, toroidal, thermal equilibrium, neutral, target plasma column that is magnetically confined along an endless magnetic axis in a strong restoring force magnetic field having helical field lines to produce counterstreaming deuteron and triton beams that are received bent, stacked and transported along the endless axis, while a poloidal divertor removes thermal ions and electrons all along the axis to increase the density of the counterstreaming ion beams and the reaction products resulting therefrom. By balancing the stacking and removal, colliding, strong focused particle beams, reaction products and reactions are produced that convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

  20. Injectors for Multipoint Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prociw, Lev Alexander (Inventor); Ryon, Jason (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An injector for a multipoint combustor system includes an inner air swirler which defines an interior flow passage and a plurality of swirler inlet ports in an upstream portion thereof. The inlet ports are configured and adapted to impart swirl on flow in the interior flow passage. An outer air cap is mounted outboard of the inner swirler. A fuel passage is defined between the inner air swirler and the outer air cap, and includes a discharge outlet between downstream portions of the inner air swirler and the outer air cap for issuing fuel for combustion. The outer air cap defines an outer air circuit configured for substantially unswirled injection of compressor discharge air outboard of the interior flow passage.

  1. Diesel fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1986-04-22

    A fuel injection pump is described of the multiple plunger spill port type for an automotive type internal combustion engine, the pump including at least four axially spaced engine camshaft driven pump plungers grouped in pairs and sequentially and in succession moved in one direction through a fuel pumping stroke and oppositely through a fuel intake stroke. A fuel pressurization/supply chamber is contiquous to the end of each plunger for pressurization of the fuel therein or supply of fuel thereto from a supply passage upon coordinate movement of the plunger, fill/spill passage means connected to a single fuel return spill port and in parallel flow relationship to each of the plunger bores as a function of the position of the plungers, each plunger having a pair of internal passages connected at all times to its chamber and alternately alignable with the supply or fill/spill passage means as a function of the position of the plunger. A fuel discharge passage is operatively connecting each of the chambers to an individual engine cylinder, a single spill port control valve movable to block or permit the spill of fuel through the spill port to a return line to control the pressurization of fuel in all of the fuel chambers and associated discharge passages, a single solenoid connected to the spill control valve for moving it to block or unblock the spill port, and a single shuttle valve operatively associated with all of the fill/spill passage means and spill port reciprocably movable between positions to sequentially connect the plunger chambers one at a time in succession to the spill port during the pumping pressurization stroke of its plunger for the injection of fuel to an individual cylinder while the other chambers are in various stages of being refilled with fuel and preparing for pressurization upon successive actuation of the plungers by the camshaft.

  2. The DinB•RecA complex of Escherichia coli mediates an efficient and high-fidelity response to ubiquitous alkylation lesions.

    PubMed

    Cafarelli, Tiziana M; Rands, Thomas J; Godoy, Veronica G

    2014-03-01

    Alkylation DNA lesions are ubiquitous, and result from normal cellular metabolism as well as from treatment with methylating agents and chemotherapeutics. DNA damage tolerance by translesion synthesis DNA polymerases has an important role in cellular resistance to alkylating agents. However, it is not yet known whether Escherichia coli (E. coli) DNA Pol IV (DinB) alkylation lesion bypass efficiency and fidelity in vitro are similar to those inferred by genetic analyses. We hypothesized that DinB-mediated bypass of 3-deaza-3-methyladenine, a stable analog of 3-methyladenine, the primary replication fork-stalling alkylation lesion, would be of high fidelity. We performed here the first kinetic analyses of E. coli DinB•RecA binary complexes. Whether alone or in a binary complex, DinB inserted the correct deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) opposite either lesion-containing or undamaged template; the incorporation of other dNTPs was largely inefficient. DinB prefers undamaged DNA, but the DinB•RecA binary complex increases its catalytic efficiency on lesion-containing template, perhaps as part of a regulatory mechanism to better respond to alkylation damage. Notably, we find that a DinB derivative with enhanced affinity for RecA, either alone or in a binary complex, is less efficient and has a lower fidelity than DinB or DinB•RecA. This finding contrasts our previous genetic analyses. Therefore, mutagenesis resulting from alkylation lesions is likely limited in cells by the activity of DinB•RecA. These two highly conserved proteins play an important role in maintaining genomic stability when cells are faced with ubiquitous DNA damage. Kinetic analyses are important to gain insights into the mechanism(s) regulating TLS DNA polymerases.

  3. The cost of unsafe injections.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M. A.; Pisani, E.

    1999-01-01

    Unsafe injection practices are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly from hepatitis B and C and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. These inadvertently transmitted bloodborne diseases become manifest some considerable time after infection and hence may not be appropriately accounted for. Annually more than 1.3 million deaths and US$ 535 million are estimated to be due to current unsafe injection practices. With the global increase in the number of injections for vaccination and medical services, safer injecting technologies such as auto-disable syringes must be budgeted for. Investment in health education and safer disposal will also reduce infections associated with unsafe injecting practices. Safer injecting practices are more expensive than current less safe practices, but the additional cost is more than offset by the reduction in disease that would result. PMID:10593028

  4. Toxin-antitoxin systems mqsR/ygiT and dinJ/RelE of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) encodes multiple toxin-antitoxin (TA) system homologues, including relE/dinJ and mqsR/ygiT. Phylogenetic analyses indicate these two Xf TA systems have distinct evolutionary histories. Genomic comparisons among Xf subspecies/strains reveal TA systems are ...

  5. Railway deformation detected by DInSAR over active sinkholes in the Ebro Valley evaporite karst, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galve, J. P.; Castañeda, C.; Gutiérrez, F.

    2015-06-01

    Previously not measured subsidence on railway tracks was detected using DInSAR displacement maps produced for the central sector of Ebro Valley (NE Spain). This area is affected by evaporite karst and the analyzed railway corridors traverse active sinkholes that produce deformations in these infrastructures. One of the railway tracks affected by slight settlements corresponds to the Madrid-Barcelona high-speed line, a transport infrastructure highly vulnerable to ground deformation processes. Our analysis based on DInSAR measurements and geomorphological surveys indicate that this line show dissolution-induced subsidence and compaction of anthropogenic deposits (infills and embankments). By using DInSAR techniques, it was also measured the significant subsidence related to the activity of sinkholes in the Castejón-Zaragoza conventional railway line. Thus, this study demonstrate that DInSAR velocity maps coupled with detailed geomorphological surveys may help in the identification of the sectors of railway tracks that may compromise the safety of travellers.

  6. Unsupervised DInSAR processing chain for multi-scale displacement analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casu, Francesco; Manunta, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Earth Observation techniques can be very helpful for the estimation of several sources of ground deformation due to their characteristics of large spatial coverage, high resolution and cost effectiveness. In this scenario, Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) is one of the most effective methodologies for its capability to generate spatially dense deformation maps at both global and local spatial scale, with centimeter to millimeter accuracy. DInSAR exploits the phase difference (interferogram) between SAR image pairs relevant to acquisitions gathered at different times, but with the same illumination geometry and from sufficiently close flight tracks, whose separation is typically referred to as baseline. Among several, the SBAS algorithm is one of the most used DInSAR approaches and it is aimed at generating displacement time series at a multi-scale level by exploiting a set of small baseline interferograms. SBAS, and generally DInSAR, has taken benefit from the large availability of spaceborne SAR data collected along years by several satellite systems, with particular regard to the European ERS and ENVISAT sensors, which have acquired SAR images worldwide during approximately 20 years. Moreover, since 2014 the new generation of Copernicus Sentinel satellites has started to acquire data with a short revisit time (12 days) and a global coverage policy, thus flooding the scientific EO community with an unprecedent amount of data. To efficiently manage such amount of data, proper processing facilities (as those coming from the emerging Cloud Computing technologies) have to be used, as well as novel algorithms aimed at their efficient exploitation have to be developed. In this work we present a set of results achieved by exploiting a recently proposed implementation of the SBAS algorithm, namely Parallel-SBAS (P-SBAS), which allows us to effectively process, in an unsupervised way and in a limited time frame, a huge number of SAR images

  7. Generation of Classical DInSAR and PSI Ground Motion Maps on a Cloud Thematic Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Oscar; Ordoqui, Patrick; Romero, Laia

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the experience of ALTAMIRA INFORMATION uploading InSAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry) services in the Geohazard Exploitation Platform (GEP), supported by ESA. Two different processing chains are presented jointly with ground motion maps obtained from the cloud computing, one being DIAPASON for classical DInSAR and SPN (Stable Point Network) for PSI (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry) processing. The product obtained from DIAPASON is the interferometric phase related to ground motion (phase fringes from a SAR pair). SPN provides motion data (mean velocity and time series) on high-quality pixels from a stack of SAR images. DIAPASON is already implemented, and SPN is under development to be exploited with historical data coming from ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT satellites, and current acquisitions of SENTINEL-1 in SLC and TOPSAR modes.

  8. Unsupervised SBAS-DInSAR time series generation: a small brick for building a Supersites ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casu, F.; De Luca, C.; Elefante, S.; Imperatore, P.; Lanari, R.; Manunta, M.; Zinno, I.; Farres, J.; Lengert, W.

    2013-12-01

    Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) is an effective tool to detect and monitor ground displacements with centimeter accuracy. The geoscience communities, as well as those related to hazard monitoring and risk mitigation, make extensively use of DInSAR. They take advantage from the current huge amount of SAR data and will benefit the incoming big data stream of Sentinel 1 system. The availability of this information makes possible the generation of Earth's surface displacement maps and time series with large spatial coverage and long time span and, often in conjunction to in-situ data, fosters advances in science. However, the managing, processing and analysis of such a huge amount of data is expected to be the major bottleneck, particularly when crisis phases occur. The emerging need of creating a common ecosystem in which data (space born and in-situ), results and processing tools are shared, is envisaged to be a successful way to address such a problem and contribute to information and knowledge spreading. The Supersites initiative as well as the ESA SuperSites Exploitation Platform (SSEP), through the ESA Grid Processing On Demand (G-POD) and Cloud Computing Operational Pilot (CIOP) projects, provide effective answers to this need. The existent tools for querying and analysing SAR data are required to be redesigned for both processing big data and for quickly replying to simultaneous user requests, mainly during emergency situations. These requirements push for the development of automatic and unsupervised processing tools as well as of scalable, widely accessible and high performance computing capabilities. The cloud-computing environment successfully responds to these objectives, particularly in case of spike and peak requests of processing resources linked to disaster events. In this work we present a parallel computational model for the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) DInSAR algorithm as it was implemented within the computing environment provided by the

  9. "The City of Din": decibels, noise, and neighbors in The Netherlands, 1910-1980.

    PubMed

    Bijsterveld, Karin

    2003-01-01

    Science and technology have played a crucial role in regulating problems resulting from urban overcrowding. In the twentieth century, the decibel became a major factor in controlling, for instance, urban traffic noise in the Netherlands. "The city of din" led to the creation of the portable noise meter to measure decibels, but the urban context also set limits on its utility in noise conflicts between neighbors. Regarding neighborly noise, the trust in numbers failed to be productive. Legislation,based on objective noise levels, aimed at regulating disturbance from neighbors was not realized in any comprehensive manner, due to changing class relations and the increasing recognition of both the subjectivity of noise and the right to make noise in the privacy of one's own home.

  10. Dinámica global en galaxias elípticas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, M. J.; Cincotta, P. M.; Giordano, C. M.

    Con el propósito de determinar propiedades dinámicas globales en sistemas triaxiales no integrables, utilizamos una nueva herramienta conocida como ``Mean Exponential Growth factor of Nearby Orbits'' (MEGNO), introducida por Cincotta y Simó (2000). Esta técnica no sólo resulta eficiente para investigar ambas componentes del espacio fase, regular y caótica, sino que también, provee una medida de la hiperbolicidad en el dominio caótico que coincide con la dada por el Lyapunov Characteristic Number (LCN). Previamente este método ha sido aplicado al estudio de modelos simples, y últimamente en el campo de la Mecánica Celeste, al estudio de sistemas planetarios extrasolares. En esta presentación, ilustraremos algunas de las propiedades más importantes del MEGNO, aplic& acute;andolo al potencial tridimensional de Stäckel perturbado.

  11. [Physicochemical incompatibilities of injectable drugs].

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Christelle; Rouault, Médéric; Cailleteau, Jérémy

    2016-02-01

    The physicochemical interactions of injectable drugs administered through a Y-site injection port are little known phenomena, poorly documented but very frequent. Physicochemical incompatibility is defined as a chemical reaction between two injectable drugs which come into contact with each other. This chemical reaction may be visible on a macroscopic level or completely invisible. The risks of these interactions are not harmless, ranging from inefficacy to the toxicity of the newly-formed compounds.

  12. Exploitation of the results of an extend DInSAR analysis performed since 1992 in the urban area of Roma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsella, Maria; Scifoni, Silvia; Scutti, Marianna; Sonnessa, Alberico; Bonano, Manuela; Ojha, Chandrakanta; Manunta, Michele; Pepe, Antonio; Solaro, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Remote sensing is a key tool for environmental monitoring due to its outstanding capabilities to provide unique and timely information about Earth surface. In this framework, differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) represents nowadays a well-established remote sensing technique for the investigation of surface deformation phenomena. In particular, the advanced DInSAR techniques that have been developed over the last years allow the detection and monitoring of the time evolution of very localized deformation signals affecting single buildings or man-made structures on the ground. In this context, DInSAR technology can play a significant role in monitoring ground settlements affecting single buildings and infrastructural network in urban areas. Recently, the availability of high-resolution SAR images collected by the sensors of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) Cosmo Sky-Med constellation has allowed the generation of DInSAR products with improved spatial and temporal resolution characteristics with respect to previous SAR systems. This enhanced the capabilities of controlling deformation phenomena affecting the historical heritage in large urban areas, such as the town Roma. As a matter of fact, the monitoring of monuments and historical buildings represents a challenging issue for the preservation of historical heritage which is more sensible to factors causing structural deterioration that may lead to severe degrees of damage up to irreversible situations. This work is aimed at investigating the capability improvement of DInSAR technique to map deformation phenomena affecting the urban area of Rome guaranteed by the exploitation of SAR data acquired by the new X-band SAR instruments onboard of the Cosmo-Skymed (CSM) sensors, with respect to that obtained through the first generation C-band ERS/ENVISAT radar systems. To this aim, we have analyzed three different archives of SAR images gathered by the CSM, the ERS and the ENVISAT platforms over the area of Roma (Italy

  13. Analysis of DSGSD using the DInSAR technique and geomorphological studies in central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolomei, C.; Taramelli, A.; Moro, M.; Saroli, M.; Salvi, S.

    2008-12-01

    Considerable enhancement for morphometric interpretation can be obtained through generation of a synthetic stereo pair, by means of the integration of detailed photogeological analysis (Volo Italia 1987-1988) dataset, supported by SPOT images, 20m pixel-size Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and in situ observations. In this research we analyze the overall requirement and use of parameters derived from geomorphic analysis in synergy with DInSAR technique for Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD) topography characterization in the Italy Central Apennine (Umbria-Marche area). The topographic approach employed to derive these insights is not intended for use in site-specific analyses of DSGSD potential but instead identify slopes whose morphology is indicative of deep seated phenomena. Geomorphological evidences from aerial photos and field observations shows large scale gravity driven phenomena (landslides, sackung or rock-flow, lateral spread and block slide), responsible for the landscape evolution of the whole area. The InSAR technique has been applied in order to understand the temporal behaviour and spatial distribution of such deformation. The interferograms show various isolated fringe patterns corresponding to some of the large scale gravitative phenomena previously and indipendently identified through geomorphic analysis. The final results indicate that when incorporated with the DInSAR technique the morphological analysis is useful to supervise the activity of identified DSGSDs in specific landscapes and quantify their surface movement. This research has promoted a structured and integrated approach to DSGSD assessment primarily from a quantitative perspective. The approach can have further positive implications. The application of the suggested methodology to areas characterized by the presence of different DSGSD typology and related to a seismic sequence could also allow to better separate tectonic and gravity contributions from the whole

  14. Advanced Differential Radar Interferometry (A-DInSAR) as integrative tool for a structural geological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, B.; Calcagni, L.; Rossi, G.; Sternai, P.

    2009-04-01

    Advanced Differential SAR interferometry (A-DInSAR) is a technique monitoring large-coverage surface deformations using a stack of interferograms generated from several complex SLC SAR images, acquired over the same target area at different times. In this work are described the results of a procedure to calculate terrain motion velocity on highly correlated pixels (E. Biescas, M. Crosetto, M. Agudo, O. Monserrat e B. Crippa: Two Radar Interferometric Approaches to Monitor Slow and Fast Land Deformation, 2007) in two area Gemona - Friuli, Northern Italy, Pollino - Calabria, Southern Italy, and, furthermore, are presented some consideration, based on successful examples of the present analysis. The choice of these pixels whose displacement velocity is calculated depends on the dispersion index value (DA) or using coherence values along the stack interferograms. A-DInSAR technique allows to obtain highly reliable velocity values of the vertical displacement. These values concern the movement of minimum surfaces of about 80m2 at the maximum resolution and the minimum velocity that can be recognized is of the order of mm/y. Because of the high versatility of the technology, because of the large dimensions of the area that can be analyzed (of about 10000Km2) and because of the high precision and reliability of the results obtained, we think it is possible to exploit radar interferometry to obtain some important information about the structural context of the studied area, otherwise very difficult to recognize. Therefore we propose radar interferometry as a valid investigation tool whose results must be considered as an important integration of the data collected in fieldworks.

  15. Injectable barriers for waste isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.J.; Apps, J.; Pruess, K.; Muller, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    In this paper the authors report laboratory work and numerical simulation done in support of development and demonstration of injectable barriers formed from either of two fluids: colloidal silica or polysiloxane. Two principal problems addressed here are control of gel time and control of plume emplacement in the vadose zone. Gel time must be controlled so that the viscosity of the barrier fluid remains low long enough to inject the barrier, but increases soon enough to gel the barrier in place. During injection, the viscosity must be low enough to avoid high injection pressures which could uplift or fracture the formation. To test the grout gel time in the soil, the injection pressure was monitored as grouts were injected into sandpacks. When grout is injected into the vadose zone, it slumps under the influence of gravity, and redistributes due to capillary forces as it gels. The authors have developed a new module for the reservoir simulator TOUGH2 to model grout injection into the vadose zone, taking into account the increase of liquid viscosity as a function of gel concentration and time. They have also developed a model to calculate soil properties after complete solidification of the grout. The numerical model has been used to design and analyze laboratory experiments and field pilot tests. The authors present the results of computer simulations of grout injection, redistribution, and solidification.

  16. Supersonic Jet Noise Reduction Using Flapping Injection and Pulsed Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafsteinsson, Haukur; Eriksson, Lars-Erik; Cuppoletti, Daniel; Gutmark, Ephraim; Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology Team; Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinatti Team; Swedish Defence Material Administration, Sweden Team

    2013-11-01

    Aircraft are in general noisy and there is a high demand for reducing their noise levels. The jet exhaust is in most cases the main noise source of the aircraft, especially for low bypass ratio jet engines. Fluidic injection affecting the shear layer close to the nozzle exit is a promising noise reduction technique as it can be turned of while not needed and thus the negative effect on the engine performance will be minimized. In the presented work, LES is used to compare steady-state mass flow injection with steady-state mass flow flapping jet injection. The work is a direct continuation of a previous LES study on pulsed injection which showed that the pulsed injection induced pressure pulses in the jet which caused increased tonal noise in the downstream directions. The injection system considered in the presented work consists of eight evenly distributed injectors at the nozzle exit plane with a 90° injection angle relative to the flow direction. Flapping jet injection is believed to minimize the creation of these pressure pulses since it provides steady-state mass flow. This work is funded by Swedish Defense Material Administration (FMV).

  17. DNA polymerase II is encoded by the DNA damage-inducible dinA gene of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bonner, C A; Hays, S; McEntee, K; Goodman, M F

    1990-10-01

    The structural gene for DNA polymerase II was cloned by using a synthetic inosine-containing oligonucleotide probe corresponding to 11 amino acids, which were determined by sequencing the amino terminus of the purified protein. The labeled oligonucleotide hybridized specifically to the lambda clone 7H9 from the Kohara collection as well as to plasmid pGW511 containing the SOS-regulated dinA gene. Approximately 1400 base pairs of dinA sequence were determined. The predicted amino-terminal sequence of dinA demonstrated that this gene encoded DNA polymerase II. Sequence analysis of the upstream region localized a LexA binding site overlapping the -35 region of the dinA promoter, and this promoter element was found to be only two nucleotides downstream from the 3' end of the araD gene. These results demonstrate that the gene order is thr-dinA (pol II)-ara-leu on the Escherichia coli chromosome and that the DNA polymerase II structural gene is transcribed in the same direction as the araBAD operon. Based on the analysis of the predicted protein, we have identified a sequence motif Asp-Xaa-Xaa-Ser-Leu-Tyr-Pro-Ser in DNA polymerase II that is highly conserved among a diverse group of DNA polymerases, which include those from humans, yeast, Herpes and vaccinia viruses, and phages T4 and PRD1. The demonstration that DNA polymerase II is a component of the SOS response in E. coli suggests that it plays an important role in DNA repair and/or mutagenesis.

  18. A comparison of molding procedures - Contact, injection and vacuum injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathiard, G.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic aspects of the contact, injection and vacuum injection molding of reinforced plastic components are compared for the example of a tractor roof with a gel-coated surface. Consideration is given to the possibility of reinforcement, number of smooth faces, condition of the gel-coated surface, reliability, and labor and workplace requirements of the three processes, and advantages of molding between the mold and a countermold in smooth faces, reliability, labor requirements, working surface and industrial hygiene are pointed out. The times and labor requirements of each step in the molding cycles are examined, and material requirements and yields, investment costs, amortization and product cost prices of the processes are compared. It is concluded that, for the specific component examined, the processes of vacuum injection and injection molding appear very interesting, with injection molding processes resulting in lower cost prices than contact molding for any production volume.

  19. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Marcic, Milan

    2006-01-01

    A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped with multi-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changing hydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paper allows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injection rates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today known measuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate in diesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possible differences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformational measuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation of membrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. The pressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For each hole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into which fuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. During measurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain an overpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into the graduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.The membrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane and forming the full Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shape and temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  20. SNS Injection Foil Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cousineau, Sarah M; Galambos, John D; Kim, Sang-Ho; Ladd, Peter; Luck, Chris; Peters, Charles C; Polsky, Yarom; Shaw, Robert W; Macek, Robert James; Raparia, Deepak; Plum, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source comprises a 1 GeV, 1.4 MW linear accelerator followed by an accumulator ring and a liquid mercury target. To manage the beam loss caused by the H0 excited states created during the H charge exchange injection into the accumulator ring, the stripper foil is located inside one of the chicane dipoles. This has some interesting consequences that were not fully appreciated until the beam power reached about 840 kW. One consequence was sudden failure of the stripper foil system due to convoy electrons stripped from the incoming H beam, which circled around to strike the foil bracket and cause bracket failure. Another consequence is that convoy electrons can reflect back up from the electron catcher and strike the foil and bracket. An additional contributor to foil system failure is vacuum breakdown due to the charge developed on the foil by secondary electron emission. In this paper we will detail these and other interesting failure mechanisms, and describe the improvements we have made to mitigate them.

  1. Fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Miyaki, M.; Iwanaga, T.; Fujisawa, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a fuel injection system for a diesel engine comprising: condition detection means for detecting operating conditions of the diesel engine including a rotational position thereof; low pressure fuel supply means for supplying fuel at a low pressure at an output port thereof; high pressure fuel pump means, having a pump chamber communicating with the output port of the low pressure fuel supply means, and plunger means reciprocable within the pump chamber for introducing fuel from the output port of the low pressure fuel supply means into the pump chamber during a movement in a predetermined direction of the plunger means and for pressurizing the introduced fuel during a movement of the plunger means in the opposite direction so that pressurized fuel is delivered from the high pressure fuel pump means at an output port thereof; common rail fuel storage means, connected to the output port of the high pressure fuel pump means, for storing pressurized fuel delivered from the high pressure pump therein at a substantially continuous pressure.

  2. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Miyaki, M.

    1986-01-07

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump for delivering fuel to the cylinders of an internal combustion engine consisting of: a pump housing with a fuel chamber therein to which fuel is supplied from a fuel tank; means for compressing fuel in the pump chamber and delivering the compressed fuel to the engine cylinders with such means including a pump plunger adapted to be reciprocated so as to introduce fuel into the pump chamber and to pressurize the introduced fuel; spill means for spilling to a low-pressure side on a fuel tank side the compressed fuel which was pressurized in the pump chamber to be delivered from the pump chamber to the engine cylinders, the spill mechanism including a spill passage communicating with the pump chamber and including a solenoid valve located in the spill passage for opening and closing the spill passage with predetermined timing; escape for allowing the compressed fuel pressurized in the pump chamber to escape to the low-pressure side of the fuel tank side.

  3. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Iiyama, A.; Nishimura, T.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump comprising: (a) engageable first and second cam members, the first cam member reciprocating axially as the first cam member moves angularly relative to the second cam member when the first and second cam members are in engagement; (b) means for urging the first cam member toward the second cam member to engage the first and second cam members; (c) a plunger connected to the first cam member for reciprocation with the first cam member, the plunger defining at least a part of a pumping chamber, the pumping chamber contracting and expanding as the plunger reciprocates; (d) means for allowing fuel to move into the pumping chamber as the pumping chamber expands in a fuel intake stroke; (e) means for allowing the fuel to move out of the pumping chamber as the pumping chamber contracts in a fuel compression stroke; and (f) means for resisting movement of the plunger in at least part of the fuel compression stroke and relieving resistance to the movement of the plunger in the fuel intake stroke wherein the resisting means comprises a piston slidably mounted on the plunger, a spring urging the piston to seat the piston on a shoulder on the plunger so that the piston reciprocates as the plunger reciprocates, wherein the piston is seated on the shoulder in the fuel compression stroke and separates from the shoulder against the force of the spring in the fuel intake stroke, a second fluid chamber at least partially defined by the piston.

  4. The RHIC Injection Kicker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, H.; Tuozzolo, J. E.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    Beam transfer from the AGS to RHIC is performed in single-bunch mode. Close spacing of the bunches in the collider requires an injection kicker with a rise time of <95 nsec, suggesting adoption of a travelling wave solution. The required vertical kick of 0.186 T.m is provided by 4 units, each 1.12 m long with a 48.4× 48.4 mm aperture and operated at 1.6 kA. The kicker is constructed as a ``C'' cross section magnet, in which ferrite and high-permittivity ( ~ 100) dielectric sections alternate. The dielectric blocks provide the capacity necessary for the nominally 25 Ohm characteristic impedance of the travelling wave structure, but impose the practical limit on the peak voltage, and thus current, achievable. Computer studies to minimize local electric field enhancements resulted in a configuration capable of holding >50 kV, with adequate safety margin over the nominal 40 kV. Tests indicated the possibility of lowering the nominal voltage by operating mismatched into 20 Ohm terminations without degrading the pulse shape. In this paper, the experience gained in the fabrication of the four kicker units for the ``Sextant Test'' and the results from various single-unit tests and operation in beam are reported.

  5. The RHIC injection kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    Beam transfer from the AGS to RHIC is performed in single-bunch mode. Close spacing of the bunches in the collider requires an injection kicker with a rise time of <90 nsec, suggesting adoption of a travelling wave structure. The required vertical kick of 0.186 t{center_dot}m is provided by 4 magnets, each 1.12 m long with a 48.4 x 48.4 mm aperture and operated at 1.6 kA. The kicker is constructed as a {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} cross section magnet, in which ferrite and high-permittivity dielectric sections alternate. The dielectric blocks provide the capacity necessary for the nominally 25 {Omega} characteristic impedance of the travelling wave structure, but impose the practical limit on the peak voltage, and thus current, achievable. Computer studies to minimize local electric field enhancements resulted in a configuration capable of holding {approximately} 50 kV, with adequate safety margin over the nominal 40 kV. Equivalent circuit analysis indicated the possibility of lowering the nominal voltage by operating mismatched into 20 {Omega} terminations without degrading the pulse shape. In this paper, the experience gained in the fabrication of the production units and the results from various single-unit tests and operation of four kickers with beam in the {open_quotes}Sextant Test{close_quotes} are reported.

  6. Injectable Foams for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Edna M.; Page, Jonathan M.; Harmata, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The design of injectable biomaterials has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Many injectable biomaterials, such as hydrogels and calcium phosphate cements, have nanoscale pores that limit the rate of cellular migration and proliferation. While introduction of macroporosity has been suggested to increase cellular infiltration and tissue healing, many conventional methods for generating macropores often require harsh processing conditions that preclude their use in injectable foams. In recent years, processes such as porogen leaching, gas foaming, and emulsion-templating have been adapted to generate macroporosity in injectable calcium phosphate cements, hydrogels, and hydrophobic polymers. While some of the more mature injectable foam technologies have been evaluated in clinical trials, there are challenges remaining to be addressed, such as the biocompatibility and ultimate fate of the sacrificial phase used to generate pores within the foam after it sets in situ. Furthermore, while implantable scaffolds can be washed extensively to remove undesirable impurities, all of the components required to synthesize injectable foams must be injected into the defect. Thus, every compound in the foam must be biocompatible and non-cytotoxic at the concentrations utilized. As future research addresses these critical challenges, injectable macroporous foams are anticipated to have an increasingly significant impact on improving patient outcomes for a number of clinical procedures. PMID:24127230

  7. VECTORCARDIOGRAPHIC CHANGES DURING INTRACORONARY INJECTIONS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    artery blood with the changes in the surface electrocardiogram, simultaneous recordings were made from Frank leads X, Y, and Z during intracoronary ...could be produced by intracoronary injections of saline solutions, but minimal or no changes were observed with injections of hypertonic mannitol

  8. Blast furnace injection symposium: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    These proceedings contain 14 papers related to blast furnace injection issues. Topics include coal quality, coal grinding, natural gas injection, stable operation of the blast furnace, oxygen enrichment, coal conveying, and performance at several steel companies. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. Injectable foams for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Edna M; Page, Jonathan M; Harmata, Andrew J; Guelcher, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    The design of injectable biomaterials has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Many injectable biomaterials, such as hydrogels and calcium phosphate cements (CPCs), have nanoscale pores that limit the rate of cellular migration and proliferation. While introduction of macroporosity has been suggested to increase cellular infiltration and tissue healing, many conventional methods for generating macropores often require harsh processing conditions that preclude their use in injectable foams. In recent years, processes such as porogen leaching, gas foaming, and emulsion-templating have been adapted to generate macroporosity in injectable CPCs, hydrogels, and hydrophobic polymers. While some of the more mature injectable foam technologies have been evaluated in clinical trials, there are challenges remaining to be addressed, such as the biocompatibility and ultimate fate of the sacrificial phase used to generate pores within the foam after it sets in situ. Furthermore, while implantable scaffolds can be washed extensively to remove undesirable impurities, all of the components required to synthesize injectable foams must be injected into the defect. Thus, every compound in the foam must be biocompatible and noncytotoxic at the concentrations utilized. As future research addresses these critical challenges, injectable macroporous foams are anticipated to have an increasingly significant impact on improving patient outcomes for a number of clinical procedures.

  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DinG is a structure-specific helicase that unwinds G4 DNA: implications for targeting G4 DNA as a novel therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Roshan Singh; Desingu, Ambika; Basavaraju, Shivakumar; Subramanya, Shreelakshmi; Rao, Desirazu N; Nagaraju, Ganesh

    2014-09-05

    The significance of G-quadruplexes and the helicases that resolve G4 structures in prokaryotes is poorly understood. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is GC-rich and contains >10,000 sequences that have the potential to form G4 structures. In Escherichia coli, RecQ helicase unwinds G4 structures. However, RecQ is absent in M. tuberculosis, and the helicase that participates in G4 resolution in M. tuberculosis is obscure. Here, we show that M. tuberculosis DinG (MtDinG) exhibits high affinity for ssDNA and ssDNA translocation with a 5' → 3' polarity. Interestingly, MtDinG unwinds overhangs, flap structures, and forked duplexes but fails to unwind linear duplex DNA. Our data with DNase I footprinting provide mechanistic insights and suggest that MtDinG is a 5' → 3' polarity helicase. Notably, in contrast to E. coli DinG, MtDinG catalyzes unwinding of replication fork and Holliday junction structures. Strikingly, we find that MtDinG resolves intermolecular G4 structures. These data suggest that MtDinG is a multifunctional structure-specific helicase that unwinds model structures of DNA replication, repair, and recombination as well as G4 structures. We finally demonstrate that promoter sequences of M. tuberculosis PE_PGRS2, mce1R, and moeB1 genes contain G4 structures, implying that G4 structures may regulate gene expression in M. tuberculosis. We discuss these data and implicate targeting G4 structures and DinG helicase in M. tuberculosis could be a novel therapeutic strategy for culminating the infection with this pathogen.

  11. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate

  12. Dinámica y crecimiento de los granos de polvo en la nebulosa protoplanetaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente Marcos, Carlos

    2001-06-01

    En el escenario estándar de la formación planetaria, los planetesimales (cuerpos de tamaño kilométrico) crecen a partir de granos de polvo, similares a los interestelares, embebidos en un disco gaseoso denominado nebulosa protoplanetaria. Durante esta etapa, los movimientos del gas pueden tener gran influencia en la dinámica y el crecimiento de los granos de polvo, dado que el flujo kepleriano del gas frena el movimiento de los mismos haciendo que caigan hacia el Sol, y la turbulencia inhibe la inestabilidad gravitacional de la capa de polvo. Aunque se acepta que los planetesimales fueron los elementos constituyentes de los planetas, todavía se desconoce cómo se produjo la formación de los mismos. Por esta razón, en los estudios más recientes, existe un renovado interés por comprender mejor la evolución de la capa de polvo inmersa en el disco gaseoso de la Nebulosa. El gas que fluye en el disco puede engendrar estructuras carentes de simetría axial, como por ejemplo ondas espirales y vórtices, a partir de gran variedad de mecanismos de excitación e inestabilidad. En 1995, Barge y Sommeria pusieron de manifiesto que la existencia de vórtices gaseosos persistentes en la nebulosa solar tendría importantes consecuencias sobre la formación de los planetesimales y el posterior crecimiento de los planetas gigantes. La investigación desarrollada en esta Tesis analiza la relación entre el polvo y el gas debida al acoplamiento por fricción dinámica entre ambos; en concreto, se estudia el efecto del flujo medio del gas sobre la dinámica de las partículas de polvo. El primer objetivo es investigar en profundidad los procesos de captura y crecimiento de los granos de polvo dentro de un vórtice y su posible relevancia en cuanto a la formación de los planetesimales. El segundo objetivo es la exploración de los efectos de ondas espirales propagándose en el disco gaseoso sobre la dinámica y el crecimiento de las partículas. La presencia de líneas de

  13. A User-Oriented Methodology for DInSAR Time Series Analysis and Interpretation: Landslides and Subsidence Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notti, Davide; Calò, Fabiana; Cigna, Francesca; Manunta, Michele; Herrera, Gerardo; Berti, Matteo; Meisina, Claudia; Tapete, Deodato; Zucca, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    Recent advances in multi-temporal Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry (DInSAR) have greatly improved our capability to monitor geological processes. Ground motion studies using DInSAR require both the availability of good quality input data and rigorous approaches to exploit the retrieved Time Series (TS) at their full potential. In this work we present a methodology for DInSAR TS analysis, with particular focus on landslides and subsidence phenomena. The proposed methodology consists of three main steps: (1) pre-processing, i.e., assessment of a SAR Dataset Quality Index (SDQI) (2) post-processing, i.e., application of empirical/stochastic methods to improve the TS quality, and (3) trend analysis, i.e., comparative implementation of methodologies for automatic TS analysis. Tests were carried out on TS datasets retrieved from processing of SAR imagery acquired by different radar sensors (i.e., ERS-1/2 SAR, RADARSAT-1, ENVISAT ASAR, ALOS PALSAR, TerraSAR-X, COSMO-SkyMed) using advanced DInSAR techniques (i.e., SqueeSAR™, PSInSAR™, SPN and SBAS). The obtained values of SDQI are discussed against the technical parameters of each data stack (e.g., radar band, number of SAR scenes, temporal coverage, revisiting time), the retrieved coverage of the DInSAR results, and the constraints related to the characterization of the investigated geological processes. Empirical and stochastic approaches were used to demonstrate how the quality of the TS can be improved after the SAR processing, and examples are discussed to mitigate phase unwrapping errors, and remove regional trends, noise and anomalies. Performance assessment of recently developed methods of trend analysis (i.e., PS-Time, Deviation Index and velocity TS) was conducted on two selected study areas in Northern Italy affected by land subsidence and landslides. Results show that the automatic detection of motion trends enhances the interpretation of DInSAR data, since it provides an objective

  14. Spatial and temporal interpolation of DInSAR data at different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessitore, Serena; Fiaschi, Simone; Achilli, Vladimiro; Ahmed, Ahmed; Calcaterra, Domenico; Di Martire, Diego; Guardiola-Albert, Carolina; Meisina, Claudia; Ramondini, Massimo; Floris, Mario

    2015-04-01

    The present study regards the utilization of multi-pass DInSAR algorithms to the ground displacements monitoring at small and large scales. An integration of in situ and DInSAR data to the elaboration of 2D maps of deformation is proposed. A geo-statistical method for "radar-gauge combination" called Ordinary Kriging of Radar Errors (OKRE) has been used. This algorithm uses the punctual values of a primary variable that is represented by measurements of true deformations, whereas radar is comprised as auxiliary information on the spatial distribution (Erdin, 2013). According to this method, is possible to obtain the interpolated map of deformations by subtracting a radar error map from the original interpolated radar map. In particular, the radar error map is carried out by interpolating the differences between radar and in situ data with the OK interpolator. To this aim, in the present work the available standard spirit levelling and GPS data have been used. Moreover, DInSAR data achieved through two different approaches have been taken into account for the spatial analysis and the error map computation at different scales. Specifically, the Persistent Scatterer Technique (PS-InSAR) and the Small BAseline Subset approach (SBAS) have been used to process the ENVISAT SAR images acquired in the period 2002-2010. In the SBAS processing chain, it is possible to activate the Disconnected Blocks tool and perform the SAR data "temporal interpolation". Since the estimation of the results in the processing takes into account the coherence threshold on the input images stack and their connection criteria, only the pixels above the threshold that are fully connected in all the images are solved. By activating the Disconnect Blocks tool, the results are estimated also for those pixels that respect the threshold criteria at least in the 60% of the images even in a not fully connected stack. In this way, the spatial coverage is higher but the reliability of the results is has to

  15. NEUTRAL-BEAM INJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    The emphasis in the preceding chapters has been on magnetic confinement of high temperature plasmas. The question of production and heating of such plasmas has been dealt with relatively more briefly. It should not be inferred, however, that these matters must therefore be either trivial or unimportant. A review of the history reveals that in the early days all these aspects of the controlled fusion problem were considered to be on a par, and were tackled simultaneously and with equal vigor. Only the confinement problem turned out to be much more complex than initially anticipated, and richer in challenge to the plasma physicist than the questions of plasma production and heating. On the other hand, the properties of high-temperature plasmas and plasma confinement can only be studied experimentally after the problems of production and of heating to adequate temperatures are solved. It is the purpose of this and the next chapter to supplement the preceding discussions with more detail on two important subjects: neutral-beam injection and radio-frequency heating. These are the major contenders for heating in present and future tokamak and mirror fusion experiments, and even in several proposed reactors. For neutral beams we emphasize here the technology involved, which has undergone a rather remarkable development. The physics of particle and energy deposition in the plasma, and the discussion of the resulting effects on the confined plasma, have been included in previous chapters, and some experimental results are quoted there. Other heating processes of relevance to fusion are mentioned elsewhere in this book, in connection with the experiments where they are used: i.e. ohmic heating, adiabatic compression heating, and alpha-particle heating in Chapter 3 by H.P. Furth; more ohmic heating in Chapter 7, and shock-implosion heating, laser heating, and relativistic-electron beam heating in Chapter 8, both by W. E. Quinn. These methods are relatively straightforward in

  16. Advanced DInSAR analysis at Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiampo, K. F.; Camacho, A. G.; Fernandez, J.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Samsonov, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    Geodetic data, the spatial and temporal surface expression of complex geophysical processes in the earth, is being acquired today at unprecedented rates and accuracies. Differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) is a satellite remote sensing technique used extensively today for mapping ground deformation with high spatial resolution and sub-centimeter precision over large areas that is particularly useful for volcanic monitoring [Massonnet and Feigl, 1998; Rosen et al., 2000]. Here we apply the advanced Multidimensional Small Baseline Subset (MSBAS) InSAR algorithm [Samsonov and d'Oreye, 2012] to several thousand Envisat and RADARSAT-2 images from 1993-2013 and compute time series of ground deformation over the Naples Bay region of Italy. Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei are located in this area in close proximity to the densely populated city of Naples and, as a result, it is one of the most hazardous volcanic areas in the world. We obtain time series of ground deformation at high spatial and temporal resolution that span, for the first time, twenty years. Campi Flegrei underwent continuous subsidence through 1999. Uplift began in 2005, reaching approximately 13 cm by 2013. We model the observed deformation to determine source parameters for subsidence and uplift epochs [Samsonov et al., 2014]. In addition, a typical DInSAR image can contain significant signals from with several different, nonvolcanic sources. For example, we clearly observe decade-long elevation-dependent seasonal oscillations of the vertical displacement component at Vesuvius that are substantially larger than the long-term deformation rate (<0.6 cm/yr). As a result, we employ an eigenpattern decomposition technique known as Karhunen-Loeve expansion (KLE) analysis in order to identify the unique, finite set of correlated deformation patterns associated with volcanic sources at different depths [Tiampo et al., 2004; Tiampo et al., 2012]. Both the inflation and deflation mechanisms

  17. Injection nozzle for a turbomachine

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

    2012-09-11

    A turbomachine includes a compressor, a combustor operatively connected to the compressor, an end cover mounted to the combustor, and an injection nozzle assembly operatively connected to the combustor. The injection nozzle assembly includes a first end portion that extends to a second end portion, and a plurality of tube elements provided at the second end portion. Each of the plurality of tube elements defining a fluid passage includes a body having a first end section that extends to a second end section. The second end section projects beyond the second end portion of the injection nozzle assembly.

  18. Efficacy and safety of nebulized formoterol as add-on therapy in COPD patients receiving maintenance tiotropium bromide: Results from a 6-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hanania, Nicola A; Boota, Ahmad; Kerwin, Edward; Tomlinson, LaTanya; Denis-Mize, Kimberly

    2009-06-18

    Current guidelines for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) recommend the use of long-acting bronchodilators in the maintenance management of COPD. Combining bronchodilators that work through different mechanisms is recommended in patients with continuous symptoms. We conducted this study to confirm and further investigate the efficacy and safety of nebulized formoterol as an add-on therapy to maintenance tiotropium in patients with COPD. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study (NCT00507234) was conducted at 24 US sites from March to October 2007 in 155 patients aged > or =40 years with post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) > or =25% to <65% predicted normal. COPD patients receiving open-label tiotropium bromide 18 microg once daily during a 1- to 2-week run-in period were randomized to receive either formoterol fumarate inhalation solution 20 microg or placebo by nebulization twice daily for 6 weeks while continuing treatment with tiotropium. Outcomes included serial spirometry, inspiratory capacity (IC), baseline dyspnoea index/transition dyspnoea index (BDI/TDI), daily symptom scores, salbutamol (albuterol) use and health status measured by the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). The primary efficacy endpoint was standardized absolute FEV(1) area under the curve over 3 hours (AUC(0-3)) at week 6. Treatment groups (formoterol plus tiotropium, n = 78; placebo plus tiotropium, n = 77) were comparable at baseline. At 6 weeks, FEV(1) AUC(0-3) was significantly greater in the formoterol group compared with the placebo group (1.57 vs 1.38 L [p < 0.0001]). Similarly, formoterol plus tiotropium improved other lung function measures, including FEV(1), forced vital capacity and post-dose IC at day 1, and maintained efficacy through week 6. Formoterol plus tiotropium decreased rescue albuterol use throughout the study (p < 0.05). Mean TDI, SGRQ and most symptom scores did not

  19. A general framework and related procedures for multiscale analyses of DInSAR data in subsiding urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peduto, Dario; Cascini, Leonardo; Arena, Livia; Ferlisi, Settimio; Fornaro, Gianfranco; Reale, Diego

    2015-07-01

    In the last decade Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) data were successfully tested in a number of case studies for the detection, mapping and monitoring of ground displacements associated with natural or anthropogenic phenomena. More recently, several national and regional projects all around the world provided rich data archives whose confident use, however, should rely on multidisciplinary experts in order to avoid misleading interpretations. To this aim, the present work first introduces a general framework for the use of DInSAR data; then, focusing on the analysis of subsidence phenomena and the related consequences to the exposed facilities, a set of original procedures is proposed. By drawing a multiscale approach the study highlights the different goals to be pursued at different scales of analysis via high/very high resolution SAR sensors and presents the results with reference to the case study of the Campania region (southern Italy) where widespread ground displacements occurred and damages of different severity were recorded.

  20. “We’re Still in a Struggle”: Diné Resilience, Survival, Historical Trauma, and Healing

    PubMed Central

    Goodkind, Jessica R.; Hess, Julia Meredith; Gorman, Beverly; Parker, Danielle P.

    2014-01-01

    As part of a community/university collaborative effort to promote the mental health and well-being of Diné (Navajo) youth, we explored the relevance of addressing historical trauma and current structural stressors and of building on individual and community strengths through healing and social transformation at multiple levels. Qualitative analyses of 74 ethnographic interviews with 37 Diné youth, parents, and grandparents suggested that a focus on historical trauma as a conceptual frame for behavioral health inequities, understood within the context of resilience and survival, is appropriate. Our findings also highlight the salience of current stressors such as poverty and violence exposure. We explore the fit of a historical trauma healing framework and present implications for intervention and transformation through revitalization of traditional knowledge, culturally-based healing practices, intergenerational education, and social change strategies designed to eliminate social inequities. PMID:22707344

  1. Semi-Automated Detection Of Terrain Activity In The Swiss Alpine Periglacial Environment From DInSAR Scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barboux, Chloe; Dalaloye, Reynald; Lambiel, Christophe; Strozzi, Tazio; Raetzo, Hugo; Collet, Claude

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes a semi-automated method to update inventory of moving slopes. First a Map of Terrain Activity (MTA) is created by partitioning an interferogram, using segmentation and classification processes, into 3 regions: stable areas, coherently moving parts and decorrelated areas (due to motion or not). Then, a Combined-Map of Terrain Activity (C- MTA) is computed describing the general behavior of the terrain at a specific time-lapse. Finally, C-MTA is used to determine the potential change in the activity rate of moving slopes. Tests are performed in a small area using large set of TSX DInSAR scenes from summers 2008 to 2012 in order to update past moving slope inventories produced from ERS DInSAR data.

  2. Infliximab, Infliximab-dyyb Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for 2 hours afterward. A doctor or ... the following symptoms during or shortly after your infusion: hives; rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, ...

  3. Epidural Injections for Spinal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... back or leg pain after spinal surgery) Other injuries to spinal nerves, vertebrae and surrounding tissues Bone ... Bleeding if a blood vessel is inadvertently damaged. Injury to the nerves at the injection site. Temporary ...

  4. NSLS-II INJECTION CONCEPT.

    SciTech Connect

    SHAFTAN, T.; PINAYEV, I.; ROSE, J.; WANG, X.J.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    Currently the facility upgrade project is in progress at the NSLS (at Brookhaven National Laboratory). The goal of the NSLS-II is a 3 GeV ultra-low-emittance storage ring that will increase radiation brightness by three orders of magnitude over that of the present NSLS X-ray ring. The low emittance of the high brightness ring's lattice results in a short lifetime, so that a top-off injection mode becomes an operational necessity. Therefore, the NSLS-II injection system must provide, and efficiently inject, an electron beam at a high repetition rate. In this paper, we present our concept of the NSLS-II injection system and discuss the conditions for, and constraints on, its design.

  5. General Information About Injection Wells

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This webpage provides general background information on injection wells used to place fluids in the subsurface. It also provides information on use, different categories, and how they are regulated. Information on the protection is also provided.

  6. Comportamiento dinámico de asteroides en la región 23 < a < 26 UA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López García, F.

    Los Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) pueden ser una fuente de origen de los cometas de corto período. Muchos de los KBOs observados parecen provenir, al igual que el sistema Pluton-Charonte, de órbitas resonantes con Neptuno. Los Centauros son objetos que dinámicamente provienen de órbitas inestables cuyo semieje mayor se encuentra entre las órbitas de Júpiter y Neptuno. Pudiera ser que estos cuerpos fueron expulsados desde la región del cinturón de Kuiper y se encuentran en un proceso de ``scattering" debido a los efectos gravitacionales de los planetas gigantes. Su tiempo de vida dinámico es de algunos millones de años. La evolución orbital de los objetos trans-Neptunianos nos permite conocer su comportamiento anterior, por eso, es importante su relación dinámica con la evolución orbital de Neptuno. El objeto de este trabajo es estudiar el comportamiento dinámico de partículas test que se encuentran entre las resonancias 3:2 con Neptuno y 2:3 con Urano, las cuales comprenden una región de 2 UA aproximadamente. Los primeros resultados indican que la mayoría de los objetos ficticios son eyectados hacia la parte externa del Sistema Solar, mientras que sólo una parte pequeña del total de objetos estudiados, aproximadamente un 7%, son eyectados hacia la parte interna del Sistema Solar, y en algunos casos sus órbitas pueden cruzar la órbita de los planetas terrestres.

  7. Conditioning with delayed vitamin injections.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J; Ervin, F R; Yorke, C H; Koelling, R A

    1967-02-10

    Rats deficient in thiamine were allowed to drink saccharin-fla vored water. They were then given an injection of thiamine which caused their intake of the nonnutritive fluid to increase. Delay of the intramuscular injection up to 30 minutes had no effect upon the acquisition of this condi tioning. Presumably, this delay reflects specialization in the central integrative mechanisms which serve these afferent modalities.

  8. El nuevo panorama de la Dinámica Galáctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivovaroff, Michael James

    En general, la tendencia imperante en Dinámica Galáctica ha sido considerar que los movimientos estelares son básicamente regulares y que el caos no tiene mayor relevancia en los sistemas estelares. Sin embargo, en el último lustro se vienen acumulando pruebas de la importancia del movimiento caótico en ciertos sistemas estelares que existen en la naturaleza. Por una parte, sobre todo el grupo de David Merritt, lo ha mostrado en los casos de galaxias elípticas con concentraciones centrales de materia; por otra parte, en nuestro propio grupo, lo hemos mostrado para el caso de los satélites galácticos. Las consecuencias de estos hallazgos son tanto de tipo técnico, por la necesidad de construir modelos que contengan órbitas caóticas, como astrofísico, por los efectos del caos sobre la estacionariedad y evolución de los sistemas estelares en los que se presenta.

  9. [Oswald Bumke in Leipzig. Beyond Kraepelin, Freud and Rüdin's Entartungslehre].

    PubMed

    Steinberg, H

    2008-03-01

    Oswald Bumke is a central figure in twentieth-century German psychiatry, having had a considerable influence on its development as one of its best-known representatives. His time in Leipzig from 1921 to 1924 and subsequently in Munich up to the mid-1930s saw the second major phase in his scientific work, during which he laid the basis for the renown he still enjoys as a result of his specialist encyclopaedic textbooks and manuals summarising the current knowledge of his time. At the beginning of the 1920s he made his stand on the burning issues of the day and thus influenced the conceptional history of the subject. For instance, he proposed his own philosophical psychology, rejecting the experimental psychological approach of Emil Kraepelin. By challenging the libido theory and the dynamic unconscious he weakened the impact of Sigmund Freud and psychoanalysis on German scientific psychiatry. Moreover, Bumke strongly opposed the prevailing concept of degeneration and its main protagonist Ernst Rüdin. Owing to the political and social developments at the time, however, he was not able to raise much support among his colleagues.

  10. [Certification of an RIA laboratory according to DIN EN ISO 9001-2000].

    PubMed

    Moser, E; Markowetz, D; Schächtele, S

    2002-06-01

    The university hospital Freiburg intends to establish step by step a total quality management system (TQMS) in all facilities with an external certification as its final aim. This has been reached already in the central laboratory. Therefore, it is effective for the department of nuclear medicine to do the same for its own lab specialized in thyroid hormones. The TQMS has been built up within six months on the basis of DIN EN ISO 9001:2000. This internationally accepted standard is of uttermost economical importance for an institution situated near the French and Swiss border. This review describes the procedure in detail. Responsible for the effort were the engagement of the coworkers in the lab as well as an adequate choice of the external adviser and the authority for certification. The procedure is formalized to a high degree and much understanding for analytic thinking and systematization is needed. Now it remains to be seen, if the desired effect (increased understanding for quality within the department, more efficient performance of the lab, better acceptance by the clients) will arise.

  11. 77 FR 52717 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; Cornerstone Chemical Company, Waggaman, LA AGENCY... granted to Cornerstone for four Class I injection wells located at Waggaman, Louisiana. The company...

  12. 78 FR 23246 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; BASF Corporation Freeport, Texas AGENCY: Environmental... granted to BASF Corporation for three Class I injection wells located at Freeport, Texas. The company...

  13. Living in Health, Harmony, and Beauty: The Diné (Navajo) Hózhó Wellness Philosophy

    PubMed Central

    Koithan, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Hózhó is the complex wellness philosophy and belief system of the Diné (Navajo) people, comprised of principles that guide one's thoughts, actions, behaviors, and speech. The alignment of integrative nursing principles and the Hózhó Wellness Philosophy illustrates the power that integrative nursing offers as a meta-theoretical perspective that can transform our healthcare system so that it is inclusive and responsive to the needs of our varied populations. Integrative nursing offers the opportunity to re-introduce cultural wellness wisdom, such as Hózhó, as a means to improve whole-person/whole-systems wellbeing and resilience. Integrative nursing, through the acceptance and validation of indigenous health-sustaining wisdom, contributes to the delivery of effective, authentic, culturally tailored, whole-person/whole-system, patient-centered, relationship-based healthcare. Highlighting the Diné Hózhó philosophy re-introduces this philosophy to the Diné, other American Indian/Alaska Native nations, global indigenous cultures, and even nonindigenous people of the world as a means to promote and sustain global health and wellbeing. PMID:25984415

  14. Living in health, harmony, and beauty: the diné (navajo) hózhó wellness philosophy.

    PubMed

    Kahn-John Diné, Michelle; Koithan, Mary

    2015-05-01

    Hózhó is the complex wellness philosophy and belief system of the Diné (Navajo) people, comprised of principles that guide one's thoughts, actions, behaviors, and speech. The alignment of integrative nursing principles and the Hózhó Wellness Philosophy illustrates the power that integrative nursing offers as a meta-theoretical perspective that can transform our healthcare system so that it is inclusive and responsive to the needs of our varied populations. Integrative nursing offers the opportunity to re-introduce cultural wellness wisdom, such as Hózhó, as a means to improve whole-person/whole-systems wellbeing and resilience. Integrative nursing, through the acceptance and validation of indigenous health-sustaining wisdom, contributes to the delivery of effective, authentic, culturally tailored, whole-person/whole-system, patient-centered, relationship-based healthcare. Highlighting the Diné Hózhó philosophy re-introduces this philosophy to the Diné, other American Indian/Alaska Native nations, global indigenous cultures, and even nonindigenous people of the world as a means to promote and sustain global health and wellbeing.

  15. SOS-Independent Induction of dinB Transcription by β-Lactam-Mediated Inhibition of Cell Wall Synthesis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Capilla, Tatiana; Baquero, María-Rosario; Gómez-Gómez, José-María; Ionel, Alina; Martín, Soledad; Blázquez, Jesús

    2005-01-01

    Transcription of the dinB gene, encoding DNA polymerase IV, is induced by the inhibition of cell wall synthesis at different levels. Using the β-lactam antibiotic ceftazidime, a PBP3 inhibitor, as a model, we have shown that this induction is independent of the LexA/RecA regulatory system. Induction of dinB transcription mediated by ceftazidime produces an increase in the reversion of a +1 Lac frameshift mutation. PMID:15687217

  16. Adaptive engine injection for emissions reduction

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf D. : Sun, Yong

    2008-12-16

    NOx and soot emissions from internal combustion engines, and in particular compression ignition (diesel) engines, are reduced by varying fuel injection timing, fuel injection pressure, and injected fuel volume between low and greater engine loads. At low loads, fuel is injected during one or more low-pressure injections occurring at low injection pressures between the start of the intake stroke and approximately 40 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke. At higher loads, similar injections are used early in each combustion cycle, in addition to later injections which preferably occur between about 90 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke, and about 90 degrees after top dead center during the expansion stroke (and which most preferably begin at or closely adjacent the end of the compression stroke). These later injections have higher injection pressure, and also lower injected fuel volume, than the earlier injections.

  17. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  18. Quality Control of Injection Molded Eyewear by Non-Contact Deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, A.; Zelzer, B.; Langenbucher, A.; Eppig, T.

    2014-07-01

    Occupational eye wear such as safety spectacles are manufactured by injection molding techniques. Testing of the assembled safety spectacle lenses in transmission is state of the art, but there is a lack of surface measurement systems for occupational safety lenses. The purpose of this work was to validate a deflectometric setup for topography measurement, detection of defects and visualization of the polishing quality, e.g. casting indentations or impressions, for the production process of safety spectacles. The setup is based on a customized stereo phase measuring deflectometer (PMD), equipped with 3 cameras with f'1,2 = 16 mm and f'3 = 8.5 mm and a specified measurement uncertainty of ± 3 μm. Sixteen plastic lenses and 8 corresponding injection molds from 4 parallel cavities were used for validation of the deflectometer. For comparison an interferometric method and a reference standard (< λ/10 super polished) was used. The accuracy and bias with a spherical safety spectacle sample was below 1 μm, according to DIN ISO 5725-2.2002-12. The repeatability was 2.1 μm and 35.7 μm for a blind radius fit. In conclusion, the PMD technique is an appropriate tool for characterizing occupational safety spectacle and injections mold surfaces. With the presented setup we were able to quantify the surface quality. This can be useful and may optimize the quality of the end product, in addition to standardized measuring systems in transmission.

  19. Fully exploitation of SBAS-DInSAR deformation time series for assessing structural damage: the case study of Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonano, Manuela; Arangio, Stefania; Calò, Fabiana; Di Mauro, Maria; Marsella, Maria; Manunta, Michele

    2014-05-01

    Remote sensing techniques have demonstrated to be effective tools to support natural and man-made risk mitigation activities. Among these, the Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry (DInSAR) technology is largely exploited in geoscience, oil and gas extraction, and landslide fields. Recently, thanks to the large availability of high resolution SAR systems (10 m or less), as well as to the development of advanced data processing techniques, DInSAR products have also started to be effectively used for applications in urban areas to detect localized displacements affecting single buildings and infrastructures. The advanced DInSAR technique referred to as Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) (Lanari et al., 2004) allows us to generate very long deformation time series, by exploiting large SAR datasets spanning up to 20 years (Bonano et al., 2012). Thanks to its capability to investigate wide areas, the SBAS-DInSAR technique is particularly suitable to remotely analyse the structural conditions of buildings located in densely urbanized zones. In this work, we fully exploit the results achieved over the city of Rome, Italy, through the well-established SBAS-DInSAR approach, aimed at performing a quantitative assessment of structural damage in urban areas affected by ground deformation (Arangio et al., 2013). More in details, we present an innovative methodology that integrates the SBAS-DInSAR measurements within an existing model, in order to assess the damage, and possibly estimate the future structural conditions, of single buildings affected by significant foundation settlements. In particular, a semi-empirical approach, based on a laminated beam model (Finno et al., 2005), is applied to investigate the damage of buildings located in the southern part of the city. The obtained results are in substantial agreement with in situ surveys, proving that the presented approach is an effective tool for the preliminary evaluation of the structural conditions in

  20. Staged direct injection diesel engine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Quentin A.

    1985-01-01

    A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.