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Sample records for injury dramatically improves

  1. Embryonic stem cell transplantation after experimental traumatic brain injury dramatically improves neurological outcome, but may cause tumors.

    PubMed

    Riess, Peter; Molcanyi, Marek; Bentz, Kristine; Maegele, Mark; Simanski, Christian; Carlitscheck, Christoph; Schneider, Annette; Hescheler, Jürgen; Bouillon, Bertil; Schäfer, Ute; Neugebauer, Edmund

    2007-01-01

    Transplantation of embryonic stem (ES) cells may provide cures for the damaged nervous system. Pre-differentiated ES or neuronal precursor cells have been investigated in various animal models of neurodegenerative diseases including traumatic brain injury (TBI). To our knowledge, no study has yet examined the effects of undifferentiated, murine ES cells on functional recovery and tumorigenity following implantation into injured rat brains. We evaluated the effect of transplantation of undifferentiated, murine embryonic cells on the recovery of motor function following lateral fluid percussion brain injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. At 3 days post-injury, animals received stereotactic injections of either embryonic stem cell suspension or injections of phosphate buffered saline without cells (control) into the injured cortex. Neurological motor function assessments were performed before injury, 72 h, 1, 3, and 6 weeks after transplantation using a Rotatrod and a Composite Neuroscore test. During this time period brain injured animals receiving ES cell transplantation showed a significant improvement in the Rotarod Test and in the Composite Neuroscore Test as compared to phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-treated animals. At 1 week post-transplantation, ES cells were detectable in 100% of transplanted animals. At 7 weeks following transplantation, EScells were detectable in only one animal. Two of 10 xenotransplanted animals revealed tumor formation over the observation period. These findings provide evidence for therapeutic potency of embryonic stem cell transplantation after TBI in rat, but also raise serious safety concerns about the use of such cells in human.

  2. Dramatic Cataplexy Improvement Following Right Parietal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fam, David J.; Shammi, Prathiba; Mainprize, Todd G.; Murray, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    This is the case of a 34-year-old woman with severe narcolepsy with cataplexy who experienced a dramatic reduction in cataplexy symptoms after resection of a right parietal astrocytoma. The patient underwent detailed neurological exam, neuropsychological testing, polysomnography and multiple sleep latency testing following surgery. Citation: Fam DJ, Shammi P, Mainprize TG, Murray BJ. Dramatic cataplexy improvement following right parietal surgery. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(7):829–830. PMID:25902819

  3. Dramatic Improvements to Feature Based Stereo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smelyansky, V. N.; Morris, R. D.; Kuehnel, F. O.; Maluf, D. A.; Cheeseman, P.

    2004-01-01

    The camera registration extracted from feature based stereo is usually considered sufficient to accurately localize the 3D points. However, for natural scenes the feature localization is not as precise as in man-made environments. This results in small camera registration errors. We show that even very small registration errors result in large errors in dense surface reconstruction. We describe a method for registering entire images to the inaccurate surface model. This gives small, but crucially important improvements to the camera parameters. The new registration gives dramatically better dense surface reconstruction.

  4. Microalloying Boron Carbide with Silicon to Achieve Dramatically Improved Ductility.

    PubMed

    An, Qi; Goddard, William A

    2014-12-01

    Boron carbide (B4C) is a hard material whose value for extended engineering applications such as body armor; is limited by its brittleness under impact. To improve the ductility while retaining hardness, we used density functional theory to examine modifying B4C ductility through microalloying. We found that replacing the CBC chain in B4C with Si-Si, denoted as (B11Cp)-Si2, dramatically improves the ductility, allowing a continuous shear to a large strain of 0.802 (about twice of B4C failure strain) without brittle failure. Moreover, (B11C)-Si2 retains low density and high hardness. This ductility improvement arises because the Si-Si linkages enable the icosahedra accommodate additional shear by rotating instead of breaking bonds.

  5. Publications on Peripheral Nerve Injuries during World War I: A Dramatic Increase in Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Publications from French (Jules Tinel and Chiriachitza Athanassio-Bénisty), English (James Purves-Stewart, Arthur Henry Evans and Hartley Sidney Carter), German (Otfrid Foerster and Hermann Oppenheim) and American (Charles Harrison Frazier and Byron Stookey) physicians from both sides of the front during World War I (WWI) contributed to a dramatic increase in knowledge about peripheral nerve injuries. Silas Weir Mitchell's original experience with respect to these injuries, and particularly causalgia, during the American Civil War was further expanded in Europe during WWI. Following the translation of one of his books, he was referred to mainly by French physicians. During WWI, several French books were in turn translated into English, which influenced American physicians, as was observed in the case of Byron Stookey. The establishment of neurological centres played an important role in the concentration of experience and knowledge. Several eponyms originated during this period (including the Hoffmann-Tinel sign and the Froment sign). Electrodiagnostic tools were increasingly used.

  6. Dramatic Improvements in Beach Water Quality Following Gull Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gulls are often cited as important contributors of fecal contamination to surface waters, and some recreational beaches have used gull control measures to improve microbial water quality. In this study, gulls were chased from a Lake Michigan beach using specially trained dogs, a...

  7. Can k-point integration for metals be dramatically improved?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Gus; Jorgensen, Jeremy; Gopal, Priya; Buongiorno-Nardelli, Marco

    Our group has spent hundreds of millions of cpu hours calculating the energies of different materials and their competing structures. The energy of the occupied electron states is a small part of the total energy of a given material, but electron energy accounts for almost all of the numerical error in these calculations (at least in metals). Current methods of integrating electron band energies are simple (usually rectangle rule + smearing) but converge very slowly, requiring many, many k-points, even for simple metals. But integration approaches with better convergence rates, such Gauss quadrature, are hard to utilize. Because of the multivalued nature of electron bands (leading to crossings, kissings, etc.) standard interpolation methods are ineffective. We will discuss a number of improvements we have made and discuss a possible solution to the interpolation problem.

  8. Safety Improves Dramatically In Fluor Hanford Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, A.L.; Gerber, M.S.; VonBargen, B.H.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes dramatic improvements in the safety record of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (SGRP) at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington state over the past four years. During a period of enormous growth in project work and scope, contractor Fluor Hanford reduced injuries, accidents, and other safety-related incidents and enhanced a safety culture that earned the SGRP Star Status in the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) in 2007. This paper outlines the complex and multi-faceted work of Fluor Hanford's SGRP and details the steps taken by the project's Field Operations and Safety organizations to improve safety. Holding field safety meetings and walk-downs, broadening safety inspections, organizing employee safety councils, intensively flowing down safety requirements to subcontractors, and adopting other methods to achieve remarkable improvement in safety are discussed. The roles of management, labor and subcontractors are detailed. Finally, SGRP's safety improvements are discussed within the context of overall safety enhancements made by Fluor Hanford in the company's 11 years of managing nuclear waste cleanup at the Hanford Site. (authors)

  9. SAFETY IMPROVES DRAMATICALLY IN FLUOR HANFORD SOIL AND GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    GERBER MS

    2007-12-05

    This paper describes dramatic improvements in the safety record of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (SGRP) at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington state over the past four years. During a period of enormous growth in project work and scope, contractor Fluor Hanford reduced injuries, accidents, and other safety-related incidents and enhanced a safety culture that earned the SGRP Star Status in the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) in 2007. This paper outlines the complex and multi-faceted work of Fluor Hanford's SGRP and details the steps taken by the project's Field Operations and Safety organizations to improve safety. Holding field safety meetings and walkdowns, broadening safety inspections, organizing employee safety councils, intensively flowing down safety requirements to subcontractors, and adopting other methods to achieve remarkable improvement in safety are discussed. The roles of management, labor and subcontractors are detailed. Finally, SGRP's safety improvements are discussed within the context of overall safety enhancements made by Fluor Hanford in the company's 11 years of managing nuclear waste cleanup at the Hanford Site.

  10. Publications on Peripheral Nerve Injuries during World War I: A Dramatic Increase in Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Publications from French (Jules Tinel and Chiriachitza Athanassio-Bénisty), English (James Purves-Stewart, Arthur Henry Evans and Hartley Sidney Carter), German (Otfrid Foerster and Hermann Oppenheim) and American (Charles Harrison Frazier and Byron Stookey) physicians from both sides of the front during World War I (WWI) contributed to a dramatic increase in knowledge about peripheral nerve injuries. Silas Weir Mitchell's original experience with respect to these injuries, and particularly causalgia, during the American Civil War was further expanded in Europe during WWI. Following the translation of one of his books, he was referred to mainly by French physicians. During WWI, several French books were in turn translated into English, which influenced American physicians, as was observed in the case of Byron Stookey. The establishment of neurological centres played an important role in the concentration of experience and knowledge. Several eponyms originated during this period (including the Hoffmann-Tinel sign and the Froment sign). Electrodiagnostic tools were increasingly used. PMID:27035152

  11. DRAMATIC IMPROVEMENTS IN CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF CESIUM THROUGH MORE EFFICIENT STRIPPING

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V; Engle, Nancy L; Gorbunova, Maryna; Haverlock, Tamara; Moyer, Bruce A; Ensor, Dale; Meadors, Viola M; Harmon, Ben; Bartsch, Richard A.; Surowiec, Malgorzata A.; Zhou, Hui

    2008-01-01

    Dramatic potential improvements to the chemistry of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process are presented as related to enhancement of cesium stripping. The current process for removing cesium from the alkaline high-level waste (HLW) at the USDOE Savannah River Site employs acidic scrub and strip stages and shows remarkable extraction and selectivity properties for cesium. It was determined that cesium stripping can be greatly improved with caustic or near-neutral stages using sodium hydroxide and boric acid as scrub and strip solutions, respectively. Improvements can also be achieved by appending pH-sensitive functional groups to the calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant. Addition of a proton-ionizable group to the calixarene frame leads to a dramatic "pH swing" of up to 6 orders of magnitude change in cesium distribution ratio.

  12. Dramatic Improvement of Diabetes Mellitus Following the Treatment of Coexisting Acromegaly and Cushing's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Kyoung; Kim, Bo Ra; Kim, Kyongyoung; Kim, Sungsu; Jung, Jung Hwa; Hahm, Jong Ryeal; Jung, Jaehoon

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine diseases are frequently accompanied by diabetes mellitus and treatment of an underlying endocrine disease often improves glucose control. The co-occurrence of acromegaly and Cushing's syndrome is extremely rare. We herein describe a patient who showed a dramatic improvement in glucose control following treatment for co-existing acromegaly and Cushing's syndrome. An adrenal mass was incidentally discovered during a routine evaluation of a 56-year-old woman who was subsequently diagnosed with acromegaly and a unilateral cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma. Her blood glucose was poorly controlled despite receiving high-dose insulin therapy. After undergoing adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome, her insulin dosage was decreased by almost 50%. The insulin treatment was discontinued following the treatment of acromegaly.

  13. Dramatic Improvement of Diabetes Mellitus Following the Treatment of Coexisting Acromegaly and Cushing's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Kyoung; Kim, Bo Ra; Kim, Kyongyoung; Kim, Sungsu; Jung, Jung Hwa; Hahm, Jong Ryeal; Jung, Jaehoon

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine diseases are frequently accompanied by diabetes mellitus and treatment of an underlying endocrine disease often improves glucose control. The co-occurrence of acromegaly and Cushing's syndrome is extremely rare. We herein describe a patient who showed a dramatic improvement in glucose control following treatment for co-existing acromegaly and Cushing's syndrome. An adrenal mass was incidentally discovered during a routine evaluation of a 56-year-old woman who was subsequently diagnosed with acromegaly and a unilateral cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma. Her blood glucose was poorly controlled despite receiving high-dose insulin therapy. After undergoing adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome, her insulin dosage was decreased by almost 50%. The insulin treatment was discontinued following the treatment of acromegaly. PMID:26424306

  14. Emulating a crowded intracellular environment in vitro dramatically improves RT-PCR performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lareu, Ricky R.; Harve, Karthik S.; Raghunath, Michael

    2007-11-09

    The polymerase chain reaction's (PCR) phenomenal success in advancing fields as diverse as Medicine, Agriculture, Conservation, or Paleontology is based on the ability of using isolated prokaryotic thermostable DNA polymerases in vitro to copy DNA irrespective of origin. This process occurs intracellularly and has evolved to function efficiently under crowded conditions, namely in an environment packed with macromolecules. However, current in vitro practice ignores this important biophysical parameter of life. In order to more closely emulate conditions of intracellular biochemistry in vitro we added inert macromolecules into reverse transcription (RT) and PCR. We show dramatic improvements in all parameters of RT-PCR including 8- to 10-fold greater sensitivity, enhanced polymerase processivity, higher specific amplicon yield, greater primer annealing and specificity, and enhanced DNA polymerase thermal stability. The faster and more efficient reaction kinetics was a consequence of the cumulative molecular and thermodynamic effects of the excluded volume effect created by macromolecular crowding.

  15. Use of microsecond current prepulse for dramatic improvements of wire array Z-pinch implosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calamy, H.; Lassalle, F.; Loyen, A.; Zucchini, F.; Chittenden, J. P.; Hamann, F.; Maury, P.; Georges, A.; Bedoch, J. P.; Morell, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Sphinx machine [F. Lassalle et al., "Status on the SPHINX machine based on the 1microsecond LTD technology"] based on microsecond linear transformer driver (LTD) technology is used to implode an aluminium wire array with an outer diameter up to 140mm and maximum current from 3.5to5MA. 700to800ns implosion Z-pinch experiments are performed on this driver essentially with aluminium. Best results obtained before the improvement described in this paper were 1-3TW radial total power, 100-300kJ total yield, and 20-30kJ energy above 1keV. An auxiliary generator was added to the Sphinx machine in order to allow a multi microsecond current to be injected through the wire array load before the start of the main current. Amplitude and duration of this current prepulse are adjustable, with maxima ˜10kA and 50μs. This prepulse dramatically changes the ablation phase leading to an improvement of the axial homogeneity of both the implosion and the final radiating column. Total power was multiplied by a factor of 6, total yield by a factor of 2.5 with a reproducible behavior. This paper presents experimental results, magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and analysis of the effect of such a long current prepulse.

  16. Use of microsecond current prepulse for dramatic improvements of wire array Z-pinch implosion

    SciTech Connect

    Calamy, H.; Lassalle, F.; Loyen, A.; Zucchini, F.; Chittenden, J. P.; Hamann, F.; Maury, P.; Georges, A.; Bedoch, J. P.; Morell, A.

    2008-01-15

    The Sphinx machine [F. Lassalle et al., 'Status on the SPHINX machine based on the 1microsecond LTD technology'] based on microsecond linear transformer driver (LTD) technology is used to implode an aluminium wire array with an outer diameter up to 140 mm and maximum current from 3.5 to 5 MA. 700 to 800 ns implosion Z-pinch experiments are performed on this driver essentially with aluminium. Best results obtained before the improvement described in this paper were 1-3 TW radial total power, 100-300 kJ total yield, and 20-30 kJ energy above 1 keV. An auxiliary generator was added to the Sphinx machine in order to allow a multi microsecond current to be injected through the wire array load before the start of the main current. Amplitude and duration of this current prepulse are adjustable, with maxima {approx}10 kA and 50 {mu}s. This prepulse dramatically changes the ablation phase leading to an improvement of the axial homogeneity of both the implosion and the final radiating column. Total power was multiplied by a factor of 6, total yield by a factor of 2.5 with a reproducible behavior. This paper presents experimental results, magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and analysis of the effect of such a long current prepulse.

  17. Dramatic improvement of anti-SS-A/Ro-associated interstitial lung disease after immunosuppressive treatment.

    PubMed

    Paola, Caramaschi; Giuliana, Festi; Giovanni, Orsolini; Cristian, Caimmi; Domenico, Biasi

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to report three patients affected by interstitial lung disease associated with positive anti-SS-A/Ro autoantibody who showed a dramatic improvement after immunosuppressive treatment. Medical charts were reviewed to obtain clinical data, laboratory parameters, lung function tests, high-resolution computed tomography results and response to immunosuppressive treatment. The three patients showed a clinical picture of a lung-dominant connective tissue disease characterized by a sudden onset with dyspnea, cough and subtle extrathoracic features together with positive anti-SS-A/Ro antibody and weak titer antinuclear antibodies. All three patients responded favorably to immunosuppressive therapy: Two cases were treated with a combination of corticosteroid and cyclophosphamide followed by mycophenolate mofetil; in the third patient, clinical benefit was obtained after rituximab was added to corticosteroid and immunosuppressant drug. In spite of an abrupt onset with significant lung function impairment, all three patients had a favorable clinical response to immunosuppressive therapy. This report may be useful in making therapeutic decisions in case of interstitial lung disease associated with anti-SS-A antibody.

  18. Correcting Inadequate Model Snow Process Descriptions Dramatically Improves Mountain Hydrology Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomeroy, J. W.; Fang, X.

    2014-12-01

    The vast effort in hydrology devoted to parameter calibration as a means to improve model performance assumes that the models concerned are not fundamentally wrong. By focussing on finding optimal parameter sets and ascribing poor model performance to parameter or data uncertainty, these efforts may fail to consider the need to improve models with more intelligent descriptions of hydrological processes. To test this hypothesis, a flexible physically based hydrological model including a full suite of snow hydrology processes as well as warm season, hillslope and groundwater hydrology was applied to Marmot Creek Research Basin, Canadian Rocky Mountains where excellent driving meteorology and basin biophysical descriptions exist. Model parameters were set from values found in the basin or from similar environments; no parameters were calibrated. The model was tested against snow surveys and streamflow observations. The model used algorithms that describe snow redistribution, sublimation and forest canopy effects on snowmelt and evaporative processes that are rarely implemented in hydrological models. To investigate the contribution of these processes to model predictive capability, the model was "falsified" by deleting parameterisations for forest canopy snow mass and energy, blowing snow, intercepted rain evaporation, and sublimation. Model falsification by ignoring forest canopy processes contributed to a large increase in SWE errors for forested portions of the research basin with RMSE increasing from 19 to 55 mm and mean bias (MB) increasing from 0.004 to 0.62. In the alpine tundra portion, removing blowing processes resulted in an increase in model SWE MB from 0.04 to 2.55 on north-facing slopes and -0.006 to -0.48 on south-facing slopes. Eliminating these algorithms degraded streamflow prediction with the Nash Sutcliffe efficiency dropping from 0.58 to 0.22 and MB increasing from 0.01 to 0.09. These results show dramatic model improvements by including snow

  19. Residual injuries after recent safety improvements.

    PubMed

    Augenstein, J; Perdeck, E; Digges, K; Bahouth, G

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the residual injuries reported in NASS/CDS 1997-2004 by crash mode, crash severity, body region and occupant age. It examines how serious injuries are distributed in present day crashes and identifies opportunities for further injury reduction. In planar crashes, approximately 66% of the MAIS 3+ injuries occur in crashes less severe than 25 mph delta-V. Chest injuries predominate in these crashes, particularly among elderly occupants. A reduction in chest injuries to belted elderly occupants during low severity frontal crashes offers a prime opportunity for further improvement of safety systems. Younger occupants could also benefit from improved chest protection. PMID:16968647

  20. Improving Injury Prevention Through Health Information Technology

    PubMed Central

    Haegerich, Tamara M.; Sugerman, David E.; Annest, Joseph L.; Klevens, Joanne; Baldwin, Grant T.

    2015-01-01

    Health information technology is an emerging area of focus in clinical medicine with the potential to improve injury and violence prevention practice. With injuries being the leading cause of death for Americans aged 1–44 years, greater implementation of evidence-based preventive services, referral to community resources, and real-time surveillance of emerging threats is needed. Through a review of the literature and capturing of current practice in the field, this paper showcases how health information technology applied to injury and violence prevention can lead to strengthened clinical preventive services, more rigorous measurement of clinical outcomes, and improved injury surveillance, potentially resulting in health improvement. PMID:25441230

  1. Increasing magnetite contents of polymeric magnetic particles dramatically improves labeling of neural stem cell transplant populations.

    PubMed

    Adams, Christopher F; Rai, Ahmad; Sneddon, Gregor; Yiu, Humphrey H P; Polyak, Boris; Chari, Divya M

    2015-01-01

    Safe and efficient delivery of therapeutic cells to sites of injury/disease in the central nervous system is a key goal for the translation of clinical cell transplantation therapies. Recently, 'magnetic cell localization strategies' have emerged as a promising and safe approach for targeted delivery of magnetic particle (MP) labeled stem cells to pathology sites. For neuroregenerative applications, this approach is limited by the lack of available neurocompatible MPs, and low cell labeling achieved in neural stem/precursor populations. We demonstrate that high magnetite content, self-sedimenting polymeric MPs [unfunctionalized poly(lactic acid) coated, without a transfecting component] achieve efficient labeling (≥90%) of primary neural stem cells (NSCs)-a 'hard-to-label' transplant population of major clinical relevance. Our protocols showed high safety with respect to key stem cell regenerative parameters. Critically, labeled cells were effectively localized in an in vitro flow system by magnetic force highlighting the translational potential of the methods used.

  2. Dramatic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Debbie; Precious, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The setting: the science classroom. The characters: you and your students. The scene: Your students acting out scientific discoveries, modeling a frog's life cycle, mimicking the transition from liquid to solid. This is "dramatic science", a teaching approach that uses acting techniques to explore and develop young children's ideas about science.…

  3. Dramatic Teaching for Dramatic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Ressler's "Dramatic Changes" is a powerful guide for anyone brave enough to create a space for young people to discuss sexual orientation and gender identity. Her accessible style and tangible suggestions describe a creative and educationally sound approach to supporting youth in thoughtfully wrestling with one of the most controversial social…

  4. OrthoFinder: solving fundamental biases in whole genome comparisons dramatically improves orthogroup inference accuracy.

    PubMed

    Emms, David M; Kelly, Steven

    2015-08-06

    Identifying homology relationships between sequences is fundamental to biological research. Here we provide a novel orthogroup inference algorithm called OrthoFinder that solves a previously undetected gene length bias in orthogroup inference, resulting in significant improvements in accuracy. Using real benchmark datasets we demonstrate that OrthoFinder is more accurate than other orthogroup inference methods by between 8 % and 33 %. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of OrthoFinder by providing a complete classification of transcription factor gene families in plants revealing 6.9 million previously unobserved relationships.

  5. Dramatic improvement of membrane performance for microalgae harvesting with a simple bubble-generator plate.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Taewoon; Oh, You-Kwan; Kim, Bohwa; Han, Jong-In

    2015-06-01

    To overcome fouling issue in membrane-based algae harvesting and thus make an otherwise promising harvesting option more competitive, a bubble-generator plate was developed. According to computational fluid dynamics analysis, the plate generated substantial hydrodynamic power in terms of high pressure, velocity, and shear stress. When installed in a membrane filtration system with membranes of different surface and structural characteristics (one prepared by the phase inversion method, and a commercial one) the bubble-generator was indeed effective in reducing fouling. Without the plate, the much cheaper homemade membrane had the similar performance as the commercial one. Use of the bubble-generator considerably improved the performance of both membranes, and revealed a valuable synergy with the asymmetrical structure of the homemade membrane. This result clearly showed that the ever-problematic fouling could be mitigated in a rather easy manner, and in so doing, that membrane technology could indeed become a practical option for algae harvesting.

  6. Nanocellulose-based Translucent Diffuser for Optoelectronic Device Applications with Dramatic Improvement of Light Coupling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Tassi, Nancy G; Zhu, Hongli; Fang, Zhiqiang; Hu, Liangbing

    2015-12-01

    Nanocellulose is a biogenerated and biorenewable organic material. Using a process based on 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)/NaClO/NaBr system, a highly translucent and light-diffusive film consisting of many layers of nanocellulose fibers and wood pulp microfibers was made. The film demonstrates a combination of large optical transmittance of ∼90% and tunable diffuse transmission of up to ∼78% across the visible and near-infrared spectra. The detailed characterizations of the film indicate the combination of high optical transmittance and haze is due to the film's large packing density and microstructured surface. The superior optical properties make the film a translucent light diffuser and applicable for improving the efficiencies of optoelectronic devices such as thin-film silicon solar cells and organic light-emitting devices. PMID:26572592

  7. Dramatic enhancement of genome editing by CRISPR/Cas9 through improved guide RNA design.

    PubMed

    Farboud, Behnom; Meyer, Barbara J

    2015-04-01

    Success with genome editing by the RNA-programmed nuclease Cas9 has been limited by the inability to predict effective guide RNAs and DNA target sites. Not all guide RNAs have been successful, and even those that were, varied widely in their efficacy. Here we describe and validate a strategy for Caenorhabditis elegans that reliably achieved a high frequency of genome editing for all targets tested in vivo. The key innovation was to design guide RNAs with a GG motif at the 3' end of their target-specific sequences. All guides designed using this simple principle induced a high frequency of targeted mutagenesis via nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and a high frequency of precise DNA integration from exogenous DNA templates via homology-directed repair (HDR). Related guide RNAs having the GG motif shifted by only three nucleotides showed severely reduced or no genome editing. We also combined the 3' GG guide improvement with a co-CRISPR/co-conversion approach. For this co-conversion scheme, animals were only screened for genome editing at designated targets if they exhibited a dominant phenotype caused by Cas9-dependent editing of an unrelated target. Combining the two strategies further enhanced the ease of mutant recovery, thereby providing a powerful means to obtain desired genetic changes in an otherwise unaltered genome.

  8. Dramatic Improvement of Crystal Quality for Low-temperature-grown Rabbit Muscle Aldolase

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.; Rangarajan, E; Sygusch, J; Izard, T

    2010-01-01

    Rabbit muscle aldolase (RMA) was crystallized in complex with the low-complexity domain (LC4) of sorting nexin 9. Monoclinic crystals were obtained at room temperature that displayed large mosaicity and poor X-ray diffraction. However, orthorhombic RMA-LC4 crystals grown at 277 K under similar conditions exhibited low mosaicity, allowing data collection to 2.2 {angstrom} Bragg spacing and structure determination. It was concluded that the improvement of crystal quality as indicated by the higher resolution of the new RMA-LC4 complex crystals was a consequence of the introduction of new lattice contacts at lower temperature. The lattice contacts corresponded to an increased number of interactions between high-entropy side chains that mitigate the lattice strain incurred upon cryocooling and accompanying mosaic spread increases. The thermodynamically unfavorable immobilization of high-entropy side chains used in lattice formation was compensated by an entropic increase in the bulk-solvent content owing to the greater solvent content of the crystal lattice.

  9. Dramatic enhancement of genome editing by CRISPR/Cas9 through improved guide RNA design.

    PubMed

    Farboud, Behnom; Meyer, Barbara J

    2015-04-01

    Success with genome editing by the RNA-programmed nuclease Cas9 has been limited by the inability to predict effective guide RNAs and DNA target sites. Not all guide RNAs have been successful, and even those that were, varied widely in their efficacy. Here we describe and validate a strategy for Caenorhabditis elegans that reliably achieved a high frequency of genome editing for all targets tested in vivo. The key innovation was to design guide RNAs with a GG motif at the 3' end of their target-specific sequences. All guides designed using this simple principle induced a high frequency of targeted mutagenesis via nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and a high frequency of precise DNA integration from exogenous DNA templates via homology-directed repair (HDR). Related guide RNAs having the GG motif shifted by only three nucleotides showed severely reduced or no genome editing. We also combined the 3' GG guide improvement with a co-CRISPR/co-conversion approach. For this co-conversion scheme, animals were only screened for genome editing at designated targets if they exhibited a dominant phenotype caused by Cas9-dependent editing of an unrelated target. Combining the two strategies further enhanced the ease of mutant recovery, thereby providing a powerful means to obtain desired genetic changes in an otherwise unaltered genome. PMID:25695951

  10. Paclitaxel improves outcome from traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Donna J.; Garwin, Gregory G.; Cline, Marcella M.; Richards, Todd L.; Yarnykh, Vasily; Mourad, Pierre D.; Ho, Rodney J.Y.; Minoshima, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacologic interventions for traumatic brain injury (TBI) hold promise to improve outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine if the microtubule stabilizing therapeutic paclitaxel used for more than 20 years in chemotherapy would improve outcome after TBI. We assessed neurological outcome in mice that received direct application of paclitaxel to brain injury from controlled cortical impact (CCI). Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess injury-related morphological changes. Catwalk Gait analysis showed significant improvement in the paclitaxel group on a variety of parameters compared to the saline group. MRI analysis revealed that paclitaxel treatment resulted in significantly reduced edema volume at site-of-injury (11.92 ± 3.0 and 8.86 ± 2.2 mm3 for saline vs. paclitaxel respectively, as determined by T2-weighted analysis; p ≤ 0.05), and significantly increased myelin tissue preservation (9.45 ± 0.4 vs. 8.95 ± 0.3, p ≤ 0.05). Our findings indicate that paclitaxel treatment resulted in improvement of neurological outcome and MR imaging biomarkers of injury. These results could have a significant impact on therapeutic developments to treat traumatic brain injury. PMID:26086366

  11. Running: Improving Form to Reduce Injuries.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    Running is often perceived as a good option for "getting into shape," with little thought given to the form, or mechanics, of running. However, as many as 79% of all runners will sustain a running-related injury during any given year. If you are a runner-casual or serious-you should be aware that poor running mechanics may contribute to these injuries. A study published in the August 2015 issue of JOSPT reviewed the existing research to determine whether running mechanics could be improved, which could be important in treating running-related injuries and helping injured runners return to pain-free running.

  12. Primary extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the lung presenting with bilateral, patchy infiltrates dramatically improving after corticosteroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Boon, E S; Graal, M B; van Noord, J A

    1993-10-01

    A 63-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with fever and bilateral, peripheral infiltrates. Infectious disease and malignancy seemed to be excluded by fiberoptic diagnostic procedures. Subsequently, respiratory insufficiency developed, making open lung biopsy impossible. The diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) was strongly considered and treatment with corticosteroids was started; this led to dramatic clinical and radiologic improvement for a short time. Eventually, an open lung biopsy specimen disclosed primary extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of T-cell origin, immunoblastic, of high-grade malignancy according to the Kiel classification. After the first course of chemotherapy, total respiratory insufficiency developed and the patient died. This case is unique in a patient without AIDS.

  13. A Rural School/Community: A Case Study of a Dramatic Turnaround & Its Implications for School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Robert V.

    This paper presents a case study of a rural community exhibiting a dramatic turnaround in community support for a new school bond issue. Demographic change was partly responsible for the change in community attitudes, with two waves of immigration altering the long-term conservative orientation of this community. After a series of failed…

  14. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dramatically Improves Function After Spinal Cord Injury in Rats May 2004 press release on an experimental treatment ... NINDS). Signaling Molecule Improves Nerve Cell Regeneration in Rats August 2002 news summary on a signaling molecule ...

  15. Mechanistic Studies Lead to Dramatically Improved Reaction Conditions for the Cu-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydroamination of Olefins.

    PubMed

    Bandar, Jeffrey S; Pirnot, Michael T; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2015-11-25

    Enantioselective copper(I) hydride (CuH)-catalyzed hydroamination has undergone significant development over the past several years. To gain a general understanding of the factors governing these reactions, kinetic and spectroscopic studies were performed on the CuH-catalyzed hydroamination of styrene. Reaction profile analysis, rate order assessment, and Hammett studies indicate that the turnover-limiting step is regeneration of the CuH catalyst by reaction with a silane, with a phosphine-ligated copper(I) benzoate as the catalyst resting state. Spectroscopic, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and nonlinear effect studies are consistent with a monomeric active catalyst. With this insight, targeted reagent optimization led to the development of an optimized protocol with an operationally simple setup (ligated copper(II) precatalyst, open to air) and short reaction times (<30 min). This improved protocol is amenable to a diverse range of alkene and alkyne substrate classes. PMID:26522837

  16. Arylsulfatase B Improves Locomotor Function after Mouse Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Myungsik; Khaled, Muntasir; Gibbs, Kurt M.; Kim, Jonghun; Kowalewski, Björn; Dierks, Thomas; Schachner, Melitta

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial chondroitinase ABC (ChaseABC) has been used to remove the inhibitory chondroitin sulfate chains from chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans to improve regeneration after rodent spinal cord injury. We hypothesized that the mammalian enzyme arylsulfatase B (ARSB) would also enhance recovery after mouse spinal cord injury. Application of the mammalian enzyme would be an attractive alternative to ChaseABC because of its more robust chemical stability and reduced immunogenicity. A one-time injection of human ARSB into injured mouse spinal cord eliminated immunoreactivity for chondroitin sulfates within five days, and up to 9 weeks after injury. After a moderate spinal cord injury, we observed improvements of locomotor recovery assessed by the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) in ARSB treated mice, compared to the buffer-treated control group, at 6 weeks after injection. After a severe spinal cord injury, mice injected with equivalent units of ARSB or ChaseABC improved similarly and both groups achieved significantly more locomotor recovery than the buffer-treated control mice. Serotonin and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive axons were more extensively present in mouse spinal cords treated with ARSB and ChaseABC, and the immunoreactive axons penetrated further beyond the injury site in ARSB or ChaseABC treated mice than in control mice. These results indicate that mammalian ARSB improves functional recovery after CNS injury. The structural/molecular mechanisms underlying the observed functional improvement remain to be elucidated. PMID:23520469

  17. Reducing synuclein accumulation improves neuronal survival after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Fogerson, Stephanie M; van Brummen, Alexandra J; Busch, David J; Allen, Scott R; Roychaudhuri, Robin; Banks, Susan M L; Klärner, Frank-Gerrit; Schrader, Thomas; Bitan, Gal; Morgan, Jennifer R

    2016-04-01

    Spinal cord injury causes neuronal death, limiting subsequent regeneration and recovery. Thus, there is a need to develop strategies for improving neuronal survival after injury. Relative to our understanding of axon regeneration, comparatively little is known about the mechanisms that promote the survival of damaged neurons. To address this, we took advantage of lamprey giant reticulospinal neurons whose large size permits detailed examination of post-injury molecular responses at the level of individual, identified cells. We report here that spinal cord injury caused a select subset of giant reticulospinal neurons to accumulate synuclein, a synaptic vesicle-associated protein best known for its atypical aggregation and causal role in neurodegeneration in Parkinson's and other diseases. Post-injury synuclein accumulation took the form of punctate aggregates throughout the somata and occurred selectively in dying neurons, but not in those that survived. In contrast, another synaptic vesicle protein, synaptotagmin, did not accumulate in response to injury. We further show that the post-injury synuclein accumulation was greatly attenuated after single dose application of either the "molecular tweezer" inhibitor, CLR01, or a translation-blocking synuclein morpholino. Consequently, reduction of synuclein accumulation not only improved neuronal survival, but also increased the number of axons in the spinal cord proximal and distal to the lesion. This study is the first to reveal that reducing synuclein accumulation is a novel strategy for improving neuronal survival after spinal cord injury.

  18. Improving hand hygiene after neurological injury.

    PubMed

    Duke, Lynsay; Gibbison, Lucy; McMahon, Victoria

    Caring for hands tightened by spasticity after stroke, brain injury or other neurological conditions can be challenging for care staff. Opening and cleaning the hand, managing pressure areas, cutting nails and reducing pain becomes more complex if muscles are tight and short. Hand hygiene is key for staff but literature on patients' hand and nail care is lacking, so specialist education and care planning may be needed to help staff ensure these activities are done well. This article outlines the importance of maintaining patients' hand hygiene, explores the barriers to providing effective care and discusses how they might be overcome.

  19. Creative Dramatics. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Julia; Sidlovskaya, Olga; Stotter, Ruth; Haugen, Kirsten; Leithold, Naomi

    2000-01-01

    Presents five articles on using creative dramatics in early childhood education: (1) "Drama: A Rehearsal for Life" (Julia Gabriel); (2) "Fairy Tales Enhance Imagination and Creative Thinking" (Olga Sidlovskaya); (3) "Starting with a Story" (Ruth Stotter); (4) "Using Creative Dramatics to Include All Children" (Kirsten Haugen); and (5) "Helping…

  20. Creative Dramatics Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia School District, PA. Office of Early Childhood Programs.

    This handbook on creative dramatics at the elementary school level is primarily intended to assist the teacher who already has some training in creative dramatics. The handbook contains sections on (1) the philosophy and objectives of the program, including a discussion of an affective curriculum; (2) definitions of key concepts, including general…

  1. Novel diarylpyrimidines and diaryltriazines as potent HIV-1 NNRTIs with dramatically improved solubility: a patent evaluation of US20140378443A1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Boshi; Kang, Dongwei; Yang, Jiapei; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xinyong

    2016-01-01

    Diarylpyrimidine and diaryltriazine derivatives, two representative structurally related classes of HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) with robust potencies against wild-type and several mutant strains of HIV-1, have attracted more and more attention in the last decade. However, they have been suffering from poor aqueous solubility. A series of novel diarylpyrimidines and diaryltriazines with solubilizing substituents attached to the central rings were reported as potent NNRTIs in the patent US20140378443A1. Some compounds exhibited potencies against wild-type HIV-1 which were comparable or even superior to those of dapivirine, etravirine and rilpivirine. In addition, dramatically enhanced solubilities were observed for these new compounds. Moreover, some structure optimization strategies for improving aqueous solubility are detailed in this review, providing new insights into development of next-generation NNRTIs endowed with favorable solubility. We anticipate that application of these strategies will ultimately lead to discovery of new anti-HIV drug candidates.

  2. [Case of continuous trans-arterial calcium gluconate infusion using a direct arterial sphygmomanometry line that exhibited dramatic improvement of chemical burns on the fingers caused by hydrofluoric acid].

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kazuyuki; Shimizu, Makiko; Tanaka, Kotaro; Minemura, Atsuko; Tamatsukuri, Tatsuro; Miyake, Yasufumi; Aruga, Tohru

    2014-12-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HFA) is commonly used and many injuries occur on the upper extremities following exposure to HFA. The use of calcium gluconate (CG) -containing gel or local injections of CG are widely used for the initial treatment of HFA exposure. However, severe pain continues in some cases despite the treatment. There was a report that trans-arterial CG infusion could improve HFA burns, however, such treatment is not an established clinical procedure. A 30-year-old male presented at our hospital with severe pain in his left thumb. He had been cleaning tiles with an HFA-containing detergent. We diagnosed him with a chemical burn due to HFA exposure. Local CG injections were tried several times, but his terrible pain continued. Therefore, a direct arterial sphygmomanometry line was inserted from the left radial artery, and continuous transarterial CG injection was performed. His terrible pain dramatically improved. Direct arterial sphygmomanometry systems are widely used in the critical care field to monitor the hemodynamics and ICU staffs are used to dealing with it. Moreover, continuous saline infusion prevents the tube obstruction. Continuous CG infusion from a direct arterial sphygmomanometry line is simple and safe way to administer CG in HFA burns.

  3. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves local microenvironment after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Shuquan; Luo, Min; Li, Yajun

    2014-12-15

    Clinical studies have shown that hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves motor function in patients with spinal cord injury. In the present study, we explored the mechanisms associated with the recovery of neurological function after hyperbaric oxygen therapy in a rat model of spinal cord injury. We established an acute spinal cord injury model using a modification of the free-falling object method, and treated the animals with oxygen at 0.2 MPa for 45 minutes, 4 hours after injury. The treatment was administered four times per day, for 3 days. Compared with model rats that did not receive the treatment, rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen had fewer apoptotic cells in spinal cord tissue, lower expression levels of aquaporin 4/9 mRNA and protein, and more NF-200 positive nerve fibers. Furthermore, they had smaller spinal cord cavities, rapid recovery of somatosensory and motor evoked potentials, and notably better recovery of hindlimb motor function than model rats. Our findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen therapy reduces apoptosis, downregulates aquaporin 4/9 mRNA and protein expression in injured spinal cord tissue, improves the local microenvironment for nerve regeneration, and protects and repairs the spinal cord after injury.

  4. Combined Overexpression of JARID2, PRDM14, ESRRB, and SALL4A Dramatically Improves Efficiency and Kinetics of Reprogramming to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Iseki, Hiroyoshi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Hishida, Tomoaki; Yamashita-Sugahara, Yzumi; Hirasaki, Masataka; Ueda, Atsushi; Tanimoto, Yoko; Iijima, Saori; Sugiyama, Fumihiro; Yagami, Ken-ichi; Takahashi, Satoru; Okuda, Akihiko; Okazaki, Yasushi

    2016-02-01

    Identification of a gene set capable of driving rapid and proper reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is an important issue. Here we show that the efficiency and kinetics of iPSC reprogramming are dramatically improved by the combined expression of Jarid2 and genes encoding its associated proteins. We demonstrate that forced expression of JARID2 promotes iPSC reprogramming by suppressing the expression of Arf, a known reprogramming barrier, and that the N-terminal half of JARID2 is sufficient for such promotion. Moreover, JARID2 accelerated silencing of the retroviral Klf4 transgene and demethylation of the Nanog promoter, underpinning the potentiating activity of JARID2 in iPSC reprogramming. We further show that JARID2 physically interacts with ESRRB, SALL4A, and PRDM14, and that these JARID2-associated proteins synergistically and robustly facilitate iPSC reprogramming in a JARID2-dependent manner. Our findings provide an insight into the important roles of JARID2 during reprogramming and suggest that the JARID2-associated protein network contributes to overcoming reprogramming barriers.

  5. Teaching Dramatic Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Describes the use of scene work, informal presentations of dramatic passages, to explore aspects of plays that readers are likely to overlook. Finds that this scene work increases the pertinence of students' comments in class and the ambitiousness of their written work. (MM)

  6. Optimized Protocols for In Vitro Maturation of Rat Oocytes Dramatically Improve Their Developmental Competence to a Level Similar to That of Ovulated Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Cui, Wei; Yang, Rui; Lin, Juan; Gong, Shuai; Lian, Hua-Yu; Sun, Ming-Ju; Tan, Jing-He

    2016-02-01

    The developmental capacity of in vitro-matured (IVM) oocytes is markedly lower than that of their in vivo-matured (IVO) counterparts, suggesting the need for optimization of IVM protocols in different species. There are few studies on IVM of rat oocytes, and there are even fewer attempts to improve ooplasmic maturation compared to those reported in other species. Furthermore, rat oocytes are well known to undergo spontaneous activation (SA) after leaving the oviduct; however, whether IVM rat oocytes have lower SA rates than IVO oocytes and can potentially be used for nuclear transfer is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of maturation protocols on cytoplasmic maturation of IVM rat oocytes and observed the possibility to reduce SA by using IVM rat oocytes. Ooplasmic maturation was assessed using multiple markers, including pre- and postimplantation development, meiotic progression, CG redistribution, redox state, and the expression of developmental potential- and apoptosis-related genes. The results showed that the best protocol consisting of modified Tissue Culture Medium-199 (TCM-199) supplemented with cysteamine/cystine and the cumulus cell monolayer dramatically improved the developmental competence of rat oocytes and supported both pre- and postimplantation development and other ooplasmic maturation makers to levels similar to that observed in ovulated oocytes. Rates of SA were significantly lower in IVM oocytes than in IVO oocytes when observed at the same intervals after nuclear maturation. In conclusion, we have optimized protocols for IVM of rat oocytes that sustain ooplasmic maturation to a level similar to ovulated oocytes. The results suggest that IVM rat oocytes might be used to reduce SA for rat cloning. PMID:26679437

  7. Ouabain Improves Functional Recovery following Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dvela-Levitt, Moran; Ami, Hagit Cohen-Ben; Rosen, Haim; Shohami, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The cardiac steroid ouabain binds to Na+, K+-ATPase and inhibits its activity. Administration of the compound to animals and humans causes an increase in the force of contraction of heart muscle and stabilizes heart rate. In addition, this steroid promotes the growth of cardiac, vascular, and neuronal cells both in vitro and in vivo. We studied the effects of ouabain on mouse recovery following closed head injury (CHI), a model for traumatic brain injury. We show that chronic (three times a week), but not acute, intraperitoneal administration of a low dose (1 μg/kg) of ouabain significantly improves mouse recovery and functional outcome. The improvement in mouse performance was accompanied by a decrease in lesion size, estimated 43 d following the trauma. In addition, mice that underwent CHI and were treated with ouabain showed an increase in the number of proliferating cells in the subventricular zone and in the area surrounding the site of injury. Determination of the identity of the proliferating cells in the area surrounding the trauma showed that whereas there was no change in the proliferation of endothelial cells or astrocytes, neuronal cell proliferation almost doubled in the ouabain-treated mice in comparison with that of the vehicle animals. These results point to a neuroprotective effects of low doses of ouabain and imply its involvement in brain recovery and neuronal regeneration. This suggests that ouabain and maybe other cardiac steroids may be used for the treatment of traumatic brain injury. PMID:25007121

  8. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves cognitive functioning after brain injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Shen, Guangyu; Deng, Shukun; Wang, Xiubin; Wu, Qinfeng; Guo, Aisong

    2013-12-15

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been widely applied and recognized in the treatment of brain injury; however, the correlation between the protective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and changes of metabolites in the brain remains unclear. To investigate the effect and potential mechanism of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cognitive functioning in rats, we established traumatic brain injury models using Feeney's free falling method. We treated rat models with hyperbaric oxygen therapy at 0.2 MPa for 60 minutes per day. The Morris water maze test for spatial navigation showed that the average escape latency was significantly prolonged and cognitive function decreased in rats with brain injury. After treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy for 1 and 2 weeks, the rats' spatial learning and memory abilities were improved. Hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis showed that the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased at 1 week, and the N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio was significantly increased at 2 weeks after hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Nissl staining and immunohistochemical staining showed that the number of nerve cells and Nissl bodies in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased, and glial fibrillary acidic protein positive cells were decreased after a 2-week hyperbaric oxygen therapy treatment. Our findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen therapy significantly improves cognitive functioning in rats with traumatic brain injury, and the potential mechanism is mediated by metabolic changes and nerve cell restoration in the hippocampal CA3 region.

  9. Treatment Protocols to Reduce Injury and Improve Stone Breakage in SWL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAteer, James A.; Evan, Andrew P.; Connors, Bret A.; Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; Williams, James C.; Lingeman, James E.

    2008-09-01

    Here we provide a capsule summary of key observations showing that adverse effects can be reduced and stone breakage outcomes can be improved by the choice of the treatment protocol used in SWL. The take home message is—technique in lithotripsy can be used to significant advantage. SW-rate is key, and so is the sequence of SW delivery. Patient studies have shown that stone breakage is significantly improved at 60SW/min compared to a rate of 120SW/min, and laboratory experiments with pigs show that acute SWL injury to the kidney can be reduced dramatically by further slowing the SW firing rate to 30SW/min. The sequence of SW administration has a profound effect on the kidney, and renal injury is significantly reduced when the treatment protocol incorporates a priming dose of SW's followed by a brief pause before treatment is resumed. Continued developments in lithotripsy technology are welcome and will hopefully lead to improved SWL systems. Current experience suggests, however, that technology is not a substitute for expert technique, and attention to the fundamentals of SW delivery is essential to achieve the best possible outcomes regardless of the lithotripter at hand.

  10. Therapeutic intraspinal microstimulation improves forelimb function after cervical contusion injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasten, M. R.; Sunshine, M. D.; Secrist, E. S.; Horner, P. J.; Moritz, C. T.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) is a promising method for activating the spinal cord distal to an injury. The objectives of this study were to examine the ability of chronically implanted stimulating wires within the cervical spinal cord to (1) directly produce forelimb movements, and (2) assess whether ISMS stimulation could improve subsequent volitional control of paretic extremities following injury. Approach. We developed a technique for implanting intraspinal stimulating electrodes within the cervical spinal cord segments C6-T1 of Long-Evans rats. Beginning 4 weeks after a severe cervical contusion injury at C4-C5, animals in the treatment condition received therapeutic ISMS 7 hours/day, 5 days/week for the following 12 weeks. Main results. Over 12 weeks of therapeutic ISMS, stimulus-evoked forelimb movements were relatively stable. We also explored whether therapeutic ISMS promoted recovery of forelimb reaching movements. Animals receiving daily therapeutic ISMS performed significantly better than unstimulated animals during behavioural tests conducted without stimulation. Quantitative video analysis of forelimb movements showed that stimulated animals performed better in the movements reinforced by stimulation, including extending the elbow to advance the forelimb and opening the digits. While threshold current to elicit forelimb movement gradually increased over time, no differences were observed between chronically stimulated and unstimulated electrodes suggesting that no additional tissue damage was produced by the electrical stimulation. Significance. The results indicate that therapeutic intraspinal stimulation delivered via chronic microwire implants within the cervical spinal cord confers benefits extending beyond the period of stimulation, suggesting future strategies for neural devices to promote sustained recovery after injury.

  11. Dramatic Developments in the Neurosciences Challenge Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Recent dramatic developments in brain research and technology suggest that a comprehensive understanding of how the human brain works may soon be within reach. Just as the ability of the medical profession to treat patients improved dramatically with the advent of effective research skills and technology concerning the structure, biochemistry, and…

  12. Physical exercise improves arterial stiffness after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Hubli, Michèle; Currie, Katharine D.; West, Christopher R.; Gee, Cameron M.; Krassioukov, Andrei V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective/background Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), the gold-standard assessment of central arterial stiffness, has prognostic value for cardiovascular disease risk in able-bodied individuals. The aim of this study was to compare aortic PWV in athletes and non-athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Cross-sectional comparison. Methods Aortic PWV was assessed in 20 individuals with motor-complete, chronic SCI (C2–T5; 18 ± 8 years post-injury) using applanation tonometry at the carotid and femoral arterial sites. Ten elite hand-cyclists were matched for sex to 10 non-athletes; age and time since injury were comparable between the groups. Heart rate and discrete brachial blood pressure measurements were collected throughout testing. Outcome measures Aortic PWV, blood pressure, heart rate. Results Aortic PWV was significantly lower in athletes vs. non-athletes (6.9 ± 1.0 vs. 8.7 ± 2.5 m/second, P = 0.044). There were no significant between-group differences in resting supine mean arterial blood pressure (91 ± 19 vs. 81 ± 10 mmHg) and heart rate (60 ± 10 vs. 58 ± 6 b.p.m.). Conclusion Athletes with SCI exhibited improved central arterial stiffness compared to non-athletes, which is in agreement with the previous able-bodied literature. This finding implies that chronic exercise training may improve arterial health and potentially lower cardiovascular disease risk in the SCI population. PMID:24976366

  13. Attenuated traumatic axonal injury and improved functional outcome after traumatic brain injury in mice lacking Sarm1.

    PubMed

    Henninger, Nils; Bouley, James; Sikoglu, Elif M; An, Jiyan; Moore, Constance M; King, Jean A; Bowser, Robert; Freeman, Marc R; Brown, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    Axonal degeneration is a critical, early event in many acute and chronic neurological disorders. It has been consistently observed after traumatic brain injury, but whether axon degeneration is a driver of traumatic brain injury remains unclear. Molecular pathways underlying the pathology of traumatic brain injury have not been defined, and there is no efficacious treatment for traumatic brain injury. Here we show that mice lacking the mouse Toll receptor adaptor Sarm1 (sterile α/Armadillo/Toll-Interleukin receptor homology domain protein) gene, a key mediator of Wallerian degeneration, demonstrate multiple improved traumatic brain injury-associated phenotypes after injury in a closed-head mild traumatic brain injury model. Sarm1(-/-) mice developed fewer β-amyloid precursor protein aggregates in axons of the corpus callosum after traumatic brain injury as compared to Sarm1(+/+) mice. Furthermore, mice lacking Sarm1 had reduced plasma concentrations of the phophorylated axonal neurofilament subunit H, indicating that axonal integrity is maintained after traumatic brain injury. Strikingly, whereas wild-type mice exibited a number of behavioural deficits after traumatic brain injury, we observed a strong, early preservation of neurological function in Sarm1(-/-) animals. Finally, using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy we found tissue signatures consistent with substantially preserved neuronal energy metabolism in Sarm1(-/-) mice compared to controls immediately following traumatic brain injury. Our results indicate that the SARM1-mediated prodegenerative pathway promotes pathogenesis in traumatic brain injury and suggest that anti-SARM1 therapeutics are a viable approach for preserving neurological function after traumatic brain injury. PMID:26912636

  14. Attenuated traumatic axonal injury and improved functional outcome after traumatic brain injury in mice lacking Sarm1.

    PubMed

    Henninger, Nils; Bouley, James; Sikoglu, Elif M; An, Jiyan; Moore, Constance M; King, Jean A; Bowser, Robert; Freeman, Marc R; Brown, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    Axonal degeneration is a critical, early event in many acute and chronic neurological disorders. It has been consistently observed after traumatic brain injury, but whether axon degeneration is a driver of traumatic brain injury remains unclear. Molecular pathways underlying the pathology of traumatic brain injury have not been defined, and there is no efficacious treatment for traumatic brain injury. Here we show that mice lacking the mouse Toll receptor adaptor Sarm1 (sterile α/Armadillo/Toll-Interleukin receptor homology domain protein) gene, a key mediator of Wallerian degeneration, demonstrate multiple improved traumatic brain injury-associated phenotypes after injury in a closed-head mild traumatic brain injury model. Sarm1(-/-) mice developed fewer β-amyloid precursor protein aggregates in axons of the corpus callosum after traumatic brain injury as compared to Sarm1(+/+) mice. Furthermore, mice lacking Sarm1 had reduced plasma concentrations of the phophorylated axonal neurofilament subunit H, indicating that axonal integrity is maintained after traumatic brain injury. Strikingly, whereas wild-type mice exibited a number of behavioural deficits after traumatic brain injury, we observed a strong, early preservation of neurological function in Sarm1(-/-) animals. Finally, using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy we found tissue signatures consistent with substantially preserved neuronal energy metabolism in Sarm1(-/-) mice compared to controls immediately following traumatic brain injury. Our results indicate that the SARM1-mediated prodegenerative pathway promotes pathogenesis in traumatic brain injury and suggest that anti-SARM1 therapeutics are a viable approach for preserving neurological function after traumatic brain injury.

  15. Achieving Dramatic School Improvement: An Exploratory Study. A Cross-Site Analysis from the Evaluation of Comprehensive School Reform Program Implementation and Outcomes Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aladjem, Daniel K.; Birman, Beatrice F.; Orland, Martin; Harr-Robins, Jenifer; Heredia, Alberto; Parrish, Thomas B.; Ruffini, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study describes approaches to improving schools through retrospective, in-depth qualitative case studies. To select schools to be examined, the authors sought to identify Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) schools demonstrating two distinctive patterns of improved student achievement between 2000 and 2005, rapid-improvement (i.e.,…

  16. Prevention of overuse injuries of the foot by improved shoe shock attenuation. A randomized prospective study.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, C; Finestone, A; Shlamkovitch, N; Wosk, J; Laor, A; Voloshin, A; Eldad, A

    1992-08-01

    In a randomized prospective study among 390 recruits, the hypothesis that improved shoe shock attenuation could lessen the incidence of overuse injuries was tested. During the 14 weeks of training, 90% of the recruits sustained overuse injuries. Recruits training in a modified basketball shoe had a statistically significant lower incidence of metatarsal stress fractures and foot overuse injuries, compared with standard infantry boots, but their overall incidence of overuse injuries was not reduced. The effect of improved shoe shock attenuation was limited to those overuse injuries resulting from vertical impact loads.

  17. Elbow ulnar collateral ligament injuries in athletes: Can we improve our outcomes?

    PubMed

    Redler, Lauren H; Degen, Ryan M; McDonald, Lucas S; Altchek, David W; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-04-18

    Injury to the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) most commonly occurs in the overhead throwing athlete. Knowledge surrounding UCL injury pathomechanics continues to improve, leading to better preventative treatment strategies and rehabilitation programs. Conservative treatment strategies for partial injuries, improved operative techniques for reconstruction in complete tears, adjunctive treatments, as well as structured sport specific rehabilitation programs including resistive exercises for the entire upper extremity kinetic chain are all important factors in allowing for a return to throwing in competitive environments. In this review, we explore each of these factors and provide recommendations based on the available literature to improve outcomes in UCL injuries in athletes.

  18. Elbow ulnar collateral ligament injuries in athletes: Can we improve our outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Redler, Lauren H; Degen, Ryan M; McDonald, Lucas S; Altchek, David W; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    Injury to the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) most commonly occurs in the overhead throwing athlete. Knowledge surrounding UCL injury pathomechanics continues to improve, leading to better preventative treatment strategies and rehabilitation programs. Conservative treatment strategies for partial injuries, improved operative techniques for reconstruction in complete tears, adjunctive treatments, as well as structured sport specific rehabilitation programs including resistive exercises for the entire upper extremity kinetic chain are all important factors in allowing for a return to throwing in competitive environments. In this review, we explore each of these factors and provide recommendations based on the available literature to improve outcomes in UCL injuries in athletes. PMID:27114930

  19. Combining BRAF inhibitor and anti PD-L1 antibody dramatically improves tumor regression and anti tumor immunity in an immunocompetent murine model of anaplastic thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Borre, Pierre Vanden; Zurakowski, David; Kim, Yon Seon; Dennett, Kate Virginia; Amin, Salma; Freeman, Gordon James; Parangi, Sareh

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of programmed cell death-1 and its ligand is widely studied in cancer. Monoclonal antibodies blocking these molecules have had great success but little is known about them in thyroid cancer. We investigated the role of PD-L1 in thyroid cancer with respect to BRAF mutation and MAP kinase pathway activity and the effect of anti PD-L1 antibody therapy on tumor regression and intra-tumoral immune response alone or in combination with BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi). BRAFV600E cells showed significantly higher baseline expression of PD-L1 at mRNA and protein levels compared to BRAFWT cells. MEK inhibitor treatment resulted in a decrease of PD-L1 expression across all cell lines. BRAFi treatment decreased PD-L1 expression in BRAFV600E cells, but paradoxically increased its expression in BRAFWT cells. BRAFV600E mutated patients samples had a higher level of PD-L1 mRNA compared to BRAFWT (p=0.015). Immunocompetent mice (B6129SF1/J) implanted with syngeneic 3747 BRAFV600E/WT P53−/− murine tumor cells were randomized to control, PLX4720, anti PD-L1 antibody and their combination. In this model of aggressive thyroid cancer, control tumor volume reached 782.3±174.6mm3 at two weeks. The combination dramatically reduced tumor volume to 147.3±60.8, compared to PLX4720 (439.3±188.4 mm3, P=0.023) or PD-L1 antibody (716.7±62.1, P<0.001) alone. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed intense CD8+ CTL infiltration and cytotoxicity and favorable CD8+:Treg ratio compared to each individual treatment. Our results show anti PD-L1 treatment potentiates the effect of BRAFi on tumor regression and intensifies anti tumor immune response in an immunocompetent model of ATC. Clinical trials of this therapeutic combination may be of benefit in patients with ATC. PMID:26943572

  20. Combining BRAF inhibitor and anti PD-L1 antibody dramatically improves tumor regression and anti tumor immunity in an immunocompetent murine model of anaplastic thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Brauner, Eran; Gunda, Viswanath; Vanden Borre, Pierre; Zurakowski, David; Kim, Yon Seon; Dennett, Kate Virginia; Amin, Salma; Freeman, Gordon James; Parangi, Sareh

    2016-03-29

    The interaction of programmed cell death-1 and its ligand is widely studied in cancer. Monoclonal antibodies blocking these molecules have had great success but little is known about them in thyroid cancer. We investigated the role of PD-L1 in thyroid cancer with respect to BRAF mutation and MAP kinase pathway activity and the effect of anti PD-L1 antibody therapy on tumor regression and intra-tumoral immune response alone or in combination with BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi). BRAFV600E cells showed significantly higher baseline expression of PD-L1 at mRNA and protein levels compared to BRAFWT cells. MEK inhibitor treatment resulted in a decrease of PD-L1 expression across all cell lines. BRAFi treatment decreased PD-L1 expression in BRAFV600E cells, but paradoxically increased its expression in BRAFWT cells. BRAFV600E mutated patients samples had a higher level of PD-L1 mRNA compared to BRAFWT (p=0.015). Immunocompetent mice (B6129SF1/J) implanted with syngeneic 3747 BRAFV600E/WT P53-/- murine tumor cells were randomized to control, PLX4720, anti PD-L1 antibody and their combination. In this model of aggressive thyroid cancer, control tumor volume reached 782.3±174.6mm3 at two weeks. The combination dramatically reduced tumor volume to 147.3±60.8, compared to PLX4720 (439.3±188.4 mm3, P=0.023) or PD-L1 antibody (716.7±62.1, P<0.001) alone. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed intense CD8+ CTL infiltration and cytotoxicity and favorable CD8+:Treg ratio compared to each individual treatment. Our results show anti PD-L1 treatment potentiates the effect of BRAFi on tumor regression and intensifies anti tumor immune response in an immunocompetent model of ATC. Clinical trials of this therapeutic combination may be of benefit in patients with ATC.

  1. Improving outcome of sensorimotor functions after traumatic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Volker

    2016-01-01

    In the rehabilitation of a patient suffering a spinal cord injury (SCI), the exploitation of neuroplasticity is well established. It can be facilitated through the training of functional movements with technical assistance as needed and can improve outcome after an SCI. The success of such training in individuals with incomplete SCI critically depends on the presence of physiological proprioceptive input to the spinal cord leading to meaningful muscle activations during movement performances. Some actual preclinical approaches to restore function by compensating for the loss of descending input to spinal networks following complete/incomplete SCI are critically discussed in this report. Electrical and pharmacological stimulation of spinal neural networks is still in the experimental stage, and despite promising repair studies in animal models, translations to humans up to now have not been convincing. It is possible that a combination of techniques targeting the promotion of axonal regeneration is necessary to advance the restoration of function. In the future, refinement of animal models according to clinical conditions and requirements may contribute to greater translational success. PMID:27303641

  2. Primary Care DirectConnect: How the Marriage of Call Center Technology and the EMR Brought Dramatic Results-A Service Quality Improvement Study.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Brent; Smith, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Of the key Health Plan patient satisfaction measures used in Kaiser Permanente Colorado, ease of contacting the physician's office with a medical question was consistently rated as the lowest quarterly patient satisfaction measure. Furthermore, medical office staff had become dissatisfied with their inability to contact patients who had previously left messages. In addition to the shear volume of messages, the return calls were often unanswered, leading to subsequent attempts to reach patients, creating additional work for medical office staff.DirectConnect-the project name for a system and set of processes focused on improving patient satisfaction with the ability to contact Primary Care delivery teams by telephone-focuses on isolating medical advice calls from the other types of calls handled by the centralized Call Center. The system identifies the patient using his/her unique electronic medical record number, then automatically routes medical advice calls directly to the appropriate Primary Care Physician (PCP) or staff. The clinician may then evaluate and respond to the patient's need quickly, thus managing more of their panel's requests in real time.How is DirectConnect different from simply having the patient contact their PCP's office directly? The primary difference is "one-number" convenience that allows all patients to dial one number to access their PCP's team. In addition, calls are routed to various staff as available to reduce long telephone queues and wait times.The DirectConnect system has resulted in statistically significant improvement in key service quality measures. Patient satisfaction improved from a pre-implementation nine quarter mean of 55.9% to a post-implementation 12 quarter mean of 70.2%. Fourteen percent to 17% of all Primary Care calls are now handled by the patient's home medical office team, creating a 54% improvement in the centralized Call Center's speed of answering calls in the first quarter post implementation-making no

  3. Primary Care DirectConnect: How the Marriage of Call Center Technology and the EMR Brought Dramatic Results—A Service Quality Improvement Study

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Brent; Smith, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Of the key Health Plan patient satisfaction measures used in Kaiser Permanente Colorado, ease of contacting the physician's office with a medical question was consistently rated as the lowest quarterly patient satisfaction measure. Furthermore, medical office staff had become dissatisfied with their inability to contact patients who had previously left messages. In addition to the shear volume of messages, the return calls were often unanswered, leading to subsequent attempts to reach patients, creating additional work for medical office staff. DirectConnect—the project name for a system and set of processes focused on improving patient satisfaction with the ability to contact Primary Care delivery teams by telephone—focuses on isolating medical advice calls from the other types of calls handled by the centralized Call Center. The system identifies the patient using his/her unique electronic medical record number, then automatically routes medical advice calls directly to the appropriate Primary Care Physician (PCP) or staff. The clinician may then evaluate and respond to the patient's need quickly, thus managing more of their panel's requests in real time. How is DirectConnect different from simply having the patient contact their PCP's office directly? The primary difference is “one-number” convenience that allows all patients to dial one number to access their PCP's team. In addition, calls are routed to various staff as available to reduce long telephone queues and wait times. The DirectConnect system has resulted in statistically significant improvement in key service quality measures. Patient satisfaction improved from a pre-implementation nine quarter mean of 55.9% to a post-implementation 12 quarter mean of 70.2%. Fourteen percent to 17% of all Primary Care calls are now handled by the patient's home medical office team, creating a 54% improvement in the centralized Call Center's speed of answering calls in the first quarter post implementation

  4. Improve Tracking of Workplace Injuries and Illnesses. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-12

    OSHA is issuing a final rule to revise its Recording and Reporting Occupational Injuries and Illnesses regulation. The final rule requires employers in certain industries to electronically submit to OSHA injury and illness data that employers are already required to keep under existing OSHA regulations. The frequency and content of these establishment-specific submissions is set out in the final rule and is dependent on the size and industry of the employer. OSHA intends to post the data from these submissions on a publicly accessible Web site. OSHA does not intend to post any information on the Web site that could be used to identify individual employees. The final rule also amends OSHA's recordkeeping regulation to update requirements on how employers inform employees to report work-related injuries and illnesses to their employer. The final rule requires employers to inform employees of their right to report work-related injuries and illnesses free from retaliation; clarifies the existing implicit requirement that an employer's procedure for reporting work-related injuries and illnesses must be reasonable and not deter or discourage employees from reporting; and incorporates the existing statutory prohibition on retaliating against employees for reporting work-related injuries or illnesses. The final rule also amends OSHA's existing recordkeeping regulation to clarify the rights of employees and their representatives to access the injury and illness records. PMID:27192734

  5. Improve Tracking of Workplace Injuries and Illnesses. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-12

    OSHA is issuing a final rule to revise its Recording and Reporting Occupational Injuries and Illnesses regulation. The final rule requires employers in certain industries to electronically submit to OSHA injury and illness data that employers are already required to keep under existing OSHA regulations. The frequency and content of these establishment-specific submissions is set out in the final rule and is dependent on the size and industry of the employer. OSHA intends to post the data from these submissions on a publicly accessible Web site. OSHA does not intend to post any information on the Web site that could be used to identify individual employees. The final rule also amends OSHA's recordkeeping regulation to update requirements on how employers inform employees to report work-related injuries and illnesses to their employer. The final rule requires employers to inform employees of their right to report work-related injuries and illnesses free from retaliation; clarifies the existing implicit requirement that an employer's procedure for reporting work-related injuries and illnesses must be reasonable and not deter or discourage employees from reporting; and incorporates the existing statutory prohibition on retaliating against employees for reporting work-related injuries or illnesses. The final rule also amends OSHA's existing recordkeeping regulation to clarify the rights of employees and their representatives to access the injury and illness records.

  6. Surface modification of alignment layer by ultraviolet irradiation to dramatically improve the detection limit of liquid-crystal-based immunoassay for the cancer biomarker CA125

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Hui-Wen; Lee, Mon-Juan; Lee, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Liquid crystal (LC)-based biosensing has attracted much attention in recent years. We focus on improving the detection limit of LC-based immunoassay techniques by surface modification of the surfactant alignment layer consisting of dimethyloctadecyl[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ammonium chloride (DMOAP). The cancer biomarker CA125 was detected with an array of anti-CA125 antibodies immobilized on the ultraviolet (UV)-modified DMOAP monolayer. Compared with a pristine counterpart, UV irradiation enhanced the binding affinity of the CA125 antibody and reproducibility of immunodetection in which a detection limit of 0.01 ng/ml for the cancer biomarker CA125 was achieved. Additionally, the optical texture observed under a crossed polarized microscope was correlated with the analyte concentration. In a proof-of-concept experiment using CA125-spiked human serum as the analyte, specific binding between the CA125 antigen and the anti-CA125 antibody resulted in a distinct and concentration-dependent optical response despite the high background caused by nonspecific binding of other biomolecules in the human serum. Results from this study indicate that UV modification of the alignment layer, as well as detection with LCs of large birefringence, contributes to the enhanced performance of the label-free LC-based immunodetection, which may be considered a promising alternative to conventional label-based methods.

  7. Surface modification of alignment layer by ultraviolet irradiation to dramatically improve the detection limit of liquid-crystal-based immunoassay for the cancer biomarker CA125.

    PubMed

    Su, Hui-Wen; Lee, Mon-Juan; Lee, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Liquid crystal (LC)-based biosensing has attracted much attention in recent years. We focus on improving the detection limit of LC-based immunoassay techniques by surface modification of the surfactant alignment layer consisting of dimethyloctadecyl[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ammonium chloride (DMOAP). The cancer biomarker CA125 was detected with an array of anti-CA125 antibodies immobilized on the ultraviolet (UV)-modified DMOAP monolayer. Compared with a pristine counterpart, UV irradiation enhanced the binding affinity of the CA125 antibody and reproducibility of immunodetection in which a detection limit of 0.01 ng∕ml for the cancer biomarker CA125 was achieved. Additionally, the optical texture observed under a crossed polarized microscope was correlated with the analyte concentration. In a proof-of-concept experiment using CA125-spiked human serum as the analyte, specific binding between the CA125 antigen and the anti-CA125 antibody resulted in a distinct and concentration-dependent optical response despite the high background caused by nonspecific binding of other biomolecules in the human serum. Results from this study indicate that UVmodification of the alignment layer, as well as detection with LCs of large birefringence, contributes to the enhanced performance of the label-free LC-based immunodetection, which may be considered a promising alternative to conventional label-based methods. PMID:26000796

  8. Poly(2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole) as a cathode for rechargeable lithium batteries with dramatically improved performance.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Lowe, Michael A; Conte, Sean; Burkhardt, Stephen E; Abruña, Héctor D

    2012-07-01

    Organosulfur compounds with multiple thiol groups are promising for high gravimetric energy density electrochemical energy storage. We have synthesized a poly(2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole) (PDMcT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) composite cathode for lithium-ion batteries with a new method and investigated its electrochemical behavior by charge/discharge cycles and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in an ether-based electrolyte. Based on a comparison of the electrochemical performance with a carbonate-based electrolyte, we found a much higher discharge capacity, but also a very attractive cycling performance of PDMcT by using a tetra(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (TEGDME)-based electrolyte. The first discharge capacity of the as-synthesized PDMcT/PEDOT composite approached 210 mAh g(-1) in the TEGDME-based electrolyte. CV results clearly show that the redox reactions of PDMcT are highly reversible in this TEGDME-based electrolyte. The reversible capacity remained around 120 mAh g(-1) after 20 charge/discharge cycles. With improved cycling performance and very low cost, PDMcT could become a very promising cathode material when combined with a TEGDME-based electrolyte. The poor capacity in the carbonate-based electrolyte is a consequence of the irreversible reaction of the DMcT monomer and dimer with the solvent, emphasizing the importance of electrolyte chemistry when studying molecular-based battery materials. PMID:22644940

  9. Co-injection of a targeted, reversibly masked endosomolytic polymer dramatically improves the efficacy of cholesterol-conjugated small interfering RNAs in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wong, So C; Klein, Jason J; Hamilton, Holly L; Chu, Qili; Frey, Christina L; Trubetskoy, Vladimir S; Hegge, Julia; Wakefield, Darren; Rozema, David B; Lewis, David L

    2012-12-01

    Effective in vivo delivery of small interfering (siRNA) has been a major obstacle in the development of RNA interference therapeutics. One of the first attempts to overcome this obstacle utilized intravenous injection of cholesterol-conjugated siRNA (chol-siRNA). Although studies in mice revealed target gene knockdown in the liver, delivery was relatively inefficient, requiring 3 daily injections of 50 mg/kg of chol-siRNA to obtain measurable reduction in gene expression. Here we present a new delivery approach that increases the efficacy of the chol-siRNA over 500-fold and allows over 90% reduction in target gene expression in mice and, for the first time, high levels of gene knockdown in non-human primates. This improved efficacy is achieved by the co-injection of a hepatocyte-targeted and reversibly masked endosomolytic polymer. We show that knockdown is absolutely dependent on the presence of hepatocyte-targeting ligand on the polymer, the cognate hepatocyte receptor, and the cholesterol moiety of the siRNA. Importantly, we provide evidence that this increase in efficacy is not dependent on interactions between the chol-siRNA with the polymer prior to injection or in the bloodstream. The simplicity of the formulation and efficacy of this mode of siRNA delivery should prove beneficial in the use of siRNA as a therapeutic.

  10. Co-Injection of a Targeted, Reversibly Masked Endosomolytic Polymer Dramatically Improves the Efficacy of Cholesterol-Conjugated Small Interfering RNAs In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wong, So C.; Klein, Jason J.; Hamilton, Holly L.; Chu, Qili; Frey, Christina L.; Trubetskoy, Vladimir S.; Hegge, Julia; Wakefield, Darren; Rozema, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Effective in vivo delivery of small interfering (siRNA) has been a major obstacle in the development of RNA interference therapeutics. One of the first attempts to overcome this obstacle utilized intravenous injection of cholesterol-conjugated siRNA (chol-siRNA). Although studies in mice revealed target gene knockdown in the liver, delivery was relatively inefficient, requiring 3 daily injections of 50 mg/kg of chol-siRNA to obtain measurable reduction in gene expression. Here we present a new delivery approach that increases the efficacy of the chol-siRNA over 500-fold and allows over 90% reduction in target gene expression in mice and, for the first time, high levels of gene knockdown in non-human primates. This improved efficacy is achieved by the co-injection of a hepatocyte-targeted and reversibly masked endosomolytic polymer. We show that knockdown is absolutely dependent on the presence of hepatocyte-targeting ligand on the polymer, the cognate hepatocyte receptor, and the cholesterol moiety of the siRNA. Importantly, we provide evidence that this increase in efficacy is not dependent on interactions between the chol-siRNA with the polymer prior to injection or in the bloodstream. The simplicity of the formulation and efficacy of this mode of siRNA delivery should prove beneficial in the use of siRNA as a therapeutic. PMID:23181701

  11. Poly(2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole) as a cathode for rechargeable lithium batteries with dramatically improved performance.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Lowe, Michael A; Conte, Sean; Burkhardt, Stephen E; Abruña, Héctor D

    2012-07-01

    Organosulfur compounds with multiple thiol groups are promising for high gravimetric energy density electrochemical energy storage. We have synthesized a poly(2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole) (PDMcT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) composite cathode for lithium-ion batteries with a new method and investigated its electrochemical behavior by charge/discharge cycles and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in an ether-based electrolyte. Based on a comparison of the electrochemical performance with a carbonate-based electrolyte, we found a much higher discharge capacity, but also a very attractive cycling performance of PDMcT by using a tetra(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (TEGDME)-based electrolyte. The first discharge capacity of the as-synthesized PDMcT/PEDOT composite approached 210 mAh g(-1) in the TEGDME-based electrolyte. CV results clearly show that the redox reactions of PDMcT are highly reversible in this TEGDME-based electrolyte. The reversible capacity remained around 120 mAh g(-1) after 20 charge/discharge cycles. With improved cycling performance and very low cost, PDMcT could become a very promising cathode material when combined with a TEGDME-based electrolyte. The poor capacity in the carbonate-based electrolyte is a consequence of the irreversible reaction of the DMcT monomer and dimer with the solvent, emphasizing the importance of electrolyte chemistry when studying molecular-based battery materials.

  12. [Occupational injury risk in the shoe industry: frequency, types of injuries and equipment involved, improvement interventions].

    PubMed

    Tognon, Ilaria Desirée

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the work has been to evaluate the risk of injuries connected to the use of machinery and work tools in the footwear industry. The analysis of the data related to injuries in the footwear industry, deduced from the registers of injuries collected in the investigated factories, shows that most accidents arise from the contact of the operator's hands with tools and machinery parts during their use. Risk factors generally include the inherent specific danger of some work tools and machines, the lack or inadequacy of safety devices, the obsolescence of the equipment, the imprudence and underestimation of risk. PMID:22697028

  13. 78 FR 67253 - Improve Tracking of Workplace Injuries and Illnesses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    .... Employers with ten or fewer employees, if OSHA or the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) informs them in... provide annual information on the rates and numbers of work-related non-fatal injuries and illnesses in.... Even this larger number of reports, however, would represent less than one in ten of the roughly...

  14. Patients With Isolated PCL Injuries Improve From Surgery as Much as Patients With ACL Injuries After 2 Years

    PubMed Central

    Owesen, Christian; Sivertsen, Einar Andreas; Engebretsen, Lars; Granan, Lars-Petter; Årøen, Asbjørn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reports on outcome after posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction often contain both isolated PCL and combined knee ligament injuries. This makes it difficult to conclude on the outcome after reconstruction of isolated PCL injuries. Purpose: To investigate the outcome after PCL reconstruction in patients with an isolated PCL injury and to compare this with the outcome of patients treated with reconstruction after isolated anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Seventy-one patients with an isolated PCL injury that was reconstructed surgically and who had registered in the Norwegian Knee Ligament Registry between 2004 and 2010 were included in this study. Patients with isolated ACL reconstructions (n = 9661) who had registered in the same period were included for comparison. Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) was used as the patient-reported outcome measure. Preoperative and 2-year postoperative KOOS scores were compared. Changes in KOOS score reported by the PCL patients were compared with changes reported by the ACL patients. Results: At the 2-year postoperative follow-up of the PCL-reconstructed patients, the patient-reported outcome was improved, measured by KOOS as follows: pain, 15.1 (95% CI, 8.5-21.8; P < .001); symptoms, 0.9 (95% CI, –6.6 to 8.3; P = .82); activities of daily living, 13.2 (95% CI, 6.6-13.9; P < .001); sports, 20.7 (95% CI, 11.8-29.4; P < .001); and quality of life, 26.6 (95% CI, 18.9-34.2; P < .001). According to the KOOS, the incremental improvements were similar for PCL and ACL patients. Time from injury to surgery was longer for the PCL patients compared with ACL patients (median, 21.5 vs 8.0 months; P < .001). Conclusion: Patients undergoing PCL reconstruction can expect the same improvements in KOOS score as patients undergoing ACL reconstruction. However, PCL patients start out with an inferior score on average and consequently end up

  15. Dramatizing Nonfiction with Emerging Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Lynne

    1991-01-01

    Presents scenarios from a kindergarten classroom in which dramatization is used extensively in conjunction with nonfiction books. Shows how the children acted out topics that ranged from the Pilgrims' first Thanksgiving to the life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., showing that they were able to develop rich representations of nonfiction materials.…

  16. Dramatic Techniques in ESL Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radin, Barbara

    Three techniques have been found to be helpful in using dramatic techniques to provide motivation, self-confidence, and self-esteem to students of English as a second language at Hostos Community College. Strategic interaction is a technique based on the open-ended scenario, in which students are free to respond to the problem presented in the…

  17. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Cells Improve Muscle Function in a Skeletal Muscle Re-Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Karla C.; Porto, Anderson; Peçanha, Ramon; Fortes, Fabio S. A.; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Campos-de-Carvalho, Antonio C.; Goldenberg, Regina C. S.; Werneck-de-Castro, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injury is the most common problem in orthopedic and sports medicine, and severe injury leads to fibrosis and muscle dysfunction. Conventional treatment for successive muscle injury is currently controversial, although new therapies, like cell therapy, seem to be promise. We developed a model of successive injuries in rat to evaluate the therapeutic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMMC) injected directly into the injured muscle. Functional and histological assays were performed 14 and 28 days after the injury protocol by isometric tension recording and picrosirius/Hematoxilin & Eosin staining, respectively. We also evaluated the presence and the fate of BMMC on treated muscles; and muscle fiber regeneration. BMMC treatment increased maximal skeletal muscle contraction 14 and 28 days after muscle injury compared to non-treated group (4.5 ± 1.7 vs 2.5 ± 0.98 N/cm2, p<0.05 and 8.4 ± 2.3 vs. 5.7 ± 1.3 N/cm2, p<0.05 respectively). Furthermore, BMMC treatment increased muscle fiber cross-sectional area and the presence of mature muscle fiber 28 days after muscle injury. However, there was no difference in collagen deposition between groups. Immunoassays for cytoskeleton markers of skeletal and smooth muscle cells revealed an apparent integration of the BMMC within the muscle. These data suggest that BMMC transplantation accelerates and improves muscle function recovery in our extensive muscle re-injury model. PMID:26039243

  18. Chondroitinase gene therapy improves upper limb function following cervical contusion injury

    PubMed Central

    James, Nicholas D.; Shea, Jessie; Muir, Elizabeth M.; Verhaagen, Joost; Schneider, Bernard L.; Bradbury, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are known to be important contributors to the intensely inhibitory environment that prevents tissue repair and regeneration following spinal cord injury. The bacterial enzyme chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) degrades these inhibitory molecules and has repeatedly been shown to promote functional recovery in a number of spinal cord injury models. However, when used to treat more traumatic and clinically relevant spinal contusion injuries, findings with the ChABC enzyme have been inconsistent. We recently demonstrated that delivery of mammalian-compatible ChABC via gene therapy led to sustained and widespread digestion of CSPGs, resulting in significant functional repair of a moderate thoracic contusion injury in adult rats. Here we demonstrate that chondroitinase gene therapy significantly enhances upper limb function following cervical contusion injury, with improved forelimb ladder performance and grip strength as well as increased spinal conduction through the injury site and reduced lesion pathology. This is an important addition to our previous findings as improving upper limb function is a top priority for spinal injured patients. Additionally great importance is placed on replication in the spinal cord injury field. That chondroitinase gene therapy has now been shown to be efficacious in contusion models at either thoracic or cervical level is an important step in the further development of this promising therapeutic strategy towards the clinic. PMID:26044197

  19. Chondroitinase gene therapy improves upper limb function following cervical contusion injury.

    PubMed

    James, Nicholas D; Shea, Jessie; Muir, Elizabeth M; Verhaagen, Joost; Schneider, Bernard L; Bradbury, Elizabeth J

    2015-09-01

    Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are known to be important contributors to the intensely inhibitory environment that prevents tissue repair and regeneration following spinal cord injury. The bacterial enzyme chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) degrades these inhibitory molecules and has repeatedly been shown to promote functional recovery in a number of spinal cord injury models. However, when used to treat more traumatic and clinically relevant spinal contusion injuries, findings with the ChABC enzyme have been inconsistent. We recently demonstrated that delivery of mammalian-compatible ChABC via gene therapy led to sustained and widespread digestion of CSPGs, resulting in significant functional repair of a moderate thoracic contusion injury in adult rats. Here we demonstrate that chondroitinase gene therapy significantly enhances upper limb function following cervical contusion injury, with improved forelimb ladder performance and grip strength as well as increased spinal conduction through the injury site and reduced lesion pathology. This is an important addition to our previous findings as improving upper limb function is a top priority for spinal injured patients. Additionally great importance is placed on replication in the spinal cord injury field. That chondroitinase gene therapy has now been shown to be efficacious in contusion models at either thoracic or cervical level is an important step in the further development of this promising therapeutic strategy towards the clinic.

  20. Connexin43 mimetic peptide is neuroprotective and improves function following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    O'Carroll, Simon J; Gorrie, Catherine A; Velamoor, Sailakshmi; Green, Colin R; Nicholson, Louise F B

    2013-03-01

    Connexin43 (Cx43) is a gap junction protein up-regulated after spinal cord injury and is involved in the on-going spread of secondary tissue damage. To test whether a connexin43 mimetic peptide (Peptide5) reduces inflammation and tissue damage and improves function in an in vivo model of spinal cord injury, rats were subjected to a 10g, 12.5mm weight drop injury at the vertebral level T10 using a MASCIS impactor. Vehicle or connexin43 mimetic peptide was delivered directly to the lesion via intrathecal catheter and osmotic mini-pump for up to 24h after injury. Treatment with Peptide5 led to significant improvements in hindlimb function as assessed using the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale. Peptide5 caused a reduction in Cx43 protein, increased Cx43 phosphorylation and decreased levels of TNF-α and IL-1β as assessed by Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry of tissue sections 5 weeks after injury showed reductions in astrocytosis and activated microglia as well as an increase in motor neuron survival. These results show that administration of a connexin mimetic peptide reduces secondary tissue damage after spinal cord injury by reducing gliosis and cytokine release and indicate the clinical potential for mimetic peptides in the treatment of spinal cord patients. PMID:23403365

  1. Adolescent development and risk of injury: Using developmental science to improve interventions

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sara B.; Jones, Vanya C.

    2015-01-01

    In adolescence, there is a complex interaction among physical, cognitive, and psychosocial developmental processes, culminating in greater risk-taking and novelty-seeking. Concurrently, adolescents face an increasingly demanding environment, which results in heightened vulnerability to injury. In this paper, we provide an overview of developmental considerations for adolescent injury interventions based on developmental science including findings from behavioral neuroscience and psychology. We examine the role that typical developmental processes play in the way adolescents perceive and respond to risk and how this integrated body of developmental research adds to our understanding of how to do injury prevention with adolescents. We then highlight strategies to improve the translation of developmental research into adolescent injury prevention practice, calling on examples of existing interventions including graduated driver licensing. PMID:20876765

  2. The Dramatic Methods of Hans van Dam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Water, Manon

    1994-01-01

    Interprets for the American reader the untranslated dramatic methods of Hans van Dam, a leading drama theorist in the Netherlands. Discusses the functions of drama as a method, closed dramatic methods, open dramatic methods, and applying van Dam's methods. (SR)

  3. A Multidisciplinary Approach with Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Improve Outcome in Snake Bite Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Korambayil, Pradeoth Mukundan; Ambookan, Prashanth Varkey; Abraham, Siju Varghese; Ambalakat, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Snakebite injuries are common in tropical India among those who are involved in outdoor activities. These injuries results in cellulitis, gangrene at the bite area, bleeding manifestations, compartment syndrome, regional lymphadenopathy, septicemia, hypotension, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study is to share our experience of multidisciplinary approach in the management of snakebite injuries of the extremities with various treatment modalities including hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy, surgical debridement, and soft tissue reconstruction to provide an effective treatment for snake bite injuries. Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Plastic Surgery, during the period October 2012–December 2014, wherein all the patients who were admitted with snakebite injuries were enrolled and the patients treated in plastic surgery department were included into the study. Out of total 766 patients, there were 323 patients treated with anti snake venom (ASV) and 29 died among the treated patients; 205 patients belonged to pediatric age group. Results: Out of 112 patients referred to Department of Plastic Surgery, 50 cases presented with cellulitis, 24 patients with compartment syndrome, and 38 patients were referred for the management of soft tissue cover over the extremities. Among 112 patients, 77 involved the lower extremity and 35 the upper extremity. Conclusion: Multidisciplinary approach including hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy improves outcome in the management of snakebite injuries of the extremities. PMID:26862269

  4. Successful Mitigation of Delayed Intestinal Radiation Injury Using Pravastatin is not Associated with Acute Injury Improvement or Tumor Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Haydont, Valerie; Bourhis, Jean; Vozenin-Brotons, Marie-Catherine |. E-mail: vozenin@igr.fr

    2007-08-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether pravastatin mitigates delayed radiation-induced enteropathy in rats, by focusing on the effects of pravastatin on acute cell death and fibrosis according to connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression and collagen inhibition. Methods and Materials: Mitigation of delayed radiation-induced enteropathy was investigated in rats using pravastatin administered in drinking water (30 mg/kg/day) 3 days before and 14 days after irradiation. The ileum was irradiated locally after surgical exteriorization (X-rays, 19 Gy). Acute apoptosis, acute and late histologic alterations, and late CTGF and collagen deposition were monitored by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry and colorimetric staining (6 h, 3 days, 14 days, 15 weeks, and 26 weeks after irradiation). Pravastatin antitumor action was studied in HT-29, HeLa, and PC-3 cells by clonogenic cell survival assays and tumor growth delay experiments. Results: Pravastatin improved delayed radiation enteropathy in rats, whereas its benefit in acute and subacute injury remained limited (6 h, 3 days, and 14 days after irradiation). Delayed structural improvement was associated with decreased CTGF and collagen deposition but seemed unrelated to acute damage. Indeed, the early apoptotic index increased, and severe subacute structural damage occurred. Pravastatin elicited a differential effect, protecting normal intestine but not tumors from radiation injury. Conclusion: Pravastatin provides effective protection against delayed radiation enteropathy without interfering with the primary antitumor action of radiotherapy, suggesting that clinical transfer is feasible.

  5. Greatly improved neurological outcome after spinal cord compression injury in AQP4-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Saadoun, Samira; Bell, B Anthony; Verkman, A S; Papadopoulos, Marios C

    2008-04-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a water channel protein expressed in astrocytes throughout the CNS. In brain, AQP4 facilitates water balance and glial scar formation, which are important determinants of outcome after injury. Here, we provide evidence for AQP4-dependent spinal cord swelling following compression injury, resulting in remarkably improved outcome in AQP4-null mice. Two days after transient T6 spinal cord compression injury, wild-type mice developed more severe hindlimb weakness than AQP4-null mice, as assayed by the Basso open-field motor score, inclined plane method and footprint analysis. Basso motor scores were 1.3 +/- 0.5 (wild-type) versus 4.9 +/- 0.6 (AQP4-null) (SE, P < 0.001). Improved motor outcome in AQP4-null mice was independent of mouse strain and persisted at least 4 weeks. AQP4-null mice also had improved sensory outcome at 2 days, as assessed by spinal somatosensory evoked responses, with signal amplitudes approximately 10 microV (uninjured), 1.7 +/- 0.7 microV (wild-type) and 6.4 +/- 1.3 microV (AQP4-null) (P < 0.01). The improved motor and sensory indices in AQP4-null mice corresponded to remarkably less neuronal death and myelin vacuolation, as well as reduced spinal cord swelling and intraparenchymal spinal cord pressure measured at T6 at 2 days after injury. AQP4 immunoreactivity at the injury site was increased in grey and white matter at 48 h. Taken together, our findings indicate that AQP4 provides a major route for excess water entry into the injured spinal cord, which in turn causes spinal cord swelling and elevated spinal cord pressure. Our data suggest AQP4 inhibition or downregulation as novel early neuroprotective manoeuvres in spinal cord injury.

  6. Inhibition of intestinal epithelial apoptosis improves survival in a murine model of radiation combined injury.

    PubMed

    Jung, Enjae; Perrone, Erin E; Brahmamdan, Pavan; McDonough, Jacquelyn S; Leathersich, Ann M; Dominguez, Jessica A; Clark, Andrew T; Fox, Amy C; Dunne, W Michael; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2013-01-01

    World conditions place large populations at risk from ionizing radiation (IR) from detonation of dirty bombs or nuclear devices. In a subgroup of patients, ionizing radiation exposure would be followed by a secondary infection. The effects of radiation combined injury are potentially more lethal than either insult in isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanisms of mortality and possible therapeutic targets in radiation combined injury. Mice were exposed to IR with 2.5 Gray (Gy) followed four days later by intratracheal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). While either IR or MRSA alone yielded 100% survival, animals with radiation combined injury had 53% survival (p = 0.01). Compared to IR or MRSA alone, mice with radiation combined injury had increased gut apoptosis, local and systemic bacterial burden, decreased splenic CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and increased BAL and systemic IL-6 and G-CSF. In contrast, radiation combined injury did not alter lymphocyte apoptosis, pulmonary injury, or intestinal proliferation compared to IR or MRSA alone. In light of the synergistic increase in gut apoptosis following radiation combined injury, transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their intestine and wild type mice were subjected to IR followed by MRSA. Bcl-2 mice had decreased gut apoptosis and improved survival compared to WT mice (92% vs. 42%; p<0.01). These data demonstrate that radiation combined injury results in significantly higher mortality than could be predicted based upon either IR or MRSA infection alone, and that preventing gut apoptosis may be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:24204769

  7. Inhibition of Intestinal Epithelial Apoptosis Improves Survival in a Murine Model of Radiation Combined Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Enjae; Perrone, Erin E.; Brahmamdan, Pavan; McDonough, Jacquelyn S.; Leathersich, Ann M.; Dominguez, Jessica A.; Clark, Andrew T.; Fox, Amy C.; Dunne, W. Michael; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2013-01-01

    World conditions place large populations at risk from ionizing radiation (IR) from detonation of dirty bombs or nuclear devices. In a subgroup of patients, ionizing radiation exposure would be followed by a secondary infection. The effects of radiation combined injury are potentially more lethal than either insult in isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanisms of mortality and possible therapeutic targets in radiation combined injury. Mice were exposed to IR with 2.5 Gray (Gy) followed four days later by intratracheal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). While either IR or MRSA alone yielded 100% survival, animals with radiation combined injury had 53% survival (p = 0.01). Compared to IR or MRSA alone, mice with radiation combined injury had increased gut apoptosis, local and systemic bacterial burden, decreased splenic CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and increased BAL and systemic IL-6 and G-CSF. In contrast, radiation combined injury did not alter lymphocyte apoptosis, pulmonary injury, or intestinal proliferation compared to IR or MRSA alone. In light of the synergistic increase in gut apoptosis following radiation combined injury, transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their intestine and wild type mice were subjected to IR followed by MRSA. Bcl-2 mice had decreased gut apoptosis and improved survival compared to WT mice (92% vs. 42%; p<0.01). These data demonstrate that radiation combined injury results in significantly higher mortality than could be predicted based upon either IR or MRSA infection alone, and that preventing gut apoptosis may be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:24204769

  8. Improving myocardial injury, infarct size, and myocardial salvage in the era of primary PCI for STEMI.

    PubMed

    Ndrepepa, Gjin

    2015-06-01

    ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide. Reperfusion therapy by thrombolysis or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) improves survival and quality of life in patients with STEMI. Despite the proven efficacy of timely reperfusion, mortality from STEMI remains high, particularly among patients with suboptimal reperfusion. Reperfusion injury following opening of occluded coronary arteries mitigates the efficacy of PPCI by further accentuating ischemic damage and increasing infarct size (IS). On the basis of experimental studies, it is assumed that nearly 50% of the final IS is because of the reperfusion injury. IS is a marker of ischemic damage and adequacy of reperfusion that is strongly related to mortality in reperfused patients with STEMI. Many therapeutic strategies including pharmacological and conditioning agents have been proven effective in reducing reperfusion injury and IS in preclinical research. Mechanistically, these agents act either by inhibiting reperfusion injury cascades or by activating cellular prosurvival pathways. Although most of these agents/strategies are at the experimental stage, some of them have been tested clinically in patients with STEMI. This review provides an update on key pharmacological agents and postconditioning used in the setting of PPCI to reduce reperfusion injury and IS. Despite intensive research, no strategy or intervention has been shown to prevent reperfusion injury or enhance myocardial salvage in a consistent manner in a clinical setting. A number of novel therapeutic strategies to reduce reperfusion injury in the setting of PPCI in patients with STEMI are currently under investigation. They will lead to a better understanding of reperfusion injury and to more efficient strategies for its prevention.

  9. Preclinical evaluation of epinephrine nebulization to reduce airway hyperemia and improve oxygenation after smoke inhalation injury

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Matthias; Hamahata, Atsumori; Traber, Daniel L.; Cox, Robert A.; Kulp, Gabriela A.; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Traber, Lillian D.; Herndon, David N.; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2013-01-01

    Objective Acute lung injury secondary to smoke inhalation is a major source of morbidity and mortality in burn patients. We tested the hypothesis that nebulized epinephrine would ameliorate pulmonary dysfunction secondary to acute lung injury by reducing airway hyperemia and edema formation and mediating bronchodilatation in an established, large animal model of inhalation injury. Design Prospective, controlled, randomized trial. Setting University research laboratory. Subjects Twenty-four chronically instrumented, adult, female sheep. Interventions Following baseline measurements, the animals were allocated to a sham-injured group (n = 5), an injured and saline-treated group (n = 6), or an injured group treated with 4 mg of nebulized epinephrine every 4 hrs (n = 6). Inhalation injury was induced by 48 breaths of cotton smoke. The dose of epinephrine was derived from dose finding experiments (n = 7 sheep). Measurements and Main Results The injury induced significant increases in airway blood flows, bronchial wet/dry weight ratio, airway obstruction scores, ventilatory pressures, and lung malondialdehyde content, and contributed to severe pulmonary dysfunction as evidenced by a significant decline in Pao2/Fio2 ratio and increase in pulmonary shunt fraction. Nebulization of epinephrine significantly reduced tracheal and main bronchial blood flows, ventilatory pressures, and lung malondialdehyde content. The treatment was further associated with significant improvements of Pao2/Fio2 ratio and pulmonary shunting. Conclusions Nebulization of epinephrine reduces airway blood flow and attenuates pulmonary dysfunction in sheep subjected to severe smoke inhalation injury. Future studies will have to improve the understanding of the underlying pathomechanisms and identify the optimal dosing for the treatment of patients with this injury. PMID:21263320

  10. Intravenous Administration of Simvastatin Improves Cognitive Outcome following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Mountney, Andrea; Boutté, Angela M; Gilsdorf, Janice; Lu, Xi-Chun; Tortella, Frank C; Shear, Deborah A

    2016-08-15

    Simvastatin is a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor commonly used to reduce serum cholesterol. The beneficial effects of oral simvastatin have been reported in pre-clinical models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The current study was designed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of simvastatin in a model of severe penetrating TBI using an intravenous (IV) route of administration. Rats were subjected to unilateral frontal penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI), and simvastatin was delivered intravenously at 30 min and 6 h post-injury and continued once daily for either 4 or 10 days post-PBBI. Motor function was assessed on the rotarod and cognitive performance was evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and the astrocytic biomarker, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), were quantified at 1 h, 4 h, and 24 h post-injury. Histopathological damage was assessed at the terminal end-point. Rotarod testing revealed significant motor deficits in all injury groups but no significant simvastatin-induced therapeutic benefits. All PBBI-injured animals showed cognitive impairment on the MWM test; however, 10-day simvastatin treatment mitigated these effects. Animals showed significantly improved latency to platform and retention scores, whereas the 4-day treatment regimen failed to produce any significant improvements. Biomarker and cytokine analysis showed that IV simvastatin significantly reduced GFAP, interleukin (IL)-1α, and IL-17 serum levels by 4.0-, 2.6-, and 7.0-fold, respectively, at 4 h post-injury. Collectively, our results demonstrate that IV simvastatin provides significant protection against injury-induced cognitive dysfunction and reduces TBI-specific biomarker levels. Further research is warranted to identify the optimal dose and therapeutic window for IV delivery of simvastatin in models of severe TBI.

  11. Cognitive Improvement after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Measured with Functional Neuroimaging during the Acute Period.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Glenn R; Freeman, Kalev; Thomas, Alex; Shpaner, Marina; OKeefe, Michael; Watts, Richard; Naylor, Magdalena R

    2015-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have been largely limited to patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms, utilizing images obtained months to years after the actual head trauma. We sought to distinguish acute and delayed effects of mild traumatic brain injury on working memory functional brain activation patterns < 72 hours after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and again one-week later. We hypothesized that clinical and fMRI measures of working memory would be abnormal in symptomatic mTBI patients assessed < 72 hours after injury, with most patients showing clinical recovery (i.e., improvement in these measures) within 1 week after the initial assessment. We also hypothesized that increased memory workload at 1 week following injury would expose different cortical activation patterns in mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms, compared to those with full clinical recovery. We performed a prospective, cohort study of working memory in emergency department patients with isolated head injury and clinical diagnosis of concussion, compared to control subjects (both uninjured volunteers and emergency department patients with extremity injuries and no head trauma). The primary outcome of cognitive recovery was defined as resolution of reported cognitive impairment and quantified by scoring the subject's reported cognitive post-concussive symptoms at 1 week. Secondary outcomes included additional post-concussive symptoms and neurocognitive testing results. We enrolled 46 subjects: 27 with mild TBI and 19 controls. The time of initial neuroimaging was 48 (+22 S.D.) hours after injury (time 1). At follow up (8.7, + 1.2 S.D., days after injury, time 2), 18 of mTBI subjects (64%) reported moderate to complete cognitive recovery, 8 of whom fully recovered between initial and follow-up imaging. fMRI changes from time 1 to time 2 showed an increase in posterior cingulate activation in the mTBI subjects compared to

  12. Improving Population Health by Incorporating Chronic Disease and Injury Prevention Into Value-Based Care Models.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Ruth; Rushing, Jill; Nelson, Sharon; Rhyne, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Today's health system transformation provides a prime opportunity to leverage the capacity of public health to reduce the burden of chronic disease and injury, improve population health, and contain health care costs. Health care settings and organizations should support public health capacity as a key investment in population health.

  13. 75 FR 28261 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Improved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Improved Diagnostics for Lyme Borreliosis, Funding Opportunity... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces...

  14. Improving Population Health by Incorporating Chronic Disease and Injury Prevention Into Value-Based Care Models.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Ruth; Rushing, Jill; Nelson, Sharon; Rhyne, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Today's health system transformation provides a prime opportunity to leverage the capacity of public health to reduce the burden of chronic disease and injury, improve population health, and contain health care costs. Health care settings and organizations should support public health capacity as a key investment in population health. PMID:27422946

  15. Learning From No-Fault Treatment Injury Claims to Improve the Safety of Older Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Katharine Ann

    2015-01-01

    New Zealand’s treatment injury compensation claims data set provides an uncommon no-fault perspective of patient safety incidents. Analysis of primary care claims data confirmed medication as the leading threat to the safety of older patients in primary care and drew particular attention to the threat posed by antibiotics. For most injuries there was no suggestion of error. The no-fault perspective reveals the greatest threat to the safety of older patients in primary care to be, not error, but the risk posed by treatment itself. To improve patients’ safety, in addition to reducing error, clinicians need to reduce patients’ exposure to treatment risk, where appropriate. PMID:26371269

  16. A Combination Therapy of Nicotinamide and Progesterone Improves Functional Recovery following Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Todd C.; McConomy, Keith S.; Farin, Fred M.; Bammler, Theo K.; MacDonald, James W.; Kantor, Eric D.; Anderson, Gail D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Neuroprotection, recovery of function, and gene expression were evaluated in an animal model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) after a combination treatment of nicotinamide (NAM) and progesterone (Prog). Animals received a cortical contusion injury over the sensorimotor cortex, and were treated with either Vehicle, NAM, Prog, or a NAM/Prog combination for 72 h and compared with a craniotomy only (Sham) group. Animals were assessed in a battery of behavioral, sensory, and both fine and gross motor tasks, and given histological assessments at 24 h post-injury to determine lesion cavity size, degenerating neurons, and reactive astrocytes. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling was used to determine treatment-specific changes on gene expression. Our results confirm the beneficial effects of treatment with either NAM or Prog, demonstrating significant improvements in recovery of function and a reduction in lesion cavitation, degenerating neurons, and reactive astrocytes 24 h post-injury. The combination treatment of NAM and Prog led to a significant improvement in both neuroprotection at 24 h post-injury and recovery of function in sensorimotor related tasks when compared with individual treatments. The NAM/Prog-treated group was the only treatment group to show a significant reduction of cortical loss 24 h post-injury. The combination appears to affect inflammatory and immune processes, reducing expression of a significant number of genes in both pathways. Further preclinical trials using NAM and Prog as a combination treatment should be conducted to identify the window of opportunity, determine the optimal duration of treatment, and evaluate the combination in other pre-clinical models of TBI. PMID:25313690

  17. Pyridoxamine reduces postinjury fibrosis and improves functional recovery after acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Skrypnyk, Nataliya I; Voziyan, Paul; Yang, Haichun; de Caestecker, Christian R; Theberge, Marie-Claude; Drouin, Mathieu; Hudson, Billy; Harris, Raymond C; de Caestecker, Mark P

    2016-08-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and independent risk factor for death and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Despite promising preclinical data, there is no evidence that antioxidants reduce the severity of injury, increase recovery, or prevent CKD in patients with AKI. Pyridoxamine (PM) is a structural analog of vitamin B6 that interferes with oxidative macromolecular damage via a number of different mechanisms and is in a phase 3 clinical efficacy trial to delay CKD progression in patients with diabetic kidney disease. Because oxidative stress is implicated as one of the main drivers of renal injury after AKI, the ability of PM to interfere with multiple aspects of oxidative damage may be favorable for AKI treatment. In these studies we therefore evaluated PM treatment in a mouse model of AKI. Pretreatment with PM caused a dose-dependent reduction in acute tubular injury, long-term postinjury fibrosis, as well as improved functional recovery after ischemia-reperfusion AKI (IR-AKI). This was associated with a dose-dependent reduction in the oxidative stress marker isofuran-to-F2-isoprostane ratio, indicating that PM reduces renal oxidative damage post-AKI. PM also reduced postinjury fibrosis when administered 24 h after the initiating injury, but this was not associated with improvement in functional recovery after IR-AKI. This is the first report showing that treatment with PM reduces short- and long-term injury, fibrosis, and renal functional recovery after IR-AKI. These preclinical findings suggest that PM, which has a favorable clinical safety profile, holds therapeutic promise for AKI and, most importantly, for prevention of adverse long-term outcomes after AKI. PMID:27194713

  18. Military movement training program improves jump-landing mechanics associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury risk.

    PubMed

    Owens, Brett D; Cameron, Kenneth L; Duffey, Michele L; Vargas, Donna; Duffey, Michael J; Mountcastle, Sally B; Padua, Darin; Nelson, Bradley J

    2013-01-01

    As part of the physical education program at the United States Military Academy, all cadets complete a movement training course designed to develop skills and improve performance in military-related physical tasks as well as obstacle navigation. The purpose of this study was to determine if completion of this course would also result in changes in jump-landing technique that reduce the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Analysis of landing mechanics on a two-footed jump landing from a height of 30 cm with a three-dimensional motion capture system synchronized with two force plates revealed both positive and negative changes. Video assessment using the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) revealed an overall improved landing technique (p=.001) when compared to baseline assessments. The studied military movement course appears to elicit mixed but overall improved lower extremity jump-landing mechanics associated with risk for ACL injury. PMID:23449058

  19. Spatiotemporal neuromodulation therapies engaging muscle synergies improve motor control after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Nikolaus; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Gandar, Jerome; Musienko, Pavel; Capogrosso, Marco; Baud, Laetitia; Le Goff, Camille G; Barraud, Quentin; Pavlova, Natalia; Dominici, Nadia; Minev, Ivan R; Asboth, Leonie; Hirsch, Arthur; Duis, Simone; Kreider, Julie; Mortera, Andrea; Haverbeck, Oliver; Kraus, Silvio; Schmitz, Felix; DiGiovanna, Jack; van den Brand, Rubia; Bloch, Jocelyne; Detemple, Peter; Lacour, Stéphanie P; Bézard, Erwan; Micera, Silvestro; Courtine, Grégoire

    2016-02-01

    Electrical neuromodulation of lumbar segments improves motor control after spinal cord injury in animal models and humans. However, the physiological principles underlying the effect of this intervention remain poorly understood, which has limited the therapeutic approach to continuous stimulation applied to restricted spinal cord locations. Here we developed stimulation protocols that reproduce the natural dynamics of motoneuron activation during locomotion. For this, we computed the spatiotemporal activation pattern of muscle synergies during locomotion in healthy rats. Computer simulations identified optimal electrode locations to target each synergy through the recruitment of proprioceptive feedback circuits. This framework steered the design of spatially selective spinal implants and real-time control software that modulate extensor and flexor synergies with precise temporal resolution. Spatiotemporal neuromodulation therapies improved gait quality, weight-bearing capacity, endurance and skilled locomotion in several rodent models of spinal cord injury. These new concepts are directly translatable to strategies to improve motor control in humans. PMID:26779815

  20. Spatiotemporal neuromodulation therapies engaging muscle synergies improve motor control after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Nikolaus; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Gandar, Jerome; Musienko, Pavel; Capogrosso, Marco; Baud, Laetitia; Le Goff, Camille G; Barraud, Quentin; Pavlova, Natalia; Dominici, Nadia; Minev, Ivan R; Asboth, Leonie; Hirsch, Arthur; Duis, Simone; Kreider, Julie; Mortera, Andrea; Haverbeck, Oliver; Kraus, Silvio; Schmitz, Felix; DiGiovanna, Jack; van den Brand, Rubia; Bloch, Jocelyne; Detemple, Peter; Lacour, Stéphanie P; Bézard, Erwan; Micera, Silvestro; Courtine, Grégoire

    2016-02-01

    Electrical neuromodulation of lumbar segments improves motor control after spinal cord injury in animal models and humans. However, the physiological principles underlying the effect of this intervention remain poorly understood, which has limited the therapeutic approach to continuous stimulation applied to restricted spinal cord locations. Here we developed stimulation protocols that reproduce the natural dynamics of motoneuron activation during locomotion. For this, we computed the spatiotemporal activation pattern of muscle synergies during locomotion in healthy rats. Computer simulations identified optimal electrode locations to target each synergy through the recruitment of proprioceptive feedback circuits. This framework steered the design of spatially selective spinal implants and real-time control software that modulate extensor and flexor synergies with precise temporal resolution. Spatiotemporal neuromodulation therapies improved gait quality, weight-bearing capacity, endurance and skilled locomotion in several rodent models of spinal cord injury. These new concepts are directly translatable to strategies to improve motor control in humans.

  1. Spatiotemporal neuromodulation therapies engaging muscle synergies improve motor control after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Wenger, Nikolaus; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Gandar, Jerome; Musienko, Pavel; Capogrosso, Marco; Baud, Laetitia; Le Goff, Camille G.; Barraud, Quentin; Pavlova, Natalia; Dominici, Nadia; Minev, Ivan R.; Asboth, Leonie; Hirsch, Arthur; Duis, Simone; Kreider, Julie; Mortera, Andrea; Haverbeck, Oliver; Kraus, Silvio; Schmitz, Felix; DiGiovanna, Jack; van den Brand, Rubia; Bloch, Jocelyne; Detemple, Peter; Lacour, Stéphanie P.; Bézard, Erwan; Micera, Silvestro; Courtine, Grégoire

    2016-01-01

    Electrical neuromodulation of lumbar segments improves motor control after spinal cord injury in animal models and humans. However, the physiological principles underlying the effect of this intervention remain poorly understood, which has limited this therapeutic approach to continuous stimulation applied to restricted spinal cord locations. Here, we developed novel stimulation protocols that reproduce the natural dynamics of motoneuron activation during locomotion. For this, we computed the spatiotemporal activation pattern of muscle synergies during locomotion in healthy rats. Computer simulations identified optimal electrode locations to target each synergy through the recruitment of proprioceptive feedback circuits. This framework steered the design of spatially selective spinal implants and real–time control software that modulate extensor versus flexor synergies with precise temporal resolution. Spatiotemporal neuromodulation therapies improved gait quality, weight–bearing capacities, endurance and skilled locomotion in multiple rodent models of spinal cord injury. These new concepts are directly translatable to strategies to improve motor control in humans. PMID:26779815

  2. Exogenous lactate infusion improved neurocognitive function of patients with mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Bisri, Tatang; Utomo, Billy A.; Fuadi, Iwan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many studies showed a better recovery of cognitive function after administration of exogenous lactate during moderate-severe traumatic brain injury. However, the study evaluating lactate effect on mild traumatic brain injury is still limited. Aims: To evaluate the effect of exogenous lactate on cognitive function in mild traumatic brain injury patients. Settings and Design: Prospective, single blind, randomized controlled study on 60 mild traumatic brain injury patients who were undergoing neurosurgery. Materials and Methods: Subjects were randomly assigned into hyperosmolar sodium lactate (HSL) group or hyperosmolar sodium chloride (HSS) group. Patients in each group received either intravenous infusion of HSL or NaCl 3% at 1.5 ml/KgBW within 15 min before neurosurgery. During the surgery, patients in both groups received maintenance infusion of NaCl 0.9% at 1.5 ml/KgBW/hour. Statistical Analysis: Cognitive function, as assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score at 24 h, 30 and 90 days post-surgery, was analyzed by Anova repeated measures test. Results: The MMSE score improvement was significantly better in HSL group than HSS group (P < 0.001). In HSL group the MMSE score improved from 16.00 (13.75-18.00) at baseline to 21.00 (18.75-22.00); 25.00 (23.75-26.00); 28.00 (27.00-29.00) at 24 h, 30, 90 days post-surgery, respectively. In contrast, in HSS group the MMSE score almost unchanged at 24 h and only slightly increased at 30 and 90 days post-surgery. Conclusions: Hyperosmolar sodium lactate infusion during mild traumatic brain injury improved cognitive function better than sodium chloride 3%. PMID:27057222

  3. Dramatic Education, An Interdisciplinary Approach to Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landy, Robert Jay

    This thesis argues that dramatic education is a subject matter whose content is four interrelated disciplines: theater, language arts, humanistic education, and social-psychology. It is also a process of learning crucial artistic, linguistic, humanistic, and scientific issues through the basic dramatic method of dramatization. The history of…

  4. Improved outcomes in the non-operative management of liver injuries

    PubMed Central

    Saltzherr, Teun Peter; van der Vlies, Cees H; van Lienden, Krijn P; Beenen, Ludo F M; Ponsen, Kees Jan; van Gulik, Thomas M; Goslings, J Carel

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Non-operative management has become the treatment of choice in the majority of liver injuries. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in primary treatment and outcomes in a single Dutch Level 1 trauma centre with wide experience in angio-embolisation (AE). Methods The prospective trauma registry was retrospectively analysed for 7-year periods before (Period 1) and after (Period 2) the introduction of AE. The primary outcome was the failure rate of primary treatment defined as liver injury-related death or re-bleeding requiring radiologic or operative (re)interventions. Secondary outcomes were liver injury-related intra-abdominal complications. Results Despite an increase in high-grade liver injuries, the incidence of primary non-operative management more than doubled over the two periods, from 33% (20 of 61 cases) in Period 1 to 72% (84 of 116 cases) in Period 2 (P < 0.001). The failure rate of primary treatment in Period 1 was 18% (11/61), compared with 11% (13/116) in Period 2 (P = 0.21). Complication rates were 23% (14/61) and 16% (18/116) in Periods 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.22). Liver-related mortality rates were 10% (6/61) and 3% (4/116) in Periods 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.095). The increase in the frequency of non-operative management was even higher in high-grade injuries, in which outcomes were improved. In high-grade injuries in Periods 1 and 2, failure rates decreased from 45% (9/20) to 20% (11/55) (P = 0.041), liver-related mortality decreased from 30% (6/20) to 7% (4/55) (P = 0.019) and complication rates fell from 60% (12/20) to 27% (15/55) (P = 0.014). Liver infarction or necrosis and abscess formation seemed to occur more frequently with AE. Conclusions Overall, liver-related mortality, treatment failure and complication rates remained constant despite an increase in non-operative management. However, in high-grade injuries outcomes improved after the introduction of AE. PMID:21492335

  5. Salvianolic Acids Attenuate Rat Hippocampal Injury after Acute CO Poisoning by Improving Blood Flow Properties

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Li; Zhang, Yan-Lin; Li, Zong-Yang; Zhu, Ming-Xia; Yao, Wei-Juan; Zhao, Jin-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning causes the major injury and death due to poisoning worldwide. The most severe damage via CO poisoning is brain injury and mortality. Delayed encephalopathy after acute CO poisoning (DEACMP) occurs in forty percent of the survivors of acute CO exposure. But the pathological cause for DEACMP is not well understood. And the corresponding therapy is not well developed. In order to investigate the effects of salvianolic acid (SA) on brain injury caused by CO exposure from the view point of hemorheology, we employed a rat model and studied the dynamic of blood changes in the hemorheological and coagulative properties over acute CO exposure. Compared with the groups of CO and 20% mannitol + CO treatments, the severe hippocampal injury caused by acute CO exposure was prevented by SA treatment. These protective effects were associated with the retaining level of hematocrit (Hct), plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, whole blood viscosities and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in red blood cells (RBCs). These results indicated that SA treatment could significantly improve the deformation of erythrocytes and prevent the damage caused by CO poisoning. Meanwhile, hemorheological indexes are good indicators for monitoring the pathological dynamic after acute CO poisoning. PMID:25705671

  6. Ectopic Muscle Expression of Neurotrophic Factors Improves Recovery After Nerve Injury.

    PubMed

    Glat, Micaela Johanna; Benninger, Felix; Barhum, Yael; Ben-Zur, Tali; Kogan, Elena; Steiner, Israel; Yaffe, David; Offen, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sciatic nerve damage is a common medical problem. The main causes include direct trauma, prolonged external nerve compression, and pressure from disk herniation. Possible complications include leg numbness and the loss of motor control. In mild cases, conservative treatment is feasible. However, following severe injury, recovery may not be possible. Neuronal regeneration, survival, and maintenance can be achieved by neurotrophic factors (NTFs). In this study, we examined the potency of combining brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on the recovery of motor neuron function after crush injury of the sciatic nerve. We show that combined NTF application increases the survival of motor neurons exposed to a hypoxic environment. The ectopic expression of NTFs in the injured muscle improves the recovery of the sciatic nerve after crush injury. A significantly faster recovery of compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude and conduction velocity is observed after muscle injections of viral vectors expressing a mixture of the four NTF genes. Our findings suggest a rationale for using genetic treatment with a combination of NTF-expressing vectors, as a potential therapeutic approach for severe peripheral nerve injury. PMID:26385386

  7. Dramatic weight loss with rufinamide.

    PubMed

    Mourand, Isabelle; Crespel, Arielle; Gelisse, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Rufinamide (RUF) is a novel antiepileptic drug considered as second-line therapy in the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) have consisted mainly of drowsiness, irritability, vomiting, and loss of appetite. RUF is considered as a "weight-neutral" drug. We found clinically significant weight loss in 7 of 15 consecutive adult patients (47%; 3 male, 4 female, aged 18-31 years) treated with RUF as add-on therapy (800-2,400 mg/day: 23.5-57.1 mg/kg/day). The body mass index (BMI) decreased by 7.3-18.7%. Two patients were obese class I before RUF. Five patients (71%) were underweight before RUF (mild in one case, moderate in two cases, and severe in two cases). Four of these patients stopped RUF because of this adverse effect. RUF was recommenced in two patients using a lower and slower dosing strategy; one patient showed improvement in seizure control and no weight loss but RUF was re-stopped in the second patient because of continued weight loss. Despite of weight loss, RUF was continued in two other patients because it reduced seizure activity. We primarily related weight loss to reduced food intake, that is, loss of appetite and nausea, although in two patients no obvious loss of appetite was reported. RUF can cause clinically significant weight loss in adult patients, even at low dose. This AE can affect patients who are already underweight. There is a possibility that lower starting doses and slower escalation might minimize weight loss, but further information is required to determine whether this is the case. PMID:22780580

  8. D-Cycloserine improves functional outcome after traumatic brain injury with wide therapeutic window

    SciTech Connect

    Adeleye, A.; Biegon, A.; Adeleye, A.; Shohami, E.; Nachman, D.; Alexandrovich, A.; Trembovler, V.; Yaka, R.; Shoshan, Y.; Dhawan, J.; Biegon, A.

    2009-12-01

    It has been long thought that hyperactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors underlies neurological decline after traumatic brain injury. However, all clinical trials with NMDA receptor antagonists failed. Since NMDA receptors are down-regulated from 4 h to 2 weeks after brain injury, activation at 24 h, rather than inhibition, of these receptors, was previously shown to be beneficial in mice. Here, we tested the therapeutic window, dose regimen and mechanism of action of the NMDA receptor partial agonist d-cycloserine (DCS) in traumatic brain injury. Male mice were subjected to trauma using a weight-drop model, and administered 10 mg/kg (i.p.) DCS or vehicle once (8, 16, 24, or 72 h) twice (24 and 48 h) or three times (24, 48 and 72 h). Functional recovery was assessed for up to 60 days, using a Neurological Severity Score that measures neurobehavioral parameters. In all groups in which treatment was begun at 24 or 72 h neurobehavioral function was significantly better than in the vehicle-treated groups. Additional doses, on days 2 and 3 did not further improve recovery. Mice treated at 8 h or 16 h post injury did not differ from the vehicle-treated controls. Co-administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 completely blocked the protective effect of DCS given at 24 h. Infarct volume measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining at 48 h or by cresyl violet at 28 days was not affected by DCS treatment. Since DCS is used clinically for other indications, the present study offers a novel approach for treating human traumatic brain injury with a therapeutic window of at least 24 h.

  9. Heat stress preconditioning improves cognitive outcome after diffuse axonal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhangjie; Han, Dadong; Sun, Bo; Qiu, Jiaheng; Li, Ying; Li, Mu; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Zhuo

    2009-10-01

    This study investigates the influence of heat stress preconditioning on cognitive outcome for rats with diffuse axonal injury (DAI), and attempts to examine the underlying mechanisms. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: rats subjected to heat stress preconditioning 24 h before induction of DAI (n = 10; HSDAI group), a DAI alone group (n = 10), a heat stress alone group (n = 10), and a sham-injury group (n = 10). From day 14 post-injury, the rats' learning abilities and memory were tested using the Morris water maze (MWM) task, followed by long-term potentiation (LTP) recording of the hippocampus. In addition, hematoxylin and eosin staining (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) were conducted to determine the presence of brain lesions and expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) at 24 h, and on days 14 and 20 post-injury. The rats in the DAI group displayed impaired MWM performance and attenuated LTP compared to the sham group (p < 0.05); the rats in the HSDAI and HS groups showed significant improvement in both MWM and LTP compared with the DAI group (p < 0.05), and no significant differences with the sham group (p > 0.05). Following injury, retraction balls, shrunken neurons, and HSP70 expression were visible in the brains of rats from the DAI and HSDAI groups; recovery was expedited in the rats belonging to the HSDAI group, as these pathological changes were alleviated, coincident with higher expression of HSP70. The rats' abilities for learning and memory were impaired following DAI; this may be due to the disconnection of brain regions, damage to neurons in the hippocampus, and a decrease in synaptic plasticity. Heat stress preconditioning is able to significantly attenuate this cognitive impairment, possibly mediated by the neuroprotective effect of HSP70.

  10. GDF11 improves tubular regeneration after acute kidney injury in elderly mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Qinggang; Liu, Dong; Huang, Qi; Cai, Guangyan; Cui, Shaoyuan; Sun, Xuefeng; Chen, Xiangmei

    2016-01-01

    The GDF11 expression pattern and its effect on organ regeneration after acute injury in the elderly population are highly controversial topics. In our study, GDF11/8 expression increased after kidney ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI), and the relatively lower level of GDF11/8 in the kidneys of aged mice was associated with a loss of proliferative capacity and a decline in renal repair, compared to young mice. In vivo, GDF11 supplementation in aged mice increased vimentin and Pax2 expression in the kidneys as well as the percentage of 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU)-positive proximal tubular epithelial cells. GDF11 improved the renal repair, recovery of renal function, and survival of elderly mice at 72 h after IRI. Moreover, the addition of recombinant GDF11 to primary renal epithelial cells increased proliferation, migration, and dedifferentiation by upregulating the ERK1/2 pathway in vitro. Our study indicates that GDF11/8 in the kidney decreases with age and that GDF11 can increase tubular cell dedifferentiation and proliferation as well as improve tubular regeneration after acute kidney injury (AKI) in old mice. PMID:27703192

  11. Fenbendazole improves pathological and functional recovery following traumatic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Yu, C G; Singh, R; Crowdus, C; Raza, K; Kincer, J; Geddes, J W

    2014-01-01

    During a study of spinal cord injury (SCI), mice in our colony were treated with the anthelmintic fenbendazole to treat pinworms detected in other mice not involved in the study. As this was not part of the original experimental design, we subsequently compared pathological and functional outcomes of SCI in female C57BL/6 mice who received fenbendazole (150 ppm, 8 mg/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks prior to moderate contusive SCI (50 kdyn force) as compared to mice on the same diet without added fenbendazole. The fenbendazole-treated mice exhibited improved locomotor function, determined using the Basso mouse scale, as well as improved tissue sparing following contusive SCI. Fenbendazole may exert protective effects through multiple possible mechanisms, one of which is inhibition of the proliferation of B lymphocytes, thereby reducing antibody responses. Autoantibodies produced following SCI contribute to the axon damage and locomotor deficits. Fenbendazole pretreatment reduced the injury-induced CD45R-positive B cell signal intensity and IgG immunoreactivity at the lesion epicenter 6 weeks after contusive SCI in mice, consistent with a possible effect on the immune response to the injury. Fenbendazole and related benzimadole antihelmintics are FDA approved, exhibit minimal toxicity, and represent a novel group of potential therapeutics targeting secondary mechanisms following SCI.

  12. Improving Single-Legged–Squat Performance: Comparing 2 Training Methods With Potential Implications for Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Samuel J.; Herrington, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Context  Poor dynamic limb alignment during loading tasks has links to the development of knee injuries, including patellofemoral pain and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Therefore, modalities to improve limb alignment during loading tasks are thought to reduce loading through these structures and potentially prevent injury. Objective  To compare hip-strengthening and skill-acquisition training to examine if they can improve lower limb biomechanics, potentially preventing injury, and to examine whether changes demonstrated can be maintained after 6 weeks of no practice. Design  Controlled laboratory study. Setting  Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants  A total of 19 recreationally active individuals volunteered, and 17 (9 women: age = 27.9 ± 3.1 years, height = 165.4 ± 8.4 cm, mass = 60.5 ± 9.2 kg; 8 men: age = 30.4 ± 6.4 years, height = 181.4 ± 7.1 cm, mass = 69.8 ± 15.2 kg) completed the study. Nine participants were allocated to a hip-strengthening program; 8, to a skill-acquisition program. Intervention(s)  Participants performed a 6-week training program of either hip strengthening (n = 9) or skill acquisition (n = 8) 3 times per week. Main Outcome Measure(s)  Measurements of clam-exercise strength, hip-abduction strength, frontal-plane projection angle, hip-adduction angle, and a qualitative score were taken at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. Results  We observed improvements in frontal-plane projection angle (strength: t8 = 5.344, P = .001; skill: t7 = 4.393, P = .003), hip-adduction angle (strength: t8 = 3.597, P = .007; skill: t7 = 4.722, P = .002), and qualitative score (strength: t8 = 3.900, P = .005; skill: t7 = 8.283, P < .001) postintervention, which were retained at the 12-week retest in both groups. Conclusions  A 6-week intervention of either hip-strengthening or skill-acquisition training improved lower limb biomechanics. The changes in biomechanics after skill training were retained at 12 weeks, suggesting a

  13. Optimism bias and parental views on unintentional injuries and safety: improving anticipatory guidance in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Paula Patricia; Allen, Patricia L Jackson

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative literature review is to improve anticipatory guidance in early childhood by reviewing the influence of optimism bias on parents' views about safety and beliefs about their children's risk for unintentional injuries. This article reviews the theory of optimism bias and recent research utilizing optimism bias to explain parental health-related behaviors. The three articles in this literature review find a link between optimism bias and parents' failure to implement safety behaviors. Currently, there is no tool to measure a parent's level of optimism bias concerning the risk of unintentional injury to his or her child. It is important for primary care providers to try and identify optimism bias in parents and address it as a barrier to implementation of safety recommendations. More research should be dedicated to developing screening tools to identify optimism bias in parents and interventions to help them accept their children's vulnerability.

  14. Ketogenic Diet Improves Forelimb Motor Function after Spinal Cord Injury in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Streijger, Femke; Plunet, Ward T.; Lee, Jae H. T.; Liu, Jie; Lam, Clarrie K.; Park, Soeyun; Hilton, Brett J.; Fransen, Bas L.; Matheson, Keely A. J.; Assinck, Peggy; Kwon, Brian K.; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (KD) are validated non-pharmacological treatments for some forms of drug-resistant epilepsy. Ketones reduce neuronal excitation and promote neuroprotection. Here, we investigated the efficacy of KD as a treatment for acute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. Starting 4 hours following C5 hemi-contusion injury animals were fed either a standard carbohydrate based diet or a KD formulation with lipid to carbohydrate plus protein ratio of 3:1. The forelimb functional recovery was evaluated for 14 weeks, followed by quantitative histopathology. Post-injury 3:1 KD treatment resulted in increased usage and range of motion of the affected forepaw. Furthermore, KD improved pellet retrieval with recovery of wrist and digit movements. Importantly, after returning to a standard diet after 12 weeks of KD treatment, the improved forelimb function remained stable. Histologically, the spinal cords of KD treated animals displayed smaller lesion areas and more grey matter sparing. In addition, KD treatment increased the number of glucose transporter-1 positive blood vessels in the lesion penumbra and monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT1) expression. Pharmacological inhibition of MCTs with 4-CIN (α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate) prevented the KD-induced neuroprotection after SCI, In conclusion, post-injury KD effectively promotes functional recovery and is neuroprotective after cervical SCI. These beneficial effects require the function of monocarboxylate transporters responsible for ketone uptake and link the observed neuroprotection directly to the function of ketones, which are known to exert neuroprotection by multiple mechanisms. Our data suggest that current clinical nutritional guidelines, which include relatively high carbohydrate contents, should be revisited. PMID:24223849

  15. Enhancing primary care for persons with spinal cord injury: More than improving physical accessibility.

    PubMed

    Milligan, James; Lee, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    In Ontario, Canada, legislation exists that mandates that all medical practices be fully accessible by 2025, in an effort to improve access to primary care for persons with physical disabilities. The simple removal of physical barriers may not guarantee improved access to appropriate care. In this clinical note, members of an interprofessional primary care-based Mobility Clinic reflect on opportunities to improve primary care beyond just better physical accessibility for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). The importance of collaborations between funders, researchers, and clinicians are examined. Using a participatory action research model, the unique perspective of consumers and consumer networks are incorporated into the Mobility Clinic's clinical and research efforts to improve primary care for persons with SCI. PMID:26111044

  16. Delayed rehabilitation lessens brain injury and improves recovery after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Auriat, Angela M; Colbourne, Frederick

    2009-01-28

    Rehabilitation improves recovery after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. In some cases, brain damage is attenuated. In this study, we tested whether environmental enrichment (EE) combined with skilled reach training improves recovery and lessens brain injury after ICH in rats. Collagenase was injected stereotaxically to produce a moderate-sized striatal ICH. One week after ICH rats were either placed into a rehabilitation (REHAB) or control (CONT) condition. The REHAB rats received 15 h of EE and four 15-minute reach-training sessions daily over 5 days a week for 2 weeks. The CONT rats stayed in standard group cages. Skilled reaching (staircase test), walking (horizontal ladder) and forelimb use bias (cylinder test) were assessed at 4 and 6 weeks after ICH. Lesion volume, corpus callosum volume and cortical thickness were calculated 46 days after ICH. The REHAB treatment reduced lesion volume by 28% (p=0.019) without affecting the corpus callosum volume (p=0.405) or cortical thickness (p=0.300), thus indicating that protection was due to lessening striatal injury. As well, REHAB significantly improved skilled reaching ability in the staircase apparatus at 4 (p=0.002) and 6 weeks (p<0.001) post-ICH. Transient benefit was obtained in the ladder test at 4 weeks (p=0.021). Unexpectedly, REHAB treatment lessened spontaneous use of the contralateral-to-ICH limb at 4 (p=0.045) and 6 weeks (p=0.041). In summary, the combination of EE and reach training significantly attenuates lesion volume (striatal injury) while improving skilled reaching and walking ability. These findings encourage the use of early rehabilitation therapies in patients suffering from basal ganglia hemorrhaging. PMID:19059222

  17. Improved Dysphagia After Decannulation of Tracheostomy in Patients With Brain Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Kyun; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Yoon, Jeong-Gyu; Lee, Jang-Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate improved dysphagia after the decannulation of a tracheostomy in patients with brain injuries. Methods The subjects of this study are patients with brain injuries who were admitted to the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine in Myongji Hospital and who underwent a decannulation between 2012 and 2014. A video fluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) was performed in order to investigate whether the patients' dysphagia had improved. We measured the following 5 parameters: laryngeal elevation, pharyngeal transit time, post-swallow pharyngeal remnant, upper esophageal width, and semisolid aspiration. We analyzed the patients' results from VFSS performed one month before and one month after decannulation. All VFSS images were recorded using a camcorder running at 30 frames per second. An AutoCAD 2D screen was used to measure laryngeal elevation, post-swallow pharyngeal remnant, and upper esophageal width. Results In this study, a number of dysphagia symptoms improved after decannulation. Laryngeal elevation, pharyngeal transit time, and semisolid aspiration showed no statistically significant differences (p>0.05), however after decannulation, the post-swallow pharyngeal remnant (pre 37.41%±24.80%, post 21.02%±11.75%; p<0.001) and upper esophageal width (pre 3.57±1.93 mm, post 4.53±2.05 mm; p<0.001) showed statistically significant differences. Conclusion When decannulation is performed on patients with brain injuries who do not require a ventilator and who are able to independently excrete sputum, improved esophageal dysphagia can be expected. PMID:26605176

  18. Voluntary Exercise Preconditioning Activates Multiple Antiapoptotic Mechanisms and Improves Neurological Recovery after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zaorui; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Wu, Junfang; Faden, Alan I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Physical activity can attenuate neuronal loss, reduce neuroinflammation, and facilitate recovery after brain injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms of exercise-induced neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or its modulation of post-traumatic neuronal cell death. Voluntary exercise, using a running wheel, was conducted for 4 weeks immediately preceding (preconditioning) moderate-level controlled cortical impact (CCI), a well-established experimental TBI model in mice. Compared to nonexercised controls, exercise preconditioning (pre-exercise) improved recovery of sensorimotor performance in the beam walk task, as well as cognitive/affective functions in the Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and tail-suspension tests. Further, pre-exercise reduced lesion size, attenuated neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus, and decreased microglial activation in the cortex. In addition, exercise preconditioning activated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway before trauma and amplified the injury-dependent increase in heat shock protein 70 expression, thus attenuating key apoptotic pathways. The latter include reduction in CCI-induced up-regulation of proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-homology 3–only Bcl-2 family molecules (Bid, Puma), decreased mitochondria permeabilization with attenuated release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), reduced AIF translocation to the nucleus, and attenuated caspase activation. Given these neuroprotective actions, voluntary physical exercise may serve to limit the consequences of TBI. PMID:25419789

  19. Improving Client-Centered Brain Injury Rehabilitation Through Research-Based Theater

    PubMed Central

    Kontos, Pia C.; Miller, Karen-Lee; Gilbert, Julie E.; Mitchell, Gail J.; Colantonio, Angela; Keightley, Michelle L.; Cott, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury often results in physical, behavioral, and cognitive impairments perceived by health care practitioners to limit or exclude clients’ full participation in treatment decision making. We used qualitative methods to evaluate the short- and long-term impact of “After the Crash: A Play About Brain Injury”, a research-based drama designed to teach client-centered care principles to brain injury rehabilitation staff. We conducted interviews and observations with staff of two inpatient neurorehabilitation units in Ontario, Canada. Findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the play in influencing practice through the avoidance of medical jargon to improve clients’ understanding and participation in treatment; newfound appreciation for clients’ needs for emotional expression and sexual intimacy; increased involvement of family caregivers; and avoidance of staff discussions as if clients were unaware. These findings suggest that research-based drama can effect reflexivity, empathy, and practice change to facilitate a client-centered culture of practice in brain injury rehabilitation. PMID:22941919

  20. Voluntary Exercise Preconditioning Activates Multiple Antiapoptotic Mechanisms and Improves Neurological Recovery after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zaorui; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Wu, Junfang; Faden, Alan I; Stoica, Bogdan A

    2015-09-01

    Physical activity can attenuate neuronal loss, reduce neuroinflammation, and facilitate recovery after brain injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms of exercise-induced neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or its modulation of post-traumatic neuronal cell death. Voluntary exercise, using a running wheel, was conducted for 4 weeks immediately preceding (preconditioning) moderate-level controlled cortical impact (CCI), a well-established experimental TBI model in mice. Compared to nonexercised controls, exercise preconditioning (pre-exercise) improved recovery of sensorimotor performance in the beam walk task, as well as cognitive/affective functions in the Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and tail-suspension tests. Further, pre-exercise reduced lesion size, attenuated neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus, and decreased microglial activation in the cortex. In addition, exercise preconditioning activated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway before trauma and amplified the injury-dependent increase in heat shock protein 70 expression, thus attenuating key apoptotic pathways. The latter include reduction in CCI-induced up-regulation of proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-homology 3-only Bcl-2 family molecules (Bid, Puma), decreased mitochondria permeabilization with attenuated release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), reduced AIF translocation to the nucleus, and attenuated caspase activation. Given these neuroprotective actions, voluntary physical exercise may serve to limit the consequences of TBI. PMID:25419789

  1. Voluntary Exercise Preconditioning Activates Multiple Antiapoptotic Mechanisms and Improves Neurological Recovery after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zaorui; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Wu, Junfang; Faden, Alan I; Stoica, Bogdan A

    2015-09-01

    Physical activity can attenuate neuronal loss, reduce neuroinflammation, and facilitate recovery after brain injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms of exercise-induced neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or its modulation of post-traumatic neuronal cell death. Voluntary exercise, using a running wheel, was conducted for 4 weeks immediately preceding (preconditioning) moderate-level controlled cortical impact (CCI), a well-established experimental TBI model in mice. Compared to nonexercised controls, exercise preconditioning (pre-exercise) improved recovery of sensorimotor performance in the beam walk task, as well as cognitive/affective functions in the Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and tail-suspension tests. Further, pre-exercise reduced lesion size, attenuated neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus, and decreased microglial activation in the cortex. In addition, exercise preconditioning activated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway before trauma and amplified the injury-dependent increase in heat shock protein 70 expression, thus attenuating key apoptotic pathways. The latter include reduction in CCI-induced up-regulation of proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-homology 3-only Bcl-2 family molecules (Bid, Puma), decreased mitochondria permeabilization with attenuated release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), reduced AIF translocation to the nucleus, and attenuated caspase activation. Given these neuroprotective actions, voluntary physical exercise may serve to limit the consequences of TBI.

  2. Dramatic Play in Childhood: Rehearsal for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koste, Virginia Glasgow

    The purpose of this book is to help parents and teachers recognize and understand dramatic play in childhood as a process whereby the child acts out human experience in an attempt to order, clarify, and understand it. Written by a person experienced in theatre and drama, the book considers the following aspects of dramatic play: the importance of…

  3. Platelet-rich plasma treatment improves outcomes for chronic proximal hamstring injuries in an athletic population

    PubMed Central

    Fader, Ryan R.; Mitchell, Justin J.; Traub, Shaun; Nichols, Roger; Roper, Michelle; Mei Dan, Omer; McCarty, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: chronic proximal hamstring tendinopathies is a disabling activity related condition. Currently, there is no well-accepted or extensively documented non-operative treatment option that provides consistently successful results. Purpose: to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound guided platelet-rich plasma injections in treating chronic proximal hamstring tendinopathies. Methods: a total of 18 consecutive patients were retrospectively analyzed. All patients received a single injection of platelet rich plasma via ultra-sound guidance by a single radiologist. Outcome measures included a questionnaire evaluating previous treatments, visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, subjective improvement, history of injury, and return to activity. Results: the patient population included 12 females and 6 males. The average age at the time of the injection was 42.6 years (19–60). Provocative activities included running, biking, swimming. The average body mass index of patients was 22.9 (17.2–30.2). The average time of chronic pain prior to receiving the first injection was 32.6 months (6–120). All patients had attempted other forms of non-surgical treatment prior to entering the study. The average VAS pre-injection was 4.6 (0–8). Six months after the injection, 10/18 patients had 80% or greater improvement in their VAS. Overall, the average improvement was 63% (5–100). The only documented side effect was post-injection discomfort that resolved within seventy-two hours. Conclusion: chronic hamstring tendinopathy is a debilitating condition secondary to the pain, which limits an athlete’s ability to perform. For refractory cases of chronic insertional proximal hamstring injuries, platelet-rich plasma injections are safe and show benefit in the majority of patients in our study, allowing return to pre-injury activities. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. PMID:25767784

  4. Improving self-efficacy in spinal cord injury patients through "design thinking" rehabilitation workshops.

    PubMed

    Wolstenholme, Daniel; Downes, Tom; Leaver, Jackie; Partridge, Rebecca; Langley, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Advances in surgical and medical management have significantly reduced the length of time that patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) have to stay in hospital, but has left patients with potentially less time to psychologically adjust. Following a pilot in 2012, this project was designed to test the effect of "design thinking" workshops on the self-efficacy of people undergoing rehabilitation following spinal injuries. Design thinking is about understanding the approaches and methods that designers use and then applying these to think creatively about problems and suggest ways to solve them. In this instance, design thinking is not about designing new products (although the approaches can be used to do this) but about developing a long term creative and explorative mind-set through skills such as lateral thinking, prototyping and verbal and visual communication. The principles of "design thinking" have underpinned design education and practice for many years, it is also recognised in business and innovation for example, but a literature review indicated that there was no evidence of it being used in rehabilitation or spinal injury settings. Twenty participants took part in the study; 13 (65%) were male and the average age was 37 years (range 16 to 72). Statistically significant improvements were seen for EQ-5D score (t = -3.13, p = 0.007) and Patient Activation Measure score (t = -3.85, p = 0.001). Other outcome measures improved but not statistically. There were no statistical effects on length of stay or readmission rates, but qualitative interviews indicated improved patient experience. PMID:27493735

  5. Standardizing ICU management of pediatric traumatic brain injury is associated with improved outcomes at discharge.

    PubMed

    O'Lynnger, Thomas M; Shannon, Chevis N; Le, Truc M; Greeno, Amber; Chung, Dai; Lamb, Fred S; Wellons, John C

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT The goal of critical care in treating traumatic brain injury (TBI) is to reduce secondary brain injury by limiting cerebral ischemia and optimizing cerebral blood flow. The authors compared short-term outcomes as defined by discharge disposition and Glasgow Outcome Scale scores in children with TBI before and after the implementation of a protocol that standardized decision-making and interventions among neurosurgeons and pediatric intensivists. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective pre- and postprotocol study of 128 pediatric patients with severe TBI, as defined by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores < 8, admitted to a tertiary care center pediatric critical care unit between April 1, 2008, and May 31, 2014. The preprotocol group included 99 patients, and the postprotocol group included 29 patients. The primary outcome of interest was discharge disposition before and after protocol implementation, which took place on April 1, 2013. Ordered logistic regression was used to assess outcomes while accounting for injury severity and clinical parameters. Favorable discharge disposition included discharge home. Unfavorable discharge disposition included discharge to an inpatient facility or death. RESULTS Demographics were similar between the treatment periods, as was injury severity as assessed by GCS score (mean 5.43 preprotocol, mean 5.28 postprotocol; p = 0.67). The ordered logistic regression model demonstrated an odds ratio of 4.0 of increasingly favorable outcome in the postprotocol cohort (p = 0.007). Prior to protocol implementation, 63 patients (64%) had unfavorable discharge disposition and 36 patients (36%) had favorable discharge disposition. After protocol implementation, 9 patients (31%) had unfavorable disposition, while 20 patients (69%) had favorable disposition (p = 0.002). In the preprotocol group, 31 patients (31%) died while 6 patients (21%) died after protocol implementation (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS Discharge disposition and mortality

  6. Deficiency in complement C1q improves histological and functional locomotor outcome after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Manuel D.; Luchetti, Sabina; Burgos, Adrian M.; Nguyen, Hal X.; Hooshmand, Mitra J.; Anderson, Aileen J.; Hamers, Frank P.T.

    2009-01-01

    Although studies have suggested a role for the complement system in the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI), that role remains poorly defined. Additionally, the relative contribution of individual complement pathways in SCI is unknown. Our initial studies revealed that systemic complement activation was strongly influenced by genetic background and gender. Thus, to investigate the role of the classical complement pathway in contusion-induced SCI, male C1q knockout (KO) and wildtype (WT) mice on a complement sufficient background (BUB) received a mild-moderate T9 contusion injury with the Infinite Horizon (IH) impactor. BUB C1q KO mice exhibited greater locomotor recovery in comparison to BUB WT mice (p < 0.05). Improved recovery observed in BUB C1q KO mice was also associated with decreased threshold for withdrawal from a mild stimulus using von Frey filament testing. Surprisingly, quantification of microglia/macrophages (F4/80) by FACS analysis showed that BUB C1q KO mice exhibited a significantly greater percentage of macrophages in the spinal cord compared to BUB WT mice 3 days post injury (p < 0.05). However, this increased macrophage response appeared to be transient as stereological assessment of spinal cord tissue obtained 28 days post injury revealed no difference in F4/80 positive cells between groups. Stereological assessment of spinal cord tissue showed that BUB C1q KO mice had reduced lesion volume and an increase in tissue sparing in comparison to BUB WT mice (p < 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that initiation of the classical complement pathway via C1q is detrimental to recovery after SCI. PMID:19091977

  7. Targeting the thrombin receptor modulates inflammation and astrogliosis to improve recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Radulovic, Maja; Yoon, Hyesook; Wu, Jianmin; Mustafa, Karim; Scarisbrick, Isobel A

    2016-09-01

    The deregulation of serine protease activity is a common feature of neurological injury, but little is known regarding their mechanisms of action or whether they can be targeted to facilitate repair. In this study we demonstrate that the thrombin receptor (Protease Activated Receptor 1, (PAR1)) serves as a critical translator of the spinal cord injury (SCI) proteolytic microenvironment into a cascade of pro-inflammatory events that contribute to astrogliosis and functional decline. PAR1 knockout mice displayed improved locomotor recovery after SCI and reduced signatures of inflammation and astrogliosis, including expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin, and STAT3 signaling. SCI-associated elevations in pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-6 were also reduced in PAR1-/- mice and co-ordinate improvements in tissue sparing and preservation of NeuN-positive ventral horn neurons, and PKCγ corticospinal axons, were observed. PAR1 and its agonist's thrombin and neurosin were expressed by perilesional astrocytes and each agonist increased the production of IL-6 and STAT3 signaling in primary astrocyte cultures in a PAR1-dependent manner. In turn, IL-6-stimulated astrocytes increased expression of PAR1, thrombin, and neurosin, pointing to a model in which PAR1 activation contributes to increased astrogliosis by feedforward- and feedback-signaling dynamics. Collectively, these findings identify the thrombin receptor as a key mediator of inflammation and astrogliosis in the aftermath of SCI that can be targeted to reduce neurodegeneration and improve neurobehavioral recovery. PMID:27145117

  8. Exercise inhibits neuronal apoptosis and improves cerebral function following rat traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Tatsuki; Imano, Motohiro; Nishida, Shozo; Tsubaki, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Shigeo; Ito, Akihiko; Satou, Takao

    2011-09-01

    Exercise is reported to inhibit neuronal apoptotic cell death in the hippocampus and improve learning and memory. However, the effect of exercise on inhibition of neuronal apoptosis surrounding the area of damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the improvement of cerebral dysfunction following TBI are unknown. Here, we investigate the effect of exercise on morphology and cerebral function following TBI in rats. Wistar rats received TBI by a pneumatic controlled injury device were randomly divided into two groups: (1) non-exercise group and (2) exercise group. The exercise group ran on a treadmill for 30 min/day at 22 m/min for seven consecutive days. Immunohistochemical and behavioral studies were performed following TBI. The number of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-positive cells around the damaged area early after TBI was significantly reduced in the exercise group compared with the non-exercise group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, most ssDNA-positive cells in the non-exercise group co-localized with neuronal cells. However, in the exercise group, a few ssDNA-positive cells co-localized with neurons. In addition, there was a significant increase in neuronal cell number and improvement in cerebral dysfunction after TBI in the exercise group compared with the non-exercise group (P < 0.05). These results indicate that exercise following TBI inhibits neuronal degeneration and apoptotic cell death around the damaged area, which results in improvement of cerebral dysfunction. In summary, treadmill running improved cerebral dysfunction following TBI, indicating its potential as an effective clinical therapy. Therefore, exercise therapy (rehabilitation) in the early phase following TBI is important for recuperation from cerebral dysfunction.

  9. Nogo receptor deletion and multimodal exercise improve distinct aspects of recovery in cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Harel, Noam Y; Song, Kang-Ho; Tang, Xin; Strittmatter, Stephen M

    2010-11-01

    We tested the ability of two plasticity-promoting approaches to enhance recovery in a mouse model of incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Genetically, we reduced myelin-mediated inhibition of neural plasticity through Nogo66-receptor (NgR) gene deletion. Behaviorally, we utilized a novel multimodal exercise training paradigm. Adult mice of wild-type or NgR-null genotype were subjected to partial lateral hemisection (LHx) at C3-C4 with the intent of producing anatomically and functionally mild deficits. Exercise training or control treatment proceeded for 14 weeks. Behavioral outcomes were assessed prior to tract tracing and histological analysis. Genotype and training exerted differing effects on performance; training improved performance on a test related to the training regimen (task-specific benefit), whereas genotype also improved performance on more generalized behaviors (task-non-specific benefit). There were no significant histological differences across genotype or training assignment with regard to lesion size or axonal tract staining. Thus either NgR gene deletion or exercise training benefits mice with mild cervical spinal injury. In this lesion model, the effects of NgR deletion and training were not synergistic for the tasks assessed. Further work is required to optimize the interaction between pharmacological and physical interventions for SCI.

  10. Myelin Basic Protein Cleaves Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 and Improves Regeneration After Injury.

    PubMed

    Lutz, David; Kataria, Hardeep; Kleene, Ralf; Loers, Gabriele; Chaudhary, Harshita; Guseva, Daria; Wu, Bin; Jakovcevski, Igor; Schachner, Melitta

    2016-07-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) is a serine protease that cleaves neural cell adhesion molecule L1 and generates a transmembrane L1 fragment which facilitates L1-dependent functions in vitro, such as neurite outgrowth, neuronal cell migration and survival, myelination by Schwann cells as well as Schwann cell proliferation, migration, and process formation. Ablation and blocking of MBP or disruption of its proteolytic activity by mutation of a proteolytically active serine residue abolish L1-dependent cellular responses. In utero injection of adeno-associated virus encoding proteolytically active MBP into MBP-deficient shiverer mice normalizes differentiation, myelination, and synaptogenesis in the developing postnatal spinal cord, in contrast to proteolytically inactive MBP. Application of active MBP to the injured wild-type spinal cord and femoral nerve augments levels of a transmembrane L1 fragment, promotes remyelination, and improves functional recovery after injury. Application of MBP antibody impairs recovery. Virus-mediated expression of active MBP in the lesion site after spinal cord injury results in improved functional recovery, whereas injection of virus encoding proteolytically inactive MBP fails to do so. The present study provides evidence for a novel L1-mediated function of MBP in the developing spinal cord and in the injured adult mammalian nervous system that leads to enhanced recovery after acute trauma.

  11. Myelin Basic Protein Cleaves Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 and Improves Regeneration After Injury.

    PubMed

    Lutz, David; Kataria, Hardeep; Kleene, Ralf; Loers, Gabriele; Chaudhary, Harshita; Guseva, Daria; Wu, Bin; Jakovcevski, Igor; Schachner, Melitta

    2016-07-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) is a serine protease that cleaves neural cell adhesion molecule L1 and generates a transmembrane L1 fragment which facilitates L1-dependent functions in vitro, such as neurite outgrowth, neuronal cell migration and survival, myelination by Schwann cells as well as Schwann cell proliferation, migration, and process formation. Ablation and blocking of MBP or disruption of its proteolytic activity by mutation of a proteolytically active serine residue abolish L1-dependent cellular responses. In utero injection of adeno-associated virus encoding proteolytically active MBP into MBP-deficient shiverer mice normalizes differentiation, myelination, and synaptogenesis in the developing postnatal spinal cord, in contrast to proteolytically inactive MBP. Application of active MBP to the injured wild-type spinal cord and femoral nerve augments levels of a transmembrane L1 fragment, promotes remyelination, and improves functional recovery after injury. Application of MBP antibody impairs recovery. Virus-mediated expression of active MBP in the lesion site after spinal cord injury results in improved functional recovery, whereas injection of virus encoding proteolytically inactive MBP fails to do so. The present study provides evidence for a novel L1-mediated function of MBP in the developing spinal cord and in the injured adult mammalian nervous system that leads to enhanced recovery after acute trauma. PMID:26081148

  12. Evaluation of a complex, population-based injury claims management intervention for improving injury outcomes: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Collie, Alex; Gabbe, Belinda; Fitzharris, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Injuries resulting from road traffic crashes are a substantial cause of disability and death worldwide. Injured persons receiving compensation have poorer recovery and return to work than those with non-compensable injury. Case or claims management is a critical component of injury compensation systems, and there is now evidence that claims management can have powerful positive impacts on recovery, but can also impede recovery or exacerbate mental health concerns in some injured people. This study seeks to evaluate the impact of a population-based injury claims management intervention in the State of Victoria, Australia, on the health of those injured in motor vehicle crashes, their experience of the compensation process, and the financial viability of the compensation system. Methods and analysis Evaluation of this complex intervention involves a series of linked but stand-alone research projects to assess the anticipated process changes, impacts and outcomes of the intervention over a 5-year time frame. Linkage and analysis of routine administrative and health system data is supplemented with a series of primary studies collecting new information. Additionally, a series of ‘action’ research projects will be undertaken to inform the implementation of the intervention. A program logic model designed by the state government Transport Accident Commission in conjunction with the research team provides the evaluation framework. Ethics and dissemination Relatively few studies have comprehensively examined the impact of compensation system processes on the health of injured persons, their satisfaction with systems processes, and impacts on the financial performance of the compensation scheme itself. The wholesale, population-based transformation of an injury claims management model is a rare opportunity to document impacts of system-level policy change on outcomes of injured persons. Findings will contribute to the evidence base of information on the

  13. Burn injury diagnostic imaging device's accuracy improved by outlier detection and removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weizhi; Mo, Weirong; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Yang; Squiers, John J.; Sellke, Eric W.; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J. Michael; Thatcher, Jeffery E.

    2015-05-01

    Multispectral imaging (MSI) was implemented to develop a burn diagnostic device that will assist burn surgeons in planning and performing burn debridement surgery by classifying burn tissue. In order to build a burn classification model, training data that accurately represents the burn tissue is needed. Acquiring accurate training data is difficult, in part because the labeling of raw MSI data to the appropriate tissue classes is prone to errors. We hypothesized that these difficulties could be surmounted by removing outliers from the training dataset, leading to an improvement in the classification accuracy. A swine burn model was developed to build an initial MSI training database and study an algorithm's ability to classify clinically important tissues present in a burn injury. Once the ground-truth database was generated from the swine images, we then developed a multi-stage method based on Z-test and univariate analysis to detect and remove outliers from the training dataset. Using 10-fold cross validation, we compared the algorithm's accuracy when trained with and without the presence of outliers. The outlier detection and removal method reduced the variance of the training data from wavelength space, and test accuracy was improved from 63% to 76%. Establishing this simple method of conditioning for the training data improved the accuracy of the algorithm to match the current standard of care in burn injury assessment. Given that there are few burn surgeons and burn care facilities in the United States, this technology is expected to improve the standard of burn care for burn patients with less access to specialized facilities.

  14. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Treatment Following Spinal Cord Injury Improves Mitochondrial Function Correlated with Remarkable Tissue Sparing and Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Samir P.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Lyttle, Travis S.; Magnuson, David S. K.; Rabchevsky, Alexander G.

    2012-01-01

    We have recently documented that treatment with the alternative biofuel, acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC, 300 mg/kg), as late as 1 hr after T10 contusion spinal cord injury (SCI), significantly maintained mitochondrial function 24 hrs after injury. Here we report that following more severe contusion SCI centered on the L1/L2 segments that are postulated to contain lamina X neurons critical for locomotion (the “central pattern generator”), ALC treatment resulted in significant improvements in acute mitochondrial bioenergetics and long-term hindlimb function. While control-injured rats were only able to achieve slight movements of hindlimb joints, ALC-treated animals produced consistent weight-supported plantar steps one month after injury. Such landmark behavioral improvements were significantly correlated with increased tissue sparing of both gray and white matter proximal to the injury, as well as preservation of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neurons in lamina X rostral to the injury site. These findings signify that functional improvements with ALC treatment are mediated, in part, by preserved locomotor circuitry rostral to upper lumbar contusion SCI. Based on beneficial effects of ALC on mitochondrial bioenergetics after injury, our collective evidence demonstrate that preventing mitochondrial dysfunction acutely “promotes” neuroprotection that may be associated with the milestone recovery of plantar, weight-supported stepping. PMID:22445934

  15. An Intensive Locomotor Training Paradigm Improves Neuropathic Pain following Spinal Cord Compression Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Elizabeth A; Sagen, Jacqueline

    2015-05-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is often associated with both locomotor deficits and sensory dysfunction, including debilitating neuropathic pain. Unfortunately, current conventional pharmacological, physiological, or psychological treatments provide only marginal relief for more than two-thirds of patients, highlighting the need for improved treatment options. Locomotor training is often prescribed as an adjunct therapy for peripheral neuropathic pain but is rarely used to treat central neuropathic pain. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential anti-nociceptive benefits of intensive locomotor training (ILT) on neuropathic pain consequent to traumatic SCI. Using a rodent SCI model for central neuropathic pain, ILT was initiated either 5 d after injury prior to development of neuropathic pain symptoms (the "prevention" group) or delayed until pain symptoms fully developed (∼3 weeks post-injury, the "reversal" group). The training protocol consisted of 5 d/week of a ramping protocol that started with 11 m/min for 5 min and increased in speed (+1 m/min/week) and time (1-4 minutes/week) to a maximum of two 20-min sessions/d at 15 m/min by the fourth week of training. ILT prevented and reversed the development of heat hyperalgesia and cold allodynia, as well as reversed developed tactile allodynia, suggesting analgesic benefits not seen with moderate levels of locomotor training. Further, the analgesic benefits of ILT persisted for several weeks once training had been stopped. The unique ability of an ILT protocol to produce robust and sustained anti-nociceptive effects, as assessed by three distinct outcome measures for below-level SCI neuropathic pain, suggests that this adjunct therapeutic approach has great promise in a comprehensive treatment strategy for SCI pain.

  16. Docosahexaenoic Acid Pretreatment Confers Protection and Functional Improvements after Acute Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Johnny D.; Cordero, Kathia; Baldeosingh, Keisha; Torrado, Aranza I.; Walker, Robert L.; Miranda, Jorge D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Currently, few interventions have been shown to successfully limit the progression of secondary damage events associated with the acute phase of spinal cord injury (SCI). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n-3) is neuroprotective when administered following SCI, but its potential as a pretreatment modality has not been addressed. This study used a novel DHA pretreatment experimental paradigm that targets acute cellular and molecular events during the first week after SCI in rats. We found that DHA pretreatment reduced functional deficits during the acute phase of injury, as shown by significant improvements in Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scores, and the detection of transcranial magnetic motor evoked potentials (tcMMEPs) compared to vehicle-pretreated animals. We demonstrated that, at 7 days post-injury, DHA pretreatment significantly increased the percentage of white matter sparing, and resulted in axonal preservation, compared to the vehicle injections. We found a significant increase in the survival of NG2+, APC+, and NeuN+ cells in the ventrolateral funiculus (VLF), dorsal corticospinal tract (dCST), and ventral horns, respectively. Interestingly, these DHA protective effects were observed despite the lack of inhibition of inflammatory markers for monocytes/macrophages and astrocytes, ED1/OX42 and GFAP, respectively. DHA pretreatment induced levels of Akt and cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) mRNA and protein. This study shows for the first time that DHA pretreatment ameliorates functional deficits, and increases tissue sparing and precursor cell survival. Further, our data suggest that DHA-mediated activation of pro-survival/anti-apoptotic pathways may be independent of its anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:21970623

  17. Methylprednisolone fails to improve functional and histological outcome following spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, José E; Costa, Luís M; Cabrita, António M; Couto, Pedro A; Filipe, Vítor M; Magalhães, Luís G; Fornaro, Michele; Di Scipio, Federica; Geuna, Stefano; Maurício, Ana C; Varejão, Artur S P

    2009-11-01

    Currently, methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) is the standard treatment following acute spinal cord injury (SCI) as a consequence of the results obtained from the National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Studies. However, many have questioned the efficacy of MPSS because of its marginal effects. Additionally there has been criticism of both study design and statistical interpretation. The functional consequences of experimental SCI have been assessed in many ways. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of MPSS vs. saline solution (SS) following moderate T10 contusion injury in rat. Functional recovery was evaluated using the 21-point Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor recovery scale, the inclined plane, the beam walk, footprint analysis and the horizontal ladder. To optimize the precision and accuracy of functional results we examined the locomotion on a treadmill using three-dimensional (3D) analysis. Stereology was used to estimate the amount of damaged tissue. The results of the traditional functional methods showed that administration of the NASCIS dosage of MPSS following acute spinal cord contusion did not lead to any significant differences in the functional recovery of MPSS- vs. SS-treated animals. More importantly, the results of the 3D kinematic showed that the MPSS administration did not affect the flexion/extension of the hip, knee and ankle joints during the step cycle. Finally, stereological results revealed no statistically significant differences between the two experimental groups. Altogether, our results support data previously reported by several authors, suggesting that MPSS does not lead to improved functional outcome following experimental acute SCI. PMID:19665461

  18. Building Family and Community Demand for Dramatic Change in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinson, Dana; Steiner, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    District-led, dramatic change efforts in failing schools--including turnarounds and school closures--often face strong resistance from families and communities. Resistance may be based on years of tension and distrust between districts and communities, failed past school improvement efforts, or a lack of understanding about the chasm between a…

  19. Improved Cardiorespiratory Fitness with Aerobic Exercise Training in Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Lisa M. K.; Chan, Leighton; Woolstenhulme, Joshua G.; Christensen, Eric J.; Shenouda, Christian N.; Keyser, Randall E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine cardiorespiratory fitness in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), prior to and following participation in a supervised 12-week aerobic exercise training program. Methods Ten subjects with non-penetrating TBI (TBI severity: Mild, 50%; Moderate, 40%; Severe, 10%; Time since injury: 6.6 ± 6.8 years, mean ± SD) performed exercise training on a treadmill 3 times a week for 30 minutes at vigorous intensity (70 – 80 % of heart rate reserve). All subjects completed a cardiopulmonary exercise test with gas exchange measured and a questionnaire related to fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale; FSS) at baseline and following exercise training. Results After training, increases (p<0.01) in peak oxygen consumption (VO2; +3.1 ± 2.4 ml/min/kg), time to volitional fatigue (+1.4 ± 0.8 min), and peak work rate (WR; +59 ± 43 watts) were observed. At the anaerobic threshold, VO2 (+3.6 ± 2.1 ml/kg/min), treadmill time (+1.8 ± 1.1 min) and WR (+37 ± 39 watts) were higher (p<0.01) following exercise training. Subjects also reported significantly lower (p<0.05) FSS composite scores (−0.9 ± 1.3) following exercise training. Conclusion These findings suggest that individuals with TBI may benefit from participation in vigorous aerobic exercise training with improved cardiorespiratory fitness and diminished fatigue. PMID:24901330

  20. The Development of Macrophage-Mediated Cell Therapy to Improve Skeletal Muscle Function after Injury

    PubMed Central

    Rybalko, Viktoriya; Hsieh, Pei-Ling; Merscham-Banda, Melissa; Suggs, Laura J.; Farrar, Roger P.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration following acute injury is a multi-step process involving complex changes in tissue microenvironment. Macrophages (MPs) are one of the key cell types involved in orchestration and modulation of the repair process. Multiple studies highlight the essential role of MPs in the control of the myogenic program and inflammatory response during skeletal muscle regeneration. A variety of MP phenotypes have been identified and characterized in vitro as well as in vivo. As such, MPs hold great promise for cell-based therapies in the field of regenerative medicine. In this study we used bone-marrow derived in vitro LPS/IFN-y-induced M1 MPs to enhance functional muscle recovery after tourniquet-induced ischemia/reperfusion injury (TK-I/R). We detected a 15% improvement in specific tension and force normalized to mass after M1 (LPS/IFN-γ) MP transplantation 24 hours post-reperfusion. Interestingly, we found that M0 bone marrow-derived unpolarized MPs significantly impaired muscle function highlighting the complexity of temporally coordinated skeletal muscle regenerative program. Furthermore, we show that delivery of M1 (LPS/IFN-γ) MPs early in regeneration accelerates myofiber repair, decreases fibrotic tissue deposition and increases whole muscle IGF-I expression. PMID:26717325

  1. Gallic acid improved behavior, brain electrophysiology, and inflammation in a rat model of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Sarkaki, Alireza; Farbood, Yaghoub; Gharib-Naseri, Mohammad Kazem; Badavi, Mohammad; Mansouri, Mohammad Taghi; Haghparast, Abbas; Mirshekar, Mohammad Ali

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the main causes of intellectual and cognitive disabilities. In the clinic it is essential to limit the development of cognitive impairment after TBI. In this study, the effects of gallic acid (GA; 100 mg/kg, per oral, from 7 days before to 2 days after TBI induction) on neurological score, passive avoidance memory, long-term potentiation (LTP) deficits, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the brain have been evaluated. Brain injury was induced following Marmarou's method. Data were analyzed by one-way and repeated measures ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. The results indicated that memory was significantly impaired (p < 0.001) in the group treated with TBI + vehicle, together with deterioration of the hippocampal LTP and increased brain tissue levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. GA treatment significantly improved memory and LTP in the TBI rats. The brain tissue levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were significantly reduced (p < 0.001) in the group treated with GA. The results suggest that GA has neuroprotective properties against TBI-induced behavioral, electrophysiological, and inflammatory disorders, probably via the decrease of cerebral proinflammatory cytokines.

  2. Improving the outcome of kidney transplantation by ameliorating renal ischemia reperfusion injury: lost in translation?

    PubMed

    Saat, T C; van den Akker, E K; IJzermans, J N M; Dor, F J M F; de Bruin, R W F

    2016-01-20

    Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice in patients with end stage renal disease. During kidney transplantation ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) occurs, which is a risk factor for acute kidney injury, delayed graft function and acute and chronic rejection. Kidneys from living donors show a superior short- and long-term graft survival compared with deceased donors. However, the shortage of donor kidneys has resulted in expansion of the donor pool by using not only living- and brain death donors but also kidneys from donation after circulatory death and from extended criteria donors. These grafts are associated with an increased sensitivity to IRI and decreased graft outcome due to prolonged ischemia and donor comorbidity. Therefore, preventing or ameliorating IRI may improve graft survival. Animal experiments focus on understanding the mechanism behind IRI and try to find methods to minimize IRI either before, during or after ischemia. This review evaluates the different experimental strategies that have been investigated to prevent or ameliorate renal IRI. In addition, we review the current state of translation to the clinical setting. Experimental research has contributed to the development of strategies to prevent or ameliorate IRI, but promising results in animal studies have not yet been successfully translated to clinical use.

  3. Astragalus extract alleviates nerve injury after cerebral ischemia by improving energy metabolism and inhibiting apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Ping; Tan, Hua; Chen, Bei-Yang; Deng, Chang-Qing

    2012-01-01

    This aim of this study was to explore the effects and molecular mechanisms of Astragalus extract against cerebral ischemia injury through the energy metabolism and apoptosis pathways of c‑Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signal transduction. After the bilateral common carotid artery of C57BL/6 mice was occluded for 20 min followed by 1-h reperfusion, the ATP content, total adenine nucleotides (TAN), energy charge (EC), and sodium potassium ATPase (Na(+)-K(+)‑ATPase) activity were decreased markedly in brain tissues. Astragalus extract markedly increased the ATP and ADP levels, EC value, and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. Twenty-four and 48 h after reperfusion, the neurocyte survival rate decreased and apoptosis rate increased, while the expression of phosphorylated JNK1/2, cytochrome c (Cyt C), and cysteine aspartic acid-specific protease (caspase)-9 and -3 were significantly enhanced in brain tissues. Astragalus extract significantly increased neurocyte survival and decreased the apoptosis rate as well as down-regulated the expression of p-JNK1/2, Cyt C, caspase-9, and caspase-3. These results suggest that Astragalus extract has neuroprotective effects against nerve injury after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, and the underlying mechanism may be associated with improved cellular energy metabolism, inhibition of JNK signal transduction pathway activation, and then suppression of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

  4. Cervical spinal cord injury: tailoring clinical trial endpoints to reflect meaningful functional improvements

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Lisa M.; McKerracher, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) results in partial to full paralysis of the upper and lower extremities. Traditional primary endpoints for acute SCI clinical trials are too broad to assess functional recovery in cervical subjects, raising the possibility of false positive outcomes in trials for cervical SCI. Endpoints focused on the recovery of hand and arm control (e.g., upper extremity motor score, motor level change) show the most potential for use as primary outcomes in upcoming trials of cervical SCI. As the field moves forward, the most reliable way to ensure meaningful clinical testing in cervical subjects may be the development of a composite primary endpoint that measures both neurological recovery and functional improvement. PMID:25317162

  5. A musculoskeletal approach to the preparticipation physical examination. Preventing injury and improving performance.

    PubMed

    Kibler, W B; Chandler, T J; Uhl, T; Maddux, R E

    1989-01-01

    Preparticipation physical examinations provide information concerning an athlete's ability to participate safely in sports. By collecting information specific to the musculoskeletal system in addition to that from a general medical examination, information can be gained that may improve performance and help prevent certain injuries. Two thousand one hundred seven athletes from a variety of sports from the junior high to the college level were examined using specific tests for flexibility, strength, and endurance. Females were significantly more flexible than were males on all flexibility measurements, and males were significantly stronger than were females on all strength measurements. Upper-body athletes were tighter in dominant side internal rotation and significantly looser in dominant side external rotation. Lower-body athletes, especially females, were significantly tighter in the leg muscles. These results indicate that the adaptations of the musculo-skeletal system are sport specific and depend on the body area that is placed under stress.

  6. Catestatin improves post-ischemic left ventricular function and decreases ischemia/reperfusion injury in heart.

    PubMed

    Penna, Claudia; Alloatti, Giuseppe; Gallo, Maria Pia; Cerra, Maria Carmela; Levi, Renzo; Tullio, Francesca; Bassino, Eleonora; Dolgetta, Serena; Mahata, Sushil K; Tota, Bruno; Pagliaro, Pasquale

    2010-11-01

    The Chromogranin A (CgA)-derived anti-hypertensive peptide catestatin (CST) antagonizes catecholamine secretion, and is a negative myocardial inotrope acting via a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. It is not known whether CST contributes to ischemia/reperfusion injury or is a component of a cardioprotective response to limit injury. Here, we tested whether CST by virtue of its negative inotropic activity improves post-ischemic cardiac function and cardiomyocyte survival. Three groups of isolated perfused hearts from adult Wistar rats underwent 30-min ischemia and 120-min reperfusion (I/R, Group 1), or were post-conditioned by brief ischemic episodes (PostC, 5-cycles of 10-s I/R at the beginning of 120-min reperfusion, Group 2), or with exogenous CST (75 nM for 20 min, CST-Post, Group-3) at the onset of reperfusion. Perfusion pressure and left ventricular pressure (LVP) were monitored. Infarct size was evaluated with nitroblue-tetrazolium staining. The CST (5 nM) effects were also tested in simulated ischemia/reperfusion experiments on cardiomyocytes isolated from young-adult rats, evaluating cell survival with propidium iodide labeling. Infarct size was 61 ± 6% of risk area in hearts subjected to I/R only. PostC reduced infarct size to 34 ± 5%. Infarct size in CST-Post was 36 ± 3% of risk area (P < 0.05 respect to I/R). CST-Post reduced post-ischemic rise of diastolic LVP, an index of contracture, and significantly improved post-ischemic recovery of developed LVP. In isolated cardiomyocytes, CST increased the cell viability rate by about 65% after simulated ischemia/reperfusion. These results suggest a novel cardioprotective role for CST, which appears mainly due to a direct reduction of post-ischemic myocardial damages and dysfunction, rather than to an involvement of adrenergic terminals and/or endothelium.

  7. Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells therapy attenuates activated microglial/macrophage response and improves spatial learning after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Bedi, Supinder S.; Walker, Peter A.; Shah, Shinil K.; Jimenez, Fernando; Thomas, Chelsea P.; Smith, Philippa; Hetz, Robert A.; Xue, Hasen; Pati, Shibani; Dash, Pramod K.; Cox, Charles S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (AMNC) have shown therapeutic promise for central nervous system insults such as stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that intravenous injection of AMNC provides neuroprotection which leads to cognitive improvement after TBI. Methods A controlled cortical impact (CCI) rodent traumatic brain injury (TBI) model was used to examine blood-brain barrier permeability (BBB), neuronal and glial apoptosis and cognitive behavior. Two groups of rats underwent CCI with (CCI-Autologous) or without AMNC treatment (CCI-Alone), consisting of 2 million AMNC/kilogram body weight harvested from the tibia and intravenously injected 72 hr after injury. CCI-Alone animals underwent sham harvests and received vehicle injections. Results 96 hr after injury, AMNC significantly reduced the BBB permeability in injured animals, and there was an increase in apoptosis of pro-inflammatory activated microglia in the ipsilateral hippocampus. At 4 weeks after injury, we examined changes in spatial memory after TBI due to AMNC treatment. There was a significant improvement in probe testing of CCI-Autologous group in comparison to CCI-Alone in the Morris Water Maze paradigm. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that the intravenous injection of AMNC after TBI leads to neuroprotection by preserving early BBB integrity and increasing activated microglial apoptosis. In addition, AMNC also improves cognitive function. PMID:23928737

  8. Improving brain injury cognitive rehabilitation by personalized telerehabilitation services: Guttmann neuropersonal trainer.

    PubMed

    Solana, Javier; Cáceres, César; García-Molina, Alberto; Opisso, Eloy; Roig, Teresa; Tormos, José M; Gómez, Enrique J

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive rehabilitation aims to remediate or alleviate the cognitive deficits appearing after an episode of acquired brain injury (ABI). The purpose of this work is to describe the telerehabilitation platform called Guttmann Neuropersonal Trainer (GNPT) which provides new strategies for cognitive rehabilitation, improving efficiency and access to treatments, and to increase knowledge generation from the process. A cognitive rehabilitation process has been modeled to design and develop the system, which allows neuropsychologists to configure and schedule rehabilitation sessions, consisting of set of personalized computerized cognitive exercises grounded on neuroscience and plasticity principles. It provides remote continuous monitoring of patient's performance, by an asynchronous communication strategy. An automatic knowledge extraction method has been used to implement a decision support system, improving treatment customization. GNPT has been implemented in 27 rehabilitation centers and in 83 patients' homes, facilitating the access to the treatment. In total, 1660 patients have been treated. Usability and cost analysis methodologies have been applied to measure the efficiency in real clinical environments. The usability evaluation reveals a system usability score higher than 70 for all target users. The cost efficiency study results show a relation of 1-20 compared to face-to-face rehabilitation. GNPT enables brain-damaged patients to continue and further extend rehabilitation beyond the hospital, improving the efficiency of the rehabilitation process. It allows customized therapeutic plans, providing information to further development of clinical practice guidelines.

  9. Whither the "Improvement Standard"? Coverage for Severe Brain Injury after Jimmo v. Sebelius.

    PubMed

    Fins, Joseph J; Wright, Megan S; Kraft, Claudia; Rogers, Alix; Romani, Marina B; Godwin, Samantha; Ulrich, Michael R

    2016-03-01

    As improvements in neuroscience have enabled a better understanding of disorders of consciousness as well as methods to treat them, a hurdle that has become all too prevalent is the denial of coverage for treatment and rehabilitation services. In 2011, a settlement emerged from a Vermont District Court case, Jimmo v. Sebelius, which was brought to stop the use of an "improvement standard" that required tangible progress over an identifiable period of time for Medicare coverage of services. While the use of this standard can have deleterious effects on those with many chronic conditions, it is especially burdensome for those in the minimally conscious state (MCS), where improvements are unpredictable and often not manifested through repeatable overt behaviors. Though the focus of this paper is on the challenges of brain injury and the minimally conscious state, which an estimated 100,000 to 200,000 individuals suffer from in the United States, the post-Jimmo arguments presented can and should have a broad impact as envisioned by the plaintiffs who brought the case on behalf of multiple advocacy groups representing patients with a range of chronic care conditions. PMID:27256134

  10. The Psychodrama-Social Dramatics Separation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klepac, Richard L.

    Social dramatics is a therapeutic and educational program that can act as a mirror to reflect images of the self in action with others. It is the modality for experiential learning to correct social dysfunction by providing models for imitation, opportunities to practice and develop individual forms from that model, and risk free environments for…

  11. Improvement in muscle strength after an anterior cruciate ligament injury corresponds with a decrease in serum cytokines.

    PubMed

    Barker, Tyler; Henriksen, Vanessa T; Rogers, Victoria E; Trawick, Roy H

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this communication was to identify if a decrease in serum cytokine concentrations associates with an improvement in muscle strength after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. To establish groups with contrasting serum cytokine concentrations, subjects scheduled for ACL reconstructive surgery were separated into one of two groups (gender matched) based on their time from injury occurrence: (1) Early (<21-d from injury occurrence; n=22) or (2) Late (⩾21-d from injury occurrence; n=22). Before surgery, each subject provided a fasting blood sample and performed single-leg peak isometric force testing on the injured (INJ) and non-injured (NI) limbs. Compared to the NI limb, peak isometric force in the INJ limb was decreased (p<0.05) in both groups (Early, ∼35%; Late, ∼18%). The deficit in peak isometric force, however, was increased (p<0.05) in the Early compared to Late group. Similarly, serum granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-13 were increased (all p<0.05) in the Early group. These unique findings show a concurrent increase in muscular weakness and serum cytokine concentrations shortly after (<21-d) an ACL injury. Importantly, muscular weakness persisted thereafter (⩾21-d) but at an attenuated level and parallel to a decrease in circulating cytokine concentrations. We conclude that a decrease in serum cytokines associates with a reduction in muscular weakness after an ACL injury.

  12. Tetramethylpyrazine improves the recovery of spinal cord injury via Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Peng; Zeng, Wen; Li, Weixin

    2016-02-15

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most severe traumatic conditions, resulting in postoperative complications. Our results and other reports have shown that tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is able to exhibit neuro-protective effects after SCI. In the current study, we aimed to examine the possible mechanism underlying the neuro-protective effect of TMP in rat model of SCI. TMP improved locomotor functions and decreased permeability of blood-spinal cord barrier in rats with SCI, as evidenced by increase of Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scores and decrease of Evans blue leakage. In addition, TMP decreased the expression of several proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, TNFα and IL-18, reduced TUNEL-positive cells and caspase 3 and 9 activities, decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content and increased glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity in rats. All these effects were inhibited by zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), an inhibitor of HO-1, and LY294002, an inhibitor of Akt. Moreover, TMP inhibited the decrease of mRNA expression of HO-1 which was suppressed by ZnPP and LY294002. TMP inhibited the decrease of Akt phosphorylation in rats after SCI, which was suppressed by LY294002, but not ZnPP. Furthermore, LY294002, but not ZnPP, significantly inhibited TMP-induced increase of mRNA expression of Nrf2 and DNA binding activity of Nrf2 in HO-1 promoters in rat model of SCI. The data suggested that TMP induced neuro-protective effects against injury of spinal cord through the activation of Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. These results have appointed a new path toward the understanding of pathogenesis and TMP-related therapy of SCI and associated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26786697

  13. Tetramethylpyrazine improves the recovery of spinal cord injury via Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Peng; Zeng, Wen; Li, Weixin

    2016-02-15

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most severe traumatic conditions, resulting in postoperative complications. Our results and other reports have shown that tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is able to exhibit neuro-protective effects after SCI. In the current study, we aimed to examine the possible mechanism underlying the neuro-protective effect of TMP in rat model of SCI. TMP improved locomotor functions and decreased permeability of blood-spinal cord barrier in rats with SCI, as evidenced by increase of Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scores and decrease of Evans blue leakage. In addition, TMP decreased the expression of several proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, TNFα and IL-18, reduced TUNEL-positive cells and caspase 3 and 9 activities, decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content and increased glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity in rats. All these effects were inhibited by zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), an inhibitor of HO-1, and LY294002, an inhibitor of Akt. Moreover, TMP inhibited the decrease of mRNA expression of HO-1 which was suppressed by ZnPP and LY294002. TMP inhibited the decrease of Akt phosphorylation in rats after SCI, which was suppressed by LY294002, but not ZnPP. Furthermore, LY294002, but not ZnPP, significantly inhibited TMP-induced increase of mRNA expression of Nrf2 and DNA binding activity of Nrf2 in HO-1 promoters in rat model of SCI. The data suggested that TMP induced neuro-protective effects against injury of spinal cord through the activation of Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. These results have appointed a new path toward the understanding of pathogenesis and TMP-related therapy of SCI and associated neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. Normalization of coagulopathy is associated with improved outcome after isolated traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Daniel S; Mitra, Biswadev; Cameron, Peter A; Fitzgerald, Mark; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V

    2016-07-01

    Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) has been reported in the setting of isolated traumatic brain injury (iTBI) and is associated with poor outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of procoagulant agents administered to patients with ATC and iTBI during resuscitation, hypothesizing that timely normalization of coagulopathy may be associated with a decrease in mortality. A retrospective review of the Alfred Hospital trauma registry, Australia, was conducted and patients with iTBI (head Abbreviated Injury Score [AIS] ⩾3 and all other body AIS <3) and coagulopathy (international normalized ratio ⩾1.3) were selected for analysis. Data on procoagulant agents used (fresh frozen plasma, platelets, cryoprecipitate, prothrombin complex concentrates, tranexamic acid, vitamin K) were extracted. Among patients who had achieved normalization of INR or survived beyond 24hours and were not taking oral anticoagulants, the association of normalization of INR and death at hospital discharge was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. There were 157 patients with ATC of whom 68 (43.3%) received procoagulant products within 24hours of presentation. The median time to delivery of first products was 182.5 (interquartile range [IQR] 115-375) minutes, and following administration of coagulants, time to normalization of INR was 605 (IQR 274-1146) minutes. Normalization of INR was independently associated with significantly lower mortality (adjusted odds ratio 0.10; 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.38). Normalization of INR was associated with improved mortality in patients with ATC in the setting of iTBI. As there was a substantial time lag between delivery of products and eventual normalization of coagulation, specific management of coagulopathy should be implemented as early as possible. PMID:26947341

  15. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation improves neurologic recovery and attenuates white matter injury after experimental traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Hongjian; Guo, Yanling; Zhang, Wenting; Huang, Lanting; Wang, Guohua; Liou, Anthony K; Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Pengyue; Leak, Rehana K; Wang, Yun; Chen, Jun; Gao, Yanqin

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids is a safe, economical mean of preventive medicine that has shown protection against several neurologic disorders. The present study tested the hypothesis that this method is protective against controlled cortical impact (CCI). Indeed, mice fed with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-enriched diet for 2 months exhibited attenuated short and long-term behavioral deficits due to CCI. Although ω-3 PUFAs did not decrease cortical lesion volume, these fatty acids did protect against hippocampal neuronal loss after CCI and reduced pro-inflammatory response. Interestingly, ω-3 PUFAs prevented the loss of myelin basic protein (MPB), preserved the integrity of the myelin sheath, and maintained the nerve fiber conductivity in the CCI model. ω-3 PUFAs also directly protected oligodendrocyte cultures from excitotoxicity and blunted the microglial activation-induced death of oligodendrocytes in microglia/oligodendrocyte cocultures. In sum, ω-3 PUFAs elicit multifaceted protection against behavioral dysfunction, hippocampal neuronal loss, inflammation, and loss of myelination and impulse conductivity. The present report is the first demonstration that ω-3 PUFAs protect against white matter injury in vivo and in vitro. The protective impact of ω-3 PUFAs supports the clinical use of this dietary supplement as a prophylaxis against traumatic brain injury and other nervous system disorders. PMID:23801244

  16. Conditional Sox9 ablation improves locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury by increasing reactive sprouting.

    PubMed

    McKillop, William M; York, Elisa M; Rubinger, Luc; Liu, Tony; Ossowski, Natalie M; Xu, Kathy; Hryciw, Todd; Brown, Arthur

    2016-09-01

    The absence of axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) has been attributed to the up-regulation of axon-repelling molecules, such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) present in the glial scar that forms post-SCI. We previously identified the transcription factor SOX9 as a key up-regulator of CSPG production and also demonstrated that conditional Sox9 ablation leads to decreased CSPG levels and improved recovery of hind limb function after SCI. We herein demonstrate increased neural input onto spinal neurons caudal to the lesion in spinal cord injured Sox9 conditional knock out mice as indicated by increased levels of the presynaptic markers synaptophysin and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) compared to controls. Axonal sparing, long-range axonal regeneration and reactive sprouting were investigated as possible explanations for the increase in neural inputs caudal to the lesion and for the improved locomotor outcomes in spinal cord-injured Sox9 conditional knock out mice. Whereas retrograde tract-tracing studies failed to reveal any evidence for increased axonal sparing or for long-range regeneration in the Sox9 conditional knock out mice, anterograde tract-tracing experiments demonstrated increased reactive sprouting caudal to the lesion after SCI. Finally we demonstrate that application of a broad spectrum MMP inhibitor to reduce CSPG degradation in Sox9 conditional knock out mice prevents the improvements in locomotor recovery observed in untreated Sox9 conditional knock out mice. These results suggest that improved recovery of locomotor function in Sox9 conditional knock out mice after SCI is due to increased reactive sprouting secondary to reduced CSPG levels distal to the lesion.

  17. Injury prevention counselling to improve safety practices by parents in Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Charles; Arreola-Risa, Carlos; Trevino-Perez, Rodolfo; Almazan-Saavedra, Victoria; Zozaya-Paz, Jaime E.; Gonzalez-Solis, Reynaldo; Simpson, Kate; Rodriguez-Romo, Laura; Hernandez-Torre, Martin H.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of educational counselling programmes aimed at increasing parents' practice of childhood safety in Monterrey, Mexico, and to provide information aimed at helping to improve the effectiveness of future efforts in this field. METHODS: Three different counselling programmes were designed to meet the needs of the upper, middle and lower socioeconomic strata. Evaluation involved the use of baseline questionnaires on parents' existing safety-related practices for intervention and control groups and the administration of corresponding questionnaires after the programmes had been carried out. FINDINGS: Data were obtained on 1124 children before counselling took place and on 625 after it had been given. Overall safety scores (% safe responses) increased from 54% and 65% for the lower and upper socioeconomic strata, respectively, before counselling to 62% and 73% after counselling (P <0.001 for all groups). Improvements occurred both for activities that required caution and for activities that required the use of safety-related devices (e.g. helmets, car seats). However, scores for the use of such devices remained suboptimal even after counselling and there were wide discrepancies between the socioeconomic strata. The post-counselling scores for the use of safety-related devices were 55%, 38% and 19% for the upper, middle and lower socioeconomic strata, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Brief educational interventions targeting parents' practice of childhood safety improved safe behaviours. Increased attention should be given to specific safety-related devices and to the safety of pedestrians. Educational efforts should be combined with other strategies for injury prevention, such as the use of legislation and the improvement of environmental conditions. PMID:14576891

  18. Complement plays an important role in spinal cord injury and represents a therapeutic target for improving recovery following trauma.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Fei; Atkinson, Carl; Song, Hongbin; Pannu, Ravinder; Singh, Inderjit; Tomlinson, Stephen

    2006-09-01

    Initiation of an inflammatory cascade following traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is thought to cause secondary injury and to adversely impact functional recovery, although the mechanisms involved are not well defined. We report on the dynamics of complement activation and deposition in the mouse spinal cord following traumatic injury, the role of complement in the development of SCI, and the characterization of a novel targeted complement inhibitor. Following traumatic injury, mice deficient in C3 had a significantly improved locomotor score when compared with wild-type controls, and analysis of their spinal cords revealed significantly more tissue sparing, with significantly less necrosis, demyelination, and neutrophil infiltration. Wild-type mice were also treated with CR2-Crry, a novel inhibitor of complement activation that targets to sites of C3 deposition. A single intravenous injection of CR2-Crry 1 hour after traumatic injury improved functional outcome and pathology to an extent similar to that seen in C3-deficient animals. CR2-Crry specifically targeted to the injured spinal cord in a distribution pattern corresponding to that seen for deposited C3. As immunosuppression is undesirable in patients following SCI, targeted CR2-Crry may provide appropriate bioavailability to treat SCI at a dose that does not significantly affect systemic levels of serum complement activity. PMID:16936276

  19. Conditional Sox9 ablation reduces chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan levels and improves motor function following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    McKillop, William M; Dragan, Magdalena; Schedl, Andreas; Brown, Arthur

    2013-02-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) found in perineuronal nets and in the glial scar after spinal cord injury have been shown to inhibit axonal growth and plasticity. Since we have previously identified SOX9 as a transcription factor that upregulates the expression of a battery of genes associated with glial scar formation in primary astrocyte cultures, we predicted that conditional Sox9 ablation would result in reduced CSPG expression after spinal cord injury and that this would lead to increased neuroplasticity and improved locomotor recovery. Control and Sox9 conditional knock-out mice were subject to a 70 kdyne contusion spinal cord injury at thoracic level 9. One week after injury, Sox9 conditional knock-out mice expressed reduced levels of CSPG biosynthetic enzymes (Xt-1 and C4st), CSPG core proteins (brevican, neurocan, and aggrecan), collagens 2a1 and 4a1, and Gfap, a marker of astrocyte activation, in the injured spinal cord compared with controls. These changes in gene expression were accompanied by improved hind limb function and locomotor recovery as evaluated by the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) and rodent activity boxes. Histological assessments confirmed reduced CSPG deposition and collagenous scarring at the lesion of Sox9 conditional knock-out mice, and demonstrated increased neurofilament-positive fibers in the lesion penumbra and increased serotonin immunoreactivity caudal to the site of injury. These results suggest that SOX9 inhibition is a potential strategy for the treatment of SCI. PMID:23027386

  20. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells combined with minocycline improve spinal cord injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dayong; Zeng, Wei; Fu, Yunfeng; Gao, Meng; Lv, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess that the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) combination with minocycline improve spinal cord injury (SCI) in rat model. In the present study, the Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group, SCI group, BMSCs group, Minocycline group and BMSCs + minocycline group. Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) test and MPO activity were used to assess the effect of combination therapy on locomotion and neutrophil infiltration. Inflammation factors, VEGF and BDNF expression, caspase-3 activation, phosphorylation-p38MAPK, proNGF, p75NTR and RhoA expressions were estimated using commercial kits or western blot, respectively. BBB scores were significantly increased and MPO activity was significantly undermined by combination therapy. In addition, combination therapy significantly decreased inflammation factors in SCI rats. Results from western blot showed that combination therapy significantly up-regulated the protein of VEGF and BDNF expression and down-regulated the protein of phosphorylation-p38MAPK, proNGF, p75NTR and RhoA expressions in SCI rats. Combination therapy stimulation also suppressed the caspase-3 activation in SCI rats. These results demonstrated that the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells combination with minocycline improve SCI in rat model. PMID:26722382

  1. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells combined with minocycline improve spinal cord injury in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dayong; Zeng, Wei; Fu, Yunfeng; Gao, Meng; Lv, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess that the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) combination with minocycline improve spinal cord injury (SCI) in rat model. In the present study, the Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group, SCI group, BMSCs group, Minocycline group and BMSCs + minocycline group. Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) test and MPO activity were used to assess the effect of combination therapy on locomotion and neutrophil infiltration. Inflammation factors, VEGF and BDNF expression, caspase-3 activation, phosphorylation-p38MAPK, proNGF, p75NTR and RhoA expressions were estimated using commercial kits or western blot, respectively. BBB scores were significantly increased and MPO activity was significantly undermined by combination therapy. In addition, combination therapy significantly decreased inflammation factors in SCI rats. Results from western blot showed that combination therapy significantly up-regulated the protein of VEGF and BDNF expression and down-regulated the protein of phosphorylation-p38MAPK, proNGF, p75NTR and RhoA expressions in SCI rats. Combination therapy stimulation also suppressed the caspase-3 activation in SCI rats. These results demonstrated that the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells combination with minocycline improve SCI in rat model. PMID:26722382

  2. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells combined with minocycline improve spinal cord injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dayong; Zeng, Wei; Fu, Yunfeng; Gao, Meng; Lv, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess that the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) combination with minocycline improve spinal cord injury (SCI) in rat model. In the present study, the Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group, SCI group, BMSCs group, Minocycline group and BMSCs + minocycline group. Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) test and MPO activity were used to assess the effect of combination therapy on locomotion and neutrophil infiltration. Inflammation factors, VEGF and BDNF expression, caspase-3 activation, phosphorylation-p38MAPK, proNGF, p75NTR and RhoA expressions were estimated using commercial kits or western blot, respectively. BBB scores were significantly increased and MPO activity was significantly undermined by combination therapy. In addition, combination therapy significantly decreased inflammation factors in SCI rats. Results from western blot showed that combination therapy significantly up-regulated the protein of VEGF and BDNF expression and down-regulated the protein of phosphorylation-p38MAPK, proNGF, p75NTR and RhoA expressions in SCI rats. Combination therapy stimulation also suppressed the caspase-3 activation in SCI rats. These results demonstrated that the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells combination with minocycline improve SCI in rat model.

  3. Interactive virtual feedback improves gait motor imagery after spinal cord injury: An exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Roosink, Meyke; Robitaille, Nicolas; Jackson, Philip L.; Bouyer, Laurent J.; Mercier, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Motor imagery can improve motor function and reduce pain. This is relevant to individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) in whom motor dysfunction and neuropathic pain are prevalent. However, therapy efficacy could be dependent on motor imagery ability, and a clear understanding of how motor imagery might be facilitated is currently lacking. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of interactive virtual feedback on motor imagery performance after SCI. Methods: Nine individuals with a traumatic SCI participated in the experiment. Motor imagery tasks consisted of forward (i.e. simpler) and backward (i.e. more complex) walking while receiving interactive versus static virtual feedback. Motor imagery performance (vividness, effort and speed), neuropathic pain intensity and feasibility (immersion, distraction, side-effects) were assessed. Results: During interactive feedback trials, motor imagery vividness and speed were significantly higher and effort was significantly lower as compared static feedback trials. No change in neuropathic pain was observed. Adverse effects were minor, and immersion was reported to be good. Conclusions: This exploratory study showed that interactive virtual walking was feasible and facilitated motor imagery performance. The response to motor imagery interventions after SCI might be improved by using interactive virtual feedback. PMID:26890097

  4. SPECT Perfusion Imaging Demonstrates Improvement of Traumatic Brain Injury With Transcranial Near-infrared Laser Phototherapy.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Theodore A; Morries, Larry D

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a growing health concern affecting civilians and military personnel. Near-infrared (NIR) light has shown benefits in animal models and human trials for stroke and in animal models for TBI. Diodes emitting low-level NIR often have lacked therapeutic efficacy, perhaps failing to deliver sufficient radiant energy to the necessary depth. In this case report, a patient with moderate TBI documented in anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) received 20 NIR treatments in the course of 2 mo using a high-power NIR laser. Symptoms were monitored by clinical examination and a novel patient diary system specifically designed for this patient population. Clinical application of these levels of infrared energy for this patient with TBI yielded highly favorable outcomes with decreased depression, anxiety, headache, and insomnia, whereas cognition and quality of life improved. Neurological function appeared to improve based on changes in the SPECT by quantitative analysis. NIR in the power range of 10-15 W at 810 and 980 nm can safely and effectively treat chronic symptoms of TBI. PMID:26535475

  5. Behavioral forecasts do not improve the prediction of future behavior: a prospective study of self-injury.

    PubMed

    Janis, Irene Belle; Nock, Matthew K

    2008-10-01

    Clinicians are routinely encouraged to use multimodal assessments incorporating information from multiple sources when determining an individual's risk of dangerous or self-injurious behavior; however, some sources of information may not improve prediction models and so should not be relied on in such assessments. The authors examined whether individuals' prediction of their own future behavior improves prediction over using history of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITB) alone. Sixty-four adolescents with a history of SITB were interviewed regarding their past year history of SITB, asked about the likelihood that they would engage in future SITB, and followed over a 6-month period. Individuals' forecasts of their future behavior were related to subsequent SITB, but did not improve prediction beyond the use of SITB history. In contrast, history of SITB improved prediction of subsequent SITB beyond individuals' behavioral forecasts. Clinicians should rely more on past history of a behavior than individuals' forecasts of future behavior in predicting SITB.

  6. Care initiation area yields dramatic results.

    PubMed

    2009-03-01

    The ED at Gaston Memorial Hospital in Gastonia, NC, has achieved dramatic results in key department metrics with a Care Initiation Area (CIA) and a physician in triage. Here's how the ED arrived at this winning solution: Leadership was trained in and implemented the Kaizen method, which eliminates redundant or inefficient process steps. Simulation software helped determine additional space needed by analyzing arrival patterns and other key data. After only two days of meetings, new ideas were implemented and tested.

  7. Dramatic Response of Nail Psoriasis to Infliximab

    PubMed Central

    Safa, Gilles; Darrieux, Laure

    2011-01-01

    Nail psoriasis, affecting up to 50% of psoriatic patients, is an important cause of serious psychological and physical distress. Traditional treatments for nail psoriasis, which include topical or intralesional corticosteroids, topical vitamin D analogues, photochemotherapy, oral retinoids, methotrexate, and cyclosporin, can be time-consuming, painful, or limited by significant toxicities. Biological agents may have the potential to revolutionize the management of patients with disabling nail psoriasis. We present another case of disabling nail psoriasis that responded dramatically to infliximab. PMID:21629846

  8. Dramatic reduction of culture time of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodbane, Ramzi; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2014-02-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture, a critical technique for routine diagnosis of tuberculosis, takes more than two weeks. Here, step-by-step improvements in the protocol including a new medium, microaerophlic atmosphere or ascorbic-acid supplement and autofluorescence detection dramatically shortened this delay. In the best case, primary culture and rifampicin susceptibility testing were achieved in 72 hours when specimens were inoculated directly on the medium supplemented by antibiotic at the beginning of the culture.

  9. Improving on Army Field Gauze for Lethal Vascular Injuries: Challenges in Dressing Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accounting for half of all deaths, uncontrolled hemorrhage remains the leading cause of death on the battlefield. Gaining hemostatic control of lethal vascular injuries sustained in combat using topical agents remains a challenge. Recent animal testing using a lethal arterial injury model compared a...

  10. Equestrian injury is costly, disabling, and frequently preventable: the imperative for improved safety awareness.

    PubMed

    Guyton, Kristina; Houchen-Wise, Emily; Peck, Ellen; Mayberry, John

    2013-01-01

    Horse-related injury can be severe and disabling. We investigated the causes, severity, and costs of equestrian injury with the goal of injury prevention. A retrospective review of horse-related injuries from 2001 to 2008 identified 231 patients with a mean age of 38 years and a mean Injury Severity Score of 11 (range, 1 to 45). Mean length of stay was 5.5 days. Fifty-nine patients (25%) required 84 surgeries. Helmet use was 20 per cent and of the 172 patients not wearing a helmet while mounted, 38 per cent received potentially preventable head injuries. There were three deaths of which two were the result of intracranial hemorrhage in riders not wearing a helmet. Mean hospital charge was $29,800 for a total of $6.9 million. Ninety-one patients completed a survey regarding causation and disability. Thirty-four per cent reported wearing a helmet at the time of injury. Forty per cent reported that poor environmental factors contributed, 30 per cent reported poor horse and rider pairing, and 9 per cent reported equipment failure. Fifty-nine per cent reported long-term disabilities. Compared with the general population, respondents had diminution in their ability to perform usual daily activities associated with physical problems, diminution in social function, and higher bodily pain. We conclude that equestrian injury is costly, disabling, and frequently preventable.

  11. Dietary Supplementation with Organoselenium Accelerates Recovery of Bladder Expression, but Does Not Improve Locomotor Function, following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Carolyn A.; Singh, Ranjana; Jones, Mackenzie T.; Yu, Chen-Guang; Power, Ronan F.; Geddes, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential element required for activity of several antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase. Because of the critical role of the antioxidant system in responding to traumatic events, we hypothesized that dietary selenium supplementation would enhance neuroprotection in a rodent model of spinal cord injury. Rats were maintained on either a control or selenium-enriched diet prior to, and following, injury. Dietary selenium supplementation, provided as selenized yeast added to normal rat chow, resulted in a doubling of selenium levels in the spinal cord. Dietary selenium reduced the time required for recovery of bladder function following thoracic spinal cord injury. However, this was not accompanied by improvement in locomotor function or tissue sparing. PMID:26824231

  12. Hydrogen sulfide improves cardiomyocytes electrical remodeling post ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-Gang; Wang, Xin-Yan; Chen, Xiu; Shen, Cheng-Xing; Li, Yi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), produced by cystanthionine-γ-lysase (CSE) in the cardiovascular system, is an endogenous gaseous mediator exerting pronounced physiological effects as the third gasotransmitter in addition to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). Accumulating evidence indicated that H2S could mediate the cardioprotective effects in myocardial ischemia model. Ventricular arrhythmia is the most important risk factor for cardiac mortality and sudden death after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The potential impact of H2S on cardiomyocytes electrical remodeling post ischemic insult is not fully explored now. Present study investigated the role of H2S on cardiomyocytes electrical remodeling in rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury. H2S concentration was reduced and arrhythmia score was increased in this model. CSE mRNA level was also upregulated in the ischemic myocardium. Exposure to exogenous NaHS reduced the action potential duration (APD), inhibited L-type Ca(2+) channels and activated K(ATP) channels in cardiomyocytes isolated from ischemic myocardium Exogenous H2S application improves electrical remodeling in cardiomyocytes isolated from ischemic myocardium. These results indicated that reduced H2S level might be linked to ischemia/reperfusion induced arrhythmias. PMID:25755736

  13. Hydrogen sulfide improves cardiomyocytes electrical remodeling post ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ying-Gang; Wang, Xin-Yan; Chen, Xiu; Shen, Cheng-Xing; Li, Yi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), produced by cystanthionine-γ-lysase (CSE) in the cardiovascular system, is an endogenous gaseous mediator exerting pronounced physiological effects as the third gasotransmitter in addition to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). Accumulating evidence indicated that H2S could mediate the cardioprotective effects in myocardial ischemia model. Ventricular arrhythmia is the most important risk factor for cardiac mortality and sudden death after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The potential impact of H2S on cardiomyocytes electrical remodeling post ischemic insult is not fully explored now. Present study investigated the role of H2S on cardiomyocytes electrical remodeling in rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury. H2S concentration was reduced and arrhythmia score was increased in this model. CSE mRNA level was also upregulated in the ischemic myocardium. Exposure to exogenous NaHS reduced the action potential duration (APD), inhibited L-type Ca2+ channels and activated KATP channels in cardiomyocytes isolated from ischemic myocardium Exogenous H2S application improves electrical remodeling in cardiomyocytes isolated from ischemic myocardium. These results indicated that reduced H2S level might be linked to ischemia/reperfusion induced arrhythmias. PMID:25755736

  14. Cannabidiol improves lung function and inflammation in mice submitted to LPS-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A; Almeida, V I; Costola-de-Souza, C; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Vitoretti, L B; Gimenes-Junior, J A; Akamine, A T; Crippa, J A; Tavares-de-Lima, W; Palermo-Neto, J

    2015-02-01

    We have previously shown that the prophylactic treatment with cannabidiol (CBD) reduces inflammation in a model of acute lung injury (ALI). In this work we analyzed the effects of the therapeutic treatment with CBD in mice subjected to the model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI on pulmonary mechanics and inflammation. CBD (20 and 80 mg/kg) was administered (i.p.) to mice 6 h after LPS-induced lung inflammation. One day (24 h) after the induction of inflammation the assessment of pulmonary mechanics and inflammation were analyzed. The results show that CBD decreased total lung resistance and elastance, leukocyte migration into the lungs, myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissue, protein concentration and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF and IL-6) and chemokines (MCP-1 and MIP-2) in the bronchoalveolar lavage supernatant. Thus, we conclude that CBD administered therapeutically, i.e. during an ongoing inflammatory process, has a potent anti-inflammatory effect and also improves the lung function in mice submitted to LPS-induced ALI. Therefore the present and previous data suggest that in the future cannabidiol might become a useful therapeutic tool for the attenuation and treatment of inflammatory lung diseases.

  15. Administration of TSG-6 improves memory after traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Jun; Shetty, Ashok K; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Kim, Dong-Ki; Foraker, Jessica E; Nishida, Hidetaka; Prockop, Darwin J

    2013-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes multiple long-term defects including a loss of working memory that is frequently incapacitating. Administrations of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) previously produced beneficial effects in models of TBI as well as other disease models. In several models, the beneficial effects were explained by the MSCs being activated to express TSG-6, a multifunctional protein that modulates inflammation. In a mouse model of TBI, we found the initial mild phase of the inflammatory response persisted for at least 24h and was followed by secondary severe response that peaked at 3days. Intravenous human MSCs or TSG-6 during initial mild phase decreased neutrophil extravasation, expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 by endothelial cells and neutrophils, and the subsequent blood brain barrier leakage in secondary phase. Administration of TSG-6 also decreased the lesion size at 2weeks. Importantly, the acute administration of TSG-6 within 24h of TBI was followed 6 to 10weeks later by improvements in memory, depressive-like behavior and the number of newly born-neurons. The data suggested that acute administration of TSG-6 may be an effective therapy for decreasing some of the long-term consequences of TBI.

  16. Iptakalim protects against ischemic injury by improving neurovascular unit function in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Ji, Juan; Yan, Hui; Chen, Zheng-Zhen; Zhao, Zhan; Yang, Dan-Dan; Sun, Xiu-Lan; Shi, Yong-Ping

    2015-07-01

    It has been reported that the novel ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channel opener iptakalim (IPT) decreases ischemic neuronal damage in rats. However, the mechanisms underlying neuroprotection are still to be fully elucidated. The results of this study showed that mice with ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion exhibited higher mortality and more neurological deficits, as well as larger infarct volume, compared with sham mice. Moreover, it was found that ischemia activated astrocytes surrounding CA1 neurons with an increased expression of D-serine, induced greater microglial activation accompanied by higher tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production, and caused higher expressions of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in the endothelial cells of mice. Pretreatment with IPT significantly attenuated the neurological deficits and decreased the infarct volume in mice. IPT treatment could decrease MMP-9 secretion, inhibit astrocytic activation with decreasing D-serine and elevating connexin43 expression. Microglial activation was also inhibited and TNF-α production was decreased by IPT. Taken together, a K-ATP channel opener may improve the function of neurovascular unit and protect against ischemic injury. These findings suggest that targeting K-ATP channels provides a promising therapeutic approach for stroke. PMID:25998857

  17. Administration of TSG-6 improves memory after traumatic brain injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Jun; Shetty, Ashok K.; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Kim, Dong-Ki; Foraker, Jessica E.; Nishida, Hidetaka; Prockop, Darwin J.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes multiple long-term defects including a loss of working memory that is frequently incapacitating. Administrations of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) previously produced beneficial effects in models of TBI as well as other disease models. In several models, the beneficial effects were explained by the MSCs being activated to express TSG-6, a multifunctional protein that modulates inflammation. In a mouse model of TBI, we found the initial mild phase of the inflammatory response persisted for at least 24 hour and was followed by secondary severe response that peaked at 3 days. Intravenous human MSCs or TSG-6 during initial mild phase decreased neutrophil extravasation, expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 by endothelial cells and neutrophils, and the subsequent blood brain barrier leakage in secondary phase. Administration of TSG-6 also decreased the lesion size at 2 weeks. Importantly, the acute administration of TSG-6 within 24 hour of TBI was followed 6 to 10 weeks later by improvements in memory, depressive-like behavior and the number of newly born-neurons. The data suggested that acute administration of TSG-6 may be an effective therapy for decreasing some of the long-term consequences of TBI. PMID:23851308

  18. Administration of α-Galactosylceramide Improves Adenine-Induced Renal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Cristhiane Favero; Naffah-de-Souza, Cristiane; Castoldi, Angela; Corrêa-Costa, Matheus; Braga, Tárcio T; Naka, Érika L; Amano, Mariane T; Abate, Débora T R S; Hiyane, Meire I; Cenedeze, Marcos A; Filho, Alvaro Pacheco e Silva; Câmara, Niels O S

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of lymphocytes that reacts to glycolipids presented by CD1d. Invariant NKT cells (iNKT) correspond to >90% of the total population of NKTs and reacts to α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer). αGalCer promotes a complex mixture of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, as interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4. NKT cells and IFN-γ are known to participate in some models of renal diseases, but further studies are still necessary to elucidate their mechanisms. The aim of our study was to analyze the participation of iNKT cells in an experimental model of tubule-interstitial nephritis. We used 8-wk-old C57BL/6j, Jα18KO and IFN-γKO mice. They were fed a 0.25% adenine diet for 10 d. Both adenine-fed wild-type (WT) and Jα18KO mice exhibited renal dysfunction, but adenine-fed Jα18KO mice presented higher expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and type I collagen. To analyze the role of activated iNKT cells in our model, we administered αGalCer in WT mice during adenine ingestion. After αGalCer injection, we observed a significant reduction in serum creatinine, proinflammatory cytokines and renal fibrosis. However, this improvement in renal function was not observed in IFN-γKO mice after αGalCer treatment and adenine feeding, illustrating that this cytokine plays a role in our model. Our findings may suggest that IFN-γ production is one of the factors contributing to improved renal function after αGalCer administration. PMID:26101952

  19. Postconditioning improvement effects of ulinastatin on brain injury following cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Sui, Bo; Li, Yongwang; Ma, Li

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of ulinastatin (UTI) on brain injury in rats subjected to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) following asphyxial cardiac arrest (CA) and identify the underlying mechanisms. In total, 100 healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and treatment groups (n=50). After 4 min of asphyxial CA, all the rats were immediately subjected to CPR. The treatment group animals were administered 15 mg/kg UTI at the onset of resuscitation. The mortality rate in the two groups was recorded at 24 h post-resuscitation. In addition, neurological function was evaluated at 24, 48 and 72 h post-resuscitation using a neurological deficit scale (NDS). Furthermore, the effects of UTI on the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway in brain tissues were determined by assessing TLR4 mRNA expression, nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 levels at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-resuscitation. After 24 h, the mortality rate significantly decreased in the treatment group when compared with the control animals (10 vs. 30%; P<0.05). Additionally, an overt improvement was observed in the NDS score following UTI treatment when compared with the control (P<0.01). Finally, statistically significant decreases in the levels of TLR4 mRNA expression, NF-κB activity and TNF-α and IL-6 were observed in the treatment group at each time point (P<0.01). Therefore, UTI treatment at the onset of CPR significantly inhibits the TLR4 signaling pathway, thereby alleviating the inflammatory responses following resuscitation and improving neurological function.

  20. TRPV4 inhibition counteracts edema and inflammation and improves pulmonary function and oxygen saturation in chemically induced acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Song, Weifeng; Achanta, Satyanarayana; Doran, Stephen F.; Liu, Boyi; Kaelberer, Melanie M.; Yu, Zhihong; Sui, Aiwei; Cheung, Mui; Leishman, Emma; Eidam, Hilary S.; Ye, Guosen; Willette, Robert N.; Thorneloe, Kevin S.; Bradshaw, Heather B.; Matalon, Sadis

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of acute lung injury caused by exposure to reactive chemicals remains challenging because of the lack of mechanism-based therapeutic approaches. Recent studies have shown that transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), an ion channel expressed in pulmonary tissues, is a crucial mediator of pressure-induced damage associated with ventilator-induced lung injury, heart failure, and infarction. Here, we examined the effects of two novel TRPV4 inhibitors in mice exposed to hydrochloric acid, mimicking acid exposure and acid aspiration injury, and to chlorine gas, a severe chemical threat with frequent exposures in domestic and occupational environments and in transportation accidents. Postexposure treatment with a TRPV4 inhibitor suppressed acid-induced pulmonary inflammation by diminishing neutrophils, macrophages, and associated chemokines and cytokines, while improving tissue pathology. These effects were recapitulated in TRPV4-deficient mice. TRPV4 inhibitors had similar anti-inflammatory effects in chlorine-exposed mice and inhibited vascular leakage, airway hyperreactivity, and increase in elastance, while improving blood oxygen saturation. In both models of lung injury we detected increased concentrations of N-acylamides, a class of endogenous TRP channel agonists. Taken together, we demonstrate that TRPV4 inhibitors are potent and efficacious countermeasures against severe chemical exposures, acting against exaggerated inflammatory responses, and protecting tissue barriers and cardiovascular function. PMID:24838754

  1. TRPV4 inhibition counteracts edema and inflammation and improves pulmonary function and oxygen saturation in chemically induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Song, Weifeng; Achanta, Satyanarayana; Doran, Stephen F; Liu, Boyi; Kaelberer, Melanie M; Yu, Zhihong; Sui, Aiwei; Cheung, Mui; Leishman, Emma; Eidam, Hilary S; Ye, Guosen; Willette, Robert N; Thorneloe, Kevin S; Bradshaw, Heather B; Matalon, Sadis; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2014-07-15

    The treatment of acute lung injury caused by exposure to reactive chemicals remains challenging because of the lack of mechanism-based therapeutic approaches. Recent studies have shown that transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), an ion channel expressed in pulmonary tissues, is a crucial mediator of pressure-induced damage associated with ventilator-induced lung injury, heart failure, and infarction. Here, we examined the effects of two novel TRPV4 inhibitors in mice exposed to hydrochloric acid, mimicking acid exposure and acid aspiration injury, and to chlorine gas, a severe chemical threat with frequent exposures in domestic and occupational environments and in transportation accidents. Postexposure treatment with a TRPV4 inhibitor suppressed acid-induced pulmonary inflammation by diminishing neutrophils, macrophages, and associated chemokines and cytokines, while improving tissue pathology. These effects were recapitulated in TRPV4-deficient mice. TRPV4 inhibitors had similar anti-inflammatory effects in chlorine-exposed mice and inhibited vascular leakage, airway hyperreactivity, and increase in elastance, while improving blood oxygen saturation. In both models of lung injury we detected increased concentrations of N-acylamides, a class of endogenous TRP channel agonists. Taken together, we demonstrate that TRPV4 inhibitors are potent and efficacious countermeasures against severe chemical exposures, acting against exaggerated inflammatory responses, and protecting tissue barriers and cardiovascular function. PMID:24838754

  2. Fluoxetine and vitamin C synergistically inhibits blood-spinal cord barrier disruption and improves functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee Y; Choi, Hae Y; Yune, Tae Y

    2016-10-01

    Recently we reported that fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) improves functional recovery by attenuating blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption after spinal cord injury (SCI). Here we investigated whether a low-dose of fluoxetine (1 mg/kg) and vitamin C (100 mg/kg), separately not possessing any protective effect, prevents BSCB disruption and improves functional recovery when combined. After a moderate contusion injury at T9 in rat, a low-dose of fluoxetine and vitamin C, or the combination of both was administered intraperitoneally immediately after SCI and further treated once a day for 14 d. Co-treatment with fluoxetine and vitamin C significantly attenuated BSCB permeability at 1 d after SCI. When only fluoxetine or vitamin C was treated after injury, however, there was no effect on BSCB disruption. Co-treatment with fluoxetine and vitamin C also significantly inhibited the expression and activation of MMP-9 at 8 h and 1 d after injury, respectively, and the infiltration of neutrophils (at 1 d) and macrophages (at 5 d) and the expression of inflammatory mediators (at 2 h, 6 h, 8 h or 24 h after injury) were significantly inhibited by co-treatment with fluoxetine and vitamin C. Furthermore, the combination of fluoxetine and vitamin C attenuated apoptotic cell death at 1 d and 5 d and improved locomotor function at 5 weeks after SCI. These results demonstrate the synergistic effect combination of low-dose fluoxetine and vitamin C on BSCB disruption after SCI and furthermore support the effectiveness of the combination treatment regimen for the management of acute SCI.

  3. Chronic caloric restriction reduces tissue damage and improves spatial memory in a rat model of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Rich, Nicholas J; Van Landingham, Jacob W; Figueiroa, Silvia; Seth, Rohit; Corniola, Rikki S; Levenson, Cathy W

    2010-10-01

    Although it has been known for some time that chronic caloric or dietary restriction reduces the risk of neurodegenerative disorders and injury following ischemia, the possible role of chronic restriction in improving outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been previously studied. Therefore, 2-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two dietary groups, an ad libitum fed group (AL) and a caloric-restriction group (CR) that was provided with 70% of the food intake of AL rats (n = 10/group). After 4 months, a weight-drop device (300 g) was used to produce a 2-mm bilateral medial frontal cortex contusion following craniotomy. Additional animals in each dietary group (n = 10) were used as sham-operated controls. The CR diet resulted in body weights that were reduced by 30% compared with AL controls. Not only did CR decrease the size of the cortical lesion after injury, there were marked improvements in spatial memory as measured by Morris water maze that included an increase in the number of animals successfully finding the platform as well as significantly reduced time to finding the hidden platform. Western analysis, used to examine the expression of proteins that play a role in neuronal survival, revealed significant increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the cortical region around the site of injury and in the hippocampus in CR rats after injury. These findings suggest that molecular mechanisms involved in cell survival may play a role in reducing tissue damage and improving cognition after TBI and that these mechanisms can be regulated by dietary interventions. PMID:20544832

  4. Fluoxetine and vitamin C synergistically inhibits blood-spinal cord barrier disruption and improves functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee Y; Choi, Hae Y; Yune, Tae Y

    2016-10-01

    Recently we reported that fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) improves functional recovery by attenuating blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption after spinal cord injury (SCI). Here we investigated whether a low-dose of fluoxetine (1 mg/kg) and vitamin C (100 mg/kg), separately not possessing any protective effect, prevents BSCB disruption and improves functional recovery when combined. After a moderate contusion injury at T9 in rat, a low-dose of fluoxetine and vitamin C, or the combination of both was administered intraperitoneally immediately after SCI and further treated once a day for 14 d. Co-treatment with fluoxetine and vitamin C significantly attenuated BSCB permeability at 1 d after SCI. When only fluoxetine or vitamin C was treated after injury, however, there was no effect on BSCB disruption. Co-treatment with fluoxetine and vitamin C also significantly inhibited the expression and activation of MMP-9 at 8 h and 1 d after injury, respectively, and the infiltration of neutrophils (at 1 d) and macrophages (at 5 d) and the expression of inflammatory mediators (at 2 h, 6 h, 8 h or 24 h after injury) were significantly inhibited by co-treatment with fluoxetine and vitamin C. Furthermore, the combination of fluoxetine and vitamin C attenuated apoptotic cell death at 1 d and 5 d and improved locomotor function at 5 weeks after SCI. These results demonstrate the synergistic effect combination of low-dose fluoxetine and vitamin C on BSCB disruption after SCI and furthermore support the effectiveness of the combination treatment regimen for the management of acute SCI. PMID:27256500

  5. An Experimentally Determined Evolutionary Model Dramatically Improves Phylogenetic Fit

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Jesse D.

    2014-01-01

    All modern approaches to molecular phylogenetics require a quantitative model for how genes evolve. Unfortunately, existing evolutionary models do not realistically represent the site-heterogeneous selection that governs actual sequence change. Attempts to remedy this problem have involved augmenting these models with a burgeoning number of free parameters. Here, I demonstrate an alternative: Experimental determination of a parameter-free evolutionary model via mutagenesis, functional selection, and deep sequencing. Using this strategy, I create an evolutionary model for influenza nucleoprotein that describes the gene phylogeny far better than existing models with dozens or even hundreds of free parameters. Emerging high-throughput experimental strategies such as the one employed here provide fundamentally new information that has the potential to transform the sensitivity of phylogenetic and genetic analyses. PMID:24859245

  6. Continuous improvement after multiple mesenchymal stem cell transplantations in a patient with complete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Jarocha, Danuta; Milczarek, Olga; Wedrychowicz, Anna; Kwiatkowski, Stanislaw; Majka, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Interruption of spinal cord (SC) continuity leads to functional loss below the lesion level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of bone marrow nucleated cell (BMNC) and multiple mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantations in spinal cord injury (SCI). A patient with total SC interruption at the Th2-3 level underwent experimental therapy with BMNC and MSC transplantations followed with intensive neurorehabilitation treatment. At admission, 6 h after SCI, the patient was scored ASIA A, had a Th1 sensation level, paraplegia with sphincter palsy, and was without the ability to control trunk movement. Neurophysiology examination showed bilateral axonal damage to the motor and sensory neural fibers with no motor unit potentials or peripheral motor nerve conduction in the lower extremities. The standard therapy had been applied and had not produced any positive results. The patient was treated with autologous BMNCs injected intravenously (3.2×10(9)) and intrathecally (0.5×10(9)) 10 weeks after the SCI and with five rounds of MSCs every 3-4 months (1.3-3.65×10(7)) administered via lumbar puncture. Total number of transplanted MSC cells during the course of treatment was 1.54×10(8). There were no complications related to transplantations and no side effects related to the therapy during 2 years of treatment. The ASIA score improved from A to C/D (from 112 to 231 points). The sensation level expanded from Th1 to L3-4, and the patient's ability to control the body trunk was fully restored. Bladder filling sensation, bladder control, and anal sensation were also restored. Muscle strength in the left lower extremities improved from plegia to deep paresis (1 on the Lovett scale). The patient's ability to move lower extremities against gravity supported by the movements in quadriceps was restored. The patient gained the ability to stand in a standing frame and was able to walk with the support of hip and knee ortheses. Magnetic resonance imaging

  7. Intravenous Transplantation of Mesenchymal Progenitors Distribute Solely to the Lungs and Improve Outcomes in Cervical Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    White, Seok Voon; Czisch, Chris E; Han, May H; Plant, Christine D; Harvey, Alan R; Plant, Giles W

    2016-07-01

    Cellular transplantation strategies utilizing intraspinal injection of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) have been reported as beneficial for spinal cord injuries. However, intraspinal injection is not only technically challenging, but requires invasive surgical procedures for patients. Therefore, we investigated the feasibility and potential benefits of noninvasive intravenous injection of MPCs in two models of cervical spinal cord injury, unilateral C5 contusion and complete unilateral C5 hemisection. MPCs isolated from green fluorescence protein (GFP)-luciferase transgenic mice compact bone (1 × 10(6) cells), or vehicle Hank's Buffered Saline Solution (HBSS), were intravenously injected via the tail vein at D1, D3, D7, D10, or D14. Transplanted MPCs were tracked via bioluminescence imaging. Live in vivo imaging data showed that intravenously injected MPCs accumulate in the lungs, confirmed by postmortem bioluminescence signal-irrespective of the time of injection or injury model. The results showed a rapid, positive modulation of the inflammatory response providing protection to the injured spinal cord tissue. Histological processing of the lungs showed GFP(+) cells evenly distributed around the alveoli. We propose that injected cells can act as cellular target decoys to an immune system primed by injury, thereby lessening the inflammatory response at the injury site. We also propose that intravenous injected MPCs modulate the immune system via the lungs through secreted immune mediators or contact interaction with peripheral organs. In conclusion, the timing of intravenous injection of MPCs is key to the success for improving function and tissue preservation following cervical spinal cord injury. Stem Cells 2016;34:1812-1825.

  8. Intravenous Transplantation of Mesenchymal Progenitors Distribute Solely to the Lungs and Improve Outcomes in Cervical Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    White, Seok Voon; Czisch, Chris E; Han, May H; Plant, Christine D; Harvey, Alan R; Plant, Giles W

    2016-07-01

    Cellular transplantation strategies utilizing intraspinal injection of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) have been reported as beneficial for spinal cord injuries. However, intraspinal injection is not only technically challenging, but requires invasive surgical procedures for patients. Therefore, we investigated the feasibility and potential benefits of noninvasive intravenous injection of MPCs in two models of cervical spinal cord injury, unilateral C5 contusion and complete unilateral C5 hemisection. MPCs isolated from green fluorescence protein (GFP)-luciferase transgenic mice compact bone (1 × 10(6) cells), or vehicle Hank's Buffered Saline Solution (HBSS), were intravenously injected via the tail vein at D1, D3, D7, D10, or D14. Transplanted MPCs were tracked via bioluminescence imaging. Live in vivo imaging data showed that intravenously injected MPCs accumulate in the lungs, confirmed by postmortem bioluminescence signal-irrespective of the time of injection or injury model. The results showed a rapid, positive modulation of the inflammatory response providing protection to the injured spinal cord tissue. Histological processing of the lungs showed GFP(+) cells evenly distributed around the alveoli. We propose that injected cells can act as cellular target decoys to an immune system primed by injury, thereby lessening the inflammatory response at the injury site. We also propose that intravenous injected MPCs modulate the immune system via the lungs through secreted immune mediators or contact interaction with peripheral organs. In conclusion, the timing of intravenous injection of MPCs is key to the success for improving function and tissue preservation following cervical spinal cord injury. Stem Cells 2016;34:1812-1825. PMID:26989838

  9. Matrine attenuates focal cerebral ischemic injury by improving antioxidant activity and inhibiting apoptosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, PENG; ZHOU, RU; ZHU, XIAO-YUN; HAO, YIN-JU; LI, NAN; WANG, JIE; NIU, YANG; SUN, TAO; LI, YU-XIANG; YU, JIAN-QIANG

    2015-01-01

    Matrine, an active constituent of the Chinese herb, Sophora flavescens Ait., and it is known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. It has been demonstrated that matrine exerts protective effects against heart failure by decreasing the expression of caspase-3 and Bax, and increasing Bcl-2 levels. In this study, we aimed to determine whether these protective effects of matrine can be applied to cerebral ischemia. Following 7 successive days of treatment with matrine (7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg) and nimodipine (1 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection, male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Following reperfusion, the neurobehavioral score and brain infarct volume were estimated, and morphological changes were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and electron microscopy. The percentage of apoptotic neurons was determined by flow cytometry. The levels of oxidative stress were assessed by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT), and the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining were used to examine the expression of the apoptosis-related proteins, caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2. Our results revealed that pre-treatment with matrine significantly decreased the infarct volume and improved the neurological scores. Matrine also reduced the percentage of apoptotic neurons and relieved neuronal morphological damage. Furthermore, matrine markedly decreased the MDA levels, and increased SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activity, and T-AOC. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining revealed a marked decrease in caspase-3 expression and an increase in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in the group pre-treated with matrine (30 mg/kg) as compared with the vehicle-treated group. The findings of the present study demonstrate that matrine exerts neuroprotective effects against

  10. Matrine attenuates focal cerebral ischemic injury by improving antioxidant activity and inhibiting apoptosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Zhou, Ru; Zhu, Xiao-Yun; Hao, Yin-Ju; Li, Nan; Wang, Jie; Niu, Yang; Sun, Tao; Li, Yu-Xiang; Yu, Jian-Qiang

    2015-09-01

    Matrine, an active constituent of the Chinese herb, Sophora flavescens Ait., and it is known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. It has been demonstrated that matrine exerts protective effects against heart failure by decreasing the expression of caspase-3 and Bax, and increasing Bcl‑2 levels. In this study, we aimed to determine whether these protective effects of matrine can be applied to cerebral ischemia. Following 7 successive days of treatment with matrine (7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg) and nimodipine (1 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection, male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Following reperfusion, the neurobehavioral score and brain infarct volume were estimated, and morphological changes were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and electron microscopy. The percentage of apoptotic neurons was determined by flow cytometry. The levels of oxidative stress were assessed by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT), and the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining were used to examine the expression of the apoptosis-related proteins, caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2. Our results revealed that pre-treatment with matrine significantly decreased the infarct volume and improved the neurological scores. Matrine also reduced the percentage of apoptotic neurons and relieved neuronal morphological damage. Furthermore, matrine markedly decreased the MDA levels, and increased SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activity, and T-AOC. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining revealed a marked decrease in caspase-3 expression and an increase in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in the group pre-treated with matrine (30 mg/kg) as compared with the vehicle-treated group. The findings of the present study demonstrate that matrine exerts neuroprotective effects against

  11. Eprosartan improves cardiac function in swine working heart model of ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Weymann, Alexander; Sabashnikov, Anton; Patil, Nikhil P.; Konertz, Wolfgang; Modersohn, Diethelm; Dohmen, Pascal M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Eprosartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used as an antihypertensive. We sought to evaluate the regional effect of Eprosartan on postinfarct ventricular remodeling and myocardial function in an isolated swine working heart model of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Material/Methods 22 swine hearts were perfused with the Langendorff perfusion apparatus under standard experimental conditions. Myocardial ischemia was induced by a 10-min left anterior descending artery ligation. Hearts were reperfused with either saline (control group, n=11), or Eprosartan (treatment group, n=11). Left ventricular pressure (LVP) and regional heart parameters such as intramyocardial pressure (IMP), wall thickening rate (WTh), and pressure-length-loops (PLL) were measured at baseline and after 30 min of reperfusion. Results Measured parameters were statistically similar between the 2 groups at baseline. The administration of Eprosartan led to a significantly better recovery of IMP and WTh: 44.4±2.5 mmHg vs. 51.2±3.3 mmHg, p<0.001 and 3.8±0.4 μm vs. 4.4±0.3 μm, p=0.001, respectively. PLL were also significantly higher in the treatment group following reperfusion (21694±3259 units vs. 31267±3429 units, p<0.01). There was no difference in the LVP response to Eprosartan versus controls (63.6±3.0 mmHg vs. 62.5±3.1 mmHg, p=0.400). Conclusions Pre-treatment with Eprosartan is associated with a significant improvement in regional cardiac function under ischemic conditions. Pharmacological treatment with eprosartan may exert a direct cardioprotective effect on ischemic myocardium. PMID:24762635

  12. Matrine attenuates focal cerebral ischemic injury by improving antioxidant activity and inhibiting apoptosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Zhou, Ru; Zhu, Xiao-Yun; Hao, Yin-Ju; Li, Nan; Wang, Jie; Niu, Yang; Sun, Tao; Li, Yu-Xiang; Yu, Jian-Qiang

    2015-09-01

    Matrine, an active constituent of the Chinese herb, Sophora flavescens Ait., and it is known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. It has been demonstrated that matrine exerts protective effects against heart failure by decreasing the expression of caspase-3 and Bax, and increasing Bcl‑2 levels. In this study, we aimed to determine whether these protective effects of matrine can be applied to cerebral ischemia. Following 7 successive days of treatment with matrine (7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg) and nimodipine (1 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection, male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Following reperfusion, the neurobehavioral score and brain infarct volume were estimated, and morphological changes were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and electron microscopy. The percentage of apoptotic neurons was determined by flow cytometry. The levels of oxidative stress were assessed by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT), and the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining were used to examine the expression of the apoptosis-related proteins, caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2. Our results revealed that pre-treatment with matrine significantly decreased the infarct volume and improved the neurological scores. Matrine also reduced the percentage of apoptotic neurons and relieved neuronal morphological damage. Furthermore, matrine markedly decreased the MDA levels, and increased SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activity, and T-AOC. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining revealed a marked decrease in caspase-3 expression and an increase in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in the group pre-treated with matrine (30 mg/kg) as compared with the vehicle-treated group. The findings of the present study demonstrate that matrine exerts neuroprotective effects against

  13. Low-level laser irradiation improves functional recovery and nerve regeneration in sciatic nerve crush rat injury model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chau-Zen; Chen, Yi-Jen; Wang, Yan-Hsiung; Yeh, Ming-Long; Huang, Mao-Hsiung; Ho, Mei-Ling; Liang, Jen-I; Chen, Chia-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The development of noninvasive approaches to facilitate the regeneration of post-traumatic nerve injury is important for clinical rehabilitation. In this study, we investigated the effective dose of noninvasive 808-nm low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on sciatic nerve crush rat injury model. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 experimental groups: a normal group with or without 808-nm LLLT at 8 J/cm(2) and a sciatic nerve crush injury group with or without 808-nm LLLT at 3, 8 or 15 J/cm(2). Rats were given consecutive transcutaneous LLLT at the crush site and sacrificed 20 days after the crush injury. Functional assessments of nerve regeneration were analyzed using the sciatic functional index (SFI) and hindlimb range of motion (ROM). Nerve regeneration was investigated by measuring the myelin sheath thickness of the sciatic nerve using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by analyzing the expression of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) in sciatic nerve using western blot and immunofluorescence staining. We found that sciatic-injured rats that were irradiated with LLLT at both 3 and 8 J/cm(2) had significantly improved SFI but that a significant improvement of ROM was only found in rats with LLLT at 8 J/cm(2). Furthermore, the myelin sheath thickness and GAP43 expression levels were significantly enhanced in sciatic nerve-crushed rats receiving 808-nm LLLT at 3 and 8 J/cm(2). Taken together, these results suggest that 808-nm LLLT at a low energy density (3 J/cm(2) and 8 J/cm(2)) is capable of enhancing sciatic nerve regeneration following a crush injury. PMID:25119457

  14. Intravenous infusion of magnesium chloride improves epicenter blood flow during the acute stage of contusive spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Muradov, Johongir M; Hagg, Theo

    2013-05-15

    Vasospasm, hemorrhage, and loss of microvessels at the site of contusive or compressive spinal cord injury lead to infarction and initiate secondary degeneration. Here, we used intravenous injection of endothelial-binding lectin followed by histology to show that the number of perfused microvessels at the injury site is decreased by 80-90% as early as 20 min following a moderate T9 contusion in adult female rats. Hemorrhage within the spinal cord also was maximal at 20 min, consistent with its vasoconstrictive actions in the central nervous system (CNS). Microvascular blood flow recovered to up to 50% of normal volume in the injury penumbra by 6 h, but not at the epicenter. A comparison with an endothelial cell marker suggested that many microvessels fail to be reperfused up to 48 h post-injury. The ischemia was probably caused by vasospasm of vessels penetrating the parenchyma, because repeated Doppler measurements over the spinal cord showed a doubling of total blood flow over the first 12 h. Moreover, intravenous infusion of magnesium chloride, used clinically to treat CNS vasospasm, greatly improved the number of perfused microvessels at 24 and 48 h. The magnesium treatment seemed safe as it did not increase hemorrhage, despite the improved parenchymal blood flow. However, the treatment did not reduce acute microvessel, motor neuron or oligodendrocyte loss, and when infused for 7 days did not affect functional recovery or spared epicenter white matter over a 4 week period. These data suggest that microvascular blood flow can be restored with a clinically relevant treatment following spinal cord injury.

  15. Wound Healing Immediately Post-Thermal Injury Is Improved by Fat and Adipose Derived Stem Cell Isografts

    PubMed Central

    Loder, Shawn; Peterson, Jonathan R.; Agarwal, Shailesh; Eboda, Oluwatobi; Brownley, Cameron; DeLaRosa, Sara; Ranganathan, Kavitha; Cederna, Paul; Wang, Stewart C.; Levi, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Patients with severe burns suffer functional, structural, and aesthetic complications. It is important to explore reconstructive options given that no ideal treatment exists. Transfer of adipose and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) has been shown to improve healing in various models. We hypothesize that use of fat isografts and/or ASCs will improve healing in a mouse model of burn injury. Methods Twenty 6–8 week old C57BL/6 male mice received a 30% surface area partial-thickness scald burn. Adipose tissue and ASCs from inguinal fat pads were harvested from a second group of C57BL/6 mice. Burned mice received 500μl subcutaneous injection at burn site of 1) processed adipose, 2) ASCs, 3) mixed adipose (adipose and ASCs), or 4) sham (saline) injection (n=5/group) on the first day post-injury. Mice were followed by serial photography until sacrifice at days 5 and 14. Wounds were assessed for burn depth and healing by Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemistry. Results All treated groups showed improved healing over controls defined by decreased wound depth, area, and apoptotic activity. After 5 days, mice receiving ASCs or mixed adipose displayed a non-significant improvement in vascularization. No significant changes in proliferation were noted at 5 days. Conclusions Adipose isografts improve some early markers of healing post-burn injury. We demonstrate that addition of these grafts improve specific structural markers of healing. This improvement may be due to an increase in early wound vascularity post-graft. Further studies are needed to optimize use of fat or ASC grafts in acute and reconstructive surgery. PMID:25185931

  16. Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Intraspinal Transplants Fail to Improve Motor Outcomes in a Severe Model of Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Brock, John H; Graham, Lori; Staufenberg, Eileen; Collyer, Eileen; Koffler, Jacob; Tuszynski, Mark H

    2016-06-15

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been reported to exert potential neuroprotective properties in models of neurotrauma, although precise mechanisms underlying their benefits are poorly understood. Despite this lack of knowledge, several clinical trials have been initiated using these cells. To determine whether local mechanisms mediate BMSC neuroprotective actions, we grafted allogeneic BMSCs to sites of severe, compressive spinal cord injury (SCI) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Cells were administered 48 h after the original injury. Additional animals received allogeneic MSCs that were genetically modified to secrete brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to further determine whether a locally administered neurotrophic factor provides or extends neuroprotection. When assessed 2 months post-injury in a clinically relevant model of severe SCI, BMSC grafts with or without BDNF secretion failed to improve motor outcomes. Thus, allogeneic grafts of BMSCs do not appear to act through local mechanisms, and future clinical trials that acutely deliver BMSCs to actual sites of injury within days are unlikely to be beneficial. Additional studies should address whether systemic administration of BMSCs alter outcomes from neurotrauma.

  17. Mildly Reduced Brain Swelling and Improved Neurological Outcome in Aquaporin-4 Knockout Mice following Controlled Cortical Impact Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Kazuyoshi; Papadopoulos, Marios C.; Zador, Zsolt; Manley, Geoffrey T.; Verkman, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Brain edema following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Prior indirect evidence has suggested the involvement of astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the pathogenesis of TBI. Here, focal TBI was produced in wild type (AQP4+/+) and knockout (AQP4−/−) mice by controlled cortical impact injury (CCI) following craniotomy with dura intact (parameters: velocity 4.5 m/sec, depth 1.7 mm, dwell time 150 msec). AQP4-deficient mice showed a small but significant reduction in injury volume in the first week after CCI, with a small improvement in neurological outcome. Mechanistic studies showed reduced intracranial pressure at 6 h after CCI in AQP4−/− mice, compared with AQP4+/+ control mice (11 vs. 19 mm Hg), with reduced local brain water accumulation as assessed gravimetrically. Transmission electron microscopy showed reduced astrocyte foot-process area in AQP4−/− mice at 24 h after CCI, with greater capillary lumen area. Blood–brain barrier disruption assessed by Evans blue dye extravasation was similar in AQP4+/+ and AQP4−/− mice. We conclude that the mildly improved outcome in AQP4−/− mice following CCI results from reduced cytotoxic brain water accumulation, though concurrent cytotoxic and vasogenic mechanisms in TBI make the differences small compared to those seen in disorders where cytotoxic edema predominates. PMID:25790314

  18. Liquid ventilation improves pulmonary function, gas exchange, and lung injury in a model of respiratory failure.

    PubMed Central

    Hirschl, R B; Parent, A; Tooley, R; McCracken, M; Johnson, K; Shaffer, T H; Wolfson, M R; Bartlett, R H

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors evaluated gas exchange, pulmonary function, and lung histology during perfluorocarbon liquid ventilation (LV) when compared with gas ventilation (GV) in the setting of severe respiratory failure. BACKGROUND: The efficacy of LV in the setting of respiratory failure has been evaluated in premature animals with surfactant deficiency. However, very little work has been performed in evaluating the efficacy of LV in older animal models of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: A stable model of lung injury was induced in 12 young sheep weighing 16.4 +/- 3.0 kg using right atrial injection of 0.07 mL/kg of oleic acid followed by saline pulmonary lavage and bijugular venovenous extracorporeal life support (ECLS). For the first 30 minutes on ECLS, all animals were ventilated with gas. Animals were then ventilated with either 15 mL/kg gas (GV, n = 6) or perflubron ([PFC], LV, n = 6) over the ensuing 2.5 hours. Subsequently, ECLS was discontinued in five of the GV animals and five of the LV animals, and GV or LV continued for 1 hour or until death. MAIN FINDINGS: Physiologic shunt (Qps/Qt) was significantly reduced in the LV animals when compared with the GV animals (LV = 31 +/- 10%; GV = 93 +/- 4%; p < 0.001) after 3 hours of ECLS. At the same time point, pulmonary compliance (CT) was significantly increased in the LV group when compared with the GV group (LV = 1.04 +/- 0.19 mL/cm H2O/kg; GV = 0.41 +/- 0.02 mL/cm H2O/kg; p < 0.001). In addition, the ECLS flow rate required to maintain the PaO2 in the 50- to 80-mm Hg range was substantially and significantly lower in the LV group when compared with that of the GV group (LV = 14 +/- 5 mL/kg/min; GV = 87 +/- 15 mL/kg/min; p < 0.001). All of the GV animals died after discontinuation of ECLS, whereas all the LV animals demonstrated effective gas exchange without extracorporeal support for 1 hour (p < 0.01). Lung biopsy light microscopy demonstrated a marked reduction in alveolar hemorrhage

  19. Inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase improves gas exchange in ventilator-induced lung injury after pneumonectomy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mechanical ventilation with high tidal volumes may cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and enhanced generation of nitric oxide (NO). We demonstrated in sheep that pneumonectomy followed by injurious ventilation promotes pulmonary edema. We wished both to test the hypothesis that neuronal NOS (nNOS), which is distributed in airway epithelial and neuronal tissues, could be involved in the pathogenesis of VILI and we also aimed at investigating the influence of an inhibitor of nNOS on the course of VILI after pneumonectomy. Methods Anesthetized sheep underwent right pneumonectomy, mechanical ventilation with tidal volumes (VT) of 6 mL/kg and FiO2 0.5, and were subsequently randomized to a protectively ventilated group (PROTV; n = 8) keeping VT and FiO2 unchanged, respiratory rate (RR) 25 inflations/min and PEEP 4 cm H2O for the following 8 hrs; an injuriously ventilated group with VT of 12 mL/kg, zero end-expiratory pressure, and FiO2 and RR unchanged (INJV; n = 8) and a group, which additionally received the inhibitor of nNOS, 7-nitroindazole (NI) 1.0 mg/kg/h intravenously from 2 hours after the commencement of injurious ventilation (INJV + NI; n = 8). We assessed respiratory, hemodynamic and volumetric variables, including both the extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and the pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI). We measured plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels and examined lung biopsies for lung injury score (LIS). Results Both the injuriously ventilated groups demonstrated a 2–3-fold rise in EVLWI and PVPI, with no significant effects of NI. In the INJV group, gas exchange deteriorated in parallel with emerging respiratory acidosis, but administration of NI antagonized the derangement of oxygenation and the respiratory acidosis significantly. NOx displayed no significant changes and NI exerted no significant effect on LIS in the INJV group. Conclusion Inhibition of nNOS improved gas exchange, but did not

  20. Ozonated laundering: Radical concept claims dramatic savings

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, B.

    1993-12-31

    An innovative commercial laundering technology that uses no hot water and no detergent holds promise of dramatic savings in energy, water, chemicals, labor, and sewage fees. Users report good results, but the conservative laundry industry is likely to be skeptical, especially in light of the powerful role played by chemical and equipment manufacturers. While ozonated laundering technology uses more electricity than conventional approaches in some applications, the reported advantages in terms of overall resource efficiency and cost savings could make it an attractive option from the perspective of end-users and utility companies alike. As yet, there are many unanswered questions about the process. There is no theoretical basis to explain how ozone cleans, and no third-party testing to verify these impressive savings. Reports from installations at two Marriott hotels, however, appear to corroborate the manufacturer`s claims. This report assesses the controversial elements of the ozonated laundering process, compiles users` comments and concerns, and reports on current research about how the process works. More independent study will be needed, however, to provide a basis for acceptance of such a radical divergence from the norm in commercial laundering.

  1. Improvement patterns among survivors of brain injury: three case examples documenting the effectiveness of memory compensation strategies.

    PubMed

    Van Hulle, Andrea; Hux, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Three case examples illustrate possible patterns of improved functioning that may emerge as survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI) attempt compensation for persistent memory deficits impeding independent living. The task selected for report was independence in remembering to take regularly-prescribed medications. Strategies applied to promote learning included use of written reminders and use of two assistive technology (AT) devices-a wristwatch alarm (WatchMinder) and a digital voice recorder and alarm system (Voice Craft ). With participation in the intervention programme, two of the three individuals demonstrated increased independence in remembering to take medications; the third did not. The case examples illustrate varying responses of people with TBI to intervention using compensatory strategies and AT devices. Professionals and caretakers working with survivors must recognize the uniqueness of each survivor, must adjust intervention programmes accordingly and must be willing to persist in trying to increase functional independence repeatedly for many years post-injury.

  2. Atypical Antipsychotic Medication Improves Aggression, but Not Self-Injurious Behaviour, in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruedrich, S. L.; Swales, T. P.; Rossvanes, C.; Diana, L.; Arkadiev, V.; Lim, K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Atypical antipsychotic medications have largely supplanted their typical counterparts, both for psychosis and for the treatment of aggression and/or self-injurious behaviour (SIB), in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, with the exception of risperidone, little systematic research supports their use in such persons.…

  3. Can Stretching Prior to Exercise and Sports Improve Performance and Prevent Injury?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracko, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Examines data from research on stretching as it relates to enhanced performance and injury prevention so that fitness, exercise, and sports performance professionals can make informed decisions about stretching programs for clients. The paper notes that stretching is a misunderstood component of fitness and sports training. Few studies show…

  4. Improving on army field gauze for lethal vascular injuries: a progress report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage is the leading cause of death on the battlefield and second leading cause of death in civilian trauma. Recent animal testing using a lethal arterial injury model compared a variety of woven and non woven products with granular products, and found only one product (WoundStat)...

  5. Improving the Quality of Staff and Participant Interaction in an Acquired Brain Injury Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guercio, John M.; Dixon, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Weekly observations of direct-care staff in a facility for persons with brain injury yielded less than optimal interactional style with facility residents. Following an observational baseline, staff were asked to self-rate a 15-min video sample of their interaction behavior with participants on their unit. They were then asked to compare their…

  6. A Day at the Improv.... The Assessment and Treatment of Musculoskeletal Injuries in the Backcountry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Brent

    Outdoor leaders and those involved in personal outdoor adventure pursuits must be knowledgeable in the assessment, treatment, and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in the backcountry. In the wilderness medicine setting, extended time periods of patient care, rugged terrain, severe environmental conditions, and limited resources create…

  7. Administration of vaccinia virus complement control protein shows significant cognitive improvement in a mild injury model.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Nirvana S; Kellaway, Laurie A; Kotwal, Girish J

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that traumatic mild brain injury in a rat model is accompanied by breakdown of the blood brain barrier and the accumulation of inflammatory cells. A therapeutic agent, vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP), inhibits both the classic and the alternative pathways of the complement system and, in so doing, prevents cell death and inflammation. With the use of a rat mild injury model, the effects of VCP on spatial learning and memory were tested. Training in a Morris water maze consisted of a total of 16 trials over a 2-day period before rats were anesthetized and subjected to mild (1.0-1.1 atm) lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) 3.0 mm lateral to the sagittal suture and 4.5 mm posterior to bregma. Ten microl of VCP (1.7 mg/ml) was injected into the injury site immediately after FPI. Two weeks post-FPI the rats were assessed in the Morris water maze for spatial learning and memory. Neurologic motor function tests were carried out after FPI for 14 consecutive days and again after 28 days. The Morris water maze data show that FPI plus saline-injected rats spent a significantly (P <0.05) larger amount of time in one of the incorrect quadrants than did the FPI plus VCP-injected group. Neurologic evaluations 24 hours postinjury revealed differences in sensorimotor function between groups. The results suggest that in a mild injury model, VCP influences neurologic outcome and offers some enhancement in spatial memory and learning.

  8. Maverick Comet Splits during Dramatic Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-01-01

    New ESO Observations of P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 A few months ago, Periodic Comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 underwent a dramatic and completely unexpected, thousand-fold brightening. At that time, the cause for this interesting event was unknown. However, observations with the two largest ESO telescopes have now shown that the ``dirty snowball'' nucleus of this comet has recently split into at least four individual pieces [1]. There is little doubt that the outburst and the splitting event(s) are closely related and that the greatly increased dust and gas production is due to ``fresh'' material of the icy cometary nucleus becoming exposed to the surrounding space for the first time. A Comet with a Troubled History Comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 was discovered on May 2, 1930, on a photographic plate obtained at the Hamburg Observatory (Germany) by two astronomers at this institution, Arnold Schwassmann and Arthur Arno Wachmann. The subsequent observations showed that the comet moved in an elliptical orbit with a revolution period of somewhat more than 5 years. Great efforts were expended to observe the comet during the next returns, but it was not recovered until nearly 50 years and eight revolutions later, when its faint image was found of a plate obtained in August 1979 with a telescope at the Perth Observatory in Western Australia. It was missed in 1984, but was sighted again in 1989 and most recently in 1994. Thus this comet has only been observed during four out of thirteen approaches since 1930. While this may be partly due to a less advantageous location in the sky at some returns, it is also a strong indication that the comet behaves unpredictably and must have a quite variable brightness. For the sake of convenience this comet is often referred to as ``SW-3'' by professional astronomers. Recent orbital calculations have shown that it was inserted into the present, short-period orbit by the strong gravitational pull of Jupiter during several, relatively close

  9. Dramatic effects of stress on metamorphic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, John

    2014-05-01

    controlled by fluid pressure not confining pressure: implications of dehydration experiments with gypsum. Contributions To Mineralogy And Petrology 164, 69-79. Sheldon, H. A. & Wheeler, J. 2003. Influence of pore fluid chemistry on the state of stress in sedimentary basins. Geology 31(1), 59-62. Wheeler, J. 1987. The significance of grain-scale stresses in the kinetics of metamorphism. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 97, 397-404. Wheeler, J. 1992. The importance of pressure solution and Coble creep in the deformation of polymineralic rocks. Journal of Geophysical Research 97, 4579-4586. Wheeler, J. submitted. Dramatic effects of stress on metamorphic reactions. Geology.

  10. Improving the crashworthiness of general aviation aircraft by crash injury investigations.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, W R

    1982-04-01

    An aircraft accident investigation program correlates injuries to occupants with the severity of impacts and structural changes in the crash. Findings brought to the attention of aircraft manufacturers have led to specific aircraft being made more crash-worthy. The finding of a failure in a shoulder harness attachment led to the strengthening of the attachment brace. The way a shoulder harness was joined to a lapbelt was modified following a noted failure. The finding of fractures of lapbelt and shoulder harness cable tiedowns led to the use of stronger cables and modification of the installation. Other findings resulted in a shoulder strap guide being placed on an inertia reel and a side-mounted seat being modified. Described also are three seat-related features which, although meeting FAA standards, during the dynamics of a crash may lack desirable energy attenuation. These findings illustrate the value of aircraft crash injury correlations. PMID:7082247

  11. Improvement of verbal fluency in patients with diffuse brain injury over time

    PubMed Central

    Zaninotto, Ana Luiza; de Paula Guirado, Vinícius Monteiro; Baldivia, Beatriz; Núñes, Monica Domiano; Amorim, Robson Luis Oliveira; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; de Lucia, Mara Cristina Souza; de Andrade, Almir Ferreira; Paiva, Wellingson Silva

    2014-01-01

    Background Diffuse axonal injury (DAI), a common cause of neurological sequelae in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), is considered one of the most prevalent forms of primary neuronal injury in patients with severe TBI. Cognitive deficits induced by DAI can persist over time, especially following moderate or severe injuries. The aim of the present study was to compare verbal fluency (VF) performance at 6 and 12 months after the trauma in a same group of patients with DAI. Methods Eighteen patients with moderate to severe DAI and 17 healthy volunteers were enrolled. All DAI participants had sustained a TBI at least 6 months prior to the start of the study, were between 18 and 50 years of age, and had at least 4 years of education. The VF test was administered within an extensive neuropsychological test battery. We evaluated the same patients at 6 months (DAI1 group) and 12 months (DAI2 group) and compared the results of neuropsychological tests with a control group of healthy volunteers who were matched to patients for sex, age, and educational level. Results In comparison to controls, the DAI1 group produced significantly fewer words. The DAI2 group produced significantly more semantic words than DAI1 (P<0.05) and demonstrated a trend towards the production of more clusters for letter A (P=0.09) and total words generated in a phonemic test (P=0.09). No significant differences were observed between DAI2 and the control group in the total number of words generated in phonetic FAS or semantic fluency scores. Conclusion The present findings may be useful in the construction of a management plan for long-term TBI rehabilitation that considers the trauma of each patient. Further, our results suggest the VF test is a suitable instrument for the assessment of cognitive difficulties following TBI. PMID:25028551

  12. Heat acclimation provides sustained improvement in functional recovery and attenuates apoptosis after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Umscheif, Gali; Umschwief, Gali; Shein, Na'ama A; Alexandrovich, Alexander G; Trembovler, Victoria; Horowitz, Michal; Shohami, Esther

    2010-03-01

    Heat acclimation (HA) offers functional neuroprotection in mice after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study further characterizes endogenous neuroprotection acquired by HA (34+/-1 degrees C, 30 d) after TBI. We establish here the ability of HA to induce sustained functional benefits and to reduce activation of apoptotic pathways. Neurobehavioral recovery, assessed by the Neurological Severity Score, was greater in HA mice up to 8 days after injury as compared with normothermic controls (P<0.05) and lesion volume was also smaller in the HA group (P<0.05). Reduced apoptotic cell death in HA mice was confirmed using caspase-3 activity measurements and immunohistochemistry. To investigate the underlying molecular pathways, expression levels of intrinsic apoptotic pathway-related proteins were examined. HA mice displayed higher mitochondrial levels of antiapoptotic Bcl-xL, accompanied by lower proapoptotic Bad levels and decreased cytochrome c release, suggesting a higher apoptotic threshold. Taken together with our previous reports, indicating increased Akt phosphorylation and antioxidative capacity, alongside with reduced tumor necrosis alpha levels after TBI in HA animals, the current results support the involvement of an antiapoptotic effect in HA-induced neuroprotection. Current results warrant further study as TBI-induced apoptosis may persist over weeks after injury, possibly providing a target for belated therapeutic intervention. PMID:19904288

  13. Traumatic brain injury decreases AMP-activated protein kinase activity and pharmacological enhancement of its activity improves cognitive outcome.

    PubMed

    Hill, Julia L; Kobori, Nobuhide; Zhao, Jing; Rozas, Natalia S; Hylin, Michael J; Moore, Anthony N; Dash, Pramod K

    2016-10-01

    Prolonged metabolic suppression in the brain is a well-characterized secondary pathology of both experimental and clinical traumatic brain injury (TBI). AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) acts as a cellular energy sensor that, when activated, regulates various metabolic and catabolic pathways to decrease ATP consumption and increase ATP synthesis. As energy availability after TBI is suppressed, we questioned if increasing AMPK activity after TBI would improve cognitive outcome. TBI was delivered using the electromagnetic controlled cortical impact model on male Sprague-Dawley rats (275-300 g) and C57BL/6 mice (20-25 g). AMPK activity within the injured parietal cortex and ipsilateral hippocampus was inferred by western blots using phospho-specific antibodies. The consequences of acute manipulation of AMPK signaling on cognitive function were assessed using the Morris water maze task. We found that AMPK activity is decreased as a result of injury, as indicated by reduced AMPK phosphorylation and corresponding changes in the phosphorylation of its downstream targets: ribosomal protein S6 and Akt Substrate of 160 kDa (AS160). Increasing AMPK activity after injury using the drugs 5-amino-1-β-d-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide or metformin did not affect spatial learning, but significantly improved spatial memory. Taken together, our results suggest that decreased AMPK activity after TBI may contribute to the cellular energy crisis in the injured brain, and that AMPK activators may have therapeutic utility. Increased phosphorylation of Thr172 activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) under conditions of low cellular energy availability. This leads to inhibition of energy consuming, while activating energy generating, processes. Hill et al., present data to indicate that TBI decreases Thr172 phosphorylation and that its stimulation by pharmacological agents offers neuroprotection and improves memory. These results suggest that decreased AMPK phosphorylation after

  14. [Improving the solubility of fraxinellone to increase its oral bioavailability and hepatoprotective action against acute liver injury in mice].

    PubMed

    Ran, Qi-Qiong; Ruan, Li-Ping; Zhu, Dan-Ni; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2007-06-01

    Fraxinellone, the major component of Cortex Dictamni, is naturally degraded limonids compound. Fraxinellone has significant anti-inflammatory activity in acute liver injury model. However, the low solubility and permeability of fraxinellone limited its potential application and even therapeutic effects. The aim of the paper is to increase oral bioavailability of fraxinellone, thus improving its hepatoprotection effect in vivo. We evaluated the effects of different pH values and different solubilizer (PEG 6000, PVP K30, HP-beta-CD, F68 and SDS) on the solubility of fraxinellone. The results showed that HP-beta-CD increased solubility of fraxinellone up to 155 times compared to that of water. More than 2. 1 mg mL1 fraxinellone can be resolved when adding 20% HP-beta-CD. Mouse acute liver injury model induced hy CCl4 was used to evaluate in vivo activity of fraxinellone with or without HP-beta-CD. The result shows that the hepatoprotective activity of fraxinellone in 20% HP-beta-CD solution has been significantly improved compared with that of fraxinellone solution without HP-beta-CD: the former inhibited 59 percent the increase of enzyme activity of ALT in liver, while the latter only inhibited 20 percent. A LC-MS/MS method was also developed to determine the oral bioavailability of fraxinellone. Fraxinellone solution with or without HP-betaCD were administered intra-gastrically to rats, and it was found that the bioavailahility of fraxinellone with HP-beta-CD was 23%, while only 5% without HP-beta-CD. The result showed that HP-beta-CD can significantly increase the solubility and permeability of fraxinellone, and improve bioavailability 3. 5 fold in vivo acute liver injury model as well as administration.

  15. Aqueous Date Fruit Efficiency as Preventing Traumatic Brain Deterioration and Improving Pathological Parameters after Traumatic Brain Injury in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Badeli, Hamze; Shahrokhi, Nader; KhoshNazar, Mahdieosadat; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Shabani, Mohammad; Eftekhar Vaghefi, Hassan; Khaksari, Mohammad; Basiri, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Objective Following traumatic brain injury, disruption of blood-brain-barrier and consequent brain edema are critical events which might lead to increasing intracranial pressure (ICP), and nerve damage. The current study assessed the effects of aqueous date fruit extract (ADFE) on the aforementioned parameters. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, diffused traumatic brain injury (TBI) was generated in adult male rats using Marmarou’s method. Experimental groups include two pre-treatment (oral ADFE, 4 and 8 mL/kg for 14 days), vehicle (distilled water, for 14 days) and sham groups. Brain edema and neuronal injury were measured 72 hours after TBI. Veterinary coma scale (VCS) and ICP were determined at -1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 hours after TBI. Differences among multiple groups were assessed using ANOVA. Turkey’s test was employed for the ANOVA post-hoc analysis. The criterion of statistical significance was sign at P<0.05. Results Brain water content in ADFE-treated groups was decreased in comparison with the TBI+vehicle group. VCS at 24, 48 and 72 hours after TBI showed a significant increase in ADFE groups in comparison with the TBI+vehicle group. ICP at 24, 48 and 72 hours after TBI, was decreased in ADFE groups, compared to the TBI+vehicle. Brain edema, ICP and neuronal injury were also decreased in ADFE group, but VCS was increased following on TBI. Conclusion ADFE pre-treatment demonstrated an efficient method for preventing traumatic brain deterioration and improving pathological parameters after TBI.

  16. Aqueous Date Fruit Efficiency as Preventing Traumatic Brain Deterioration and Improving Pathological Parameters after Traumatic Brain Injury in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Badeli, Hamze; Shahrokhi, Nader; KhoshNazar, Mahdieosadat; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Shabani, Mohammad; Eftekhar Vaghefi, Hassan; Khaksari, Mohammad; Basiri, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Objective Following traumatic brain injury, disruption of blood-brain-barrier and consequent brain edema are critical events which might lead to increasing intracranial pressure (ICP), and nerve damage. The current study assessed the effects of aqueous date fruit extract (ADFE) on the aforementioned parameters. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, diffused traumatic brain injury (TBI) was generated in adult male rats using Marmarou’s method. Experimental groups include two pre-treatment (oral ADFE, 4 and 8 mL/kg for 14 days), vehicle (distilled water, for 14 days) and sham groups. Brain edema and neuronal injury were measured 72 hours after TBI. Veterinary coma scale (VCS) and ICP were determined at -1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 hours after TBI. Differences among multiple groups were assessed using ANOVA. Turkey’s test was employed for the ANOVA post-hoc analysis. The criterion of statistical significance was sign at P<0.05. Results Brain water content in ADFE-treated groups was decreased in comparison with the TBI+vehicle group. VCS at 24, 48 and 72 hours after TBI showed a significant increase in ADFE groups in comparison with the TBI+vehicle group. ICP at 24, 48 and 72 hours after TBI, was decreased in ADFE groups, compared to the TBI+vehicle. Brain edema, ICP and neuronal injury were also decreased in ADFE group, but VCS was increased following on TBI. Conclusion ADFE pre-treatment demonstrated an efficient method for preventing traumatic brain deterioration and improving pathological parameters after TBI. PMID:27602324

  17. Exercise-induced improvement in cognitive performance after traumatic brain-injury in rats is dependent on BDNF Activation

    PubMed Central

    Griesbach, Grace Sophia; Hovda, David Allen; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    We have previously shown that voluntary exercise upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) within the hippocampus and is associated with an enhancement of cognitive recovery after a lateral fluid-percussion injury (FPI). In order to determine if BDNF is critical to this effect we used an immunoadhesin chimera (TrkB-IgG) that inactivates free BDNF. This BDNF inhibitor was administered to adult male rats two weeks after they had received a mild fluid percussion injury (FPI) or sham surgery. These animals were then housed with or without access to a running wheel (RW) from post-injury-day (PID) 14 to 20. On PID 21, rats were tested for spatial learning in a Morris Water Maze. Results showed that exercise counteracted the cognitive deficits associated with the injury. However this exercise-induced cognitive improvement was attenuated in the FPI-RW rats that were treated with TrkB-IgG. Molecules important for synaptic plasticity and learning were measured in a separate group of rats that were sacrificed immediately after exercise (PID 21). Western blot analyses showed that exercise increased the mature form of BDNF, synapsin I and cyclic-AMP response-element-binding protein (CREB) in the vehicle treated Sham-RW group. However, only the mature form of BDNF and CREB were increased in the vehicle treated FPI-RW group. Blocking BDNF (pre administration of TrkB-IgG) greatly reduced the molecular effects of exercise in that exercise-induced increases of BDNF, synapsin I and CREB were not observed. These studies provide evidence that BDNF has a major role in exercise's cognitive effects in traumatically injured brain. PMID:19555673

  18. Fatalities and catastrophic injuries in high school and college sports, 1982-1997 lessons for improving safety.

    PubMed

    Cantu, R C; Mueller, F O

    1999-08-01

    The prohibition of 'spearing' in football and the rules regarding water depth and the racing dive in swimming are examples of how data on deaths and catastrophic injuries can be used to help promote the safety of young athletes. Other preventive measures supported by research include anchoring movable soccer goals to prevent tipping, improved training for high school wrestling coaches, increased awareness of pathogenic weight control in wrestling and gymnastics, rules against pushing or checking from behind in ice hockey, protective helmets for batting-practice pitchers in baseball, and barriers around the discus circle in track and field.

  19. Dramatic Outburst Reveals Nearest Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    Scientists have discovered the closest black hole yet, a mere 1,600 light years from Earth. Its discovery was heralded by four of the most dramatic rapid X-ray intensity changes ever seen from one star. Astronomers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) announced their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Atlanta. The black hole in the constellation Sagittarius, along with a normal star dubbed V4641 Sgr, form a violent system that briefly flooded part of our Milky Way Galaxy with X-rays and ejected subatomic particles moving at nearly the speed of light one day last September. At the peak of its X-ray output, V4641 Sgr was the brightest X-ray emitter in the sky. Astronomers call this type of system an X-ray nova because it suddenly becomes a bright source of X-rays, but this object shows characteristics never seen in an X-ray nova. "V4641 Sgr turns on and off so fast that it seems to represent a new subclass of X-ray novae," said Donald A. Smith, postdoctoral associate in MIT's Center for Space Research. Smith worked on data from this object with MIT principal research scientist Ronald Remillard and NRAO astronomer Robert Hjellming. "In X-rays, the intensity rose by a factor of more than 1,000 in seven hours, then dropped by a factor of 100 in two hours," Remillard said. The radio emission was seen as an image of an expanding "jet" of particles shooting out from the binary system. After reaching a maximum, the radio intensity dropped by a factor of nearly 40 within two days. "Radio telescopes give us a quick glimpse of something moving at a fantastically high velocity," Hjellming said. Black holes harbor enormous gravitational force that can literally rip the gas away from a nearby star. This transfer of gas is visible in many forms of radiation. Both orbiting X-ray telescopes and ground-based radio and optical telescopes saw the outburst of V4641

  20. Hemojuvelin Modulates Iron Stress During Acute Kidney Injury: Improved by Furin Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Young, Guang-Huar; Huang, Tao-Min; Wu, Che-Hsiung; Lai, Chun-Fu; Hou, Chun-Cheng; Peng, Kang-Yung; Liang, Chan-Jung; Lin, Shuei-Liong; Chang, Shih-Chung; Tsai, Pi-Ru; Wu, Kwan-Dun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Free iron plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) via the formation of hydroxyl radicals. Systemic iron homeostasis is controlled by the hemojuvelin-hepcidin-ferroportin axis in the liver, but less is known about this role in AKI. Results: By proteomics, we identified a 42 kDa soluble hemojuvelin (sHJV), processed by furin protease from membrane-bound hemojuvelin (mHJV), in the urine during AKI after cardiac surgery. Biopsies from human and mouse specimens with AKI confirm that HJV is extensively increased in renal tubules. Iron overload enhanced the expression of hemojuvelin-hepcidin signaling pathway. The furin inhibitor (FI) decreases furin-mediated proteolytic cleavage of mHJV into sHJV and augments the mHJV/sHJV ratio after iron overload with hypoxia condition. The FI could reduce renal tubule apoptosis, stabilize hypoxic induced factor-1, prevent the accumulation of iron in the kidney, and further ameliorate ischemic-reperfusion injury. mHJV is associated with decreasing total kidney iron, secreting hepcidin, and promoting the degradation of ferroportin at AKI, whereas sHJV does the opposite. Innovation: This study suggests the ratio of mHJV/sHJV affects the iron deposition during acute kidney injury and sHJV could be an early biomarker of AKI. Conclusion: Our findings link endogenous HJV inextricably with renal iron homeostasis for the first time, add new significance to early predict AKI, and identify novel therapeutic targets to reduce the severity of AKI using the FI. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1181–1194. PMID:23901875

  1. Clinical algorithm for improved prediction of ambulation and patient stratification after incomplete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zörner, Björn; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Dietz, Volker; Curt, Armin

    2010-01-01

    The extent of ambulatory recovery after motor incomplete spinal cord injury (miSCI) differs considerably amongst affected persons. This makes individual outcome prediction difficult and leads to increased within-group variation in clinical trials. The aims of this study on subjects with miSCI were: (1) to rank the strongest single predictors and predictor combinations of later walking capacity; (2) to develop a reliable algorithm for clinical prediction; and (3) to identify subgroups with only limited recovery of walking function. Correlation and logistic regression analyses were performed on a dataset of 90 subjects with tetra- or paraparesis, recruited in a prospective European multicenter study. Eleven measures obtained in the subacute injury period, including clinical examination, tibial somatosensory evoked potentials (tSSEP), and demographic factors, were related to ambulatory outcome (WISCI II, 6minWT) 6 months after injury. The lower extremity motor score (LEMS) alone and in combination was identified as most predictive for later walking capacity in miSCI. Ambulatory outcome of subjects with tetraparesis was correctly predicted for 92% (WISCI II) or 100% (6minWT) of the cases when LEMS was combined with either tSSEP or the ASIA Impairment Scale, respectively. For individuals with paraparesis, prediction was less distinct, mainly due to low prediction rates for individuals with poor walking outcome. A clinical algorithm was generated that allowed for the identification of a subgroup composed of individuals with tetraparesis and poor ambulatory recovery. These data provide evidence that a combination of predictors enables a reliable prediction of walking function and early patient stratification for clinical trials in miSCI.

  2. SPRC protects hypoxia and re-oxygenation injury by improving rat cardiac contractile function and intracellular calcium handling.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yong-Hua; Shen, Ya-Qi; Guo, Wei; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2014-09-15

    S-Propargyl-L-cysteine (SPRC, also named as ZYZ-802) is a new compound synthesized in our lab. We investigated whether SPRC has exerted protective effects against cardiac hypoxia/re-oxygenation (H/R) and also explored its mechanisms. In our study, isolated ventricular myocytes were subject to a simulated hypoxia solution for 30 min to induce cell injury. Intracellular concentration of Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) was measured using specific dyes and detected by digital imaging apparatus. Apoptotic cells were evaluated by TUNEL assay. Intervention with SPRC (10 μM) 30 min before hypoxia, can significantly attenuate the apoptosis of isolated papillary muscles resulting from the H/R injury and protect morphology of the muscles. In isolated ventricular myocytes, SPRC considerably improved left ventricular functional recovery. SPRC also suppressed the increase of ([Ca(2+)]i) during hypoxia stage. By measuring the calcium transient of the cell we concluded that SPRC can preserve the RyR and SERCA activities and improve Ca(2+) handling during the H/R. Furthermore, the protective effect of SPRC can be partly blocked by CSE inhibitor PAG. PMID:24887754

  3. Immunosuppression of Allogenic Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplantation after Spinal Cord Injury Improves Graft Survival and Beneficial Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Espín, Abel; Redondo-Castro, Elena; Hernandez, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cell therapy for spinal cord injury (SCI) is a promising strategy for clinical application. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have demonstrated beneficial effects following transplantation in animal models of SCI. However, despite the immunoprivilege properties of the MSC, their survival in the injured spinal cord is reduced due to the detrimental milieu in the damaged tissue and immune rejection of the cells. The limited survival of the engrafted cells may determine the therapy success. Therefore, we compared two strategies to increase the presence of the cells in the injured spinal cord in rats: increasing the amount of MSC transplants and using immunosuppressive treatment with FK506 after transplantation. Functional outcomes for locomotion and electrophysiological responses were assessed. The grafted cells survival and the amount of cavity and spared tissue were studied. The findings indicate that immunosuppression improved grafted cells survival. A cell–dose effect was found regarding locomotion recovery and tissue protection independent of immunosuppression. Nevertheless, immunosuppression enhanced the electrophysiological outcomes and allowed filling of the cavity formed after injury by new regenerative tissue and axons. These results indicate that MSC transplantation combined with immunosuppression prolongs the survival of engrafted cells and improves functional and morphological outcomes after SCI. PMID:25203134

  4. CD44 deficiency improves healing tendon mechanics and increases matrix and cytokine expression in a mouse patellar tendon injury model.

    PubMed

    Ansorge, Heather L; Beredjiklian, Pedro K; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2009-10-01

    CD44 plays an important role in inflammation and healing. Previous studies investigated its role in inflammatory diseases and skin wounds; however, the role of CD44 in tendon healing is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effect of CD44 in the healing of the patellar tendon in a knockout mouse model. We hypothesized that in comparison to wild-type counterparts, CD44 knockout mice would have decreased material parameters, increased organization, decreased expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and increased expression of matrix components during healing. These hypotheses were tested through an in vivo surgical model and mechanical, organizational, and gene expression analyses. Material strength and tissue organization were significantly improved in the CD44 knockout mouse. This could be attributed to increased expression of cytokines and matrix components that are also elevated in regenerative healing. Our study showed that the absence of CD44 in a mouse patellar tendon injury creates an environment that is conducive to regenerative healing through altered gene expression, resulting in superior material properties and reduced cross-sectional area. Therefore, limiting the role of CD44 may improve healing parameters in adult tendon injury.

  5. Improved rat spinal cord injury model using spinal cord compression by percutaneous method

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Wook-Hun; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Chung, Dai-Jung; Yang, Wo-Jong; Lee, A-Jin; Choi, Chi-Bong; Chang, Hwa-Seok; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Chung, Hyo Jin; Suh, Hyun Jung; Hwang, Soo-Han; Han, Hoon; Do, Sun Hee

    2013-01-01

    Here, percutaneous spinal cord injury (SCI) methods using a balloon catheter in adult rats are described. A balloon catheter was inserted into the epidural space through the lumbosacral junction and then inflated between T9-T10 for 10min under fluoroscopic guidance. Animals were divided into three groups with respect to inflation volume: 20 µL (n = 18), 50 µL (n = 18) and control (Fogarty catheter inserted but not inflated; n = 10). Neurological assessments were then made based on BBB score, magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology. Both inflation volumes produced complete paralysis. Gradual recovery of motor function occurred when 20 µL was used, but not after 50 µL was applied. In the 50 µL group, all gray and white matter was lost from the center of the lesion. In addition, supramaximal damage was noted, which likely prevented spontaneous recovery. This percutaneous spinal cord compression injury model is simple, rapid with high reproducibility and the potential to serve as a useful tool for investigation of pathophysiology and possible protective treatments of SCI in vivo. PMID:23820159

  6. Intravenous multipotent adult progenitor cell therapy attenuates activated microglial/macrophage response and improves spatial learning after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Supinder S; Hetz, Robert; Thomas, Chelsea; Smith, Philippa; Olsen, Alex B; Williams, Stephen; Xue, Hasen; Aroom, Kevin; Uray, Karen; Hamilton, Jason; Mays, Robert W; Cox, Charles S

    2013-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that the intravenous delivery of multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rodents provides neuroprotection by preserving the blood-brain barrier and systemically attenuating inflammation in the acute time frame following cell treatment; however, the long-term behavioral and anti-inflammatory effects of MAPC administration after TBI have yet to be explored. We hypothesized that the intravenous injection of MAPCs after TBI attenuates the inflammatory response (as measured by microglial morphology) and improves performance at motor tasks and spatial learning (Morris water maze [MWM]). MAPCs were administered intravenously 2 and 24 hours after a cortical contusion injury (CCI). We tested four groups at 120 days after TBI: sham (uninjured), injured but not treated (CCI), and injured and treated with one of two concentrations of MAPCs, either 2 million cells per kilogram (CCI-2) or 10 million cells per kilogram (CCI-10). CCI-10 rats showed significant improvement in left hind limb deficit on the balance beam. On the fifth day of MWM trials, CCI-10 animals showed a significant decrease in both latency to platform and distance traveled compared with CCI. Probe trials revealed a significant decrease in proximity measure in CCI-10 compared with CCI, suggesting improved memory retrieval. Neuroinflammation was quantified by enumerating activated microglia in the ipsilateral hippocampus. We observed a significant decrease in the number of activated microglia in the dentate gyrus in CCI-10 compared with CCI. Our results demonstrate that intravenous MAPC treatment after TBI in a rodent model offers long-term improvements in spatial learning as well as attenuation of neuroinflammation.

  7. Inhibition of Rho-Kinase Improves Erectile Function, Increases Nitric Oxide Signaling and Decreases Penile Apoptosis in a Rat Model of Cavernous Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Johanna L.; Albersen, Maarten; Kutlu, Omer; Gratzke, Christian; Stief, Christian G.; Burnett, Arthur L.; Lysiak, Jeffrey J.; Hedlund, Petter; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bilateral cavernous nerve injury results in up-regulation of ROCK signaling in the penis. This is linked to erectile dysfunction in an animal model of post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction. We evaluated whether daily treatment with the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 (Tocris Bioscience, Ellisville, Missouri) would prevent erectile dysfunction in a rat model of bilateral cavernous nerve injury. Materials and Methods Sprague-Dawley® rats underwent surgery to create sham (14) or bilateral (27) cavernous nerve injury. In the injury group 13 rats received treatment with Y-27632 (5 mg/kg twice daily) and 14 received vehicle. At 14 days after injury, rats underwent cavernous nerve stimulation to determine erectile function. Penes were assessed for neuronal and nitric oxide synthase membrane-endothelial nitric oxide synthase. ROCK2 was assessed by Western blot. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cavernous homogenates were tested for ROCK and protein kinase G enzymatic activity. Penile apoptosis was evaluated using the Apostain technique (Alexis, San Diego, California). Data were analyzed on ROCK using ANOVA and the t test. Results While erectile function was decreased in rats with bilateral cavernous nerve injury, daily administration of Y-27632 improved erectile responses. Injury decreased neuronal and nitric oxide synthase membrane-endothelial nitric oxide synthase but ROCK2 was significantly increased. Y-27632 treatment restored neuronal nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide synthase membrane-endothelial nitric oxide synthase and cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels, and protein kinase G activity. Treatment significantly decreased ROCK2 protein and ROCK activity. There were significantly fewer apoptotic cells after treatment than in injured controls. Conclusions These results provide evidence for up-regulation of the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway with detrimental effects on erectile function after bilateral cavernous nerve

  8. Hemoperfusion with polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column improves liver function after ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hiroaki; Oshima, Kiyohiro; Kobayashi, Katsumi; Yamazaki, Hodaka; Suto, Yujin; Takeyoshi, Izumi

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of direct hemoperfusion with a polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column (DHP-PMX therapy) for warm hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury after total hepatic vascular exclusion (THVE) using a porcine model. METHODS: Eleven Mexican hairless pigs weighing 22-38 kg were subjected to THVE for 120 min and then observed for 360 min. The animals were divided into two groups randomly: the DHP-PMX group (n = 5) underwent DHP-PMX at a flow rate of 80 mL/min for 120 min (beginning 10 min before reperfusion), while the control group did not (n = 6). The rate pressure product (RPP): heart rate × end-systolic arterial blood pressure, hepatic tissue blood flow (HTBF), portal vein blood flow (PVBF), and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: RPP and HTBF were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the DHP-PMX group than in the control group 240 and 360 min after reperfusion. PVBF in the DHP-PMX group was maintained at about 70% of the flow before ischemia and differed significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the control group 360 min after reperfusion. The serum AST increased gradually after reperfusion in both groups, but the AST was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the DHP-PMX group 360 min after reperfusion. CONCLUSION: DHP-PMX therapy reduced the hepatic warm I/R injury caused by THVE in a porcine model. PMID:19777617

  9. N-acetyl cysteine improves the effects of corticosteroids in a mouse model of chlorine-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Wigenstam, Elisabeth; Koch, Bo; Bucht, Anders; Jonasson, Sofia

    2015-02-01

    Chlorine (Cl2) causes tissue damage and a neutrophilic inflammatory response in the airways manifested by pronounced airway hyperreactivity (AHR). The importance of early anti-inflammatory treatment has previously been addressed. In the previous study, both high-dose and low-dose of dexamethasone (DEX) decreased the risk of developing delayed effects, such as persistent lung injuries, while only high-dose treatment could significantly counteract acute-phase effects. One aim of this study was to evaluate whether a low-dose of DEX in combination with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and if different treatments (Triptolide, Reparixin and Rolipram) administered 1h after Cl2-exposure could improve protection against acute lung injury in Cl2-exposed mice. BALB/c mice were exposed to 300 ppm Cl2 during 15 min. Assessment of AHR and inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage was analyzed 24h post exposure. Neither of DEX nor NAC reduced the AHR and displayed only minor effects on inflammatory cell influx when given as separate treatments. When given in combination, a protective effect on AHR and a significant reduction in inflammatory cells (neutrophils) was observed. Neither of triptolide, Reparixin nor Rolipram had an effect on AHR but Triptolide had major effect on the inflammatory cell influx. Treatments did not reduce the concentration of either fibrinogen or plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in serum, thereby supporting the theory that the inflammatory response is not solely limited to the lung. These results provide a foundation for future studies aimed at identifying new concepts for treatment of chemical-induced lung injury. Studies addressing combination of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant treatment are highly motivated.

  10. Helium preconditioning protects the brain against hypoxia/ischemia injury via improving the neurovascular niche in a neonatal rat model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Zhang, Peixi; Liu, Ying; Liu, Wenwu; Yin, Na

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether helium preconditioning (He-PC) is able to exert neuroprotective effects via improving focal neurovascular niche in a neonatal rat hypoxia/ischemia (HI) brain injury model. Seven day old rat pups were divided into control group, HI group and He-PC group. HI was induced by exposure to 8% oxygen for 90min one day after preconditioning with 70% helium-30% oxygen for three 5-min periods. At 3 and 7 days, the brain was collected for the detection of inflammation related factors (tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], interleukin-1β [IL-1β], IL-10) and growth/neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF] and nerve growth factor [NGF]); at 7 days, neurobehaviors were evaluated, and the brain was collected for the detection of mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) by PCR, protein expression of angiogenesis related molecules (VEGF, Ang-1, Tie-2 and Flt-1) by Western blotting and microvessel density (MCD) by immunohistochemistry for vWF. Results showed He-PC was able to reduce TNF-α and IL-1β, further increase IL-10, BDNF, bFGF and NGF, elevate the mRNA expression of VEGF and Ang-1, increase the protein expression of VEGF, Ang-1, Tie-2 and Flt-1, promote angiogenesis and improve neurobehaviors as compared to HI group. These findings suggest that He-PC may improve the post-stroke neurovascular niche to exert neuroprotective effects on neonatal HI brain injury. PMID:27515290

  11. Helium preconditioning protects the brain against hypoxia/ischemia injury via improving the neurovascular niche in a neonatal rat model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Zhang, Peixi; Liu, Ying; Liu, Wenwu; Yin, Na

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether helium preconditioning (He-PC) is able to exert neuroprotective effects via improving focal neurovascular niche in a neonatal rat hypoxia/ischemia (HI) brain injury model. Seven day old rat pups were divided into control group, HI group and He-PC group. HI was induced by exposure to 8% oxygen for 90min one day after preconditioning with 70% helium-30% oxygen for three 5-min periods. At 3 and 7 days, the brain was collected for the detection of inflammation related factors (tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], interleukin-1β [IL-1β], IL-10) and growth/neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF] and nerve growth factor [NGF]); at 7 days, neurobehaviors were evaluated, and the brain was collected for the detection of mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) by PCR, protein expression of angiogenesis related molecules (VEGF, Ang-1, Tie-2 and Flt-1) by Western blotting and microvessel density (MCD) by immunohistochemistry for vWF. Results showed He-PC was able to reduce TNF-α and IL-1β, further increase IL-10, BDNF, bFGF and NGF, elevate the mRNA expression of VEGF and Ang-1, increase the protein expression of VEGF, Ang-1, Tie-2 and Flt-1, promote angiogenesis and improve neurobehaviors as compared to HI group. These findings suggest that He-PC may improve the post-stroke neurovascular niche to exert neuroprotective effects on neonatal HI brain injury.

  12. Endothelin receptor-A (ETa) inhibition fails to improve neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Khatibi, Nikan H; Lee, Lillian K; Zhou, Yilin; Chen, Wanqiu; Rolland, William; Fathali, Nancy; Martin, Robert; Applegate, Richard; Stier, Gary; Zhang, John H

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is an important cause of mortality and disability in newborns. It is a result of insufficient oxygen and glucose circulation to the brain, initiating long-term cerebral damage and cell death. Emerging evidence suggests that endothelin receptor-A (ETA) activation can play an important role in mediating brain damage. In this study, we investigated the role of ETA receptor inhibition using ABT-627 in neonatal HI injured rats. Postnatal day 10 Sprague-Dawley rat pups (n=91) were assigned to the following groups: sham (n=28), HI (vehicle, n=32), and HI with ABT-627 at 3 mg/kg (n=31). The Rice-Vannucci model was used to induce ischemia by ligating the right common carotid artery, followed by a 2 h hypoxic episode using 8% oxygen in a 37°C chamber. Postoperative assessment was conducted at 48 h after injury and again at 4 weeks. At the acute time point, investigative markers included cerebral edema, infarction volume, and body weight change. Neurobehavioral testing was measured at 4 weeks post-injury. Our findings indicated that ABT-627 had no effect on the measured parameters. This study suggests that ETA receptor blockade using ABT-627 post-treatment fails to improve neurological outcomes in neonatal HI injured rats. PMID:21725757

  13. Cognitive improvement of mice induced by exercise prior to traumatic brain injury is associated with cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ying Li; Zhang, Li Wei; Ma, Ning; Ye, Lin Lin; Wang, De Xin; Gao, Xu

    2014-06-01

    Though the evidence demonstrated that voluntary exercise programs could be implemented to enhance recovery of cognitive function induced by traumatic brain injury (TBI), the exact mechanisms were still not known. We proposed that the cognitive improvement induced by exercise in TBI mice is associated with cytochrome c oxidase (COX). To demonstrate this hypothesis, adult mice were housed with or without access to a running wheel (RW) for three weeks followed by TBI operation. Acquisition of spatial learning and memory retention was assessed by using the Morris Water Maze (MWM) on days 15 post TBI. The synaptic density was measured by Golji staining. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for NeuN, GFAP and growth associated protein 43 (GAP43) were also performed. Using Western blot, the expressions of COX I, II, III, BDNF, synapsin I, synaptophysin (SYP) and GAP43 in hippocampus of TBI mice were determinated. Lastly, CcO activity and ATP amount were also detected. Results showed that voluntary exercise prior TBI: (i) counteracted the cognitive deficits and neuron and synaptic density loss associated with the injury; (ii) increased the levels of COX I, II, III, BDNF, synapsin I, SYP and GAP43; (iii) switched the mitochondrial CcO activity and ATP amounts. These studies demonstrated that the COX plays an important role in exercise's cognitive effects in TBI model and also provide evidence that RW training is a promise exercise for traumatically injured mice.

  14. An injectable, biodegradable hydrogel for trophic factor delivery enhances axonal rewiring and improves performance after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Piantino, J; Burdick, J A; Goldberg, D; Langer, R; Benowitz, L I

    2006-10-01

    The failure of long descending pathways to regenerate after spinal cord injury (SCI) is generally attributed to inhibitory proteins associated with the glial scar and myelin, or to the loss of neurons' intrinsic capacity to grow, or both. Here, we describe the use of hydrogels as a novel way to deliver molecules that promote axon growth in the injured CNS of adult rats. This method utilizes an injectable liquid polymer solution that crosslinks into a biodegradable, water-swollen hydrogel when photoactivated under visible light. Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), a trophic factor known to act on corticospinal tract (CST) projection neurons, was used as a prototypic pro-regenerative molecule. Hydrogel release properties were established in vitro to ensure long-term, sustained NT-3 release over a 2-week period; this avoided the need for multiple injections or minipump implantation. Hydrogel/NT-3-treated animals showed improved recovery in the open-field BBB test and in a horizontal ladder walk test compared to controls implanted with hydrogel alone. At the anatomical level, hydrogel/NT-3-treated animals showed far greater axon growth than controls in two major descending pathways for motor control, the CST and the raphespinal tract. In the case of the CST, much of the NT-3-induced growth represented collateral branching from undamaged ventral CST fibers. These studies demonstrate the effectiveness of hydrogel technology as a clinically feasible delivery system to promote regeneration and enhance functional outcome after spinal cord injury. PMID:16764857

  15. Endocannabinoid Degradation Inhibition Improves Neurobehavioral Function, Blood–Brain Barrier Integrity, and Neuroinflammation following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Paige S.; Sulzer, Jesse K.; Impastato, Renata A.; Teng, Sophie X.; Rogers, Emily K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an increasingly frequent and poorly understood condition lacking effective therapeutic strategies. Inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) are critical components of injury, and targeted interventions to reduce their contribution to injury should improve neurobehavioral recovery and outcomes. Recent evidence reveals potential protective, yet short-lived, effects of the endocannabinoids (ECs), 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) and N-arachidonoyl-ethanolamine (AEA), on neuroinflammatory and OS processes after TBI. The aim of this study was to determine whether EC degradation inhibition after TBI would improve neurobehavioral recovery by reducing inflammatory and oxidative damage. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a 5-mm left lateral craniotomy, and TBI was induced by lateral fluid percussion. TBI produced apnea (17±5 sec) and a delayed righting reflex (479±21 sec). Thirty minutes post-TBI, rats were randomized to receive intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (alcohol, emulphor, and saline; 1:1:18) or a selective inhibitor of 2-AG (JZL184, 16 mg/kg) or AEA (URB597, 0.3 mg/kg) degradation. At 24 h post-TBI, animals showed significant neurological and -behavioral impairment as well as disruption of blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Improved neurological and -behavioral function was observed in JZL184-treated animals. BBB integrity was protected in both JZL184- and URB597-treated animals. No significant differences in ipsilateral cortex messenger RNA expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX2) and protein expression of COX2 or NOX2 were observed across experimental groups. Astrocyte and microglia activation was significantly increased post-TBI, and treatment with JZL184 or URB597 blocked activation of both cell types. These findings suggest that EC degradation

  16. Unstable Surface Improves Quadriceps:Hamstring Co-contraction for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Rebecca; Silder, Amy; Malone, Maria; Braun, Hillary Jane; Dragoo, Jason Logan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increasing quadriceps:hamstring muscular co-contraction at the knee may reduce the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The purpose of this investigation was to examine muscle activation in the quadriceps and hamstrings and peak kinematics of the knee, hip, and trunk when performing a single-leg drop (SLD) on to a Bosu ball (unstable surface) compared with on to the floor (stable surface). Hypotheses: (1) The SLD on an unstable surface would lower the quadriceps to hamstrings electromyographic (EMG) activation ratio (Q:H EMG activation ratio) compared with being performed on the floor. (2) Lower Q:H EMG activation ratio would be caused by a relative increase in hamstring activation, with no significant change in quadriceps activation. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Thirty-nine Division I National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) female athletes performed 3 SLDs per leg onto a Bosu ball and onto the floor. Muscle activity of the vastus lateralis and lateral hamstrings were used to estimate peak quadriceps and hamstring activation, along with the Q:H EMG activation ratio. Kinematic measures at the knee, hip, and trunk were also estimated. Differences between landings were assessed using a 2-level analysis of variance (limb and surface). Results: The maximum Q:H EMG activation ratio was significantly reduced when athletes performed an SLD onto the Bosu ball (20%, P < 0.001) compared with the floor. Peak hamstring activity was higher when athletes landed on a Bosu ball (18% higher, P = 0.029) compared with when they landed on the floor. Conclusion: Compared with landing on the floor (a stable surface), landing on a Bosu ball (unstable surface) changed the athlete’s co-contraction at the knee and increased hamstring activity. However, landing on a Bosu ball also decreased the athlete’s knee flexion, which was an undesired effect. Clinical Relevance: These findings highlight the potential utility of unstable surfaces

  17. Microencapsulation improves inhibitory effects of transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells on pain after sciatic nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hao; Yang, Bao-lin; Liu, Zeng-xu; Yu, Qing; Zhang, Wen-jun; Yuan, Keng; Zeng, Hui-hong; Zhu, Gao-chun; Liu, De-ming; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory bulb tissue transplantation inhibits P2X2/3 receptor-mediated neuropathic pain. However, the olfactory bulb has a complex cellular composition, and the mechanism underlying the action of purified transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) remains unclear. In the present study, we microencapsulated OECs in alginic acid, and transplanted free and microencapsulated OECs into the region surrounding the injured sciatic nerve in rat models of chronic constriction injury. We assessed mechanical nociception in the rat models 7 and 14 days after surgery by measuring paw withdrawal threshold, and examined P2X2/3 receptor expression in L4–5 dorsal root ganglia using immunohistochemistry. Rats that received free and microencapsulated OEC transplants showed greater withdrawal thresholds than untreated model rats, and weaker P2X2/3 receptor immunoreactivity in dorsal root ganglia. At 14 days, paw withdrawal threshold was much higher in the microencapsulated OEC-treated animals. Our results confirm that microencapsulated OEC transplantation suppresses P2X2/3 receptor expression in L4–5 dorsal root ganglia in rat models of neuropathic pain and reduces allodynia, and also suggest that transplantation of microencapsulated OECs is more effective than transplantation of free OECs for the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:26487865

  18. Active-Arm Passive-Leg Exercise Improves Cardiovascular Function in Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    West, Christopher R; Currie, Katharine D; Gee, Cameron; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Borisoff, Jaimie

    2015-11-01

    In a 43-yr-old male subject with a chronic T3 AIS A spinal cord injury, the acute cardiorespiratory responses to active upper-extremity exercise alone and combined active-arm passive-leg exercise (AAPLE) were investigated, along with the cardiorespiratory, cardiac, vascular, and body composition responses to a 6-wk AAPLE interval training intervention. AAPLE elicited superior acute maximal cardiorespiratory responses compared with upper-extremity exercise alone. In response to a 6-wk interval training regimen, AAPLE caused a 25% increase in peak oxygen uptake, a 10% increase in resting stroke volume, and a 4-fold increase in brachial artery blood flow. Conversely, there were no changes in femoral arterial function, body composition, or bone mineral density in response to training. As a potential clinical intervention, AAPLE may be advantageous over other forms of currently available exercise, owing to the minimal setup time and cost involved and the nonreliance on specialized equipment that is required for other exercise modalities.

  19. A Need for Improved Training Interventions for the Remediation of Impairments in Social Functioning following Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, David M.; Dal Monte, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Social functioning deficits are a prominent feature of many neurological and psychiatric conditions, and may include disruption in the acquisition or application of basic or complex social skills. Such disturbances are often resistant to treatment, and individuals with such conditions are often faced with lifelong difficulties in maintaining personal relationships, employment, and independent living. In recent years, a number of psychosocial treatments have been developed to address this growing problem. In this article, we review studies investigating the use of psychosocial training interventions in individuals with acquired brain injuries, which frequently require intervention for impairments in cognitive and social functioning. We then discuss limitations of these studies and highlight specific areas in which such treatments might be improved in the future. PMID:21121768

  20. Extensive cell migration, axon regeneration and improved function with polysialic acid-modified Schwann cells after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Mousumi; Tuesta, Luis M.; Puentes, Rocio; Patel, Samik; Melendez, Kiara; Maarouf, Abderrahman El; Rutishauser, Urs; Pearse, Damien Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Schwann cells (SC) implantation after spinal cord injury (SCI) promotes axonal regeneration, remyelination repair and functional recovery. Reparative efficacy, however, may be limited due to the inability of SCs to migrate outward from the lesion-implant site. Altering SC cell surface properties by over-expressing polysialic acid (PSA) has been shown to promote SC migration. In the current study, a SCI contusion was used to evaluate the migration, supraspinal axon growth support and functional recovery associated with polysialyltransferase (PST)-over-expressing SCs (PST-GFP SCs) or controls (GFP SCs). Compared to GFP SCs, which remained confined to the injection site at the injury center, PST-GFP SCs migrated across the lesion:host cord interface for distances of up to 4.4 mm within adjacent host tissue. In addition, with PST-GFP SCs, there was extensive serotonergic and corticospinal axon in-growth within the implants that was limited in the GFP SC controls. The enhanced migration of PST-GFP SCs was accompanied by significant growth of these axons caudal to lesion. Animals receiving PST-GFP SCs exhibited improved functional outcome, both in the open-field and on the gridwalk test, over modest improvements provided by GFP SC controls. The current study for the first time demonstrates that a lack of migration by SC may hinder their reparative benefits and that cell surface overexpression of PSA enhances the ability of implanted SCs to associate with and support the growth of corticospinal axons. These results provide further promise that PSA modified SCs will be a potent reparative approach for SCI. PMID:22460918

  1. Extensive cell migration, axon regeneration, and improved function with polysialic acid-modified Schwann cells after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Mousumi; Tuesta, Luis M; Puentes, Rocio; Patel, Samik; Melendez, Kiara; El Maarouf, Abderrahman; Rutishauser, Urs; Pearse, Damien Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Schwann cell (SC) implantation after spinal cord injury (SCI) promotes axonal regeneration, remyelination repair, and functional recovery. Reparative efficacy, however, may be limited because of the inability of SCs to migrate outward from the lesion-implant site. Altering SC cell surface properties by overexpressing polysialic acid (PSA) has been shown to promote SC migration. In this study, a SCI contusion model was used to evaluate the migration, supraspinal axon growth support, and functional recovery associated with polysialyltransferase (PST)-overexpressing SCs [PST-green fluorescent protein (GFP) SCs] or controls (GFP SCs). Compared with GFP SCs, which remained confined to the injection site at the injury center, PST-GFP SCs migrated across the lesion:host cord interface for distances of up to 4.4 mm within adjacent host tissue. In addition, with PST-GFP SCs, there was extensive serotonergic and corticospinal axon in-growth within the implants that was limited in the GFP SC controls. The enhanced migration of PST-GFP SCs was accompanied by significant growth of these axons caudal to lesion. Animals receiving PST-GFP SCs exhibited improved functional outcome, both in the open-field and on the gridwalk test, beyond the modest improvements provided by GFP SC controls. This study for the first time demonstrates that a lack of migration by SCs may hinder their reparative benefits and that cell surface overexpression of PSA enhances the ability of implanted SCs to associate with and support the growth of corticospinal axons. These results provide further promise that PSA-modified SCs will be a potent reparative approach for SCI. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Evaluation of use of reading comprehension strategies to improve reading comprehension of adult college students with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Gina G; Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Kirk, Cecilia; Fickas, Stephen; Biancarosa, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI. Despite the rising need, empirical evaluation of reading comprehension interventions for adults with ABI is scarce. This study used a within-subject design to evaluate whether adult college students with ABI with no more than moderate cognitive impairments benefited from using reading comprehension strategies to improve comprehension of expository text. Integrating empirical support from the cognitive rehabilitation and special education literature, the researchers designed a multi-component reading comprehension strategy package. Participants read chapters from an introductory-level college anthropology textbook in two different conditions: strategy and no-strategy. The results indicated that reading comprehension strategy use was associated with recall of more correct information units in immediate and delayed free recall tasks; more efficient recall in the delayed free recall task; and increased accuracy recognising statements from a sentence verification task designed to reflect the local and global coherence of the text. The findings support further research into using reading comprehension strategies as an intervention approach for the adult ABI population. Future research needs include identifying how to match particular reading comprehension strategies to individuals, examining whether reading comprehension performance improves further through the incorporation of systematic training, and evaluating texts from a range of disciplines and genres. PMID:25712402

  3. Curcumin or saikosaponin a improves hepatic antioxidant capacity and protects against CCl4-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Ju; Lin, Yun-Ho; Chu, Chia-Chou; Tsai, Ya-Hui; Chao, Jane C-J

    2008-06-01

    Curcumin and saikosaponin a, the bioactive phytochemicals of turmeric and Bupleurum, act as antioxidants. This study investigated the effects of supplementation with curcumin and/or saikosaponin a on hepatic lipids and antioxidant status in rats with CCl(4)-induced liver injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, CCl(4), CCl(4) + curcumin (0.005%; CU), CCl(4) + saikosaponin a (0.004%; SS), and CCl(4) + curcumin + saikosaponin a (0.005% + 0.004%; CU+SS) groups. CCl(4) (40% in olive oil) was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 0.75 mL/kg once a week. Curcumin and/or saikosaponin a was administered orally 1 week before CCl(4) injection for 8 weeks. The pathological results showed that liver fibrosis was ameliorated in the SS and CU+SS groups. After 8 weeks, supplementation with curcumin and/or saikosaponin a significantly decreased plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, as well as plasma and hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The CU+SS group showed reversal of the impaired hepatic superoxide dismutase activity and an increase in total glutathione level. Supplementation with curcumin and/or saikosaponin a significantly improved hepatic antioxidant status and suppressed malondialdehyde formation. Therefore, supplementation with curcumin and/or saikosaponin a protects against CCl(4)-induced liver injury by attenuating hepatic lipids and lipid peroxidation and enhancing antioxidant defense. Curcumin and saikosaponin a had no additive effects on hepatoprotection except for greater improvement in the total glutathione level and antioxidant status.

  4. Extensive cell migration, axon regeneration, and improved function with polysialic acid-modified Schwann cells after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Mousumi; Tuesta, Luis M; Puentes, Rocio; Patel, Samik; Melendez, Kiara; El Maarouf, Abderrahman; Rutishauser, Urs; Pearse, Damien Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Schwann cell (SC) implantation after spinal cord injury (SCI) promotes axonal regeneration, remyelination repair, and functional recovery. Reparative efficacy, however, may be limited because of the inability of SCs to migrate outward from the lesion-implant site. Altering SC cell surface properties by overexpressing polysialic acid (PSA) has been shown to promote SC migration. In this study, a SCI contusion model was used to evaluate the migration, supraspinal axon growth support, and functional recovery associated with polysialyltransferase (PST)-overexpressing SCs [PST-green fluorescent protein (GFP) SCs] or controls (GFP SCs). Compared with GFP SCs, which remained confined to the injection site at the injury center, PST-GFP SCs migrated across the lesion:host cord interface for distances of up to 4.4 mm within adjacent host tissue. In addition, with PST-GFP SCs, there was extensive serotonergic and corticospinal axon in-growth within the implants that was limited in the GFP SC controls. The enhanced migration of PST-GFP SCs was accompanied by significant growth of these axons caudal to lesion. Animals receiving PST-GFP SCs exhibited improved functional outcome, both in the open-field and on the gridwalk test, beyond the modest improvements provided by GFP SC controls. This study for the first time demonstrates that a lack of migration by SCs may hinder their reparative benefits and that cell surface overexpression of PSA enhances the ability of implanted SCs to associate with and support the growth of corticospinal axons. These results provide further promise that PSA-modified SCs will be a potent reparative approach for SCI. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22460918

  5. Evaluation of use of reading comprehension strategies to improve reading comprehension of adult college students with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Gina G; Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Kirk, Cecilia; Fickas, Stephen; Biancarosa, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI. Despite the rising need, empirical evaluation of reading comprehension interventions for adults with ABI is scarce. This study used a within-subject design to evaluate whether adult college students with ABI with no more than moderate cognitive impairments benefited from using reading comprehension strategies to improve comprehension of expository text. Integrating empirical support from the cognitive rehabilitation and special education literature, the researchers designed a multi-component reading comprehension strategy package. Participants read chapters from an introductory-level college anthropology textbook in two different conditions: strategy and no-strategy. The results indicated that reading comprehension strategy use was associated with recall of more correct information units in immediate and delayed free recall tasks; more efficient recall in the delayed free recall task; and increased accuracy recognising statements from a sentence verification task designed to reflect the local and global coherence of the text. The findings support further research into using reading comprehension strategies as an intervention approach for the adult ABI population. Future research needs include identifying how to match particular reading comprehension strategies to individuals, examining whether reading comprehension performance improves further through the incorporation of systematic training, and evaluating texts from a range of disciplines and genres.

  6. Delayed Intervention with Intermittent Hypoxia and Task Training Improves Forelimb Function in a Rat Model of Cervical Spinal Injury.

    PubMed

    Prosser-Loose, Erin J; Hassan, Atiq; Mitchell, Gordon S; Muir, Gillian D

    2015-09-15

    The reduction of motor, sensory and autonomic function below the level of an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) has devastating consequences. One approach to restore function is to induce neural plasticity as a means of augmenting spontaneous functional recovery. Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH-brief exposures to reduced O2 levels alternating with normal O2 levels) elicits plasticity in respiratory and nonrespiratory somatic spinal systems, including improvements in ladder walking performance in rats with incomplete SCI. Here, we determined whether delayed treatment with AIH, with or without concomitant motor training, could improve motor recovery in a rat model of incomplete cervical SCI. In a randomized, blinded, sham-controlled study, rats were exposed to AIH for 7 days beginning at 4 weeks post-SCI, after much spontaneous recovery on a horizontal ladder-crossing task had already occurred. For up to 2 months post-treatment, AIH-treated rats made fewer footslips on the ladder task compared with sham-treated rats. Importantly, concomitant ladder-specific motor training was needed to elicit AIH-induced improvements, such that AIH-treated SCI rats receiving no motor training or nontask-specific treadmill training during the treatment week did not show improvements over sham-treated rats with SCI. AIH treatment combined with task-specific training did not improve recovery on two different reach-to-grasp tasks, however, nor on tasks involving unskilled forepaw use. In brief, our results indicate that task-specific training is needed for AIH to improve ladder performance in a rat model of incomplete cervical SCI. PMID:25664481

  7. Intrathoracic Pressure Regulation Improves Cerebral Perfusion and Cerebral Blood Flow in a Porcine Model of Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Anja; Rees, Jennifer; Kwon, Young; Matsuura, Timothy; McKnite, Scott; Lurie, Keith G

    2015-08-01

    Brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability in children and adults in their most productive years. Use of intrathoracic pressure regulation (IPR) to generate negative intrathoracic pressure during the expiratory phase of positive pressure ventilation improves mean arterial pressure and 24-h survival in porcine models of hemorrhagic shock and cardiac arrest and has been demonstrated to decrease intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in these models. Application of IPR for 240 min in a porcine model of intracranial hypertension (ICH) will increase CPP when compared with controls. Twenty-three female pigs were subjected to focal brain injury by insertion of an epidural Foley catheter inflated with 3 mL of saline. Animals were randomized to treatment for 240 min with IPR set to a negative expiratory phase pressure of -12 cmH2O or no IPR therapy. Intracranial pressure, mean arterial pressure, CPP, and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were evaluated. Intrathoracic pressure regulation significantly improved mean CPP and CBF. Specifically, mean CPP after 90, 120, 180, and 240 min of IPR use was 43.7 ± 2.8 mmHg, 44.0 ± 2.7 mmHg, 44.5 ± 2.8 mmHg, and 43.1 ± 1.9 mmHg, respectively; a significant increase from ICH study baseline (39.5 ± 1.7 mmHg) compared with control animals in which mean CPP was 36.7 ± 1.4 mmHg (ICH study baseline) and then 35.9 ± 2.1 mmHg, 33.7 ± 2.8 mmHg, 33.9 ± 3.0 mmHg, and 36.0 ± 2.7 mmHg at 90, 120, 180, and 240 min, respectively (P < 0.05 for all time points). Cerebral blood flow, as measured by an invasive CBF probe, increased in the IPR group (34 ± 4 mL/100 g-min to 49 ± 7 mL/100 g-min at 90 min) but not in controls (27 ± 1 mL/100 g-min to 25 ± 5 mL/100 g-min at 90 min) (P = 0.01). Arterial pH remained unchanged during the entire period of IPR compared with baseline values and control values. In this anesthetized pig model of ICH, treatment with IPR significantly improved CPP and CBF. This therapy may be

  8. Cognitive Psychology and Audience-Oriented Dramatic Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, David

    Cognitive psychology's most useful contribution to dramatic theory is the concept of schemata, or the mental structures that make up part of the perceptual cycle. In regard to an audience-oriented dramatic theory, this suggests that analysis of a script ought to identify the sorts of schemata that are to be aroused in the audience's minds and the…

  9. Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-2 (SOCS2) Regulates the Microglial Response and Improves Functional Outcome after Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Basrai, Harleen S.; Christie, Kimberly J.; Turbic, Alisa; Bye, Nicole; Turnley, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently characterized by neuronal, axonal and myelin loss, reactive gliosis and neuroinflammation, often associated with functional deficits. Endogenous repair mechanisms include production of new neurons from precursor cells, but usually the new neurons fail to integrate and survive more than a few weeks. This is in part mediated by the toxic and inflammatory environment present in the injured brain which activates precursor cells to proliferate and differentiate but limits survival of the newborn progeny. Therefore, an understanding of mechanisms that regulate production and survival of newborn neurons and the neuroinflammatory response after brain injury may lead to therapeutic options to improve outcomes. Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 2 (SOCS2) promotes hippocampal neurogenesis and survival of newborn neurons in the adult brain and regulates anti-inflammatory responses in the periphery, suggesting it may be a useful candidate to improve outcomes of TBI. In this study the functional and cellular responses of SOCS2 over-expressing transgenic (SOCS2Tg) mice were compared to wildtype littermates following mild or moderately severe TBI. Unlike wildtype controls, SOCS2Tg mice showed functional improvement on a ladder test, with a smaller lesion volume at 7d post injury and increased numbers of proliferative CD11b+ microglia/macrophages at 35d post-injury in the mild injury paradigm. At 7d post-moderately severe injury there was an increase in the area covered by cells expressing an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype marker (CD206+) but no difference in cells with a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype marker (CD16/32+). No effect of SOCS2 overexpression was observed in production or survival of newborn neurons, even in the presence of the neuroprotective agent erythropoietin (EPO). Therefore, SOCS2 may improve outcome of TBI in mice by regulating aspects of the neuroinflammatory response, promoting a more anti-inflammatory environment

  10. Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-2 (SOCS2) Regulates the Microglial Response and Improves Functional Outcome after Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Basrai, Harleen S; Christie, Kimberly J; Turbic, Alisa; Bye, Nicole; Turnley, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently characterized by neuronal, axonal and myelin loss, reactive gliosis and neuroinflammation, often associated with functional deficits. Endogenous repair mechanisms include production of new neurons from precursor cells, but usually the new neurons fail to integrate and survive more than a few weeks. This is in part mediated by the toxic and inflammatory environment present in the injured brain which activates precursor cells to proliferate and differentiate but limits survival of the newborn progeny. Therefore, an understanding of mechanisms that regulate production and survival of newborn neurons and the neuroinflammatory response after brain injury may lead to therapeutic options to improve outcomes. Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 2 (SOCS2) promotes hippocampal neurogenesis and survival of newborn neurons in the adult brain and regulates anti-inflammatory responses in the periphery, suggesting it may be a useful candidate to improve outcomes of TBI. In this study the functional and cellular responses of SOCS2 over-expressing transgenic (SOCS2Tg) mice were compared to wildtype littermates following mild or moderately severe TBI. Unlike wildtype controls, SOCS2Tg mice showed functional improvement on a ladder test, with a smaller lesion volume at 7d post injury and increased numbers of proliferative CD11b+ microglia/macrophages at 35d post-injury in the mild injury paradigm. At 7d post-moderately severe injury there was an increase in the area covered by cells expressing an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype marker (CD206+) but no difference in cells with a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype marker (CD16/32+). No effect of SOCS2 overexpression was observed in production or survival of newborn neurons, even in the presence of the neuroprotective agent erythropoietin (EPO). Therefore, SOCS2 may improve outcome of TBI in mice by regulating aspects of the neuroinflammatory response, promoting a more anti-inflammatory environment

  11. Neurologic music therapy improves executive function and emotional adjustment in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H; Gardiner, James C; Holmberg, Dawn; Horwitz, Javan; Kent, Luanne; Andrews, Garrett; Donelan, Beth; McIntosh, Gerald R

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the immediate effects of neurologic music therapy (NMT) on cognitive functioning and emotional adjustment with brain-injured persons. Four treatment sessions were held, during which participants were given a pre-test, participated in 30 min of NMT that focused on one aspect of rehabilitation (attention, memory, executive function, or emotional adjustment), which was followed by post-testing. Control participants engaged in a pre-test, 30 min of rest, and then a post-test. Treatment participants showed improvement in executive function and overall emotional adjustment, and lessening of depression, sensation seeking, and anxiety. Control participants improved in emotional adjustment and lessening of hostility, but showed decreases in measures of memory, positive affect, and sensation seeking.

  12. A Systematic Review of Experimental Strategies Aimed at Improving Motor Function after Acute and Chronic Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Osman, Joyce; Cortes, Mar; Guest, James; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-03-01

    While various approaches have been proposed in clinical trials aimed at improving motor function after spinal cord injury in humans, there is still limited information regarding the scope, methodological quality, and evidence associated with single-intervention and multi-intervention approaches. A systematic review performed using the PubMed search engine and the key words "spinal cord injury motor recovery" identified 1973 records, of which 39 were selected (18 from the search records and 21 from reference list inspection). Study phase ( clinicaltrials.org criteria) and methodological quality (Cochrane criteria) were assessed. Studies included proposed a broad range of single-intervention (encompassing cell therapies, pharmacology, electrical stimulation, rehabilitation) (encompassing cell therapies, pharmacology, electrical stimulation, rehabilitation) and multi-intervention approaches (that combined more than one strategy). The highest evidence level was for Phase III studies supporting the role of multi-intervention approaches that contained a rehabilitation component. Quality appraisal revealed that the percentage of selected studies classified with high risk of bias by Cochrane criteria was as follows: random sequence generation = 64%; allocation concealment = 77%; blinding of participants and personnel = 69%; blinding of outcome assessment = 64%; attrition = 44%; selective reporting = 44%. The current literature contains a high proportion of studies with a limited ability to measure efficacy in a valid manner because of low methodological strength in all items of the Cochrane risk of bias assessment. Recommendations to decrease bias are discussed and include increased methodological rigor in the study design and recruitment of study participants, and the use of electrophysiological and imaging measures that can assess functional integrity of the spinal cord (and may be sufficiently sensitive to detect changes that occur in response to therapeutic

  13. Targeting of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 improves fibrinolytic therapy for tetracycline-induced pleural injury in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Florova, Galina; Azghani, Ali; Karandashova, Sophia; Schaefer, Chris; Koenig, Kathleen; Stewart-Evans, Kris; Declerck, Paul J; Idell, Steven; Komissarov, Andrey A

    2015-04-01

    Endogenous active plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) was targeted in vivo with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that redirect its reaction with proteinases to the substrate branch. mAbs were used as an adjunct to prourokinase (single-chain [sc] urokinase [uPA]) intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy (IPFT) of tetracycline-induced pleural injury in rabbits. Outcomes of scuPA IPFT (0.25 or 0.0625 mg/kg) with 0.5 mg/kg of mouse IgG or mAbs (MA-33H1F7 and MA-8H9D4) were assessed at 24 hours. Pleural fluid (PF) was collected at 0, 10, 20, and 40 minutes and 24 hours after IPFT and analyzed for plasminogen activating (PA), uPA, fibrinolytic activities, levels of total plasmin/plasminogen, α-macroglobulin (αM), mAbs/IgG antigens, free active uPA, and αM/uPA complexes. Anti-PAI-1 mAbs, but not mouse IgG, delivered with an eightfold reduction in the minimal effective dose of scuPA (from 0.5 to 0.0625 mg/kg), improved the outcome of IPFT (P < 0.05). mAbs and IgG were detectable in PFs at 24 hours. Compared with identical doses of scuPA alone or with IgG, treatment with scuPA and anti-PAI-1 mAbs generated higher PF uPA amidolytic and PA activities, faster formation of αM/uPA complexes, and slower uPA inactivation. However, PAI-1 targeting did not significantly affect intrapleural fibrinolytic activity or levels of total plasmin/plasminogen and αM antigens. Targeting PAI-1 did not induce bleeding, and rendered otherwise ineffective doses of scuPA able to improve outcomes in tetracycline-induced pleural injury. PAI-1-neutralizing mAbs improved IPFT by increasing the durability of intrapleural PA activity. These results suggest a novel, well-tolerated IPFT strategy that is tractable for clinical development.

  14. Candesartan, an angiotensin II AT₁-receptor blocker and PPAR-γ agonist, reduces lesion volume and improves motor and memory function after traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Villapol, Sonia; Yaszemski, Alexandra K; Logan, Trevor T; Sánchez-Lemus, Enrique; Saavedra, Juan M; Symes, Aviva J

    2012-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in complex pathological reactions, the initial lesion worsened by secondary inflammation and edema. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is produced in the brain and Ang II receptor type 1 (AT₁R) overstimulation produces vasoconstriction and inflammation. Ang II receptor blockers (ARBs) are neuroprotective in models of stroke but little is known of their effect when administered in TBI models. We therefore performed controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury on mice to investigate whether the ARB candesartan would mitigate any effects of TBI. We administered candesartan or vehicle to mice 5 h before CCI injury. Candesartan treatment reduced the lesion volume after CCI injury by approximately 50%, decreased the number of dying neurons, lessened the number of activated microglial cells, protected cerebral blood flow (CBF), and reduced the expression of the cytokine TGFβ1 while increasing expression of TGFβ3. Candesartan-treated mice also showed better motor skills on the rotarod 3 days after injury, and improved performance in the Morris water maze 4 weeks after injury. These results indicate that candesartan is neuroprotective, reducing neuronal injury, decreasing lesion volume and microglial activation, protecting CBF and improving functional behavior in a mouse model of TBI. Co-treatment with a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) antagonist significantly reduced some of the beneficial effects of candesartan after CCI, suggesting that PPARγ activation may contribute to part or to all of the neuroprotective effect of candesartan. Overall, our data suggest that ARBs with dual AT₁R-blocking and PPARγ activation properties may have therapeutic value in treating TBI.

  15. “SHOUT” to improve the quality of care delivered to patients with acute kidney injury at Great Western Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Paul; Gorham, James; Kosti, Angeliki; Seligman, William; Courtney, Alona; Mazan, Karolina; Paterson, Stuart; Ramcharitar, Steve; Chandrasekaran, Badri; Juniper, Mark; Greamspet, Mala; Daniel, Jessica; Chalstrey, Sue; Ahmed, Ijaz; Dasgupta, Tanaji

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects up to 20% of all patients admitted to hospital, and is associated with a higher risk of adverse clinical outcomes, increased healthcare costs, as well as long term risks of chronic kidney disease and end stage renal failure. The aim of this project was to improve the quality of care for patients with AKI admitted to the acute medical unit (AMU) at the Great Western Hospital (GWH). We assessed awareness and self reported confidence among physicians in our Trust, in addition to basic aspects of care relevant to AKI on our AMU. A multifaceted quality improvement strategy was developed, which included measures to improve awareness such as a Trust wide AKI awareness day, and reconfiguring the admission proforma on our AMU in order to enhance risk assessment, staging, and early response to AKI. Ancillary measures such as the dissemination of flashcards for lanyards containing core information were also used. Follow up assessments showed that foundation year one (FY1) doctors’ self reported confidence in managing AKI increased from 2.8 to 4.2, as measured on a five point Likert scale (P=0.0003). AKI risk assessment increased from 13% to 57% (P=0.07) following a change in the admission proforma. Documentation of the diagnosis of AKI increased from 66% to 95% (P=0.038) among flagged patients. Documentation of urine dip results increased from 33% to 73% (P=0.01), in addition to a rise in appropriate referral for specialist input, although this was not statistically significant. Our results suggest that using the twin approaches of improving awareness, and small changes to systemic factors such as modification of the admission proforma, can lead to significant enhancements in the quality of care of patients with AKI. PMID:26734401

  16. "SHOUT" to improve the quality of care delivered to patients with acute kidney injury at Great Western Hospital.

    PubMed

    Brady, Paul; Gorham, James; Kosti, Angeliki; Seligman, William; Courtney, Alona; Mazan, Karolina; Paterson, Stuart; Ramcharitar, Steve; Chandrasekaran, Badri; Juniper, Mark; Greamspet, Mala; Daniel, Jessica; Chalstrey, Sue; Ahmed, Ijaz; Dasgupta, Tanaji

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects up to 20% of all patients admitted to hospital, and is associated with a higher risk of adverse clinical outcomes, increased healthcare costs, as well as long term risks of chronic kidney disease and end stage renal failure. The aim of this project was to improve the quality of care for patients with AKI admitted to the acute medical unit (AMU) at the Great Western Hospital (GWH). We assessed awareness and self reported confidence among physicians in our Trust, in addition to basic aspects of care relevant to AKI on our AMU. A multifaceted quality improvement strategy was developed, which included measures to improve awareness such as a Trust wide AKI awareness day, and reconfiguring the admission proforma on our AMU in order to enhance risk assessment, staging, and early response to AKI. Ancillary measures such as the dissemination of flashcards for lanyards containing core information were also used. Follow up assessments showed that foundation year one (FY1) doctors' self reported confidence in managing AKI increased from 2.8 to 4.2, as measured on a five point Likert scale (P=0.0003). AKI risk assessment increased from 13% to 57% (P=0.07) following a change in the admission proforma. Documentation of the diagnosis of AKI increased from 66% to 95% (P=0.038) among flagged patients. Documentation of urine dip results increased from 33% to 73% (P=0.01), in addition to a rise in appropriate referral for specialist input, although this was not statistically significant. Our results suggest that using the twin approaches of improving awareness, and small changes to systemic factors such as modification of the admission proforma, can lead to significant enhancements in the quality of care of patients with AKI.

  17. Minicircle microporation-based non-viral gene delivery improved the targeting of mesenchymal stem cells to an injury site.

    PubMed

    Mun, Ji-Young; Shin, Keun Koo; Kwon, Ohsuk; Lim, Yong Taik; Oh, Doo-Byoung

    2016-09-01

    Genetic engineering approaches to improve the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been made by viral and non-viral gene delivery methods. Viral methods have severe limitations in clinical application because of potential oncogenic, pathogenic, and immunogenic risks, while non-viral methods have suffered from low transfection efficiency and transient weak expression as MSCs are hard-to-transfect cells. In this study, minicircle, which is a minimal expression vector free of bacterial sequences, was employed for MSC transfection as a non-viral gene delivery method. The conventional cationic liposome method was not effective for MSC transfection as it resulted in very low transfection efficiency (less than 5%). Microporation, a new electroporation method, greatly improved the transfection efficiency of minicircles by up to 66% in MSCs without any significant loss of cell viability. Furthermore, minicircle microporation generated much stronger and prolonged transgene expression compared with plasmid microporation. When MSCs microporated with minicircle harboring firefly luciferase gene were subcutaneously injected to mice, the bioluminescence continued for more than a week, whereas the bioluminescence of the MSCs induced by plasmid microporation rapidly decreased and disappeared in mice within three days. By minicircle microporation as a non-viral gene delivery, MSCs engineered to overexpress CXCR4 showed greatly increased homing ability toward an injury site as confirmed through in vivo bioluminescence imaging in mice. In summary, the engineering of MSCs through minicircle microporation is expected to enhance the therapeutic potential of MSCs in clinical applications. PMID:27315214

  18. Cortisol Supplement Combined with Psychotherapy and Citalopram Improves Depression Outcomes in Patients with Hypocortisolism after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lanlan; Chai, Yan; Jiang, Rongcai; Chen, Xin; Yan, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in people with Traumatic brain injury (TBI). Depression after TBI is closely related with social and psychological factors and hypothalamic-pituitary -adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding effective treatment approaches for depression. A total of 68 patients with depression following closed TBI were recruited. Glasgow Coma Scale score (GCS) was employed to demonstrate the severity of neurological deficits and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) was employed to measure functional outcome after TBI. The severity of depression was quantified using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) in line with DSM-IV. Citalopram and Prednisone were administered to subjects with normal cortisol levels or hypocortisolism separately, based on psychotherapeutic interventions. We investigated the relationship between degree of depression of TBI patients and the severity and progression of TBI with the therapeutic effects of Citalopram in combination with psychotherapeutic and Prednisone in depressed patients. There was no relationship between the severity of depression and the severity and progression of TBI. The basic treatment of psychotherapeutic interventions could partially relieve depressive symptoms. Combination of psychotherapeutic support and Citalopram significantly improved depressive symptoms in patients with normal cortisol levels, but not in hypocortisolic patients. Combination of Prednisone administration with psychotherapeutic treatment and Citalopram significantly improved depression outcome in hypocortisolic patients after TBI. Hypocortisolism after TBI may regulate depression. Combination of Prednisone with psychotherapeutic treatment and Citalopram may provide better therapeutic effects in depression patients with hypocortisolism after TBI. PMID:26618043

  19. Subacute intranasal administration of tissue plasminogen activator promotes neuroplasticity and improves functional recovery following traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yuling; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Yanlu; Liu, Zhongwu; An, Aaron; Mahmood, Asim; Xiong, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and long-term disability worldwide. To date, there are no effective pharmacological treatments for TBI. Recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the effective drug for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. In addition to its thrombolytic effect, tPA is also involved in neuroplasticity in the central nervous system. However, tPA has potential adverse side effects when administered intravenously including brain edema and hemorrhage. Here we report that tPA, administered by intranasal delivery during the subacute phase after TBI, provides therapeutic benefit. Animals with TBI were treated intranasally with saline or tPA initiated 7 days after TBI. Compared with saline treatment, subacute intranasal tPA treatment significantly 1) improved cognitive (Morris water maze test) and sensorimotor (footfault and modified neurological severity score) functional recovery in rats after TBI, 2) reduced the cortical stimulation threshold evoking ipsilateral forelimb movement, 3) enhanced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and axonal sprouting of the corticospinal tract originating from the contralesional cortex into the denervated side of the cervical gray matter, and 4) increased the level of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Our data suggest that subacute intranasal tPA treatment improves functional recovery and promotes brain neurogenesis and spinal cord axonal sprouting after TBI, which may be mediated, at least in part, by tPA/plasmin-dependent maturation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

  20. Improvement in acupoint selection for acupuncture of nerves surrounding the injury site: electro-acupuncture with Governor vessel with local meridian acupoints

    PubMed Central

    He, Guan-heng; Ruan, Jing-wen; Zeng, Yuan-shan; Zhou, Xin; Ding, Ying; Zhou, Guang-hui

    2015-01-01

    nerve injury. After a single session, the patient's motor nerve conduction velocity increased by 23.2%, indicating that electroacupuncture at Governor vessel acupoints has an immediate therapeutic effect on peripheral nerve injury. Our results indicate that Governor vessel and local meridian acupoints used simultaneously promote functional repair after peripheral nerve injury. The mechanism of action may arise from an improvement of the local microenvironment in injured nervous tissue, as well as immediate effects of Governor vessel and local meridian acupoint stimulation to ensure the continuity between the peripheral and central nervous systems. PMID:25788933

  1. Prior regular exercise improves clinical outcome and reduces demyelination and axonal injury in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Danielle; Brambilla, Roberta; Bracchi-Ricard, Valerie; Karmally, Shaffiat; Dellarole, Anna; Carvalho-Tavares, Juliana; Bethea, John R

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that forced exercise modulates inflammation and is therapeutic acutely for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the long-term benefits have not been evaluated. In this study, we investigated the effects of preconditioning exercise on the clinical and pathological progression of EAE. Female C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either an exercised (Ex) or unexercised (UEx) group and all of them were induced for EAE. Mice in the Ex group had an attenuated clinical score relative to UEx mice throughout the study. At 42 dpi, flow cytometry analysis showed a significant reduction in B cells, CD4(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T cells infiltrating into the spinal cord in the Ex group compared to UEx. Ex mice also had a significant reduction in myelin damage with a corresponding increase in proteolipid protein expression. Finally, Ex mice had a significant reduction in axonal damage. Collectively, our study demonstrates for the first time that a prolonged and forced preconditioning protocol of exercise improves clinical outcome and attenuates pathological hallmarks of EAE at chronic disease. In this study, we show that a program of 6 weeks of preconditioning exercise promoted a significant reduction of cells infiltrating into the spinal cord, a significant reduction in myelin damage and a significant reduction in axonal damage in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice at 42 dpi. Collectively, our study demonstrates for the first time that a preconditioning protocol of exercise improves clinical outcome and attenuates pathological hallmarks of EAE at chronic disease.

  2. Prior regular exercise improves clinical outcome and reduces demyelination and axonal injury in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Danielle; Brambilla, Roberta; Bracchi-Ricard, Valerie; Karmally, Shaffiat; Dellarole, Anna; Carvalho-Tavares, Juliana; Bethea, John R

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that forced exercise modulates inflammation and is therapeutic acutely for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the long-term benefits have not been evaluated. In this study, we investigated the effects of preconditioning exercise on the clinical and pathological progression of EAE. Female C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either an exercised (Ex) or unexercised (UEx) group and all of them were induced for EAE. Mice in the Ex group had an attenuated clinical score relative to UEx mice throughout the study. At 42 dpi, flow cytometry analysis showed a significant reduction in B cells, CD4(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T cells infiltrating into the spinal cord in the Ex group compared to UEx. Ex mice also had a significant reduction in myelin damage with a corresponding increase in proteolipid protein expression. Finally, Ex mice had a significant reduction in axonal damage. Collectively, our study demonstrates for the first time that a prolonged and forced preconditioning protocol of exercise improves clinical outcome and attenuates pathological hallmarks of EAE at chronic disease. In this study, we show that a program of 6 weeks of preconditioning exercise promoted a significant reduction of cells infiltrating into the spinal cord, a significant reduction in myelin damage and a significant reduction in axonal damage in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice at 42 dpi. Collectively, our study demonstrates for the first time that a preconditioning protocol of exercise improves clinical outcome and attenuates pathological hallmarks of EAE at chronic disease. PMID:26364732

  3. CHRONIC UCL INJURY: A MULTIMODAL APPROACH TO CORRECTING ALTERED MECHANICS AND IMPROVING HEALING IN A COLLEGE ATHLETE— A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Rachel; McGinty, Josh; Lucado, Ann; Collier, Beth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears and associated Tommy Johns surgical intervention from excessive and poor quality pitching has increased immensely—with more college and professional pitchers undergoing the surgery in 2014 alone than in the 1990s as a whole.1 Faulty mechanics developed at young ages are often well-engrained by the late adolescent years and the minimal healing ability of the largely avascular UCL often leads to delayed safe return to sport.2 Purpose The purpose of this case study was to describe an innovative, multimodal approach to conservative management of a chronic UCL injury in a college-aged baseball pitcher. This innovative approach utilizes both contractile and non-contractile dry needling to enhance soft tissue healing combined with standard conservative treatment to decrease pain and improve sport performance as measured by the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Numeric Pain Report Scale (NPRS), and return to sport. Study Design Retrospective Case Report Case Description A collegiate athlete presented to an outpatient orthopedic physical therapy clinic for treatment of UCL sprain approximately six weeks post-injury and platelet-rich plasma injection. Diagnostic testing revealed chronic ligamentous microtrauma. Impairments at evaluation included proximal stabilizing strength deficits, myofascial trigger points throughout the dominant upper extremity, improper pitching form, and inability to pitch in game conditions due to severe pain. Interventions included addressing strength deficits throughout the body, dry needling, and sport-specific biomechanical training with pitching form analysis and correction. Outcomes Conventional DASH and Sport-Specific scale on the DASH and the numeric pain rating scale improved beyond both the minimally clinically important difference and minimal detectable change over the 12 week treatment3,4 At 24-week follow up, conventional DASH scores decreased from 34.20% disability

  4. Administration of low dose estrogen attenuates persistent inflammation, promotes angiogenesis, and improves locomotor function following chronic spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Samantaray, Supriti; Das, Arabinda; Matzelle, Denise C; Yu, Shan P; Wei, Ling; Varma, Abhay; Ray, Swapan K; Banik, Naren L

    2016-05-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes loss of neurological function and, depending upon the severity of injury, may lead to paralysis. Currently, no FDA-approved pharmacotherapy is available for SCI. High-dose methylprednisolone is widely used, but this treatment is controversial. We have previously shown that low doses of estrogen reduces inflammation, attenuates cell death, and protects axon and myelin in SCI rats, but its effectiveness in recovery of function is not known. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate whether low doses of estrogen in post-SCI would reduce inflammation, protect cells and axons, and improve locomotor function during the chronic phase of injury. Injury (40 g.cm force) was induced at thoracic 10 in young adult male rats. Rats were treated with 10 or 100 μg 17β-estradiol (estrogen) for 7 days following SCI and compared with vehicle-treated injury and laminectomy (sham) controls. Histology (H&E staining), immunohistofluorescence, Doppler laser technique, and Western blotting were used to monitor tissue integrity, gliosis, blood flow, angiogenesis, the expression of angiogenic factors, axonal degeneration, and locomotor function (Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan rating) following injury. To assess the progression of recovery, rats were sacrificed at 7, 14, or 42 days post injury. A reduction in glial reactivity, attenuation of axonal and myelin damage, protection of cells, increased expression of angiogenic factors and microvessel growth, and improved locomotor function were found following estrogen treatment compared with vehicle-treated SCI rats. These results suggest that treatment with a very low dose of estrogen has significant therapeutic implications for the improvement of locomotor function in chronic SCI. Experimental studies with low dose estrogen therapy in chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) demonstrated the potential for multi-active beneficial outcomes that could ameliorate the degenerative pathways in chronic SCI as

  5. Deficits in discrimination after experimental frontal brain injury are mediated by motivation and can be improved by nicotinamide administration.

    PubMed

    Vonder Haar, Cole; Maass, William R; Jacobs, Eric A; Hoane, Michael R

    2014-10-15

    One of the largest challenges in experimental neurotrauma work is the development of models relevant to the human condition. This includes both creating similar pathophysiology as well as the generation of relevant behavioral deficits. Recent studies have shown that there is a large potential for the use of discrimination tasks in rats to detect injury-induced deficits. The literature on discrimination and TBI is still limited, however. The current study investigated motivational and motor factors that could potentially contribute to deficits in discrimination. In addition, the efficacy of a neuroprotective agent, nicotinamide, was assessed. Rats were trained on a discrimination task and motivation task, given a bilateral frontal controlled cortical impact TBI (+3.0 AP, 0.0 ML from bregma), and then reassessed. They were also assessed on motor ability and Morris water maze (MWM) performance. Experiment 1 showed that TBI resulted in large deficits in discrimination and motivation. No deficits were observed on gross motor measures; however, the vehicle group showed impairments in fine motor control. Both injured groups were impaired on the reference memory MWM, but only nicotinamide-treated rats were impaired on the working memory MWM. Nicotinamide administration improved performance on discrimination and motivation measures. Experiment 2 evaluated retraining on the discrimination task and suggested that motivation may be a large factor underlying discrimination deficits. Retrained rats improved considerably on the discrimination task. The tasks evaluated in this study demonstrate robust deficits and may improve the detection of pharmaceutical effects by being very sensitive to pervasive cognitive deficits that occur after frontal TBI.

  6. Socio-Dramatic Affective-Relational Intervention for Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome & High Functioning Autism: Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Levine, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a novel intervention called "socio-dramatic affective-relational intervention" (SDARI), intended to improve social skills among adolescents with Asperger syndrome and high functioning autism diagnoses. SDARI adapts dramatic training activities to focus on in vivo practice of areas of social skill deficit…

  7. Video Taping and Abnormal Psychology: Dramatized Clinical Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Michael J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students in an abnormal psychology course worked in teams to produce dramatizations of diagnostic interviews and then presented them in class. Positive and negative aspects of the activity are discussed. (RM)

  8. Some Practical Guidelines for Teaching Dramatic Analysis to Beginning Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelias, Ronald J.; Ralph, Stephen D.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines common abuses that occur when students first use dramatic analysis in oral interpretation. Offers guidelines to help make students' efforts more productive; uses William Carlos Williams's poem "The Red Wheelbarrow" as an example. (PD)

  9. Sodium selenate, a protein phosphatase 2A activator, mitigates hyperphosphorylated tau and improves repeated mild traumatic brain injury outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xin L; Wright, David K; Liu, Shijie; Hovens, Christopher; O'Brien, Terence J; Shultz, Sandy R

    2016-09-01

    Mild traumatic brain injuries may result in cumulative brain damage and neurodegenerative disease. To date, there is no pharmaceutical intervention known to prevent these consequences. Hyperphosphorylated tau has been associated in this process, and protein phosphatase 2A 55 kDa regulatory B subunit (PP2A/PR55) - the major tau phosphatase - is decreased after a brain insult. Sodium selenate up-regulates PP2A/PR55 and dephosphorylates tau, and may hold promise as a treatment in the mild brain injury setting. Here we investigated sodium selenate treatment in rats given repeated mild traumatic brain injuries. Rats were given three mild fluid percussion injuries or three sham-injuries, and treated with sodium selenate (1 mg/kg/day) or saline-vehicle for three months before undergoing behavioral testing, MRI, and post-mortem analysis of brain tissue. Repeated mild traumatic brain injuries increased the phosphorylation of tau and decreased PP2A/PR55, whilst inducing brain atrophy and cognitive and sensorimotor deficits. Sodium selenate treatment increased PP2A/PR55, and decreased tau phosphorylation, brain damage, and cognitive and motor impairments in rats given repeated mild traumatic brain injuries. Our findings implicate PP2A/PR55 and tau as important mechanisms in the pathophysiological aftermath of repeated mild brain traumas, and support sodium selenate as a novel and translatable treatment for these common injuries. PMID:27163189

  10. Evaluation of a Reading Comprehension Strategy Package to Improve Reading Comprehension of Adult College Students with Acquired Brain Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Gina G.

    2013-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI.…

  11. The University of the National Football League: How Technology, Injury Surveillance, and Health Care Have Improved the Safety of America's Game.

    PubMed

    Matava, Matthew J; Görtz, Simon

    2016-07-01

    American football has become one of the most popular sports in the United States. Despite the millions of players at all levels of competition who gain the physical, social, and psychological rewards that football provides, many interested stakeholders continue to ask, "Is football safe?" Although there are only approximately 1,700 players on National Football League (NFL) rosters, the injuries they sustain have garnered the most attention-and criticism-from the national media. Increased public awareness of the injury potential football possesses has led to an open debate and a major shift in public sentiment over the past 5 years. Although no sport is perfectly safe, the question is whether it can be made relatively safe and if the long-term consequences are worth the risk. This article reviews the methods by which one sports league-the NFL-has used advances in medical technology and injury surveillance to improve the health and safety of its players.

  12. Nesfatin-1 improves oxidative skin injury in normoglycemic or hyperglycemic rats.

    PubMed

    Solmaz, Ali; Bahadır, Elif; Gülçiçek, Osman B; Yiğitbaş, Hakan; Çelik, Atilla; Karagöz, Ayça; Özsavcı, Derya; Şirvancı, Serap; Yeğen, Berrak Ç

    2016-04-01

    Hyperglycemia is one of the major causes of suppressed angiogenesis and impaired wound healing leading to chronic wounds. Nesfatin-1 a novel peptide was reported to have antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. This study is aimed to investigate the potential healing-promoting effects of nesfatin-1 in non-diabetic or diabetic rats with surgical wounds. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, hyperglycemia was induced by intraperitoneal (ip) injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). Under anesthesia, dorsum skin tissues of normoglycemic (n=16) and hyperglycemic rats were excised (2 × 2 cm, full-thickness), while control rats (n=16) had neither hyperglycemia nor wounds. Half of the rats in each group were treated ip with saline, while the others were treated with nesfatin-1 (2 μg/kg/day) for 3 days until they were decapitated. Plasma interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β-1), IL-6 levels, and dermal tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and caspase-3 activity were measured. For histological examination, paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin or Masson's trichrome and immunohistochemistry for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was applied. ANOVA and Student's t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Compared to control rats, skin MPO activity, MDA and caspase-3 levels were increased similarly in saline-treated normo- and hyperglycemic rats. Nesfatin-1 depressed MDA, caspase-3, MPO activity and IL-1β with concomitant elevations in dermal GSH and plasma TGF-β-1 levels. Histopathological examination revealed regeneration of epidermis, regular arrangement of collagen fibers in the dermis and a decrease in VEGF immunoreactivity in the epidermal keratinocytes of nesfatin-1-treated groups. Nesfatin-1 improved surgical wound healing in both normo- and hyperglycemic rats via the suppression of neutrophil recruitment, apoptosis and VEGF activation. PMID:26829459

  13. Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) Improves Myelination and Recovery after Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chabas, Jean-Francois; Stephan, Delphine; Marqueste, Tanguy; Garcia, Stephane; Lavaut, Marie-Noelle; Nguyen, Catherine; Legre, Regis; Khrestchatisky, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated i) that ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) increases axon diameter and potentiates nerve regeneration in a rat model of transected peripheral nerve and ii) that cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) improves breathing and hyper-reflexia in a rat model of paraplegia. However, before bringing this molecule to the clinic, it was of prime importance i) to assess which form – ergocalciferol versus cholecalciferol – and which dose were the most efficient and ii) to identify the molecular pathways activated by this pleiotropic molecule. The rat left peroneal nerve was cut out on a length of 10 mm and autografted in an inverted position. Animals were treated with either cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol, at the dose of 100 or 500 IU/kg/day, or excipient (Vehicle), and compared to unlesioned rats (Control). Functional recovery of hindlimb was measured weekly, during 12 weeks, using the peroneal functional index. Ventilatory, motor and sensitive responses of the regenerated axons were recorded and histological analysis was performed. In parallel, to identify the genes regulated by vitamin D in dorsal root ganglia and/or Schwann cells, we performed an in vitro transcriptome study. We observed that cholecalciferol is more efficient than ergocalciferol and, when delivered at a high dose (500 IU/kg/day), cholecalciferol induces a significant locomotor and electrophysiological recovery. We also demonstrated that cholecalciferol increases i) the number of preserved or newly formed axons in the proximal end, ii) the mean axon diameter in the distal end, and iii) neurite myelination in both distal and proximal ends. Finally, we found a modified expression of several genes involved in axogenesis and myelination, after 24 hours of vitamin supplementation. Our study is the first to demonstrate that vitamin D acts on myelination via the activation of several myelin-associated genes. It paves the way for future randomised controlled clinical trials for peripheral nerve or

  14. Nesfatin-1 improves oxidative skin injury in normoglycemic or hyperglycemic rats.

    PubMed

    Solmaz, Ali; Bahadır, Elif; Gülçiçek, Osman B; Yiğitbaş, Hakan; Çelik, Atilla; Karagöz, Ayça; Özsavcı, Derya; Şirvancı, Serap; Yeğen, Berrak Ç

    2016-04-01

    Hyperglycemia is one of the major causes of suppressed angiogenesis and impaired wound healing leading to chronic wounds. Nesfatin-1 a novel peptide was reported to have antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. This study is aimed to investigate the potential healing-promoting effects of nesfatin-1 in non-diabetic or diabetic rats with surgical wounds. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, hyperglycemia was induced by intraperitoneal (ip) injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). Under anesthesia, dorsum skin tissues of normoglycemic (n=16) and hyperglycemic rats were excised (2 × 2 cm, full-thickness), while control rats (n=16) had neither hyperglycemia nor wounds. Half of the rats in each group were treated ip with saline, while the others were treated with nesfatin-1 (2 μg/kg/day) for 3 days until they were decapitated. Plasma interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β-1), IL-6 levels, and dermal tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and caspase-3 activity were measured. For histological examination, paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin or Masson's trichrome and immunohistochemistry for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was applied. ANOVA and Student's t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Compared to control rats, skin MPO activity, MDA and caspase-3 levels were increased similarly in saline-treated normo- and hyperglycemic rats. Nesfatin-1 depressed MDA, caspase-3, MPO activity and IL-1β with concomitant elevations in dermal GSH and plasma TGF-β-1 levels. Histopathological examination revealed regeneration of epidermis, regular arrangement of collagen fibers in the dermis and a decrease in VEGF immunoreactivity in the epidermal keratinocytes of nesfatin-1-treated groups. Nesfatin-1 improved surgical wound healing in both normo- and hyperglycemic rats via the suppression of neutrophil recruitment, apoptosis and VEGF activation.

  15. A Dunnione Compound MB12662 Improves Cisplatin-Induced Tissue Injury and Emesis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dongsun; Jo, In Geun; Jang, Ja Young; Kwak, Tae Hwan; Yoo, Sang Ku; Jeon, Jeong Hee; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Joo, Seong Soo; Kim, Okjin; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of MB12662, a synthetic dunnione compound, on cisplatin-induced vomiting reflexes and intestinal, renal, immune system, and hematopoietic toxicities in ferrets and mice, respectively. Male ICR mice were orally administered MB12662 (5, 10, 25 or 50 mg/kg) for 10 days, during which intraperitoneally challenged with cisplatin (3.5 mg/kg) from day 4 to 7, and sacrificed on day 10 for the pathological examination. Male ferrets were orally administered MB12662 (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg) for 7 days, subcutaneously challenged with cisplatin (5 mg/kg), and monitored for vomiting reflexes and survival of the animals. Four-day injection of cisplatin (3.5 mg/kg) to mice caused body weight loss and degeneration and atrophy of intestinal villi, reducing villi/crypt ratio to a half level of control animals. Cisplatin also induced renal and hepatic toxicities, and depletion of splenocytes and bone marrow progenitor cells. The systemic toxicities including decreased villi/crypt ratio, immune system atrophy, splenocyte depletion, and decreased cellularity in bone marrow were improved by MB12662. Cisplatin (5 mg/kg) induced retching and emetic responses of ferrets, which were remarkably attenuated by MB12662 in a dose-dependent manner. All the ferrets pretreated with MB12662 survived the challenge of cisplatin, in comparison with 40% mortality in vehicle-treated animals, and blood parameters of nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity were markedly recovered. It is expected that MB12662 could be a candidate for the body protection against burden, including emesis, of chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:26336585

  16. Recurrent Recruitment Manoeuvres Improve Lung Mechanics and Minimize Lung Injury during Mechanical Ventilation of Healthy Mice

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Lucy Kathleen; Kowallik, Anke; Uhlig, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Mechanical ventilation (MV) of mice is increasingly required in experimental studies, but the conditions that allow stable ventilation of mice over several hours have not yet been fully defined. In addition, most previous studies documented vital parameters and lung mechanics only incompletely. The aim of the present study was to establish experimental conditions that keep these parameters within their physiological range over a period of 6 h. For this purpose, we also examined the effects of frequent short recruitment manoeuvres (RM) in healthy mice. Methods Mice were ventilated at low tidal volume VT = 8 mL/kg or high tidal volume VT = 16 mL/kg and a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 2 or 6 cmH2O. RM were performed every 5 min, 60 min or not at all. Lung mechanics were followed by the forced oscillation technique. Blood pressure (BP), electrocardiogram (ECG), heart frequency (HF), oxygen saturation and body temperature were monitored. Blood gases, neutrophil-recruitment, microvascular permeability and pro-inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood serum as well as histopathology of the lung were examined. Results MV with repetitive RM every 5 min resulted in stable respiratory mechanics. Ventilation without RM worsened lung mechanics due to alveolar collapse, leading to impaired gas exchange. HF and BP were affected by anaesthesia, but not by ventilation. Microvascular permeability was highest in atelectatic lungs, whereas neutrophil-recruitment and structural changes were strongest in lungs ventilated with high tidal volume. The cytokines IL-6 and KC, but neither TNF nor IP-10, were elevated in the BAL and serum of all ventilated mice and were reduced by recurrent RM. Lung mechanics, oxygenation and pulmonary inflammation were improved by increased PEEP. Conclusions Recurrent RM maintain lung mechanics in their physiological range during low tidal volume ventilation of healthy mice by preventing atelectasis and

  17. The Coagulation Factor XIIa Inhibitor rHA-Infestin-4 Improves Outcome after Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Krupka, Jennifer; May, Frauke; Weimer, Thomas; Pragst, Ingo; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Stoll, Guido; Panousis, Con; Dickneite, Gerhard; Nolte, Marc W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Ischemic stroke provokes severe brain damage and remains a predominant disease in industrialized countries. The coagulation factor XII (FXII)-driven contact activation system plays a central, but not yet fully defined pathogenic role in stroke development. Here, we investigated the efficacy of the FXIIa inhibitor rHA-Infestin-4 in a rat model of ischemic stroke using both a prophylactic and a therapeutic approach. Methods For prophylactic treatment, animals were treated intravenously with 100 mg/kg rHA-Infestin-4 or an equal volume of saline 15 min prior to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) of 90 min. For therapeutic treatment, 100 mg/kg rHA-Infestin-4, or an equal volume of saline, was administered directly after the start of reperfusion. At 24 h after tMCAO, rats were tested for neurological deficits and blood was drawn for coagulation assays. Finally, brains were removed and analyzed for infarct area and edema formation. Results Within prophylactic rHA-Infestin-4 treatment, infarct areas and brain edema formation were reduced accompanied by better neurological scores and survival compared to controls. Following therapeutic treatment, neurological outcome and survival were still improved although overall effects were less pronounced compared to prophylaxis. Conclusions With regard to the central role of the FXII-driven contact activation system in ischemic stroke, inhibition of FXIIa may represent a new and promising treatment approach to prevent cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:26815580

  18. Local stakeholders' perspectives on improving the urban environment to reduce child pedestrian injury: implementing effective public health interventions at the local level.

    PubMed

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Defrancesco, Susan; Gielen, Andrea C; Bishai, David M; Guyer, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    Local-level public health interventions require action from multiple agencies, organizations and individuals, yet little is known about how best to work with stakeholders to facilitate change. We sought local stakeholders' perspectives on how best to address impediments to implementing interventions designed to reduce child pedestrian injury by improving the pedestrian environment. We conducted 20 in-person, key informant interviews with people who would be the likely advocates for environmental change to improve the pedestrian environment in one US city, Baltimore, Maryland. We discuss the importance of reframing child pedestrian injury risk as a livability issue, increasing awareness about the potential impact of environmental changes to improve public safety, and the need for a formal efficient process to facilitate communication between local government and other stakeholders. These findings provide public health professionals and advocates with useful insight into how local stakeholders view the issue and their perspectives on how best to achieve change. PMID:17164804

  19. How to Know when Dramatic Change Is on Track: Leading Indicators of School Turnarounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowal, Julie; Ableidinger, Joe

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, national policymakers have placed new emphasis on "school turnarounds" as a strategy for rapid, dramatic improvement in chronically failing schools, calling on education leaders to turn around performance in the 5,000 lowest-achieving schools nationwide. This goal may seem daunting, given the dismal success rates of school…

  20. Improved Cognitive Function After Transcranial, Light-Emitting Diode Treatments in Chronic, Traumatic Brain Injury: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Saltmarche, Anita; Krengel, Maxine H.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Knight, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Two chronic, traumatic brain injury (TBI) cases, where cognition improved following treatment with red and near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs), applied transcranially to forehead and scalp areas, are presented. Background: Significant benefits have been reported following application of transcranial, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) to humans with acute stroke and mice with acute TBI. These are the first case reports documenting improved cognitive function in chronic, TBI patients treated with transcranial LED. Methods: Treatments were applied bilaterally and to midline sagittal areas using LED cluster heads [2.1″ diameter, 61 diodes (9 × 633 nm, 52 × 870 nm); 12–15 mW per diode; total power: 500 mW; 22.2 mW/cm2; 13.3 J/cm2 at scalp (estimated 0.4 J/cm2 to cortex)]. Results: Seven years after closed-head TBI from a motor vehicle accident, Patient 1 began transcranial LED treatments. Pre-LED, her ability for sustained attention (computer work) lasted 20 min. After eight weekly LED treatments, her sustained attention time increased to 3 h. The patient performs nightly home treatments (5 years); if she stops treating for more than 2 weeks, she regresses. Patient 2 had a history of closed-head trauma (sports/military, and recent fall), and magnetic resonance imaging showed frontoparietal atrophy. Pre-LED, she was on medical disability for 5 months. After 4 months of nightly LED treatments at home, medical disability discontinued; she returned to working full-time as an executive consultant with an international technology consulting firm. Neuropsychological testing after 9 months of transcranial LED indicated significant improvement (+1, +2SD) in executive function (inhibition, inhibition accuracy) and memory, as well as reduction in post-traumatic stress disorder. If she stops treating for more than 1 week, she regresses. At the time of this report, both patients are continuing treatment. Conclusions: Transcranial

  1. Monocyte Locomotion Inhibitory Factor Produced by E. histolytica Improves Motor Recovery and Develops Neuroprotection after Traumatic Injury to the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Bermeo, Gabriela; García, Elisa; Flores-Romero, Adrian; Rico-Rosillo, Guadalupe; Marroquín, Rubén; Flores, Carmina; Blanco-Favela, Francisco; Silva-García, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    Monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor (MLIF) is a pentapeptide produced by Entamoeba histolytica that has a potent anti-inflammatory effect. Either MLIF or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was administered directly onto the spinal cord (SC) immediately after injury. Motor recovery was evaluated. We also analyzed neuroprotection by quantifying the number of surviving ventral horn motor neurons and the persistence of rubrospinal tract neurons. To evaluate the mechanism through which MLIF improved the outcome of SC injury, we quantified the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) genes at the site of injury. Finally, the levels of nitric oxide and of lipid peroxidation were also determined in peripheral blood. Results showed that MLIF improved the rate of motor recovery and this correlated with an increased survival of ventral horn and rubrospinal neurons. These beneficial effects were in turn associated with a reduction in iNOS gene products and a significant upregulation of IL-10 and TGF-β expression. In the same way, MLIF reduced the concentration of nitric oxide and the levels of lipid peroxidation in systemic circulation. The present results demonstrate for the first time the neuroprotective effects endowed by MLIF after SC injury. PMID:24294606

  2. Propofol injection combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation better improves electrophysiological function in the hindlimb of rats with spinal cord injury than monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Xin; Sun, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Mei; Hou, Xiao-Hua; Hong, Jun; Zhou, Ya-Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Yong

    2015-04-01

    The repair effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on nervous system damage are not satisfactory. Propofol has been shown to protect against spinal cord injury. Therefore, this study sought to explore the therapeutic effects of their combination on spinal cord injury. Rat models of spinal cord injury were established using the weight drop method. Rats were subjected to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation via tail vein injection and/or propofol injection via tail vein using an infusion pump. Four weeks after cell transplantation and/or propofol treatment, the cavity within the spinal cord was reduced. The numbers of PKH-26-positive cells and horseradish peroxidase-positive nerve fibers apparently increased in the spinal cord. Latencies of somatosensory evoked potentials and motor evoked potentials in the hindlimb were noticeably shortened, amplitude was increased and hindlimb motor function was obviously improved. Moreover, the combined effects were better than cell transplantation or propofol injection alone. The above data suggest that the combination of propofol injection and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation can effectively improve hindlimb electrophysiological function, promote the recovery of motor funtion, and play a neuroprotective role in spinal cord injury in rats.

  3. Intrathecally Transplanting Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) Activates ERK1/2 in Spinal Cords of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Rats and Improves Nerve Function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonghong; Liu, He; Ma, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated whether an intrathecal transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) activates extracellular adjusting protein kinase1 and 2(ERK1/2) in the spinal cords of rats following an ischemia-reperfusion injury, resulting in improved spinal cord function and inhibition of apoptosis. Material/Methods We observed the relationship between the activation of ERK1/2 in the rat spinal cord and intrathecal transplantation of MSCs, as well as the effect of U0126, a MEK1/2 (upstream protein of ERK1/2) inhibitor, on a spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury model in rats using Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) scoring, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis. Results After transplantation of MSCs, the lower limb motor function score increased, and the incubation period of SSEPs and amplitude were improved. Moreover, following transplantation of MSCs, Bcl2 expression increased, whereas Bax expression decreased after reperfusion. Transplantation of MSCs significantly enhanced pERK1/2 expression in the spinal cord, as well as pERK1/2 in immunoreactive cells located in the grey matter of the L4/5 levels of the spinal cord, following ischemia reperfusion injury in rats. The effective dose of U0126 required to inhibit pERK1/2 expression was 200 μg/kg. Bcl-2 decreased and the level of Bax expression increased in the spinal cord after ischemia reperfusion injury, and the protective effects of MSCs were attenuated. Conclusions Our findings suggest that intrathecal transplantation of MSCs activates ERK1/2 in the spinal cord following ischemia reperfusion injury, partially improves spinal cord function, and inhibits apoptosis in rats. PMID:27135658

  4. Intrathecally Transplanting Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) Activates ERK1/2 in Spinal Cords of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Rats and Improves Nerve Function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonghong; Liu, He; Ma, Hong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND We investigated whether an intrathecal transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) activates extracellular adjusting protein kinase1 and 2(ERK1/2) in the spinal cords of rats following an ischemia-reperfusion injury, resulting in improved spinal cord function and inhibition of apoptosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS We observed the relationship between the activation of ERK1/2 in the rat spinal cord and intrathecal transplantation of MSCs, as well as the effect of U0126, a MEK1/2 (upstream protein of ERK1/2) inhibitor, on a spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury model in rats using Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) scoring, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis. RESULTS After transplantation of MSCs, the lower limb motor function score increased, and the incubation period of SSEPs and amplitude were improved. Moreover, following transplantation of MSCs, Bcl2 expression increased, whereas Bax expression decreased after reperfusion. Transplantation of MSCs significantly enhanced pERK1/2 expression in the spinal cord, as well as pERK1/2 in immunoreactive cells located in the grey matter of the L4/5 levels of the spinal cord, following ischemia reperfusion injury in rats. The effective dose of U0126 required to inhibit pERK1/2 expression was 200 µg/kg. Bcl-2 decreased and the level of Bax expression increased in the spinal cord after ischemia reperfusion injury, and the protective effects of MSCs were attenuated. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that intrathecal transplantation of MSCs activates ERK1/2 in the spinal cord following ischemia reperfusion injury, partially improves spinal cord function, and inhibits apoptosis in rats. PMID:27135658

  5. IL-15 Superagonist Expands mCD8+ T, NK and NKT Cells after Burn Injury but Fails to Improve Outcome during Burn Wound Infection

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Naeem K.; Luan, Liming; Bohannon, Julia K.; Guo, Yin; Hernandez, Antonio; Fensterheim, Benjamin; Sherwood, Edward R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Severely burned patients are highly susceptible to opportunistic infections and sepsis, owing to the loss of the protective skin barrier and immunological dysfunction. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) belongs to the IL-2 family of common gamma chain cytokines and stimulates the proliferation and activation of T (specifically memory CD8), NK and NKT cells. It has been shown to preserve T cell function and improve survival during cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in mice. However, the therapeutic efficacy of IL-15 or IL-15 superagonist (SA) during infection after burn injury has not been evaluated. Moreover, very few, if any, studies have examined, in detail, the effect of burn injury and infection on the adaptive immune system. Thus, we examined the effect of burn and sepsis on adaptive immune cell populations and the effect of IL-15 SA treatment on the host response to infection. Methods Mice were subjected to a 35% total body surface area burn, followed by wound infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In some experiments, IL-15 SA was administered after burn injury, but before infection. Leukocytes in spleen, liver and peritoneal cavity were characterized using flow cytometry. Bacterial clearance, organ injury and survival were also assessed. Results Burn wound infection led to a significant decline in total white blood cell and lymphocyte counts and induced organ injury and sepsis. Burn injury caused decline in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the spleen, which was worsened by infection. IL-15 treatment inhibited this decline and significantly increased cell numbers and activation, as determined by CD69 expression, of CD4+, CD8+, B, NK and NKT cells in the spleen and liver after burn injury. However, IL-15 SA treatment failed to prevent burn wound sepsis-induced loss of CD4+, CD8+, B, NK and NKT cells and failed to improve bacterial clearance and survival. Conclusion Cutaneous burn injury and infection cause significant adaptive immune dysfunction. IL-15

  6. Salidroside Improves Behavioral and Histological Outcomes and Reduces Apoptosis via PI3K/Akt Signaling after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szu-Fu; Tsai, Hsin-Ju; Hung, Tai-Ho; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Lee, Chao Yu; Wu, Chun-Hu; Wang, Pei-Yi; Liao, Nien-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces a complex sequence of apopototic cascades that contribute to secondary tissue damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of salidroside, a phenolic glycoside with potent anti-apoptotic properties, on behavioral and histological outcomes, brain edema, and apoptosis following experimental TBI and the possible involvement of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice subjected to controlled cortical impact injury received intraperitoneal salidroside (20, or 50 mg/kg) or vehicle injection 10 min after injury. Behavioral studies, histology analysis and brain water content assessment were performed. Levels of PI3K/Akt signaling-related molecules, apoptosis-related proteins, cytochrome C (CytoC), and Smac/DIABLO were also analyzed. LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, was administered to examine the mechanism of protection. The protective effect of salidroside was also investigated in primary cultured neurons subjected to stretch injury. Treatment with 20 mg/kg salidroside_significantly improved functional recovery and reduced brain tissue damage up to post-injury day 28. Salidroside_also significantly reduced neuronal death, apoptosis, and brain edema at day 1. These changes were associated with significant decreases in cleaved caspase-3, CytoC, and Smac/DIABLO at days 1 and 3. Salidroside increased phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473 and the mitochondrial Bcl-2/Bax ratio at day 1, and enhanced phosphorylation of Akt on Thr308 at day 3. This beneficial effect was abolished by pre-injection of LY294002. Moreover, delayed administration of salidroside at 3 or 6 h post-injury reduced neuronal damage at day 1. Salidroside treatment also decreased neuronal vulnerability to stretch-induced injury in vitro. Conclusions/Significance Post-injury salidroside improved long-term behavioral and histological outcomes and reduced brain edema and apoptosis

  7. Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection for Painful Spasticity in Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Hyun; Chun, Seong Min; Park, Hee Won; Bang, Moon Suk

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 53-year-old male with traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). He could not maintain a standing position because of painful spasticity in his lower limbs. A magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography indicated chronic lumbosacral radiculopathy, explaining his chronic low back pain before the injury. For diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes, transforaminal epidural steroid injection (ESI) to the right L5 root was performed. After the intervention, the spasticity decreased and his ambulatory function improved. This case illustrates that lumbar radiculopathy concomitant with a cervical SCI can produce severe spasticity and it can be dramatically improved by ESI. PMID:26361605

  8. Sepsis as a cause and consequence of acute kidney injury: Program to Improve Care in Acute Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Josée; Soroko, Sharon B.; Ikizler, T. Alp; Paganini, Emil P.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Himmelfarb, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Sepsis commonly contributes to acute kidney injury (AKI); however, the frequency with which sepsis develops as a complication of AKI and the clinical consequences of this sepsis are unknown. This study examined the incidence of, and outcomes associated with, sepsis developing after AKI. Methods We analyzed data from 618 critically ill patients enrolled in a multicenter observational study of AKI (PICARD). Patients were stratified according to their sepsis status and timing of incident sepsis relative to AKI diagnosis. Results We determined the associations among sepsis, clinical characteristics, provision of dialysis, in-hospital mortality, and length of stay (LOS), comparing outcomes among patients according to their sepsis status. Among the 611 patients with data on sepsis status, 174 (28%) had sepsis before AKI, 194 (32%) remained sepsis-free, and 243 (40%) developed sepsis a median of 5 days after AKI. Mortality rates for patients with sepsis developing after AKI were higher than in sepsis-free patients (44 vs. 21%; p < 0.0001) and similar to patients with sepsis preceding AKI (48 vs. 44%; p = 0.41). Compared with sepsis-free patients, those with sepsis developing after AKI were also more likely to be dialyzed (70 vs. 50%; p < 0.001) and had longer LOS (37 vs. 27 days; p < 0.001). Oliguria, higher fluid accumulation and severity of illness scores, non-surgical procedures after AKI, and provision of dialysis were predictors of sepsis after AKI. Conclusions Sepsis frequently develops after AKI and portends a poor prognosis, with high mortality rates and relatively long LOS. Future studies should evaluate techniques to monitor for and manage this complication to improve overall prognosis. PMID:21152901

  9. Expansion duroplasty improves intraspinal pressure, spinal cord perfusion pressure, and vascular pressure reactivity index in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury: injured spinal cord pressure evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Phang, Isaac; Werndle, Melissa C; Saadoun, Samira; Varsos, Georgios; Czosnyka, Marek; Zoumprouli, Argyro; Papadopoulos, Marios C

    2015-06-15

    We recently showed that, after traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI), laminectomy does not improve intraspinal pressure (ISP), spinal cord perfusion pressure (SCPP), or the vascular pressure reactivity index (sPRx) at the injury site sufficiently because of dural compression. This is an open label, prospective trial comparing combined bony and dural decompression versus laminectomy. Twenty-one patients with acute severe TSCI had re-alignment of the fracture and surgical fixation; 11 had laminectomy alone (laminectomy group) and 10 had laminectomy and duroplasty (laminectomy+duroplasty group). Primary outcomes were magnetic resonance imaging evidence of spinal cord decompression (increase in intradural space, cerebrospinal fluid around the injured cord) and spinal cord physiology (ISP, SCPP, sPRx). The laminectomy and laminectomy+duroplasty groups were well matched. Compared with the laminectomy group, the laminectomy+duroplasty group had greater increase in intradural space at the injury site and more effective decompression of the injured cord. In the laminectomy+duroplasty group, ISP was lower, SCPP higher, and sPRx lower, (i.e., improved vascular pressure reactivity), compared with the laminectomy group. Laminectomy+duroplasty caused cerebrospinal fluid leak that settled with lumbar drain in one patient and pseudomeningocele that resolved completely in five patients. We conclude that, after TSCI, laminectomy+duroplasty improves spinal cord radiological and physiological parameters more effectively than laminectomy alone.

  10. Fumigaclavine C improves concanavalin A-induced liver injury in mice mainly via inhibiting TNF-alpha production and lymphocyte adhesion to extracellular matrices.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Liu, Junyan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Lei; Yin, Hao; Tan, Renxiang; Xu, Qiang

    2004-06-01

    Fumigaclavine C, an alkaloidal metabolite, was produced by Aspergillus fumigatus (strain No. CY018). This study examined the effect of this compound on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced liver injury in mice, a T cell-dependent model of liver damage. Con A administration resulted in severe liver injury, T lymphocyte activation and a strong increment in spleen cell adhesion, as well as in tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production. Against this liver injury, the intraperitoneal administration of fumigaclavine C dose-dependently inhibited the elevation in transaminase activity, TNF-alpha production in serum and the histological changes, including inflammatory infiltration, hepatocyte necrosis and degeneration and Kupffer cell hyperplasia. In addition, this compound in-vitro also inhibited the proliferation of spleen cells induced by Con A, and reduced their IL-2 and TNF-alpha production. Moreover, the intraperitoneal administration of fumigaclavine C inhibited the potential of spleen cells isolated from the liver-injured mice to adhere to fibronectin, laminin and type IV collagen. These results suggest that the improvement of this T cell-mediated liver injury by fumigaclavine C may be related to the inhibition of lymphocyte activation, proliferation and adhesion to extracellular matrices as well as the reduction in TNF-alpha production. PMID:15231043

  11. Failure of Intravenous or Intracardiac Delivery of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells to Improve Outcomes after Focal Traumatic Brain Injury in the Female Rat

    PubMed Central

    Turtzo, L. Christine; Budde, Matthew D.; Dean, Dana D.; Gold, Eric M.; Lewis, Bobbi K.; Janes, Lindsay; Lescher, Jacob; Coppola, Tiziana; Yarnell, Angela; Grunberg, Neil E.; Frank, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells secrete a variety of anti-inflammatory factors and may provide a regenerative medicine option for the treatment of traumatic brain injury. The present study investigates the efficacy of multiple intravenous or intracardiac administrations of rat mesenchymal stromal cells or human mesenchymal stromal cells in female rats after controlled cortical impact by in vivo MRI, neurobehavior, and histopathology evaluation. Neither intravenous nor intracardiac administration of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from either rats or humans improved MRI measures of lesion volume or neurobehavioral outcome compared to saline treatment. Few mesenchymal stromal cells (<0.0005% of injected dose) were found within 3 days of last dosage at the site of injury after either delivery route, with no mesenchymal stromal cells being detectable in brain at 30 or 56 days post-injury. These findings suggest that non-autologous mesenchymal stromal cells therapy via intravenous or intracardiac administration is not a promising treatment after focal contusion traumatic brain injury in this female rodent model. PMID:25946089

  12. Windows into Children's Thinking: A Guide to Storytelling and Dramatization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Cheryl; Bacigalupa, Chiara; Black, Tyler; Burton, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Telling and dramatizing stories is an increasingly popular addition to the preschool curriculum, largely due to the attention this activity has received through the writings of Vivian Paley (Bad guys don't have birthdays: fantasy play at four. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1988; The boy who would be a helicopter: the uses of…

  13. Piaget in Performance: The Role of "Games" in Creative Dramatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    Jean Piaget's theories of child development and the nature of intelligence are adapted to creative dramatics in this description of two games for children aged 6 through 12. The first game discussed incorporates a "touchy-feely box," a cardboard construction with openings on two sides so that a child may reach inside, select, and describe an…

  14. The Dramatic Difference: Drama in the Preschool and Kindergarten Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Victoria; Pleydell, Sarah

    Noting that there are few resources available for preschool or kindergarten teachers committed to providing high-quality drama experiences to students, this book explores ways teachers can maximize the drama experience in preschool and kindergarten classrooms. Topics discussed in the book's introduction include dramatic play and early development,…

  15. Soaps and Suspicious Activity: Dramatic Experiences in British Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferree, Angela M.

    2001-01-01

    Offers examples of dramatic experiences (student produced soap operas) in two classrooms in British comprehensive secondary schools. Concludes that students in other countries would find such experiences as meaningful and enjoyable as their British counterparts. Notes that the two teachers managed to be flexible, appropriating effective…

  16. Dramatic Play: Root Meaning of Drama/Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koste, Virginia Glasgow

    The processes involved in drama and the dramatic play of children are essentially the same in that they rely on an imitation of nature, involve a transformation of reality through imagination, connect seemingly irrelevant elements creatively, and bring a temporary, limited order to an emotional experience. When child's play is used as a basis for…

  17. Astronaut to Zoologist: Changing the Dramatic Play Area!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouette, Scott J.

    Changing the dramatic play area in a child care setting promotes creativity and gives children the chance to experience a place they may never experience in real life. Whenever possible, the children should be involved in the process of changing the area, by moving furniture and exchanging props, as well as brainstorming ideas for changes. The…

  18. Burke Bingo: Using Active Learning to Introduce Dramatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Kenneth Burke is typically regarded as the single most significant figure in 20th-century rhetorical studies. Undergraduate textbooks in rhetorical criticism, rhetorical theory, and communication theory typically include coverage of Burke's theory of dramatism. In this article, the author describes a classroom activity dubbed "Burke Bingo" that…

  19. Frost Bite: A Dramatic Tale of Research in Aesthetic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    This article follows the author's research on the integration of an aesthetic arts initiative in a private elementary school with an established traditional arts program. The narrative describes the sequence of events, interpersonal interactions, and learning experiences in the format of a full-length dramatic performance. Informed by Ben Peretz's…

  20. Intra-articular injection of synovial mesenchymal stem cells improves cartilage repair in a mouse injury model.

    PubMed

    Mak, J; Jablonski, C L; Leonard, C A; Dunn, J F; Raharjo, E; Matyas, J R; Biernaskie, J; Krawetz, R J

    2016-01-01

    Controversy remains whether articular cartilage has an endogenous stem/progenitor cell population, since its poor healing capacity after injury can lead to diseases such as osteoarthritis. In the joint environment there are mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) in the synovial membrane and synovial fluid that can differentiate into cartilage, but it is still under debate if these cells contribute to cartilage repair in vivo. In this study, we isolated a Sca-1 positive, chondrogenesis capable population of mouse synovial MSCs from C57BL6 and MRL/MpJ "super-healer" strains. Intra-articular injection of Sca-1 + GFP + synovial cells from C57BL6 or MRL/MpJ into C57BL6 mice following cartilage injury led to increased cartilage repair by 4 weeks after injury. GFP expression was detected in the injury site at 2 weeks, but not 4 weeks after injury. These results suggest that synovial stem/progenitor cells, regardless of strain background, have beneficial effects when injected into an injured joint. MSCs derived from MRL/MpJ mice did not promote an increased repair capacity compared to MSCs derived from non-healing C57BL6 controls; however, MRL/MpJ MSCs were observed within the defect area at the time points examined, while C57BL6 MSCs were not. PMID:26983696

  1. Injury reduction at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Griffing, Bill; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    In a recent DOE Program Review, Fermilab's director presented results of the laboratory's effort to reduce the injury rate over the last decade. The results, shown in the figure below, reveal a consistent and dramatic downward trend in OSHA recordable injuries at Fermilab. The High Energy Physics Program Office has asked Fermilab to report in detail on how the laboratory has achieved the reduction. In fact, the reduction in the injury rate reflects a change in safety culture at Fermilab, which has evolved slowly over this period, due to a series of events, both planned and unplanned. This paper attempts to describe those significant events and analyze how each of them has shaped the safety culture that, in turn, has reduced the rate of injury at Fermilab to its current value.

  2. Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin system improves insulin receptor signaling and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose transport in burn injury.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Sherry O; Phillips, Erin E; Castle, Scott M; Daley, Brian J; Enderson, Blaine L; Karlstad, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    Burn injury is associated with a decline in glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity due to alterations in postreceptor insulin signaling pathways. We have reported that blockade of the renin-angiotensin system with losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker, improves whole body insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism after burn injury. This study examines whether losartan improves insulin signaling pathways and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle in burn-injured rats. Rats were injured by a 30% full-skin-thickness scalding burn and treated with losartan or placebo for 3 days after burn. Insulin signaling pathways were investigated in rectus abdominus muscle taken before and 90 s after intraportal insulin injection (10 U·kg). Insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate 1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and plasma membrane-associated GLUT4 transporter were substantially increased with losartan treatment in burn-injured animals (59% above sham). Serine phosphorylated AKT/PKB was decreased with burn injury, and this decrease was attenuated with losartan treatment. In a separate group of rats, the effect of insulin on 2-deoxyglucose transport was significantly impaired in burned as compared with sham soleus muscles, in vitro; however, treatment of burned rats with losartan completely abolished the reduction of insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose transport. These findings demonstrate a cross talk between the AT1 and insulin receptor that negatively modulates insulin receptor signaling and suggest a potential role of renin-angiotensin system blockade as a therapeutic strategy for enhancing insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle and improving whole-body glucose homeostasis in burn injury.

  3. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Often, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  4. Back Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... extending from your neck to your pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, ... back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains ...

  5. Rho kinase inhibition following traumatic brain injury in mice promotes functional improvement and acute neuron survival but has little effect on neurogenesis, glial responses or neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Bye, Nicole; Christie, Kimberly J; Turbic, Alisa; Basrai, Harleen S; Turnley, Ann M

    2016-05-01

    Inhibition of the Rho/Rho kinase pathway has been shown to be beneficial in a variety of neural injuries and diseases. In this manuscript we investigate the role of Rho kinase inhibition in recovery from traumatic brain injury using a controlled cortical impact model in mice. Mice subjected to a moderately severe TBI were treated for 1 or 4 weeks with the Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632, and functional outcomes and neuronal and glial cell responses were analysed at 1, 7 and 35 days post-injury. We hypothesised that Y27632-treated mice would show functional improvement, with augmented recruitment of neuroblasts from the SVZ and enhanced survival of newborn neurons in the pericontusional cortex, with protection against neuronal degeneration, neuroinflammation and modulation of astrocyte reactivity and blood-brain-barrier permeability. While Rho kinase inhibition enhanced recovery of motor function after trauma, there were no substantial increases in the recruitment of DCX(+) neuroblasts or the number of BrdU(+) or EdU(+) labelled newborn neurons in the pericontusional cortex of Y27632-treated mice. Inhibition of Rho kinase significantly reduced the number of degenerating cortical neurons at 1day post-injury compared to saline controls but had no longer term effect on neuronal degeneration, with only modest effects on astrocytic reactivity and macrophage/microglial responses. Overall, this study showed that Rho kinase contributes to acute neurodegenerative processes in the injured cortex but does not play a significant role in SVZ neural precursor cell-derived adult neurogenesis, glial responses or blood-brain barrier permeability following a moderately severe brain injury. PMID:26896832

  6. Rho kinase inhibition following traumatic brain injury in mice promotes functional improvement and acute neuron survival but has little effect on neurogenesis, glial responses or neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Bye, Nicole; Christie, Kimberly J; Turbic, Alisa; Basrai, Harleen S; Turnley, Ann M

    2016-05-01

    Inhibition of the Rho/Rho kinase pathway has been shown to be beneficial in a variety of neural injuries and diseases. In this manuscript we investigate the role of Rho kinase inhibition in recovery from traumatic brain injury using a controlled cortical impact model in mice. Mice subjected to a moderately severe TBI were treated for 1 or 4 weeks with the Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632, and functional outcomes and neuronal and glial cell responses were analysed at 1, 7 and 35 days post-injury. We hypothesised that Y27632-treated mice would show functional improvement, with augmented recruitment of neuroblasts from the SVZ and enhanced survival of newborn neurons in the pericontusional cortex, with protection against neuronal degeneration, neuroinflammation and modulation of astrocyte reactivity and blood-brain-barrier permeability. While Rho kinase inhibition enhanced recovery of motor function after trauma, there were no substantial increases in the recruitment of DCX(+) neuroblasts or the number of BrdU(+) or EdU(+) labelled newborn neurons in the pericontusional cortex of Y27632-treated mice. Inhibition of Rho kinase significantly reduced the number of degenerating cortical neurons at 1day post-injury compared to saline controls but had no longer term effect on neuronal degeneration, with only modest effects on astrocytic reactivity and macrophage/microglial responses. Overall, this study showed that Rho kinase contributes to acute neurodegenerative processes in the injured cortex but does not play a significant role in SVZ neural precursor cell-derived adult neurogenesis, glial responses or blood-brain barrier permeability following a moderately severe brain injury.

  7. Panax ginseng Improves Functional Recovery after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury by Regulating the Inflammatory Response in Rats: An In Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ock; Kim, Youngkyung; Lee, Koeun; Na, Sae Won; Hong, Seon Pyo; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Yoon, Young Wook; Kim, Junesun

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in permanent loss of motor function below the injured site. Neuroinflammatory reaction following SCI can aggravate neural injury and functional impairment. Ginseng is well known to possess anti-inflammatory effects. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer (P. ginseng) after SCI. A spinal contusion was made at the T11-12 spinal cord in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 47) using the NYU impactor. Motor function was assessed using the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) score in P. ginseng (0.1, 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 mg/kg) or vehicle (saline) treated after SCI. We also assessed the protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at the lesion site by western blot and then measured the cavity area using luxol fast blue/cresyl violet staining. P. ginseng treated group in SCI showed a significant improvement in locomotor function after the injury. The protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS at the lesion site and the cavity area were decreased following SCI by P. ginseng treatment. These results suggest that P. ginseng may improve the recovery of motor function after SCI which provides neuroprotection by alleviating posttraumatic inflammatory responses. PMID:26451158

  8. Improving assessments of tropospheric ozone injury to Mediterranean montane conifer forests in California (USA) and Catalonia (Spain) with GIS models related to plant water relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefauver, Shawn C.; Peñuelas, Josep; Ustin, Susan L.

    2012-12-01

    The impacts of tropospheric ozone on conifer health in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA, and the Pyrenees of Catalonia, Spain, were measured using field assessments and GIS variables of landscape gradients related to plant water relations, stomatal conductance and hence to ozone uptake. Measurements related to ozone injury included visible chlorotic mottling, needle retention, needle length, and crown depth, which together compose the Ozone Injury Index (OII). The OII values observed in Catalonia were similar to those in California, but OII alone correlated poorly to ambient ozone in all sites. Combining ambient ozone with GIS variables related to landscape variability of plant hydrological status, derived from stepwise regressions, produced models with R2 = 0.35, p = 0.016 in Catalonia, R2 = 0.36, p < 0.001 in Yosemite and R2 = 0.33, p = 0.007 in Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Parks in California. Individual OII components in Catalonia were modeled with improved success compared to the original full OII, in particular visible chlorotic mottling (R2 = 0.60, p < 0.001). The results show that ozone is negatively impacting forest health in California and Catalonia and also that modeling ozone injury improves by including GIS variables related to plant water relations.

  9. Panax ginseng Improves Functional Recovery after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury by Regulating the Inflammatory Response in Rats: An In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Ock; Kim, Youngkyung; Lee, Koeun; Na, Sae Won; Hong, Seon Pyo; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Yoon, Young Wook; Kim, Junesun

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in permanent loss of motor function below the injured site. Neuroinflammatory reaction following SCI can aggravate neural injury and functional impairment. Ginseng is well known to possess anti-inflammatory effects. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer (P. ginseng) after SCI. A spinal contusion was made at the T11-12 spinal cord in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 47) using the NYU impactor. Motor function was assessed using the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) score in P. ginseng (0.1, 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 mg/kg) or vehicle (saline) treated after SCI. We also assessed the protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at the lesion site by western blot and then measured the cavity area using luxol fast blue/cresyl violet staining. P. ginseng treated group in SCI showed a significant improvement in locomotor function after the injury. The protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS at the lesion site and the cavity area were decreased following SCI by P. ginseng treatment. These results suggest that P. ginseng may improve the recovery of motor function after SCI which provides neuroprotection by alleviating posttraumatic inflammatory responses. PMID:26451158

  10. A type-II positive allosteric modulator of α7 nAChRs reduces brain injury and improves neurological function after focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fen; Jin, Kunlin; Uteshev, Victor V

    2013-01-01

    In the absence of clinically-efficacious therapies for ischemic stroke there is a critical need for development of new therapeutic concepts and approaches for prevention of brain injury secondary to cerebral ischemia. This study tests the hypothesis that administration of PNU-120596, a type-II positive allosteric modulator (PAM-II) of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), as long as 6 hours after the onset of focal cerebral ischemia significantly reduces brain injury and neurological deficits in an animal model of ischemic stroke. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by a transient (90 min) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Animals were then subdivided into two groups and injected intravenously (i.v.) 6 hours post-MCAO with either 1 mg/kg PNU-120596 (treated group) or vehicle only (untreated group). Measurements of cerebral infarct volumes and neurological behavioral tests were performed 24 hrs post-MCAO. PNU-120596 significantly reduced cerebral infarct volume and improved neurological function as evidenced by the results of Bederson, rolling cylinder and ladder rung walking tests. These results forecast a high therapeutic potential for PAMs-II as effective recruiters and activators of endogenous α7 nAChR-dependent cholinergic pathways to reduce brain injury and improve neurological function after cerebral ischemic stroke. PMID:23951360

  11. Passive hind-limb cycling improves cardiac function and reduces cardiovascular disease risk in experimental spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    West, Christopher R; Crawford, Mark A; Poormasjedi-Meibod, Malihe-Sadat; Currie, Katharine D; Fallavollita, Andre; Yuen, Violet; McNeill, John H; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes altered autonomic control and severe physical deconditioning that converge to drive maladaptive cardiac remodelling. We used a clinically relevant experimental model to investigate the cardio-metabolic responses to SCI and to establish whether passive hind-limb cycling elicits a cardio-protective effect. Initially, 21 male Wistar rats were evenly assigned to three groups: uninjured control (CON), T3 complete SCI (SCI) or T3 complete SCI plus passive hind-limb cycling (SCI-EX; 2 × 30 min day−1, 5 days week−1 for 4 weeks beginning 6 days post-SCI). On day 32, cardio-metabolic function was assessed using in vivo echocardiography, ex vivo working heart assessments, cardiac histology/molecular biology and blood lipid profiles. Twelve additional rats (n = 6 SCI and n = 6 SCI-EX) underwent in vivo echocardiography and basal haemodynamic assessments pre-SCI and at days 7, 14 and 32 post-SCI to track temporal cardiovascular changes. Compared with CON, SCI exhibited a rapid and sustained reduction in left ventricular dimensions and function that ultimately manifested as reduced contractility, increased myocardial collagen deposition and an up-regulation of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1) and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (Smad3) mRNA. For SCI-EX, the initial reduction in left ventricular dimensions and function at day 7 post-SCI was completely reversed by day 32 post-SCI, and there were no differences in myocardial contractility between SCI-EX and CON. Collagen deposition was similar between SCI-EX and CON. TGFβ1 and Smad3 were down-regulated in SCI-EX. Blood lipid profiles were improved in SCI-EX versus SCI. We provide compelling novel evidence that passive hind-limb cycling prevents cardiac dysfunction and reduces cardiovascular disease risk in experimental SCI. PMID:24535438

  12. A promising approach for improving the recovery of heart transplants. Prevention of free radical injury through iron chelation by deferoxamine.

    PubMed

    Menasché, P; Grousset, C; Mouas, C; Piwnica, A

    1990-07-01

    Iron catalysis is involved in the generation of the highly cytotoxic hydroxyl radical and in the chain reactions of subsequent lipid peroxidation that lead to irreversible membrane damage. Assuming that ischemically stored heart transplants may incur free radical injury at the time of reoxygenation, we assessed the effects of the iron chelator deferoxamine in 70 isolated isovolumic buffer-perfused rat hearts subjected to the following protocol: cardioplegic arrest; cold (2 degrees C) storage for 5 hours; global ischemia at 15 degrees C for 1 hour, intended to simulate the implantation procedure; and normothermic reperfusion for 1 additional hour. During poststorage ischemic arrest, the following techniques of myocardial protection were evaluated: hypothermia alone; high-pressure (60 cm H2O) cardioplegia given at 0, 30, and 55 minutes of arrest; low-pressure (30 cm H2O) cardioplegia given at 0 and 55 minutes of arrest; and low-pressure (30 cm H2O) cardioplegia only given at 55 minutes of arrest. Treated hearts had deferoxamine (6 mumol) added to the cardioplegic solution used throughout the experimental time course. Further, in the treated group subjected to the protocol of single cardioplegic delivery at end ischemia, deferoxamine was given both in the cardioplegic reperfusate and in the Krebs buffer over the 15 initial minutes of reflow. Based on comparisons of postreperfusion ventricular pressure development, maximal rate of rise of ventricular pressure, left ventricular compliance, and coronary flow, the best myocardial protection was afforded by deferoxamine given as an additive to single-dose cardioplegic solution at the end of arrest and to the reperfusate during the initial phase of reoxygenation. As the drug has no inotropic effect, its protective action is most likely related to a decrease in catalytic iron available for free radical production and lipid peroxidation. These results support the hypothesis that oxidative damage may contribute to donor heart

  13. Dramatic changes in electronic structure revealed by fractionally charged nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Aron J.; Mori-Sánchez, Paula

    2014-01-28

    Discontinuous changes in the electronic structure upon infinitesimal changes to the Hamiltonian are demonstrated. These are revealed in one and two electron molecular systems by full configuration interaction (FCI) calculations when the realm of the nuclear charge is extended to be fractional. FCI electron densities in these systems show dramatic changes in real space and illustrate the transfer, hopping, and removal of electrons. This is due to the particle nature of electrons seen in stretched systems and is a manifestation of an energy derivative discontinuity at constant number of electrons. Dramatic errors of density functional theory densities are seen in real space as this physics is missing from currently used approximations. The movements of electrons in these simple systems encapsulate those in real physical processes, from chemical reactions to electron transport and pose a great challenge for the development of new electronic structure methods.

  14. SB203580, a p38 Inhibitor, Improved Cardiac Function but Worsened Lung Injury and Survival During Escherichia coli Pneumonia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Su, Junwu; Cui, Xizhong; Li, Yan; Mani, Haresh; Ferreyra, Gabriela A.; Danner, Robert L.; Hsu, Lewis L.; Fitz, Yvonne; Eichacker, Peter Q.

    2012-01-01

    Background Supporting its therapeutic application in sepsis, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibition decreases cardiopulmonary injury and lethality with lipopolysaccharide challenge. However, only one preclinical study has reported the survival effects of a p38 inhibitor (SB203580, 100 mg/kg) during infection. We therefore tested SB203580 in mice (n = 763) challenged with intratracheal Escherichia coli and treated with antibiotics and fluids. Methods and Results Compared with placebo, high dose SB203580 (100 mg/kg) pretreatment increased the hazards ratio of death (95% confidence interval) (3.6 [2.1, 6.1], p < 0.0001). Decreasing doses (10, 1, or 0.1 mg/kg) went from being harmful to having no significant effect (p < 0.0001 for the effect of decreasing dose). At 48 hours, but not 24 hours after E. coli, high and low dose SB203580 pretreatment decreased cardiac phosphorylated p38 MAPK levels and improved cardiac output either (p ≤ 0.07). Low dose SB203580 did not alter lung neutrophils significantly but increased lung injury at 48 hours (p = 0.05). High dose decreased lung neutrophils and injury at 24 hours (p = 0.09 and 0.01, respectively) but then increased them at 48 hours (both p ≤ 0.01). Lung injury was greater with high versus low dose at 48 hours (p = 0.002). Conclusion Thus, SB203580 had divergent effects on cardiac and lung function in E. coli challenged mice. Furthermore, high dose worsened survival and low dose did not improve it. Altogether, these findings suggest that clearly defining the risks and benefits of p38 MAPK inhibition is important before such treatment is applied in patients with or at risk of serious infection. PMID:20068480

  15. Improving the Understanding of Psychological Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accident and Injury: Context, Loss of Focus, Cognitive Errors and Rigidity

    PubMed Central

    DeAraugo, Jodi; McLaren, Suzanne; McManus, Phil; McGreevy, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary There is a high risk of injury for people involved with horses in their work or recreational pursuits. High risks are particularly evident for racing employees and veterinarians. Elevated risks of injury may be associated with misjudging how to handle situations, reduced attention caused by distractions, taking a general view, and failing to consider other strategies that may reduce risks. To improve safety for humans and horses, it is important to identify safety strategies that are flexible, focused and specific. Abstract While the role of the horse in riding hazards is well recognised, little attention has been paid to the role of specific theoretical psychological processes of humans in contributing to and mitigating risk. The injury, mortality or compensation claim rates for participants in the horse-racing industry, veterinary medicine and equestrian disciplines provide compelling evidence for improving risk mitigation models. There is a paucity of theoretical principles regarding the risk of injury and mortality associated with human–horse interactions. In this paper we introduce and apply the four psychological principles of context, loss of focus, global cognitive style and the application of self as the frame of reference as a potential approach for assessing and managing human–horse risks. When these principles produce errors that are combined with a rigid self-referenced point, it becomes clear how rapidly risk emerges and how other people and animals may repeatedly become at risk over time. Here, with a focus on the thoroughbred racing industry, veterinary practice and equestrian disciplines, we review the merits of contextually applied strategies, an evolving reappraisal of risk, flexibility, and focused specifics of situations that may serve to modify human behaviour and mitigate risk. PMID:26891333

  16. A novel inhibitor of p75-neurotrophin receptor improves functional outcomes in two models of traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Delbary-Gossart, Sandrine; Lee, Sangmi; Baroni, Marco; Lamarche, Isabelle; Arnone, Michele; Canolle, Benoit; Lin, Amity; Sacramento, Jeffrey; Salegio, Ernesto A.; Castel, Marie-Noelle; Delesque-Touchard, Nathalie; Alam, Antoine; Laboudie, Patricia; Ferzaz, Badia; Savi, Pierre; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Manley, Geoffrey T.; Ferguson, Adam R.; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.

    2016-01-01

    The p75 neurotrophin receptor is important in multiple physiological actions including neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth during development, and after central nervous system injury. We have discovered a novel piperazine-derived compound, EVT901, which interferes with p75 neurotrophin receptor oligomerization through direct interaction with the first cysteine-rich domain of the extracellular region. Using ligand binding assays with cysteine-rich domains-fused p75 neurotrophin receptor, we confirmed that EVT901 interferes with oligomerization of full-length p75 neurotrophin receptor in a dose-dependent manner. Here we report that EVT901 reduces binding of pro-nerve growth factor to p75 neurotrophin receptor, blocks pro-nerve growth factor induced apoptosis in cells expressing p75 neurotrophin receptor, and enhances neurite outgrowth in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrate that EVT901 abrogates p75 neurotrophin receptor signalling by other ligands, such as prion peptide and amyloid-β. To test the efficacy of EVT901 in vivo, we evaluated the outcome in two models of traumatic brain injury. We generated controlled cortical impacts in adult rats. Using unbiased stereological analysis, we found that EVT901 delivered intravenously daily for 1 week after injury, reduced lesion size, protected cortical neurons and oligodendrocytes, and had a positive effect on neurological function. After lateral fluid percussion injury in adult rats, oral treatment with EVT901 reduced neuronal death in the hippocampus and thalamus, reduced long-term cognitive deficits, and reduced the occurrence of post-traumatic seizure activity. Together, these studies provide a new reagent for altering p75 neurotrophin receptor actions after injury and suggest that EVT901 may be useful in treatment of central nervous system trauma and other neurological disorders where p75 neurotrophin receptor signalling is affected. PMID:27084575

  17. Detection of Thermal Sublethal Injury in Escherichia coli via the Selective Medium Plating Technique: Mechanisms and Improvements.

    PubMed

    Espina, Laura; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    In food preservation, the synergistic combination of different technologies aims to maximize the total lethality of the process and minimize the intensity of each hurdle. This is especially the case when at least one of the treatments can cause sublethal (reparable) injury in a great proportion of the population, so that sublethally injured cells can end up being entirely inactivated by the other hurdle(s). The selective medium plating technique (SMPT) is extensively used to enumerate bacterial sublethal injury after inimical treatments, being sodium chloride added to the recovery medium to detect damaged bacterial envelopes. However, little work has been done to explain the reasons for the inability of sublethally injured cells to outgrow in selective agar media, whereas they are able to grow in non-selective agar. In the present paper, the performance of SMPT on Escherichia coli cells after heat treatments is explored by applying different selective agents in the recovery media, using mutants lacking factors involved in osmoregulation, and also by examining the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane. In view of the results, the possibility of a specific toxic effect of Na(+) as the main mechanism under SMPT was discarded, since the same level of sublethal injury was detected using KCl instead of NaCl. The synthesis of the osmoprotectant trehalose determined the maximum osmotolerance of intact cells to the selective agents, but was not crucial in the quantification of sublethal injury. Moreover, for the first time, the extent of sublethal injury detected via SMPT was directly correlated with the physical loss of integrity of the cell membrane in 99.999% of the initial population. This was achieved through statistical analysis of flow cytometry data using propidium iodide-exclusion technique when that dye was added before thermal treatments. The present work confirms the adequacy of SMPT as a tool for detecting the occurrence and quantity of sublethally injured

  18. Detection of Thermal Sublethal Injury in Escherichia coli via the Selective Medium Plating Technique: Mechanisms and Improvements

    PubMed Central

    Espina, Laura; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    In food preservation, the synergistic combination of different technologies aims to maximize the total lethality of the process and minimize the intensity of each hurdle. This is especially the case when at least one of the treatments can cause sublethal (reparable) injury in a great proportion of the population, so that sublethally injured cells can end up being entirely inactivated by the other hurdle(s). The selective medium plating technique (SMPT) is extensively used to enumerate bacterial sublethal injury after inimical treatments, being sodium chloride added to the recovery medium to detect damaged bacterial envelopes. However, little work has been done to explain the reasons for the inability of sublethally injured cells to outgrow in selective agar media, whereas they are able to grow in non-selective agar. In the present paper, the performance of SMPT on Escherichia coli cells after heat treatments is explored by applying different selective agents in the recovery media, using mutants lacking factors involved in osmoregulation, and also by examining the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane. In view of the results, the possibility of a specific toxic effect of Na+ as the main mechanism under SMPT was discarded, since the same level of sublethal injury was detected using KCl instead of NaCl. The synthesis of the osmoprotectant trehalose determined the maximum osmotolerance of intact cells to the selective agents, but was not crucial in the quantification of sublethal injury. Moreover, for the first time, the extent of sublethal injury detected via SMPT was directly correlated with the physical loss of integrity of the cell membrane in 99.999% of the initial population. This was achieved through statistical analysis of flow cytometry data using propidium iodide-exclusion technique when that dye was added before thermal treatments. The present work confirms the adequacy of SMPT as a tool for detecting the occurrence and quantity of sublethally injured cells

  19. Detection of Thermal Sublethal Injury in Escherichia coli via the Selective Medium Plating Technique: Mechanisms and Improvements

    PubMed Central

    Espina, Laura; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    In food preservation, the synergistic combination of different technologies aims to maximize the total lethality of the process and minimize the intensity of each hurdle. This is especially the case when at least one of the treatments can cause sublethal (reparable) injury in a great proportion of the population, so that sublethally injured cells can end up being entirely inactivated by the other hurdle(s). The selective medium plating technique (SMPT) is extensively used to enumerate bacterial sublethal injury after inimical treatments, being sodium chloride added to the recovery medium to detect damaged bacterial envelopes. However, little work has been done to explain the reasons for the inability of sublethally injured cells to outgrow in selective agar media, whereas they are able to grow in non-selective agar. In the present paper, the performance of SMPT on Escherichia coli cells after heat treatments is explored by applying different selective agents in the recovery media, using mutants lacking factors involved in osmoregulation, and also by examining the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane. In view of the results, the possibility of a specific toxic effect of Na+ as the main mechanism under SMPT was discarded, since the same level of sublethal injury was detected using KCl instead of NaCl. The synthesis of the osmoprotectant trehalose determined the maximum osmotolerance of intact cells to the selective agents, but was not crucial in the quantification of sublethal injury. Moreover, for the first time, the extent of sublethal injury detected via SMPT was directly correlated with the physical loss of integrity of the cell membrane in 99.999% of the initial population. This was achieved through statistical analysis of flow cytometry data using propidium iodide-exclusion technique when that dye was added before thermal treatments. The present work confirms the adequacy of SMPT as a tool for detecting the occurrence and quantity of sublethally injured cells

  20. Detection of Thermal Sublethal Injury in Escherichia coli via the Selective Medium Plating Technique: Mechanisms and Improvements.

    PubMed

    Espina, Laura; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    In food preservation, the synergistic combination of different technologies aims to maximize the total lethality of the process and minimize the intensity of each hurdle. This is especially the case when at least one of the treatments can cause sublethal (reparable) injury in a great proportion of the population, so that sublethally injured cells can end up being entirely inactivated by the other hurdle(s). The selective medium plating technique (SMPT) is extensively used to enumerate bacterial sublethal injury after inimical treatments, being sodium chloride added to the recovery medium to detect damaged bacterial envelopes. However, little work has been done to explain the reasons for the inability of sublethally injured cells to outgrow in selective agar media, whereas they are able to grow in non-selective agar. In the present paper, the performance of SMPT on Escherichia coli cells after heat treatments is explored by applying different selective agents in the recovery media, using mutants lacking factors involved in osmoregulation, and also by examining the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane. In view of the results, the possibility of a specific toxic effect of Na(+) as the main mechanism under SMPT was discarded, since the same level of sublethal injury was detected using KCl instead of NaCl. The synthesis of the osmoprotectant trehalose determined the maximum osmotolerance of intact cells to the selective agents, but was not crucial in the quantification of sublethal injury. Moreover, for the first time, the extent of sublethal injury detected via SMPT was directly correlated with the physical loss of integrity of the cell membrane in 99.999% of the initial population. This was achieved through statistical analysis of flow cytometry data using propidium iodide-exclusion technique when that dye was added before thermal treatments. The present work confirms the adequacy of SMPT as a tool for detecting the occurrence and quantity of sublethally injured

  1. Fish oil improves motor function, limits blood-brain barrier disruption, and reduces Mmp9 gene expression in a rat model of juvenile traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Russell, K L; Berman, N E J; Gregg, P R A; Levant, B

    2014-01-01

    The effects of an oral fish oil treatment regimen on sensorimotor, blood-brain barrier, and biochemical outcomes of traumatic brain injury (TBI) were investigated in a juvenile rat model. Seventeen-day old Long-Evans rats were given a 15mL/kg fish oil (2.01g/kg EPA, 1.34g/kg DHA) or soybean oil dose via oral gavage 30min prior to being subjected to a controlled cortical impact injury or sham surgery, followed by daily doses for seven days. Fish oil treatment resulted in less severe hindlimb deficits after TBI as assessed with the beam walk test, decreased cerebral IgG infiltration, and decreased TBI-induced expression of the Mmp9 gene one day after injury. These results indicate that fish oil improved functional outcome after TBI resulting, at least in part from decreased disruption of the blood-brain barrier through a mechanism that includes attenuation of TBI-induced expression of Mmp9. PMID:24342130

  2. Ethyl Pyruvate Protects against Blood-Brain Barrier Damage and Improves Long-Term Neurological Outcomes in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hong; Wang, Hailian; Pu, Hongjian; Shi, Yejie; Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Wenting; Wang, Guohua; Hu, Xiaoming; Leak, Rehana K.; Chen, Jun; Gao, Yanqin

    2015-01-01

    Aims Many traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors sustain neurological disability and cognitive impairments due to the lack of defined therapies to reduce TBI-induced long-term brain damage. Ethyl pyruvate (EP) has shown neuroprotection in several models of acute brain injury. The present study therefore investigated the potential beneficial effect of EP on long-term outcomes after TBI and the underlying mechanisms. Methods Male adult rats were subjected to unilateral controlled cortical impact injury. EP was injected intraperitoneally 15 min after TBI and again at 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 h after TBI. Neurological deficits, blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and neuroinflammation were assessed. Results EP improved sensorimotor and cognitive functions and ameliorated brain tissue damage up to 28 d post-TBI. BBB breach and brain edema were attenuated by EP at 48 h after TBI. EP suppressed matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 production from peripheral neutrophils and reduced the number of MMP-9-overproducing neutrophils in the spleen, and therefore mitigated MMP-9-mediated BBB breakdown. Moreover, EP exerted potent anti-inflammatory effects in cultured microglia and inhibited the elevation of inflammatory mediators in the brain after TBI. Conclusion EP confers long-term neuroprotection against TBI, possibly through breaking the vicious cycle among MMP-9-mediated BBB disruption, neuroinflammation and long-lasting brain damage. PMID:25533312

  3. FISH OIL IMPROVES MOTOR FUNCTION, LIMITS BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER DISRUPTION, AND REDUCES MMP9 GENE EXPRESSION IN A RAT MODEL OF JUVENILE TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Russell, K. L.; Berman, N. E. J.; Gregg, P. R. A.; Levant, B.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The effects of an oral fish oil treatment regimen on sensorimotor, blood-brain barrier, and biochemical outcomes of traumatic brain injury (TBI) were investigated in a juvenile rat model. Seventeen-day old Long-Evans rats were given a 15 mL/kg fish oil (2.01 g/kg EPA, 1.34 g/kg DHA) or soybean oil dose via oral gavage 30 minutes prior to being subjected to a controlled cortical impact injury or sham surgery, followed by daily doses for seven days. Fish oil treatment resulted in less severe hindlimb deficits after TBI as assessed with the beam walk test, decreased cerebral IgG infiltration, and decreased TBI-induced expression of the Mmp9h gene one day after injury. These results indicate that fish oil improved functional outcome after TBI resulting, at least in part from decreased disruption of the blood-brain barrier through a mechanism that includes attenuation of TBI-induced expression of Mmp9. PMID:24342130

  4. Assessment of Worldwide Acute Kidney Injury, Renal Angina and Epidemiology in Critically Ill Children (AWARE): A Prospective Study to Improve Diagnostic Precision

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Rajit K; Kaddourah, Ahmad; Terrell, Tara; Mottes, Theresa; Arnold, Patricia; Jacobs, Judd; Andringa, Jennifer; Armor, Melissa; Hayden, Lauren; Goldstein, Stuart L

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with poor outcomes in critically ill children. Recent international consensus panels recommend standardized classification systems to improve the precision of AKI diagnosis, but there is a paucity of data to enable this refinement, particularly in pediatric critical care. Methods/Design This is a prospective observational study. We anticipate collecting data from more than 5500 critically ill children admitted to 32 pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) across the world, during the calendar year of 2014. Data will be collected continuously for three months at each center on all children older than 90 days and younger than 25 years admitted to the ICU. Demographic, resuscitative, and daily physiological and lab data will be captured at individual centers using MediData Rave™, a commercial system designed to manage and report clinical research data. Kidney specific measured variables include changes in serum creatinine and urine output, cumulative fluid overload (%), serum creatinine corrected for fluid balance, and KDIGO AKI stage. Urinary AKI biomarkers to be measured include: urinary neutrophil gelatinase lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), liver-type fatty acid binding protein (l-FABP), and interleukin-18 (IL-18). Biomarker combinations will be created from different pairs and triplets of urinary biomarkers. The primary analysis will compare the discrimination of these panels versus changes in creatinine for prediction of severe AKI by Day 7 of ICU admission. Secondary analysis will investigate the prediction of biomarkers for injury ‘time based phenotypes’: duration (>2 days), severity (KDIGO stage, use of renal replacement therapy), reversibility (time to return of serum creatinine to baseline), association with fluid overload > 10%, and disease association (sepsis, hypovolemia, hypoxemia, or nephrotoxic). Discussion The Assessment of Worldwide Acute Kidney Injury, Renal Angina and

  5. Injuries from hovercraft racing.

    PubMed

    Cattermole, H R

    1997-01-01

    A 31-year-old man presented with a potentially serious neck injury following a racing hovercraft accident. Previous reports of hovercrafting injuries could not be found, and a review of the sport's own records was undertaken. This shows there to be a wide range of injuries sustained from the sport, although most of them are minor. However, there are some worrying trends, and further studies are being undertaking in order to improve the sport's safety record. PMID:9196622

  6. Rosemary extract improves cognitive deficits in a rats model of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury associated with reduction of astrocytosis and neuronal degeneration in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Song, Hai; Xu, Lincheng; Zhang, Rongping; Cao, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Huan; Yang, Li; Guo, Zeyun; Qu, Yongqiang; Yu, Jianyun

    2016-05-27

    In this study, we investigated whether Rosemary extract (RE) improved cognitive deficits in repetitive mild Traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) rats and its potential mechanisms. The present results showed that rmTBI caused cognitive deficits, such as increased latency to find platform and decreased time spent in target quadrant in Morris water maze (MWM). These behavioral alterations were accompanying with the increased neuronal degeneration and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells, increased Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, decreased activity of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and Catalase (CAT), elevated protein level of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in hippocampus. Treatment with RE prevented these changes above. Our findings confirmed the effect of rosemary extract on improvement of cognitive deficits and suggested its mechanisms might be mediated by anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory. Therefore, rosemary extract may be a potential treatment to improve cognitive deficits in rmTBI patients. PMID:27113205

  7. Rosemary extract improves cognitive deficits in a rats model of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury associated with reduction of astrocytosis and neuronal degeneration in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Song, Hai; Xu, Lincheng; Zhang, Rongping; Cao, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Huan; Yang, Li; Guo, Zeyun; Qu, Yongqiang; Yu, Jianyun

    2016-05-27

    In this study, we investigated whether Rosemary extract (RE) improved cognitive deficits in repetitive mild Traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) rats and its potential mechanisms. The present results showed that rmTBI caused cognitive deficits, such as increased latency to find platform and decreased time spent in target quadrant in Morris water maze (MWM). These behavioral alterations were accompanying with the increased neuronal degeneration and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells, increased Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, decreased activity of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and Catalase (CAT), elevated protein level of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in hippocampus. Treatment with RE prevented these changes above. Our findings confirmed the effect of rosemary extract on improvement of cognitive deficits and suggested its mechanisms might be mediated by anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory. Therefore, rosemary extract may be a potential treatment to improve cognitive deficits in rmTBI patients.

  8. Dramatic response to levetiracetam in post-ischaemic Holmes’ tremor

    PubMed Central

    Striano, P; Elefante, Andrea; Coppola, Antonietta; Tortora, Fabio; Zara, Federico; Minetti, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Holmes’ tremor refers to an unusual combination of rest, postural and kinetic tremor of extremities. Common causes of Holmes’ tremor include stroke, trauma, vascular malformations and multiple sclerosis, with lesions involving the thalamus, brain stem or cerebellum. Although some drugs (eg, levodopa and dopaminergic drugs, clonazepam and propranolol) have been occasionally reported to give some benefit, medical treatment of Holmes’ tremor is unsatisfactory, and many patients require thalamic surgery to achieve satisfactory control. We report a patient in whom post-ischaemic Holmes’ tremor dramatically responded to levetiracetam treatment. PMID:21686707

  9. Injury Trends in Major League Baseball Over 18 Seasons: 1998-2015.

    PubMed

    Conte, Stan; Camp, Christopher L; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    Since Major League Baseball (MLB) expanded to its current size of 30 teams in 1998, a comprehensive and longitudinal study of injury trends has not been performed. The purpose of this work is to report the epidemiology of injuries in MLB over that time utilizing disabled list (DL) data. Additionally, we sought to determine the financial impact of these injuries for MLB teams. During this analysis, we focused special attention on injuries of the medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL) and conducted a comprehensive review of all MUCL reconstructions ever performed on MLB players. Over the study period, there were a total of 8357 DL designations (mean of 464 annually). Players lost a total of 460,432 days (25,186 days annually) due to injury. Both the number of DL assignments and number of DL days increased from year to year (P < .001 and P = .003, respectively). Average length of DL assignments remained steady over time at 55.1 days (P = .647). Although shoulder injuries decreased (P = .023), this was met with a reciprocal increase in elbow injuries (P = .015). The average annual cost of designating players to the DL was $423,267,634 and a total of $7,618,817,407 was spent over the entire 18 seasons. Regarding MUCL injuries, a total of 400 MUCL reconstructions were performed in MLB players between 1974 and 2015, and the mean time to return to MLB competition was 17.1 months. The annual incidence of MUCL reconstructions increased dramatically from year to year (P < .001) and nearly one-third (n = 131, 32.8%) of all procedures performed over the 42-year period occurred in the last 5 years (2011 to 2015). In summary, overall injury rates and DL assignments continue to rise. Although shoulder injuries are declining, this improvement is countered by increasing elbow injuries, and these injuries continue to represent a significant source of lost revenue.

  10. Injury Trends in Major League Baseball Over 18 Seasons: 1998-2015.

    PubMed

    Conte, Stan; Camp, Christopher L; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    Since Major League Baseball (MLB) expanded to its current size of 30 teams in 1998, a comprehensive and longitudinal study of injury trends has not been performed. The purpose of this work is to report the epidemiology of injuries in MLB over that time utilizing disabled list (DL) data. Additionally, we sought to determine the financial impact of these injuries for MLB teams. During this analysis, we focused special attention on injuries of the medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL) and conducted a comprehensive review of all MUCL reconstructions ever performed on MLB players. Over the study period, there were a total of 8357 DL designations (mean of 464 annually). Players lost a total of 460,432 days (25,186 days annually) due to injury. Both the number of DL assignments and number of DL days increased from year to year (P < .001 and P = .003, respectively). Average length of DL assignments remained steady over time at 55.1 days (P = .647). Although shoulder injuries decreased (P = .023), this was met with a reciprocal increase in elbow injuries (P = .015). The average annual cost of designating players to the DL was $423,267,634 and a total of $7,618,817,407 was spent over the entire 18 seasons. Regarding MUCL injuries, a total of 400 MUCL reconstructions were performed in MLB players between 1974 and 2015, and the mean time to return to MLB competition was 17.1 months. The annual incidence of MUCL reconstructions increased dramatically from year to year (P < .001) and nearly one-third (n = 131, 32.8%) of all procedures performed over the 42-year period occurred in the last 5 years (2011 to 2015). In summary, overall injury rates and DL assignments continue to rise. Although shoulder injuries are declining, this improvement is countered by increasing elbow injuries, and these injuries continue to represent a significant source of lost revenue. PMID:26991562

  11. Management of Frostbite Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Gustavo A.

    1981-01-01

    The role of interventional radiology in the management and diagnosis of frostbite injury in 18 patients at the West Side VA Medical Center is presented. Conservative treatment and the use of intra-arterial long acting vasodilators, such as reserpine, are emphasized, even in patients referred 48 to 72 hours after the initial injury. This modality of treatment should be attempted before surgical decision or amputation is necessary. Satisfactory responses were obtained in most of the treated subjects and in some cases, results were dramatic with significant recovery and a minimum of sequelae. Generally clinical principles and physiopathology in frostbite injuries are reviewed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:7328687

  12. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... injuries internal head injuries, which may involve the skull, the blood vessels within the skull, or the brain Fortunately, most childhood falls or ... knock the brain into the side of the skull or tear blood vessels. Some internal head injuries ...

  13. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  14. Blast Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Service Members & Veterans Family & Caregivers Medical Providers Blast Injuries U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Gustavo Olgiati How ... tertiary injury Does a blast cause different brain injuries than blunt trauma? There currently is no evidence ...

  15. Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  16. Luteolin Limits Infarct Size and Improves Cardiac Function after Myocardium Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haokao; Li, Jiayi; Shen, Min; Cao, Feng; Wang, Haichang

    2012-01-01

    Background The present study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of Luteolin on myocardial infarct size, cardiac function and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in diabetic rats with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methodology/Principal Findings Diabetic rats underwent 30 minutes of ischemia followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Animals were pretreated with or without Luteolin before coronary artery ligation. The severity of myocardial I/R induced LDH release, arrhythmia, infarct size, cardiac function impairment, cardiomyocyte apoptosis were compared. Western blot analysis was performed to elucidate the target proteins of Luteolin. The inflammatory cytokine production were also examined in ischemic myocardium underwent I/R injury. Our results revealed that Luteolin administration significantly reduced LDH release, decreased the incidence of arrhythmia, attenuated myocardial infarct size, enhanced left ventricular ejection fraction and decreased myocardial apoptotic death compared with I/R group. Western blot analysis showed that Luteolin treatment up-regulated anti-apoptotic proteins FGFR2 and LIF expression, increased BAD phosphorylation while decreased the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2. Luteolin treatment also inhibited MPO expression and inflammatory cytokine production including IL-6, IL-1a and TNF-a. Moreover, co-administration of wortmannin and Luteolin abolished the beneficial effects of Luteolin. Conclusions/Significance This study indicates that Luteolin preserves cardiac function, reduces infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptotic rate after I/R injury in diabetic rats. Luteolin exerts its action by up-regulating of anti-apoptotic proteins FGFR2 and LIF expression, activating PI3K/Akt pathway while increasing BAD phosphorylation and decreasing ratio of Bax to Bcl-2. PMID:22432030

  17. Serotonin and Histamine Therapy Increases Tetanic Forces of Myoblasts, Reduces Muscle Injury, and Improves Grip Strength Performance of Dmd(mdx) Mice.

    PubMed

    Gurel, Volkan; Lins, Jeremy; Lambert, Kristyn; Lazauski, Joan; Spaulding, James; McMichael, John

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive X-linked fatal disorder caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene. Although several therapeutic approaches have been studied, none has led to substantial long-term effects in patients. The aim of this study was to test a serotonin and histamine (S&H) combination on human skeletal myoblasts and Dmd(mdx) mice for its effects on muscle strength and injury. Normal human bioartificial muscles (BAMs) were treated, and muscle tetanic forces and muscle injury tests were performed using the MyoForce Analysis System. Dmd(mdx) mice, the murine model of DMD, were administered serotonin, histamine, or S&H combination twice daily for 6 weeks, and functional performance tests were conducted once a week. The S&H combination treatment caused significant increases in tetanic forces at all time points and concentrations tested as compared to the saline controls. Dose response of the BAMs to the treatment demonstrated a significant increase in force generation at all concentrations compared to the controls after 3 to 4 days of drug treatment. The highest 3 concentrations had a significant effect on lowering contractile-induced injury as measured by a reduction in the release of adenylate kinase. Histamine-only and S&H treatments improved grip strength of Dmd(mdx) mice, whereas serotonin-only treatment resulted in no significant improvement in muscle strength. The results of this study indicate that S&H therapy might be a promising new strategy for muscular dystrophies and that the mechanism should be further investigated. PMID:26740813

  18. Digital Gaming for Improving the Functioning of People With Traumatic Brain Injury: Protocol of a Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Korkeila, Jyrki; Kauppi, Kaisa; Kaakinen, Johanna K; Holm, Suvi; Vahlo, Jukka; Tenovuo, Olli; Hämäläinen, Heikki; Sarajuuri, Jaana; Rantanen, Pekka; Orenius, Tage; Koponen, Aki

    2016-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a critical public health problem. The recovery process for people with TBI is typically slow and dependent on complex and intensive assisted rehabilitation programs. Objective To evaluate the effects and feasibility of digital games for cognitive functioning and general well-being among people with traumatic brain injury. Methods This is a single-site feasibility study conducted in Finland, which uses a pragmatic, randomized controlled trial with three arms, and will recruit patients from the Turku University Hospital, Division of Clinical Neurosciences in Finland. Participants must meet the following inclusion criteria: (1) a Finnish speaking adult, aged 18-65 years; (2) diagnosed with a traumatic brain injury (diagnostic criteria ICD-10, S06.X, T90.5) in the University Hospital; (3) access to a TV, a computer, and the Internet at home; (4) not an active digital gamer (5 hours or less a week); (5) willing to participate in the study. Participants must have been discharged from the neurologic treatment period for traumatic brain injury for over 12 months before the commencement of the trial, and they may not have actively participated in cognitive rehabilitation during the 3 months prior to the trial. Written informed consent will be mandatory for acceptance into the trial. Exclusion criteria are as follows: (1) sensory, cognitive, or physical impairment (eg, severe cognitive impairment); (2) a deficiency restricting the use of computers or computer game control system unaided (eg, impairment in vision, severe astigmatism, hemiplegia, disorder in visuospatial perception, dysfunction of the central vestibular system); (3) apathy identified in previous neuropsychological evaluations; (4) diagnosed severe mental disorders (eg, schizophrenia or severe depressive disorders to be identified in medical records as the secondary diagnosis). Results The preparatory phase for the study is fulfilled. Recruitment started in June 2015

  19. Hamstring injuries.

    PubMed

    Ropiak, Christopher R; Bosco, Joseph A

    2012-01-01

    Hamstring injuries are a frequent injury in athletes. Proximal injuries are common, ranging from strain to complete tear. Strains are managed nonoperatively, with rest followed by progressive stretching and strengthening. Reinjury is a concern. High grade complete tears are better managed surgically, with reattachment to the injured tendon or ischial tuberosity. Distal hamstring injury is usually associated with other knee injuries, and isolated injury is rare.

  20. Lavandula angustifolia Extract Improves the Result of Human Umbilical Mesenchymal Wharton's Jelly Stem Cell Transplantation after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoobi, Kayvan; Kaka, Gholamreza; Mansouri, Korosh; Davoodi, Shaghayegh; Sadraie, Seyed Homayoon; Hosseini, Seyed Ruhollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The primary trauma of spinal cord injury (SCI) results in severe damage to nervous functions. At the cellular level, SCI causes astrogliosis. Human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs), isolated from Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord, can be easily obtained. Previously, we showed that the neuroprotective effects of Lavandula angustifolia can lead to improvement in a contusive SCI model in rats. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of L. angustifolia (Lav) on HUMSC transplantation after acute SCI. Materials and Methods. Sixty adult female rats were randomly divided into eight groups. Every week after SCI onset, all animals were evaluated for behavior outcomes. H&E staining was performed to examine the lesions after injury. GFAP expression was assessed for astrogliosis. Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) testing was performed to detect the recovery of neural conduction. Results. Behavioral tests showed that the HUMSC group improved in comparison with the SCI group, but HUMSC + Lav 400 was very effective, resulting in a significant increase in locomotion activity. Sensory tests and histomorphological and immunohistochemistry analyses verified the potentiation effects of Lav extract on HUMSC treatment. Conclusion. Transplantation of HUMSCs is beneficial for SCI in rats, and Lav extract can potentiate the functional and cellular recovery with HUMSC treatment in rats after SCI. PMID:27057171

  1. Lavandula angustifolia Extract Improves the Result of Human Umbilical Mesenchymal Wharton's Jelly Stem Cell Transplantation after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Yaghoobi, Kayvan; Kaka, Gholamreza; Mansouri, Korosh; Davoodi, Shaghayegh; Sadraie, Seyed Homayoon; Hosseini, Seyed Ruhollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The primary trauma of spinal cord injury (SCI) results in severe damage to nervous functions. At the cellular level, SCI causes astrogliosis. Human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs), isolated from Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord, can be easily obtained. Previously, we showed that the neuroprotective effects of Lavandula angustifolia can lead to improvement in a contusive SCI model in rats. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of L. angustifolia (Lav) on HUMSC transplantation after acute SCI. Materials and Methods. Sixty adult female rats were randomly divided into eight groups. Every week after SCI onset, all animals were evaluated for behavior outcomes. H&E staining was performed to examine the lesions after injury. GFAP expression was assessed for astrogliosis. Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) testing was performed to detect the recovery of neural conduction. Results. Behavioral tests showed that the HUMSC group improved in comparison with the SCI group, but HUMSC + Lav 400 was very effective, resulting in a significant increase in locomotion activity. Sensory tests and histomorphological and immunohistochemistry analyses verified the potentiation effects of Lav extract on HUMSC treatment. Conclusion. Transplantation of HUMSCs is beneficial for SCI in rats, and Lav extract can potentiate the functional and cellular recovery with HUMSC treatment in rats after SCI. PMID:27057171

  2. A new injury prevention programme for children's football--FIFA 11+ Kids--can improve motor performance: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rössler, R; Donath, L; Bizzini, M; Faude, O

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of a newly developed injury prevention programme for children's football ("FIFA 11+ Kids") on motor performance in 7-12-year-old children. We stratified 12 football teams (under-9/-11/-13 age categories) into intervention (INT, N = 56 players) and control groups (CON, N = 67). INT conducted the 15-min warm-up programme "FIFA 11+ Kids" twice a week for 10 weeks. CON followed a standard warm-up (sham treatment). Pre- and post-tests were conducted using: single leg stance; Y-balance test; drop and countermovement jump; standing long jump; 20-m sprint; agility run; slalom dribble; and wall volley test. We used magnitude-based inferences and linear mixed-effects models to analyse performance test results. We observed likely beneficial effects favouring INT in Y-balance (right leg; +3.2%; standardised mean difference (SMD) = 0.34; P = 0.58) and agility run (+3.6%; SMD = 0.45; P = 0.008). Possibly beneficial effects were found in Y-balance, drop jump reactive strength index, drop jump height, countermovement jump, standing long jump, slalom dribble and wall volley test. At least possibly beneficial improvements in favour of "FIFA 11+ Kids" were observed in nearly all parameters. Most effects were small, but slight improvements in motor performance may potentially contribute to a reduction of injury risk. PMID:26508531

  3. A new injury prevention programme for children's football--FIFA 11+ Kids--can improve motor performance: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rössler, R; Donath, L; Bizzini, M; Faude, O

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of a newly developed injury prevention programme for children's football ("FIFA 11+ Kids") on motor performance in 7-12-year-old children. We stratified 12 football teams (under-9/-11/-13 age categories) into intervention (INT, N = 56 players) and control groups (CON, N = 67). INT conducted the 15-min warm-up programme "FIFA 11+ Kids" twice a week for 10 weeks. CON followed a standard warm-up (sham treatment). Pre- and post-tests were conducted using: single leg stance; Y-balance test; drop and countermovement jump; standing long jump; 20-m sprint; agility run; slalom dribble; and wall volley test. We used magnitude-based inferences and linear mixed-effects models to analyse performance test results. We observed likely beneficial effects favouring INT in Y-balance (right leg; +3.2%; standardised mean difference (SMD) = 0.34; P = 0.58) and agility run (+3.6%; SMD = 0.45; P = 0.008). Possibly beneficial effects were found in Y-balance, drop jump reactive strength index, drop jump height, countermovement jump, standing long jump, slalom dribble and wall volley test. At least possibly beneficial improvements in favour of "FIFA 11+ Kids" were observed in nearly all parameters. Most effects were small, but slight improvements in motor performance may potentially contribute to a reduction of injury risk.

  4. Lavandula angustifolia Extract Improves the Result of Human Umbilical Mesenchymal Wharton's Jelly Stem Cell Transplantation after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Yaghoobi, Kayvan; Kaka, Gholamreza; Mansouri, Korosh; Davoodi, Shaghayegh; Sadraie, Seyed Homayoon; Hosseini, Seyed Ruhollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The primary trauma of spinal cord injury (SCI) results in severe damage to nervous functions. At the cellular level, SCI causes astrogliosis. Human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs), isolated from Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord, can be easily obtained. Previously, we showed that the neuroprotective effects of Lavandula angustifolia can lead to improvement in a contusive SCI model in rats. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of L. angustifolia (Lav) on HUMSC transplantation after acute SCI. Materials and Methods. Sixty adult female rats were randomly divided into eight groups. Every week after SCI onset, all animals were evaluated for behavior outcomes. H&E staining was performed to examine the lesions after injury. GFAP expression was assessed for astrogliosis. Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) testing was performed to detect the recovery of neural conduction. Results. Behavioral tests showed that the HUMSC group improved in comparison with the SCI group, but HUMSC + Lav 400 was very effective, resulting in a significant increase in locomotion activity. Sensory tests and histomorphological and immunohistochemistry analyses verified the potentiation effects of Lav extract on HUMSC treatment. Conclusion. Transplantation of HUMSCs is beneficial for SCI in rats, and Lav extract can potentiate the functional and cellular recovery with HUMSC treatment in rats after SCI.

  5. Intramuscular Neurotrophin-3 normalizes low threshold spinal reflexes, reduces spasms and improves mobility after bilateral corticospinal tract injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kathe, Claudia; Hutson, Thomas Haynes; McMahon, Stephen Brendan; Moon, Lawrence David Falcon

    2016-01-01

    Brain and spinal injury reduce mobility and often impair sensorimotor processing in the spinal cord leading to spasticity. Here, we establish that complete transection of corticospinal pathways in the pyramids impairs locomotion and leads to increased spasms and excessive mono- and polysynaptic low threshold spinal reflexes in rats. Treatment of affected forelimb muscles with an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) encoding human Neurotrophin-3 at a clinically-feasible time-point after injury reduced spasticity. Neurotrophin-3 normalized the short latency Hoffmann reflex to a treated hand muscle as well as low threshold polysynaptic spinal reflexes involving afferents from other treated muscles. Neurotrophin-3 also enhanced locomotor recovery. Furthermore, the balance of inhibitory and excitatory boutons in the spinal cord and the level of an ion co-transporter in motor neuron membranes required for normal reflexes were normalized. Our findings pave the way for Neurotrophin-3 as a therapy that treats the underlying causes of spasticity and not only its symptoms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18146.001 PMID:27759565

  6. Derivation and validation of the renal angina index to improve the prediction of acute kidney injury in critically ill children

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Rajit K.; Zappitelli, Michael; Brunner, Lori; Wang, Yu; Wong, Hector R.; Chawla, Lakhmir S.; Wheeler, Derek S.; Goldstein, Stuart L.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable prediction of severe acute kidney injury (AKI) has the potential to optimize treatment. Here we operationalized the empiric concept of renal angina with a renal angina index (RAI) and determined the predictive performance of RAI. This was assessed on admission to the pediatric intensive care unit, for subsequent severe AKI (over 200% rise in serum creatinine) 72 h later (Day-3 AKI). In a multicenter four cohort appraisal (one derivation and three validation), incidence rates for a Day 0 RAI of 8 or more were 15–68% and Day-3 AKI was 13–21%. In all cohorts, Day-3 AKI rates were higher in patients with an RAI of 8 or more with the area under the curve of RAI for predicting Day-3 AKI of 0.74–0.81. An RAI under 8 had high negative predictive values (92–99%) for Day-3 AKI. RAI outperformed traditional markers of pediatric severity of illness (Pediatric Risk of Mortality-II) and AKI risk factors alone for prediction of Day-3 AKI. Additionally, the RAI outperformed all KDIGO stages for prediction of Day-3 AKI. Thus, we operationalized the renal angina concept by deriving and validating the RAI for prediction of subsequent severe AKI. The RAI provides a clinically feasible and applicable methodology to identify critically ill children at risk of severe AKI lasting beyond functional injury. The RAI may potentially reduce capricious AKI biomarker use by identifying patients in whom further testing would be most beneficial. PMID:24048379

  7. Cheerleading injuries: epidemiology and recommendations for prevention.

    PubMed

    LaBella, Cynthia R; Mjaanes, Jeffrey

    2012-11-01

    Over the last 30 years, cheerleading has increased dramatically in popularity and has evolved from leading the crowd in cheers at sporting events into a competitive, year-round sport involving complex acrobatic stunts and tumbling. Consequently, cheerleading injuries have steadily increased over the years in both number and severity. Sprains and strains to the lower extremities are the most common injuries. Although the overall injury rate remains relatively low, cheerleading has accounted for approximately 66% of all catastrophic injuries in high school girl athletes over the past 25 years. Risk factors for injuries in cheerleading include higher BMI, previous injury, cheering on harder surfaces, performing stunts, and supervision by a coach with low level of training and experience. This policy statement describes the epidemiology of cheerleading injuries and provides recommendations for injury prevention.

  8. Perioperative Organ Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Karsten; Karhausen, Jörn; Clambey, Eric T.; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger K.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the fact that a surgical procedure may have been performed for the appropriate indication and in a technically perfect manner, patients are threatened by perioperative organ injury. For example, stroke, myocardial infarction, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury, or acute gut injury are among the most common causes for morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. In the present review, we discuss the pathogenesis of perioperative organ injury, and provide select examples for novel treatment concepts that have emerged over the past decade. Indeed, we believe that research to provide mechanistic insight into acute organ injury and to identify novel therapeutic approaches for the prevention or treatment of perioperative organ injury represents the most important opportunity to improve outcomes of anesthesia and surgery. PMID:24126264

  9. Normabaric Hyperoxia Treatment Improved Locomotor Activity of C57BL/6J Mice through Enhancing Dopamine Genes Following Fluid-Percussion Injury in Striatum.

    PubMed

    Muthuraju, Sangu; Taha, Syed; Pati, Soumya; Rafique, Mohamed; Jaafar, Hasnan; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2013-12-01

    Closed traumatic brain injury (CTBI) leads to increase mortality rates in developing countries. However, a sustainable therapeutic approach has not been established yet. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the impact of normabaric hyperoxia treatment (NBOT) on striatum associated Locomotor Activity (LA) in IntelliCage after Fluid-Percussion Injury (FPI). Animals were divided in four groups: Group I control (n=24), Group II sham (n=24), Group III FPI (n=24) and Group IV FPI with NBOT (n=24). Animals were habituated in IntelliCage for 4 days following transponder implanted in mice neck region on day 5. Then the LA of all groups was assessed 6hr daily for 5 days before inducing FPI. On day 6, cannula was implanted on the striatum, on day 7 FPI was performed in Group III (kept in normal environment) and IV (immediately exposed to NBOT for 3 hr). LA (in terms of number of visits in all four corners) was assessed 6 hr at days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 following FPI. After the animals were sacrificed to study the neuronal damage, dopamine receptors and transporters expression in striatum. The results suggested that the LA of FPI impaired mice as compared to the control and sham showed less number of visits in all four corners in IntelliCage. Morphological results revealed that FPI induced neuronal damage as compared to sham and control. Dopamine receptors and transporters were down regulated in the FPI group as compared to the control. Immediate exposure to NBOT improved LA in terms of increased number of visits in all four corners, reduced number of cell death and improved receptor expression as compared to FPI. In conclusion, NBOT exposure could improve the LA of mice following FPI through prevention of neuronal damage, improved dopamine receptors and transporters. PMID:24711754

  10. Normabaric Hyperoxia Treatment Improved Locomotor Activity of C57BL/6J Mice through Enhancing Dopamine Genes Following Fluid-Percussion Injury in Striatum.

    PubMed

    Muthuraju, Sangu; Taha, Syed; Pati, Soumya; Rafique, Mohamed; Jaafar, Hasnan; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2013-12-01

    Closed traumatic brain injury (CTBI) leads to increase mortality rates in developing countries. However, a sustainable therapeutic approach has not been established yet. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the impact of normabaric hyperoxia treatment (NBOT) on striatum associated Locomotor Activity (LA) in IntelliCage after Fluid-Percussion Injury (FPI). Animals were divided in four groups: Group I control (n=24), Group II sham (n=24), Group III FPI (n=24) and Group IV FPI with NBOT (n=24). Animals were habituated in IntelliCage for 4 days following transponder implanted in mice neck region on day 5. Then the LA of all groups was assessed 6hr daily for 5 days before inducing FPI. On day 6, cannula was implanted on the striatum, on day 7 FPI was performed in Group III (kept in normal environment) and IV (immediately exposed to NBOT for 3 hr). LA (in terms of number of visits in all four corners) was assessed 6 hr at days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 following FPI. After the animals were sacrificed to study the neuronal damage, dopamine receptors and transporters expression in striatum. The results suggested that the LA of FPI impaired mice as compared to the control and sham showed less number of visits in all four corners in IntelliCage. Morphological results revealed that FPI induced neuronal damage as compared to sham and control. Dopamine receptors and transporters were down regulated in the FPI group as compared to the control. Immediate exposure to NBOT improved LA in terms of increased number of visits in all four corners, reduced number of cell death and improved receptor expression as compared to FPI. In conclusion, NBOT exposure could improve the LA of mice following FPI through prevention of neuronal damage, improved dopamine receptors and transporters.

  11. Neutralization of inhibitory molecule NG2 improves synaptic transmission, retrograde transport, and locomotor function after spinal cord injury in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Petrosyan, Hayk A; Hunanyan, Arsen S; Alessi, Valentina; Schnell, Lisa; Levine, Joel; Arvanian, Victor L

    2013-02-27

    NG2 belongs to the family of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that are upregulated after spinal cord injury (SCI) and are major inhibitory factors restricting the growth of fibers after SCI. Neutralization of NG2's inhibitory effect on axon growth by anti-NG2 monoclonal antibodies (NG2-Ab) has been reported. In addition, recent studies show that exogenous NG2 induces a block of axonal conduction. In this study, we demonstrate that acute intraspinal injections of NG2-Ab prevented an acute block of conduction by NG2. Chronic intrathecal infusion of NG2-Ab improved the following deficits induced by chronic midthoracic lateral hemisection (HX) injury: (1) synaptic transmission to lumbar motoneurons, (2) retrograde transport of fluororuby anatomical tracer from L5 to L1, and (3) locomotor function assessed by automated CatWalk gait analysis. We collected data in an attempt to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the NG2-Ab-induced improvement of synaptic transmission in HX-injured spinal cord. These data showed the following: (1) that chronic NG2-Ab infusion improved conduction and axonal excitability in chronically HX-injured rats, (2) that antibody treatment increased the density of serotonergic axons with ventral regions of spinal segments L1-L5, (3) and that NG2-positive processes contact nodes of Ranvier within the nodal gap at the location of nodal Na(+) channels, which are known to be critical for propagation of action potentials along axons. Together, these results demonstrate that treatment with NG2-Ab partially improves both synaptic and anatomical plasticity in damaged spinal cord and promotes functional recovery after HX SCI. Neutralizing antibodies against NG2 may be an excellent way to promote axonal conduction after SCI. PMID:23447612

  12. Early, Prehospital Activation of the Walking Blood Bank Based on Mechanism of Injury Improves Time to Fresh Whole Blood Transfusion.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Aaron K; Auten, Jonathan D; Zieber, Tara J; Lunceford, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    Balanced component therapy (BCT) remains the mainstay in trauma resuscitation of the critically battle injured. In austere medical environments, access to packed red blood cells, apheresis platelets, and fresh frozen plasma is often limited. Transfusion of warm, fresh whole blood (FWB) has been used to augment limited access to full BCT in these settings. The main limitation of FWB is that it is not readily available for transfusion on casualty arrival. This small case series evaluates the impact early, mechanism-of-injury (MOI)-based, preactivation of the walking blood bank has on time to transfusion. We report an average time of 18 minutes to FWB transfusion from patient arrival. Early activation of the walking blood bank based on prehospital MOI may further reduce the time to FWB transfusion.

  13. A Coral-Derived Compound Improves Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury through Its Antiapoptotic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Hong; Chen, Nan-Fu; Feng, Chien-Wei; Cheng, Shu-Yu; Hung, Han-Chun; Tsui, Kuan-Hao; Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Chen, Wu-Fu; Wen, Zhi-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our previous in vitro results demonstrated that 11-dehydrosinulariolide significantly reduced 6-hydroxydopamine-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in a human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y, and suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage cells. The neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of 11-dehydrosinulariolide may be suitable for treating spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: In the present study, Wistar rats were pretreated with 11-dehydrosinulariolide or saline through intrathecal injection after a thoracic spinal cord contusion injury induced using a New York University (NYU) impactor. The apoptotic cells were assessed using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The expression and localization of proinflammatory, apoptosis-associated and cell survival-related pathway proteins were examined through immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Results: 11-Dehydrosinulariolide attenuated SCI-induced cell apoptosis by upregulating the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and cell survival-related pathway proteins p-Akt and p-ERK, 8 h after SCI. Furthermore, the transcription factor p-CREB, which regulates Bcl-2 expression, was upregulated after 11-dehydrosinulariolide treatment. On day 7 after SCI, 11-dehydrosinulariolide exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect, attenuating SCI-induced upregulation of the inflammatory proteins iNOS and tumor necrosis factor-α. 11-Dehydrosinulariolide also induced an increase in the expression of arginase-1 and CD206, markers of M2 microglia, in the injured spinal cord on day 7 after SCI. Thus, the anti-inflammatory effect of 11-dehydrosinulariolide may be related to the promotion of an alternative pathway of microglia activation. Conclusion: The results show that 11-dehydrosinulariolide exerts antiapoptotic effects at 8 h after SCI and anti-inflammatory effects at 7 days after SCI. We consider that this

  14. Combined therapy with danazol, pegilated interferon, and ribavirin improves thrombocytopenia and liver injury in rats with fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Guillermo Cabrera; Madrid-Marina, Vicente; Jimenez-Mendez, Ricardo; Buitimea, Angel Leon; Román, Margarita Bahena; Cortez-Gomez, Rudyard; Esparza, Jorge Reyes; Rodríguez-Fragoso, Lourdes

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of combinations of pegilated-interferon (PEG-IFN), ribavirin, and danazol on thrombocytopenia and liver injury in rats with fibrosis. Male adult Wistar rats were treated with either mineral oil, danazol (0.83 mg/kg per day), PEG-interferon alpha-2a (PEG-IFN, 0.3 microg/ week) + ribavirin (12 mg/kg per day), PEG-IFN + ribavirin + danazol, CCl(4) (4 g/kg for eight weeks), CCl(4) + PEG-IFN + ribavirin, or CCl(4) + PEG-IFN + ribavirin+ danazol. The following assays were conducted: hematology, clinical chemistry, liver function, liver fibrosis, lymphocyte cytokine mRNA expression, and bone-marrow DNA content. Platelet counts were low in sham-treated animals and animals treated with PEG- IFN + ribavirin (30% and 25% respectively; P < 0.05). PEG-IFN + ribavirin + danazol reduced platelet counts of fibrotic animals by only 9% (P < 0.05). PEG- IFN + ribavirin reduced hepatic collagen content by 50%, whereas danazol + PEG-IFN + ribavirin reduced hepatic collagen content by 60% (P < 0.05). PEG-IFN + ribavirin reduced the total bilirubin concentration by 27%, alanine amino transferase (ALT) activity by 75% and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GTP) activity by 74% (P < 0.05). In contrast, danazol + PEG-IFN + ribavirin reduced total bilirubin levels by 61%, alkaline phosphatase activity by 45%, ALT activity by 76%, and gamma-GTP activity by 74% (P < 0.05). The only treatment that increased interleukin 10 (IL-10) mRNA in fibrotic rats was PEG-IFN + ribavirin. However, danazol + PEG-IFN + ribavirin reduced the expression of IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha and transforming growth factor ss. Bone-marrow DNA content was not altered by any treatment. In conclusion, PEG-IFN + ribavirin + danazol could be a new therapeutic option for patients with liver injury, fibrosis, and thrombocytopenia. PMID:18007553

  15. Improvements in neuroelectrophysiological and rear limb functions in rats with spinal cord injury after Schwann cell transplantation in combination with a C5a receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S-Q; Wu, M-F; Peng, C-G; Lv, Y; Wu, D-K; Liu, J; Yang, Q

    2015-01-01

    We measured the effect of Schwann cell transplantation and complement factor 5a (C5a) receptor antagonist on nerve function recovery in rats with spinal cord injury. Experimental spinal cord injury was induced in eighty Wistar rats and these were randomly divided into four treatment groups: culture medium and saline injection (control group), Schwann cell injection (cell transplantation group), C5a receptor antagonist injection (C5a receptor antagonist group), and both Schwann cell and C5a receptor antagonist injections (combination group). Rear limb functional recovery was assessed 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after the spinal cord injury with the tilt table test and the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan scale. Sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene expression was measured at week 4 and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeling was used at week 8 to further assess the recovery of neuroelectrophysiological functions. The rear limb functional assessment showed that the combination group had better outcomes than the cell transplantation and C5a receptor antagonist groups. All treatment groups had better outcomes than control. Only the cell transplantation and combination groups showed SRY expression. The number of HRP-positive nerve fibers in the different groups ranked as follows: combination group > cell transplantation and C5a receptor antagonist > control. The refractory period and amplitude of the induced potential in the combination group were significantly greater than in the other three groups. These results suggest that the combination of Schwann cell transplantation and the C5a receptor antagonist enhances the regeneration of injured synapses and improves limb function and electrophysiology. PMID:26634479

  16. Omega-conotoxin MVIIC attenuates neuronal apoptosis in vitro and improves significant recovery after spinal cord injury in vivo in rats

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Karen M; Lavor, Mário Sérgio L; Silva, Carla Maria O; Fukushima, Fabíola B; Rosado, Isabel R; Silva, Juneo F; Martins, Bernardo C; Guimarães, Laís B; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Melo, Marília M; Melo, Eliane G

    2014-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of intracellular calcium is the most critical step after spinal cord injury (SCI). Reducing the calcium influx should result in a better recovery from SCI. Calcium channel blockers have been shown a great potential in reducing brain and spinal cord injury. In this study, we first tested the neuroprotective effect of MVIIC on slices of spinal cord subjected to ischemia evaluating cell death and caspase-3 activation. Thereafter, we evaluated the efficacy of MVIIC in ameliorating damage following SCI in rats, for the first time in vivo. The spinal cord slices subjected a pretreatment with MVIIC showed a cell protection with a reduction of dead cells in 24.34% and of caspase-3-specific protease activation. In the in vivo experiment, Wistar rats were subjected to extradural compression of the spinal cord at the T12 vertebral level using a weigh of 70 g/cm, following intralesional treatment with either placebo or MVIIC in different doses (15, 30 and 60 pmol) five minutes after injury. Behavioral testing of hindlimb function was done using the Basso Beattie Bresnahan locomotor rating scale, and revealed significant recovery with 15 pmol (G15) compared to other trauma groups. Also, histological bladder structural revealed significant outcome in G15, with no morphological alterations, and anti-NeuN and TUNEL staining showed that G15 provided neuron preservation and indicated that this group had fewer neuron cell death, similar to sham. These results showed the neuroprotective effects of MVIIC in in vitro and in vivo model of SCI with neuronal integrity, bladder and behavioral improvements. PMID:25120731

  17. Crocin improved locomotor function and mechanical behavior in the rat model of contused spinal cord injury through decreasing calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP).

    PubMed

    Karami, Masoume; Bathaie, S Zahra; Tiraihi, Taqi; Habibi-Rezaei, Mehran; Arabkheradmand, Jalil; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2013-12-15

    Various approaches have been offered to alleviate chronic pain resulting from spinal cord injuries (SCIs). Application of herbs and natural products, with potentially lower adverse effects, to cure diseases has been recommended in both traditional and modern medicines. Here, the effect of crocin on chronic pain induced by spinal cord contusion was investigated in an animal model. Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (5 rats in each); three groups were contused at the L1 level. One group was treated with crocin (150mg/kg) two weeks after spinal cord injury; the second group, control, was treated with vehicle only; and the third group was treated with ketoprofen. Two normal groups were also considered with or without crocin treatment. The mechanical behavioral test, the locomotor recovery test and the thermal behavioral test were applied weekly to evaluate the injury and recovery of rats. Significant improvements (p<0.05) in mechanical behavioral and locomotor recovery tests were seen in the rats treated with crocin. Thermal behavioral test did not show any significant changes due to crocin treatment. Plasma concentration of calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) changed from 780.2±2.3 to 1140.3±4.5pg/ml due to SCI and reached 789.1±2.7pg/ml after crocin treatment. These changes were significant at the level of p<0.05. The present study shows the beneficial effects of crocin treatment on chronic pain induced by SCI, through decreasing CGRP as an important mediator of inflammation and pain.

  18. Recombinant Human Erythropoietin Improves the Neurofunctional Recovery of Rats Following Traumatic Brain Injury via an Increase in Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang; Wang, Xiaonan; Su, Hua; Han, Zhenying; Yu, Huijie; Wang, Dong; Jiang, Rongcai

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies show that circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) promote angiogenesis, which is a process associated with improved recovery in animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI), and that recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) plays a protective role following stroke. Thus, it was hypothesized that rhEPO would enhance recovery following brain injury in a rat model of TBI via an increase in the mobilization of EPCs and, subsequently, in angiogenesis. Flow cytometry assays using CD34− and CD133-specific antibodies were utilized to identify alterations in EPC levels, CD31 and CD34 antibody-stained brain tissue sections were used to quantify angiogenesis, and the Morris water maze (MWM) test and the modified Neurological Severity Score (mNSS) test were used to evaluate behavioral recovery. Compared with saline treatment, treatment with rhEPO significantly increased the number of circulating EPCs on days 1, 4, 7, and 14 (P<0.05), improved spatial learning ability on days 24 and 25 (P<0.05), and enhanced memory recovery on day 26 (P<0.05). Moreover, rhEPO treatment decreased mNSS assessment scores on days 14, 21, and 25 (P<0.05). There was a strong correlation between levels of circulating EPCs and CD34− and CD31-positive cells within the injured boundary zone (CD34+ r=0.910, P<0.01; CD31+ r=0.894, P<0.01) and the ipsilateral hippocampus (CD34+ r=0.841, P<0.01; CD31+ r=0.835, P<0.01). The present data demonstrate that rhEPO treatment improved functional outcomes in rats following TBI via an increase in the mobilization of EPCs and in subsequent angiogenesis. PMID:25085436

  19. Asparagine attenuates intestinal injury, improves energy status and inhibits AMP-activated protein kinase signalling pathways in weaned piglets challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuying; Liu, Yulan; Li, Shuang; Pi, Dingan; Zhu, Huiling; Hou, Yongqing; Shi, Haifeng; Leng, Weibo

    2015-08-28

    The intestine requires a high amount of energy to maintain its health and function; thus, energy deficits in intestinal mucosa may lead to intestinal damage. Asparagine (Asn) is a precursor for many other amino acids such as aspartate, glutamine and glutamate, which can be used to supply energy to enterocytes. In the present study, we hypothesise that dietary supplementation of Asn could alleviate bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal injury via improvement of intestinal energy status. A total of twenty-four weaned piglets were assigned to one of four treatments: (1) non-challenged control; (2) LPS+0 % Asn; (3) LPS+0·5 % Asn; (4) LPS+1·0 % Asn. On day 19, piglets were injected with LPS or saline. At 24 h post-injection, piglets were slaughtered and intestinal samples were collected. Asn supplementation improved intestinal morphology, indicated by higher villus height and villus height:crypt depth ratio, and lower crypt depth. Asn supplementation also increased the ratios of RNA:DNA and protein:DNA as well as disaccharidase activities in intestinal mucosa. In addition, Asn supplementation attenuated bacterial LPS-induced intestinal energy deficits, indicated by increased ATP and adenylate energy charge levels, and decreased AMP:ATP ratio. Moreover, Asn administration increased the activities of key enzymes involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, including citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Finally, Asn administration decreased the mRNA abundance of intestinal AMP-activated protein kinase-α1 (AMPKα1), AMPKα2, silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) and PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC1α), and reduced intestinal AMPKα phosphorylation. Collectively, these results indicate that Asn supplementation alleviates bacterial LPS-induced intestinal injury by modulating the AMPK signalling pathway and improving energy status.

  20. The Relationship between Dramatic Play and Self-Concept in Middle Class Kindergarten Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gootman, Marilyn Eisenstadt

    This study attempted to determine the relationships between the dramatic play of children aged three to seven and their self-concept; between dramatic play and two components of self-concept--self-esteem and identification with friends; between dramatic play ability and self-concept; and between dramatic play and the teacher's attitude toward…

  1. Improving the care of people with traumatic brain injury through the Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) program: protocol for a program of research.

    PubMed

    Green, Sally E; Bosch, Marije; McKenzie, Joanne E; O'Connor, Denise A; Tavender, Emma J; Bragge, Peter; Chau, Marisa; Pitt, Veronica; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Gruen, Russell L

    2012-01-01

    The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) program was funded in 2009 to increase the uptake of research evidence in the clinical care of patients who have sustained traumatic brain injury. This paper reports the rationale and plan for this five-year knowledge translation research program. The overarching aims of the program are threefold: to improve outcomes for people with traumatic brain injury; to create a network of neurotrauma clinicians and researchers with expertise in knowledge translation and evidence-based practice; and to contribute knowledge to the field of knowledge translation research. The program comprises a series of interlinked projects spanning varying clinical environments and disciplines relevant to neurotrauma, anchored within four themes representing core knowledge translation activities: reviewing research evidence; understanding practice; developing and testing interventions for practice change; and building capacity for knowledge translation in neurotrauma. The program uses a range of different methods and study designs, including: an evidence fellowship program; conduct of and training in systematic reviews; mixed method study designs to describe and understand factors that influence current practices (e.g., semi-structured interviews and surveys); theory-based methods to develop targeted interventions aiming to change practice; a cluster randomised trial to test the effectiveness of a targeted theory-informed intervention; stakeholder involvement activities; and knowledge translation events such as consensus conferences.

  2. Improving the care of people with traumatic brain injury through the Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) program: protocol for a program of research.

    PubMed

    Green, Sally E; Bosch, Marije; McKenzie, Joanne E; O'Connor, Denise A; Tavender, Emma J; Bragge, Peter; Chau, Marisa; Pitt, Veronica; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Gruen, Russell L

    2012-01-01

    The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) program was funded in 2009 to increase the uptake of research evidence in the clinical care of patients who have sustained traumatic brain injury. This paper reports the rationale and plan for this five-year knowledge translation research program. The overarching aims of the program are threefold: to improve outcomes for people with traumatic brain injury; to create a network of neurotrauma clinicians and researchers with expertise in knowledge translation and evidence-based practice; and to contribute knowledge to the field of knowledge translation research. The program comprises a series of interlinked projects spanning varying clinical environments and disciplines relevant to neurotrauma, anchored within four themes representing core knowledge translation activities: reviewing research evidence; understanding practice; developing and testing interventions for practice change; and building capacity for knowledge translation in neurotrauma. The program uses a range of different methods and study designs, including: an evidence fellowship program; conduct of and training in systematic reviews; mixed method study designs to describe and understand factors that influence current practices (e.g., semi-structured interviews and surveys); theory-based methods to develop targeted interventions aiming to change practice; a cluster randomised trial to test the effectiveness of a targeted theory-informed intervention; stakeholder involvement activities; and knowledge translation events such as consensus conferences. PMID:22866892

  3. Improving the Understanding of Psychological Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accident and Injury: Context, Loss of Focus, Cognitive Errors and Rigidity.

    PubMed

    DeAraugo, Jodi; McLaren, Suzanne; McManus, Phil; McGreevy, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    While the role of the horse in riding hazards is well recognised, little attention has been paid to the role of specific theoretical psychological processes of humans in contributing to and mitigating risk. The injury, mortality or compensation claim rates for participants in the horse-racing industry, veterinary medicine and equestrian disciplines provide compelling evidence for improving risk mitigation models. There is a paucity of theoretical principles regarding the risk of injury and mortality associated with human-horse interactions. In this paper we introduce and apply the four psychological principles of context, loss of focus, global cognitive style and the application of self as the frame of reference as a potential approach for assessing and managing human-horse risks. When these principles produce errors that are combined with a rigid self-referenced point, it becomes clear how rapidly risk emerges and how other people and animals may repeatedly become at risk over time. Here, with a focus on the thoroughbred racing industry, veterinary practice and equestrian disciplines, we review the merits of contextually applied strategies, an evolving reappraisal of risk, flexibility, and focused specifics of situations that may serve to modify human behaviour and mitigate risk. PMID:26891333

  4. Significant Improvements in Cognitive Performance Post-Transcranial, Red/Near-Infrared Light-Emitting Diode Treatments in Chronic, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Open-Protocol Study

    PubMed Central

    Zafonte, Ross; Krengel, Maxine H.; Martin, Paula I.; Frazier, Judith; Hamblin, Michael R.; Knight, Jeffrey A.; Meehan, William P.; Baker, Errol H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This pilot, open-protocol study examined whether scalp application of red and near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes (LED) could improve cognition in patients with chronic, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Application of red/NIR light improves mitochondrial function (especially in hypoxic/compromised cells) promoting increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) important for cellular metabolism. Nitric oxide is released locally, increasing regional cerebral blood flow. LED therapy is noninvasive, painless, and non-thermal (cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration [FDA], an insignificant risk device). Eleven chronic, mTBI participants (26–62 years of age, 6 males) with nonpenetrating brain injury and persistent cognitive dysfunction were treated for 18 outpatient sessions (Monday, Wednesday, Friday, for 6 weeks), starting at 10 months to 8 years post- mTBI (motor vehicle accident [MVA] or sports-related; and one participant, improvised explosive device [IED] blast injury). Four had a history of multiple concussions. Each LED cluster head (5.35 cm diameter, 500 mW, 22.2 mW/cm2) was applied for 10 min to each of 11 scalp placements (13 J/cm2). LEDs were placed on the midline from front-to-back hairline; and bilaterally on frontal, parietal, and temporal areas. Neuropsychological testing was performed pre-LED, and at 1 week, and 1 and 2 months after the 18th treatment. A significant linear trend was observed for the effect of LED treatment over time for the Stroop test for Executive Function, Trial 3 inhibition (p=0.004); Stroop, Trial 4 inhibition switching (p=0.003); California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)-II, Total Trials 1–5 (p=0.003); and CVLT-II, Long Delay Free Recall (p=0.006). Participants reported improved sleep, and fewer post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, if present. Participants and family reported better ability to perform social, interpersonal, and occupational functions. These open-protocol data suggest

  5. Significant improvements in cognitive performance post-transcranial, red/near-infrared light-emitting diode treatments in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: open-protocol study.

    PubMed

    Naeser, Margaret A; Zafonte, Ross; Krengel, Maxine H; Martin, Paula I; Frazier, Judith; Hamblin, Michael R; Knight, Jeffrey A; Meehan, William P; Baker, Errol H

    2014-06-01

    This pilot, open-protocol study examined whether scalp application of red and near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes (LED) could improve cognition in patients with chronic, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Application of red/NIR light improves mitochondrial function (especially in hypoxic/compromised cells) promoting increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) important for cellular metabolism. Nitric oxide is released locally, increasing regional cerebral blood flow. LED therapy is noninvasive, painless, and non-thermal (cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration [FDA], an insignificant risk device). Eleven chronic, mTBI participants (26-62 years of age, 6 males) with nonpenetrating brain injury and persistent cognitive dysfunction were treated for 18 outpatient sessions (Monday, Wednesday, Friday, for 6 weeks), starting at 10 months to 8 years post- mTBI (motor vehicle accident [MVA] or sports-related; and one participant, improvised explosive device [IED] blast injury). Four had a history of multiple concussions. Each LED cluster head (5.35 cm diameter, 500 mW, 22.2 mW/cm(2)) was applied for 10 min to each of 11 scalp placements (13 J/cm(2)). LEDs were placed on the midline from front-to-back hairline; and bilaterally on frontal, parietal, and temporal areas. Neuropsychological testing was performed pre-LED, and at 1 week, and 1 and 2 months after the 18th treatment. A significant linear trend was observed for the effect of LED treatment over time for the Stroop test for Executive Function, Trial 3 inhibition (p=0.004); Stroop, Trial 4 inhibition switching (p=0.003); California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)-II, Total Trials 1-5 (p=0.003); and CVLT-II, Long Delay Free Recall (p=0.006). Participants reported improved sleep, and fewer post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, if present. Participants and family reported better ability to perform social, interpersonal, and occupational functions. These open-protocol data suggest that placebo

  6. Significant improvements in cognitive performance post-transcranial, red/near-infrared light-emitting diode treatments in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: open-protocol study.

    PubMed

    Naeser, Margaret A; Zafonte, Ross; Krengel, Maxine H; Martin, Paula I; Frazier, Judith; Hamblin, Michael R; Knight, Jeffrey A; Meehan, William P; Baker, Errol H

    2014-06-01

    This pilot, open-protocol study examined whether scalp application of red and near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes (LED) could improve cognition in patients with chronic, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Application of red/NIR light improves mitochondrial function (especially in hypoxic/compromised cells) promoting increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) important for cellular metabolism. Nitric oxide is released locally, increasing regional cerebral blood flow. LED therapy is noninvasive, painless, and non-thermal (cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration [FDA], an insignificant risk device). Eleven chronic, mTBI participants (26-62 years of age, 6 males) with nonpenetrating brain injury and persistent cognitive dysfunction were treated for 18 outpatient sessions (Monday, Wednesday, Friday, for 6 weeks), starting at 10 months to 8 years post- mTBI (motor vehicle accident [MVA] or sports-related; and one participant, improvised explosive device [IED] blast injury). Four had a history of multiple concussions. Each LED cluster head (5.35 cm diameter, 500 mW, 22.2 mW/cm(2)) was applied for 10 min to each of 11 scalp placements (13 J/cm(2)). LEDs were placed on the midline from front-to-back hairline; and bilaterally on frontal, parietal, and temporal areas. Neuropsychological testing was performed pre-LED, and at 1 week, and 1 and 2 months after the 18th treatment. A significant linear trend was observed for the effect of LED treatment over time for the Stroop test for Executive Function, Trial 3 inhibition (p=0.004); Stroop, Trial 4 inhibition switching (p=0.003); California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)-II, Total Trials 1-5 (p=0.003); and CVLT-II, Long Delay Free Recall (p=0.006). Participants reported improved sleep, and fewer post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, if present. Participants and family reported better ability to perform social, interpersonal, and occupational functions. These open-protocol data suggest that placebo

  7. Anions dramatically enhance proton transfer through aqueous interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Himanshu; Enami, Shinichi; Nielsen, Robert J.; Hoffmann, Michael R.; Goddard, William A.; Colussi, Agustín J.

    2012-01-01

    Proton transfer (PT) through and across aqueous interfaces is a fundamental process in chemistry and biology. Notwithstanding its importance, it is not generally realized that interfacial PT is quite different from conventional PT in bulk water. Here we show that, in contrast with the behavior of strong nitric acid in aqueous solution, gas-phase HNO3 does not dissociate upon collision with the surface of water unless a few ions (> 1 per 106 H2O) are present. By applying online electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to monitor in situ the surface of aqueous jets exposed to HNO3(g) beams we found that production increases dramatically on > 30-μM inert electrolyte solutions. We also performed quantum mechanical calculations confirming that the sizable barrier hindering HNO3 dissociation on the surface of small water clusters is drastically lowered in the presence of anions. Anions electrostatically assist in drawing the proton away from lingering outside the cluster, whose incorporation is hampered by the energetic cost of opening a cavity therein. Present results provide both direct experimental evidence and mechanistic insights on the counterintuitive slowness of PT at water-hydrophobe boundaries and its remarkable sensitivity to electrostatic effects. PMID:22689964

  8. New therapies for hereditary angioedema: disease outlook changes dramatically.

    PubMed

    Frank, Michael M; Jiang, Haixiang

    2008-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease associated with episodic attacks of nonpitting edema that may affect any external or mucosal body surface. Attacks most often affect the extremities, causing local swelling, the GI tract, leading to severe abdominal pain, and the mouth and throat, at times causing asphyxiation. Most patients with HAE have low levels of the plasma serine protease inhibitor C1 inhibitor. The edema in these patients is caused by unregulated generation of bradykinin. Effective chronic therapy of patients with impeded androgens or plasmin inhibitors has been available for decades, but in the United States, we do not have therapy for acute attacks. Five companies have completed or are in the process of conducting phase 3 clinical trials, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of products designed to terminate acute attacks or to be used in prophylaxis. Two companies, Lev Pharmaceuticals and CSL Behring, have preparations of C1 inhibitor purified from plasma that have been used in Europe for decades (trade names Cinryze and Berinert P, respectively). One company, Pharming, has developed a recombinant C1 inhibitor preparation. One company, Dyax, is testing a kallikrein inhibitor (ecallantide), and one company, Jerini, is completing testing of a bradykinin type 2 receptor antagonist (Icatibant). Although little has been published thus far, all of these products may prove effective. It is likely that HAE treatment will change dramatically within the next few years.

  9. Dramatic long-term X-ray variability in AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Edward C.

    2016-04-01

    Dramatic X-ray and optical variability on ˜ 10 year timescales has been discovered recently in a handful of quasars, which may provide important new insight into the issue of how luminous AGNs are fueled. We have assembled a new sample of extremely variable X-ray sources from archival Einstein and ROSAT data that could increase substantially the number of such objects known. The sources in our sample varied in X-ray flux by at least a factor of 7-8 over a 10-year span, and most exhibited significantly larger variability amplitudes (10 to over 100). We present the details of how our sample was assembled and preliminary results regarding the identifications, properties, and X-ray histories of the objects. Although a heterogeneous population is expected, some sources in the sample are associated with broad-line AGNs, including a radio-quiet quasar at z = 1.3 that decreased in X-ray luminosity by a factor of 40.

  10. New therapies for hereditary angioedema: disease outlook changes dramatically.

    PubMed

    Frank, Michael M; Jiang, Haixiang

    2008-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease associated with episodic attacks of nonpitting edema that may affect any external or mucosal body surface. Attacks most often affect the extremities, causing local swelling, the GI tract, leading to severe abdominal pain, and the mouth and throat, at times causing asphyxiation. Most patients with HAE have low levels of the plasma serine protease inhibitor C1 inhibitor. The edema in these patients is caused by unregulated generation of bradykinin. Effective chronic therapy of patients with impeded androgens or plasmin inhibitors has been available for decades, but in the United States, we do not have therapy for acute attacks. Five companies have completed or are in the process of conducting phase 3 clinical trials, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of products designed to terminate acute attacks or to be used in prophylaxis. Two companies, Lev Pharmaceuticals and CSL Behring, have preparations of C1 inhibitor purified from plasma that have been used in Europe for decades (trade names Cinryze and Berinert P, respectively). One company, Pharming, has developed a recombinant C1 inhibitor preparation. One company, Dyax, is testing a kallikrein inhibitor (ecallantide), and one company, Jerini, is completing testing of a bradykinin type 2 receptor antagonist (Icatibant). Although little has been published thus far, all of these products may prove effective. It is likely that HAE treatment will change dramatically within the next few years. PMID:18206518

  11. Taming Self-Organization Dynamics to Dramatically Control Porous Architectures.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ronan; Sader, John E; Boland, John J

    2016-03-22

    We demonstrate templating of functional materials with unexpected and intricate micro- and nanostructures by controlling the condensation, packing, and evaporation of water droplets on a polymer solution. Spontaneous evaporation of a polymer solution induces cooling of the liquid surface and water microdroplet condensation from the ambient vapor. These droplets pack together and act as a template to imprint an entangled polymer film. This breath figure (BF) phenomenon is an example of self-organization that involves the long-range ordering of droplets. Equilibrium-based analysis provides many insights into contact angles and drop stability of individual drops, but the BF phenomenon remains poorly understood thus far, preventing translation to real applications. Here we investigate the dynamics of this phenomenon to separate out the competing influences and then introduce a modulation scheme to ultimately manipulate the water vapor-liquid equilibrium independently from the solvent evaporation. This approach to BF control provides insights into the mechanism, a rationale for microstructure design, and evidence for the benefits of dynamical control of self-organization systems. We finally present dramatically different porous architectures from this approach reminiscent of microscale Petri dishes, conical flasks, and test tubes. PMID:26828573

  12. Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform Dramatically Enhances Killing of Filarial Worms

    PubMed Central

    Binnebose, Andrea M.; Haughney, Shannon L.; Martin, Richard; Imerman, Paula M.; Narasimhan, Balaji; Bellaire, Bryan H.

    2015-01-01

    Filarial diseases represent a significant social and economic burden to over 120 million people worldwide and are caused by endoparasites that require the presence of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia for fertility and viability of the host parasite. Targeting Wolbachia for elimination is a therapeutic approach that shows promise in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Here we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based platform for the co-delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline with the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, to reduce microfilarial burden and rapidly kill adult worms. When doxycycline and ivermectin were co-delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles, effective killing of adult female Brugia malayi filarial worms was achieved with approximately 4,000-fold reduction in the amount of drug used. Additionally the time to death of the macrofilaria was also significantly reduced (five-fold) when the anti-filarial drug cocktail was delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind this dramatically enhanced killing of the macrofilaria is the ability of the polyanhydride nanoparticles to behave as a Trojan horse and penetrate the cuticle, bypassing excretory pumps of B. malayi, and effectively deliver drug directly to both the worm and Wolbachia at high enough microenvironmental concentrations to cause death. These provocative findings may have significant consequences for the reduction in the amount of drug and the length of treatment required for filarial infections in terms of patient compliance and reduced cost of treatment. PMID:26496201

  13. Ocular injury in hurling

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, T; Fennessy, K; Horgan, N; Walsh, B; O'Connell, E; Cleary, P; Beatty, S; MacEwan, C

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the clinical characteristics of ocular injuries sustained in hurling in the south of Ireland and to investigate reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear. Results: Hurling related eye injuries occurred most commonly in young men. Fifty two patients (17%) required hospital admission, with hyphaema accounting for 71% of admissions. Ten injuries required intraocular surgical intervention: retinal detachment repair (5); macular hole surgery (1); repair of partial thickness corneal laceration (1); repair of globe perforation (1); enucleation (1); trabeculectomy for post-traumatic glaucoma (1). Fourteen eyes (4.5%) had a final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of <6/12 and six (2%) had BCVA <3/60. In the survey, 63 players (48.5%) reported wearing no protective facemask while playing hurling. Impairment of vision was the most common reason cited for non-use. Conclusions: Hurling related injury is a significant, and preventable, cause of ocular morbidity in young men in Ireland. The routine use of appropriate protective headgear and faceguards would result in a dramatic reduction in the incidence and severity of these injuries, and should be mandatory. PMID:16046328

  14. Sitting tai chi improves the balance control and muscle strength of community-dwelling persons with spinal cord injuries: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tsang, William W N; Gao, Kelly L; Chan, K M; Purves, Sheila; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Fong, Shirley S M

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of sitting Tai Chi on muscle strength, balance control, and quality of life (QOL) among survivors with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Methods. Eleven SCI survivors participated in the sitting Tai Chi training (90 minutes/session, 2 times/week for 12 weeks) and eight SCI survivors acted as controls. Dynamic sitting balance was evaluated using limits of stability test and a sequential weight shifting test in sitting. Handgrip strength was also tested using a hand-held dynamometer. QOL was measured using the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Scale. Results. Tai Chi practitioners achieved significant improvements in their reaction time (P = 0.042); maximum excursion (P = 0.016); and directional control (P = 0.025) in the limits of stability test after training. In the sequential weight shifting test, they significantly improved their total time to sequentially hit the 12 targets (P = 0.035). Significant improvement in handgrip strength was also found among the Tai Chi practitioners (P = 0.049). However, no significant within and between-group differences were found in the QOL outcomes (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Twelve weeks of sitting Tai Chi training could improve the dynamic sitting balance and handgrip strength, but not QOL, of the SCI survivors.

  15. Sitting Tai Chi Improves the Balance Control and Muscle Strength of Community-Dwelling Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, William W. N.; Gao, Kelly L.; Chan, K. M.; Purves, Sheila; Macfarlane, Duncan J.; Fong, Shirley S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of sitting Tai Chi on muscle strength, balance control, and quality of life (QOL) among survivors with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Methods. Eleven SCI survivors participated in the sitting Tai Chi training (90 minutes/session, 2 times/week for 12 weeks) and eight SCI survivors acted as controls. Dynamic sitting balance was evaluated using limits of stability test and a sequential weight shifting test in sitting. Handgrip strength was also tested using a hand-held dynamometer. QOL was measured using the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Scale. Results. Tai Chi practitioners achieved significant improvements in their reaction time (P = 0.042); maximum excursion (P = 0.016); and directional control (P = 0.025) in the limits of stability test after training. In the sequential weight shifting test, they significantly improved their total time to sequentially hit the 12 targets (P = 0.035). Significant improvement in handgrip strength was also found among the Tai Chi practitioners (P = 0.049). However, no significant within and between-group differences were found in the QOL outcomes (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Twelve weeks of sitting Tai Chi training could improve the dynamic sitting balance and handgrip strength, but not QOL, of the SCI survivors. PMID:25688276

  16. Neurological injuries and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: the challenge of the new ECMO era.

    PubMed

    Martucci, Gennaro; Lo Re, Vincenzina; Arcadipane, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-saving mechanical respiratory and/or circulatory support for potentially reversible severe heart or respiratory injury untreatable with conventional therapies. Thanks to the technical and management improvements the use of ECMO has increased dramatically in the last few years. Data in the literature show a progressive increase in the overall outcome. Considering the improving survival rate of patients on ECMO, and the catastrophic effect of neurological injuries in such patients, the topic of neurological damage during the ICU stay in ECMO is gaining importance. We present a case series of six neurological injuries that occurred in 1 year during the ECMO run or after the ECMO weaning. In each case the neurological complication had a dramatic effect: ranging from brain death to prolonged ICU stay and long term disability. This case series has an informative impact for the multidisciplinary teams treating ECMO patients because of its heterogeneity in pathogenesis and clinical manifestation: cerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke due to cerebral fat embolism, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis due to H1N1 Influenza. In our ECMO hub we started strict neurological monitoring involving intensivists, a neurologist and our radiology service, but neurological complications are still an insidious diagnosis and treatment. Considering several possible neurological injuries may help reduce delay in diagnosis and speed rehabilitation. PMID:26895322

  17. Alternating stimulation of synergistic muscles during functional electrical stimulation cycling improves endurance in persons with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Decker, M J; Griffin, L; Abraham, L D; Brandt, L

    2010-12-01

    Therapeutic effects of functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycling for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) are limited by high rates of muscular fatigue. FES-cycling performance limits and surface mechanomyography (MMG) of 12 persons with SCI were compared under two different stimulation protocols of the quadriceps muscles. One strategy used the standard "co-activation" protocol from the manufacturer of the FES cycle which involved intermittent simultaneous activation of the entire quadriceps muscle group for 400 ms. The other strategy was an "alternation" stimulation protocol which involved alternately stimulating the rectus femoris (RF) muscle for 100 ms and the vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles for 100 ms, with two sets with a 400 ms burst. Thus, during the alternation protocol, each of the muscle groups rested for two 100 ms "off" periods in each 400 ms burst. There was no difference in average cycling cadence (28 RPM) between the two protocols. The alternation stimulation protocol produced longer ride times and longer virtual distances traveled and used lower stimulation intensity levels with no differences in average MMG amplitudes compared to the co-activation protocol. These results demonstrate that FES-cycling performance can be enhanced by a synergistic muscle alternation stimulation strategy. PMID:20708950

  18. Alternating stimulation of synergistic muscles during functional electrical stimulation cycling improves endurance in persons with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Decker, M J; Griffin, L; Abraham, L D; Brandt, L

    2010-12-01

    Therapeutic effects of functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycling for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) are limited by high rates of muscular fatigue. FES-cycling performance limits and surface mechanomyography (MMG) of 12 persons with SCI were compared under two different stimulation protocols of the quadriceps muscles. One strategy used the standard "co-activation" protocol from the manufacturer of the FES cycle which involved intermittent simultaneous activation of the entire quadriceps muscle group for 400 ms. The other strategy was an "alternation" stimulation protocol which involved alternately stimulating the rectus femoris (RF) muscle for 100 ms and the vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles for 100 ms, with two sets with a 400 ms burst. Thus, during the alternation protocol, each of the muscle groups rested for two 100 ms "off" periods in each 400 ms burst. There was no difference in average cycling cadence (28 RPM) between the two protocols. The alternation stimulation protocol produced longer ride times and longer virtual distances traveled and used lower stimulation intensity levels with no differences in average MMG amplitudes compared to the co-activation protocol. These results demonstrate that FES-cycling performance can be enhanced by a synergistic muscle alternation stimulation strategy.

  19. DBS in the basolateral amygdala improves symptoms of autism and related self-injurious behavior: a case report and hypothesis on the pathogenesis of the disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Volker; Fricke, Oliver; Bührle, Christian P.; Lenartz, Doris; Maarouf, Mohammad; Treuer, Harald; Mai, Jürgen K.; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    We treated a 13-year-old boy for life-threatening self-injurious behavior (SIB) and severe Kanner's autism with deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the amygdaloid complex as well as in the supra-amygdaloid projection system. Two DBS-electrodes were placed in both structures of each hemisphere. The stimulation contacts targeted the paralaminar, the basolateral (BL), the central amygdala as well as the supra-amygdaloid projection system. DBS was applied to each of these structures, but only stimulation of the BL part proved effective in improving SIB and core symptoms of the autism spectrum in the emotional, social, and even cognitive domains over a follow up of now 24 months. These results, which have been gained for the first time in a patient, support hypotheses, according to which the amygdala may be pivotal in the pathogeneses of autism and point to the special relevance of the BL part. PMID:23346052

  20. Dramatically changing rates and reasons for hospitalization in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Lawrence; Marriott, James; Cossoy, Michael; Blanchard, James; Tennakoon, Aruni; Yu, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to describe hospitalizations in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population, and to evaluate temporal trends in hospitalizations in the MS population compared to the general population. Methods: Using population-based administrative data, we identified 5,797 persons with MS and a matched general population cohort of 28,769 persons. Using general linear models, we evaluated temporal trends in hospitalization rates and length of stay in the 2 populations over the period 1984–2011. Results: In 1984 the hospitalization rate was 35 per 100 person-years in the MS population and 10.5 in the matched population (relative risk [RR] 3.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.67–6.64). Over the study period hospitalizations declined 75% in the MS population but only 41% in the matched population. The proportion of hospitalizations due to MS declined substantially from 43.4% in 1984 to 7.8% in 2011. The 3 most common non–MS-related reasons for admission in the MS population were diseases of the digestive, genitourinary, and circulatory systems. Admissions for bacterial pneumonia, influenza, urinary tract infections, and pressure ulcers occurred more often in the MS population than in the general population, while admissions for circulatory system disease and neoplasms occurred less often. Older age, male sex, and lower socioeconomic status were associated with increased hospitalization rates for non–MS-related reasons. Conclusions: Although hospitalization rates have declined dramatically in the MS population over the last quarter century, they remain higher than in the general population. Admissions for MS-related reasons now constitute only a small proportion of the reasons for hospitalization. PMID:25085638

  1. Dorsal Raphe Neuroinflammation Promotes Dramatic Behavioral Stress Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Howerton, Alexis R.; Roland, Alison V.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity, risk-taking behavior, and elevated stress responsivity are prominent symptoms of mania, a behavioral state common to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Though inflammatory processes activated within the brain are involved in the pathophysiology of both disorders, the specific mechanisms by which neuroinflammation drives manic behavior are not well understood. Serotonin cell bodies originating within the dorsal raphe (DR) play a major role in the regulation of behavioral features characteristic of mania. Therefore, we hypothesized that the link between neuroinflammation and manic behavior may be mediated by actions on serotonergic neurocircuitry. To examine this, we induced local neuroinflammation in the DR by viral delivery of Cre recombinase into interleukin (IL)-1βXAT transgenic male and female mice, resulting in overexpressing of the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1β. For assertion of brain-region specificity of these outcomes, the prefrontal cortex (PFC), as a downstream target of DR serotonergic projections, was also infused. Inflammation within the DR, but not the PFC, resulted in a profound display of manic-like behavior, characterized by increased stress-induced locomotion and responsivity, and reduced risk-aversion/fearfulness. Microarray analysis of the DR revealed a dramatic increase in immune-related genes, and dysregulation of genes important in GABAergic, glutamatergic, and serotonergic neurotransmission. Behavioral and physiological changes were driven by a loss of serotonergic neurons and reduced output as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, demonstrating inflammation-induced serotonergic hypofunction. Behavioral changes were rescued by acute selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment, supporting the hypothesis that serotonin dysregulation stemming from neuroinflammation in the DR underlies manic-like behaviors. PMID:24849347

  2. Impacts on coralligenous outcrop biodiversity of a dramatic coastal storm.

    PubMed

    Teixidó, Núria; Casas, Edgar; Cebrián, Emma; Linares, Cristina; Garrabou, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    Extreme events are rare, stochastic perturbations that can cause abrupt and dramatic ecological change within a short period of time relative to the lifespan of organisms. Studies over time provide exceptional opportunities to detect the effects of extreme climatic events and to measure their impacts by quantifying rates of change at population and community levels. In this study, we show how an extreme storm event affected the dynamics of benthic coralligenous outcrops in the NW Mediterranean Sea using data acquired before (2006-2008) and after the impact (2009-2010) at four different sites. Storms of comparable severity have been documented to occur occasionally within periods of 50 years in the Mediterranean Sea. We assessed the effects derived from the storm comparing changes in benthic community composition at sites exposed to and sheltered from this extreme event. The sites analyzed showed different damage from severe to negligible. The most exposed and impacted site experienced a major shift immediately after the storm, represented by changes in the species richness and beta diversity of benthic species. This site also showed higher compositional variability immediately after the storm and over the following year. The loss of cover of benthic species resulted between 22% and 58%. The damage across these species (e.g. calcareous algae, sponges, anthozoans, bryozoans, tunicates) was uneven, and those with fragile forms were the most impacted, showing cover losses up to 50 to 100%. Interestingly, small patches survived after the storm and began to grow slightly during the following year. In contrast, sheltered sites showed no significant changes in all the studied parameters, indicating no variations due to the storm. This study provides new insights into the responses to large and rare extreme events of Mediterranean communities with low dynamics and long-lived species, which are among the most threatened by the effects of global change.

  3. Impacts on Coralligenous Outcrop Biodiversity of a Dramatic Coastal Storm

    PubMed Central

    Teixidó, Núria; Casas, Edgar; Cebrián, Emma; Linares, Cristina; Garrabou, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    Extreme events are rare, stochastic perturbations that can cause abrupt and dramatic ecological change within a short period of time relative to the lifespan of organisms. Studies over time provide exceptional opportunities to detect the effects of extreme climatic events and to measure their impacts by quantifying rates of change at population and community levels. In this study, we show how an extreme storm event affected the dynamics of benthic coralligenous outcrops in the NW Mediterranean Sea using data acquired before (2006–2008) and after the impact (2009–2010) at four different sites. Storms of comparable severity have been documented to occur occasionally within periods of 50 years in the Mediterranean Sea. We assessed the effects derived from the storm comparing changes in benthic community composition at sites exposed to and sheltered from this extreme event. The sites analyzed showed different damage from severe to negligible. The most exposed and impacted site experienced a major shift immediately after the storm, represented by changes in the species richness and beta diversity of benthic species. This site also showed higher compositional variability immediately after the storm and over the following year. The loss of cover of benthic species resulted between 22% and 58%. The damage across these species (e.g. calcareous algae, sponges, anthozoans, bryozoans, tunicates) was uneven, and those with fragile forms were the most impacted, showing cover losses up to 50 to 100%. Interestingly, small patches survived after the storm and began to grow slightly during the following year. In contrast, sheltered sites showed no significant changes in all the studied parameters, indicating no variations due to the storm. This study provides new insights into the responses to large and rare extreme events of Mediterranean communities with low dynamics and long-lived species, which are among the most threatened by the effects of global change. PMID:23326496

  4. Tamoxifen and estradiol improved locomotor function and increased spared tissue in rats after spinal cord injury: their antioxidant effect and role of estrogen receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Mosquera, Laurivette; Colón, Jennifer M; Santiago, José M; Torrado, Aranza I; Meléndez, Margarita; Segarra, Annabell C; Rodríguez-Orengo, José F; Miranda, Jorge D

    2014-05-01

    17β-Estradiol is a multi-active steroid that imparts neuroprotection via diverse mechanisms of action. However, its role as a neuroprotective agent after spinal cord injury (SCI), or the involvement of the estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α) in locomotor recovery, is still a subject of much debate. In this study, we evaluated the effects of estradiol and of Tamoxifen (an estrogen receptor mixed agonist/antagonist) on locomotor recovery following SCI. To control estradiol cyclical variability, ovariectomized female rats received empty or estradiol filled implants, prior to a moderate contusion to the spinal cord. Estradiol improved locomotor function at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post injury (DPI), when compared to control groups (measured with the BBB open field test). This effect was ER-α mediated, because functional recovery was blocked with an ER-α antagonist. We also observed that ER-α was up-regulated after SCI. Long-term treatment (28 DPI) with estradiol and Tamoxifen reduced the extent of the lesion cavity, an effect also mediated by ER-α. The antioxidant effects of estradiol were seen acutely at 2 DPI but not at 28 DPI, and this acute effect was not receptor mediated. Rats treated with Tamoxifen recovered some locomotor activity at 21 and 28 DPI, which could be related to the antioxidant protection seen at these time points. These results show that estradiol improves functional outcome, and these protective effects are mediated by the ER-α dependent and independent-mechanisms. Tamoxifen׳s effects during late stages of SCI support the use of this drug as a long-term alternative treatment for this condition.

  5. Dramatic response of follicular thyroid carcinoma with superior vena cava syndrome and tracheal obstruction to external-beam radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wilford, M.R.; Chertow, B.S.; Lepanto, P.B.; Leidy, J.W. Jr. )

    1991-06-01

    We report a patient with follicular thyroid carcinoma progressing to superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome and tracheal obstruction despite multiple doses of radioactive iodine therapy but subsequently responding dramatically to external-beam radiotherapy (RT). Although RT is not considered to be the treatment of choice for follicular carcinoma, RT in our patient produced unequivocal improvement of SVC syndrome and tracheal obstruction.

  6. Chrysin, a PPAR-γ agonist improves myocardial injury in diabetic rats through inhibiting AGE-RAGE mediated oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Rani, Neha; Bharti, Saurabh; Bhatia, Jagriti; Nag, T C; Ray, Ruma; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2016-04-25

    AGE-RAGE interaction mediated oxidative stress and inflammation is the key mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in diabetes. Inhibition of AGE-RAGE axis by several PPAR-γ agonists has shown positive results in ameliorating cardio-metabolic disease conditions. Chrysin, a natural flavonoid has shown to possess PPAR-γ agonist activity along with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chrysin in isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury in diabetic rats. In male albino Wistar rats, diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (70 mg/kg, i.p.). After confirmation of the diabetes, rats were treated with vehicle (1.5 mL/kg, p.o.), chrysin (60 mg/kg, p.o.) or PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (1 mg/kg, i.p.) for 28 days. Simultaneously, on 27th and 28th day myocardial injury was induced by isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, s.c.). Chrysin significantly ameliorated cardiac dysfunction as reflected by improved MAP, ±LVdP/dtmax and LVEDP in diabetic rats. This improvement was associated with increased PPAR-γ expression and reduced RAGE expression in diabetic rats. Chrysin significantly decreased inflammation through inhibiting NF-κBp65/IKK-β expression and TNF-α level. Additionally, chrysin significantly reduced apoptosis as indicated by augmented Bcl-2 expression and decreased Bax and caspase-3 expressions. Furthermore, chrysin inhibited nitro-oxidative stress by normalizing the alteration in 8-OHdG, GSH, TBARS, NO and CAT levels and Nox4, MnSOD, eNOS and NT expressions. Co-administration of GW9662 significantly blunted the chrysin mediated cardioprotective effect as there was increase in oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis markers. Chrysin significantly ameliorated isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury in diabetic rats via PPAR-γ activation and inhibition of AGE-RAGE mediated oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:26972669

  7. Pancreatic injury.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasim; Vernick, Jerome J

    2009-12-01

    Injury to the pancreas, because of its retroperitoneal location, is a rare occurrence, most commonly seen with penetrating injuries (gun shot or stab wounds). Blunt trauma to the pancreas accounts for only 25% of the cases. Pancreatic injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality due to accompanying vascular and duodenal injuries. Pancreatic injuries are not always easy to diagnose resulting in life threatening complications. Physical examination as well as serum amylase is not diagnostic following blunt trauma. Computed tomography (CT) scan can delineate the injury or transaction of the pancreas. Endoscopic retrograde pancreaticography (ERCP) is the main diagnostic modality for evaluation of the main pancreatic duct. Unrecognized ductal injury leads to pancreatic pseudocyst, fistula, abscess, and other complications. Management depends upon the severity of the pancreatic injury as well as associated injuries. Damage control surgery in hemodynamic unstable patients reduces morbidity and mortality.

  8. Snowboard injuries.

    PubMed

    Pino, E C; Colville, M R

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective survey of 267 snowboarders was undertaken to determine the population at risk and types and mechanisms of injuries sustained in this sport. Snowboarders are young (average age, 21 years), male (greater than 90%), view themselves in average or above average physical condition (96%), and have varied sports interests. One hundred ten injuries that resulted in a physician visit were reported. Ligament sprains, fractures, and contusions were the most frequent types of injury. Fifty percent of all injuries occurred in the lower extremities, with ankle injuries being the most common. Snowboard riders using equipment with increased ankle support seem to be more protected from lower extremity injuries. The lower extremity injuries were concentrated in the forward limb of the snowboarder, where the rider's weight is disproportionately distributed. Differences in the mechanism and spectrum of injury between snowboarding and skiing injuries were noted, including: impact rather than torsion as the major mechanism of injury, a significant lack of thumb injuries, comparative increase in ankle injuries, a decrease in knee injuries, and a higher percentage of upper extremity injuries.

  9. Liven up Your Student Dramatics with Commedia dell' Arte.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Jonathan

    1980-01-01

    Suggests using the ancient Commedia dell' Arte technique of establishing characters and a plot and then allowing the actors to create their own play. Indicates that this improves student performances even in more traditional plays. (TJ)

  10. CD47 Blockade Reduces Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Improves Survival in a Rat Liver Transplantation Model

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jianluo; Manning, Pamela T.; Hiebsch, Ronald R.; Gunasekaran, Muthukumar; Upadhya, Gundumi A.; Frazier, William A.; Mohanakumar, Thalachallour; Lin, Yiing; Chapman, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) remains the standard treatment option for nonresponsive liver failure. Because ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is an important impediment to the success of OLT, new therapeutic strategies are needed to reduce IRI. We investigated whether blocking the CD47/thrombospondin-1 inhibitory action on nitric oxide signaling with a monoclonal antibody specific to CD47 (CD47mAb400) would reduce IRI in liver grafts. Syngeneic OLT was performed with Lewis rats. Control immunoglobulin G or CD47mAb400 was administered to the donor organ at procurement or to both the organ and the recipient at the time of transplant. Serum transaminases, histological changes of the liver, and animal survival were assessed. Oxidative stress, inflammatory responses, and hepatocellular damage were also quantified. A significant survival benefit was not achieved when CD47mAb400 was administered to the donor alone. However, CD47mAb400 administration to both the donor and the recipient increased animal survival afterward. The CD47mAb400-treated group showed lower serum transaminases, bilirubin, oxidative stress, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling staining, caspase-3 activity, and proinflammatory cytokine expression of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6. Thus, CD47 blockade with CD47mAb400 administered both to the donor and the recipient reduced liver graft IRI in a rat liver transplantation model. This may translate to decreased liver dysfunction and increased survival of liver transplant recipients. PMID:25482981

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells improve locomotor recovery in traumatic spinal cord injury: systematic review with meta-analyses of rat models.

    PubMed

    Oliveri, Roberto S; Bello, Segun; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2014-02-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event with huge personal and societal costs. A limited number of treatments exist to ameliorate the progressive secondary damage that rapidly follows the primary mechanical impact. Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSCs) have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects and may thus reduce secondary damage after administration. We performed a systematic review with quantitative syntheses to assess the evidence of MSCs versus controls for locomotor recovery in rat models of traumatic SCI, and identified 83 eligible controlled studies comprising a total of 1,568 rats. Between-study heterogeneity was large. Fifty-three studies (64%) were reported as randomised, but only four reported adequate methodologies for randomisation. Forty-eight studies (58%) reported the use of a blinded outcome assessment. A random-effects meta-analysis yielded a difference in behavioural Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor score means of 3.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2 to 4.7; P<0.001) in favour of MSCs. Trial sequential analysis confirmed the findings of the meta-analyses with the upper monitoring boundary for benefit being crossed by the cumulative Z-curve before reaching the diversity-adjusted required information size. Only time from intervention to last follow-up remained statistically significant after adjustment using multivariate random-effects meta-regression modelling. Lack of other demonstrable explanatory variables could be due to insufficient meta-analytic study power. MSCs would seem to demonstrate a substantial beneficial effect on locomotor recovery in a widely-used animal model of traumatic SCI. However, the animal results should be interpreted with caution concerning the internal and external validity of the studies in relation to the design of future clinical trials.

  12. GM1 improves neurofascin155 association with lipid rafts and prevents rat brain myelin injury after hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y P; Huang, Q L; Zhao, C M; Tang, J L; Wang, Y L

    2011-06-01

    White matter injury characterized by damage to myelin is an important process in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). Because the oligodendrocyte-specific isoform of neurofascin, neurofascin 155 (NF155), and its association with lipid rafts are essential for the establishment and stabilization of the paranodal junction, which is required for tight interaction between myelin and axons, we analyzed the effect of monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside (GM1) on NF155 expression and its association with lipid rafts after HIBD in Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 12-15 g, on day 7 post-partum (P7; N = 20 per group). HIBD was induced on P7 and the rats were divided into two groups: one group received an intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg GM1 three times and the other group an injection of saline. There was also a group of 20 sham-operated rats. After sacrifice, the brains of the rats were removed on P30 and studied by immunochemistry, SDS-PAGE, Western blot analysis, and electron microscopy. Staining showed that the saline group had definite rarefaction and fragmentation of brain myelin sheaths, whereas the GM1 group had no obvious structural changes. The GM1 group had 1.9-2.9-fold more GM1 in lipid rafts than the saline group (fraction 3-6; all P < 0.05) and 0.5-2.4-fold higher expression of NF155 in lipid rafts (fraction 3-5; all P < 0.05). Injection of GM1 increased the content of GM1 in lipid rafts as well as NF155 expression and its lipid raft association in HIBD rat brains. GM1 may repair the structure of lipid rafts, promote the association of NF155 (or other important proteins) with lipid rafts, stabilize the structure of paranodes, and eventually prevent myelin sheath damage, suggesting a novel mechanism for its neuroprotective properties.

  13. Basketball injuries.

    PubMed

    Newman, Joel S; Newberg, Arthur H

    2010-11-01

    Basketball injuries are most prevalent in the lower extremity, especially at the ankle and knee. Most basketball injuries are orthopedic in nature and commonly include ligament sprains, musculotendinous strains, and overuse injuries including stress fractures. By virtue of its excellent contrast resolution and depiction of the soft tissues and trabecular bone, magnetic resonance imaging has become the principal modality for evaluating many basketball injuries. In this article, commonly encountered basketball injuries and their imaging appearances are described. The epidemiology of basketball injuries across various age groups and levels of competition and between genders are reviewed.

  14. Implementation of a Shoulder Soft Tissue Injury Triage Service in a UK NHS Teaching Hospital Improves Time to Surgery for Acute Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Marcus; Davies-Jones, Gareth; Tambe, Amol; Clark, David I

    2016-01-01

    others. 7 missed fractures were identified. 12 patients subsequently underwent rotator cuff repair surgery, 10 GHJ stabilisation, and 1 ACJ stabilisation. Mean referral time to first clinical assessment improved from 37 days to 8 days. For rotator cuff repair: mean referral to surgery time was 86 days compared with 115 days on the old pathway. 58% of patients underwent surgery within 90 days of injury compared with 20% previously. Our new service resulted in surgical repair of traumatic rotator cuff tears 29 days faster than the traditional system with an extra 38% of patients having surgery within 90 days of injury - a benchmark thought to improve outcome. Future work will aim to improve this percentage further and include long term patient follow up of outcome measures after surgery. PMID:27335643

  15. Gait rehabilitation with a high tech platform based on virtual reality conveys improvements in walking ability of children suffering from acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Biffi, E; Beretta, E; Diella, E; Panzeri, D; Maghini, C; Turconi, A C; Strazzer, S; Reni, G

    2015-01-01

    The Gait Real-time Analysis Interactive Lab (GRAIL) is an instrumented multi-sensor platform based on immersive virtual reality for gait training and rehabilitation. Few studies have been included GRAIL to evaluate gait patterns in normal and disabled people and to improve gait in adults, while at our knowledge no evidence on its use for the rehabilitation of children is available. In this study, 4 children suffering from acquired brain injury (ABI) underwent a 5 session treatment with GRAIL, to improve walking and balance ability in engaging VR environments. The first and the last sessions were partially dedicated to gait evaluation. Results are promising: improvements were recorded at the ankle level, selectively at the affected side, and at the pelvic level, while small changes were measured at the hip and knee joints, which were already comparable to healthy subjects. All these changes also conveyed advances in the symmetry of the walking pattern. In the next future, a longer intervention will be proposed and more children will be enrolled to strongly prove the effectiveness of GRAIL in the rehabilitation of children with ABI.

  16. A season of football injuries.

    PubMed

    Stokes, M A; McKeever, J A; McQuillan, R F; O'Higgins, N J

    1994-06-01

    All rugby and soccer players presenting to the Accident & Emergency department during the football season 1992-1993 (a total of 871) were prospectively studied to compare the injuries sustained in the two sports. The nature and site of injury, treatment required, age, fitness, experience and position of the player, situation giving rise to injury, and medical attention at the grounds were all analysed. The results show that rugby and soccer players had the same number of injuries, and while there were some differences in the nature of the injuries, there was no difference in overall severity. Rugby flankers and soccer goalkeepers are particularly at risk. Competitive matches produce more injuries than training sessions. Experience or fitness did not appear to be a factor and 45% of rugby injuries and 15% of soccer injuries were from school matches. Law changes (e.g. the rugby scrum and the use of gum-shields) have reduced some injuries, but other areas (e.g. jumping for the ball in soccer, rucks and mauls in rugby) also warrant consideration. There was one death, but no spinal cord injuries. Medical attention at the grounds was limited. Rugby injuries, therefore, do not appear to be more numerous or severe than soccer injuries. Law changes have been of benefit but they need to be enforced and perhaps more should be considered. Medical attention at sports grounds could be improved and Registers of injuries kept by the sporting bodies would be of benefit. PMID:8050871

  17. Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) Improves Motor Recovery in the Rat Impactor Model for Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dittgen, Tanjew; Pitzer, Claudia; Plaas, Christian; Kirsch, Friederike; Vogt, Gerhard; Laage, Rico; Schneider, Armin

    2012-01-01

    Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) improves outcome after experimental SCI by counteracting apoptosis, and enhancing connectivity in the injured spinal cord. Previously we have employed the mouse hemisection SCI model and studied motor function after subcutaneous or transgenic delivery of the protein. To further broaden confidence in animal efficacy data we sought to determine efficacy in a different model and a different species. Here we investigated the effects of G-CSF in Wistar rats using the New York University Impactor. In this model, corroborating our previous data, rats treated subcutaneously with G-CSF over 2 weeks show significant improvement of motor function. PMID:22253813

  18. Skateboard injuries.

    PubMed

    Cass, D T; Ross, F

    1990-08-01

    The recent increase in skateboard injuries is causing concern. Over a 30-month period there were 80 admissions (69 children) to Westmead Hospital because of skateboard injuries. Among children most injuries were minor, involving fractures to the upper limbs (47) or minor head injuries (8). The only serious injuries were a ruptured urethra and a closed head injury. Over the same time period skateboard riding caused five deaths in New South Wales. These all involved head injuries and in four instances collisions with cars. The data strongly support other studies that show skateboard riding is particularly dangerous near traffic and should be proscribed. However, in parkland and around the home the skateboard is an enjoyable toy with an acceptable risk of minor injury. Helmets should be worn and would have prevented all the head injury admissions in this series. Children under 10 have a higher risk of fractures and head injuries due to insufficient motor development to control the boards and the resultant falls. Skateboard injuries are an example of injuries caused by a "fad epidemic". To cope with these types of periodic events up-to-date data collection is needed, followed rapidly by an intervention programme so that serious injuries can be kept to a minimum.

  19. Improvement of Mercuric Chloride-Induced Testis Injuries and Sperm Quality Deteriorations by Spirulina platensis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Desoky, Gaber E.; Bashandy, Samir A.; Alhazza, Ibrahim M.; Al-Othman, Zeid A.; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A. M.; Yusuf, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    -induced testicular injuries and suggest some therapeutic potential in mammals. Further investigation of therapeutic strategies employing Spirulina against heavy metals toxicity in humans is therefore warranted. PMID:23555627

  20. Corneal injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... as sand or dust Ultraviolet injuries: Caused by sunlight, sun lamps, snow or water reflections, or arc- ... a corneal injury if you: Are exposed to sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light for long periods of ...

  1. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

  2. Spinal injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... head. Alternative Names Spinal cord injury; SCI Images Skeletal spine Vertebra, cervical (neck) Vertebra, lumbar (low back) Vertebra, thoracic (mid back) Vertebral column Central nervous system Spinal cord injury Spinal anatomy Two person roll - ...

  3. Blockage of the Upregulation of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Nav1.3 Improves Outcomes after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xian-jian; Li, Wei-ping; Lin, Yong; Feng, Jun-feng; Jia, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Excessive active voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for the cellular abnormalities associated with secondary brain injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI). We previously presented evidence that significant upregulation of Nav1.3 expression occurs in the rat cortex at 2 h and 12 h post-TBI and is correlated with TBI severity. In our current study, we tested the hypothesis that blocking upregulation of Nav1.3 expression in vivo in the acute stage post-TBI attenuates the secondary brain injury associated with TBI. We administered either antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) targeting Nav1.3 or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, and 8 h following TBI. Control sham animals received aCSF administration at the same time points. At 12 h post-TBI, Nav1.3 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels in bilateral hippocampi of the aCSF group were significantly elevated, compared with the sham and ODN groups (p<0.01). However, the Nav1.3 mRNA levels in the uninjured contralateral hippocampus of the ODN group were significantly lowered, compared with the sham group (p<0.01). Treatment with antisense ODN significantly decreased the number of degenerating neurons in the ipsilateral hippocampal CA3 and hilar region (p<0.01). A set of left-to-right ratio value analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging T2 image on one day, three days, and seven days post-TBI showed marked edema in the ipsilateral hemisphere of the aCSF group, compared with that of the ODN group (p<0.05). The Morris water maze memory retention test showed that both the aCSF and ODN groups took longer to find a hidden platform, compared with the sham group (p<0.01). However, latency in the aCSF group was significantly higher than in the ODN group (p<0.05). Our in vivo Nav1.3 inhibition studies suggest that therapeutic strategies to block upregulation of Nav1.3 expression in the brain may improve outcomes following TBI. PMID:24313291

  4. α-Lipoic acid attenuates LPS-induced liver injury by improving mitochondrial function in association with GR mitochondrial DNA occupancy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiqing; Guo, Jun; Sun, Hailin; Huang, Yanping; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2015-09-01

    α-Lipoic acid (LA) has been demonstrated to be a key regulator of energy metabolism. However, whether LA can protect the liver from inflammation, as well as the underlying mechanism involved, are still largely unclear. In the present study, mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and injected with LA were used as a model. Liver injury, energy metabolism and mitochondrial regulation were investigated to assess the protective effect of LA on the liver and explore the possible mechanisms involved. Our results showed that LA attenuated liver injury, as evidenced by the decreased plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels after LA treatment compared with the LPS-treated group. The hepatic ATP and NADH levels, expression levels of most mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded genes as well as mitochondrial complex I, IV and V activities were all significantly increased in the LA-treated group compared with the LPS-treated group. Levels of Sirt3 protein, which is essential for the regulation of mitochondrial metabolism, were also increased in the LA-treated group. Regarding the regulation of mtDNA-encoded genes expression, we observed no obvious change in the methylation status of the mtDNA D-loop region. However, compared to the LPS-treated group, LA treatment increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein expression in the liver, as well as the level of GR occupancy on the mtDNA D-loop region. Our study demonstrates that LA exerts a liver-protective effect in an inflammation state by improving mitochondrial function. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time that GR may be involved in this effect via an enhanced binding to the mtDNA transcriptional control region, thereby regulating the expression of mtDNA-encoded genes. PMID:26133658

  5. Acute kidney injury: changing lexicography, definitions, and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Himmelfarb, J; Ikizler, T A

    2007-05-01

    In recent years, there have been numerous advances in understanding the molecular determinants of functional kidney injury after ischemic and/or toxic exposure. However, translation of successful novel therapies designed to attenuate kidney functional injury from animal models to the clinical sphere has had modest results. This lack of translatability is at least in part due to lack of sufficient standardization in definitions and classification of cases of acute kidney injury (AKI), an incomplete understanding of the natural history of human AKI, and a limited understanding of how kidney injury interacts with other organ system failure in the context of systemic metabolic abnormalities. A concerted effort is now being made by nephrologists and intensivists to arrive at standardized terminology and classification of AKI. There have also been dramatic advances in our understanding of the epidemiology and natural history of AKI, particularly in the hospital and intensive care unit setting. Promising strategies are now being developed which may ultimately lead to improved outcomes for patients at risk for or who have developed AKI, which should be readily testable in the coming decade.

  6. Integrated System Dramatically Improves Hydrogen Molar Yield from Biomass via Fermentation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in fermentative and electrohydrogenic production of hydrogen from corn stover. Work was performed by NREL's Biosciences Center and Pennsylvania State University.

  7. Accuracy of Numerical Simulations of Tip Clearance Flow in Transonic Compressor Rotors Improved Dramatically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale E.; Strazisar, Anthony J.; Wood, Jerry R.; Hathaway, Michael D.; Okiishi, Theodore H.

    2000-01-01

    The tip clearance flows of transonic compressor rotors have a significant impact on rotor and stage performance. Although numerical simulations of these flows are quite sophisticated, they are seldom verified through rigorous comparisons of numerical and measured data because, in high-speed machines, measurements acquired in sufficient detail to be useful are rare. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field compared measured tip clearance flow details (e.g., trajectory and radial extent) of the NASA Rotor 35 with results obtained from a numerical simulation. Previous investigations had focused on capturing the detailed development of the jetlike flow leaking through the clearance gap between the rotating blade tip and the stationary compressor shroud. However, we discovered that the simulation accuracy depends primarily on capturing the detailed development of a wall-bounded shear layer formed by the relative motion between the leakage jet and the shroud.

  8. Dramatic improvements in viral inactivation with brominated psoralens, naphthalenes and anthracenes.

    PubMed

    Rai, S; Kasturi, C; Grayzar, J; Platz, M S; Goodrich, R P; Yerram, N R; Wong, V; Tay-Goodrich, B H

    1993-07-01

    Amino or polyamino derivatives of naphthalene (N-H), anthracene (A-H) and 8-alkoxypsoralen (PSR-H) were prepared along with their monobrominated analogs (N-Br, A-Br and PSR-Br). The ammonium salts of these compounds are all water soluble and bind strongly to calf thymus DNA and to lambda phage, a double-helical DNA, protein-coated virus. Binding of the sensitizer to DNA occurs, presumably by a mixture of hydrophobic, intercalative and electrostatic interactions. Relative binding constants to calf thymus DNA and to lambda phage were measured by the ethidium bromide fluorescence quenching assay. In general the brominated analogs bind more tightly to calf thymus DNA and to the virus than to the nonhalogenated analogs. It is demonstrated that the brominated aromatics are much more effective at inactivating lambda phage upon photoactivation (lambda approximately 310 or 350 nm) than are their nonbrominated analogs. At identical sensitizer concentrations (by weight) and light flux N-Br, A-Br, and PSR-Br produce 5-6 more logs of viral inactivation than their nonbrominated counterparts (N-H, A-H and PSR-H, respectively). The bromine effect may originate from light-induced electron transfer and subsequent cleavage of the C-Br bond of the sensitizer radical anion bonds to form aryl radicals. Singlet oxygen cannot be responsible for the viral inactivation because the brominated sensitizers are equally effective in the presence and absence of oxygen. Dithiothreitol does not protect lambda phage from light-induced inactivation by the brominated sensitizer thereby demonstrating that the photogenerated reactive intermediates responsible for the effect are complexed to the virus and are not generated free in solution. PMID:8378434

  9. President Obama and Education: The Possibility for Dramatic Improvements in Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2009-01-01

    From the unique perspective gained heading Obama's education policy transition team, Darling-Hammond describes President Obama's commitment to making the education of every child a collective responsibility and reviews the major tenets of the new administration's plans for education. She reflects on the importance of suggested policy changes,…

  10. Celastrol, an NF-κB Inhibitor, Improves Insulin Resistance and Attenuates Renal Injury in db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Eun; Lee, Mi Hwa; Nam, Deok Hwa; Song, Hye Kyoung; Kang, Young Sun; Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Hyun Wook; Cha, Jin Joo; Hyun, Young Youl; Han, Sang Youb; Han, Kum Hyun; Han, Jee Young; Cha, Dae Ryong

    2013-01-01

    The NF-κB pathway plays an important role in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recently, NF-κB has also been suggested as an important mechanism linking obesity, inflammation, and metabolic disorders. However, there is no current evidence regarding the mechanism of action of NF-κB inhibition in insulin resistance and diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetic animal models. We investigated the effects of the NF-κB inhibitor celastrol in db/db mice. The treatment with celastrol for 2 months significantly lowered fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1C and homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR) levels. Celastrol also exhibited significant decreases in body weight, kidney/body weight and adiposity. Celastrol reduced insulin resistance and lipid abnormalities and led to higher plasma adiponectin levels. Celastrol treatment also significantly mitigated lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in organs including the kidney, liver and adipose tissue. The treated group also exhibited significantly lower creatinine levels and urinary albumin excretion was markedly reduced. Celastrol treatment significantly lowered mesangial expansion and suppressed type IV collagen, PAI-1 and TGFβ1 expressions in renal tissues. Celastrol also improved abnormal lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine activity in the kidney. In cultured podocytes, celastrol treatment abolished saturated fatty acid-induced proinflammatory cytokine synthesis. Taken together, celastrol treatment not only improved insulin resistance, glycemic control and oxidative stress, but also improved renal functional and structural changes through both metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects in the kidney. These results suggest that targeted therapy for NF-κB may be a useful new therapeutic approach for the management of type II diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23637966

  11. Energetic-Energetic Cocrystals of Diacetone Diperoxide (DADP): Dramatic and Divergent Sensitivity Modifications via Cocrystallization.

    PubMed

    Landenberger, Kira B; Bolton, Onas; Matzger, Adam J

    2015-04-22

    Here we report a series of energetic-energetic cocrystals that incorporate the primary explosive diacetone diperoxide (DADP) with a series of trihalotrinitrobenzene explosives: 1:1 DADP/1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TCTNB), 1:1 DADP/1,3,5-tribromo-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TBTNB), and 1:1 DADP/1,3,5-triiodo-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TITNB). Acetone peroxides are attractive for their inexpensive and facile synthesis, but undesirable properties such as poor stability, intractably high sensitivity and low density, an indicator for low explosive power, have limited their application. Here through cocrystallization the density, oxygen balance, and stability of DADP are dramatically improved. Regarding sensitivity, in the case of the DADP/TCTNB cocrystal, the high impact sensitivity of DADP is retained by the cocrystal, making it a denser and less volatile form of DADP that remains viable as a primary explosive. Conversely, the DADP/TITNB cocrystal features impact sensitivity that is greatly reduced relative to both pure DADP and pure TITNB, demonstrating for the first time an energetic cocrystal that is less sensitive to impact than either of its pure components. This dramatic difference in cocrystal sensitivities may stem from the significantly different halogen-peroxide interactions seen in each cocrystal structure. These results highlight how sensitivity is defined by complex relationships between inherent bond strengths and solid-state properties, and cocrystal series such as that presented here provide a powerful experimental platform to probe this relationship.

  12. Nanosecond pulsed platelet-rich plasma (nsPRP) improves mechanical and electrical cardiac function following myocardial reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Hargrave, Barbara; Varghese, Frency; Barabutis, Nektarios; Catravas, John; Zemlin, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) of the heart is associated with biochemical and ionic changes that result in cardiac contractile and electrical dysfunction. In rabbits, platelet-rich plasma activated using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPRP) has been shown to improve left ventricular pumping. Here, we demonstrate that nsPRP causes a similar improvement in mouse left ventricular function. We also show that nsPRP injection recovers electrical activity even before reperfusion begins. To uncover the mechanism of nsPRP action, we studied whether the enhanced left ventricular function in nsPRP rabbit and mouse hearts was associated with increased expression of heat-shock proteins and altered mitochondrial function under conditions of oxidative stress. Mouse hearts underwent 30 min of global ischemia and 1 h of reperfusion in situ. Rabbit hearts underwent 30 min of ischemia in vivo and were reperfused for 14 days. Hearts treated with nsPRP expressed significantly higher levels of Hsp27 and Hsp70 compared to hearts treated with vehicle. Also, pretreatment of cultured H9c2 cells with nsPRP significantly enhanced the "spare respiratory capacity (SRC)" also referred to as "respiratory reserve capacity" and ATP production in response to the uncoupler FCCP. These results suggest a cardioprotective effect of nsPRP on the ischemic heart during reperfusion. PMID:26908713

  13. Head injury.

    PubMed

    Hureibi, K A; McLatchie, G R

    2010-05-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest injuries in sport. Most are mild but some can have serious outcomes. Sports medicine doctors should be able to recognise the clinical features and evaluate athletes with head injury. It is necessary during field assessment to recognise signs and symptoms that help in assessing the severity of injury and making a decision to return-to-play. Prevention of primary head injury should be the aim. This includes protective equipment like helmets and possible rule changes. PMID:20533694

  14. Synthesis and characterization of novel indole derivatives reveal improved therapeutic agents for treatment of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wei; Bi, Yue; Xue, Ping; Zhang, Yanrong; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Zhibo; Li, Meng; Baudy-Floc'h, Michèle; Ngerebara, Nathaniel; Gibson, K Michael; Bi, Lanrong

    2010-09-23

    To develop more potent therapeutic agents with therapeutic efficacy for ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, we linked an antiinflammatory moiety (1,3-dioxane derivative) to the key pharmacophoric moiety of melatonin. We hypothesized that the resulting new indole derivatives might induce a synergistic protection against oxidative damage associated with I/R injury. Our results indicate that one of these indole derivatives (7) manifests potent antiinflammatory antioxidant effects and exerts a protective effect against skeletal muscle injury and associated lung injury following limb I/R in rats. PMID:20731361

  15. Bicycling injuries.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Marc R

    2013-01-01

    Bicycling injuries can be classified into bicycle contact, traumatic, and overuse injuries. Despite the popularity of cycling, there are few scientific studies regarding injuries. Epidemiological studies are difficult to compare due to different methodologies and the diverse population of cyclists studied. There are only three studies conducted on top level professionals. Ninety-four percent of professionals in 1 year have experienced at least one overuse injury. Most overuse injuries are mild with limited time off the bike. The most common site of overuse injury is the knee, and the most common site of traumatic injury is the shoulder, with the clavicle having the most common fracture. Many overuse and bicycle contact ailments are relieved with simple bike adjustments.

  16. Improvement of attention span and reaction time with hyperbaric oxygen treatment in patients with toxic injury due to mold exposure.

    PubMed

    Ezra, N; Dang, K; Heuser, G

    2011-01-01

    It is, by now, well established that mold toxins (mycotoxins) can cause significant adverse health effects. In this study, 15 subjects who developed an attention deficit disorder (ADD) and slowing of reaction time at the time of exposure to mold toxins were identified. Deficits in attention span and reaction time were documented not only by taking a careful history, but also by performing a Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). The TOVA test provides an objective measure of these two variables. It was found that mold-exposed subjects show statistically significant decreases in attention span and significant increases in reaction time to stimuli compared to controls. After ten sessions of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT), a statistically significant improvement was seen in both measures. This preliminary study suggests promising outcomes in treating mold-exposed patients with hyperbaric oxygen.

  17. Improvement of attention span and reaction time with hyperbaric oxygen treatment in patients with toxic injury due to mold exposure

    PubMed Central

    Ezra, N.; Dang, K.

    2010-01-01

    It is, by now, well established that mold toxins (mycotoxins) can cause significant adverse health effects. In this study, 15 subjects who developed an attention deficit disorder (ADD) and slowing of reaction time at the time of exposure to mold toxins were identified. Deficits in attention span and reaction time were documented not only by taking a careful history, but also by performing a Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). The TOVA test provides an objective measure of these two variables. It was found that mold-exposed subjects show statistically significant decreases in attention span and significant increases in reaction time to stimuli compared to controls. After ten sessions of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT), a statistically significant improvement was seen in both measures. This preliminary study suggests promising outcomes in treating mold-exposed patients with hyperbaric oxygen. PMID:20978814

  18. Intravenous implanted neural stem cells migrate to injury site, reduce infarct volume, and improve behavior after cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chiung-Chyi; Lin, Chen-Huan; Yang, Yi-Chin; Chiao, Ming-Tsang; Cheng, Wen-Yu; Ko, Jiunn-Liang

    2010-08-01

    Stroke represents one of the leading causes of death and disability in humans, but despite intense research, only a few options exist for the treatment of stroke-related infarction of brain tissue. Thus far, in experimental strokes, cell therapy appears to partly reverse some behavioral deficits. However, the mechanisms of action remain uncertain as most studies reveal only little, if any, evidence for neuronal replacement and observed behavioral improvements. This present study was performed to test rodent fetus forebrain derived neural stem cells (NSCs) implantation into rats subjected to suture-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Efficacy of cell therapy was studied regarding behavior recovery, infarct volume, and protection possibility of related molecular mechanisms. Here, we show that grafted cells can home in on damaged regions by MCAO and significantly improve behavior of ischemic rats. Infarct volumes and brain atrophy were diminished after grafted NSCs treatment. Furthermore, we detected inflammation related molecules such as COX-2 and IL-1beta and found that grafted NSCs treatment after ischemic stroke could repress expression of inflammation molecular protein levels. We also detected protein levels of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) as a protective protein against apoptosis. The results showed that grafted NSCs treatment induced the protein level of HSP27 and down-regulated activity of caspase-3 compared with the vehicle control. Our results demonstrate that transplanted NSCs provide benefits in behavioral function recovery after MCAO and increase neuroprotection whilst repressing inflammatory destruction. These data reveal another essential explanation of cellular transplantation therapy in damage recovery from ischemic stroke and offer new therapeutic possibilities. PMID:20560882

  19. World-Wide Effort Produces Dramatic "Movie" of Cosmic Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    Astronomers using a world-wide collection of radio telescopes, including the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), have made a dramatic "movie" of a voracious, superdense neutron star repeatedly spitting out subatomic particles at nearly the speed of light into two narrow jets as it pulls material from a companion star. The movie shows these jets ejecting clouds of hot plasma that are then "zapped" by pulses of energy in the jets as they move away from the neutron star. Frame from Radio-Telescope 'Movie' of Scorpius X-1 "We have directly measured the speed of energy flow in a cosmic jet for the first time," said Ed Fomalont, an astronomer at the NRAO in Charlottesville, Virginia. Fomalont worked with Barry Geldzahler and Charles Bradshaw of George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. The astronomers used the VLBA, the NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) and the Green Bank 140-foot telescope, along with radio telescopes from the European VLBI Network, Australia, Japan and South Africa to record the double-star system's eruptions continuously for 56 hours. "This study is going to be extremely valuable in helping us understand a phenomenon that we see throughout the universe," Fomalont said. Cosmic jets of superfast particles are ejected from the cores of numerous galaxies. On a smaller scale, similar jets are ejected from binary-star systems closer to home, in our own Milky Way Galaxy. While the jets from galaxy cores are thought to be powered by supermassive black holes millions of times more massive than the Sun, the closer "microquasars" are powered by much smaller black holes or by neutron stars only a few times more massive than the sun. "Studying one of the closer, smaller examples will help us understand how they all work, including the bigger ones," Geldzahler said. "The jets coming from distant galaxies are harder to study because of their much greater distance and the slowness of their

  20. Improvement of Neuroenergetics by Hypertonic Lactate Therapy in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Is Dependent on Baseline Cerebral Lactate/Pyruvate Ratio.

    PubMed

    Quintard, Hervé; Patet, Camille; Zerlauth, Jean-Baptiste; Suys, Tamarah; Bouzat, Pierre; Pellerin, Luc; Meuli, Reto; Magistretti, Pierre J; Oddo, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    Energy dysfunction is associated with worse prognosis after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent data suggest that hypertonic sodium lactate infusion (HL) improves energy metabolism after TBI. Here, we specifically examined whether the efficacy of HL (3h infusion, 30-40 μmol/kg/min) in improving brain energetics (using cerebral microdialysis [CMD] glucose as a main therapeutic end-point) was dependent on baseline cerebral metabolic state (assessed by CMD lactate/pyruvate ratio [LPR]) and cerebral blood flow (CBF, measured with perfusion computed tomography [PCT]). Using a prospective cohort of 24 severe TBI patients, we found CMD glucose increase during HL was significant only in the subgroup of patients with elevated CMD LPR >25 (n = 13; +0.13 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.19] mmol/L, p < 0.001; vs. +0.04 [-0.05-0.13] in those with normal LPR, p = 0.33, mixed-effects model). In contrast, CMD glucose increase was independent from baseline CBF (coefficient +0.13 [0.04-0.21] mmol/L when global CBF was <32.5 mL/100 g/min vs. +0.09 [0.04-0.14] mmol/L at normal CBF, both p < 0.005) and systemic glucose. Our data suggest that improvement of brain energetics upon HL seems predominantly dependent on baseline cerebral metabolic state and support the concept that CMD LPR - rather than CBF - could be used as a diagnostic indication for systemic lactate supplementation following TBI.

  1. Restricted Field IMRT Dramatically Enhances IMRT Planning for Mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Aaron M. Schofield, Deborah; Hacker, Fred; Court, Laurence E.; Czerminska, Maria M.S.

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: To improve the target coverage and normal tissue sparing of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for mesothelioma after extrapleural pneumonectomy. Methods and Materials: Thirteen plans from patients previously treated with IMRT for mesothelioma were replanned using a restricted field technique. This technique was novel in two ways. It limited the entrance beams to 200{sup o} around the target and three to four beams per case had their field apertures restricted down to the level of the heart or liver to further limit the contralateral lung dose. New constraints were added that included a mean lung dose of <9.5 Gy and volume receiving {>=}5 Gy of <55%. Results: In all cases, the planning target volume coverage was excellent, with an average of 97% coverage of the planning target volume by the target dose. No change was seen in the target coverage with the new technique. The heart, kidneys, and esophagus were all kept under tolerance in all cases. The average mean lung dose, volume receiving {>=}20 Gy, and volume receiving {>=}5 Gy with the new technique was 6.6 Gy, 3.0%, and 50.8%, respectively, compared with 13.8 Gy, 15%, and 90% with the previous technique (p < 0.0001 for all three comparisons). The maximal value for any case in the cohort was 8.0 Gy, 7.3%, and 57.5% for the mean lung dose, volume receiving {>=}20 Gy, and volume receiving {>=}5 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: Restricted field IMRT provides an improved method to deliver IMRT to a complex target after extrapleural pneumonectomy. An upcoming Phase I trial will provide validation of these results.

  2. Electroacupuncture Treatment Improves Neurological Function Associated with Regulation of Tight Junction Proteins in Rats with Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-min; Xu, Hong; Sun, Hua; Chen, Su-hui; Wang, Fu-ming

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to develop effective neuroprotective therapy to reduce brain damage and related behavioral deficits in stroke patients are of great significance. Electroacupuncture (EA), which derives from traditional Chinese medicine, may be effective as a complementary and alternative method for promoting recovery of neurological function and quality of life. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: (1) sham, (2) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model groups of 2 h MCAO followed by 1, 3, 5, or 7 d of reperfusion, and (3) EA groups of 2 h MCAO followed by 1, 3, 5, or 7 d of reperfusion. EA groups received EA therapy by needling at GV20 and left ST36. The results show that EA therapy improved the neurological function and reduced infarct volume, confirmed by modified neurological severity scores and TTC staining. Real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blot assay verified that EA upregulated the expression of tight junction (TJ) claudin-5, occludin, and zonula occluding-1 from 1 to 7 d after reperfusion. Our findings suggest that EA reduces brain damage and related behavioral deficits via upregulation of the TJ proteins. PMID:25009574

  3. Improvement or simply practice? The effects of twenty repeated assessments on people with and without brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B A; Watson, P C; Baddeley, A D; Emslie, H; Evans, J J

    2000-05-01

    Measuring recovery of function may mean testing the same individual many times, a procedure that is inevitably open to improvement due to learning on the specific tests rather than recovery per se. This is particularly likely to be an issue with measures of memory performance. We therefore studied the performance of normal and brain-injured people across 20 successive test sessions on measures of orientation, simple reaction time, forward and backward digit span, visual and verbal recognition, word list learning and forgetting, and on three semantic memory measures, namely, letter and category fluency and speed of semantic processing. Differences in overall performances between the two groups occurred for all tests other than orientation, digit span forward, and simple reaction time, although the tests differed in their degree of sensitivity. The tests varied in the presence or absence of practice effects and in the extent to which these differed between the two groups. Data are presented that should allow investigators to select measures that are likely to optimize sensitivity while minimizing possible confounding due to practice effects.

  4. Intractable chronic motor tics dramatically respond to Clerodendrum inerme (L) Gaertn.

    PubMed

    Fan, Pi-Chuan; Huang, Wei-Jan; Chiou, Lih-Chu

    2009-07-01

    Tics are characterized by involuntary, sudden, rapid, repetitive, nonrhythmic, stereotyped movements or phonic productions. Those who suffer from either motor or phonic tics, but not both, for more than 1 year are diagnosed with chronic tic disorder. Several pharmacological interventions have been proposed for the treatment of tic disorder. Dopamine D2 receptor blockers and dopamine depletors are thought to be the most effective ones clinically. However, such treatments are suboptimal in terms of effectiveness and side effects, such as body weight gain and extrapyramidal symptoms. We report on a 13-year-old girl, with chronic motor tic disorder refractory to multiple anti-tic therapies, who showed dramatic improvement and remission after taking the crude leaf extract of Clerodendrum inerme (L) Gaertn. No side effects were observed during a follow-up of more than 2 years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-tic effect of Clerodendrum inerme.

  5. Dramatic niche shifts and morphological change in two insular bird species

    PubMed Central

    Alström, Per; Jønsson, Knud A.; Fjeldså, Jon; Ödeen, Anders; Ericson, Per G. P.; Irestedt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Colonizations of islands are often associated with rapid morphological divergence. We present two previously unrecognized cases of dramatic morphological change and niche shifts in connection with colonization of tropical forest-covered islands. These evolutionary changes have concealed the fact that the passerine birds madanga, Madanga ruficollis, from Buru, Indonesia, and São Tomé shorttail, Amaurocichla bocagii, from São Tomé, Gulf of Guinea, are forest-adapted members of the family Motacillidae (pipits and wagtails). We show that Madanga has diverged mainly in plumage, which may be the result of selection for improved camouflage in its new arboreal niche, while selection pressures for other morphological changes have probably been weak owing to preadaptations for the novel niche. By contrast, we suggest that Amaurocichla's niche change has led to divergence in both structure and plumage. PMID:26064613

  6. Dramatic niche shifts and morphological change in two insular bird species.

    PubMed

    Alström, Per; Jønsson, Knud A; Fjeldså, Jon; Ödeen, Anders; Ericson, Per G P; Irestedt, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Colonizations of islands are often associated with rapid morphological divergence. We present two previously unrecognized cases of dramatic morphological change and niche shifts in connection with colonization of tropical forest-covered islands. These evolutionary changes have concealed the fact that the passerine birds madanga, Madanga ruficollis, from Buru, Indonesia, and São Tomé shorttail, Amaurocichla bocagii, from São Tomé, Gulf of Guinea, are forest-adapted members of the family Motacillidae (pipits and wagtails). We show that Madanga has diverged mainly in plumage, which may be the result of selection for improved camouflage in its new arboreal niche, while selection pressures for other morphological changes have probably been weak owing to preadaptations for the novel niche. By contrast, we suggest that Amaurocichla's niche change has led to divergence in both structure and plumage. PMID:26064613

  7. Development of a methodology for the standardisation and improvement of 'Smartphone' photography of patterned bruises and other cutaneous injuries.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Paul R; Evans, Samuel T; Jones, Michael D; Theobald, Peter S

    2013-09-01

    Human bite-mark analyses can play a prominent role in forensic case investigations, including those involving sexual assault. High-quality photographs routinely secure a link between a bite-mark and an individual's dentition. Access to around the clock forensic photography, however, is often limited, resulting in delay and/or missed opportunities to record valuable evidence. The emergence of Smartphone high-quality photographic technology now provides a previously unimagined opportunity to gather timely forensic photographic evidence. Problems can arise, however, due to the relatively poor quality of the photographs, as a result of many of those taking photographs having received little or no forensic photography training. This study compares unassisted photography with assisted photography, by a specifically developed camera application (App), to provide a standardised method for taking forensic photographs. An App, written in Java, was hosted on the Google Android Operating System, on a Samsung Galaxy SII Smartphone. Twenty-four volunteers participated in a study to photograph a pseudo bite-mark using three methods, (1) unassisted (as a control), (2) assisted by an ABFO No.2 right-angled photographic reference scale and (3) assisted by the App. The App, method (3), was shown to consistently outperform methods (1) and (2), demonstrating greater standardisation and precision (p<0.001). Analysis of the data showed the extent to which acquiring an accurate photograph depends on the image being orthogonal to the camera. It appears likely that the relatively inaccurate photographs acquired by methods (1) and (2), were as a result of deviation from the plane, orthogonal to the bite-mark. Therefore, the App was successful in ensuring that the camera was both orthogonal and at an appropriate distance, relative to the bite-mark. Thus, the App enhanced the abilities of non-experts to acquire more accurate photographs and created the potential to significantly improve the

  8. Development of a methodology for the standardisation and improvement of 'Smartphone' photography of patterned bruises and other cutaneous injuries.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Paul R; Evans, Samuel T; Jones, Michael D; Theobald, Peter S

    2013-09-01

    Human bite-mark analyses can play a prominent role in forensic case investigations, including those involving sexual assault. High-quality photographs routinely secure a link between a bite-mark and an individual's dentition. Access to around the clock forensic photography, however, is often limited, resulting in delay and/or missed opportunities to record valuable evidence. The emergence of Smartphone high-quality photographic technology now provides a previously unimagined opportunity to gather timely forensic photographic evidence. Problems can arise, however, due to the relatively poor quality of the photographs, as a result of many of those taking photographs having received little or no forensic photography training. This study compares unassisted photography with assisted photography, by a specifically developed camera application (App), to provide a standardised method for taking forensic photographs. An App, written in Java, was hosted on the Google Android Operating System, on a Samsung Galaxy SII Smartphone. Twenty-four volunteers participated in a study to photograph a pseudo bite-mark using three methods, (1) unassisted (as a control), (2) assisted by an ABFO No.2 right-angled photographic reference scale and (3) assisted by the App. The App, method (3), was shown to consistently outperform methods (1) and (2), demonstrating greater standardisation and precision (p<0.001). Analysis of the data showed the extent to which acquiring an accurate photograph depends on the image being orthogonal to the camera. It appears likely that the relatively inaccurate photographs acquired by methods (1) and (2), were as a result of deviation from the plane, orthogonal to the bite-mark. Therefore, the App was successful in ensuring that the camera was both orthogonal and at an appropriate distance, relative to the bite-mark. Thus, the App enhanced the abilities of non-experts to acquire more accurate photographs and created the potential to significantly improve the

  9. Puerarin Improves Diabetic Aorta Injury by Inhibiting NADPH Oxidase-Derived Oxidative Stress in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenping; Zhao, Wenwen; Wu, Qin; Lu, Yuanfu; Shi, Jingshan; Chen, Xiuping

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Puerarin is a natural flavonoid isolated from the TCM lobed kudzuvine root. This study investigated the effect and mechanisms of puerarin on diabetic aorta in rats. Methods. Streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats were administered with puerarin for 3 weeks. Levels of serum insulin (INS), PGE2, endothelin (ET), glycated hemoglobin (GHb), H2O2, and nitric oxide (NO) in rats were measured by ELISA and colorimetric assay kits. The aortas were stained with H&E. Moreover, the mRNA expression of ICAM-1, LOX-1, NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2), and NOX4 and the protein expression of ICAM-1, LOX-1, NF-κB p65, E-selectin, NOX2, and NOX4 in aorta tissues were measured by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The localization of ICAM-1, NF-κB p65, NOX2, and NOX4 in the aorta tissues was also determined through immunohistochemistry. Results. Puerarin treatment exerted no effect on fasting blood glucose levels but significantly reduced the serum levels of INS, GHb, PGE2, ET, H2O2, and NO. In addition, puerarin improved the pathological alterations and inhibited the expression of ICAM-1, LOX-1, NOX2, and NOX4 at both mRNA and protein levels. Puerarin also significantly reduced the number of cells showing positive staining for ICAM-1, NOX2, NOX4, and NF-κB p65. Conclusion. Puerarin demonstrated protective effect on the STZ-induced diabetic rat aorta. The protective mechanisms may include regulation of NF-κB and inhibition of NOX2 and NOX4 followed by inhibition of cell adhesion molecule expression. PMID:26881260

  10. Combined Administration of Human Ghrelin and Human Growth Hormone Attenuates Organ Injury and Improves Survival in Aged Septic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weng-Lang; Ma, Gaifeng; Zhou, Mian; Aziz, Monowar; Yen, Hao-Ting; Marvropoulos, Spyros A; Ojamaa, Kaie; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is a major healthcare concern, especially in the elderly population. The use of an animal model closely resembling clinical conditions in this population may provide a better prediction in translating bench studies to the bedside. Ghrelin inhibits sympathetic nerve activity and inflammation in young septic animals; however, aged animals become hyporesponsive to ghrelin. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of combined human ghrelin and growth hormone (GH) for sepsis treatment in the elderly utilizing a clinically relevant animal model of sepsis. Male Fischer 344 rats 22 to 24 months old were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Human ghrelin plus GH or vehicle (normal saline) was administered subcutaneously at 5 h after CLP. At 20 h after CLP, blood and tissue samples were collected for various analyses. Combined treatment attenuated serum levels of lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in aged septic rats. The integrity of the microscopic structure in the lungs, liver and kidneys was well preserved after treatment. Expression of IL-6, TNF-α, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine as well as myeloperoxidase activity and caspase-3 activation were significantly reduced in the lungs and liver of treated rats. Moreover, treated rats showed an improvement in cardiovascular function and increased expression of ghrelin receptor and c-fos in the brainstem. Finally, the 10-d survival of aged septic rats was increased from 29% to 64% after combined treatment and was associated with less body weight loss. Our findings warrant the development of combined human ghrelin and GH for sepsis treatment in the geriatric population. PMID:26835699

  11. Dramatic increase in fatigue life in hierarchical graphene composites.

    PubMed

    Yavari, F; Rafiee, M A; Rafiee, J; Yu, Z-Z; Koratkar, N

    2010-10-01

    We report the synthesis and fatigue characterization of fiberglass/epoxy composites with various weight fractions of graphene platelets infiltrated into the epoxy resin as well as directly spray-coated on to the glass microfibers. Remarkably only ∼0.2% (with respect to the epoxy resin weight and ∼0.02% with respect to the entire laminate weight) of graphene additives enhanced the fatigue life of the composite in the flexural bending mode by up to 1200-fold. By contrast, under uniaxial tensile fatigue conditions, the graphene fillers resulted in ∼3-5-fold increase in fatigue life. The fatigue life increase (in the flexural bending mode) with graphene additives was ∼1-2 orders of magnitude superior to those obtained using carbon nanotubes. In situ ultrasound analysis of the nanocomposite during the cyclic fatigue test suggests that the graphene network toughens the fiberglass/epoxy-matrix interface and prevents the delamination/buckling of the glass microfibers under compressive stress. Such fatigue-resistant hierarchical materials show potential to improve the safety, reliability, and cost effectiveness of fiber-reinforced composites that are increasingly the material of choice in the aerospace, automotive, marine, sports, biomedical, and wind energy industries.

  12. PACS implementation dramatically impacts people and radiology work processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouvry, Ann

    1997-05-01

    The technology is not the bottleneck anymore in PACS implementation, it has become clear that the key to the success of PACS is understanding the current process, the end-user requirements, and how these processes will change with the introduction of PACS. We will discuss how implementation of PACS changed the working procedures in the Radiology department of Visby Hospital. Visby Hospital in Gotland, Sweden has approximately 160 beds. The Radiology department performs approximately 33,000 examinations per year and is capable of offering a broad range of diagnostic imaging services including CT and MRI. When a new facility was built in 1994, the decision was made to go for filmless operation and a modern information infrastructure. The new facility went operational by the end of 1994, in August 1995 almost filmless operation was reached. Continuing effort and attention is being paid to further simplify the workflow and working procedures in the Radiology department, and to improve the services offered to referring physicians. Although the project aimed at filmless operation, the main goal was to organize for efficient operation and excellent service, thereby maintaining high quality standards and employee satisfaction.

  13. Female Rats Demonstrate Improved Locomotor Recovery and Greater Preservation of White and Gray Matter after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Compared to Males

    PubMed Central

    Datto, Jeffrey P.; Bastidas, Johana C.; Miller, Nicole L.; Shah, Anna K.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Marcillo, Alexander E.; Dietrich, W. Dalton

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The possibility of a gender-related difference in recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) remains a controversial subject. Current empirical animal research lacks sizable test groups to definitively determine whether significant differences exist. Evaluating locomotor recovery variances between sexes following a precise, clinically relevant spinal cord contusion model can provide valuable insight into a possible gender-related advantage in outcome post-SCI. In the current study, we hypothesized that by employing larger sample sizes in a reproducible contusive SCI paradigm, subtle distinctions in locomotor recovery between sexes, if they exist, would be elucidated through a broad range of behavioral tests. During 13 weeks of functional assessment after a thoracic (T8) contusive SCI in rat, significant differences owing to gender existed for the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score and CatWalk hindlimb swing, support four, and single stance analyses. Significant differences in locomotor performance were noticeable as early as 4 weeks post-SCI. Stereological tissue-volume analysis determined that females, more so than males, also exhibited greater volumes of preserved gray and white matter within the injured cord segment as well as more spared ventral white matter area at the center of the lesion. The stereological tissue analysis differences favoring females directly correlated with the female rats' greater functional improvement observed at endpoint. PMID:25715192

  14. Traumatic brain injury-induced sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Viola-Saltzman, Mari; Musleh, Camelia

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are frequently identified following traumatic brain injury, affecting 30%-70% of persons, and often occur after mild head injury. Insomnia, fatigue, and sleepiness are the most frequent sleep complaints after traumatic brain injury. Sleep apnea, narcolepsy, periodic limb movement disorder, and parasomnias may also occur after a head injury. In addition, depression, anxiety, and pain are common brain injury comorbidities with significant influence on sleep quality. Two types of traumatic brain injury that may negatively impact sleep are acceleration/deceleration injuries causing generalized brain damage and contact injuries causing focal brain damage. Polysomnography, multiple sleep latency testing, and/or actigraphy may be utilized to diagnose sleep disorders after a head injury. Depending on the disorder, treatment may include the use of medications, positive airway pressure, and/or behavioral modifications. Unfortunately, the treatment of sleep disorders associated with traumatic brain injury may not improve neuropsychological function or sleepiness. PMID:26929626

  15. Traumatic brain injury-induced sleep disorders

    PubMed Central

    Viola-Saltzman, Mari; Musleh, Camelia

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are frequently identified following traumatic brain injury, affecting 30%–70% of persons, and often occur after mild head injury. Insomnia, fatigue, and sleepiness are the most frequent sleep complaints after traumatic brain injury. Sleep apnea, narcolepsy, periodic limb movement disorder, and parasomnias may also occur after a head injury. In addition, depression, anxiety, and pain are common brain injury comorbidities with significant influence on sleep quality. Two types of traumatic brain injury that may negatively impact sleep are acceleration/deceleration injuries causing generalized brain damage and contact injuries causing focal brain damage. Polysomnography, multiple sleep latency testing, and/or actigraphy may be utilized to diagnose sleep disorders after a head injury. Depending on the disorder, treatment may include the use of medications, positive airway pressure, and/or behavioral modifications. Unfortunately, the treatment of sleep disorders associated with traumatic brain injury may not improve neuropsychological function or sleepiness. PMID:26929626

  16. Past, Present, and Future of Traumatic Brain Injury Research.

    PubMed

    Hawryluk, Gregory W J; Bullock, M Ross

    2016-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the greatest cause of death and severe disability in young adults; its incidence is increasing in the elderly and in the developing world. Outcome from severe TBI has improved dramatically as a result of advancements in trauma systems and supportive critical care, however we remain without a therapeutic which acts directly to attenuate brain injury. Recognition of secondary injury and its molecular mediators has raised hopes for such targeted treatments. Unfortunately, over 30 late-phase clinical trials investigating promising agents have failed to translate a therapeutic for clinical use. Numerous explanations for this failure have been postulated and are reviewed here. With this historical context we review ongoing research and anticipated future trends which are armed with lessons from past trials, new scientific advances, as well as improved research infrastructure and funding. There is great hope that these new efforts will finally lead to an effective therapeutic for TBI as well as better clinical management strategies. PMID:27637391

  17. Modulation of Inflammatory Responses by a Cannabinoid-2–Selective Agonist after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Sabina; Li, Hongbo; Heller, Joshua; Skarica, Mario; Zhang, Ming; Ganea, Doina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The goal of the current investigation was to evaluate the mechanisms through which administration of a selective cannabinoid-2 (CB2) agonist (O-1966) modifies inflammatory responses and helps to improve function following spinal cord injury. A comparison of motor function, autonomic function, and inflammatory responses was made between animals treated with O-1966 (5 mg/kg IP) and animals treated with vehicle 1 h and 24 h following contusion injury to the spinal cord. Motor function was significantly improved in the treated animals at each time point during the 14 days of evaluation. The percentage of animals able to spontaneously void their bladder was also greater over the entire study period in the group treated with the selective CB2 agonist. Seven days following injury there was a significant reduction in both hematopoietic and myeloid cell invasion of the spinal cord, and a reduction in the number of immunoreactive microglia. The results of the evaluation of chemokine/cytokine expression and inflammatory cell invasion also demonstrated a significant effect of treatment on inflammatory reactions following injury. Two days after injury, animals treated with O-1966 had significant reductions in CXCL-9 and CXCL-11, and dramatic reductions in IL-23p19 expression and its receptor IL-23r. Treatment with O-1966 also caused inhibition of toll-like receptor expression (TLR1, TLR4, TLR6 and TLR7) following injury. These results demonstrate that the improvement in motor and autonomic function resulting from treatment with a selective CB2 agonist is associated with a significant effect on inflammatory responses in the spinal cord following injury. PMID:21970496

  18. Socio-dramatic affective-relational intervention for adolescents with asperger syndrome & high functioning autism: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Matthew D; Mikami, Amori Yee; Levine, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a novel intervention called 'socio-dramatic affective-relational intervention' (SDARI), intended to improve social skills among adolescents with Asperger syndrome and high functioning autism diagnoses. SDARI adapts dramatic training activities to focus on in vivo practice of areas of social skill deficit among this population. SDARI was administered as a six-week summer program in a community human service agency. Nine SDARI participants and eight age- and diagnosis-group matched adolescents not receiving SDARI were compared on child- and parent-report of social functioning at three week intervals beginning six weeks prior to intervention and ending six weeks post-intervention. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used to estimate growth trends between groups to assess treatment outcomes and post-treatment maintenance. Results indicated significant improvement and post-treatment maintenance among SDARI participants on several measures of child social functioning. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  19. CXCR4 positive cell-derived Pdx1-high/Shh-low cells originated from embryonic stem cells improve the repair of pancreatic injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Qing, Qing; Deng, Na; Min, Xiao-Hui; Zhao, Li-Na; Li, Jie-Yao; Xia, Zhong-Sheng; Chen, Qi-Kui

    2015-09-01

    Treatments for pancreatic injuries have been significantly improved recently, but full recovery of pancreatic function remains difficult. Embryonic stem cells have great potentialities for self-renewal and multiple differentiations. In this study, we explored an approach to induce the differentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells from embryonic stem cells in vitro. Male mouse embryonic stem cells were cultured by the hanging-drop method to form embryoid bodies. The definitive endoderm marked by CXCR4 in embryoid bodies was sorted by magnetic activated cell sorting and subsequently administrated with b-FGF, exendin-4, and cyclopamine to induce the differentiation of putative pancreatic progenitor cells, which was monitored by Pdx1, and Shh expressions. The putative pancreatic progenitor cells were transplanted into female BALB/c mice with pancreatitis induced by L-Arginine. Male donor cells were located by detecting sex-determining region of Y-chromosome DNA. Definitive endoderm cells (CXCR4(+) cells) were sorted from 5-day embryoid bodies. After 3-day administration with b-FGF, exendin-4, and cyclopamine, Pdx1-high/Shh-low cells were differentiated from CXCR4(+) cells. These cells developed into more amylase-secreted cells in vitro and could specifically reside in the damaged pancreas acinar area in mice with acute pancreatitis to enhance the regeneration. The putative pancreatic progenitor cells (Pdx1-high/Shh-low cells) derived from mouse embryonic stem cells through the administration of b-FGF, exendin-4, and cyclopamine on the CXCR4(+) cells in vitro could improve the regeneration of injured pancreatic acini in vivo.

  20. Small molecule-mediated up-regulation of microRNA targeting a key cell death modulator BNIP3 improves cardiac function following ischemic injury

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Se-Yeon; Lee, Seahyoung; Choi, Eunhyun; Ham, Onju; Lee, Chang Youn; Lee, Jiyun; Seo, Hyang-Hee; Cha, Min-Ji; Mun, Bohyun; Lee, Yunmi; Yoon, Cheesoon; Hwang, Ki-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Genetic ablation of BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), an essential regulator of cardiac cell death, is an effective way to prevent cardiac cell death triggered by pathologic conditions. However, currently there exists no known means, such as inhibitors, to down-regulate BNIP3 in mature heart. Here, we report that a small molecule inducer of microRNA-182 (miR-182) suppressed ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced cardiac cell death by down-regulating BNIP3. We first selected miR-182 as a potent BNIP3-targeting miRNA based on miRNA-target prediction databases and empirical data. The subsequent screening of small molecules for inducing miR-182 expression identified Kenpaullone as a hit compound. Both exogenous miR-182 and Kenpaullone significantly suppressed hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte death in vitro. To investigate the effect of changing substituents of Kenpaullone on miR-182 expression, we synthesized 9 derivatives of Kenpaullone. Among these derivatives, compound 5 showed significantly improved ability to induce miR-182 expression. The results of the in vivo study showed that compound 5 significantly improved heart function following I/R-injury in rats. Our study provides strong evidence that the small molecule-mediated up-regulation of miRNAs is a viable strategy to down-regulate target proteins with no known chemical inhibitor and that compound 5 may have potential to prevent I/R-inflicted cardiac cell death. PMID:27008992

  1. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ agonist improve vascular function and decrease renal injury in hypertensive obese rats.

    PubMed

    Imig, John D; Walsh, Katie A; Hye Khan, Md Abdul; Nagasawa, Tasuku; Cherian-Shaw, Mary; Shaw, Sean M; Hammock, Bruce D

    2012-12-01

    Cardiometabolic syndrome occurs with obesity and consists of pathophysiological factors that increase the risk for cardiovascular events. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition (sEHi) is a novel therapeutic approach that exerts renal and cardiovascular protection. Although sEHi as a therapeutic approach is promising, it could be more effective for the treatment of cardiometabolic syndrome when combined with peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists. We hypothesized that the PPARγ agonist, rosiglitazone in combination with a sEHi (tAUCB) will provide synergistic actions to decrease blood pressure, improve vascular function, decrease inflammation, and prevent renal damage in spontaneously hypertensive obese rats (SHROB). SHROB were treated with rosiglitazone, tAUCB or the combination of tAUCB and rosiglitazone for four-weeks and compared with spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Blood pressure increased in SHROB (164 ± 7 mmHg) and decreased 10 mmHg when treated with rosiglitazone, tAUCB, or tAUCB and rosiglitazone. Mesenteric artery dilation to the K(ATP) channel opener pinacidil was attenuated in SHROB (E(Max) = 77 ± 7%), compared with WKY (E(Max) = 115 ± 19) and SHR (E(Max) = 93 ± 12%). Vasodilation to pinacidil was improved by rosiglitazone (E(Max) = 92 ± 14%) but not tAUCB. Renal macrophage infiltration increased in SHROB and significantly decreased with rosiglitazone or tAUCB and rosiglitazone treatment. Albuminuria was increased in SHROB (90 ± 20 mg/d) and was significantly decreased by the combination of tAUCB and rosiglitazone (37 ± 9 mg/d). Glomerular injury in SHROB was also significantly decreased by tAUCB and rosiglitazone. These results indicate that even though sEHi or PPARγ agonist have benefits when used individually, the combination is more beneficial for the multidisease features in cardiometabolic syndrome.

  2. Sulforaphane improves dysregulated metabolic profile and inhibits leptin-induced VSMC proliferation: Implications toward suppression of neointima formation after arterial injury in western diet-fed obese mice.

    PubMed

    Shawky, Noha M; Pichavaram, Prahalathan; Shehatou, George S G; Suddek, Ghada M; Gameil, Nariman M; Jun, John Y; Segar, Lakshman

    2016-06-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), a dietary phase-2 enzyme inducer that mitigates cellular oxidative stress through nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation, is known to exhibit beneficial effects in the vessel wall. For instance, it inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, a major event in atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. In particular, SFN attenuates the mitogenic and pro-inflammatory actions of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), respectively, in VSMCs. Nevertheless, the vasoprotective role of SFN has not been examined in the setting of obesity characterized by hyperleptinemia and insulin resistance. Using the mouse model of western diet-induced obesity, the present study demonstrates for the first time that subcutaneous delivery of SFN (0.5mg/Kg/day) for~3weeks significantly attenuates neointima formation in the injured femoral artery [↓ (decrease) neointima/media ratio by~60%; n=5-8]. This was associated with significant improvements in metabolic parameters, including ↓ weight gain by~52%, ↓ plasma leptin by~42%, ↓ plasma insulin by~63%, insulin resistance [↓ homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index by~73%], glucose tolerance (↓ AUCGTT by~24%), and plasma lipid profile (e.g., ↓ triglycerides). Under in vitro conditions, SFN significantly decreased leptin-induced VSMC proliferation by~23% (n=5) with associated diminutions in leptin-induced cyclin D1 expression and the phosphorylation of p70S6kinase and ribosomal S6 protein (n=3-4). The present findings reveal that, in addition to improving systemic metabolic parameters, SFN inhibits leptin-induced VSMC proliferative signaling that may contribute in part to the suppression of injury-induced neointima formation in diet-induced obesity.

  3. Skiing Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    In the broad spectrum of orthopedic skiing injuries, ‘second aid’ on the mountain and at the base by the physician is very important. All skiing physicians should carry minimal medical supplies, including narcotic medication. Diagnosis and treatment of injuries at the hospital are outlined. Most ski fractures of the tibia can be treated by conservative methods. A more aggressive approach to diagnosis and treatment of ligamentous injuries of the knee is recommended. PMID:20469236

  4. Diving injuries.

    PubMed

    Dickey, L S

    1984-01-01

    This is a collective review about the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of SCUBA and diving injuries by the emergency physician. These injuries can be classified into those resulting from the toxic effects of the inhaled gas, from the pressure changes in the water and gas mixture while diving, and from decompression sickness. With the increasing popularity of SCUBA diving, it is hoped that this discussion will enable a recognition of these injuries and therefore minimize the morbidity and mortality from them.

  5. Improvement of cold injury-induced mouse brain edema by endothelin ETB antagonists is accompanied by decreases in matrixmetalloproteinase 9 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A.

    PubMed

    Michinaga, Shotaro; Seno, Naoki; Fuka, Mayu; Yamamoto, Yui; Minami, Shizuho; Kimura, Akimasa; Hatanaka, Shunichi; Nagase, Marina; Matsuyama, Emi; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Koyama, Yutaka

    2015-09-01

    Brain edema is a potentially fatal pathological state that often occurs after brain injuries such as ischemia and trauma. However, therapeutic agents that fundamentally treat brain edema have not yet been established. We previously found that endothelin ETB receptor antagonists attenuate the formation and maintenance of vasogenic brain edema after cold injury in mice. In this study, the effects of ETB antagonists on matrixmetalloproteinase (MMP)9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A expression were examined in the cold injury model. Cold injury was performed in the left brain of male ddY mice (5-6 weeks old) for the induction of vasogenic edema. Expression of MMP9 and VEGF-A mRNA in the mouse cerebrum was increased by cold injury. Immunohistochemical observations showed that the MMP9 and VEGF-A were mainly produced in reactive astrocytes in the damaged cerebrum. Intracerebroventricular administration of BQ788 (10 μg) or IRL-2500 (10 μg) (selective ETB antagonists) attenuated brain edema and disruption of the blood-brain barrier after cold injury. BQ788 and IRL-2500 reversed the cold injury-induced increases in MMP9 and VEGF-A expression. The induction of reactive astrocytes producing MMP9 and VEGF-A in the damaged cerebrum was attenuated by BQ788 and IRL-2500. These results suggest that attenuations of astrocytic MMP9 and VEGF-A expression by ETB antagonists may be involved in the amelioration of vasogenic brain edema.

  6. Hesperetin attenuates ventilator-induced acute lung injury through inhibition of NF-κB-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongzhong; Feng, Xiaoli; Ding, Suchun

    2015-12-15

    Hesperetin, a major bioflavonoid in sweet oranges and lemons, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of hesperetin on ventilator-induced acute lung injury has not been studied. In present study, we investigated the protective effect of hesperetin on ventilator-induced acute lung injury in rats. Rats were orally administered hesperetin (10, 20, or 40mg/kg) two hour before acute lung injury was induced by mechanical ventilation. Rats were then randomly divided into six groups: the lung protective ventilation group (n=20, LV group), injurious ventilation group (n=20, HV group), vehicle-treated injurious ventilation group (n=20, LV+vehicle group), hesperetin (10mg/kg)-treated acute lung injury group (n=20, HV+Hsp (10mg)), hesperetin (20mg/kg)-treated acute lung injury group (n=20, HV+Hsp (20mg)), and hesperetin (40mg/kg)-treated acute lung injury group (n=20, HV+Hsp (40mg)). The lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were isolated for subsequent measurements. Treatment with hesperetin dramatically improved the histology of lung tissue, and reduced the wet/dry ratio, myeloperoxidase activity, protein concentration, and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and MIP-2 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of rats with ventilator-induced acute lung injury. Additionally, our study indicated that this protective effect of hesperetin results from its ability to increase the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ and inhibit the activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway. These results suggest that hesperetin may be a potential novel therapeutic candidate for protection against ventilator-induced acute lung injury.

  7. Accommodating Workers with Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowler, Denetta; Batiste, Linda; Whidden, Eddie

    1998-01-01

    Examination of over 1,000 calls to the Job Accommodation Network involving workers with spinal cord injury identified the nature of the industry, job, career progression, and accessibility solutions. The number of calls increased dramatically after passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act. (SK)

  8. Injury Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophersen, Edward R.

    1989-01-01

    Injuries are now the cause of more deaths to children than the next six most frequent causes combined. Reviews the research evidence on the effectiveness of approaches to injury control such as legislation, health education, and behavioral strategies. Suggests avenues of further research. (Author/BJV)

  9. Rowing Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hosea, Timothy M.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Rowing is one of the original modern Olympic sports and was one of the most popular spectator sports in the United States. Its popularity has been increasing since the enactment of Title IX. The injury patterns in this sport are unique because of the stress applied during the rowing stroke. Evidence Acquisition: This review summarizes the existing literature describing the biomechanics of the rowing stroke and rowing-related injury patterns. Data were obtained from previously published peer-reviewed literature through a search of the entire PubMed database (up to December, 2011) as well as from textbook chapters and rowing coaching manuals. Results: Rowing injuries are primarily overuse related. The knee, lumbar spine, and ribs are most commonly affected. The injury incidence is directly related to the volume of training and technique. Conclusion: Familiarity of the injury patterns and the biomechanical forces affecting the rowing athlete will aid in prompt diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:23016093

  10. Toward an effective long-term strategy for preventing motor vehicle crashes and injuries.

    PubMed

    Mawson, Anthony R; Walley, E Kenneth

    2014-08-01

    Casualties due to motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) include some 40,000 deaths each year in the United States and one million deaths worldwide. One strategy that has been recommended for improving automobile safety is to lower speed limits and enforce them with speed cameras. However, motor vehicles can be hazardous even at low speeds whereas properly protected human beings can survive high-speed crashes without injury. Emphasis on changing driver behavior as the focus for road safety improvements has been largely unsuccessful; moreover, drivers today are increasingly distracted by secondary tasks such as cell phone use and texting. Indeed, the true limiting factor in vehicular safety is the capacity of human beings to sense and process information and to make rapid decisions. Given that dramatic reductions in injuries and deaths from MVCs have occurred over the past century due to improvements in safety technology, despite increases in the number of vehicles on the road and miles driven per vehicle, we propose that an effective long-term strategy for reducing MVC-related injury would be continued technological innovation in vehicle design, aimed at progressively removing the driver from routine operational decision-making. Once this is achieved, high rates of speed could be achieved on open highways, with minimal risk of crashes and injury to occupants and pedestrians. PMID:25116634

  11. Toward an Effective Long-Term Strategy for Preventing Motor Vehicle Crashes and Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Mawson, Anthony R.; Walley, E. Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Casualties due to motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) include some 40,000 deaths each year in the United States and one million deaths worldwide. One strategy that has been recommended for improving automobile safety is to lower speed limits and enforce them with speed cameras. However, motor vehicles can be hazardous even at low speeds whereas properly protected human beings can survive high-speed crashes without injury. Emphasis on changing driver behavior as the focus for road safety improvements has been largely unsuccessful; moreover, drivers today are increasingly distracted by secondary tasks such as cell phone use and texting. Indeed, the true limiting factor in vehicular safety is the capacity of human beings to sense and process information and to make rapid decisions. Given that dramatic reductions in injuries and deaths from MVCs have occurred over the past century due to improvements in safety technology, despite increases in the number of vehicles on the road and miles driven per vehicle, we propose that an effective long-term strategy for reducing MVC-related injury would be continued technological innovation in vehicle design, aimed at progressively removing the driver from routine operational decision-making. Once this is achieved, high rates of speed could be achieved on open highways, with minimal risk of crashes and injury to occupants and pedestrians. PMID:25116634

  12. Laser eye injuries.

    PubMed

    Barkana, Y; Belkin, M

    2000-01-01

    Laser instruments are used in many spheres of human activity, including medicine, industry, laboratory research, entertainment, and, notably, the military. This widespread use of lasers has resulted in many accidental injuries. Injuries are almost always retinal, because of the concentration of visible and near-infrared radiation on the retina. The retina is therefore the body tissue most vulnerable to laser radiation. The nature and severity of this type of retinal injury is determined by multiple laser-related and eye-related factors, the most important being the duration and amount of energy delivered and the retinal location of the lesion. The clinical course of significant retinal laser injuries is characterized by sudden loss of vision, often followed by marked improvement over a few weeks, and occasionally severe late complications. Medical and surgical treatment is limited. Laser devices hazardous to the human eye are currently in widespread use by armed forces. Furthermore, lasers may be employed specifically for visual incapacitation on future battlefields. Adherence to safety practices effectively prevents accidental laser-induced ocular injuries. However, there is no practical way to prevent injuries that are maliciously inflicted, as expected from laser weapons.

  13. Dramatic Photosynthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsson, Britta

    2003-01-01

    Presents a creative way to teach photosynthesis. Revolves around the growth of a lily planted and stored in the classroom. Combines the concepts of particle theory, transformation, and changes of phase and mass in a holistic approach. The six-step teaching sequence is founded on the notions of challenge, variation, and drama. (Author/NB)

  14. Patterns of injury associated with automobile airbag use.

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, A. A.; Banerjee, A.

    1998-01-01

    The wide use of automobile airbags has undoubtedly reduced the mortality and the incidence of serious injuries from motor vehicle accidents. However, automobile airbags appear to be associated with a variety of injuries including fatal injuries, ocular injuries, upper limb and chest injuries. Further improvements in airbag design together with education of the general public in their use should help reduce airbag-related injuries. PMID:9926118

  15. Management of maxillofacial injuries in bear mauling cases: a review of 20 cases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives As the craniofacial and neck regions are prime areas of injury in bear attacks, the careful management of soft and hard tissue injuries and selection of reconstructive options is of the utmost importance. This study will review the incidence and patterns of bear mauling in eastern India reported to our department and the various modalities used for their treatment over a period of 7 years. It also documents the risks of infection in bear mauling cases and the complications that have occurred. Materials and Methods Twenty cases were treated over the study period. Cases were evaluated for soft and hard tissue injuries including tissue loss and corresponding management in the craniofacial region. Cases were also evaluated for other associated injuries, organ damage and related complications. Results Various modalities of treatment were used for the management of victims, ranging from simple primary repairs to free tissue transfers. Simple primary repairs were done in 75% of cases, while the management of the injured victims required reconstruction by local, regional or distant flaps in 25%. Free tissue transfers were performed in 15% of cases, and no cases of wound infection were detected in the course of treatment. Conclusion Knowledge of various reconstructive techniques is essential for managing maxillofacial injuries in bear mauling cases. Modern reconstructive procedures like free tissue transfer are reliable options for reconstruction with minimal co-morbidity and dramatic improvement in treatment outcomes. PMID:26904490

  16. Glial Restricted Precursor Cell Transplant with Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Improved Some Autonomic Functions but Resulted in a Reduced Graft Size after Spinal Cord Contusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nout, Yvette S.; Culp, Esther; Schmidt, Markus H.; Tovar, C. Amy; Pröschel, Christoph; Mayer-Pröschel, Margot; Noble, Mark D.; Beattie, Michael S.; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.

    2010-01-01

    Transplantation of glial restricted precursor (GRP) cells has been shown to reduce glial scarring after spinal cord injury (SCI) and, in combination with neuronal restricted precursor (NRP) cells or enhanced expression of neurotrophins, to improve recovery of function after SCI. We hypothesized that combining GRP transplants with rolipram and cAMP would improve functional recovery, similar to that seen after combining Schwann cell transplants with increasing cAMP. A short term study, 1)uninjured control, 2)SCI+vehicle, and 3)SCI+cAMP, showed that spinal cord [cAMP] were increased 14 days after SCI. We used 51 male rats subjected to a thoracic SCI for a 12-week survival study: 1)SCI+vehicle, 2)SCI+GRP, 3)SCI+cAMP, 4)SCI+GRP+cAMP, and 5)uninjured endpoint age-matched control (AM). Rolipram was administered for 2 weeks after SCI. At 9 days after SCI, GRP transplantation and injection of dibutyryl-cAMP into the spinal cord were performed. GRP cells survived, differentiated, and formed extensive transplants that were well integrated with host tissue. Presence of GRP cells increased the amount of tissue in the lesion; however, cAMP reduced the graft size. White matter sparing at the lesion epicenter was not affected. Serotonergic input to the lumbosacral spinal cord was not affected by treatment, but the amount of serotonin immediately caudal to the lesion was reduced in the cAMP groups. Using telemetric monitoring of corpus spongiosum penis pressure we show that the cAMP groups regained the same number of micturitions per 24 hrs when compared to the AM group, however, the frequency of peak pressures was increased in these groups compared to the AM group. In contrast, the GRP groups had similar frequency of peak pressures compared to baseline and the AM group. Animals that received GRP cells regained the same number of erectile events per 24 hrs compared to baseline and the AM group. Since cAMP reduced the GRP transplant graft, and some modest positive effects were seen

  17. Badminton injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Krøner, K; Schmidt, S A; Nielsen, A B; Yde, J; Jakobsen, B W; Møller-Madsen, B; Jensen, J

    1990-01-01

    In a one year period, from 1 January 1986 to 31 December 1986, 4303 patients with sports injuries were treated at Aarhus Amtssygehus and Aarhus Kommunehospital. The mean age was 21.6 years (range 7-72 years) and 2830 were men. Two hundred and seventeen badminton injuries occurred in 208 patients (136 men) with a mean age of 29.6 years (range 7-57 years), constituting 4.1 percent of all sport injuries in Aarhus. Joints and ligaments were injured in 58.5 percent of the patients, most frequently located in the lower limb and significantly more often among patients younger than 30 years of age. Muscle injury occurred in 19.8 percent of the patients. This type of injury was significantly more frequent among patients older than 30 years of age. Most injuries were minor. However, 6.8 percent of the patients were hospitalized and 30.9 percent received additional treatment by a physician. As the risk of injury varies with age, attempts to plan training individually and to institute prophylactic measures should be made. PMID:2078802

  18. Propeller injuries.

    PubMed

    Mann, R J

    1976-05-01

    Water skiing, boat racing, skin and scuba diving, and pleasure boat cruising are increasing in popularity. As a result the incidence of injuries secondary to motor propellers is becoming more frequent. In a ten-year period from 1963 to 1973, I collected a total of nine cases. In some amputations were necessary, and in other cases amputations occurred at the time of injury. Problems with bacterial flora occurring in open sea water versus salt water enclosed near docks and fresh lake water are discussed. A review of the orthopedic literature revealed sparse information regarding propeller injuries.

  19. "I Did Not Wash My Feet with that Woman": Using Dramatic Performance to Teach Biblical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbett, David

    2010-01-01

    The student dramatic performance is an effective way for undergraduates to learn biblical studies. In this article I will give an example of a dramatic performance assignment that I developed over a number of courses and used most recently and most successfully in an undergraduate course in the Hebrew Bible at a small liberal arts college in the…

  20. The Impact of Dramatic Play Centre on Promoting the Development of Children's Early Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihmeideh, Fathi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of dramatic play centre (DPC) on promoting the development of children's early writing skills in the Jordanian context. It also intends to investigate the forms of children's writing skills that emerge through the use of dramatic play. Observations and interviews were conducted to obtain…

  1. Guiding the Noticing: Using a Dramatic Performance Experience to Promote Tellability in Narrative Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Shanetia

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes her use of dramatic performance to promote tellability in narrative writing within a seventh and eighth grade English and language arts classroom. By experiencing dramatic performance, the students were able to actively and physically perform the writing process: brainstorming, drafting, revising, and editing.…

  2. Use of Dramatization to Teach Cardiac Cycle Physiology to Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowlati, Ehsan; Musick, David W.; Zhang, Lin; Thornton, Katherine; Carvalho, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Part of the educator's mission is to develop new methodologies that promote active learning. This study examines the use of dramatization of the cardiac cycle in medical school. Two groups (n = 42, 21 each) of first-year medical students participated. Group A was initially taught through dramatization alone, while Group B was taught through…

  3. Injury Surveillance Among NASA Astronauts Using the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, J. D.; Laughlin, M. S.; Eudy, D. L.; Wear, M. L.; VanBaalen, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts perform physically demanding tasks and risk incurring musculoskeletal injuries during both groundbased training and missions. Increased injury rates throughout the history of the U.S. space program have been attributed to numerous factors, including an aging astronaut corps, increased Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) and Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) training to construct the International Space Station, and improved clinical operations that promote injury prevention and reporting. With NASA program changes through the years (including retirement of the Shuttle program) and an improved training environment (including a new astronaut gym), there is no surveillance program to systematically track injury rates. A limited number of research projects have been conducted over the past 20 years to evaluate musculoskeletal injuries: (1) to evaluate orthopedic injuries from 1987 to 1995, (2) to describe upper extremity injuries, (3) to evaluate EVA spacesuit training related injuries, and (4) to evaluate in-flight musculoskeletal injuries. Nevertheless, there has been no consistently performed comprehensive assessment of musculoskeletal injuries among astronauts. The Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix was introduced at the 2001 meeting of the International Collaborative Effort (ICE) on Injury Statistics. The Matrix proposes a standardized method of classifying body region by nature of injury. Diagnoses are coded using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) coding system. The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness and complexity of the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix to classify and track musculoskeletal injuries among NASA astronauts.

  4. We Need to Implement Current Evidence in Early Rehabilitation Programs to Improve Long-Term Outcome After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

    PubMed

    Risberg, May Arna; Grindem, Hege; Øiestad, Britt Elin

    2016-09-01

    We like to think that we are successful in the treatment of individuals with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, but recent literature reveals that only about 60% of these individuals make a full recovery, less than 60% return to sport, and more than 50% develop knee osteoarthritis (OA) by middle age. Both short- and long-term outcomes after ACL injury and reconstruction need attention and action. We need to implement strategies early after ACL injury to prevent the development and progression of posttraumatic OA, rather than "sit and wait" until posttraumatic knee OA has developed. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):710-713. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0608. PMID:27581178

  5. In patients with head injuries who undergo rapid sequence intubation using succinylcholine, does pretreatment with a competitive neuromuscular blocking agent improve outcome? A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Clancy, M; Halford, S; Walls, R; Murphy, M

    2001-01-01

    A literature search was undertaken for evidence of the effect of succinylcholine (SCH) on the intracranial pressure (ICP) of patients with acute brain injury and whether pretreatment with a defasciculating dose of competitive neuromuscular blocker is beneficial in this patient group. The authors could find no definitive evidence that SCH caused a rise in ICP in patients with brain injury. However, these studies were often weak and small. For those patients suffering acute traumatic brain injury the authors could find no studies that investigated the issue of pretreatment with defasciculating doses of competitive neuromuscular blockers and their effect on ICP in patients given SCH. There is level 2 evidence that SCH caused an increase in ICP for patients undergoing neurosurgery for brain tumours with elective anaesthesia and that pretreatment with defasciculating doses of neuromuscular blockers reduced such increases. It is unknown if this affects neurological outcome for this patient group. PMID:11559609

  6. Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart, to help decrease swelling. The Body’s Healing Process From the moment a bone breaks or a ... what happens at each stage of the healing process: At the moment of injury: Chemicals are released ...

  7. A European Renal Best Practice (ERBP) position statement on the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Clinical Practice Guidelines on Acute Kidney Injury: part 2: renal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Jörres, Achim; John, Stefan; Lewington, Andrew; ter Wee, Pieter M; Vanholder, Raymond; Van Biesen, Wim; Tattersall, James

    2013-12-01

    This paper provides an endorsement of the KDIGO guideline on acute kidney injury; more specifically, on the part that concerns renal replacement therapy. New evidence that has emerged since the publication of the KDIGO guideline was taken into account, and the guideline is commented on from a European perspective. Advice is given on when to start and stop renal replacement therapy in acute kidney injury; which modalities should be preferentially be applied, and in which conditions; how to gain access to circulation; how to measure adequacy; and which dose can be recommended.

  8. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  9. Electric injury, Part II: Specific injuries.

    PubMed

    Fish, R M

    2000-01-01

    Electric injury can cause disruption of cardiac rhythm and breathing, burns, fractures, dislocations, rhabdomyolysis, eye and ear injury, oral and gastrointestinal injury, vascular damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peripheral and spinal cord injury, and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. Secondary trauma from falls, fires, flying debris, and inhalation injury can complicate the clinical picture. Diagnostic and treatment considerations for electric injuries are described in this article, which is the second part of a three-part series on electric injuries.

  10. Electric injury, Part II: Specific injuries.

    PubMed

    Fish, R M

    2000-01-01

    Electric injury can cause disruption of cardiac rhythm and breathing, burns, fractures, dislocations, rhabdomyolysis, eye and ear injury, oral and gastrointestinal injury, vascular damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peripheral and spinal cord injury, and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. Secondary trauma from falls, fires, flying debris, and inhalation injury can complicate the clinical picture. Diagnostic and treatment considerations for electric injuries are described in this article, which is the second part of a three-part series on electric injuries. PMID:10645833

  11. Leaks can dramatically decrease FiO2 on home ventilators: a bench study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Long term oxygen therapy improves survival in hypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Because pressure support ventilation with a home care ventilator is largely unsupervised, there is considerable risk of leakage occurring, which could affect delivered FiO2. We have therefore conducted a bench study in order to measure the effect of different levels of O2 supply and degrees of leakage on delivered FiO2. Ventilator tested: Legendair® (Airox™, Pau, France). Thirty-six measures were performed in each four ventilators with zero, 5 and 10 l.min-1 leakage and 1,2,4 and 8 l O2 flow. Findings FiO2 decreased significantly with 5 l.min-1 leakage for all O2 flow rates, and with 10 l.min-1 at 4 and 8 l.min-1 O2. Conclusion During application of NIV on home ventilators, leakage can dramatically decrease inspired FiO2 making it less effective. It is important to know the FiO2 dispensed when NIV is used for COPD at home. We would encourage industry to develop methods for FiO2 regulation Chronic use of NIV for COPD with controlled FiO2 or SpO2 requires further studys. PMID:23870165

  12. 25OHD analogues and vacuum blood collection tubes dramatically affect the accuracy of automated immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Songlin; Cheng, Xinqi; Fang, Huiling; Zhang, Ruiping; Han, Jianhua; Qin, Xuzhen; Cheng, Qian; Su, Wei; Hou, Li’an; Xia, Liangyu; Qiu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Variations in vitamin D quantification methods are large, and influences of vitamin D analogues and blood collection methods have not been systematically examined. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D analogues 25OHD2 and 3-epi 25OHD3 and blood collection methods on vitamin D measurement, using five immunoassay systems and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum samples (332) were selected from routine vitamin D assay requests, including samples with or without 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, and analysed using various immunoassay systems. In samples with no 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, all immunoassays correlated well with LC-MS/MS. However, the Siemens system produced a large positive mean bias of 12.5 ng/mL and a poor Kappa value when using tubes with clot activator and gel separator. When 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3 was present, correlations and clinical agreement decreased for all immunoassays. Serum 25OHD in VACUETTE tubes with gel and clot activator, as measured by the Siemens system, produced significantly higher values than did samples collected in VACUETTE tubes with no additives. Bias decreased and clinical agreement improved significantly when using tubes with no additives. In conclusion, most automated immunoassays showed acceptable correlation and agreement with LC-MS/MS; however, 25OHD analogues and blood collection tubes dramatically affected accuracy. PMID:26420221

  13. CDK4/6 inhibition induces epithelial cell cycle arrest and ameliorates acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    DiRocco, Derek P.; Bisi, John; Roberts, Patrick; Strum, Jay; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Sharpless, Norman

    2013-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and urgently requires new preventative therapies. Expression of a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor transgene protects against AKI, suggesting that manipulating the tubular epithelial cell cycle may be a viable therapeutic strategy. Broad spectrum small molecule CDK inhibitors are protective in some kidney injury models, but these have toxicities and epithelial proliferation is eventually required for renal repair. Here, we tested a well-tolerated, novel and specific small molecule inhibitor of CDK4 and CDK6, PD 0332991, to investigate the effects of transient cell cycle inhibition on epithelial survival in vitro and kidney injury in vivo. We report that CDK4/6 inhibition induced G0/G1 cycle arrest in cultured human renal proximal tubule cells (hRPTC) at baseline and after injury. Induction of transient G0/G1 cycle arrest through CDK4/6 inhibition protected hRPTC from DNA damage and caspase 3/7 activation following exposure to the nephrotoxins cisplatin, etoposide, and antimycin A. In vivo, mice treated with PD 0332991 before ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) exhibited dramatically reduced epithelial progression through S phase 24 h after IRI. Despite reduced epithelial proliferation, PD 0332991 ameliorated kidney injury as reflected by improved serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels 24 h after injury. Inflammatory markers and macrophage infiltration were significantly decreased in injured kidneys 3 days following IRI. These results indicate that induction of proximal tubule cell cycle arrest with specific CDK4/6 inhibitors, or “pharmacological quiescence,” represents a novel strategy to prevent AKI. PMID:24338822

  14. CDK4/6 inhibition induces epithelial cell cycle arrest and ameliorates acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    DiRocco, Derek P; Bisi, John; Roberts, Patrick; Strum, Jay; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Sharpless, Norman; Humphreys, Benjamin D

    2014-02-15

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and urgently requires new preventative therapies. Expression of a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor transgene protects against AKI, suggesting that manipulating the tubular epithelial cell cycle may be a viable therapeutic strategy. Broad spectrum small molecule CDK inhibitors are protective in some kidney injury models, but these have toxicities and epithelial proliferation is eventually required for renal repair. Here, we tested a well-tolerated, novel and specific small molecule inhibitor of CDK4 and CDK6, PD 0332991, to investigate the effects of transient cell cycle inhibition on epithelial survival in vitro and kidney injury in vivo. We report that CDK4/6 inhibition induced G0/G1 cycle arrest in cultured human renal proximal tubule cells (hRPTC) at baseline and after injury. Induction of transient G0/G1 cycle arrest through CDK4/6 inhibition protected hRPTC from DNA damage and caspase 3/7 activation following exposure to the nephrotoxins cisplatin, etoposide, and antimycin A. In vivo, mice treated with PD 0332991 before ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) exhibited dramatically reduced epithelial progression through S phase 24 h after IRI. Despite reduced epithelial proliferation, PD 0332991 ameliorated kidney injury as reflected by improved serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels 24 h after injury. Inflammatory markers and macrophage infiltration were significantly decreased in injured kidneys 3 days following IRI. These results indicate that induction of proximal tubule cell cycle arrest with specific CDK4/6 inhibitors, or "pharmacological quiescence," represents a novel strategy to prevent AKI.

  15. The prevention of spinal injuries in rugby football.

    PubMed

    Silver, J R; Stewart, D

    1994-07-01

    The incidence of injuries to the spinal cord sustained at rugby in South Africa, New Zealand and Australia is reviewed. Ninety-seven injuries seen at Stoke Mandeville Hospital at the National Spinal Injuries Centre (NSIC) between 1956 and 1993 are analysed in detail. There were 93 accidents at rugby union, two at American football and two at rugby league. The injuries were of the cervical spine apart from four hysterics and one thoracic injury. The thoracic injury occurred after the game when the player fell downstairs. The injuries were analysed according to the mechanism of injury, the neurological condition, the causation, the standard of the player and the position in the field. The injuries caused were the result of force being applied to the skull which was transmitted to the cervical spine resulting in injury to the cervical cord. As a result of this research, representations were made to the appropriate authorities and changes in the laws were made. As a result of these law changes there has been a dramatic reduction in the overall number of injuries and the elimination of the injury from the loose scrum. This paper discusses the historical sequence of how these preventative measures came about to reduce the incidence of injuries and the legal implications whereby the authors took part in two law suits. The legal consequences are analysed in detail. PMID:7970845

  16. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  17. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  18. The increasing threat of personal watercraft injuries.

    PubMed

    Latch, Rebecca; Fiser, Debra H

    2004-05-01

    A trend of increasing number and severity of injuries associated with use of personal watercraft (PWC) has been noted as the use and popularity of PWC also rises. The rate of injuries secondary to PWC use is greater than that from other water sports. Multiple etiologies of injury have been reported, including closed head trauma, spinal injuries, facial fractures, chest trauma, abdominal injuries, and drowning. These injuries may occur from collision with other objects, falls from the PWC, and encounters with the hydrostatic jet stream. The most significant contributing factors to injury seem to be carelessness and inattention. However, some studies show that substance abuse may also contribute. Recommendations to reduce morbidity and mortality include using U.S. Coast Guard-approved personal flotation devices (PFD), limiting use of PWC to trained adults, and improving recognition of significant PWC injury by medical personnel.

  19. Hamstring Muscle Injuries, a Rehabilitation Protocol Purpose

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Xavier; L.Tol, Johannes; Hamilton, Bruce; Rodas, Gil; Malliaras, Peter; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Rizo, Vicenc; Moreno, Marcel; Jardi, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    Context: Hamstring acute muscle injuries are prevalent in several sports including AFL football (Australian Football League), sprinting and soccer, and are often associated with prolonged time away from sport. Evidence Acquisition: In response to this, research into prevention and management of hamstring injury has increased, but epidemiological data shows no decline in injury and re-injury rates, suggesting that rehabilitation programs and return to play (RTP) criteria have to be improved. There continues to be a lack of consensus regarding how to assess performance, recovery and readiness to RTP, following hamstring strain injury. Results: The aim of this paper was to propose rehabilitation protocol for hamstring muscle injuries based on current basic science and research knowledge regarding injury demographics and management options. Conclusions: Criteria-based (subjective and objective) progression through the rehabilitation program will be outlined along with exercises for each phase, from initial injury to RTP. PMID:26715969

  20. The Interview: Dramatization Techniques in Dance--A New Approach to Teaching Modern Dance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Gwendolyn Croom; Snygg, Fran

    1979-01-01

    The use of the interview dramatization as a teaching technique for presenting historical and chronological background information in the field of modern dance is described. Samples of the interviews are included. (JMF)

  1. Sharps Injury Reporting Amongst Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Hui-Ling; Stewart, Nicola; Pace, Alistair; Elsayed, Sherief

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of sharps injury reporting amongst surgeons. SUBJECTS AND METHODS A total of 164 surgeons completed a questionnaire on the reporting of sharps injuries, on the reasons for not reporting and their practise of universal precautions. RESULTS Out of 164 surgeons, only 25.8% had reported all their injuries, 22.5% had reported some and 51.7% had reported none. The top three reasons for not reporting their injuries included perception of low risk of transmission, not being concerned and no time. Of the respondents, 15.9% practised all three universal precautions of double-gloving, face shields and hands-free technique. CONCLUSIONS We showed that despite local trust adherence to Department of Health policy, sharps injury reporting rates are inadequate. Further investment into healthcare worker education as well as a facilitation of the process of reporting may be necessary to improve reporting rates. PMID:19622260

  2. Hamstring injuries

    PubMed Central

    Guanche, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a continuum of hamstring injuries that can range from musculotendinous strains to avulsion injuries. Although the proximal hamstring complex has a strong bony attachment on the ischial tuberosity, hamstring injuries are common in athletic population and can affect all levels of athletes. Nonoperative treatment is mostly recommended in the setting of low-grade partial tears and insertional tendinosis. However, failure of nonoperative treatment of partial tears may benefit from surgical debridement and repair. The technique presented on this article allows for the endoscopic management of proximal hamstring tears and chronic ischial bursitis, which until now has been managed exclusively with much larger open approaches. The procedure allows for complete exposure of the posterior aspect of the hip in a safe, minimally invasive fashion. PMID:27011828

  3. Fingertip injuries

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, Sanjay; Tiwari, VK

    2007-01-01

    Background: Fingertip injuries are extremely common. Out of the various available reconstructive options, one needs to select an option which achieves a painless fingertip with durable and sensate skin cover. The present analysis was conducted to evaluate the management and outcome of fingertip injuries. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 150 cases of fingertip Injuries of patients aged six to 65 years managed over a period of two years. Various reconstructive options were considered for the fingertip lesions greater than or equal to 1 cm2. The total duration of treatment varied from two to six weeks with follow-up from two months to one year. Results: The results showed preservation of finger length and contour, retention of sensation and healing without significant complication. Conclusion: The treatment needs to be individualized and all possible techniques of reconstruction must be known to achieve optimal recovery. PMID:21139772

  4. Modeling attitude towards drug treament: the role of internal motivation, external pressure, and dramatic relief.

    PubMed

    Conner, Bradley T; Longshore, Douglas; Anglin, M Douglas

    2009-04-01

    Motivation for change has historically been viewed as the crucial element affecting responsiveness to drug treatment. Various external pressures, such as legal coercion, may engender motivation in an individual previously resistant to change. Dramatic relief may be the change process that is most salient as individuals internalize such external pressures. Results of structural equation modeling on data from 465 drug users (58.9% male; 21.3% Black, 34.2% Hispanic/Latino, and 35.1% White) entering drug treatment indicated that internal motivation and external pressure significantly and positively predicted dramatic relief and that dramatic relief significantly predicted attitudes towards drug treatment: chi (2) = 142.20, df = 100, p < 0.01; Robust Comparative Fit Index = 0.97, Root Mean Squared Error of Approximation = 0.03. These results indicate that when external pressure and internal motivation are high, dramatic relief is also likely to be high. When dramatic relief is high, attitudes towards drug treatment are likely to be positive. The findings indicate that interventions to get individuals into drug treatment should include processes that promote Dramatic Relief. Implications for addictions health services are discussed.