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Sample records for injury vector electrocardiogram-based

  1. Noninvasive extraction of fetal electrocardiogram based on Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yumei; Xiang, Shihan; Chen, Tianyi; Zhou, Ping; Huang, Weiyan

    2015-10-01

    The fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) signal has important clinical value for diagnosing the fetal heart diseases and choosing suitable therapeutics schemes to doctors. So, the noninvasive extraction of FECG from electrocardiogram (ECG) signals becomes a hot research point. A new method, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) is utilized for the extraction of FECG with limited size of data. Firstly, the theory of the SVM and the principle of the extraction based on the SVM are studied. Secondly, the transformation of maternal electrocardiogram (MECG) component in abdominal composite signal is verified to be nonlinear and fitted with the SVM. Then, the SVM is trained, and the training results are compared with the real data to ensure the effect of the training. Meanwhile, the parameters of the SVM are optimized to achieve the best performance so that the learning machine can be utilized to fit the unknown samples. Finally, the FECG is extracted by removing the optimal estimation of MECG component from the abdominal composite signal. In order to evaluate the performance of FECG extraction based on the SVM, the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and the visual test are used. The experimental results show that the FECG with good quality can be extracted, its SNR ratio is significantly increased as high as 9.2349 dB and the time cost is significantly decreased as short as 0.802 seconds. Compared with the traditional method, the noninvasive extraction method based on the SVM has a simple realization, the shorter treatment time and the better extraction quality under the same conditions.

  2. Skin injury model classification based on shape vector analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background: Skin injuries can be crucial in judicial decision making. Forensic experts base their classification on subjective opinions. This study investigates whether known classes of simulated skin injuries are correctly classified statistically based on 3D surface models and derived numerical shape descriptors. Methods: Skin injury surface characteristics are simulated with plasticine. Six injury classes – abrasions, incised wounds, gunshot entry wounds, smooth and textured strangulation marks as well as patterned injuries - with 18 instances each are used for a k-fold cross validation with six partitions. Deformed plasticine models are captured with a 3D surface scanner. Mean curvature is estimated for each polygon surface vertex. Subsequently, distance distributions and derived aspect ratios, convex hulls, concentric spheres, hyperbolic points and Fourier transforms are used to generate 1284-dimensional shape vectors. Subsequent descriptor reduction maximizing SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) result in an average of 41 descriptors (varying across k-folds). With non-normal multivariate distribution of heteroskedastic data, requirements for LDA (linear discriminant analysis) are not met. Thus, shrinkage parameters of RDA (regularized discriminant analysis) are optimized yielding a best performance with λ = 0.99 and γ = 0.001. Results: Receiver Operating Characteristic of a descriptive RDA yields an ideal Area Under the Curve of 1.0for all six categories. Predictive RDA results in an average CRR (correct recognition rate) of 97,22% under a 6 partition k-fold. Adding uniform noise within the range of one standard deviation degrades the average CRR to 71,3%. Conclusions: Digitized 3D surface shape data can be used to automatically classify idealized shape models of simulated skin injuries. Deriving some well established descriptors such as histograms, saddle shape of hyperbolic points or convex hulls with subsequent reduction of dimensionality while maximizing SNR

  3. Comparative analysis of lentiviral vectors and modular protein nanovectors for traumatic brain injury gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Negro-Demontel, María Luciana; Saccardo, Paolo; Giacomini, Cecilia; Yáñez-Muñoz, Rafael Joaquín; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Vazquez, Esther; Villaverde, Antonio; Peluffo, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains as one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide and there are no effective treatments currently available. Gene therapy applications have emerged as important alternatives for the treatment of diverse nervous system injuries. New strategies are evolving with the notion that each particular pathological condition may require a specific vector. Moreover, the lack of detailed comparative studies between different vectors under similar conditions hampers the selection of an ideal vector for a given pathological condition. The potential use of lentiviral vectors versus several modular protein-based nanovectors was compared using a controlled cortical impact model of TBI under the same gene therapy conditions. We show that variables such as protein/DNA ratio, incubation volume, and presence of serum or chloroquine in the transfection medium impact on both nanovector formation and transfection efficiency in vitro. While lentiviral vectors showed GFP protein 1 day after TBI and increased expression at 14 days, nanovectors showed stable and lower GFP transgene expression from 1 to 14 days. No toxicity after TBI by any of the vectors was observed as determined by resulting levels of IL-1β or using neurological sticky tape test. In fact, both vector types induced functional improvement per se. PMID:26015985

  4. Electrocardiogram-based scoring system for predicting secondary pulmonary hypertension: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Patel, Nimesh Kirit; Boruah, Pranjal; Nanavaty, Sukrut; Chandran, Sindu; Sethi, Arjinder; Sheth, Jignesh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we have developed an electrocardiogram-based scoring system to predict secondary pulmonary hypertension. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Single tertiary-care hospital in Scranton, Pennsylvania, USA. Participants Five hundred and fifty-two consecutive patients undergoing right heart catheterization between 2006 and 2009. Main outcome measures Surface electrocardiogram was assessed for R-wave in lead V1 ≥ 6mm, R-wave in V6 ≤ 3mm, S-wave in V6 ≥ 3mm, right atrial enlargement, right axis deviation and left atrial enlargement. Pulmonary hypertension was defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mmHg, determined by right heart catheterization. Results A total of 297 (54%) patients in the study cohort had pulmonary hypertension. In total, 332 patients from the study cohort formed the development cohort and the remaining 220 patients formed the validation cohort. In the development cohort, based on log odds ratios of association, RAE, LAE, RAD, R-wave in V1 ≥ 6 mm were assigned scores of 5, 2, 2 and 1, respectively, to form a 10-point scoring system “Scranton PHT (SP) score”. SP scores of 5 points and 7 points in DC showed C-statistic of 0.83 and 0.89, respectively, for discriminating pulmonary hypertension. C-statistic for RAE alone was significantly lower compared to an SP score of 7 (0.83 vs. 0.89, P = 0.021). The reliability of SP score in the validation cohort was acceptable. Conclusion SP score provides a good point-of-care tool to predict pulmonary hypertension in patients with clinical suspicion of it. PMID:25396053

  5. Heritability of Abnormalities in Cardiopulmonary Coupling in Sleep Apnea: Use of an Electrocardiogram-based Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Lamia H.; Jacono, Frank J.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Thomas, Robert J.; Larkin, Emma K.; Mietus, Joseph E.; Peng, Chung-Kang; Goldberger, Ary L.; Redline, Susan

    2010-01-01

    . Citation: Ibrahim LH; Jacono FJ; Patel SR; Thomas RJ; Larkin EK; Mietus JE; Peng CK; Goldberger AL; Redline S. Heritability of abnormalities in cardiopulmonary coupling in sleep apnea: use of an electrocardiogram-based technique. SLEEP 2010;33(5):643-646. PMID:20469806

  6. Vector-induced NT-3 expression in rats promotes collateral growth of injured corticospinal tract axons far rostral to a spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Weishaupt, N; Mason, A L O; Hurd, C; May, Z; Zmyslowski, D C; Galleguillos, D; Sipione, S; Fouad, K

    2014-07-11

    Rewiring the injured corticospinal tract (CST) by promoting connections between CST axons and spared neurons is a strategy being explored experimentally to achieve improved recovery of motor function after spinal cord injury (SCI). Reliable interventions to promote and direct growth of collaterals from injured CST axons are in high demand to promote functionally relevant detour pathways. A promising tool is neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), which has shown growth-stimulating and chemo-attractive effects for spared CST axons caudal to a CST lesion. Yet, efforts to promote growth of injured CST axons rostral to a SCI with NT-3 have been less successful to date. Evidence indicates that immune activation in the local growth environment, either intrinsic or induced by the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), can play a decisive role in the CST's responsiveness to NT-3. Here, we test the potential of NT-3 as a tool to enhance and direct collateral growth from the injured CST rostral to a SCI (1) using long-term expression of NT-3 by adeno-associated viral vectors, (2) with and without stimulating the immune system with LPS. Our results indicate that inducing a growth response from injured CST axons into a region of vector-mediated NT-3 expression is possible in the environment of the spinal cord rostral to a SCI, but seems dependent on the distance between the responding axon and the source of NT-3. Our findings also suggest that injured CST axons do not increase their growth response to NT-3 after immune activation with LPS in this environment. In conclusion, this is to our knowledge the first demonstration that NT-3 can be effective at promoting growth of injured CST collaterals far rostral to a SCI. Making NT-3 available in close proximity to CST target axons may be the key to success when using NT-3 to rewire the injured CST in future investigations.

  7. Introducing Vectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, John

    1997-01-01

    Suggests an approach to teaching vectors that promotes active learning through challenging questions addressed to the class, as opposed to subtle explanations. Promotes introducing vector graphics with concrete examples, beginning with an explanation of the displacement vector. Also discusses artificial vectors, vector algebra, and unit vectors.…

  8. Targeted Inhibitory Effect of Lenti-SM22alpha-p27-EGFP Recombinant Lentiviral Vectors on Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells without Compromising Re-Endothelialization in a Rat Carotid Artery Balloon Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuangshuang; Xie, Minjie; Tian, Daishi; Luo, Xiang; Wang, Daowen; Ning, Qin; Lü, Jiagao; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Aims In-stent restenosis remains a serious problem after the implantation of drug-eluting stents, which is attributable to neointima formation and re-endothelialization. Here, we tried to find a new method which aims at selectively inhibiting proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) proliferation without inhibition of re-endothelialization. Methods and Results We used the smooth muscle-specific SM22alpha promoter in a recombinant lentiviral vector to drive overexpression of cell-cycle inhibitor, p27, in VSMCs. p27 effectively inhibited VSMC proliferation mediated by cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 checkpoint. The SM22alpha-p27 lentiviral vector inhibited VSMC proliferation more effectively than paclitaxel. Rats infected with Lenti-SM22alpha-p27 had a significantly lower intima/media (I/M) ratio and also showed inhibition of restenosis on day 28 after balloon injury. Moreover, the repair of injured endothelium, and re-endothelialization of the carotid artery wall, was not affected by the smooth muscle cell-specific expression of p27. Conclusion A recombinant lentiviral vector carrying the SM22alpha promoter was used to effectively infect and selectively overexpress p27 protein in VSMCs, leading to inhibition of intimal hyperplasia without compromising endothelial repair. PMID:25760326

  9. Cloning vector

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, R.A.; Smith, L.M.

    1994-12-27

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site. 2 figures.

  10. Cloning vector

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site.

  11. Vector quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    During the past ten years Vector Quantization (VQ) has developed from a theoretical possibility promised by Shannon's source coding theorems into a powerful and competitive technique for speech and image coding and compression at medium to low bit rates. In this survey, the basic ideas behind the design of vector quantizers are sketched and some comments made on the state-of-the-art and current research efforts.

  12. Lentiviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Giry-Laterrière, Marc; Verhoeyen, Els; Salmon, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors have evolved over the last decade as powerful, reliable, and safe tools for stable gene transfer in a wide variety of mammalian cells. Contrary to other vectors derived from oncoretroviruses, they allow for stable gene delivery into most nondividing primary cells. In particular, lentivectors (LVs) derived from HIV-1 have gradually evolved to display many desirable features aimed at increasing both their safety and their versatility. This is why lentiviral vectors are becoming the most useful and promising tools for genetic engineering, to generate cells that can be used for research, diagnosis, and therapy. This chapter describes protocols and guidelines, for production and titration of LVs, which can be implemented in a research laboratory setting, with an emphasis on standardization in order to improve transposability of results between laboratories. We also discuss latest designs in LV technology.

  13. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Often, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  14. Back Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... extending from your neck to your pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, ... back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains ...

  15. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... injuries internal head injuries, which may involve the skull, the blood vessels within the skull, or the brain Fortunately, most childhood falls or ... knock the brain into the side of the skull or tear blood vessels. Some internal head injuries ...

  16. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  17. Blast Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Service Members & Veterans Family & Caregivers Medical Providers Blast Injuries U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Gustavo Olgiati How ... tertiary injury Does a blast cause different brain injuries than blunt trauma? There currently is no evidence ...

  18. Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  19. Hamstring injuries.

    PubMed

    Ropiak, Christopher R; Bosco, Joseph A

    2012-01-01

    Hamstring injuries are a frequent injury in athletes. Proximal injuries are common, ranging from strain to complete tear. Strains are managed nonoperatively, with rest followed by progressive stretching and strengthening. Reinjury is a concern. High grade complete tears are better managed surgically, with reattachment to the injured tendon or ischial tuberosity. Distal hamstring injury is usually associated with other knee injuries, and isolated injury is rare.

  20. Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, E.

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears…

  1. Pancreatic injury.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasim; Vernick, Jerome J

    2009-12-01

    Injury to the pancreas, because of its retroperitoneal location, is a rare occurrence, most commonly seen with penetrating injuries (gun shot or stab wounds). Blunt trauma to the pancreas accounts for only 25% of the cases. Pancreatic injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality due to accompanying vascular and duodenal injuries. Pancreatic injuries are not always easy to diagnose resulting in life threatening complications. Physical examination as well as serum amylase is not diagnostic following blunt trauma. Computed tomography (CT) scan can delineate the injury or transaction of the pancreas. Endoscopic retrograde pancreaticography (ERCP) is the main diagnostic modality for evaluation of the main pancreatic duct. Unrecognized ductal injury leads to pancreatic pseudocyst, fistula, abscess, and other complications. Management depends upon the severity of the pancreatic injury as well as associated injuries. Damage control surgery in hemodynamic unstable patients reduces morbidity and mortality.

  2. Snowboard injuries.

    PubMed

    Pino, E C; Colville, M R

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective survey of 267 snowboarders was undertaken to determine the population at risk and types and mechanisms of injuries sustained in this sport. Snowboarders are young (average age, 21 years), male (greater than 90%), view themselves in average or above average physical condition (96%), and have varied sports interests. One hundred ten injuries that resulted in a physician visit were reported. Ligament sprains, fractures, and contusions were the most frequent types of injury. Fifty percent of all injuries occurred in the lower extremities, with ankle injuries being the most common. Snowboard riders using equipment with increased ankle support seem to be more protected from lower extremity injuries. The lower extremity injuries were concentrated in the forward limb of the snowboarder, where the rider's weight is disproportionately distributed. Differences in the mechanism and spectrum of injury between snowboarding and skiing injuries were noted, including: impact rather than torsion as the major mechanism of injury, a significant lack of thumb injuries, comparative increase in ankle injuries, a decrease in knee injuries, and a higher percentage of upper extremity injuries.

  3. Basketball injuries.

    PubMed

    Newman, Joel S; Newberg, Arthur H

    2010-11-01

    Basketball injuries are most prevalent in the lower extremity, especially at the ankle and knee. Most basketball injuries are orthopedic in nature and commonly include ligament sprains, musculotendinous strains, and overuse injuries including stress fractures. By virtue of its excellent contrast resolution and depiction of the soft tissues and trabecular bone, magnetic resonance imaging has become the principal modality for evaluating many basketball injuries. In this article, commonly encountered basketball injuries and their imaging appearances are described. The epidemiology of basketball injuries across various age groups and levels of competition and between genders are reviewed.

  4. Skateboard injuries.

    PubMed

    Cass, D T; Ross, F

    1990-08-01

    The recent increase in skateboard injuries is causing concern. Over a 30-month period there were 80 admissions (69 children) to Westmead Hospital because of skateboard injuries. Among children most injuries were minor, involving fractures to the upper limbs (47) or minor head injuries (8). The only serious injuries were a ruptured urethra and a closed head injury. Over the same time period skateboard riding caused five deaths in New South Wales. These all involved head injuries and in four instances collisions with cars. The data strongly support other studies that show skateboard riding is particularly dangerous near traffic and should be proscribed. However, in parkland and around the home the skateboard is an enjoyable toy with an acceptable risk of minor injury. Helmets should be worn and would have prevented all the head injury admissions in this series. Children under 10 have a higher risk of fractures and head injuries due to insufficient motor development to control the boards and the resultant falls. Skateboard injuries are an example of injuries caused by a "fad epidemic". To cope with these types of periodic events up-to-date data collection is needed, followed rapidly by an intervention programme so that serious injuries can be kept to a minimum.

  5. Corneal injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... as sand or dust Ultraviolet injuries: Caused by sunlight, sun lamps, snow or water reflections, or arc- ... a corneal injury if you: Are exposed to sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light for long periods of ...

  6. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

  7. Spinal injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... head. Alternative Names Spinal cord injury; SCI Images Skeletal spine Vertebra, cervical (neck) Vertebra, lumbar (low back) Vertebra, thoracic (mid back) Vertebral column Central nervous system Spinal cord injury Spinal anatomy Two person roll - ...

  8. Understanding Singular Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David; Botteron, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    matrix yields a surprisingly simple, heuristical approximation to its singular vectors. There are correspondingly good approximations to the singular values. Such rules of thumb provide an intuitive interpretation of the singular vectors that helps explain why the SVD is so…

  9. Rhotrix Vector Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aminu, Abdulhadi

    2010-01-01

    By rhotrix we understand an object that lies in some way between (n x n)-dimensional matrices and (2n - 1) x (2n - 1)-dimensional matrices. Representation of vectors in rhotrices is different from the representation of vectors in matrices. A number of vector spaces in matrices and their properties are known. On the other hand, little seems to be…

  10. Head injury.

    PubMed

    Hureibi, K A; McLatchie, G R

    2010-05-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest injuries in sport. Most are mild but some can have serious outcomes. Sports medicine doctors should be able to recognise the clinical features and evaluate athletes with head injury. It is necessary during field assessment to recognise signs and symptoms that help in assessing the severity of injury and making a decision to return-to-play. Prevention of primary head injury should be the aim. This includes protective equipment like helmets and possible rule changes. PMID:20533694

  11. Bicycling injuries.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Marc R

    2013-01-01

    Bicycling injuries can be classified into bicycle contact, traumatic, and overuse injuries. Despite the popularity of cycling, there are few scientific studies regarding injuries. Epidemiological studies are difficult to compare due to different methodologies and the diverse population of cyclists studied. There are only three studies conducted on top level professionals. Ninety-four percent of professionals in 1 year have experienced at least one overuse injury. Most overuse injuries are mild with limited time off the bike. The most common site of overuse injury is the knee, and the most common site of traumatic injury is the shoulder, with the clavicle having the most common fracture. Many overuse and bicycle contact ailments are relieved with simple bike adjustments.

  12. Index Sets and Vectorization

    SciTech Connect

    Keasler, J A

    2012-03-27

    Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.

  13. Retroviral vector production.

    PubMed

    Miller, A Dusty

    2014-01-01

    In this unit, the basic protocol generates stable cell lines that produce retroviral vectors that carry selectable markers. Also included are an alternate protocol that applies when the retroviral vector does not carry a selectable marker, and another alternate protocol for rapidly generating retroviral vector preparations by transient transfection. A support protocol describes construction of the retroviral vectors. The methods for generating virus from retroviral vector plasmids rely on the use of packaging cells that synthesize all of the retroviral proteins but do not produce replication-competent virus. Additional protocols detail plasmid transfection, virus titration, assay for replication-competent virus, and histochemical staining to detect transfer of a vector encoding alkaline phosphatase.

  14. Vectorization of a Treecode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Junichiro

    1990-03-01

    Vectorized algorithms for the force calculation and tree construction in the Barnes-Hut tree algorithm are described. The basic idea for the vectorization of the force calculation is to vectorize the tree traversal across particles, so that all particles in the system traverse the tree simultaneously. The tree construction algorithm also makes use of the fact that particles can be treated in parallel. Thus these algorithms take advantage of the internal parallelism in the N-body system and the tree algorithm most effectively. As a natural result, these algorithms can be used on a wide range of vector/parallel architectures, including current supercomputers and highly parallel architectures such as the Connection Machine. The vectorized code runs about five times faster than the non-vector code on a Cyber 205 for an N-body system with N = 8192.

  15. Skiing Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    In the broad spectrum of orthopedic skiing injuries, ‘second aid’ on the mountain and at the base by the physician is very important. All skiing physicians should carry minimal medical supplies, including narcotic medication. Diagnosis and treatment of injuries at the hospital are outlined. Most ski fractures of the tibia can be treated by conservative methods. A more aggressive approach to diagnosis and treatment of ligamentous injuries of the knee is recommended. PMID:20469236

  16. Diving injuries.

    PubMed

    Dickey, L S

    1984-01-01

    This is a collective review about the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of SCUBA and diving injuries by the emergency physician. These injuries can be classified into those resulting from the toxic effects of the inhaled gas, from the pressure changes in the water and gas mixture while diving, and from decompression sickness. With the increasing popularity of SCUBA diving, it is hoped that this discussion will enable a recognition of these injuries and therefore minimize the morbidity and mortality from them.

  17. Support vector tracking.

    PubMed

    Avidan, Shai

    2004-08-01

    Support Vector Tracking (SVT) integrates the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier into an optic-flow-based tracker. Instead of minimizing an intensity difference function between successive frames, SVT maximizes the SVM classification score. To account for large motions between successive frames, we build pyramids from the support vectors and use a coarse-to-fine approach in the classification stage. We show results of using SVT for vehicle tracking in image sequences.

  18. Vectorized Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, F.B.

    1981-01-01

    Examination of the global algorithms and local kernels of conventional general-purpose Monte Carlo codes shows that multigroup Monte Carlo methods have sufficient structure to permit efficient vectorization. A structured multigroup Monte Carlo algorithm for vector computers is developed in which many particle events are treated at once on a cell-by-cell basis. Vectorization of kernels for tracking and variance reduction is described, and a new method for discrete sampling is developed to facilitate the vectorization of collision analysis. To demonstrate the potential of the new method, a vectorized Monte Carlo code for multigroup radiation transport analysis was developed. This code incorporates many features of conventional general-purpose production codes, including general geometry, splitting and Russian roulette, survival biasing, variance estimation via batching, a number of cutoffs, and generalized tallies of collision, tracklength, and surface crossing estimators with response functions. Predictions of vectorized performance characteristics for the CYBER-205 were made using emulated coding and a dynamic model of vector instruction timing. Computation rates were examined for a variety of test problems to determine sensitivities to batch size and vector lengths. Significant speedups are predicted for even a few hundred particles per batch, and asymptotic speedups by about 40 over equivalent Amdahl 470V/8 scalar codes arepredicted for a few thousand particles per batch. The principal conclusion is that vectorization of a general-purpose multigroup Monte Carlo code is well worth the significant effort required for stylized coding and major algorithmic changes.

  19. Injury Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophersen, Edward R.

    1989-01-01

    Injuries are now the cause of more deaths to children than the next six most frequent causes combined. Reviews the research evidence on the effectiveness of approaches to injury control such as legislation, health education, and behavioral strategies. Suggests avenues of further research. (Author/BJV)

  20. Vector processing unit

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, L.C.; Tjon-Pian-Gi, D.C.; Tucker, S.G.; Zajac, M.W.

    1988-12-13

    This patent describes a data processing system comprising: memory means for storing instruction words of operands; a central processing unit (CPU) connected to the memory means for fetching and decoding instructions and controlling execution of instructions, including transfer of operands to and from the memory means, the control of execution of instructions is effected by a CPU clock and microprogram control means connected to the CPU clock for generating periodic execution control signals in synchronism with the CPU clock; vector processing means tightly coupled to the CPU for effecting data processing on vector data; and interconnection means, connecting the CPU and the vector processing means, including operand transfer lines for transfer of vector data between the CPU and the vector processing means, control lines, status lines for signalling conditions of the vector processor means to the CPU, and a vector timing signal line connected to one of the execution control signals from the microprogram control means, whereby the vector processing means receives periodic execution control signals at the clock rate and is synchronized with the CPU clock on a clock pulse by clock pulse basis during execution of instructions.

  1. Rowing Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hosea, Timothy M.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Rowing is one of the original modern Olympic sports and was one of the most popular spectator sports in the United States. Its popularity has been increasing since the enactment of Title IX. The injury patterns in this sport are unique because of the stress applied during the rowing stroke. Evidence Acquisition: This review summarizes the existing literature describing the biomechanics of the rowing stroke and rowing-related injury patterns. Data were obtained from previously published peer-reviewed literature through a search of the entire PubMed database (up to December, 2011) as well as from textbook chapters and rowing coaching manuals. Results: Rowing injuries are primarily overuse related. The knee, lumbar spine, and ribs are most commonly affected. The injury incidence is directly related to the volume of training and technique. Conclusion: Familiarity of the injury patterns and the biomechanical forces affecting the rowing athlete will aid in prompt diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:23016093

  2. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1988-02-05

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

  3. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James M.; Leighton, James F.

    1990-01-01

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  4. Vector theories in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito-Farese, Gilles; Pitrou, Cyril; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2010-03-15

    This article provides a general study of the Hamiltonian stability and the hyperbolicity of vector field models involving both a general function of the Faraday tensor and its dual, f(F{sup 2},FF-tilde), as well as a Proca potential for the vector field, V(A{sup 2}). In particular it is demonstrated that theories involving only f(F{sup 2}) do not satisfy the hyperbolicity conditions. It is then shown that in this class of models, the cosmological dynamics always dilutes the vector field. In the case of a nonminimal coupling to gravity, it is established that theories involving Rf(A{sup 2}) or Rf(F{sup 2}) are generically pathologic. To finish, we exhibit a model where the vector field is not diluted during the cosmological evolution, because of a nonminimal vector field-curvature coupling which maintains second-order field equations. The relevance of such models for cosmology is discussed.

  5. Vector generator scan converter

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1990-04-17

    This patent describes high printing speeds for graphics data that are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  6. Line Integral of a Vector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balabanian, Norman

    This programed booklet is designed for the engineering student who understands and can use vector and unit vector notation, components of a vector, parallel law of vector addition, and the dot product of two vectors. Content begins with work done by a force in moving a body a certain distance along some path. For each of the examples and problem…

  7. Badminton injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Krøner, K; Schmidt, S A; Nielsen, A B; Yde, J; Jakobsen, B W; Møller-Madsen, B; Jensen, J

    1990-01-01

    In a one year period, from 1 January 1986 to 31 December 1986, 4303 patients with sports injuries were treated at Aarhus Amtssygehus and Aarhus Kommunehospital. The mean age was 21.6 years (range 7-72 years) and 2830 were men. Two hundred and seventeen badminton injuries occurred in 208 patients (136 men) with a mean age of 29.6 years (range 7-57 years), constituting 4.1 percent of all sport injuries in Aarhus. Joints and ligaments were injured in 58.5 percent of the patients, most frequently located in the lower limb and significantly more often among patients younger than 30 years of age. Muscle injury occurred in 19.8 percent of the patients. This type of injury was significantly more frequent among patients older than 30 years of age. Most injuries were minor. However, 6.8 percent of the patients were hospitalized and 30.9 percent received additional treatment by a physician. As the risk of injury varies with age, attempts to plan training individually and to institute prophylactic measures should be made. PMID:2078802

  8. Propeller injuries.

    PubMed

    Mann, R J

    1976-05-01

    Water skiing, boat racing, skin and scuba diving, and pleasure boat cruising are increasing in popularity. As a result the incidence of injuries secondary to motor propellers is becoming more frequent. In a ten-year period from 1963 to 1973, I collected a total of nine cases. In some amputations were necessary, and in other cases amputations occurred at the time of injury. Problems with bacterial flora occurring in open sea water versus salt water enclosed near docks and fresh lake water are discussed. A review of the orthopedic literature revealed sparse information regarding propeller injuries.

  9. Polycistronic viral vectors.

    PubMed

    de Felipe, P

    2002-09-01

    Traditionally, vectors for gene transfer/therapy experiments were mono- or bicistronic. In the latter case, vectors express the gene of interest coupled with a marker gene. An increasing demand for more complex polycistronic vectors has arisen in recent years to obtain complex gene transfer/therapy effects. In particular, this demand is stimulated by the hope of a more powerful effect from combined gene therapy than from single gene therapy in a process whose parallels lie in the multi-drug combined therapies for cancer or AIDS. In the 1980's we had only splicing signals and internal promoters to construct such vectors: now a new set of biotechnological tools enables us to design new and more reliable bicistronic and polycistronic vectors. This article focuses on the description and comparison of the strategies for co-expression of two genes in bicistronic vectors, from the oldest to the more recently described: internal promoters, splicing, reinitiation, IRES, self-processing peptides (e.g. foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A), proteolytic cleavable sites (e.g. fusagen) and fusion of genes. I propose a classification of these strategies based upon either the use of multiple transcripts (with transcriptional mechanisms), or single transcripts (using translational/post-translational mechanisms). I also examine the different attempts to utilize these strategies in the construction of polycistronic vectors and the main problems encountered. Several potential uses of these polycistronic vectors, both in basic research and in therapy-focused applications, are discussed. The importance of the study of viral gene expression strategies and the need to transfer this knowledge to vector design is highlighted.

  10. Fractal vector optical fields.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue; Gao, Xu-Zhen; Cai, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Guan-Lin; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2016-07-15

    We introduce the concept of a fractal, which provides an alternative approach for flexibly engineering the optical fields and their focal fields. We propose, design, and create a new family of optical fields-fractal vector optical fields, which build a bridge between the fractal and vector optical fields. The fractal vector optical fields have polarization states exhibiting fractal geometry, and may also involve the phase and/or amplitude simultaneously. The results reveal that the focal fields exhibit self-similarity, and the hierarchy of the fractal has the "weeding" role. The fractal can be used to engineer the focal field. PMID:27420485

  11. Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart, to help decrease swelling. The Body’s Healing Process From the moment a bone breaks or a ... what happens at each stage of the healing process: At the moment of injury: Chemicals are released ...

  12. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  13. Electric injury, Part II: Specific injuries.

    PubMed

    Fish, R M

    2000-01-01

    Electric injury can cause disruption of cardiac rhythm and breathing, burns, fractures, dislocations, rhabdomyolysis, eye and ear injury, oral and gastrointestinal injury, vascular damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peripheral and spinal cord injury, and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. Secondary trauma from falls, fires, flying debris, and inhalation injury can complicate the clinical picture. Diagnostic and treatment considerations for electric injuries are described in this article, which is the second part of a three-part series on electric injuries.

  14. Electric injury, Part II: Specific injuries.

    PubMed

    Fish, R M

    2000-01-01

    Electric injury can cause disruption of cardiac rhythm and breathing, burns, fractures, dislocations, rhabdomyolysis, eye and ear injury, oral and gastrointestinal injury, vascular damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peripheral and spinal cord injury, and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. Secondary trauma from falls, fires, flying debris, and inhalation injury can complicate the clinical picture. Diagnostic and treatment considerations for electric injuries are described in this article, which is the second part of a three-part series on electric injuries. PMID:10645833

  15. Bloch vector projection noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Li-Jun; Bacon, A. M.; Zhao, H.-Z.; Thomas, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    In the optical measurement of the Bloch vector components describing a system of N two-level atoms, the quantum fluctuations in these components are coupled into the measuring optical field. This paper develops the quantum theory of optical measurement of Bloch vector projection noise. The preparation and probing of coherence in an effective two-level system consisting of the two ground states in an atomic three-level lambda-scheme are analyzed.

  16. Poynting-vector filter

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, Charles R.

    2011-08-02

    A determination is made of frequency components associated with a particular bearing or location resulting from sources emitting electromagnetic-wave energy for which a Poynting-Vector can be defined. The broadband frequency components associated with a specific direction or location of interest are isolated from other components in the power spectrum that are not associated with the direction or location of interest. The collection of pointing vectors can be used to characterize the source.

  17. Syngeneic AAV pseudo-vectors potentiates full vector transduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An excessive amount of empty capsids are generated during regular AAV vector production process. These pseudo-vectors often remain in final vectors used for animal studies or clinical trials. The potential effects of these pseudo-vectors on AAV transduction have been a major concern. In the current ...

  18. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  19. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  20. Vector and Axial Vector Pion Form Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitz, Michael; PEN Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Radiative pion decay π+ -->e+ νγ (RPD) provides critical input to chiral perturbation theory (χPT). Aside from the uninteresting ``inner bremsstrahlung'' contribution from QED, the RPD rate contains ``structure dependent'' terms given by FV and FA, the vector and axial-vector pion form factors, respectively. The two appear in the decay rate in combinations FV -FA and FV +FA , i.e., in the so-called SD- and SD+ terms, respectively. The latter has been measured to high precision by the PIBETA collaboration. We report on the analysis of new data, measured by the PEN collaboration in runs between 2008 and 2010 at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland. We particularly focus on the possibility of improvement in the determination of the SD- term. Precise determinations of FV and FA test the validity of the CVC hypothesis, provide numerical input for the l9 +l10 terms in the χPT lagrangian, and constrain potential non-(V - A) terms, such as a possible tensor term FT. NSF grants PHY-0970013, 1307328, and others.

  1. Bunyavirus-vector interactions.

    PubMed

    Beaty, B J; Bishop, D H

    1988-06-01

    Recent advances in the genetics and molecular biology of bunyaviruses have been applied to understanding bunyavirus-vector interactions. Such approaches have revealed which virus gene and gene products are important in establishing infections in vectors and in transmission of viruses. However, much more information is required to understand the molecular mechanisms of persistent infections of vectors which are lifelong but apparently exert no untoward effect. In fact, it seems remarkable that LAC viral antigen can be detected in almost every cell in an ovarian follicle, yet no untoward effect on fecundity and no teratology is seen. Similarly the lifelong infection of the vector would seem to provide ample opportunity for bunyavirus evolution by genetic drift and, under the appropriate circumstances, by segment reassortment. The potential for bunyavirus evolution by segment reassortment in vectors certainly exists. For example the Group C viruses in a small forest in Brazil seem to constitute a gene pool, with the 6 viruses related alternately by HI/NT and CF reactions, which assay respectively M RNA and S RNA gene products (Casals and Whitman, 1960; Shope and Causey, 1962). Direct evidence for naturally occurring reassortant bunyaviruses has also been obtained. Oligonucleotide fingerprint analyses of field isolates of LAC virus and members of the Patois serogroup of bunyaviruses have demonstrated that reassortment does occur in nature (El Said et al., 1979; Klimas et al., 1981; Ushijima et al., 1981). Determination of the genotypic frequencies of viruses selected by the biological interactions of viruses and vectors after dual infection and segment reassortment is an important issue. Should a virus result that efficiently interacts with alternate vector species, the virus could be expressed in different circumstances with serious epidemiologic consequences. Dual infection of vectors with different viruses is not unlikely, because many bunyaviruses are sympatric in

  2. Hamstring injuries

    PubMed Central

    Guanche, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a continuum of hamstring injuries that can range from musculotendinous strains to avulsion injuries. Although the proximal hamstring complex has a strong bony attachment on the ischial tuberosity, hamstring injuries are common in athletic population and can affect all levels of athletes. Nonoperative treatment is mostly recommended in the setting of low-grade partial tears and insertional tendinosis. However, failure of nonoperative treatment of partial tears may benefit from surgical debridement and repair. The technique presented on this article allows for the endoscopic management of proximal hamstring tears and chronic ischial bursitis, which until now has been managed exclusively with much larger open approaches. The procedure allows for complete exposure of the posterior aspect of the hip in a safe, minimally invasive fashion. PMID:27011828

  3. Fingertip injuries

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, Sanjay; Tiwari, VK

    2007-01-01

    Background: Fingertip injuries are extremely common. Out of the various available reconstructive options, one needs to select an option which achieves a painless fingertip with durable and sensate skin cover. The present analysis was conducted to evaluate the management and outcome of fingertip injuries. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 150 cases of fingertip Injuries of patients aged six to 65 years managed over a period of two years. Various reconstructive options were considered for the fingertip lesions greater than or equal to 1 cm2. The total duration of treatment varied from two to six weeks with follow-up from two months to one year. Results: The results showed preservation of finger length and contour, retention of sensation and healing without significant complication. Conclusion: The treatment needs to be individualized and all possible techniques of reconstruction must be known to achieve optimal recovery. PMID:21139772

  4. Wrestling injuries.

    PubMed

    Halloran, Laurel

    2008-01-01

    The sport of wrestling has a history dating back to ancient times as one of the original Olympic sports. It particularly appeals to adolescents as equally matched opponents engage in competition. There can be no argument that participation in sports helps promote a physically active lifestyle. However, despite the documented health benefits of increased physical activity, those who participate in athletics are at risk for sports-related injuries. This article will discuss wrestling injuries and recommend prevention strategies to keep athletes safe. PMID:18521035

  5. Vector financial rogue waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhenya

    2011-11-01

    The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black-Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields.

  6. Vectorized garbage collection

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, A.W.; Bendiksen, A.

    1988-01-01

    Garbage collection can be done in vector mode on supercomputers like the Cray-2 and the Cyber 205. Both copying collection and mark-and-sweep can be expressed as breadth-first searches in which the queue can be processed in parallel. The authors have designed a copying garbage collector whose inner loop works entirely in vector mode. The only significant limitation of the algorithm is that if the size of the records is not constant, the implementation becomes much more complicated. The authors give performance measurements of the algorithm as implemented for Lisp CONS cells on the Cyber 205. Vector-mode garbage collection performs up to 9 times faster than scalar-mode collection.

  7. Eye Injuries at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating Eye ... Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury Map

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the severity of the injury. Tap this spinal column to see how the level of injury affects loss of function and control. Learn more about spinal cord injuries. A spinal cord injury affects the ...

  9. Bunyavirus-Vector Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Kate McElroy; Vanlandingham, Dana L.

    2014-01-01

    The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. The viruses within the Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks, and their associated arthropods not only serve as vectors but also as virus reservoirs in many cases. This review presents an overview of several important emerging or re-emerging bunyaviruses and describes what is known about bunyavirus-vector interactions based on epidemiological, ultrastructural, and genetic studies of members of this virus family. PMID:25402172

  10. Electrical Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... your injuries are depends on how strong the electric current was, what type of current it was, how it moved through your body, and how long you were exposed. Other factors include how ... you should see a doctor. You may have internal damage and not realize it.

  11. Patient Injuries?

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    An injured patient may be the last thing dentists want to think about. However, in reality, patients can be injured during dental treatment or as the result of an incident such as a slip and fall in the office. Treatment-related injuries can run the gamut and include burns, lacerations, swallowed objects and allergic reactions, according to The Dentists Insurance Company.

  12. Support vector machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garay, Michael J.; Mazzoni, Dominic; Davies, Roger; Wagstaff, Kiri

    2004-01-01

    Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are a type of supervised learning algorith,, other examples of which are Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Decision Trees, and Naive Bayesian Classifiers. Supervised learning algorithms are used to classify objects labled by a 'supervisor' - typically a human 'expert.'.

  13. Vector potential methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafez, M.

    1989-01-01

    Vector potential and related methods, for the simulation of both inviscid and viscous flows over aerodynamic configurations, are briefly reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of several formulations are discussed and alternate strategies are recommended. Scalar potential, modified potential, alternate formulations of Euler equations, least-squares formulation, variational principles, iterative techniques and related methods, and viscous flow simulation are discussed.

  14. Killing vectors and anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Krisch, J. P.; Glass, E. N.

    2009-08-15

    We consider an action that can generate fluids with three unequal stresses for metrics with a spacelike Killing vector. The parameters in the action are directly related to the stress anisotropies. The field equations following from the action are applied to an anisotropic cosmological expansion and an extension of the Gott-Hiscock cosmic string.

  15. Production of lentiviral vectors

    PubMed Central

    Merten, Otto-Wilhelm; Hebben, Matthias; Bovolenta, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors (LV) have seen considerably increase in use as gene therapy vectors for the treatment of acquired and inherited diseases. This review presents the state of the art of the production of these vectors with particular emphasis on their large-scale production for clinical purposes. In contrast to oncoretroviral vectors, which are produced using stable producer cell lines, clinical-grade LV are in most of the cases produced by transient transfection of 293 or 293T cells grown in cell factories. However, more recent developments, also, tend to use hollow fiber reactor, suspension culture processes, and the implementation of stable producer cell lines. As is customary for the biotech industry, rather sophisticated downstream processing protocols have been established to remove any undesirable process-derived contaminant, such as plasmid or host cell DNA or host cell proteins. This review compares published large-scale production and purification processes of LV and presents their process performances. Furthermore, developments in the domain of stable cell lines and their way to the use of production vehicles of clinical material will be presented. PMID:27110581

  16. Gene transfer vector

    SciTech Connect

    Puhler, A.; Simon, R.

    1987-08-11

    A Tn-Mob vector is described comprising: (a) A replicon functional E. coli; and (b) A Tn-Mob element comprising a transposon containing (i) a functional selection marker, and (ii) a Mob-site and oriT located in a region of the transposon that is not essential to transposability.

  17. Redshifts and Killing vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Alex; Schucking, Engelbert; Surowitz, Eugene J.

    2006-11-01

    Current approaches to physics stress the importance of conservation laws due to spacetime and internal symmetries. In special and general relativity the generators of these symmetries are known as Killing vectors. We use them for the rigorous determination of gravitational and cosmological redshifts.

  18. Vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Gubler, D J

    2009-08-01

    Vector-borne diseases have been the scourge of man and animals since the beginning of time. Historically, these are the diseases that caused the great plagues such as the 'Black Death' in Europe in the 14th Century and the epidemics of yellow fever that plagued the development of the New World. Others, such as Nagana, contributed to the lack of development in Africa for many years. At the turn of the 20th Century, vector-borne diseases were among the most serious public and animal health problems in the world. For the most part, these diseases were controlled by the middle of the 20th Century through the application of knowledge about their natural history along with the judicious use of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and other residual insecticides to interrupt the transmission cycle between arthropod and vertebrate host. However, this success initiated a period of complacency in the 1960s and 1970s, which resulted in the redirection of resources away from prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. The 1970s was also a time in which there were major changes to public health policy. Global trends, combined with changes in animal husbandry, urbanisation, modern transportation and globalisation, have resulted in a global re-emergence of epidemic vector-borne diseases affecting both humans and animals over the past 30 years. PMID:20128467

  19. Vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Gubler, D J

    2009-08-01

    Vector-borne diseases have been the scourge of man and animals since the beginning of time. Historically, these are the diseases that caused the great plagues such as the 'Black Death' in Europe in the 14th Century and the epidemics of yellow fever that plagued the development of the New World. Others, such as Nagana, contributed to the lack of development in Africa for many years. At the turn of the 20th Century, vector-borne diseases were among the most serious public and animal health problems in the world. For the most part, these diseases were controlled by the middle of the 20th Century through the application of knowledge about their natural history along with the judicious use of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and other residual insecticides to interrupt the transmission cycle between arthropod and vertebrate host. However, this success initiated a period of complacency in the 1960s and 1970s, which resulted in the redirection of resources away from prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. The 1970s was also a time in which there were major changes to public health policy. Global trends, combined with changes in animal husbandry, urbanisation, modern transportation and globalisation, have resulted in a global re-emergence of epidemic vector-borne diseases affecting both humans and animals over the past 30 years.

  20. Singular Vectors' Subtle Secrets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David; Lachance, Michael; Remski, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Social scientists use adjacency tables to discover influence networks within and among groups. Building on work by Moler and Morrison, we use ordered pairs from the components of the first and second singular vectors of adjacency matrices as tools to distinguish these groups and to identify particularly strong or weak individuals.

  1. [Vector control and malaria control].

    PubMed

    Carnevale, P; Mouchet, J

    1990-01-01

    Vector control is an integral part of malaria control. Limiting parasite transmission vector control must be considered as one of the main preventive measure. Indeed it prevents transmission of Plasmodium from man to vector and from vector to man. But vector control must be adapted to local situation to be efficient and feasible. Targets of vector control can be larval and/or adults stages. In both cases 3 main methods are currently available: physical (source reduction), chemical (insecticides) and biological tolls. Antilarval control is useful only in some particular circumstances (unstable malaria, island, oasis...) Antiadult control is mainly based upon house-spraying while pyrethroid treated bed nets is advocated regarding efficiency, simple technique and cheap price. Vector control measures could seem restricted but can be very efficient if political will is added to a right choice of adapted measures, a good training of involved personal and a large information of the population concerned with vector control.

  2. Elusive vector glueball

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Mahiko

    2002-05-01

    If the vector glueball {Omicron} exists in the mass range that theory suggests, its resonant production cross section can be detected in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation only if the decay width is very narrow ({le} a few MeV). Otherwise {Omicron} will be observed only indirectly through its mixing with {psi}{prime}. We propose a few tests of the {Omicron}-{psi}{prime} mixing for future charm factories.

  3. Vector soliton fission.

    PubMed

    Lu, F; Lin, Q; Knox, W H; Agrawal, Govind P

    2004-10-29

    We investigate the vectorial nature of soliton fission in an isotropic nonlinear medium both theoretically and experimentally. As a specific example, we show that supercontinuum generation in a tapered fiber is extremely sensitive to the input state of polarization. Multiple vector solitons generated through soliton fission exhibit different states of elliptical polarization while emitting nonsolitonic radiation with complicated polarization features. Experiments performed with a tapered fiber agree with our theoretical description.

  4. Vector Magnetograph Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, Russell A.

    1996-01-01

    This report covers work performed during the period of November 1994 through March 1996 on the design of a Space-borne Solar Vector Magnetograph. This work has been performed as part of a design team under the supervision of Dr. Mona Hagyard and Dr. Alan Gary of the Space Science Laboratory. Many tasks were performed and this report documents the results from some of those tasks, each contained in the corresponding appendix. Appendices are organized in chronological order.

  5. Vector representation of tourmaline compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Donald M.

    1989-01-01

    The vector method for representing mineral compositions of amphibole and mica groups is applied to the tourmaline group. Consideration is given to the methods for drawing the relevant vector diagrams, relating the exchange vectors to one another, and contouring the diagrams for constant values of Na, Ca, Li, Fe, Mg, Al, Si, and OH. The method is used to depict a wide range of possible tourmaline end-member compositions and solid solutions, starting from a single point. In addition to vector depictions of multicomponent natural tourmalines, vectors are presented for simpler systems such as (Na,Al)-tourmalines, alkali-free tourmalines, and elbaites.

  6. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Scoles, Glen A; Ueti, Massaro W

    2015-01-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is a disease of Equidae, including horses, donkeys, mules, and zebras, caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick vectors, and although they have inherent differences they are categorized together because they cause similar pathology and have similar morphologies, life cycles, and vector relationships. To complete their life cycle, these parasites must undergo a complex series of developmental events, including sexual-stage development in their tick vectors. Consequently, ticks are the definitive hosts as well as vectors for these parasites, and the vector relationship is restricted to a few competent tick species. Because the vector relationship is critical to the epidemiology of these parasites, we highlight current knowledge of the vector ecology of these tick-borne equine pathogens, emphasizing tick transmissibility and potential control strategies to prevent their spread.

  7. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  8. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center PTACs Workspaces Log-in Search for: Traumatic Brain Injury A legacy resource from NICHCY Disability Fact ... in her. Back to top What is Traumatic Brain Injury? A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an ...

  9. Eye Injuries at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bureau of Labor Statistics, more than 20,000 workplace eye injuries happen each year. Injuries on the job often ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reports that workplace eye injuries cost an estimated $300 million a year in ...

  10. Wounds and Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    An injury is damage to your body. It is a general term that refers to harm caused by accidents, ... millions of people injure themselves every year. These injuries range from minor to life-threatening. Injuries can ...

  11. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

  12. Spinal injury - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - spinal injury ... The following organizations are good resources for information on spinal injury : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov The National Spinal Cord Injury ...

  13. Head injury. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiographic Evaluation; Epidemiology of Head Injury; Emergency Care and Initial Evaluation; Skull Fracture and Traumatic Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistulas; Mild Head Injury; and Injuries of the Cranial Nerves.

  14. Thrust vectoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, H. J.; Schnelker, D.; Ward, J. W.; Dulgeroff, C.; Vahrenkamp, R.

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of thrust vectorable ion optical systems capable of controlling the thrust direction from both 5- and 30-cm diameter ion thrusters is described. Both systems are capable of greater than 10 deg thrust deflection in any azimuthal direction. The 5-cm system is electrostatic and hence has a short response time and minimal power consumption. It has recently been tested for more than 7500 hours on an operational thruster. The 30-cm system is mechanical, has a response time of the order of 1 min, and consumes less than 0.3% of the total system input power at full deflection angle.

  15. Vector potential photoelectron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, R.

    2011-10-15

    A new class of electron microscope has been developed for the chemical microanalysis of a wide range of real world samples using photoelectron spectroscopy. Highly structured, three-dimensional samples, such as fiber mats and fracture surfaces can be imaged, as well as insulators and magnetic materials. The new microscope uses the vector potential field from a solenoid magnet as a spatial reference for imaging. A prototype instrument has demonstrated imaging of uncoated silk, magnetic steel wool, and micron-sized single strand tungsten wires.

  16. Lentiviral vectors express chondroitinase ABC in cortical projections and promote sprouting of injured corticospinal axons.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rong-Rong; Muir, Elizabeth M; Alves, João Nuno; Rickman, Hannah; Allan, Anna Y; Kwok, Jessica C; Roet, Kasper C D; Verhaagen, Joost; Schneider, Bernard L; Bensadoun, Jean-Charles; Ahmed, Sherif G; Yáñez-Muñoz, Rafael J; Keynes, Roger J; Fawcett, James W; Rogers, John H

    2011-09-30

    Several diseases and injuries of the central nervous system could potentially be treated by delivery of an enzyme, which might most effectively be achieved by gene therapy. In particular, the bacterial enzyme chondroitinase ABC is beneficial in animal models of spinal cord injury. We have adapted the chondroitinase gene so that it can direct secretion of active chondroitinase from mammalian cells, and inserted it into lentiviral vectors. When injected into adult rat brain, these vectors lead to extensive secretion of chondroitinase, both locally and from long-distance axon projections, with activity persisting for more than 4 weeks. In animals which received a simultaneous lesion of the corticospinal tract, the vector reduced axonal die-back and promoted sprouting and short-range regeneration of corticospinal axons. The same beneficial effects on damaged corticospinal axons were observed in animals which received the chondroitinase lentiviral vector directly into the vicinity of a spinal cord lesion.

  17. Basketball Injuries: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple Jr., David F.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses reasons for the increase in basketball-related injuries, describes common injuries, outlines steps for diagnosis and treatment, and offers recovery and prevention strategies. (IAH)

  18. Baseball and softball injuries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quincy

    2006-05-01

    Baseball and softball injuries can be a result of both acute and overuse injuries. Soft tissue injuries include contusions, abrasions, and lacerations. Return to play is allowed when risk of further injury is minimized. Common shoulder injuries include those to the rotator cuff, biceps tendon, and glenoid labrum. Elbow injuries are common in baseball and softball and include medial epicondylitis, ulnar collateral ligament injury, and osteochondritis dissecans. Typically conservative treatment with relative rest, medication, and a rehabilitation program will allow return to play. Surgical intervention may be needed for certain injuries or conservative treatment failure.

  19. Sports injuries of the ear.

    PubMed

    Wagner, G A

    1972-07-01

    The author describes common sports injuries involving the ear. Such injuries include hematoma, lacerations, foreign bodies (tattoo), and thermal injuries. Ear canal injuries include swimmer's ear and penetrating injuries. Tympanum injuries include tympanic membrane perforations, ossicular discontinuity, eustachian tube dysfunction, temporal bone fractures and traumatic facial nerve palsy. Inner ear injuries include traumatic sensorineural deafness. The author emphasizes the management of these injuries.

  20. Hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xu-Zhen; Pan, Yue; Cai, Meng-Qiang; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2015-12-14

    We present and construct a new kind of orthogonal coordinate system, hyperbolic coordinate system. We present and design a new kind of local linearly polarized vector fields, which is defined as the hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields because the points with the same polarization form a series of hyperbolae. We experimentally demonstrate the generation of such a kind of hyperbolic-symmetry vector optical fields. In particular, we also study the modified hyperbolic-symmetry vector optical fields with the twofold and fourfold symmetric states of polarization when introducing the mirror symmetry. The tight focusing behaviors of these vector fields are also investigated. In addition, we also fabricate micro-structures on the K9 glass surfaces by several tightly focused (modified) hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields patterns, which demonstrate that the simulated tightly focused fields are in good agreement with the fabricated micro-structures.

  1. Covariant Lyapunov vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginelli, Francesco; Chaté, Hugues; Livi, Roberto; Politi, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in covariant Lyapunov vectors (CLVs) which span local intrinsic directions in the phase space of chaotic systems. Here, we review the basic results of ergodic theory, with a specific reference to the implications of Oseledets’ theorem for the properties of the CLVs. We then present a detailed description of a ‘dynamical’ algorithm to compute the CLVs and show that it generically converges exponentially in time. We also discuss its numerical performance and compare it with other algorithms presented in the literature. We finally illustrate how CLVs can be used to quantify deviations from hyperbolicity with reference to a dissipative system (a chain of Hénon maps) and a Hamiltonian model (a Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain). This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’.

  2. Solar imaging vector magnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an instrument which has been constructed at the University of Hawaii to make observations of the magnetic field in solar active regions. Detailed knowledge of active region magnetic structures is crucial to understanding many solar phenomena, because the magnetic field both defines the morphology of structures seen in the solar atmosphere and is the apparent energy source for solar flares. The new vector magnetograph was conceived in response to a perceived discrepancy between the capabilities of X ray imaging telescopes to be operating during the current solar maximum and those of existing magnetographs. There were no space-based magnetographs planned for this period; the existing ground-based instruments variously suffered from lack of sensitivity, poor time resolution, inadequate spatial resolution or unreliable sites. Yet the studies of flares and their relationship to the solar corona planned for the 1991-1994 maximum absolutely required high quality vector magnetic field measurements. By 'vector' measurements we mean that the observation attempts to deduce the complete strength and direction of the field at the measurement site, rather than just the line of sight component as obtained by a traditional longitudinal magnetograph. Knowledge of the vector field permits one to calculate photospheric electric currents, which might play a part in heating the corona, and to calculate energy stored in coronal magnetic fields as the result of such currents. Information about the strength and direction of magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere can be obtained in a number of ways, but quantitative data is best obtained by observing Zeeman-effect polarization in solar spectral lines. The technique requires measuring the complete state of polarization at one or more wavelengths within a magnetically sensitive line of the solar spectrum. This measurement must be done for each independent spatial point for which one wants magnetic field data. All the

  3. Injury surveillance in construction: eye injuries.

    PubMed

    Welch, L S; Hunting, K L; Mawudeku, A

    2001-07-01

    Occupational eye injuries are both common and preventable. About 20% of occupational eye injuries occur in construction. To investigate the nature of eye injuries among construction workers, we analyzed a large data set of construction worker injuries. In addition, we interviewed 62 workers with eye injuries to further explore circumstances of eye injury and workers' attitudes and behavior toward the use of eye protection. Eleven percent (363 cases) of the 3,390 construction workers in our data set were treated for eye injuries. Welders, plumbers, insulators, painters/glaziers, supervisors, and electricians had a higher proportion of all injuries due to eye injuries than other trades. Nearly half of the diagnoses were abrasions (46%) followed by foreign objects or splash in the eye (29%), conjunctivitis (10%), and burns (5%). In the interviews with 62 workers, we found that employers very frequently required eye protection for all tasks or for high-risk tasks, and workers report wearing eye protection regularly. However, most did not wear eye protection with top and side shields; if we believe the injuries occurred because a particle or liquid passed between the glasses and the workers' faces, increased use of goggles or full shields would have prevented two-thirds of this group of injuries.

  4. Head Injuries in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play a crucial role in injury prevention and initial treatment when injuries occur at school. The role of school nurses includes being knowledgeable about the management of head injuries, including assessment and initial treatment. The school nurse must be familiar with the outcomes of a head injury and know when further evaluation…

  5. Sports-specific injuries.

    PubMed

    Plancher, K D; Minnich, J M

    1996-04-01

    Injuries to the upper extremities can happen in any sport. Injury patterns are common to specific sports. Understanding which injuries occur with these sports allows the examiner to diagnose and treat the athlete easily. This article reviews some of the injuries common in sports such as bicycling, golf, gymnastics, martial arts, racquet sports, and weightlifting.

  6. Eye injuries in childhood.

    PubMed

    Grin, T R; Nelson, L B; Jeffers, J B

    1987-07-01

    A 3-year survey was conducted of all children with eye injuries admitted to Wills Eye Hospital to determine demographic, etiologic, and prophylactic factors. There were 278 cases, representing 22% of all ocular injuries in children requiring admission. The frequency of childhood ocular injuries is high, often resulting in serious visual impairment. Many of these injuries are preventable. The causes of pediatric eye injuries and preventive measures are discussed.

  7. Pediatric Hand Injuries.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Matthew A; Cogan, Charles J; Adkinson, Joshua M

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric hand injuries are extremely common. Although many hand injuries are adequately managed in the emergency department, some may need evaluation and treatment by a pediatric hand surgeon to ensure a good functional outcome. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of the most common pediatric hand maladies: fingertip injuries/amputation, tendon injuries, and phalangeal and metacarpal fractures. The plastic surgery nurse should be familiar with hand injuries that require intervention to facilitate efficient management and optimal postoperative care. PMID:27606586

  8. GPU Accelerated Vector Median Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    Noise reduction is an important step for most image processing tasks. For three channel color images, a widely used technique is vector median filter in which color values of pixels are treated as 3-component vectors. Vector median filters are computationally expensive; for a window size of n x n, each of the n(sup 2) vectors has to be compared with other n(sup 2) - 1 vectors in distances. General purpose computation on graphics processing units (GPUs) is the paradigm of utilizing high-performance many-core GPU architectures for computation tasks that are normally handled by CPUs. In this work. NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) paradigm is used to accelerate vector median filtering. which has to the best of our knowledge never been done before. The performance of GPU accelerated vector median filter is compared to that of the CPU and MPI-based versions for different image and window sizes, Initial findings of the study showed 100x improvement of performance of vector median filter implementation on GPUs over CPU implementations and further speed-up is expected after more extensive optimizations of the GPU algorithm .

  9. Bubble vector in automatic merging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamidi, P. R.; Butler, T. G.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that it is within the capability of the DMAP language to build a set of vectors that can grow incrementally to be applied automatically and economically within a DMAP loop that serves to append sub-matrices that are generated within a loop to a core matrix. The method of constructing such vectors is explained.

  10. Vectors on the Basketball Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    An Idea Bank published in the April/May 2009 issue of "The Science Teacher" describes an experiential physics lesson on vectors and vector addition (Brown 2009). Like its football predecessor, the basketball-based investigation presented in this Idea Bank addresses National Science Education Standards Content B, Physical Science, 9-12 (NRC 1996)…

  11. Rice Reoviruses in Insect Vectors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Taiyun; Li, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Rice reoviruses, transmitted by leafhopper or planthopper vectors in a persistent propagative manner, seriously threaten the stability of rice production in Asia. Understanding the mechanisms that enable viral transmission by insect vectors is a key to controlling these viral diseases. This review describes current understanding of replication cycles of rice reoviruses in vector cell lines, transmission barriers, and molecular determinants of vector competence and persistent infection. Despite recent breakthroughs, such as the discoveries of actin-based tubule motility exploited by viruses to overcome transmission barriers and mutually beneficial relationships between viruses and bacterial symbionts, there are still many gaps in our knowledge of transmission mechanisms. Advances in genome sequencing, reverse genetics systems, and molecular technologies will help to address these problems. Investigating the multiple interaction systems among the virus, insect vector, insect symbiont, and plant during natural infection in the field is a central topic for future research on rice reoviruses. PMID:27296147

  12. A neural support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Jändel, Magnus

    2010-06-01

    Support vector machines are state-of-the-art pattern recognition algorithms that are well founded in optimization and generalization theory but not obviously applicable to the brain. This paper presents Bio-SVM, a biologically feasible support vector machine. An unstable associative memory oscillates between support vectors and interacts with a feed-forward classification pathway. Kernel neurons blend support vectors and sensory input. Downstream temporal integration generates the classification. Instant learning of surprising events and off-line tuning of support vector weights trains the system. Emotion-based learning, forgetting trivia, sleep and brain oscillations are phenomena that agree with the Bio-SVM model. A mapping to the olfactory system is suggested.

  13. Vector Network Analysis

    1997-10-20

    Vector network analyzers are a convenient way to measure scattering parameters of a variety of microwave devices. However, these instruments, unlike oscilloscopes for example, require a relatively high degree of user knowledge and expertise. Due to the complexity of the instrument and of the calibration process, there are many ways in which an incorrect measurement may be produced. The Microwave Project, which is part of Sandia National Laboratories Primary Standards Laboratory, routinely uses check standardsmore » to verify that the network analyzer is operating properly. In the past, these measurements were recorded manually and, sometimes, interpretation of the results was problematic. To aid our measurement assurance process, a software program was developed to automatically measure a check standard and compare the new measurements with an historical database of measurements of the same device. The program acquires new measurement data from selected check standards, plots the new data against the mean and standard deviation of prior data for the same check standard, and updates the database files for the check standard. The program is entirely menu-driven requiring little additional work by the user.« less

  14. Chikungunya Virus–Vector Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Lark L.; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Weaver, Scott C.

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed. PMID:25421891

  15. Successive refinement lattice vector quantization.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Debargha; Mitra, Sanjit K

    2002-01-01

    Lattice Vector quantization (LVQ) solves the complexity problem of LBG based vector quantizers, yielding very general codebooks. However, a single stage LVQ, when applied to high resolution quantization of a vector, may result in very large and unwieldy indices, making it unsuitable for applications requiring successive refinement. The goal of this work is to develop a unified framework for progressive uniform quantization of vectors without having to sacrifice the mean- squared-error advantage of lattice quantization. A successive refinement uniform vector quantization methodology is developed, where the codebooks in successive stages are all lattice codebooks, each in the shape of the Voronoi regions of the lattice at the previous stage. Such Voronoi shaped geometric lattice codebooks are named Voronoi lattice VQs (VLVQ). Measures of efficiency of successive refinement are developed based on the entropy of the indices transmitted by the VLVQs. Additionally, a constructive method for asymptotically optimal uniform quantization is developed using tree-structured subset VLVQs in conjunction with entropy coding. The methodology developed here essentially yields the optimal vector counterpart of scalar "bitplane-wise" refinement. Unfortunately it is not as trivial to implement as in the scalar case. Furthermore, the benefits of asymptotic optimality in tree-structured subset VLVQs remain elusive in practical nonasymptotic situations. Nevertheless, because scalar bitplane- wise refinement is extensively used in modern wavelet image coders, we have applied the VLVQ techniques to successively refine vectors of wavelet coefficients in the vector set-partitioning (VSPIHT) framework. The results are compared against SPIHT and the previous successive approximation wavelet vector quantization (SA-W-VQ) results of Sampson, da Silva and Ghanbari.

  16. Vector and Axial-Vector Structures of the Θ+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Ledwig, Tim; Goeke, Klaus

    We present in this talk recent results of the vector and axial-vector transitions of the nucleon to the pentaquark baryon Θ+, based on the SU(3) chiral quark-soliton model. The results are summarized as follows: K*NΘ vector and tensor coupling constants turn out to be gK*NΘ ≃ 0.81 and fK*NΘ ≃ 0.84, respectively, and the KNΘ axial-vector coupling constant to be g*A ˜= 0.05. As a result, the total decay width for Θ+ → NK becomes very small: ΓΘ→NK ≃ 0.71 MeV, which is consistent with the DIANA result ΓΘ→NK = 0.36 ± 0.11 MeV.

  17. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  18. Upper extremity golf injuries.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury.

  19. Neuropathophysiology of Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Quillinan, Nidia; Herson, Paco S; Traystman, Richard J

    2016-09-01

    Every year in the United States, millions of individuals incur ischemic brain injury from stroke, cardiac arrest, or traumatic brain injury. These acquired brain injuries can lead to death or long-term neurologic and neuropsychological impairments. The mechanisms of ischemic and traumatic brain injury that lead to these deficiencies result from a complex interplay of interdependent molecular pathways, including excitotoxicity, acidotoxicity, ionic imbalance, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. This article reviews several mechanisms of brain injury and discusses recent developments. Although much is known from animal models of injury, it has been difficult to translate these effects to humans. PMID:27521191

  20. Rehabilitation of basketball injuries.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Gerard A; Chimes, Gary P

    2006-08-01

    Basketball is one of the most popular sports in the United States and throughout the world, and therefore represents one of the most common sources of sports-related injuries. Basketball injuries should be managed by the same general rehabilitation principles as other sports injuries. Additionally, the clinician should be aware not only of general sports injuries but of those injuries most commonly seen in basketball players. By maintaining knowledge of the most common basketball injuries as well as their diagnosis and treatment, the clinician can help to optimize the athlete's return to play and enjoyment of the sport.

  1. Colliders and brane vector phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, T. E.; Love, S. T.; Xiong, C.; Nitta, Muneto; Veldhuis, T. ter

    2008-12-01

    Brane world oscillations manifest themselves as massive vector gauge fields. Their coupling to the standard model is deduced using the method of nonlinear realizations of the spontaneously broken higher dimensional space-time symmetries. Brane vectors are stable and weakly interacting and therefore escape particle detectors unnoticed. LEP and Tevatron data on the production of a single photon in conjunction with missing energy are used to delineate experimentally excluded regions of brane vector parameter space. The additional region of parameter space accessible to the LHC as well as a future lepton linear collider is also determined by means of this process.

  2. Initial conditions for vector inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Takeshi

    2008-08-15

    Recently, a model of inflation using non-minimally coupled massive vector fields has been proposed. For a particular choice of non-minimal coupling parameter and for a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model, the model is reduced to the model of chaotic inflation with massive scalar field. We study the effect of non-zero curvature of the universe on the onset of vector inflation. We find that in a curved universe the dynamics of vector inflation can be different from the dynamics of chaotic inflation, and the fraction of the initial conditions leading to inflationary solutions is reduced as compared with the chaotic inflation case.

  3. Gene therapy approaches for spinal cord injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, Corinne

    As the biomedical engineering field expands, combination technologies are demonstrating enormous potential for treating human disease. In particular, intersections between the rapidly developing fields of gene therapy and tissue engineering hold promise to achieve tissue regeneration. Nonviral gene therapy uses plasmid DNA to deliver therapeutic proteins in vivo for extended periods of time. Tissue engineering employs biomedical materials, such as polymers, to support the regrowth of injured tissue. In this thesis, a combination strategy to deliver genes and drugs in a polymeric scaffold was applied to a spinal cord injury model. In order to develop a platform technology to treat spinal cord injury, several nonviral gene delivery systems and polymeric scaffolds were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Nonviral vector trafficking was evaluated in primary neuronal culture to develop an understanding of the barriers to gene transfer in neurons and their supporting glia. Although the most efficient gene carrier in vitro differed from the optimal gene carrier in vivo, confocal and electron microscopy of these nonviral vectors provided insights into the interaction of these vectors with the nucleus. A novel pathway for delivering nanoparticles into the nuclei of neurons and Schwann cells via vesicle trafficking was observed in this study. Reporter gene expression levels were evaluated after direct and remote delivery to the spinal cord, and the optimal nonviral vector, dose, and delivery strategy were applied to deliver the gene encoding the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to the spinal cord. An injectable and biocompatible gel, composed of the amphiphillic polymer poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG) was evaluated as a drug and gene delivery system in vitro, and combined with the optimized nonviral gene delivery system to treat spinal cord injury. Plasmid DNA encoding the bFGF gene and the therapeutic NEP1--40 peptide

  4. Experiments With Magnetic Vector Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the experimental apparatus and method for the study of magnetic vector potential (MVP). Includes a discussion of inherent errors in the calculations involved, precision of the results, and further applications of MVP. (GS)

  5. Electromagnetic structure of vector mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamuščín, C.; Dubnička, S.; Dubničková, A. Z.

    2014-11-01

    Electromagnetic structure of the complete nonet of vector mesons (ρ0, ρ+, ρ-, ω, ϕ, K*0, K*+, K¯*0, K*-) is investigated in the framework of the Unitary and Analytic model and insufficient experimental information on it is discussed.

  6. Polynomial interpretation of multipole vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Gabriel; Weeks, Jeff

    2004-09-01

    Copi, Huterer, Starkman, and Schwarz introduced multipole vectors in a tensor context and used them to demonstrate that the first-year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) quadrupole and octopole planes align at roughly the 99.9% confidence level. In the present article, the language of polynomials provides a new and independent derivation of the multipole vector concept. Bézout’s theorem supports an elementary proof that the multipole vectors exist and are unique (up to rescaling). The constructive nature of the proof leads to a fast, practical algorithm for computing multipole vectors. We illustrate the algorithm by finding exact solutions for some simple toy examples and numerical solutions for the first-year WMAP quadrupole and octopole. We then apply our algorithm to Monte Carlo skies to independently reconfirm the estimate that the WMAP quadrupole and octopole planes align at the 99.9% level.

  7. Brief history of vector Doppler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunmire, Barbrina; Beach, Kirk W.

    2001-05-01

    Since the development of the directional Doppler by McLeod in 1967, methods of acquiring, analyzing, and displaying blood velocity information have been under constant exploration. These efforts are motivated by a variety of interest and objectives including, to: a) simplify clinical examination, examiner training, and study interpretation, b) provide more hemodynamic information, and c) reduce examination variability and improve accuracy. The vector Doppler technique has been proposed as one potential avenue to achieve these objects. Vector Doppler systems are those that determine the true 2D or 3D blood flow velocity by combining multiple independent velocity component measurements. Most instruments can be divided into two broad categories: 1) cross-beam and 2) time-domain. This paper provides a brief synopsis of the progression of vector Doppler techniques, from its onset in 1970 to present, as well as possible avenues for future work. This is not intended to be a comprehensive review of all vector Doppler systems.

  8. Unsupervised learning of binary vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copelli Lopes da Silva, Mauro

    In this thesis, unsupervised learning of binary vectors from data is studied using methods from Statistical Mechanics of disordered systems. In the model, data vectors are distributed according to a single symmetry-breaking direction. The aim of unsupervised learning is to provide a good approximation to this direction. The difference with respect to previous studies is the knowledge that this preferential direction has binary components. It is shown that sampling from the posterior distribution (Gibbs learning) leads, for general smooth distributions, to an exponentially fast approach to perfect learning in the asymptotic limit of large number of examples. If the distribution is non-smooth, then first order phase transitions to perfect learning are expected. In the limit of poor performance, a second order phase transition ("retarded learning") is predicted to occur if the data distribution is not biased. Using concepts from Bayesian inference, the center of mass of the Gibbs ensemble is shown to have maximal average (Bayes-optimal) performance. This upper bound for continuous vectors is extended to a discrete space, resulting in the clipped center of mass of the Gibbs ensemble having maximal average performance among the binary vectors. To calculate the performance of this best binary vector, the geometric properties of the center of mass of binary vectors are studied. The surprising result is found that the center of mass of infinite binary vectors which obey some simple constraints, is again a binary vector. When disorder is taken into account in the calculation, however, a vector with continuous components is obtained. The performance of the best binary vector is calculated and shown to always lie above that of Gibbs learning and below the Bayes-optimal performance. Making use of a variational approach under the replica symmetric ansatz, an optimal potential is constructed in the limits of zero temperature and mutual overlap 1. Minimization of this potential

  9. Brachial Plexus Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Brachial Plexus Injuries Information Page Synonym(s): Erb's Palsy Table of Contents ( ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What are Brachial Plexus Injuries? The brachial plexus is a network of nerves ...

  10. Teeth Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Teeth Injuries KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Teeth Injuries ... or young child injures the gums or baby teeth: Apply pressure to the area (if it's bleeding) ...

  11. Experimental traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury, a leading cause of death and disability, is a result of an outside force causing mechanical disruption of brain tissue and delayed pathogenic events which collectively exacerbate the injury. These pathogenic injury processes are poorly understood and accordingly no effective neuroprotective treatment is available so far. Experimental models are essential for further clarification of the highly complex pathology of traumatic brain injury towards the development of novel treatments. Among the rodent models of traumatic brain injury the most commonly used are the weight-drop, the fluid percussion, and the cortical contusion injury models. As the entire spectrum of events that might occur in traumatic brain injury cannot be covered by one single rodent model, the design and choice of a specific model represents a major challenge for neuroscientists. This review summarizes and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the currently available rodent models for traumatic brain injury. PMID:20707892

  12. What Are Sports Injuries?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 06:02 Size: 11.7 MB November 2014 What Are Sports Injuries? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... Research Is Being Done on Treating Sports Injuries? What’s the Difference Between an Acute and a Chronic ...

  13. Football injuries: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries.

  14. Facial Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Face injuries and disorders can cause pain and affect how you look. In severe cases, they can affect sight, ... your nose, cheekbone and jaw, are common facial injuries. Certain diseases also lead to facial disorders. For ...

  15. Hip Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or falling can all sometimes lead to hip injuries. These include Strains Bursitis Dislocations Fractures Certain diseases also lead to hip injuries or problems. Osteoarthritis can cause pain and limited ...

  16. Arm Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of muscles, joints, tendons and other connective tissue. Injuries to any of these parts of the arm ... a fall or an accident. Types of arm injuries include Tendinitis and bursitis Sprains Dislocations Broken bones ...

  17. Hand Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wrist, often making your fingers feel numb Injuries that result in fractures, ruptured ligaments and dislocations ... deformity Tendinitis - irritation of the tendons Disorders and injuries of your fingers and thumb

  18. Brachial Plexus Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the shoulder, arm, and hand. Brachial plexus injuries are caused by damage to those nerves. Symptoms ... sensation in the arm or hand Brachial plexus injuries can occur as a result of shoulder trauma, ...

  19. Recreational softball injuries.

    PubMed

    Shesser, R; Smith, M; Ellis, P; Brett, S; Ott, J E

    1985-05-01

    Every patient who presented to an urban teaching hospital's emergency department during one season complaining of an injury sustained while playing softball was interviewed to determine the parameters of play associated with the injury. Trends were noticed toward increased frequency of injury to experienced players late in the season. A fall was the most common mechanism of injury, and player location at the time of injury was equally divided between the basepath and defense. Very few players were injured at bat. No conclusion could be drawn about the protection afforded a player from the use of a mitt or cleats. The relative rate of injury was estimated to be 2.26 injuries per 1,000 players per day, making the risk of injury for softball participants about 50% of that for recreational skiers.

  20. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Karl B.

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the medical literature on head injuries in soccer and concludes that protective headgear to reduce these injuries may not be as effective as rule changes and other measures, such as padding goal posts. (IAH)

  1. Eye Injuries in Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... these injuries can be prevented. Overall, basketball and baseball cause the most eye injuries, followed by water ... involve body contact. Some high-risk sports are baseball, basketball, hockey, football, lacrosse, tennis and other racquet ...

  2. Effective Masses of Vector Polarons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foell, Charles; Clougherty, Dennis

    2006-03-01

    We consider the vector polarons of a one-dimensional model of an electron in a doubly (or nearly) degenerate band that couples to two elastic distortions, as described previously by Clougherty and Foell [1]. A variational approach is used to analytically and numerically calculate effective masses of the three types of vector polarons. [1] D. P. Clougherty and C. A. Foell, Phys. Rev. B 70, 052301 (2004).

  3. Axisymmetric Coanda-assisted vectoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Dustin; Smith, Barton L.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental demonstration of a jet vectoring technique used in our novel spray method called Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation (CSM) is presented. CSM makes use of the Coanda effect on axisymmetric geometries through the interaction of two jets: a primary jet and a control jet. The primary jet has larger volume flow rate but generally a smaller momentum flux than the control jet. The primary jet flows through the center of a rounded collar. The control jet is parallel to the primary and is adjacent to the convex collar. The Reynolds number range for the primary jet at the exit plane was between 20,000 and 80,000. The flow was in the incompressible Mach number range (Mach < 0.3). The control jet attaches to the convex wall and vectors according to known Coanda effect principles, entraining and vectoring the primary jet, resulting in controllable r - θ directional spraying. Several annular control slots and collar radii were tested over a range of momentum flux ratios to determine the effects of these variables on the vectored jet angle and spreading. Two and Three-component Particle Image Velocimetry systems were used to determine the vectoring angle and the profile of the combined jet in each experiment. The experiments show that the control slot and expansion radius, along with the momentum ratios of the two jets predominantly affected the vectoring angle and profile of the combined jets.

  4. Vectoring of parallel synthetic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Tim; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Gomit, Guillaume

    2015-11-01

    A pair of parallel synthetic jets can be vectored by applying a phase difference between the two driving signals. The resulting jet can be merged or bifurcated and either vectored towards the actuator leading in phase or the actuator lagging in phase. In the present study, the influence of phase difference and Strouhal number on the vectoring behaviour is examined experimentally. Phase-locked vorticity fields, measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), are used to track vortex pairs. The physical mechanisms that explain the diversity in vectoring behaviour are observed based on the vortex trajectories. For a fixed phase difference, the vectoring behaviour is shown to be primarily influenced by pinch-off time of vortex rings generated by the synthetic jets. Beyond a certain formation number, the pinch-off timescale becomes invariant. In this region, the vectoring behaviour is determined by the distance between subsequent vortex rings. We acknowledge the financial support from the European Research Council (ERC grant agreement no. 277472).

  5. Sustained expression from DNA vectors.

    PubMed

    Wong, Suet Ping; Argyros, Orestis; Harbottle, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    DNA vectors have the potential to become powerful medical tools for treatment of human disease. The human body has, however, developed a range of defensive strategies to detect and silence foreign or misplaced DNA, which is more typically encountered during infection or chromosomal damage. A clinically relevant human gene therapy vector must overcome or avoid these protections whilst delivering sustained levels of therapeutic gene product without compromising the vitality of the recipient host. Many non-viral DNA vectors trigger these defense mechanisms and are subsequently destroyed or rendered silent. Thus, without modification or considered design, the clinical utility of a typical DNA vector is fundamentally limited due to the transient nature of its transgene expression. The development of safe and persistently expressing DNA vectors is a crucial prerequisite for its successful clinical application and subsequently remains, therefore, one of the main strategic tasks of non-viral gene therapy research. In this chapter we will describe our current understanding of the mechanisms that can destroy or silence DNA vectors and discuss strategies, which have been utilized to improve their sustenance and the level and duration of their transgene expression.

  6. Softball Pitching and Injury.

    PubMed

    Lear, Aaron; Patel, Niraj

    2016-01-01

    The windmill softball pitch generates considerable forces about the athlete's shoulder and elbow. The injury pattern of softball pitchers seems to be primarily overuse injury, and they seem not to suffer the same volume of injury that baseball pitchers do. This article will explore softball pitching techniques, kinetics and kinematics of the windmill pitch, epidemiology of softball pitchers, and discuss possible etiologies of softball pitching injuries.

  7. Baseball/lacrosse injuries.

    PubMed

    Casazza, B A; Rossner, K

    1999-02-01

    With the expansion of baseball into all age groups, the game is becoming as much a recreational sport as a youth sport. Throwing arm injuries eventually limit the participation of most players. Analysis is made of these injuries with the goal of complete rehabilitation for the baseball player. Lacrosse has also seen an increase in popularity as a recreational sport. Analysis of lacrosse injuries and rehabilitation of the most common injuries is reviewed.

  8. Softball Pitching and Injury.

    PubMed

    Lear, Aaron; Patel, Niraj

    2016-01-01

    The windmill softball pitch generates considerable forces about the athlete's shoulder and elbow. The injury pattern of softball pitchers seems to be primarily overuse injury, and they seem not to suffer the same volume of injury that baseball pitchers do. This article will explore softball pitching techniques, kinetics and kinematics of the windmill pitch, epidemiology of softball pitchers, and discuss possible etiologies of softball pitching injuries. PMID:27618243

  9. [Construction of PPENK-MIDGE-NLS gene vector and the expression in rat].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Xu, Xuemin; Peng, Xijuan; Jiang, Wei; Yao, Linong

    2015-02-01

    Increasing the production and secretion of endogenous opioid peptide by immune cell can significantly induce myocardial protective effects against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Gene therapy is promising to increase endogenous enkephalin (ENK). However, classical viral and plasmid vectors for gene delivery are hampered by immunogenicity, gene recombination, oncogene activation, the production of antibacterial antibody and changes in physiological gene expression. Minimalistic immunologically defined gene expression (MIDGE) can overcome all the deficients of viral and plasmid vectors. The exon of rat's preproenkephalin (PPENK) gene was amplified by PCR and the fragments were cloned into pEGFP-N1 plasmids. The recombined plasmids were digested with enzymes to obtain a linear vector contained promoter, preproenkephalin gene, RNA stable sequences and oligodesoxy nucleotides (ODNs) added to both ends of the gene vector to protect gene vector from exonuclease degradation. A nuclear localization sequence (NLS) was attached to an ODN to ensure the effective transport to the nucleus and transgene expression. Flow cytometry, laser confocal microscopy and Western blotting demonstrated that PPENK-MIDGE-NLS can transfect leukocyte of rat in vivo, increase the expression of proenkephalin (PENK) in tissue, and the transfection efficiency depends on gene vector's dosage. These results indicate that PPENK-MIDGE-NLS could be an innovative method to protect and treatment of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  10. Assessment of Ankle Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic…

  11. Prevention of Football Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Kirkendall, Donald T; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury. In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “clinical trial” or “randomized controlled trial” which had been conducted on children and adults whose goal was preventing common football injuries. Our objective was to find studies with an exercise-based training program, thus projects that used mechanical interventions were excluded. Results A structured, generalized warm-up has been shown to be effective at preventing common injuries in football, reducing injuries by about one-third. Conclusion The huge participation numbers in the worldwide family of football would suggest that any reduction in injury should have a public health impact. Professionals in sports medicine need to promote injury prevention programs that have been shown to be effective. PMID:22375195

  12. Spinal Cord Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... bone disks that make up your spine. Most injuries don't cut through your spinal cord. Instead, ...

  13. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  14. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that happen when too much stress is placed on a part of the body, resulting in inflammation (pain and swelling), muscle strain, or tissue damage. This stress generally occurs from ...

  15. Are Bred Vectors The Same As Lyapunov Vectors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnay, E.; Corazza, M.; Cai, M.

    Regional loss of predictability is an indication of the instability of the underlying flow, where small errors in the initial conditions (or imperfections in the model) grow to large amplitudes in finite times. The stability properties of evolving flows have been studied using Lyapunov vectors (e.g., Alligood et al, 1996, Ott, 1993, Kalnay, 2002), singular vectors (e.g., Lorenz, 1965, Farrell, 1988, Molteni and Palmer, 1993), and, more recently, with bred vectors (e.g., Szunyogh et al, 1997, Cai et al, 2001). Bred vectors (BVs) are, by construction, closely related to Lyapunov vectors (LVs). In fact, after an infinitely long breeding time, and with the use of infinitesimal ampli- tudes, bred vectors are identical to leading Lyapunov vectors. In practical applications, however, bred vectors are different from Lyapunov vectors in two important ways: a) bred vectors are never globally orthogonalized and are intrinsically local in space and time, and b) they are finite-amplitude, finite-time vectors. These two differences are very significant in a dynamical system whose size is very large. For example, the at- mosphere is large enough to have "room" for several synoptic scale instabilities (e.g., storms) to develop independently in different regions (say, North America and Aus- tralia), and it is complex enough to have several different possible types of instabilities (such as barotropic, baroclinic, convective, and even Brownian motion). Bred vectors share some of their properties with leading LVs (Corazza et al, 2001a, 2001b, Toth and Kalnay, 1993, 1997, Cai et al, 2001). For example, 1) Bred vectors are independent of the norm used to define the size of the perturba- tion. Corazza et al. (2001) showed that bred vectors obtained using a potential enstro- phy norm were indistinguishable from bred vectors obtained using a streamfunction squared norm, in contrast with singular vectors. 2) Bred vectors are independent of the length of the rescaling period as long as the

  16. Black holes with vector hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhong-Ying

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we consider Einstein gravity coupled to a vector field, either minimally or non-minimally, together with a vector potential of the type V = 2{Λ}_0+1/2{m}^2{A}^2 + {γ}_4{A}^4 . For a simpler non-minimally coupled theory with Λ0 = m = γ4 = 0, we obtain both extremal and non-extremal black hole solutions that are asymptotic to Minkowski space-times. We study the global properties of the solutions and derive the first law of thermodynamics using Wald formalism. We find that the thermodynamical first law of the extremal black holes is modified by a one form associated with the vector field. In particular, due to the existence of the non-minimal coupling, the vector forms thermodynamic conjugates with the graviton mode and partly contributes to the one form modifying the first law. For a minimally coupled theory with Λ0 ≠ 0, we also obtain one class of asymptotically flat extremal black hole solutions in general dimensions. This is possible because the parameters ( m 2 , γ4) take certain values such that V = 0. In particular, we find that the vector also forms thermodynamic conjugates with the graviton mode and contributes to the corresponding first law, although the non-minimal coupling has been turned off. Thus all the extremal black hole solutions that we obtain provide highly non-trivial examples how the first law of thermodynamics can be modified by a either minimally or non-minimally coupled vector field. We also study Gauss-Bonnet gravity non-minimally coupled to a vector and obtain asymptotically flat black holes and Lifshitz black holes.

  17. VectorBase: a home for invertebrate vectors of human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Daniel; Arensburger, Peter; Atkinson, Peter; Besansky, Nora J; Bruggner, Robert V; Butler, Ryan; Campbell, Kathryn S; Christophides, George K; Christley, Scott; Dialynas, Emmanuel; Emmert, David; Hammond, Martin; Hill, Catherine A; Kennedy, Ryan C; Lobo, Neil F; MacCallum, M Robert; Madey, Greg; Megy, Karine; Redmond, Seth; Russo, Susan; Severson, David W; Stinson, Eric O; Topalis, Pantelis; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Birney, Ewan; Gelbart, William M; Kafatos, Fotis C; Louis, Christos; Collins, Frank H

    2007-01-01

    VectorBase (http://www.vectorbase.org/) is a web-accessible data repository for information about invertebrate vectors of human pathogens. VectorBase annotates and maintains vector genomes providing an integrated resource for the research community. Currently, VectorBase contains genome information for two organisms: Anopheles gambiae, a vector for the Plasmodium protozoan agent causing malaria, and Aedes aegypti, a vector for the flaviviral agents causing Yellow fever and Dengue fever.

  18. [Trampoline injuries in children].

    PubMed

    Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Antila, Eeva; Korhonen, Jussi; Rättyä, Johanna; Serlo, Willy

    2012-01-01

    Trampolines for home use have become common in Finland during the past ten years, being especially favored by children. Trampoline jumping is beneficial and constructive physical exercise, but poses a significant risk for injuries. The most common injuries include sprains and strains. During summertime, trampoline injuries account for as many as 13% of children's accidents requiring hospital care. Fractures are by far the most common trampoline injuries requiring hospital care. Injuries can be prevented by using safety nets. Only one child at a time is allowed to jump on the trampoline.

  19. Indoor racquet sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Silko, G J; Cullen, P T

    1994-08-01

    Family physicians can care for most patients injured while participating in indoor racquet sports. However, patients with injuries to the eye usually require ophthalmologic referral. The most common injuries that occur in persons participating in indoor racquet sports include contusions, sprains and strains, lacerations, eye injuries, bursitis and tendinitis. Musculoskeletal injuries that merit special consideration include lateral epicondylitis, DeQuervain's tenosynovitis, wrist intersection syndrome, patellar pain syndrome, meniscal injuries, Achilles tendinitis and plantar fasciitis. The family physician plays a critical role in providing patients with information about preventive measures.

  20. Triathlon: running injuries.

    PubMed

    Spiker, Andrea M; Dixit, Sameer; Cosgarea, Andrew J

    2012-12-01

    The running portion of the triathlon represents the final leg of the competition and, by some reports, the most important part in determining a triathlete's overall success. Although most triathletes spend most of their training time on cycling, running injuries are the most common injuries encountered. Common causes of running injuries include overuse, lack of rest, and activities that aggravate biomechanical predisposers of specific injuries. We discuss the running-associated injuries in the hip, knee, lower leg, ankle, and foot of the triathlete, and the causes, presentation, evaluation, and treatment of each.

  1. The biological control of disease vectors.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kenichi W; Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2012-09-21

    Vector-borne diseases are common in nature and can have a large impact on humans, livestock and crops. Biological control of vectors using natural enemies or competitors can reduce vector density and hence disease transmission. However, the indirect interactions inherent in host-vector disease systems make it difficult to use traditional pest control theory to guide biological control of disease vectors. This necessitates a conceptual framework that explicitly considers a range of indirect interactions between the host-vector disease system and the vector's biological control agent. Here we conduct a comparative analysis of the efficacy of different types of biological control agents in controlling vector-borne diseases. We report three key findings. First, highly efficient predators and parasitoids of the vector prove to be effective biological control agents, but highly virulent pathogens of the vector also require a high transmission rate to be effective. Second, biocontrol agents can successfully reduce long-term host disease incidence even though they may fail to reduce long-term vector densities. Third, inundating a host-vector disease system with a natural enemy of the vector has little or no effect on reducing disease incidence, but inundating the system with a competitor of the vector has a large effect on reducing disease incidence. The comparative framework yields predictions that are useful in developing biological control strategies for vector-borne diseases. We discuss how these predictions can inform ongoing biological control efforts for host-vector disease systems.

  2. Learning with LOGO: Logo and Vectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lough, Tom; Tipps, Steve

    1986-01-01

    This is the first of a two-part series on the general concept of vector space. Provides tool procedures to allow investigation of vector properties, vector addition and subtraction, and X and Y components. Lists several sources of additional vector ideas. (JM)

  3. Injuries in Swedish skydiving

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Anton; Björnstig, Ulf

    2007-01-01

    Objective To create a basis for prevention of modern skydiving injuries. Design Descriptive epidemiological study. Setting National total material. Patients Data on all reported injury events (n = 257) in Swedish skydiving 1999–2003 (total 539 885 jumps) were retrieved from the Swedish Parachute Association. Non‐fatally injured skydivers were sent a questionnaire asking for event and injury details (response rate 89%), and supplementary hospital records were retrieved for the most serious injuries (n = 85). Human, equipment and environmental factors were assessed for risk. Main Outcome Measurements Frequency and severity of injuries. Results Incidence of non‐fatal injury events was 48 per 100 000 jumps. The lower extremities, spine and shoulders were important regions of injury. The most serious injuries were experienced by licensed skydivers, but students in training had a higher injury rate and more often left the sport because of the injury. Of two student‐training systems, one had an incidence less than half that of the other. Conclusions A basis for prevention was created, showing a potential for reduction of frequency and severity of injuries with training and technical interventions. PMID:17224436

  4. Spinal injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Babcock, J L

    1975-05-01

    Spinal injuries with neurologic sequelae are a rare but catastrophic injury. Many of these injuries might be preventable through proper parent and child education, particularly in water sports and vehicles accidents. A significant number of neurologic injuries are incomplete at the time of injury and proper rescue and initial care may make the difference between life as a quadriplegic and life as a normal individual. Because of the complexity of the management of the child with spinal injuries and their relative rarity, the definitive care is best undertaken at hospitals which specialize in the care of spinal injuries. Progressive deformity of the spine, a problem unique to childhood and adolescent paralysis, is often preventable with prolonged immobilization and protection of the spine. Progressive deformities which interfere with function or result in neurologic deterioration require an aggressive surgical approach. PMID:1124228

  5. Recreational mountain biking injuries.

    PubMed

    Aitken, S A; Biant, L C; Court-Brown, Charles M

    2011-04-01

    Mountain biking is increasing in popularity worldwide. The injury patterns associated with elite level and competitive mountain biking are known. This study analysed the incidence, spectrum and risk factors for injuries sustained during recreational mountain biking. The injury rate was 1.54 injuries per 1000 biker exposures. Men were more commonly injured than women, with those aged 30-39 years at highest risk. The commonest types of injury were wounding, skeletal fracture and musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Joint dislocations occurred more commonly in older mountain bikers. The limbs were more commonly injured than the axial skeleton. The highest hospital admission rates were observed with head, neck and torso injuries. Protective body armour, clip-in pedals and the use of a full-suspension bicycle may confer a protective effect. PMID:20659880

  6. Vector Encoding in Biochemical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo

    Encoding of environmental cues via biochemical signaling pathways is of vital importance in the transmission of information for cells in a network. The current literature assumes a single cell state is used to encode information, however, recent research suggests the optimal strategy utilizes a vector of cell states sampled at various time points. To elucidate the optimal sampling strategy for vector encoding, we take an information theoretic approach and determine the mutual information of the calcium signaling dynamics obtained from fibroblast cells perturbed with different concentrations of ATP. Specifically, we analyze the sampling strategies under the cases of fixed and non-fixed vector dimension as well as the efficiency of these strategies. Our results show that sampling with greater frequency is optimal in the case of non-fixed vector dimension but that, in general, a lower sampling frequency is best from both a fixed vector dimension and efficiency standpoint. Further, we find the use of a simple modified Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process as a model qualitatively captures many of our experimental results suggesting that sampling in biochemical networks is based on a few basic components.

  7. A generalized nonlocal vector calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alali, Bacim; Liu, Kuo; Gunzburger, Max

    2015-10-01

    A nonlocal vector calculus was introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) that has proved useful for the analysis of the peridynamics model of nonlocal mechanics and nonlocal diffusion models. A formulation is developed that provides a more general setting for the nonlocal vector calculus that is independent of particular nonlocal models. It is shown that general nonlocal calculus operators are integral operators with specific integral kernels. General nonlocal calculus properties are developed, including nonlocal integration by parts formula and Green's identities. The nonlocal vector calculus introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) is shown to be recoverable from the general formulation as a special example. This special nonlocal vector calculus is used to reformulate the peridynamics equation of motion in terms of the nonlocal gradient operator and its adjoint. A new example of nonlocal vector calculus operators is introduced, which shows the potential use of the general formulation for general nonlocal models.

  8. Generalized Selection Weighted Vector Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukac, Rastislav; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Smolka, Bogdan; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.

    2004-12-01

    This paper introduces a class of nonlinear multichannel filters capable of removing impulsive noise in color images. The here-proposed generalized selection weighted vector filter class constitutes a powerful filtering framework for multichannel signal processing. Previously defined multichannel filters such as vector median filter, basic vector directional filter, directional-distance filter, weighted vector median filters, and weighted vector directional filters are treated from a global viewpoint using the proposed framework. Robust order-statistic concepts and increased degree of freedom in filter design make the proposed method attractive for a variety of applications. Introduced multichannel sigmoidal adaptation of the filter parameters and its modifications allow to accommodate the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics. Simulation studies reported in this paper indicate that the proposed filter class is computationally attractive, yields excellent performance, and is able to preserve fine details and color information while efficiently suppressing impulsive noise. This paper is an extended version of the paper by Lukac et al. presented at the 2003 IEEE-EURASIP Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing (NSIP '03) in Grado, Italy.

  9. Vectors for cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Russell, S J

    1996-09-01

    Many viral and non-viral vector systems have now been developed for gene therapy applications. In this article, the pros and cons of these vector systems are discussed in relation to the different cancer gene therapy strategies. The protocols used in cancer gene therapy can be broadly divided into six categories including gene transfer to explanted cells for use as cell-based cancer vaccines; gene transfer to a small number of tumour cells in situ to achieve a vaccine effect; gene transfer to vascular endothelial cells (VECs) lining the blood vessels of the tumour to interfere with tumour angiogenesis; gene transfer to T lymphocytes to enhance their antitumour effector capability; gene transfer to haemopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to enhance their resistance to cytotoxic drugs and gene transfer to a large number of tumour cells in situ to achieve nonimmune tumour reduction with or without bystander effect. Each of the six strategies makes unique demands on the vector system and these are discussed with reference to currently available vectors. Aspects of vector biology that are in need of further development are discussed in some detail. The final section points to the potential use of replicating viruses as delivery vehicles for efficient in vivo gene transfer to disseminated cancers.

  10. Assessment and follow-up of muscle injuries in athletes by bioimpedance: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Nescolarde, L; Yanguas, J; Medina, D; Rodas, G; Rosell-Ferrer, J

    2011-01-01

    Mono-frequency (50 kHz) whole-body and segmental bioimpedance is measured before sport training in 14 high performance athletes. The athletes are classified in two groups according to the team sport: football and basketball. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) method is used to obtain the individual whole-body impedance and 6 segmental impedance vectors in the main muscular groups in the lower-limbs. The whole-body vector is analyzed in the tolerance ellipses of the reference population. Individual impedance vector components are standardized by the height H of the subject, (R/H and Xc/H) to obtain the impedance vector (Z/H) of each segment. The hypotheses of the study are: 1) Not all the sports have the same pattern of bioimpedance vector by muscle group. 2) In elite well trained athletes their muscle groups are symmetrical (right and left sides), thus each athlete is its own reference for future comparisons. 3) We expect a change in the two components of bioimpedance vector (R/H and Xc/H) in front of a muscle injury. In order to compare the differences between the complex Z/H vector (R/H, Xc/H) we use Hotelling's T2 test. Preliminary results show a significant difference (P < 0.05) in bioimpedance vectors between groups according to the team sport, and also between normal muscle condition and after muscle injury producing hyper-hydration.

  11. Gauge Theories of Vector Particles

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Glashow, S. L.; Gell-Mann, M.

    1961-04-24

    The possibility of generalizing the Yang-Mills trick is examined. Thus we seek theories of vector bosons invariant under continuous groups of coordinate-dependent linear transformations. All such theories may be expressed as superpositions of certain "simple" theories; we show that each "simple theory is associated with a simple Lie algebra. We may introduce mass terms for the vector bosons at the price of destroying the gauge-invariance for coordinate-dependent gauge functions. The theories corresponding to three particular simple Lie algebras - those which admit precisely two commuting quantum numbers - are examined in some detail as examples. One of them might play a role in the physics of the strong interactions if there is an underlying super-symmetry, transcending charge independence, that is badly broken. The intermediate vector boson theory of weak interactions is discussed also. The so-called "schizon" model cannot be made to conform to the requirements of partial gauge-invariance.

  12. Extrapolation methods for vector sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David A.; Ford, William F.; Sidi, Avram

    1987-01-01

    This paper derives, describes, and compares five extrapolation methods for accelerating convergence of vector sequences or transforming divergent vector sequences to convergent ones. These methods are the scalar epsilon algorithm (SEA), vector epsilon algorithm (VEA), topological epsilon algorithm (TEA), minimal polynomial extrapolation (MPE), and reduced rank extrapolation (RRE). MPE and RRE are first derived and proven to give the exact solution for the right 'essential degree' k. Then, Brezinski's (1975) generalization of the Shanks-Schmidt transform is presented; the generalized form leads from systems of equations to TEA. The necessary connections are then made with SEA and VEA. The algorithms are extended to the nonlinear case by cycling, the error analysis for MPE and VEA is sketched, and the theoretical support for quadratic convergence is discussed. Strategies for practical implementation of the methods are considered.

  13. Acute disposition of neck injuries.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Leslie

    2005-02-01

    Neck injuries can be some of the most serious and anxiety-producing injuries that occur during sporting events. It is important for the team physician to be prepared for the care of these injuries and be able to identify some of the more serious injuries. Proper care of these injuries can be life saving and prevent further injury and permanent disability. This article reviews the principles of management and latest evidence for acute neck injuries.

  14. Transplantation of neural progenitor cells in chronic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Jin, Y; Bouyer, J; Shumsky, J S; Haas, C; Fischer, I

    2016-04-21

    Previous studies demonstrated that neural progenitor cells (NPCs) transplanted into a subacute contusion injury improve motor, sensory, and bladder function. In this study we tested whether transplanted NPCs can also improve functional recovery after chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) alone or in combination with the reduction of glial scar and neurotrophic support. Adult rats received a T10 moderate contusion. Thirteen weeks after the injury they were divided into four groups and received either: 1. Medium (control), 2. NPC transplants, 3. NPC+lentivirus vector expressing chondroitinase, or 4. NPC+lentivirus vectors expressing chondroitinase and neurotrophic factors. During the 8 weeks post-transplantation the animals were tested for functional recovery and eventually analyzed by anatomical and immunohistochemical assays. The behavioral tests for motor and sensory function were performed before and after injury, and weekly after transplantation, with some animals also tested for bladder function at the end of the experiment. Transplant survival in the chronic injury model was variable and showed NPCs at the injury site in 60% of the animals in all transplantation groups. The NPC transplants comprised less than 40% of the injury site, without significant anatomical or histological differences among the groups. All groups also showed similar patterns of functional deficits and recovery in the 12 weeks after injury and in the 8 weeks after transplantation using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan rating score, the grid test, and the Von Frey test for mechanical allodynia. A notable exception was group 4 (NPC together with chondroitinase and neurotrophins), which showed a significant improvement in bladder function. This study underscores the therapeutic challenges facing transplantation strategies in a chronic SCI in which even the inclusion of treatments designed to reduce scarring and increase neurotrophic support produce only modest functional improvements. Further

  15. Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Rosewell, Amanda; Vetrini, Francesco; Ng, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors are devoid of all viral coding sequences, possess a large cloning capacity, and can efficiently transduce a wide variety of cell types from various species independent of the cell cycle to mediate long-term transgene expression without chronic toxicity. These non-integrating vectors hold tremendous potential for a variety of gene transfer and gene therapy applications. Here, we review the production technologies, applications, obstacles to clinical translation and their potential resolutions, and the future challenges and unanswered questions regarding this promising gene transfer technology. PMID:24533227

  16. Requirements for airborne vector gravimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, K. P.; Colombo, O.; Hein, G.; Knickmeyer, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of airborne vector gravimetry is the determination of the full gravity disturbance vector along the aircraft trajectory. The paper briefly outlines the concept of this method using a combination of inertial and GPS-satellite data. The accuracy requirements for users in geodesy and solid earth geophysics, oceanography and exploration geophysics are then specified. Using these requirements, accuracy specifications for the GPS subsystem and the INS subsystem are developed. The integration of the subsystems and the problems connected with it are briefly discussed and operational methods are indicated that might reduce some of the stringent accuracy requirements.

  17. Anisotropic inflation from vector impurity

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Sugumi; Kimura, Masashi; Soda, Jiro; Yokoyama, Shuichiro E-mail: mkimura@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp E-mail: shu@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2008-08-15

    We study an inflationary scenario with a vector impurity. We show that the universe undergoes anisotropic inflationary expansion due to a preferred direction determined by the vector. Using the slow roll approximation, we find a formula for determining the anisotropy of the inflationary universe. We discuss possible observable predictions of this scenario. In particular, it is stressed that primordial gravitational waves can be induced from curvature perturbations. Hence, even in low scale inflation, a sizable amount of primordial gravitational waves may be produced during inflation.

  18. Complexity of vector spin glasses.

    PubMed

    Yeo, J; Moore, M A

    2004-08-13

    We study the annealed complexity of the m-vector spin glasses in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick limit. The eigenvalue spectrum of the Hessian matrix of the Thouless-Anderson-Palmer free energy is found to consist of a continuous band of positive eigenvalues in addition to an isolated eigenvalue and (m-1) null eigenvalues due to rotational invariance. Rather surprisingly, the band does not extend to zero at any finite temperature. The isolated eigenvalue becomes zero in the thermodynamic limit, as in the Ising case (m=1), indicating that the same supersymmetry breaking recently found in Ising spin glasses occurs in vector spin glasses.

  19. Injuries in Irish dance.

    PubMed

    Stein, Cynthia J; Tyson, Kesley D; Johnson, Victor M; Popoli, David M; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Micheli, Lyle J

    2013-12-01

    Irish dance is growing in popularity and competitiveness; however, very little research has focused specifically on this genre of dance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the types of dance injuries incurred by Irish dancers. A chart review was performed to identify all injuries associated with Irish dance seen in the sports medicine or orthopaedic clinics at the investigators' hospital over an 11-year period. "Injury" was defined as any dance-related pain or disorder that led to evaluation in the clinics. Survey data were also collected from study participants. Ultimately, 255 patients from over 30 different schools of dance were seen with injuries directly related (726 clinic visits) or partially related (199 visits) to Irish dance. Participants ranged in age from 4 to 47, with 95% (243/255) under the age of 19. These 255 patients received 437 diagnoses. Almost 80% of the injuries (348/437) were attributable to overuse, and 20.4% were acute and traumatic injuries (89/437). Ninety-five percent (95.9%) of injuries involved the hip or lower extremity. The most common sites were the foot (33.2%), ankle (22.7%), knee (19.7%), and hip (14.4%). Typical diagnoses were tendon injury (13.3%), apophysitis (11.4%), patellofemoral pain and instability (10.8%), stress injury (10.1%), and muscle injury (7.8%). The majority of traumatic injuries were seen in clinic within 3 weeks, but less than a quarter of overuse injuries were seen that quickly. The most common treatment, prescribed to 84.3% of patients, was physical therapy and home exercises, and the majority of dancers (64.3%) were able to return to full dance activity after injury.

  20. Robust fetal QRS detection from noninvasive abdominal electrocardiogram based on channel selection and simultaneous multichannel processing.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Ali; Mollakazemi, Mohammad Javad; Atyabi, Seyyed Abbas; Niknazar, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a new method for detecting fetal QRS complexes from non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) signal. Despite most of the current fECG processing methods which are based on separation of fECG from maternal ECG (mECG), in this study, fetal heart rate (FHR) can be extracted with high accuracy without separation of fECG from mECG. Furthermore, in this new approach thoracic channels are not necessary. These two aspects have reduced the required computational operations. Consequently, the proposed approach can be efficiently applied to different real-time healthcare and medical devices. In this work, a new method is presented for selecting the best channel which carries strongest fECG. Each channel is scored based on two criteria of noise distribution and good fetal heartbeat visibility. Another important aspect of this study is the simultaneous and combinatorial use of available fECG channels via the priority given by their scores. A combination of geometric features and wavelet-based techniques was adopted to extract FHR. Based on fetal geometric features, fECG signals were divided into three categories, and different strategies were employed to analyze each category. The method was validated using three datasets including Noninvasive fetal ECG database, DaISy and PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2013. Finally, the obtained results were compared with other studies. The adopted strategies such as multi-resolution analysis, not separating fECG and mECG, intelligent channels scoring and using them simultaneously are the factors that caused the promising performance of the method. PMID:26462679

  1. Electrocardiogram Based Identification using a New Effective Intelligent Selection of Fused Features

    PubMed Central

    Abbaspour, Hamidreza; Razavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Mehrshad, Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, the feasibility of using Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal for human identification issue has been investigated, and some methods have been suggested. In this research, a new effective intelligent feature selection method from ECG signals has been proposed. This method is developed in such a way that it is able to select important features that are necessary for identification using analysis of the ECG signals. For this purpose, after ECG signal preprocessing, its characterizing features were extracted and then compressed using the cosine transform. The more effective features in the identification, among the characterizing features, are selected using a combination of the genetic algorithm and artificial neural networks. The proposed method was tested on three public ECG databases, namely, MIT-BIH Arrhythmias Database, MITBIH Normal Sinus Rhythm Database and The European ST-T Database, in order to evaluate the proposed subject identification method on normal ECG signals as well as ECG signals with arrhythmias. Identification rates of 99.89% and 99.84% and 99.99% are obtained for these databases respectively. The proposed algorithm exhibits remarkable identification accuracies not only with normal ECG signals, but also in the presence of various arrhythmias. Simulation results showed that the proposed method despite the low number of selected features has a high performance in identification task. PMID:25709939

  2. Semi-blind source extraction algorithm for fetal electrocardiogram based on generalized autocorrelations and reference signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongjuan; Shi, Zhenwei; Guo, Chonghui; Feng, Enmin

    2009-01-01

    Blind source extraction (BSE) has become one of the promising methods in the field of signal processing and analysis, which only desires to extract "interesting" source signals with specific stochastic property or features so as to save lots of computing time and resources. This paper addresses BSE problem, in which desired source signals have some available reference signals. Based on this prior information, we develop an objective function for extraction of temporally correlated sources. Maximizing this objective function, a semi-blind source extraction fixed-point algorithm is proposed. Simulations on artificial electrocardiograph (ECG) signals and the real-world ECG data demonstrate the better performance of the new algorithm. Moreover, comparisons with existing algorithms further indicate the validity of our new algorithm, and also show its robustness to the estimated error of time delay.

  3. Injuries are not accidents

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Injuries are the result of an acute exposure to exhort of energy or a consequence of a deficiency in a vital element that exceeds physiological thresholds resulting threatens life. They are classified as intentional or unintentional. Injuries are considered a global health issue because they cause more than 5 million deaths per year worldwide and they are an important contributor to the burden of disease, especially affecting people of low socioeconomic status in low- and middle-income countries. A common misconception exists where injuries are thought to be the same as accidents; however, accidents are largely used as chance events, without taken in consideration that all these are preventable. This review discusses injuries and accidents in the context of road traffic and emphasizes injuries as preventable events. An understanding of the essence of injuries enables the standardization of terminology in public use and facilitates the development of a culture of prevention among all of us. PMID:25386040

  4. Perioperative Organ Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Karsten; Karhausen, Jörn; Clambey, Eric T.; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger K.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the fact that a surgical procedure may have been performed for the appropriate indication and in a technically perfect manner, patients are threatened by perioperative organ injury. For example, stroke, myocardial infarction, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury, or acute gut injury are among the most common causes for morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. In the present review, we discuss the pathogenesis of perioperative organ injury, and provide select examples for novel treatment concepts that have emerged over the past decade. Indeed, we believe that research to provide mechanistic insight into acute organ injury and to identify novel therapeutic approaches for the prevention or treatment of perioperative organ injury represents the most important opportunity to improve outcomes of anesthesia and surgery. PMID:24126264

  5. Penetrating eye injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, B C

    1989-01-01

    A review of all penetrating eye injuries treated at the Manchester Royal Eye Hospital over four years (1 January 1982-31 December 1985) was undertaken. A total of 202 penetrating eye injuries were seen of which 68 (34%) were in children under the age of 15 years. Airgun, dart, and knife injuries accounted for 28 (41%) of the injuries. Thirty seven patients (54%) achieved a good visual result (6/12 or better) and eight (12%) had enucleations. The period of inpatient treatment ranged from two to 18 days. From the analysis of the activities at the time of the injury, many of the injuries can be considered to be preventable. PMID:2705791

  6. Soccer injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Anne

    2009-12-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics.

  7. Injuries in women's basketball.

    PubMed

    Trojian, Thomas H; Ragle, Rosemary B

    2008-03-01

    Women's basketball has changed over time. It is a faster paced game than it was 30 years ago. Greatplayers, like Anne Meyers,who was the first, and only, woman to be signed to an NBA contract, would agree today's game is different. The game is played mostly "below the rim" but with players like Candice Parker, Sylvia Fowles and Maya Moore able to dunk the ball, the game is still changing. The one thing that remains constant in basketball, especially women's basketball, is injury. The majority of injuries in women's basketball are similar to those in men's basketball. Studies at the high school and college level show similar injury rates between women and men. ACL injuries are one exception, with female athletes having atwo to four times higher rate ofACL injuries. In this article, we review the common injuries in women's basketball. We discuss treatment issues and possible preventive measures.

  8. Injuries in Swedish elite basketball.

    PubMed

    Colliander, E; Eriksson, E; Herkel, M; Sköld, P

    1986-02-01

    All Swedish male and female elite basketball players were interviewed concerning their injuries during 1981/1982. Fifty-eight percent of the male and 62% of the female players reported injuries. The injury frequency was 2.5 injuries/1,000 activity-hours in male and 2.85 injuries/1,000 hours of activity in female players. This corresponds to 8.6 injuries/male team/season and 7.5 injuries/female team/season. An ankle twist was the most common injury (52%) while a knee injury was involved in 18%. Prophylactic orthoses for knee and ankle are suggested.

  9. Primer vector theory and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezewski, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A method developed to compute two-body, optimal, N-impulse trajectories was presented. The necessary conditions established define the gradient structure of the primer vector and its derivative for any set of boundary conditions and any number of impulses. Inequality constraints, a conjugate gradient iterator technique, and the use of a penalty function were also discussed.

  10. Interframe vector wavelet coding technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wus, John P.; Li, Weiping

    1997-01-01

    Wavelet coding is often used to divide an image into multi- resolution wavelet coefficients which are quantized and coded. By 'vectorizing' scalar wavelet coding and combining this with vector quantization (VQ), vector wavelet coding (VWC) can be implemented. Using a finite number of states, finite-state vector quantization (FSVQ) takes advantage of the similarity between frames by incorporating memory into the video coding system. Lattice VQ eliminates the potential mismatch that could occur using pre-trained VQ codebooks. It also eliminates the need for codebook storage in the VQ process, thereby creating a more robust coding system. Therefore, by using the VWC coding method in conjunction with the FSVQ system and lattice VQ, the formulation of a high quality very low bit rate coding systems is proposed. A coding system using a simple FSVQ system where the current state is determined by the previous channel symbol only is developed. To achieve a higher degree of compression, a tree-like FSVQ system is implemented. The groupings are done in this tree-like structure from the lower subbands to the higher subbands in order to exploit the nature of subband analysis in terms of the parent-child relationship. Class A and Class B video sequences from the MPEG-IV testing evaluations are used in the evaluation of this coding method.

  11. [Vector control, perspectives and realities].

    PubMed

    Carnevale, P

    1995-01-01

    In the WHO Global Strategy for Malaria Control, selective and sustainable vector control is one of the measures to be implemented to complement case management and for the control of epidemics. Vector control can be targeted against larvae and adults, but two elements must be recognized: -vector control measures must be selected according to the existing eco-epidemiological diversity, which has to be well understood before embarking upon any extensive action; -efficient tools are currently available, both for large scale and household use. House spraying is still the method of choice for epidemic control but must be carefully considered and used selectively in endemic countries for various well known reasons. The promotion of personal protection measures for malaria prevention is advocated because insecticide-impregnated mosquito nets and other materials have proved to be effective in different situations. Implementation, sustainability and large scale use of impregnated nets implies a strong community participation supported by well motivated community health workers, the availability of suitable materials (insecticide, mosquito nets), intersectorial collaboration at all levels, well trained health workers from central to the most peripheral level and appropriate educational messages (Knowledge, Attitude and Practices) adapted and elaborated after surveys. It has to be kept in mind that the evaluation of the impact of vector control activities will be made in epidemiological terms such as the reduction of malaria morbidity and mortality.

  12. Hydrogen as an energy vector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing hydrogen as an energy vector is considered, with special attention given to means of hydrogen production. The state-of-the-art in thermochemical processes is reviewed, and criteria for the technical and economic feasibility of large-scale thermochemical water splitting processes are presented. The production of hydrogen from coal and from photolysis of water is discussed.

  13. Transcriptomics and disease vector control.

    PubMed

    Vontas, John; Ranson, Hilary; Alphey, Luke

    2010-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing can be used to compare transcriptomes under different conditions. A study in BMC Genomics applies this approach to investigating the effects of exposure to a range of xenobiotics on changes in gene expression in the larvae of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue fever.

  14. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a disease of equidae including horses, donkeys, mules and zebras caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick-vectors and although they have inherent differences, they ...

  15. Portfolio Analysis for Vector Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    Classic stock portfolio analysis provides an applied context for Lagrange multipliers that undergraduate students appreciate. Although modern methods of portfolio analysis are beyond the scope of vector calculus, classic methods reinforce the utility of this material. This paper discusses how to introduce classic stock portfolio analysis in a…

  16. Injuries from hovercraft racing.

    PubMed

    Cattermole, H R

    1997-01-01

    A 31-year-old man presented with a potentially serious neck injury following a racing hovercraft accident. Previous reports of hovercrafting injuries could not be found, and a review of the sport's own records was undertaken. This shows there to be a wide range of injuries sustained from the sport, although most of them are minor. However, there are some worrying trends, and further studies are being undertaking in order to improve the sport's safety record. PMID:9196622

  17. Lap seat belt injuries.

    PubMed

    Hingston, G R

    1996-08-01

    Over a 4 month period, three patients presented acutely to Whangarei Area Hospital after receiving severe abdominal injuries caused directly by lap seat belts. They were involved in road traffic crashes and were all seated in the middle rear seat of the car. The aim of this paper is to alert people to the injuries that can occur from two point lap belts. To this end, the patients and injuries sustained are described and a review of the literature is presented.

  18. Basketball Injuries: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Apple, D F

    1988-12-01

    In brief: Why have basketball injuries escalated? The author points out that before 1960 basketball was largely a no-contact sport. Since then the amount of body contact allowed has increased, players are larger, and more athletes are playing basketball. In addition to these and other possible reasons for the increase in injuries, the author describes common basketball injuries-contusions, sprains, strains, inflammatory conditions, and stress fractures. He also outlines steps for diagnosis and treatment and makes recommendations.

  19. Injury Patterns in Youth Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Presents statistics on injury patterns in youth sports, recommending that physicians who care for young athletes understand the kinds of injuries likely to be sustained. Awareness of injury patterns helps medical professionals identify variables associated with injury, anticipate or prevent injuries, plan medical coverage, and compare individual…

  20. Penetrating Cardiac Injury: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lateef Wani, Mohd; Ahangar, Ab Gani; Wani, Shadab Nabi; Irshad, Ifat; Ul-Hassan, Nayeem

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac injury presents a great challenge to the emergency resident because these injuries require urgent intervention to prevent death. Sometimes serious cardiac injury may manifest only subtle or occult symptoms or signs. As there is an epidemic of cardiac injuries in Kashmir valley due to problems of law and order, we herein present a review on management of such injuries. PMID:24829887

  1. Finite element modeling of blast lung injury in sheep.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Melissa M; Dang, Xinglai; Adkins, Mark; Powell, Brian; Chan, Philemon

    2015-04-01

    A detailed 3D finite element model (FEM) of the sheep thorax was developed to predict heterogeneous and volumetric lung injury due to blast. A shared node mesh of the sheep thorax was constructed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of a sheep cadaver, and while most material properties were taken from literature, an elastic-plastic material model was used for the ribs based on three-point bending experiments performed on sheep rib specimens. Anesthetized sheep were blasted in an enclosure, and blast overpressure data were collected using the blast test device (BTD), while surface lung injury was quantified during necropsy. Matching blasts were simulated using the sheep thorax FEM. Surface lung injury in the FEM was matched to pathology reports by setting a threshold value of the scalar output termed the strain product (maximum value of the dot product of strain and strain-rate vectors over all simulation time) in the surface elements. Volumetric lung injury was quantified by applying the threshold value to all elements in the model lungs, and a correlation was found between predicted volumetric injury and measured postblast lung weights. All predictions are made for the left and right lungs separately. This work represents a significant step toward the prediction of localized and heterogeneous blast lung injury, as well as volumetric injury, which was not recorded during field testing for sheep.

  2. Imaging of Physeal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jawetz, Shari T.; Shah, Parina H.; Potter, Hollis G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: As the intensity of youth participation in athletic activities continues to rise, the number of overuse injuries has also increased. A subset of overuse injuries involves the physis, which is extremely susceptible to injury. This paper aims to review the utility of the various imaging modalities in the diagnosis and management of physeal injuries in the skeletally immature population. Evidence Acquisition: A search for the keywords pediatric, physis, growth plate, x-ray, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and overuse injury was performed using the PubMed database. No limits were set for the years of publication. Articles were reviewed for relevance with an emphasis on the imaging of growth plate injuries. Study Design: Retrospective literature review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Three major imaging modalities (radiographs, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) complement each other in the evaluation of pediatric patients with overuse injuries. However, magnetic resonance imaging is the only modality that offers direct visualization of the physis, and it also offers the best soft tissue contrast for evaluating the other periarticular structures for concomitant injury. Conclusion: Imaging has an important role in the diagnosis of physeal injuries, and the information it provides has a tremendous impact on the subsequent management of these patients. PMID:25984260

  3. Acute injuries in Taekwondo.

    PubMed

    Schlüter-Brust, K; Leistenschneider, P; Dargel, J; Springorum, H P; Eysel, P; Michael, J W-P

    2011-08-01

    Although Taekwondo is becoming an increasingly popular sport, there is a lack of reliable epidemiologic data on Taekwondo injuries. To perform an epidemiologic study on the variety of types of injury in professional and amateur Taekwondo athletes and to find a relation between Taekwondo style, skill level, weight-class and warm-up routine and the occurrence of injuries, we analysed the injury data using a 7-page questionnaire from a total of 356 Taekwondo athletes who were randomly selected. Overall, we registered a total of 2,164 injuries in 356 athletes. Most traumas were contusions and sprains in the lower extremities. Professional Taekwondo athletes have an increased risk of injury in comparison to recreational athletes. Taekwondo style, weight class and tournament frequency have an influence on the athlete's injury profile. Warm-up routines were found to have a positive effect on injury rates. Overall, Taekwondo may be considered a rather benign activity, if injuries during Taekwondo tournaments can be avoided. If not, Taekwondo can result in serious musculoskeletal problems.

  4. MUSCLE INJURIES IN ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee

    2015-01-01

    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best “treatment”. PMID:27027021

  5. Lightning and thermal injuries.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Arthur; Gamelli, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    Electrical burns are classified as either high voltage (1000 volts and higher) or low voltage (<1000 volts). The typical injury with a high-voltage electrical contact is one where subcutaneous fat, muscles, and even bones are injured. Lower voltages may have lesser injuries. The electrical current has the potential to injure via three mechanisms: injury caused by current flow, an arc injury as the current passes from source to an object, and a flame injury caused by ignition of material in the local environment. Different tissues also have different resistance to the conduction of electricity. Voltage, current (amperage), type of current (alternating or direct), path of current flow across the body, duration of contact, and individual susceptibility all determine what final injury will occur. Devitalized tissue must be evaluated and debrided. Ocular cataracts may develop over time following electrical injury. Lightning strikes may conduct millions of volts of electricity, yet the effects can range from minimal cutaneous injuries to significant injury comparable to a high-voltage industrial accident. Lightning strikes commonly result in cardiorespiratory arrest, for which CPR is effective when begun promptly. Neurologic complications from electrical and lightning injuries are highly variable and may present early or late (up to 2 years) after the injury. The prognosis for electricity-related neurologic injuries is generally better than for other types of traumatic causes, suggesting a conservative approach with serial neurologic examinations after an initial CT scan to rule out correctable causes. One of the most common complications of electrical injury is a cardiac dysrhythmia. Because of the potential for large volumes of muscle loss and the release of myoglobin, the presence of heme pigments in the urine must be evaluated promptly. Presence of these products of breakdown of myoglobin and hemoglobin puts the injured at risk for acute renal failure and must be

  6. Lightning and thermal injuries.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Arthur; Gamelli, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    Electrical burns are classified as either high voltage (1000 volts and higher) or low voltage (<1000 volts). The typical injury with a high-voltage electrical contact is one where subcutaneous fat, muscles, and even bones are injured. Lower voltages may have lesser injuries. The electrical current has the potential to injure via three mechanisms: injury caused by current flow, an arc injury as the current passes from source to an object, and a flame injury caused by ignition of material in the local environment. Different tissues also have different resistance to the conduction of electricity. Voltage, current (amperage), type of current (alternating or direct), path of current flow across the body, duration of contact, and individual susceptibility all determine what final injury will occur. Devitalized tissue must be evaluated and debrided. Ocular cataracts may develop over time following electrical injury. Lightning strikes may conduct millions of volts of electricity, yet the effects can range from minimal cutaneous injuries to significant injury comparable to a high-voltage industrial accident. Lightning strikes commonly result in cardiorespiratory arrest, for which CPR is effective when begun promptly. Neurologic complications from electrical and lightning injuries are highly variable and may present early or late (up to 2 years) after the injury. The prognosis for electricity-related neurologic injuries is generally better than for other types of traumatic causes, suggesting a conservative approach with serial neurologic examinations after an initial CT scan to rule out correctable causes. One of the most common complications of electrical injury is a cardiac dysrhythmia. Because of the potential for large volumes of muscle loss and the release of myoglobin, the presence of heme pigments in the urine must be evaluated promptly. Presence of these products of breakdown of myoglobin and hemoglobin puts the injured at risk for acute renal failure and must be

  7. Burn injury in children.

    PubMed

    Zámecníková, I; Stĕtinský, J; Tymonová, J; Kadlcík, M

    2005-01-01

    The authors have analyzed the data files of 580 child patients up to 15 years of age who were hospitalized at the Burn Center of the FNsP Hospital in Ostrava in the years 1999 - 2003. The authors focused on mechanisms of burn injury in relation to the age of a child as well as extent, depth, localization, and local treatment of the injury. The data file was divided to four age groups: up to two years of age, 2 - 5 years of age, 5 - 10 years of age, and 10 - 15 years of age. As regards the mechanisms of injury, the authors have analyzed scalding by hot liquids, burns due to contact with a hot object, burns due to electric current, explosion, and injury caused by burning clothing. Injury by scalding prevails to a very significant degree in the youngest children. In the second age group the incidence of burn following contact with hot objects increases, as does the percentage of children injured by burning of clothing in children aged 5 - 10. The older children have increased prevalence of injuries caused by explosions. The greatest average extent of an injury is from burning of clothing. Most of the areas are burned deeply, localized in more areas of the body, and almost half of the cases required surgical intervention. Scalding comes second in terms of average extent of an injury. More than half of the injured areas are superficial, and areas of injury are different in the individual age groups. We addressed about a fifth of the cases surgically. The explosion of combustible materials caused a smaller extent of injury, on average, taking third place. The injuries were predominantly superficial, most commonly involving the head, trunk, and upper extremities. In none of the cases it was necessary for us to operate. Burn injuries caused by contact with hot objects are of a smaller extent. More than half of the burned areas are deep, localized most commonly in the upper extremities. Surgical intervention was necessary in more than half the cases. In terms of average

  8. Hand injuries as an indicator of other associated severe injuries.

    PubMed

    Vossoughi, Faranak; Krantz, Brent; Fann, Stephen

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of disabling or life-threatening injuries in patients with hand injuries. Retrospective data were collected from a level 1 trauma center registry. A total of 472 patients with hand injuries were admitted to the trauma unit between January 2000 and March 2004. Forty-four per cent of patients with hand injuries had life-threatening injuries. Fifty-one per cent of them had motor vehicle crash-related injuries. Motorcycle crashes were the next most common cause followed by explosions, falls, gunshots, machinery, stabs, bites, crushes, and so on. Frequency of associated injuries was as follows: head injuries, 31 per cent, including skull fractures, 22 per cent; spine injuries, 18 per cent, including spine fractures 18 per cent; chest injuries, 36 per cent, including rib fractures, 15 per cent; and abdominal injuries, 13 per cent. The authors focused on the incidence of disabling or life-threatening injuries in patients with hand injuries. Motor vehicle crashes were most common cause of hand injuries. The most common organs to be injured were chest and head. The most common head injury was skull fracture. Other injuries in decreasing order were spine and rib fractures. These data may be helpful in assessing ambulatory patients in the emergency room, in those hand injuries maybe indicative of other simultaneous life-threatening or disabling injuries.

  9. Injury Free Coalition for Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sites Awards Safety Resources Staff Donate Online! Injury Free News The Great Trade-In Event Returns to ... Free Site -- Injury Free Call for Proposals Injury Free is supported by the generous contributions of organizations ...

  10. What Are Growth Plate Injuries?

    MedlinePlus

    ... activities. Other reasons for growth plate injuries are:  Child abuse  Injury from extreme cold (for example, frostbite)  Radiation ( ... problems) treats most growth plate injuries. At other times, the child will see a pediatric orthopaedic surgeon (a doctor ...

  11. What Are Growth Plate Injuries?

    MedlinePlus

    ... activities. Other reasons for growth plate injuries are: Child abuse Injury from extreme cold (for example, frostbite) Radiation ( ... problems) treats most growth plate injuries. At other times, the child will see a pediatric orthopaedic surgeon (a doctor ...

  12. Present status of vectorized Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, F.B.

    1987-01-01

    Monte Carlo applications have traditionally been limited by the large amounts of computer time required to produce acceptably small statistical uncertainties, so the immediate benefit of vectorization is an increase in either the number of jobs completed or the number of particles processed per job, typically by one order of magnitude or more. This results directly in improved engineering design analyses, since Monte Carlo methods are used as standards for correcting more approximate methods. The relatively small number of vectorized programs is a consequence of the newness of vectorized Monte Carlo, the difficulties of nonportability, and the very large development effort required to rewrite or restructure Monte Carlo codes for vectorization. Based on the successful efforts to date, it may be concluded that Monte Carlo vectorization will spread to increasing numbers of codes and applications. The possibility of multitasking provides even further motivation for vectorizing Monte Carlo, since the step from vector to multitasked vector is relatively straightforward.

  13. Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, H.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.

    1997-10-01

    Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, GeneralVectorAnalysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

  14. Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, H.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1997-10-09

    Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, General Vector Analysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

  15. Advances in lentiviral vectors: a patent review.

    PubMed

    Picanco-Castro, Virginia; de Sousa Russo-Carbolante, Elisa Maria; Tadeu Covas, Dimas

    2012-08-01

    Lentiviral vectors are at the forefront of gene delivery systems for research and clinical applications. These vectors have the ability to efficiently transduce nondividing and dividing cells, to insert large genetic segment in the host chromatin, and to sustain stable long-term transgene expression. Most of lentiviral vectors systems in use are derived from HIV-1. Numerous modifications in the basic HIV structure have been made to ensure safety and to promote efficiency to vectors. Lentiviral vectors can be pseudotyped with distinct viral envelopes that influence vector tropism and transduction efficiency. Moreover, these vectors can be used to reprogram cells and generate induced pluripotent stem cells. This review aims to show the patents that resulted in improved safety and efficacy of lentiviral vector with important implications for clinical trials.

  16. Conquering Athletic Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Paul M., Ed.; Taylor, Diane K., Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to be a source of complete, reliable, and practical sports medicine information. Experts from the American Running and Fitness Association describe in clear language how overuse injuries occur, how to recognize and self-treat them, when to seek professional help, and how to prevent future injuries. The book also…

  17. Severe chainsaw injuries.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, I; Harry, N

    1977-04-01

    A survey of 47 patients who sustained severe chainsaw injuries has been carried out. It shows that this machine, while an extremely useful one, is hazardous. Most of the patients were young, and over half of the injuries involved a hand. One fatality was recorded.

  18. Epidemiology of waterskiing injuries.

    PubMed

    Banta, J V

    1979-06-01

    Coast Guard statistics indicate a national boating fatality rate of 9.6 deaths per 100,000 crafts. In 1977 in California, five fatalities and 70 serious injuries were directly attributable to waterskiing. The four cases reported here include three patients with propeller injuries, including one nearly fatal amputation. In each case basic measures for boating safety were overlooked.

  19. Management of Tracheobronchial Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Altinok, Tamer; Can, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    Tracheobronchial injury is one of cases which are relatively uncommon, but must be suspected to make the diagnosis and managed immediately. In such a case, primary initial goals are to stabilize the airway and localize the injury and then determine its extend. These can be possible mostly with flexible bronchoscopy conducted by a surgeon who can repair the injury. Most of the penetrating injuries occur in the cervical region. On the other hand, most of the blunt injuries occur in the distal trachea and right main bronchus and they can be best approached by right posterolateral thoracotomy. The selection of the manner and time of approaching depends on the existence and severity of additional injuries. Most of the injuries can be restored by deploying simple techniques such as individual sutures, while some of them requires complex reconstruction techniques. Apart from paying attention to the pulmonary toilet, follow-up is crucial for determination of anastomotic technique or stenosis. Conservative treatment may be considered an option with a high probability of success in patients meeting the criteria, especially in patients with iatrogenic tracheobronchial injury. PMID:25610327

  20. Healing of Genital Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

  1. Injuries in Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this paper is to examine the kinds of injuries that preschool teachers working in Indiana, USA, believed to be the most common in their preschool (3-6 year olds) classrooms, the causes of such injuries, and the most important precautions they take to prevent them. Also examined are the measures the teachers take…

  2. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, 2016 Protecting your eyes from injury is one of the most basic things you can do to keep your vision healthy throughout your life. You may be somewhat aware of the possible ...

  3. Sports injuries and society.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Injuries are classified and examples of the ways in which they can arise are given. Treatment, rehabilitation and the value of exercise are considered. A review of the effects of increasing leisure time and sports have been given, the value of legislation, education, protective clothing and close supervision in preventing the occurrence of injuries in sport is discussed. Images p80-a PMID:7248691

  4. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... a concussion may feel dazed and may lose vision or balance for a while after the injury A brain contusion is a bruise of the brain. This ... consciousness Headache Confusion Feeling dizzy or lightheaded Blurry vision ... or severe traumatic brain injury include all of the symptoms listed above ...

  5. Wrist injuries in sport.

    PubMed

    Howse, C

    1994-03-01

    The wrist is a complex joint that biomechanically transmits forces generated at the hand through to the forearm. The radial side of the wrist carries 80% of the axial load and the ulnar side the remaining 20% of the load. The incidence of wrist (and hand) injuries in the sporting population is approximately 25%. This tends to be higher in those sports using the hand and wrist, and when the potential for trauma is present. The injuries are divided into 4 categories: overuse, nerve (and vascular), traumatic, and weight-bearing injuries. Overuse injuries are common in sports involving the hand and wrist, such as racquet sports, netball, basketball and volleyball. Nerve injuries are more commonly compressive neuropathies, and are seen with cyclists who may compress the ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal. Vascular injuries are uncommon and usually result from a high velocity impact from balls. Traumatic injuries are the most common and are due to either a fall on to the wrist, a direct blow, or combination of a rotatory and torsional force. The weight-bearing injuries are more specific to gymnastics, and result from repetitive excessive compressive and rotational forces across the wrist. The pommel horse event is associated with a high incidence of wrist pain in male competitors. Arthroscopy of the wrist provides direct inspection of intra-articular structures and diagnosis of conditions that may be unclear with other investigations. As techniques advance, more conditions may be treated arthroscopically and potentially facilitate an earlier return to sport.

  6. Vector computer memory bank contention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    A number of vector supercomputers feature very large memories. Unfortunately the large capacity memory chips that are used in these computers are much slower than the fast central processing unit (CPU) circuitry. As a result, memory bank reservation times (in CPU ticks) are much longer than on previous generations of computers. A consequence of these long reservation times is that memory bank contention is sharply increased, resulting in significantly lowered performance rates. The phenomenon of memory bank contention in vector computers is analyzed using both a Markov chain model and a Monte Carlo simulation program. The results of this analysis indicate that future generations of supercomputers must either employ much faster memory chips or else feature very large numbers of independent memory banks.

  7. Vector computer memory bank contention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.

    1987-01-01

    A number of vector supercomputers feature very large memories. Unfortunately the large capacity memory chips that are used in these computers are much slower than the fast central processing unit (CPU) circuitry. As a result, memory bank reservation times (in CPU ticks) are much longer than on previous generations of computers. A consequence of these long reservation times is that memory bank contention is sharply increased, resulting in significantly lowered performance rates. The phenomenon of memory bank contention in vector computers is analyzed using both a Markov chain model and a Monte Carlo simulation program. The results of this analysis indicate that future generations of supercomputers must either employ much faster memory chips or else feature very large numbers of independent memory banks.

  8. Medium Modification of Vector Mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Chaden Djalali, Michael Paolone, Dennis Weygand, Michael H. Wood, Rakhsha Nasseripour

    2011-03-01

    The theory of the strong interaction, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), has been remarkably successful in describing high-energy and short-distance-scale experiments involving quarks and gluons. However, applying QCD to low energy and large-distance scale experiments has been a major challenge. Various QCD-inspired models predict a partial restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclear matter with modifications of the properties of hadrons from their free-space values. Measurable changes such as a shift in mass and/or a change of width are predicted at normal nuclear density. Photoproduction of vector mesons off nuclei have been performed at different laboratories. The properties of the ρ, ω and φ mesons are investigated either directly by measuring their mass spectra or indirectly through transparency ratios. The latest results regarding medium modifications of the vector mesons in the nuclear medium will be discussed.

  9. Lentiviral vectors in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Oldham, Robyn Aa; Berinstein, Elliot M; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Basic science advances in cancer immunotherapy have resulted in various treatments that have recently shown success in the clinic. Many of these therapies require the insertion of genes into cells to directly kill them or to redirect the host's cells to induce potent immune responses. Other analogous therapies work by modifying effector cells for improved targeting and enhanced killing of tumor cells. Initial studies done using γ-retroviruses were promising, but safety concerns centered on the potential for insertional mutagenesis have highlighted the desire to develop other options for gene delivery. Lentiviral vectors (LVs) have been identified as potentially more effective and safer alternative delivery vehicles. LVs are now in use in clinical trials for many different types of inherited and acquired disorders, including cancer. This review will discuss current knowledge of LVs and the applications of this viral vector-based delivery vehicle to cancer immunotherapy.

  10. Gene targeting with retroviral vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J.; Bernstein, A. )

    1989-04-01

    The authors have designed and constructed integration-defective retroviral vectors to explore their potential for gene targeting in mammalian cells. Two nonoverlapping deletion mutants of the bacterial neomycin resistance (neo) gene were used to detect homologous recombination events between viral and chromosomal sequences. Stable neo gene correction events were selected at a frequency of approximately 1 G418/sup r/ cell per 3 x 10/sup 6/ infected cells. Analysis of the functional neo gene in independent targeted cell clones indicated that unintegrated retroviral linear DNA recombined with the target by gene conversion for variable distances into regions of nonhomology. In addition, transient neo gene correction events which were associated with the complete loss of the chromosomal target sequences were observed. These results demonstrated that retroviral vectors can recombine with homologous chromosomal sequences in rodent and human cells.

  11. Benchmarking the IBM 3090 with Vector Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brickner, R.G.; Wasserman, H.J.; Hayes, A.H.; Moore, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The IBM 3090 with Vector Facility is an extremely interesting machine because it combines very good scaler performance with enhanced vector and multitasking performance. For many IBM installations with a large scientific workload, the 3090/vector/MTF combination may be an ideal means of increasing throughput at minimum cost. However, neither the vector nor multitasking capabilities are sufficiently developed to make the 3090 competitive with our current worker machines for our large-scale scientific codes.

  12. Prevention of pediatric sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Demorest, Rebecca A; Landry, Gregory L

    2003-12-01

    With over 30 million children participating in sports each year across the United States, a number of significant injuries are to be expected. Although mild injuries such as strains, sprains, and contusions predominate, catastrophic injuries do occur. Young athletes are at an increased risk for growth plate and apophyseal injuries, overuse injuries, and heat illness. Many of these sports injuries can be prevented. Prevention strategies include protective equipment, rule changes, preseason and season prevention interventions, safety measures, better coaching, education, and a societal awareness of injury and prevention. This article discusses current injury prevention for children participating in baseball, football, soccer, and ice hockey.

  13. Mole gun injury.

    PubMed

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds. PMID:23746826

  14. Mole gun injury.

    PubMed

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds.

  15. [Epidemiology of basketball injuries].

    PubMed

    Engel, J; Baharav, U; Modan, M

    1990-09-01

    The players of an elite basketball team were followed during the course of a season which included 71 games and 250 training sessions. All injuries were noted and were correlated with age, height and other physical parameters of the players, as well as with degree of fatigue during games and during training sessions. The lower extremity was the most common site of injury. Ligamentous injuries of the knee are more common in basketball than in soccer players, but they have fewer meniscal injuries than the latter. However, the upper extremity, especially the hand, is more frequently injured in basketball than in other sports. The age, height and personality of the player affect the injury pattern.

  16. Ultrasonic Dynamic Vector Stress Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Froggatt, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Stress inferred from measurements in specimens rather than in bonded gauges. Ultrasonic dynamic vector stress sensor (UDVSS) measures changes in dynamic directional stress occurring in material or structure at location touched by device when material or structure put under cyclic load. Includes phase-locked loop, synchronous amplifier, and contact probe. Useful among manufacturers of aerospace and automotive structures for stress testing and evaluation of designs.

  17. GAPS IN SUPPORT VECTOR OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    STEINWART, INGO; HUSH, DON; SCOVEL, CLINT; LIST, NICOLAS

    2007-01-29

    We show that the stopping criteria used in many support vector machine (SVM) algorithms working on the dual can be interpreted as primal optimality bounds which in turn are known to be important for the statistical analysis of SVMs. To this end we revisit the duality theory underlying the derivation of the dual and show that in many interesting cases primal optimality bounds are the same as known dual optimality bounds.

  18. Prevention of youth injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Laraque, D.; Barlow, B.; Durkin, M.

    1999-01-01

    There are four categories of causes responsible for the majority of injuries in youth 10-19 years of age: 1) motor vehicle traffic; 2) violence (intra-familial, extra-familial, self, pregnancy-related); 3) recreational; and 4) occupational. This article presents data from the National Center for Health Statistics mortality data and the National Pediatric Trauma Registry morbidity data. Nationwide, the pediatric injury death rate is highest among adolescents 15-19 years of age. Motor vehicle-related deaths account for 41% and firearm-related deaths account for 36% of injury deaths in this age group. For youths aged 10-14 years, motor vehicle-related deaths account for 38% and; firearm-related deaths account for 26% of injury deaths. For both age groups, occupant motor vehicle-related deaths account for the majority of deaths and underscore the need for seat belt use. Using theoretical principles based on the Haddon matrix and a knowledge of adolescent development, proposed interventions to decrease injuries and deaths related to motor vehicles and firearms include graduated licensing, occupant restraint, speed limits, conflict resolution, and gun control. Occupational injuries, particularly injury associated with agricultural production, account for an estimated 100,000 injuries per year. Preventive strategies include OSHA regulations imposing standards for protective devices and further study for guidelines for adolescent work in agriculture. Injuries related to recreation include drowning and sports injuries. Preventive strategies may include proper supervision and risk reduction with respect to use of alcohol/drugs. The data presented support the use of primary prevention to achieve the most effective, safe community interventions targeting adolescents. PMID:10599188

  19. Quantum mechanics without state vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Steven

    2014-10-01

    Because the state vectors of isolated systems can be changed in entangled states by processes in other isolated systems, keeping only the density matrix fixed, it is proposed to give up the description of physical states in terms of ensembles of state vectors with various probabilities, relying only on density matrices. The density matrix is defined here by the formula giving the mean values of physical quantities, which implies the same properties as the usual definition in terms of state vectors and their probabilities. This change in the description of physical states opens up a large variety of new ways that the density matrix may transform under various symmetries, different from the unitary transformations of ordinary quantum mechanics. Such new transformation properties have been explored before, but so far only for the symmetry of time translations into the future, treated as a semigroup. Here, new transformation properties are studied for general symmetry transformations forming groups, not just semigroups. Arguments that such symmetries should act on the density matrix as in ordinary quantum mechanics are presented, but all of these arguments are found to be inconclusive.

  20. MISR Level 3 Cloud Motion Vector

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-10

    MISR Level 3 Cloud Motion Vector Level 3 Wednesday, November 7, 2012 ... A new version, F02_0002, of the MISR L3 CMV (Cloud Motion Vector) data product is now available. This new release provides finer ... coverage. These enhancements are the result of reorganizing motion vector information present in the recent Level 2 Cloud product as ...

  1. Visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helman, James L.; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1991-01-01

    Methods of automating the analysis and display of vector field topology in general and flow topology in particular are discussed. Two-dimensional vector field topology is reviewed as the basis for the examination of topology in three-dimensional separated flows. The use of tangent surfaces and clipping in visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows is addressed.

  2. A drop theorem without vector topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chi-Wing

    2007-05-01

    Danes' drop theorem is extended to bornological vector spaces. An immediate application is to establish Ekeland-type variational principle and its equivalence, Caristi fixed point theorem, in bornological vector spaces. Meanwhile, since every locally convex space becomes a convex bornological vector space when equipped with the canonical von Neumann bornology, Qiu's generalization of Danes' work to locally convex spaces is recovered.

  3. Purification and Injection of Retroviral Vectors.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Ayumu; Zhao, Chunmei; Suh, Hoonkyo; Gage, Fred H

    2015-10-01

    Retroviral vectors are powerful tools for genetic manipulation. This protocol discusses the production, purification, and use of replication-deficient retroviral vectors based on Moloney murine leukemia virus and lentivirus. It also describes the injection of a retroviral vector into the dentate gyrus of young adult mice to fluorescently label live murine brain tissue.

  4. Problems with the Method of Correlated Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, M.C.; Lee, K.

    2005-01-01

    The method of correlated vectors has been used widely to identify variables that are associated with general intelligence (g). Briefly, this method involves finding the correlation between the vector of intelligence subtests' g-loadings and the vector of those subtests' correlations with the variable in question. We describe two major problems…

  5. Gaussian statistics for palaeomagnetic vectors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.J.; Constable, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    With the aim of treating the statistics of palaeomagnetic directions and intensities jointly and consistently, we represent the mean and the variance of palaeomagnetic vectors, at a particular site and of a particular polarity, by a probability density function in a Cartesian three-space of orthogonal magnetic-field components consisting of a single (unimoda) non-zero mean, spherically-symmetrical (isotropic) Gaussian function. For palaeomagnetic data of mixed polarities, we consider a bimodal distribution consisting of a pair of such symmetrical Gaussian functions, with equal, but opposite, means and equal variances. For both the Gaussian and bi-Gaussian distributions, and in the spherical three-space of intensity, inclination, and declination, we obtain analytical expressions for the marginal density functions, the cumulative distributions, and the expected values and variances for each spherical coordinate (including the angle with respect to the axis of symmetry of the distributions). The mathematical expressions for the intensity and off-axis angle are closed-form and especially manageable, with the intensity distribution being Rayleigh-Rician. In the limit of small relative vectorial dispersion, the Gaussian (bi-Gaussian) directional distribution approaches a Fisher (Bingham) distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a normal distribution. In the opposite limit of large relative vectorial dispersion, the directional distributions approach a spherically-uniform distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a Maxwell distribution. We quantify biases in estimating the properties of the vector field resulting from the use of simple arithmetic averages, such as estimates of the intensity or the inclination of the mean vector, or the variances of these quantities. With the statistical framework developed here and using the maximum-likelihood method, which gives unbiased estimates in the limit of large data numbers, we demonstrate how to

  6. Muscle strain injuries.

    PubMed

    Garrett, W E

    1996-01-01

    One of the most common injuries seen in the office of the practicing physician is the muscle strain. Until recently, little data were available on the basic science and clinical application of this basic science for the treatment and prevention of muscle strains. Studies in the last 10 years represent action taken on the direction of investigation into muscle strain injuries from the laboratory and clinical fronts. Findings from the laboratory indicate that certain muscles are susceptible to strain injury (muscles that cross multiple joints or have complex architecture). These muscles have a strain threshold for both passive and active injury. Strain injury is not the result of muscle contraction alone, rather, strains are the result of excessive stretch or stretch while the muscle is being activated. When the muscle tears, the damage is localized very near the muscle-tendon junction. After injury, the muscle is weaker and at risk for further injury. The force output of the muscle returns over the following days as the muscle undertakes a predictable progression toward tissue healing. Current imaging studies have been used clinically to document the site of injury to the muscle-tendon junction. The commonly injured muscles have been described and include the hamstring, the rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and adductor longus muscles. Injuries inconsistent with involvement of a single muscle-tendon junction proved to be at tendinous origins rather than within the muscle belly. Important information has also been provided regarding injuries with poor prognosis, which are potentially repairable surgically, including injuries to the rectus femoris muscle, the hamstring origin, and the abdominal wall. Data important to the management of common muscle injuries have been published. The risks of reinjury have been documented. The early efficacy and potential for long-term risks of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents have been shown. New data can also be applied to the field

  7. Sports injuries and adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Axe, M J; Newcomb, W A; Warner, D

    1991-06-01

    A one-year study was undertaken investigating adolescent sports injury experiences at a major sports clinic in the state of Delaware. A total of 619 athletes sustained 870 injuries, for an overall injury rate of 1.4 injuries per athlete. The largest number of injuries was recorded in football (40.2 percent), followed by boys' soccer, wrestling, baseball and girls' basketball. Severity of injury was measured by the number of days lost per injury. Cheerleading had the highest average days lost per injury (28.8), followed by girls' basketball, wrestling, boys' cross-country and girls' tennis. Inflammation, fractures and dislocations comprised 50.6 percent of all the injuries, while 50.5 percent of the injuries were located in the knee, thigh, and shoulder. Twenty-seven of the 870 injuries required surgery. PMID:1874345

  8. Sports injuries and adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Axe, M J; Newcomb, W A; Warner, D

    1991-06-01

    A one-year study was undertaken investigating adolescent sports injury experiences at a major sports clinic in the state of Delaware. A total of 619 athletes sustained 870 injuries, for an overall injury rate of 1.4 injuries per athlete. The largest number of injuries was recorded in football (40.2 percent), followed by boys' soccer, wrestling, baseball and girls' basketball. Severity of injury was measured by the number of days lost per injury. Cheerleading had the highest average days lost per injury (28.8), followed by girls' basketball, wrestling, boys' cross-country and girls' tennis. Inflammation, fractures and dislocations comprised 50.6 percent of all the injuries, while 50.5 percent of the injuries were located in the knee, thigh, and shoulder. Twenty-seven of the 870 injuries required surgery.

  9. Triathlon related musculoskeletal injuries: the status of injury prevention knowledge.

    PubMed

    Gosling, Cameron McR; Gabbe, Belinda J; Forbes, Andrew B

    2008-07-01

    Triathlon is a popular participation sport that combines swimming, cycling and running into a single event. A number of studies have investigated the incidence of injury, profile of injuries sustained and factors contributing to triathlon injury. This paper summarises the published literature in the context of the evidence base for the prevention of triathlon related injuries. Relevant articles on triathlon injuries were sourced from peer-reviewed English language journals and assessed using the Translating Research into Injury Prevention Practice (TRIPP) framework. This review highlights the significant knowledge gap that exists in the published literature describing the incidence of injury, the profile of injuries sustained and evidence for the prevention of injury in triathlon. Despite the number of studies undertaken to address TRIPP Stages 1 and 2 (injury surveillance, aetiology and mechanism of injury), most triathlon studies have been limited by retrospective designs with substantial, and unvalidated, recall periods, inconsistency in the definitions used for a reportable injury and exposure to injury, or a failure to capture exposure data at all. Overall, the paucity of quality, prospective studies investigating the incidence of injury in triathlon and factors contributing to their occurrence has led to an inability to adequately inform the development of injury prevention strategies (TRIPP Stages 3-6) for this sport, a situation that must be rectified if gains are to be made in reducing the burden of triathlon related injury.

  10. Power lawnmower injuries.

    PubMed

    Robertson, William W

    2003-04-01

    Power lawnmowers are among the most ubiquitous household tools, yet they pose significant danger to operator and bystanders. Despite of the United States Consumer Products Safety Commission's push to have safety standards established for walk-behind mowers in 1982 and for ride-on mowers in 1986, by 2000 approximately 80,000 injuries nationwide were estimated to be associated with power mowers. Large numbers of these injuries are thought to be preventable, especially those to individuals younger than 14 years. Orthopaedic surgeons treat a significant number of the injuries associated with mower use including lacerations, amputations, fractures, infections, and skin defects. Therefore, the orthopaedic community has a stake in the prevention and outcome of these injuries. To date, changes in mower design have seemed to be more successful than user education programs in decreasing the numbers of these injuries. Involving orthopaedists in safety education programs to help prevent injuries associated with power mower use may be one method of increasing user knowledge and preventing injury. PMID:12671483

  11. Comparative investigation of multiplane thrust vectoring nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F.; Smereczniak, P.; Spetnagel, D.; Thayer, E.

    1992-01-01

    The inflight aerodynamic performance of multiplane vectoring nozzles is critical to development of advanced aircraft and flight control systems utilizing thrust vectoring. To investigate vectoring nozzle performance, subscale models of two second-generation thrust vectoring nozzle concepts currently under development for advanced fighters were integrated into an axisymmetric test pod. Installed drag and vectoring performance characteristics of both concepts were experimentally determined in wind tunnel testing. CFD analyses were conducted to understand the impact of internal flow turning on thrust vectoring characteristics. Both nozzles exhibited drag comparable with current nonvectoring axisymmetric nozzles. During vectored-thrust operations, forces produced by external flow effects amounted to about 25 percent of the total force measured.

  12. Skateboard and scooter injuries.

    PubMed

    2002-03-01

    Skateboard-related injuries account for an estimated 50 000 emergency department visits and 1500 hospitalizations among children and adolescents in the United States each year. Nonpowered scooter-related injuries accounted for an estimated 9400 emergency department visits between January and August 2000, and 90% of these patients were children younger than 15 years. Many such injuries can be avoided if children and youth do not ride in traffic, if proper protective gear is worn, and if, in the absence of close adult supervision, skateboards and scooters are not used by children younger than 10 and 8 years, respectively.

  13. [Skateboard injuries (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Stürz, H; Rosemeyer, B

    1979-04-01

    Following the introduction of skateboards into Germany in 1976 an increasing number of accidents and injuries have been noted, affecting mainly children 10 to 14 years of age. The causes were lack of experience and the careless use of the boards on public streets. More than 30% of injuries were fractures mainly affecting the upper limb. Because of the frequent involvement of the epiphyseal plates the post-accidental growth may be seriously disturbed. Severe and sometimes fatal head or abdominal injuries have been reported, mainly after collision with cars.

  14. Closed kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Viola, Tracey A

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the prevalence of blunt renal trauma and the nature of the problem, including the risk of renal injury with sports participation and epidemiology. Patient history of mechanism of injury, as well as examination findings, will risk-stratify patients to determine who needs immediate surgical intervention, who requires imaging, and what patients do not need further imaging. Computed tomography is readily available, fast, and accurate in the diagnosis of renal injury. Discussion of the athlete with congenital renal disease and the solitary kidney concludes this article.

  15. Gunshot and Explosion Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Peleg, Kobi; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Stein, Michael; Michaelson, Moshe; Kluger, Yoram; Simon, Daniel; Noji, Eric K.

    2004-01-01

    Context: An increase of terror-related activities may necessitate treatment of mass casualty incidents, requiring a broadening of existing skills and knowledge of various injury mechanisms. Objective: To characterize and compare injuries from gunshot and explosion caused by terrorist acts. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients recorded in the Israeli National Trauma Registry (ITR), all due to terror-related injuries, between October 1, 2000, to June 30, 2002. The ITR records all casualty admissions to hospitals, in-hospital deaths, and transfers at 9 of the 23 trauma centers in Israel. All 6 level I trauma centers and 3 of the largest regional trauma centers in the country are included. The registry includes the majority of severe terror-related injuries. Injury diagnoses, severity scores, hospital resource utilization parameters, length of stay (LOS), survival, and disposition. Results: A total of 1155 terror-related injuries: 54% by explosion, 36% gunshot wounds (GSW), and 10% by other means. This paper focused on the 2 larger patient subsets: 1033 patients injured by terror-related explosion or GSW. Seventy-one percent of the patients were male, 84% in the GSW group and 63% in the explosion group. More than half (53%) of the patients were 15 to 29 years old, 59% in the GSW group and 48% in the explosion group. GSW patients suffered higher proportions of open wounds (63% versus 53%) and fractures (42% versus 31%). Multiple body-regions injured in a single patient occurred in 62% of explosion victims versus 47% in GSW patients. GSW patients had double the proportion of moderate injuries than explosion victims. Explosion victims have a larger proportion of minor injuries on one hand and critical to fatal injuries on the other. LOS was longer than 2 weeks for 20% (22% in explosion, 18% in GSW). Fifty-one percent of the patients underwent a surgical procedure, 58% in the GSW group and 46% in explosion group. Inpatient death rate was 6.3% (65 patients), 7

  16. Recreational scuba diving injuries.

    PubMed

    Clenney, T L; Lassen, L F

    1996-04-01

    Because of the increasing popularity of recreational scuba diving, primary care physicians should be familiar with common diving injuries. One form of barotrauma, middle ear squeeze, is the most common diving injury. Other important diving injuries include inner ear barotrauma and pulmonary barotrauma. Arterial gas embolism, a potentially life-threatening form of pulmonary barotrauma, requires hyperbaric treatment. Decompression sickness is the result of bubble formation in body tissue. Symptoms of decompression sickness range from joint pain to neurologic or pulmonary problems. Recompression is the mainstay of treatment.

  17. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    PubMed

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision

  18. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    PubMed

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision

  19. Epidemiology of paediatric injury.

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, A J

    1994-01-01

    Thousands of young lives are lost every year as a result of accidents, and trauma remains the number one cause of paediatric death. There is a pattern and regularity to children's injury: boys are more often victims than the girls, most injuries occur during the summer months, the pedestrian child has usually been the victim of a road traffic accident (RTA) and, in 75% of these cases, has suffered head injury. The research into paediatric trauma is still very young. For instance, socio-economic and ethnic factors play a significant role in the statistics of accidental death. In order to take effective preventative measures more factors must be determined. PMID:7921561

  20. Catastrophic pediatric sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Luckstead, Eugene F; Patel, Dilip R

    2002-06-01

    The high school sports of wrestling, gymnastics, ice hockey, baseball, track, and cheerleading should receive closer attention to prevent injury. Safer equipment and sport-specific conditioning should be provided and injuries strictly monitored. Greater attention must also be paid to swimming and diving techniques, and continued observation is needed for heat stroke and heat intolerance in sports such as football, wrestling, basketball, track and field, and cross-country. An increased awareness of commotio cordis in sports other than baseball should include ice hockey, football, track field events, and lacrosse. American football because of the sheer numbers and associated catastrophic injury potential must continue to be monitored at the highest medical levels!

  1. Injuries in Elite Figure Skaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Robert M.; Striowski, Catherine C.

    1986-01-01

    A questionnaire was used to examine the number, nature, and etiology of injuries to 60 Canadian nationally ranked figure skaters over a one-year period. Twenty-eight of the respondents reported having a significant injury during the year. Forty-three percent of the injuries were overuse injuries. (MT)

  2. Prevention and Control of Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuchfarber, Barbara S.; Zins, Joseph E.; Jason, Leonard A.

    Childhood injury continues to be a major public health crisis in the United States, with a large percentage of injuries being preventable and controllable. This chapter provides information related to understanding child and youth injury. Studies have shown that injuries affect identifiable high-risk groups. Such host factors that put children at…

  3. Adjustment to Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... of injury are alive and easily get educational information on the Internet. Web happy. sites such as the National Spinal Cord Injury Association (www.spinalcord.org) and SPINAL CORD Injury ♦ “Because of my injury, it is now impossible for me Information Network (www.spinalcord.uab.edu) have to ever ...

  4. Facial injuries in basketball players.

    PubMed

    Guyette, R F

    1993-04-01

    As the popularity of basketball increases and the style of the game becomes more physical, there is an increasing number of basketball-related injuries. Although most facial injuries sustained while playing basketball are relatively minor, severe and permanent injuries do occur. This article reviews the most common facial injuries incurred by basketball players with emphasis on diagnosis, early treatment, and prevention.

  5. Nonviral Vectors for Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baoum, Abdulgader Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The development of nonviral vectors for safe and efficient gene delivery has been gaining considerable attention recently. An ideal nonviral vector must protect the gene against degradation by nuclease in the extracellular matrix, internalize the plasma membrane, escape from the endosomal compartment, unpackage the gene at some point and have no detrimental effects. In comparison to viruses, nonviral vectors are relatively easy to synthesize, less immunogenic, low in cost, and have no limitation in the size of a gene that can be delivered. Significant progress has been made in the basic science and applications of various nonviral gene delivery vectors; however, the majority of nonviral approaches are still inefficient and often toxic. To this end, two nonviral gene delivery systems using either biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide- co-glycolide) (PLG) nanoparticles or cell penetrating peptide (CPP) complexes have been designed and studied using A549 human lung epithelial cells. PLG nanoparticles were optimized for gene delivery by varying particle surface chemistry using different coating materials that adsorb to the particle surface during formation. A variety of cationic coating materials were studied and compared to more conventional surfactants used for PLG nanoparticle fabrication. Nanoparticles (˜200 nm) efficiently encapsulated plasmids encoding for luciferase (80-90%) and slowly released the same for two weeks. After a delay, moderate levels of gene expression appeared at day 5 for certain positively charged PLG particles and gene expression was maintained for at least two weeks. In contrast, gene expression mediated by polyethyleneimine (PEI) ended at day 5. PLG particles were also significantly less cytotoxic than PEI suggesting the use of these vehicles for localized, sustained gene delivery to the pulmonary epithelium. On the other hand, a more simple method to synthesize 50-200 nm complexes capable of high transfection efficiency or high gene knockdown was

  6. Quantum Electrodynamics for Vector Mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Djukanovic, Dalibor; Schindler, Matthias R.; Scherer, Stefan; Gegelia, Jambul

    2005-07-01

    Quantum electrodynamics for {rho} mesons is considered. It is shown that, at the tree level, the value of the gyromagnetic ratio of the {rho}{sup +} is fixed to 2 in a self-consistent effective quantum field theory. Further, the mixing parameter of the photon and the neutral vector meson is equal to the ratio of electromagnetic and strong couplings, leading to the mass difference M{sub {rho}}{sub {sup 0}}-M{sub {rho}}{sub {sup {+-}}}{approx}1 MeV at tree order.

  7. Jet vectoring through nozzle asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Chris; Rosakis, Alexandros; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    Previously, we explored the functionality of a tri-leaflet anal valve of a dragonfly larva. We saw that the dragonfly larva is capable of controlling the three leaflets independently to asymmetrically open the nozzle. Such control resulted in vectoring of the jet in various directions. To further understand the effect of asymmetric nozzle orifice, we tested jet flow through circular asymmetric nozzles. We report the relationship between nozzle asymmetry and redirecting of the jet at various Reynolds numbers. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET-1511414; additional support by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144469.

  8. Properties of Vector Preisach Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, Gary R.; Patel, Umesh D.; Torre, Edward Della

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses rotational anisotropy and rotational accommodation of magnetic particle tape. These effects have a performance impact during the reading and writing of the recording process. We introduce the reduced vector model as the basis for the computations. Rotational magnetization models must accurately compute the anisotropic characteristics of ellipsoidally magnetizable media. An ellipticity factor is derived for these media that computes the two-dimensional magnetization trajectory for all applied fields. An orientation correction must be applied to the computed rotational magnetization. For isotropic materials, an orientation correction has been developed and presented. For anisotropic materials, an orientation correction is introduced.

  9. Vector spaces, invariance, and camouflage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Henri H.; Garcia-Martinez, Pascuala

    2004-12-01

    We present a method based on an orthonormal vector space basis representation to detect camouflaged targets in natural environments. Because the method is intensity invariant we detect camouflage targets independently of the illumination conditions. The detection technique does not require knowing the exact camouflage pattern, but only the class of patterns (foliage, netting, woods...). We used nonlinear filtering based on the calculation of several correlations. Moreover, the nonlinearity of the filtering process allows a high discrimination against false targets. Several experiments confirm the target detectability where strong camouflage might delude even human viewers.

  10. Imaging Assessment of Gunshot Injuries.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kevin R

    2016-07-01

    Gunshot wounds are the third-leading cause of injury-related death nationwide. Most people with gunshot injuries undergo diagnostic imaging to evaluate their injuries in the clinical or forensic setting. Radiologic technologists must be knowledgeable about common injuries associated with gunshot wounds. Digital radiography and computed tomography play essential roles in the assessment of gunshot injuries. When clinically indicated, magnetic resonance imaging also is a valuable imaging modality for evaluating these injuries. Radiologic technologists should obtain quality images to assist with proper assessment of gunshot injuries. PMID:27390231

  11. Imaging Assessment of Gunshot Injuries.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kevin R

    2016-07-01

    Gunshot wounds are the third-leading cause of injury-related death nationwide. Most people with gunshot injuries undergo diagnostic imaging to evaluate their injuries in the clinical or forensic setting. Radiologic technologists must be knowledgeable about common injuries associated with gunshot wounds. Digital radiography and computed tomography play essential roles in the assessment of gunshot injuries. When clinically indicated, magnetic resonance imaging also is a valuable imaging modality for evaluating these injuries. Radiologic technologists should obtain quality images to assist with proper assessment of gunshot injuries.

  12. A biomechanical approach to interpreting magnetic resonance imaging of knee injuries.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Scott E; Khurana, Bharti; Gaviola, Glenn; Davis, Kirkland W

    2014-11-01

    This article discusses common injury mechanisms and the subsequent constellation of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in the knee following trauma in the context of instability, as distinguished by the degree of knee flexion and tibial rotation at the time of initial injury, in addition to the direction and magnitude of the responsible force vectors. Using 3-dimensional imaging, common injury mechanisms are illustrated and correlated with MR imaging findings of the resulting osteochondral, ligamentous, meniscal, and musculotendinous lesions. The most common classification and grading systems for these individual lesions and their subsequent treatment implications are discussed. PMID:25442026

  13. Iatrogenic Hepatopancreaticobiliary Injuries: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vachhani, Prasanti G.; Copelan, Alexander; Remer, Erick M.; Kapoor, Baljendra

    2015-01-01

    Iatrogenic hepatopancreaticobiliary injuries occur after various types of surgical and nonsurgical procedures. Symptomatically, these injuries may lead to a variety of clinical presentations, including tachycardia and hypotension from hemobilia or hemorrhage. Iatrogenic injuries may be identified during the intervention, immediately afterwards, or have a delayed presentation. These injuries are categorized into nonvascular and vascular injuries. Nonvascular injuries include biliary injuries such as biliary leak or stricture, pancreatic injury, and the development of fluid collections such as abscesses. Vascular injuries include pseudoaneurysms, arteriovenous fistulas, dissection, and perforation. Imaging studies such as ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and digital subtraction angiography are critical for proper diagnosis of these conditions. In this article, we describe the clinical and imaging presentations of these iatrogenic injuries and the armamentarium of minimally invasive procedures (percutaneous drainage catheter placement, balloon dilatation, stenting, and coil embolization) that are useful in their management. PMID:26038625

  14. Photobiomodulation on sports injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon C.; Jiao, Jian-Ling; Li, Cheng-Zhang; Xu, Xiao-Yang

    2003-12-01

    Sports injuries healing has long been an important field in sports medicine. The stimulatory effects of Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation have been investigated in several medical fields, such as cultured cell response, wound healing, hormonal or neural stimulation, pain relief and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LIL irradiation can accelerate sports injuries healing. Some experimental and clinical studies have shown the laser stimulation effects on soft tissues and cartilage, however, controversy still exists regarding the role of LIL when used as a therapeutic device. Summarizing the data of cell studies and animal experiments and clinic trials by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation is a valuable treatment for superficial and localized sports injuries and that the injuries healing effects of the therapy depend on the dosage of LIL irradiation.

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    MedlinePlus

    ... is "Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? When can we expect ...

  16. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... ups and training sessions before practices and before games. This will help ensure that they have fun ... be allowed periods of rest during practices and games. previous continue Common Types of Sports Injuries Three ...

  17. Biomarkers of Lung Injury

    EPA Science Inventory

    Unlike the hepatic, cardiovascular, nervous, or excretory organ systems, where there .ls a strong contribution of host factors or extracellular biochemical milieu in causing organ damage, the causes of lung injuries and subsequent diseases are primarily from direct environmental ...

  18. Toe Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Corns and bunions Ingrown toenails Sprains and dislocations Fractures Treatments for toe injuries and disorders vary. They might include shoe inserts or special shoes, padding, taping, medicines, rest, and in severe cases, surgery.

  19. Injury reduction at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Griffing, Bill; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    In a recent DOE Program Review, Fermilab's director presented results of the laboratory's effort to reduce the injury rate over the last decade. The results, shown in the figure below, reveal a consistent and dramatic downward trend in OSHA recordable injuries at Fermilab. The High Energy Physics Program Office has asked Fermilab to report in detail on how the laboratory has achieved the reduction. In fact, the reduction in the injury rate reflects a change in safety culture at Fermilab, which has evolved slowly over this period, due to a series of events, both planned and unplanned. This paper attempts to describe those significant events and analyze how each of them has shaped the safety culture that, in turn, has reduced the rate of injury at Fermilab to its current value.

  20. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dramatically Improves Function After Spinal Cord Injury in Rats May 2004 press release on an experimental treatment ... NINDS). Signaling Molecule Improves Nerve Cell Regeneration in Rats August 2002 news summary on a signaling molecule ...

  1. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... disabilities include problems with cognition (thinking, memory, and reasoning), sensory processing (sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell), ... barrier. NIH Patient Recruitment for Traumatic Brain Injury Clinical Trials At NIH Clinical Center Throughout the U.S. ...

  2. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and circulation. If necessary, begin rescue breathing and CPR . If the person's breathing and heart rate are normal but the person is unconscious, treat as if there is a spinal injury . Stabilize the head and neck by placing your ...

  3. Swimming injuries. An overview.

    PubMed

    McMaster, W C

    1996-11-01

    Most injuries and complaints encountered in swimming athletes are repetitive microtrauma or overuse, and successful management does not usually require surgical intervention. Rest and other measures to reduce inflammation are often required. Many injuries originate from faulty techniques or mechanisms, and an assessment must be made of the swimming biomechanics of any injured athlete to identify faults that may contribute to injury. It is also important to look at the total training programme of the athlete to identify other factors, such as weight training or dry land programmes, that may be contributing to injury. It is important to understand that, while rest or reduced training may be necessary, every effort to keep the swimmer "in the water' should be made, as cessation of training may lead to a rapid detraining effect.

  4. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your legs are made up of bones, blood vessels, muscles, and other connective tissue. They are important for motion ... falling, or having an accident can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint ...

  5. Spine Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... They include Infections Injuries Tumors Conditions, such as ankylosing spondylitis and scoliosis Bone changes that come with age, such as spinal stenosis and herniated disks Spinal diseases often cause pain when bone changes put pressure ...

  6. Discounting compensation for injuries.

    PubMed

    Price, C

    2000-12-01

    The reasons commonly given for discounting future costs and benefits are doubtfully applicable to future injuries: in particular, time preference justifies neither inter- nor intragenerational discounting. The cost of future injuries could be discounted on grounds that a smaller sum, invested at interest, is needed to pay a given level of ex post monetary compensation the further in the future the injury occurs. This effect is offset, however, by the diminishing marginal utility of compensation, if consumption is otherwise increasing. Depending on the elasticity of marginal utility of consumption, on whether consumption is growing at an optimal rate, and on the time period considered, the implicit discount rate may be positive, zero, or negative (even indefinitely so). There is no prospect of conventional discounting dealing appropriately with the cost of injuries to either future or present generations.

  7. Baseball bat assault injuries.

    PubMed

    Groleau, G A; Tso, E L; Olshaker, J S; Barish, R A; Lyston, D J

    1993-03-01

    The baseball bat, according to Baltimore City police crime statistics, is a commonly used weapon. To assess the severity of injuries inflicted by this modern-day club, we retrospectively reviewed 75 charts of patients treated at the University of Maryland Medical Systems Hospital for baseball bat injuries from January 1990 through July 1991. Multisystem trauma was documented, with craniocerebral injury being the most frequent and the most frequent cause of death. Of the victims struck on the head, 26% sustained an intracranial hemorrhage. In our series, the history of loss of consciousness and the Glasgow Coma Scale score failed to reliably identify the patients with serious injuries. Seventeen percent of our patients with intracranial hemorrhages had both a negative or uncertain history of loss of consciousness and a normal Glasgow Coma Scale score on arrival.

  8. [Traumatic brain injury].

    PubMed

    Hackenberg, K; Unterberg, A

    2016-02-01

    Since traumatic brain injury is the most common cause of long-term disability and death among young adults, it represents an enormous socio-economic and healthcare burden. As a consequence of the primary lesion, a perifocal brain edema develops causing an elevation of the intracranial pressure due to the limited intracranial space. This entails a reduction of the cerebral perfusion pressure and the cerebral blood flow. A cerebral perfusion deficit below the threshold for ischemia leads to further ischemic lesions and to a progression of the contusion. As the irreversible primary lesion can only be inhibited by primary prevention, the therapy of traumatic brain injury focuses on the secondary injuries. The treatment consists of surgical therapy evacuating the space-occupying intracranial lesion and conservative intensive medical care. Due to the complex pathophysiology the therapy of traumatic brain injury should be rapidly performed in a neurosurgical unit. PMID:26810405

  9. Neurologic injury in snowmobiling

    PubMed Central

    Plog, Benjamin A.; Pierre, Clifford A.; Srinivasan, Vasisht; Srinivasan, Kaushik; Petraglia, Anthony L.; Huang, Jason H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Snowmobiles are increasingly popular recreational, all-terrain utility vehicles that require skill and physical strength to operate given their inherent maneuverability, acceleration, and top speed capabilities. These same characteristics increase the risk of injury with the operation of these vehicles, particularly neurological injury. We characterize our series of 107 patients involved in snowmobiling accidents. Methods: From January 2004 to January 2012, all snowmobiling-related injuries referred to our regional trauma center were reviewed. Information had been recorded in the hospital's trauma registry and medical records were retrospectively reviewed for data pertaining to the injuries, with particular emphasis on neurological injuries and any associated details. Results: A total of 107 patients were identified. Ninety percent of injured riders were male. The mean age was 34.4 years (range 10-70), with 7% younger than age 16. The mean Injury Severity Score was 12.0 ± 0.69 (range 1-34). Although not documented in all patients, alcohol use was found in 7.5% of the patients and drug use found in one patient. Documentation of helmet use was available for only 31 of the patients; of which 13% were not helmeted. Causes included being thrown, flipped, or roll-over (33%), striking a stationary object (27%), being struck by a snowmobile (9%), striking another snowmobile (5.5%) or a car, train, or truck (5.5%), being injured by the machine itself (9%), other (2%) or unspecified (18%). Head injuries occurred in 35% patients, including concussion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, contusion, and facial/skull fracture. Spinal fractures occurred in 21% of the patients. Fractures to the thoracic spine were the most common (50%), followed by the cervical (41%) and lumbar (36%) spine. There were also three brachial plexus injuries, one tibial nerve injury, and one internal carotid artery dissection. Average length of stay was 4.98 ± 0.56 days

  10. Pars Injuries in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Oren, Jonathan H; Gallina, Jason M

    2016-03-01

    Pars injuries are common causes of low back pain in adolescent athletes. Workup traditionally has included lumbar radiographs with oblique views and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). However, recent literature has demonstrated the accuracy of MRI as a diagnostic modality. Acute injuries may be amenable to bracing with the goal of a healed lesion. Most cases of spondylolysis will result in asymptomatic non-union, though pars repair is an option for symptomatic pars defects without spondylolisthesis. PMID:26977552

  11. Hysteria following brain injury.

    PubMed Central

    Eames, P

    1992-01-01

    Of 167 patients referred to a unit treating severe behaviour disorders after brain injury, 54 showed clinical features closely resembling those of gross hysteria as described by Charcot. Close correlation was found with very diffuse insults (hypoxia and hypoglycaemia), but not with severity of injury or with family or personal history of hysterical or other psychiatric disorder. The findings may have implications for the understanding of the nature of hysteria. PMID:1469401

  12. Scuba diving injuries.

    PubMed

    Replogle, W H; Sanders, S D; Keeton, J E; Phillips, D M

    1988-06-01

    Scuba diving has become increasingly popular, and family physicians may encounter patients who have been injured in a dive. Manifestations of diving injuries may not occur until 12 hours or more after a dive. Initial treatment, based on knowledge of the pathophysiology of decompression sickness, lung expansion injuries and ear barotrauma, may prevent severe and permanent sequelae. Decompression sickness and air embolism are medical emergencies.

  13. Catastrophic spine injuries in sports.

    PubMed

    Boden, Barry P; Prior, Chris

    2005-02-01

    Catastrophic spine injuries in sports are rare but tragic events. The sports with the highest risk of catastrophic spinal injuries are football, ice hockey, wrestling, diving, skiing and snowboarding, rugby, cheerleading, and baseball. A common mechanism of injury for all at-risk sports is an axial compression force to the top of the head with the neck slightly flexed. We review common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for spine injuries in the at-risk sports.

  14. Peroxisomes and Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Peroxisomes are organelles present in most eukaryotic cells. The organs with the highest density of peroxisomes are the liver and kidneys. Peroxisomes possess more than fifty enzymes and fulfill a multitude of biological tasks. They actively participate in apoptosis, innate immunity, and inflammation. In recent years, a considerable amount of evidence has been collected to support the involvement of peroxisomes in the pathogenesis of kidney injury. Recent Advances: The nature of the two most important peroxisomal tasks, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and hydrogen peroxide turnover, functionally relates peroxisomes to mitochondria. Further support for their communication and cooperation is furnished by the evidence that both organelles share the components of their division machinery. Until recently, the majority of studies on the molecular mechanisms of kidney injury focused primarily on mitochondria and neglected peroxisomes. Critical Issues: The aim of this concise review is to introduce the reader to the field of peroxisome biology and to provide an overview of the evidence about the contribution of peroxisomes to the development and progression of kidney injury. The topics of renal ischemia–reperfusion injury, endotoxin-induced kidney injury, diabetic nephropathy, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as well as the potential therapeutic implications of peroxisome activation, are addressed in this review. Future Directions: Despite recent progress, further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms induced by dysfunctional peroxisomes and the role of the dysregulated mitochondria–peroxisome axis in the pathogenesis of renal injury. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 217–231. PMID:26972522

  15. Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Alexandra L; Lakhani, Saquib A; Hsu, Benson S

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a better understanding of pediatric traumatic brain injury and its management. Within the pediatric age group, ages 1 to 19, injuries are the number one cause of death with traumatic brain injury being involved in almost 50 percent of these cases. This, along with the fact that the medical system spends over $1 billion annually on pediatric traumatic brain injury, makes this issue both timely and relevant to health care providers. Over the course of this article the epidemiology, physiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of pediatric traumatic brain injury will be explored. Emphasis will be placed on the role of the early responder and the immediate interventions that should be considered and/or performed. The management discussed in this article follows the most recent recommendations from the 2012 edition of the Guidelines for the Acute Medical Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Infants, Children, and Adolescents. Despite the focus of this article, it is important not to lose sight of the fact that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound--or, to be more precise and use the average human's brain measurements, just above three pounds--of cure. PMID:26630835

  16. Laser eye injuries.

    PubMed

    Barkana, Y; Belkin, M

    2000-01-01

    Laser instruments are used in many spheres of human activity, including medicine, industry, laboratory research, entertainment, and, notably, the military. This widespread use of lasers has resulted in many accidental injuries. Injuries are almost always retinal, because of the concentration of visible and near-infrared radiation on the retina. The retina is therefore the body tissue most vulnerable to laser radiation. The nature and severity of this type of retinal injury is determined by multiple laser-related and eye-related factors, the most important being the duration and amount of energy delivered and the retinal location of the lesion. The clinical course of significant retinal laser injuries is characterized by sudden loss of vision, often followed by marked improvement over a few weeks, and occasionally severe late complications. Medical and surgical treatment is limited. Laser devices hazardous to the human eye are currently in widespread use by armed forces. Furthermore, lasers may be employed specifically for visual incapacitation on future battlefields. Adherence to safety practices effectively prevents accidental laser-induced ocular injuries. However, there is no practical way to prevent injuries that are maliciously inflicted, as expected from laser weapons.

  17. Volumetric Acoustic Vector Intensity Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klos, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    A new measurement tool capable of imaging the acoustic intensity vector throughout a large volume is discussed. This tool consists of an array of fifty microphones that form a spherical surface of radius 0.2m. A simultaneous measurement of the pressure field across all the microphones provides time-domain near-field holograms. Near-field acoustical holography is used to convert the measured pressure into a volumetric vector intensity field as a function of frequency on a grid of points ranging from the center of the spherical surface to a radius of 0.4m. The volumetric intensity is displayed on three-dimensional plots that are used to locate noise sources outside the volume. There is no restriction on the type of noise source that can be studied. The sphere is mobile and can be moved from location to location to hunt for unidentified noise sources. An experiment inside a Boeing 757 aircraft in flight successfully tested the ability of the array to locate low-noise-excited sources on the fuselage. Reference transducers located on suspected noise source locations can also be used to increase the ability of this device to separate and identify multiple noise sources at a given frequency by using the theory of partial field decomposition. The frequency range of operation is 0 to 1400Hz. This device is ideal for the study of noise sources in commercial and military transportation vehicles in air, on land and underwater.

  18. Vector computer memory bank contention

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, D.H.

    1987-03-01

    A number of recent vector supercomputer designs have featured main memories with very large capacities, and presumably even larger memories are planned for future generations. While the memory chips used in these computers can store much larger amounts of data than before, their operation speeds are rather slow when compared to the significantly faster CPU (central processing unit) circuitry in new supercomputer designs. A consequence of this speed disparity between CPU's and main memory is that memory access times and memory bank reservation times (as measured in CPU ticks) are sharply increased from previous generations. While it has been recognized that these longer memory operation times will reduce scalar performance, it has not been generally realized that vector performance could suffer as well, due to a sharp increase in memory bank contention. This paper examines this phenomenon using both a Markov chain mathematical model and a Monte Carlo simulation program. The potential for performance reduction is described and techniques for ameliorating this reduction are proposed.

  19. Genetics of Mosquito Vector Competence

    PubMed Central

    Beerntsen, Brenda T.; James, Anthony A.; Christensen, Bruce M.

    2000-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Efforts to control mosquito-borne diseases have been impeded, in part, by the development of drug-resistant parasites, insecticide-resistant mosquitoes, and environmental concerns over the application of insecticides. Therefore, there is a need to develop novel disease control strategies that can complement or replace existing control methods. One such strategy is to generate pathogen-resistant mosquitoes from those that are susceptible. To this end, efforts have focused on isolating and characterizing genes that influence mosquito vector competence. It has been known for over 70 years that there is a genetic basis for the susceptibility of mosquitoes to parasites, but until the advent of powerful molecular biological tools and protocols, it was difficult to assess the interactions of pathogens with their host tissues within the mosquito at a molecular level. Moreover, it has been only recently that the molecular mechanisms responsible for pathogen destruction, such as melanotic encapsulation and immune peptide production, have been investigated. The molecular characterization of genes that influence vector competence is becoming routine, and with the development of the Sindbis virus transducing system, potential antipathogen genes now can be introduced into the mosquito and their effect on parasite development can be assessed in vivo. With the recent successes in the field of mosquito germ line transformation, it seems likely that the generation of a pathogen-resistant mosquito population from a susceptible population soon will become a reality. PMID:10704476

  20. Thoracoabdominal musculoskeletal injuries in racquet sports.

    PubMed

    Lehman, R C

    1988-04-01

    Thoracoabdominal musculoskeletal injuries are separated into rectus abdominus injuries and lower thoracic muscular injuries. Localized rectus injuries may be treated by steroid injection. Diffuse rectus injuries and thoracic injuries are treated by aggressive rehabilitation. The mechanisms of injury are different in each case, and prevention of these forces is necessary to allow soft-tissue healing.

  1. Dancers' and musicians' injuries.

    PubMed

    Rietveld, A B M Boni

    2013-04-01

    This overview is based on the over 30 years of performing arts medicine experience of the author, an orthopaedic surgeon who devoted his professional life entirely to the prevention, diagnostics, and treatment of dancers' and musicians' injuries. After a short introduction on the specific demands of professional dance and music making, it describes some general principles of orthopaedic dance medicine and causes of injuries in dancers. The relation of dance injuries with compensatory mechanisms for insufficient external rotation in the hips is explained, as well as hypermobility and the importance of 'core-stability'. As a general principle of treatment, the physician must respect the 'passion' of the dancer and never give an injured dancer the advice to stop dancing. Mental practice helps to maintain dance technical capabilities. The specific orthopaedic dance-medicine section deals with some common injuries of the back and lower extremities in dancers. An important group of common dance injuries form the causes of limited and painful 'relevé' in dancers, like 'dancer's heel' (posterior ankle impingement syndrome), 'dancer's tendinitis' (tenovaginitis of the m.flexor hallucis longus) and hallux rigidus. The second half of the overview deals with the general principles of orthopaedic musicians' medicine and causes of injuries in musicians, like a sudden change in the 'musical load' or a faulty playing posture. Hypermobility in musicians is both an asset and a risk factor. As a general principle of treatment, early specialized medical assessment is essential to rule out specific injuries. Making the diagnosis in musicians is greatly facilitated by examining the patient during playing the musical instrument. The playing posture, stabilisation of the trunk and shoulder girdle and practising habits should always be checked. Musicians in general are intelligent and the time spent on extensive explanation and advice is well spent. In overuse injuries, relative rest

  2. Attenuated Vesicular Stomatitis Viruses as Vaccine Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Anjeanette; Buonocore, Linda; Price, Ryan; Forman, John; Rose, John K.

    1999-01-01

    We showed previously that a single intranasal vaccination of mice with a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing an influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) protein provided complete protection from lethal challenge with influenza virus (A. Roberts, E. Kretzschmar, A. S. Perkins, J. Forman, R. Price, L. Buonocore, Y. Kawaoka, and J. K. Rose, J. Virol. 72:4704–4711, 1998). Because some pathogenesis was associated with the vector itself, in the present study we generated new VSV vectors expressing HA which are completely attenuated for pathogenesis in the mouse model. The first vector has a truncation of the cytoplasmic domain of the VSV G protein and expresses influenza virus HA (CT1-HA). This nonpathogenic vector provides complete protection from lethal influenza virus challenge after intranasal administration. A second vector with VSV G deleted and expressing HA (ΔG-HA) is also protective and nonpathogenic and has the advantage of not inducing neutralizing antibodies to the vector itself. PMID:10196265

  3. Gateway vectors for transformation of cereals.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mansour; Inzé, Dirk; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Hilson, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Until now, the availability of vectors for transgenic research in cereal crops has been rather limited. We present a novel collection of Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary T-DNA vectors compatible with Gateway recombinational cloning that facilitate the modular assembly of genes of interest together with new regulatory sequences, such as strong constitutive or endosperm-specific Brachypodium distachyon promoters. This resource aims at streamlining the creation of vectors and transgenes designed to explore gene functions in vital monocotyledonous crops.

  4. Pediatric elbow injuries in athletes.

    PubMed

    Makhni, Eric C; Jegede, Kola A; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    Elbow injuries in pediatric and adolescent population represent a spectrum of pathology that can range from medial tension injuries to posterior shear injuries. Elbow injuries in this population continue to rise in parallel with the increase in youth participation in sports both throughout the calendar year and across multiple sports. Many of these injuries are noncontact and are attributed to overuse. Evaluation and management of youth and adolescent athletic elbow injuries requires knowledge of developmental anatomy, injury pathophysiology, and established treatment algorithms. Furthermore, risk factors contributing to elbow injuries must be recognized, with education and recommendations for safe play continually advocated. This education--of parents, athletes, and coaches--is paramount in reducing the climbing incidence of elbow injuries in our youth athletes.

  5. (New hosts and vectors for genome cloning)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-28

    The main goal of our project has been to develop new bacterial hosts and vectors for cloning human DNA in the bacterium E. coli. Because human DNA is both A+T-rich and highly repetitive, many human sequences are unstable as inserts in vectors that are propagated in bacteria. During the past eight months, we have (1) assessed what fraction of human DNA inserts in cosmid vectors is unstable, (2) developed new host strains that help stabilize unstable sequence features of human DNA, and (3) begun the development of a new generation of cloning vectors that should permit the more stable maintenance and more facile analysis of large human DNA inserts.

  6. Bacteriophage lambda-based expression vectors.

    PubMed

    Christensen, A C

    2001-03-01

    Bacteriophage lambda has been in use as a cloning vector for over 25 years, and has been used extensively as an expression vector. The efficiency of packaging and infection, and the simplicity of plaque screening are advantages of lambda as a cloning vector. A number of ingenious modifications help overcome the disadvantages associated with its mode of growth and its size. Some lambda vectors have been designed to be readily converted into plasmids or phagemids, and there are a variety of promoters and fusions that can be used to drive expression of foreign genes. Screening lambda libraries with antibodies or ligands is a powerful way of identifying novel genes. PMID:11434310

  7. Building mosaics of therapeutic plasmid gene vectors.

    PubMed

    Tolmachov, Oleg E

    2011-12-01

    Plasmids are circular or linear DNA molecules propagated extra-chromosomally in bacteria. Evolution shaped plasmids are inherently mosaic structures with individual functional units represented by distinct segments in the plasmid genome. The patchwork of plasmid genetic modules is a convenient template and a model for the generation of artificial plasmids used as vehicles for gene delivery into human cells. Plasmid gene vectors are an important tool in gene therapy and in basic biomedical research, where these vectors offer efficient transgene expression in many settings in vitro and in vivo. Plasmid vectors can be attached to nuclear directing ligands or transferred by electroporation as naked DNA to deliver the payload genes to the nuclei of the target cells. Transgene expression silencing by plasmid sequences of bacterial origin and immune stimulation by bacterial unmethylated CpG motifs can be avoided by the generation of plasmid-based minimized DNA vectors, such as minicircles. Systems of efficient site-specific integration into human chromosomes and stable episomal maintenance in human cells are being developed for further reduction of the chances for transgene silencing. The successful generation of plasmid vectors is governed by a number of vector design rules, some of which are common to all gene vectors, while others are specific to plasmid vectors. This review is focused both on the guiding principles and on the technical know-how of plasmid gene vector design. PMID:22023476

  8. Vector wind profile gust model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelfang, S. I.

    1981-01-01

    To enable development of a vector wind gust model suitable for orbital flight test operations and trade studies, hypotheses concerning the distributions of gust component variables were verified. Methods for verification of hypotheses that observed gust variables, including gust component magnitude, gust length, u range, and L range, are gamma distributed and presented. Observed gust modulus has been drawn from a bivariate gamma distribution that can be approximated with a Weibull distribution. Zonal and meridional gust components are bivariate gamma distributed. An analytical method for testing for bivariate gamma distributed variables is presented. Two distributions for gust modulus are described and the results of extensive hypothesis testing of one of the distributions are presented. The validity of the gamma distribution for representation of gust component variables is established.

  9. High power thrust vector actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittock, M. J.

    1993-06-01

    Modern missile programs are frequently favoring electro-mechanical (EM) thrust vector actuation (TVA) over hydraulic for a variety of reasons. However, actuation system performance requirements are not relaxed for EM systems. Thus the development of EM systems with greater power output is required. The configuration of EM actuator studied consists of a DC brushless motor driving a spur gear train, which drives a ballscrew that converts rotary motion to rectilinear motion. This design produces an actuator with high levels of performance in a compact mechanical package. Design for manufacturability and assembly (DFMA) was part of the design process, resulting in an actuator that can be assembled easily and will operate reliably. This paper will discuss the mechanical details of the resultant actuator and report test results on a prototype derivative.

  10. Vector wind profile gust model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelfang, S. I.

    1979-01-01

    Work towards establishing a vector wind profile gust model for the Space Transportation System flight operations and trade studies is reported. To date, all the statistical and computational techniques required were established and partially implemented. An analysis of wind profile gust at Cape Kennedy within the theoretical framework is presented. The variability of theoretical and observed gust magnitude with filter type, altitude, and season is described. Various examples are presented which illustrate agreement between theoretical and observed gust percentiles. The preliminary analysis of the gust data indicates a strong variability with altitude, season, and wavelength regime. An extension of the analyses to include conditional distributions of gust magnitude given gust length, distributions of gust modulus, and phase differences between gust components has begun.

  11. Slow deterministic vector rogue waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeyev, S. V.; Kolpakov, S. A.; Mou, Ch.; Jacobsen, G.; Popov, S.; Kalashnikov, V.

    2016-03-01

    For an erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes, we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically a new type of the vector rogue waves emerging as a result of the chaotic evolution of the trajectories between two orthogonal states of polarization on the Poincare sphere. In terms of fluctuation induced phenomena, by tuning polarization controller for the pump wave and in-cavity polarization controller, we are able to control the Kramers time, i.e. the residence time of the trajectory in vicinity of each orthogonal state of polarization, and so can cause the rare events satisfying rogue wave criteria and having the form of transitions from the state with the long residence time to the state with a short residence time.

  12. Introduction to Vector Field Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Shen, Han-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Vector field visualization techniques are essential to help us understand the complex dynamics of flow fields. These can be found in a wide range of applications such as study of flows around an aircraft, the blood flow in our heart chambers, ocean circulation models, and severe weather predictions. The vector fields from these various applications can be visually depicted using a number of techniques such as particle traces and advecting textures. In this tutorial, we present several fundamental algorithms in flow visualization including particle integration, particle tracking in time-dependent flows, and seeding strategies. For flows near surfaces, a wide variety of synthetic texture-based algorithms have been developed to depict near-body flow features. The most common approach is based on the Line Integral Convolution (LIC) algorithm. There also exist extensions of LIC to support more flexible texture generations for 3D flow data. This tutorial reviews these algorithms. Tensor fields are found in several real-world applications and also require the aid of visualization to help users understand their data sets. Examples where one can find tensor fields include mechanics to see how material respond to external forces, civil engineering and geomechanics of roads and bridges, and the study of neural pathway via diffusion tensor imaging. This tutorial will provide an overview of the different tensor field visualization techniques, discuss basic tensor decompositions, and go into detail on glyph based methods, deformation based methods, and streamline based methods. Practical examples will be used when presenting the methods; and applications from some case studies will be used as part of the motivation.

  13. Laryngeal war injuries.

    PubMed

    Danić, D; Milicić, D; Prgomet, D; Leović, D

    1995-01-01

    During the war in Croatia in the region of Brodska Posavina at the Medical Center in Slavonski Brod, 7,043 wounded were treated. The Otolaryngology and Oral Surgery Service treated 728 wounded, of whom 20 had laryngeal injuries. Most of the injuries were caused by shrapnel from shells, mines, and hand grenades. Nineteen wounded had associated injuries of the neck, head, and the neck and/or other parts of the body. The authors performed in 8 surgical explorations and immediate reconstruction with the median layer of the deep cervical fascia (MLDCF). Upon termination of the treatment, the nineteen wounded had good respiration without signs of stenosis of the larynx. Twelve had good phonation, five satisfactory phonation, and two bad. None had swallowing difficulties. Among the eight wounded on whom the reconstruction of the larynx was done with cervical fascia, four had very good phonation, three satisfactory, and the eight died on the sixth postoperative day because of associated injuries to the cervical spine. The cervical fascia proved itself to be a suitable material in the immediate reconstruction of exogenous war injuries of the larynx.

  14. Ocular injury in hurling

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, T; Fennessy, K; Horgan, N; Walsh, B; O'Connell, E; Cleary, P; Beatty, S; MacEwan, C

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the clinical characteristics of ocular injuries sustained in hurling in the south of Ireland and to investigate reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear. Results: Hurling related eye injuries occurred most commonly in young men. Fifty two patients (17%) required hospital admission, with hyphaema accounting for 71% of admissions. Ten injuries required intraocular surgical intervention: retinal detachment repair (5); macular hole surgery (1); repair of partial thickness corneal laceration (1); repair of globe perforation (1); enucleation (1); trabeculectomy for post-traumatic glaucoma (1). Fourteen eyes (4.5%) had a final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of <6/12 and six (2%) had BCVA <3/60. In the survey, 63 players (48.5%) reported wearing no protective facemask while playing hurling. Impairment of vision was the most common reason cited for non-use. Conclusions: Hurling related injury is a significant, and preventable, cause of ocular morbidity in young men in Ireland. The routine use of appropriate protective headgear and faceguards would result in a dramatic reduction in the incidence and severity of these injuries, and should be mandatory. PMID:16046328

  15. Rationalizing vaccine injury compensation.

    PubMed

    Mello, Michelle M

    2008-01-01

    Legislation recently adopted by the United States Congress provides producers of pandemic vaccines with near-total immunity from civil lawsuits without making individuals injured by those vaccines eligible for compensation through the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. The unusual decision not to provide an alternative mechanism for compensation is indicative of a broader problem of inconsistency in the American approach to vaccine-injury compensation policy. Compensation policies have tended to reflect political pressures and economic considerations more than any cognizable set of principles. This article identifies a set of ethical principles bearing on the circumstances in which vaccine injuries should be compensated, both inside and outside public health emergencies. A series of possible bases for compensation rules, some grounded in utilitarianism and some nonconsequentialist, are discussed and evaluated. Principles of fairness and reasonableness are found to constitute the strongest bases. An ethically defensible compensation policy grounded in these principles would make a compensation fund available to all individuals with severe injuries and to individuals with less-severe injuries whenever the vaccination was required by law or professional duty.

  16. Spinal injuries in contact sports.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Joseph B; Zarzour, Robert; Moorman, Claude T

    2006-02-01

    Contact and collision sports such as American football expose the athlete to a wide array of potential injuries. Knee injuries garner much of the attention, but spinal injuries are potentially catastrophic and all levels of medical coverage of football must be knowledgeable and prepared to attend to an athlete with a neck injury. Of the other possible spinal conditions, some resolve on their own, others might require conservative therapy, and still others might require surgical intervention. The spectrum of potential injury is wide, yet the medical team must practice and prepare to treat the possible catastrophic neck injury.

  17. Vector Addition: Effect of the Context and Position of the Vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2010-10-01

    In this article we investigate the effect of: 1) the context, and 2) the position of the vectors, on 2D vector addition tasks. We administered a test to 512 students completing introductory physics courses at a private Mexican university. In the first part, we analyze students' responses in three isomorphic problems: displacements, forces, and no physical context. Students were asked to draw two vectors and the vector sum. We analyzed students' procedures detecting the difficulties when drawing the vector addition and proved that the context matters, not only compared to the context-free case but also between the contexts. In the second part, we analyze students' responses with three different arrangements of the sum of two vectors: tail-to-tail, head-to-tail and separated vectors. We compared the frequencies of the errors in the three different positions to deduce students' conceptions in the addition of vectors.

  18. Bony injuries about the elbow in the throwing athlete.

    PubMed

    Andrews, J R

    1985-01-01

    Tremendous valgus stress during the acceleration phase of pitching is the primary cause of elbow injury in the pitcher. Lateral compression injuries are usually found in pitchers in their early teens, and osteochondritis dissecans is the primary underlying cause. Severe flexion contractures and even partial ankylosis of the elbow may occur. Prognosis after surgery is generally poor. Medial tension injuries with either soft-tissue damage or bony damage usually require surgery. The medial collateral ligament should be considered the primary stabilizer against the valgus-vector overload. The medial collateral ligament or bony avulsion form the medial compartment of the elbow should be primarily corrected. Results of early surgical correction to these lesions should produce excellent results. Pitchers with extension block injuries are generally older, more experienced athletes than those without such injuries. These pitchers have had symptoms for some time with progressive loss of full extension of the elbow and increasing pain. Valgus extension overload can be surgically corrected by an open surgical approach or an operative arthroscopic approach. Basically these approaches are palliative, and progression of symptoms at a later date may be expected. Finally, the postoperative rehabilitation of any elbow problem is extremely important and should be preplanned for the specific lesion treated.

  19. Catastrophic pediatric sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Luckstead, Eugene F; Patel, Dilip R

    2002-06-01

    The high school sports of wrestling, gymnastics, ice hockey, baseball, track, and cheerleading should receive closer attention to prevent injury. Safer equipment and sport-specific conditioning should be provided and injuries strictly monitored. Greater attention must also be paid to swimming and diving techniques, and continued observation is needed for heat stroke and heat intolerance in sports such as football, wrestling, basketball, track and field, and cross-country. An increased awareness of commotio cordis in sports other than baseball should include ice hockey, football, track field events, and lacrosse. American football because of the sheer numbers and associated catastrophic injury potential must continue to be monitored at the highest medical levels! PMID:12119866

  20. Iatrogenic accessory nerve injury.

    PubMed Central

    London, J.; London, N. J.; Kay, S. P.

    1996-01-01

    Accessory nerve injury produces considerable disability. The nerve is most frequently damaged as a complication of radical neck dissection, cervical lymph node biopsy and other surgical procedures. The problem is frequently compounded by a failure to recognise the error immediately after surgery when surgical repair has the greatest chance of success. We present cases which outline the risk of accessory nerve injury, the spectrum of clinical presentations and the problems produced by a failure to recognise the deficit. Regional anatomy, consequences of nerve damage and management options are discussed. Diagnostic biopsy of neck nodes should not be undertaken as a primary investigation and, when indicated, surgery in this region should be performed by suitably trained staff under well-defined conditions. Awareness of iatrogenic injury and its consequences would avoid delays in diagnosis and treatment. Images Figure 2 PMID:8678450

  1. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Collins, K; Storey, M; Peterson, K; Nutter, P

    1988-01-01

    In brief: Nerve injuries in athletes may be serious and may delay or prevent an athlete's return to his or her sport. Over a two-year period, the authors evaluated the condition of 65 patients who had entrapments of a nerve or nerve root, documented with electromyography. They describe four case histories: Two patients had radial nerve entrapments, one caused by baseball pitching and the other by kayaking; one football player had combined suprascapular neuropathy and upper trunk brachial plexopathy; and one patient had carpal tunnel syndrome of a median nerve secondary to rowing. Sports-related peripheral nerve lesions of the lower extremity were not seen during the study period. Based on a literature review, the nerve injuries discussed represent the spectrum of nerve entrapments likely to be seen in US clinics. The authors conclude that peripheral nerve lesions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of sports injuries, particularly at the shoulder, elbow, and wrist.

  2. Management of Frostbite Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Gustavo A.

    1981-01-01

    The role of interventional radiology in the management and diagnosis of frostbite injury in 18 patients at the West Side VA Medical Center is presented. Conservative treatment and the use of intra-arterial long acting vasodilators, such as reserpine, are emphasized, even in patients referred 48 to 72 hours after the initial injury. This modality of treatment should be attempted before surgical decision or amputation is necessary. Satisfactory responses were obtained in most of the treated subjects and in some cases, results were dramatic with significant recovery and a minimum of sequelae. Generally clinical principles and physiopathology in frostbite injuries are reviewed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:7328687

  3. A season of football injuries.

    PubMed

    Stokes, M A; McKeever, J A; McQuillan, R F; O'Higgins, N J

    1994-06-01

    All rugby and soccer players presenting to the Accident & Emergency department during the football season 1992-1993 (a total of 871) were prospectively studied to compare the injuries sustained in the two sports. The nature and site of injury, treatment required, age, fitness, experience and position of the player, situation giving rise to injury, and medical attention at the grounds were all analysed. The results show that rugby and soccer players had the same number of injuries, and while there were some differences in the nature of the injuries, there was no difference in overall severity. Rugby flankers and soccer goalkeepers are particularly at risk. Competitive matches produce more injuries than training sessions. Experience or fitness did not appear to be a factor and 45% of rugby injuries and 15% of soccer injuries were from school matches. Law changes (e.g. the rugby scrum and the use of gum-shields) have reduced some injuries, but other areas (e.g. jumping for the ball in soccer, rucks and mauls in rugby) also warrant consideration. There was one death, but no spinal cord injuries. Medical attention at the grounds was limited. Rugby injuries, therefore, do not appear to be more numerous or severe than soccer injuries. Law changes have been of benefit but they need to be enforced and perhaps more should be considered. Medical attention at sports grounds could be improved and Registers of injuries kept by the sporting bodies would be of benefit. PMID:8050871

  4. [Elbow injuries in childhood].

    PubMed

    Weise, K; Schwab, E; Scheufele, T M

    1997-04-01

    Fractures and dislocations of the elbow are some of the most common injuries in childhood and adolescence. The majority occur in sport and play activities, e.g., a fall from gymnastics apparatus or a bike, or from popular sports items, such as skateboards or in-line skates. The injuries can be divided into pure dislocations of the joint and fractures of the distal humerus, proximal radius and ulna, or combinations of both. In addition, extra- and intraarticular fracture types are defined, with the latter as partial or complete joint lesions. Dislocations of the elbow joint or the radial head can occur as single injuries or in combination with a fracture. Supracondylar fractures and avulsion fractures of the medial epicondyle are the most frequent extraarticular lesions of the distal humerus. Fractures of the lateral condyle prevail is incomplete intraarticular lesions. In the forearm, radial head and neck fractures are predominant while typical and atypical Monteggia injuries have a special status. The complex joint construction and the age-dependent appearance of the epiphyseal ossification centers sometimes make a correct radiological diagnosis difficult. The trauma history and an exact, clinical examination help to verify the injury, as do comparative X-ray studies of the uninjured side when necessary (but not routinely). Unlike other anatomical areas, most elbow injuries-even in the growing skeleton-are treated operatively. Hereby, the growth plates have to be respected using minimal amounts of small implants. Additional immobilization in a cast for 2-4 weeks is necessary in most cases but does not lead to a functional deficit-in contrast to adults. The implants should be removed as early as possible. Despite all therapeutic efforts, a significant number of late sequelae, such as malunions and functional impairment, can be seen. The rate of long-term complications increases in cases of untreated displacement of fragments or joint instability. Corrective

  5. [Iatrogenic bile duct injuries].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Gómez, Francisco; Ramia Ángel, José Manuel; García-Parreño Jofré, Jorge; Figueras, Joan

    2010-10-01

    Bile duct injuries can be caused by different reasons, with Iatrogenic Bile Duct Injuries (IBDI) being the most common factor. IBDI is a complex situation produced in apparently healthy patients and is associated with a high rate of morbidity and a low rate of mortality. A multidisciplinary approach between surgeons, radiologist and endoscopist offers the best chances for an initial diagnosis, therapeutic options, management and follow up of complications for the patient. The aim of this review is to describe the current medical literature with reference to IBDI, and discuss our therapeutic algorithm.

  6. 15 CFR 990.51 - Injury assessment-injury determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.51 Injury assessment—injury... this part, trustees must determine if injuries to natural resources and/or services have resulted from... natural resource has been exposed to the discharged oil, and a pathway can be established from...

  7. 15 CFR 990.51 - Injury assessment-injury determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.51 Injury assessment—injury... this part, trustees must determine if injuries to natural resources and/or services have resulted from... natural resource has been exposed to the discharged oil, and a pathway can be established from...

  8. 15 CFR 990.51 - Injury assessment-injury determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.51 Injury assessment—injury... this part, trustees must determine if injuries to natural resources and/or services have resulted from... natural resource has been exposed to the discharged oil, and a pathway can be established from...

  9. 15 CFR 990.51 - Injury assessment-injury determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.51 Injury assessment—injury... this part, trustees must determine if injuries to natural resources and/or services have resulted from... natural resource has been exposed to the discharged oil, and a pathway can be established from...

  10. Error estimation for ORION baseline vector determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of error sources on Operational Radio Interferometry Observing Network (ORION) baseline vector determination are studied. Partial derivatives of delay observations with respect to each error source are formulated. Covariance analysis is performed to estimate the contribution of each error source to baseline vector error. System design parameters such as antenna sizes, system temperatures and provision for dual frequency operation are discussed.

  11. 40 CFR 240.206 - Vectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vectors. 240.206 Section 240.206 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.206 Vectors....

  12. 40 CFR 240.206 - Vectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vectors. 240.206 Section 240.206 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.206 Vectors....

  13. 40 CFR 240.206 - Vectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Vectors. 240.206 Section 240.206 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.206 Vectors....

  14. 40 CFR 240.206 - Vectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vectors. 240.206 Section 240.206 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.206 Vectors....

  15. 40 CFR 240.206 - Vectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vectors. 240.206 Section 240.206 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.206 Vectors....

  16. A vector model for electroweak interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reifler, Frank

    1985-03-01

    In this paper we present a vector model for the electroweak interactions. The Cartan map gives an isomorphism between Dirac bispinors and an isotropic class of Yang-Mills vector fields. The isotropic Yang-Mills vector fields Fk =Ek +iHk with k=1,2,3, satisfy the condition that the matrix of scalar invariants (Fj ṡFk) equals a scalar multiple of the identity matrix. We show that all the bispinor observables commute with the Cartan isomorphism, including all gauge transformations, as well as Lorentz transformations. We derive the Yang-Mills equivalent Dirac equation. As a consequence of the vector model, we obtain a new Lagrangian for electroweak interactions, which is an alternative to the Weinberg-Salam Lagrangian. Moreover, we show that the vector model predicts that the Weinberg angle θw satisfies sin2 θw =0.25, which is close to the measured value of sin2 θw =0.23. The vector model accommodates all the lepton and quark flavors. Furthermore, it predicts the conservation of baryon number and lepton number, as well as electric charge in electroweak interactions. The vector model also gives a new interpretation to antiparticles. In the vector model, an antiparticle is characterized by its opposite baryon number, lepton number, and electric charge; yet both particles and antiparticles propagate forward in time with positive energies.

  17. Application of Vectors to Relative Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tin-Lam, Toh

    2004-01-01

    The topic 'relative velocity' has recently been introduced into the Cambridge Ordinary Level Additional Mathematics syllabus under the application of Vectors. In this note, the results of relative velocity and the 'reduction to rest' technique of teaching relative velocity are derived mathematically from vector algebra, in the hope of providing…

  18. Vector particles tunneling from BTZ black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ge-Rui; Zhou, Shiwei; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we investigate vector particles' Hawking radiation from a Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole. By applying the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation and the Hamilton-Jacobi ansatz to the Proca equation, we obtain the tunneling spectrum of vector particles. The expected Hawking temperature is recovered.

  19. Ramond singular vectors and Jack superpolynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarie-Vézina, Ludovic; Desrosiers, Patrick; Mathieu, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The explicit formula for the superconformal singular vectors in the Neveu-Schwarz sector has been obtained recently, via its symmetric polynomial representation, as a sum of Jack superpolynomials. Here we present the analogous, but slightly more complicated, closed-form expression for the Ramond singular vectors.

  20. A Context Vector Model for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billhardt, Holger; Borrajo, Daniel; Maojo, Victor

    2002-01-01

    Presents an indexing and information retrieval method that, based on the vector space model, incorporates term dependencies and thus obtains semantically richer representations of documents. Highlights include term context vectors; techniques for estimating the dependencies among terms; term weights; experimental results on four text collections;…

  1. Traumatic injury of the bladder and urethra

    MedlinePlus

    Injury - bladder and urethra; Bruised bladder; Urethral injury; Bladder injury; Pelvic fracture; Urethral disruption ... Types of bladder injuries include: Blunt trauma (such as a blow to the body) Penetrating wounds (such as bullet or stab wounds) The ...

  2. Injuries to athletes with disabilities: identifying injury patterns.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, M S; Peterson, C L

    2000-08-01

    Participation in sport activities for people with disabilities continues to gain in popularity. With participation in sports, there is an inherent risk of injury. A review of current sport epidemiological studies was used and we concluded that injury patterns for this population are similar to those for athletes without disabilities. Injury data from Paralympic competitions dating back to 1976 indicate that most elite athletes with disabilities seek medical care for illness and musculo-skeletal injuries. However, there are very limited injury data regarding Winter Paralympic events or skiing injuries. For those athletes who participate in Summer Paralympic events, abrasions, strains, sprains and contusions are more common than fractures and dislocations. However, location of injuries appears to be disability and sport dependent. Lower extremity injuries are more common in ambulatory athletes (visually impaired, amputee, cerebral palsy) and upper extremity injuries are more frequent in athletes who use a wheelchair. While it appears that the majority of the injuries occurring in this population are minor in nature, inconsistencies in the definition of injury in the literature make this conclusion tenuous. When injuries are expressed as time lost in participation, 52% of injuries resulted in 7 days lost or less, 29% in 8 to 21 days lost and 19% in greater than 22 days lost. The only prospective study addressing injury rates of athletes with disabilities in a manner consistent with other sport epidemiological studies found an injury rate of 9.3 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (AE). This injury rate is less than American football (10.1 to 15/1000 AE) and soccer (9.8/1000 AE), and greater than basketball (7.0/1000 AE). It is unclear whether comparative statistics such as these take into consideration the number of illness and injury episodes that resulted from the disability. Further complicating epidemiological studies for athletes with disabilities is the

  3. Travelers' Health: Injuries and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... optimal care for serious injuries are uncommon outside urban areas in many foreign destinations. Travelers should be ... poor in many countries, victims of injuries and violence can die before reaching a hospital, and there ...

  4. Radiation Injury to the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hits since January 2003 RADIATION INJURY TO THE BRAIN Radiation treatments affect all cells that are targeted. ... fractions, duration of therapy, and volume of [healthy brain] nervous tissue irradiated influence the likelihood of injury. ...

  5. Head Injury Screening Tests Approved

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160556.html Head Injury Screening Tests Approved Assess brain function after possible concussions To use the sharing features ... HealthDay News) -- New computer software to assess the brain's function after a traumatic head injury have been approved ...

  6. Key Injury and Violence Data

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Button Data & Statistics Home & Recreational Safety Motor Vehicle Safety Prescription Drug Overdose Traumatic Brain Injury Violence ... from violence and injuries — such as motor vehicle crashes, falls, or homicides — than from any ...

  7. Epidemiologic perspective on shoulder injuries.

    PubMed

    Hill, J A

    1983-07-01

    The type and incidence of shoulder injuries in baseball, swimming, football, and wrestling are discussed in detail; also mentioned are shoulder injuries in tennis, basketball, skiing, and javelin throwing.

  8. Malaria vector control: from past to future.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Barik, Tapan K; Reddy, B P Niranjan; Sharma, Poonam; Dash, Aditya P

    2011-04-01

    Malaria is one of the most common vector-borne diseases widespread in the tropical and subtropical regions. Despite considerable success of malaria control programs in the past, malaria still continues as a major public health problem in several countries. Vector control is an essential part for reducing malaria transmission and became less effective in recent years, due to many technical and administrative reasons, including poor or no adoption of alternative tools. Of the different strategies available for vector control, the most successful are indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), including long-lasting ITNs and materials. Earlier DDT spray has shown spectacular success in decimating disease vectors but resulted in development of insecticide resistance, and to control the resistant mosquitoes, organophosphates, carbamates, and synthetic pyrethroids were introduced in indoor residual spraying with needed success but subsequently resulted in the development of widespread multiple insecticide resistance in vectors. Vector control in many countries still use insecticides in the absence of viable alternatives. Few developments for vector control, using ovitraps, space spray, biological control agents, etc., were encouraging when used in limited scale. Likewise, recent introduction of safer vector control agents, such as insect growth regulators, biocontrol agents, and natural plant products have yet to gain the needed scale of utility for vector control. Bacterial pesticides are promising and are effective in many countries. Environmental management has shown sufficient promise for vector control and disease management but still needs advocacy for inter-sectoral coordination and sometimes are very work-intensive. The more recent genetic manipulation and sterile insect techniques are under development and consideration for use in routine vector control and for these, standardized procedures and methods are available but need thorough

  9. Resistance to aphid vectors of virus disease.

    PubMed

    Westwood, Jack H; Stevens, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The majority of plant viruses rely on vectors for their transmission and completion of their life cycle. These vectors comprise a diverse range of life forms including insects, nematodes, and fungi with the most common of these being insects. The geographic range of many of these vectors is continually expanding due to climate change. The viruses that they carry are therefore also expanding their range to exploit novel and naïve plant hosts. There are many forms of naturally occurring vector resistance ranging from broad nonhost resistance to more specific types of inducible resistance. Understanding and exploiting the many and varied forms of natural resistance to virus vectors is therefore extremely important for current and future agricultural production systems. To demonstrate the range and extent of these resistance mechanisms, this chapter will primarily focus on aphids to highlight key developments appropriate to plant-insect-virus interactions. PMID:20965074

  10. Vector Diffusion Maps and the Connection Laplacian

    PubMed Central

    Singer, A.; Wu, H.-T.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce vector diffusion maps (VDM), a new mathematical framework for organizing and analyzing massive high-dimensional data sets, images, and shapes. VDM is a mathematical and algorithmic generalization of diffusion maps and other nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods, such as LLE, ISOMAP, and Laplacian eigenmaps. While existing methods are either directly or indirectly related to the heat kernel for functions over the data, VDM is based on the heat kernel for vector fields. VDM provides tools for organizing complex data sets, embedding them in a low-dimensional space, and interpolating and regressing vector fields over the data. In particular, it equips the data with a metric, which we refer to as the vector diffusion distance. In the manifold learning setup, where the data set is distributed on a low-dimensional manifold ℳd embedded in ℝp, we prove the relation between VDM and the connection Laplacian operator for vector fields over the manifold. PMID:24415793

  11. Preparation and quantification of pseudotyped retroviral vector.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Kwon, Young Jik

    2008-01-01

    Retroviral vectors have been widely used for research and clinical trials in gene therapy because of their high transduction efficiency. Retroviruses interact with target cells through their surface molecules (i.e., envelope proteins) and cellular receptors, which limit the susceptibility of target cells to retroviral vectors. Murine leukemia retrovirus (MuLV) pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein (VSV-G) overcomes the species barrier and is more resistant to mechanical and biochemical inactivation. A cell line producing VSV-G pseudotyped MuLV vector can be established by transfecting 293T cells expressing Gag, Pol, and VSV-G (293 GPG cell line) with a retroviral vector plasmid. Transduction potency of the resulting VSV-G pseudotyped MuLV retroviral supernatant can be quantified by titration, electron microscopy (EM), and the reverse transcriptase (RT) assay. These protocols provide methods to prepare and quantify a pseudotyped retroviral vector with high transduction rates for most types of target cells.

  12. Transductional targeting with recombinant adenovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Valerie; Leissner, Philippe; Winter, Arend; Mehtali, Majid; Lusky, Monika

    2002-09-01

    Replication-deficient adenoviruses are considered as gene delivery vectors for the genetic treatment of a variety of diseases. The ability of such vectors to mediate efficient expression of therapeutic genes in a broad spectrum of dividing and non-dividing cell types constitutes an advantage over alternative gene transfer vectors. However, this broad tissue tropism may also turn disadvantageous when genes encoding potentially harmful proteins (e.g. cytokines, toxic proteins) are expressed in surrounding normal tissues. Therefore, specific restrictions of the viral tropism would represent a significant technological advance towards safer and more efficient gene delivery vectors, in particular for cancer gene therapy applications. In this review, we summarize various strategies used to selectively modify the natural tropism of recombinant adenoviruses. The advantages, limitations and potential impact on gene therapy operations of such modified vectors are discussed. PMID:12189719

  13. Softball injuries. Aetiology and prevention.

    PubMed

    Janda, D H; Wild, D E; Hensinger, R N

    1992-04-01

    Over 40 million individuals nationally participate in organised softball leagues, playing an estimated 23 million games per year in the United States. It has also been estimated that softball causes more injuries leading to emergency room visits in the United States than any other sport. Between 1983 and 1989, over 2.6 million injuries were documented through selected emergency rooms throughout the United States. In addition, the potential costs of these injuries can be staggering, therefore, prevention is of utmost importance. Prior to implementation of any preventative measures, the aetiology and distribution of injuries must be ascertained. Softball-related injuries can be grouped into 3 categories: (a) sliding-related injuries--the most common injury scenario; (b) collision-related injuries; and (c) falls sustained by the player. Various preventative approaches have been utilised to reduce the incidence of these recreational sports injuries and the associated health care costs. In regard to sliding-related injuries, breakaway bases have been utilised and have been found to reduce sliding-related injuries by approximately 98%. In reference to collision injuries, deformable walls and padded back stops and field maintenance have been found to prevent the majority of injuries secondary to collisions and falls. In addition, better coaching techniques as well as stretching and conditioning programmes have all been found to benefit players in the prevention of their injuries. As physicians, trainers and individuals involved with sporting activities, it is imperative that we turn and focus our attention on prevention. The cornerstone to diminished injuries and subsequent prevention of an injury is a safer environment for the recreational softball player to participate in.

  14. Injury prevention in youth sports.

    PubMed

    Veigel, Jake D; Pleacher, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Sport is the principal cause of injury in children and adolescents. Youth participation in organized athletics is estimated to be 45 million in the United States alone. These injuries influence health and fitness and have socioeconomic impact. Many injuries can be prevented. This article outlines the efficacy of current injury prevention strategies in youth sports through the use of educational programs, rule changes in baseball and hockey, safety equipment, and conditioning programs.

  15. Injury prevention in youth sports.

    PubMed

    Veigel, Jake D; Pleacher, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Sport is the principal cause of injury in children and adolescents. Youth participation in organized athletics is estimated to be 45 million in the United States alone. These injuries influence health and fitness and have socioeconomic impact. Many injuries can be prevented. This article outlines the efficacy of current injury prevention strategies in youth sports through the use of educational programs, rule changes in baseball and hockey, safety equipment, and conditioning programs. PMID:19005358

  16. Geoacoustic inversion using the vector field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, Steven E.

    The main goal of this project was to study the use of the acoustic vector field, separately or in combination with the scalar field, to estimate the depth dependent geoacoustic properties of the seafloor via non-linear inversion. The study was performed in the context of the Sediment Acoustics Experiment 2004 (SAX04) conducted in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) where a small number of acoustic vector sensors were deployed in close proximity to the seafloor. A variety of acoustic waveforms were transmitted into the seafloor at normal incidence. The acoustic vector sensors were located both above and beneath the seafloor interface where they measured the acoustic pressure and the acoustic particle acceleration. Motion data provided by the buried vector sensors were affected by a suspension response that was sensitive to the mass properties of the sensor, the sediment density and sediment elasticity (e.g., shear wave speed). The suspension response for the buried vector sensors included a resonance within the analysis band of 0.4 to 2.0 kHz. The suspension resonance represented an unknown complex transfer function between the acoustic vector field in the seabed and data representing that field. Therefore, inverse methods developed for this study were required to 1) estimate dynamic properties of the sensor suspension resonance and 2) account for the associated corruption of vector field data. A method to account for the vector sensor suspense response function was integrated directly into the inversion methods such that vector channel data corruption was reduced and an estimate of the shear wave speed in the sediment was returned. Inversions of real and synthetic data sets indicated that information about sediment shear wave speed was carried by the suspension response of the buried sensors, as opposed to being contained inherently within the acoustic vector field.

  17. Brain Injury Association of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Only) 1-800-444-6443 Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) Brain injury is not an event or an outcome. ... misunderstood, under-funded neurological disease. People who sustain brain injuries must have timely access to expert trauma ...

  18. Acute forefoot and midfoot injuries.

    PubMed

    Laird, R Clinton

    2015-04-01

    Forefoot and midfoot injuries in the athlete are common. Injuries of the digits include subungual hematomas and fractures. Metatarsal fractures occur frequently in sports, and their treatments range greatly. Hyperflexion and extension injuries about the first metatarsophalangeal joint can be very debilitating. Midfoot sprains and fractures require a high index of suspicion for diagnosis.

  19. Throwing Injuries of the Shoulder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCue, Frank C., III; and Others

    The majority of shoulder injuries occurring in throwing sports involve the soft tissue structures. Injuries often occur when the unit is overstretched to a point near its greatest length, involving the elastic tissues. The other injury mechanism involves the contractural unit of the muscle, which occurs near the midpoint of contractions, involving…

  20. Evaluation after Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudel, Tina M.; Halper, James; Pines, Hayley; Cancro, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    It is important to determine if a traumatic brain injury (TBI) has occurred when an individual is assessed in a hospital emergency room after a car accident, fall, or other injury that affects the head. This determination influences decisions about treatment. It is essential to screen for the injury, because the sooner they begin appropriate…

  1. Children's Memory for Traumatic Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carole; Bell, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Three- through 13-year olds were interviewed a few days after a hospital stay for traumatic injury, and again six months later. Children provided considerable information about the injury and hospital stay and made few commission errors; children's distress at the time of injury did not affect their recall of the event, but distress during the…

  2. Basketball injuries: caring for a basketball team.

    PubMed

    Trojian, Thomas H; Cracco, Andreya; Hall, Matthew; Mascaro, Melissa; Aerni, Giselle; Ragle, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Basketball is a popular sport in North America and worldwide. Most injuries are lower extremity injuries to the ankle and knee. In this article, injuries common to basketball and, from our experience, injuries that escape injury surveillance systems are discussed from the physician and athletic trainer's perspective. Both treatment and prevention of injuries are discussed.

  3. Posterior labral injury in contact athletes.

    PubMed

    Mair, S D; Zarzour, R H; Speer, K P

    1998-01-01

    Nine athletes (seven football offensive linemen, one defensive lineman, and one lacrosse player) were found at arthroscopy to have posterior labral detachment from the glenoid. In our series, this lesion is specific to contact athletes who engage their opponents with arms in front of the body. All patients had pain with bench pressing and while participating in their sport, diminishing their ability to play effectively. Conservative measures were ineffective in relieving their symptoms. Examination under anesthesia revealed symmetric glenohumeral translation bilaterally, without evidence of posterior instability. Treatment consisted of glenoid rim abradement and posterior labral repair with a bioabsorbable tack. All patients returned to complete at least one full season of contact sports and weightlifting without pain (minimum follow-up, > or = 2 years). Although many injuries leading to subluxation of the glenohumeral joint occur when an unanticipated force is applied, contact athletes ready their shoulder muscles in anticipation of impact with opponents. This leads to a compressive force at the glenohumeral joint. We hypothesize that, in combination with a posteriorly directed force at impact, the resultant vector is a shearing force to the posterior labrum and articular surface. Repeated exposure leads to posterior labral detachment without capsular injury. Posterior labral reattachment provides consistently good results, allowing the athlete to return to competition.

  4. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A. (2008). Mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. soldiers returning from Iraq. New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 453–463. ... and Spotlights U.S. hospitals miss followup for suspected child abuse Q&A with NICHD Acting Director Catherine ...

  5. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... acute injuries, even though they might not seem serious at first. If they're not treated, they usually get worse. What To Do If you think you've been injured, pull yourself out the game or stop doing your activity or workout. Let ...

  6. Chainsaw penetrating neck injury.

    PubMed

    Brown, A F

    1995-06-01

    A case of chainsaw injury to the neck is described. Previous reports in the English language are exceedingly rare. A brief discussion of safety features on chain saws is followed by a review of selective vs. mandatory surgical exploration in penetrating neck trauma, including the role of ancillary diagnostic tests.

  7. Acquired Brain Injury Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stacey Hunter

    This paper reviews the Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Program at Coastline Community College (California). The ABI Program is a two-year, for-credit educational curriculum designed to provide structured cognitive retraining for adults who have sustained an ABI due to traumatic (such as motor vehicle accident or fall) or non-traumatic(such as…

  8. Preventing Injuries, Promoting Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Betsy

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneously promoting a safe learning environment that encourages students to express their creative voices while exploring the rudiments of dance technique can be difficult. This article discusses how the author has learned to do it effectively by employing a few simple classroom strategies. To prevent injuries during class, the author offers…

  9. Blast injury research models

    PubMed Central

    Kirkman, E.; Watts, S.; Cooper, G.

    2011-01-01

    Blast injuries are an increasing problem in both military and civilian practice. Primary blast injury to the lungs (blast lung) is found in a clinically significant proportion of casualties from explosions even in an open environment, and in a high proportion of severely injured casualties following explosions in confined spaces. Blast casualties also commonly suffer secondary and tertiary blast injuries resulting in significant blood loss. The presence of hypoxaemia owing to blast lung complicates the process of fluid resuscitation. Consequently, prolonged hypotensive resuscitation was found to be incompatible with survival after combined blast lung and haemorrhage. This article describes studies addressing new forward resuscitation strategies involving a hybrid blood pressure profile (initially hypotensive followed later by normotensive resuscitation) and the use of supplemental oxygen to increase survival and reduce physiological deterioration during prolonged resuscitation. Surprisingly, hypertonic saline dextran was found to be inferior to normal saline after combined blast injury and haemorrhage. New strategies have therefore been developed to address the needs of blast-injured casualties and are likely to be particularly useful under circumstances of enforced delayed evacuation to surgical care. PMID:21149352

  10. Muscle Injuries in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Delos, Demetris; Maak, Travis G.; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Muscle injuries are extremely common in athletes and often produce pain, dysfunction, and the inability to return to practice or competition. Appropriate diagnosis and management can optimize recovery and minimize time to return to play. Evidence Acquisition: Contemporary papers, both basic science and clinical medicine, that investigate muscle healing were reviewed. A Medline/PubMed search inclusive of years 1948 to 2012 was performed. Results: Diagnosis can usually be made according to history and physical examination for most injuries. Although data are limited, initial conservative management emphasizing the RICE principles and immobilization of the extremity for several days for higher grade injuries are typically all that is required. Injection of corticosteroids may clinically enhance function after an acute muscle strain. Additional adjunctive treatments (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, platelet-rich plasma, and others) to enhance muscle healing and limit scar formation show promise but need additional data to better define their roles. Conclusion: Conservative treatment recommendations will typically lead to successful outcomes after a muscle injury. There is limited evidence to support most adjunctive treatments. PMID:24459552

  11. Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Error processing SSI file Error processing SSI file Error processing SSI file Share Compartir This Page has Moved or ... gov/TraumaticBrainInjury/index.html . Print page Error processing SSI file Error processing SSI file Error processing SSI ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... How much do you know about taking good care of yourself? Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Illness & disability Types of ... Spinal cord injury Read advice from Dr. Jeffrey Rabin , a pediatric rehabilitation specialist at the Children’s National Medical Center. ...

  13. Repetitive strain injury.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, S T

    2001-05-01

    Repetitive strain injury is a group of musculoskeletal disorders affecting muscles, tendons, nerves and blood vessels. These disorders could be attributed to occupational causes; however non-occupational causes should be excluded. The management of these cases required a multidisciplinary team approach.

  14. Sports Injuries in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Timothy N.

    1991-01-01

    A literature review revealed an absence of well-controlled studies concerning the prevention of sports injuries in children. A checklist outlines some causes of the overuse syndrome, including (1) training errors; (2) the nature of playing surfaces; (3) muscle imbalance; (4) anatomic malalignments; (5) construction of shoes; and (6) various…

  15. Elbow Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and fluid. Muscles and tendons help the elbow joint move. When any of these structures is hurt or diseased, you have elbow problems. Many things can make your elbow hurt. A common cause is tendinitis, an inflammation or injury to the tendons that attach muscle to bone. ...

  16. Hypermobility and Knee Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Mark E.

    1987-01-01

    A review of research on the effect of hypermobility on knee injury indicates that greater than normal joint flexibility may be necessary for some athletic endeavors and that it may be possible to change one's underlying flexibility through training. However, for most athletes, inherited flexibility probably plays only a small role, if any, in…

  17. Speed and spinal injuries.

    PubMed

    Healy, D G; Connolly, P; Stephens, M M; O'Byrne, J M; McManus, F; McCormack, D

    2004-09-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTA) are a significant cause of spinal trauma. On the 31st of October 2002 a new penalty system for speed related driving offences was introduced in Ireland. Our intention was to assess the effects of the introduction of this system on the activity of the National Spinal Injuries Centre (NSIC) with a retrospective review of all admissions from November 1998 until October 2003. The number of new acute admissions to the spinal injury unit during the study period was 831. In the first 6 months of the new system the number of RTA related admissions fell significantly to 17 compared to an average of 33 in the preceding 4 years. However, this effect was not maintained in the second 6 months. The fall in spinal injuries following RTA in the first 6 months of the new system parallels the pattern of road death reduction in this period. This suggests that driving behaviour can be modified with direct benefits in reducing spinal injuries. However, this effect has not persisted in the second 6 months of the new system suggesting that to maintain this change the perception and familiarity of a penalty are important factors in its impact.

  18. Serious rotator cuff injuries.

    PubMed

    Jobe, F W

    1983-07-01

    Usually, serious rotator cuff injuries can be operated upon and a high level of performance can be achieved afer surgery. This is not so for the substantial tears seen in baseball pitchers. However, a damaged rotator cuff can be rehabilitated and can recover from the threatened tear without surgery if detected early enough and given the proper treatment.

  19. Preventing Knee Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... to tearing. Growth Plate Injuries, Fractures, and Dislocations Knee fractures rarely occur in childhood sports, but with any ... is the bump on the front of the knee where the patellar tendon attaches. Fractures to the growth plate in this area often ...

  20. Basketball injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Gaca, Ana Maria

    2009-12-01

    Basketball is a popular, worldwide sport played outdoors and indoors year-round. Patterns of injury are related to abrupt changes in the athlete's direction, jumping, contact between athletes, the hard playing surface and paucity of protective equipment. Intensity of play and training in the quest of scholarships and professional careers is believed to contribute to an increasing occurrence of injury. Radiologists' appreciation of the breadth of injury and its relation to imaging and clinical findings should enhance the care of these children. Some of the patterns of injury are well known to radiologists but vary due to age- and size-related changes; the growing skeleton is affected by differing susceptibilities from biomechanical stresses at different sizes. Beyond screening radiographs, the accuracy of MRI and CT has improved diagnosis and treatment plans in this realm. Investigations to detect symptoms and signs in an attempt to prevent the tragedy of sudden cardiac death in basketball players may lead to MRI and CTA studies that compel radiologists to evaluate cardiac function along with myocardial and coronary artery anatomy. Worthy of mention also is the female athlete triad of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis that is observed in some young women participating in this and other sports.

  1. Genomic resources for invertebrate vectors of human pathogens, and the role of VectorBase.

    PubMed

    Megy, K; Hammond, M; Lawson, D; Bruggner, R V; Birney, E; Collins, F H

    2009-05-01

    High-throughput genome sequencing techniques have now reached vector biology with an emphasis on those species that are vectors of human pathogens. The first mosquito to be sequenced was Anopheles gambiae, the vector for Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria. Further mosquitoes have followed: Aedes aegypti (yellow fever and dengue fever vector) and Culex pipiens (lymphatic filariasis and West Nile fever). Species that are currently in sequencing include the body louse Pediculus humanus (Typhus vector), the triatomine Rhodnius prolixus (Chagas disease vector) and the tick Ixodes scapularis (Lyme disease vector). The motivations for sequencing vector genomes are to further understand vector biology, with an eye on developing new control strategies (for example novel chemical attractants or repellents) or understanding the limitations of current strategies (for example the mechanism of insecticide resistance); to analyse the mechanisms driving their evolution; and to perform an exhaustive analysis of the gene repertory. The proliferation of genomic data creates the need for efficient and accessible storage. We present VectorBase, a genomic resource centre that is both involved in the annotation of vector genomes and act as a portal for access to the genomic information (http://www.vectorbase.org).

  2. Generation of arbitrary vector fields based on a pair of orthogonal elliptically polarized base vectors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Danfeng; Gu, Bing; Rui, Guanghao; Zhan, Qiwen; Cui, Yiping

    2016-02-22

    We present an arbitrary vector field with hybrid polarization based on the combination of a pair of orthogonal elliptically polarized base vectors on the Poincaré sphere. It is shown that the created vector field is only dependent on the latitude angle 2χ but is independent on the longitude angle 2ψ on the Poincaré sphere. By adjusting the latitude angle 2χ, which is related to two identical waveplates in a common path interferometric arrangement, one could obtain arbitrary type of vector fields. Experimentally, we demonstrate the generation of such kind of vector fields and confirm the distribution of state of polarization by the measurement of Stokes parameters. Besides, we investigate the tight focusing properties of these vector fields. It is found that the additional degree of freedom 2χ provided by arbitrary vector field with hybrid polarization allows one to control the spatial structure of polarization and to engineer the focusing field. PMID:26907066

  3. GRASS GIS Vector Processing: Towards GRASS 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Markus; Landa, Martin; Petrasova, Anna; Petras, Vaclav; Chemin, Yann; Neteler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release improves not only raster processing and general design but the vector processing in the first place. GRASS GIS, as a topological GIS, recognizes that the topology plays the key role in the vector processing and analysis. Topology ensures that adjacent geographic components in a single vector map are related. In contrast to non-topological GIS, a border common to two areas exists only once and is shared between the two areas. Topological representation of vector data helps to produce and maintain vector maps with clean geometry as well as enables the user to perform certain analyses that can not be conducted with non-topological or spaghetti data. Non-topological vector data are automatically converted to a topological representation upon import. Further more, various cleaning tools exist to remove non-trivial topological errors. In the upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release the vector library was particularly improved to make it faster and more efficient with an improved internal vector file format. This new topological format reduces memory and disk space requirements, leading to a generally faster processing. Opening an existing vector requires less memory providing additionally support for large files. The new spatial index performs queries faster (compared to GRASS GIS 6 more than 10 times for large vectors). As a new option the user can select a file-based version of the spatial index for large vector data. All topological cleaning tools have been optimized with regard to processing speed, robustness, and system requirements. The topological engine comes with a new prototype for direct read/write support of Simple Features API/OGR. Additionally vector data can be directly exchanged with topological PostGIS 2 databases. Considering the wide spread usage of ESRI Shapefile, a non-topological format for vector data exchange, it is particularly advantageous that GRASS GIS 7 offers advanced cleaning tools. For power users and programmers, the

  4. Elevated depressive symptoms and adolescent injury: examining associations by injury frequency, injury type, and gender

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Key risk factors for adolescent injury have been well documented, and include structural, behavioural, and psychosocial indicators. While psychiatric distress has been associated with suicidal behaviour and related self-harm, very little research has examined the role of depression in shaping adolescent injury. This study examines the association of elevated depressive symptoms with injury, including total number of injuries and injury type. Gender differences are also considered. Methods Data were drawn in 2010–11 from a representative sample of 2,989 high school students (14 to18 years of age) from Nova Scotia, Canada. Self-reported injury outcomes were examined using the 17-item Adolescent Injury Checklist, which captures past six-month injuries. Elevated depressive symptoms were assessed using the Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Associations of elevated depressive symptoms with total number of injuries were estimated with negative binomial regression, while associations with specific injury types were estimated with logistic regression. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Results Adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms experienced a 40% increase in the total number of injury events occurring in the past six months. The association of elevated depressive symptoms with injury was consistent across injury type; violence-related (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.61 to 3.03), transport-related (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.13), and unintentional injuries (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.27). Gender differences were also observed. Conclusion Elevated depressive symptoms play a role in shaping adolescent injury. Interventions aimed at reducing adolescent injury should look to minimize psychosocial antecedents, such as poor mental health, that put adolescents at an elevated risk. PMID:24555802

  5. Overuse Injuries in Professional Ballet

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino, Francisco José; de la Cuadra, Crótida; Guillén, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite overuse injuries being previously described as the most frequent in ballet, there are no studies on professional dancers providing the specific clinical diagnoses or type of injury based on the discipline. Hypothesis Overuse injuries are the most frequent injuries in ballet, with differences in the type and frequency of injuries based on discipline. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study performed between January 1, 2005, and October 10, 2010, on injuries occurring in professional dancers from leading Spanish dance companies who practiced disciplines such as classical, neoclassical, contemporary, and Spanish ballet. Data, including type of injury, were obtained from specialized medical services at the Trauma Service, Fremap, Madrid, Spain. Results A total of 486 injuries were evaluated, a significant number of which were overuse disorders (P < .0001), especially in the most technically demanding discipline of classical ballet (82.60%). Injuries were more frequent among female dancers (75.90%) and classical ballet (83.60%). A statistically significant prevalence of patellofemoral pain syndrome was found in the classical discipline (P = .007). Injuries of the adductor muscles of the thigh (P = .001) and of the low back facet (P = .02) in the Spanish ballet discipline and lateral snapping hip (P = .02) in classical and Spanish ballet disciplines were significant. Conclusion Overuse injuries were the most frequent injuries among the professional dancers included in this study. The prevalence of injuries was greater for the most technically demanding discipline (classical ballet) as well as for women. Patellofemoral pain syndrome was the most prevalent overuse injury, followed by Achilles tendinopathy, patellar tendinopathy, and mechanical low back pain. Clinical Relevance Specific clinical diagnoses and injury-based differences between the disciplines are a key factor in ballet

  6. Injuries in Competitive Dragon Boating

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Swarup; Leong, Hin Fong; Chen, Simin; Foo, Yong Xiang Wayne; Pek, Hong Kiat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dragon boating is a fast-growing team water sport and involves forceful repetitive motions that predispose athletes to overuse injuries. Despite the rising popularity of the sport, there is a lack of studies on injury epidemiology in dragon boating. Purpose: To investigate the injury epidemiology in competitive dragon boating athletes. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: A total of 95 dragon boaters (49 males, 46 females) representing their respective universities took part in this study. Data were collected retrospectively using a reliable and valid self-report questionnaire. The study period was from August 2012 to July 2013. Results: A total of 104 musculoskeletal injuries were reported (3.82 injuries/1000 athlete-exposures), 99% of which occurred during training. The most commonly injured regions were the lower back (22.1%), shoulder (21.1%), and wrist (17.3%). The majority of injuries were due to overuse (56.3%), and incomplete muscle-tendon strain was the most prevalent type of injury (50.5%). The time loss from injuries varied. In addition, a significant majority of the dragon boating athletes incurred nonmusculoskeletal injuries, with abrasions (90.5%), blisters (78.9%), and sunburns (72.6%) being the most common. Conclusion: Competitive dragon boating has a moderately high injury incidence, and there seems to be a direct relationship between exposure time and injury rate. A majority of the injuries are overuse in nature, and the body parts most actively involved in paddling movement are at higher risk of injuries. The high incidence of nonmusculoskeletal injuries in dragon boaters suggested that these injuries are likely outcomes of participation in the sport. PMID:26535280

  7. A recursive technique for adaptive vector quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Vector Quantization (VQ) is fast becoming an accepted, if not preferred method for image compression. The VQ performs well when compressing all types of imagery including Video, Electro-Optical (EO), Infrared (IR), Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Multi-Spectral (MS), and digital map data. The only requirement is to change the codebook to switch the compressor from one image sensor to another. There are several approaches for designing codebooks for a vector quantizer. Adaptive Vector Quantization is a procedure that simultaneously designs codebooks as the data is being encoded or quantized. This is done by computing the centroid as a recursive moving average where the centroids move after every vector is encoded. When computing the centroid of a fixed set of vectors the resultant centroid is identical to the previous centroid calculation. This method of centroid calculation can be easily combined with VQ encoding techniques. The defined quantizer changes after every encoded vector by recursively updating the centroid of minimum distance which is the selected by the encoder. Since the quantizer is changing definition or states after every encoded vector, the decoder must now receive updates to the codebook. This is done as side information by multiplexing bits into the compressed source data.

  8. HSV Recombinant Vectors for Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Manservigi, Roberto; Argnani, Rafaela; Marconi, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    The very deep knowledge acquired on the genetics and molecular biology of herpes simplex virus (HSV), has allowed the development of potential replication-competent and replication-defective vectors for several applications in human healthcare. These include delivery and expression of human genes to cells of the nervous systems, selective destruction of cancer cells, prophylaxis against infection with HSV or other infectious diseases, and targeted infection to specific tissues or organs. Replication-defective recombinant vectors are non-toxic gene transfer tools that preserve most of the neurotropic features of wild type HSV-1, particularly the ability to express genes after having established latent infections, and are thus proficient candidates for therapeutic gene transfer settings in neurons. A replication-defective HSV vector for the treatment of pain has recently entered in phase 1 clinical trial. Replication-competent (oncolytic) vectors are becoming a suitable and powerful tool to eradicate brain tumours due to their ability to replicate and spread only within the tumour mass, and have reached phase II/III clinical trials in some cases. The progress in understanding the host immune response induced by the vector is also improving the use of HSV as a vaccine vector against both HSV infection and other pathogens. This review briefly summarizes the obstacle encountered in the delivery of HSV vectors and examines the various strategies developed or proposed to overcome such challenges. PMID:20835362

  9. Targeting gene therapy vectors to CNS malignancies.

    PubMed

    Spear, M A; Herrlinger, U; Rainov, N; Pechan, P; Weissleder, R; Breakefield, X O

    1998-04-01

    Gene therapy offers significant advantages to the field of oncology with the addition of specifically and uniquely engineered mechanisms of halting malignant proliferation through cytotoxicity or reproductive arrest. To confer a true benefit to the therapeutic ratio (the relative toxicity to tumor compared to normal tissue) a vector or the transgene it carries must selectively affect or access tumor cells. Beyond the selective toxicities of many transgene products, which frequently parallel that of contemporary chemotherapeutic agents, lies the potential utility of targeting the vector. This review presents an overview of current and potential methods for designing vectors targeted to CNS malignancies through selective delivery, cell entry, transport or transcriptional regulation. The topic of delivery encompasses physical and pharmaceutic means of increasing the relative exposure of tumors to vector. Cell entry based methodologies are founded on increasing relative uptake of vector through the chemical or recombinant addition of ligand and antibody domains which selectively bind receptors expressed on target cells. Targeted transport involves the potential for using cells to selectively carry vectors or transgenes into tumors. Finally, promoter and enhancer systems are discussed which have potential for selectivity activating transcription to produce targeted transgene expression or vector propagation. PMID:9584951

  10. Acoustic pressure-vector sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dehua; Elswick, Roy C.; McEachern, James F.

    2001-05-01

    Pressure-vector sensors measure both scalar and vector components of the acoustic field. December 2003 measurements at the NUWC Seneca Lake test facility verify previous observations that acoustic ambient noise spectrum levels measured by acoustic intensity sensors are reduced relative to either acoustic pressure or acoustic vector sensor spectrum levels. The Seneca measurements indicate a reduction by as much as 15 dB at the upper measurement frequency of 2500 Hz. A nonlinear array synthesis theory for pressure-vector sensors will be introduced that allows smaller apertures to achieve narrow beams. The significantly reduced ambient noise of individual pressure-vector elements observed in the ocean by others, and now at Seneca Lake, should allow a nonlinearly combined array to detect significantly lower levels than has been observed in previous multiplicative processing of pressure sensors alone. Nonlinear array synthesis of pressure-vector sensors differs from conventional super-directive algorithms that linearly combine pressure elements with positive and negative weights, thereby reducing the sensitivity of conventional super-directive arrays. The much smaller aperture of acoustic pressure-vector sensor arrays will be attractive for acoustic systems on underwater vehicles, as well as for other applications that require narrow beam acoustic receivers. [The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of ONR and NUWC.

  11. Aortic and other arterial injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, J D; Raju, S; Neely, W A; Berry, D W

    1975-01-01

    Three hundred sixty arterial injuries in 353 patients are reviewed. They covered a wide spectrum of injuries and included 36 aortic injuries and 19 cases of carotid truama. The mortality rate of 12% was in large part due to aortic injuries. Shock was the predominant cause of death. Infection was the most frequent non-fatal complication. Pulmonary complications were surprisingly uncommon. With methods and techniques discussed in the paper, 90% satisfactory end results were achieved. The amputation rate was 6% where extremity injuries were involved. Images Fig. 11. Fig. 13. PMID:1130881

  12. The standardised freight container: vector of vectors and vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Reiter, P

    2010-04-01

    The standardised freight container was one of the most important innovations of the 20th Century. Containerised cargoes travel from their point of origin to their destination by ship, road and rail as part of a single journey, without unpacking. This simple concept is the key element in cheap, rapid transport by land and sea, and has led to a phenomenal growth in global trade. Likewise, containerised air cargo has led to a remarkable increase in the inter-continental transportation of goods, particularly perishable items such as flowers, fresh vegetables and live animals. In both cases, containerisation offers great advantages in speed and security, but reduces the opportunity to inspect cargoes in transit. An inevitable consequence is the globalisation of undesirable species of animals, plants and pathogens. Moreover, cheap passenger flights offer worldwide travel for viral and parasitic pathogens in infected humans. The continued emergence of exotic pests, vectors and pathogens throughout the world is an unavoidable consequence of these advances in transportation technology.

  13. The standardised freight container: vector of vectors and vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Reiter, P

    2010-04-01

    The standardised freight container was one of the most important innovations of the 20th Century. Containerised cargoes travel from their point of origin to their destination by ship, road and rail as part of a single journey, without unpacking. This simple concept is the key element in cheap, rapid transport by land and sea, and has led to a phenomenal growth in global trade. Likewise, containerised air cargo has led to a remarkable increase in the inter-continental transportation of goods, particularly perishable items such as flowers, fresh vegetables and live animals. In both cases, containerisation offers great advantages in speed and security, but reduces the opportunity to inspect cargoes in transit. An inevitable consequence is the globalisation of undesirable species of animals, plants and pathogens. Moreover, cheap passenger flights offer worldwide travel for viral and parasitic pathogens in infected humans. The continued emergence of exotic pests, vectors and pathogens throughout the world is an unavoidable consequence of these advances in transportation technology. PMID:20617647

  14. Turco's injury: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ana Paula Simões; Shimba, Leandro Girardi; Ribas, Luiz Henrique Boraschi Vieira; de Almeida, Alexandre Simmonds; Naves, Vinicius; Duarte Júnior, Aires

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to alert doctors to the existence of Turco's injury and discus the existing treatments that have been described in the worldwide literature. A bibliographic survey of Lisfranc's injury and Turco's injury covering from 1985 to 2013 was conducted in the SciELO and PubMed databases. Among the 193 articles, those relating to bone-ligament injuries of the Lisfranc joint and high-energy trauma were excluded, as were the case reports. The patients selected were professional or amateur athletes who solely presented a ligament injury to the Lisfranc joint (Turco's injury), which was diagnosed from the history, physical examination, radiographs and magnetic resonance images. Non-athletic patients and those with associated bone injuries were excluded (10). According to the injury classification, the patients were treated by means of either an open or a closed procedure and then a standard rehabilitation protocol. Out of the 10 patients, five underwent conservative treatment and five underwent surgical treatment using different techniques and synthesis materials. We obtained two poor results, one satisfactory, five good and two excellent. We conclude that the correct diagnosis has a direct influence on the treatment and on the final result obtained, and that lack of knowledge of this injury is the main factor responsible for underdiagnosing Turco's injury. There is a need for randomized prospective studies comparing the types of synthesis and evolution of treated cases, in order to define the best treatment for this injury.

  15. Vector fields and Loop Quantum Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Artymowski, Michał; Lalak, Zygmunt E-mail: Zygmunt.Lalak@fuw.edu.pl

    2011-09-01

    In the context of the Loop Quantum Cosmology we have analysed the holonomy correction to the classical evolution of the simplified Bianchi I model in the presence of vector fields. For the Universe dominated by a massive vector field or by a combination of a scalar field and a vector field a smooth transition between Kasner-like and Kasner-unlike solutions for a Bianchi I model has been demonstrated. In this case a lack of initial curvature singularity and a finite maximal energy density appear already at the level of General Relativity, which simulates a classical Big Bounce.

  16. 600-GHz Electronically Tunable Vector Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dengler, Robert; Maiwald, Frank; Siegel, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A compact, high-dynamic-range, electronically tunable vector measurement system that operates in the frequency range from approximately 560 to approximately 635 GHz has been developed as a prototype of vector measurement systems that would be suitable for use in nearly-real-time active submillimeter-wave imaging. As used here, 'vector measurement system" signifies an instrumentation system that applies a radio-frequency (RF) excitation to an object of interest and measures the resulting amplitude and phase response, relative to either the applied excitatory signal or another reference signal related in a known way to applied excitatory signal.

  17. Engineering targeted viral vectors for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Waehler, Reinhard; Russell, Stephen J; Curiel, David T

    2007-08-01

    To achieve therapeutic success, transfer vehicles for gene therapy must be capable of transducing target cells while avoiding impact on non-target cells. Despite the high transduction efficiency of viral vectors, their tropism frequently does not match the therapeutic need. In the past, this lack of appropriate targeting allowed only partial exploitation of the great potential of gene therapy. Substantial progress in modifying viral vectors using diverse techniques now allows targeting to many cell types in vitro. Although important challenges remain for in vivo applications, the first clinical trials with targeted vectors have already begun to take place.

  18. Generating Series for Nested Bethe Vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoroshkin, Sergey; Pakuliak, Stanislav

    2008-11-01

    We reformulate nested relations between off-shell Uq(^glN) Bethe vectors as a certain equation on generating series of strings of the composed Uq(^glN) currents. Using inversion of the generating series we find a new type of hierarchical relations between universal off-shell Bethe vectors, useful for a derivation of Bethe equation. As an example of application, we use these relations for a derivation of analytical Bethe ansatz equations [Arnaudon D. et al., Ann. Henri Poincaré 7 (2006), 1217-1268, math-ph/0512037] for the parameters of universal Bethe vectors of the algebra Uq(^gl2).

  19. Novel vaccine vectors for HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Picker, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate solution to the global HIV-1 epidemic will probably require the development of a safe and effective vaccine. Multiple vaccine platforms have been evaluated in both preclinical and clinical trials, but, given the disappointing results of the clinical efficacy studies so far, novel vaccine approaches are needed. In this Opinion article, we discuss the scientific basis and clinical potential of novel adenovirus and cytomegalovirus vaccine vectors for HIV-1 as two contrasting, but potentially complementary, vector approaches. Both of these vector platforms have demonstrated partial protection against stringent simian immunodeficiency virus challenges in rhesus monkeys using different immunological mechanisms. PMID:25296195

  20. Higgs decays and brane gravi-vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, T. E.; Liu Boyang; Love, S. T.; Xiong, C.; Veldhuis, T. ter

    2008-10-01

    Higgs boson decays in flexible brane world models with stable, massive gravi-vectors are considered. Such vectors couple bilinearly to the standard model fields through either the standard model energy-momentum tensor, the weak hypercharge field strength, or the Higgs scalar. The role of the coupling involving the extrinsic curvature is highlighted. It is found that within the presently allowed parameter space, the decay rate of the Higgs into two gravi-vectors (which would appear as an invisible Higgs decay) can be comparable to the rate for any of the standard model decay modes.

  1. Comparison of AIS 1990 update 98 versus AIS 2005 for describing PMHS injuries in lateral and oblique sled tests

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Humm, John R.; Stadter, Gregory W.; Curry, William H.; Brasel, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed skeletal and organ injuries in pure lateral and oblique impacts from 20 intact post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) sled tests at 6.7 m/s. Injuries to the shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and spine were scored using AIS 1990–1998 update and 2005. The Injury Severity Scores (ISS) were extracted for both loadings from both versions. Mean age, stature, total body mass and body mass index for pure lateral and oblique tests: 58 and 55 years, 1.7 and 1.8 m, 69 and 66 kg, and 24 and 21 kg/m2. Skeletal injuries (ribs, sternum) occurred in both impacts. However, oblique impacts resulted in more injuries. Pure lateral and oblique impacts ISS: 0 to 16 and 0 to 24, representing a greater potential for injury-related consequences in real-world situations in oblique impacts. Internal organs were more involved in oblique impacts. ISS decreased in AIS 2005, reflecting changes to scoring and drawing attention to potential effects for pre-hospital care/medical aspects. Mean AIS scores for the two load vectors and two AIS coding schemes are included. From automotive crashworthiness perspectives, decreases in injury severities might alter injury risk functions with a shift to lower metrics for the same risk level than current risk estimations. This finding influences dummy-based injury criteria and occupant safety as risk functions are used for countermeasure effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses by regulatory bodies. Increase in organ injuries in oblique loading indicate the importance of this vector as current dummies and injury criteria used in regulations are based on pure lateral impact data. PMID:24406958

  2. Classification of retinopathic injury using image cytometry and vasculature complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniszewski, K.; Sepehr, R.; Sorenson, C. M.; Sheibani, N.; Ranji, M.

    2012-03-01

    Retinopathic injuries are a common symptom of many diseases. However, if detected early, much of the damage caused by these injuries can be prevented, or in some cases reversed. In this study, images of retinas were classified as normal or injured using the vascular cell count, vasculature coverage, and vessel caliber. To model retinal vasculopathies, retinal vasculature from mice with the BCL-2 gene either partially or completely knocked out were compared. The bcl-2 gene is a critical regulator of apoptosis and angiogenesis, and therefore its absence has a significant impact on the number of vascular cells and vasculature complexity. When the aforementioned features were extracted from the images, classification was performed using a majority vote between a linear classifier, k-nearest-neighbors classification, and a support vector machine. This resulted in a classification accuracy of 81% using the "leave one out" error determination method.

  3. An Introduction to the Poynting Vector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, N.

    1979-01-01

    The author draws attention to the possibilities of introducing the concept of electromagnetic energy flow associated with the Poynting vector at an elementary stage of physics instruction. (Author/SA)

  4. A Flexible Turbulent Vector Field Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benassi, A.; Davis, A.

    2004-12-01

    Analysis and generation of turbulent vector fields is a necessity in many areas, such as Atmospheric Science. A candidate model of vector field must be flexible enough to tune some features, such as the spacial distribution of vortices, sinks and sources, according to physical measures. To achieve that goal, we propose a model that depends upon a given matricial function called "topolet" and a law of random vectors family. This model has a hierarchical structure. Its spinal column is a tree: the encoding tree of the domain where the vector field lives. The sets of vortices, sinks and sources are driven by some Bernouilli subtrees, directly giving their fractal dimension. At each node of the tree is attached a rate of energy loose giving the spectral slope. All those quantities are independantly identifiable on the base of mathematical proofs. A primitive version of this model have been proposed for generating clouds.

  5. Vector resonances and electromagnetic nucleon structure

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Williams; Siegfried Krewald; Kevin Linen

    1995-02-01

    Motivated by new, precise magnetic proton form factor data in the timelike region, a hybrid vector meson dominance (hVMD) formalism is employed to investigate the significance of excited vector meson resonances on electromagnetic nucleon structure. We find that the rho (1700), omega (1600), and two previously unobserved states are required to reproduce the local structure seen in the new LEAR data just above the pp-bar threshold. We also investigate sensitivity to the phi meson. The model dependence of our result is tested by introducing an alternative model which couples the isoscalar vector meson states to a hypothetical vector glueball resonance. We obtain nearly identical results from both models, except for GnE(q2) in the spacelike region which is very sensitive to the glueball mass and the effective phi NN coupling.

  6. Vector analysis of postcardiotomy behavioral phenomena.

    PubMed

    Caston, J C; Miller, W C; Felber, W J

    1975-04-01

    The classification of postcardiotomy behavioral phenomena in Figure 1 is proposed for use as a clinical instrument to analyze etiological determinants. The utilization of a vector analysis analogy inherently denies absolutism. Classifications A-P are presented as prototypes of certain ratio imbalances of the metabolic, hemodynamic, environmental, and psychic vectors. Such a system allows for change from one type to another according to the individuality of the patient and the highly specific changes in his clinical presentation. A vector analysis also allows for infinite intermediary ratio imbalances between classification types as a function of time. Thus, postcardiotomy behavioral phenomena could be viewed as the vector summation of hemodynamic, metabolic, environmental, and psychic processes at a given point in time. Elaboration of unknown determinants in this complex syndrome appears to be task for the future.

  7. Vectorization of Monte Carlo particle transport

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, P.J.; Christon, M.; Schweitzer, R.; Lubeck, O.M.; Wasserman, H.J.; Simmons, M.L.; Pryor, D.V. . Computer Center; Los Alamos National Lab., NM; Supercomputing Research Center, Bowie, MD )

    1989-01-01

    Fully vectorized versions of the Los Alamos National Laboratory benchmark code Gamteb, a Monte Carlo photon transport algorithm, were developed for the Cyber 205/ETA-10 and Cray X-MP/Y-MP architectures. Single-processor performance measurements of the vector and scalar implementations were modeled in a modified Amdahl's Law that accounts for additional data motion in the vector code. The performance and implementation strategy of the vector codes are related to architectural features of each machine. Speedups between fifteen and eighteen for Cyber 205/ETA-10 architectures, and about nine for CRAY X-MP/Y-MP architectures are observed. The best single processor execution time for the problem was 0.33 seconds on the ETA-10G, and 0.42 seconds on the CRAY Y-MP. 32 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  8. TWSVR: Regression via Twin Support Vector Machine.

    PubMed

    Khemchandani, Reshma; Goyal, Keshav; Chandra, Suresh

    2016-02-01

    Taking motivation from Twin Support Vector Machine (TWSVM) formulation, Peng (2010) attempted to propose Twin Support Vector Regression (TSVR) where the regressor is obtained via solving a pair of quadratic programming problems (QPPs). In this paper we argue that TSVR formulation is not in the true spirit of TWSVM. Further, taking motivation from Bi and Bennett (2003), we propose an alternative approach to find a formulation for Twin Support Vector Regression (TWSVR) which is in the true spirit of TWSVM. We show that our proposed TWSVR can be derived from TWSVM for an appropriately constructed classification problem. To check the efficacy of our proposed TWSVR we compare its performance with TSVR and classical Support Vector Regression(SVR) on various regression datasets.

  9. VEST: Abstract Vector Calculus Simplification in Mathematica

    SciTech Connect

    J. Squire, J. Burby and H. Qin

    2013-03-12

    We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce scalar and vector expressions of a very general type using a systematic canonicalization procedure. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by canonicalization, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper [1], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations. __________________________________________________

  10. Imaging vector fields using Line Integral Convolution

    SciTech Connect

    Cabral, B.; Leedom, L.C.

    1993-03-01

    Imaging vector fields has applications in science, art, image processing and special effects. An effective new approach is to use linear and curvilinear filtering techniques to locally blur textures along a vector field. This approach builds on several previous texture generation and filtering techniques. It is, however, unique because it is local, one-dimensional and independent of any predefined geometry or texture. The technique is general and capable of imaging arbitrary two- and three-dimensional vector fields. The local one-dimensional nature of the algorithm lends itself to highly parallel and efficient implementations. Furthermore, the curvilinear filter is capable of rendering detail on very intricate vector fields. Combining this technique with other rendering and image processing techniques -- like periodic motion filtering -- results in richly informative and striking images. The technique can also produce novel special effects.

  11. Insects as vectors: systematics and biology.

    PubMed

    Rodhain, F

    2015-04-01

    Among the many complex relationships between insects and microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria and parasites, some have resulted in the establishment of biological systems within which the insects act as a biological vector for infectious agents. It is therefore advisable to understand the identity and biology of these vectors in depth, in order to define procedures for epidemiological surveillance and anti-vector control. The following are successively reviewed in this article: Anoplura (lice), Siphonaptera (fleas), Heteroptera (bugs: Cimicidae, Triatoma, Belostomatidae), Psychodidae (sandflies), Simuliidae (black flies), Ceratopogonidae (biting midges), Culicidae (mosquitoes), Tabanidae (horseflies) and Muscidae (tsetse flies, stable flies and pupipara). The authors provide a rapid overview of the morphology, systematics, development cycle and bio-ecology of each of these groups of vectors. Finally, their medical and veterinary importance is briefly reviewed.

  12. Students' difficulties with vector calculus in electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke

    2015-12-01

    Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven encounter with the divergence and curl of a vector field in mathematical and physical contexts. We have found that they are quite skilled at doing calculations, but struggle with interpreting graphical representations of vector fields and applying vector calculus to physical situations. We have found strong indications that traditional instruction is not sufficient for our students to fully understand the meaning and power of Maxwell's equations in electrodynamics.

  13. Vector analysis of postcardiotomy behavioral phenomena.

    PubMed

    Caston, J C; Miller, W C; Felber, W J

    1975-04-01

    The classification of postcardiotomy behavioral phenomena in Figure 1 is proposed for use as a clinical instrument to analyze etiological determinants. The utilization of a vector analysis analogy inherently denies absolutism. Classifications A-P are presented as prototypes of certain ratio imbalances of the metabolic, hemodynamic, environmental, and psychic vectors. Such a system allows for change from one type to another according to the individuality of the patient and the highly specific changes in his clinical presentation. A vector analysis also allows for infinite intermediary ratio imbalances between classification types as a function of time. Thus, postcardiotomy behavioral phenomena could be viewed as the vector summation of hemodynamic, metabolic, environmental, and psychic processes at a given point in time. Elaboration of unknown determinants in this complex syndrome appears to be task for the future. PMID:1090426

  14. TWSVR: Regression via Twin Support Vector Machine.

    PubMed

    Khemchandani, Reshma; Goyal, Keshav; Chandra, Suresh

    2016-02-01

    Taking motivation from Twin Support Vector Machine (TWSVM) formulation, Peng (2010) attempted to propose Twin Support Vector Regression (TSVR) where the regressor is obtained via solving a pair of quadratic programming problems (QPPs). In this paper we argue that TSVR formulation is not in the true spirit of TWSVM. Further, taking motivation from Bi and Bennett (2003), we propose an alternative approach to find a formulation for Twin Support Vector Regression (TWSVR) which is in the true spirit of TWSVM. We show that our proposed TWSVR can be derived from TWSVM for an appropriately constructed classification problem. To check the efficacy of our proposed TWSVR we compare its performance with TSVR and classical Support Vector Regression(SVR) on various regression datasets. PMID:26624223

  15. Gamow vectors explain the shock profile.

    PubMed

    Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Gentilini, Silvia; Conti, Claudio

    2016-09-19

    The description of shock waves beyond the shock point is a challenge in nonlinear physics and optics. Finding solutions to the global dynamics of dispersive shock waves is not always possible due to the lack of integrability. Here we propose a new method based on the eigenstates (Gamow vectors) of a reversed harmonic oscillator in a rigged Hilbert space. These vectors allow analytical formulation for the development of undular bores of shock waves in a nonlinear nonlocal medium. Experiments by a photothermal induced nonlinearity confirm theoretical predictions: the undulation period as a function of power and the characteristic quantized decays of Gamow vectors. Our results demonstrate that Gamow vectors are a novel and effective paradigm for describing extreme nonlinear phenomena. PMID:27661931

  16. VEST: Abstract vector calculus simplification in Mathematica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, J.; Burby, J.; Qin, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce three-dimensional scalar and vector expressions of a very general type to a well defined standard form. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by reduction, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper Burby et al. (2013) [12], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of high-order Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations.

  17. Integrated optic vector-matrix multiplier

    DOEpatents

    Watts, Michael R.

    2011-09-27

    A vector-matrix multiplier is disclosed which uses N different wavelengths of light that are modulated with amplitudes representing elements of an N.times.1 vector and combined to form an input wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) light stream. The input WDM light stream is split into N streamlets from which each wavelength of the light is individually coupled out and modulated for a second time using an input signal representing elements of an M.times.N matrix, and is then coupled into an output waveguide for each streamlet to form an output WDM light stream which is detected to generate a product of the vector and matrix. The vector-matrix multiplier can be formed as an integrated optical circuit using either waveguide amplitude modulators or ring resonator amplitude modulators.

  18. Horizontal vectorization of electron repulsion integrals.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Benjamin P; Chow, Edmond

    2016-10-30

    We present an efficient implementation of the Obara-Saika algorithm for the computation of electron repulsion integrals that utilizes vector intrinsics to calculate several primitive integrals concurrently in a SIMD vector. Initial benchmarks display a 2-4 times speedup with AVX instructions over comparable scalar code, depending on the basis set. Speedup over scalar code is found to be sensitive to the level of contraction of the basis set, and is best for (lAlB|lClD) quartets when lD  = 0 or lB=lD=0, which makes such a vectorization scheme particularly suitable for density fitting. The basic Obara-Saika algorithm, how it is vectorized, and the performance bottlenecks are analyzed and discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27620865

  19. Plethystic algebras and vector symmetric functions.

    PubMed Central

    Rota, G C; Stein, J A

    1994-01-01

    An isomorphism is established between the plethystic Hopf algebra Pleth(Super[L]) and the algebra of vector symmetric functions. The Hall inner product of symmetric function theory is extended to the Hopf algebra Pleth(Super[L]). PMID:11607504

  20. Magnetic vector field tag and seal

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R.

    2004-08-31

    One or more magnets are placed in a container (preferably on objects inside the container) and the magnetic field strength and vector direction are measured with a magnetometer from at least one location near the container to provide the container with a magnetic vector field tag and seal. The location(s) of the magnetometer relative to the container are also noted. If the position of any magnet inside the container changes, then the measured vector fields at the these locations also change, indicating that the tag has been removed, the seal has broken, and therefore that the container and objects inside may have been tampered with. A hollow wheel with magnets inside may also provide a similar magnetic vector field tag and seal. As the wheel turns, the magnets tumble randomly inside, removing the tag and breaking the seal.

  1. MAGSAT scalar and vector anomaly data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Efforts on the analysis of MAGSAT scalar anomaly data, the application of the scalar analysis results to three component vector data, and the comparison of MAGSAT data with corresponding MAGNET aeromagnetic and free air gravity anomaly data are briefly described.

  2. Measurements of Solar Vector Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Various aspects of the measurement of solar magnetic fields are presented. The four major subdivisions of the study are: (1) theoretical understanding of solar vector magnetic fields; (3) techniques for interpretation of observational data; and (4) techniques for data display.

  3. Vectors in a LOGO Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Mathematics Journal, 1985

    1985-01-01

    An environment for investigating vector-valued functions in two- and three-dimensional space using Logo is described. The language is presented, followed by use of the environment. Appended are Logo primitives and procedures. (MNS)

  4. Insects as vectors: systematics and biology.

    PubMed

    Rodhain, F

    2015-04-01

    Among the many complex relationships between insects and microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria and parasites, some have resulted in the establishment of biological systems within which the insects act as a biological vector for infectious agents. It is therefore advisable to understand the identity and biology of these vectors in depth, in order to define procedures for epidemiological surveillance and anti-vector control. The following are successively reviewed in this article: Anoplura (lice), Siphonaptera (fleas), Heteroptera (bugs: Cimicidae, Triatoma, Belostomatidae), Psychodidae (sandflies), Simuliidae (black flies), Ceratopogonidae (biting midges), Culicidae (mosquitoes), Tabanidae (horseflies) and Muscidae (tsetse flies, stable flies and pupipara). The authors provide a rapid overview of the morphology, systematics, development cycle and bio-ecology of each of these groups of vectors. Finally, their medical and veterinary importance is briefly reviewed. PMID:26470450

  5. Acute Inhalation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorguner, Metin; Akgun, Metin

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled substances may cause injury in pulmonary epithelium at various levels of respiratory tract, leading from simple symptoms to severe disease. Acute inhalation injury (AII) is not uncommon condition. There are certain high risk groups but AII may occur at various places including home or workplace. Environmental exposure is also possible. In addition to individual susceptibility, the characteristics of inhaled substances such as water solubility, size of substances and chemical properties may affect disease severity as well as its location. Although AII cases may recover in a few days but AII may cause long-term complications, even death. We aimed to discuss the effects of short-term exposures (minutes to hours) to toxic substances on the lungs. PMID:25610115

  6. Orthopedic Injury in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gross, Gilad A; George, James W

    2016-09-01

    There are many reasons why a woman's pregnancy can put her at risk for orthopedic pain and injury. Given the high percentage of pregnant patients experiencing some degree of musculoskeletal pain, it is surprising that this is not an area of wider study. This chapter takes an evidence based approach to help the reader understand the implications of the numerous anatomic and physiologic changes associated with the gravid state, and how they act to promote both discomfort and injury. One-third of pregnant women in America are obese, further increasing risk. Exercise in most pregnancies is recommended and regarded as safe and thus obstetric care providers need to understand risk, diagnostic techniques and treatments. PMID:27403586

  7. Self Injury Inhibitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    There are approximately 50,000 autistic and retarded people in the United States alone, and many of them engage in self-injurious behavior, principally compulsive headbanging. Hope is offered by an automated unit, manufactured at Johns Hopkins University, called the Self-Injurious Behavior Inhibiting System (SIBIS). Components of SIBIS are stimulus module which is worn on upper arm or leg, and headgear which includes an impact detector and a transmitter on back of head. When there is a blow to the head it is sensed by impact detector which generates a coded signal that is automatically transferred to stimulus module which delivers a mild electrical stimulus to the skin for less than 1/10 of a second. Stimulus is sufficient to halt headbanging. Microprocessor computes impacts allowing measurement of patient progress.

  8. Prevention of skateboard injuries.

    PubMed

    Morgan, W J; Galloway, D J; Patel, A R

    1980-01-01

    Skateboarding has become extremely popular in the United Kingdom, and it is estimated that over two million skateboards have been sold. Previous surveys have shown the dangers of the sport, fractures of the limbs being a particularly common form of injury. Consequently the provision of skateboard parks and the wearing of adequate protective clothing were considered necessary to reduce to severity of the injuries sustained. Our survey does not support this view, and suggests that fractures are more likely to occur in people with full protective clothing and skating in a park. The reasons for this are discussed. It is also suggested that expert instruction in the use of the skateboard has been neglected as a means of accident prevention.

  9. Meniscal injury: II. Management.

    PubMed

    Greis, Patrick E; Holmstrom, Michael C; Bardana, Davide D; Burks, Robert T

    2002-01-01

    Meniscal repair is a viable alternative to resection in many clinical situations. Repair techniques traditionally have utilized a variety of suture methods, including inside-out and outside-in techniques. Bioabsorbable implants permit all-inside arthroscopic repairs. The success of meniscal repair depends on appropriate meniscal bed preparation and surgical technique and is also influenced by biologic factors such as tear rim width and associated ligamentous injury. Successful repair in >80% of cases has been reported in conjunction with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Success rates are lower for isolated repairs. Complications related to repair include neurologic injury, postoperative loss of motion, recurrence of the tear, and infection. Meniscal allograft transplantation may provide a treatment option when meniscus salvage is not possible or when a previous total meniscectomy has been done.

  10. Meniscal injury: II. Management.

    PubMed

    Greis, Patrick E; Holmstrom, Michael C; Bardana, Davide D; Burks, Robert T

    2002-01-01

    Meniscal repair is a viable alternative to resection in many clinical situations. Repair techniques traditionally have utilized a variety of suture methods, including inside-out and outside-in techniques. Bioabsorbable implants permit all-inside arthroscopic repairs. The success of meniscal repair depends on appropriate meniscal bed preparation and surgical technique and is also influenced by biologic factors such as tear rim width and associated ligamentous injury. Successful repair in >80% of cases has been reported in conjunction with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Success rates are lower for isolated repairs. Complications related to repair include neurologic injury, postoperative loss of motion, recurrence of the tear, and infection. Meniscal allograft transplantation may provide a treatment option when meniscus salvage is not possible or when a previous total meniscectomy has been done. PMID:12041939

  11. Ontology for Vector Surveillance and Management

    PubMed Central

    LOZANO-FUENTES, SAUL; BANDYOPADHYAY, ARITRA; COWELL, LINDSAY G.; GOLDFAIN, ALBERT; EISEN, LARS

    2013-01-01

    Ontologies, which are made up by standardized and defined controlled vocabulary terms and their interrelationships, are comprehensive and readily searchable repositories for knowledge in a given domain. The Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry was initiated in 2001 with the aims of becoming an “umbrella” for life-science ontologies and promoting the use of ontology development best practices. A software application (OBO-Edit; *.obo file format) was developed to facilitate ontology development and editing. The OBO Foundry now comprises over 100 ontologies and candidate ontologies, including the NCBI organismal classification ontology (NCBITaxon), the Mosquito Insecticide Resistance Ontology (MIRO), the Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO), the IDOMAL malaria ontology, and ontologies for mosquito gross anatomy and tick gross anatomy. We previously developed a disease data management system for dengue and malaria control programs, which incorporated a set of information trees built upon ontological principles, including a “term tree” to promote the use of standardized terms. In the course of doing so, we realized that there were substantial gaps in existing ontologies with regards to concepts, processes, and, especially, physical entities (e.g., vector species, pathogen species, and vector surveillance and management equipment) in the domain of surveillance and management of vectors and vector-borne pathogens. We therefore produced an ontology for vector surveillance and management, focusing on arthropod vectors and vector-borne pathogens with relevance to humans or domestic animals, and with special emphasis on content to support operational activities through inclusion in databases, data management systems, or decision support systems. The Vector Surveillance and Management Ontology (VSMO) includes >2,200 unique terms, of which the vast majority (>80%) were newly generated during the development of this ontology. One core feature of the VSMO is the linkage

  12. Ontology for vector surveillance and management.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Bandyopadhyay, Aritra; Cowell, Lindsay G; Goldfain, Albert; Eisen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Ontologies, which are made up by standardized and defined controlled vocabulary terms and their interrelationships, are comprehensive and readily searchable repositories for knowledge in a given domain. The Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry was initiated in 2001 with the aims of becoming an "umbrella" for life-science ontologies and promoting the use of ontology development best practices. A software application (OBO-Edit; *.obo file format) was developed to facilitate ontology development and editing. The OBO Foundry now comprises over 100 ontologies and candidate ontologies, including the NCBI organismal classification ontology (NCBITaxon), the Mosquito Insecticide Resistance Ontology (MIRO), the Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO), the IDOMAL malaria ontology, and ontologies for mosquito gross anatomy and tick gross anatomy. We previously developed a disease data management system for dengue and malaria control programs, which incorporated a set of information trees built upon ontological principles, including a "term tree" to promote the use of standardized terms. In the course of doing so, we realized that there were substantial gaps in existing ontologies with regards to concepts, processes, and, especially, physical entities (e.g., vector species, pathogen species, and vector surveillance and management equipment) in the domain of surveillance and management of vectors and vector-borne pathogens. We therefore produced an ontology for vector surveillance and management, focusing on arthropod vectors and vector-borne pathogens with relevance to humans or domestic animals, and with special emphasis on content to support operational activities through inclusion in databases, data management systems, or decision support systems. The Vector Surveillance and Management Ontology (VSMO) includes >2,200 unique terms, of which the vast majority (>80%) were newly generated during the development of this ontology. One core feature of the VSMO is the linkage, through

  13. Vector resonances and electromagnetic nucleon structure

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.A.; Krewald, S.; Linen, K. )

    1995-02-01

    Motivated by new, precise magnetic proton form factor data in the timelike reigon, a hybrid vector meson dominance (hVMD) formalism is employed to investigate the significance of excited vector meson rsonances on electromagnetic nucleon structure. We find that the [rho](1700), [omega](1600), and two previously unobserved states are required to reproduce the local structure seen in the new LEAR data just above the [ital p[bar p

  14. On estimating the Venus spin vector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argentiero, P. D.

    1972-01-01

    The improvement in spin vector and probe position estimates one may reasonably expect from the processing of such data is indicated. This was done by duplicating the ensemble calculations associated with a weighed least squares with a priori estimation technique applied to range rate data that were assumed to be unbiased and uncorrelated. The weighting matrix was assumed to be the inverse of the covariance matrix of the noise on the data. Attention is focused primarily on the spin vector estimation.

  15. Studies of Solar Helicity Using Vector Magnetograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, Mona J.; Pevstov, Alexei A.

    1999-01-01

    observations of photospheric magnetic fields made with vector magnetographs have been used recently to study solar helicity. In this paper we indicate what can and cannot be derived from vector magnetograms, and point out some potential problems in these data that could affect the calculations of 'helicity'. Among these problems are magnetic saturation, Faraday rotation, low spectral resolution, and the method of resolving the ambiguity in the azimuth.

  16. Engineering HSV-1 vectors for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Goins, William F; Huang, Shaohua; Cohen, Justus B; Glorioso, Joseph C

    2014-01-01

    Virus vectors have been employed as gene transfer vehicles for various preclinical and clinical gene therapy applications, and with the approval of Glybera (alipogene tiparvovec) as the first gene therapy product as a standard medical treatment (Yla-Herttuala, Mol Ther 20: 1831-1832, 2013), gene therapy has reached the status of being a part of standard patient care. Replication-competent herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors that replicate specifically in actively dividing tumor cells have been used in Phase I-III human trials in patients with glioblastoma multiforme, a fatal form of brain cancer, and in malignant melanoma. In fact, T-VEC (talimogene laherparepvec, formerly known as OncoVex GM-CSF) displayed efficacy in a recent Phase III trial when compared to standard GM-CSF treatment alone (Andtbacka et al. J Clin Oncol 31: sLBA9008, 2013) and may soon become the second FDA-approved gene therapy product used in standard patient care. In addition to the replication-competent oncolytic HSV vectors like T-VEC, replication-defective HSV vectors have been employed in Phase I-II human trials and have been explored as delivery vehicles for disorders such as pain, neuropathy, and other neurodegenerative conditions. Research during the last decade on the development of HSV vectors has resulted in the engineering of recombinant vectors that are totally replication defective, nontoxic, and capable of long-term transgene expression in neurons. This chapter describes methods for the construction of recombinant genomic HSV vectors based on the HSV-1 replication-defective vector backbones, steps in their purification, and their small-scale production for use in cell culture experiments as well as preclinical animal studies.

  17. Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories

    SciTech Connect

    Groeger, Josua

    2014-09-15

    The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.

  18. Effects of Climate and Climate Change on Vectors and Vector-Borne Diseases: Ticks Are Different.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Nick H; Lindsay, L Robbin

    2016-08-01

    There has been considerable debate as to whether global risk from vector-borne diseases will be impacted by climate change. This has focussed on important mosquito-borne diseases that are transmitted by the vectors from infected to uninfected humans. However, this debate has mostly ignored the biological diversity of vectors and vector-borne diseases. Here, we review how climate and climate change may impact those most divergent of arthropod disease vector groups: multivoltine insects and hard-bodied (ixodid) ticks. We contrast features of the life cycles and behaviour of these arthropods, and how weather, climate, and climate change may have very different impacts on the spatiotemporal occurrence and abundance of vectors, and the pathogens they transmit.

  19. Light scattering of rectangular slot antennas: parallel magnetic vector vs perpendicular electric vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dukhyung; Kim, Dai-Sik

    2016-01-01

    We study light scattering off rectangular slot nano antennas on a metal film varying incident polarization and incident angle, to examine which field vector of light is more important: electric vector perpendicular to, versus magnetic vector parallel to the long axis of the rectangle. While vector Babinet’s principle would prefer magnetic field along the long axis for optimizing slot antenna function, convention and intuition most often refer to the electric field perpendicular to it. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that in accordance with vector Babinet’s principle, the incident magnetic vector parallel to the long axis is the dominant component, with the perpendicular incident electric field making a small contribution of the factor of 1/|ε|, the reciprocal of the absolute value of the dielectric constant of the metal, owing to the non-perfectness of metals at optical frequencies.

  20. Light scattering of rectangular slot antennas: parallel magnetic vector vs perpendicular electric vector.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dukhyung; Kim, Dai-Sik

    2016-01-01

    We study light scattering off rectangular slot nano antennas on a metal film varying incident polarization and incident angle, to examine which field vector of light is more important: electric vector perpendicular to, versus magnetic vector parallel to the long axis of the rectangle. While vector Babinet's principle would prefer magnetic field along the long axis for optimizing slot antenna function, convention and intuition most often refer to the electric field perpendicular to it. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that in accordance with vector Babinet's principle, the incident magnetic vector parallel to the long axis is the dominant component, with the perpendicular incident electric field making a small contribution of the factor of 1/|ε|, the reciprocal of the absolute value of the dielectric constant of the metal, owing to the non-perfectness of metals at optical frequencies. PMID:26740335

  1. Effects of Climate and Climate Change on Vectors and Vector-Borne Diseases: Ticks Are Different.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Nick H; Lindsay, L Robbin

    2016-08-01

    There has been considerable debate as to whether global risk from vector-borne diseases will be impacted by climate change. This has focussed on important mosquito-borne diseases that are transmitted by the vectors from infected to uninfected humans. However, this debate has mostly ignored the biological diversity of vectors and vector-borne diseases. Here, we review how climate and climate change may impact those most divergent of arthropod disease vector groups: multivoltine insects and hard-bodied (ixodid) ticks. We contrast features of the life cycles and behaviour of these arthropods, and how weather, climate, and climate change may have very different impacts on the spatiotemporal occurrence and abundance of vectors, and the pathogens they transmit. PMID:27260548

  2. Light scattering of rectangular slot antennas: parallel magnetic vector vs perpendicular electric vector.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dukhyung; Kim, Dai-Sik

    2016-01-07

    We study light scattering off rectangular slot nano antennas on a metal film varying incident polarization and incident angle, to examine which field vector of light is more important: electric vector perpendicular to, versus magnetic vector parallel to the long axis of the rectangle. While vector Babinet's principle would prefer magnetic field along the long axis for optimizing slot antenna function, convention and intuition most often refer to the electric field perpendicular to it. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that in accordance with vector Babinet's principle, the incident magnetic vector parallel to the long axis is the dominant component, with the perpendicular incident electric field making a small contribution of the factor of 1/|ε|, the reciprocal of the absolute value of the dielectric constant of the metal, owing to the non-perfectness of metals at optical frequencies.

  3. Light scattering of rectangular slot antennas: parallel magnetic vector vs perpendicular electric vector

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dukhyung; Kim, Dai-Sik

    2016-01-01

    We study light scattering off rectangular slot nano antennas on a metal film varying incident polarization and incident angle, to examine which field vector of light is more important: electric vector perpendicular to, versus magnetic vector parallel to the long axis of the rectangle. While vector Babinet’s principle would prefer magnetic field along the long axis for optimizing slot antenna function, convention and intuition most often refer to the electric field perpendicular to it. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that in accordance with vector Babinet’s principle, the incident magnetic vector parallel to the long axis is the dominant component, with the perpendicular incident electric field making a small contribution of the factor of 1/|ε|, the reciprocal of the absolute value of the dielectric constant of the metal, owing to the non-perfectness of metals at optical frequencies. PMID:26740335

  4. Traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Risdall, Jane E.; Menon, David K.

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing incidence of military traumatic brain injury (TBI), and similar injuries are seen in civilians in war zones or terrorist incidents. Indeed, blast-induced mild TBI has been referred to as the signature injury of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Assessment involves schemes that are common in civilcian practice but, in common with civilian TBI, takes little account of information available from modern imaging (particularly diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging) and emerging biomarkers. The efficient logistics of clinical care delivery in the field may have a role in optimizing outcome. Clinical care has much in common with civilian TBI, but intracranial pressure monitoring is not always available, and protocols need to be modified to take account of this. In addition, severe early oedema has led to increasing use of decompressive craniectomy, and blast TBI may be associated with a higher incidence of vasospasm and pseudoaneurysm formation. Visual and/or auditory deficits are common, and there is a significant risk of post-traumatic epilepsy. TBI is rarely an isolated finding in this setting, and persistent post-concussive symptoms are commonly associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic pain, a constellation of findings that has been called the polytrauma clinical triad. PMID:21149359

  5. Treatment of Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Akita, Sadanori

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Radiation exposure as a result of radiation treatment, accident, or terrorism may cause serious problems such as deficiency due to necrosis or loss of function, fibrosis, or intractable ulcers in the tissues and organs. When the skin, bone, oral mucous membrane, guts, or salivary glands are damaged by ionizing radiation, the management and treatment are very lengthy and difficult. Critical Issues: In severe and irreversible injuries, surgery remains the mainstay of treatment. Several surgical procedures, such as debridement, skin grafting, and local and free-vascularized flaps, are widely used. Recent Advances: In specific cases of major morbidity or in high-risk patients, a newly developed therapy using a patient's own stem cells is safe and effective. Adipose tissue, normally a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells, which are similar to those from the bone marrow, can be harvested, since the procedure is easy, and abundant tissue can be obtained with minimal invasiveness. Future Directions: Based on the molecular basis of radiation injuries, several prospective treatments are under development. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms focus on an individual's sensitivity to radiation in radiogenomics, and the pathology of radiation fibrosis or the effect of radiation on wound healing is being studied and will lead to new insight into the treatment of radiation injuries. Protectors and mitigators are being actively investigated in terms of the timing of administration or dose. PMID:24761339

  6. Radiation injury of bone

    SciTech Connect

    Shimanovskaya, K.; Shiman, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the characteristics of radiation injuries arising in hitherto unaffected parts of the skeleton during the treatment of neoplasms by radiotherapy. These changes frequently accompany the beneficial effects of radiotherapy, and can easily be misunderstood in the absence of any clear idea of their character. An understanding of the mechanism and conditions of appearance of radiation injuries of the skeleton and a knowledge of their clinical and radiological features are essential for physicians and surgeons caring for patients who have been treated by using radiotherapy and for experimental scientists whose work involves such methods. The effect of irradiation is determined by the topographical relations within the irradiated object, the character of distribution of the dose, and the size of the dose. The radiation injuries of the skeleton described in the book were observed during the treatment of carcinoma of the breast, lung, esophagus, and uterus, of malignant tumors in the mouth, certain pituitary tumors, and hemangiomas of the skin in children, by means of ionizing radiation obtained from various sources. A few observations relate to patients treated for certain other diseases. The text is illustrated by roentgenograms on the basis of which the diagnoses were made and the course of the lesion was subsequently confirmed, and also by operative and histological specimens. The book also contains many schemes drawn from roentgenograms.

  7. Injury prophylaxis in paragliding

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, W; Richter, J; Schulze, B; Esenwein, S; Buttner-Janz, K

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To show trends in paragliding injuries and derive recommendations for safety precautions for paraglider pilots on the basis of accident statistics, interviews, questionnaires, medical reports, and current stage of development of paragliding equipment. Methods: All paragliding accidents in Germany have to be reported. Information on 409 accidents was collected and analysed for the period 1997–1999. Results: There was a substantial decrease in reported accidents (166 in 1997; 127 in 1998; 116 in 1999). The number of accidents resulting in spinal injuries was 62 in 1997, 42 in 1998, and 38 in 1999. The most common cause of accident was deflation of the glider (32.5%), followed by oversteering (13.9%), collision with obstacles (12.0%), take off errors (10.3%), landing errors (13.7%), misjudgment of weather conditions (4.9%), unsatisfactory preflight checks (4.9%), mid-air collisions with other flyers (2.2%), accidents during winching (2.2%), and defective equipment (0.5%). Accidents predominantly occurred in mountain areas. Fewer than 100 flights had been logged for 40% of injured pilots. In a total of 39 accidents in which emergency parachutes were used, 10 pilots were seriously injured (26%) and an additional three were killed (8%). Conclusions: Injuries in paragliding caused by unpredictable situations can be minimised by (a) using safer gliders in the beginner or intermediate category, (b) improving protection systems, such as padded back protection, and (c) improving pilot skills through performance and safety training. PMID:12351336

  8. [Snake bite injuries].

    PubMed

    Turchányi, B; Szalontay, T; Zacher, G

    2000-05-14

    Authors treated five patients who suffered venomous snake-bite injury. Although these snakes are not native in Hungary, this kind of injury is estimated to be more frequent, because of the increasing number of the private collections and illegal import of these reptiles. The local and general symptoms, the therapeutic steps are summarised in this study considering the literature as well. Two patients did not show any systemic or local symptoms at the level of injury, they needed only short observation, and woundcare. The other three patients had serious transient systematic symptoms (vasolability, hypotension/shock, coagulopathy, confusion). Two of them were given specific antivenom. As the third patient did not agree with the serum therapy, plasmapheresis was the choice to treat him, and it seemed to be effective. Few hours later the patients needed surgery because of serious compartment syndrome of their affected upper extremity. Surgical decompression of all the compartments and different possibilities of the secondary skin closure technique are demonstrated. Two patient healed completely, but the right thumb of the third was lost. Authors summarise the effects of the poisons, the symptoms, and the basic therapeutic steps during the first aid and in the primary hospital phase, respectively. They point out the indications of the serum therapy and the correct surgical decompression of the injured extremity. PMID:10851889

  9. Multiclass Reduced-Set Support Vector Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Benyang; Mazzoni, Dominic

    2006-01-01

    There are well-established methods for reducing the number of support vectors in a trained binary support vector machine, often with minimal impact on accuracy. We show how reduced-set methods can be applied to multiclass SVMs made up of several binary SVMs, with significantly better results than reducing each binary SVM independently. Our approach is based on Burges' approach that constructs each reduced-set vector as the pre-image of a vector in kernel space, but we extend this by recomputing the SVM weights and bias optimally using the original SVM objective function. This leads to greater accuracy for a binary reduced-set SVM, and also allows vectors to be 'shared' between multiple binary SVMs for greater multiclass accuracy with fewer reduced-set vectors. We also propose computing pre-images using differential evolution, which we have found to be more robust than gradient descent alone. We show experimental results on a variety of problems and find that this new approach is consistently better than previous multiclass reduced-set methods, sometimes with a dramatic difference.

  10. Attitude Determination Using Two Vector Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1998-01-01

    Many spacecraft attitude determination methods use exactly two vector measurements. The two vectors are typically the unit vector to the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field vector for coarse "sun-mag" attitude determination or unit vectors to two stars tracked by two star trackers for fine attitude determination. TRIAD, the earliest published algorithm for determining spacecraft attitude from two vector measurements, has been widely used in both ground-based and onboard attitude determination. Later attitude determination methods have been based on Wahba's optimality criterion for n arbitrarily weighted observations. The solution of Wahba's problem is somewhat difficult in the general case, but there is a simple closed-form solution in the two-observation case. This solution reduces to the TRIAD solution for certain choices of measurement weights. This paper presents and compares these algorithms as well as sub-optimal algorithms proposed by Bar-Itzhack, Harman, and Reynolds. Some new results will be presented, but the paper is primarily a review and tutorial.

  11. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

  12. Attitude Determination Using Two Vector Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1999-01-01

    Many spacecraft attitude determination methods use exactly two vector measurements. The two vectors are typically the unit vector to the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field vector for coarse "sun-mag" attitude determination or unit vectors to two stars tracked by two star trackers for fine attitude determination. TRIAD, the earliest published algorithm for determining spacecraft attitude from two vector measurements, has been widely used in both ground-based and onboard attitude determination. Later attitude determination methods have been based on Wahba's optimality criterion for n arbitrarily weighted observations. The solution of Wahba's problem is somewhat difficult in the general case, but there is a simple closed-form solution in the two-observation case. This solution reduces to the TRIAD solution for certain choices of measurement weights. This paper presents and compares these algorithms as well as sub-optimal algorithms proposed by Bar-Itzhack, Harman, and Reynolds. Some new results will be presented, but the paper is primarily a review and tutorial.

  13. Foamy virus vectors for gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Trobridge, Grant D.

    2009-01-01

    Foamy virus (FV) vectors are efficient gene delivery vehicles that have shown great promise for gene therapy in preclinical animal models. FVs or spumaretroviruses are not endemic in humans, but are prevalent in nonhuman primates and in other mammals. They have evolved means for efficient horizontal transmission in their host species without pathology. FV vectors have several unique properties that make them well-suited for therapeutic gene transfer including a desirable safety profile, a broad tropism, a large transgene capacity, and the ability to persist in quiescent cells. They mediate efficient and stable gene transfer to hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in mouse models, and in the canine large animal model. Analysis of FV vector integration sites in vitro and in hematopoietic repopulating cells shows they have a unique integration profile, and suggests they may be safer than gammaretroviruses or lentiviral vectors. Here properties of FVs relevant to the safety and efficacy of FV vectors are discussed. The development of FV vector systems is described, and studies evaluating their potential in vitro, and in small and large animal models is reviewed. PMID:19743892

  14. Lentiviral Vector Gene Transfer to Porcine Airways

    PubMed Central

    Sinn, Patrick L; Cooney, Ashley L; Oakland, Mayumi; Dylla, Douglas E; Wallen, Tanner J; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Chang, Eugene H; McCray, Paul B

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated lentiviral vector development and transduction efficiencies in well-differentiated primary cultures of pig airway epithelia (PAE) and wild-type pigs in vivo. We noted gene transfer efficiencies similar to that observed for human airway epithelia (HAE). Interestingly, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-based vectors transduced immortalized pig cells as well as pig primary cells more efficiently than HIV-1–based vectors. PAE express TRIM5α, a well-characterized species-specific lentiviral restriction factor. We contrasted the restrictive properties of porcine TRIM5α against FIV- and HIV-based vectors using gain and loss of function approaches. We observed no effect on HIV-1 or FIV conferred transgene expression in response to porcine TRIM5α overexpression or knockdown. To evaluate the ability of GP64-FIV to transduce porcine airways in vivo, we delivered vector expressing mCherry to the tracheal lobe of the lung and the ethmoid sinus of 4-week-old pigs. One week later, epithelial cells expressing mCherry were readily detected. Our findings indicate that pseudotyped FIV vectors confer similar tropisms in porcine epithelia as observed in human HAE and provide further support for the selection of GP64 as an appropriate envelope pseudotype for future preclinical gene therapy studies in the porcine model of cystic fibrosis (CF). PMID:23187455

  15. Slow-pitch softball injuries.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, B R

    1984-01-01

    A prospective investigation of slow-pitch softball injuries incurred in Hawaii was undertaken to study the nature of these injuries and analyze their causes. The injured players were involved in league softball with referees. There were 83 athletes and 93 injuries. A retrospective review of all Army softball-related admissions was also done. Thirty-five athletes or 42% were injured while sliding, 29 "foot first" and the remainder "hand first". Twenty-five of 27 ankle injuries caused by sliding included 20 fractures, 3 sprains, and 2 complete closed posterior dislocations. Analysis of these injuries suggests that the injury occurs when the individual uses the base to rapidly decelerate and avoid overrunning the base. Eighty-four percent of the athletes were injured from three mechanisms; 42% from sliding, 25% from "jamming" injuries, and 17% from falls. The only preventable group of injuries appears to be the sliding injuries. Recessing the bases, using "quick release" rather than anchored bases, teaching safer sliding techniques, or eliminating the slide are suggested as means of preventing these injuries.

  16. Vascular Injuries: Trends in Management

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Mohd Lateef; Ahangar, Ab Gani; Ganie, Farooq Ahmad; Wani, Shadab Nabi; Wani, Nasir-ud-din

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vascular injury presents a great challenge to the emergency resident because these injuries require urgent intervention to prevent loss of life or limb. Sometimes serious vascular injury presents with only subtle or occult signs or symptoms. The patient may present weeks or months after initial injury with symptoms of vascular insufficiency, embolization, pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula etc. Although the majority of vascular injuries are caused by penetrating trauma from gunshot wounds, stabbing or blast injury, the possibility of vascular injury needs to be considered in patients presenting with displaced long bone fractures, crush injury, prolonged immobilization in a fixed position by tight casts or bandages and various invasive procedures. iatrogenic vascular injuries constitute about 10% of cases in most series; however the incidence is an increasing trend because more endovascular procedures such as angioplasty and cardiac catheterization are being performed routinely. Civilian trauma is more frequently seen in young males. However, it can occur at any age due to road accidents, firearms, bomb blasts and diagnostic procedures. Most of the time, civilian trauma causes less tissue damage. There is an epidemic of vascular injuries in Kashmir valley because of problems in law and order in the past two decades. This review deals with the topic in detail. PMID:24350103

  17. Orthopaedic Injuries in Equestrian Sports

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jason David; Gelbs, Jared Craig; Zhu, David Shiyu; Gallacher, Stacey Elisa; Sutton, Karen Michelle; Blaine, Theodore Alton

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the common nature of orthopaedic injuries in equestrian sports, there is no published review to specifically characterize orthopaedic injuries in equestrian athletes. Purpose: To characterize orthopaedic injury patterns in equine sports–related injuries and their treatment. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: This review was performed through a PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus query (from 1978 to June 2014) in the English literature using search terms “(equine-related OR equestrian-related OR horse-related OR equestrian OR equestrians) AND (injury OR injuries).” Only full-text studies reporting on orthopaedic injury patterns pertinent to equestrian sports in the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) were included. Orthopaedic injuries were defined as those resulting in a fracture or dislocation. In all, 182 studies were excluded, leaving a total of 27 studies for evaluation. The studies included were analyzed for demographic and epidemiological data for orthopaedic injuries, including fractures and dislocations. Cranial and facial injuries were excluded from analysis. Results: The majority of those injured in the US were female (64.5%). The leading cause of injury in the US was falling from a horse. The use of protective equipment seemed to vary widely, with helmet use ranging from less than 6% up to 66.7%. In the UK, fractures were found to account for 17.4% of reported injures, compared with 33.6% of injuries in the US. The majority of fractures in US riders occurred in the upper extremities (50.7%). Conclusion: This review helps characterize the epidemiology of equestrian injuries based on currently available data. PMID:26535400

  18. Cell cycle requirements for transduction by foamy virus vectors compared to those of oncovirus and lentivirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Trobridge, Grant; Russell, David W

    2004-03-01

    Retroviral vectors based on foamy viruses (FV) are efficient gene delivery vehicles for therapeutic and research applications. While previous studies have shown that FV vectors transduce quiescent cell cultures more efficiently than oncoviral vectors, their specific cell cycle requirements have not been determined. Here we compare the transduction frequencies of FV vectors with those of onco- and lentiviral vectors in nondividing and dividing normal human fibroblasts by several methods. FV vectors transduced serum-deprived fibroblast cultures more efficiently than oncoretroviral vectors and at rates comparable to those of lentiviral vectors. However, in these cultures FV vectors only transduced a subpopulation of proliferating cells, as determined by bromodeoxyuridine staining for DNA synthesis. In contrast to lentiviral vectors, FV vectors were unable to transduce human fibroblasts arrested by aphidicolin (G(1)/S phase) or gamma-irradiation (G(2) phase), and a partial cell cycle that included mitosis but not DNA synthesis was required. We could not determine if mitosis facilitated nuclear entry of FV vectors, since cell-free vector preparations contained long terminal repeat circles, precluding their use as nuclear markers. In contrast to oncoviral vectors, both FV and lentiviral vectors efficiently transduced G(0) fibroblasts that were later stimulated to divide. In the case of FV vectors, this was due to the persistence of a stable transduction intermediate in quiescent cells. Our findings support the use of FV vectors as a safe and effective alternative to lentiviral vectors for ex vivo transduction of stem cells that are quiescent during culture but divide following transplantation.

  19. [Bases for control of arthropod vectors: I--Definitions, bioecology of vectors (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Picq, J J; Discamps, G; Albert, J P

    1978-01-01

    Arthropoda form the most diversified and multitudinous phyllum of the animal kingdom. In this "arthropod world", the authors give the respective position of the arthropoda: a) detrimental to crops, b) venomous and noxious for human being, but mainly those who are vectors of human diseases, say about a hundred species. Biological, ecological and environmental main features of the most important arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases are reviewed. Various factors acting on the relation between pathological agent and vector and between vector and man are considered. Importance and complexity of entomological surveys are emphasized with, as a consequence, the necessity of specialized medical entomologists to manage them.

  20. 15 CFR 990.51 - Injury assessment-injury determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; community composition; ecological processes and functions; physical and chemical habitat quality or... assessment. When selecting potential injuries to assess, trustees should consider factors such as: (1)...

  1. Macrophage-Mediated Injury and Repair After Ischemic Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Huen, Sarah C.; Cantley, Lloyd G.

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemic kidney injury is a common complication in hospitalized patients. Currently no treatment is available for augmenting kidney repair or preventing progressive kidney fibrosis. Animal models of acute kidney injury demonstrate that activation of the innate immune system plays a major role in the systemic response to ischemia/reperfusion injury. Macrophage depletion studies suggest that macrophages, key participants in the innate immune response, augment the initial injury after reperfusion, but also promote tubular repair and contribute to long-term kidney fibrosis after ischemic injury. The distinct functional outcomes seen following macrophage depletion at different time points after ischemia/reperfusion injury suggest heterogeneity in macrophage activation states. Identifying the pathways that regulate the transitions of macrophage activation is thus critical for understanding the mechanisms that govern both macrophage-mediated injury and repair in the post-ischemic kidney. This review examines our current understanding of the complex and intricately controlled pathways that determine monocyte recruitment, macrophage activation, and macrophage effector functions after renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Careful delineation of repair and resolution pathways could provide therapeutic targets for the development of effective treatments to offer patients with acute kidney injury. PMID:24442822

  2. Current Strategies and Future Directions for Eluding Adenoviral Vector Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Bangari, Dinesh S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2006-01-01

    Adenoviral (Ad) vectors can efficiently transduce a broad range of cell types and have been used extensively in preclinical and clinical studies for gene delivery applications. The presence of preexisting Ad immunity in the majority of human population and a rapid development of immune response against the Ad vector backbone following the first inoculation with the vector have impeded clinical use of these vectors. In addition, a number of animal inoculation studies have demonstrated that high systemic doses of Ad vectors invariably lead to initiation of acute inflammatory responses. This is mainly due to activation of innate immunity by vector particles. In general, vector and innate immune responses drastically limit the vector transduction efficiency and the duration of transgene expression. In order to have a predictable response with Ad vectors for gene therapy applications, the above limitations must be overcome. Strategies that are being examined to circumvent these drawbacks of Ad vectors include immunosuppression, immunomodulation, serotype switching, use of targeted Ad vectors, microencapsulation of Ad vectors, use of helper-dependent (HD) Ad vectors, and development of nonhuman Ad vectors. Here we review the current understanding of immune responses to Ad vectors, and recent advances in the strategies for immune evasion to improve the vector transduction efficiency and the duration of transgene expression. Development of novel strategies for targeting specific cell types would further boost the utility of Ad vectors by enhancing the safety, efficacy and duration of transgene expression. PMID:16611043

  3. Viral Vectors for in Vivo Gene Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thévenot, E.; Dufour, N.; Déglon, N.

    The transfer of DNA into the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell (gene transfer) is a central theme of modern biology. The transfer is said to be somatic when it refers to non-germline organs of a developed individual, and germline when it concerns gametes or the fertilised egg of an animal, with the aim of transmitting the relevant genetic modification to its descendents [1]. The efficient introduction of genetic material into a somatic or germline cell and the control of its expression over time have led to major advances in understanding how genes work in vivo, i.e., in living organisms (functional genomics), but also to the development of innovative therapeutic methods (gene therapy). The efficiency of gene transfer is conditioned by the vehicle used, called the vector. Desirable features for a vector are as follows: Easy to produce high titer stocks of the vector in a reproducible way. Absence of toxicity related to transduction (transfer of genetic material into the target cell, and its expression there) and no immune reaction of the organism against the vector and/or therapeutic protein. Stability in the expression of the relevant gene over time, and the possibility of regulation, e.g., to control expression of the therapeutic protein on the physiological level, or to end expression at the end of treatment. Transduction of quiescent cells should be as efficient as transduction of dividing cells. Vectors currently used fall into two categories: non-viral and viral vectors. In non-viral vectors, the DNA is complexed with polymers, lipids, or cationic detergents (described in Chap. 3). These vectors have a low risk of toxicity and immune reaction. However, they are less efficient in vivo than viral vectors when it comes to the number of cells transduced and long-term transgene expression. (Naked DNA transfer or electroporation is rather inefficient in the organism. This type of gene transfer will not be discussed here, and the interested reader is referred to the

  4. Football injury: a literature review *

    PubMed Central

    Kos, John J.

    1979-01-01

    A great deal of concern is recently being expressed relative to the playing of tackle football by adolescent Canadians. The purpose of this literature review is to try to summarize the important data from the available world literature. Very few Canadian statistics are available. Most of the data comes from United States experience. Tackle football injury is examined from various perspectives: 1. Equipment 2. Mechanisms of injury 3. Types of injury, with some emphasis on epiphyseal injury 4. Prevention 5. Comparison with other sports Although no “hard and fast” conclusion is drawn, the paper tends to show that: 1. Football is dangerous 2. Football is damaging to many body systems 3. Prevention of injury is difficult under present conditions 4. Alternate games, such as soccer and rugby seem to provide the same benefits with less catastrophic injuries

  5. Golf and racquet sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Jon A; Miller, Bruce S; Morag, Yoav

    2005-12-01

    There are specific injuries that are common in golf and racquet sports. These abnormalities have a predilection for specific structures as well and can be divided into two categories on the basis of etiology as either chronic repetitive injury or acute trauma. With golf injuries, upper extremity abnormalities prevail and include rotator cuff disease, epicondylitis, wrist tenosynovitis, and hamate hook fracture. Thoracolumbar spine pain can also occur. The order of frequency of these ailments is different for professional and recreational athletes. With racquet injuries, as in tennis, lower extremity injuries are more common and include medial gastrocnemius and Achilles tendon abnormalities, although shoulder, elbow, and wrist abnormalities may also occur. Knowledge of the biomechanics behind each sport is also helpful in understanding the pathophysiology of injury and in part explains the findings seen at imaging.

  6. Lap belt injuries in children.

    PubMed

    McGrath, N; Fitzpatrick, P; Okafor, I; Ryan, S; Hensey, O; Nicholson, A J

    2010-01-01

    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children's hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  7. Amusement park injuries and deaths.

    PubMed

    Braksiek, Robert J; Roberts, David J

    2002-01-01

    Media coverage of amusement park injuries has increased over the past several years, raising concern that amusement rides may be dangerous. Amusement park fatalities and increases in reported injuries have prompted proposed legislation to regulate the industry. Since 1979, the medical literature has published reports of 4 subdural hematomas, 4 internal carotid artery dissections, 2 vertebral artery dissections, 2 subarachnoid hemorrhages, 1 intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and 1 carotid artery thrombosis with stroke, all related to roller coaster rides. In this article, we review reports of amusement park injuries in the medical literature and Consumer Product Safety Commission data on the overall risk of injury. We also discuss the physics and the physiologic effects of roller coasters that may influence the type and severity of injuries. Although the risk of injury is low, emergency physicians are advised to include participation on thrill rides as part of their history, particularly when evaluating patients presenting with neurologic symptoms.

  8. [Perianal and rectal impalement injuries].

    PubMed

    Joos, A K; Herold, A; Palma, P; Post, S

    2006-09-01

    Perianal impalement injuries with or without involvement of the anorectum are rare. Apart from a high variety of injury patterns, there is a multiplicity of diagnostic and therapeutic options. Causes of perianal impalement injury are gunshot, accidents, and medical treatment. The diagnostic work-up includes digital rectal examination followed by rectoscopy and flexible endoscopy under anaesthesia. We propose a new classification for primary extraperitoneal perianal impalement injuries in four stages in which the extension of sphincter and/or rectum injury is of crucial importance. Therapeutic aspects such as wound treatment, enterostomy, drains, and antibiotic treatment are discussed. The proposed classification encompasses recommendations for stage-adapted management and prognosis of these rare injuries. PMID:16896899

  9. [Atypical trajectory of gunshot injury].

    PubMed

    Aygün, Mert; Tulay, Cumhur Murat

    2014-11-01

    Gunshot injuries are common medical-legal issues. Atypical tract lines resulting from this type of injuries cause difficulties in diagnosis and treatment. In this paper, a gunshot injury on the right anterior thigh extending to the right hemithorax was presented. A 67-year-old Syrian refugee patient was brought to the emergency service due to gunshot injury. Bullet entrance hole was determined on the right anterior thigh region; however, exit side could not be seen. Bullet was determined on the right thorax at tomography and the patient was taken to operation due to diaphragm rupture and lung parenchymal injury. Other body parts must be examined radiologically for the bullet which cannot be determined at gunshot injury side. PMID:25541926

  10. Amusement park injuries and deaths.

    PubMed

    Braksiek, Robert J; Roberts, David J

    2002-01-01

    Media coverage of amusement park injuries has increased over the past several years, raising concern that amusement rides may be dangerous. Amusement park fatalities and increases in reported injuries have prompted proposed legislation to regulate the industry. Since 1979, the medical literature has published reports of 4 subdural hematomas, 4 internal carotid artery dissections, 2 vertebral artery dissections, 2 subarachnoid hemorrhages, 1 intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and 1 carotid artery thrombosis with stroke, all related to roller coaster rides. In this article, we review reports of amusement park injuries in the medical literature and Consumer Product Safety Commission data on the overall risk of injury. We also discuss the physics and the physiologic effects of roller coasters that may influence the type and severity of injuries. Although the risk of injury is low, emergency physicians are advised to include participation on thrill rides as part of their history, particularly when evaluating patients presenting with neurologic symptoms. PMID:11782733

  11. Baseball injuries to the hand.

    PubMed

    Dawson, W J; Pullos, N

    1981-06-01

    We conducted an epidemiological and etiological study of softball injuries to the hand in order to inform emergency medicine personnel of the high frequency and causative factors of these injuries. Injuries to the hand and fingers from baseball and softball comprised 2.2% of emergency department visits during this study. Most frequent injuries were: 1) sprain and sprain-fracture of the proximal IP joint (31.6%); and 2) the so-called "mallet" or "baseball finger" injury to the distal joint (18.9%). The 16-inch softball was the cause of more than two-thirds of all these injuries, most of which occurred in patients between the ages of 11 and 30. Treatment recommendations are beyond the scope of this article.

  12. Acute genital injury in the prepubertal girl.

    PubMed

    Pokorny, S F; Pokorny, W J; Kramer, W

    1992-05-01

    In an effort to develop guidelines for the management of acute genital injuries in prepubertal girls, we categorized 32 cases by the object that allegedly caused the injury: straddle injuries, nonpenetrating injuries, penetrating injuries, and torque injuries. Using these categories and the anatomic features of symmetry and/or hymenal transection, we determined that the most dangerous injuries were the penetrating injuries that were symmetric and transected the hymen; in this series these were all the result of sexual assault. Future studies are needed to determine if these unique injuries can be managed with less physical and psychosocial trauma to the young patient. PMID:1595800

  13. Peripheral nerve response to injury.

    PubMed

    Steed, Martin B

    2011-03-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgeons caring for patients who have sustained a nerve injury to a branch of the peripheral trigeminal nerve must possess a basic understanding of the response of the peripheral nerves to trauma. The series of events that subsequently take place are largely dependent on the injury type and severity. Regeneration of the peripheral nerve is possible in many instances and future manipulation of the regenerative microenvironment will lead to advances in the management of these difficult injuries.

  14. Mechanisms of trigeminal nerve injuries.

    PubMed

    Ziccardi, V B; Assael, L A

    2001-09-01

    Injuries to the trigeminal nerve branches are a known and accepted risk in oral and maxillofacial surgery. It is prudent for the practitioner to explain the risks to patients as part of the informed consent process and to recognize and document the presence of nerve injury postoperatively. Patients should be referred to a surgeon experienced in microsurgical techniques in a timely fashion for evaluation and possible surgical intervention if an injury is not resolving.

  15. The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Schroeder, Gregory D; Koerner, John D; Vialle, Luiz R; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens R; Kandziora, Frank; Schnake, Klaus J; Dvorak, Marcel F; Reinhold, Max; Oner, F Cumhur

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Survey of 100 worldwide spine surgeons. Objective To develop a spine injury score for the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Methods Each respondent was asked to numerically grade the severity of each variable of the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Using the results, as well as limited input from the AOSpine Trauma Knowledge Forum, the Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score was developed. Results Beginning with 1 point for A1, groups A, B, and C were consecutively awarded an additional point (A1, 1 point; A2, 2 points; A3, 3 points); however, because of a significant increase in the severity between A3 and A4 and because the severity of A4 and B1 was similar, both A4 and B1 were awarded 5 points. An uneven stepwise increase in severity moving from N0 to N4, with a substantial increase in severity between N2 (nerve root injury with radicular symptoms) and N3 (incomplete spinal cord injury) injuries, was identified. Hence, each grade of neurologic injury was progressively given an additional point starting with 0 points for N0, and the substantial difference in severity between N2 and N3 injuries was recognized by elevating N3 to 4 points. Finally, 1 point was awarded to the M1 modifier (indeterminate posterolateral ligamentous complex injury). Conclusion The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score is an easy-to-use, data-driven metric that will allow for the development of a surgical algorithm to accompany the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. PMID:27190734

  16. The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score

    PubMed Central

    Kepler, Christopher K.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Koerner, John D.; Vialle, Luiz R.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens R.; Kandziora, Frank; Schnake, Klaus J.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Reinhold, Max; Oner, F. Cumhur

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Survey of 100 worldwide spine surgeons. Objective To develop a spine injury score for the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Methods Each respondent was asked to numerically grade the severity of each variable of the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Using the results, as well as limited input from the AOSpine Trauma Knowledge Forum, the Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score was developed. Results Beginning with 1 point for A1, groups A, B, and C were consecutively awarded an additional point (A1, 1 point; A2, 2 points; A3, 3 points); however, because of a significant increase in the severity between A3 and A4 and because the severity of A4 and B1 was similar, both A4 and B1 were awarded 5 points. An uneven stepwise increase in severity moving from N0 to N4, with a substantial increase in severity between N2 (nerve root injury with radicular symptoms) and N3 (incomplete spinal cord injury) injuries, was identified. Hence, each grade of neurologic injury was progressively given an additional point starting with 0 points for N0, and the substantial difference in severity between N2 and N3 injuries was recognized by elevating N3 to 4 points. Finally, 1 point was awarded to the M1 modifier (indeterminate posterolateral ligamentous complex injury). Conclusion The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score is an easy-to-use, data-driven metric that will allow for the development of a surgical algorithm to accompany the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. PMID:27190734

  17. Sharps injuries in ophthalmic practice

    PubMed Central

    Ghauri, A-J; Amissah-Arthur, K N; Rashid, A; Mushtaq, B; Nessim, M; Elsherbiny, S

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Accidental sharps injuries are a potential route for transmission of blood-borne infection to healthcare workers. Ophthalmic staff in particular are at risk of sustaining such injuries due to the microsurgical nature of the speciality. Forthcoming European Union legislation aimed at reducing sharps injuries requires the development of risk-based sharps policy. The authors believe that this is the first study to assess the risks of sharps injuries and their management specific to ophthalmic practice within the European Union. Methods A retrospective review of all reported sharps injuries across three eye units in the UK over a period of 6 years was undertaken. Data were analysed to determine the circumstances surrounding the injury, occupation of the injured person, and whether appropriate actions were taken following incidents. Results A total of 68 sharps injuries were reported over the 6-year period. Nurses sustained 54.4% (n=37) of needlestick injuries, doctors 39.7% (n=27), and allied healthcare staff 5.9% (n=4). In all 51.5% (n=35) of sharps injuries occurred in the operating theatre, 30.9% (n=21) in the outpatient clinic, 13.2% (n=9) on the ophthalmic ward, and 4.4% (n=3) in unspecified locations. There was a median rate of 1.3 sharps injuries per 1000 surgical procedures per year and a range of 0.4–3.5 per 1000. Conclusions This study demonstrates the need to raise awareness of the unique risks of sharps injuries in ophthalmic practice. This is necessary in order to develop speciality-specific policy that promotes strategies to reduce such injuries, enhances the accuracy of reporting of such events, and provides guidance for appropriate management. PMID:21336251

  18. Advances in the epidemiology of injuries as a basis for public policy.

    PubMed Central

    Haddon, W

    1980-01-01

    Successful injury control measures (stoplights, sprinkler systems, electrical insulation, evacuation) have long been commonplace. However, progress in injury control has been hampered by the failure to recognize that injuries cannot occur without the action of specific agents analogous to those of the infectious diseases and likewise transmitted by vehicles and vectors. These agents are the several forms of injury. Varying and interacting with the characteristics of the host and the environment, they constitute the classic epidemiologic triads that determine injury distributions, none of which are random. The injury-disease dichotomy, a universal in most of the world's major languages, may have resulted from the fact that at least some of the causes of injuries (for example, wild animals or falling trees) are more identifiable and proximate than the causes of diseases. The etiology of injuries suggests that for epidemiologic and public health purposes, the term injury should probably be defined so as to encompass those kinds of damage to the body that are produced by energy exchanges and that are manifested within 48 hours, or usually within considerably shorter periods. Strategies for injury control can be extended to the control of other pathological conditions. The active-passive distinction (the dimension expressing the extent to which control measures require people to do something) has a direct bearing on the success of public health programs, because passive approaches have historically had a far better record of success than active ones. Ten basic strategies have been identified that provide options for reducing the damage to people (and property) caused by all kinds of environmental hazards. PMID:7422807

  19. School Environment and School Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Salminen, Simo; Kurenniemi, Marja; Råback, Mirka; Markkula, Jaana; Lounamaa, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although injuries at school are an important issue in public health, environmental factors in schools and school yards have seldom been the focus of school injury research. The goal of our investigation was to examine the effect of environmental factors on school injuries. Methods: Nine comprehensive Finnish schools registered school injuries over a period of two school years. Injuries were classified as being associated with environmental factors, suspected environmental factors, and others. The consensus between two independent classifiers was 81%. Results: A total of 722 injuries were classified. In 11.6% of these injuries, the physical environment factor was evident, and in 28.1% of the injuries, physical environment was suspected of being a contributory risk factor. Thus the physical environment of the school was a contributing factor in over a third (39.7%) of injuries occurring in the school, on the school yard or during the journey to, or from school. In this study, conducted in Finland, ice on the ground was mentioned most frequently as an environmental risk factor. Conclusion: In Finland, the Nordic weather conditions are not taken into account in the school yard and playground plans as they ought to from the safety point of view. An initiative has been launched on a mandatory wintertime master plan for every school yard. PMID:24455667

  20. Empirically derived injury prevention rules.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, L; Schick, B

    1993-01-01

    This study describes a set of empirically derived safety rules that if followed, would have prevented the occurrence of minor injuries. Epidemiologists have criticized behavioral interventions as increasing "safe" behavior but failing to demonstrate a decrease in injury. The present study documents retrospectively the link between safe behavior and injury. It demonstrates that these empirically derived rules are very similar to rules for the prevention of serious injury. The study also shows that these rules are not widely accepted and implemented by parents. Suggestions for future research in this area are advanced. PMID:8307829

  1. Management of acromioclavicular joint injuries.

    PubMed

    Stucken, Charlton; Cohen, Steven B

    2015-01-01

    Although recent advances have been made in the treatment of acromioclavicular (AC) joint injuries, they are still challenging for shoulder surgeons. There is a consensus that type I and II injuries should be treated nonoperatively, whereas acute type IV, V, and VI injuries should be treated surgically. There is no algorithm for correctly diagnosing and treating type III injuries, but the current trend is toward nonoperative treatment except for those with persistent symptoms and functional limitations after a course of conservative management. If surgery is indicated, newer anatomic techniques of reconstructing the coracoclavicular (CC) and AC ligaments are recommended.

  2. Preventing head and neck injury.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, A S; McCrory, P

    2005-06-01

    A wide range of head and neck injury risks are present in sport, including catastrophic injury. The literature since 1980 on prevention of head and neck injury in sport was reviewed, focusing on catastrophic and brain injury and identifying the range of injury prevention methods in use. There have been few formal evaluations of injury prevention methods. Approaches that are considered, or have been proven, to be successful in preventing injury include: modification of the baseball; implementation of helmet standards in ice hockey and American football and increased wearing rates; use of full faceguards in ice hockey; changes in rules associated with body contact; implementation of rules to reduce the impact forces in rugby scrums. Helmets and other devices have been shown to reduce the risk of severe head and facial injury, but current designs appear to make little difference to rates of concussion. Research methods involving epidemiological, medical, and human factors are required in combination with biomechanical and technological approaches to reduce further injury risks in sport.

  3. Shoulder Injuries in Pediatric Athletes.

    PubMed

    Moyer, James E; Brey, Jennifer M

    2016-10-01

    Shoulder injuries in pediatric athletes are typically caused by acute or overuse injuries. The developing structures of the shoulder lead to injury patterns that are distinct from those of adult athletes. Overuse injuries often affect the physeal structures of the proximal humerus and can lead to pain and loss of sports participation. Shoulder instability is common in pediatric athletes, and recurrence is also a concern in this population. Fractures of the proximal humerus and clavicle are typically treated with conservative management, but there is a trend toward surgical intervention. PMID:27637662

  4. Overuse injuries in ultraendurance triathletes.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, M L; Hiller, W D; Smith, R A; Sisk, T D

    1989-01-01

    Overuse injuries represent the largest percentage of sports-related injuries requiring medical treatment. These injuries represent a substantial health issue for the millions of adults who have made physical activity an integral part of their lifestyle, but may be even more important to those pursuing ultraendurance exercise. The purposes of this study were to report the type and incidence of overuse injuries in ultraendurance triathletes and to relate training practices to injury occurrence. Data was gathered from the responses of 95 competitors (75 men, 20 women) in the 1986 Hawaii Ironman Triathlon who completed a training and medical history questionnaire. In this sample, virtually all (91%) sustained at least one soft tissue, overuse injury during the previous year's training. The area of the body most frequently involved was the back, but the most common pattern was to have multiple areas involved. Because of the consistent combinations of injuries, mechanical abnormalities, such as diminished shock absorption, may have contributed to injury. Training habits were extremely variable and not directly related to either the incidence or type of injury.

  5. Muscular Calf Injuries in Runners.

    PubMed

    Fields, Karl B; Rigby, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Calf pain is a common complaint among runners of all ages but is most frequent in masters athletes. This article focuses on injuries to the triceps surae or true 'calf muscles.' The most common calf injury is a tear of the medial gastrocnemius muscle (Tennis Leg) but other structures including the lateral gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus also may be the cause of muscular pain. This article looks at the presentation, evaluation, and treatment of these injuries. We also highlight some examples of musculoskeletal ultrasound which is a valuable tool for rapid diagnosis of the cause and extent of injury. PMID:27618240

  6. Application of Bred Vectors To Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corazza, M.; Kalnay, E.; Patil, Dj

    We introduced a statistic, the BV-dimension, to measure the effective local finite-time dimensionality of the atmosphere. We show that this dimension is often quite low, and suggest that this finding has important implications for data assimilation and the accuracy of weather forecasting (Patil et al, 2001). The original database for this study was the forecasts of the NCEP global ensemble forecasting system. The initial differences between the control forecast and the per- turbed forecasts are called bred vectors. The control and perturbed initial conditions valid at time t=n(t are evolved using the forecast model until time t=(n+1) (t. The differences between the perturbed and the control forecasts are scaled down to their initial amplitude, and constitute the bred vectors valid at (n+1) (t. Their growth rate is typically about 1.5/day. The bred vectors are similar by construction to leading Lya- punov vectors except that they have small but finite amplitude, and they are valid at finite times. The original NCEP ensemble data set has 5 independent bred vectors. We define a local bred vector at each grid point by choosing the 5 by 5 grid points centered at the grid point (a region of about 1100km by 1100km), and using the north-south and east- west velocity components at 500mb pressure level to form a 50 dimensional column vector. Since we have k=5 global bred vectors, we also have k local bred vectors at each grid point. We estimate the effective dimensionality of the subspace spanned by the local bred vectors by performing a singular value decomposition (EOF analysis). The k local bred vector columns form a 50xk matrix M. The singular values s(i) of M measure the extent to which the k column unit vectors making up the matrix M point in the direction of v(i). We define the bred vector dimension as BVDIM={Sum[s(i)]}^2/{Sum[s(i)]^2} For example, if 4 out of the 5 vectors lie along v, and one lies along v, the BV- dimension would be BVDIM[sqrt(4), 1, 0

  7. Factors influencing the titer and infectivity of lentiviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Logan, Aaron C; Nightingale, Sarah J; Haas, Dennis L; Cho, Gerald J; Pepper, Karen A; Kohn, Donald B

    2004-10-01

    Lentiviral vectors have undergone several generations of design improvement to enhance their biosafety and expression characteristics, and have been approved for use in human clinical studies. Most preclinical studies with these vectors have employed easily assayed marker genes for the purpose of determining vector titers and transduction efficiencies. Naturally, the adaptation of these vector systems to clinical use will increasingly involve the transfer of genes whose products may not be easily measured, meaning that the determination of vector titer will be more complicated. One method for determining vector titer that can be universally employed on all human immunodeficiency virus type 1-based lentiviral vector supernatants involves the measurement of Gag (p24) protein concentration in vector supernatants by immunoassay. We have studied the effects that manipulation of several variables involved in vector design and production by transient transfection have on vector titer and infectivity. We have determined that manipulation of the amount of transfer vector, packaging, and envelope plasmids used to transfect the packaging cells does not alter vector infectivity, but does influence vector titer. We also found that modifications to the transfer vector construct, such as replacing the internal promoter or transgene, do not generally alter vector infectivity, whereas inclusion of the central polypurine tract in the transfer vector increases vector infectivity on HEK293 cells and human umbilical cord blood CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). The infectivities of vector supernatants can also be increased by harvesting at early time points after the initiation of vector production, collection in serum-free medium, and concentration by ultracentrifugation. For the transduction of CD34+ HPCs, we found that the simplest method of increasing vector infectivity is to pseudotype vector particles with the RD114 envelope instead of vesicular stomatitis virus G

  8. Titration of feline immunodeficiency virus-based lentiviral vector preparations.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Dyana T; Barraza, Román; Loewen, Nils; Teo, Wulin; Poeschla, Eric M

    2012-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-based lentiviral vectors are useful for introducing integrated transgenes into nondividing human cells. This protocol describes methods for measuring and calculating vector titers in transducing units (TU)/mL. Alternate methods are provided for green fluorescent protein (GFP) vectors and for β-galactosidase vectors.

  9. Occupational injury fatalities--1994.

    PubMed

    Toscano, G; Jack, T

    1996-01-01

    Factory workers caught in machinery and construction workers falling or struck by huge beams are images that typically come to mind when considering serious hazards in the workplace. But these types of events account for only a small portion of job-related fatalities each year. Transportation-related fatalities, along with assaults and violent acts during work, made up almost two-thirds of the 6,588 fatal work injuries recorded in 1994. The majority of job-related fatal work events occurred on the streets and highways and in public buildings and in areas such as grocery stores and parking lots. Today the most deadly jobs are found in outdoor occupations such as fishing and timber cutting. In fact, in all 10 jobs studied that have high fatality rates, most workers are affected by severe weather conditions while driving on highways, performing farm chores and working at construction sites. Highway crashes are the primary cause of trucker fatalities; falls are the leading cause of death for roofers, construction laborers and structural metal workers, while tractor rollovers account for a third of farm worker fatalities. Another deadly contributing factor for some workers is homicide, which accounted for 16 percent of job-related fatalities in 1994. Workers most at risk are those who work alone, work late at night and handle varying sums of money. Taxicab drivers are the most susceptible and have a work injury fatality rate nine times higher than the national rate of 5 deaths per 100,000 workers. Others at high risk of homicide include gas station cashiers, grocery store employees and workers in retail eating and drinking establishments. Although the risk of a fatal injury at work varies greatly by occupation and industry, no one is immune. For prevention, workers and employers need to know what jobs are risky, what equipment is dangerous and what activities are hazardous. They also should understand that a fatal incident can happen to anyone.

  10. Hyperoxic Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kallet, Richard H; Matthay, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged breathing of very high FIO2 (FIO2 ≥ 0.9) uniformly causes severe hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI) and, without a reduction of FIO2, is usually fatal. The severity of HALI is directly proportional to PO2 (particularly above 450 mm Hg, or an FIO2 of 0.6) and exposure duration. Hyperoxia produces extraordinary amounts of reactive O2 species that overwhelms natural antioxidant defenses and destroys cellular structures through several pathways. Genetic predisposition has been shown to play an important role in HALI among animals, and some genetics-based epidemiologic research suggests that this may be true for humans as well. Clinically, the risk of HALI likely occurs when FIO2exceeds 0.7, and may become problematic when FIO2 exceeds 0.8 for an extended period of time. Both high-stretch mechanical ventilation and hyperoxia potentiate lung injury and may promote pulmonary infection. During the 1960s, confusion regarding the incidence and relevance of HALI largely reflected such issues as the primitive control of FIO2, the absence of PEEP, and the fact that at the time both ALI and ventilator-induced lung injury were unknown. The advent of PEEP and precise control over FIO2, as well as lung-protective ventilation, and other adjunctive therapies for severe hypoxemia, has greatly reduced the risk of HALI for the vast majority of patients requiring mechanical ventilation in the 21st century. However, a subset of patients with very severe ARDS requiring hyperoxic therapy is at substantial risk for developing HALI, therefore justifying the use of such adjunctive therapies. PMID:23271823

  11. Centipede inflicted postmortem injury.

    PubMed

    Harada, K; Asa, K; Imachi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Yoshida, K

    1999-07-01

    We here report the first case of postmortem injury caused by a centipede. An old man was found dead in his bedroom. The death was estimated to be due to intracranial hemorrhage and to have occurred two days before the police inspection. A centipede about 12 cm long emerged from a subcutaneous cavity on the victim's forearm. Obviously, the centipede had dug the cavity on the intact skin. A police inspector was bitten by the centipede, so he stepped on the centipede on the floor. The exudate from the insect was identified to be derived from the victim's blood.

  12. Mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Katz, Douglas I; Cohen, Sara I; Alexander, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common but accurate diagnosis and defining criteria for mild TBI and its clinical consequences have been problematic. Mild TBI causes transient neurophysiologic brain dysfunction, sometimes with structural axonal and neuronal damage. Biomarkers, such as newer imaging technologies and protein markers, are promising indicators of brain injury but are not ready for clinical use. Diagnosis relies on clinical criteria regarding depth and duration of impaired consciousness and amnesia. These criteria are particularly difficult to confirm at the least severe end of the mild TBI continuum, especially when relying on subjective, retrospective accounts. The postconcussive syndrome is a controversial concept because of varying criteria, inconsistent symptom clusters and the evidence that similar symptom profiles occur with other disorders, and even in a proportion of healthy individuals. The clinical consequences of mild TBI can be conceptualized as two multidimensional disorders: (1) a constellation of acute symptoms that might be termed early phase post-traumatic disorder (e.g., headache, dizziness, imbalance, fatigue, sleep disruption, impaired cognition), that typically resolve in days to weeks and are largely related to brain trauma and concomitant injuries; (2) a later set of symptoms, a late phase post-traumatic disorder, evolving out of the early phase in a minority of patients, with a more prolonged (months to years), sometimes worsening set of somatic, emotional, and cognitive symptoms. The later phase disorder is highly influenced by a variety of psychosocial factors and has little specificity for brain injury, although a history of multiple concussions seems to increase the risk of more severe and longer duration symptoms. Effective early phase management may prevent or limit the later phase disorder and should include education about symptoms and expectations for recovery, as well as recommendations for activity modifications

  13. [Skateboard injuries in Oslo].

    PubMed

    Jahnsen, F

    1990-04-10

    Skateboards were allowed in Norway from May 1989 after being prohibited for 11 years. The media gave the sport extensive coverage due to the presumed large number of accidents suffered by its partisipants, and critics wanted the sport banned. We registered all skateboard injuries referred to Akuttetaten in Oslo. 113 patients were examined during a four month period. 63% were in the age group between 11 and 14. There were no serious accidents. 42 (37%) had upper/lower limb fractures, 14 required reduction. Four had head trauma with temporary loss of consciousness. The rest suffered minor traumas, distortions, etc. The results of the registration are discussed with reference to international literature.

  14. [Injuries of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Vasiutkov, V Ia; Murasheva, Z M; Sukhov, D V; Burakov, M B

    1989-08-01

    Trauma of the pancreas was studied in 48 patients. It has a typical mechanisms and is characterized by intensity of the exerted force. Due to the last named circumstance, extensive retroperitoneal hematomas, ruptures of the parenchymatous organs, ligaments, veins, and large arteries often occur A severe condition of the patients with fall of arterial pressure and the development of shock is characteristic. It is difficult to establish the diagnosis of trauma of the pancreas before the operation. The most frequent complication is traumatic pancreatitis which is often attended by the development of cysts, fistulas, and peritonitis. The surgeon's tactics is determined by the character of the injury and is individual in each patient.

  15. New Insights on Adenovirus as Vaccine Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Lasaro, Marcio O; Ertl, Hildegund CJ

    2009-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) vectors were initially developed for treatment of genetic diseases. Their usefulness for permanent gene replacement was limited by their high immunogenicity, which resulted in rapid elimination of transduced cells through induction of T and B cells to antigens of Ad and the transgene product. The very trait that excluded their use for sustained treatment of genetic diseases made them highly attractive as vaccine carriers. Recently though results showed that Ad vectors based on common human serotypes, such as serotype 5, may not be ideal as vaccine carriers. A recently conducted phase 2b trial, termed STEP trial, with an AdHu5-based vaccine expressing antigens of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) not only showed lack of efficacy in spite of the vaccine's immunogenicity, but also suggested an increased trend for HIV acquisition in individuals that had circulating AdHu5 neutralizing antibodies prior to vaccination. Alternative serotypes from humans or nonhuman primates (NHPs), to which most humans lack pre-existing immunity, have been vectored and may circumvent the problems encountered with the use of AdHu5 vectors in humans. In summary, although Ad vectors have seen their share of setbacks in recent years, they remain viable tools for prevention or treatment of a multitude of diseases. PMID:19513019

  16. Malaria vector species in Colombia - A review

    PubMed Central

    Montoya-Lerma, James; Solarte, Yezid A; Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria Isabel; Quiñones, Martha L; Ruiz-López, Freddy; Wilkerson, Richard C; González, Ranulfo

    2016-01-01

    Here we present a comprehensive review of the literature on the vectorial importance of the major Anopheles malaria vectors in Colombia. We provide basic information on the geographical distribution, altitudinal range, immature habitats, adult behaviour, feeding preferences and anthropophily, endophily and infectivity rates. We additionally review information on the life cycle, longevity and population fluctuation of Colombian Anopheles species. Emphasis was placed on the primary vectors that have been epidemiologically incriminated in malaria transmission: Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles nuneztovari. The role of a selection of local, regional or secondary vectors (e.g., Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and Anopheles neivai) is also discussed. We highlight the importance of combining biological, morphological and molecular data for the correct taxonomical determination of a given species, particularly for members of the species complexes. We likewise emphasise the importance of studying the bionomics of primary and secondary vectors along with an examination of the local conditions affecting the transmission of malaria. The presence and spread of the major vectors and the emergence of secondary species capable of transmitting human Plasmodia are of great interest. When selecting control measures, the anopheline diversity in the region must be considered. Variation in macroclimate conditions over a species’ geographical range must be well understood and targeted to plan effective control measures based on the population dynamics of the local Anopheles species. PMID:21881778

  17. The uses of poxviruses as vectors.

    PubMed

    Vanderplasschen, A; Pastoret, P-P

    2003-12-01

    Poxviruses have played an amazing role in the development of virology, immunology and vaccinology. In 1796, deliberate inoculation of cowpox virus to humans was proved by Dr. Edward Jenner to protect against the antigenically related smallpox virus (variola). This discovery founded the science of immunology and eventually led to smallpox eradication from the earth in 1980 after a world wide vaccination campaign with vaccinia virus (another poxvirus). Paradoxically, despite the eradication of smallpox, there has been an explosion of interest in vaccinia virus in the eighties. This interest has stemmed in part from the application of molecular genetics to clone and express foreign genes from recombinant vaccinia virus. The use of these recombinant vaccinia viruses as efficacious in vitro expression system and live vaccine has raised concerns about their safety. The work of the scientific community of the last 20 years has contributed to improve drastically the safety of poxvirus derived vectors. Firstly, the safety of vaccinia virus has been enhanced by production of genetically attenuated strains. Secondly, alternative poxvirus vectors, such as avipoxviruses, were proved to be extremely safe and efficacious non-replicating vectors when used in non avian species. In the present chapter, the basic concepts of poxvirus biology required to assess the safety of a poxvirus derived vector are provided. The principal poxvirus vectors available to date are described in regards to their biosafety. PMID:14683453

  18. Perceptual vector quantization for video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valin, Jean-Marc; Terriberry, Timothy B.

    2015-03-01

    This paper applies energy conservation principles to the Daala video codec using gain-shape vector quantization to encode a vector of AC coefficients as a length (gain) and direction (shape). The technique originates from the CELT mode of the Opus audio codec, where it is used to conserve the spectral envelope of an audio signal. Conserving energy in video has the potential to preserve textures rather than low-passing them. Explicitly quantizing a gain allows a simple contrast masking model with no signaling cost. Vector quantizing the shape keeps the number of degrees of freedom the same as scalar quantization, avoiding redundancy in the representation. We demonstrate how to predict the vector by transforming the space it is encoded in, rather than subtracting off the predictor, which would make energy conservation impossible. We also derive an encoding of the vector-quantized codewords that takes advantage of their non-uniform distribution. We show that the resulting technique outperforms scalar quantization by an average of 0.90 dB on still images, equivalent to a 24.8% reduction in bitrate at equal quality, while for videos, the improvement averages 0.83 dB, equivalent to a 13.7% reduction in bitrate.

  19. Stability of Horndeski vector-tensor interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Jiménez, Jose Beltrán; Durrer, Ruth; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Thorsrud, Mikjel E-mail: ruth.durrer@unige.ch E-mail: mikjel.thorsrud@astro.uio.no

    2013-10-01

    We study the Horndeski vector-tensor theory that leads to second order equations of motion and contains a non-minimally coupled abelian gauge vector field. This theory is remarkably simple and consists of only 2 terms for the vector field, namely: the standard Maxwell kinetic term and a coupling to the dual Riemann tensor. Furthermore, the vector sector respects the U(1) gauge symmetry and the theory contains only one free parameter, M{sup 2}, that controls the strength of the non-minimal coupling. We explore the theory in a de Sitter spacetime and study the presence of instabilities and show that it corresponds to an attractor solution in the presence of the vector field. We also investigate the cosmological evolution and stability of perturbations in a general FLRW spacetime. We find that a sufficient condition for the absence of ghosts is M{sup 2} > 0. Moreover, we study further constraints coming from imposing the absence of Laplacian instabilities. Finally, we study the stability of the theory in static and spherically symmetric backgrounds (in particular, Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter). We find that the theory, quite generally, do have ghosts or Laplacian instabilities in regions of spacetime where the non-minimal interaction dominates over the Maxwell term. We also calculate the propagation speed in these spacetimes and show that superluminality is a quite generic phenomenon in this theory.

  20. How to Estimate Attitude from Vector Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley,F. Landis; Mortari, Daniele

    1999-01-01

    In many spacecraft attitude systems, the attitude observations are naturally represented as unit vectors. Typical examples are the unit vectors giving the direction to the sun or a star and the unit vector in the direction of the Earth's magnetic field. In 1965, Grace Wahba, proposed the following problem: Find the orthogonal matrix A with determinant +1 that minimizes the loss function L(A) is identity with 1/2(Sum from i a(sub i) (absolute value of b(sub i - A(r(sub i))(exp 2))) where the set of b(sub i) is a set of unit vectors measured in a spacecraft's body frame, the set of r(sub i) are the corresponding unit vectors in a reference frame, and the set of a(sub i) are non-negative weights. Wahba's problem can be related to Maximum Likelihood Estimation if the weights are chosen to be inverse variances, a(sub i) = sigma((sub -2). Wahba didn't assume this, but it will be convenient to assume it in this paper. Wahba'soptimality condition has provided the basis for many attitude determination algorithms. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the most popular and most promising algorithm and to provide accuracy and speed comparisons.