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Sample records for injury vector electrocardiogram-based

  1. Noninvasive extraction of fetal electrocardiogram based on Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yumei; Xiang, Shihan; Chen, Tianyi; Zhou, Ping; Huang, Weiyan

    2015-10-01

    The fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) signal has important clinical value for diagnosing the fetal heart diseases and choosing suitable therapeutics schemes to doctors. So, the noninvasive extraction of FECG from electrocardiogram (ECG) signals becomes a hot research point. A new method, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) is utilized for the extraction of FECG with limited size of data. Firstly, the theory of the SVM and the principle of the extraction based on the SVM are studied. Secondly, the transformation of maternal electrocardiogram (MECG) component in abdominal composite signal is verified to be nonlinear and fitted with the SVM. Then, the SVM is trained, and the training results are compared with the real data to ensure the effect of the training. Meanwhile, the parameters of the SVM are optimized to achieve the best performance so that the learning machine can be utilized to fit the unknown samples. Finally, the FECG is extracted by removing the optimal estimation of MECG component from the abdominal composite signal. In order to evaluate the performance of FECG extraction based on the SVM, the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and the visual test are used. The experimental results show that the FECG with good quality can be extracted, its SNR ratio is significantly increased as high as 9.2349 dB and the time cost is significantly decreased as short as 0.802 seconds. Compared with the traditional method, the noninvasive extraction method based on the SVM has a simple realization, the shorter treatment time and the better extraction quality under the same conditions.

  2. Skin injury model classification based on shape vector analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background: Skin injuries can be crucial in judicial decision making. Forensic experts base their classification on subjective opinions. This study investigates whether known classes of simulated skin injuries are correctly classified statistically based on 3D surface models and derived numerical shape descriptors. Methods: Skin injury surface characteristics are simulated with plasticine. Six injury classes – abrasions, incised wounds, gunshot entry wounds, smooth and textured strangulation marks as well as patterned injuries - with 18 instances each are used for a k-fold cross validation with six partitions. Deformed plasticine models are captured with a 3D surface scanner. Mean curvature is estimated for each polygon surface vertex. Subsequently, distance distributions and derived aspect ratios, convex hulls, concentric spheres, hyperbolic points and Fourier transforms are used to generate 1284-dimensional shape vectors. Subsequent descriptor reduction maximizing SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) result in an average of 41 descriptors (varying across k-folds). With non-normal multivariate distribution of heteroskedastic data, requirements for LDA (linear discriminant analysis) are not met. Thus, shrinkage parameters of RDA (regularized discriminant analysis) are optimized yielding a best performance with λ = 0.99 and γ = 0.001. Results: Receiver Operating Characteristic of a descriptive RDA yields an ideal Area Under the Curve of 1.0for all six categories. Predictive RDA results in an average CRR (correct recognition rate) of 97,22% under a 6 partition k-fold. Adding uniform noise within the range of one standard deviation degrades the average CRR to 71,3%. Conclusions: Digitized 3D surface shape data can be used to automatically classify idealized shape models of simulated skin injuries. Deriving some well established descriptors such as histograms, saddle shape of hyperbolic points or convex hulls with subsequent reduction of dimensionality while maximizing SNR

  3. Herpes simplex virus vector-mediated delivery of neurturin rescues erectile dysfunction of cavernous nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Ryuichi; Wolfe, Darren; Coyle, Christian H.; Wechuck, James B.; Tyagi, Pradeep; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Nelson, Joel B.; Glorioso, Joseph C.; Chancellor, Michael B.; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2008-01-01

    Summary Neurturin (NTN), a member of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family, is known as an important neurotrphic factor for penis-projecting neurons. We recently demonstrated significant protection from erectile dysfunction (ED) following a replication defective herpes simplex virus (HSV) vector-mediated GDNF delivery to the injured cavernous nerve. Herein we applied HSV vector-mediated delivery of NTN to this ED model. Rat cavernous nerve was injured bilaterally using a clamp and dry ice. For HSV-treated groups, 20μl of vector stock was administered directly to the damaged nerve. Delivery of an HSV vector expressing both green fluorescent protein (GFP) and lacZ (HSV-LacZ) was used as a control. Intracavernous pressure along with systemic arterial pressure (ICP/AP) was measured 2 and 4 weeks after the nerve injury. Fluorogold (FG) was injected into the penile crus 7 days before sacrifice to assess neuronal survival. Four weeks after nerve injury, rats treated with HSV-NTN exhibited significantly higher ICP/AP compared to untreated or control vector treated groups. The HSV-NTN group had more FG-positive MPG neurons than control group following injury. HSV vector-mediated delivery of NTN could be a viable approach for improvement of erectile dysfunction following cavernous nerve injury. PMID:18668142

  4. Comparative analysis of lentiviral vectors and modular protein nanovectors for traumatic brain injury gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Negro-Demontel, María Luciana; Saccardo, Paolo; Giacomini, Cecilia; Yáñez-Muñoz, Rafael Joaquín; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Vazquez, Esther; Villaverde, Antonio; Peluffo, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains as one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide and there are no effective treatments currently available. Gene therapy applications have emerged as important alternatives for the treatment of diverse nervous system injuries. New strategies are evolving with the notion that each particular pathological condition may require a specific vector. Moreover, the lack of detailed comparative studies between different vectors under similar conditions hampers the selection of an ideal vector for a given pathological condition. The potential use of lentiviral vectors versus several modular protein-based nanovectors was compared using a controlled cortical impact model of TBI under the same gene therapy conditions. We show that variables such as protein/DNA ratio, incubation volume, and presence of serum or chloroquine in the transfection medium impact on both nanovector formation and transfection efficiency in vitro. While lentiviral vectors showed GFP protein 1 day after TBI and increased expression at 14 days, nanovectors showed stable and lower GFP transgene expression from 1 to 14 days. No toxicity after TBI by any of the vectors was observed as determined by resulting levels of IL-1β or using neurological sticky tape test. In fact, both vector types induced functional improvement per se. PMID:26015985

  5. Injury patterns to other body regions and load vectors in nearside impact occupants with and without shoulder injuries

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Stadter, Gregory W.; Halloway, Dale E.; Pintar, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    CIREN and NASS-CDS databases were used to analyze nearside impact injuries. Front seat occupants with and without shoulder injuries were examined on an individual basis in both databases. All vehicles were from model year 2000 or newer. Variables such as the type of collision, change in velocity, principal direction force, demographics, injuries scored by the MAIS and ISS metrics, and injuries to the head, thorax, abdomen and pelvis were included. Shoulder injuries included fractures to the humerus, scapula and clavicle, and associated joint traumas. The median changes in velocities for occupants with and without shoulder injuries were 36 and 32 km/h in CIREN and 29 and 32 km/h in NASS databases. Approximately two-thirds of all cases occurred below 40 km/h. In both databases, the clavicle, scapula and humerus fractures, and AC joint dislocations were found, and the scapula fracture was associated with the clavicle, AC joint, acromion and humerus injuries in few occupants. The clavicle fracture was associated with AC joint and humerus injuries only in the NASS database. Thorax, abdomen and pelvic injuries and skull fractures increased with the presence of shoulder injuries in both databases, albeit not at the same rate. Anterior oblique loading was more frequent than pure lateral loading in both databases suggesting the importance of the oblique vector in side impact trauma. These findings underscore a need for detailed examinations of shoulder load-sharing using biomechanical studies to better understand its role in side impact traumas, shoulder biofidelity and injury assessments in dummies. PMID:24406953

  6. Electrocardiogram-Based Sleep Spectrogram Measures of Sleep Stability and Glucose Disposal in Sleep Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Pogach, Melanie S.; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Thomas, Neil; Thomas, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is independently associated with insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Experimental sleep fragmentation has been shown to impair insulin sensitivity. Conventional electroencephalogram (EEG)-based sleep-quality measures have been inconsistently associated with indices of glucose metabolism. This analysis explored associations between glucose metabolism and an EEG-independent measure of sleep quality, the sleep spectrogram, which maps coupled oscillations of heart-rate variability and electrocardiogram (ECG)-derived respiration. The method allows improved characterization of the quality of stage 2 non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: N/A. Participants: Nondiabetic subjects with and without SDB (n = 118) underwent the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) and a full-montage polysomnogram. The sleep spectrogram was generated from ECG collected during polysomnography. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Standard polysomnographic stages (stages 1, 2, 3+4, and rapid eye movement [REM]) were not associated with the disposition index (DI) derived from the FSIVGTT. In contrast, spectrographic high-frequency coupling (a marker of stable or “effective” sleep) duration was associated with increased, and very-low-frequency coupling (a marker of wake/REM/transitions) associated with reduced DI. This relationship was noted after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, slow wave sleep, total sleep time, stage 1, the arousal index, and the apnea-hypopnea index. Conclusions: ECG-derived sleep-spectrogram measures of sleep quality are associated with alterations in glucose-insulin homeostasis. This alternate mode of estimating sleep quality could improve our understanding of sleep and sleep-breathing effects on glucose metabolism. Citation: Pogach MS; Punjabi NM; Thomas N; Thomas RJ. Electrocardiogram-based sleep

  7. Differentiating Obstructive from Central and Complex Sleep Apnea Using an Automated Electrocardiogram-Based Method

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Robert Joseph; Mietus, Joseph E.; Peng, Chung-Kang; Gilmartin, Geoffrey; Daly, Robert W.; Goldberger, Ary L.; Gottlieb, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    . Differentiating obstructive from central and complex sleep apnea using an automated electrocardiogram-based method. SLEEP 2007;30(12):1756-1769. PMID:18246985

  8. Electrocardiogram-based scoring system for predicting secondary pulmonary hypertension: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Patel, Nimesh Kirit; Boruah, Pranjal; Nanavaty, Sukrut; Chandran, Sindu; Sethi, Arjinder; Sheth, Jignesh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we have developed an electrocardiogram-based scoring system to predict secondary pulmonary hypertension. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Single tertiary-care hospital in Scranton, Pennsylvania, USA. Participants Five hundred and fifty-two consecutive patients undergoing right heart catheterization between 2006 and 2009. Main outcome measures Surface electrocardiogram was assessed for R-wave in lead V1 ≥ 6mm, R-wave in V6 ≤ 3mm, S-wave in V6 ≥ 3mm, right atrial enlargement, right axis deviation and left atrial enlargement. Pulmonary hypertension was defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mmHg, determined by right heart catheterization. Results A total of 297 (54%) patients in the study cohort had pulmonary hypertension. In total, 332 patients from the study cohort formed the development cohort and the remaining 220 patients formed the validation cohort. In the development cohort, based on log odds ratios of association, RAE, LAE, RAD, R-wave in V1 ≥ 6 mm were assigned scores of 5, 2, 2 and 1, respectively, to form a 10-point scoring system “Scranton PHT (SP) score”. SP scores of 5 points and 7 points in DC showed C-statistic of 0.83 and 0.89, respectively, for discriminating pulmonary hypertension. C-statistic for RAE alone was significantly lower compared to an SP score of 7 (0.83 vs. 0.89, P = 0.021). The reliability of SP score in the validation cohort was acceptable. Conclusion SP score provides a good point-of-care tool to predict pulmonary hypertension in patients with clinical suspicion of it. PMID:25396053

  9. Prevention of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury by pre-administration of catalase-expressing adenovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Ushitora, Masahiro; Sakurai, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Tomoko; Nakamura, Shin-ichiro; Kondoh, Masuo; Yagi, Kiyohito; Kawabata, Kenji; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2010-03-19

    Liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, which is mainly caused by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the reperfusion, remains an important clinical problem associated with liver transplantation and major liver surgery. Therefore, ROS should be detoxified to prevent hepatic I/R-induced injury. Delivery of antioxidant genes into liver is considered to be promising for prevention of hepatic I/R injury; however, therapeutic effects of antioxidant gene transfer to the liver have not been fully examined. The aim of this study was to examine whether adenovirus (Ad) vector-mediated catalase gene transfer in the liver is an effective approach for scavenging ROS and preventing hepatic I/R injury. Intravenous administration of Ad vectors expressing catalase, which is an antioxidant enzyme scavenging H(2)O(2), resulted in a significant increase in catalase activity in the liver. Pre-injection of catalase-expressing Ad vectors dramatically prevented I/R-induced elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and hepatic necrosis. The livers were also protected in another liver injury model, CCl(4)-induced liver injury, by catalase-expressing Ad vectors. Furthermore, the survival rates of mice subjected to both partial hepatectomy and I/R treatment were improved by pre-injection of catalase-expressing Ad vectors. On the other hand, control Ad vectors expressing beta-galactosidase did not show any significant preventive effects in the liver on the models of I/R-induced or CCl(4)-induced hepatic injury described above. These results indicate that hepatic delivery of the catalase gene by Ad vectors is a promising approach for the prevention of oxidative stress-induced liver injury. (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigating driver injury severity patterns in rollover crashes using support vector machine models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cong; Zhang, Guohui; Qian, Zhen; Tarefder, Rafiqul A; Tian, Zong

    2016-05-01

    Rollover crash is one of the major types of traffic crashes that induce fatal injuries. It is important to investigate the factors that affect rollover crashes and their influence on driver injury severity outcomes. This study employs support vector machine (SVM) models to investigate driver injury severity patterns in rollover crashes based on two-year crash data gathered in New Mexico. The impacts of various explanatory variables are examined in terms of crash and environmental information, vehicle features, and driver demographics and behavior characteristics. A classification and regression tree (CART) model is utilized to identify significant variables and SVM models with polynomial and Gaussian radius basis function (RBF) kernels are used for model performance evaluation. It is shown that the SVM models produce reasonable prediction performance and the polynomial kernel outperforms the Gaussian RBF kernel. Variable impact analysis reveals that factors including comfortable driving environment conditions, driver alcohol or drug involvement, seatbelt use, number of travel lanes, driver demographic features, maximum vehicle damages in crashes, crash time, and crash location are significantly associated with driver incapacitating injuries and fatalities. These findings provide insights for better understanding rollover crash causes and the impacts of various explanatory factors on driver injury severity patterns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Intratracheal Instillation of High Dose Adenoviral Vectors Is Sufficient to Induce Lung Injury and Fibrosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiyuan; Chen, Tianji; Bozkanat, Melike; Ibe, Joyce Christina F.; Christman, John W.; Raj, J. Usha; Zhou, Guofei

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Replication deficient adenoviruses (Ad) vectors are common tools in gene therapy. Since Ad vectors are known to activate innate and adaptive immunity, we investigated whether intratracheal administration of Ad vectors alone is sufficient to induce lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis. Methods We instilled Ad viruses ranging from 107 to 1.625×109 ifu/mouse as well as the same volume of PBS and bleomycin. 14 and 21 days after administration, we collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and mouse lung tissues. We measured the protein concentration, total and differential cell counts, and TGF-β1 production, performed Trichrome staining and Sircol assay, determined gene and protein levels of profibrotic cytokines, MMPs, and Wnt signaling proteins, and conducted TUNEL staining and co-immunofluorescence for GFP and α-SMA staining. Results Instillation of high dose Ad vectors (1.625×109 ifu/mouse) into mouse lungs induced high levels of protein content, inflammatory cells, and TGF-β1 in BALF, comparable to those in bleomycin-instilled lungs. The collagen content and mRNA levels of Col1a1, Col1a2, PCNA, and α-SMA were also increased in the lungs. Instillation of both bleomycin and Ad vectors increased expression levels of TNFα and IL-1β but not IL-10. Instillation of bleomycin but not Ad increased the expression of IL-1α, IL-13 and IL-16. Treatment with bleomycin or Ad vectors increased expression levels of integrin α1, α5, and αv, MMP9, whereas treatment with bleomycin but not Ad vectors induced MMP2 expression levels. Both bleomycin and Ad vectors induced mRNA levels of Wnt2, 2b, 5b, and Lrp6. Intratracheal instillation of Ad viruses also induced DNA damages and Ad viral infection-mediated fibrosis is not limited to the infection sites. Conclusions Our results suggest that administration of Ad vectors induces an inflammatory response, lung injury, and pulmonary fibrosis in a dose dependent manner. PMID:25551570

  12. BDNF and NT-3 expression by using glucocorticoid-induced bicistronic expression vector pGC-BDNF-IRES-NT3 protects apoptotic cells in a cellular injury model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongxiang; Gu, Jiaxiang; Wang, Jingcheng; Feng, Xingmin; Tao, Yuping; Jiang, Baichuan; He, Jinshan; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Jiandong; Zhang, Shenfei; Cai, Jun; Sun, Yu

    2012-04-11

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe traumatic disease in the central nervous system with high incidence and high morbidity. Recent study demonstrated that cell transplantation therapy may improve local microenvironment of the injury site and promote nerve regeneration to restore spinal cord functions. In this study, we constructed a glucocorticoid-induced bicistronic eukaryotic expression vector pGC-BDNF-IRES-NT3 by using molecular cloning techniques and examined the protective effect of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expressed by this vector in a rat spinal cord injury (SCI) model. We first connected glucocorticoid response element (GRE) to cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter and then the GRE-CMV gene was inserted into pEGFP-1 vector to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pGC-EGFP. Western blot analysis was used to confirm the expression of EGFP by transfecting this vector in RN-DSC cells. The IRES was used to connect BDNF gene and NT-3 gene and replaced the EGFP gene in pGC-EGFP plasmid to form the bicistronic expression vector-pGC-BDNF-IRES-NT3. After RN-DSC cells were transfected with the plasmid and treated with glucocorticoid, BDNF and NT-3 expression in the culture medium were measured by ELISA method. Finally, we found that combination therapy with the transfection of this vector and glucocorticoid had an anti-apoptotic effect in a cellular SCI model of RN-DSC cells. Therefore, the co-expression of BDNF and NT-3 by using this vector rescued the injured cells. This provided useful information for the gene-modification cell transplantation combined with glucocorticoid for the treatment of SCI.

  13. Schwann cells transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding Fgf-2 promote motor neuron regeneration following sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Allodi, Ilary; Mecollari, Vasil; González-Pérez, Francisco; Eggers, Ruben; Hoyng, Stefan; Verhaagen, Joost; Navarro, Xavier; Udina, Esther

    2014-10-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is a trophic factor expressed by glial cells and different neuronal populations. Addition of FGF-2 to spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explants demonstrated that FGF-2 specifically increases motor neuron axonal growth. To further explore the potential capability of FGF-2 to promote axon regeneration, we produced a lentiviral vector (LV) to overexpress FGF-2 (LV-FGF2) in the injured rat peripheral nerve. Cultured Schwann cells transduced with FGF-2 and added to collagen matrix embedding spinal cord or DRG explants significantly increased motor but not sensory neurite outgrowth. LV-FGF2 was as effective as direct addition of the trophic factor to promote motor axon growth in vitro. Direct injection of LV-FGF2 into the rat sciatic nerve resulted in increased expression of FGF-2, which was localized in the basal lamina of Schwann cells. To investigate the in vivo effect of FGF-2 overexpression on axonal regeneration after nerve injury, Schwann cells transduced with LV-FGF2 were grafted in a silicone tube used to repair the resected rat sciatic nerve. Electrophysiological tests conducted for up to 2 months after injury revealed accelerated and more marked reinnervation of hindlimb muscles in the animals treated with LV-FGF2, with an increase in the number of motor and sensory neurons that reached the distal tibial nerve at the end of follow-up. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Morphological changes in different populations of bladder afferent neurons detected by herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors with cell-type-specific promoters in mice with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Nobutaka; Doyal, Mark F; Goins, William F; Kadekawa, Katsumi; Wada, Naoki; Kanai, Anthony J; de Groat, William C; Hirayama, Akihide; Uemura, Hirotsugu; Glorioso, Joseph C; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2017-09-20

    Functional and morphological changes in C-fiber bladder afferent pathways are reportedly involved in neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) after spinal cord injury (SCI). This study examined the morphological changes in different populations of bladder afferent neurons after SCI using replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors encoding the mCherry reporter driven by neuronal cell-type-specific promoters. Spinal intact (SI) and SCI mice were injected into the bladder wall with HSV mCherry vectors driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, CGRP promoter, TRPV1 promoter or neurofilament 200 (NF200) promoter. Two weeks after vector inoculation into the bladder wall, L1 and L6 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were removed bilaterally for immunofluorescent staining using anti-mCherry antibody. The number of CMV promoter vector-labeled neurons was not altered after SCI. The number of CGRP and TRPV1 promoter vector-labeled neurons was significantly increased whereas the number of NF200 vector-labeled neurons was decreased in L6 DRG after SCI. The median size of CGRP promoter-labeled C-fiber neurons was increased from 247.0 in SI mice to 271.3μm(2) in SCI mice whereas the median cell size of TRPV1 promoter vector-labeled neurons was decreased from 245.2 in SI mice to 216.5μm(2) in SCI mice. CGRP and TRPV1 mRNA levels of laser-captured bladder afferent neurons labeled with Fast Blue were significantly increased in SCI mice compared to SI mice. Thus, using a novel HSV vector-mediated neuronal labeling technique, we found that SCI induces expansion of the CGRP- and TRPV1-expressing C-fiber cell population, which could contribute to C-fiber afferent hyperexcitability and NDO after SCI. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The promotion of functional recovery and nerve regeneration after spinal cord injury by lentiviral vectors encoding Lingo-1 shRNA delivered by Pluronic F-127.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong-Fu; Cen, Jing-Sheng; Zhong, Qian; Chen, Luming; Wang, Jue; Deng, David Y B; Wan, Yong

    2013-02-01

    Lingo-1 is selectively expressed on both oligodendrocytes and neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and serves as a key negative regulator of nerve regeneration, implying a therapeutic target for spinal cord injury (SCI). Here we described a strategy to knock-down Lingo-1 expression in vivo using lentiviral vectors encoding Lingo-1 short harpin interfering RNA (shRNA) delivered by Pluronic F-127 (PF-127) gel, a non-cytotoxic scaffold and gene delivery carrier, after the complete transection of the T10 spinal cord in adult rats. We showed administration of PF-127 encapsulating Lingo-1 shRNA lentiviral vectors efficiently down-regulated the expression of Lingo-1, and exhibited transduction efficiency comparable to using vectors alone in oligodendrocyte culture in vitro. Furthermore, similar silencing effects and higher transfection efficiency were observed in vivo when Lingo-1 shRNA was co-delivered to the injured site by PF-127 gel with lower viral concentrations. Cografting of gel and Lingo-1 RNAi significantly promoted functional recovery and nerve regeneration, enhanced neurite outgrowth and synapses formation, preserved myelinated axons, and induced the proliferation of glial cells. In addition, the combined implantation also improved neuronal survival and inhibited cell apoptosis, which may be associated with the attenuation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress after SCI. Together, our data indicated that delivering Lingo-1 shRNA by gel scaffold was a valuable treatment approach to SCI and PF-127 delivery of viral vectors to the spinal cord may provide strategy to study and develop therapies for SCI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Imaging grafted cells with [18F]FHBG using an optimized HSV1-TK mammalian expression vector in a brain injury rodent model.

    PubMed

    Salabert, Anne-Sophie; Vaysse, Laurence; Beaurain, Marie; Alonso, Mathieu; Arribarat, Germain; Lotterie, Jean-Albert; Loubinoux, Isabelle; Tafani, Mathieu; Payoux, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Cell transplantation is an innovative therapeutic approach after brain injury to compensate for tissue damage. To have real-time longitudinal monitoring of intracerebrally grafted cells, we explored the feasibility of a molecular imaging approach using thymidine kinase HSV1-TK gene encoding and [18F]FHBG as a reporter probe to image enzyme expression. A stable neuronal cell line expressing HSV1-TK was developed with an optimised mammalian expression vector to ensure long-term transgene expression. After [18F]FHBG incubation under defined parameters, calibration ranges from 1 X 104 to 3 X 106 Neuro2A-TK cells were analysed by gamma counter or by PET-camera. In parallel, grafting with different quantities of [18F]FHBG prelabelled Neuro2A-TK cells was carried out in a rat brain injury model induced by stereotaxic injection of malonate toxin. Image acquisition of the rats was then performed with PET/CT camera to study the [18F]FHBG signal of transplanted cells in vivo. Under the optimised incubation conditions, [18F]FHBG cell uptake rate was around 2.52%. In-vitro calibration range analysis shows a clear linear correlation between the number of cells and the signal intensity. The PET signal emitted into rat brain correlated well with the number of cells injected and the number of surviving grafted cells was recorded via the in-vitro calibration range. PET/CT acquisitions also allowed validation of the stereotaxic injection procedure. Technique sensitivity was evaluated under 5 X 104 grafted cells in vivo. No [18F]FHBG or [18F]metabolite release was observed showing a stable cell uptake even 2 h post-graft. The development of this kind of approach will allow grafting to be controlled and ensure longitudinal follow-up of cell viability and biodistribution after intracerebral injection.

  17. Cloning vector

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, R.A.; Smith, L.M.

    1994-12-27

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site. 2 figures.

  18. Cloning vector

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site.

  19. Equivalent Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The cross-product is a mathematical operation that is performed between two 3-dimensional vectors. The result is a vector that is orthogonal or perpendicular to both of them. Learning about this for the first time while taking Calculus-III, the class was taught that if AxB = AxC, it does not necessarily follow that B = C. This seemed baffling. The…

  20. Vector quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    During the past ten years Vector Quantization (VQ) has developed from a theoretical possibility promised by Shannon's source coding theorems into a powerful and competitive technique for speech and image coding and compression at medium to low bit rates. In this survey, the basic ideas behind the design of vector quantizers are sketched and some comments made on the state-of-the-art and current research efforts.

  1. Vector carpets

    SciTech Connect

    Dovey, D.

    1995-03-22

    Previous papers have described a general method for visualizing vector fields that involves drawing many small ``glyphs`` to represent the field. This paper shows how to improve the speed of the algorithm by utilizing hardware support for line drawing and extends the technique from regular to unstructured grids. The new approach can be used to visualize vector fields at arbitrary surfaces within regular and unstructured grids. Applications of the algorithm include interactive visualization of transient electromagnetic fields and visualization of velocity fields in fluid flow problems.

  2. Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, E.

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears…

  3. Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, E.

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears…

  4. Light axial vector mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kan; Pang, Cheng-Qun; Liu, Xiang; Matsuki, Takayuki

    2015-04-01

    Inspired by the abundant experimental observation of axial-vector states, we study whether the observed axial-vector states can be categorized into the conventional axial-vector meson family. In this paper we carry out an analysis based on the mass spectra and two-body Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-allowed decays. Besides testing the possible axial-vector meson assignments, we also predict abundant information for their decays and the properties of some missing axial-vector mesons, which are valuable for further experimental exploration of the observed and predicted axial-vector mesons.

  5. Reduced Vector Preisach Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Umesh D.; Torre, Edward Della; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new vector Preisach model, called the Reduced Vector Preisach model (RVPM), was developed for fast computations. This model, derived from the Simplified Vector Preisach model (SVPM), has individual components that like the SVPM are calculated independently using coupled selection rules for the state vector computation. However, the RVPM does not require the rotational correction. Therefore, it provides a practical alternative for computing the magnetic susceptibility using a differential approach. A vector version, using the framework of the DOK model, is implemented. Simulation results for the reduced vector Preisach model are also presented.

  6. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Often, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  7. Back Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... extending from your neck to your pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, ... back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains ...

  8. Understanding Singular Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David; Botteron, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    matrix yields a surprisingly simple, heuristical approximation to its singular vectors. There are correspondingly good approximations to the singular values. Such rules of thumb provide an intuitive interpretation of the singular vectors that helps explain why the SVD is so…

  9. Understanding Singular Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David; Botteron, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    matrix yields a surprisingly simple, heuristical approximation to its singular vectors. There are correspondingly good approximations to the singular values. Such rules of thumb provide an intuitive interpretation of the singular vectors that helps explain why the SVD is so…

  10. Insulated Foamy Viral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Diana L.; Collins, Casey P.; Hocum, Jonah D.; Leap, David J.; Rae, Dustin T.; Trobridge, Grant D.

    2016-01-01

    Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34+ cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. PMID:26715244

  11. Restart 68000 vector remapping

    SciTech Connect

    Gustin, J.

    1984-05-03

    The circuit described allows power-on-reset (POR) vector fetch from ROM for a 68000 microprocessor. It offers programmability of exception vectors, including the restart vector. This method eliminates the need for high-resolution, address-decoder peripheral circuitry.

  12. Rhotrix Vector Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aminu, Abdulhadi

    2010-01-01

    By rhotrix we understand an object that lies in some way between (n x n)-dimensional matrices and (2n - 1) x (2n - 1)-dimensional matrices. Representation of vectors in rhotrices is different from the representation of vectors in matrices. A number of vector spaces in matrices and their properties are known. On the other hand, little seems to be…

  13. Rhotrix Vector Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aminu, Abdulhadi

    2010-01-01

    By rhotrix we understand an object that lies in some way between (n x n)-dimensional matrices and (2n - 1) x (2n - 1)-dimensional matrices. Representation of vectors in rhotrices is different from the representation of vectors in matrices. A number of vector spaces in matrices and their properties are known. On the other hand, little seems to be…

  14. Insulated Foamy Viral Vectors.

    PubMed

    Browning, Diana L; Collins, Casey P; Hocum, Jonah D; Leap, David J; Rae, Dustin T; Trobridge, Grant D

    2016-03-01

    Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34(+) cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy.

  15. Covariantized vector Galileons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Matthew; Koyama, Kazuya; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2016-03-01

    Vector Galileons are ghost-free systems containing higher derivative interactions of vector fields. They break the vector gauge symmetry, and the dynamics of the longitudinal vector polarizations acquire a Galileon symmetry in an appropriate decoupling limit in Minkowski space. Using an Arnowitt-Deser-Misner approach, we carefully reconsider the coupling with gravity of vector Galileons, with the aim of studying the necessary conditions to avoid the propagation of ghosts. We develop arguments that put on a more solid footing the results previously obtained in the literature. Moreover, working in analogy with the scalar counterpart, we find indications for the existence of a "beyond Horndeski" theory involving vector degrees of freedom that avoids the propagation of ghosts thanks to secondary constraints. In addition, we analyze a Higgs mechanism for generating vector Galileons through spontaneous symmetry breaking, and we present its consistent covariantization.

  16. Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Haiti

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    The elderly and children are most susceptible to infection. VECTOR TRANSMISSION: Primary Vectors: Culex nigripalpus , Aedes taeniorhynchus VECTOR...BIONOMICS: Culex nigripalpus breeds in a broad variety of aquatic habitats including lakes, temporary pools, epiphytic plants, brackish water, and...disease. VECTOR TRANSMISSION: Primary Vectors: Culex quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus ; both species are primary vectors in the U.S., and both

  17. Index Sets and Vectorization

    SciTech Connect

    Keasler, J A

    2012-03-27

    Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.

  18. Molecular neurosurgery: vectors and vector delivery strategies.

    PubMed

    White, Edward

    2012-12-01

    Molecular neurosurgery involves the use of vector-mediated gene therapy and gene knockdown to manipulate in vivo gene expression for the treatment of neurological diseases. These techniques have the potential to revolutionise the practice of neurosurgery. However, significant challenges remain to be overcome before these techniques enter routine clinical practice. These challenges have been the subject of intensive research in recent years and include the development of strategies to facilitate effective vector delivery to the brain and the development of both viral and non-viral vectors that are capable of efficient cell transduction without excessive toxicity. This review provides an update on the practice of molecular neurosurgery with particular focus on the practical neurosurgical aspects of vector delivery to the brain. In addition, an introduction to the key vectors employed in clinical trials and a brief overview of previous gene therapy clinical trials is provided. Finally, key areas for future research aimed at increasing the likelihood of the successful translation of gene therapy into clinical trials are highlighted.

  19. Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  20. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  1. Hamstring injuries.

    PubMed

    Ropiak, Christopher R; Bosco, Joseph A

    2012-01-01

    Hamstring injuries are a frequent injury in athletes. Proximal injuries are common, ranging from strain to complete tear. Strains are managed nonoperatively, with rest followed by progressive stretching and strengthening. Reinjury is a concern. High grade complete tears are better managed surgically, with reattachment to the injured tendon or ischial tuberosity. Distal hamstring injury is usually associated with other knee injuries, and isolated injury is rare.

  2. Rugby injuries.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Andrew S

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to review critically the existing studies on the epidemiology of pediatric rugby injuries and discuss suggestions for injury prevention and further research. Data were sourced from the sports medicine and science literature mainly since 1990, and from a prospective injury surveillance project in rugby undertaken by the University of New South Wales (UNSW) in Sydney during 2002. Literature searches were performed using Medline and SportsDiscus. Reported injury rates were between 7 and 18 injuries per 1,000 hours played, with the rate of injuries resulting in loss of playing or training time measured at 6.5-10.6 per 1,000 hours played. Injury rates increased with age and level of qualification. Head injury and concussion accounted for 10-40% of all injuries. In the UNSW study, concussion accounted for 25% of injuries resulting in loss of playing or training time in the under 13 year age group. Upper and lower extremity injuries were equally apportioned, with musculoskeletal injuries being the main type of injury. Fractures were observed in the upper extremity and ankle, and joint/ligament injuries affected the shoulder, knee and ankle. The tackle was associated with around 50% of all injuries. The scrum produced fewer injuries, but is historically associated with spinal cord injury. Rugby is a contact sport with injury risks related to physical contact, primarily in the tackle. Most injuries affect the musculoskeletal system, with the exception of concussion. Spinal cord injury is rare, but catastrophic. Research is required to understand better injury risks and to reduce the incidence of shoulder, knee and ankle joint injuries, concussion and spinal injury.

  3. Viral Vector Production: Adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Julius W; Morshed, Ramin A; Kane, J Robert; Auffinger, Brenda; Qiao, Jian; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviral vectors have proven to be valuable resources in the development of novel therapies aimed at targeting pathological conditions of the central nervous system, including Alzheimer's disease and neoplastic brain lesions. Not only can some genetically engineered adenoviral vectors achieve remarkably efficient and specific gene delivery to target cells, but they also may act as anticancer agents by selectively replicating within cancer cells.Due to the great interest in using adenoviral vectors for various purposes, the need for a comprehensive protocol for viral vector production is especially apparent. Here, we describe the process of generating an adenoviral vector in its entirety, including the more complex process of adenoviral fiber modification to restrict viral tropism in order to achieve more efficient and specific gene delivery.

  4. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James M.; Leighton, James F.

    1990-01-01

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  5. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1988-02-05

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

  6. Line Integral of a Vector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balabanian, Norman

    This programed booklet is designed for the engineering student who understands and can use vector and unit vector notation, components of a vector, parallel law of vector addition, and the dot product of two vectors. Content begins with work done by a force in moving a body a certain distance along some path. For each of the examples and problem…

  7. Gene delivery with viral vectors for cerebrovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Gan, Yu; Jing, Zheng; Stetler, Ruth Anne; Cao, Guodong

    2013-01-01

    Recent achievements in the understanding of molecular events involved in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) injury have made gene transfer a promising approach for various neurological disorders, including cerebrovascular diseases. However, special obstacles, including the post-mitotic nature of neurons and the blood-brain barrier (BBB), constitute key challenges for gene delivery to the CNS. Despite the various limitations in current gene delivery systems, a spectrum of viral vectors has been successfully used to deliver genes to the CNS. Furthermore, recent advancements in vector engineering have improved the safety and delivery of viral vectors. Numerous viral vector-based clinical trials for neurological disorders have been initiated. This review will summarize the current implementation of viral gene delivery in the context of cerebrovascular diseases including ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In particular, we will discuss the potentially feasible ways in which viral vectors can be manipulated and exploited for use in neural delivery and therapy.

  8. Baculovirus Transfer Vectors.

    PubMed

    Possee, Robert D; King, Linda A

    2016-01-01

    The production of a recombinant baculovirus expression vector normally involves mixing infectious virus DNA with a plasmid-based transfer vector and then co-transfecting insect cells to initiate virus infection. The aim of this chapter is to provide an update on the range of baculovirus transfer vectors currently available. Some of the original transfer vectors developed are now difficult to obtain but generally have been replaced by superior reagents. We focus on those that are available commercially and should be easy to locate. These vectors permit the insertion of single or multiple genes for expression, or the production of proteins with specific peptide tags that aid subsequent protein purification. Others have signal peptide coding regions permitting protein secretion or plasma membrane localization. A table listing the transfer vectors also includes information on the parental virus that should be used with each one. Methods are described for the direct insertion of a recombinant gene into the virus genome without the requirement for a transfer vector. The information provided should enable new users of the system to choose those reagents most suitable for their purposes.

  9. Autonomous parvovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Ian H; Terrell, Kristina L; Maxwell, Françoise

    2002-10-01

    Parvoviruses are small, icosahedral viruses (approximately 25 nm) containing a single-strand DNA genome (approximately 5 kb) with hairpin termini. Autonomous parvoviruses (APVs) are found in many species; they do not require a helper virus for replication but they do require proliferating cells (S-phase functions) and, in some cases, tissue-specific factors. APVs can protect animals from spontaneous or experimental tumors, leading to consideration of these viruses, and vectors derived from them, as anticancer agents. Vector development has focused on three rodent APVs that can infect human cells, namely, LuIII, MVM, and H1. LuIII-based vectors with complete replacement of the viral coding sequences can direct transient or persistent expression of transgenes in cell culture. MVM-based and H1-based vectors with substitution of transgenes for the viral capsid sequences retain viral nonstructural (NS) coding sequences and express the NS1 protein. The latter serves to amplify the vector genome in target cells, potentially contributing to antitumor activity. APV vectors have packaging capacity for foreign DNA of approximately 4.8 kb, a limit that probably cannot be exceeded by more than a few percent. LuIII vectors can be pseudotyped with capsid proteins from related APVs, a promising strategy for controlling tissue tropism and circumventing immune responses to repeated administration. Initial success has been achieved in targeting such a pseudotyped vector by genetic modification of the capsid. Subject to advances in production and purification methods, APV vectors have potential as gene transfer agents for experimental and therapeutic use, particularly for cancer therapy. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  10. Null Killing vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukács, B.; Perjés, Z.; Sebestyén, Á.

    1981-06-01

    Space-times admitting a null Killing vector are studied, using the Newman-Penrose spin coefficient formalism. The properties of the eigenrays (principal null curves of the Killing bivector) are shown to be related to the twist of the null Killing vector. Among the electrovacs, the ones containing a null Maxwell field turn out to belong to the twist-free class. An electrovac solution is obtained for which the null Killing vector is twisting and has geodesic and shear-free eigenrays. This solution is parameterless and appears to be the field of a zero-mass, spinning, and charged source.

  11. The Vector Decomposition Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Maki; Mitsunari, Shigeo; Fujiwara, Toru

    This paper introduces a new computational problem on a two-dimensional vector space, called the vector decomposition problem (VDP), which is mainly defined for designing cryptosystems using pairings on elliptic curves. We first show a relation between the VDP and the computational Diffie-Hellman problem (CDH). Specifically, we present a sufficient condition for the VDP on a two-dimensional vector space to be at least as hard as the CDH on a one-dimensional subspace. We also present a sufficient condition for the VDP with a fixed basis to have a trapdoor. We then give an example of vector spaces which satisfy both sufficient conditions and on which the CDH is assumed to be hard in previous work. In this sense, the intractability of the VDP is a reasonable assumption as that of the CDH.

  12. Targeted adenoviral vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Joanne T.

    The practical implementation of gene therapy in the clinical setting mandates gene delivery vehicles, or vectors, capable of efficient gene delivery selectively to the target disease cells. The utility of adenoviral vectors for gene therapy is restricted by their dependence on the native adenoviral primary cellular receptor for cell entry. Therefore, a number of strategies have been developed to allow CAR-independent infection of specific cell types, including the use of bispecific conjugates and genetic modifications to the adenoviral capsid proteins, in particular the fibre protein. These targeted adenoviral vectors have demonstrated efficient gene transfer in vitro , correlating with a therapeutic benefit in preclinical animal models. Such vectors are predicted to possess enhanced efficacy in human clinical studies, although anatomical barriers to their use must be circumvented.

  13. Vector inflation and vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.M. )

    1991-09-15

    A vector field {ital A}{sub {mu}} is coupled to the Einstein equations with a linearly perturbed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric, constructed to generate first-order vector perturbations. A working classical chaotic vector inflation is demonstrated and then quantum fluctuations of the field are used to constrain the cosmological perturbations. In particular, the vector momentum flux {ital T}{sub 0{ital i}} is tracked to the epoch where radiation-dominated matter exists. Matching conditions using observational constraints of the cosmic microwave background radiation give rise to a peculiar cosmological velocity of the order of 10{sup {minus}100}{ital c}. Amplification of this number, e.g., by breaking the conformal invariance of the field, could be used to generate cosmic magnetic fields using a dynamo mechanism.

  14. Snowboard injuries.

    PubMed

    Pino, E C; Colville, M R

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective survey of 267 snowboarders was undertaken to determine the population at risk and types and mechanisms of injuries sustained in this sport. Snowboarders are young (average age, 21 years), male (greater than 90%), view themselves in average or above average physical condition (96%), and have varied sports interests. One hundred ten injuries that resulted in a physician visit were reported. Ligament sprains, fractures, and contusions were the most frequent types of injury. Fifty percent of all injuries occurred in the lower extremities, with ankle injuries being the most common. Snowboard riders using equipment with increased ankle support seem to be more protected from lower extremity injuries. The lower extremity injuries were concentrated in the forward limb of the snowboarder, where the rider's weight is disproportionately distributed. Differences in the mechanism and spectrum of injury between snowboarding and skiing injuries were noted, including: impact rather than torsion as the major mechanism of injury, a significant lack of thumb injuries, comparative increase in ankle injuries, a decrease in knee injuries, and a higher percentage of upper extremity injuries.

  15. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Shuttle vectors.

    PubMed

    Gnügge, Robert; Rudolf, Fabian

    2017-01-10

    Yeast shuttle vectors are indispensable tools in yeast research. They enable cloning of defined DNA sequences in Escherichia coli and their direct transfer into Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. There are three types of commonly used yeast shuttle vectors: centromeric plasmids, episomal plasmids and integrating plasmids. In this review, we discuss the different plasmid systems and their characteristic features. We focus on their segregational stability and copy number and indicate how to modify these properties. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Poynting-vector filter

    DOEpatents

    Carrigan, Charles R [Tracy, CA

    2011-08-02

    A determination is made of frequency components associated with a particular bearing or location resulting from sources emitting electromagnetic-wave energy for which a Poynting-Vector can be defined. The broadband frequency components associated with a specific direction or location of interest are isolated from other components in the power spectrum that are not associated with the direction or location of interest. The collection of pointing vectors can be used to characterize the source.

  17. Bloch vector projection noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Li-Jun; Bacon, A. M.; Zhao, H.-Z.; Thomas, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    In the optical measurement of the Bloch vector components describing a system of N two-level atoms, the quantum fluctuations in these components are coupled into the measuring optical field. This paper develops the quantum theory of optical measurement of Bloch vector projection noise. The preparation and probing of coherence in an effective two-level system consisting of the two ground states in an atomic three-level lambda-scheme are analyzed.

  18. Snowboarding injuries.

    PubMed

    Sachtleben, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    Snowboarding has gained immense popularity during the past 30 years and continues to appeal to many young participants. Injury patterns and characteristics of injuries seen commonly in snowboarders have rapidly evolved during this time. Risk factors have emerged, and various methods of reducing injuries to snowboarders have been investigated. It is important that medical providers are knowledgeable about this growing sport and are prepared to adequately evaluate and treat snowboarding injuries. This article will review the issues and discuss diagnostic and treatment principles regarding injuries seen commonly in snowboarders. Injury prevention should be emphasized, particularly with young riders and beginners.

  19. Syngeneic AAV pseudo-vectors potentiates full vector transduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An excessive amount of empty capsids are generated during regular AAV vector production process. These pseudo-vectors often remain in final vectors used for animal studies or clinical trials. The potential effects of these pseudo-vectors on AAV transduction have been a major concern. In the current ...

  20. Skateboard injuries.

    PubMed

    Cass, D T; Ross, F

    1990-08-06

    The recent increase in skateboard injuries is causing concern. Over a 30-month period there were 80 admissions (69 children) to Westmead Hospital because of skateboard injuries. Among children most injuries were minor, involving fractures to the upper limbs (47) or minor head injuries (8). The only serious injuries were a ruptured urethra and a closed head injury. Over the same time period skateboard riding caused five deaths in New South Wales. These all involved head injuries and in four instances collisions with cars. The data strongly support other studies that show skateboard riding is particularly dangerous near traffic and should be proscribed. However, in parkland and around the home the skateboard is an enjoyable toy with an acceptable risk of minor injury. Helmets should be worn and would have prevented all the head injury admissions in this series. Children under 10 have a higher risk of fractures and head injuries due to insufficient motor development to control the boards and the resultant falls. Skateboard injuries are an example of injuries caused by a "fad epidemic". To cope with these types of periodic events up-to-date data collection is needed, followed rapidly by an intervention programme so that serious injuries can be kept to a minimum.

  1. Knee Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... your knee, like keeping it from bending outward. anterior cruciate ligament (ACL): The ACL connects your femur to your ... Injuries Sports and Exercise Safety Osgood-Schlatter Disease Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries Bones, Muscles, and Joints Meniscus Tears ...

  2. Birth Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Up to Date Additional Content Medical News Birth Injury By Arthur E. Kopelman, MD, Professor of ... Problems in Newborns Overview of Problems in Newborns Birth Injury Prematurity Postmaturity Small for Gestational Age (SGA) ...

  3. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

  4. Corneal injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... as sand or dust Ultraviolet injuries: Caused by sunlight, sun lamps, snow or water reflections, or arc- ... a corneal injury if you: Are exposed to sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light for long periods of ...

  5. Urethral Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Related Injuries (Video) Rotator Cuff Injury (News) Violent Video Games May Not 'Desensitize' Players, Brain Scans ... Comfort Am I Correct? More Videos News HealthDay Violent Video Games May Not 'Desensitize' Players, Brain Scans ...

  6. Cycling injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    Bicycle-related injuries have increased as cycling has become more popular. Most injuries to recreational riders are associated with overuse or improper fit of the bicycle. Injuries to racers often result from high speeds, which predispose riders to muscle strains, collisions, and falls. Cyclists contact bicycles at the pedals, seat, and handlebars. Each is associated with particular cycling injuries. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8471908

  7. Vector and Axial Vector Pion Form Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitz, Michael; PEN Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Radiative pion decay π+ -->e+ νγ (RPD) provides critical input to chiral perturbation theory (χPT). Aside from the uninteresting ``inner bremsstrahlung'' contribution from QED, the RPD rate contains ``structure dependent'' terms given by FV and FA, the vector and axial-vector pion form factors, respectively. The two appear in the decay rate in combinations FV -FA and FV +FA , i.e., in the so-called SD- and SD+ terms, respectively. The latter has been measured to high precision by the PIBETA collaboration. We report on the analysis of new data, measured by the PEN collaboration in runs between 2008 and 2010 at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland. We particularly focus on the possibility of improvement in the determination of the SD- term. Precise determinations of FV and FA test the validity of the CVC hypothesis, provide numerical input for the l9 +l10 terms in the χPT lagrangian, and constrain potential non-(V - A) terms, such as a possible tensor term FT. NSF grants PHY-0970013, 1307328, and others.

  8. Bunyavirus-vector interactions.

    PubMed

    Beaty, B J; Bishop, D H

    1988-06-01

    Recent advances in the genetics and molecular biology of bunyaviruses have been applied to understanding bunyavirus-vector interactions. Such approaches have revealed which virus gene and gene products are important in establishing infections in vectors and in transmission of viruses. However, much more information is required to understand the molecular mechanisms of persistent infections of vectors which are lifelong but apparently exert no untoward effect. In fact, it seems remarkable that LAC viral antigen can be detected in almost every cell in an ovarian follicle, yet no untoward effect on fecundity and no teratology is seen. Similarly the lifelong infection of the vector would seem to provide ample opportunity for bunyavirus evolution by genetic drift and, under the appropriate circumstances, by segment reassortment. The potential for bunyavirus evolution by segment reassortment in vectors certainly exists. For example the Group C viruses in a small forest in Brazil seem to constitute a gene pool, with the 6 viruses related alternately by HI/NT and CF reactions, which assay respectively M RNA and S RNA gene products (Casals and Whitman, 1960; Shope and Causey, 1962). Direct evidence for naturally occurring reassortant bunyaviruses has also been obtained. Oligonucleotide fingerprint analyses of field isolates of LAC virus and members of the Patois serogroup of bunyaviruses have demonstrated that reassortment does occur in nature (El Said et al., 1979; Klimas et al., 1981; Ushijima et al., 1981). Determination of the genotypic frequencies of viruses selected by the biological interactions of viruses and vectors after dual infection and segment reassortment is an important issue. Should a virus result that efficiently interacts with alternate vector species, the virus could be expressed in different circumstances with serious epidemiologic consequences. Dual infection of vectors with different viruses is not unlikely, because many bunyaviruses are sympatric in

  9. Skateboard injuries

    PubMed Central

    Christian, M. Sheila; Khan, O.

    1980-01-01

    One hundred and nineteen cases of injuries sustained by skateboard users are reviewed. A significant proportion of the injuries sustained were fractures. The absence of adequate protective measures was noted. A decrease in the popularity of the sport, as judged by the annual incidence of skateboard injuries, is apparent in this series. Imagesp102-ap102-b PMID:7407446

  10. Orienteering injuries

    PubMed Central

    Folan, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering. Imagesp236-ap237-ap237-bp238-ap239-ap240-a PMID:7159815

  11. Scalable motion vector coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbarien, Joeri; Munteanu, Adrian; Verdicchio, Fabio; Andreopoulos, Yiannis; Cornelis, Jan P.; Schelkens, Peter

    2004-11-01

    Modern video coding applications require transmission of video data over variable-bandwidth channels to a variety of terminals with different screen resolutions and available computational power. Scalable video coding is needed to optimally support these applications. Recently proposed wavelet-based video codecs employing spatial domain motion compensated temporal filtering (SDMCTF) provide quality, resolution and frame-rate scalability while delivering compression performance comparable to that of the state-of-the-art non-scalable H.264-codec. These codecs require scalable coding of the motion vectors in order to support a large range of bit-rates with optimal compression efficiency. Scalable motion vector coding algorithms based on the integer wavelet transform followed by embedded coding of the wavelet coefficients were recently proposed. In this paper, a new and fundamentally different scalable motion vector codec (MVC) using median-based motion vector prediction is proposed. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed MVC systematically outperforms the wavelet-based state-of-the-art solutions. To be able to take advantage of the proposed scalable MVC, a rate allocation mechanism capable of optimally dividing the available rate among texture and motion information is required. Two rate allocation strategies are proposed and compared. The proposed MVC and rate allocation schemes are incorporated into an SDMCTF-based video codec and the benefits of scalable motion vector coding are experimentally demonstrated.

  12. Vector financial rogue waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhenya

    2011-11-01

    The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black-Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields.

  13. Waterbike injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, R S; Caiach, S

    1991-01-01

    Jet skiing is a rapidly growing sport. The craft incorporate safety features and the manufacturers issue detailed safety instructions. Racing is conducted with adequate attention to clothing, safety and insurance. However, casual use is widespread and is sometimes irresponsible. Serious injuries to riders are uncommon: dental and knee injuries are described. A case of renal contusion and a head injury were caused by other riders and two potentially fatal injuries illustrate the risk for other water users. The number of injuries associated with the use of personal watercraft is likely to increase and may be influenced by appropriate organization or regulation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1810620

  14. Scalar-vector bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejon-Barrera, Fernando; Robbins, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We work out all of the details required for implementation of the conformal bootstrap program applied to the four-point function of two scalars and two vectors in an abstract conformal field theory in arbitrary dimension. This includes a review of which tensor structures make appearances, a construction of the projectors onto the required mixed symmetry representations, and a computation of the conformal blocks for all possible operators which can be exchanged. These blocks are presented as differential operators acting upon the previously known scalar conformal blocks. Finally, we set up the bootstrap equations which implement crossing symmetry. Special attention is given to the case of conserved vectors, where several simplifications occur.

  15. Bunyavirus-Vector Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Kate McElroy; Vanlandingham, Dana L.

    2014-01-01

    The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. The viruses within the Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks, and their associated arthropods not only serve as vectors but also as virus reservoirs in many cases. This review presents an overview of several important emerging or re-emerging bunyaviruses and describes what is known about bunyavirus-vector interactions based on epidemiological, ultrastructural, and genetic studies of members of this virus family. PMID:25402172

  16. Bicycling injuries.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Marc R

    2013-01-01

    Bicycling injuries can be classified into bicycle contact, traumatic, and overuse injuries. Despite the popularity of cycling, there are few scientific studies regarding injuries. Epidemiological studies are difficult to compare due to different methodologies and the diverse population of cyclists studied. There are only three studies conducted on top level professionals. Ninety-four percent of professionals in 1 year have experienced at least one overuse injury. Most overuse injuries are mild with limited time off the bike. The most common site of overuse injury is the knee, and the most common site of traumatic injury is the shoulder, with the clavicle having the most common fracture. Many overuse and bicycle contact ailments are relieved with simple bike adjustments.

  17. Support vector machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garay, Michael J.; Mazzoni, Dominic; Davies, Roger; Wagstaff, Kiri

    2004-01-01

    Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are a type of supervised learning algorith,, other examples of which are Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Decision Trees, and Naive Bayesian Classifiers. Supervised learning algorithms are used to classify objects labled by a 'supervisor' - typically a human 'expert.'.

  18. Vectors Point Toward Pisa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Richard A.

    1971-01-01

    The author shows that the set of all sequences in which each term is the sum of the two previous terms forms a vector space of dimension two. He uses this result to obtain the formula for the Fibonacci sequence and applies the same technique to other linear recursive relations. (MM)

  19. Killing vectors and anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Krisch, J. P.; Glass, E. N.

    2009-08-15

    We consider an action that can generate fluids with three unequal stresses for metrics with a spacelike Killing vector. The parameters in the action are directly related to the stress anisotropies. The field equations following from the action are applied to an anisotropic cosmological expansion and an extension of the Gott-Hiscock cosmic string.

  20. Production of lentiviral vectors

    PubMed Central

    Merten, Otto-Wilhelm; Hebben, Matthias; Bovolenta, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors (LV) have seen considerably increase in use as gene therapy vectors for the treatment of acquired and inherited diseases. This review presents the state of the art of the production of these vectors with particular emphasis on their large-scale production for clinical purposes. In contrast to oncoretroviral vectors, which are produced using stable producer cell lines, clinical-grade LV are in most of the cases produced by transient transfection of 293 or 293T cells grown in cell factories. However, more recent developments, also, tend to use hollow fiber reactor, suspension culture processes, and the implementation of stable producer cell lines. As is customary for the biotech industry, rather sophisticated downstream processing protocols have been established to remove any undesirable process-derived contaminant, such as plasmid or host cell DNA or host cell proteins. This review compares published large-scale production and purification processes of LV and presents their process performances. Furthermore, developments in the domain of stable cell lines and their way to the use of production vehicles of clinical material will be presented. PMID:27110581

  1. The vector reflector.

    PubMed

    Citrin, D S

    2012-06-15

    A linearly polarized Bessel beam, whose spatial frequencies correspond to the Brewster angle, impinging at normal incidence on a higher refractive-index interface is shown to lead to a reflected field that can be used to produce an azimuthally polarized optical vector beam.

  2. LTR-vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Vande Woude, G.F.; McClements, W.L.; Oskarsson, M.K.; Blair, D.G.

    1981-07-01

    The patent application describes the production of vectors composed of portions of retrovirus, particularly of Moloney sarcoma virus DNA including the 'LTR' sequence which can activate genes and additional viral sequences which can 'rescue' these genes into a replicating virus particle.

  3. Support vector machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garay, Michael J.; Mazzoni, Dominic; Davies, Roger; Wagstaff, Kiri

    2004-01-01

    Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are a type of supervised learning algorith,, other examples of which are Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Decision Trees, and Naive Bayesian Classifiers. Supervised learning algorithms are used to classify objects labled by a 'supervisor' - typically a human 'expert.'.

  4. Designing plasmid vectors.

    PubMed

    Tolmachov, Oleg

    2009-01-01

    Nonviral gene therapy vectors are commonly based on recombinant bacterial plasmids or their derivatives. The plasmids are propagated in bacteria, so, in addition to their therapeutic cargo, they necessarily contain a bacterial replication origin and a selection marker, usually a gene conferring antibiotic resistance. Structural and maintenance plasmid stability in bacteria is required for the plasmid DNA production and can be achieved by carefully choosing a combination of the therapeutic DNA sequences, replication origin, selection marker, and bacterial strain. The use of appropriate promoters, other regulatory elements, and mammalian maintenance devices ensures that the therapeutic gene or genes are adequately expressed in target human cells. Optimal immune response to the plasmid vectors can be modulated via inclusion or exclusion of DNA sequences containing immunostimulatory CpG sequence motifs. DNA fragments facilitating construction of plasmid vectors should also be considered for inclusion in the design of plasmid vectors. Techniques relying on site-specific or homologous recombination are preferred for construction of large plasmids (>15 kb), while digestion of DNA by restriction enzymes with subsequent ligation of the resulting DNA fragments continues to be the mainstream approach for generation of small- and medium-size plasmids. Rapid selection of a desired recombinant plasmid against a background of other plasmids continues to be a challenge. In this chapter, the emphasis is placed on efficient and flexible versions of DNA cloning protocols using selection of recombinant plasmids by restriction endonucleases directly in the ligation mixture.

  5. Singular Vectors' Subtle Secrets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David; Lachance, Michael; Remski, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Social scientists use adjacency tables to discover influence networks within and among groups. Building on work by Moler and Morrison, we use ordered pairs from the components of the first and second singular vectors of adjacency matrices as tools to distinguish these groups and to identify particularly strong or weak individuals.

  6. What is a vector?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Anthony James; Morgan, Eric René; Booth, Mark; Norman, Rachel; Perkins, Sarah Elizabeth; Hauffe, Heidi Christine; Mideo, Nicole; Antonovics, Janis; McCallum, Hamish; Fenton, Andy

    2017-05-05

    Many important and rapidly emerging pathogens of humans, livestock and wildlife are 'vector-borne'. However, the term 'vector' has been applied to diverse agents in a broad range of epidemiological systems. In this perspective, we briefly review some common definitions, identify the strengths and weaknesses of each and consider the functional differences between vectors and other hosts from a range of ecological, evolutionary and public health perspectives. We then consider how the use of designations can afford insights into our understanding of epidemiological and evolutionary processes that are not otherwise apparent. We conclude that from a medical and veterinary perspective, a combination of the 'haematophagous arthropod' and 'mobility' definitions is most useful because it offers important insights into contact structure and control and emphasizes the opportunities for pathogen shifts among taxonomically similar species with similar feeding modes and internal environments. From a population dynamics and evolutionary perspective, we suggest that a combination of the 'micropredator' and 'sequential' definition is most appropriate because it captures the key aspects of transmission biology and fitness consequences for the pathogen and vector itself. However, we explicitly recognize that the value of a definition always depends on the research question under study.This article is part of the themed issue 'Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission'. © 2017 The Authors.

  7. Vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Gubler, D J

    2009-08-01

    Vector-borne diseases have been the scourge of man and animals since the beginning of time. Historically, these are the diseases that caused the great plagues such as the 'Black Death' in Europe in the 14th Century and the epidemics of yellow fever that plagued the development of the New World. Others, such as Nagana, contributed to the lack of development in Africa for many years. At the turn of the 20th Century, vector-borne diseases were among the most serious public and animal health problems in the world. For the most part, these diseases were controlled by the middle of the 20th Century through the application of knowledge about their natural history along with the judicious use of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and other residual insecticides to interrupt the transmission cycle between arthropod and vertebrate host. However, this success initiated a period of complacency in the 1960s and 1970s, which resulted in the redirection of resources away from prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. The 1970s was also a time in which there were major changes to public health policy. Global trends, combined with changes in animal husbandry, urbanisation, modern transportation and globalisation, have resulted in a global re-emergence of epidemic vector-borne diseases affecting both humans and animals over the past 30 years.

  8. Singular Vectors' Subtle Secrets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David; Lachance, Michael; Remski, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Social scientists use adjacency tables to discover influence networks within and among groups. Building on work by Moler and Morrison, we use ordered pairs from the components of the first and second singular vectors of adjacency matrices as tools to distinguish these groups and to identify particularly strong or weak individuals.

  9. Vector potential methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafez, M.

    1989-01-01

    Vector potential and related methods, for the simulation of both inviscid and viscous flows over aerodynamic configurations, are briefly reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of several formulations are discussed and alternate strategies are recommended. Scalar potential, modified potential, alternate formulations of Euler equations, least-squares formulation, variational principles, iterative techniques and related methods, and viscous flow simulation are discussed.

  10. Skiing Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    In the broad spectrum of orthopedic skiing injuries, ‘second aid’ on the mountain and at the base by the physician is very important. All skiing physicians should carry minimal medical supplies, including narcotic medication. Diagnosis and treatment of injuries at the hospital are outlined. Most ski fractures of the tibia can be treated by conservative methods. A more aggressive approach to diagnosis and treatment of ligamentous injuries of the knee is recommended. PMID:20469236

  11. Environmental injuries.

    PubMed

    Leikin, J B; Aks, S E; Andrews, S; Auerbach, P S; Cooper, M A; Jacobsen, T D; Krenzelok, E P; Shicker, L; Weiner, S L

    1997-12-01

    Environmental injuries and illnesses can happen in home, work, or recreational settings. The variety and severity of these injuries might require the clinician to call on skills from internal medicine, emergency medicine, and toxicology. Diseases of thermoregulation are hypothermia and hyperthermia. In each instance, treatment is based on the need to restore the patient's core temperature to normal and on monitoring for complications. The victim of a fire might suffer inhalation injury in addition to burns, and it is more likely that the inhalation injury will be fatal. Oxygen deprivation and inhalation of irritant or asphyxiant chemicals contribute to injury. Toxic plants can be the source of poisoning emergencies, especially in children. Misinformation and myths that surround common plants can create diagnostic problems (i.e., which plants really are toxic and require emergency measures). Venomous marine organisms can cause a wide range of injury, from cutaneous eruption to fatal envenomation. Most are encountered in a recreational setting, such as water sports, but keepers of home aquariums are subject to stings from venomous fish. Lightning injury can present many diagnostic and treatment dilemmas. An important point in this regard is that lightning injury and high-voltage electrical injury are different in pathology and require different approaches for treatment. A discussion of electrical, chemical, and thermal burns makes such differences apparent.

  12. Paragliding injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-01-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during starting procedures and nine during flight. The mean patient age was 29.6 years. There were 34.9% spinal injuries, 13.4% upper extremity injuries and 41.3% lower limb injuries. Over half of these injuries were treated surgically and in 54 instances permanent disability remained. In paragliding the lower extremities are at greatest risk of injury during landing. Proper equipment, especially sturdy footwear, exact training in landing techniques as well as improved instruction in procedures during aborted or crash landings is required to reduce the frequency of these injuries. Images p99-a p100-a p100-b p100-c PMID:1751899

  13. Paragliding injuries.

    PubMed

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-06-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during starting procedures and nine during flight. The mean patient age was 29.6 years. There were 34.9% spinal injuries, 13.4% upper extremity injuries and 41.3% lower limb injuries. Over half of these injuries were treated surgically and in 54 instances permanent disability remained. In paragliding the lower extremities are at greatest risk of injury during landing. Proper equipment, especially sturdy footwear, exact training in landing techniques as well as improved instruction in procedures during aborted or crash landings is required to reduce the frequency of these injuries.

  14. Vector fields in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydov, E. A.

    2012-06-01

    Vector fields can arise in the cosmological context in different ways, and we discuss both abelian and nonabelian sector. In the abelian sector vector fields of the geometrical origin (from dimensional reduction and Einstein-Eddington modification of gravity) can provide a very non-trivial dynamics, which can be expressed in terms of the effective dilaton-scalar gravity with the specific potential. In the non-abelian sector we investigate the Yang-Mills SU(2) theory which admits isotropic and homogeneous configuration. Provided the non-linear dependence of the lagrangian on the invariant FμνF~μν, one can obtain the inflationary regime with the exponential growth of the scale factor. The effective amplitudes of the `electric' and `magnetic' components behave like slowly varying scalars at this regime, what allows the consideration of some realistic models with non-linear terms in the Yang-Mills lagrangian.

  15. Vehicle Based Vector Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-28

    300001 1 of 16 VEHICLE-BASED VECTOR SENSOR STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and...CROSS REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0002] None. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the Invention [0003] The invention is an... invention , is a small volume of fluid surrounding a point where averaged properties (e.g., velocity, temperature, etc.) can be analyzed with continuum

  16. Vector Magnetograph Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, Russell A.

    1996-01-01

    This report covers work performed during the period of November 1994 through March 1996 on the design of a Space-borne Solar Vector Magnetograph. This work has been performed as part of a design team under the supervision of Dr. Mona Hagyard and Dr. Alan Gary of the Space Science Laboratory. Many tasks were performed and this report documents the results from some of those tasks, each contained in the corresponding appendix. Appendices are organized in chronological order.

  17. Some experiences with Krylov vectors and Lanczos vectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roy R., Jr.; Su, Tzu-Jeng; Kim, Hyoung M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of Krylov vectors and Lanczos vectors for reduced-order modeling in structural dynamics and for control of flexible structures. Krylov vectors and Lanczos vectors are defined and illustrated, and several applications that have been under study at The University of Texas at Austin are reviewed: model reduction for undamped structural dynamics systems, component mode synthesis using Krylov vectors, model reduction of damped structural dynamics systems, and one-sided and two-sided unsymmetric block-Lanczos model-reduction algorithms.

  18. Rowing injuries.

    PubMed

    Rumball, Jane S; Lebrun, Constance M; Di Ciacca, Stephen R; Orlando, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Participation in the sport of rowing has been steadily increasing in recent decades, yet few studies address the specific injuries incurred. This article reviews the most common injuries described in the literature, including musculoskeletal problems in the lower back, ribs, shoulder, wrist and knee. A review of basic rowing physiology and equipment is included, along with a description of the mechanics of the rowing stroke. This information is necessary in order to make an accurate diagnosis and treatment protocol for these injuries, which are mainly chronic in nature. The most frequently injured region is the low back, mainly due to excessive hyperflexion and twisting, and can include specific injuries such as spondylolysis, sacroiliac joint dysfunction and disc herniation. Rib stress fractures account for the most time lost from on-water training and competition. Although theories abound for the mechanism of injury, the exact aetiology of rib stress fractures remains unknown. Other injuries discussed within, which are specific to ribs, include costochondritis, costovertebral joint subluxation and intercostal muscle strains. Shoulder pain is quite common in rowers and can be the result of overuse, poor technique, or tension in the upper body. Injuries concerning the forearm and wrist are also common, and can include exertional compartment syndrome, lateral epicondylitis, deQuervain's and intersection syndrome, and tenosynovitis of the wrist extensors. In the lower body, the major injuries reported include generalised patellofemoral pain due to abnormal patellar tracking, and iliotibial band friction syndrome. Lastly, dermatological issues, such as blisters and abrasions, and miscellaneous issues, such as environmental concerns and the female athlete triad, are also included in this article.Pathophysiology, mechanism of injury, assessment and management strategies are outlined in the text for each injury, with special attention given to ways to correct

  19. Isomap based supporting vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, W. N.

    2015-12-01

    This research presents a new isomap based supporting vector machine method. Isomap is a dimension reduction method which is able to analyze nonlinear relationship of data on manifolds. Accordingly, support vector machine is established on the isomap manifold to classify given and predict unknown data. A case study of the isomap based supporting vector machine for environmental planning problems is conducted.

  20. Dipole-mode vector solitons

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ripoll; Perez-Garcia; Ostrovskaya; Kivshar

    2000-07-03

    We find a new type of optical vector soliton that originates from trapping of a dipole mode by the soliton-induced waveguides. These solitons, which appear as a consequence of the vector nature of the two-component system, are more stable than the previously found optical vortex solitons and represent a new type of extremely robust nonlinear vector structure.

  1. What is a vector?

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Eric René; Booth, Mark; Norman, Rachel; Mideo, Nicole; McCallum, Hamish; Fenton, Andy

    2017-01-01

    Many important and rapidly emerging pathogens of humans, livestock and wildlife are ‘vector-borne’. However, the term ‘vector’ has been applied to diverse agents in a broad range of epidemiological systems. In this perspective, we briefly review some common definitions, identify the strengths and weaknesses of each and consider the functional differences between vectors and other hosts from a range of ecological, evolutionary and public health perspectives. We then consider how the use of designations can afford insights into our understanding of epidemiological and evolutionary processes that are not otherwise apparent. We conclude that from a medical and veterinary perspective, a combination of the ‘haematophagous arthropod’ and ‘mobility’ definitions is most useful because it offers important insights into contact structure and control and emphasizes the opportunities for pathogen shifts among taxonomically similar species with similar feeding modes and internal environments. From a population dynamics and evolutionary perspective, we suggest that a combination of the ‘micropredator’ and ‘sequential’ definition is most appropriate because it captures the key aspects of transmission biology and fitness consequences for the pathogen and vector itself. However, we explicitly recognize that the value of a definition always depends on the research question under study. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission’. PMID:28289253

  2. Vector Helmholtz-Gauss and vector Laplace-Gauss beams.

    PubMed

    Bandres, Miguel A; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C

    2005-08-15

    We demonstrate the existence of vector Helmholtz-Gauss (vHzG) and vector Laplace-Gauss beams that constitute two general families of localized vector beam solutions of the Maxwell equations in the paraxial approximation. The electromagnetic components are determined starting from the scalar solutions of the two-dimensional Helmholtz and Laplace equations, respectively. Special cases of the vHzG beams are TE and TM Gaussian vector beams, nondiffracting vector Bessel beams, polarized Bessel-Gauss beams, modes in cylindrical waveguides and cavities, and scalar Helmholtz-Gauss beams. The general expression of the vHzG beams can be used straightforwardly to obtain vector Mathieu-Gauss and vector parabolic-Gauss beams, which to our knowledge have not yet been reported.

  3. ACL Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an ACL injury? ACL refers to the anterior cruciate ligament. It is 1 of 4 ligaments in your ... best results. After surgery, you will need intense physical therapy to ... allow the ligament to heal naturally. Living with an ACL injury ...

  4. Whiplash injuries.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Gerard; Peter, Jason

    2005-10-01

    Whiplash injuries are very common and usually are associated with rear-end collisions. However, a whiplash injury can be caused by any event that results in hyperextension and flexion of the cervical spine. These injuries are of serious concern to all consumers due to escalating cost of diagnosis, treatment, insurance, and litigation. Most acute whiplash injury cases respond well to conservative treatments, which result in resolution of symptoms usually within weeks to a few months after the injury occurred. Chronic whiplash injuries often are harder to diagnose and treat and often result in poor outcomes. Current research shows that various structures in the cervical spine receive nociceptive innervation and potentially may be the cause of chronic pain symptoms. One potential pain generator showing promise is the facet or zygapophyseal joints. Various researchers have proven that these joints are injured during whiplash injuries and that diagnosis and temporary pain relief can be obtained with facet joint injections. The initial evaluation of any patient should follow an organized and stepwise approach, and more serious causes of neck pain must first be ruled out through the history, physical examination, and diagnostic testing. Treatment regimens should be evidence-based, focusing on treatments that have proven to be effective in treating acute and chronic whiplash injuries.

  5. Injury Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Dramatic Rise, Including Bath Salts Household (and Child & Elderly) Injuries Avoiding Household Burns Do I Need A Tetanus Shot? Falls Are The Leading Injury-Related Cause of ER Visits Prevent Poison! ACEP Observes ... on Children Swallowing Objects Like Magnets, Coins or Batteries School & ...

  6. Volleyball injuries.

    PubMed

    Eerkes, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the numbers of people playing indoor and beach volleyball since the early 1980s and, consequently, an increase in injuries. Most injuries are related to repetitive jumping and hitting the ball overhead. The ankle is the most commonly injured joint, but the knee, shoulder, low back, and fingers also are vulnerable. The shoulder in particular is subject to extreme torque when hitting and jump serving the ball. Some injuries have a predilection for those playing on sand versus those playing in an indoor court. The clinician caring for volleyball players should be aware of the types of injuries these players sustain and how to help them return to play promptly and appropriately. This article reviews the specific injuries that are most common as a result of participating in the sport of volleyball.

  7. Vector representation of tourmaline compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Donald M.

    1989-01-01

    The vector method for representing mineral compositions of amphibole and mica groups is applied to the tourmaline group. Consideration is given to the methods for drawing the relevant vector diagrams, relating the exchange vectors to one another, and contouring the diagrams for constant values of Na, Ca, Li, Fe, Mg, Al, Si, and OH. The method is used to depict a wide range of possible tourmaline end-member compositions and solid solutions, starting from a single point. In addition to vector depictions of multicomponent natural tourmalines, vectors are presented for simpler systems such as (Na,Al)-tourmalines, alkali-free tourmalines, and elbaites.

  8. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Scoles, Glen A; Ueti, Massaro W

    2015-01-07

    Equine piroplasmosis is a disease of Equidae, including horses, donkeys, mules, and zebras, caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick vectors, and although they have inherent differences they are categorized together because they cause similar pathology and have similar morphologies, life cycles, and vector relationships. To complete their life cycle, these parasites must undergo a complex series of developmental events, including sexual-stage development in their tick vectors. Consequently, ticks are the definitive hosts as well as vectors for these parasites, and the vector relationship is restricted to a few competent tick species. Because the vector relationship is critical to the epidemiology of these parasites, we highlight current knowledge of the vector ecology of these tick-borne equine pathogens, emphasizing tick transmissibility and potential control strategies to prevent their spread.

  9. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questions Glossary Contact Us Visitor Feedback mild Traumatic Brain Injury mild Traumatic Brain Injury VIDEO STORIES What is TBI Measuring Severity ... most common deployment injuries is a mild Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). A mild TBI is an injury ...

  10. Aerodynamics of thrust vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, J. B.; Lan, C. Edward

    1989-01-01

    Thrust vectoring as a means to enhance maneuverability and aerodynamic performane of a tactical aircraft is discussed. This concept usually involves the installation of a multifunction nozzle. With the nozzle, the engine thrust can be changed in direction without changing the attitude of the aircraft. Change in the direction of thrust induces a significant change in the aerodynamic forces on the aircraft. Therefore, this device can be used for lift-augmenting as well as stability and control purposes. When the thrust is deflected in the longitudinal direction, the lift force and the pitching stability can be manipulated, while the yawing stability can be controlled by directing the thrust in the lateral direction.

  11. Thrust vectoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, H. J.; Schnelker, D.; Ward, J. W.; Dulgeroff, C.; Vahrenkamp, R.

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of thrust vectorable ion optical systems capable of controlling the thrust direction from both 5- and 30-cm diameter ion thrusters is described. Both systems are capable of greater than 10 deg thrust deflection in any azimuthal direction. The 5-cm system is electrostatic and hence has a short response time and minimal power consumption. It has recently been tested for more than 7500 hours on an operational thruster. The 30-cm system is mechanical, has a response time of the order of 1 min, and consumes less than 0.3% of the total system input power at full deflection angle.

  12. Vector potential photoelectron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Browning, R

    2011-10-01

    A new class of electron microscope has been developed for the chemical microanalysis of a wide range of real world samples using photoelectron spectroscopy. Highly structured, three-dimensional samples, such as fiber mats and fracture surfaces can be imaged, as well as insulators and magnetic materials. The new microscope uses the vector potential field from a solenoid magnet as a spatial reference for imaging. A prototype instrument has demonstrated imaging of uncoated silk, magnetic steel wool, and micron-sized single strand tungsten wires.

  13. Ophthalmologic injuries.

    PubMed

    Diamond, G R; Quinn, G E; Pashby, T J; Easterbrook, M

    1982-11-01

    Increasing numbers of young people are being attracted to organized sports. Racquet sports, as they are individual sports, will give a lifetime of continual pleasure. Increasing numbers of eye injuries are being seen, however. Now that adequate eye protection is available, it behooves all physicians who are interested in prevention of eye injury to encourage players to wear polycarbonate or industrial safety thickness lenses, or protective face cages in suitable sports frames, to prevent any of the catastrophic, serious, and blinding eye injuries seen in the past.

  14. Golf Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... main causes of these injuries include: Lack of flexibility Poor conditioning Excessive play or practice Poor swing mechanics Ground impact forces Intermittent play Poor flexibility is a key risk factor for a golf ...

  15. Testicular Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also, the location of the testicles makes them prime targets to be accidentally struck on the playing ... you might also feel nauseated for a short time. If it's a minor testicular injury, the pain ...

  16. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... devastating types of trauma resulting from exposure to fire and smoke. PREVENT you and your loved ones! ... people die annually in the United States from fire injuries. • Over half of these deaths result from ...

  17. Electrical injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... damage, especially to the heart, muscles, or brain. Electric current can cause injury in three ways: Cardiac arrest ... How long you were in contact with the electricity How the electricity moved through your body Your ...

  18. Spinal injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... and drive. Do not dive into pools, lakes, rivers, and other bodies of water, particularly if you cannot determine the depth of the ... Central nervous system Spinal cord injury Spinal anatomy Two person roll - ...

  19. [Thorax injuries].

    PubMed

    Schelzig, H; Kick, J; Orend, K H; Sunder-Plassmann, L

    2006-03-01

    Thorax injuries may be divided etiologically into blunt and penetrating types, depending on the nature of the insult. In European practice, the former predominates by far, and in only about 5% of cases thoracotomy provides the necessary thorax drainage. Morbidity in this type of injury typically involves concomitant lung contusion, sometimes with fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome. In these cases, special ventilation forms, optimal reduction of pain, and organ replacement are the decisive therapeutic methods. In contrast, about 80% of penetrating trauma to the thorax require prompt transpleural or trans-sternal surgery, depending on the type of injury. Emergency first aid must follow the principle of "scoop and run". Each minute elapsed until emergent thoracotomy can be decisive to survival in these cases, and the fastest possible transport from the place of injury takes priority over time-consuming stabilization.

  20. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... object that's stuck in the wound. previous continue Concussions Concussions — the temporary loss of normal brain function due ... also a type of internal head injury. Repeated concussions can permanently damage the brain. In many cases, ...

  1. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  2. Extended vector-tensor theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Rampei; Naruko, Atsushi; Yoshida, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    Recently, several extensions of massive vector theory in curved space-time have been proposed in many literatures. In this paper, we consider the most general vector-tensor theories that contain up to two derivatives with respect to metric and vector field. By imposing a degeneracy condition of the Lagrangian in the context of ADM decomposition of space-time to eliminate an unwanted mode, we construct a new class of massive vector theories where five degrees of freedom can propagate, corresponding to three for massive vector modes and two for massless tensor modes. We find that the generalized Proca and the beyond generalized Proca theories up to the quartic Lagrangian, which should be included in this formulation, are degenerate theories even in curved space-time. Finally, introducing new metric and vector field transformations, we investigate the properties of thus obtained theories under such transformations.

  3. Hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xu-Zhen; Pan, Yue; Cai, Meng-Qiang; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2015-12-14

    We present and construct a new kind of orthogonal coordinate system, hyperbolic coordinate system. We present and design a new kind of local linearly polarized vector fields, which is defined as the hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields because the points with the same polarization form a series of hyperbolae. We experimentally demonstrate the generation of such a kind of hyperbolic-symmetry vector optical fields. In particular, we also study the modified hyperbolic-symmetry vector optical fields with the twofold and fourfold symmetric states of polarization when introducing the mirror symmetry. The tight focusing behaviors of these vector fields are also investigated. In addition, we also fabricate micro-structures on the K9 glass surfaces by several tightly focused (modified) hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields patterns, which demonstrate that the simulated tightly focused fields are in good agreement with the fabricated micro-structures.

  4. Electric injury, Part II: Specific injuries.

    PubMed

    Fish, R M

    2000-01-01

    Electric injury can cause disruption of cardiac rhythm and breathing, burns, fractures, dislocations, rhabdomyolysis, eye and ear injury, oral and gastrointestinal injury, vascular damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peripheral and spinal cord injury, and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. Secondary trauma from falls, fires, flying debris, and inhalation injury can complicate the clinical picture. Diagnostic and treatment considerations for electric injuries are described in this article, which is the second part of a three-part series on electric injuries.

  5. An adaptive vector quantization scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, K.-M.

    1990-01-01

    Vector quantization is known to be an effective compression scheme to achieve a low bit rate so as to minimize communication channel bandwidth and also to reduce digital memory storage while maintaining the necessary fidelity of the data. However, the large number of computations required in vector quantizers has been a handicap in using vector quantization for low-rate source coding. An adaptive vector quantization algorithm is introduced that is inherently suitable for simple hardware implementation because it has a simple architecture. It allows fast encoding and decoding because it requires only addition and subtraction operations.

  6. Safety considerations in vector development.

    PubMed

    Kappes, J C; Wu, X

    2001-11-01

    The inadvertent production of replication competent retrovirus (RCR) constitutes the principal safety concern for the use of lentiviral vectors in human clinical protocols. Because of limitations in animal models to evaluate lentiviral vectors for their potential to recombine and induce disease, the vector design itself should ensure against the emergence of RCR in vivo. Issues related to RCR generation and one approach to dealing with this problem are discussed in this chapter. To assess the risk of generating RCR, a highly sensitive biological assay was developed to specifically detect vector recombination in transduced cells. Analysis of lentiviral vector stocks has shown that recombination occurs during reverse transcription in primary target cells. Rejoining of viral protein-coding sequences of the packaging construct and cis-acting sequences of the vector was demonstrated to generate env-minus recombinants (LTR-gag-pol-LTR). Mobilization of recombinant lentiviral genomes was also demonstrated but was dependent on pseudotyping of the vector core with an exogenous envelope protein. 5' sequence analysis has demonstrated that recombinants consist of U3, R, U5, and the psi packaging signal joined with an open gag coding region. Analysis of the 3' end has mapped the point of vector recombination to the poly(A) tract of the packaging construct's mRNA. The state-of-the-art third generation packaging construct and SIN vector also have been shown to generate env-minus proviral recombinants capable of mobilizing retroviral DNA when pseudotyped with an exogenous envelope protein. A new class of HIV-based vector (trans-vector) was recently developed that splits the gag-pol component of the packaging construct into two parts: one that expresses Gag/Gag-Pro and another that expresses Pol (RT and IN) fused with Vpr. Unlike other lentiviral vectors, the trans-vector has not been shown to form recombinants capable of DNA mobilization. These results indicate the trans-vector

  7. Multistage vector (MSV) therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, Joy; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro

    2015-12-10

    One of the greatest challenges in the field of medicine is obtaining controlled distribution of systemically administered therapeutic agents within the body. Indeed, biological barriers such as physical compartmentalization, pressure gradients, and excretion pathways adversely affect localized delivery of drugs to pathological tissue. The diverse nature of these barriers requires the use of multifunctional drug delivery vehicles that can overcome a wide range of sequential obstacles. In this review, we explore the role of multifunctionality in nanomedicine by primarily focusing on multistage vectors (MSVs). The MSV is an example of a promising therapeutic platform that incorporates several components, including a microparticle, nanoparticles, and small molecules. In particular, these components are activated in a sequential manner in order to successively address transport barriers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The MSFC vector magnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J.; Cumings, N. P.; West, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center's solar vector magnetograph system allows measurements of all components of the Sun's photospheric magnetic field over a 5 x 5 or 2.5 x 2.5 arc min square field of view with an optimum time resolution of approximately 100 sec and an optimum signal-to-noise of approximately 1000. The basic system components are described, including the optics, detector, digital system, and associated electronics. Automatic sequencing and control functions are outlined as well as manual selections of system parameters which afford unique system flexibility. Results of system calibration and performance are presented, including linearity, dynamic range, uniformity, spatial and spectral resolutions, signal-to-noise, electro-optical retardation and polarization calibration.

  9. Chameleon vector bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Ann E.

    2008-05-01

    We show that for a force mediated by a vector particle coupled to a conserved U(1) charge, the apparent range and strength can depend on the size and density of the source, and the proximity to other sources. This chameleon effect is due to screening from a light charged scalar. Such screening can weaken astrophysical constraints on new gauge bosons. As an example we consider the constraints on chameleonic gauged B-L. We show that although Casimir measurements greatly constrain any B-L force much stronger than gravity with range longer than 0.1 {mu}m, there remains an experimental window for a long-range chameleonic B-L force. Such a force could be much stronger than gravity, and long or infinite range in vacuum, but have an effective range near the surface of the earth which is less than a micron.

  10. Entangled vector vortex beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Carvacho, Gonzalo; Graffitti, Francesco; Vitelli, Chiara; Piccirillo, Bruno; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    Light beams having a vectorial field structure, or polarization, that varies over the transverse profile and a central optical singularity are called vector vortex (VV) beams and may exhibit specific properties such as focusing into "light needles" or rotation invariance. VV beams have already found applications in areas ranging from microscopy to metrology, optical trapping, nano-optics, and quantum communication. Individual photons in such beams exhibit a form of single-particle quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom. On the other hand, the quantum states of two photons can be also entangled with each other. Here, we combine these two concepts and demonstrate the generation of quantum entanglement between two photons that are both in VV states: a form of entanglement between two complex vectorial fields. This result may lead to quantum-enhanced applications of VV beams as well as to quantum information protocols fully exploiting the vectorial features of light.

  11. Multistage vector (MSV) therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Wolfram, Joy; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in the field of medicine is obtaining controlled distribution of systemically administered therapeutic agents within the body. Indeed, biological barriers such as physical compartmentalization, pressure gradients, and excretion pathways adversely affect localized delivery of drugs to pathological tissue. The diverse nature of these barriers requires the use of multifunctional drug delivery vehicles that can overcome a wide range of sequential obstacles. In this review, we explore the role of multifunctionality in nanomedicine by primarily focusing on multistage vectors (MSVs). The MSV is an example of a promising therapeutic platform that incorporates several components, including a microparticle, nanoparticles, and small molecules. In particular, these components are activated in a sequential manner in order to successively address transport barriers. PMID:26264836

  12. Solar imaging vector magnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an instrument which has been constructed at the University of Hawaii to make observations of the magnetic field in solar active regions. Detailed knowledge of active region magnetic structures is crucial to understanding many solar phenomena, because the magnetic field both defines the morphology of structures seen in the solar atmosphere and is the apparent energy source for solar flares. The new vector magnetograph was conceived in response to a perceived discrepancy between the capabilities of X ray imaging telescopes to be operating during the current solar maximum and those of existing magnetographs. There were no space-based magnetographs planned for this period; the existing ground-based instruments variously suffered from lack of sensitivity, poor time resolution, inadequate spatial resolution or unreliable sites. Yet the studies of flares and their relationship to the solar corona planned for the 1991-1994 maximum absolutely required high quality vector magnetic field measurements. By 'vector' measurements we mean that the observation attempts to deduce the complete strength and direction of the field at the measurement site, rather than just the line of sight component as obtained by a traditional longitudinal magnetograph. Knowledge of the vector field permits one to calculate photospheric electric currents, which might play a part in heating the corona, and to calculate energy stored in coronal magnetic fields as the result of such currents. Information about the strength and direction of magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere can be obtained in a number of ways, but quantitative data is best obtained by observing Zeeman-effect polarization in solar spectral lines. The technique requires measuring the complete state of polarization at one or more wavelengths within a magnetically sensitive line of the solar spectrum. This measurement must be done for each independent spatial point for which one wants magnetic field data. All the

  13. Poynting vector and wave vector directions of equatorial chorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubenschuss, Ulrich; Santolík, Ondřej; Breuillard, Hugo; Li, Wen; Le Contel, Olivier

    2016-12-01

    We present new results on wave vectors and Poynting vectors of chorus rising and falling tones on the basis of 6 years of THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) observations. The majority of wave vectors is closely aligned with the direction of the ambient magnetic field (B0). Oblique wave vectors are confined to the magnetic meridional plane, pointing away from Earth. Poynting vectors are found to be almost parallel to B0. We show, for the first time, that slightly oblique Poynting vectors are directed away from Earth for rising tones and toward Earth for falling tones. For the majority of lower band chorus elements, the mutual orientation between Poynting vectors and wave vectors can be explained by whistler mode dispersion in a homogeneous collisionless cold plasma. Upper band chorus seems to require inclusion of collisional processes or taking into account azimuthal anisotropies in the propagation medium. The latitudinal extension of the equatorial source region can be limited to ±6∘ around the B0 minimum or approximately ±5000 km along magnetic field lines. We find increasing Poynting flux and focusing of Poynting vectors on the B0 direction with increasing latitude. Also, wave vectors become most often more field aligned. A smaller group of chorus generated with very oblique wave normals tends to stay close to the whistler mode resonance cone. This suggests that close to the equatorial source region (within ˜20∘ latitude), a wave guidance mechanism is relevant, for example, in ducts of depleted or enhanced plasma density.

  14. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  15. GPU Accelerated Vector Median Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    Noise reduction is an important step for most image processing tasks. For three channel color images, a widely used technique is vector median filter in which color values of pixels are treated as 3-component vectors. Vector median filters are computationally expensive; for a window size of n x n, each of the n(sup 2) vectors has to be compared with other n(sup 2) - 1 vectors in distances. General purpose computation on graphics processing units (GPUs) is the paradigm of utilizing high-performance many-core GPU architectures for computation tasks that are normally handled by CPUs. In this work. NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) paradigm is used to accelerate vector median filtering. which has to the best of our knowledge never been done before. The performance of GPU accelerated vector median filter is compared to that of the CPU and MPI-based versions for different image and window sizes, Initial findings of the study showed 100x improvement of performance of vector median filter implementation on GPUs over CPU implementations and further speed-up is expected after more extensive optimizations of the GPU algorithm .

  16. Sparse Elimination on Vector Multiprocessors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    vector registers . Several reports have been prepared recently under this effort, and a paper entitled "Task Granularity Studies in a Many-Processor Cray X...measures this effect. To reduce this ratio, it has been shown * possible to assembly-code the X-MP so that accesses are pre-fetched into vector registers

  17. Vectors on the Basketball Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    An Idea Bank published in the April/May 2009 issue of "The Science Teacher" describes an experiential physics lesson on vectors and vector addition (Brown 2009). Like its football predecessor, the basketball-based investigation presented in this Idea Bank addresses National Science Education Standards Content B, Physical Science, 9-12 (NRC 1996)…

  18. Vectors on the Basketball Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    An Idea Bank published in the April/May 2009 issue of "The Science Teacher" describes an experiential physics lesson on vectors and vector addition (Brown 2009). Like its football predecessor, the basketball-based investigation presented in this Idea Bank addresses National Science Education Standards Content B, Physical Science, 9-12 (NRC 1996)…

  19. Lightning injuries.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe Gatewood, Medley; Zane, Richard D

    2004-05-01

    Lightning is persistently one of the leading causes of death caused by environmental or natural disaster. To understand the pathophysiology and treatment of lightning injuries one must first discount the innumerable myths, superstitions, and misconceptions surrounding lightning. The fundamental difference between high voltage electrical injury and lightning is the duration of exposure to current. Reverse triage should be instituted in lightning strike victims because victims in cardiopulmonary arrest might gain the greatest benefit from resuscitation efforts, although there is no good evidence suggesting that lightning strike victims might benefit from longer than usual resuscitation times. Many of the injuries suffered by lightning strike victims are unique to lightning, and long-term sequelae should be anticipated and addressed in the lightning victim.

  20. Blast Injury

    PubMed Central

    de Candole, C. A.

    1967-01-01

    The shock wave generated by an explosion (“blast wave”) may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

  1. Hamstring injuries

    PubMed Central

    Guanche, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a continuum of hamstring injuries that can range from musculotendinous strains to avulsion injuries. Although the proximal hamstring complex has a strong bony attachment on the ischial tuberosity, hamstring injuries are common in athletic population and can affect all levels of athletes. Nonoperative treatment is mostly recommended in the setting of low-grade partial tears and insertional tendinosis. However, failure of nonoperative treatment of partial tears may benefit from surgical debridement and repair. The technique presented on this article allows for the endoscopic management of proximal hamstring tears and chronic ischial bursitis, which until now has been managed exclusively with much larger open approaches. The procedure allows for complete exposure of the posterior aspect of the hip in a safe, minimally invasive fashion. PMID:27011828

  2. Divergence-based vector quantization.

    PubMed

    Villmann, Thomas; Haase, Sven

    2011-05-01

    Supervised and unsupervised vector quantization methods for classification and clustering traditionally use dissimilarities, frequently taken as Euclidean distances. In this article, we investigate the applicability of divergences instead, focusing on online learning. We deduce the mathematical fundamentals for its utilization in gradient-based online vector quantization algorithms. It bears on the generalized derivatives of the divergences known as Fréchet derivatives in functional analysis, which reduces in finite-dimensional problems to partial derivatives in a natural way. We demonstrate the application of this methodology for widely applied supervised and unsupervised online vector quantization schemes, including self-organizing maps, neural gas, and learning vector quantization. Additionally, principles for hyperparameter optimization and relevance learning for parameterized divergences in the case of supervised vector quantization are given to achieve improved classification accuracy.

  3. Ear Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brain Damage in Boxers (News) Which High School Sport Has the Most Concussions? Additional Content Medical News Ear Injury By Sam ... often... More News News HealthDay Which High School Sport Has the Most Concussions? WEDNESDAY, March 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Female soccer ...

  4. Pediatric Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control and Prevention’s Safe Child website . What is pediatric critical care? Children who have severe or life-threatening injuries ... are staffed by physicians with specialized training in pediatric critical care medicine ("pediatric intensivists"). Because children can experience a ...

  5. Electrical Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... your injuries are depends on how strong the electric current was, what type of current it was, how it moved through your body, and how long you were exposed. Other factors include how ... you should see a doctor. You may have internal damage and not realize it.

  6. Chikungunya Virus–Vector Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Lark L.; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Weaver, Scott C.

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed. PMID:25421891

  7. Vector fields in multidimensional cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierovich, Boris E.

    2011-09-01

    Vector fields in the expanding Universe are considered within the multidimensional theory of general relativity. Vector fields in general relativity form a three-parametric variety. Our consideration includes the fields with a nonzero covariant divergence. Depending on the relations between the particular parameters and the symmetry of a problem, the vector fields can be longitudinal and/or transverse, ultrarelativistic (i.e. massless) or nonrelativistic (massive), and so on. The longitudinal and transverse vector fields are considered separately in detail in the background of the de Sitter cosmological metric. In most cases the field equations reduce to Bessel equations, and their temporal evolution is analyzed analytically. The energy-momentum tensor of the most simple zero-mass longitudinal vector fields enters the Einstein equations as an additive to the cosmological constant. In this case the de Sitter metric is the exact solution of the Einstein equations. Hence, the most simple zero-mass longitudinal vector field pretends to be an adequate tool for macroscopic description of dark energy as a source of the expansion of the Universe at a constant rate. The zero-mass vector field does not vanish in the process of expansion. On the contrary, massive fields vanish with time. Though their amplitude is falling down, the massive fields make the expansion accelerated.

  8. On Potential Vorticity Flux Vectors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannon, Peter R.; Schmidli, Jürg; Schär, Christoph

    2003-12-01

    Dynamical, rather than kinematical, considerations indicate that a generalized potential vorticity in terms of the gradient of an arbitrary scalar function requires that the potential vorticity flux vector contain a contribution due to gravity and the pressure gradient force. It is shown that such a potential vorticity flux vector has a simpler definition in terms of the gradient of the kinetic energy rather than that of a Bernoulli function. This result is valid for multicomponent fluids. Flux vectors for a salty ocean and a moist atmosphere with hydrometeors are presented.

  9. Vector statistics of LANDSAT imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R. R., Jr.; Underwood, D.

    1977-01-01

    A digitized multispectral image, such as LANDSAT data, is composed of numerous four dimensional vectors, which quantitatively describe the ground scene from which the data are acquired. The statistics of unique vectors that occur in LANDSAT imagery are studied to determine if that information can provide some guidance on reducing image processing costs. A second purpose of this report is to investigate how the vector statistics are changed by various types of image processing techniques and determine if that information can be useful in choosing one processing approach over another.

  10. Insecticide resistance and vector control.

    PubMed Central

    Brogdon, W. G.; McAllister, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    Insecticide resistance has been a problem in all insect groups that serve as vectors of emerging diseases. Although mechanisms by which insecticides become less effective are similar across all vector taxa, each resistance problem is potentially unique and may involve a complex pattern of resistance foci. The main defense against resistance is close surveillance of the susceptibility of vector populations. We describe the mechanisms of insecticide resistance, as well as specific instances of resistance emergence worldwide, and discuss prospects for resistance management and priorities for detection and surveillance. PMID:9866736

  11. Relativistic Gamow vectors: State vectors for unstable particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaldas, Hany Kamel Halim

    The relativistic Gamow vectors are derived from the analytic continuation of the angular momentum velocity kets to the resonance pole of the S- matrix. This construction is justifiable within a Rigged Hilbert Space of Hardy class functions. The kets obtained | p j3[ sRjR ]-> are characterized by a spin jR and a complex mass square sR = (MR - iΓ R/2)2. Our use of the velocity kets renders the Gamow vectors | p j3[ sRjR ]-> ``minimally complex'', as the 4-velocities p̂μ = p μ/ s are taken real and they remain real under Lorentz transformations. When the symmetry transformations of the Gamow vectors are considered, it is found that they obey a semigroup time evolution in the forward light cone for the subgroup of P with causal space- time translations, i.e., for space-time translations with 4-vectors x such that x2 >= 0. This semigroup evolution, which is a consequence of the characterization obtained for the Gamow vectors as functionals in a Rigged Hilbert Space, is in conformity with the time directedness associated with decay phenomena. The Gamow vectors, with a Breit-Wigner distribution and exponential decay law, provide a description of decaying particles with a wide range of Γ/ M. Moreover, the Gamow vectors, being members of a complex basis vector expansion, allow the Wigner-Weisskopf's based effective theories, such as the Lee-Oehme-Yang theory for the neutral K-mesons, to be obtained as an approximation in an exact formalism.

  12. Vector independent transmission of the vector-borne bluetongue virus.

    PubMed

    van der Sluijs, Mirjam Tineke Willemijn; de Smit, Abraham J; Moormann, Rob J M

    2016-01-01

    Bluetongue is an economically important disease of ruminants. The causative agent, Bluetongue virus (BTV), is mainly transmitted by insect vectors. This review focuses on vector-free BTV transmission, and its epizootic and economic consequences. Vector-free transmission can either be vertical, from dam to fetus, or horizontal via direct contract. For several BTV-serotypes, vertical (transplacental) transmission has been described, resulting in severe congenital malformations. Transplacental transmission had been mainly associated with live vaccine strains. Yet, the European BTV-8 strain demonstrated a high incidence of transplacental transmission in natural circumstances. The relevance of transplacental transmission for the epizootiology is considered limited, especially in enzootic areas. However, transplacental transmission can have a substantial economic impact due to the loss of progeny. Inactivated vaccines have demonstrated to prevent transplacental transmission. Vector-free horizontal transmission has also been demonstrated. Since direct horizontal transmission requires close contact of animals, it is considered only relevant for within-farm spreading of BTV. The genetic determinants which enable vector-free transmission are present in virus strains circulating in the field. More research into the genetic changes which enable vector-free transmission is essential to better evaluate the risks associated with outbreaks of new BTV serotypes and to design more appropriate control measures.

  13. Are Bred Vectors The Same As Lyapunov Vectors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnay, E.; Corazza, M.; Cai, M.

    Regional loss of predictability is an indication of the instability of the underlying flow, where small errors in the initial conditions (or imperfections in the model) grow to large amplitudes in finite times. The stability properties of evolving flows have been studied using Lyapunov vectors (e.g., Alligood et al, 1996, Ott, 1993, Kalnay, 2002), singular vectors (e.g., Lorenz, 1965, Farrell, 1988, Molteni and Palmer, 1993), and, more recently, with bred vectors (e.g., Szunyogh et al, 1997, Cai et al, 2001). Bred vectors (BVs) are, by construction, closely related to Lyapunov vectors (LVs). In fact, after an infinitely long breeding time, and with the use of infinitesimal ampli- tudes, bred vectors are identical to leading Lyapunov vectors. In practical applications, however, bred vectors are different from Lyapunov vectors in two important ways: a) bred vectors are never globally orthogonalized and are intrinsically local in space and time, and b) they are finite-amplitude, finite-time vectors. These two differences are very significant in a dynamical system whose size is very large. For example, the at- mosphere is large enough to have "room" for several synoptic scale instabilities (e.g., storms) to develop independently in different regions (say, North America and Aus- tralia), and it is complex enough to have several different possible types of instabilities (such as barotropic, baroclinic, convective, and even Brownian motion). Bred vectors share some of their properties with leading LVs (Corazza et al, 2001a, 2001b, Toth and Kalnay, 1993, 1997, Cai et al, 2001). For example, 1) Bred vectors are independent of the norm used to define the size of the perturba- tion. Corazza et al. (2001) showed that bred vectors obtained using a potential enstro- phy norm were indistinguishable from bred vectors obtained using a streamfunction squared norm, in contrast with singular vectors. 2) Bred vectors are independent of the length of the rescaling period as long as the

  14. Motion vector quantization for video coding.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y Y; Woods, J W

    1995-01-01

    A new algorithm is developed for the vector quantization of motion vectors. This algorithm, called motion vector quantization (MVQ), simultaneously estimates and vector quantizes the motion vectors by reinterpreting the block matching algorithm as a type of vector quantization. An iterative design algorithm, based on this concept, is developed. In addition to reducing rate for fixed length encoding, the algorithm also reduces the computation considerably. We include coding simulation results on the Flower Garden sequence.

  15. Integrated Thrust Vectored Engine Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    erformances operationnelles des aeronefs militaires, des vehicules terrestres et des vehicules maritimes] To order the complete compilation report...throttling "* Autonomous Engine Configuration Side forces demand to define nozzle vectoring "* Simple Interface FADEC -> FCS " Minimum Interaction FCS

  16. Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-01

    Studies of Mosquitoes of the Genus Haemagogus in Colombia (Diptera, Culicidae). Am. J. Hyg., 43: 13-28. Lane, J. 1953. Neotropical Culicidae...malariae and P. ovale). Female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are the exclusive vectors of human malaria. During feeding, the mosquito ingests...birds are implicated reservoirs. The biting midge, Culicoides paraensis, is a proven vector. Culex quinquefasciatus is also capable of transmission

  17. Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Bolivia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-01

    Arnell, J.H. 1973. Mosquito Studies (Diptera, Culicidae). XXXII. A Revision of the Genus Haemagogus. Contrib. Am. Ent. Inst., 10(2): 1-174...parasites (P. vivax , P. falciparum, P. malariae and P. ovale). Female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are the exclusive vectors of human malaria...and possibly wild birds are implicated reservoirs. The biting midge, Culicoides paraensis, is a proven vector. Culex quinquefasciatus is also

  18. Handling S/MAR vectors.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Claudia; Baiker, Armin; Postberg, Jan; Ehrhardt, Anja; Lipps, Hans J

    2012-06-01

    Nonviral episomal vectors represent attractive alternatives to currently used virus-based expression systems. In the late 1990s, it was shown that a plasmid containing an expression cassette linked to a scaffold/matrix attached region (S/MAR) replicates as a low copy number episome in all cell lines tested, as well as primary cells, and can be used for the genetic modification of higher animals. Once established in the cell, the S/MAR vector replicates early during S-phase and, in the absence of selection, is stably retained in the cells for an unlimited period of time. This vector can therefore be regarded as a minimal model system for studying the epigenetic regulation of replication and functional nuclear architecture. In theory, this construct represents an almost "ideal" expression system for gene therapy. In practice, S/MAR-based vectors stably modify mammalian cells with efficiencies far below those of virus-based constructs. Consequently, they have not yet found application in gene therapy trials. Furthermore, S/MAR vector systems are not trivial to handle and several critical technical issues have to be considered when modifying these vectors for various applications.

  19. Axisymmetric Coanda-assisted vectoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Dustin; Smith, Barton L.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental demonstration of a jet vectoring technique used in our novel spray method called Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation (CSM) is presented. CSM makes use of the Coanda effect on axisymmetric geometries through the interaction of two jets: a primary jet and a control jet. The primary jet has larger volume flow rate but generally a smaller momentum flux than the control jet. The primary jet flows through the center of a rounded collar. The control jet is parallel to the primary and is adjacent to the convex collar. The Reynolds number range for the primary jet at the exit plane was between 20,000 and 80,000. The flow was in the incompressible Mach number range (Mach < 0.3). The control jet attaches to the convex wall and vectors according to known Coanda effect principles, entraining and vectoring the primary jet, resulting in controllable r - θ directional spraying. Several annular control slots and collar radii were tested over a range of momentum flux ratios to determine the effects of these variables on the vectored jet angle and spreading. Two and Three-component Particle Image Velocimetry systems were used to determine the vectoring angle and the profile of the combined jet in each experiment. The experiments show that the control slot and expansion radius, along with the momentum ratios of the two jets predominantly affected the vectoring angle and profile of the combined jets.

  20. Vector control after malaria eradication

    PubMed Central

    Micks, D. W.

    1963-01-01

    In considerable areas now in or near the consolidation phase of malaria eradication, other vector-borne diseases present serious public health problems, even though not susceptible to control on the same world-wide scale as malaria. Several of these areas are already making plans for converting their malaria eradication services to vector control services. While it is possible to use essentially the same personnel and equipment, the methods must be adapted to the biology and habits of the vector. For a smooth and rapid transition, considerable advance planning is therefore needed—preferably well ahead of the consolidation phase. The author gives several examples of the need for flexibility in effecting the changeover and of the problems likely to arise after the completion of malaria eradication programmes. He recommends that epidemiological studies should be extended to vector-borne diseases other than malaria while eradication programmes are still in progress and that vector control programmes should be integrated into the basic health services of the country as soon as possible. He also underlines the importance of water management and other aspects of environmental sanitation in vector control programmes. PMID:20604169

  1. Sustained expression from DNA vectors.

    PubMed

    Wong, Suet Ping; Argyros, Orestis; Harbottle, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    DNA vectors have the potential to become powerful medical tools for treatment of human disease. The human body has, however, developed a range of defensive strategies to detect and silence foreign or misplaced DNA, which is more typically encountered during infection or chromosomal damage. A clinically relevant human gene therapy vector must overcome or avoid these protections whilst delivering sustained levels of therapeutic gene product without compromising the vitality of the recipient host. Many non-viral DNA vectors trigger these defense mechanisms and are subsequently destroyed or rendered silent. Thus, without modification or considered design, the clinical utility of a typical DNA vector is fundamentally limited due to the transient nature of its transgene expression. The development of safe and persistently expressing DNA vectors is a crucial prerequisite for its successful clinical application and subsequently remains, therefore, one of the main strategic tasks of non-viral gene therapy research. In this chapter we will describe our current understanding of the mechanisms that can destroy or silence DNA vectors and discuss strategies, which have been utilized to improve their sustenance and the level and duration of their transgene expression.

  2. Automated measurement of pressure injury through image processing.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Mathews, Carol

    2017-01-10

    To develop an image processing algorithm to automatically measure pressure injuries using electronic pressure injury images stored in nursing documentation. Photographing pressure injuries and storing the images in the electronic health record is standard practice in many hospitals. However, the manual measurement of pressure injury is time-consuming, challenging and subject to intra/inter-reader variability with complexities of the pressure injury and the clinical environment. A cross-sectional algorithm development study. A set of 32 pressure injury images were obtained from a western Pennsylvania hospital. First, we transformed the images from an RGB (i.e. red, green and blue) colour space to a YCb Cr colour space to eliminate inferences from varying light conditions and skin colours. Second, a probability map, generated by a skin colour Gaussian model, guided the pressure injury segmentation process using the Support Vector Machine classifier. Third, after segmentation, the reference ruler - included in each of the images - enabled perspective transformation and determination of pressure injury size. Finally, two nurses independently measured those 32 pressure injury images, and intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated. An image processing algorithm was developed to automatically measure the size of pressure injuries. Both inter- and intra-rater analysis achieved good level reliability. Validation of the size measurement of the pressure injury (1) demonstrates that our image processing algorithm is a reliable approach to monitoring pressure injury progress through clinical pressure injury images and (2) offers new insight to pressure injury evaluation and documentation. Once our algorithm is further developed, clinicians can be provided with an objective, reliable and efficient computational tool for segmentation and measurement of pressure injuries. With this, clinicians will be able to more effectively monitor the healing process of pressure injuries

  3. How the borderless science of electropenetrography (EPG) can benefit animal-disease vector research: overview of EPG history, principles, and applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studying feeding, host injury, and transmission of plant or animal pathogens by vectors is challenging. Vector piercing-sucking mouthparts are probed into opaque tissues, precluding direct observation. Over fifty years ago, this challenge was overcome by development of electrical penetration graph t...

  4. Decays of the vector glueball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacosa, Francesco; Sammet, Julia; Janowski, Stanislaus

    2017-06-01

    We calculate two- and three-body decays of the (lightest) vector glueball into (pseudo)scalar, (axial-)vector, as well as pseudovector and excited vector mesons in the framework of a model of QCD. While absolute values of widths cannot be predicted because the corresponding coupling constants are unknown, some interesting branching ratios can be evaluated by setting the mass of the yet hypothetical vector glueball to 3.8 GeV as predicted by quenched lattice QCD. We find that the decay mode ω π π should be one of the largest (both through the decay chain O →b1π →ω π π and through the direct coupling O →ω π π ). Similarly, the (direct and indirect) decay into π K K*(892 ) is sizable. Moreover, the decays into ρ π and K*(892 )K are, although subleading, possible and could play a role in explaining the ρ π puzzle of the charmonium state ψ (2 S ) thanks to a (small) mixing with the vector glueball. The vector glueball can be directly formed at the ongoing BESIII experiment as well as at the future PANDA experiment at the FAIR facility. If the width is sufficiently small (≲100 MeV ) it should not escape future detection. It should be stressed that the employed model is based on some inputs and simplifying assumptions: the value of glueball mass (at present, the quenched lattice value is used), the lack of mixing of the glueball with other quarkonium states, and the use of few interaction terms. It then represents a first step toward the identification of the main decay channels of the vector glueball, but shall be improved when corresponding experimental candidates and/or new lattice results will be available.

  5. Black holes with vector hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhong-Ying

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we consider Einstein gravity coupled to a vector field, either minimally or non-minimally, together with a vector potential of the type V = 2{Λ}_0+1/2{m}^2{A}^2 + {γ}_4{A}^4 . For a simpler non-minimally coupled theory with Λ0 = m = γ4 = 0, we obtain both extremal and non-extremal black hole solutions that are asymptotic to Minkowski space-times. We study the global properties of the solutions and derive the first law of thermodynamics using Wald formalism. We find that the thermodynamical first law of the extremal black holes is modified by a one form associated with the vector field. In particular, due to the existence of the non-minimal coupling, the vector forms thermodynamic conjugates with the graviton mode and partly contributes to the one form modifying the first law. For a minimally coupled theory with Λ0 ≠ 0, we also obtain one class of asymptotically flat extremal black hole solutions in general dimensions. This is possible because the parameters ( m 2 , γ4) take certain values such that V = 0. In particular, we find that the vector also forms thermodynamic conjugates with the graviton mode and contributes to the corresponding first law, although the non-minimal coupling has been turned off. Thus all the extremal black hole solutions that we obtain provide highly non-trivial examples how the first law of thermodynamics can be modified by a either minimally or non-minimally coupled vector field. We also study Gauss-Bonnet gravity non-minimally coupled to a vector and obtain asymptotically flat black holes and Lifshitz black holes.

  6. Learning with LOGO: Logo and Vectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lough, Tom; Tipps, Steve

    1986-01-01

    This is the first of a two-part series on the general concept of vector space. Provides tool procedures to allow investigation of vector properties, vector addition and subtraction, and X and Y components. Lists several sources of additional vector ideas. (JM)

  7. The biological control of disease vectors.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kenichi W; Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2012-09-21

    Vector-borne diseases are common in nature and can have a large impact on humans, livestock and crops. Biological control of vectors using natural enemies or competitors can reduce vector density and hence disease transmission. However, the indirect interactions inherent in host-vector disease systems make it difficult to use traditional pest control theory to guide biological control of disease vectors. This necessitates a conceptual framework that explicitly considers a range of indirect interactions between the host-vector disease system and the vector's biological control agent. Here we conduct a comparative analysis of the efficacy of different types of biological control agents in controlling vector-borne diseases. We report three key findings. First, highly efficient predators and parasitoids of the vector prove to be effective biological control agents, but highly virulent pathogens of the vector also require a high transmission rate to be effective. Second, biocontrol agents can successfully reduce long-term host disease incidence even though they may fail to reduce long-term vector densities. Third, inundating a host-vector disease system with a natural enemy of the vector has little or no effect on reducing disease incidence, but inundating the system with a competitor of the vector has a large effect on reducing disease incidence. The comparative framework yields predictions that are useful in developing biological control strategies for vector-borne diseases. We discuss how these predictions can inform ongoing biological control efforts for host-vector disease systems. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Vector quantization and learning vector quantization for radar target classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Clayton V.; Lu, Yi-Chuan; Larson, Victor J.

    1993-10-01

    Radar target classification performance is greatly dependent on how the classifier represents the strongly angle dependent radar target signatures. This paper compares the performance of classifiers that represent radar target signatures using vector quantization (VQ) and learning vector quantization (LVQ). The classifier performance is evaluated with a set of high resolution millimeter-wave radar data from four ground vehicles (Camaro, van, pickup, and bulldozer). LVQ explicitly includes classification performance in its data representation criterion, whereas VQ only makes use of a distortion measure such as mean square distance. The classifier that uses LVQ to represent the radar data has a much higher probability of correct classification than VQ.

  9. Vector control in developed countries

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Richard F.

    1963-01-01

    The recent rapid growth of California's population, leading to competition for space between residential, industrial and agricultural interests, the development of its water resources and increasing water pollution provide the basic ingredients of its present vector problems. Within the past half-century, the original mosquito habitats provided by nature have gradually given place to even more numerous and productive habitats of man-made character. At the same time, emphasis in mosquito control has shifted from physical to chemical, with the more recent extension to biological approaches as well. The growing domestic fly problem, continuing despite the virtual disappearance of the horse, is attributable to an increasing amount of organic by-products, stemming from growing communities, expanding industries and changing agriculture. The programme for the control of disease vectors and pest insects and animals directs its major effort to the following broad areas: (1) water management (including land preparation), (2) solid organic wastes management (emphasizing utilization), (3) community management (including design, layout, and storage practices of buildings and grounds), and (4) recreational area management (related to wildlife management). It is apparent that vector control can often employ economics as an ally in securing its objectives. Effective organization of the environment to produce maximum economic benefits to industry, agriculture, and the community results generally in conditions unfavourable to the survival of vector and noxious animal species. Hence, vector prevention or suppression is preferable to control as a programme objective. PMID:20604166

  10. Vectors for cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Russell, S J

    1996-09-01

    Many viral and non-viral vector systems have now been developed for gene therapy applications. In this article, the pros and cons of these vector systems are discussed in relation to the different cancer gene therapy strategies. The protocols used in cancer gene therapy can be broadly divided into six categories including gene transfer to explanted cells for use as cell-based cancer vaccines; gene transfer to a small number of tumour cells in situ to achieve a vaccine effect; gene transfer to vascular endothelial cells (VECs) lining the blood vessels of the tumour to interfere with tumour angiogenesis; gene transfer to T lymphocytes to enhance their antitumour effector capability; gene transfer to haemopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to enhance their resistance to cytotoxic drugs and gene transfer to a large number of tumour cells in situ to achieve nonimmune tumour reduction with or without bystander effect. Each of the six strategies makes unique demands on the vector system and these are discussed with reference to currently available vectors. Aspects of vector biology that are in need of further development are discussed in some detail. The final section points to the potential use of replicating viruses as delivery vehicles for efficient in vivo gene transfer to disseminated cancers.

  11. A generalized nonlocal vector calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alali, Bacim; Liu, Kuo; Gunzburger, Max

    2015-10-01

    A nonlocal vector calculus was introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) that has proved useful for the analysis of the peridynamics model of nonlocal mechanics and nonlocal diffusion models. A formulation is developed that provides a more general setting for the nonlocal vector calculus that is independent of particular nonlocal models. It is shown that general nonlocal calculus operators are integral operators with specific integral kernels. General nonlocal calculus properties are developed, including nonlocal integration by parts formula and Green's identities. The nonlocal vector calculus introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) is shown to be recoverable from the general formulation as a special example. This special nonlocal vector calculus is used to reformulate the peridynamics equation of motion in terms of the nonlocal gradient operator and its adjoint. A new example of nonlocal vector calculus operators is introduced, which shows the potential use of the general formulation for general nonlocal models.

  12. Episomal vectors for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, Anja; Haase, Rudolf; Schepers, Aloys; Deutsch, Manuel J; Lipps, Hans Joachim; Baiker, Armin

    2008-06-01

    The increasing knowledge of the molecular and genetic background of many different human diseases has led to the vision that genetic engineering might be used one day for their phenotypic correction. The main goal of gene therapy is to treat loss-of-function genetic disorders by delivering correcting therapeutic DNA sequences into the nucleus of a cell, allowing its long-term expression at physiologically relevant levels. Manifold different vector systems for the therapeutic gene delivery have been described over the recent years. They all have their individual advantages but also their individual limitations and must be judged on a careful risk/benefit analysis. Integrating vector systems can deliver genetic material to a target cell with high efficiency enabling long-term expression of an encoded transgene. The main disadvantage of integrating vector systems, however, is their potential risk of causing insertional mutagenesis. Episomal vector systems have the potential to avoid these undesired side effects, since they behave as separate extrachromosomal elements in the nucleus of a target cell. Within this article we present a comprehensive survey of currently available episomal vector systems for the genetic modification of mammalian cells. We will discuss their advantages and disadvantages and their applications in the context of basic research, biotechnology and gene therapy.

  13. Vector Encoding in Biochemical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo

    Encoding of environmental cues via biochemical signaling pathways is of vital importance in the transmission of information for cells in a network. The current literature assumes a single cell state is used to encode information, however, recent research suggests the optimal strategy utilizes a vector of cell states sampled at various time points. To elucidate the optimal sampling strategy for vector encoding, we take an information theoretic approach and determine the mutual information of the calcium signaling dynamics obtained from fibroblast cells perturbed with different concentrations of ATP. Specifically, we analyze the sampling strategies under the cases of fixed and non-fixed vector dimension as well as the efficiency of these strategies. Our results show that sampling with greater frequency is optimal in the case of non-fixed vector dimension but that, in general, a lower sampling frequency is best from both a fixed vector dimension and efficiency standpoint. Further, we find the use of a simple modified Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process as a model qualitatively captures many of our experimental results suggesting that sampling in biochemical networks is based on a few basic components.

  14. Generalized Selection Weighted Vector Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukac, Rastislav; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Smolka, Bogdan; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.

    2004-12-01

    This paper introduces a class of nonlinear multichannel filters capable of removing impulsive noise in color images. The here-proposed generalized selection weighted vector filter class constitutes a powerful filtering framework for multichannel signal processing. Previously defined multichannel filters such as vector median filter, basic vector directional filter, directional-distance filter, weighted vector median filters, and weighted vector directional filters are treated from a global viewpoint using the proposed framework. Robust order-statistic concepts and increased degree of freedom in filter design make the proposed method attractive for a variety of applications. Introduced multichannel sigmoidal adaptation of the filter parameters and its modifications allow to accommodate the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics. Simulation studies reported in this paper indicate that the proposed filter class is computationally attractive, yields excellent performance, and is able to preserve fine details and color information while efficiently suppressing impulsive noise. This paper is an extended version of the paper by Lukac et al. presented at the 2003 IEEE-EURASIP Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing (NSIP '03) in Grado, Italy.

  15. Gauge Theories of Vector Particles

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Glashow, S. L.; Gell-Mann, M.

    1961-04-24

    The possibility of generalizing the Yang-Mills trick is examined. Thus we seek theories of vector bosons invariant under continuous groups of coordinate-dependent linear transformations. All such theories may be expressed as superpositions of certain "simple" theories; we show that each "simple theory is associated with a simple Lie algebra. We may introduce mass terms for the vector bosons at the price of destroying the gauge-invariance for coordinate-dependent gauge functions. The theories corresponding to three particular simple Lie algebras - those which admit precisely two commuting quantum numbers - are examined in some detail as examples. One of them might play a role in the physics of the strong interactions if there is an underlying super-symmetry, transcending charge independence, that is badly broken. The intermediate vector boson theory of weak interactions is discussed also. The so-called "schizon" model cannot be made to conform to the requirements of partial gauge-invariance.

  16. Extrapolation methods for vector sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David A.; Ford, William F.; Sidi, Avram

    1987-01-01

    This paper derives, describes, and compares five extrapolation methods for accelerating convergence of vector sequences or transforming divergent vector sequences to convergent ones. These methods are the scalar epsilon algorithm (SEA), vector epsilon algorithm (VEA), topological epsilon algorithm (TEA), minimal polynomial extrapolation (MPE), and reduced rank extrapolation (RRE). MPE and RRE are first derived and proven to give the exact solution for the right 'essential degree' k. Then, Brezinski's (1975) generalization of the Shanks-Schmidt transform is presented; the generalized form leads from systems of equations to TEA. The necessary connections are then made with SEA and VEA. The algorithms are extended to the nonlinear case by cycling, the error analysis for MPE and VEA is sketched, and the theoretical support for quadratic convergence is discussed. Strategies for practical implementation of the methods are considered.

  17. Chiral bag with vector mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, A.; Toki, H.; Weise, W.

    1990-01-01

    We investigate nucleon structure in a (non-linear) chiral bag model with vector mesons. The model incorporates two different degrees of freedom: mesons outside the bag at long and intermediate ranges, and quarks inside the bag at short distances. The ρ, a 1 and ω mesons outside the bag are included in a chiral effective lagrangian based on the non-linear sigma model. The classical solution is obtained using the hedgehog ansatz, and the cranking method is applied to construct the physical nucleon states. Static properties of the nucleon such as its mass, axial vector coupling constant, magnetic moments and charge radii are studied in detail as functions of the bag radius. Quark and meson contributions to these quantities are calculated separately. In particular, we discuss the extent to which the vector-meson dominance picture holds in the chiral bag.

  18. Vector insects and their control.

    PubMed

    Lehane, M J

    1996-01-01

    This paper emphasizes the huge influence that vector-transmitted disease has on humans using plague, epidemic typhus and nagana as examples. The continuing need for vector control in campaigns against insect-transmitted disease is shown by reference to current control programmes mounted against Chagas' disease, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis and nagana. These successful campaigns have not been reliant on new breakthroughs but on the forging of available tools into effective strategies widely and efficiently used by the control authorities, and the long-lasting political commitment to the success of the schemes in question. A brief mention is made of current fashions in vector control research and that great care needs to be taken by policy-makers to achieve a balance between long-term research aiming at the production of fundamentally new control technologies and operational research aiming to forge the often highly effective tools we already have into sound control strategies.

  19. Targeting retroviral and lentiviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Sandrin, V; Russell, S J; Cosset, F L

    2003-01-01

    Retroviral vectors capable of efficient in vivo gene delivery to specific target cell types or to specific locations of disease pathology would greatly facilitate many gene therapy applications. The surface glycoproteins of membrane-enveloped viruses stand among the choice candidates to control the target cell receptor recognition and host range of retroviral vectors onto which they are incorporated. This can be achieved in many ways, such as the exchange of glycoprotein by pseudotyping, their biochemical modifications, their conjugation with virus-cell bridging agents or their structural modifications. Understanding the fundamental properties of the viral glycoproteins and the molecular mechanism of virus entry into cells has been instrumental in the functional alteration of their tropism. Here we briefly review the current state of our understanding of the structure and function of viral envelope glycoproteins and we discuss the emerging targeting strategies based on retroviral and lentiviral vector systems.

  20. Spinal Cord Injury Map

    MedlinePlus

    ... Counseling About Blog Facing Disability Jeff Shannon Donate Spinal Cord Injury Map Loss of function depends on what ... control. Learn more about spinal cord injuries. A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed ...

  1. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Preventing Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. ...

  2. Eye Injuries at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Numbers — Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Eye Injuries at Work Edited by: Shirley Dang Feb. ...

  3. Eye Injuries at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Numbers — Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran ...

  4. Wounds and Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    An injury is damage to your body. It is a general term that refers to harm caused by accidents, ... millions of people injure themselves every year. These injuries range from minor to life-threatening. Injuries can ...

  5. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

  6. What Are Sports Injuries?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sports Injuries Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Sports Injuries PDF Version Size: 597 KB Audio Version ... Size: 11.7 MB November 2014 What Are Sports Injuries? Fast Facts: An Easy-to-Read Series ...

  7. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

  8. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of illnesses and disabilities Spinal cord injury Spinal cord injury Read advice from Dr. Jeffrey Rabin , a ... your health on a daily basis. Living with spinal cord injury — your questions answered top What are pediatric ...

  9. "Floating shoulder" injuries.

    PubMed

    Heng, Kenneth

    2016-12-01

    "Floating shoulder" is a rare injury complex resulting from high-energy blunt force trauma to the shoulder, resulting in scapulothoracic dissociation. It is commonly associated with catastrophic neurovascular injury. Two cases of motorcyclists with floating shoulder injuries are described.

  10. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  11. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... overexertion of back muscles during bending or lifting movements. Back injuries are most common in contact sports like football and ice hockey, or in weightlifting, rowing, golf, figure skating, gymnastics, and dancing. Sex Organ Injuries Injuries to the sex organs ...

  12. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... a gunshot to the head. Head injuries include: Concussion , in which the brain is shaken, is the ... function. This is called a traumatic brain injury. Concussion is a mild traumatic brain injury. Symptoms of ...

  13. Head injury. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiographic Evaluation; Epidemiology of Head Injury; Emergency Care and Initial Evaluation; Skull Fracture and Traumatic Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistulas; Mild Head Injury; and Injuries of the Cranial Nerves.

  14. Bred vectors, singular vectors, and Lyapunov vectors in simple and complex models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norwood, Adrienne

    We compute and compare three types of vectors frequently used to explore the instability properties of dynamical models, Lyapunov vectors (LVs), singular vectors (SVs), and bred vectors (BVs). The first model is the Lorenz (1963) three-variable model. We find BVs align with the locally fastest growing LV, which is often the second fastest growing global LV. The growth rates of the three types of vectors reveal all predict regime changes and durations of new regimes, as shown for BVs by Evans et al. (2004). The second model is the toy 'atmosphere-ocean model' developed by Pena and Kalnay (2004) coupling three Lorenz (1963) models with different time scales to test the effects of fast and slow modes of growth on the dynamical vectors. A fast 'extratropical atmosphere' is weakly coupled to a fast 'tropical atmosphere' which is strongly coupled to a slow 'ocean' system, the latter coupling imitating the tropical El Nino--Southern Oscillation. BVs separate the fast and slow modes of growth through appropriate selection of the breeding parameters. LVs successfully separate the fast 'extratropics' but cannot completely decouple the 'tropics' from the 'ocean,' leading to 'coupled' LVs that are affected by both systems but mainly dominated by one. SVs identify the fast modes but cannot capture the slow modes until the fast 'extratropics' are replaced with faster 'convection.' The dissimilar behavior of the three types of vectors degrades the similarities of the subspaces they inhabit (Norwood et al. 2013). The third model is a quasi-geostrophic channel model (Rotunno and Bao 1996) that is a simplification of extratropical synoptic-scale motions with baroclinic instabilities only. We were unable to successfully compute LVs for it. However, randomly initialized BVs quickly converge to a single vector that is the leading LV. The last model is the SPEEDY model created by Molteni (2003). It is a simplified general atmospheric circulation model with several types of instabilities

  15. Thrust-vectored differential turns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, H. J.; Cliff, E. M.; Lefton, L.

    1980-01-01

    Barrier surface construction in the joint space of the differential turning game for thrust-vectored vs. conventional aircraft is discussed. Differential-turn studies are based on modifications of existing computer programs including an energy-turn program, and one which generates hodograph data. Optimal turning flight in energy approximation is discussed for the conventional aircraft configurations. It is concluded that any advantages realized from thrust-vectoring are minor, unless hover is possible, where advantages would be major at low energies, and affect tactics at high energies as well.

  16. Anisotropic inflation from vector impurity

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Sugumi; Kimura, Masashi; Soda, Jiro; Yokoyama, Shuichiro E-mail: mkimura@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp E-mail: shu@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2008-08-15

    We study an inflationary scenario with a vector impurity. We show that the universe undergoes anisotropic inflationary expansion due to a preferred direction determined by the vector. Using the slow roll approximation, we find a formula for determining the anisotropy of the inflationary universe. We discuss possible observable predictions of this scenario. In particular, it is stressed that primordial gravitational waves can be induced from curvature perturbations. Hence, even in low scale inflation, a sizable amount of primordial gravitational waves may be produced during inflation.

  17. Requirements for airborne vector gravimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, K. P.; Colombo, O.; Hein, G.; Knickmeyer, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of airborne vector gravimetry is the determination of the full gravity disturbance vector along the aircraft trajectory. The paper briefly outlines the concept of this method using a combination of inertial and GPS-satellite data. The accuracy requirements for users in geodesy and solid earth geophysics, oceanography and exploration geophysics are then specified. Using these requirements, accuracy specifications for the GPS subsystem and the INS subsystem are developed. The integration of the subsystems and the problems connected with it are briefly discussed and operational methods are indicated that might reduce some of the stringent accuracy requirements.

  18. Requirements for airborne vector gravimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, K. P.; Colombo, O.; Hein, G.; Knickmeyer, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of airborne vector gravimetry is the determination of the full gravity disturbance vector along the aircraft trajectory. The paper briefly outlines the concept of this method using a combination of inertial and GPS-satellite data. The accuracy requirements for users in geodesy and solid earth geophysics, oceanography and exploration geophysics are then specified. Using these requirements, accuracy specifications for the GPS subsystem and the INS subsystem are developed. The integration of the subsystems and the problems connected with it are briefly discussed and operational methods are indicated that might reduce some of the stringent accuracy requirements.

  19. Coexistence and interaction of vector and bound vector solitons in a dispersion-managed fiber laser mode locked by graphene.

    PubMed

    Song, Y F; Zhang, H; Zhao, L M; Shen, D Y; Tang, D Y

    2016-01-25

    We report on the experimental observation of vector and bound vector solitons in a fiber laser passively mode locked by graphene. Localized interactions between vector solitons, vector soliton with bound vector solitons, and vector soliton with a bunch of vector solitons are experimentally investigated. We show that depending on the soliton interactions, various stable and dynamic multiple vector soliton states could be formed.

  20. Basketball Injuries: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple Jr., David F.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses reasons for the increase in basketball-related injuries, describes common injuries, outlines steps for diagnosis and treatment, and offers recovery and prevention strategies. (IAH)

  1. Baseball and softball injuries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quincy

    2006-05-01

    Baseball and softball injuries can be a result of both acute and overuse injuries. Soft tissue injuries include contusions, abrasions, and lacerations. Return to play is allowed when risk of further injury is minimized. Common shoulder injuries include those to the rotator cuff, biceps tendon, and glenoid labrum. Elbow injuries are common in baseball and softball and include medial epicondylitis, ulnar collateral ligament injury, and osteochondritis dissecans. Typically conservative treatment with relative rest, medication, and a rehabilitation program will allow return to play. Surgical intervention may be needed for certain injuries or conservative treatment failure.

  2. Basketball Injuries: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple Jr., David F.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses reasons for the increase in basketball-related injuries, describes common injuries, outlines steps for diagnosis and treatment, and offers recovery and prevention strategies. (IAH)

  3. Injuries in orienteering.

    PubMed

    Linde, F

    1986-09-01

    In a one-year prospective study of 42 elite orienteers, 73 recent injuries (1.7 per runner per year) were found. Acute injuries totalled 52% and 48% were due to overuse. Ankle sprains made up 37% of acute injuries while the remaining were mainly contusions caused by falls or bumps against branches or rocks. Medial shin pain, Achilles peritendinitis, peroneal tenosynovitis and iliotibial band friction syndrome were the most frequent overuse injuries. All overuse injuries were located in the lower extremity while 18% of acute injuries was located elsewhere. Acute injuries were most frequent in the competitive season while overuse injuries occurred most often during the continuous training period.

  4. Paleomagnetic vectors and tilted dikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borradaile, G. J.

    2001-04-01

    Where tectonic deformation reorients rocks without penetrative strain, their paleomagnetic vectors may be restored to their original attitudes by untilting. For strata, paleomagnetic inclination is readily restored but the tilt axis must be precisely known if paleodeclination is required. For dikes, without the knowledge of the rotation(s), neither declination nor inclination of the paleomagnetic vector can be uniquely defined. Furthermore, back-rotating dike orientations to an upright attitude assumes primary verticality whereas primary dike dips are bimodal across the spreading axes (e.g. Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus). In the Cyprus ophiolite, the dikes of the Limassol Forest Transform Zone are tilted due to uplift of the mantle-sequence rocks and deflected against the Arakapas Fault. Their paleomagnetic vectors may be restored rotating about the two axes defined by the strike and the vertical, or about a net axis that is possibly the actual tectonic rotation axis. This net axis is determined from the tectonic regional dispersion of the dike orientations. In this test case, the results of the restorations differ slightly but underline the difficulty in selecting the best restoration procedure and the greater difficulty of restoring the paleomagnetic data from dikes vis à vis strata. For dikes, it is recommended that the paleomagnetic vectors are restored using average dike orientations to minimize the inaccuracies due to the large primary variation in dike orientation.

  5. Hydrogen as an energy vector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing hydrogen as an energy vector is considered, with special attention given to means of hydrogen production. The state-of-the-art in thermochemical processes is reviewed, and criteria for the technical and economic feasibility of large-scale thermochemical water splitting processes are presented. The production of hydrogen from coal and from photolysis of water is discussed.

  6. Portfolio Analysis for Vector Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    Classic stock portfolio analysis provides an applied context for Lagrange multipliers that undergraduate students appreciate. Although modern methods of portfolio analysis are beyond the scope of vector calculus, classic methods reinforce the utility of this material. This paper discusses how to introduce classic stock portfolio analysis in a…

  7. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a disease of equidae including horses, donkeys, mules and zebras caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick-vectors and although they have inherent differences, they ...

  8. Phlebotomine Vectors of Human Disease.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-30

    different. We refrain from naming this specimen until more material becomes available. 12. Lutzomyia olmeca bicolor Fairchild and Theodor 1971...Castillo (1958) and Arzube (1960). Lutzomyia olmeca bicolor is the suspected vector of Leishmania mexicana aristedesi among rodents and marsupials in

  9. Primer vector theory and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezewski, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A method developed to compute two-body, optimal, N-impulse trajectories was presented. The necessary conditions established define the gradient structure of the primer vector and its derivative for any set of boundary conditions and any number of impulses. Inequality constraints, a conjugate gradient iterator technique, and the use of a penalty function were also discussed.

  10. Biosafety Features of Lentiviral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Schambach, Axel; Zychlinski, Daniela; Ehrnstroem, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Over the past decades, lentiviral vectors have evolved as a benchmark tool for stable gene transfer into cells with a high replicative potential. Their relatively flexible genome and ability to transduce many forms of nondividing cells, combined with the potential for cell-specific pseudotyping, provides a rich resource for numerous applications in experimental platforms and therapeutic settings. Here, we give an overview of important biosafety features of lentiviral vectors, with detailed discussion of (i) the principles of the lentiviral split-genome design used for the construction of packaging cells; (ii) the relevance of modifications introduced into the lentiviral long terminal repeat (deletion of enhancer/promoter sequences and introduction of insulators); (iii) the basic features of mRNA processing, including the Rev/Rev-responsive element (RRE) interaction and the modifications of the 3′ untranslated region of lentiviral vectors with various post-transcriptional regulatory elements affecting transcriptional termination, polyadenylation, and differentiation-specific degradation of mRNA; and (iv) the characteristic integration pattern with the associated risk of transcriptional interference with cellular genes. We conclude with considerations regarding the importance of cell targeting via envelope modifications. Along this course, we address canonical biosafety issues encountered with any type of viral vector: the risks of shedding, mobilization, germline transmission, immunogenicity, and insertional mutagenesis. PMID:23311447

  11. Biosafety features of lentiviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Schambach, Axel; Zychlinski, Daniela; Ehrnstroem, Birgitta; Baum, Christopher

    2013-02-01

    Over the past decades, lentiviral vectors have evolved as a benchmark tool for stable gene transfer into cells with a high replicative potential. Their relatively flexible genome and ability to transduce many forms of nondividing cells, combined with the potential for cell-specific pseudotyping, provides a rich resource for numerous applications in experimental platforms and therapeutic settings. Here, we give an overview of important biosafety features of lentiviral vectors, with detailed discussion of (i) the principles of the lentiviral split-genome design used for the construction of packaging cells; (ii) the relevance of modifications introduced into the lentiviral long terminal repeat (deletion of enhancer/promoter sequences and introduction of insulators); (iii) the basic features of mRNA processing, including the Rev/Rev-responsive element (RRE) interaction and the modifications of the 3' untranslated region of lentiviral vectors with various post-transcriptional regulatory elements affecting transcriptional termination, polyadenylation, and differentiation-specific degradation of mRNA; and (iv) the characteristic integration pattern with the associated risk of transcriptional interference with cellular genes. We conclude with considerations regarding the importance of cell targeting via envelope modifications. Along this course, we address canonical biosafety issues encountered with any type of viral vector: the risks of shedding, mobilization, germline transmission, immunogenicity, and insertional mutagenesis.

  12. Portfolio Analysis for Vector Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    Classic stock portfolio analysis provides an applied context for Lagrange multipliers that undergraduate students appreciate. Although modern methods of portfolio analysis are beyond the scope of vector calculus, classic methods reinforce the utility of this material. This paper discusses how to introduce classic stock portfolio analysis in a…

  13. Tendon injuries

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fan; Nerlich, Michael; Docheva, Denitsa

    2017-01-01

    Tendons connect muscles to bones, ensuring joint movement. With advanced age, tendons become more prone to degeneration followed by injuries. Tendon repair often requires lengthy periods of rehabilitation, especially in elderly patients. Existing medical and surgical treatments often fail to regain full tendon function. The development of novel treatment methods has been hampered due to limited understanding of basic tendon biology. Recently, it was discovered that tendons, similar to other mesenchymal tissues, contain tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) which possess the common stem cell properties. The current strategies for enhancing tendon repair consist mainly of applying stem cells, growth factors, natural and artificial biomaterials alone or in combination. In this review, we summarise the basic biology of tendon tissues and provide an update on the latest repair proposals for tendon tears. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:332-342. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160075 PMID:28828182

  14. Injury surveillance in construction: eye injuries.

    PubMed

    Welch, L S; Hunting, K L; Mawudeku, A

    2001-07-01

    Occupational eye injuries are both common and preventable. About 20% of occupational eye injuries occur in construction. To investigate the nature of eye injuries among construction workers, we analyzed a large data set of construction worker injuries. In addition, we interviewed 62 workers with eye injuries to further explore circumstances of eye injury and workers' attitudes and behavior toward the use of eye protection. Eleven percent (363 cases) of the 3,390 construction workers in our data set were treated for eye injuries. Welders, plumbers, insulators, painters/glaziers, supervisors, and electricians had a higher proportion of all injuries due to eye injuries than other trades. Nearly half of the diagnoses were abrasions (46%) followed by foreign objects or splash in the eye (29%), conjunctivitis (10%), and burns (5%). In the interviews with 62 workers, we found that employers very frequently required eye protection for all tasks or for high-risk tasks, and workers report wearing eye protection regularly. However, most did not wear eye protection with top and side shields; if we believe the injuries occurred because a particle or liquid passed between the glasses and the workers' faces, increased use of goggles or full shields would have prevented two-thirds of this group of injuries.

  15. Ice Hockey Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Franklin H.; Simonet, William T.

    1988-01-01

    The article describes the mechanisms, management, and prevention of each type of injury to which hockey players are prone. It surveys the injuries sustained by ice hockey players and discusses treatment of specific injuries, including those injuries to the head, eye, shoulder, hand, thigh, scalp, and face. (JL)

  16. Eye Injuries in Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Fitness Sports Safety Eye Injuries in Sports Eye Injuries in Sports Exercise and FitnessPrevention and WellnessSports Safety Share Eye Injuries ... injury, detached retina, patient education, patient information, penetrating eye ... Exercise and Fitness, Prevention and Wellness, Sports Safety June ...

  17. On third order integrable vector Hamiltonian equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkov, A. G.; Sokolov, V. V.

    2017-03-01

    A complete list of third order vector Hamiltonian equations with the Hamiltonian operator Dx having an infinite series of higher conservation laws is presented. A new vector integrable equation on the sphere is found.

  18. Using Dip Vectors to Analyze Structural Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisonant, Robert Clyde; Watts, Chester Frederick

    1989-01-01

    A method of plotting planes on stereonets is described including great circles, poles, and dip vectors. Teaching applications of dip vectors in engineering geology and structural geology are discussed. (CW)

  19. Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, H.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.

    1997-10-01

    Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, GeneralVectorAnalysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

  20. Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, H.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1997-10-09

    Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, General Vector Analysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

  1. Context vector approach to image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Clara Z.; Means, Robert W.

    1998-04-01

    HNC developed a unique context vector approach to image retrieval in Image Contrast Addressable Retrieval System. The basis for this approach is the context vector approach to image representation. A context vector is a high dimensional vector of real numbers, derived from a set of features that are useful in discriminating between images in a particular domain. The image features are trained based upon the constrained 2D self-organizing learning law. The image context vector encodes both intra-image features and inter-image relationship. The similarity in the directions of the context vectors of a pair of images indicates their similarity of content. The context vector approach to image representation simplifies the image and retrieval indexing problem because simple Euclidean distance measurements between sets of context vectors are used as a measure of similarity.

  2. Intrauterine Arrow Injury.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Jayanta Kumar; Lahiri, Kaushik

    2017-01-01

    Injury of a pregnant lady risks both mother and fetus. Various modes of injuries are possible. But arrow injury is not usually heard of in today's world. We have reported a male child delivered with a cut injury on the face. It was caused by a penetrating arrow hitting his mother in her lower abdomen at term. The injury of the baby was repaired successfully.

  3. Intrauterine Arrow Injury

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Jayanta Kumar; Lahiri, Kaushik

    2017-01-01

    Injury of a pregnant lady risks both mother and fetus. Various modes of injuries are possible. But arrow injury is not usually heard of in today's world. We have reported a male child delivered with a cut injury on the face. It was caused by a penetrating arrow hitting his mother in her lower abdomen at term. The injury of the baby was repaired successfully. PMID:28082780

  4. Injury to the prepuce.

    PubMed

    Yip, A; Ng, S K; Wong, W C; Li, M K; Lam, K H

    1989-05-01

    Injury to the prepuce is uncommon. A total of 32 patients were treated within a 3-year period. A difference in the aetiology between boys and adults was noted. Accidental injury to the prepuce occurred in 6 boys, with zipper injuries being the commonest among children. Coital and self-inflicted injuries accounted for 85% of adult cases. In patients with coital injuries, predisposing phimosis or a short frenulum was common.

  5. [Synchronous playing and acquiring of heart sounds and electrocardiogram based on labVIEW].

    PubMed

    Dan, Chunmei; He, Wei; Zhou, Jing; Que, Xiaosheng

    2008-12-01

    In this paper is described a comprehensive system, which can acquire heart sounds and electrocardiogram (ECG) in parallel, synchronize the display; and play of heart sound and make auscultation and check phonocardiogram to tie in. The hardware system with C8051F340 as the core acquires the heart sound and ECG synchronously, and then sends them to indicators, respectively. Heart sounds are displayed and played simultaneously by controlling the moment of writing to indicator and sound output device. In clinical testing, heart sounds can be successfully located with ECG and real-time played.

  6. Multi-window detection for P-wave in electrocardiograms based on bilateral accumulative area.

    PubMed

    Chen, Riqing; Huang, Yingsong; Wu, Jian

    2016-11-01

    P-wave detection is one of the most challenging aspects in electrocardiograms (ECGs) due to its low amplitude, low frequency, and variable waveforms. This work introduces a novel multi-window detection method for P-wave delineation based on the bilateral accumulative area. The bilateral accumulative area is calculated by summing the areas covered by the P-wave curve with left and right sliding windows. The onset and offset of a positive P-wave correspond to the local maxima of the area detector. The position drift and difference in area variation of local extreme points with different windows are used to systematically combine multi-window and 12-lead synchronous detection methods, which are used to screen the optimization boundary points from all extreme points of different window widths and adaptively match the P-wave location. The proposed method was validated with ECG signals from various databases, including the Standard CSE Database, T-Wave Alternans Challenge Database, PTB Diagnostic ECG Database, and the St. Petersburg Institute of Cardiological Technics 12-Lead Arrhythmia Database. The average sensitivity Se was 99.44% with a positive predictivity P+ of 99.37% for P-wave detection. Standard deviations of 3.7 and 4.3ms were achieved for the onset and offset of P-waves, respectively, which is in agreement with the accepted tolerances required by the CSE committee. Compared with well-known delineation methods, this method can achieve high sensitivity and positive predictability using a simple calculation process. The experiment results suggest that the bilateral accumulative area could be an effective detection tool for ECG signal analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrocardiogram Based Identification using a New Effective Intelligent Selection of Fused Features

    PubMed Central

    Abbaspour, Hamidreza; Razavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Mehrshad, Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, the feasibility of using Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal for human identification issue has been investigated, and some methods have been suggested. In this research, a new effective intelligent feature selection method from ECG signals has been proposed. This method is developed in such a way that it is able to select important features that are necessary for identification using analysis of the ECG signals. For this purpose, after ECG signal preprocessing, its characterizing features were extracted and then compressed using the cosine transform. The more effective features in the identification, among the characterizing features, are selected using a combination of the genetic algorithm and artificial neural networks. The proposed method was tested on three public ECG databases, namely, MIT-BIH Arrhythmias Database, MITBIH Normal Sinus Rhythm Database and The European ST-T Database, in order to evaluate the proposed subject identification method on normal ECG signals as well as ECG signals with arrhythmias. Identification rates of 99.89% and 99.84% and 99.99% are obtained for these databases respectively. The proposed algorithm exhibits remarkable identification accuracies not only with normal ECG signals, but also in the presence of various arrhythmias. Simulation results showed that the proposed method despite the low number of selected features has a high performance in identification task. PMID:25709939

  8. Vector computer memory bank contention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    A number of vector supercomputers feature very large memories. Unfortunately the large capacity memory chips that are used in these computers are much slower than the fast central processing unit (CPU) circuitry. As a result, memory bank reservation times (in CPU ticks) are much longer than on previous generations of computers. A consequence of these long reservation times is that memory bank contention is sharply increased, resulting in significantly lowered performance rates. The phenomenon of memory bank contention in vector computers is analyzed using both a Markov chain model and a Monte Carlo simulation program. The results of this analysis indicate that future generations of supercomputers must either employ much faster memory chips or else feature very large numbers of independent memory banks.

  9. Vector computer memory bank contention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.

    1987-01-01

    A number of vector supercomputers feature very large memories. Unfortunately the large capacity memory chips that are used in these computers are much slower than the fast central processing unit (CPU) circuitry. As a result, memory bank reservation times (in CPU ticks) are much longer than on previous generations of computers. A consequence of these long reservation times is that memory bank contention is sharply increased, resulting in significantly lowered performance rates. The phenomenon of memory bank contention in vector computers is analyzed using both a Markov chain model and a Monte Carlo simulation program. The results of this analysis indicate that future generations of supercomputers must either employ much faster memory chips or else feature very large numbers of independent memory banks.

  10. Medium Modification of Vector Mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Chaden Djalali, Michael Paolone, Dennis Weygand, Michael H. Wood, Rakhsha Nasseripour

    2011-03-01

    The theory of the strong interaction, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), has been remarkably successful in describing high-energy and short-distance-scale experiments involving quarks and gluons. However, applying QCD to low energy and large-distance scale experiments has been a major challenge. Various QCD-inspired models predict a partial restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclear matter with modifications of the properties of hadrons from their free-space values. Measurable changes such as a shift in mass and/or a change of width are predicted at normal nuclear density. Photoproduction of vector mesons off nuclei have been performed at different laboratories. The properties of the ρ, ω and φ mesons are investigated either directly by measuring their mass spectra or indirectly through transparency ratios. The latest results regarding medium modifications of the vector mesons in the nuclear medium will be discussed.

  11. Lentiviral vectors in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Oldham, Robyn Aa; Berinstein, Elliot M; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Basic science advances in cancer immunotherapy have resulted in various treatments that have recently shown success in the clinic. Many of these therapies require the insertion of genes into cells to directly kill them or to redirect the host's cells to induce potent immune responses. Other analogous therapies work by modifying effector cells for improved targeting and enhanced killing of tumor cells. Initial studies done using γ-retroviruses were promising, but safety concerns centered on the potential for insertional mutagenesis have highlighted the desire to develop other options for gene delivery. Lentiviral vectors (LVs) have been identified as potentially more effective and safer alternative delivery vehicles. LVs are now in use in clinical trials for many different types of inherited and acquired disorders, including cancer. This review will discuss current knowledge of LVs and the applications of this viral vector-based delivery vehicle to cancer immunotherapy.

  12. Clinical applications of power vectors.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph M

    2009-06-01

    The study of infant vision is closely coupled to the study of the refraction, change in refraction over time, and the effect of spectacle correction on visual development. Frequently, reports are limited to descriptions of spherical equivalent or cylinder power without regard to axis, as data are frequently collected in the clinical format of sphere, cylinder, and axis (S, C, A). Conversion from clinical notation to a power vector representation of refraction allows unambiguous description of how refractions change over time and differ between repeated measurements. This article presents a series of examples of Microsoft Excel spreadsheet formulas that make the conversion from clinical notation to power vector format, and provides examples of useful applications of these methods.

  13. Fast combinatorial vector field topology.

    PubMed

    Reininghaus, Jan; Löwen, Christian; Hotz, Ingrid

    2011-10-01

    This paper introduces a novel approximation algorithm for the fundamental graph problem of combinatorial vector field topology (CVT). CVT is a combinatorial approach based on a sound theoretical basis given by Forman's work on a discrete Morse theory for dynamical systems. A computational framework for this mathematical model of vector field topology has been developed recently. The applicability of this framework is however severely limited by the quadratic complexity of its main computational kernel. In this work, we present an approximation algorithm for CVT with a significantly lower complexity. This new algorithm reduces the runtime by several orders of magnitude and maintains the main advantages of CVT over the continuous approach. Due to the simplicity of our algorithm it can be easily parallelized to improve the runtime further. © 2011 IEEE

  14. Vector computer memory bank contention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.

    1987-01-01

    A number of vector supercomputers feature very large memories. Unfortunately the large capacity memory chips that are used in these computers are much slower than the fast central processing unit (CPU) circuitry. As a result, memory bank reservation times (in CPU ticks) are much longer than on previous generations of computers. A consequence of these long reservation times is that memory bank contention is sharply increased, resulting in significantly lowered performance rates. The phenomenon of memory bank contention in vector computers is analyzed using both a Markov chain model and a Monte Carlo simulation program. The results of this analysis indicate that future generations of supercomputers must either employ much faster memory chips or else feature very large numbers of independent memory banks.

  15. Quantum electrodynamics for vector mesons.

    PubMed

    Djukanovic, Dalibor; Schindler, Matthias R; Gegelia, Jambul; Scherer, Stefan

    2005-07-01

    Quantum electrodynamics for rho mesons is considered. It is shown that, at the tree level, the value of the gyromagnetic ratio of the rho+ is fixed to 2 in a self-consistent effective quantum field theory. Further, the mixing parameter of the photon and the neutral vector meson is equal to the ratio of electromagnetic and strong couplings, leading to the mass difference M(rho0)-M(rho+/-) approximately 1 MeV at tree order.

  16. Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Ecuador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-01

    Boshell-Manrique. 1946. Studies of Mosquitoes of the Genus Haemagogus in Colombia (Diptera, Culicidae). Am. J. Hyg., 43: 13-28. 75 Lane, J...Leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease transmitted in the New World by sand flies in the genus Lutzomyia. Most cases occur in the tropical and subtropical...parasites (P. vivax , P. falciparum, P. malariae and P. ovale). Female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are the exclusive vectors of human malaria

  17. GAPS IN SUPPORT VECTOR OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    STEINWART, INGO; HUSH, DON; SCOVEL, CLINT; LIST, NICOLAS

    2007-01-29

    We show that the stopping criteria used in many support vector machine (SVM) algorithms working on the dual can be interpreted as primal optimality bounds which in turn are known to be important for the statistical analysis of SVMs. To this end we revisit the duality theory underlying the derivation of the dual and show that in many interesting cases primal optimality bounds are the same as known dual optimality bounds.

  18. A ocean bottom vector magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaomei; Teng, Yuntian; Wang, Chen; Ma, Jiemei

    2017-04-01

    The new development instrument with a compact spherical coil system and Overhauser magnetometer for measuring the total strength of the magnetic field and the vectors of strength, Delta inclination - Delta declination, meanwhile we also use a triaxial fluxgate instrument of the traditional instrument for geomagnetic vector filed measurement. The advantages of this method are be calibrated by each other and get good performances with automatic operation, good stability and high resolution. Firstly, a brief description of the instrument measurement principles and the key technologies are given. The instrument used a spherical coil system with 34 coils to product the homogeneous volume inside the coils which is large enough to accommodate the sensor of Overhauser total field sensor; the rest of the footlocker-sized ocean-bottom vector magnetometer consists of equipment to run the sensors and records its data (batteries and a data logger), weight to sink it to the sea floor, a remote-controlled acoustic release and flotation to bring the instrument back to the surface. Finally, the accuracy of the instrument was tested in the Geomagnetic station, and the measurement accuracies of total strength and components were better than 0.2nT and 1nT respectively. The figure 1 shows the development instrument structure. it includes six thick glass spheres which protect the sensor, data logger and batteries from the pressures of the deep sea, meanwhile they also provide recycling positive buoyancy; To cushion the glass, the spheres then go inside yellow plastic "hardhats". The triaxial fluxgate is inside No.1 glass spheres, data logger and batteries are inside No.2 glass spheres, the new vector sensor is inside No.3 glass spheres, acoustic communication unit is inside No.4 glass spheres, No.5 and No.6 glass spheres are empty which only provide recycling positive buoyancy. The figure 2 shows the development instrument Physical photo.

  19. Thrust-Vector-Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Jonathan

    1992-01-01

    Control gains computed via matrix Riccati equation. Software-based system controlling aim of gimbaled rocket motor on spacecraft adaptive and optimal in sense it adjusts control gains in response to feedback, according to optimizing algorithm based on cost function. Underlying control concept also applicable, with modifications, to thrust-vector control on vertical-takeoff-and-landing airplanes, control of orientations of scientific instruments, and robotic control systems.

  20. Ultrasonic Dynamic Vector Stress Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Froggatt, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Stress inferred from measurements in specimens rather than in bonded gauges. Ultrasonic dynamic vector stress sensor (UDVSS) measures changes in dynamic directional stress occurring in material or structure at location touched by device when material or structure put under cyclic load. Includes phase-locked loop, synchronous amplifier, and contact probe. Useful among manufacturers of aerospace and automotive structures for stress testing and evaluation of designs.

  1. Catastrophic injuries in wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Boden, Barry P; Lin, Willie; Young, Megan; Mueller, Frederick O

    2002-01-01

    There is a paucity of comprehensive information on catastrophic wrestling injuries. Our objective was to develop a profile of catastrophic injuries in wrestling and a list of relevant risk factors. Retrospective review. We retrospectively reviewed 35 incidents that were reported to the National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury Research over an 18-year period from 1981 until 1999. Except in the case of one male college athlete, all injuries occurred in male high school wrestlers. There were 2.11 direct catastrophic injuries per year or 1 per 100000 participants. The majority of injuries occurred in match competitions (80%), with a trend toward more injuries in the low- and middle-weight classes. The position most frequently associated with injury was the defensive position during the takedown maneuver (74%), followed by the down position (23%), and the lying position (3%). Catastrophic injuries included 27 cervical fractures or major cervical ligament injuries, 4 spinal cord contusions with transient quadriparesis, 3 severe head injuries, and an acutely herniated lumbar disc. The injuries resulted in quadriplegia in 11, residual neurologic deficits in 6, paraplegia in 1, and death in 1 head-injured athlete. Although catastrophic injuries in wrestling are rare, they do occur. Referees can help prevent such injuries by strictly enforcing penalties for slams and by gaining more awareness of dangerous holds. Coaches may also prevent serious injuries by emphasizing proper wrestling techniques.

  2. Injury in Australian veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Fritschi, Lin; Day, Lesley; Shirangi, Adeleh; Robertson, Ian; Lucas, Michael; Vizard, Andrew

    2006-05-01

    There are a number of risk factors for traumatic injury in veterinary practice but there is little information on the prevalence of injuries or the factors associated with injury in this profession. To identify the prevalence of injuries sustained by veterinarians and the groups most at risk for different types of injury. Cross-sectional survey of Australian veterinarians. Subjects were asked whether they had ever had a significant work-related injury, a less serious acute work injury in the last 12 months, a work-related chronic musculoskeletal problem or dog or cat bites. The prevalence of injuries by gender, practice type and decade of graduation were reported and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the risk of each type of injury. Of 2800 veterinarians, over half (51%) reported a significant work-related injury during their career while 26% of practitioners reported having at least one injury in the previous 12 months. Chronic work-related musculoskeletal problems were reported by 49% of respondents. Dog and cat bites were also very common. After adjusting for graduation year and university, males were more likely than females to have experienced cat or dog bites or have a chronic or significant injury, and large animal veterinarians were most likely to have chronic or significant injuries. A high injury prevalence was found among Australian veterinarians with large animal practitioners at highest risk. This is the largest study of Australian veterinarians to have been reported and has shown that injuries are common and serious in the profession.

  3. Visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helman, James L.; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1991-01-01

    Methods of automating the analysis and display of vector field topology in general and flow topology in particular are discussed. Two-dimensional vector field topology is reviewed as the basis for the examination of topology in three-dimensional separated flows. The use of tangent surfaces and clipping in visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows is addressed.

  4. Transmission parameters of vector-borne infections.

    PubMed

    Desenclos, J-C

    2011-11-01

    Vector-borne infections are those for which the agent (virus, bacteria, or parasite) is transmitted from an infected host (animal or human) to another by a hematophagous arthropod (mosquito, tick, lice, and flea). Two parameters quantify the dynamics of a vector-borne infection: (1) the basic reproductive number (R(0)) that is the mean number of secondary infections transmitted from an infectious host by the bite of the vector and (2) the generation interval that explores the speed of occurrence of secondary cases transmitted by the vector from an infectious case. In a population in which some individuals are immune, the parameter of interest is the net reproduction number (R) function of R(0) and the proportion of those immune. For vector-borne infectious agents, R(0) is determined by the number of vectors in contact with a given individual (m), the number of a given vector bites/day on individuals (a), the daily survival rate of the vector (p), the duration of the pathogenic agent's development cycle in the vector (n), the proportion of infected vectors that are really infectious (vector competence) (b), the probability of agent transmission from a viremic individual to the vector for one bite (c) and the host's infectiousness clearance rate (r) with R(0)=(m. a(2). p(n)/-lnp). b. c/r. These parameters are related to geographic and climatic conditions and cannot, therefore, be extrapolated from one situation to another.

  5. MISR Level 3 Cloud Motion Vector

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-10

    MISR Level 3 Cloud Motion Vector Level 3 Wednesday, November 7, 2012 ... A new version, F02_0002, of the MISR L3 CMV (Cloud Motion Vector) data product is now available. This new release provides finer ... coverage. These enhancements are the result of reorganizing motion vector information present in the recent Level 2 Cloud product as ...

  6. Gene therapy approaches for spinal cord injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, Corinne

    As the biomedical engineering field expands, combination technologies are demonstrating enormous potential for treating human disease. In particular, intersections between the rapidly developing fields of gene therapy and tissue engineering hold promise to achieve tissue regeneration. Nonviral gene therapy uses plasmid DNA to deliver therapeutic proteins in vivo for extended periods of time. Tissue engineering employs biomedical materials, such as polymers, to support the regrowth of injured tissue. In this thesis, a combination strategy to deliver genes and drugs in a polymeric scaffold was applied to a spinal cord injury model. In order to develop a platform technology to treat spinal cord injury, several nonviral gene delivery systems and polymeric scaffolds were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Nonviral vector trafficking was evaluated in primary neuronal culture to develop an understanding of the barriers to gene transfer in neurons and their supporting glia. Although the most efficient gene carrier in vitro differed from the optimal gene carrier in vivo, confocal and electron microscopy of these nonviral vectors provided insights into the interaction of these vectors with the nucleus. A novel pathway for delivering nanoparticles into the nuclei of neurons and Schwann cells via vesicle trafficking was observed in this study. Reporter gene expression levels were evaluated after direct and remote delivery to the spinal cord, and the optimal nonviral vector, dose, and delivery strategy were applied to deliver the gene encoding the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to the spinal cord. An injectable and biocompatible gel, composed of the amphiphillic polymer poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG) was evaluated as a drug and gene delivery system in vitro, and combined with the optimized nonviral gene delivery system to treat spinal cord injury. Plasmid DNA encoding the bFGF gene and the therapeutic NEP1--40 peptide

  7. Gaussian statistics for palaeomagnetic vectors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.J.; Constable, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    With the aim of treating the statistics of palaeomagnetic directions and intensities jointly and consistently, we represent the mean and the variance of palaeomagnetic vectors, at a particular site and of a particular polarity, by a probability density function in a Cartesian three-space of orthogonal magnetic-field components consisting of a single (unimoda) non-zero mean, spherically-symmetrical (isotropic) Gaussian function. For palaeomagnetic data of mixed polarities, we consider a bimodal distribution consisting of a pair of such symmetrical Gaussian functions, with equal, but opposite, means and equal variances. For both the Gaussian and bi-Gaussian distributions, and in the spherical three-space of intensity, inclination, and declination, we obtain analytical expressions for the marginal density functions, the cumulative distributions, and the expected values and variances for each spherical coordinate (including the angle with respect to the axis of symmetry of the distributions). The mathematical expressions for the intensity and off-axis angle are closed-form and especially manageable, with the intensity distribution being Rayleigh-Rician. In the limit of small relative vectorial dispersion, the Gaussian (bi-Gaussian) directional distribution approaches a Fisher (Bingham) distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a normal distribution. In the opposite limit of large relative vectorial dispersion, the directional distributions approach a spherically-uniform distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a Maxwell distribution. We quantify biases in estimating the properties of the vector field resulting from the use of simple arithmetic averages, such as estimates of the intensity or the inclination of the mean vector, or the variances of these quantities. With the statistical framework developed here and using the maximum-likelihood method, which gives unbiased estimates in the limit of large data numbers, we demonstrate how to

  8. Injury in rugby league.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, W; Pollard, H; Hough, K; Tully, C

    2006-05-01

    It was the purpose of this review to document the range, incidence, location and mechanism of injury occurring in the sport of rugby league. Rugby league is a collision sport played in Europe and the Pacific regions including Australia. The sport is well established and has competitions ranging from junior to elite professional. Due to the contact nature of the game, injury is relatively common. The most common injuries are musculotendinous in nature and afflict the lower limb more frequently than elsewhere. Despite the high incidence of minor (sprains/strains) to moderate musculoskeletal injury (fracture, ligament and joint injury) and minor head injuries such as lacerations, nasal fractures and concussions, rare more serious spinal cord and other injuries causing death have also been recorded. The literature on rugby league injury is small but growing and suffers from a lack of consistent definition of what an injury is, thereby causing variability in the nature and incidence/prevalence of injury. Information is lacking on the injury profiles of different age groups. Importantly, there has been little attempt to establish a coordinated injury surveillance program in rugby league in the junior or professional levels. The implementation of such programs would require a universal definition of injury and a focus on important events and competitions. The implementation could provide important information in the identification and prevention of risk factors for injury.

  9. Traumatic Brachial Artery Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Ergunes, Kazim; Yilik, Levent; Ozsoyler, Ibrahim; Kestelli, Mert; Ozbek, Cengiz; Gurbuz, Ali

    2006-01-01

    We performed this retrospective study to analyze our strategies for managing and surgically treating brachial artery injuries. Fifty-seven patients with a total of 58 traumatic brachial artery injuries underwent surgery at our institution, from August 1996 through November 2004. Fifty-four patients were male and 3 were female (age range, 7 to 75 years; mean, 29.4 years). Forty-four of the patients had penetrating injuries (18 had stab wounds; 16, window glass injuries; and 10, industrial accidents), 10 had blunt trauma injuries (traffic accidents), and 3 had gunshot injuries. Fourteen patients (24.6%) had peripheral nerve injury. All patients underwent Doppler ultrasonographic examination. The repair of the 58 arterial injuries involved end-to-end anastomosis for 32 injuries (55.2%), reverse saphenous vein graft interpositional grafts for 18 (31%), and primary repair for 8 (13.8%). Venous continuity was achieved in 11 (84.6%) of 13 patients who had major venous injuries. Nine of the 57 patients (15.8%) required primary fasciotomy. Follow-up showed that 5 of the 14 patients with peripheral nerve injury had apparent disabilities due to nerve injury. One patient underwent amputation. There were no deaths. We believe that good results can be achieved in patients with brachial artery injuries by use of careful physical examination, Doppler ultrasonography, and restoration of viability with vascular repair and dbridement of nonviable tissues. Traumatic neurologic injury frequently leads to disability of the extremities. PMID:16572866

  10. Vectors derived from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV).

    PubMed

    Nègre, Didier; Cosset, François-Loïc

    2002-11-01

    In contrast to other retroviruses, lentiviruses have the unique property of infecting non-proliferating cells. Thus vectors derived from lentiviruses are promising tools for in vivo gene delivery applications. Vectors derived from human primate and non-primate lentiviruses have recently been described and, unlike retroviral vectors derived from murine leukemia viruses, lead to stable integration of the transgene into quiescent cells in various organs. Despite all the safety safeguards that have been progressively introduced in lentiviral vectors, the clinical acceptance of vectors derived from pathogenic lentiviruses is subject to debate. It is therefore essential to design vectors derived from a wide range of lentivirus types and to comparatively examine their properties in terms of transduction efficiency and bio-safety. Here, we review the properties of lentiviral vectors derived from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV).

  11. Vaccine Design: Replication-Defective Adenovirus Vectors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangyang; Xiang, Zhiquan; Ertl, Hildegund C J

    2016-01-01

    Replication-defective adenovirus (Ad) vectors were initially developed for gene transfer for correction of genetic diseases. Although Ad vectors achieved high levels of transgene product expression in a variety of target cells, expression of therapeutic proteins was found to be transient as vigorous T cell responses directed to components of the vector as well as the transgene product rapidly eliminate Ad vector-transduced cells. This opened the use of Ad vectors as vaccine carriers and by now a multitude of preclinical as well as clinical studies has shown that Ad vectors induce very potent and sustained transgene product-specific T and B cell responses. This chapter provides guidance on developing E1-deleted Ad vectors based on available viral molecular clones. Specifically, it describes methods for cloning, viral rescue and purification as well as quality control studies.

  12. Multiscale vector fields for image pattern recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, Kah-Chan; Coggins, James M.

    1990-01-01

    A uniform processing framework for low-level vision computing in which a bank of spatial filters maps the image intensity structure at each pixel into an abstract feature space is proposed. Some properties of the filters and the feature space are described. Local orientation is measured by a vector sum in the feature space as follows: each filter's preferred orientation along with the strength of the filter's output determine the orientation and the length of a vector in the feature space; the vectors for all filters are summed to yield a resultant vector for a particular pixel and scale. The orientation of the resultant vector indicates the local orientation, and the magnitude of the vector indicates the strength of the local orientation preference. Limitations of the vector sum method are discussed. Investigations show that the processing framework provides a useful, redundant representation of image structure across orientation and scale.

  13. Rehabilitation of basketball injuries.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Gerard A; Chimes, Gary P

    2006-08-01

    Basketball is one of the most popular sports in the United States and throughout the world, and therefore represents one of the most common sources of sports-related injuries. Basketball injuries should be managed by the same general rehabilitation principles as other sports injuries. Additionally, the clinician should be aware not only of general sports injuries but of those injuries most commonly seen in basketball players. By maintaining knowledge of the most common basketball injuries as well as their diagnosis and treatment, the clinician can help to optimize the athlete's return to play and enjoyment of the sport.

  14. Upper extremity golf injuries.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury.

  15. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  16. Phenotypic improvement of dystrophic muscles by rAAV/microdystrophin vectors is augmented by Igf1 codelivery.

    PubMed

    Abmayr, Simone; Gregorevic, Paul; Allen, James M; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S

    2005-09-01

    The absence of dystrophin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) leads to sarcolemmal instability and enhances the susceptibility of muscle fibers to contraction-induced injury. Various viral vectors have been used to deliver mini- and microdystrophin expression cassettes to muscles of dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, significantly increasing both the morphological and the functional properties of the muscles. However, dystrophin delivery to adult mdx mice has not yielded a complete rescue of the dystrophic phenotype. Here we investigated a novel strategy involving dual gene transfer of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors expressing either microdystrophin (rAAV-muDys) or a muscle-specific isoform of Igf-1 (rAAV-mIgf-1). Injection of mdx muscles with rAAV-muDys reduced myofiber degeneration and turnover and increased their resistance to mechanical injury, but did not increase muscle mass or force generation. Injection of mdx muscles with rAAV-mIgf-1 led to increased muscle mass, but did not provide protection against mechanical injury or halt myofiber degeneration, leading to loss of the vector over time. In contrast, co-injection of the rAAV-muDys and rAAV-mIgf-1 vectors resulted in increased muscle mass and strength, reduced myofiber degeneration, and increased protection against contraction-induced injury. These results suggest that a dual-gene, combinatorial strategy could enhance the efficacy of gene therapy of DMD.

  17. Vector meson electroproduction in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Juan; Cai, Xian-Hao; Zhou, Li-Juan

    2012-08-01

    Based on the generalized QCD vector meson dominance model, we study the electroproduction of a vector meson off a proton in the QCD inspired eikonalized model. Numerical calculations for the total cross section σtot and differential cross section dσ/dt are performed for ρ, ω and varphi meson electroproduction in this paper. Since gluons interact among themselves (self-interaction), two gluons can form a glueball with quantum numbers IG, JPC = 0+,2++, decay width Γt ≈ 100 MeV, and mass of mG = 2.23 GeV. The three gluons can form a three-gluon colorless bound state with charge conjugation quantum number C = -1, called the Odderon. The mediators of interactions between projectiles (the quark and antiquark pair fluctuated from the virtual photon) and the proton target (a three-quark system) are the tensor glueball and the Odderon. Our calculated results in the tensor glueball and Odderon exchange model fit to the existing data successfully, which evidently shows that our present QCD mechanism is a good description of meson electroproduction off a proton. It should be emphasized that our mechanism is different from the theoretical framework of Block et al. We also believe that the present study and its success are important for the investigation of other vector meson electro- and photoproduction at high energies, as well as for searching for new particles such as tensor glueballs and Odderons, which have been predicted by QCD and the color glass condensate model (CGC). Therefore, in return, it can test the validity of QCD and the CGC model.

  18. Catastrophic cheerleading injuries.

    PubMed

    Boden, Barry P; Tacchetti, Robin; Mueller, Frederick O

    2003-01-01

    There are few epidemiologic studies of cheerleading injuries. To develop a profile of catastrophic injuries in cheerleading and to describe relevant risk factors. Retrospective cohort study. We reviewed 29 of 39 incidents of cheerleading injuries reported to the National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury Research from 1982 to 2002. Twenty-seven of the injured cheerleaders were women. There were 1.95 direct catastrophic injuries per year or 0.6 injuries per 100,000 participants. The rate of injuries among college cheerleaders was five times that of high school participants. The most common stunts performed at the time of injury were a pyramid (9) or a basket toss (8). Catastrophic injuries included 17 severe head injuries, resulting in 13 skull fractures and 2 deaths; 8 cervical fractures or major ligament injuries; 3 spinal cord contusions; and 1 concomitant head injury and cervical fracture. Suggestions for reducing catastrophic injuries in cheerleaders include enhancing the number and training of spotters, mandating floor mats for complex stunts, restricting complex stunts when surfaces are wet, and encouraging safety certification of coaches. Pyramids and basket tosses should be limited to experienced cheerleaders who have mastered all other skills and should be performed with spotters and landing mats.

  19. Properties of Vector Preisach Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, Gary R.; Patel, Umesh D.; Torre, Edward Della

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses rotational anisotropy and rotational accommodation of magnetic particle tape. These effects have a performance impact during the reading and writing of the recording process. We introduce the reduced vector model as the basis for the computations. Rotational magnetization models must accurately compute the anisotropic characteristics of ellipsoidally magnetizable media. An ellipticity factor is derived for these media that computes the two-dimensional magnetization trajectory for all applied fields. An orientation correction must be applied to the computed rotational magnetization. For isotropic materials, an orientation correction has been developed and presented. For anisotropic materials, an orientation correction is introduced.

  20. Vector quantization for volume rendering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ning, Paul; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1992-01-01

    Volume rendering techniques typically process volumetric data in raw, uncompressed form. As algorithmic and architectural advances improve rendering speeds, however, larger data sets will be evaluated requiring consideration of data storage and transmission issues. In this paper, we analyze the data compression requirements for volume rendering applications and present a solution based on vector quantization. The proposed system compresses volumetric data and then renders images directly from the new data format. Tests on a fluid flow data set demonstrate that good image quality may be achieved at a compression ratio of 17:1 with only a 5 percent cost in additional rendering time.

  1. Jet vectoring through nozzle asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Chris; Rosakis, Alexandros; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    Previously, we explored the functionality of a tri-leaflet anal valve of a dragonfly larva. We saw that the dragonfly larva is capable of controlling the three leaflets independently to asymmetrically open the nozzle. Such control resulted in vectoring of the jet in various directions. To further understand the effect of asymmetric nozzle orifice, we tested jet flow through circular asymmetric nozzles. We report the relationship between nozzle asymmetry and redirecting of the jet at various Reynolds numbers. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET-1511414; additional support by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144469.

  2. Nonviral Vectors for Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baoum, Abdulgader Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The development of nonviral vectors for safe and efficient gene delivery has been gaining considerable attention recently. An ideal nonviral vector must protect the gene against degradation by nuclease in the extracellular matrix, internalize the plasma membrane, escape from the endosomal compartment, unpackage the gene at some point and have no detrimental effects. In comparison to viruses, nonviral vectors are relatively easy to synthesize, less immunogenic, low in cost, and have no limitation in the size of a gene that can be delivered. Significant progress has been made in the basic science and applications of various nonviral gene delivery vectors; however, the majority of nonviral approaches are still inefficient and often toxic. To this end, two nonviral gene delivery systems using either biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide- co-glycolide) (PLG) nanoparticles or cell penetrating peptide (CPP) complexes have been designed and studied using A549 human lung epithelial cells. PLG nanoparticles were optimized for gene delivery by varying particle surface chemistry using different coating materials that adsorb to the particle surface during formation. A variety of cationic coating materials were studied and compared to more conventional surfactants used for PLG nanoparticle fabrication. Nanoparticles (˜200 nm) efficiently encapsulated plasmids encoding for luciferase (80-90%) and slowly released the same for two weeks. After a delay, moderate levels of gene expression appeared at day 5 for certain positively charged PLG particles and gene expression was maintained for at least two weeks. In contrast, gene expression mediated by polyethyleneimine (PEI) ended at day 5. PLG particles were also significantly less cytotoxic than PEI suggesting the use of these vehicles for localized, sustained gene delivery to the pulmonary epithelium. On the other hand, a more simple method to synthesize 50-200 nm complexes capable of high transfection efficiency or high gene knockdown was

  3. Conformal vectors and stellar models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjonjo, A. M.; Maharaj, S. D.; Moopanar, S.

    2017-02-01

    The relationship between conformal symmetries and relativistic spheres in astrophysics is studied. We use the nonvanishing components of the Weyl tensor to classify the conformal symmetries in static spherical spacetimes. It is possible to find an explicit connection between the two gravitational potentials for both conformally flat and nonconformally flat cases. We show that the conformal Killing vector admits time dependence in terms of quadratic, trigonometric and hyperbolic functions. The Einstein and Einstein-Maxwell field equations can be written in terms of a single potential, any choice of which leads to an exact solution. Previous results of conformally invariant static spheres are contained in our treatment.

  4. Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries ... Treatment Coping With an MCL Injury About MCL Injuries A torn medial collateral ligament (MCL) is a ...

  5. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Eye Injuries KidsHealth > For Parents > Eye Injuries Print A ... sand, dirt, and other foreign bodies on the eye surface) Wash your hands thoroughly before touching the ...

  6. Ear Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... burst. previous continue Signs of Hearing Loss or Balance Problems Ear injuries can affect kids differently. Some ... both ears, kids with ear injuries that affect balance may have symptoms like: falling or stumbling a ...

  7. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Karl B.

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the medical literature on head injuries in soccer and concludes that protective headgear to reduce these injuries may not be as effective as rule changes and other measures, such as padding goal posts. (IAH)

  8. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... happen over time, usually from repetitive training , like running, overhand throwing, or serving a ball in tennis. ... injury in sports that involve a lot of running. Another reason for foot injuries is wearing the ...

  9. Facial Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Face injuries and disorders can cause pain and affect how you look. In severe cases, they can affect sight, ... your nose, cheekbone and jaw, are common facial injuries. Certain diseases also lead to facial disorders. For ...

  10. Rotator Cuff Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... cuff are common. They include tendinitis, bursitis, and injuries such as tears. Rotator cuff tendons can become ... cuff depends on age, health, how severe the injury is, and how long you've had the ...

  11. Brachial Plexus Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the shoulder, arm, and hand. Brachial plexus injuries are caused by damage to those nerves. Symptoms ... sensation in the arm or hand Brachial plexus injuries can occur as a result of shoulder trauma, ...

  12. Hand Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wrist, often making your fingers feel numb Injuries that result in fractures, ruptured ligaments and dislocations ... deformity Tendinitis - irritation of the tendons Disorders and injuries of your fingers and thumb

  13. Hip Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or falling can all sometimes lead to hip injuries. These include Strains Bursitis Dislocations Fractures Certain diseases also lead to hip injuries or problems. Osteoarthritis can cause pain and limited ...

  14. Arm Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of muscles, joints, tendons, and other connective tissue. Injuries to any of these parts of the arm ... a fall, or an accident. Types of arm injuries include Tendinitis and bursitis Sprains Dislocations Broken bones ...

  15. Brain injury - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Head injury - discharge; Head trauma - discharge; Contusion - discharge; Shaken baby syndrome - discharge ... done to help them recover from the brain injury. The person may have stayed in a special ...

  16. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint dislocations, and fractures. These injuries can affect the entire leg, or just the foot, ankle, knee, or hip. Certain diseases also lead to ...

  17. Elbow Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many things can make your elbow hurt. A common cause is tendinitis, an inflammation or injury to the tendons that attach muscle to bone. Tendinitis of the elbow is a sports injury, often from playing tennis or golf. You ...

  18. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Karl B.

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the medical literature on head injuries in soccer and concludes that protective headgear to reduce these injuries may not be as effective as rule changes and other measures, such as padding goal posts. (IAH)

  19. Spinal injury - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - spinal injury ... The following organizations are good resources for information on spinal injury : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Spinal-Cord- ...

  20. Preventing Knee Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a result of a twisting or pivoting motion. This injury may cause susceptibility to repeat injuries and knee instability, and therefore often requires surgery. Occasionally, a twisting or hyperextension force to the knee may result in a tibial ...

  1. Experimental traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury, a leading cause of death and disability, is a result of an outside force causing mechanical disruption of brain tissue and delayed pathogenic events which collectively exacerbate the injury. These pathogenic injury processes are poorly understood and accordingly no effective neuroprotective treatment is available so far. Experimental models are essential for further clarification of the highly complex pathology of traumatic brain injury towards the development of novel treatments. Among the rodent models of traumatic brain injury the most commonly used are the weight-drop, the fluid percussion, and the cortical contusion injury models. As the entire spectrum of events that might occur in traumatic brain injury cannot be covered by one single rodent model, the design and choice of a specific model represents a major challenge for neuroscientists. This review summarizes and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the currently available rodent models for traumatic brain injury. PMID:20707892

  2. Football injuries: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries.

  3. Ear Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... burst. previous continue Signs of Hearing Loss or Balance Problems Ear injuries can affect kids differently. Some ... both ears, kids with ear injuries that affect balance may have symptoms like: falling or stumbling a ...

  4. Vector-Tensor and Vector-Vector Decay AmplitudeAnalysis of B0 to phi K*0

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2006-10-31

    We perform an amplitude analysis of the decays B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K*{sub 2}(1430){sup 0}, {phi}K*(892){sup 0}, and {phi}(K{pi}){sub S-wave}{sup 0} with a sample of about 384 million B{bar B} pairs recorded with the BABAR detector. The fractions of longitudinal polarization f{sub L} of the vector-tensor and vector-vector decay modes are measured to be 0.853{sub -0.069}{sup +0.061} {+-} 0.036 and 0.506 {+-} 0.040 {+-} 0.015, respectively. Overall, twelve parameters are measured for the vector-vector decay and seven parameters for the vector-tensor decay, including the branching fractions and parameters sensitive to CP-violation.

  5. Vector-tensor and vector-vector decay amplitude analysis of B0-->phiK*0.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Pegna, D Lopes; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Sanchez, P del Amo; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Vetere, M Lo; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Lee, C L; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Vazquez, W Panduro; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Diberder, F Le; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Clarke, C K; Lodovico, F Di; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; Nardo, G De; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Buono, L Del; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; del Re, D; Marco, E Di; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Gioi, L Li; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Tehrani, F Safai; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Ricca, G Della; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2007-02-02

    We perform an amplitude analysis of the decays B(0)-->phiK*(2)(1430)(0), phiK*(892)(0), and phi(Kpi)(0)(S-wave) with a sample of about 384x10(6) BB[over ] pairs recorded with the BABAR detector. The fractions of longitudinal polarization f(L) of the vector-tensor and vector-vector decay modes are measured to be 0.853(-0.069+0.061)+/-0.036 and 0.506+/-0.040+/-0.015, respectively. Overall, twelve parameters are measured for the vector-vector decay and seven parameters for the vector-tensor decay, including the branching fractions and parameters sensitive to CP violation.

  6. Overuse Injury: How to Prevent Training Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Sports injury prevention for baby boomers. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00178. Accessed Dec. 21, ... are sports injuries? National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and ...

  7. Viral Vectors: The Road to Reducing Genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    David, Rhiannon M; Doherty, Ann T

    2017-02-01

    Viral vector use in gene therapy has highlighted several safety concerns, including genotoxic events. Generally, vector-mediated genotoxicity results from upregulation of cellular proto-oncogenes via promoter insertion, promoter activation, or gene transcript truncation, with enhancer-mediated activation of nearby genes the primary mechanism reported in gene therapy trials. Vector-mediated genotoxicity can be influenced by virus type, integration target site, and target cell type; different vectors have distinct integration profiles which are cell-specific. Non-viral factors, including patient age, disease, and dose can also influence genotoxic potential, thus the choice of test models and clinical trial populations is important to ensure they are indicative of efficacy and safety. Efforts have been made to develop viral vectors with less risk of insertional mutagenesis, including self-inactivating (SIN) vectors, enhancer-blocking insulators, and microRNA targeting of vectors, although insertional mutagenesis is not completely abrogated. Here we provide an overview of the current understanding of viral vector-mediated genotoxicity risk from factors contributing to viral vector-mediated genotoxicity to efforts made to reduce genotoxicity, and testing strategies required to adequately assess the risk of insertional mutagenesis. It is clear that there is not a 'one size fits all' approach to vector modification for reducing genotoxicity, and addressing these challenges will be a key step in the development of therapies such as CRISPR-Cas9 and delivery of future gene-editing technologies.

  8. Viral vectors for vascular gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Lukas; Preis, Meir; Weisz, Anat; Koren, Belly; Lewis, Basil S; Flugelman, Moshe Y

    2002-01-01

    Vascular gene therapy is the focus of multiple experimental and clinical research efforts. While several genes with therapeutic potential have been identified, the best method of gene delivery is unknown. Viral vectors have the capacity to transfer genes at high efficiency rates. Several viral-based vectors have been used in experimental vascular gene therapy for in vivo and ex vivo gene transfer. Adenoviral-based vectors are being used for the induction of angiogenesis in phase 1 and 2 clinical trials. In the present review, the characteristics of the ‘ideal’ viral vector are discussed and the major types of viral vectors used in vascular gene transfer are reviewed. Basic knowledge of the use of viral vectors for direct in vivo gene transfer (adenoviral-based vectors, etc) and for ex vivo gene transfer (retroviral-based vectors) is provided. New developments in the field of viral vectorology, such as pseudotyping of retroviral vectors and targeting of other viral vectors to a specific cell type, will enhance the more rapid transition of vascular gene therapy from the experimental arena to the clinical setting. PMID:19649233

  9. Dengue Vectors and their Spatial Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Yukiko

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of dengue vectors, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, is affected by climatic factors. In addition, since their life cycles are well adapted to the human environment, environmental changes resulting from human activity such as urbanization exert a great impact on vector distribution. The different responses of Ae. aegypti and Ae albopictus to various environments result in a difference in spatial distribution along north-south and urban-rural gradients, and between the indoors and outdoors. In the north-south gradient, climate associated with survival is an important factor in spatial distribution. In the urban-rural gradient, different distribution reflects a difference in adult niches and is modified by geographic and human factors. The direct response of the two species to the environment around houses is related to different spatial distribution indoors and outdoors. Dengue viruses circulate mainly between human and vector mosquitoes, and the vector presence is a limiting factor of transmission. Therefore, spatial distribution of dengue vectors is a significant concern in the epidemiology of the disease. Current technologies such as GIS, satellite imagery and statistical models allow researchers to predict the spatial distribution of vectors in the changing environment. Although it is difficult to confirm the actual effect of environmental and climate changes on vector abundance and vector-borne diseases, environmental changes caused by humans and human behavioral changes due to climate change can be expected to exert an impact on dengue vectors. Longitudinal monitoring of dengue vectors and viruses is therefore necessary. PMID:22500133

  10. Therapeutic and prophylactic applications of alphavirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Gregory J; Fleeton, Marina N; Sheahan, Brian J

    2008-11-11

    Alphavirus vectors are high-level, transient expression vectors for therapeutic and prophylactic use. These positive-stranded RNA vectors, derived from Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, multiply and are expressed in the cytoplasm of most vertebrate cells, including human cells. Part of the genome encoding the structural protein genes, which is amplified during a normal infection, is replaced by a transgene. Three types of vector have been developed: virus-like particles, layered DNA-RNA vectors and replication-competent vectors. Virus-like particles contain replicon RNA that is defective since it contains a cloned gene in place of the structural protein genes, and thus are able to undergo only one cycle of expression. They are produced by transfection of vector RNA, and helper RNAs encoding the structural proteins. Layered DNA-RNA vectors express the Semliki Forest virus replicon from a cDNA copy via a cytomegalovirus promoter. Replication-competent vectors contain a transgene in addition to the structural protein genes. Alphavirus vectors are used for three main applications: vaccine construction, therapy of central nervous system disease, and cancer therapy.

  11. Volumetric Acoustic Vector Intensity Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klos, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    A new measurement tool capable of imaging the acoustic intensity vector throughout a large volume is discussed. This tool consists of an array of fifty microphones that form a spherical surface of radius 0.2m. A simultaneous measurement of the pressure field across all the microphones provides time-domain near-field holograms. Near-field acoustical holography is used to convert the measured pressure into a volumetric vector intensity field as a function of frequency on a grid of points ranging from the center of the spherical surface to a radius of 0.4m. The volumetric intensity is displayed on three-dimensional plots that are used to locate noise sources outside the volume. There is no restriction on the type of noise source that can be studied. The sphere is mobile and can be moved from location to location to hunt for unidentified noise sources. An experiment inside a Boeing 757 aircraft in flight successfully tested the ability of the array to locate low-noise-excited sources on the fuselage. Reference transducers located on suspected noise source locations can also be used to increase the ability of this device to separate and identify multiple noise sources at a given frequency by using the theory of partial field decomposition. The frequency range of operation is 0 to 1400Hz. This device is ideal for the study of noise sources in commercial and military transportation vehicles in air, on land and underwater.

  12. [Individual protection against insect vectors].

    PubMed

    Carnevale, P; Mouchet, J

    1997-01-01

    Many diseases for which no vaccine is available are transmitted by insect and arthropod vectors, the main exceptions being yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis B. Treatment is less and less effective due to the development of chemoresistance to therapeutic and prophylactic drugs as is well-illustrated by malaria. One of the best methods of preventing these diseases is personal protection against insect bites. Personal protection measures can be divided into three categories which can be used separately or in combination : application of repellents to the skin, wearing clothes impregnated with insecticides, and use of bed nets and other barriers impregnated with insecticides. The choice of method depends on the type of insect vector involved. For insects that are active during the day or at dusk, application of repellents to the skin gives good short-term protection and wearing impregnated clothes is useful. Bed nets that have been properly impregnated with pyrethroids are highly effective for night-time protection. Since personal protection methods are not 100% effective, they must be used in association with chemoprophylaxis according to medical guidelines. Medical advice should be sought if fever should occur especially after returning from a trip in the tropics.

  13. Genetics of Mosquito Vector Competence

    PubMed Central

    Beerntsen, Brenda T.; James, Anthony A.; Christensen, Bruce M.

    2000-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Efforts to control mosquito-borne diseases have been impeded, in part, by the development of drug-resistant parasites, insecticide-resistant mosquitoes, and environmental concerns over the application of insecticides. Therefore, there is a need to develop novel disease control strategies that can complement or replace existing control methods. One such strategy is to generate pathogen-resistant mosquitoes from those that are susceptible. To this end, efforts have focused on isolating and characterizing genes that influence mosquito vector competence. It has been known for over 70 years that there is a genetic basis for the susceptibility of mosquitoes to parasites, but until the advent of powerful molecular biological tools and protocols, it was difficult to assess the interactions of pathogens with their host tissues within the mosquito at a molecular level. Moreover, it has been only recently that the molecular mechanisms responsible for pathogen destruction, such as melanotic encapsulation and immune peptide production, have been investigated. The molecular characterization of genes that influence vector competence is becoming routine, and with the development of the Sindbis virus transducing system, potential antipathogen genes now can be introduced into the mosquito and their effect on parasite development can be assessed in vivo. With the recent successes in the field of mosquito germ line transformation, it seems likely that the generation of a pathogen-resistant mosquito population from a susceptible population soon will become a reality. PMID:10704476

  14. Vector-Resonance-Multimode Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeyev, S. V.; Kbashi, H.; Tarasov, N.; Loiko, Yu.; Kolpakov, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    The modulation and multimode instabilities are the main mechanisms which drive spontaneous spatial and temporal pattern formation in a vast number of nonlinear systems ranging from biology to laser physics. Using an Er-doped fiber laser as a test bed, here for the first time we demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically a new type of a low-threshold vector-resonance-multimode instability which inherits features of multimode and modulation instabilities. The same as for the multimode instability, a large number of longitudinal modes can be excited without mode synchronization. To enable modulation instability, we modulate the state of polarization of the lasing signal with the period of the beat length by an adjustment of the in-cavity birefringence and the state of polarization of the pump wave. As a result, we show the regime's tunability from complex oscillatory to periodic with longitudinal mode synchronization in the case of resonance matching between the beat and cavity lengths. Apart from the interest in laser physics for unlocking the tunability and stability of dynamic regimes, the proposed mechanism of the vector-resonance-multimode instability can be of fundamental interest for the nonlinear dynamics of various distributed systems.

  15. Rotator cuff injuries.

    PubMed

    Crusher, R H

    2000-07-01

    Different types of rotator cuff injuries frequently present to Accident and Emergency departments and minor injury units but can be difficult to differentiate clinically. This brief case study describes the examination and diagnosis of related shoulder injuries, specifically rotator cuff tears/disruption and calcifying supraspinatus tendinitis. The relevant anatomy and current therapies for these injuries is also discussed to enable the emergency nurse practitioner to have a greater understanding of the theory surrounding their diagnosis and treatments.

  16. Softball Pitching and Injury.

    PubMed

    Lear, Aaron; Patel, Niraj

    2016-01-01

    The windmill softball pitch generates considerable forces about the athlete's shoulder and elbow. The injury pattern of softball pitchers seems to be primarily overuse injury, and they seem not to suffer the same volume of injury that baseball pitchers do. This article will explore softball pitching techniques, kinetics and kinematics of the windmill pitch, epidemiology of softball pitchers, and discuss possible etiologies of softball pitching injuries.

  17. Ocular injuries in sports.

    PubMed

    Cass, Shane P

    2012-01-01

    Eye injuries are common in sports. Team physicians need to be able to recognize and treat common injuries and know when to refer other problems. This article highlights the current treatment of common sports-related eye injuries and reviews some of the new literature. Nearly 90% of all sports-related eye injuries can be prevented with adequate eye protection and will be discussed in some detail in the article.

  18. Smoke inhalation injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birky, M.

    The cause of death by fires was studied. The present results and information are, however, not enough to reduce loss of life or inhalation injury. The magnitude and type of inhalation injury for civilians and firefighters represents the most inadequately defined human element of accidental fires. Little information is available on compounds other than carbon monoxide, which are responsible for respiration injury or toxicological syndrome. Effective treatment methods for inhalation victims and studies on fatalities, inhalation injury and animals are suggested.

  19. Editorial. Bicycle injuries and injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Pless, I B

    2014-07-01

    In 1989, long before this journal added injuries to its title, it published two papers on childhood injuries and I was asked to write an editorial for this occasion. I chose the title "Challenges for Injury Prevention: Two Neglected Aspects" because I thought the papers neglected to mention the inadequacy of injury statistics (at the time there were no emergency department data) and also failed to emphasize the public health importance of childhood injuries. It is instructive, therefore, to compare this issue's offerings with how matters stood nearly 25 years ago and see what progress we've made. Papers in this and the previous issue of this journal discuss bicycle safety in general and helmet use in particular. Although this is a somewhat narrow focus, it serves as one indicator of how the field has evolved and what remains to be done to improve both the science and policy in this domain.

  20. An agent-vector-host-environment model for controlling small arms and light weapons.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Andrew D; Sharma, Malika; Muggah, Robert

    2011-05-01

    Armed violence is a significant public health problem. It results in fatal and non-fatal injuries and disrupts social and economic processes that are essential to the health of individuals and communities. We argue that an agent-vector-host-environment model can be helpful in understanding and describing the availability and misuse of small arms and light weapons. Moreover, such a model can assist in identifying potential control points and in developing mitigation strategies. These concepts have been developed from analogous vector control programs and are applied to controlling arms to reduce their misuse. So-called 'denormalization' and 'de-legitimization' campaigns that focus on the vector - including the industry producing these commodities - can be based on the experience of public health in controlling tobacco use and exposure. This model can assist health professionals, civil society and governments in developing comprehensive strategies to limit the production, distribution and misuse of small arms and light weapons.

  1. Injuries from break dancing.

    PubMed

    Norman, R A; Grodin, M A

    1984-10-01

    Break dancing is a popular contemporary activity that has important medical implications. Some dancers have complained of lower back pain and difficulty in bending over-the "breakdance back syndrome." Break dancing injuries are often comparable to the orthopedic injuries that occur in unsupervised athletic activities. Careful screening, instruction, supervision and training of break dancers will help prevent injuries.

  2. Spinal Cord Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... bone disks that make up your spine. Most injuries don't cut through your spinal cord. Instead, ...

  3. Assessment of Ankle Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic…

  4. Lightning injury: a review.

    PubMed

    Ritenour, Amber E; Morton, Melinda J; McManus, John G; Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2008-08-01

    Lightning is an uncommon but potentially devastating cause of injury in patients presenting to burn centers. These injuries feature unusual symptoms, high mortality, and significant long-term morbidity. This paper will review the epidemiology, physics, clinical presentation, management principles, and prevention of lightning injuries.

  5. Mania following head injury.

    PubMed

    Yatham, L N; Benbow, J C; Jeffers, A M

    1988-03-01

    A case of mania following head injury in an individual with a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia is reported. It is argued that the head injury is probably causative in his case and suggested that head injury should be considered as one of the aetiological factors in secondary mania.

  6. Assessment of Ankle Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic…

  7. Prevention of Football Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Kirkendall, Donald T; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury. In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “clinical trial” or “randomized controlled trial” which had been conducted on children and adults whose goal was preventing common football injuries. Our objective was to find studies with an exercise-based training program, thus projects that used mechanical interventions were excluded. Results A structured, generalized warm-up has been shown to be effective at preventing common injuries in football, reducing injuries by about one-third. Conclusion The huge participation numbers in the worldwide family of football would suggest that any reduction in injury should have a public health impact. Professionals in sports medicine need to promote injury prevention programs that have been shown to be effective. PMID:22375195

  8. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  9. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  10. New protocol for lentiviral vector mass production.

    PubMed

    Segura, María Mercedes; Garnier, Alain; Durocher, Yves; Ansorge, Sven; Kamen, Amine

    2010-01-01

    Multiplasmid transient transfection is the most widely used technique for the generation of lentiviral vectors. However, traditional transient transfection protocols using 293 T adherent cells and calcium phosphate/DNA co-precipitation followed by ultracentrifugation are tedious, time-consuming, and difficult to scale up. This chapter describes a streamlined protocol for the fast mass production of lentiviral vectors and their purification by affinity chromatography. Lentiviral particles are generated by transient transfection of suspension growing HEK 293 cells in serum-free medium using polyethylenimine (PEI) as transfection reagent. Lentiviral vector production is carried out in Erlenmeyer flasks agitated on orbital shakers requiring minimum supplementary laboratory equipment. Alternatively, the method can be easily scaled up to generate larger volumes of vector stocks in bioreactors. Heparin affinity chromatography allows for selective concentration and purification of lentiviral particles in a singlestep directly from vector supernatants. The method is suitable for the production and purification of different vector pseudotypes.

  11. Vector assembly of colloids on monolayer substrates

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lingxiang; Yang, Shenyu; Tsang, Boyce; Tu, Mei; Granick, Steve

    2017-01-01

    The key to spontaneous and directed assembly is to encode the desired assembly information to building blocks in a programmable and efficient way. In computer graphics, raster graphics encodes images on a single-pixel level, conferring fine details at the expense of large file sizes, whereas vector graphics encrypts shape information into vectors that allow small file sizes and operational transformations. Here, we adapt this raster/vector concept to a 2D colloidal system and realize ‘vector assembly' by manipulating particles on a colloidal monolayer substrate with optical tweezers. In contrast to raster assembly that assigns optical tweezers to each particle, vector assembly requires a minimal number of optical tweezers that allow operations like chain elongation and shortening. This vector approach enables simple uniform particles to form a vast collection of colloidal arenes and colloidenes, the spontaneous dissociation of which is achieved with precision and stage-by-stage complexity by simply removing the optical tweezers. PMID:28594002

  12. Vector assembly of colloids on monolayer substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lingxiang; Yang, Shenyu; Tsang, Boyce; Tu, Mei; Granick, Steve

    2017-06-01

    The key to spontaneous and directed assembly is to encode the desired assembly information to building blocks in a programmable and efficient way. In computer graphics, raster graphics encodes images on a single-pixel level, conferring fine details at the expense of large file sizes, whereas vector graphics encrypts shape information into vectors that allow small file sizes and operational transformations. Here, we adapt this raster/vector concept to a 2D colloidal system and realize `vector assembly' by manipulating particles on a colloidal monolayer substrate with optical tweezers. In contrast to raster assembly that assigns optical tweezers to each particle, vector assembly requires a minimal number of optical tweezers that allow operations like chain elongation and shortening. This vector approach enables simple uniform particles to form a vast collection of colloidal arenes and colloidenes, the spontaneous dissociation of which is achieved with precision and stage-by-stage complexity by simply removing the optical tweezers.

  13. [Research progress on malaria vector control].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guo-Ding; Cao, Jun; Zhou, Hua-Yun; Gao, Qi

    2013-06-01

    Vector control plays a crucial role in the stages of malaria control and elimination. Currently, it mainly relies on the chemical control methods for adult mosquitoes in malaria endemic areas, however, it is undergoing the serious threat by insecticide resistance. In recent years, the transgenic technologies of malaria vectors have made a great progress in the laboratory. This paper reviews the challenges of the traditional methods and the rapid developed genetic modified technology in the application of vector control.

  14. Observation of dipole-mode vector solitons

    PubMed

    Krolikowski; Ostrovskaya; Weilnau; Geisser; McCarthy; Kivshar; Denz; Luther-Davies

    2000-08-14

    We report on the first experimental observation of a novel type of optical vector soliton, a dipole-mode soliton, recently predicted theoretically. We show that these vector solitons can be generated in a photorefractive medium employing two different processes: a phase imprinting, and a symmetry-breaking instability of a vortex-mode vector soliton. The experimental results display remarkable agreement with the theory, and confirm the robust nature of these radially asymmetric two-component solitary waves.

  15. Pre-vector variational inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lai-Jiu

    1994-12-31

    Let X be a Hausdorff topological vector space, (Y, D) be an ordered Hausdorff topological vector space ordered by convex cone D. Let L(X, Y) be the space of all bounded linear operator, E {improper_subset} X be a nonempty set, T : E {yields} L(X, Y), {eta} : E {times} E {yields} E be functions. For x, y {element_of} Y, we denote x {not_lt} y if y - x intD, where intD is the interior of D. We consider the following two problems: Find x {element_of} E such that < T(x), {eta}(y, x) > {not_lt} 0 for all y {element_of} E and find x {element_of} E, < T(x), {eta}(y, x) > {not_gt} 0 for all y {element_of} E and < T(x), {eta}(y, x) >{element_of} C{sub p}{sup w+} = {l_brace} {element_of} L(X, Y) {vert_bar}< l, {eta}(x, 0) >{not_lt} 0 for all x {element_of} E{r_brace} where < T(x), y > denotes linear operator T(x) at y, that is T(x), (y). We called Pre-VVIP the Pre-vector variational inequality problem and Pre-VCP complementary problem. If X = R{sup n}, Y = R, D = R{sub +} {eta}(y, x) = y - x, then our problem is the well-known variational inequality first studies by Hartman and Stampacchia. If Y = R, D = R{sub +}, {eta}(y, x) = y - x, our problem is the variational problem in infinite dimensional space. In this research, we impose different condition on T(x), {eta}, X, and < T(x), {eta}(y, x) > and investigate the existences theorem of these problems. As an application of one of our results, we establish the existence theorem of weak minimum of the problem. (P) V - min f(x) subject to x {element_of} E where f : X {yields} Y si a Frechet differentiable invex function.

  16. Triathlon: running injuries.

    PubMed

    Spiker, Andrea M; Dixit, Sameer; Cosgarea, Andrew J

    2012-12-01

    The running portion of the triathlon represents the final leg of the competition and, by some reports, the most important part in determining a triathlete's overall success. Although most triathletes spend most of their training time on cycling, running injuries are the most common injuries encountered. Common causes of running injuries include overuse, lack of rest, and activities that aggravate biomechanical predisposers of specific injuries. We discuss the running-associated injuries in the hip, knee, lower leg, ankle, and foot of the triathlete, and the causes, presentation, evaluation, and treatment of each.

  17. Injuries in youth soccer.

    PubMed

    Koutures, Chris G; Gregory, Andrew J M

    2010-02-01

    Injury rates in youth soccer, known as football outside the United States, are higher than in many other contact/collision sports and have greater relative numbers in younger, preadolescent players. With regard to musculoskeletal injuries, young females tend to suffer more knee injuries, and young males suffer more ankle injuries. Concussions are fairly prevalent in soccer as a result of contact/collision rather than purposeful attempts at heading the ball. Appropriate rule enforcement and emphasis on safe play can reduce the risk of soccer-related injuries. This report serves as a basis for encouraging safe participation in soccer for children and adolescents.

  18. Analysis of dissection algorithms for vector computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A.; Poole, W. G., Jr.; Voigt, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    Recently two dissection algorithms (one-way and incomplete nested dissection) have been developed for solving the sparse positive definite linear systems arising from n by n grid problems. Concurrently, vector computers (such as the CDC STAR-100 and TI ASC) have been developed for large scientific applications. An analysis of the use of dissection algorithms on vector computers dictates that vectors of maximum length be utilized thereby implying little or no dissection; on the other hand, minimizing operation counts suggest that considerable dissection be performed. In this paper we discuss the resolution of this conflict by minimizing the total time required by vectorized versions of the two algorithms.

  19. Building mosaics of therapeutic plasmid gene vectors.

    PubMed

    Tolmachov, Oleg E

    2011-12-01

    Plasmids are circular or linear DNA molecules propagated extra-chromosomally in bacteria. Evolution shaped plasmids are inherently mosaic structures with individual functional units represented by distinct segments in the plasmid genome. The patchwork of plasmid genetic modules is a convenient template and a model for the generation of artificial plasmids used as vehicles for gene delivery into human cells. Plasmid gene vectors are an important tool in gene therapy and in basic biomedical research, where these vectors offer efficient transgene expression in many settings in vitro and in vivo. Plasmid vectors can be attached to nuclear directing ligands or transferred by electroporation as naked DNA to deliver the payload genes to the nuclei of the target cells. Transgene expression silencing by plasmid sequences of bacterial origin and immune stimulation by bacterial unmethylated CpG motifs can be avoided by the generation of plasmid-based minimized DNA vectors, such as minicircles. Systems of efficient site-specific integration into human chromosomes and stable episomal maintenance in human cells are being developed for further reduction of the chances for transgene silencing. The successful generation of plasmid vectors is governed by a number of vector design rules, some of which are common to all gene vectors, while others are specific to plasmid vectors. This review is focused both on the guiding principles and on the technical know-how of plasmid gene vector design.

  20. Analysis of dissection algorithms for vector computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A.; Poole, W. G., Jr.; Voigt, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    Recently two dissection algorithms (one-way and incomplete nested dissection) have been developed for solving the sparse positive definite linear systems arising from n by n grid problems. Concurrently, vector computers (such as the CDC STAR-100 and TI ASC) have been developed for large scientific applications. An analysis of the use of dissection algorithms on vector computers dictates that vectors of maximum length be utilized thereby implying little or no dissection; on the other hand, minimizing operation counts suggest that considerable dissection be performed. In this paper we discuss the resolution of this conflict by minimizing the total time required by vectorized versions of the two algorithms.

  1. Surface-engineering of lentiviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Verhoeyen, Els; Cosset, François-Loïc

    2004-02-01

    Vectors derived from retroviridae offer particularly flexible properties in gene transfer applications given the numerous possible associations of various viral surface glycoproteins (determining cell tropism) with different types of retroviral cores (determining genome replication and integration). Lentiviral vectors should be preferred gene delivery vehicles over vectors derived from onco-retroviruses such as murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) that cannot transduce non-proliferating target cells. Generating lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with different viral glycoproteins (GPs) may modulate the physicochemical properties of the vectors, their interaction with the host immune system and their host range. There are however important gene transfer restrictions to some non-proliferative tissues or cell types and recent studies have shown that progenitor hematopoietic stem cells in G(0), non-activated primary blood lymphocytes or monocytes were not transducible by lentiviral vectors. Moreover, lentiviral vectors that have the capacity to deliver transgenes into specific tissues are expected to be of great value for various gene transfer applications in vivo. Several innovative approaches have been explored to overcome such problems that have given rise to novel concepts in the field and have provided promising results in preliminary evaluations in vivo. Here we review the different approaches explored to upgrade lentiviral vectors, aiming at developing vectors suitable for in vivo gene delivery.

  2. Production of high-capacity adenovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Kreppel, Florian

    2014-01-01

    High-capacity adenoviral vectors (HC-Ad), also known as "helper-dependent" (HD-Ad), "gutless", "gutted", or "third-generation" Ad vectors, are devoid of all viral coding sequences and have shown promising potential for a wide variety of different applications-from classic gene therapy to genetic vaccination and tumor treatment. However, compared to first-generation adenoviral vectors their production is more complex and requires specific in-depth knowledge. This chapter delivers a detailed protocol for the successful production of HC-Ad vectors to high titers.

  3. Clifford tori and unbiased vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Ole; Bengtsson, Ingemar

    2017-02-01

    The existence problem for mutually unbiased bases is an unsolved problem in quantum information theory. A related question is whether every pair of bases admits vectors that are unbiased to both. Mathematically this translates to the question whether two Lagrangian Clifford tori intersect, and a body of results exists concerning it. These results are however rather weak from the point of view of the first problem. We make a detailed study of how the intersections behave in the simplest nontrivial case, that of complex projective 2-space (the qutrit), for which the set of pairs of Clifford tori can be usefully parametrized by the unistochastic subset of Birkhoff's polytope. Pairs that do not intersect transversally are located. Some calculations in higher dimensions are included to see which results are special to the qutrit.

  4. Slow deterministic vector rogue waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeyev, S. V.; Kolpakov, S. A.; Mou, Ch.; Jacobsen, G.; Popov, S.; Kalashnikov, V.

    2016-03-01

    For an erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes, we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically a new type of the vector rogue waves emerging as a result of the chaotic evolution of the trajectories between two orthogonal states of polarization on the Poincare sphere. In terms of fluctuation induced phenomena, by tuning polarization controller for the pump wave and in-cavity polarization controller, we are able to control the Kramers time, i.e. the residence time of the trajectory in vicinity of each orthogonal state of polarization, and so can cause the rare events satisfying rogue wave criteria and having the form of transitions from the state with the long residence time to the state with a short residence time.

  5. Vector wind profile gust model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelfang, S. I.

    1981-01-01

    To enable development of a vector wind gust model suitable for orbital flight test operations and trade studies, hypotheses concerning the distributions of gust component variables were verified. Methods for verification of hypotheses that observed gust variables, including gust component magnitude, gust length, u range, and L range, are gamma distributed and presented. Observed gust modulus has been drawn from a bivariate gamma distribution that can be approximated with a Weibull distribution. Zonal and meridional gust components are bivariate gamma distributed. An analytical method for testing for bivariate gamma distributed variables is presented. Two distributions for gust modulus are described and the results of extensive hypothesis testing of one of the distributions are presented. The validity of the gamma distribution for representation of gust component variables is established.

  6. High power thrust vector actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittock, M. J.

    1993-06-01

    Modern missile programs are frequently favoring electro-mechanical (EM) thrust vector actuation (TVA) over hydraulic for a variety of reasons. However, actuation system performance requirements are not relaxed for EM systems. Thus the development of EM systems with greater power output is required. The configuration of EM actuator studied consists of a DC brushless motor driving a spur gear train, which drives a ballscrew that converts rotary motion to rectilinear motion. This design produces an actuator with high levels of performance in a compact mechanical package. Design for manufacturability and assembly (DFMA) was part of the design process, resulting in an actuator that can be assembled easily and will operate reliably. This paper will discuss the mechanical details of the resultant actuator and report test results on a prototype derivative.

  7. Vector wind profile gust model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelfang, S. I.

    1979-01-01

    Work towards establishing a vector wind profile gust model for the Space Transportation System flight operations and trade studies is reported. To date, all the statistical and computational techniques required were established and partially implemented. An analysis of wind profile gust at Cape Kennedy within the theoretical framework is presented. The variability of theoretical and observed gust magnitude with filter type, altitude, and season is described. Various examples are presented which illustrate agreement between theoretical and observed gust percentiles. The preliminary analysis of the gust data indicates a strong variability with altitude, season, and wavelength regime. An extension of the analyses to include conditional distributions of gust magnitude given gust length, distributions of gust modulus, and phase differences between gust components has begun.

  8. Injuries in Swedish skydiving

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Anton; Björnstig, Ulf

    2007-01-01

    Objective To create a basis for prevention of modern skydiving injuries. Design Descriptive epidemiological study. Setting National total material. Patients Data on all reported injury events (n = 257) in Swedish skydiving 1999–2003 (total 539 885 jumps) were retrieved from the Swedish Parachute Association. Non‐fatally injured skydivers were sent a questionnaire asking for event and injury details (response rate 89%), and supplementary hospital records were retrieved for the most serious injuries (n = 85). Human, equipment and environmental factors were assessed for risk. Main Outcome Measurements Frequency and severity of injuries. Results Incidence of non‐fatal injury events was 48 per 100 000 jumps. The lower extremities, spine and shoulders were important regions of injury. The most serious injuries were experienced by licensed skydivers, but students in training had a higher injury rate and more often left the sport because of the injury. Of two student‐training systems, one had an incidence less than half that of the other. Conclusions A basis for prevention was created, showing a potential for reduction of frequency and severity of injuries with training and technical interventions. PMID:17224436

  9. Martial arts injuries.

    PubMed

    Pieter, Willy

    2005-01-01

    To review the current evidence for the epidemiology of pediatric injuries in martial arts. The relevant literature was searched using SPORT DISCUS (keywords: martial arts injuries, judo injuries, karate injuries, and taekwondo injuries and ProQuest (keywords: martial arts, taekwondo, karate, and judo), as well as hand searches of the reference lists. In general, the absolute number of injuries in girls is lower than in boys. However, when expressed relative to exposure, the injury rates of girls are higher. Injuries by body region reflect the specific techniques and rules of the martial art. The upper extremities tend to get injured more often in judo, the head and face in karate and the lower extremities in taekwondo. Activities engaged in at the time of injury included performing a kick or being thrown in judo, while punching in karate, and performing a roundhouse kick in taekwondo. Injury type tends to be martial art specific with sprains reported in judo and taekwondo and epistaxis in karate. Injury risk factors in martial arts include age, body weight and exposure. Preventive measures should focus on education of coaches, referees, athletes, and tournament directors. Although descriptive research should continue, analytical studies are urgently needed.

  10. [Management of ureteral injuries].

    PubMed

    Benoit, L; Spie, R; Favoulet, P; Cheynel, N; Kretz, B; Gouy, S; Dubruille, T; Fraisse, J; Cuisenier, J

    2005-09-01

    Ureteral injury is a rare but potential serious complication that can occur during a variety of general surgical procedures. Knowledge of the course of the ureter is the first step toward preventing ureteral injuries. While some injuries are noticed intraoperatively, most are missed and present later with pain, sepsis, urinary drainage or renal loss. The choice of treatment is based on the location, type and extend of ureteral injury. For injuries recognized during open surgery, when involving the distal 5 cm of the ureter, an antireflux ureterocystostomy such as the Politano-Leadbetter procedure or a vesicopsoas hitch can be performed. For the middle ureter, an ureteroureterostomy is satisfactory and for the proximal ureter, most injuries can be managed by transureteroureterostomy. In complex situations intestinal interposition, autotransplantation or even nephrectomy can be considered. The majority of patients with delayed diagnosed ureteral injuries should be managed by an initial endo-urologic approach.

  11. Imaging of triathlon injuries.

    PubMed

    Tuite, Michael J

    2010-11-01

    Injuries in triathletes are common and are mostly overuse injuries. Rotator cuff tendinitis is the most common complaint from swimming, but the incidence of tendinopathy and rotator cuff tears on magnetic resonance imaging is comparable in triathletes without and with shoulder pain. Cycling injuries are mainly to the knee, including patellar tendinosis, iliotibial band syndrome, and patellofemoral stress syndrome, and to the Achilles tendon and the cervical and lumbar spine. Running is associated with most injuries in triathletes, during both training and racing, causing the athlete to discontinue the triathlon. In addition to knee injuries from running, triathletes may also develop foot and ankle, lower leg, and hip injuries similar to single-sport distance runners. Some injuries in triathletes may be mainly symptomatic during one of the three sports but are exacerbated by one or both of the other disciplines.

  12. Introduction to Vector Field Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Shen, Han-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Vector field visualization techniques are essential to help us understand the complex dynamics of flow fields. These can be found in a wide range of applications such as study of flows around an aircraft, the blood flow in our heart chambers, ocean circulation models, and severe weather predictions. The vector fields from these various applications can be visually depicted using a number of techniques such as particle traces and advecting textures. In this tutorial, we present several fundamental algorithms in flow visualization including particle integration, particle tracking in time-dependent flows, and seeding strategies. For flows near surfaces, a wide variety of synthetic texture-based algorithms have been developed to depict near-body flow features. The most common approach is based on the Line Integral Convolution (LIC) algorithm. There also exist extensions of LIC to support more flexible texture generations for 3D flow data. This tutorial reviews these algorithms. Tensor fields are found in several real-world applications and also require the aid of visualization to help users understand their data sets. Examples where one can find tensor fields include mechanics to see how material respond to external forces, civil engineering and geomechanics of roads and bridges, and the study of neural pathway via diffusion tensor imaging. This tutorial will provide an overview of the different tensor field visualization techniques, discuss basic tensor decompositions, and go into detail on glyph based methods, deformation based methods, and streamline based methods. Practical examples will be used when presenting the methods; and applications from some case studies will be used as part of the motivation.

  13. Vector Addition: Effect of the Context and Position of the Vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2010-10-01

    In this article we investigate the effect of: 1) the context, and 2) the position of the vectors, on 2D vector addition tasks. We administered a test to 512 students completing introductory physics courses at a private Mexican university. In the first part, we analyze students' responses in three isomorphic problems: displacements, forces, and no physical context. Students were asked to draw two vectors and the vector sum. We analyzed students' procedures detecting the difficulties when drawing the vector addition and proved that the context matters, not only compared to the context-free case but also between the contexts. In the second part, we analyze students' responses with three different arrangements of the sum of two vectors: tail-to-tail, head-to-tail and separated vectors. We compared the frequencies of the errors in the three different positions to deduce students' conceptions in the addition of vectors.

  14. Transmission of Insect-Vectored Pathogens: Effects of Vector Fitness as a Function of Infectivity Status

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The spread of insect vectored pathogens is dependent on the population dynamics of the vector. Epidemiology models typically assume that birth and death rates of pathogen-free and inoculative vectors are equal, an assumption which is not true for all pathosystems. Here a series of simple and gener...

  15. Biomechanics of whiplash injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-bin; Yang, King H; Wang, Zheng-guo

    2009-10-01

    Despite a large number of rear-end collisions on the road and a high frequency of whiplash injuries reported, the mechanism of whiplash injuries is not completely understood. One of the reasons is that the injury is not necessarily accompanied by obvious tissue damage detectable by X-ray or MRI. An extensive series of biomechanics studies, including injury epidemiology, neck kinematics, facet capsule ligament mechanics, injury mechanisms and injury criteria, were undertaken to help elucidate these whiplash injury mechanisms and gain a better understanding of cervical facet pain. These studies provide the following evidences to help explain the mechanisms of the whiplash injury: (1) Whiplash injuries are generally considered to be a soft tissue injury of the neck with symptoms such as neck pain and stiffness, shoulder weakness, dizziness, headache and memory loss, etc. (2) Based on kinematical studies on the cadaver and volunteers, there are three distinct periods that have the potential to cause injury to the neck. In the first stage, flexural deformation of the neck is observed along with a loss of cervical lordosis; in the second stage, the cervical spine assumes an S-shaped curve as the lower vertebrae begin to extend and gradually cause the upper vertebrae to extend; during the final stage, the entire neck is extended due to the extension moments at both ends. (3) The in vivo environment afforded by rodent models of injury offers particular utility for linking mechanics, nociception and behavioral outcomes. Experimental findings have examined strains across the facet joint as a mechanism of whiplash injury, and suggested a capsular strain threshold or a vertebral distraction threshold for whiplash-related injury, potentially producing neck pain. (4) Injuries to the facet capsule region of the neck are a major source of post-crash pain. There are several hypotheses on how whiplash-associated injury may occur and three of these injuries are related to strains

  16. Injuries in sailboard enthusiasts.

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, D P; Davis, A L

    1988-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the rate and types of injuries experienced by boardsailors. Results derive from: (a) a review of hospital medical records for water sports injuries, and (b) a questionnaire-interview of 73 athletes windsurfing on waters in the Galveston area during a hurricane and in moderate and light wind conditions. Windsurfers reported 0.22 injuries per 1,000 participant hours. Seventy-six per cent of athletes reported injuries while boardsailing, but only 15 per cent reported significant injuries. The most common reported injuries included lacerations, jellyfish stings, abrasions, muscle strain, sunburn, contusions, and blisters. A small number of athletes reported ligament sprain, ear infection, knee injury, eye injury, and splinters. The large majority of injuries reported are preventable by wearing protective gear, applying sunscreen, avoiding overpowering winds, and selecting safe sailing areas. Four per cent of water-sport injuries requiring hospitalisation resulted when epileptic water-sports participants had a seizure in or near the water. PMID:3233460

  17. Injuries in sailboard enthusiasts.

    PubMed

    McCormick, D P; Davis, A L

    1988-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the rate and types of injuries experienced by boardsailors. Results derive from: (a) a review of hospital medical records for water sports injuries, and (b) a questionnaire-interview of 73 athletes windsurfing on waters in the Galveston area during a hurricane and in moderate and light wind conditions. Windsurfers reported 0.22 injuries per 1,000 participant hours. Seventy-six per cent of athletes reported injuries while boardsailing, but only 15 per cent reported significant injuries. The most common reported injuries included lacerations, jellyfish stings, abrasions, muscle strain, sunburn, contusions, and blisters. A small number of athletes reported ligament sprain, ear infection, knee injury, eye injury, and splinters. The large majority of injuries reported are preventable by wearing protective gear, applying sunscreen, avoiding overpowering winds, and selecting safe sailing areas. Four per cent of water-sport injuries requiring hospitalisation resulted when epileptic water-sports participants had a seizure in or near the water.

  18. [Blunt thoracic injury].

    PubMed

    Miura, H; Taira, O; Hiraguri, S; Uchida, O; Hagiwara, M; Ikeda, T; Kato, H

    1998-06-01

    Of 161 patients with blunt thoracic injury, 135 were male (83.9%) and 26 were female. The most common cause of injury was traffic accidents (130 patients, 80.7%), followed by falls (22 patients), and crushing (7 patients). There were 46 third decade and 36 second decade patients. Thirty-two patients had single thoracic injury and the other had multiple organ injury. The most common associated injury was head injury (65 patients). Most traffic accidents involved motor cycle accident. Forty-four patients died, 32 within 24 hours, and 4 died to thoracic injury. These 4 patients were shock on arrival and died within 24 hours. The injury severity score, which was under 30 in 78.3% of patients, correlated to the mortality rate. Rib fracture was the most common thoracic injury in 96 patients followed by hemothorax in 91, pulmonary contusion in 79, and pneumothorax in 64. Most of the thoracic injuries were treated conservatively. Thoracotomy was performed in 6 patients. Other than one patient with rupture of the left pulmonary vein, 5 patients recovered. Continued bleeding at a rate of more than 200 ml/h from the chest drainage tube or no recovery from shock and large air leakage preventing re-expansion of the lung are indications for emergency thoracotomy. Thoracotomy should also be considered after conservative treatment in patients with continued air leakage or intrabronchial bleeding negatively affecting respiration. Indications for thoracotomy should be determined individually based on evaluating of vital sign.

  19. Injuries in whitewater kayaking

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, D; Houston, J

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To provide epidemiological data on whitewater kayaking injuries using a descriptive study. Methods—A retrospective survey was distributed at whitewater events and club meetings, and made available and advertised on the world wide web, through postings and announcements to newsgroups, related sites, and search engines. Data on sex, age, experience, and ability were collected. Injury data collected included mechanism, activity, difficulty of rapid, and self reported severity. Results—Of the 392 kayaking respondents included in the final analysis, 219 suffered 282 distinct injury events. The number of days spent kayaking per season was the only independent predictor of injury. The overwhelming majority of injuries occurred while the kayaker was still in the boat (87%). Striking an object was the most common mechanism of injury (44%), followed by traumatic stress and overuse (25% each). The most common types of injury were abrasion (25%), tendinitis (25%), contusion (22%), and dislocation (17%). The upper extremity, especially the shoulder, was the most commonly injured area of the body. Although half of injured kayakers sought medical care for their injury, and almost one third missed more than one month of kayaking because of the injury, almost all (96%) reported a complete or good recovery. Conclusions—Factors relating to likelihood of injury appear to be connected with exposure, namely the number of days a year that the sport was pursued. Except for class V (extreme) kayakers, reports of injuries paralleled the number of participants. Kayakers reported injuries predominantly on rivers that they assessed to be at a level appropriate to their skills. Key Words: kayaking; whitewater; injuries PMID:11477016

  20. Injuries in Irish dance.

    PubMed

    Stein, Cynthia J; Tyson, Kesley D; Johnson, Victor M; Popoli, David M; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Micheli, Lyle J

    2013-12-01

    Irish dance is growing in popularity and competitiveness; however, very little research has focused specifically on this genre of dance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the types of dance injuries incurred by Irish dancers. A chart review was performed to identify all injuries associated with Irish dance seen in the sports medicine or orthopaedic clinics at the investigators' hospital over an 11-year period. "Injury" was defined as any dance-related pain or disorder that led to evaluation in the clinics. Survey data were also collected from study participants. Ultimately, 255 patients from over 30 different schools of dance were seen with injuries directly related (726 clinic visits) or partially related (199 visits) to Irish dance. Participants ranged in age from 4 to 47, with 95% (243/255) under the age of 19. These 255 patients received 437 diagnoses. Almost 80% of the injuries (348/437) were attributable to overuse, and 20.4% were acute and traumatic injuries (89/437). Ninety-five percent (95.9%) of injuries involved the hip or lower extremity. The most common sites were the foot (33.2%), ankle (22.7%), knee (19.7%), and hip (14.4%). Typical diagnoses were tendon injury (13.3%), apophysitis (11.4%), patellofemoral pain and instability (10.8%), stress injury (10.1%), and muscle injury (7.8%). The majority of traumatic injuries were seen in clinic within 3 weeks, but less than a quarter of overuse injuries were seen that quickly. The most common treatment, prescribed to 84.3% of patients, was physical therapy and home exercises, and the majority of dancers (64.3%) were able to return to full dance activity after injury.

  1. Acute injuries in orienteerers.

    PubMed

    Kujala, U M; Nylund, T; Taimela, S

    1995-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the type and severeity of acute injuries occurring in Finnish orienteerers in 1987 to 1991. The study is based on the orienteering license insurance records accounting for 2189 orienteering injuries during 69268 person-years of exposure in active orienteerers. Of these orienteerers, 73.0% were male; 73.5% (N = 1608) of all injuries occurred in males, so the injury rate was similar in males and females. The rate was highest in orienteerers 20 to 24 years of age and lowest in children. Injuries occurred most commonly during May to September (78.9% or all injuries), the months which include the orienteering competition season, and were more common during competitions (59.8%) than during training. A high number of the injuries occurred during weekends (58.9% of injuries) including 68.1% of all competition injuries and 44.9% of all training injuries. The lower limbs were involved in 1611 (73.6%) of cases, the ankle (28.7%) and the knee (23.2%) being the two most common injury locations. Sprains, strains and contusions were the most common injuries. Wounds were proportionally more common in males than in females while ankle sprains were more common in females. Fractures, seven open and 94 closed, accounted for 4.6% of injuries; they were most common in the hand/wrist/forearm (N = 44) and ankle (N = 16), and were more frequent during competition (62.3%) than during training. The most important areas for preventive measures seem to be the ankle and the knee.

  2. Reversible vector ratchets for skyrmion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson; Reichhardt, C.

    2017-03-01

    We show that ac driven skyrmions interacting with an asymmetric substrate provide a realization of a class of ratchet system which we call a vector ratchet that arises due to the effect of the Magnus term on the skyrmion dynamics. In a vector ratchet, the dc motion induced by the ac drive can be described as a vector that can be rotated clockwise or counterclockwise relative to the substrate asymmetry direction. Up to a full 360∘ rotation is possible for varied ac amplitudes or skyrmion densities. In contrast to overdamped systems, in which ratchet motion is always parallel to the substrate asymmetry direction, vector ratchets allow the ratchet motion to be in any direction relative to the substrate asymmetry. It is also possible to obtain a reversal in the direction of rotation of the vector ratchet, permitting the creation of a reversible vector ratchet. We examine vector ratchets for ac drives applied parallel or perpendicular to the substrate asymmetry direction, and show that reverse ratchet motion can be produced by collective effects. No reversals occur for an isolated skyrmion on an asymmetric substrate. Since a vector ratchet can produce motion in any direction, it could represent a method for controlling skyrmion motion for spintronic applications.

  3. A Context Vector Model for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billhardt, Holger; Borrajo, Daniel; Maojo, Victor

    2002-01-01

    Presents an indexing and information retrieval method that, based on the vector space model, incorporates term dependencies and thus obtains semantically richer representations of documents. Highlights include term context vectors; techniques for estimating the dependencies among terms; term weights; experimental results on four text collections;…

  4. 40 CFR 240.206 - Vectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vectors. 240.206 Section 240.206 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.206 Vectors. ...

  5. 40 CFR 240.206 - Vectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vectors. 240.206 Section 240.206 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.206 Vectors. ...

  6. 40 CFR 240.206 - Vectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vectors. 240.206 Section 240.206 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.206 Vectors. ...

  7. 40 CFR 240.206 - Vectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Vectors. 240.206 Section 240.206 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.206 Vectors. ...

  8. Clifford Fourier transform on vector fields.

    PubMed

    Ebling, Julia; Scheuermann, Gerik

    2005-01-01

    Image processing and computer vision have robust methods for feature extraction and the computation of derivatives of scalar fields. Furthermore, interpolation and the effects of applying a filter can be analyzed in detail and can be advantages when applying these methods to vector fields to obtain a solid theoretical basis for feature extraction. We recently introduced the Clifford convolution, which is an extension of the classical convolution on scalar fields and provides a unified notation for the convolution of scalar and vector fields. It has attractive geometric properties that allow pattern matching on vector fields. In image processing, the convolution and the Fourier transform operators are closely related by the convolution theorem and, in this paper, we extend the Fourier transform to include general elements of Clifford Algebra, called multivectors, including scalars and vectors. The resulting convolution and derivative theorems are extensions of those for convolution and the Fourier transform on scalar fields. The Clifford Fourier transform allows a frequency analysis of vector fields and the behavior of vector-valued filters. In frequency space, vectors are transformed into general multivectors of the Clifford Algebra. Many basic vector-valued patterns, such as source, sink, saddle points, and potential vortices, can be described by a few multivectors in frequency space.

  9. 40 CFR 240.206 - Vectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vectors. 240.206 Section 240.206 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.206 Vectors....

  10. 61 FR 41181 - Vector Supercomputers From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Vector Supercomputers From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION..., by reason of imports from Japan of vector supercomputers that are alleged to be sold in the...

  11. Natural evolution of neural support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Jändel, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Two different neural implementations of support vector machines are described and applied to one-shot trainable pattern recognition. The first model is based on oscillating associative memory and is mapped to the olfactory system. The second model is founded on competitive queuing memory originally employed for generating motor action sequences in the brain. Both models include forward pathways where a stream of support vectors is evoked from memory and merges with sensory input to produce support vector machine classifications. Misclassified events are imprinted as new support vector candidates. Support vector machine weights are tuned by virtual experimentation in sleep. Recalled training examples masquerade as sensor input and feedback from the classification process drives a learning process where support vector weights are optimized. For both support vector machine models it is demonstrated that there is a plausible evolutionary path from a simple hard-wired pattern recognizer to a full implementation of a biological kernel machine. Simple and individually beneficial modifications are accumulated in each step along this path. Neural support vector machines can apparently emerge by natural processes.

  12. Application of Vectors to Relative Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tin-Lam, Toh

    2004-01-01

    The topic 'relative velocity' has recently been introduced into the Cambridge Ordinary Level Additional Mathematics syllabus under the application of Vectors. In this note, the results of relative velocity and the 'reduction to rest' technique of teaching relative velocity are derived mathematically from vector algebra, in the hope of providing…

  13. Student use of vectors in mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Sergio

    A functional understanding of Newton's second law as a vector equation requires that students be able to reason about vectors. In this dissertation, we present data describing students' conceptual difficulties with vector addition and subtraction, and with vector quantities such as force, acceleration and tension. These data suggest that after traditional instruction in introductory physics, some students do not recognize the vector nature of these quantities. Other students who do not have the requisite procedural knowledge to determine net force or acceleration, and are therefore unable to reason qualitatively about Newton's second law. We describe some specific procedural and reasoning difficulties we have observed in students' use of vectors. In addition, we describe modifications to laboratory instruction in mechanics that we designed on the basis of our research into student understanding. These modifications were intended to improve students' understanding of vector addition and subtraction and to promote student use of vectors when solving mechanics problems. Finally, we describe initial measures of the effectiveness of these modifications.

  14. Observation of vector solitons with hidden vorticity.

    PubMed

    Izdebskaya, Yana V; Rebling, Johannes; Desyatnikov, Anton S; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-03-01

    This letter reports the first experimental observation, to our knowledge, of optical vector solitons composed of two incoherently coupled vortex components. We employ nematic liquid crystal to generate stable vector solitons with counterrotating vortices and hidden vorticity. In contrast, the solitons with explicit vorticity and corotating vortex components show azimuthal splitting.

  15. Error estimation for ORION baseline vector determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of error sources on Operational Radio Interferometry Observing Network (ORION) baseline vector determination are studied. Partial derivatives of delay observations with respect to each error source are formulated. Covariance analysis is performed to estimate the contribution of each error source to baseline vector error. System design parameters such as antenna sizes, system temperatures and provision for dual frequency operation are discussed.

  16. A Context Vector Model for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billhardt, Holger; Borrajo, Daniel; Maojo, Victor

    2002-01-01

    Presents an indexing and information retrieval method that, based on the vector space model, incorporates term dependencies and thus obtains semantically richer representations of documents. Highlights include term context vectors; techniques for estimating the dependencies among terms; term weights; experimental results on four text collections;…

  17. Reversible vector ratchets for skyrmion systems

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Xiu; Reichhardt, Cynthia Jane Olson; Reichhardt, Charles

    2017-03-03

    In this paper, we show that ac driven skyrmions interacting with an asymmetric substrate provide a realization of a class of ratchet system which we call a vector ratchet that arises due to the effect of the Magnus term on the skyrmion dynamics. In a vector ratchet, the dc motion induced by the ac drive can be described as a vector that can be rotated clockwise or counterclockwise relative to the substrate asymmetry direction. Up to a full 360° rotation is possible for varied ac amplitudes or skyrmion densities. In contrast to overdamped systems, in which ratchet motion is alwaysmore » parallel to the substrate asymmetry direction, vector ratchets allow the ratchet motion to be in any direction relative to the substrate asymmetry. It is also possible to obtain a reversal in the direction of rotation of the vector ratchet, permitting the creation of a reversible vector ratchet. We examine vector ratchets for ac drives applied parallel or perpendicular to the substrate asymmetry direction, and show that reverse ratchet motion can be produced by collective effects. No reversals occur for an isolated skyrmion on an asymmetric substrate. Finally, since a vector ratchet can produce motion in any direction, it could represent a method for controlling skyrmion motion for spintronic applications.« less

  18. Application of Vectors to Relative Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tin-Lam, Toh

    2004-01-01

    The topic 'relative velocity' has recently been introduced into the Cambridge Ordinary Level Additional Mathematics syllabus under the application of Vectors. In this note, the results of relative velocity and the 'reduction to rest' technique of teaching relative velocity are derived mathematically from vector algebra, in the hope of providing…

  19. Towards Resiliency Evaluation of Vector Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Vishal C.; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram

    2016-08-04

    The systems resilience research community has developed methods to manually insert additional source-program level assertions to trap errors, and also devised tools to conduct fault injection studies for scalar program codes. In this work, we contribute the first vector oriented LLVM-level fault injector VULFI to help study the effects of faults in vector architectures that are of growing importance, especially for vectorizing loops. Using VULFI, we conduct a resiliency study of nine real-world vector benchmarks using Intel’s AVX and SSE extensions as the target vector instruction sets, and offer the first reported understanding of how faults affect vector instruction sets. We take this work further toward automating the insertion of resilience assertions during compilation. This is based on our observation that during intermediate (e.g., LLVM-level) code generation to handle full and partial vectorization, modern compilers exploit (and explicate in their code-documentation) critical invariants. These invariants are turned into error-checking code. We confirm the efficacy of these automatically inserted low-overhead error detectors for vectorized for-loops.

  20. Malaria vector control: from past to future.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Barik, Tapan K; Reddy, B P Niranjan; Sharma, Poonam; Dash, Aditya P

    2011-04-01

    Malaria is one of the most common vector-borne diseases widespread in the tropical and subtropical regions. Despite considerable success of malaria control programs in the past, malaria still continues as a major public health problem in several countries. Vector control is an essential part for reducing malaria transmission and became less effective in recent years, due to many technical and administrative reasons, including poor or no adoption of alternative tools. Of the different strategies available for vector control, the most successful are indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), including long-lasting ITNs and materials. Earlier DDT spray has shown spectacular success in decimating disease vectors but resulted in development of insecticide resistance, and to control the resistant mosquitoes, organophosphates, carbamates, and synthetic pyrethroids were introduced in indoor residual spraying with needed success but subsequently resulted in the development of widespread multiple insecticide resistance in vectors. Vector control in many countries still use insecticides in the absence of viable alternatives. Few developments for vector control, using ovitraps, space spray, biological control agents, etc., were encouraging when used in limited scale. Likewise, recent introduction of safer vector control agents, such as insect growth regulators, biocontrol agents, and natural plant products have yet to gain the needed scale of utility for vector control. Bacterial pesticides are promising and are effective in many countries. Environmental management has shown sufficient promise for vector control and disease management but still needs advocacy for inter-sectoral coordination and sometimes are very work-intensive. The more recent genetic manipulation and sterile insect techniques are under development and consideration for use in routine vector control and for these, standardized procedures and methods are available but need thorough

  1. Viral Vector Biosafety in Laboratory Animal Research.

    PubMed

    Collins, Dalis E; Reuter, Jon D; Rush, Howard G; Villano, Jason S

    2017-06-01

    Viral vector research presents unique occupational health and safety challenges to institutions due to the rapid development of both in vivo and in vitro gene-editing technologies. Risks to human and animal health make it incumbent on institutions to appropriately evaluate viral vector usage in research on the basis of available information and governmental regulations and guidelines. Here we review the factors related to risk assessment regarding viral vector usage in animals and the relevant regulatory documents associated with this research, and we highlight the most commonly used viral vectors in research today. This review is particularly focused on the background, use in research and associated health and environmental risks related to adenoviral, adeno-associated viral, lentiviral, and herpesviral vectors.

  2. Control of phlebotomine (Diptera: Psychodidae) leishmaniasis vectors.

    PubMed

    Amóra, Sthenia S A; Bevilaqua, Claudia M L; Feijó, Francisco M C; D Alves, Nilza; do V Maciel, Michelline

    2009-01-01

    Phlebotomines are of medical and veterinary concern as they vector leishmaniasis, bartonellosis and some arboviruses. The adaptations of some species to places modified by humans bring these vectors into contact with dwellings, which can facilitate disease transmission, and the vector control strategies adopted have rendered controversial results. Regarding leishmaniasis, for instance, which vector and reservoirs control can be effective, there is an assumption that the incidence of human infection is directly related to the number of infectious dogs, as well as to entomological factors. Therefore, vector control can provide a cheaper and more practical solution to prevent cases of leishmaniasis. Nevertheless, due to the complexity of the factors involved, chemical control is still essential, and biological insecticides and insecticide plants, for example, represent areas for study that should be encouraged and developed since they show promising results. This paper summarizes the control strategies adopted so far, especially the methods and efficiency of the entomological components of leishmaniasis control programs.

  3. Localizing viruses in their insect vectors.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Stéphane; Drucker, Martin; Uzest, Marilyne

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms and impacts of the transmission of plant viruses by insect vectors have been studied for more than a century. The virus route within the insect vector is amply documented in many cases, but the identity, the biochemical properties, and the structure of the actual molecules (or molecule domains) ensuring compatibility between them remain obscure. Increased efforts are required both to identify receptors of plant viruses at various sites in the vector body and to design competing compounds capable of hindering transmission. Recent trends in the field are opening questions on the diversity and sophistication of viral adaptations that optimize transmission, from the manipulation of plants and vectors ultimately increasing the chances of acquisition and inoculation, to specific "sensing" of the vector by the virus while still in the host plant and the subsequent transition to a transmission-enhanced state.

  4. Vector Diffusion Maps and the Connection Laplacian

    PubMed Central

    Singer, A.; Wu, H.-T.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce vector diffusion maps (VDM), a new mathematical framework for organizing and analyzing massive high-dimensional data sets, images, and shapes. VDM is a mathematical and algorithmic generalization of diffusion maps and other nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods, such as LLE, ISOMAP, and Laplacian eigenmaps. While existing methods are either directly or indirectly related to the heat kernel for functions over the data, VDM is based on the heat kernel for vector fields. VDM provides tools for organizing complex data sets, embedding them in a low-dimensional space, and interpolating and regressing vector fields over the data. In particular, it equips the data with a metric, which we refer to as the vector diffusion distance. In the manifold learning setup, where the data set is distributed on a low-dimensional manifold ℳd embedded in ℝp, we prove the relation between VDM and the connection Laplacian operator for vector fields over the manifold. PMID:24415793

  5. Axial vector Z‧ and anomaly cancellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Ahmed; Keung, Wai-Yee; Tsao, Kuo-Hsing; Unwin, James

    2017-05-01

    Whilst the prospect of new Z‧ gauge bosons with only axial couplings to the Standard Model (SM) fermions is widely discussed, examples of anomaly-free renormalisable models are lacking in the literature. We look to remedy this by constructing several motivated examples. Specifically, we consider axial vectors which couple universally to all SM fermions, as well as those which are generation-specific, leptophilic, and leptophobic. Anomaly cancellation typically requires the presence of new coloured and charged chiral fermions, and we argue that in a large class of models masses of these new states are expected to be comparable to that of the axial vector. Finally, an axial vector mediator could provide a portal between SM and hidden sector states, and we also consider the possibility that the axial vector couples to dark matter. If the dark matter relic density is set due to freeze-out via the axial vector, this strongly constrains the parameter space.

  6. Bacteriophage gene targeting vectors generated by transplacement.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, C; Woltjen, K; Mansergh, F C; Ishidate, K; Rancourt, D E

    2002-10-01

    A rate-determining step in gene targeting is the generation of the targeting vector. We have developed bacteriophage gene targeting vectorology, which shortens the timeline of targeting vector construction. Using retro-recombination screening, we can rapidly isolate targeting vectors from an embryonic stem cell genomic library via integrative and excisive recombination. We have demonstrated that recombination can be used to introduce specific point mutations or unique restriction sites into gene targeting vectors via transplacement. Using the choline/ethanolamine kinase alpha and beta genes as models, we demonstrate that transplacement can also be used to introduce specifically a neo resistance cassette into a gene targeting phage. In our experience, the lambdaTK gene targeting system offers considerable flexibility and efficiency in TV construction, which makes generating multiple vectors in one week's time possible.

  7. Developments in Viral Vector-Based Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ura, Takehiro; Okuda, Kenji; Shimada, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    Viral vectors are promising tools for gene therapy and vaccines. Viral vector-based vaccines can enhance immunogenicity without an adjuvant and induce a robust cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to eliminate virus-infected cells. During the last several decades, many types of viruses have been developed as vaccine vectors. Each has unique features and parental virus-related risks. In addition, genetically altered vectors have been developed to improve efficacy and safety, reduce administration dose, and enable large-scale manufacturing. To date, both successful and unsuccessful results have been reported in clinical trials. These trials provide important information on factors such as toxicity, administration dose tolerated, and optimized vaccination strategy. This review highlights major viral vectors that are the best candidates for clinical use. PMID:26344749

  8. Computational Investigation of Fluidic Counterflow Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Craig A.; Deere, Karen A.

    1999-01-01

    A computational study of fluidic counterflow thrust vectoring has been conducted. Two-dimensional numerical simulations were run using the computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D with two-equation turbulence closure and linear Reynolds stress modeling. For validation, computational results were compared to experimental data obtained at the NASA Langley Jet Exit Test Facility. In general, computational results were in good agreement with experimental performance data, indicating that efficient thrust vectoring can be obtained with low secondary flow requirements (less than 1% of the primary flow). An examination of the computational flowfield has revealed new details about the generation of a countercurrent shear layer, its relation to secondary suction, and its role in thrust vectoring. In addition to providing new information about the physics of counterflow thrust vectoring, this work appears to be the first documented attempt to simulate the counterflow thrust vectoring problem using computational fluid dynamics.

  9. Gauge vectors and double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Renato M.; Hirsch, Martin

    2017-02-01

    We discuss contributions to neutrinoless double beta (0 ν β β ) decay involving vector bosons. The starting point is a list of all possible vector representations that may contribute to 0 ν β β decay via d =9 or d =11 operators at tree level. We then identify gauge groups which contain these vectors in the adjoint representation. Even though the complete list of vector fields that can contribute to 0 ν β β up to d =11 is large (a total of 46 vectors), only a few of them can be gauge bosons of phenomenologically realistic groups. These latter cases are discussed in some more detail, and lower (upper) limits on gauge boson masses (mixing angles) are derived from the absence of 0 ν β β decay.

  10. Molecular genetic manipulation of mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Carlson, J; Olson, K; Higgs, S; Beaty, B

    1995-01-01

    Despite their central role in disease transmission, relatively little is known of the molecular biology of arthropod vectors. Modern molecular approaches will undoubtedly provide considerable information about gene regulation and expression in vectors and consequently a much better understanding of the biology and molecular biology of vectors. Such knowledge is essential for developing effective control strategies for vector-borne diseases. In this review, we focus upon techniques and approaches used at the Arthropod-Borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory (AIDL) at Colorado State University to bioengineer mosquitoes with reduced vector competence. We have developed technologies and procedures that allow genetic manipulation of mosquitoes, including RNA and DNA virus gene-delivery vehicles and efficacious antiviral constructs, which will facilitate the development of pathogen-resistant, transformed mosquitoes. Many of the approaches, constructs, and technologies developed at AIDL will be applicable to molecular manipulation of other arthropod genomes.

  11. Alphavirus vectors for cancer gene therapy (review).

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Ryuya

    2004-04-01

    Alphaviruses have several characteristics that make them attractive as gene therapy vectors such as transient and high-level expression of a heterologous gene. Alphavirus vectors, Semliki Forest virus (SFV), Sindbis virus (SIN) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) have been developed as gene expression vectors. Alphaviruses are positive-strand RNA viruses that can mediate efficient cytoplasmic gene expression in mammalian cells. The alphavirus RNA replication machinery has been engineered for high level heterologous gene expression. Since an RNA virus vector cannot integrate into chromosomal DNA, concerns about cell transformation are reduced. Alphavirus vectors demonstrate promise for the safe tumor-killing and tumor-specific immune responses. Recombinant alphavirus RNA replicons may facilitate gene therapy of cancer.

  12. Geoacoustic inversion using the vector field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, Steven E.

    The main goal of this project was to study the use of the acoustic vector field, separately or in combination with the scalar field, to estimate the depth dependent geoacoustic properties of the seafloor via non-linear inversion. The study was performed in the context of the Sediment Acoustics Experiment 2004 (SAX04) conducted in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) where a small number of acoustic vector sensors were deployed in close proximity to the seafloor. A variety of acoustic waveforms were transmitted into the seafloor at normal incidence. The acoustic vector sensors were located both above and beneath the seafloor interface where they measured the acoustic pressure and the acoustic particle acceleration. Motion data provided by the buried vector sensors were affected by a suspension response that was sensitive to the mass properties of the sensor, the sediment density and sediment elasticity (e.g., shear wave speed). The suspension response for the buried vector sensors included a resonance within the analysis band of 0.4 to 2.0 kHz. The suspension resonance represented an unknown complex transfer function between the acoustic vector field in the seabed and data representing that field. Therefore, inverse methods developed for this study were required to 1) estimate dynamic properties of the sensor suspension resonance and 2) account for the associated corruption of vector field data. A method to account for the vector sensor suspense response function was integrated directly into the inversion methods such that vector channel data corruption was reduced and an estimate of the shear wave speed in the sediment was returned. Inversions of real and synthetic data sets indicated that information about sediment shear wave speed was carried by the suspension response of the buried sensors, as opposed to being contained inherently within the acoustic vector field.

  13. Soccer injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Anne

    2009-12-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics.

  14. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    PubMed

    Myrick, Karen M

    2016-07-01

    Soccer is currently the most popular and fastest growing sport worldwide, with approximately 265 million registered soccer players existing around the world. The popularity of the sport, coupled with the high incidence of 18.8-21.5 head injuries per 1,000 player hours reported, make it essential that clinicians, coaches, and the athletes, have a solid understanding of head injuries. The successful rehabilitation of athletes with head injuries relies upon early and accurate identification strategies and implementation of appropriate return to play measures across all areas in the continuum of care. Soccer is a frequently played sport, and head injuries are common. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians, coaches, and the athletes themselves have a solid understanding of head injury prevention, diagnosis, and treatment options. The purpose of this article was to provide rehabilitation nurses with current information regarding frequently occurring head injuries in the widespread sport of soccer. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  15. Injuries are not accidents

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Injuries are the result of an acute exposure to exhort of energy or a consequence of a deficiency in a vital element that exceeds physiological thresholds resulting threatens life. They are classified as intentional or unintentional. Injuries are considered a global health issue because they cause more than 5 million deaths per year worldwide and they are an important contributor to the burden of disease, especially affecting people of low socioeconomic status in low- and middle-income countries. A common misconception exists where injuries are thought to be the same as accidents; however, accidents are largely used as chance events, without taken in consideration that all these are preventable. This review discusses injuries and accidents in the context of road traffic and emphasizes injuries as preventable events. An understanding of the essence of injuries enables the standardization of terminology in public use and facilitates the development of a culture of prevention among all of us. PMID:25386040

  16. Injuries in women's basketball.

    PubMed

    Trojian, Thomas H; Ragle, Rosemary B

    2008-03-01

    Women's basketball has changed over time. It is a faster paced game than it was 30 years ago. Greatplayers, like Anne Meyers,who was the first, and only, woman to be signed to an NBA contract, would agree today's game is different. The game is played mostly "below the rim" but with players like Candice Parker, Sylvia Fowles and Maya Moore able to dunk the ball, the game is still changing. The one thing that remains constant in basketball, especially women's basketball, is injury. The majority of injuries in women's basketball are similar to those in men's basketball. Studies at the high school and college level show similar injury rates between women and men. ACL injuries are one exception, with female athletes having atwo to four times higher rate ofACL injuries. In this article, we review the common injuries in women's basketball. We discuss treatment issues and possible preventive measures.

  17. Poxviral vectors for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joseph W.; Gulley, James L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Poxviral vaccines have been given to over 1 billion people in the successful global eradication of smallpox. Since then, recombinant poxviruses have been investigated extensively as a novel immunotherapy for cancer, undergoing several iterations to optimize their immunogenicity and efficacy. The current platform expressing multiple costimulatory molecules plus a tumor-associated antigen such as PSA, i.e., PSA-TRICOM (PROSTVAC-V/F), is promising and is currently in a phase III randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Areas covered This review discusses the clinical development of poxviral-based cancer vaccines, with a particular focus on the rationale for combining vaccines with other treatment modalities, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, other immune-based therapies, and molecularly targeted therapy. We also discuss the importance of appropriate patient selection in clinical trial design. Expert Opinion Preclinical and early clinical studies with poxviral vector vaccines have shown promising results with this novel immunologic approach both as vaccine alone and combined with other therapies. The challenges of translating the science of immunotherapy to clinical practice include clinical trial design that includes appropriate patient selection, appropriate endpoints, and identification of meaningful surrogate biomarkers. PMID:22413824

  18. Skateboarding injuries of today

    PubMed Central

    Forsman, L; Eriksson, A

    2001-01-01

    Background—Skateboarding injuries have increased with the rise in popularity of the sport, and the injury pattern can be expected to have changed with the development of both skateboard tricks and the materials used for skateboard construction. Objective—To describe the injury pattern of today. Methods—The pattern of injuries, circumstances, and severity were investigated in a study of all 139 people injured in skateboarding accidents during the period 1995–1998 inclusive and admitted to the University Hospital of Umeå. This is the only hospital in the area, serving a population of 135 000. Results—Three of the 139 injured were pedestrians hit by a skateboard rider; the rest were riders. The age range was 7–47 years (mean 16). The severity of the injuries was minor (AIS 1) to moderate (AIS 2); fractures were classified as moderate. The annual number of injuries increased during the study period. Fractures were found in 29% of the casualties, and four children had concussion. The most common fractures were of the ankle and wrist. Older patients had less severe injuries, mainly sprains and soft tissue injuries. Most children were injured while skateboarding on ramps and at arenas; only 12 (9%) were injured while skateboarding on roads. Some 37% of the injuries occurred because of a loss of balance, and 26% because of a failed trick attempt. Falls caused by surface irregularities resulted in the highest proportion of the moderate injuries. Conclusions—Skateboarding should be restricted to supervised skateboard parks, and skateboarders should be required to wear protective gear. These measures would reduce the number of skateboarders injured in motor vehicle collisions, reduce the personal injuries among skateboarders, and reduce the number of pedestrians injured in collisions with skateboarders. Key Words: skateboard; injury; prevention PMID:11579065

  19. Muscle injuries: optimising recovery.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, Tero A H; Järvinen, Teppo L N; Kääriäinen, Minna; Aärimaa, Ville; Vaittinen, Samuli; Kalimo, Hannu; Järvinen, Markku

    2007-04-01

    Muscle injuries are one of the most common traumas occurring in sports. Despite their clinical importance, there are only a few clinical studies on the treatment of muscle injuries. Lack of clinical studies is most probably attributable to the fact that there is not only a high heterogeneity in the severity of injuries, but also the injuries take place in different muscles, making it very demanding to carry out clinical trials. Accordingly, the current treatment principles of muscle injuries have either been derived from experimental studies or been tested empirically only. Clinically, first aid for muscle injuries follows the RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation) principle. The objective of RICE is to stop the injury-induced bleeding into the muscle tissue and thereby minimise the extent of the injury. Clinical examination should be carried out immediately after the injury and 5-7 days after the initial trauma, at which point the severity of the injury can be assessed more reliably. At that time, a more detailed characterisation of the injury can be made using imaging diagnostic modalities (ultrasound or MRI) if desired. The treatment of injured skeletal muscle should be carried out by immediate immobilisation of the injured muscle (clinically, relative immobility/avoidance of muscle contractions). However, the duration of immobilisation should be limited to a period sufficient to produce a scar of sufficient strength to bear the forces induced by remobilisation without re-rupture and the return to activity (mobilisation) should then be started gradually within the limits of pain. Early return to activity is needed to optimise the regeneration of healing muscle and recovery of the flexibility and strength of the injured skeletal muscle to pre-injury levels. The rehabilitation programme should be built around progressive agility and trunk stabilisation exercises, as these exercises seem to yield better outcome for injured skeletal muscle than programmes based

  20. Overuse Injury Assessment Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    2.1 Model Framework It is well established that training is needed to increase performance, but overtraining is detrimental and can cause injury ...DAMD17-02-C-0073 TITLE: Overuse Injury Assessment Model PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: James H. Stuhmiller, Ph.D...2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER DAMD17-02-C-0073 Overuse Injury Assessment Model 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  1. [Injuries during Equestrian Vaulting].

    PubMed

    Endruweit, M; Dargel, J; Siewe, J; Becker, I; Sobottke, R

    2016-12-01

    Background: Vaulting is the least studied equestrian sports regarding the occurrence of injuries. As its sequences of motion do not compare to riding, vaulting must be assessed separately. Material and Methods: This retrospective, questionnaire-aided survey was aimed to gain insight into the overall frequency of injuries among equestrian vaulters. The second part of the study looked into the knee injuries that occurred. Survey forms were sent to 60 vaulting and equestrian clubs all over Germany, making for a response rate of 63 %. Results: 95 % of 624 responding athletes were female. The pool of participants consisted of both amateur and professional level vaulters with a mean age of 15 years. The survey showed a mean number of 4.1 injuries sustained during the observation period, i. e. the entire time an athlete had been active in the sport up to the data collection. The lower extremities were the most commonly injured area with a total proportion of 45 %, followed by injuries to the spine and the head with 30 %, and the upper extremities with 25 %. Contusions accounted for the highest number of reported injuries. Other frequently reported injuries included muscle strain to the head and spine, fractures to the upper extremity and ligament damage to the lower extremity. 14 % of the participants experienced at least one knee injury. The medial collateral ligament (27 %) was found to be most prone to lesions, followed by the anterior cruciate ligament (23 %) and the medial meniscus (22 %). Half of all knee injuries occurred during dismounts, especially when swing-offs or flanks led to faulty landings. Conclusions: The results show that the lower extremity is the most commonly affected area. The ligamentous injuries affecting the lower extremity mainly result from dismounts. A specific training aimed at improving landing techniques might therefore prove beneficial in preventing injuries. The frequency of contusions and fractures to the upper

  2. Critical primary survey injuries.

    PubMed

    DeArmond, Dan; Carpenter, Andrea J; Calhoon, John H

    2008-01-01

    The primary survey as established by the advanced trauma life support protocol includes a directed history and physical exam aimed at the rapid diagnosis of life-threatening thoracic injuries. Most of these injuries can and should be found and treated during the initial evaluation of the patient without the need for additional diagnostic studies. In this article we review the role of the primary survey in the diagnosis and treatment of major thoracic injuries.

  3. Water sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Shea, K P; Folcik, M

    1989-01-01

    Water sports can be a great source of fun and fitness but can also be a source of injury. Overuse injuries are common in both the recreational and competitive athlete and in the young and old alike. Proper attention to preseason conditioning, adequate warmup, early recognition and treatment of injuries, and a common sense approach to the athletic environment should minimize time off from sports and result in maximum enjoyment and performance.

  4. Traumatic injuries in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Hard, D L; Myers, J R; Gerberich, S G

    2002-02-01

    The National Coalition for Agricultural Safety and Health (NCASH) in 1988 addressed issues in agriculture and noted "a sense of urgency... arose from the recognition of the unabating epidemic of traumatic death and injury in American farming . . ." This article provides an update to the NCASH conference on traumatic injuries in agriculture, a history on how the facts and figures were arrived at for the NCASH conference, and a current report on the status of traumatic injuries in agriculture in the U.S. Fatal and nonfatal injuries are addressed along with national and regional surveillance systems. The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) was used for reporting national agricultural production fatal injuries from 1992-1998 (25.8 deaths per 100,000 workers), the Traumatic Injury Surveillance of Farmers (TISF) 1993-1995 was used to report nonfatal injuries occurring nationally (7.5/100 workers), and Regional Rural Injury Studies I and II (RRIS-I and RRIS-II) were used to illustrate a regional approach along with in-depth, specific analyses. Fatality rates, which showed some decline in the 1980s, were fairly constant during the 1990s. Changes in nonfatal injury rates for this sector could not be assessed due to a lack of benchmark data. The main concerns identified in the 1989 NCASH report continue today: tractors are the leading cause of farm-related death due mostly to overturns; older farmers continue to be at the highest risk for farm fatalities; and traumatic injuries continue to be a major concern for youth living or working on U.S. farms. Fatal and nonfatal traumatic injuries associated with agricultural production are a major public health problem that needs to be addressed through comprehensive approaches that include further delineation of the problem, particularly in children and older adults, and identification of specific risk factors through analytic efforts. Continued development of relevant surveillance systems and implementation of appropriate

  5. Injuries from hovercraft racing.

    PubMed

    Cattermole, H R

    1997-01-01

    A 31-year-old man presented with a potentially serious neck injury following a racing hovercraft accident. Previous reports of hovercrafting injuries could not be found, and a review of the sport's own records was undertaken. This shows there to be a wide range of injuries sustained from the sport, although most of them are minor. However, there are some worrying trends, and further studies are being undertaking in order to improve the sport's safety record.

  6. Injury Patterns in Youth Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Presents statistics on injury patterns in youth sports, recommending that physicians who care for young athletes understand the kinds of injuries likely to be sustained. Awareness of injury patterns helps medical professionals identify variables associated with injury, anticipate or prevent injuries, plan medical coverage, and compare individual…

  7. Injury Patterns in Youth Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Presents statistics on injury patterns in youth sports, recommending that physicians who care for young athletes understand the kinds of injuries likely to be sustained. Awareness of injury patterns helps medical professionals identify variables associated with injury, anticipate or prevent injuries, plan medical coverage, and compare individual…

  8. GRASS GIS Vector Processing: Towards GRASS 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Markus; Landa, Martin; Petrasova, Anna; Petras, Vaclav; Chemin, Yann; Neteler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release improves not only raster processing and general design but the vector processing in the first place. GRASS GIS, as a topological GIS, recognizes that the topology plays the key role in the vector processing and analysis. Topology ensures that adjacent geographic components in a single vector map are related. In contrast to non-topological GIS, a border common to two areas exists only once and is shared between the two areas. Topological representation of vector data helps to produce and maintain vector maps with clean geometry as well as enables the user to perform certain analyses that can not be conducted with non-topological or spaghetti data. Non-topological vector data are automatically converted to a topological representation upon import. Further more, various cleaning tools exist to remove non-trivial topological errors. In the upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release the vector library was particularly improved to make it faster and more efficient with an improved internal vector file format. This new topological format reduces memory and disk space requirements, leading to a generally faster processing. Opening an existing vector requires less memory providing additionally support for large files. The new spatial index performs queries faster (compared to GRASS GIS 6 more than 10 times for large vectors). As a new option the user can select a file-based version of the spatial index for large vector data. All topological cleaning tools have been optimized with regard to processing speed, robustness, and system requirements. The topological engine comes with a new prototype for direct read/write support of Simple Features API/OGR. Additionally vector data can be directly exchanged with topological PostGIS 2 databases. Considering the wide spread usage of ESRI Shapefile, a non-topological format for vector data exchange, it is particularly advantageous that GRASS GIS 7 offers advanced cleaning tools. For power users and programmers, the

  9. Image Coding Based on Address Vector Quantization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yushu

    Image coding is finding increased application in teleconferencing, archiving, and remote sensing. This thesis investigates the potential of Vector Quantization (VQ), a relatively new source coding technique, for compression of monochromatic and color images. Extensions of the Vector Quantization technique to the Address Vector Quantization method have been investigated. In Vector Quantization, the image data to be encoded are first processed to yield a set of vectors. A codeword from the codebook which best matches the input image vector is then selected. Compression is achieved by replacing the image vector with the index of the code-word which produced the best match, the index is sent to the channel. Reconstruction of the image is done by using a table lookup technique, where the label is simply used as an address for a table containing the representative vectors. A code-book of representative vectors (codewords) is generated using an iterative clustering algorithm such as K-means, or the generalized Lloyd algorithm. A review of different Vector Quantization techniques are given in chapter 1. Chapter 2 gives an overview of codebook design methods including the Kohonen neural network to design codebook. During the encoding process, the correlation of the address is considered and Address Vector Quantization is developed for color image and monochrome image coding. Address VQ which includes static and dynamic processes is introduced in chapter 3. In order to overcome the problems in Hierarchical VQ, Multi-layer Address Vector Quantization is proposed in chapter 4. This approach gives the same performance as that of the normal VQ scheme but the bit rate is about 1/2 to 1/3 as that of the normal VQ method. In chapter 5, a Dynamic Finite State VQ based on a probability transition matrix to select the best subcodebook to encode the image is developed. In chapter 6, a new adaptive vector quantization scheme, suitable for color video coding, called "A Self -Organizing

  10. Spinal injuries in sports.

    PubMed

    Boden, Barry P; Jarvis, Christopher G

    2008-02-01

    Athletic competition has long been a known source of spinal injuries. Approximately 8.7% of all new cases of spinal cord injuries in the United States are related to sports activities. The sports activities that have the highest risk of catastrophic spinal injuries are football, ice hockey, wrestling, diving, skiing, snowboarding, rugby, and cheerleading. Axial compression forces to the top of the head can lead to cervical fracture and quadriplegia in any sport. It is critical for any medical personnel responsible for athletes in team sports to have a plan for stabilization and transfer of an athlete who sustains a cervical spine injury.

  11. Spinal injuries in sports.

    PubMed

    Boden, Barry P; Jarvis, Christopher G

    2009-02-01

    Athletic competition has long been a known source of spinal injuries. Approximately 8.7% of all new cases of spinal cord injuries in the United States are related to sports activities. The sports activities that have the highest risk of catastrophic spinal injuries are football, ice hockey, wrestling, diving, skiing, snowboarding, rugby, and cheerleading. Axial compression forces to the top of the head can lead to cervical fracture and quadriplegia in any sport. It is critical for any medical personnel responsible for athletes in team sports to have a plan for stabilization and transfer of an athlete who sustains a cervical spine injury.

  12. Chest Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... inside of the chest cavity. Chest injuries and disorders include Heart diseases Lung diseases and collapsed lung Pleural disorders Esophagus disorders Broken ribs Thoracic aortic aneurysms Disorders ...

  13. Imaging of Physeal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jawetz, Shari T.; Shah, Parina H.; Potter, Hollis G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: As the intensity of youth participation in athletic activities continues to rise, the number of overuse injuries has also increased. A subset of overuse injuries involves the physis, which is extremely susceptible to injury. This paper aims to review the utility of the various imaging modalities in the diagnosis and management of physeal injuries in the skeletally immature population. Evidence Acquisition: A search for the keywords pediatric, physis, growth plate, x-ray, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and overuse injury was performed using the PubMed database. No limits were set for the years of publication. Articles were reviewed for relevance with an emphasis on the imaging of growth plate injuries. Study Design: Retrospective literature review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Three major imaging modalities (radiographs, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) complement each other in the evaluation of pediatric patients with overuse injuries. However, magnetic resonance imaging is the only modality that offers direct visualization of the physis, and it also offers the best soft tissue contrast for evaluating the other periarticular structures for concomitant injury. Conclusion: Imaging has an important role in the diagnosis of physeal injuries, and the information it provides has a tremendous impact on the subsequent management of these patients. PMID:25984260

  14. MUSCLE INJURIES IN ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee

    2015-01-01

    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best “treatment”. PMID:27027021

  15. Acute injuries in Taekwondo.

    PubMed

    Schlüter-Brust, K; Leistenschneider, P; Dargel, J; Springorum, H P; Eysel, P; Michael, J W-P

    2011-08-01

    Although Taekwondo is becoming an increasingly popular sport, there is a lack of reliable epidemiologic data on Taekwondo injuries. To perform an epidemiologic study on the variety of types of injury in professional and amateur Taekwondo athletes and to find a relation between Taekwondo style, skill level, weight-class and warm-up routine and the occurrence of injuries, we analysed the injury data using a 7-page questionnaire from a total of 356 Taekwondo athletes who were randomly selected. Overall, we registered a total of 2,164 injuries in 356 athletes. Most traumas were contusions and sprains in the lower extremities. Professional Taekwondo athletes have an increased risk of injury in comparison to recreational athletes. Taekwondo style, weight class and tournament frequency have an influence on the athlete's injury profile. Warm-up routines were found to have a positive effect on injury rates. Overall, Taekwondo may be considered a rather benign activity, if injuries during Taekwondo tournaments can be avoided. If not, Taekwondo can result in serious musculoskeletal problems. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. MUSCLE INJURIES IN ATHLETES.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee

    2011-01-01

    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best "treatment".

  17. Sacroiliac injuries in horses.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Jennifer; Brounts, Sabrina H

    2012-11-01

    This article reviews the pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of sacroiliac joint injuries. These injuries can be acute or chronic and can involve soft tissue structures surrounding the joint or the bony structures of the joint. The several diagnostic modalities for sacroiliac injuries vary in usefulness and accessibility. Treatment of sacroiliac problems is usually supportive and nonspecific and includes the use of antiinflammatory medications and an appropriate exercise regimen. The prognosis depends on the cause, but severe injuries can limit a horse's future athletic activity.

  18. Lightning and thermal injuries.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Arthur; Gamelli, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    Electrical burns are classified as either high voltage (1000 volts and higher) or low voltage (<1000 volts). The typical injury with a high-voltage electrical contact is one where subcutaneous fat, muscles, and even bones are injured. Lower voltages may have lesser injuries. The electrical current has the potential to injure via three mechanisms: injury caused by current flow, an arc injury as the current passes from source to an object, and a flame injury caused by ignition of material in the local environment. Different tissues also have different resistance to the conduction of electricity. Voltage, current (amperage), type of current (alternating or direct), path of current flow across the body, duration of contact, and individual susceptibility all determine what final injury will occur. Devitalized tissue must be evaluated and debrided. Ocular cataracts may develop over time following electrical injury. Lightning strikes may conduct millions of volts of electricity, yet the effects can range from minimal cutaneous injuries to significant injury comparable to a high-voltage industrial accident. Lightning strikes commonly result in cardiorespiratory arrest, for which CPR is effective when begun promptly. Neurologic complications from electrical and lightning injuries are highly variable and may present early or late (up to 2 years) after the injury. The prognosis for electricity-related neurologic injuries is generally better than for other types of traumatic causes, suggesting a conservative approach with serial neurologic examinations after an initial CT scan to rule out correctable causes. One of the most common complications of electrical injury is a cardiac dysrhythmia. Because of the potential for large volumes of muscle loss and the release of myoglobin, the presence of heme pigments in the urine must be evaluated promptly. Presence of these products of breakdown of myoglobin and hemoglobin puts the injured at risk for acute renal failure and must be

  19. A recursive technique for adaptive vector quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Vector Quantization (VQ) is fast becoming an accepted, if not preferred method for image compression. The VQ performs well when compressing all types of imagery including Video, Electro-Optical (EO), Infrared (IR), Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Multi-Spectral (MS), and digital map data. The only requirement is to change the codebook to switch the compressor from one image sensor to another. There are several approaches for designing codebooks for a vector quantizer. Adaptive Vector Quantization is a procedure that simultaneously designs codebooks as the data is being encoded or quantized. This is done by computing the centroid as a recursive moving average where the centroids move after every vector is encoded. When computing the centroid of a fixed set of vectors the resultant centroid is identical to the previous centroid calculation. This method of centroid calculation can be easily combined with VQ encoding techniques. The defined quantizer changes after every encoded vector by recursively updating the centroid of minimum distance which is the selected by the encoder. Since the quantizer is changing definition or states after every encoded vector, the decoder must now receive updates to the codebook. This is done as side information by multiplexing bits into the compressed source data.

  20. Wavelet frame accelerated reduced support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Ratsch, Matthias; Teschke, Gerd; Romdhani, Sami; Vetter, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, a novel method for reducing the runtime complexity of a support vector machine classifier is presented. The new training algorithm is fast and simple. This is achieved by an over-complete wavelet transform that finds the optimal approximation of the support vectors. The presented derivation shows that the wavelet theory provides an upper bound on the distance between the decision function of the support vector machine and our classifier. The obtained classifier is fast, since a Haar wavelet approximation of the support vectors is used, enabling efficient integral image-based kernel evaluations. This provides a set of cascaded classifiers of increasing complexity for an early rejection of vectors easy to discriminate. This excellent runtime performance is achieved by using a hierarchical evaluation over the number of incorporated and additional over the approximation accuracy of the reduced set vectors. Here, this algorithm is applied to the problem of face detection, but it can also be used for other image-based classifications. The algorithm presented, provides a 530-fold speedup over the support vector machine, enabling face detection at more than 25 fps on a standard PC.

  1. HSV Recombinant Vectors for Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Manservigi, Roberto; Argnani, Rafaela; Marconi, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    The very deep knowledge acquired on the genetics and molecular biology of herpes simplex virus (HSV), has allowed the development of potential replication-competent and replication-defective vectors for several applications in human healthcare. These include delivery and expression of human genes to cells of the nervous systems, selective destruction of cancer cells, prophylaxis against infection with HSV or other infectious diseases, and targeted infection to specific tissues or organs. Replication-defective recombinant vectors are non-toxic gene transfer tools that preserve most of the neurotropic features of wild type HSV-1, particularly the ability to express genes after having established latent infections, and are thus proficient candidates for therapeutic gene transfer settings in neurons. A replication-defective HSV vector for the treatment of pain has recently entered in phase 1 clinical trial. Replication-competent (oncolytic) vectors are becoming a suitable and powerful tool to eradicate brain tumours due to their ability to replicate and spread only within the tumour mass, and have reached phase II/III clinical trials in some cases. The progress in understanding the host immune response induced by the vector is also improving the use of HSV as a vaccine vector against both HSV infection and other pathogens. This review briefly summarizes the obstacle encountered in the delivery of HSV vectors and examines the various strategies developed or proposed to overcome such challenges. PMID:20835362

  2. Acoustic pressure-vector sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dehua; Elswick, Roy C.; McEachern, James F.

    2004-05-01

    Pressure-vector sensors measure both scalar and vector components of the acoustic field. December 2003 measurements at the NUWC Seneca Lake test facility verify previous observations that acoustic ambient noise spectrum levels measured by acoustic intensity sensors are reduced relative to either acoustic pressure or acoustic vector sensor spectrum levels. The Seneca measurements indicate a reduction by as much as 15 dB at the upper measurement frequency of 2500 Hz. A nonlinear array synthesis theory for pressure-vector sensors will be introduced that allows smaller apertures to achieve narrow beams. The significantly reduced ambient noise of individual pressure-vector elements observed in the ocean by others, and now at Seneca Lake, should allow a nonlinearly combined array to detect significantly lower levels than has been observed in previous multiplicative processing of pressure sensors alone. Nonlinear array synthesis of pressure-vector sensors differs from conventional super-directive algorithms that linearly combine pressure elements with positive and negative weights, thereby reducing the sensitivity of conventional super-directive arrays. The much smaller aperture of acoustic pressure-vector sensor arrays will be attractive for acoustic systems on underwater vehicles, as well as for other applications that require narrow beam acoustic receivers. [The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of ONR and NUWC.

  3. Intracellular trafficking of hybrid gene delivery vectors.

    PubMed

    Keswani, Rahul K; Lazebnik, Mihael; Pack, Daniel W

    2015-06-10

    Viral and non-viral gene delivery vectors are in development for human gene therapy, but both exhibit disadvantages such as inadequate efficiency, lack of cell-specific targeting or safety concerns. We have recently reported the design of hybrid delivery vectors combining retrovirus-like particles with synthetic polymers or lipids that are efficient, provide sustained gene expression and are more stable compared to native retroviruses. To guide further development of this promising class of gene delivery vectors, we have investigated their mechanisms of intracellular trafficking. Moloney murine leukemia virus-like particles (M-VLPs) were complexed with chitosan (Chi) or liposomes (Lip) comprising DOTAP, DOPE and cholesterol to form the hybrid vectors (Chi/M-VLPs and Lip/M-VLPs, respectively). Transfection efficiency and cellular internalization of the vectors were quantified in the presence of a panel of inhibitors of various endocytic pathways. Intracellular transport and trafficking kinetics of the hybrid vectors were dependent on the synthetic component and used a combination of clathrin- and caveolar-dependent endocytosis and macropinocytosis. Chi/M-VLPs were slower to transfect compared to Lip/M-VLPs due to the delayed detachment of the synthetic component. The synthetic component of hybrid gene delivery vectors plays a significant role in their cellular interactions and processing and is a key parameter for the design of more efficient gene delivery vehicles.

  4. Foamy Virus Vectors for HIV Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Olszko, Miles E.; Trobridge, Grant D.

    2013-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has vastly improved outcomes for patients infected with HIV, yet it is a lifelong regimen that is expensive and has significant side effects. Retroviral gene therapy is a promising alternative treatment for HIV/AIDS; however, inefficient gene delivery to hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) has so far limited the efficacy of this approach. Foamy virus (FV) vectors are derived from non-pathogenic viruses that are not endemic to the human population. FV vectors have been used to deliver HIV-inhibiting transgenes to human HSCs, and they have several advantages relative to other retroviral vectors. These include an attractive safety profile, broad tropism, a large transgene capacity, and the ability to persist in quiescent cells. In addition, the titers of FV vectors are not reduced by anti-HIV transgenes that affect the production of lentivirus (LV) vectors. Thus FV vectors are very promising for anti-HIV gene therapy. This review covers the advantages of FV vectors and describes their preclinical development for anti-HIV gene therapy. PMID:24153061

  5. Vector curvaton with varying kinetic function

    SciTech Connect

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Karciauskas, Mindaugas; Wagstaff, Jacques M.

    2010-01-15

    A new model realization of the vector curvaton paradigm is presented and analyzed. The model consists of a single massive Abelian vector field, with a Maxwell-type kinetic term. By assuming that the kinetic function and the mass of the vector field are appropriately varying during inflation, it is shown that a scale-invariant spectrum of superhorizon perturbations can be generated. These perturbations can contribute to the curvature perturbation of the Universe. If the vector field remains light at the end of inflation it is found that it can generate substantial statistical anisotropy in the spectrum and bispectrum of the curvature perturbation. In this case the non-Gaussianity in the curvature perturbation is predominantly anisotropic, which will be a testable prediction in the near future. If, on the other hand, the vector field is heavy at the end of inflation then it is demonstrated that particle production is approximately isotropic and the vector field alone can give rise to the curvature perturbation, without directly involving any fundamental scalar field. The parameter space for both possibilities is shown to be substantial. Finally, toy models are presented which show that the desired variation of the mass and kinetic function of the vector field can be realistically obtained, without unnatural tunings, in the context of supergravity or superstrings.

  6. Skateboarding injuries of today.

    PubMed

    Forsman, L; Eriksson, A

    2001-10-01

    Skateboarding injuries have increased with the rise in popularity of the sport, and the injury pattern can be expected to have changed with the development of both skateboard tricks and the materials used for skateboard construction. To describe the injury pattern of today. The pattern of injuries, circumstances, and severity were investigated in a study of all 139 people injured in skateboarding accidents during the period 1995-1998 inclusive and admitted to the University Hospital of Umeå. This is the only hospital in the area, serving a population of 135 000. Three of the 139 injured were pedestrians hit by a skateboard rider; the rest were riders. The age range was 7-47 years (mean 16). The severity of the injuries was minor (AIS 1) to moderate (AIS 2); fractures were classified as moderate. The annual number of injuries increased during the study period. Fractures were found in 29% of the casualties, and four children had concussion. The most common fractures were of the ankle and wrist. Older patients had less severe injuries, mainly sprains and soft tissue injuries. Most children were injured while skateboarding on ramps and at arenas; only 12 (9%) were injured while skateboarding on roads. Some 37% of the injuries occurred because of a loss of balance, and 26% because of a failed trick attempt. Falls caused by surface irregularities resulted in the highest proportion of the moderate injuries. Skateboarding should be restricted to supervised skateboard parks, and skateboarders should be required to wear protective gear. These measures would reduce the number of skateboarders injured in motor vehicle collisions, reduce the personal injuries among skateboarders, and reduce the number of pedestrians injured in collisions with skateboarders.

  7. Theodolite-borne vector Overhauser magnetometer: DIMOVER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapunov, V.; Rasson, J.; Denisov, A.; Saveliev, D.; Kiselev, S.; Denisova, O.; Podmogov, Y.; Khomutov, S.

    2006-06-01

    This report covers results of the long-term research directed at developing an absolute vector proton magnetometer based on the switching of bias magnetic fields. The distinctive feature is the attempt of the installation of a miniature Overhauser sensor and optimized Garret solenoid directly on the telescope of the theodolite. Thus this design (Declination Inclination Modulus Overhauser magnetometer: DIMOVER) will complement the universally recognised DIflux absolute device by adding full vector measurement capability. Preliminary designs, which also can be interesting to the experts in vector proton magnetometers, are presented.

  8. Recursive algorithms for vector extrapolation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, William F.; Sidi, Avram

    1988-01-01

    Three classes of recursion relations are devised for implementing some extrapolation methods for vector sequences. One class of recursion relations can be used to implement methods like the modified minimal polynomial extrapolation and the topological epsilon algorithm; another allows implementation of methods like minimal polynomial and reduced rank extrapolation; while the remaining class can be employed in the implementation of the vector E-algorithm. Operation counts and storage requirements for these methods are also discussed, and some related techniques for special applications are also presented. Included are methods for the rapid evaluations of the vector E-algorithm.

  9. Robust vector quantization for noisy channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demarca, J. R. B.; Farvardin, N.; Jayant, N. S.; Shoham, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The paper briefly discusses techniques for making vector quantizers more tolerant to tranmsission errors. Two algorithms are presented for obtaining an efficient binary word assignment to the vector quantizer codewords without increasing the transmission rate. It is shown that about 4.5 dB gain over random assignment can be achieved with these algorithms. It is also proposed to reduce the effects of error propagation in vector-predictive quantizers by appropriately constraining the response of the predictive loop. The constrained system is shown to have about 4 dB of SNR gain over an unconstrained system in a noisy channel, with a small loss of clean-channel performance.

  10. 600-GHz Electronically Tunable Vector Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dengler, Robert; Maiwald, Frank; Siegel, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A compact, high-dynamic-range, electronically tunable vector measurement system that operates in the frequency range from approximately 560 to approximately 635 GHz has been developed as a prototype of vector measurement systems that would be suitable for use in nearly-real-time active submillimeter-wave imaging. As used here, 'vector measurement system" signifies an instrumentation system that applies a radio-frequency (RF) excitation to an object of interest and measures the resulting amplitude and phase response, relative to either the applied excitatory signal or another reference signal related in a known way to applied excitatory signal.

  11. Engineering targeted viral vectors for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Waehler, Reinhard; Russell, Stephen J; Curiel, David T

    2007-08-01

    To achieve therapeutic success, transfer vehicles for gene therapy must be capable of transducing target cells while avoiding impact on non-target cells. Despite the high transduction efficiency of viral vectors, their tropism frequently does not match the therapeutic need. In the past, this lack of appropriate targeting allowed only partial exploitation of the great potential of gene therapy. Substantial progress in modifying viral vectors using diverse techniques now allows targeting to many cell types in vitro. Although important challenges remain for in vivo applications, the first clinical trials with targeted vectors have already begun to take place.

  12. Generating Series for Nested Bethe Vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoroshkin, Sergey; Pakuliak, Stanislav

    2008-11-01

    We reformulate nested relations between off-shell Uq(^glN) Bethe vectors as a certain equation on generating series of strings of the composed Uq(^glN) currents. Using inversion of the generating series we find a new type of hierarchical relations between universal off-shell Bethe vectors, useful for a derivation of Bethe equation. As an example of application, we use these relations for a derivation of analytical Bethe ansatz equations [Arnaudon D. et al., Ann. Henri Poincaré 7 (2006), 1217-1268, math-ph/0512037] for the parameters of universal Bethe vectors of the algebra Uq(^gl2).

  13. Hard Exclusive Vector Meson Leptoproduction At HERMES

    SciTech Connect

    Golembiovskaya, M.

    2011-07-15

    The HERMES experiment at DESY, Hamburg collected a set of data on hard exclusive vector meson ({rho}{sup 0}{phi},{omega}) leptoproduction using the 27.6 GeV longitudinally polarized lepton beam of HERA accelerator and longitudinally or transversely polarized or unpolarized gas targets. Measurements of exclusive vector meson production provide access to the structure of the nucleon since the process can be described in terms of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs). An overview of the HERMES results on exclusive vector mesons production is presented.

  14. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury

    MedlinePlus

    Cruciate ligament injury - anterior; ACL injury; Knee injury - anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ... knee. It prevents the knee from bending out. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is in the middle of the knee. ...

  15. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... page. Please enable Javascript in your browser. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot What Is a Sesamoid? A sesamoid is a ... also be a contributing factor. Types of Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot There are three types of sesamoid injuries in ...

  16. Self-Injury in Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spanish Facts for Families Guide Self-Injury In Adolescents No. 73; July 2013 Self-injury is the ... to have become more popular lately, especially in adolescents. The causes and severity of self-injury can ...

  17. Preventing head injuries in children

    MedlinePlus

    Concussion - preventing in children; Traumatic brain injury - preventing in children; TBI - children; Safety - preventing head injury ... Helmets help to prevent head injuries. Your child should wear a ... sports or activities: Playing contact sports, such as lacrosse, ...

  18. Living with Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... to send and receive messages to and from the brain. About 200,000 people in the United States have spinal cord injuries. Most injuries occur from a traumatic event, according to the National Spinal Cord Injury ...

  19. What Are Growth Plate Injuries?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for growth plate injuries are:  Falling down  Competitive sports (like football)  Recreational activities. Other reasons for growth plate injuries are:  Child abuse  Injury from extreme cold (for example, frostbite)  Radiation (used to treat ...

  20. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) ... and Recovery Coping With an ACL Injury About ACL Injuries A torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is ...

  1. Injury Free Coalition for Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sites Awards Safety Resources Staff Donate Online! Injury Free News The Great Trade-In Event Returns to ... Free Site -- Injury Free Call for Proposals Injury Free is supported by the generous contributions of organizations ...

  2. How to avoid exercise injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000859.htm How to avoid exercise injuries To use the sharing features on this ... injury and stay safe during exercise. What Causes Exercise Injuries? Some of the most common causes of ...

  3. Application of Genomics for Understanding Plant Virus-Insect Vector Interactions and Insect Vector Control.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Navneet; Hasegawa, Daniel K; Ling, Kai-Shu; Wintermantel, William M

    2016-10-01

    The relationships between plant viruses and their vectors have evolved over the millennia, and yet, studies on viruses began <150 years ago and investigations into the virus and vector interactions even more recently. The advent of next generation sequencing, including rapid genome and transcriptome analysis, methods for evaluation of small RNAs, and the related disciplines of proteomics and metabolomics offer a significant shift in the ability to elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in virus infection and transmission by insect vectors. Genomic technologies offer an unprecedented opportunity to examine the response of insect vectors to the presence of ingested viruses through gene expression changes and altered biochemical pathways. This review focuses on the interactions between viruses and their whitefly or thrips vectors and on potential applications of genomics-driven control of the insect vectors. Recent studies have evaluated gene expression in vectors during feeding on plants infected with begomoviruses, criniviruses, and tospoviruses, which exhibit very different types of virus-vector interactions. These studies demonstrate the advantages of genomics and the potential complementary studies that rapidly advance our understanding of the biology of virus transmission by insect vectors and offer additional opportunities to design novel genetic strategies to manage insect vectors and the viruses they transmit.

  4. Mosquito vectors of dog heartworm in the United States: vector status and factors influencing transmission efficiency.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Nicholas; Harrington, Laura

    2011-11-01

    Dog heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is dependent on mosquito vectors for its maintenance and transmission among vertebrate hosts. Consequently, D. immitis abundance and distribution are closely linked with mosquito vector biology and ecology. Information on the important dog heartworm vectors in the United States is limited and no comprehensive surveillance of dog heartworm in US mosquitoes has been undertaken to date. Here, we review information gleaned from a number of field surveys documenting heartworm presence in wild mosquito populations as well as laboratory assessments of mosquito vector capacity. Various biological and ecological factors likely contribute to the relative importance of different vector species. We describe some of these factors, rank the leading criteria for efficient vectors, and present the most likely vector species found across the United States. Considering the recent emergence of drug resistance among D. immitis strains, practical knowledge of heartworm vector biology and control should be incorporated into heartworm disease management programs. We conclude by proposing that heartworm control would benefit by targeting mosquito vectors, and we suggest ways in which veterinarians can incorporate the recognition of vector importance into heartworm prevention recommendations imparted to clients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gene therapy using retrovirus vectors: vector development and biosafety at clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Doi, Knayo; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Retrovirus vectors (gammaretroviral and lentiviral vectors) have been considered as promising tools to transfer therapeutic genes into patient cells because they can permanently integrate into host cellular genome. To treat monogenic, inherited diseases, retroviral vectors have been used to add correct genes into patient cells. Conventional gammaretroviral vectors achieved successful results in clinical trials: treated patients had therapeutic gene expression in target cells and had improved symptoms of diseases. However, serious side-effects of leukemia occurred, caused by retroviral insertional mutagenesis (IM). These incidences stressed the importance of monitoring vector integration sites in patient cells as well as of re-consideration on safer vectors. More recently lentiviral vectors which can deliver genes into non-dividing cells started to be used in clinical trials including neurological disorders, showing their efficacy. Vector integration site analysis revealed that lentiviruses integrate less likely to near promoter regions of oncogenes than gammaretroviruses and no adverse events have been reported in lentiviral vector-mediated gene therapy clinical trials. Therefore lentiviral vectors have promises to be applied to a wide range of common diseases in near future. For example, T cells from cancer patients were transduced to express chimeric T cell receptors recognizing their tumour cells enhancing patients' anti-cancer immunity.

  6. Acute kidney injury during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Van Hook, James W

    2014-12-01

    Acute kidney injury complicates the care of a relatively small number of pregnant and postpartum women. Several pregnancy-related disorders such as preeclampsia and thrombotic microangiopathies may produce acute kidney injury. Prerenal azotemia is another common cause of acute kidney injury in pregnancy. This manuscript will review pregnancy-associated acute kidney injury from a renal functional perspective. Pathophysiology of acute kidney injury will be reviewed. Specific conditions causing acute kidney injury and treatments will be compared.

  7. Gridiron football injuries.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    To review the available football epidemiology literature to identify risk factors, facilitate injury prevention and uncover deficiencies that may be addressed by future research. A literature search of Sports Discus (1940-2003), Eric (1967-2003), EMBASE (1988-2003), MEDLINE (1966-2003), CINAHL (1984-2003), and Web of Science (1993-2003) identified the published articles on American football in athletes of high school age and younger. Injury rate increases with the level of play (grade in school), player age, and player experience. The lower extremity (knee and ankle joints) is most frequently injured. Football injuries are much more common in games than in practice, and occur to players who are being tackled, tackling or blocking. Most injuries are mild, including contusion, strain and sprain. Rule changes with the prohibition of initial contact with the helmet or face-mask reduced catastrophic head and neck injuries. Although no sport or recreational activity is completely risk-free, football epidemiology research is critical to injury prevention. The existing medical literature provides some valuable insights, but an increased emphasis on prospective research is required to test the efficacy of preventative measures. Quality research may contribute to a reduction in football injury risk by defining the role of player conditioning and strength training, coaching of safety fundamentals, avoidance of dangerous activities, as well as proper medical supervision and care. Sports medicine personnel, coaches, and officials must strive to minimize injuries through progressive education, improved coaching techniques, effective officiating, and equipment modifications.

  8. Head injury in children.

    PubMed

    Mihić, Josip; Rotim, Kresimir; Marcikić, Marcel; Smiljanić, Danko

    2011-12-01

    Nowadays, head injuries are becoming more frequent in children. The most common cause of head injuries in children is fall, and, in more severe injuries, traffic accident trauma. In traumatic brain injuries in infants and small children, the most common symptoms are paleness, somnolence and vomiting, the so called "pediatric contusion syndrome". After the first year of age, light head trauma occurs after minor falls, whereas the most severe injuries are caused by car accidents, including pedestrians, or fall from the height. As the child grows, severe head trauma is more likely to occur after bicycle or car accidents. Brain injuries involving or penetrating the brain by broken bone fragments include contusions and lacerations of the brain. Unconsciousness need not always occur during contusion, as it may also appear after swelling of the brain or high intracranial pressure complications. Despite comprehensive injuries in such types of accidents, the outcome of survivors is surprisingly good. Such severe neurocranium injuries usually include heavy bleeding with hematoma (epidural bleeding, subdural bleeding, intracerebral bleeding, and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage). Improved prehospital care, readiness and accessibility of multidisciplinary teams, establishment of regional centers, and efforts to prevent and decrease traffic accidents contribute to mortality rate reduction.

  9. Injuries in Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this paper is to examine the kinds of injuries that preschool teachers working in Indiana, USA, believed to be the most common in their preschool (3-6 year olds) classrooms, the causes of such injuries, and the most important precautions they take to prevent them. Also examined are the measures the teachers take…

  10. Healing of Genital Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

  11. Healing of Genital Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

  12. Study of aeroball injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, A; McGlone, R G; Montgomery, K

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present the risks of aeroball, a new sport played by either two or four players on a trampoline court surrounded by specially constructed fabric walls, and to propose ways to increase awareness and reduce the incidence of injury, in particular, ankle injury. METHOD: A study was carried out to document the nature of aeroball related incidents, between 1991 and 1995, at Lancaster University Sports Centre. Lace-up ankle supports were introduced in April 1992, and their effect on the incidence of ankle injury was recorded. RESULTS: The lower limb received most injuries (90%), followed by the upper limb (6%), then the face (3%) and cervical spine (1%). The most common category of injuries was sprains (83%), followed by fractures (8%), contusions (5%), and dislocations (4%). The most common site of injury was the ankle (73%). It is during doubles play that injury is most likely to occur. Since the introduction of ankle supports, there has been a gradual decline in the incidence of ankle injury, 31 in 1991 to nine in 1995. CONCLUSION: Aeroball has become a popular sport, but it is not without risks. Leaflets have been produced to promote the objectives, rules, and safety of the game. Trained full-time staff should be present to explain the nature of the game. The use of prophylactic ankle stabilisers in aeroball is strongly recommended. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:9298553

  13. Equestrian injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Alex G; Wiggins, Alexandra; Chen, Mike K; Kays, David W; Islam, Saleem; Beierle, Elizabeth A

    2009-01-01

    Equestrian activities are regarded by some as high-risk sports, and our recent experience suggested this to be true. We undertook this study to review our experience with pediatric equestrian injuries. After institutional review board approval, we reviewed emergency department and hospital admissions for children 0 to 18 years, with equestrian trauma, over an 11-year period. There were 164 encounters with 135 girls and 29 boys. Most injuries (82%) occurred after falling or being thrown from the animal, and only 12% occurred during jumping or rodeo competitions. The remaining injuries were secondary to being trampled, kicked, or trapped under the animal. Eighty-seven children required hospital admission. Lacerations and contusions (58%) or orthopedic injuries (31%) were most common in the emergency department cohort. In the admission cohort, injury sites included orthopedic (34%), head (23%), abdomen (21%), and chest (11%). Multiple injuries occurred in 13%. A significant number of children required surgical interventions, including 19 orthopedic procedures, 4 laparotomies, 3 facial reconstructions, and 2 craniotomies. The average length of stay was nearly 4 days, with 60% of the children requiring intensive care admission. There were no deaths. One child was discharged to rehab, the rest were sent home. In our experience, more than one third of the children admitted after sustaining injuries in horse-related sports required surgical interventions. Children participating in equestrian activities are at risk for substantial injury, and pediatric care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when evaluating these children.

  14. [Passover hand injuries].

    PubMed

    Ashur, H; Mushayov, R

    1994-04-01

    Almost every year just before Passover there is increased exposure to hand trauma in matzah bakeries. In the past 5 years we treated 11 cases of hand trauma incurred during matzah baking. The typical injuries were amputations at different levels, crush injuries and burns. We present a case seen last Passover and suggest preventive methods to eliminate these accidents in the future.

  15. Head Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fax: 847-378-0600 www.NeurosurgeryToday.org A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the normal function of the brain. TBI can result when the head suddenly and ...

  16. Injuries in Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this paper is to examine the kinds of injuries that preschool teachers working in Indiana, USA, believed to be the most common in their preschool (3-6 year olds) classrooms, the causes of such injuries, and the most important precautions they take to prevent them. Also examined are the measures the teachers take…

  17. Conquering Athletic Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Paul M., Ed.; Taylor, Diane K., Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to be a source of complete, reliable, and practical sports medicine information. Experts from the American Running and Fitness Association describe in clear language how overuse injuries occur, how to recognize and self-treat them, when to seek professional help, and how to prevent future injuries. The book also…

  18. Two hundred glass injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, D

    1984-01-01

    Two hundred children with glass injuries were investigated; 48 were injured in falls through architectural glass and 87 by broken bottles. Nine children had serious lacerations--7 of which were sustained at home. Radiographs were important in diagnosing retained fragments but prophylactic antibiotics were unnecessary. Many injuries could have been prevented by more stringent safety measures. PMID:6465940

  19. Conquering Athletic Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Paul M., Ed.; Taylor, Diane K., Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to be a source of complete, reliable, and practical sports medicine information. Experts from the American Running and Fitness Association describe in clear language how overuse injuries occur, how to recognize and self-treat them, when to seek professional help, and how to prevent future injuries. The book also…

  20. Nonthermal Inhalation Injury.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    understand the effects of the various byproducts of combustion on the human body. A thorough knowledge of the physiological mechanisms , relevant...as soon as possible. Overview of Smoke Inhalation Physiology The physiologic mechanisms of injury from smoke inhalation are multiple and complex...to breathe Lower airway obstruction Dyspnea, tachypnea, wheezing, rhonchi, carbonaceous sputum Parenchymal injury Dyspnea, tachypnea, rales Table 1

  1. DISCUSSION ON SPINAL INJURIES

    PubMed Central

    1928-01-01

    (1).—Varieties of spinal injuries, the three groups of common usage: fractures, dislocations, fracture-dislocations. Shall not refer in detail to fractures of the spinous or transverse processes. (2) Mechanics of injury to vertebræ. Two variables: (1) the nature of the bones; (2) the qualities of the force. Spinal injury usually caused by indirect violence. (3) The different results of injuries applied to the head; may break skull, failing that, the neck. Atlas fracture. Difference in qualities of the force causing atlas fracture and low cervical dislocation. (4) The compound nature of the vertebral body. The two columns, anterior, spongy; posterior, compact. The nature of wedge-compression of the vertebral body. Variations in the shape of the wedge. Reasons. Occur at all levels, including cervical spine. (5) Frequency of injury at different levels of vertebral column. “Localization” of injury. The two places of the graph of injury. The cervical at C. 5. Reason. The thoracic-lumbar peak at T. 12, L. 1 industrial. Is there a third peak at C. 2? (6) The effects of violent flexion of the spine: cervical flexion causes luxation at C. 5 or so. Extension causes fracture of odontoid. Violent flexion and extension therefore cause injury at very different levels. Thoracic region, why is there no “peak” of injury at T.6, 7? Lumbar region. (7) Displacement of fragments. Continuation of violence after the essential injury has been effected. Kümmell's disease, no inflammatory process involved. (8) Injury to the intervertebral discs, essential for displacement. Imperfect rupture a cause for difficulty in reducing luxations. The worst cases those in which it is most easily done, but most of these have cord damage. (9) Spinal injury from minimal violence. Examples of trivial cases, diving, brushing hair and so forth. Vertebral displacement in disease a much more serious thing. (10) Curious stability of many cervical luxations. Reasons. Locking of the inferior

  2. Prevention of running injuries.

    PubMed

    Fields, Karl B; Sykes, Jeannie C; Walker, Katherine M; Jackson, Jonathan C

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for preventive strategies to lessen running injuries is needed as these occur in 40%-50% of runners on an annual basis. Many factors influence running injuries, but strong evidence for prevention only exists for training modification primarily by reducing weekly mileage. Two anatomical factors - cavus feet and leg length inequality - demonstrate a link to injury. Weak evidence suggests that orthotics may lessen risk of stress fracture, but no clear evidence proves they will reduce the risk of those athletes with leg length inequality or cavus feet. This article reviews other potential injury variables, including strength, biomechanics, stretching, warm-up, nutrition, psychological factors, and shoes. Additional research is needed to determine whether interventions to address any of these will help prevent running injury.

  3. Sports related ocular injuries.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Avinash; Verma, Ashok K

    2012-07-01

    Every year > 600,000 sports and recreation related eye injuries occur, out of which roughly 13,500 of these result in permanent loss of sight. Up to 90% of these sports related eye injuries are preventable by using adequate eye protection equipment. Protective eyewear is made of polycarbonate, a highly impact-resistant plastic which is now easily available as prescription and non-prescription eyewear and all players should be encouraged to use them. The medical officers by educating their patients regarding the risks of eye injuries in various sports and the confirmed benefits of using protective equipment have the potential to prevent injury to over thousands of eyes every year. The medical fraternity can also play a very important role in educating the coaches, parents, and children and thus put an end to unnecessary blindness and vision loss from sports related ocular injuries, therefore ensuring a lifetime of healthy vision.

  4. Pediatric running injuries.

    PubMed

    Seto, Craig K; Statuta, Siobhan M; Solari, Ian L

    2010-07-01

    As more children have become involved in athletic activities and running, there has been a significant increase in overuse injuries. The young athlete with open growth plates is vulnerable to unique overuse injuries involving the apophyses, articular cartilage, and growth plate. The physician caring for these young athletes needs to be aware of these conditions to diagnose and treat them appropriately. Physicians should also be aware of the risk of overtraining and overuse injury in athletes participating in year-round sports and competition. Current guidelines for overuse injury prevention in young athletes are primarily based on consensus and expert opinion. Further research is needed to provide evidence-based guidelines for overuse injury prevention in young athletes and runners. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Spinal Injuries in Children

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Saumyajit

    2012-01-01

    About 5% of spinal injuries occur in children – however the consequences to the society are devastating, all the more so because the cervical spine is more commonly affected. Anatomical differences with adults along with the inherent elasticity of the pediatric spine, makes these injuries a biomechanically separate entity. Hence clinical manifestations are unique, one of which is the Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiological Abnormality. With the advent of high quality MRI and CT scan along with digital X-ray, it is now possible to exactly delineate the anatomical location, geometrical configuration, and the pathological extent of the injury. This has improved the management strategies of these unfortunate children and the role of surgical stabilization in unstable injuries can be more sharply defined. However these patients should be followed up diligently because of the recognized long term complications of spinal deformity and syringomyelia. PMID:22855681

  6. [Acute radiation injury].

    PubMed

    Saito, Tsutomu

    2012-03-01

    Cell death due to DNA damage by ionizing radiation causes acute radiation injury of tissues and organs. Frequency and severity of the injuries increase according to dose increase, when the dose becomes more than threshold dose. The threshold dose of acute human radiation death is 1 Gy and LD50 of human is 4 Gy. Human dies due to the cerebrovascular syndrome, the gastrointestinal syndrome or the hematopoetic syndrome, when he received more than 20 Gy, 10-20 Gy or 3-8 Gy to his total body, respectively. Any tissue or organ, including embryo and fetus, does not show the acute injury, when it received less than 100 mSv. Acute injuries are usually reversible, and late injuries are sometimes irreversible.

  7. Welder eye injuries.

    PubMed

    Reesal, M R; Dufresne, R M; Suggett, D; Alleyne, B C

    1989-12-01

    During 1985, welders submitted 21% of all claims for eye injuries received by the Workers' Compensation Board of Alberta. Since then the proportion of similar claims has remained high. A descriptive study of welder eye injury claims reveals that, although most injuries are reversible (55% of workers return to work in less than 2 days and 95% in less than 7 days), some workers sustain permanent visual impairment. Eye injuries occur most frequently in metal-work industries, and cold particles, most often metal, are the most common source of injury. Preventive measures should stress the importance of wearing eye protection constantly while working with metal pieces and in metal industries. Goggles probably should not be removed upon extinguishing the welding torch.

  8. [Epidemiology of basketball injuries].

    PubMed

    Engel, J; Baharav, U; Modan, M

    1990-09-01

    The players of an elite basketball team were followed during the course of a season which included 71 games and 250 training sessions. All injuries were noted and were correlated with age, height and other physical parameters of the players, as well as with degree of fatigue during games and during training sessions. The lower extremity was the most common site of injury. Ligamentous injuries of the knee are more common in basketball than in soccer players, but they have fewer meniscal injuries than the latter. However, the upper extremity, especially the hand, is more frequently injured in basketball than in other sports. The age, height and personality of the player affect the injury pattern.

  9. Tooth injury in anaesthesiology.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, José Miguel Brandão Ribeiro; Mourão, Joana Irene de Barros

    2015-01-01

    Dental injury is the most common complication of general anaesthesia and has significant physical, economic and forensic consequences. The aim of this study is to review on the characteristics of dental injury associated with anaesthesiology and existing methods of prevention. In this review, the time of anaesthesia in which the dental injury occurs, the affected teeth, the most frequent type of injury, established risk factors, prevention strategies, protection devices and medico-legal implications inherent to its occurrence are approached. Before initiating any medical procedure that requires the use of classic laryngoscopy, a thorough and detailed pre-aesthetic evaluation of the dental status of the patient is imperative, in order to identify teeth at risk, analyze the presence of factors associated with difficult intubation and outline a prevention strategy that is tailored to the risk of dental injury of each patient. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. [Tooth injury in anaesthesiology].

    PubMed

    Brandão Ribeiro de Sousa, José Miguel; de Barros Mourão, Joana Irene

    2015-01-01

    Dental injury is the most common complication of general anaesthesia and has significant physical, economic and forensic consequences. The aim of this study is to review on the characteristics of dental injury associated with anaesthesiology and existing methods of prevention. In this review, the time of anaesthesia in which the dental injury occurs, the affected teeth, the most frequent type of injury, established risk factors, prevention strategies, protection devices and medico-legal implications inherent to its occurrence are approached. Before initiating any medical procedure that requires the use of classic laryngoscopy, a thorough and detailed pre-aesthetic evaluation of the dental status of the patient is imperative, in order to identify teeth at risk, analyze the presence of factors associated with difficult intubation and outline a prevention strategy that is tailored to the risk of dental injury of each patient. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. TWSVR: Regression via Twin Support Vector Machine.

    PubMed

    Khemchandani, Reshma; Goyal, Keshav; Chandra, Suresh

    2016-02-01

    Taking motivation from Twin Support Vector Machine (TWSVM) formulation, Peng (2010) attempted to propose Twin Support Vector Regression (TSVR) where the regressor is obtained via solving a pair of quadratic programming problems (QPPs). In this paper we argue that TSVR formulation is not in the true spirit of TWSVM. Further, taking motivation from Bi and Bennett (2003), we propose an alternative approach to find a formulation for Twin Support Vector Regression (TWSVR) which is in the true spirit of TWSVM. We show that our proposed TWSVR can be derived from TWSVM for an appropriately constructed classification problem. To check the efficacy of our proposed TWSVR we compare its performance with TSVR and classical Support Vector Regression(SVR) on various regression datasets.

  12. Modeling material failure with a vectorized routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, S. M.; Goodman, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The computational aspects of modelling material failure in structural wood members are presented with particular reference to vector processing aspects. Wood members are considered to be highly orthotropic, inhomogeneous, and discontinuous due to the complex microstructure of wood material and the presence of natural growth characteristics such as knots, cracks and cross grain in wood members. The simulation of strength behavior of wood members is accomplished through the use of a special purpose finite element/fracture mechanics routine, program STARW (Strength Analysis Routine for Wood). Program STARW employs quadratic finite elements combined with singular crack tip elements in a finite element mesh. Vector processing techniques are employed in mesh generation, stiffness matrix formation, simultaneous equation solution, and material failure calculations. The paper addresses these techniques along with the time and effort requirements needed to convert existing finite element code to a vectorized version. Comparisons in execution time between vectorized and nonvectorized routines are provided.

  13. Integrated epidemiology for vector-borne zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Wardrop, Nicola A

    2016-02-01

    The development and application of interventions for the control of vector-borne zoonoses requires broad understanding of epidemiological linkages between vector, animal infection and human infection. However, there are significant gaps in our understanding of these linkages and a lack of appropriate data poses a considerable barrier to addressing this issue. A move towards strengthened surveillance of vectors and disease in both animal and human hosts, in combination with linked human-animal surveys, could form the backbone for epidemiological integration, enabling explicit assessment of the animal-human (and vector) interface, and subsequent implications for spill-over to human populations. Currently available data on the spatial distribution of human African trypanosomiasis allow an illustrative example.

  14. Magnetic vector field tag and seal

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R.

    2004-08-31

    One or more magnets are placed in a container (preferably on objects inside the container) and the magnetic field strength and vector direction are measured with a magnetometer from at least one location near the container to provide the container with a magnetic vector field tag and seal. The location(s) of the magnetometer relative to the container are also noted. If the position of any magnet inside the container changes, then the measured vector fields at the these locations also change, indicating that the tag has been removed, the seal has broken, and therefore that the container and objects inside may have been tampered with. A hollow wheel with magnets inside may also provide a similar magnetic vector field tag and seal. As the wheel turns, the magnets tumble randomly inside, removing the tag and breaking the seal.

  15. Extracting Road Vector Data from Raster Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Yao-Yi; Knoblock, Craig A.

    Raster maps are an important source of road information. Because of the overlapping map features (e.g., roads and text labels) and the varying image quality, extracting road vector data from raster maps usually requires significant user input to achieve accurate results. In this paper, we present an accurate road vectorization technique that minimizes user input by combining our previous work on extracting road pixels and road-intersection templates to extract accurate road vector data from raster maps. Our approach enables GIS applications to exploit the road information in raster maps for the areas where the road vector data are otherwise not easily accessible, such as the countries of the Middle East. We show that our approach requires minimal user input and achieves an average of 93.2% completeness and 95.6% correctness in an experiment using raster maps from various sources.

  16. VEST: Abstract Vector Calculus Simplification in Mathematica

    SciTech Connect

    J. Squire, J. Burby and H. Qin

    2013-03-12

    We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce scalar and vector expressions of a very general type using a systematic canonicalization procedure. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by canonicalization, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper [1], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations. __________________________________________________

  17. Students' difficulties with vector calculus in electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke

    2015-12-01

    Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven encounter with the divergence and curl of a vector field in mathematical and physical contexts. We have found that they are quite skilled at doing calculations, but struggle with interpreting graphical representations of vector fields and applying vector calculus to physical situations. We have found strong indications that traditional instruction is not sufficient for our students to fully understand the meaning and power of Maxwell's equations in electrodynamics.

  18. [Gene engineering of the adenovirus vector].

    PubMed

    Kondo, Saki; Terashima, Miho; Fukuda, Hiromitsu; Saito, Izumu; Kanegae, Yumi

    2007-06-01

    The adenovirus vector is very attractive tool not only for the gene therapy but also for the basic sciences. However, because a construction method of this vector had been complex, only limited scientists had constructed and enjoyed the benefits. Recently, various methods were developed and the researchers came to be able to choose an efficient method, which is the COS-TPC method, or a concise procedure, which is the intact-genome transfection method (in vitro ligation method). Here we described not only these methods but also new method to construct the various Ads simultaneously using the recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) by the site-specific recombinase. And also we want to refer the possibility to the worth of the vector, especially the vector of the expression-switch.

  19. Vector resonances and electromagnetic nucleon structure

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Williams; Siegfried Krewald; Kevin Linen

    1995-02-01

    Motivated by new, precise magnetic proton form factor data in the timelike region, a hybrid vector meson dominance (hVMD) formalism is employed to investigate the significance of excited vector meson resonances on electromagnetic nucleon structure. We find that the rho (1700), omega (1600), and two previously unobserved states are required to reproduce the local structure seen in the new LEAR data just above the pp-bar threshold. We also investigate sensitivity to the phi meson. The model dependence of our result is tested by introducing an alternative model which couples the isoscalar vector meson states to a hypothetical vector glueball resonance. We obtain nearly identical results from both models, except for GnE(q2) in the spacelike region which is very sensitive to the glueball mass and the effective phi NN coupling.

  20. Vector Potential Generation for Numerical Relativity Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberman, Zachary; Faber, Joshua; Adams, Thomas; Etienne, Zachariah; Ruchlin, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Many different numerical codes are employed in studies of highly relativistic magnetized accretion flows around black holes. Based on the formalisms each uses, some codes evolve the magnetic field vector B, while others evolve the magnetic vector potential A, the two being related by the curl: B=curl(A). Here, we discuss how to generate vector potentials corresponding to specified magnetic fields on staggered grids, a surprisingly difficult task on finite cubic domains. The code we have developed solves this problem in two ways: a brute-force method, whose scaling is nearly linear in the number of grid cells, and a direct linear algebra approach. We discuss the success both algorithms have in generating smooth vector potential configurations and how both may be extended to more complicated cases involving multiple mesh-refinement levels. NSF ACI-1550436

  1. Insects as vectors: systematics and biology.

    PubMed

    Rodhain, F

    2015-04-01

    Among the many complex relationships between insects and microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria and parasites, some have resulted in the establishment of biological systems within which the insects act as a biological vector for infectious agents. It is therefore advisable to understand the identity and biology of these vectors in depth, in order to define procedures for epidemiological surveillance and anti-vector control. The following are successively reviewed in this article: Anoplura (lice), Siphonaptera (fleas), Heteroptera (bugs: Cimicidae, Triatoma, Belostomatidae), Psychodidae (sandflies), Simuliidae (black flies), Ceratopogonidae (biting midges), Culicidae (mosquitoes), Tabanidae (horseflies) and Muscidae (tsetse flies, stable flies and pupipara). The authors provide a rapid overview of the morphology, systematics, development cycle and bio-ecology of each of these groups of vectors. Finally, their medical and veterinary importance is briefly reviewed.

  2. Gamow vectors explain the shock profile.

    PubMed

    Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Gentilini, Silvia; Conti, Claudio

    2016-09-19

    The description of shock waves beyond the shock point is a challenge in nonlinear physics and optics. Finding solutions to the global dynamics of dispersive shock waves is not always possible due to the lack of integrability. Here we propose a new method based on the eigenstates (Gamow vectors) of a reversed harmonic oscillator in a rigged Hilbert space. These vectors allow analytical formulation for the development of undular bores of shock waves in a nonlinear nonlocal medium. Experiments by a photothermal induced nonlinearity confirm theoretical predictions: the undulation period as a function of power and the characteristic quantized decays of Gamow vectors. Our results demonstrate that Gamow vectors are a novel and effective paradigm for describing extreme nonlinear phenomena.

  3. VEST: Abstract vector calculus simplification in Mathematica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, J.; Burby, J.; Qin, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce three-dimensional scalar and vector expressions of a very general type to a well defined standard form. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by reduction, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper Burby et al. (2013) [12], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of high-order Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations.

  4. Imaging vector fields using Line Integral Convolution

    SciTech Connect

    Cabral, B.; Leedom, L.C.

    1993-03-01

    Imaging vector fields has applications in science, art, image processing and special effects. An effective new approach is to use linear and curvilinear filtering techniques to locally blur textures along a vector field. This approach builds on several previous texture generation and filtering techniques. It is, however, unique because it is local, one-dimensional and independent of any predefined geometry or texture. The technique is general and capable of imaging arbitrary two- and three-dimensional vector fields. The local one-dimensional nature of the algorithm lends itself to highly parallel and efficient implementations. Furthermore, the curvilinear filter is capable of rendering detail on very intricate vector fields. Combining this technique with other rendering and image processing techniques -- like periodic motion filtering -- results in richly informative and striking images. The technique can also produce novel special effects.

  5. Vectorization of Monte Carlo particle transport

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, P.J.; Christon, M.; Schweitzer, R.; Lubeck, O.M.; Wasserman, H.J.; Simmons, M.L.; Pryor, D.V. . Computer Center; Los Alamos National Lab., NM; Supercomputing Research Center, Bowie, MD )

    1989-01-01

    Fully vectorized versions of the Los Alamos National Laboratory benchmark code Gamteb, a Monte Carlo photon transport algorithm, were developed for the Cyber 205/ETA-10 and Cray X-MP/Y-MP architectures. Single-processor performance measurements of the vector and scalar implementations were modeled in a modified Amdahl's Law that accounts for additional data motion in the vector code. The performance and implementation strategy of the vector codes are related to architectural features of each machine. Speedups between fifteen and eighteen for Cyber 205/ETA-10 architectures, and about nine for CRAY X-MP/Y-MP architectures are observed. The best single processor execution time for the problem was 0.33 seconds on the ETA-10G, and 0.42 seconds on the CRAY Y-MP. 32 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Is addition of induction vectors meaningful?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J. T.; Agarwal, A. K.

    Justification is given for using the word 'vector' (with its mathematical implications) to describe the arrows first employed by Parkinson and Wiese to depict induced magnetic variation fields associated with conductivity anomalies. Despite this, caution should be exercised when trying to interpret physically the resultant obtained by adding or subtracting such vectors. Induction in a rectangular surface anomaly near a coastline is investigated numerically with the aid of a thin sheet program for inducing fields of periods 1 h and 20 min. It is found that in certain regions the induction vectors for this configuration are not given by the resultants of the separate induction vectors for the coastline and anomaly alone unless the anomaly is so far removed from the coastline that there is little electromagnetic coupling between them.

  7. Electron-Vector Potential Interaction Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, B

    2003-03-27

    The authors investigate an ambiguity inherent in the definition of the vector potential used in electron-electromagnetic field interactions. Two cases, Zeeman effect and Compton scattering, are studied.

  8. Neural net approach to predictive vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohsenian, Nader; Nasrabadi, Nasser M.

    1992-11-01

    A new predictive vector quantization (PVQ) technique, capable of exploring the nonlinear dependencies in addition to the linear dependencies that exist between adjacent blocks of pixels, is introduced. Two different classes of neural nets form the components of the PVQ scheme. A multi-layer perceptron is embedded in the predictive component of the compression system. This neural network, using the non-linearity condition associated with its processing units, can perform as a non-linear vector predictor. The second component of the PVQ scheme vector quantizes (VQ) the residual vector that is formed by subtracting the output of the perceptron from the original wave-pattern. Kohonen Self-Organizing Feature Map (KSOFM) was utilized as a neural network clustering algorithm to design the codebook for the VQ technique. Coding results are presented for monochrome 'still' images.

  9. Weaving Knotted Vector Fields with Tunable Helicity.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Hridesh; Foster, David; Dennis, Mark R; Irvine, William T M

    2016-12-30

    We present a general construction of divergence-free knotted vector fields from complex scalar fields, whose closed field lines encode many kinds of knots and links, including torus knots, their cables, the figure-8 knot, and its generalizations. As finite-energy physical fields, they represent initial states for fields such as the magnetic field in a plasma, or the vorticity field in a fluid. We give a systematic procedure for calculating the vector potential, starting from complex scalar functions with knotted zero filaments, thus enabling an explicit computation of the helicity of these knotted fields. The construction can be used to generate isolated knotted flux tubes, filled by knots encoded in the lines of the vector field. Lastly, we give examples of manifestly knotted vector fields with vanishing helicity. Our results provide building blocks for analytical models and simulations alike.

  10. The evolution of heart gene delivery vectors.

    PubMed

    Wasala, Nalinda B; Shin, Jin-Hong; Duan, Dongsheng

    2011-10-01

    Gene therapy holds promise for treating numerous heart diseases. A key premise for the success of cardiac gene therapy is the development of powerful gene transfer vehicles that can achieve highly efficient and persistent gene transfer specifically in the heart. Other features of an ideal vector include negligible toxicity, minimal immunogenicity and easy manufacturing. Rapid progress in the fields of molecular biology and virology has offered great opportunities to engineer various genetic materials for heart gene delivery. Several nonviral vectors (e.g. naked plasmids, plasmid lipid/polymer complexes and oligonucleotides) have been tested. Commonly used viral vectors include lentivirus, adenovirus and adeno-associated virus. Among these, adeno-associated virus has shown many attractive features for pre-clinical experimentation in animal models of heart diseases. We review the history and evolution of these vectors for heart gene transfer. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Vector Analysis of Human Limb Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laferriere, Joseph E.

    1994-01-01

    Uses vectors to illustrate movement of the human appendicular structures to help students visualize the interaction of the various muscles and understand how a small number of muscles can affect movement in a potentially infinite number of directions. (ZWH)

  12. Viral vector-based influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Rory D.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses and the occasional introduction of influenza viruses of novel subtypes into the human population complicate the timely production of effective vaccines that antigenically match the virus strains that cause epidemic or pandemic outbreaks. The development of game-changing vaccines that induce broadly protective immunity against a wide variety of influenza viruses is an unmet need, in which recombinant viral vectors may provide. Use of viral vectors allows the delivery of any influenza virus antigen, or derivative thereof, to the immune system, resulting in the optimal induction of virus-specific B- and T-cell responses against this antigen of choice. This systematic review discusses results obtained with vectored influenza virus vaccines and advantages and disadvantages of the currently available viral vectors. PMID:27455345

  13. Linear prediction of stationary vector sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baram, Yoram

    1988-01-01

    The class of all linear predictors of minimal order for a stationary vector-valued process is specified in terms of linear transformations on the associated Hankel covariance matrix. Two particular transformations, yielding computationally efficient construction schemes, are proposed.

  14. A Flexible Turbulent Vector Field Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benassi, A.; Davis, A.

    2004-12-01

    Analysis and generation of turbulent vector fields is a necessity in many areas, such as Atmospheric Science. A candidate model of vector field must be flexible enough to tune some features, such as the spacial distribution of vortices, sinks and sources, according to physical measures. To achieve that goal, we propose a model that depends upon a given matricial function called "topolet" and a law of random vectors family. This model has a hierarchical structure. Its spinal column is a tree: the encoding tree of the domain where the vector field lives. The sets of vortices, sinks and sources are driven by some Bernouilli subtrees, directly giving their fractal dimension. At each node of the tree is attached a rate of energy loose giving the spectral slope. All those quantities are independantly identifiable on the base of mathematical proofs. A primitive version of this model have been proposed for generating clouds.

  15. Measurements of Solar Vector Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Various aspects of the measurement of solar magnetic fields are presented. The four major subdivisions of the study are: (1) theoretical understanding of solar vector magnetic fields; (3) techniques for interpretation of observational data; and (4) techniques for data display.

  16. Ontology for Vector Surveillance and Management

    PubMed Central

    LOZANO-FUENTES, SAUL; BANDYOPADHYAY, ARITRA; COWELL, LINDSAY G.; GOLDFAIN, ALBERT; EISEN, LARS

    2013-01-01

    Ontologies, which are made up by standardized and defined controlled vocabulary terms and their interrelationships, are comprehensive and readily searchable repositories for knowledge in a given domain. The Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry was initiated in 2001 with the aims of becoming an “umbrella” for life-science ontologies and promoting the use of ontology development best practices. A software application (OBO-Edit; *.obo file format) was developed to facilitate ontology development and editing. The OBO Foundry now comprises over 100 ontologies and candidate ontologies, including the NCBI organismal classification ontology (NCBITaxon), the Mosquito Insecticide Resistance Ontology (MIRO), the Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO), the IDOMAL malaria ontology, and ontologies for mosquito gross anatomy and tick gross anatomy. We previously developed a disease data management system for dengue and malaria control programs, which incorporated a set of information trees built upon ontological principles, including a “term tree” to promote the use of standardized terms. In the course of doing so, we realized that there were substantial gaps in existing ontologies with regards to concepts, processes, and, especially, physical entities (e.g., vector species, pathogen species, and vector surveillance and management equipment) in the domain of surveillance and management of vectors and vector-borne pathogens. We therefore produced an ontology for vector surveillance and management, focusing on arthropod vectors and vector-borne pathogens with relevance to humans or domestic animals, and with special emphasis on content to support operational activities through inclusion in databases, data management systems, or decision support systems. The Vector Surveillance and Management Ontology (VSMO) includes >2,200 unique terms, of which the vast majority (>80%) were newly generated during the development of this ontology. One core feature of the VSMO is the linkage

  17. Ontology for vector surveillance and management.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Bandyopadhyay, Aritra; Cowell, Lindsay G; Goldfain, Albert; Eisen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Ontologies, which are made up by standardized and defined controlled vocabulary terms and their interrelationships, are comprehensive and readily searchable repositories for knowledge in a given domain. The Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry was initiated in 2001 with the aims of becoming an "umbrella" for life-science ontologies and promoting the use of ontology development best practices. A software application (OBO-Edit; *.obo file format) was developed to facilitate ontology development and editing. The OBO Foundry now comprises over 100 ontologies and candidate ontologies, including the NCBI organismal classification ontology (NCBITaxon), the Mosquito Insecticide Resistance Ontology (MIRO), the Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO), the IDOMAL malaria ontology, and ontologies for mosquito gross anatomy and tick gross anatomy. We previously developed a disease data management system for dengue and malaria control programs, which incorporated a set of information trees built upon ontological principles, including a "term tree" to promote the use of standardized terms. In the course of doing so, we realized that there were substantial gaps in existing ontologies with regards to concepts, processes, and, especially, physical entities (e.g., vector species, pathogen species, and vector surveillance and management equipment) in the domain of surveillance and management of vectors and vector-borne pathogens. We therefore produced an ontology for vector surveillance and management, focusing on arthropod vectors and vector-borne pathogens with relevance to humans or domestic animals, and with special emphasis on content to support operational activities through inclusion in databases, data management systems, or decision support systems. The Vector Surveillance and Management Ontology (VSMO) includes >2,200 unique terms, of which the vast majority (>80%) were newly generated during the development of this ontology. One core feature of the VSMO is the linkage, through

  18. Chimpanzee Adenovirus Vector Ebola Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ledgerwood, Julie E; DeZure, Adam D; Stanley, Daphne A; Coates, Emily E; Novik, Laura; Enama, Mary E; Berkowitz, Nina M; Hu, Zonghui; Joshi, Gyan; Ploquin, Aurélie; Sitar, Sandra; Gordon, Ingelise J; Plummer, Sarah A; Holman, LaSonji A; Hendel, Cynthia S; Yamshchikov, Galina; Roman, Francois; Nicosia, Alfredo; Colloca, Stefano; Cortese, Riccardo; Bailer, Robert T; Schwartz, Richard M; Roederer, Mario; Mascola, John R; Koup, Richard A; Sullivan, Nancy J; Graham, Barney S

    2017-03-09

    The unprecedented 2014 epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) prompted an international response to accelerate the availability of a preventive vaccine. A replication-defective recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus type 3-vectored ebolavirus vaccine (cAd3-EBO), encoding the glycoprotein from Zaire and Sudan species, that offers protection in the nonhuman primate model, was rapidly advanced into phase 1 clinical evaluation. We conducted a phase 1, dose-escalation, open-label trial of cAd3-EBO. Twenty healthy adults, in sequentially enrolled groups of 10 each, received vaccination intramuscularly in doses of 2×10(10) particle units or 2×10(11) particle units. Primary and secondary end points related to safety and immunogenicity were assessed throughout the first 8 weeks after vaccination; in addition, longer-term vaccine durability was assessed at 48 weeks after vaccination. In this small study, no safety concerns were identified; however, transient fever developed within 1 day after vaccination in two participants who had received the 2×10(11) particle-unit dose. Glycoprotein-specific antibodies were induced in all 20 participants; the titers were of greater magnitude in the group that received the 2×10(11) particle-unit dose than in the group that received the 2×10(10) particle-unit dose (geometric mean titer against the Zaire antigen at week 4, 2037 vs. 331; P=0.001). Glycoprotein-specific T-cell responses were more frequent among those who received the 2×10(11) particle-unit dose than among those who received the 2×10(10) particle-unit dose, with a CD4 response in 10 of 10 participants versus 3 of 10 participants (P=0.004) and a CD8 response in 7 of 10 participants versus 2 of 10 participants (P=0.07) at week 4. Assessment of the durability of the antibody response showed that titers remained high at week 48, with the highest titers in those who received the 2×10(11) particle-unit dose. Reactogenicity and immune responses to cAd3-EBO vaccine were dose

  19. A biomechanical approach to interpreting magnetic resonance imaging of knee injuries.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Scott E; Khurana, Bharti; Gaviola, Glenn; Davis, Kirkland W

    2014-11-01

    This article discusses common injury mechanisms and the subsequent constellation of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in the knee following trauma in the context of instability, as distinguished by the degree of knee flexion and tibial rotation at the time of initial injury, in addition to the direction and magnitude of the responsible force vectors. Using 3-dimensional imaging, common injury mechanisms are illustrated and correlated with MR imaging findings of the resulting osteochondral, ligamentous, meniscal, and musculotendinous lesions. The most common classification and grading systems for these individual lesions and their subsequent treatment implications are discussed.

  20. [Orthogonal Vector Projection Algorithm for Spectral Unmixing].

    PubMed

    Song, Mei-ping; Xu, Xing-wei; Chang, Chein-I; An, Ju-bai; Yao, Li

    2015-12-01

    Spectrum unmixing is an important part of hyperspectral technologies, which is essential for material quantity analysis in hyperspectral imagery. Most linear unmixing algorithms require computations of matrix multiplication and matrix inversion or matrix determination. These are difficult for programming, especially hard for realization on hardware. At the same time, the computation costs of the algorithms increase significantly as the number of endmembers grows. Here, based on the traditional algorithm Orthogonal Subspace Projection, a new method called. Orthogonal Vector Projection is prompted using orthogonal principle. It simplifies this process by avoiding matrix multiplication and inversion. It firstly computes the final orthogonal vector via Gram-Schmidt process for each endmember spectrum. And then, these orthogonal vectors are used as projection vector for the pixel signature. The unconstrained abundance can be obtained directly by projecting the signature to the projection vectors, and computing the ratio of projected vector length and orthogonal vector length. Compared to the Orthogonal Subspace Projection and Least Squares Error algorithms, this method does not need matrix inversion, which is much computation costing and hard to implement on hardware. It just completes the orthogonalization process by repeated vector operations, easy for application on both parallel computation and hardware. The reasonability of the algorithm is proved by its relationship with Orthogonal Sub-space Projection and Least Squares Error algorithms. And its computational complexity is also compared with the other two algorithms', which is the lowest one. At last, the experimental results on synthetic image and real image are also provided, giving another evidence for effectiveness of the method.

  1. Thrust Vectoring to Eliminate the Vertical Stabilizer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    THRUST VECTORING TO ELIMINATE THE VERTICAL STABILIZER THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of...qualities is shown to be 1 rad/sec. I i~ i 2i, THRUST VECTORING TO ELIMINATE THE VERTICAL STABILIZER I. Introduction There is increasing concern ove" he...the height of the cockpit will not help very much and would reduce the pilot’s visibility. Reduction of the size or elimination of the vertical

  2. On the structure of Bethe vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuksa, J.

    2017-07-01

    The structure of Bethe vectors for generalised models associated with the rational and trigonometric R-matrix is investigated. The Bethe vectors in terms of two-component and multi-component models are described. Consequently, their structure in terms of local variables and operators is provided. This, as a consequence, proves the equivalence of coordinate and algebraic Bethe ansatzes for the Heisenberg spin chains. Hermitian conjugation of the elements of the monodromy matrix for the spin chains is studied.

  3. Engineering HSV-1 vectors for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Goins, William F; Huang, Shaohua; Cohen, Justus B; Glorioso, Joseph C

    2014-01-01

    Virus vectors have been employed as gene transfer vehicles for various preclinical and clinical gene therapy applications, and with the approval of Glybera (alipogene tiparvovec) as the first gene therapy product as a standard medical treatment (Yla-Herttuala, Mol Ther 20: 1831-1832, 2013), gene therapy has reached the status of being a part of standard patient care. Replication-competent herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors that replicate specifically in actively dividing tumor cells have been used in Phase I-III human trials in patients with glioblastoma multiforme, a fatal form of brain cancer, and in malignant melanoma. In fact, T-VEC (talimogene laherparepvec, formerly known as OncoVex GM-CSF) displayed efficacy in a recent Phase III trial when compared to standard GM-CSF treatment alone (Andtbacka et al. J Clin Oncol 31: sLBA9008, 2013) and may soon become the second FDA-approved gene therapy product used in standard patient care. In addition to the replication-competent oncolytic HSV vectors like T-VEC, replication-defective HSV vectors have been employed in Phase I-II human trials and have been explored as delivery vehicles for disorders such as pain, neuropathy, and other neurodegenerative conditions. Research during the last decade on the development of HSV vectors has resulted in the engineering of recombinant vectors that are totally replication defective, nontoxic, and capable of long-term transgene expression in neurons. This chapter describes methods for the construction of recombinant genomic HSV vectors based on the HSV-1 replication-defective vector backbones, steps in their purification, and their small-scale production for use in cell culture experiments as well as preclinical animal studies.

  4. Vector Quantization With Emergent Codebook Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahalt, Stanley C.; Krishnamurthy, Ashok

    1993-01-01

    Proposed scheme under development for transmission of vector-quantized digital video images, vector quantizer codebook updated to adapt quantizer to changing signal statistics. Intended to be realized with electronic neural network. Codebook, which consists of patterns constituting video images, will undergo training during operation and scheme will develop codebooks ordered during training. System enables coding more compact, more immune to noise, and supports variable rate compression.

  5. Visualization of Vector Field by Virtual Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, A.; Tamura, Y.; Sato, T.

    A visualization software program is developed in order to analyze three dimensional vector fields by means of today's advanced virtual reality technology. This program enables simulation researchers to interactively visualize stream lines, tracer particle motions, isosurfaces, etc.~with stereo view. The program accepts any kind of vector fields on structured mesh as an input data. A virtual reality hardware system, on which the program operates, and details of the program are described.

  6. Vector resonances and electromagnetic nucleon structure

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.A.; Krewald, S.; Linen, K. )

    1995-02-01

    Motivated by new, precise magnetic proton form factor data in the timelike reigon, a hybrid vector meson dominance (hVMD) formalism is employed to investigate the significance of excited vector meson rsonances on electromagnetic nucleon structure. We find that the [rho](1700), [omega](1600), and two previously unobserved states are required to reproduce the local structure seen in the new LEAR data just above the [ital p[bar p

  7. On estimating the Venus spin vector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argentiero, P. D.

    1972-01-01

    The improvement in spin vector and probe position estimates one may reasonably expect from the processing of such data is indicated. This was done by duplicating the ensemble calculations associated with a weighed least squares with a priori estimation technique applied to range rate data that were assumed to be unbiased and uncorrelated. The weighting matrix was assumed to be the inverse of the covariance matrix of the noise on the data. Attention is focused primarily on the spin vector estimation.

  8. Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories

    SciTech Connect

    Groeger, Josua

    2014-09-15

    The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.

  9. Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeger, Josua

    2014-09-01

    The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.

  10. Using multivalent adenoviral vectors for HIV vaccination.

    PubMed

    Gu, Linlin; Li, Zan C; Krendelchtchikov, Alexandre; Krendelchtchikova, Valentina; Wu, Hongju; Matthews, Qiana L

    2013-01-01

    Adenoviral vectors have been used for a variety of vaccine applications including cancer and infectious diseases. Traditionally, Ad-based vaccines are designed to express antigens through transgene expression of a given antigen. For effective vaccine development it is often necessary to express or present multiple antigens to the immune system to elicit an optimal vaccine as observed preclinically with mosaic/polyvalent HIV vaccines or malaria vaccines. Due to the wide flexibility of Ad vectors they are an ideal platform for expressing large amounts of antigen and/or polyvalent mosaic antigens. Ad vectors that display antigens on their capsid surface can elicit a robust humoral immune response, the "antigen capsid-incorporation" strategy. The adenoviral hexon protein has been utilized to display peptides in the majority of vaccine strategies involving capsid incorporation. Based on our abilities to manipulate hexon HVR2 and HVR5, we sought to manipulate HVR1 in the context of HIV antigen display for the first time ever. More importantly, peptide incorporation within HVR1 was utilized in combination with other HVRs, thus creating multivalent vectors. To date this is the first report where dual antigens are displayed within one Ad hexon particle. These vectors utilize HVR1 as an incorporation site for a seven amino acid region of the HIV glycoprotein 41, in combination with six Histidine incorporation within HVR2 or HVR5. Our study illustrates that these multivalent antigen vectors are viable and can present HIV antigen as well as His6 within one Ad virion particle. Furthermore, mouse immunizations with these vectors demonstrate that these vectors can elicit a HIV and His6 epitope-specific humoral immune response.

  11. Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Somalia. Fourth Edition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-15

    filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, West Nile fever, onchocerciasis , louse-borne typhus, relapsing fever, soil-transmitted helminths, and a variety of...Transmitted by the bite of infected sand flies. For vector species, see Leishmaniasis. VECTOR BIONOMICS: See Leishmaniasis ONCHOCERCIASIS INFECTIOUS...Bull. Entomol. Res. 66(2): 345-63 (47 ref., 18 fig.). Raybould, J.N. & G.B. White. 1979. The distribution, bionomics and control of onchocerciasis

  12. Efficient storage scheme and algorithms for w-matrix vector multiplication on vector computers

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.S.; Lu, C.N. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1994-05-01

    The W-matrix method has been proposed in many literatures to exploit parallelism in the solution of many power system problems. This paper presents a storage scheme for storing the sparse W-matrix in solving linear equations on vector computers. Based on the proposed storage scheme, several efficient algorithms have been developed to perform the W-matrix vector multiplication for finding linear system solution. In this paper, attention is given to the issues of vector length, data movement between vector registers and memory, and the vector stride. The proposed storage scheme and algorithms are tested on Convex 3840 and Alliant FX/80 vector machines. It is shown that a speedup of two to four times is obtainable as compared to traditional scalar operation. The proposed storage scheme and algorithms can be applied to power system problems that require repeat solutions of linear system, such as load flow, contingency analysis, fast decoupled state estimation and short circuit calculations.

  13. Effects of Climate and Climate Change on Vectors and Vector-Borne Diseases: Ticks Are Different.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Nick H; Lindsay, L Robbin

    2016-08-01

    There has been considerable debate as to whether global risk from vector-borne diseases will be impacted by climate change. This has focussed on important mosquito-borne diseases that are transmitted by the vectors from infected to uninfected humans. However, this debate has mostly ignored the biological diversity of vectors and vector-borne diseases. Here, we review how climate and climate change may impact those most divergent of arthropod disease vector groups: multivoltine insects and hard-bodied (ixodid) ticks. We contrast features of the life cycles and behaviour of these arthropods, and how weather, climate, and climate change may have very different impacts on the spatiotemporal occurrence and abundance of vectors, and the pathogens they transmit.

  14. Light scattering of rectangular slot antennas: parallel magnetic vector vs perpendicular electric vector

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dukhyung; Kim, Dai-Sik

    2016-01-01

    We study light scattering off rectangular slot nano antennas on a metal film varying incident polarization and incident angle, to examine which field vector of light is more important: electric vector perpendicular to, versus magnetic vector parallel to the long axis of the rectangle. While vector Babinet’s principle would prefer magnetic field along the long axis for optimizing slot antenna function, convention and intuition most often refer to the electric field perpendicular to it. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that in accordance with vector Babinet’s principle, the incident magnetic vector parallel to the long axis is the dominant component, with the perpendicular incident electric field making a small contribution of the factor of 1/|ε|, the reciprocal of the absolute value of the dielectric constant of the metal, owing to the non-perfectness of metals at optical frequencies. PMID:26740335

  15. Vector analyses of linearly and circularly polarized Bessel beams using Hertz vector potentials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanxun; Dou, Wenbin; Meng, Hongfu

    2014-04-07

    Using the transverse Hertz vector potentials, vector analyses of linearly and circularly polarized Bessel beams of arbitrary orders are presented in this paper. Expressions for the electric and magnetic fields of vector Bessel beams in free space that are rigorous solutions to the vector Helmholtz equation are derived. Their respective time averaged energy density and Poynting vector are also obtained, in order to exhibit their non-diffracting properties. Polarization patterns and magnitude profiles with different parameters are displayed. Particular emphasis is placed on the cases where the ratio of wave number over its transverse component k/kt approximately equals to one and largely exceeds it, which corresponding to the nonparaxial and paraxial condition, respectively. These results allow us to recognize that the vector Bessel beams exhibit new and important features, compared with the scalar fields.

  16. Black holes in vector-tensor theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Minamitsuji, Masato; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2017-08-01

    We study static and spherically symmetric black hole (BH) solutions in second-order generalized Proca theories with nonminimal vector field derivative couplings to the Ricci scalar, the Einstein tensor, and the double dual Riemann tensor. We find concrete Lagrangians which give rise to exact BH solutions by imposing two conditions of the two identical metric components and the constant norm of the vector field. These exact solutions are described by either Reissner-Nordström (RN), stealth Schwarzschild, or extremal RN solutions with a non-trivial longitudinal mode of the vector field. We then numerically construct BH solutions without imposing these conditions. For cubic and quartic Lagrangians with power-law couplings which encompass vector Galileons as the specific cases, we show the existence of BH solutions with the difference between two non-trivial metric components. The quintic-order power-law couplings do not give rise to non-trivial BH solutions regular throughout the horizon exterior. The sixth-order and intrinsic vector-mode couplings can lead to BH solutions with a secondary hair. For all the solutions, the vector field is regular at least at the future or past horizon. The deviation from General Relativity induced by the Proca hair can be potentially tested by future measurements of gravitational waves in the nonlinear regime of gravity.

  17. How random is a random vector?

    SciTech Connect

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-12-15

    Over 80 years ago Samuel Wilks proposed that the “generalized variance” of a random vector is the determinant of its covariance matrix. To date, the notion and use of the generalized variance is confined only to very specific niches in statistics. In this paper we establish that the “Wilks standard deviation” –the square root of the generalized variance–is indeed the standard deviation of a random vector. We further establish that the “uncorrelation index” –a derivative of the Wilks standard deviation–is a measure of the overall correlation between the components of a random vector. Both the Wilks standard deviation and the uncorrelation index are, respectively, special cases of two general notions that we introduce: “randomness measures” and “independence indices” of random vectors. In turn, these general notions give rise to “randomness diagrams”—tangible planar visualizations that answer the question: How random is a random vector? The notion of “independence indices” yields a novel measure of correlation for Lévy laws. In general, the concepts and results presented in this paper are applicable to any field of science and engineering with random-vectors empirical data.

  18. Possible applications for replicating HIV 1 vectors

    PubMed Central

    Das, Atze T; Jeeninga, Rienk E; Berkhout, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Since its discovery some 25 years ago, much has been learned about HIV type 1 and the molecular details of its replication cycle. This insight has been used to develop lentiviral vector systems that have advantages over conventional retroviral vector systems. For safety reasons, the lentiviral vector systems are replication incompetent and the risk of generating a replication competent virus has been minimized. Nevertheless, there may be certain applications for replication competent HIV based vector systems, and we will review our activities in this particular field. This includes the generation of a conditionally replicating HIV 1 variant as a safe live attenuated virus vaccine, the construction of mini HIV variants as cancer selective viruses for virotherapy against leukemia, and the use of a conditionally live anti HIV gene therapy vector. Although safety concerns will undoubtedly remain for the use of replication competent HIV based vector systems, some of the results in cell culture systems are very promising and warrant further testing in appropriate animal models. PMID:20582153

  19. Possible applications for replicating HIV 1 vectors.

    PubMed

    Das, Atze T; Jeeninga, Rienk E; Berkhout, Ben

    2010-05-01

    Since its discovery some 25 years ago, much has been learned about HIV type 1 and the molecular details of its replication cycle. This insight has been used to develop lentiviral vector systems that have advantages over conventional retroviral vector systems. For safety reasons, the lentiviral vector systems are replication incompetent and the risk of generating a replication competent virus has been minimized. Nevertheless, there may be certain applications for replication competent HIV based vector systems, and we will review our activities in this particular field. This includes the generation of a conditionally replicating HIV 1 variant as a safe live attenuated virus vaccine, the construction of mini HIV variants as cancer selective viruses for virotherapy against leukemia, and the use of a conditionally live anti HIV gene therapy vector. Although safety concerns will undoubtedly remain for the use of replication competent HIV based vector systems, some of the results in cell culture systems are very promising and warrant further testing in appropriate animal models.

  20. Attitude Determination Using Two Vector Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1998-01-01

    Many spacecraft attitude determination methods use exactly two vector measurements. The two vectors are typically the unit vector to the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field vector for coarse "sun-mag" attitude determination or unit vectors to two stars tracked by two star trackers for fine attitude determination. TRIAD, the earliest published algorithm for determining spacecraft attitude from two vector measurements, has been widely used in both ground-based and onboard attitude determination. Later attitude determination methods have been based on Wahba's optimality criterion for n arbitrarily weighted observations. The solution of Wahba's problem is somewhat difficult in the general case, but there is a simple closed-form solution in the two-observation case. This solution reduces to the TRIAD solution for certain choices of measurement weights. This paper presents and compares these algorithms as well as sub-optimal algorithms proposed by Bar-Itzhack, Harman, and Reynolds. Some new results will be presented, but the paper is primarily a review and tutorial.