Science.gov

Sample records for inland saline waters

  1. High genetic diversity and novelty in planktonic protists inhabiting inland and coastal high salinity water bodies.

    PubMed

    Triadó-Margarit, Xavier; Casamayor, Emilio O

    2013-07-01

    We analyzed the genetic diversity (18S rRNA gene) of planktonic microbial eukaryotes in 34 different coastal and inland saline ponds. A wide range of environmental conditions was covered with up to 30-fold differences in salinity concentrations (12.5-384 g L(-1)), and in situ temperatures (1.3-37.5 °C), and three orders of magnitude in the trophic status (i.e. chlorophyll a < 0.1 to >50 mg L(-1)). Geographically distant sites were studied with contrasting salt origins, and different temporal patterns of wetting and drying. The genetic diversity was high, far beyond the few groups traditionally considered as high salinity-adapted, with sequences spread throughout eight high-rank taxonomic groups and 27 eukaryal classes. The novelty level was extremely high, with 10% of the whole dataset showing < 90% identity to any previously reported sequence in GenBank. Opisthokonta and Rhizaria contained the highest novelty and Chlorophyta and Alveolata the lowest. Low identity sequences were observed both in coastal and inland sites and at lower and at higher salinities, although the degree of novelty was higher in the hypersaline waters (> 6.5% salinity). Overall, this study shows important gaps in the current knowledge about protists inhabiting continental (hyper)saline water bodies, highlighting the need for future, more detailed investigations. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rotifers from selected inland saline waters in the Chihuahuan Desert of México

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Elizabeth J; Schröder, Thomas; Wallace, Robert L; Ríos-Arana, Judith V; Rico-Martínez, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Background In spite of considerable efforts over past decades we still know relatively little regarding the biogeography of rotifers of inland waters in México. To help rectify this we undertook an extensive survey of the rotifer fauna of 48 water bodies in the Chihuahuan Desert of México. Results Of the sites surveyed, 21 had salinities ≥ 2000 μS cm-1 and in these we found 57 species of monogonont rotifers and several bdelloids. Species richness in the saline sites varied widely, with a range in species richness of 1 to 27 and a mean (± 1SD) = 8.8 (± 6.2). Collectively all sites possess relatively high percent single- and doubletons, 33.3 and 21.7%, respectively. Simpson's Asymmetric Index indicated that similarity in rotifer species composition varied widely among a set of 10 sites. These were selected because they were sampled more frequently or represent unusual habitats. These SAI values ranged from 0.00 (complete dissimilarity) to 1.00 (complete similarity). The Jaccard Index varied between 0.00 and 0.35. This observation probably reflects similarities and differences in water chemistry among these sites. Inland saline systems differed in their chemical composition by region. Conductivity was related to hardness and alkalinity. In addition, hardness was positively associated with chloride and sulfate. RDA showed that several species were positively associated with chloride concentration. Other factors that were significantly associated with rotifer species included the presence of macrophytes, nitrate content, oxygen concentration, TDS, latitude and whether the habitat was a large lake or reservoir. Conclusion This study illustrates the diversity of the rotiferan fauna of inland saline systems and the uniqueness among waterbodies. Conservation of these systems is needed to preserve these unique sources of biodiversity that include rotifers and the other endemic species found in association with them. PMID:18533042

  3. Osmo and ionic regulation of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon Fabricius 1798) juveniles exposed to K(+) deficient inland saline water at different salinities.

    PubMed

    Tantulo, Uras; Fotedar, Ravi

    2007-02-01

    An 11-day trial was conducted to investigate the osmoregulatory capacity (OC) and regulation of K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) of Penaeus monodon juveniles when exposed to K(+) deficient inland saline water (ISW) of four different salinities (5, 15, 25 and 35 ppt). The survival of juveniles showed a positive linear relationship (R(2) ranging from 0.72 to 0.98) with salinity. At the end of the trial, juveniles were able to survive only in 5 ppt of ISW and showed no changes in OC when transferred from ocean water (OW) to ISW. Further, the OC of juveniles in 5 ppt of ISW was significantly different (P<0.05) from the OC of juveniles exposed to 15, 25 and 35 ppt and exhibited strong serum K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) regulation monitored over 16 h. In contrast, at 35 ppt, significant decrease (P<0.05) in serum K(+) and Mg(2+) concentrations and accumulation of serum Na(+) concentration occurred after 16 h of exposure to ISW. At higher salinity, an increase in serum Na(+) concentration leads to an increase in the serum osmolality of the juveniles, which in turn causes decrease in the OC of the juveniles. The results of this study suggest that K(+) deficiency in ISW has a negative effect on survival, OC and the ability of P. monodon juveniles to regulate serum Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) concentrations. These effects are compounded as salinity increases.

  4. Inland and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouw, Colleen; Greb, Steven

    2012-09-01

    Workshop for Remote Sensing of Coastal and Inland Waters;Madison, Wisconsin, 20-22 June 2012 Coastal and inland water bodies, which have great value for recreation, food supply, commerce, transportation, and human health, have been experiencing external pressure from direct human activities and climate change. Given their societal and economic value, understanding issues of water quality, water quantity, and the impact of environmental change on the ecological and biogeochemical functioning of these water bodies is of interest to a broad range of communities. Remote sensing offers one of the most spatially and temporally comprehensive tools for observing these waters. While there has been some success with remotely observing these water bodies, many challenges still remain, including algorithm performance, atmospheric correction, the relationships between optical properties and biogeochemical parameters, sufficient spatial and spectral resolution, and a lack of uncertainty estimates over the wide range of environmental conditions encountered across these coastal and inland water bodies.

  5. Inland Water Temperature Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hook, S. J.; Lenters, J. D.; Schladow, G.; Healey, N.

    2016-12-01

    We are using thermal infrared satellite data in conjunction with in situ measurements to produce water temperatures for all the large inland water bodies in North America and the rest of the world for potential use as climate indicator. Recent studies have revealed significant warming of inland waters throughout the world. The observed rate of warming is - in many cases - greater than that of the ambient air temperature. These rapid, unprecedented changes in inland water temperatures have profound implications for lake hydrodynamics, productivity, and biotic communities. Scientists are just beginning to understand the global extent, regional patterns, physical mechanisms, and ecological consequences of lake warming. As part of our earlier studies we have collected thermal infrared satellite data from those satellite sensors that provide long-term and frequent spaceborne thermal infrared measurements of inland waters including ATSR, AVHRR, and MODIS and used these to examine trends in water surface temperature for approximately 169 of the largest inland water bodies in the world. We are now extending this work to generate temperature time-series of all North American inland water bodies that are sufficiently large to be studied using 1km resolution satellite data for the last 3 decades, approximately 268 lakes. These data are then being related to changes in the surface air temperature and compared with regional trends in water surface temperature derived from CMIP5/IPCC model simulations/projections to better predict future temperature changes. We will discuss the available datasets and processing methodologies together with the patterns they reveal and implications for ecosystem change in inland waters.

  6. Inland water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The work is reported of the panel concerning the application of space technology to the improved management of the nation's inland resources. The progress since the 1967-68 study is briefly reviewed. The data needed for the management of inlet water ways, and the potential benefits of better management are discussed along with 16 proposed demonstration projects.

  7. Recent Inland Water Temperature Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hook, Simon; Healey, Nathan; Lenters, John; O'Reilly, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    We are using thermal infrared satellite data in conjunction with in situ measurements to produce water temperatures for all the large inland water bodies in North America and the rest of the world for potential use as climate indicator. Recent studies have revealed significant warming of inland waters throughout the world. The observed rate of warming is - in many cases - greater than that of the ambient air temperature. These rapid, unprecedented changes in inland water temperatures have profound implications for lake hydrodynamics, productivity, and biotic communities. Scientists are just beginning to understand the global extent, regional patterns, physical mechanisms, and ecological consequences of lake warming. As part of our work we have collected thermal infrared satellite data from those satellite sensors that provide long-term and frequent spaceborne thermal infrared measurements of inland waters including ATSR, AVHRR, and MODIS and used these to examine trends in water surface temperature for approximately 169 of the largest inland water bodies in the world. We are now extending this work to generate temperature time-series of all North American inland water bodies that are sufficiently large to be studied using 1km resolution satellite data for the last 3 decades, approximately 268 lakes. These data are then being related to changes in the surface air temperature and compared with regional trends in water surface temperature derived from CMIP5/IPCC model simulations/projections to better predict future temperature changes. We will discuss the available datasets and processing methodologies together with the patterns they reveal based on recent changes in the global warming, with a particular focus on the inland waters of the southwestern USA.

  8. Bacteriophage in polar inland waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Säwström, Christin; Lisle, John; Anesio, A.M.; Priscu, John C.; Laybourn-Parry, J.

    2008-01-01

    Bacteriophages are found wherever microbial life is present and play a significant role in aquatic ecosystems. They mediate microbial abundance, production, respiration, diversity, genetic transfer, nutrient cycling and particle size distribution. Most studies of bacteriophage ecology have been undertaken at temperate latitudes. Data on bacteriophages in polar inland waters are scant but the indications are that they play an active and dynamic role in these microbially dominated polar ecosystems. This review summarises what is presently known about polar inland bacteriophages, ranging from subglacial Antarctic lakes to glacial ecosystems in the Arctic. The review examines interactions between bacteriophages and their hosts and the abiotic and biotic variables that influence these interactions in polar inland waters. In addition, we consider the proportion of the bacteria in Arctic and Antarctic lake and glacial waters that are lysogenic and visibly infected with viruses. We assess the relevance of bacteriophages in the microbial loop in the extreme environments of Antarctic and Arctic inland waters with an emphasis on carbon cycling.

  9. Global carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, Peter A.; Hartmann, Jens; Lauerwald, Ronny; Sobek, Sebastian; McDonald, Cory P.; Hoover, Mark; Butman, David; Striegl, Robert G.; Mayorga, Emilio; Humborg, Christoph; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Durr, Hans H.; Meybeck, Michel; Ciais, Philippe; Guth, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) transfer from inland waters to the atmosphere, known as CO2 evasion, is a component of the global carbon cycle. Global estimates of CO2 evasion have been hampered, however, by the lack of a framework for estimating the inland water surface area and gas transfer velocity and by the absence of a global CO2 database. Here we report regional variations in global inland water surface area, dissolved CO2 and gas transfer velocity. We obtain global CO2 evasion rates of 1.8   petagrams of carbon (Pg C) per year from streams and rivers and 0.32  Pg C yr−1 from lakes and reservoirs, where the upper and lower limits are respectively the 5th and 95th confidence interval percentiles. The resulting global evasion rate of 2.1 Pg C yr−1 is higher than previous estimates owing to a larger stream and river evasion rate. Our analysis predicts global hotspots in stream and river evasion, with about 70 per cent of the flux occurring over just 20 per cent of the land surface. The source of inland water CO2 is still not known with certainty and new studies are needed to research the mechanisms controlling CO2 evasion globally.

  10. Global carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Peter A; Hartmann, Jens; Lauerwald, Ronny; Sobek, Sebastian; McDonald, Cory; Hoover, Mark; Butman, David; Striegl, Robert; Mayorga, Emilio; Humborg, Christoph; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Dürr, Hans; Meybeck, Michel; Ciais, Philippe; Guth, Peter

    2013-11-21

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) transfer from inland waters to the atmosphere, known as CO2 evasion, is a component of the global carbon cycle. Global estimates of CO2 evasion have been hampered, however, by the lack of a framework for estimating the inland water surface area and gas transfer velocity and by the absence of a global CO2 database. Here we report regional variations in global inland water surface area, dissolved CO2 and gas transfer velocity. We obtain global CO2 evasion rates of 1.8(+0.25)(-0.25)  petagrams of carbon (Pg C) per year from streams and rivers and 0.32(+0.52)(-0.26)  Pg C yr(-1) from lakes and reservoirs, where the upper and lower limits are respectively the 5th and 95th confidence interval percentiles. The resulting global evasion rate of 2.1 Pg C yr(-1) is higher than previous estimates owing to a larger stream and river evasion rate. Our analysis predicts global hotspots in stream and river evasion, with about 70 per cent of the flux occurring over just 20 per cent of the land surface. The source of inland water CO2 is still not known with certainty and new studies are needed to research the mechanisms controlling CO2 evasion globally.

  11. Remote Sensing of Coastal and Inland Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Keukelaere, L.; Sterckx, S.; Adriaensen, S.; Knaeps, E.

    2016-02-01

    The new generation of satellites (e.g. Landsat 8, HyspIRI, Sentinel 2 and Sentinel 3 …) contain sensors that enable monitoring at increased spatial and/or spectral resolution. This opens a wide range of new opportunities, amongst others improved observation of coastal and inland waters. Algorithms for the pre-processing of these images and the derivation of Level 2 products for these waters need to take into account the specific nature of these environments, with adjacency effects of the nearby land and complex interactions of the optially active substances with varying degrees of turbidity. Here a new atmospheric correction algorithm, OPERA, is presented which can deal with these highly complex environments and which is sensor generic. OPERA accounts for the contribution of adjacency effects and provides surface reflectances for both land and water targets. OPERA is extended with a level 2 water algorithm providing TSM and turbidity estimates for a wide variety of water types. The algorithm is based on a multi wavelength switching approach using shorter wavelengths in low turbid waters and long NIR and SWIR wavelengths for highly and extremely turbid waters. Results are shown for Landsat-8, Sentinel-2 and MERIS for a variety of scenes, validated with field aeronet and turbidity data.

  12. 46 CFR 11.430 - Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. 11... Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. Any license or MMC endorsement issued for service on the Great Lakes and inland waters is valid on all of the inland waters of the United States as defined in...

  13. 46 CFR 11.430 - Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. 11... Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. Any license or MMC endorsement issued for service on the Great Lakes and inland waters is valid on all of the inland waters of the United States as defined in...

  14. 46 CFR 11.430 - Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. 11... Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. Any license or MMC endorsement issued for service on the Great Lakes and inland waters is valid on all of the inland waters of the United States as defined in...

  15. 46 CFR 11.430 - Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. 11... Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. Any license or MMC endorsement issued for service on the Great Lakes and inland waters is valid on all of the inland waters of the United States as defined in...

  16. Inland Water Temperature and the recent Global Warming Hiatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hook, S. J.; Healey, N.; Lenters, J. D.; O'Reilly, C.

    2015-12-01

    We are using thermal infrared satellite data in conjunction with in situ measurements to produce water temperatures for all the large inland water bodies in North America and the rest of the world for potential use as climate indicator. Recent studies have revealed significant warming of inland waters throughout the world. The observed rate of warming is - in many cases - greater than that of the ambient air temperature. These rapid, unprecedented changes in inland water temperatures have profound implications for lake hydrodynamics, productivity, and biotic communities. Scientists are just beginning to understand the global extent, regional patterns, physical mechanisms, and ecological consequences of lake warming. As part of our earlier studies we have collected thermal infrared satellite data from those satellite sensors that provide long-term and frequent spaceborne thermal infrared measurements of inland waters including ATSR, AVHRR, and MODIS and used these to examine trends in water surface temperature for approximately 169 of the largest inland water bodies in the world. We are now extending this work to generate temperature time-series of all North American inland water bodies that are sufficiently large to be studied using 1km resolution satellite data for the last 3 decades, approximately 268 lakes. These data are then being related to changes in the surface air temperature and compared with regional trends in water surface temperature derived from CMIP5/IPCC model simulations/projections to better predict future temperature changes. We will discuss the available datasets and processing methodologies together with the patterns they reveal based on recent changes in the global warming, with a particular focus on the inland waters of the southwestern USA.

  17. 33 CFR 62.32 - Inland waters obstruction mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inland waters obstruction mark. 62.32 Section 62.32 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System §...

  18. 33 CFR 62.32 - Inland waters obstruction mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inland waters obstruction mark. 62.32 Section 62.32 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System §...

  19. 33 CFR 62.32 - Inland waters obstruction mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inland waters obstruction mark. 62.32 Section 62.32 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System §...

  20. 33 CFR 62.32 - Inland waters obstruction mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inland waters obstruction mark. 62.32 Section 62.32 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System §...

  1. 33 CFR 62.32 - Inland waters obstruction mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inland waters obstruction mark. 62.32 Section 62.32 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System §...

  2. Database for Hydrological Time Series of Inland Waters (DAHITI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwatke, Christian; Dettmering, Denise

    2016-04-01

    Satellite altimetry was designed for ocean applications. However, since some years, satellite altimetry is also used over inland water to estimate water level time series of lakes, rivers and wetlands. The resulting water level time series can help to understand the water cycle of system earth and makes altimetry to a very useful instrument for hydrological applications. In this poster, we introduce the "Database for Hydrological Time Series of Inland Waters" (DAHITI). Currently, the database contains about 350 water level time series of lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and wetlands which are freely available after a short registration process via http://dahiti.dgfi.tum.de. In this poster, we introduce the product of DAHITI and the functionality of the DAHITI web service. Furthermore, selected examples of inland water targets are presented in detail. DAHITI provides time series of water level heights of inland water bodies and their formal errors . These time series are available within the period of 1992-2015 and have varying temporal resolutions depending on the data coverage of the investigated water body. The accuracies of the water level time series depend mainly on the extent of the investigated water body and the quality of the altimeter measurements. Hereby, an external validation with in-situ data reveals RMS differences between 5 cm and 40 cm for lakes and 10 cm and 140 cm for rivers, respectively.

  3. Wetlands as a large carbon source for inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abril, Gwenaël; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Artigas, L. Felipe; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Benedetti, Marc F.; Vidal, Luciana; Meziane, Tarik; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Bernardes, Marcelo C.; Deborde, Jonathan; Lima Souza, Edivaldo; Albéric, Patrick; Landim de Souza, Marcelo F.; Roland, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    Recent estimates suggests that up to 3 PgC y-1 could be emitted as CO2 from global inland waters, offsetting the carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. It is generally assumed that inland waters emit carbon previously fixed upstream by land plant photosynthesis and subsequently transported downstream with runoff. But the observed carbon fluxes from first-order streams do not account for all of the CO2 outgassing at the scale of entire watersheds. Three-quarters of the world's flooded land are temporary wetlands. However, the contribution of these productive ecosystems to the inland water carbon budget has been largely overlooked. Based on observations in rivers and floodplains of the central Amazon, we suggest that wetlands pump large amounts of atmospheric CO2 into river waters. Indeed, the magnitude of CO2 outgassing in Amazonian waters is spatially and temporally related to their connection with the semi-aquatic vegetation that performs aerial photosynthesis (Flooded forests and floating macrophytes). These wetlands export half of their gross primary production to waters as dissolved CO2 and organic carbon, compared to only a few percent of gross primary production in upland ecosystems. Global carbon budgets should explicitly address temporary or vegetated flooded areas, as these ecosystems combine high aerial primary production with a large and fast carbon export capacity, potentially supporting a significant fraction of CO2 evasion from inland waters.

  4. Integrated geophysical and chemical study of saline water intrusion.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Kalpan; Saha, D K

    2004-01-01

    Surface geophysical surveys provide an effective way to image the subsurface and the ground water zone without a large number of observation wells. DC resistivity sounding generally identifies the subsurface formations-the aquifer zone as well as the formations saturated with saline/brackish water. However, the method has serious ambiguities in distinguishing the geological formations of similar resistivities such as saline sand and saline clay, or water quality such as fresh or saline, in a low resistivity formation. In order to minimize the ambiguity and ascertain the efficacy of data integration techniques in ground water and saline contamination studies, a combined geophysical survey and periodic chemical analysis of ground water were carried out employing DC resistivity profiling, resistivity sounding, and shallow seismic refraction methods. By constraining resistivity interpretation with inputs from seismic refraction and chemical analysis, the data integration study proved to be a powerful method for identification of the subsurface formations, ground water zones, the subsurface saline/brackish water zones, and the probable mode and cause of saline water intrusion in an inland aquifer. A case study presented here illustrates these principles. Resistivity sounding alone had earlier failed to identify the different formations in the saline environment. Data integration and resistivity interpretation constrained by water quality analysis led to a new concept of minimum resistivity for ground water-bearing zones, which is the optimum value of resistivity of a subsurface formation in an area below which ground water contained in it is saline/brackish and unsuitable for drinking.

  5. 46 CFR 11.430 - Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. 11... Endorsements § 11.430 Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. (a) Any officer endorsement issued for service on Great Lakes and inland waters self-propelled vessels, excluding towing vessels, is...

  6. Acute toxicity of saline produced waters to marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pillard, D.A.; Evans, J.M.; DuFresne, D.L.

    1996-11-01

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of to osmotic specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow, (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silvemide (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant.

  7. Characterization of SAR Mode Altimetry over Inland Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabry, Pierre; Bercher, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    Radar altimetry over the inland water domain is a difficult topic that still requires a lot of human expertise as well as manual editing and verifications. This is mainly due to the fact that inland water scenes are highly variable, both in space and time, which leads to a much broader range of radar signatures than in oceanography. The remark is particularly true for LRM altimetry and remains valid in many cases in SAR mode (SARM). In preparation for the operational Sentinel-3 mission and to better benefit from the improved SARM along-track resolution it is required to: 1. better characterize the SARM Individual Echoes, Multi-Look Stacks, 20Hz waveforms as well as the Range Integrated Power (RIP) over the inland water domain, 2. step toward processing schemes that account for the actual content of the illuminated scene. In this work, we introduce an automated technique to assess the water fraction within the Beam-limited Doppler footprint through its intersection area of with a water mask. This framework opens up new ways toward the automated characterization and processing of altimetry data based on regularly updated water masks.

  8. New Characterization of SAR Mode Altimetry Data over Inland Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabry, Pierre; Bercher, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    Radar altimetry over the inland water domain is a difficult topic that still requires a lot of human expertise as well as manual editing and verifications. This is mainly due to the fact that inland water scenes are highly variable, both in space and time, which leads to a much broader range of radar signatures than in oceanography. The remark is particularly true for LRM altimetry and remains valid in many cases in SAR mode (SARM). In preparation for the operational Sentinel-3 mission and to better benefit from the improved SARM along-track resolution it is required to:1. better characterize the SARM Individual Echoes, Multi-Look Stacks, 20Hz waveforms as well as the Range Integrated Power (RIP) over the inland water domain,2. step toward processing schemes that account for the actual content of the illuminated scene.In this work, we introduce an automated technique to assess the water fraction within the Beam-limited Doppler footprint through its intersection area of with a water mask. This framework opens up new ways toward the automated characterization and processing of altimetry, in the future, thanks to regularly updated water masks.

  9. Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathrop, Richard G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions.

  10. Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Lathrop, R.G., JR. )

    1992-04-01

    This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions. 17 refs.

  11. Malodorous volatile organic sulfur compounds: Sources, sinks and significance in inland waters.

    PubMed

    Watson, Susan B; Jüttner, Friedrich

    2017-03-01

    Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds (VOSCs) are instrumental in global S-cycling and greenhouse gas production. VOSCs occur across a diversity of inland waters, and with widespread eutrophication and climate change, are increasingly linked with malodours in organic-rich waterbodies and drinking-water supplies. Compared with marine systems, the role of VOSCs in biogeochemical processes is far less well characterized for inland waters, and often involves different physicochemical and biological processes. This review provides an updated synthesis of VOSCs in inland waters, focusing on compounds known to cause malodours. We examine the major limnological and biochemical processes involved in the formation and degradation of alkylthiols, dialkylsulfides, dialkylpolysulfides, and other organosulfur compounds under different oxygen, salinity and mixing regimes, and key phototropic and heterotrophic microbial producers and degraders (bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae) in these environs. The data show VOSC levels which vary significantly, sometimes far exceeding human odor thresholds, generated by a diversity of biota, biochemical pathways, enzymes and precursors. We also draw attention to major issues in sampling and analytical artifacts which bias and preclude comparisons among studies, and highlight significant knowledge gaps that need addressing with careful, appropriate methods to provide a more robust understanding of the potential effects of continued global development.

  12. Inland Waters and the North American Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butman, D. E.; Striegl, R. G.; Stackpoole, S. M.; del Giorgio, P.; Prairie, Y.; Pilcher, D.; Raymond, P. A.; Alcocer, J.; Paz, F.

    2016-12-01

    Inland aquatic ecosystems process, store, and release carbon to the atmosphere and coastal margins. The form of this carbon is a function of terrestrial and aquatic primary and secondary production, the weathering of materials in soils and subsurface environments, the hydrologic controls on the movement of carbon from land to inland waters, and the connectivity between streams, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and groundwater. The 2007 1st State of the Carbon Cycle reported fluxes for the continental United States (CONUS) only. Streams and rivers exported 30-40 Tg C yr-1 to coastal environments, and 17-25 Tg C yr-1 were buried in lake and reservoir sediments. Remarkably, the 2007 report did not quantify gas emissions, which represent over half of the total carbon fluxes through inland water in the US. Current research has shown that 71-149 Tg C yr-1 exits freshwater systems either through atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide or as inorganic and organic carbon fluxes to the coast from the CONUS. These estimates did not include the Laurentian Great Lakes. Variation in the magnitude of these fluxes across regions of the CONUS has been linked to differences in precipitation and terrestrial net ecosystem production. Similar comprehensive assessments have not been done for Canada or Mexico. Here we provide, as part of the 2nd State of the Carbon Cycle report, estimates for the river coastal export and vertical emissions of carbon from inland waters of North America, and report major data gaps, and weaknesses in methodologies. These findings stress that strong international partnerships are needed to improve assessment, monitoring, and modeling of human impacts on the magnitude and timing of aquatic fluxes in the future.

  13. ICESat-derived inland water surface spot heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Loughlin, Fiachra E.; Neal, Jeffrey; Yamazaki, Dai; Bates, Paul D.

    2016-04-01

    Accurate measurement of water surface height is key to many fields in hydrology and limnology. Satellite radar and laser altimetry have been shown to be useful means of obtaining such data where no ground gauging stations exist, and the accuracy of different satellite instruments is now reasonably well understood. Past validation studies have shown water surface height data from the ICESat instrument to have the highest vertical accuracy (mean absolute errors of ˜10 cm for ICESat, compared, for example, with ˜28 cm from Envisat), yet no freely available source of processed ICESat data currently exists for inland water bodies. Here we present a database of processed and quality checked ICESat-derived inland water surface heights (IWSH) for water bodies greater than 3 arc sec (˜92 m at the equator) in width. Four automated methods for removing spurious observations or outliers were investigated, along with the impact of using different water masks. We find that the best performing method ensures that observations used are completely surrounded by water in the SRTM Water Body data. Using this method for removing spurious observations, we estimate transect-averaged water surface heights at 587,292 unique locations from 2003 to 2009, with the number of locations proportional to the size of the river.

  14. Distribution patterns of salinity and 222Rn in Yatsushiro Inland Sea, Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikpeyman, Y.; Ono, N.; Hosono, T.; Yang, H.; Ichiyanagi, K.; Shimada, J.; Takikawa, K.

    2015-03-01

    Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD), as a way through which solutes and nutrients travel from terrestrial areas towards coastal areas, is part of the hydrological cycle. Various methods are used to locate SGD at different scales. Among them, 222Rn has been developed with the viewpoint of accurate local estimations of SGD points indirectly. This research aims to identify SGD areas in the Yatsushiro Sea, southwest Japan, using the 222Rn method, while considering rivers with high 222Rn concentration in the study area. The area is an inland sea with high tidal fluctuations and there is a large contribution between the sea and groundwater, which are greatly affected by rivers. A multi-detector 222Rn survey has been carried out simultaneously with sea water electrical conductivity (EC) and temperature. In addition, several river grab samples were analysed for 222Rn concentration. Considering the sea water radon distribution and river characteristics, several points were selected for future SGD volume estimations.

  15. Illicit vessel identification in inland waters using SAR image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fengli; Wu, Bingfang; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Huiping; Tian, Yichen

    2006-10-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar remote sensing has been effectively used in water compliance and enforcement, especially in ship detection, but it is still very difficult to classify or identify vessels in inland water only using existing SAR image. Nevertheless some experience knowledge can help, for example waterway channel is of great significance for water traffic management and illegal activity monitoring. It can be used for judging a vessel complying with traffic rules or not, and also can be used to indicate illicit fishing vessels which are usually far away from navigable waterway channel. For illicit vessel identification speed and efficiency are very important, so it will be significant if we can extract waterway channel directly from SAR images and use it to identify illicit vessels. The paper first introduces the modified two-parameter CFAR algorithm used to detect ship targets in inland waters, and then uses principal curves and neural networks to extract waterway channel. Through comparing the detection results and the extracted waterway channel those vessels not complying with water traffic rules or potential illicit fishing vessels can be easily identified.

  16. Optimizing irradiance estimates for coastal and inland water imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, David R.; Seidel, Felix C.; Gao, Bo Cai; Gierach, Michelle M.; Green, Robert O.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Mouroulis, Pantazis

    2015-05-01

    Next generation orbital imaging spectrometers, with advanced global remote sensing capabilities, propose to address outstanding ocean science questions related to coastal and inland water environments. These missions require highly accurate characterization of solar irradiance in the critical 380-600 nm spectral range. However, the irradiance in this spectral region is temporally variable and difficult to measure directly, leading to considerable variance between different models. Here we optimize an irradiance estimate using data from the NASA airborne Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM), leveraging spectrally smooth in-scene targets. We demonstrate improved retrievals for both PRISM and the Next Generation Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer.

  17. Organic polar pollutants in surface waters of inland seas.

    PubMed

    Orlikowska, Anna; Fisch, Kathrin; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E

    2015-12-30

    Available data about contamination by polar substances are mostly reported for rivers and near-shore waters and only limited studies exists about their occurrence in marine waters. We present concentrations and distribution of several polar pesticides and UV-filters in surface waters of three inland seas, the Baltic, Black and Mediterranean Sea. Many of the investigated compounds were below detection limits, however, those found in off-shore waters raise a concern about their persistence and possible adverse effect on the ecosystem. Despite a longstanding EU-wide ban we were able to detect atrazine in the Mediterranean and the Baltic Sea. Concentrations in the Black Sea were substantially higher. Runoff from agricultural and urban areas was the main transport route to marine ecosystems for investigated compounds, though irgarol in Mediterranean waters was attributed to intense maritime traffic. 2-Phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid was the only UV-filter detected in marine waters, while benzophenone-4 was observed in the estuaries. Occurrence of UV-filters was seasonal.

  18. The comparative osmoregulatory ability of two water beetle genera whose species span the fresh-hypersaline gradient in inland waters (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae).

    PubMed

    Pallarés, Susana; Arribas, Paula; Bilton, David T; Millán, Andrés; Velasco, Josefa

    2015-01-01

    A better knowledge of the physiological basis of salinity tolerance is essential to understanding the ecology and evolutionary history of organisms that have colonized inland saline waters. Coleoptera are amongst the most diverse macroinvertebrates in inland waters, including saline habitats; however, the osmoregulatory strategies they employ to deal with osmotic stress remain unexplored. Survival and haemolymph osmotic concentration at different salinities were examined in adults of eight aquatic beetle species which inhabit different parts of the fresh-hypersaline gradient. Studied species belong to two unrelated genera which have invaded saline waters independently from freshwater ancestors; Nebrioporus (Dytiscidae) and Enochrus (Hydrophilidae). Their osmoregulatory strategy (osmoconformity or osmoregulation) was identified and osmotic capacity (the osmotic gradient between the animal's haemolymph and the external medium) was compared between species pairs co-habiting similar salinities in nature. We show that osmoregulatory capacity, rather than osmoconformity, has evolved independently in these different lineages. All species hyperegulated their haemolymph osmotic concentration in diluted waters; those living in fresh or low-salinity waters were unable to hyporegulate and survive in hyperosmotic media (> 340 mosmol kg(-1)). In contrast, the species which inhabit the hypo-hypersaline habitats were effective hyporegulators, maintaining their haemolymph osmolality within narrow limits (ca. 300 mosmol kg(-1)) across a wide range of external concentrations. The hypersaline species N. ceresyi and E. jesusarribasi tolerated conductivities up to 140 and 180 mS cm(-1), respectively, and maintained osmotic gradients over 3500 mosmol kg(-1), comparable to those of the most effective insect osmoregulators known to date. Syntopic species of both genera showed similar osmotic capacities and in general, osmotic responses correlated well with upper salinity levels occupied by

  19. The Comparative Osmoregulatory Ability of Two Water Beetle Genera Whose Species Span the Fresh-Hypersaline Gradient in Inland Waters (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pallarés, Susana; Arribas, Paula; Bilton, David T.; Millán, Andrés; Velasco, Josefa

    2015-01-01

    A better knowledge of the physiological basis of salinity tolerance is essential to understanding the ecology and evolutionary history of organisms that have colonized inland saline waters. Coleoptera are amongst the most diverse macroinvertebrates in inland waters, including saline habitats; however, the osmoregulatory strategies they employ to deal with osmotic stress remain unexplored. Survival and haemolymph osmotic concentration at different salinities were examined in adults of eight aquatic beetle species which inhabit different parts of the fresh—hypersaline gradient. Studied species belong to two unrelated genera which have invaded saline waters independently from freshwater ancestors; Nebrioporus (Dytiscidae) and Enochrus (Hydrophilidae). Their osmoregulatory strategy (osmoconformity or osmoregulation) was identified and osmotic capacity (the osmotic gradient between the animal’s haemolymph and the external medium) was compared between species pairs co-habiting similar salinities in nature. We show that osmoregulatory capacity, rather than osmoconformity, has evolved independently in these different lineages. All species hyperegulated their haemolymph osmotic concentration in diluted waters; those living in fresh or low-salinity waters were unable to hyporegulate and survive in hyperosmotic media (> 340 mosmol kg-1). In contrast, the species which inhabit the hypo-hypersaline habitats were effective hyporegulators, maintaining their haemolymph osmolality within narrow limits (ca. 300 mosmol kg-1) across a wide range of external concentrations. The hypersaline species N. ceresyi and E. jesusarribasi tolerated conductivities up to 140 and 180 mS cm-1, respectively, and maintained osmotic gradients over 3500 mosmol kg-1, comparable to those of the most effective insect osmoregulators known to date. Syntopic species of both genera showed similar osmotic capacities and in general, osmotic responses correlated well with upper salinity levels occupied by

  20. Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, Birgit; Landelius, Tomas; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Machida, Nanako; Tranvik, Lars J.

    2014-07-01

    The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from inland waters are substantial on a global scale. Yet the fundamental question remains open which proportion of these CO2 emissions is induced by sunlight via photochemical mineralization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), rather than by microbial respiration during DOC decomposition. Also, it is unknown on larger spatial and temporal scales how photochemical mineralization compares to other C fluxes in the inland water C cycle. We combined field and laboratory data with atmospheric radiative transfer modeling to parameterize a photochemical rate model for each day of the year 2009, for 1086 lakes situated between latitudes from 55°N to 69°N in Sweden. The sunlight-induced production of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) averaged 3.8 ± 0.04 g C m-2 yr-1, which is a flux comparable in size to the organic carbon burial in the lake sediments. Countrywide, 151 ± 1 kt C yr-1 was produced by photochemical mineralization, corresponding to about 12% of total annual mean CO2 emissions from Swedish lakes. With a median depth of 3.2 m, the lakes were generally deep enough that incoming, photochemically active photons were absorbed in the water column. This resulted in a linear positive relationship between DIC photoproduction and the incoming photon flux, which corresponds to the absorbed photons. Therefore, the slope of the regression line represents the wavelength- and depth-integrated apparent quantum yield of DIC photoproduction. We used this relationship to obtain a first estimate of DIC photoproduction in lakes and reservoirs worldwide. Global DIC photoproduction amounted to 13 and 35 Mt C yr-1 under overcast and clear sky, respectively. Consequently, these directly sunlight-induced CO2 emissions contribute up to about one tenth to the global CO2 emissions from lakes and reservoirs, corroborating that microbial respiration contributes a substantially larger share than formerly thought, and generate annual C fluxes similar in

  1. Organic carbon decomposition rates controlled by water retention time across inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, Núria; Marcé, Rafael; Kothawala, Dolly N.; Tranvik, Lars. J.

    2016-07-01

    The loss of organic carbon during passage through the continuum of inland waters from soils to the sea is a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Yet, the amount of organic carbon mineralized and released to the atmosphere during its transport remains an open question, hampered by the absence of a common predictor of organic carbon decay rates. Here we analyse a compilation of existing field and laboratory measurements of organic carbon decay rates and water residence times across a wide range of aquatic ecosystems and climates. We find a negative relationship between the rate of organic carbon decay and water retention time across systems, entailing a decrease in organic carbon reactivity along the continuum of inland waters. We find that the half-life of organic carbon is short in inland waters (2.5 +/- 4.7 yr) compared to terrestrial soils and marine ecosystems, highlighting that freshwaters are hotspots of organic carbon degradation. Finally, we evaluate the response of organic carbon decay rates to projected changes in runoff. We calculate that regions projected to become drier or wetter as the global climate warms will experience changes in organic carbon decay rates of up to about 10%, which illustrates the influence of hydrological variability on the inland waters carbon cycle.

  2. Tempo and mode of the multiple origins of salinity tolerance in a water beetle lineage.

    PubMed

    Arribas, Paula; Andújar, Carmelo; Abellán, Pedro; Velasco, Josefa; Millán, Andrés; Ribera, Ignacio

    2014-02-01

    Salinity is one of the most important drivers of the distribution, abundance and diversity of organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of saline tolerance have been mainly centred on marine and terrestrial organisms, while lineages inhabiting inland waters remain largely unexplored. This is despite the fact that these systems include a much broader range of salinities, going from freshwater to more than six times the salinity of the sea (i.e. >200 g/L). Here, we study the pattern and timing of the evolution of the tolerance to salinity in an inland aquatic lineage of water beetles (Enochrus species of the subgenus Lumetus, family Hydrophilidae), with the general aim of understanding the mechanisms by which it was achieved. Using a time-calibrated phylogeny built from five mitochondrial and two nuclear genes and information about the salinity tolerance and geographical distribution of the species, we found that salinity tolerance appeared multiple times associated with periods of global aridification. We found evidence of some accelerated transitions from freshwater directly to high salinities, as reconstructed with extant lineages. This, together with the strong positive correlation found between salinity tolerance and aridity of the habitats in which species are found, suggests that tolerance to salinity may be based on a co-opted mechanism developed originally for drought resistance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. SARAL/Altika for inland water: current and potential applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarpanelli, Angelica; Brocca, Luca; Barbetta, Silvia; Moramarco, Tommaso; Santos da Silva, Joécila; Calmant, Stephane

    2015-04-01

    Although representing less than 1% of the total amount of water on Earth the freshwater is essential for terrestrial life and human needs. Over one third of the world's population is not served by adequate supplies of clean water and for this reason freshwater wars are becoming one of the most pressing environmental issues exacerbating the already difficult tensions between the riparian nations. Notwithstanding the foregoing, we have surprisingly poor knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface discharge. In-situ gauging networks quantify the instantaneous water volume in the main river channels but provide few information about the spatial dynamics of surface water extent, such as floodplain flows and the dynamics of wetlands. The growing reduction of hydrometric monitoring networks over the world, along with the inaccessibility of many remote areas and the difficulties for data sharing among developing countries feed the need to develop new procedures for river discharge estimation based on remote sensing technology. The major challenge in this case is the possibility of using Earth Observation data without ground measurements. Radar altimeters are a valuable tool to retrieve hydrological information from space such as water level of inland water. More than a decade of research on the application of radar altimetry has demonstrated its advantages also for monitoring continental water, providing global coverage and regular temporal sampling. The high accuracy of altimetry data provided by the latest spatial missions and the convincing results obtained in the previous applications suggest that these data may be employed for hydraulic/hydrological applications as well. If used in synergy with the modeling, the potential benefits of the altimetry measurements can grow significantly. The new SARAL French-Indian mission, providing improvements in terms of vertical accuracy and spatial resolution of the onboard altimeter Altika, can offer a great

  4. Stratigraphic and microfossil evidence for hydroclimate changes over the middle to late Holocene in the northern Bahamas from an inland saline lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hengstum, P. J.; Maale, G. E.; Donnelly, J. P.; Onac, B. P.; Sullivan, R.; Winkler, T. S.; Albury, N. A.

    2016-12-01

    No Man's Land is one of the largest inland lakes on the Little Bahama Bank in the northern Bahamas, so its paleoenvironmental history may provide insight into how the regional hydroclimate developed over the Holocene. In its modern state, the site is shallow (<3 m), brackish (20.6 psu), 170 m in diameter, and located 700 m from the coastline. Prior to 6400 Cal yrs BP, the accumulation of peat deposits and no aquatic invertebrates (e.g., ostracodes, foraminifera, aquatic mollusks) indicate that the site was a terrestrial ecosystem. However, the site transitioned into a subaqueous freshwater environment at 6400 Cal yrs BP, and the site became a palustrine-lacustrine setting thereafter until 4200 Cal yrs BP. During this time, widespread palustrine-lacustrine carbonate deposition and the appearance of freshwater to low mesohaline microfossils indicates that the lake's salinity was likely oligohaline (charophytes, ostracodes: Candona annae, Cypridopsis vidua, foraminifera: Helenina davescottensis, mollusks: Planorbis, Hydrobia). A salinity increase at 4200 Cal yrs BP is inferred from the appearance of the ostracode Cyprideis americana that typically prefers salinities exceeding 10 psu, and deposition of laminated microbial mats. Thereafter, an organic- rich, algal sapropel unit accumulated that was devoid of any microfossils or mollusks. This unit suggests that the lake hosted a stratified water column, where surface waters supported phytoplankton primary productivity and corrosive or anoxic bottom water conditions either hampered microfossil growth or precluded their preservation. The transition to the modern environment ( 20 psu) at 2600 cal yrs BP is characterized by diversification of brackish ostracodes (Aurila floridana, Dolerocypria inopinata, and Hemicyprideis setipunctata), foraminifera (Elphidium spp., Ammonia beccarii, Triloculina oblonga) and mollusks (Anomalocardia, Cerithidea). Over the middle to late Holocene, it appears that the stratigraphic development

  5. Saline-water resources of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winslow, Allen George; Kister, Lester Ray

    1956-01-01

    Most of the aquifers in Texas contain saline water in some parts, and a few are capable of producing large quantities of saline water. Of the early Paleozoic formations, the Hickory sandstone member of the Riley formation of Cambrian age and the Ellenburger group of Ordovician age are potential sources of small to moderate supplies of saline water in parts of central and west-central Texas.

  6. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring.

    PubMed

    Davis, J Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J. Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half.

  8. DNA Barcoding Green Microalgae Isolated from Neotropical Inland Waters

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Sámed I. I. A.; Santana, Hugo; Brunale, Patrícia P. M.; Gomes, Taísa G.; Oliveira, Márcia D.; Matthiensen, Alexandre; Oliveira, Marcos E. C.; Silva, Flávia C. P.; Brasil, Bruno S. A. F.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using the Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Large subunit gene (rbcL) and the Internal Transcribed Spacers 1 and 2 of the nuclear rDNA (nuITS1 and nuITS2) markers for identifying a very diverse, albeit poorly known group, of green microalgae from neotropical inland waters. Fifty-one freshwater green microalgae strains isolated from Brazil, the largest biodiversity reservoir in the neotropics, were submitted to DNA barcoding. Currently available universal primers for ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region amplification were sufficient to successfully amplify and sequence 47 (92%) of the samples. On the other hand, new sets of primers had to be designed for rbcL, which allowed 96% of the samples to be sequenced. Thirty-five percent of the strains could be unambiguously identified to the species level based either on nuITS1 or nuITS2 sequences’ using barcode gap calculations. nuITS2 Compensatory Base Change (CBC) and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region phylogenetic analysis, together with morphological inspection, confirmed the identification accuracy. In contrast, only 6% of the strains could be assigned to the correct species based solely on rbcL sequences. In conclusion, the data presented here indicates that either nuITS1 or nuITS2 are useful markers for DNA barcoding of freshwater green microalgae, with advantage for nuITS2 due to the larger availability of analytical tools and reference barcodes deposited at databases for this marker. PMID:26900844

  9. DNA Barcoding Green Microalgae Isolated from Neotropical Inland Waters.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Sámed I I A; Santana, Hugo; Brunale, Patrícia P M; Gomes, Taísa G; Oliveira, Márcia D; Matthiensen, Alexandre; Oliveira, Marcos E C; Silva, Flávia C P; Brasil, Bruno S A F

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using the Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Large subunit gene (rbcL) and the Internal Transcribed Spacers 1 and 2 of the nuclear rDNA (nuITS1 and nuITS2) markers for identifying a very diverse, albeit poorly known group, of green microalgae from neotropical inland waters. Fifty-one freshwater green microalgae strains isolated from Brazil, the largest biodiversity reservoir in the neotropics, were submitted to DNA barcoding. Currently available universal primers for ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region amplification were sufficient to successfully amplify and sequence 47 (92%) of the samples. On the other hand, new sets of primers had to be designed for rbcL, which allowed 96% of the samples to be sequenced. Thirty-five percent of the strains could be unambiguously identified to the species level based either on nuITS1 or nuITS2 sequences' using barcode gap calculations. nuITS2 Compensatory Base Change (CBC) and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region phylogenetic analysis, together with morphological inspection, confirmed the identification accuracy. In contrast, only 6% of the strains could be assigned to the correct species based solely on rbcL sequences. In conclusion, the data presented here indicates that either nuITS1 or nuITS2 are useful markers for DNA barcoding of freshwater green microalgae, with advantage for nuITS2 due to the larger availability of analytical tools and reference barcodes deposited at databases for this marker.

  10. Species, Abundance and Function of Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea in Inland Waters across China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Leiliu; Wang, Shanyun; Zou, Yuxuan; Xia, Chao; Zhu, Guibing

    2015-11-01

    Ammonia oxidation is the first step in nitrification and was thought to be performed solely by specialized bacteria. The discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) changed this view. We examined the large scale and spatio-temporal occurrence, abundance and role of AOA throughout Chinese inland waters (n = 28). Molecular survey showed that AOA was ubiquitous in inland waters. The existence of AOA in extreme acidic, alkaline, hot, cold, eutrophic and oligotrophic environments expanded the tolerance limits of AOA, especially their known temperature tolerance to -25 °C, and substrate load to 42.04 mM. There were spatio-temporal divergences of AOA community structure in inland waters, and the diversity of AOA in inland water ecosystems was high with 34 observed species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs; based on a 15% cutoff) distributed widely in group I.1b, I.1a, and I.1a-associated. The abundance of AOA was quite high (8.5 × 104 to 8.5 × 109 copies g-1), and AOA outnumbered ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the inland waters where little human activities were involved. On the whole AOB predominate the ammonia oxidation rate over AOA in inland water ecosystems, and AOA play an indispensable role in global nitrogen cycle considering that AOA occupy a broader habitat range than AOB, especially in extreme environments.

  11. Species, Abundance and Function of Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea in Inland Waters across China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Leiliu; Wang, Shanyun; Zou, Yuxuan; Xia, Chao; Zhu, Guibing

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia oxidation is the first step in nitrification and was thought to be performed solely by specialized bacteria. The discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) changed this view. We examined the large scale and spatio-temporal occurrence, abundance and role of AOA throughout Chinese inland waters (n = 28). Molecular survey showed that AOA was ubiquitous in inland waters. The existence of AOA in extreme acidic, alkaline, hot, cold, eutrophic and oligotrophic environments expanded the tolerance limits of AOA, especially their known temperature tolerance to −25 °C, and substrate load to 42.04 mM. There were spatio-temporal divergences of AOA community structure in inland waters, and the diversity of AOA in inland water ecosystems was high with 34 observed species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs; based on a 15% cutoff) distributed widely in group I.1b, I.1a, and I.1a-associated. The abundance of AOA was quite high (8.5 × 104 to 8.5 × 109 copies g−1), and AOA outnumbered ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the inland waters where little human activities were involved. On the whole AOB predominate the ammonia oxidation rate over AOA in inland water ecosystems, and AOA play an indispensable role in global nitrogen cycle considering that AOA occupy a broader habitat range than AOB, especially in extreme environments. PMID:26522086

  12. Anticipated water quality changes in response to climate change and potential consequences for inland fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Yushun; Todd, Andrew S.; Murphy, Margaret H.; Lomnicky, Gregg

    2016-01-01

    Healthy freshwater ecosystems are a critical component of the world's economy, with a critical role in maintaining public health, inland biological diversity, and overall quality of life. Globally, our climate is changing, with air temperature and precipitation regimes deviating significantly from historical patterns. Healthy freshwater ecosystems are a critical component of the world's economy, with a critical role in maintaining public health, inland biological diversity, and overall quality of life. Globally, our climate is changing, with air temperature and precipitation regimes deviating significantly from historical patterns. Changes anticipated with climate change in the future are likely to have a profound effect on inland aquatic ecosystems through diverse pathways, including changes in water quality. In this brief article, we present an initial discussion of several of the water quality responses that can be anticipated to occur within inland water bodies with climate change and how those changes are likely to impact fishes.

  13. Environmental geophysics mapping salinity and water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dent, David

    2007-05-01

    Salinity and fresh water are two sides of the same coin, most conveniently measured by electrical conductivity; they can now be mapped rapidly in three dimensions using airborne electromagnetics (AEM). Recent developments in the calibration of airborne data against in-field measurements and additional information from radiometrics, magnetics and digital elevation models lend new insights into salinity, groundwater flow systems and water resources. Freshwater resources can be mapped, and salinity risk and the outcome of management interventions may be forecast, on the basis of the specific architecture of complete groundwater flow systems-enabling practical, cost-effective protection and development of water resources.

  14. Impact of dryland salinity on population dynamics of vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Ross River virus in inland areas of southwestern Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Jardine, A; Lindsay, M D A; Johansen, C A; Cook, A; Weinstein, P

    2008-11-01

    Clearing of native vegetation for agriculture since European settlement has left 1.047 million ha of southwestern Australia affected by a severe form of environmental degradation called dryland salinity, characterized by secondary soil salinization and waterlogging. This area may expand by a further 1.7-3.4 million ha if current trends continue. Detailed investigations of seasonal of adult and larval mosquito population dynamics were undertaken in the region to test the hypothesis that the development of dryland salinity and waterlogging in inland southwestern Australia has led to a succession of mosquito species and increased Ross River virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, RRV) transmission risk. Aedes (Ochlerotatus) camptorhynchus (Thomson) made up >90% of adult mosquito collections in saline regions. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling and generalized estimating equations modeling demonstrated that it was strongly associated with increasing severity of dryland salinity. This article describes the first detailed investigation of the mosquito fauna of inland southwestern Australia, and it is the first description of the influence of secondary soil salinity on mosquito population dynamics. Despite the dominant presence of Ae. camptorhynchus, RRV disease incidence is not currently a significant population health priority in areas affected by dryland salinity. Potential limiting factors include local climatic impacts on the seasonal mosquito population dynamics, vertebrate host distribution and feeding behavior of Ae. camptorhynchus, and the scarce and uneven distribution of the human population in the region.

  15. Wet Tropospheric Corrections over Inland Water- Getting Ready for Sentinel-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, M. Joana; Lazaro, Clara

    2015-12-01

    This study addresses the problems associated to the retrieval of the wet tropospheric correction (WTC) for Sentinel-3 over inland water regions. Based on the experience acquired with the development of algorithms to improve the WTC retrieval over the open and coastal ocean, applied to the main altimetric missions, techniques for the estimation of improved WTC for Sentinel-3 over inland waters are being developed at the University of Porto (U.Porto). The potential of these techniques to generate continuous altimeter profiles over inland waters are illustrated with Envisat data over Lake Victoria (Africa). First results show that improved continuous WTC can be obtained, preserving the good MWR values, leading to a decrease in the water surface anomaly variance both with respect to the baseline MWR-derived WTC and ERA Interim model.

  16. Monitoring of inland waters for culturing shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: application of a method based on survival and chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Castañeda, G; Millán-Almaraz, M I; Fierro-Sañudo, J F; Fregoso-López, M G; Páez-Osuna, F

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the suitability of 21 inland waters (16 well waters and 5 surface waters) from Northwest Mexico via short- (48 h) and medium-term (28 days) tests using postlarvae (PL18) of Litopenaeus vannamei. In the short test, survival was assessed at 48 h after shrimp were placed in groups of 10 postlarvae into 2-L containers of inland water, to which they had been previously acclimated. The second, medium-term test consisted of four replicates with 10 postlarvae, and each group was placed in 15-L containers with the treatment water. Weights (initial and final) and survival were evaluated weekly for 28 days. In those waters for which the short test was positive and the medium-term test was negative and which also had a deficiency of potassium and/or magnesium, a third test was conducted. These last waters were supplemented with salts, and the shrimp survival and weights (initial and final) were recorded for 28 days. The water samples from San Jose, Mochicahui, Sinaloa River, Caimanero inner Lagoon, La Pipima, Campo Santa Fe, Escopama, and Fitmar had >60% survival in the short test. The Caimanero inner Lagoon water had the highest survival (87.5 ± 9.6%) and final mean weight (201.3 ± 86.2 mg). In the third test, it was found that shrimp in the water from La Pipima, Campo Santa Fe, and Fitmar exhibited 100% survival for 2 weeks. Finally, in this work, a decision tree to evaluate the suitability of low-salinity water for shrimp farming was proposed, which can be applied in other regions.

  17. Climate change in Brazil: perspective on the biogeochemistry of inland waters.

    PubMed

    Roland, F; Huszar, V L M; Farjalla, Vf; Enrich-Prast, A; Amado, A M; Ometto, J P H B

    2012-08-01

    Although only a small amount of the Earth's water exists as continental surface water bodies, this compartment plays an important role in the biogeochemical cycles connecting the land to the atmosphere. The territory of Brazil encompasses a dense river net and enormous number of shallow lakes. Human actions have been heavily influenced by the inland waters across the country. Both biodiversity and processes in the water are strongly driven by seasonal fluvial forces and/or precipitation. These macro drivers are sensitive to climate changes. In addition to their crucial importance to humans, inland waters are extremely rich ecosystems, harboring high biodiversity, promoting landscape equilibrium (connecting ecosystems, maintaining animal and plant flows in the landscape, and transferring mass, nutrients and inocula), and controlling regional climates through hydrological-cycle feedback. In this contribution, we describe the aquatic ecological responses to climate change in a conceptual perspective, and we then analyze the possible climate-change scenarios in different regions in Brazil. We also indentify some potential biogeochemical signals in running waters, natural lakes and man-made impoundments. The possible future changes in climate and aquatic ecosystems in Brazil are highly uncertain. Inland waters are pressured by local environmental changes because of land uses, landscape fragmentation, damming and diversion of water bodies, urbanization, wastewater load, and level of pollutants can alter biogeochemical patterns in inland waters over a shorter term than can climate changes. In fact, many intense environmental changes may enhance the effects of changes in climate. Therefore, the maintenance of key elements within the landscape and avoiding extreme perturbation in the systems are urgent to maintain the sustainability of Brazilian inland waters, in order to prevent more catastrophic future events.

  18. Plumbing the global carbon cycle: Integrating inland waters into the terrestrial carbon budget

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, J.J.; Prairie, Y.T.; Caraco, N.F.; McDowell, W.H.; Tranvik, L.J.; Striegl, R.G.; Duarte, C.M.; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Downing, J.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Melack, J.

    2007-01-01

    Because freshwater covers such a small fraction of the Earth's surface area, inland freshwater ecosystems (particularly lakes, rivers, and reservoirs) have rarely been considered as potentially important quantitative components of the carbon cycle at either global or regional scales. By taking published estimates of gas exchange, sediment accumulation, and carbon transport for a variety of aquatic systems, we have constructed a budget for the role of inland water ecosystems in the global carbon cycle. Our analysis conservatively estimates that inland waters annually receive, from a combination of background and anthropogenically altered sources, on the order of 1.9 Pg C y-1 from the terrestrial landscape, of which about 0.2 is buried in aquatic sediments, at least 0.8 (possibly much more) is returned to the atmosphere as gas exchange while the remaining 0.9 Pg y-1 is delivered to the oceans, roughly equally as inorganic and organic carbon. Thus, roughly twice as much C enters inland aquatic systems from land as is exported from land to the sea. Over prolonged time net carbon fluxes in aquatic systems tend to be greater per unit area than in much of the surrounding land. Although their area is small, these freshwater aquatic systems can affect regional C balances. Further, the inclusion of inland, freshwater ecosystems provides useful insight about the storage, oxidation and transport of terrestrial C, and may warrant a revision of how the modern net C sink on land is described. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  19. Use of saline water in energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Israelsen, C.E.; Adams, V.D.; Batty, J.C.; George, D.B.; Hughes, T.C.; Seierstad, A.J.; Wang, H.C.; Kuo, H.P.

    1980-06-01

    Maps were made of the Upper Colorado River Basin showing locations of coal deposits, oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and tar sand, in relationship to cities and towns in the area. Superimposed on these are locations of wells showing four ranges of water quality; 1000 to 3000 mg/l, 3000 to 10,000 mg/l, 10,000 to 35,000 mg/l, and over 35,000 mg/l. Information was assembled relative to future energy-related projects in the upper basin, and estimates were made of their anticipated water needs. Using computer models, various options were tested for using saline water for coal-fired power plant cooling. Both cooling towers and brine evaporation ponds were included. Information is presented of several proven water treatment technologies, and comparisons are made of their cost effectiveness when placed in various combinations in the power plant makeup and blowdown water systems. A relative value scale was developed which compares graphically the relative values of waters of different salinities based on three different water treatment options and predetermined upper limits of cooling tower circulating salinities. Coal from several different mines was slurried in waters of different salinities. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory to determine which constituents had been leached from or absorbed by the coal, and what possible deleterious effects this might have on the burning properties of the coal, or on the water for culinary use or irrigation.

  20. Inland marine fish culture in low-salinity recirculating aquaculture systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Expansion of marine aquaculture is challenged by the high cost and limited availability of coastal land and water resources, effluent concerns, high production costs, restricted growing seasons, lack of quality seedstock, and inadequate regulatory and permitting processes. Many of these constraints...

  1. The ICESat-2 Inland Water Height Data Product: Evaluation of Water Profiles Using High Altitude Photon Counting Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, M. F.; Stoll, J.; Cook, W. B.; Arp, C. D.; Birkett, C. M.; Brunt, K. M.; Harding, D. J.; Jones, B. M.; Markus, T.; Neumann, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) on the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat-2), scheduled to launch in 2017, is a low energy, high repetition rate, short pulse width, 532 nm lidar. Although primarily designed for icecap and sea ice monitoring, ATLAS also will record dense observations over Pan-Arctic inland water bodies throughout its designed three year life span. These measurements will offer improved understanding of the linkages between climate variability and Arctic hydrology including closure of the Pan-Arctic water balance. An ICESat-2 Inland Water Body Height Data Product is being developed consisting of along-track water surface height, slope, and roughness for each ATLAS strong beam, and also aspect and slope between adjacent beams. The data product will be computed for all global inland water bodies that are traversed by ICESat-2 during clear to moderately clear atmospheric conditions. While the domain of the ATL13 data product is global, the focus is on high-latitude terrestrial regions where the convergence of the ICESat-2 orbits will provide spatially dense observations. Water bodies will be identified primarily through the use of an "Inland Water Body Shape Mask". In preparation for the mission, the Multiple Beam Altimeter Lidar Experimental Lidar (MABEL), was built and flown during numerous high altitude experiments, observing a wide range of water targets. The current analysis examines several MABEL inland and near coastal coastal targets during 2012 to 2015, focusing on along track surface water height, light penetration into water under a range of atmospheric and water conditions. Sites include several Alaska lakes, the Chesapeake Bay, and the near shore Atlantic coast. Results indicate very good capability for retrieving along track surface water height and standard deviation and penetration depth. Overall, the MABEL data and subsequent analyses have demonstrated the feasibility of the ATL13 algorithm for

  2. Sensitivity of a GCM simulation to inclusion of inland water surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bonan, G.B.

    1995-11-01

    A land surface model that includes a subgrid parameterization for inland water (lake, swamp, marsh) was coupled to a modified version of the NCAR CCM2. The coupled model was run for 5 yr with and without inland water subgrid points to determine the importance of inland water for global climate simulation. In July, the inclusion of these water bodies resulted in a spatially consistent signal in which high inland water regions were 2{degrees}-3{degrees}C cooler, had increased latent heat flux (10-45 W m{sup -2}), and decreased sensible heat flux (5-30 W m{sup -2}) compared to the simulation without these water bodies. These changes were statistically significant in the lake region of northwest Canada, the Great Lakes region of North America, the swamp and marsh region of the Siberian lowlands, and the lake region of East Africa, but were not significantly different in the swamp and marsh region of Finland and northwest Russia. The effect on Northern Hemisphere January air temperature was difficult to interpret due to large interannual variability. In tropical lake regions (East Africa), the response to lakes was less in the rainy season (January) than in the dry season (July). Precipitation was unchanged in both months except for the Great Lakes region where precipitation increased in January. These changes in temperature, precipitation, and surface fluxes were consistent with mesoscale modeling studies of the effects of lakes on climate and tended to bring the model closer to observations. In particular, the summer cooling in North America helped reduce a large warm temperature bias in the model, but did not eliminate the bias. The lakes had little effect on atmospheric moisture, radiation, or zonal circulation. These results show that subgrid-scale inland water bodies can be successfully added to global land surface models for use with GCMs. 35 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Inland Waters Night Lighting Configurations: A Navigation Rules Course for Coast Guard Auxiliarists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Gregory Peter

    A project developed a training program to teach boaters to recognize and interpret properly the lights of other vessels in nighttime or other reduced visibility conditions in the inland waters of the United States. The project followed the Instructional Systems Design model in the development of the course. The target population were members of…

  4. Inland Waters Night Lighting Configurations: A Navigation Rules Course for Coast Guard Auxiliarists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Gregory Peter

    A project developed a training program to teach boaters to recognize and interpret properly the lights of other vessels in nighttime or other reduced visibility conditions in the inland waters of the United States. The project followed the Instructional Systems Design model in the development of the course. The target population were members of…

  5. Surface drifters measuring sea water salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverdin, Gilles; Centurioni, Luca; Sena-Martins, Meike; Garcia-Ladona, Emilio; Ballabrera, Joaquim; Salvador, Joaquin; Sommer, Anna; Boutin, Jacqueline

    2017-04-01

    Surface drifters have been introduced in the early 1990s by P.P. Niiler to measure the salinity of the near-surface water as well as its temperature. First, they were deployed to document large scale advection of surface salinity fronts, such as during TOGA-COARE (1991). More recently, salinity drifter data were used for three purposes: 1 - provide in situ data coverage for validation of sea surface (SSS) products, such as provided by band-L microwave radiometry from satellite missions, Aquarius, SMOS, SMAP 2 - provide data for better understanding upper ocean response to air-sea interactions, such as during rainfall, or near-surface warming during low wind events 3 - provide estimates of surface advection of salinity features and their contribution to ocean freshwater budget We will review the drifters that have been deployed and where data were collected, the challenges encountered in correcting the data, ongoing plans and future developments. A comparison of salinity data of more than 60 SVP drifters to SMOS and Aquarius SSS fields in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre illustrates the potential for validating products from satellite missions over more than a year (SPURS-1 2012-2013 experiment). Data collocated during tropical rain events illustrate a short-term response of near-surface salinity and temperature that can be quantified, although we lack precise collocated wind data. It is rather consistent with independently-derived surface salinity response to rain based on SMOS salinity retrievals, and model estimations. An extreme case of close to 10 psu near-surface salinity drop due to rainfall is presented. Recent salinity drifter deployments in the rainy region of the eastern Pacific ITCZ (SPURS-2 2016 experiment) illustrate the small time and space scale variability associated with freshwater lenses in this region. Some data from a new tag (surpact) will be presented with simultaneous estimates of sea state, rain rate, temperature and salinity during rain

  6. Relationships between groundwater, surface water, and soil salinity in Polder 32, Southwest Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, D. C.; Ayers, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    In the coastal areas of Southwest Bangladesh polders are surrounded by tidal channels filled with brackish water. In the wet season, farmers create openings in the embankments to irrigate rice paddies. In the dry season, farmers do the same to create saline shrimp ponds. Residents on Polder 32, located within the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta system, practice these seasonal farming techniques. Soils in the area are entisols, being sediment recently deposited, and contain mostly silt-sized particles. Brackish water in brine shrimp ponds may deposit salt in the soil, causing soil salinization. However, saline connate groundwater could also be contributing to soil salinization. Groundwater, surface water (fresh water pond, rice paddy and tidal channel water) and soil samples have been analyzed via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy and ion chromatography in an attempt to correlate salinity measurements with each other in order to determine major sources of soil salinity. Multiple parameters, including distances of samples from tidal channels, inland streams, shrimp ponds and tube wells were measured to see if spatial correlations exist. Similarly, values from wet and dry seasons were compared to quantify temporal variations. Salt content in many soil samples were found to be high enough to significantly decrease rice yields. Continued soil salinization can decrease these yields even more, leading to farmers not producing enough food to sustain their families.

  7. Incorporation of salinity in Water Availability Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Lee, Chihun

    2011-10-01

    SummaryNatural salt pollution from geologic formations in the upper watersheds of several large river basins in the Southwestern United States severely constrains the use of otherwise available major water supply sources. The Water Rights Analysis Package modeling system has been routinely applied in Texas since the late 1990s in regional and statewide planning studies and administration of the state's water rights permit system, but without consideration of water quality. The modeling system was recently expanded to incorporate salinity considerations in assessments of river/reservoir system capabilities for supplying water for environmental, municipal, agricultural, and industrial needs. Salinity loads and concentrations are tracked through systems of river reaches and reservoirs to develop concentration frequency statistics that augment flow frequency and water supply reliability metrics at pertinent locations for alternative water management strategies. Flexible generalized capabilities are developed for using limited observed salinity data to model highly variable concentrations imposed upon complex river regulation infrastructure and institutional water allocation/management practices.

  8. Inland Water Temperature: An Ideal Indicator for the National Climate Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hook, S. J.; Lenters, J. D.; O'Reilly, C.; Healey, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    NASA is a significant contributor to the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA), which is a central component of the 2012-2022 U.S. Global Change Research Program Strategic Plan. The NCA has identified the need for indicators that provide a clear, concise way of communicating to NCA audiences about not only the status and trends of physical drivers of the climate system, but also the ecological and socioeconomic impacts, vulnerabilities, and responses to those drivers. We are using thermal infrared satellite data in conjunction with in situ measurements to produce water temperatures for all the large inland water bodies in North America for potential use as an indicator for the NCA. Recent studies have revealed significant warming of inland waters throughout the world. The observed rate of warming is - in many cases - greater than that of the ambient air temperature. These rapid, unprecedented changes in inland water temperatures have profound implications for lake hydrodynamics, productivity, and biotic communities. Scientists are just beginning to understand the global extent, regional patterns, physical mechanisms, and ecological consequences of lake warming. As part of our earlier studies we have collected thermal infrared satellite data from those satellite sensors that provide long-term and frequent spaceborne thermal infrared measurements of inland waters including ATSR, AVHRR, and MODIS and used these to examine trends in water surface temperature for approximately 100 of the largest inland water bodies in the world. We are now extending this work to generate temperature time-series of all North American inland water bodies that are sufficiently large to be studied using 1km resolution satellite data for the last 3 decades. These data are then being related to changes in the surface air temperature and compared with regional trends in water surface temperature derived from CMIP5/IPCC model simulations/projections to better predict future temperature changes

  9. Influences of Salinity Variations on Pore-water Flow in Salt Marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, C.; Jin, G.; Xin, P.; Li, L.

    2013-12-01

    Salt marshes are important wetlands at the ocean-land interface with various ecological functions, serving as essential habitats for intertidal fauna, affecting the productivity of coastal waters through nutrient exchange, moderating the greenhouse gas emission and global warming. They are influenced by various physical and biogeochemical processes, among which the pore-water flow and associated solute transport processes play an important role in determining the material exchange between marsh soils and coastal water. Previous studies have examined such processes under the solo or combined effects of tidal fluctuation, evapotranspiration, stratigraphy, inland freshwater input, and topography. However, these investigations have neglected the spatial and temporal salinity variations in surface water and pore-water, which commonly exist in salt marshes due to the impacts of tidal inundation, precipitation and evapotranspiration. The density contrast between the surface water and pore-water may lead to significant modifications of the pore-water flow. Based on results from laboratory experiments and numerical simulations, we will demonstrate that: (1) under upward salinity gradients, flow instabilities in the form of fingers occur once the salinity contrast reaches a certain level, whereas under downward salinity gradients the system is stable; (2) because of the strong tidally-induced advective process occurring near the creek, both the number and size of fingers change gradually from the near-creek zone to the marsh interior; and (3) both upward and downward salinity gradients enhance the exchange between the surface water and pore-water in the marsh sediments. Keywords: Salt marshes; density effect; salinity gradient; pore-water flow; fingers. Instabilities under upward salinity gradient Stable system under downward salinity gradient

  10. Evaluating Radiometric Sensitivity of LandSat 8 Over Coastal-Inland Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahlevan, Nima; Wei, Jian-Wei; Shaaf, Crystal B.; Schott, John R.

    2014-01-01

    The operational Land Imager (OLI) aboard Landsat 8 was launched in February 2013 to continue the Landsat's mission of monitoring earth resources at relatively high spatial resolution. Compared to Landsat heritage sensors, OLI has an additional 443-nm band (termed coastal/aerosol (CA) band), which extends its potential for mapping/monitoring water quality in coastal/inland waters. In addition, OLI's pushbroom design allows for longer integration time and, as a result, higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Using a series of radiative transfer simulations, we provide insights into the radiometric sensitivity of OLI when studying coastal/inland waters. This will address how the changes in water constituents manifest at top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and whether the changes are resolvable at TOA (focal plane) relative to OLI's overall noise.

  11. Large contribution to inland water CO2 and CH4 emissions from very small ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holgerson, Meredith A.; Raymond, Peter A.

    2016-03-01

    Inland waters are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Although they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions, estimates of carbon processing in these waters are uncertain. The global extent of very small ponds, with surface areas of less than 0.001 km2, is particularly difficult to map, resulting in their exclusion from greenhouse gas budget estimates. Here we combine estimates of the lake and pond global size distribution, gas exchange rates, and measurements of carbon dioxide and methane concentrations from 427 lakes and ponds ranging in surface area from 2.5 m2 to 674 km2. We estimate that non-running inland waters release 0.583 Pg C yr-1. Very small ponds comprise 8.6% of lakes and ponds by area globally, but account for 15.1% of CO2 emissions and 40.6% of diffusive CH4 emissions. In terms of CO2 equivalence, the ratio of CO2 to CH4 flux increases with surface area, from about 1.5 in very small ponds to about 19 in large lakes. The high fluxes from very small ponds probably result from shallow waters, high sediment and edge to water volume ratios, and frequent mixing. These attributes increase CO2 and CH4 supersaturation in the water and limit efficient methane oxidation. We conclude that very small ponds represent an important inland water carbon flux.

  12. An Investigation of Summertime Inland Water Body Temperatures in California and Nevada (USA): Recent Trends and Future Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healey, Nathan; Hook, Simon; Piccolroaz, Sebastiano; Toffolon, Marco; Radocinski, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Inland water body temperature has been identified as an ideal indicator of potential climate change. Understanding inland water body temperature trends is important for forecasting impacts to limnological, biological, and hydrological resources. Many inland water bodies are situated in remote locations with incomplete data records of in-situ monitoring or lack in-situ observations altogether. Thus, the utilization of satellite data is essential for understanding the behavior of global inland water body temperatures. Part of this research provides an analysis of summertime (July-September) temperature trends in the largest California/Nevada (USA) inland water bodies between 1991 and 2015. We examine satellite temperature retrievals from ATSR (ATSR-1, ATSR-2, AATSR), MODIS (Terra and Aqua), and VIIRS sensors. Our findings indicate that inland water body temperatures in the western United States were rapidly warming between 1991 and 2009, but since then trends have been decreasing. This research also includes implementation of a model called air2water to predict future inland water body surface temperature through the sole input of air temperature. Using projections from CMIP5-CCSM4 output, our model indicates that Lake Tahoe (USA) is expected to experience an increase of roughly 3 °C by 2100.

  13. VIS - A database on the distribution of fishes in inland and estuarine waters in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Brosens, Dimitri; Breine, Jan; Van Thuyne, Gerlinde; Belpaire, Claude; Desmet, Peter; Verreycken, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) has been performing standardized fish stock assessments in Flanders, Belgium. This Flemish Fish Monitoring Network aims to assess fish populations in public waters at regular time intervals in both inland waters and estuaries. This monitoring was set up in support of the Water Framework Directive, the Habitat Directive, the Eel Regulation, the Red List of fishes, fish stock management, biodiversity research, and to assess the colonization and spreading of non-native fish species. The collected data are consolidated in the Fish Information System or VIS. From VIS, the occurrence data are now published at the INBO IPT as two datasets: 'VIS - Fishes in inland waters in Flanders, Belgium' and 'VIS - Fishes in estuarine waters in Flanders, Belgium'. Together these datasets represent a complete overview of the distribution and abundance of fish species pertaining in Flanders from late 1992 to the end of 2012. This data paper discusses both datasets together, as both have a similar methodology and structure. The inland waters dataset contains over 350,000 fish observations, sampled between 1992 and 2012 from over 2,000 locations in inland rivers, streams, canals, and enclosed waters in Flanders. The dataset includes 64 fish species, as well as a number of non-target species (mainly crustaceans). The estuarine waters dataset contains over 44,000 fish observations, sampled between 1995 and 2012 from almost 50 locations in the estuaries of the rivers Yser and Scheldt ("Zeeschelde"), including two sampling sites in the Netherlands. The dataset includes 69 fish species and a number of non-target crustacean species. To foster broad and collaborative use, the data are dedicated to the public domain under a Creative Commons Zero waiver and reference the INBO norms for data use.

  14. Carbon dioxide fluxes associated with synoptic weather events over a southern inland water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Zhang, Q.; Gao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Evidence indicates that inland waters play an important role in regional and global carbon budget through releasing a substantial carbon into the atmosphere. To better quantify how environmental variables affect CO2 exchange between inland waters and the atmosphere and its temporal variations, we have conducted direct, long-term measurements of CO2 fluxes across the water-atmosphere interface over a large southern open water of Ross Barnett Reservoir in central Mississippi. Our data indicate that large CO2 flux pulses occurred occasionally throughout the course of a year with the duration of a few days for each pulse. Here we analyzed and demonstrated that these CO2 flux pulses were associated with the passages of synoptic weather events. Our preliminary results indicated that these synoptic weather events (e.g., extratropical clones and cold air bursts) led to the enhanced mechanical mixing due to increasing wind speeds and the instability of the atmospheric surface layer due to the decreasing air temperature. As a consequence, in-water processes were also substantially altered accordingly. Due to the dramatic decrease in air temperature caused by the events, the temperature in the water surface layer was largely reduced, generating in-water convection conditions and thus leading to the increased depths of the mixing layer in the water, as reflected by the water temperature profiles. The enhanced mechanical mixing in the atmospheric surface layer may have further contributed to the deepened mixing layer in the water. Our suggestions suggest that high CO2 effluxes during the pulse events were largely attributed to changes in the water-side physical processes that are directly linked to rapid changes in atmospheric processes associated with synoptic weather events. Given its substantial contribution of CO2 flux pulses to carbon emission, such physical processes should be taken into account when carbon emissions from inland waters are quantified.

  15. Remote measurement and monitoring of inland water heights using multi-mission satellite radar altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jerome

    The effective management of the Earth's inland water is a major challenge facing scientists and governments worldwide. However, whilst demand for this often scarce resource continues to grow, the number and distribution of in-situ hydrological gauge stations is steadily falling and many catchments basins in the developing world are now entirely ungauged. Over the past few years research has been undertaken into a spacebased technique which can remotely measure river and lake heights using data from the series of satellite radar altimeters, originally designed to measure the height of the Earth's oceans. Results over inland water were initially confined to a handful of very large lakes, where the water surface resembled the ocean sufficiently well to allow existing processing techniques to retrieve meaningful measurements. This capability has now been transformed by the development of echo processing techniques which allow that part of the returned signal originating from inland water to be separated from the return from the surrounding terrain. This has extended the scope of this technique to monitoring thousands of river and lake heights worldwide, with the access to more than a decade of historical data now permitting analysis of trends and identification of climate signatures. This paper presents analyses of 15 years of altimeter data using results from hundreds of time series from ERS-2, EnviSat, TOPEX and Jason-1 to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique in monitoring river and lake heights on a continental scale. The extension of this technique to near real time monitoring using data from the Envisat RA-2 is also presented. The results illustrate the current capability and future potential of this approach to derive a global picture of the Earth's inland water resources and to identify both climate signatures and regions where human usage is depleting the resource beyond its capacity to recharge.

  16. [Quantitative remote sensing retrieval for algae in inland waters].

    PubMed

    Song, Yu; Song, Xiao-Dong; Jiang, Hong; Guo, Zhao-Bing; Guo, Qing-Hai

    2010-04-01

    Chlorophyll is a very important indictor for the eutrophication status of lake water body. Using remotely sensed data to achieve real-time dynamic monitoring of the spatial distribution of chlorophyll has great importance. This paper aims to find the best band for the hyperspectral ratio model of chlorophyll-a, and take advantage of this model to implement remote sensing retrieval of algae in Taihu Lake. By the analysis of the spectral reflectance and water quality sampling data of the surface water body, the regression model between the ratio of reflectance and chlorophyll-a was built, and it was showed that the ratio model between the wavelengths around 700 and 625 nm had a relatively high coefficient value of determination (R2), while the ratio model constructed with 710 nm and visible wavelengths showed a descended R2 following with the increment of the visible wavelengths. Combined with in-situ water samplings analysis and spectral reflectance measurement, the results showed that it's possible to retrieve algae water body using the MODIS green index (GI). The spatial distributions of chlorophyll-a and algae in Taihu Lake were extracted successfully using MODIS data with the algorithm developed in this paper.

  17. Inland water bodies in Chile can locally increase rainfall intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizarro, Roberto; Garcia-Chevesich, Pablo; Valdes, Rodrigo; Dominguez, Francina; Hossain, Faisal; Ffolliott, Peter; Olivares, Claudio; Morales, Carolina; Balocchi, Francisco; Bro, Per

    2013-02-01

    SummaryAnalysis of precipitation observations from Chile indicated that man-made water reservoirs might be affecting the intensity of extreme precipitation events. Fifty rain gauges were used to evaluate rainfall intensities under different climates, using the Gumbel method (T = 5 and 100 years) and average maximum recorded rainfall intensities to construct IDF curves for each station. A spatial analysis of the stations was undertaken to establish graphical relationships on documented maximum annual rainfall intensities for 1 h and those obtained by the Gumbel method as a function of latitude, longitude, elevation, and the distance from water bodies. The Mann-Whitney U test was applied with an error of 5%. Values obtained from stations located close to water bodies were compared to those located away from them. The results show significant changes in dryer climates.

  18. Inland Water Quality Assessment--A Joint European Masters Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waara, K. -O.; Petersen, A.; Lanaras, T.; Paulauskas, V.; Kleiven, S.; Crosa, G.; Penttinen, O. -P.; Quesada, A.; Kovats, N.; Galinou-Mitsoudi, S.; Lapinska, M.; Newton, A.; Balode, M.; Hindak, F.; Marsalek, B.

    2006-01-01

    At present, there is a European shortage of personnel qualified to adequately address the comprehensive scientific and regulatory requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The joint Masters programme described in this paper will provide students with the requisite expert knowledge and skills to progress the implementation of the WFD.…

  19. Inland Water Quality Assessment--A Joint European Masters Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waara, K. -O.; Petersen, A.; Lanaras, T.; Paulauskas, V.; Kleiven, S.; Crosa, G.; Penttinen, O. -P.; Quesada, A.; Kovats, N.; Galinou-Mitsoudi, S.; Lapinska, M.; Newton, A.; Balode, M.; Hindak, F.; Marsalek, B.

    2006-01-01

    At present, there is a European shortage of personnel qualified to adequately address the comprehensive scientific and regulatory requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The joint Masters programme described in this paper will provide students with the requisite expert knowledge and skills to progress the implementation of the WFD.…

  20. CryoSat-2 SAR and SARin Inland Water Heights from the CRUCIAL Project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Philip; Birkinshaw, Stephen; Restano, Marco; Ambrózio, Américo; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2017-04-01

    CRUCIAL is an ESA/STSE funded project investigating innovative land and inland water applications from Cryosat-2 with a forward-look component to the future Sentinel-3 and Jason-CS/Sentinel-6 missions. The high along-track sampling of Cryosat-2 in its SAR and SARin modes offer the opportunity to recover high frequency signals over inland waters. A methodology has been developed to process the FBR L1A Doppler beams to form a waveform product using ground cell gridding, beam steering and beam stacking. Inland water heights from Cryosat-2 are derived by using a set of empirical retrackers formulated for inland water applications. Results of the processing strategy will include a comparison of waveforms and heights from the burst echoes (80 m along-track) and from multi-look waveforms (320 m along-track). SAR and SARin FBR data are available for the Amazon, Brahmaputra and Mekong for 2011-2015. FBR SAR results are compared against stage data from the nearest gauge. Heights from Tonle Sap are also compared against Jason-2 data from the United States Department of Agriculture. A strategy to select the number of multi-looks over rivers has been designed based on the rms of heights across Tonle Sap. Comparisons include results from the empirical retrackers and from waveforms and heights obtained via ESA's Grid Processing on Demand (G-POD/SARvatore) using the SAMOSA2 retracker. Results of FBR SARin processing for the Amazon and Brahmaputra will be presented including comparison of heights from the two antennae, extraction of slope of the ground surface and validation against ground data where appropriate.

  1. DAHITI - An Innovative Approach for Estimating Water Level Time Series over Inland Water using Multi-Mission Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwatke, Christian; Dettmering, Denise

    2016-04-01

    Satellite altimetry has been designed for sea level monitoring over open ocean areas. However, for some years, this technology has also been used to retrieve water levels from lakes, reservoirs, rivers, wetlands and in general any inland water body. In this contribution, a new approach for the estimation of inland water level time series is presented. The method is the basis for the computation of time series of rivers and lakes available through the web service 'Database for Hydrological Time Series over Inland Water' (DAHITI). It is based on an extended outlier rejection and a Kalman filter approach incorporating cross-calibrated multi-mission altimeter data from Envisat, ERS-2, Jason-1, Jason-2, Topex/Poseidon, and SARAL/AltiKa, including their uncertainties. The new approach yields RMS differences with respect to in situ data between 4 cm and 36 cm for lakes and 8 cm and 114 cm for rivers, respectively. Within this presentation, the new approach will be introduced and examples for water level time series for a variety of lakes and rivers will be shown featuring different characteristics such as shape, lake extent, river width, and data coverage. A comprehensive validation is performed by comparisons with in situ gauge data and results from external inland altimeter databases.

  2. DAHITI - an innovative approach for estimating water level time series over inland waters using multi-mission satellite altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwatke, C.; Dettmering, D.; Bosch, W.; Seitz, F.

    2015-10-01

    Satellite altimetry has been designed for sea level monitoring over open ocean areas. However, for some years, this technology has also been used to retrieve water levels from reservoirs, wetlands and in general any inland water body, although the radar altimetry technique has been especially applied to rivers and lakes. In this paper, a new approach for the estimation of inland water level time series is described. It is used for the computation of time series of rivers and lakes available through the web service "Database for Hydrological Time Series over Inland Waters" (DAHITI). The new method is based on an extended outlier rejection and a Kalman filter approach incorporating cross-calibrated multi-mission altimeter data from Envisat, ERS-2, Jason-1, Jason-2, TOPEX/Poseidon, and SARAL/AltiKa, including their uncertainties. The paper presents water level time series for a variety of lakes and rivers in North and South America featuring different characteristics such as shape, lake extent, river width, and data coverage. A comprehensive validation is performed by comparisons with in situ gauge data and results from external inland altimeter databases. The new approach yields rms differences with respect to in situ data between 4 and 36 cm for lakes and 8 and 114 cm for rivers. For most study cases, more accurate height information than from other available altimeter databases can be achieved.

  3. Ubiquitous anaerobic ammonium oxidation in inland waters of China: an overlooked nitrous oxide mitigation process.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guibing; Wang, Shanyun; Zhou, Leiliu; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Siyan; Xia, Chao; Wang, Weidong; Zhou, Rong; Wang, Chaoxu; Jetten, Mike S M; Hefting, Mariet M; Yin, Chengqing; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-11-27

    Denitrification has long been regarded as the only pathway for terrestrial nitrogen (N) loss to the atmosphere. Here we demonstrate that large-scale anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), an overlooked N loss process alternative to denitrification which bypasses nitrous oxide (N2O), is ubiquitous in inland waters of China and contributes significantly to N loss. Anammox rates in aquatic systems show different levels (1.0-975.9 μmol N m(-2) h(-1), n = 256) with hotspots occurring at oxic-anoxic interfaces and harboring distinct biogeochemical and biogeographical features. Extrapolation of these results to the China-national level shows that anammox could contribute about 2.0 Tg N yr(-1), which equals averagely 11.4% of the total N loss from China's inland waters. Our results indicate that a significant amount of the nitrogen lost from inland waters bypasses denitrification, which is important for constructing more accurate climate models and may significantly reduce potential N2O emission risk at a large scale.

  4. Ubiquitous anaerobic ammonium oxidation in inland waters of China: an overlooked nitrous oxide mitigation process

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guibing; Wang, Shanyun; Zhou, Leiliu; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Siyan; Xia, Chao; Wang, Weidong; Zhou, Rong; Wang, Chaoxu; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Hefting, Mariet M.; Yin, Chengqing; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-01-01

    Denitrification has long been regarded as the only pathway for terrestrial nitrogen (N) loss to the atmosphere. Here we demonstrate that large-scale anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), an overlooked N loss process alternative to denitrification which bypasses nitrous oxide (N2O), is ubiquitous in inland waters of China and contributes significantly to N loss. Anammox rates in aquatic systems show different levels (1.0–975.9 μmol N m−2 h−1, n = 256) with hotspots occurring at oxic-anoxic interfaces and harboring distinct biogeochemical and biogeographical features. Extrapolation of these results to the China-national level shows that anammox could contribute about 2.0 Tg N yr−1, which equals averagely 11.4% of the total N loss from China’s inland waters. Our results indicate that a significant amount of the nitrogen lost from inland waters bypasses denitrification, which is important for constructing more accurate climate models and may significantly reduce potential N2O emission risk at a large scale. PMID:26610807

  5. Copepod reproductive strategies: life-history theory, phylogenetic pattern and invasion of inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hairston, Nelson G.; Bohonak, Andrew J.

    1998-06-01

    Life-history theory predicts that different reproductive strategies should evolve in environments that differ in resource availability, mortality, seasonality, and in spatial or temporal variation. Within a population, the predicted optimal strategy is driven by tradeoffs that are mediated by the environment in which the organisms live. At the same time, phylogenetic history may circumscribe natural selection by dictating the range of phenotypes upon which selection can act, or by limiting the range of environments encountered. Comparisons of life-history patterns in related organisms provide a powerful tool for understanding both the nature of selection on life-history characters and the diversity of life-history patterns observed in nature. Here, we explore reproductive strategies of the Copepoda, a well defined group with many phylogenetically independent transitions from free-living to parasitic life styles, from marine to inland waters, and from active development to diapause. Most species are iteroparous annuals, and most (with the exception of some parasitic taxa) develop through a relatively restricted range of life-history stages (nauplii and copepodids, or some modification thereof). Within these bounds, we suggest that there may be a causal relationship between the success of numerous copepod taxa in inland waters and the prevalence of either diapause or parasitism within these groups. We hypothesize that inland waters are more variable spatially and temporally than marine habitats, and accordingly, we interpret diapause and parasitism as mechanisms for coping with environmental variance.

  6. INLAND DISSOLVED SALT CHEMISTRY: STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF BIVARIATE AND TERNARY DIAGRAM MODELS FOR SURFACE AND SUBSURFACE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared the use of ternary and bivariate diagrams to distinguish the effects of atmospheric precipitation, rock weathering, and evaporation on inland surface and subsurface water chemistry. The three processes could not be statistically differentiated using bivariate models e...

  7. INLAND DISSOLVED SALT CHEMISTRY: STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF BIVARIATE AND TERNARY DIAGRAM MODELS FOR SURFACE AND SUBSURFACE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared the use of ternary and bivariate diagrams to distinguish the effects of atmospheric precipitation, rock weathering, and evaporation on inland surface and subsurface water chemistry. The three processes could not be statistically differentiated using bivariate models e...

  8. [Ecophysiological adaptability of tropical water organisms to salinity changes].

    PubMed

    Chung, K S

    2001-03-01

    Physiological response of tropical organisms to salinity changes was studied for some marine, estuarine and freshwater fishes (Astyanax bimaculatus, Petenia karussii, Cyprinodon dearborni, and Oreochromis mossambicus), marine and freshwater crustaceans (Penaeus brasiliensis, Penaeus schmitti and Macrobrachium carcinus), and marine bivalves (Perna perna, Crassostrea rhizophorae, and Arca zebra) collected from Northeast Venezuela. They were acclimated for four weeks at various salinities, and (1) placed at high salinities to determine mean lethal salinity, (2) tested by increasing salinity 5@1000 per day to define upper lethal salinity tolerance limit, or (3) observed in a saline gradient tank to determine salinity preference. Acclimation level was the most significant factor. This phenomenon is important for tropical aquatic organisms in shallow waters, where they can adapt to high salinity during the dry season and cannot lose their acclimation level at low salinity during abrupt rain. For saline adaptation of tropical organisms, this behavior will contribute to their proliferation and distribution in fluctuating salinity environments.

  9. Kalman filter approach for estimating water level time series over inland water using multi-mission satellite altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwatke, C.; Dettmering, D.; Bosch, W.; Seitz, F.

    2015-05-01

    Satellite altimetry has been designed for sea level monitoring over open ocean areas. However, since some years, this technology is also used for observing inland water levels of lakes and rivers. In this paper, a new approach for the estimation of inland water level time series is described. It is used for the computation of time series available through the web service "Database for Hydrological Time Series over Inland Water" (DAHITI). The method is based on a Kalman filter approach incorporating multi-mission altimeter observations and their uncertainties. As input data, cross-calibrated altimeter data from Envisat, ERS-2, Jason-1, Jason-2, Topex/Poseidon, and SARAL/AltiKa are used. The paper presents water level time series for a variety of lakes and rivers in North and South America featuring different characteristics such as shape, lake extent, river width, and data coverage. A comprehensive validation is performed by comparison with in-situ gauge data and results from external inland altimeter databases. The new approach yields RMS differences with respect to in-situ data between 4 and 38 cm for lakes and 12 and 139 cm for rivers, respectively. For most study cases, more accurate height information than from available other altimeter data bases can be achieved.

  10. Waveform retracking for improving inland water heights from altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uebbing, Bernd; Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    For more than two decades, satellite radar altimeters have been providing valuable information on level changes of seas and oceans. In recent years, the usage of satellite altimetry to monitor the water level changes of lakes and rivers, as well as in hydrology applications, has become a topic of rising interest. The altimeter emits a radar pulse, which is reflected at the nadir-surface and measures the two-way travel time, as well as the returned energy as a function of time, resulting in a return waveform. Over the open ocean the waveform shape corresponds to a theoretical model which can be used to infer information on range corrections, significant wave height or wind speed. However, the waveforms over lakes and rivers show patterns which are significantly influenced by signals reflected from land present in the altimeter footprint. This results in a variety of different waveforms shapes ranging from waveforms similar to the theoretical ocean case to completely different ones such as those including only small leading edges and large peaks on the trailing edge. These peaks considerably influence the estimation of the parameters of interest, such as the time origin, connected to the range information, particularly if they are located very close to the leading edge. To mitigate this problem, we present a retracking approach, which combines the advantages of sub-waveform retracking with a flexible waveform model, that allows to model symmetric and asymmetric Gaussian peaks. Based on a preliminary waveform analysis step, a defined window is applied to the total waveform and the parameters are estimated by a flexible fitting procedure. We retracked Topex/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2 data over several lakes, including the African lakes Volta and Victoria. The inferred lake level heights are evaluated by comparisons to water heights from in situ gauge observations, the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitoring database, as well as those derived from applying conventional

  11. Effects of salinity variations on pore water flow in salt marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chengji; Jin, Guangqiu; Xin, Pei; Kong, Jun; Li, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Spatial and temporal salinity variations in surface water and pore water commonly exist in salt marshes under the combined influence of tidal inundation, precipitation, evapotranspiration, and inland freshwater input. Laboratory experiments and numerical simulations were conducted to investigate how density gradients associated with salinity variations affect pore water flow in the salt marsh system. The results showed that upward salinity (density) gradients could lead to flow instability and the formation of salt fingers. These fingers, varying in size with the distance from the creek, modified significantly the pore water flow field, especially in the marsh interior. While the flow instability enhanced local salt transport and mixing considerably, the net effect was small, causing only a slight increase in the overall mass exchange across the marsh surface. In contrast, downward salinity gradients exerted less influence on the pore water flow in the marsh soil and slightly weakened the surface water and groundwater exchange across the marsh surface. Numerical simulations revealed similar density effects on pore water flow at the field scale under realistic conditions. These findings have important implications for studies of marsh soil conditions concerning plant growth as well as nutrient exchange between the marsh and coastal marine system.

  12. Saline water in southeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hiss, W.L.; Peterson, J.B.; Ramsey, T.R.

    1969-01-01

    Saline waters from formations of several geologic ages are being studied in a seven-county area in southeastern New Mexico and western Texas, where more than 30,000 oil and gas tests have been drilled in the past 40 years. This area of 7,500 sq. miles, which is stratigraphically complex, includes the northern and eastern margins of the Delaware Basin between the Guadalupe and Glass Mountains. Chloride-ion concentrations in water produced from rocks of various ages and depths have been mapped in Lea County, New Mexico, using machine map-plotting techniques and trend analyses. Anomalously low chloride concentrations (1,000-3,000 mg/l) were found along the western margin of the Central Basin platform in the San Andres and Capitan Limestone Formations of Permian age. These low chloride-ion concentrations may be due to preferential circulation of ground water through the more porous and permeable rocks. Data being used in the study were obtained principally from oil companies and from related service companies. The P.B.W.D.S. (Permian Basin Well Data System) scout-record magnetic-tape file was used as a framework in all computer operations. Shallow or non-oil-field water analyses acquired from state, municipal, or federal agencies were added to these data utilizing P.B.W.D.S.-compatible reference numbers and decimal latitude-longitude coordinates. Approximately 20,000 water analyses collected from over 65 sources were coded, recorded on punch cards and stored on magnetic tape for computer operations. Extensive manual and computer error checks for duplication and accuracy were made to eliminate data errors resulting from poorly located or identified samples; non-representative or contaminated samples; mistakes in coding, reproducing or key-punching; laboratory errors; and inconsistent reporting. The original 20,000 analyses considered were reduced to 6,000 representative analyses which are being used in the saline water studies. ?? 1969.

  13. ICESat Observations of Inland Surface Water Stage, Slope, and Extent: a New Method for Hydrologic Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, David J.; Jasinski, Michael F.

    2004-01-01

    River discharge and changes in lake, reservoir and wetland water storage are critical terms in the global surface water balance, yet they are poorly observed globally and the prospects for adequate observations from in-situ networks are poor (Alsdorf et al., 2003). The NASA-sponsored Surface Water Working Group has established a framework for advancing satellite observations of river discharge and water storage changes which focuses on obtaining measurements of water surface height (stage), slope, and extent. Satellite laser altimetry, which can achieve centimeter-level elevation precision for single, small laser footprints, provides a method to obtain these inland water parameters and contribute to global water balance monitoring. Since its launch in January, 2003 the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), a NASA Earth Observing System mission, has achieved over 540 million laser pulse observations of ice sheet, ocean surface, land topography, and inland water elevations and cloud and aerosol height distributions. By recording the laser backscatter from 80 m diameter footprints spaced 175 m along track, ICESat acquires globally-distributed elevation profiles, using a 1064 nm laser altimeter channel, and cloud and aerosol profiles, using a 532 nm atmospheric lidar channel. The ICESat mission has demonstrated the following laser altimeter capabilities relevant to observations of inland water: (1) elevation measurements with a precision of 2 to 3 cm for flat surfaces, suitable for detecting river surface slopes along long river reaches or between multiple crossings of a meandering river channel, (2) from the laser backscatter waveform, detection of water surface elevations beneath vegetation canopies, suitable for measuring water stage in flooded forests, (3) single pulse absolute elevation accuracy of about 50 cm (1 sigma) for 1 degree sloped surfaces, with calibration work in progress indicating that a final accuracy of about 12 cm (1 sigma) will be

  14. ICESat Observations of Inland Surface Water Stage, Slope, and Extent: a New Method for Hydrologic Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, David J.; Jasinski, Michael F.

    2004-01-01

    River discharge and changes in lake, reservoir and wetland water storage are critical terms in the global surface water balance, yet they are poorly observed globally and the prospects for adequate observations from in-situ networks are poor (Alsdorf et al., 2003). The NASA-sponsored Surface Water Working Group has established a framework for advancing satellite observations of river discharge and water storage changes which focuses on obtaining measurements of water surface height (stage), slope, and extent. Satellite laser altimetry, which can achieve centimeter-level elevation precision for single, small laser footprints, provides a method to obtain these inland water parameters and contribute to global water balance monitoring. Since its launch in January, 2003 the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), a NASA Earth Observing System mission, has achieved over 540 million laser pulse observations of ice sheet, ocean surface, land topography, and inland water elevations and cloud and aerosol height distributions. By recording the laser backscatter from 80 m diameter footprints spaced 175 m along track, ICESat acquires globally-distributed elevation profiles, using a 1064 nm laser altimeter channel, and cloud and aerosol profiles, using a 532 nm atmospheric lidar channel. The ICESat mission has demonstrated the following laser altimeter capabilities relevant to observations of inland water: (1) elevation measurements with a precision of 2 to 3 cm for flat surfaces, suitable for detecting river surface slopes along long river reaches or between multiple crossings of a meandering river channel, (2) from the laser backscatter waveform, detection of water surface elevations beneath vegetation canopies, suitable for measuring water stage in flooded forests, (3) single pulse absolute elevation accuracy of about 50 cm (1 sigma) for 1 degree sloped surfaces, with calibration work in progress indicating that a final accuracy of about 12 cm (1 sigma) will be

  15. Chemistry of saline-water chlorination

    SciTech Connect

    Haag, W.R.

    1981-06-01

    Vast quantities of natural waters are used by power plants for cooling purposes. This water is chlorinated to prevent slime build-up inside the cooling pipes, is circulated through the cooling system, and eventually discharged back into the water body. In order to assess the environmental impact of water chlorination, it is necessary to know what chemical compounds are produced and discharged into the receiving waters. To attack this problem, a review of the present state of knowledge of natural water chlorination chemistry was performed, and some experimental work explained the results of previous workers by showing that chlorine losses at very high doses in seawater are simply the result of chlorate and bromate formation which, however, is negligible at normal doses. The most important chlorine-produced oxidants, along with the relevant chemical reactions, were chosen as a basis for a kinetic model of saline water chlorination chemistry. Kinetic data were compiled in a computer program which simultaneously solves 24 differential equations, one for each species modelled. Estimates were made for the unknown rate constants. A purely predictive model was not possible due to the great variability in the organic demand; however, the model is applicable under a broad variety of conditions (except sunlight), and it provides a reasonably good description of a halamine chemistry under environmental conditions.

  16. Are harmful algal blooms becoming the greatest inland water quality threat to public health and aquatic ecosystems?

    PubMed

    Brooks, Bryan W; Lazorchak, James M; Howard, Meredith D A; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V; Morton, Steve L; Perkins, Dawn A K; Reavie, Euan D; Scott, Geoffrey I; Smith, Stephanie A; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2016-01-01

    In this Focus article, the authors ask a seemingly simple question: Are harmful algal blooms (HABs) becoming the greatest inland water quality threat to public health and aquatic ecosystems? When HAB events require restrictions on fisheries, recreation, and drinking water uses of inland water bodies significant economic consequences result. Unfortunately, the magnitude, frequency, and duration of HABs in inland waters are poorly understood across spatiotemporal scales and differentially engaged among states, tribes, and territories. Harmful algal bloom impacts are not as predictable as those from conventional chemical contaminants, for which water quality assessment and management programs were primarily developed, because interactions among multiple natural and anthropogenic factors determine the likelihood and severity to which a HAB will occur in a specific water body. These forcing factors can also affect toxin production. Beyond site-specific water quality degradation caused directly by HABs, the presence of HAB toxins can negatively influence routine surface water quality monitoring, assessment, and management practices. Harmful algal blooms present significant challenges for achieving water quality protection and restoration goals when these toxins confound interpretation of monitoring results and environmental quality standards implementation efforts for other chemicals and stressors. Whether HABs presently represent the greatest threat to inland water quality is debatable, though in inland waters of developed countries they typically cause more severe acute impacts to environmental quality than conventional chemical contamination events. The authors identify several timely research needs. Environmental toxicology, environmental chemistry, and risk-assessment expertise must interface with ecologists, engineers, and public health practitioners to engage the complexities of HAB assessment and management, to address the forcing factors for HAB formation, and

  17. Assessment of temporal variations of water quality in inland water bodies using atmospheric corrected satellite remotely sensed image data.

    PubMed

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G; Clayton, Chris

    2009-12-01

    Although there have been many studies conducted on the use of satellite remote sensing for water quality monitoring and assessment in inland water bodies, relatively few studies have considered the problem of atmospheric intervention of the satellite signal. The problem is especially significant when using time series multi-spectral satellite data to monitor water quality surveillance in inland waters such as reservoirs, lakes, and dams because atmospheric effects constitute the majority of the at-satellite reflectance over water. For the assessment of temporal variations of water quality, the use of multi-date satellite images is required so atmospheric corrected image data must be determined. The aim of this study is to provide a simple way of monitoring and assessing temporal variations of water quality in a set of inland water bodies using an earth observation- based approach. The proposed methodology is based on the development of an image-based algorithm which consists of a selection of sampling area on the image (outlet), application of masking and convolution image processing filter, and application of the darkest pixel atmospheric correction. The proposed method has been applied in two different geographical areas, in UK and Cyprus. Mainly, the method has been applied to a series of eight archived Landsat-5 TM images acquired from March 1985 up to November 1985 of the Lower Thames Valley area in the West London (UK) consisting of large water treatment reservoirs. Finally, the method is further tested to the Kourris Dam in Cyprus. It has been found that atmospheric correction is essential in water quality assessment studies using satellite remotely sensed imagery since it improves significantly the water reflectance enabling effective water quality assessment to be made.

  18. Improvement of Water Quality at Dongbin Harbor with Construction of an Inland Canal, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yong-Sik

    2014-01-01

    The behaviors of the water body of Dongbin Harbor located at Pohang City, Gyongpook Province, in Korea were numerically simulated in this study. A canal was planned to connect the harbor and the Hyeongsan River to improve water quality inside the harbor. The current system was first simulated by using a commercial program RMA2, with respect to both tidal currents and river flow. The progress inside the harbor from a supply of fresh water from the Hyeongsan River was then predicted by using RMA4. Both the present and future conditions (before and after construction of an inland canal) were taken into consideration in numerical simulations. It is concluded that the water quality inside the harbor can be improved considerably after construction of the canal. PMID:25003149

  19. Rationale for control of anthropogenic nitrogen and phosphorus to reduce eutrophication of inland waters.

    PubMed

    Lewis, William M; Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A; Paerl, Hans W

    2011-12-15

    Concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen in surface waters are being regulated in the United States and European Union. Human activity has raised the concentrations of these nutrients, leading to eutrophication of inland waters, which causes nuisance growth of algae and other aquatic plants. Control of phosphorus often has had the highest priority because of its presumed leading role in limiting development of aquatic plant biomass. Experimental evidence shows, however, that nitrogen is equally likely to limit growth of algae and aquatic plants in inland waters, and that additions of both nutrients cause substantially more algal growth than either added alone. A dual control strategy for N and P will reduce transport of anthropogenic nitrogen through drainage networks to aquatic ecosystems that may be nitrogen limited. Control of total phosphorus in effluents is feasible and is increasingly being required by regulations. The control strategy for nitrogen in effluents is more difficult, but could be made more feasible by recognition that a substantial portion of dissolved organic nitrogen is not bioavailable; regulation should focus on bioavailable N (nitrate, ammonium, and some dissolved organic nitrogen) rather than total N. Regulation of both N and P also is essential for nonpoint sources.

  20. Close range, aircraft and satellite monitoring trophic status of inland, estuarine and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, A. A.; Gurlin, D.; Moses, W. J.; Berdnikov, S. V.; Saprygin, V. V.

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this work was to test the performance of models used red and near infra-red (NIR) spectral regions (NIR-red models) for the remote estimation of the chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration in turbid productive case 2 waters. We focused on determining the ability of the models to estimate chl-a concentrations below 20 mg m-3, which are typical for estuarine and coastal waters, and assessing the potential of MODIS and MERIS to estimate chl-a concentrations, using NIR-red models. Reflectance data were collected in inland, estuarine, and coastal waters by hyperspectral radiometers just beneath the water surface, hyperspectral imaging sensor AISA on board an aircraft, and satellite sensors MODIS and MERIS. Algorithms established using proximal sensing were applied to aircraft and satellite data. The algorithms yielded high accuracy in estimating chl-a concentrations from AISA and MERIS data. The results illustrated the potential of the NIR-Red models to estimate chl-a concentration in turbid productive waters with a high accuracy. Nevertheless, challenges still remain in calibrating the models for their universal application to satellite data. The in situ data collection technique needs to be adapted to maximize the number of stations that can be assessed with a single satellite image. The spatial heterogeneity of the water within a satellite pixel area around each station needs to be accounted for. So are any changes in the bio-physical and bio-optical characteristics of the water at each station during the time elapsed between the satellite overpass and the in situ data collection. Accurate and reliable atmospheric correction of the satellite data is still a major challenge for turbid productive waters. Provided these factors can be effectively accounted for, robustly calibrated algorithms can be developed for real-time estimation of chl-a concentration, which will greatly benefit scientists and natural resource managers in making informed decisions on

  1. Impacts of different salinities on bacterial biofilm communities in fresh water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Gao, Guang; Tang, Xiangming; Shao, Keqiang

    2014-05-01

    Natural and anthropogenic salinization continuously impacts inland aquatic ecosystems. Associated bacterial biofilms respond rapidly to environmental conditions and are potential bioindicators for changes in water quality. This study evaluates the effects of different salinity concentrations (0.3‰-10‰) on bacterial biofilms communities grown in fresh water from Lake Bosten. Bacterial communities associated with biofilms were analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and clone library analyses of 16S rRNA genes. Results indicated that the attached bacterial community composition (ABCC) changed over several weeks of biofilm growth, but all followed similar bacterial successional trends in the different salinity groups. Detailed analysis showed the following. (i) ABCC did not differ (P > 0.05) in the low-salinity groups (0.3‰-3.5‰), which may be related to the lower osmotic pressure and the shorter time scale (weeks) of their present habitats. (ii) There were significant differences between the oligosaline (3.5‰) and saline (10‰) groups (P < 0.05). In particular, genus Flavobacterium became dominant in attached bacterial communities in the saline groups. The higher abundance of genus Flavobacterium was possibly due to the biological and metabolic characteristics of the bacteria. (iii) Some bacterial taxa can maintain the higher abundance within attached bacteria in the entire process of biofilms growth, such as the genera Hydrogenophaga and Methyloversatilis in Betaproteobacteria and the family Sphingomonadaceae in Alphaproteobacteria. These data suggested that the bacterial successional trends within biofilms seem almost unaffected by salinity (0.3‰-10‰), but ABCC in saline groups (10‰) are notably changed.

  2. Assessment of surface water quality of inland valleys for cropping in SW Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboyeji, O. S.; Ogunkoya, O. O.

    2017-05-01

    Inland valley agro-ecosystems which are a category of wetlands have potential for sustainable crop production relative to uplands. A major challenge to their utilisation in the study area is their heterogeneity in hydrology, morphology, soil types and agro-economy. The study assessed the surface water quality of three typologies of the agro-ecosystems—amphitheatre-like valley-heads (Am), valley-side (VS), and low depression (LD)—for cropping. Surface water of six sites were sampled during the wet and dry seasons. The physicochemical properties and metal concentrations of the samples were analysed. Descriptive statistics and water quality indices were used to assess the suitability of the waters of the agro-ecosystems for cropping. Results showed that the valleys have neutral to slightly alkaline waters. Values of physicochemical parameters are generally within the acceptable range for cropping. The concentration of major cations varied across the inland valley types, but exhibited similar characteristics within each valley. The dominance of the major cations is in the order of Na > Ca > K > Mg. ANOVA results indicated that there is no significant difference in the concentration of heavy metals across the valleys ( F = 2.044, p = 0.138, α = 0.05). Generally, most of the physicochemical parameters and trace metals have low concentrations and are non-toxic to plants. Values of water quality indices (sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, total dissolved solids and permeability index) indicated that the concentrations of minerals in waters across the valley typologies are generally within permissible limits for cropping.

  3. Assessment of surface water quality of inland valleys for cropping in SW Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboyeji, O. S.; Ogunkoya, O. O.

    2015-07-01

    Inland valley agro-ecosystems which are a category of wetlands have potential for sustainable crop production relative to uplands. A major challenge to their utilisation in the study area is their heterogeneity in hydrology, morphology, soil types and agro-economy. The study assessed the surface water quality of three typologies of the agro-ecosystems—amphitheatre-like valley-heads (Am), valley-side (VS), and low depression (LD)—for cropping. Surface water of six sites were sampled during the wet and dry seasons. The physicochemical properties and metal concentrations of the samples were analysed. Descriptive statistics and water quality indices were used to assess the suitability of the waters of the agro-ecosystems for cropping. Results showed that the valleys have neutral to slightly alkaline waters. Values of physicochemical parameters are generally within the acceptable range for cropping. The concentration of major cations varied across the inland valley types, but exhibited similar characteristics within each valley. The dominance of the major cations is in the order of Na > Ca > K > Mg. ANOVA results indicated that there is no significant difference in the concentration of heavy metals across the valleys (F = 2.044, p = 0.138, α = 0.05). Generally, most of the physicochemical parameters and trace metals have low concentrations and are non-toxic to plants. Values of water quality indices (sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, total dissolved solids and permeability index) indicated that the concentrations of minerals in waters across the valley typologies are generally within permissible limits for cropping.

  4. Biomass production from inland brines

    SciTech Connect

    Reach, C.D. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing inland saline waters to produce biomass through the application of marine aquaculture was investigated. From available data, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and the crustacea Artemia salina were selected as the experimental marine organisms. The proposed diatom served to establish primary productivity and concurrently provide a food source for the herbivorus crustacea. The objective of the first phase research was to investigate the ability of P. tricornutum and A. salina to survive in the inland saline environment. Clarified activated sludge and anaerobic digester effluents were evaluated as nutrient sources for the diatom cultures. Experimental results indicated that diatom and crustacea growth in the inland brine was equivalent to control cultures utilizing seawater. Wastewater effluents were successful as nutrient sources for the diatom cultures. Bioassay experiments conducted with petroleum related brines yielded mixed results respect to the survival and growth of the P. tricornutum and A. salina organisms. A second series of experiments involved cholornaphthalene, chlorophenanthene, and chlorophenanthrene, and chloroanthracene as the experimental hydrocarbons. Results of the diatom studies show chloroanthracene to induce toxic effects at a concentration of 500 ug/L. Artemia studies showed no acutely toxic effects relative to the test hydrocarbons at 50 and 100 ug/L.

  5. Analysis of Production-Water-Salinity of Index Crops in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifan, H.; Ghahreman, B.

    2009-04-01

    One method to investigate the advantages of irrigation in cultivation is to evaluate the amount of increase in productions as a result of irrigation. Such relations which usually characterized by mathematics formulas or curves are called production to water function. In the agricultural analysis like pattern optimization and culture accumulation, we need some function like agricultural crops production, water and salinity. The amount of water used and salinity has influence on crops function, so that by increase in both components in various stages of plant growth, crop function decreases. Many researches have been performed on production-water and production-salinity function, therefore less researches on production-water-salinity components. The equation provided by Letey and Dinar (1986) is a sample of these researches. Their model is a quadratics equation from independent variables of water salinity in irrigation (ECi) and dimensionless proportion of the amount of water used to evaporation in class A (AW/EP) in plant growth stage. Therefore, by using this model and parameters like evaporation, rainfall and also quantity and quality water potential in Golestan farmlands, we obtained production-water-salinity components for each product in three different areas across Golestan province (moisture to dry areas). These products include sunflower, cotton, wheat, barely, potato, tomato, corn, sorgom, water melon, soybean and rice. Finally, these equations were compared by results of previous experiments, some results correspond and others were different. Key Word: production-water, production-salinity and production-water-salinity function, Letey and Dinar, Golestan.

  6. Integrating water by plant roots over spatially distributed soil salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homaee, Mehdi; Schmidhalter, Urs

    2010-05-01

    In numerical simulation models dealing with water movement and solute transport in vadose zone, the water budget largely depends on uptake patterns by plant roots. In real field conditions, the uptake pattern largely changes in time and space. When dealing with soil and water salinity, most saline soils demonstrate spatially distributed osmotic head over the root zone. In order to quantify such processes, the major difficulty stems from lacking a sink term function that adequately accounts for the extraction term especially under variable soil water osmotic heads. The question of how plants integrate such space variable over its rooting depth remains as interesting issue for investigators. To move one step forward towards countering this concern, a well equipped experiment was conducted under heterogeneously distributed salinity over the root zone with alfalfa. The extraction rates of soil increments were calculated with the one dimensional form of Richards equation. The results indicated that the plant uptake rate under different mean soil salinities preliminary reacts to soil salinity, whereas at given water content and salinity the "evaporative demand" and "root activity" become more important to control the uptake patterns. Further analysis revealed that root activity is inconstant when imposed to variable soil salinity. It can be concluded that under heterogeneously distributed salinity, most water is taken from the less saline increment while the extraction from other root zone increments with higher salinities never stops.

  7. Microbial Quality of Tropical Inland Waters and Effects of Rainfall Events

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Raymond L.; Toledo-Hernandez, Carlos; Gonzalez-Nieves, Joel E.; Ryu, Hodon; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.; Toranzos, Gary A.

    2012-01-01

    Novel markers of fecal pollution in tropical waters are needed since conventional methods recommended for other geographical regions may not apply. To address this, the prevalence of thermotolerant coliforms, enterococci, coliphages, and enterophages was determined by culture methods across a watershed. Additionally, human-, chicken-, and cattle-specific PCR assays were used to identify potential fecal pollution sources in this watershed. An enterococcus quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was tested and correlated with culture methods at three sites since water quality guidelines could incorporate this technique as a rapid detection method. Various rainfall events reported before sample collection at three sites were considered in the data analyses. Thermotolerant coliforms, enterococci, coliphages, and enterophages were detected across the watershed. Human-specific Bacteroides bacteria, unlike the cattle- and chicken-specific bacteria, were detected mostly at sites with the corresponding fecal impact. Enterococci were detected by qPCR as well, but positive correlations with the culture method were noted at two sites, suggesting that either technique could be used. However, no positive correlations were noted for an inland lake tested, suggesting that qPCR may not be suitable for all water bodies. Concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms and bacteriophages were consistently lower after rainfall events, pointing to a possible dilution effect. Rainfall positively correlated with enterococci detected by culturing and qPCR, but this was not the case for the inland lake. The toolbox of methods and correlations presented here could be potentially applied to assess the microbial quality of various water types. PMID:22610428

  8. Root water uptake under water and salinity stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, A. B.; Bauser, H.; Ngo, A.; Kamai, T.; Walker, R.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Root uptake of water and nutrients is influenced by root-zone complex and dynamic processes such as soil water status, irrigation, evaporation, and leaching. Plant roots are living and functioning in a dynamic environment that is subjected to extreme changes over relatively short time and small distances. In order to better manage our agricultural resources and cope with increasing constraints of water limitation, environmental concerns and climate change, it is vital to understand plants responses to these changes in their environment. We grew chick pea (Cicer arietinum) plants, in boxes of 30 x 25 x 1 cm dimensions filled with fine sand. Layers of coarse sand (1.5 cm thick) were embedded in the fine-sand media to divide the root growth environment into sections that were hydraulically disconnected from each other. This way, each section could be independently treated with differential levels of water and salinity. The root growth and distribution in the soil was monitored on daily bases using neutron radiography. Daily water uptake was measured by weighing the containers. Changes of soil water content in each section of the containers were calculated from the neutron radiographs. Plants that part of their root system was stressed with drought or salinity showed no change in their daily water uptake rate. The roots in the stressed sections stayed turgid during the stress period and looked healthy in the neutron images. However the uptake rate was severely affected when the soil in the non-stressed section started to dry. The plants were then fully irrigated with water and the water uptake rate recovered to its initial rate shortly after irrigation. The neutron radiographs clearly illustrated the shrinkage and recovery of the roots under stress and the subsequent relief. This cycle was repeated a few times and the same trend could be reproduced. Our results show that plants' response to water- or salinity-stress ranges from full compensation to severe reduction in

  9. A physico-chemical survey of inland lakes and saline ponds: Christmas Island (Kiritimati) and Washington (Teraina) Islands, Republic of Kiribati

    PubMed Central

    Saenger, Casey; Miller, Michael; Smittenberg, Rienk H; Sachs, Julian P

    2006-01-01

    The equatorial Pacific Ocean atoll islands of Kiritimati and Teraina encompass great physical, chemical and biological variability within extreme lacustrine environments. Surveys of lake chemistry and sediments revealed both intra- and inter-island variability. A survey of more than 100 lakes on Kiritimati found salinities from nearly fresh to 150 ppt with the highest values occurring within the isolated, inland portions of the island away from the influence of groundwater or extreme tides. Dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH values also showed considerable variability with a less regular spatial pattern, but were both generally inversely related to salinity. Series of lakes, progressively more isolated from marine communication, present a modern analog to the chemical and morphologic evolution of presently isolated basins. Sediments on both islands consist of interbedded red and green silt, possibly degraded bacterial mat, overlying white, mineralogenic silt precipitate. Variability may be indicative of shifts in climatological parameters such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or the Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). PMID:16817958

  10. Assessing the value of the ATL13 inland water level product for the Global Flood Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, G.; Pappenberger, F.; Bates, P. D.; Neal, J. C.; Jasinski, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports on the activities and first results of an our ICESat-2 Early Adopter (EA) project for inland water observations. Our team will assess the value of the ICESat-2 water level product using two flood model use cases, one over the California Bay Delta and one over the Niger Inland Delta. Application of the ALT13 product into routine operations will be ensured via an ALT13 database integrated into the pillar "Global Flood Service and Toolbox" (GFST) of the Global Flood Partnership (GFP). GFP is a cooperation framework between scientific organizations and flood disaster managers worldwide to develop flood observational and modelling infrastructure, leveraging on existing initiatives for better predicting and managing flood disaster impacts and flood risk globally. GFP is hosted as an Expert Working Group by the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS). The objective of this EA project is to make the ICESat-2 water level data available to the international GFP community. The EA team believes that the ALT13 product, after successful demonstration of its value in model calibration/validation and monitoring of large floodplain inundation dynamics, should be made easily accessible to the GFP. The GFST will host data outputs and tools from different flood models and for different applications and regions. All these models can benefit from ALT13 if made available to GFP through GFST. Here, we will introduce both test cases and their model setups and report on first preliminary "capabilities" test runs with the Niger model and ICESat-1 as well as radar altimeter data. Based on our results, we will also reflect on expected capabilities and potential of the ICESat-2 mission for river observations.

  11. Improved inland water levels from SAR altimetry using novel empirical and physical retrackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villadsen, Heidi; Deng, Xiaoli; Andersen, Ole B.; Stenseng, Lars; Nielsen, Karina; Knudsen, Per

    2016-06-01

    Satellite altimetry has proven a valuable resource of information on river and lake levels where in situ data are sparse or non-existent. In this study several new methods for obtaining stable inland water levels from CryoSat-2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) altimetry are presented and evaluated. In addition, the possible benefits from combining physical and empirical retrackers are investigated. The retracking methods evaluated in this paper include the physical SAR Altimetry MOde Studies and Applications (SAMOSA3) model, a traditional subwaveform threshold retracker, the proposed Multiple Waveform Persistent Peak (MWaPP) retracker, and a method combining the physical and empirical retrackers. Using a physical SAR waveform retracker over inland water has not been attempted before but shows great promise in this study. The evaluation is performed for two medium-sized lakes (Lake Vänern in Sweden and Lake Okeechobee in Florida), and in the Amazon River in Brazil. Comparing with in situ data shows that using the SAMOSA3 retracker generally provides the lowest root-mean-squared-errors (RMSE), closely followed by the MWaPP retracker. For the empirical retrackers, the RMSE values obtained when comparing with in situ data in Lake Vänern and Lake Okeechobee are in the order of 2-5 cm for well-behaved waveforms. Combining the physical and empirical retrackers did not offer significantly improved mean track standard deviations or RMSEs. Based on these studies, it is suggested that future SAR derived water levels are obtained using the SAMOSA3 retracker whenever information about other physical properties apart from range is desired. Otherwise we suggest using the empirical MWaPP retracker described in this paper, which is both easy to implement, computationally efficient, and gives a height estimate for even the most contaminated waveforms.

  12. Ground water dependence of endangered ecosystems: Nebraska's eastern saline wetlands.

    PubMed

    Harvey, F Edwin; Ayers, Jerry F; Gosselin, David C

    2007-01-01

    Many endangered or threatened ecosystems depend on ground water for their survival. Nebraska's saline wetlands, home to a number of endangered species, are ecosystems whose development, sustenance, and survival depend on saline ground water discharge at the surface. This study demonstrates that the saline conditions present within the eastern Nebraska saline wetlands result from the upwelling of saline ground water from within the underlying Dakota Aquifer and deeper underlying formations of Pennsylvanian age. Over thousands to tens of thousands of years, saline ground water has migrated over regional scale flowpaths from recharge zones in the west to the present-day discharge zones along the saline streams of Rock, Little Salt, and Salt Creeks in Lancaster and Saunders counties. An endangered endemic species of tiger beetle living within the wetlands has evolved under a unique set of hydrologic conditions, is intolerant to recent anthropogenic changes in hydrology and salinity, and is therefore on the brink of extinction. As a result, the fragility of such systems demands an even greater understanding of the interrelationships among geology, hydrology, water chemistry, and biology than in less imperiled systems where adaptation is more likely. Results further indicate that when dealing with ground water discharge-dependent ecosystems, and particularly those dependent on dissolved constituents as well as the water, wetland management must be expanded outside of the immediate surface location of the visible ecosystem to include areas where recharge and lateral water movement might play a vital role in wetland hydrologic and chemical mixing dynamics.

  13. Meeting Report: Knowledge and Gaps in Developing Microbial Criteria for Inland Recreational Waters

    PubMed Central

    Dorevitch, Samuel; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Ferguson, Christobel M.; Fujioka, Roger; McGee, Charles D.; Soller, Jeffrey A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has committed to issuing in 2012 new or revised criteria designed to protect the health of those who use surface waters for recreation. For this purpose, the U.S. EPA has been conducting epidemiologic studies to establish relationships between microbial measures of water quality and adverse health outcomes among swimmers. New methods for testing water quality that would provide same-day results will likely be elements of the new criteria. Although the epidemiologic studies upon which the criteria will be based were conducted at Great Lakes and marine beaches, the new water quality criteria may be extended to inland waters (IWs). Similarities and important differences between coastal waters (CWs) and IWs that should be considered when developing criteria for IWs were the focus of an expert workshop. Here, we summarize the state of knowledge and research needed to base IWs microbial criteria on sound science. Two key differences between CWs and IWs are the sources of indicator bacteria, which may modify the relationship between indicator microbes and health risk, and the relationship between indicators and pathogens, which also may vary within IWs. Monitoring using rapid molecular methods will require the standardization and simplification of analytical methods, as well as greater clarity about their interpretation. Research needs for the short term and longer term are described. PMID:20100678

  14. Meeting report: knowledge and gaps in developing microbial criteria for inland recreational waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorevitch, Samuel; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Ferguson, Christobel M.; Fujioka, Roger; McGee, Charles D.; Soller, Jeffrey A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has committed to issuing in 2012 new or revised criteria designed to protect the health of those who use surface waters for recreation. For this purpose, the U.S. EPA has been conducting epidemiologic studies to establish relationships between microbial measures of water quality and adverse health outcomes among swimmers. New methods for testing water quality that would provide same-day results will likely be elements of the new criteria. Although the epidemiologic studies upon which the criteria will be based were conducted at Great Lakes and marine beaches, the new water quality criteria may be extended to inland waters (IWs). Similarities and important differences between coastal waters (CWs) and IWs that should be considered when developing criteria for IWs were the focus of an expert workshop. Here, we summarize the state of knowledge and research needed to base IWs microbial criteria on sound science. Two key differences between CWs and IWs are the sources of indicator bacteria, which may modify the relationship between indicator microbes and health risk, and the relationship between indicators and pathogens, which also may vary within IWs. Monitoring using rapid molecular methods will require the standardization and simplification of analytical methods, as well as greater clarity about their interpretation. Research needs for the short term and longer term are described.

  15. Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters in India - implications for large scale greenhouse gas balances.

    PubMed

    Panneer Selvam, Balathandayuthabani; Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika; Arunachalam, Lakshmanan; Bastviken, David

    2014-11-01

    Inland waters were recently recognized to be important sources of methane (CH4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) to the atmosphere, and including inland water emissions in large scale greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets may potentially offset the estimated carbon sink in many areas. However, the lack of GHG flux measurements and well-defined inland water areas for extrapolation, make the magnitude of the potential offset unclear. This study presents coordinated flux measurements of CH4 and CO2 in multiple lakes, ponds, rivers, open wells, reservoirs, springs, and canals in India. All these inland water types, representative of common aquatic ecosystems in India, emitted substantial amounts of CH4 and a major fraction also emitted CO2 . The total CH4 flux (including ebullition and diffusion) from all the 45 systems ranged from 0.01 to 52.1 mmol m(-2)  d(-1) , with a mean of 7.8 ± 12.7 (mean ± 1 SD) mmol m(-2)  d(-1) . The mean surface water CH4 concentration was 3.8 ± 14.5 μm (range 0.03-92.1 μm). The CO2 fluxes ranged from -28.2 to 262.4 mmol m(-2)  d(-1) and the mean flux was 51.9 ± 71.1 mmol m(-2)  d(-1) . The mean partial pressure of CO2 was 2927 ± 3269 μatm (range: 400-11 467 μatm). Conservative extrapolation to whole India, considering the specific area of the different water types studied, yielded average emissions of 2.1 Tg CH4  yr(-1) and 22.0 Tg CO2  yr(-1) from India's inland waters. When expressed as CO2 equivalents, this amounts to 75 Tg CO2 equivalents yr(-1) (53-98 Tg CO2 equivalents yr(-1) ; ± 1 SD), with CH4 contributing 71%. Hence, average inland water GHG emissions, which were not previously considered, correspond to 42% (30-55%) of the estimated land carbon sink of India. Thereby this study illustrates the importance of considering inland water GHG exchange in large scale assessments.

  16. Climate change driven water budget dynamics of a Tibetan inland lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Binquan; Zhang, Jianyun; Yu, Zhongbo; Liang, Zhongmin; Chen, Li; Acharya, Kumud

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the hydrologic processes of inland lake basins in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) could provide insights into the responses of Tibetan lake dynamics to climate change. An efficient approach for this purpose is to represent complex hydrologic behaviors of such Tibetan lake watersheds with plausible hydrologic models. In this study, water level fluctuations of Lake Nam Co, an inland lake in the central TP, were investigated using a lumped lake-watershed model. The degree-day factor method was introduced to improve the model applicability in glacier-covered basins. The model simulated the hydrologic processes as well as the lake water budget. Remote sensing images (Landsat MSS, TM, ETM + and OLI) from 1972 to 2015 were used to identify the glacier and lake boundaries. Multisource climate data (e.g., ground point observation, 0.25o gridded APHRODITE and TRMM 3B42 v7 precipitation products) were used to drive the hydrologic model at a monthly time step. Results of trend analysis showed that basin-wide annual air temperature increased by the rate 0.04 °C/yr from 1961 to 2015. Mean annual precipitation slowly increased from 1961 to the mid-1990s, and then rapidly increased from the late-1990s to the mid-2000s, and finally obviously decreased after the mid-2000s. As a response to climate change, glaciers decreased by 62.69 km2 (29%) and lake area increased by 91.83 km2 (4.7%) from 1972 to 2015. The analysis of lake water budget suggested that, the total basin runoff and on-lake precipitation contributed 1.36 km3/yr (66%) and 0.7 km3/yr (34%), respectively, to mean annual water gain of the lake. Glacier runoff was 14% of the basin runoff and 10% of the total water gain of the lake. The percentages of lake evaporation, water seepage and water surplus were 65%, 20% and 15%, respectively. Lake level increased with the rate of 0.14 m/yr for the study period 1961-2015. It could be concluded that precipitation was the dominant controlling factor for the different

  17. Assigning Boundary Conditions to the Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) Model Using Results from the South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfert, Melinda A.; Langevin, Christian D.; Swain, Eric D.

    2004-01-01

    The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) requires the testing and evaluation of different water-management scenarios for southern Florida. As part of CERP, the South Florida Water Management District is using its regional hydrologic model, the South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM), to evaluate different hydrologic scenarios. The SFWMM was designed specifically for the inland freshwater areas in southern Florida, and extends only slightly into Florida Bay. Thus, the U.S. Geological Survey developed the Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) model, which is an integrated surface-water and ground-water model designed to simulate flows, stages, and salinities in the southern Everglades and Florida Bay. Modifications to the SICS boundary conditions allow the local-scale SICS model to be linked to the regional-scale SFWMM. The linked model will be used to quantify the effects of restoration alternatives on flows, stages, and salinities in the SICS area. This report describes the procedure for linking the SICS model with the SFWMM. The linkage is shown to work by comparing the results of a linked 5-year simulation with the results from a simulation in which the model boundaries are assigned using field data. The surface-water module of the SICS model is driven by areal influences and lateral boundaries. The areal influences (wind, rainfall, and evapotranspiration) remain the same when the SICS model is modified to link to the SFWMM. Four types of lateral boundaries (discharge, water level, no flow, and salinity) are used in the SICS model. Two of three discharge boundaries (at Taylor Slough Bridge and C-111 Canal) in the current SICS model domain are converted to water-level boundaries to increase accuracy. The only change to the third discharge boundary (at Levee 31W) is that the flow data are derived from SFWMM model output instead of using measured field data flows. Three water-level boundaries are modified only by receiving their data from SFWMM

  18. Optimizing the bio-optical algorithm for estimating chlorophyll-a and phycocyanin concentrations in inland waters in Korea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several bio-optical algorithms were developed to estimate the chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and phycocyanin (PC) concentrations in inland waters. This study aimed at identifying the influence of the algorithm parameters and wavelength bands on output variables and searching optimal parameter values. The opt...

  19. Effects of salinity on baldcypress seedlings: responses and their relation to salinity tolerance physiological

    Treesearch

    James A. Allen; Jim L. Chambers; S. Reza Pezeshki

    1997-01-01

    Taxodium distichum var.distichum) subjected to flooding with saline water were evaluated in this study. Ten of the families were from coastal sites in Louisiana and Alabama, USA that have elevated levels of soil-water salinity. The other five families were from inland, freshwater sites in Louisiana. Seedlings from all families...

  20. Simulating floodplain extent and inland water storage in the Amazon basin from a multi LSM perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getirana, A.; Dutra, E. N.; Decharme, B.; Guimberteau, M.; Li, H.; Beaudoing, H.; Kam, J.; Toure, A. M.; Zhang, Z.; Drapeau, G.; Papa, F.; Kumar, S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Balsamo, G.; Rodell, M.; Ronchail, J.; Sheffield, J.; Xue, Y.; Arsenault, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    Several modeling attempts have been conducted trying to improve the simulation of floods at several temporal and spatial scales worldwide. These attempts consider different modeling approaches and forcings, which can have a non-negligible impact on streamflows, inland water storage and floodplain extent. In the framework of the Global Land Water Cycle Benchmarking (GLWCB), the capability of simulating water and energy budgets by state-of-the-art land surface models (LSMs) and their impacts on predicting floods are evaluated. Fifteen LSMs were run for the 1980-2008 period using Princeton's meteorological forcings on a 3-hourly time step and at a 1° resolution. Three experiments are performed using Princeton's precipitation dataset rescaled to match monthly global GPCC and GPCP datasets and a daily dataset (HOP) specially developed for the basin. Surface and sub-surface runoffs derived from LSMs are used to force the Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP) river routing scheme (RRS) and simulated discharges are compared against observations at 146 gauges in the Amazon basin. Simulated floodplain extent and surface water storage are also compared against satellite-based products. Results show that simulated streamflows vary significantly as a function of both the LSM and precipitation used. It is also noted that floodplain extent is highly dependent on RRS parameters and further calibration must be performed.

  1. [Fluorescence peak shift corresponding to high chlorophyll concentrations in inland water].

    PubMed

    Duan, Hong-Tao; Ma, Rong-Hua; Zhang, Yuan-Zhi; Zhang, Bai

    2009-01-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing offers the potential to detect water quality variables such as Chl-a by using narrow spectral channels of less than 10 nm, which could otherwise be masked by broadband satellites such as Landsat TM. Fluorescence peak of the red region is very important for the remote sensing of inland and coastal waters, which is unique to phytoplankton Chl-a that takes place in this region. Based on in situ water sampling and field spectral measurement from 2004 to 2006 in Nanhu Lake, the features of the spectral reflectance were analyzed in detail with peak position shift. The results showed: An exponential fitting model, peak position = a(Chl-a)b, was developed between chlorophyll-a concentration and fluorescence peak shift, where a varies between 686.11 and 686.29, while b between 0.0062 and 0.0065. It was found that the better the spectral resolution, the higher the precision of the model. Except that, the average of peak shift showed a high correlation with the average of different Chl-a grades, and the determination coefficient (R2) was higher than 0.81. It contributed significantly to the increase in the accuracy of the derivation of chlorophyll values from remote sensing data in Nanhu Lake. There is satisfactory correspondence between hyperspectral models and chl-a concentration, therefore, it is possible to monitor the water quality of Nanhu lake throngh the hyperspetral remote sensing data.

  2. Dynamics of absorption properties along a latitudinal gradient: sources of absorption in Australian inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestir, E. L.; Campbell, G.; Malthus, T. J.; Dekker, A.; Botha, E.

    2013-12-01

    Australian inland waters are optically complex and vary spatially and temporally. Inversion of optical remote sensing data for the retrieval of optically active water quality constituents (chlorophyll, colored dissolved organic matter and total suspended solids) is impeded by the scarcity of inherent optical property (IOP) data sets. In 2012 a major measurement program commenced to improve understanding of IOPs in Australia. Seven large lakes were sampled along a latitudinal gradient in Eastern Australia; in situ observations were made of the absorption properties of the water quality during two epochs (wet and dry season). This study documents the seasonal, inter & intra lake variability of the absorption budget of Australian lakes. These data reveal the sources of biogeochemical constituents determining the light climate of lakes. Optically active water quality constituents (total suspended solids, chlorophyll-a, and colored dissolved organic matter) varied significantly between wet and dry season and between lakes. The primary contribution to the absorption budget was from non-algal particulate matter (NAP; 10-60%), followed by colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM; 20-80%). Absorption from phytoplankton contributed only 0-30% of the total budget. This indicates that these lakes are primarily light limited, though the limitation comes from multiple sources. The contribution of NAP to the total absorption budget showed the greatest amount of variance between wet and dry seasons. Examination of the organic matter and estimated phytoplankton biomass contributions to TSS reveal that chlorophyll is not the primary source of organic matter in Australian lakes: allochthonous inputs are the primary trophic driver. Finally, there is strong regional and seasonal variation in the IOPs of the lakes, with the exception of the slope of CDOM. The slope of CDOM was not significantly different between seasons (p=0.94). Non-parametric stepwise multiple comparisons showed the

  3. Effects of cold front passage on turbulent fluxes over a large inland water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Liu, H.

    2011-12-01

    Turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat over a large inland water in southern USA were measured using the eddy covariance method through the year of 2008. In addition, net radiation, air temperatures and relative humidity, and water temperature in different depths were also measured. The specific objective of this study is to examine effects of a cold front passage on the surface energy fluxes. For the typical cold front event selected from April 11 to 14, air temperature decreased by 16°C, while surface temperature only dropped 6°C. Atmospheric vapor pressure decreased by 1.6 kPa, while that in the water-air interface dropped 0.7 kPa. The behavior difference in the water-air interface was caused by the passage of cold, dry air masses immediately behind the cold front. During the cold front event, sensible heat and latent heat flux increased by 171 W m-2 and 284 W m-2, respectively. Linear aggression analysis showed that the sensible heat flux was proportional to the product of wind speed and the temperature gradient of water-air interface, with a correlation coefficient of 0.95. Latent heat flux was proportional to the product of wind speed and vapor pressure difference between the water surface and overlaying atmosphere, with a correlation coefficient of 0.81. Also, the correlations between both fluxes and the wind speed were weak. This result indicated that the strong wind associated with the cold front event contributed to the turbulent mixing, which indirectly enhanced surface energy exchange between the water surface and the atmosphere. The relationship between the water heat storage energy and turbulent fluxes was also examined.

  4. Integrating tunable anion exchange with reverse osmosis for enhanced recovery during inland brackish water desalination.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan C; SenGupta, Arup K

    2015-05-05

    For inland brackish water desalination by reverse osmosis or RO, concentrate or reject disposal poses a major challenge. However, enhanced recovery and consequent reduction in the reject volume using RO processes is limited by the solubility of ions present in the feedwater. One of the most common and stubborn precipitate formed during desalination is calcium sulfate. Reducing or eliminating the presence of sulfate would allow the process to operate at higher recoveries without threat to membrane scaling. In this research, this goal is accomplished by using an appropriate mixture of self-regenerating anion exchange resins that selectively remove and replace sulfate by chloride prior to the RO unit. Most importantly, the mixed bed of anion exchange resins is self-regenerated with the reject brine from the RO process, thus requiring no addition of external chemicals. The current work demonstrates the reversibility of the hybrid ion exchange and RO (HIX-RO) process with 80% recovery for a brackish water composition representative of groundwater in San Joaquin Valley in California containing approximately 5200 mg/L of total dissolved solids or TDS. Consequently, the reject volume can be reduced by 50% without the threat of sulfate scaling and use of antiscaling chemicals can be eliminated altogether. By appropriately designing or tuning the mixed bed of anion exchange resins, the process can be extended to nearly any composition of brackish water for enhanced recovery and consequent reduction in the reject volume.

  5. Scenario analysis for nutrient emission reduction in the European inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouraoui, F.; Thieu, V.; Grizzetti, B.; Britz, W.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-12-01

    Despite a large body of legislation, high nutrient loads are still emitted in European inland waters. In the present study we evaluate a set of alternative scenarios aiming at reducing nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from anthropogenic activities to all European Seas. In particular, we tested the full implementation of the European Urban Waste Water Directive, which controls emissions from point source. In addition, we associated the full implementation of this Directive with a ban of phosphorus-based laundry detergents. Then we tested two human diet scenarios and their impacts on nutrient emissions. We also developed a scenario based on an optimal use of organic manure. The impacts of all our scenarios were evaluated using a statistical model of nitrogen and phosphorus fate (GREEN) linked to an agro-economic model (CAPRI). We show that the ban of phosphorus-based laundry detergents coupled with the full implementation of the Urban Waste Water Directive is the most effective approach for reducing phosphorus emissions from human based activities. Concerning nitrogen, the highest reductions are obtained with the optimized use of organic manure.

  6. Inland capture fisheries.

    PubMed

    Welcomme, Robin L; Cowx, Ian G; Coates, David; Béné, Christophe; Funge-Smith, Simon; Halls, Ashley; Lorenzen, Kai

    2010-09-27

    The reported annual yield from inland capture fisheries in 2008 was over 10 million tonnes, although real catches are probably considerably higher than this. Inland fisheries are extremely complex, and in many cases poorly understood. The numerous water bodies and small rivers are inhabited by a wide range of species and several types of fisher community with diversified livelihood strategies for whom inland fisheries are extremely important. Many drivers affect the fisheries, including internal fisheries management practices. There are also many drivers from outside the fishery that influence the state and functioning of the environment as well as the social and economic framework within which the fishery is pursued. The drivers affecting the various types of inland water, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands may differ, particularly with regard to ecosystem function. Many of these depend on land-use practices and demand for water which conflict with the sustainability of the fishery. Climate change is also exacerbating many of these factors. The future of inland fisheries varies between continents. In Asia and Africa the resources are very intensely exploited and there is probably little room for expansion; it is here that resources are most at risk. Inland fisheries are less heavily exploited in South and Central America, and in the North and South temperate zones inland fisheries are mostly oriented to recreation rather than food production.

  7. Inland capture fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Welcomme, Robin L.; Cowx, Ian G.; Coates, David; Béné, Christophe; Funge-Smith, Simon; Halls, Ashley; Lorenzen, Kai

    2010-01-01

    The reported annual yield from inland capture fisheries in 2008 was over 10 million tonnes, although real catches are probably considerably higher than this. Inland fisheries are extremely complex, and in many cases poorly understood. The numerous water bodies and small rivers are inhabited by a wide range of species and several types of fisher community with diversified livelihood strategies for whom inland fisheries are extremely important. Many drivers affect the fisheries, including internal fisheries management practices. There are also many drivers from outside the fishery that influence the state and functioning of the environment as well as the social and economic framework within which the fishery is pursued. The drivers affecting the various types of inland water, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands may differ, particularly with regard to ecosystem function. Many of these depend on land-use practices and demand for water which conflict with the sustainability of the fishery. Climate change is also exacerbating many of these factors. The future of inland fisheries varies between continents. In Asia and Africa the resources are very intensely exploited and there is probably little room for expansion; it is here that resources are most at risk. Inland fisheries are less heavily exploited in South and Central America, and in the North and South temperate zones inland fisheries are mostly oriented to recreation rather than food production. PMID:20713391

  8. Coretop Perspective on Alkenone Signatures Preserved Beneath Inland Waters of SE Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahl, F. G.; Walinsky, S.; Sparrow, M. A.; Mix, A. C.

    2006-12-01

    In late summer 2004, 27 multicores were collected from coastal and inland water sites throughout SE Alaska (~55° to 61°N). Examination of coretops (0-2cm) revealed long-chain alkenones of haptophyte origin were only present significantly in organic carbon, biogenic silica-rich sediments depositing south of ~58°N, along the outer coastline of the Queen Charlotte and Baranof Islands. Contrary to our prior experience with marine sediment analysis, compositions in the 16 identified sites containing these biomarkers could only be reliably quantified if urea adduction was employed as an additional chemical clean- up step prior to alkenone analysis by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Water temperature estimates derived from `clean' U^{K'}37 signatures using a standard calibration equation (U^{K'}37 = 0.034 x T + 0.039) were remarkably uniform, averaging 11.7±0.9°C. The estimates are ~4°C `colder' than actual sea-surface temperatures (SST) measured at the time of core collection in overlying waters at each sampling site. These estimates consistently matched water temperature measured at ~20m depth by CTD casts. Nutrient determinations on collected samples showed surface waters at each of these sites were typically nitrate-depleted to a depth of ~20m, below which a steep nitricline existed. If the U^{K'}37-derived temperature estimates are accurate, at least some fraction of alkenone export to sediments in this region necessarily originates from subsurface production. Formal clarification of how alkenone export production from surface waters acts throughout an annual cycle to `paint' the U^{K'}37-based temperature record in modern sediments for this region will require further oceanographic study. Such effort would benefit the accurate use of U^{K'}37 analysis for purposes of regional paleoceanographic SST reconstruction.

  9. VIS – A database on the distribution of fishes in inland and estuarine waters in Flanders, Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Brosens, Dimitri; Breine, Jan; Van Thuyne, Gerlinde; Belpaire, Claude; Desmet, Peter; Verreycken, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) has been performing standardized fish stock assessments in Flanders, Belgium. This Flemish Fish Monitoring Network aims to assess fish populations in public waters at regular time intervals in both inland waters and estuaries. This monitoring was set up in support of the Water Framework Directive, the Habitat Directive, the Eel Regulation, the Red List of fishes, fish stock management, biodiversity research, and to assess the colonization and spreading of non-native fish species. The collected data are consolidated in the Fish Information System or VIS. From VIS, the occurrence data are now published at the INBO IPT as two datasets: ‘VIS - Fishes in inland waters in Flanders, Belgium’ and ‘VIS - Fishes in estuarine waters in Flanders, Belgium’. Together these datasets represent a complete overview of the distribution and abundance of fish species pertaining in Flanders from late 1992 to the end of 2012. This data paper discusses both datasets together, as both have a similar methodology and structure. The inland waters dataset contains over 350,000 fish observations, sampled between 1992 and 2012 from over 2,000 locations in inland rivers, streams, canals, and enclosed waters in Flanders. The dataset includes 64 fish species, as well as a number of non-target species (mainly crustaceans). The estuarine waters dataset contains over 44,000 fish observations, sampled between 1995 and 2012 from almost 50 locations in the estuaries of the rivers Yser and Scheldt (“Zeeschelde”), including two sampling sites in the Netherlands. The dataset includes 69 fish species and a number of non-target crustacean species. To foster broad and collaborative use, the data are dedicated to the public domain under a Creative Commons Zero waiver and reference the INBO norms for data use. PMID:25685001

  10. Water level variation of Inland lakes on the southeasten of Tibetan Plateau in 1972-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Lei, L.

    2014-12-01

    Lake water level variation directly records the process of water storage balance in the basin, which is a quite sensitive response to the climate change. We obtained the long-time lake area and level series of the five typical lakes from 1972 to 2012 in the Tibetan Plateau, and analyzed the variation of lake levels in recent 40 years, using the multi-source remote sensing data. The results show that the lake level of three inland lakes ( Pumo Yumco , Taro Co, Zhari Namco)have rose 0.89m, 0.70m,0.40m respectively ,while the two lakes (Peiku Co, Mapang Yumco) showed decreasing tendency, the changes is -1.696m,-0,153m. On the whole, the five lakes have experienced more remarkable changes in 2000-2012 than 1976-1999. In terms of spatial variations, the three lakes which located in south Tibetan Plateau, Peiku Co and Mapang Yumco, have show the consistent variation trend, as well as the other two lakes, Taro Co and Zhari Namco.

  11. Enhancing moderate-resolution ocean color products over coastal/inland waters (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlevan, Nima; Schott, John R.; Zibordi, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    With the successful launch of Landsat-8 in 2013 followed by a very recent launch of Sentinel-2A, we are entering a new area where frequent moderate resolution water quality products over coastal/inland waters will be available to scientists and operational agencies. Although designed for land observations, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) has proven to provide high-fidelity products in these aquatic systems where coarse-resolution ocean color imagers fail to provide valid observations. High-quality, multi-scale ocean color products can give insights into the biogeochemical/physical processes from the upstream in watersheds, into near-shore regions, and further out in ocean basins. In this research, we describe a robust cross-calibration approach, which facilitates seamless ocean color products at multi scales. The top-of-atmosphere (TOA) OLI imagery is cross-calibrated against near-simultaneous MODIS and VIIRS ocean color observations in high-latitude regions. This allows for not only examining the overall relative performance of OLI but also for characterizing non-uniformity (i.e., banding) across its swath. The uncertainty of this approach is, on average, found to be less than 0.5% in the blue channels. The adjustments made for OLI TOA reflectance products are then validated against in-situ measurements of remote sensing reflectance collected in research cruises or at the AERONET-OC.

  12. Evaluating abiotic influences on soil salinity of inland managed wetlands and agricultural croplands in a semi-arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fowler, D.; King, Sammy L.; Weindorf, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture and moist-soil management are important management techniques used on wildlife refuges to provide adequate energy for migrant waterbirds. In semi-arid systems, the accumulation of soluble salts throughout the soil profile can limit total production of wetland plants and agronomic crops and thus jeopardize meeting waterbird energy needs. This study evaluates the effect of distinct hydrologic regimes associated with moist-soil management and agricultural production on salt accumulation in a semi-arid floodplain. We hypothesized that the frequency of flooding and quantity of floodwater in a moist-soil management hydroperiod results in a less saline soil profile compared to profiles under traditional agricultural management. Findings showed that agricultural croplands differed (p-value < 0.001, df = 9) in quantities of total soluble salts (TSS) compared to moist-soil impoundments and contained greater concentrations (TSS range = 1,160-1,750 (mg kg-1)) at depth greater than 55 cm below the surface of the profile, while moist-soil impoundments contained lower concentrations (TSS range = 307-531 (mg kg-1)) at the same depths. Increased salts in agricultural may be attributed to the lack of leaching afforded by smaller summer irrigations while larger periodic flooding events in winter and summer flood irrigations in moist-soil impoundments may serve as leaching events.

  13. Sentinel 3 for Inland Water Quality Monitoring- Advanced in Earth Observation Based Technologies to Assist Algal Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malthus, Tim J.; Anstee, Janet; Botha, Hannelie; Hestir, Erin; Dekker, Arnold

    2015-12-01

    Using both modeled and real measurements of spectral reflectance over Australian inland water bodies of varying water quality the potential of the Sentinel 3 OLCI sensor for monitoring inland optical water quality dynamics, notably algal greening, was investigated. Established semi-empirical water quality algorithms for chlorophyll were tested for their potential to form the basis of an algal alerting system for water managers. Given the possession of the additional spectral band at ~705-710 nm both Sentinels 3 and 2 will be better able to resolve chlorophyll and NAP than conventional MS sensors lacking this spectral band. Such algorithms will have an accuracy sufficient for alerting algal blooms/green-up with semi-empirical algorithms displaying RMSEs of ~4 - 9 mg m-3 Chl and RMSEs for semi-analytical inversion approaches within a similar range (~7- 8 mg m-3 Chl). Whilst the results bode well for S3, the potential for S2 for accurate retrieval of chlorophyll estimates will be highly dependent on its SNR. We further report on some other challenges before such sensors can be used as an inland water quality monitoring tool.

  14. Impact of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation on summertime surface temperatures of inland water bodies in Alaska (USA) and northwest Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healey, N.; Hook, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Due to water's high heat capacity, temperature fluctuations in lacustrine systems are a reflection of long-term ambient climate conditions rather than short-term meteorological forcing. There are many atmospheric phenomena (i.e. teleconnections) that influence the regional climatology of the Pacific basin, and one of the most influential is the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). This study examines spaceborne observations by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) from 2000-2015 of 15 inland water bodies in Alaska and Canada using the Inland Waterbody Surface Temperature (IWbST) version 1.0 algorithm. We analyze surface temperature trends in comparison to the variation of the PDO, and our findings suggest that the PDO is influencing summertime (July-September) inland water bodies in southern Alaska and northwestern Canada. The strongest influence is prevalent in the water bodies experiencing a maritime climate and situated closest to the Aleutian Peninsula/Gulf of Alaska. The second largest influence occurs in the northwestern Canadian water bodies that experience a weakened maritime climate, or a transitional regime between maritime and continental classifications. The weakest relationship with the PDO are water bodies located in the western, northwestern, and interior Alaska regions that experience more of a continental climate regime which are likely controlled by other large-scale teleconnections such as the Arctic Oscillation, the Pacific North American Index, or the North Pacific Index.

  15. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Calcite Reactions with Saline Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Piers; *Morse, John W.

    2010-11-15

    1. Objective The general objective of this research was to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of calcite reactions with saline waters over a wide range of saline water composition, carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2), and modest ranges of T and P. This would be done by studying both reaction rates and solubility from changes in solution chemistry. Also, nanoscale observations of calcite surface morphology and composition would be made to provide an understanding of rate controlling mechanisms.

  16. Virus-bacterium interactions in water and sediment of West African inland aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Bettarel, Yvan; Bouvy, Marc; Dumont, Claire; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

    2006-08-01

    The ecology of virioplankton in tropical aquatic ecosystems is poorly documented, and in particular, there are no references concerning African continental waters in the literature. In this study, we examined virus-bacterium interactions in the pelagic and benthic zones of seven contrasting shallow inland waters in Senegal, including one hypersaline lake. SYBR Gold-stained samples revealed that in the surface layers of the sites, the numbers of viruses were in the same range as the numbers of viruses reported previously for productive temperate systems. Despite high bacterial production rates, the percentages of visibly infected cells (as determined by transmission electron microscopy) were similar to the lowest percentages (range, 0.3 to 1.1%; mean, 0.5%) found previously at pelagic freshwater or marine sites, presumably because of the local environmental and climatic conditions. Since the percentages of lysogenic bacteria were consistently less than 8% for pelagic and benthic samples, lysogeny did not appear to be a dominant strategy for virus propagation at these sites. In the benthic samples, viruses were highly concentrated, but paradoxically, no bacteria were visibly infected. This suggests that sediment provides good conditions for virus preservation but ironically is an unfavorable environment for proliferation. In addition, given the comparable size distributions of viruses in the water and sediment samples, our results support the paradigm that aquatic viruses are ubiquitous and may have moved between the two compartments of the shallow systems examined. Overall, this study provides additional information about the relevance of viruses in tropical areas and indicates that the intensity of virus-bacterium interactions in benthic habitats may lower than the intensity in the adjacent bodies of water.

  17. Virus-Bacterium Interactions in Water and Sediment of West African Inland Aquatic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bettarel, Yvan; Bouvy, Marc; Dumont, Claire; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

    2006-01-01

    The ecology of virioplankton in tropical aquatic ecosystems is poorly documented, and in particular, there are no references concerning African continental waters in the literature. In this study, we examined virus-bacterium interactions in the pelagic and benthic zones of seven contrasting shallow inland waters in Senegal, including one hypersaline lake. SYBR Gold-stained samples revealed that in the surface layers of the sites, the numbers of viruses were in the same range as the numbers of viruses reported previously for productive temperate systems. Despite high bacterial production rates, the percentages of visibly infected cells (as determined by transmission electron microscopy) were similar to the lowest percentages (range, 0.3 to 1.1%; mean, 0.5%) found previously at pelagic freshwater or marine sites, presumably because of the local environmental and climatic conditions. Since the percentages of lysogenic bacteria were consistently less than 8% for pelagic and benthic samples, lysogeny did not appear to be a dominant strategy for virus propagation at these sites. In the benthic samples, viruses were highly concentrated, but paradoxically, no bacteria were visibly infected. This suggests that sediment provides good conditions for virus preservation but ironically is an unfavorable environment for proliferation. In addition, given the comparable size distributions of viruses in the water and sediment samples, our results support the paradigm that aquatic viruses are ubiquitous and may have moved between the two compartments of the shallow systems examined. Overall, this study provides additional information about the relevance of viruses in tropical areas and indicates that the intensity of virus-bacterium interactions in benthic habitats may lower than the intensity in the adjacent bodies of water. PMID:16885276

  18. Simulating root water uptake from a shallow saline groundwater resource

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Disposal of saline drainage water is a significant problem for irrigated agriculture. One proposal to deal with this problem is sequential biological concentration (SBC), which is the process of recycling drainage water on increasingly more salt tolerant crops until the volume of drainage water has ...

  19. A Geology-Based Estimate of Connate Water Salinity Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    groundwater modeling for decision making. BACKGROUND: Connate water is the water entrapped in the interstices of sedimentary rocks at the time of deposition...when the rocks were formed). This water often has a high mineral content and can be exceedingly saline in rock formed under marine conditions. This

  20. Seasonal and annual distribution of carbon, water and energy fluxes of irrigated agroecosystems in inland Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vote, C. E.; Hafeez, M.; Charlton, P.; Hall, A.

    2012-12-01

    The extent to which agroecosystems contribute to the carbon cycle as net sources or sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide remains relatively uncertain and it appears that in-depth studies of integrated water, carbon and energy fluxes of irrigated broad-acre crops for common Australian conditions and soil types are yet to be reported. Therefore, this study focuses on the use of eddy covariance methodologies to determine the empirical relationship between these fluxes for three of the major irrigated crops grown in inland Australia; maize, rice and wheat. Here we present the uptake or release of carbon dioxide in relation to evapotranspiration at different phenological stages for each crop at the field scale; and the extrapolation of these to provide an estimate of fluxes at the regional scale based on similar soil types. The annual distribution of the mass and energy exchange was also determined and the level of similarities and key differences between the carbon fluxes and energy partitioning under these particular climatic conditions were compared to similar studies of irrigated broad-acre agriculture production conducted elsewhere in the world.

  1. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 5: Inland water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetzler, E.; Peterson, W.; Putnam, M.

    1974-01-01

    The economic value of an ERTS system in the area of inland water resources management is investigated. Benefits are attributed to new capabilities for managing inland water resources in the field of power generation, agriculture, and urban water supply. These benefits are obtained in the area of equal capability (cost savings) and increased capability (equal budget), and are estimated by applying conservative assumptions to Federal budgeting information, Congressional appropriation hearings, and ERTS technical capabilities.

  2. Citizen science shows systematic changes in the temperature difference between air and inland waters with global warming

    PubMed Central

    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Mackay, Murray; Stockwell, Jason D.; Thiery, Wim; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Augusto-Silva, Pétala B.; Baulch, Helen M.; de Eyto, Elvira; Hejzlar, Josef; Kangur, Külli; Kirillin, Georgiy; Pierson, Don C.; Rusak, James A.; Sadro, Steven; Woolway, R. Iestyn

    2017-01-01

    Citizen science projects have a long history in ecological studies. The research usefulness of such projects is dependent on applying simple and standardized methods. Here, we conducted a citizen science project that involved more than 3500 Swedish high school students to examine the temperature difference between surface water and the overlying air (Tw-Ta) as a proxy for sensible heat flux (QH). If QH is directed upward, corresponding to positive Tw-Ta, it can enhance CO2 and CH4 emissions from inland waters, thereby contributing to increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The students found mostly negative Tw-Ta across small ponds, lakes, streams/rivers and the sea shore (i.e. downward QH), with Tw-Ta becoming increasingly negative with increasing Ta. Further examination of Tw-Ta using high-frequency temperature data from inland waters across the globe confirmed that Tw-Ta is linearly related to Ta. Using the longest available high-frequency temperature time series from Lake Erken, Sweden, we found a rapid increase in the occasions of negative Tw-Ta with increasing annual mean Ta since 1989. From these results, we can expect that ongoing and projected global warming will result in increasingly negative Tw-Ta, thereby reducing CO2 and CH4 transfer velocities from inland waters into the atmosphere. PMID:28262715

  3. Citizen science shows systematic changes in the temperature difference between air and inland waters with global warming.

    PubMed

    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A; Mackay, Murray; Stockwell, Jason D; Thiery, Wim; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Augusto-Silva, Pétala B; Baulch, Helen M; de Eyto, Elvira; Hejzlar, Josef; Kangur, Külli; Kirillin, Georgiy; Pierson, Don C; Rusak, James A; Sadro, Steven; Woolway, R Iestyn

    2017-03-06

    Citizen science projects have a long history in ecological studies. The research usefulness of such projects is dependent on applying simple and standardized methods. Here, we conducted a citizen science project that involved more than 3500 Swedish high school students to examine the temperature difference between surface water and the overlying air (Tw-Ta) as a proxy for sensible heat flux (QH). If QH is directed upward, corresponding to positive Tw-Ta, it can enhance CO2 and CH4 emissions from inland waters, thereby contributing to increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The students found mostly negative Tw-Ta across small ponds, lakes, streams/rivers and the sea shore (i.e. downward QH), with Tw-Ta becoming increasingly negative with increasing Ta. Further examination of Tw-Ta using high-frequency temperature data from inland waters across the globe confirmed that Tw-Ta is linearly related to Ta. Using the longest available high-frequency temperature time series from Lake Erken, Sweden, we found a rapid increase in the occasions of negative Tw-Ta with increasing annual mean Ta since 1989. From these results, we can expect that ongoing and projected global warming will result in increasingly negative Tw-Ta, thereby reducing CO2 and CH4 transfer velocities from inland waters into the atmosphere.

  4. Citizen science shows systematic changes in the temperature difference between air and inland waters with global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Mackay, Murray; Stockwell, Jason D.; Thiery, Wim; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Augusto-Silva, Pétala B.; Baulch, Helen M.; de Eyto, Elvira; Hejzlar, Josef; Kangur, Külli; Kirillin, Georgiy; Pierson, Don C.; Rusak, James A.; Sadro, Steven; Woolway, R. Iestyn

    2017-03-01

    Citizen science projects have a long history in ecological studies. The research usefulness of such projects is dependent on applying simple and standardized methods. Here, we conducted a citizen science project that involved more than 3500 Swedish high school students to examine the temperature difference between surface water and the overlying air (Tw-Ta) as a proxy for sensible heat flux (QH). If QH is directed upward, corresponding to positive Tw-Ta, it can enhance CO2 and CH4 emissions from inland waters, thereby contributing to increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The students found mostly negative Tw-Ta across small ponds, lakes, streams/rivers and the sea shore (i.e. downward QH), with Tw-Ta becoming increasingly negative with increasing Ta. Further examination of Tw-Ta using high-frequency temperature data from inland waters across the globe confirmed that Tw-Ta is linearly related to Ta. Using the longest available high-frequency temperature time series from Lake Erken, Sweden, we found a rapid increase in the occasions of negative Tw-Ta with increasing annual mean Ta since 1989. From these results, we can expect that ongoing and projected global warming will result in increasingly negative Tw-Ta, thereby reducing CO2 and CH4 transfer velocities from inland waters into the atmosphere.

  5. Environmental impacts caused by the uncontrolled human activities on water resources availability in the Niger Inland Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Ibrahim; Oyerinde, Ganiyu; Some, Corentin; Abdou, Ali; Mariko, Adama; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-05-01

    The Niger River basin is a significant source of water and food for West Africa. As an agricultural region, the basin is highly dependent on the water availability that is currently under pressure from increased demand with rising populations and climate variability and change. The Niger Inland Delta is one of the largest flood plains (about 40.000skm) in Africa and serves a number of interlinked human activities, such as irrigation, fishing, livestock, and reservoirs. Future changes in the dynamics of river flow may change the inundation dynamics of the delta and impact these activities. At the same time, the population in the basin is likely to double in the next 30 years, putting additional pressure on the Delta's water resources and land use. Most hydrological models do not adequately represent these dynamics of the Inland Delta. Here we present an overview of the hydrological processes that occur over the Niger inland delta. We used digital elevation model and satellite images to analyze the spatio-temporal variations in relation to observed river flow. Based on this analysis, we have developed a representation of these processes fore hydrological models for the basin. The basic analysis of in situ discharges confirms the impact of the inner delta area on the discharge of the main river, characterized by a strong reduction of about 15% to 50% as a result of evaporation and water abstractions for irrigation.

  6. Developments in Earth observation for the assessment and monitoring of inland, transitional, coastal and shelf-sea waters.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Andrew N; Hunter, Peter D; Spyrakos, Evangelos; Groom, Steve; Constantinescu, Adriana Maria; Kitchen, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    The Earth's surface waters are a fundamental resource and encompass a broad range of ecosystems that are core to global biogeochemical cycling and food and energy production. Despite this, the Earth's surface waters are impacted by multiple natural and anthropogenic pressures and drivers of environmental change. The complex interaction between physical, chemical and biological processes in surface waters poses significant challenges for in situ monitoring and assessment and often limits our ability to adequately capture the dynamics of aquatic systems and our understanding of their status, functioning and response to pressures. Here we explore the opportunities that Earth observation (EO) has to offer to basin-scale monitoring of water quality over the surface water continuum comprising inland, transition and coastal water bodies, with a particular focus on the Danube and Black Sea region. This review summarises the technological advances in EO and the opportunities that the next generation satellites offer for water quality monitoring. We provide an overview of algorithms for the retrieval of water quality parameters and demonstrate how such models have been used for the assessment and monitoring of inland, transitional, coastal and shelf-sea systems. Further, we argue that very few studies have investigated the connectivity between these systems especially in large river-sea systems such as the Danube-Black Sea. Subsequently, we describe current capability in operational processing of archive and near real-time satellite data. We conclude that while the operational use of satellites for the assessment and monitoring of surface waters is still developing for inland and coastal waters and more work is required on the development and validation of remote sensing algorithms for these optically complex waters, the potential that these data streams offer for developing an improved, potentially paradigm-shifting understanding of physical and biogeochemical processes

  7. Remotely sensed surface temperature variation of an inland saline lake over the central Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Linghong; Song, Chunqiao

    2014-12-01

    Research on surface water temperature (SWT) variations in large lakes over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) has been limited by lack of in situ measurements. By taking advantage of the increased availability of remotely sensed observations, this study investigated SWT variation of Siling Co in central QTP by processing complete MODIS Land surface temperature (LST) images over the lake covering from 2001 to 2013. The temporal (diurnal, intra-annul and inter-annul) variations of Siling Co SWT as well as the spatial patterns were analyzed. The results show that on average from late December to mid-April the lake is in a mixing state of water and ice and drastic diurnal temperature differences occur, especially along the shallow shoreline areas. The extent of spatial variations in monthly SWT ranges from 1.25 °C to 3.5 °C, and particularly large at nighttime and in winter months. The spatial patterns of annual average SWT were likely impacted by the cooling effect of river inflow from the west and east side of the lake. The annual cycle of spatial pattern of SWT is characterized by seasonal reversions between the shallow littoral regions and deep parts due to different heat capacity. Compared to the deep regions, the littoral shallow shoreline areas warms up quickly in spring and summer, and cool down drastically in autumn and winter, showing large diurnal and seasonal variation amplitudes of SWT. Two cold belt zones in the western and eastern side of the lake and warm patches along the southwestern and northeastern shorelines are shaped by the combined effects of the lakebed topography and river runoff. Overall, the lake-averaged SWT increased at a rate of 0.26 °C/decade during 2001-2013. Faster increase of temperature was found at nighttime (0.34 °C/decade) and in winter and spring, consistent with the asymmetric warming pattern over land areas reported in prior studies. The rate of temperature increase over Siling Co is remarkably lower than that over Bangoin

  8. Water-quality characteristics of Michigan's inland lakes, 2001-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, L.M.; Taricska, C.K.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) jointly monitored for selected water-quality constituents and properties of inland lakes during 2001–10 as part of Michigan's Lake Water-Quality Assessment program. During 2001–10, 866 lake basins from 729 inland lakes greater than 25 acres were monitored for baseline water-quality conditions and trophic status. This report summarizes the water-quality characteristics and trophic conditions of the monitored lakes throughout the State; the data include vertical-profile measurements, nutrient measurements at three discrete depths, Secchi-disk transparency (SDT) measurements, and chlorophyll a measurements for the spring and summer, with major ions and other chemical indicators measured during the spring at mid-depth and color during the summer from near-surface samples. In about 75 percent of inland lake deep basins (index stations), trophic characteristics were associated with oligotrophic or mesotrophic conditions; 5 percent or less were categorized as hypereutrophic, and 80 percent of hypereutrophic lakes had a maximum depth of 30 feet or less. Comparison of spring and summer measurements shows that water clarity based on SDT measurements were clearer in the spring than in the summer for 63 percent of lakes. For near-surface measurements made in spring, 97 percent of lakes can be considered phosphorus limited and less than half a percent nitrogen limited; for summer measurements, 96 percent of lakes can be considered phosphorus limited and less than half a percent nitrogen limited. Spatial patterns of major ions, alkalinity, and hardness measured in the spring at mid-depth all showed lower values in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and a southward increase toward the southern areas of the Lower Peninsula, though the location of increase varied by constituent. A spatial analysis of the data based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Level III Ecoregions separated potassium

  9. Estimation of underwater visibility in coastal and inland waters using remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, Anuj; Shanmugam, Palanisamy

    2017-04-01

    An optical method is developed to estimate water transparency (or underwater visibility) in terms of Secchi depth (Z sd ), which follows the remote sensing and contrast transmittance theory. The major factors governing the variation in Z sd , namely, turbidity and length attenuation coefficient (1/(c + K d ), c = beam attenuation coefficient; K d  = diffuse attenuation coefficient at 531 nm), are obtained based on band rationing techniques. It was found that the band ratio of remote sensing reflectance (expressed as (R rs (443) + R rs (490))/(R rs (555) + R rs (670)) contains essential information about the water column optical properties and thereby positively correlates to turbidity. The beam attenuation coefficient (c) at 531 nm is obtained by a linear relationship with turbidity. To derive the vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (K d ) at 531 nm, K d (490) is estimated as a function of reflectance ratio (R rs (670)/R rs (490)), which provides the bio-optical link between chlorophyll concentration and K d (531). The present algorithm was applied to MODIS-Aqua images, and the results were evaluated by matchup comparisons between the remotely estimated Z sd and in situ Z sd in coastal waters off Point Calimere and its adjoining regions on the southeast coast of India. The results showed the pattern of increasing Z sd from shallow turbid waters to deep clear waters. The statistical evaluation of the results showed that the percent mean relative error between the MODIS-Aqua-derived Z sd and in situ Z sd values was within ±25%. A close agreement achieved in spatial contours of MODIS-Aqua-derived Z sd and in situ Z sd for the month of January 2014 and August 2013 promises the model capability to yield accurate estimates of Z sd in coastal, estuarine, and inland waters. The spatial contours have been included to provide the best data visualization of the measured, modeled (in situ), and satellite-derived Z sd products. The modeled and satellite

  10. CRUCIAL: Cryosat-2 Success over Inland Water and Land: SAR and SARin Full Bit Rate Altimetric Heights and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Philip; Birkinshaw, Stephen; Restano, Marco; Ambrozio, Americo; Benveniste, Jerome

    2016-04-01

    CRUCIAL is an ESA/STSE funded project investigating innovative land and inland water applications from Cryosat-2 with a forward-look component to the future Sentinel-3 and Jason-CS/Sentinel-6 missions. The high along-track sampling and resolution of Cryosat-2 altimeter in SAR and SARin modes offer the opportunity to recover high frequency signals over inland waters. This paper will present the theoretical approach to analysis of the FBR L1A Doppler beams to form a product using ground cell gridding, beam steering and beam stacking from which inland water heights are derivable from the retracked Cryosat-2 altimetric waveforms. Details of the processing strategy will include a comparison of waveforms and heights from the burst echoes (~80 m along-track) and from multi-look waveforms (~320 m along-track). SAR and SARin FBR data are available for the Amazon, Brahmaputra and Mekong. The Mekong and Amazon FBR SAR data has been processed for 2011-2015 and results will be compared against stage data from the nearest gauge. Similarly, heights from Tonle Sap will be compared against Jason-2 data from the United States Department of Agriculture web site. A strategy to select the number of multi-looks over rivers will also be presented. Results of FBR SARin processing will be presented including comparison of heights from the two antennae and the extraction of slope of the ground surface.

  11. Soil salinity evolution and its relationship with dynamics of groundwater in the oasis of inland river basins: case study from the Fubei region of Xinjiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yugang; Xiao, Duning; Li, Yan; Li, Xiaoyu

    2008-05-01

    Soil salinization is an important worldwide environmental problem, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Knowledge of its temporal and spatial variability is crucial for the management of oasis agriculture. The study area has experienced dramatic change in the shallow groundwater table and soil salinization during the 20th century, especially in the past two decades. Classical statistics, geostatistics and geographic information system (GIS) were applied to estimate the spatial variability of the soil salt content in relation to the shallow groundwater table and land use from 1983 to 2005. Consumption of reservoir water for agricultural irrigation was the main cause of a rise in the shallow groundwater table under intense evapotranspiration conditions, and this led indirectly to soil salinization. The area of soil salt accumulation was greater in irrigated than in non-irrigated landscape types with an increasing of 40.04% from 1983 to 2005 in cropland at approximately 0.43 t ha(-1) year(-1), and an increase at approximately 0.68 t ha(-1) year(-1) in saline alkaline land. Maps of the shallow groundwater table in 1985 and 2000 were used to deduce maps for 1983 and 1999, respectively, and the registration accuracy was 99%.

  12. Remote Sensing of Salinity: The Dielectric Constant of Sea Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M.; Lang, R.; Utku, C.; Tarkocin, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Global monitoring of sea surface salinity from space requires an accurate model for the dielectric constant of sea water as a function of salinity and temperature to characterize the emissivity of the surface. Measurements are being made at 1.413 GHz, the center frequency of the Aquarius radiometers, using a resonant cavity and the perturbation method. The cavity is operated in a transmission mode and immersed in a liquid bath to control temperature. Multiple measurements are made at each temperature and salinity. Error budgets indicate a relative accuracy for both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of about 1%.

  13. Remote estimation of phycocyanin (PC) for inland waters coupled with YSI PC fluorescence probe.

    PubMed

    Song, Kaishan; Li, Lin; Tedesco, Lenore; Clercin, Nicole; Hall, Bob; Li, Shuai; Shi, Kun; Liu, Dawei; Sun, Ying

    2013-08-01

    information from both relatively static and flowing inland waters. Hence, it has promising implications for water resource managers to obtain information for early warning detection of cyanobacterial blooms through the close association between probe measured PC values and cyanobacterial biovolume via remote sensing modeling.

  14. Effects of saline drinking water on early gosling development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolley, D.S.; Bissonette, J.A.; Kadlec, J.A.; Coster, D.

    1999-01-01

    Relatively high levels of saline drinking water may adversely affect the growth, development, and survival of young waterfowl. Saline drinking water was suspect in the low survival rate of Canada goose (Branta canadensis) goslings at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (FSNWR) in western Utah. Hence, we investigated the effects of saline drinking water on the survival and growth of captive, wild-strain goslings from day 1-28 following hatch. We compared survival and growth (as measured by body mass, wing length, and culmen length) between a control group on tap water with a mean specific conductivity of 650 ??S/cm, and 2 saline water treatments: (1) intermediate level (12,000 ??S/cm), and (2) high level (18,000 ??S/cm). Gosling mortality occurred only in the 18,000 ??S/cm treatment group (33%; n = 9). Slopes of regressions of mean body mass, wing length, and culmen length on age were different from each other (P < 0.05), except for culmen length for the intermediate and high treatment levels. We predict that free-ranging wild goslings will experience mortality at even lower salinity levels than captive goslings because of the combined effects of depressed growth and environmental stresses, including hot desert temperatures and variable food quality over summer.

  15. Use of saline water in energy development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Israelsen, C.E.; Adams, V.D.; Batty, J.C.; George, D.B.; Hughes, T.C.

    1980-06-01

    Information was assembled relative to future energy-related projects in the upper basin, and estimates were made of their anticipated water needs. Using computer models, various options were tested for using saline water for coal-fired power plant cooling. Both cooling towers and brine evaporation ponds were included. Information is presented of several proven water treatment technologies, and comparisons are made of their cost effectiveness when placed in various combinations in the power plant makeup and blowdown water systems. A relative value scale was developed which compares graphically the relative values of waters of different salinities based on three different water treatment options and predetermined upper limits of cooling tower circulating salinities. Coal from several different mines was slurried in waters of different salinities. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory to determine which constituents had been leached from or absorbed by the coal, and what possible deleterious effects this might have on the burning properties of the coal, or on the water for culinary use or irrigation.

  16. Earth-tide-induced fluctuations in the salinity of an inland river, New South Wales, Australia: a short-term study.

    PubMed

    Jasonsmith, J F; Macdonald, B C T; White, I

    2017-04-01

    Wybong Creek discharges salts into the agriculturally and industrially important Hunter River in New South Wales, Australia. Abrupt increases in salinity occur periodically in the mid-Wybong Creek catchment. In order to understand the processes which cause these abrupt increases, changes in surface and groundwater were investigated. It is shown that salinity increases can be attributed to highly discrete groundwater discharge directly into the river from below. Hourly electrical conductivity data measured in the river showed regular, diurnal electrical conductivity fluctuations of up to 350 μS cm(-1). These fluctuations could not be attributed to barometric pressure, temperature, or evapotranspiration. Instead, a similar periodicity in surface water electrical conductivity and groundwater height in nearby groundwater wells was found. Fluctuations were of similar periodicity to the orthotides which cause fluctuations in surface water height and are induced by Earth tides. The geology in the mid-catchment area indicates conditions are optimal for Earth tides to impact groundwater. The reporting of orthotidal changes in water chemistry in this article is believed to be the first of its kind in the scientific literature, with the large fluctuations noted having important implications for water monitoring and management in the catchment. Further research investigating Earth-tide-induced phases of groundwater heights will better constrain the relationships between surface water chemistry and groundwater height.

  17. Harmonizing recreational fisheries and conservation objectives for aquatic biodiversity in inland waters.

    PubMed

    Cowx, I G; Arlinghaus, R; Cooke, S J

    2010-06-01

    The importance of recreational fisheries to local and national economies, and as a generator of immense social welfare throughout the developed world, is well established. Development in the sector and its interaction with non-fishery-related nature conservation objectives for aquatic biodiversity, however, have the potential to generate conflict. This article reviews the intersection between recreational fisheries and nature conservation goals for aquatic biodiversity with specific reference to inland waters in industrialized countries, and the principal management activities and constraints that can lead to conflicts. A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis was used to review the issues facing sectoral development and identify options for future advancement of recreational fisheries to ameliorate potential conflicts with nature conservation goals. It is concluded that reconciliation of recreational fisheries and modern conservation perspectives is both possible and desirable, because many conservation problems also benefit fisheries quality. Angler buy-in to conservation is probable if (1) management scales are small, (2) threats to conservation originate from outside the fisheries sectors and (3) ecological awareness for the conservation problem is high. If these aspects are not present, reconciliation of recreational fisheries and nature conservation goals is less likely, risking both the aquatic biodiversity and the future of angling. To address these issues, enforcement of legislation and continued communication with angler communities is necessary, as well as development of integrated management policies that build on the instrumental values of aquatic biodiversity for recreational fisheries, while curtailing the more insidious threats to such biodiversity that originate directly from the recreational fisheries sector.

  18. Technical note: Assessing gas equilibration systems for continuous pCO2 measurements in inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Tae Kyung; Jin, Hyojin; Oh, Neung-Hwan; Park, Ji-Hyung

    2016-07-01

    High-frequency continuous measurements of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) are crucial for constraining the spatiotemporal dynamics of CO2 emissions from inland water systems. However, direct measurements of pCO2 are scarce, and no systematic comparisons have been conducted on the suitability of the widely used measurement systems for continuous underway or long-term deployment in various field conditions. We compared spray- and marble-type equilibrators and a membrane-enclosed CO2 sensor to assess their suitability for continuous long-term or underway pCO2 measurements in an urbanized river system in Korea. Both equilibrators had a shorter response time compared with the membrane-enclosed sensor, and could capture large spatial variations of pCO2 during a transect study along a highly urbanized river reach. The membrane-enclosed sensor based on passive equilibration provided comparable underway measurements along the river sections where pCO2 varied within the sensor detection range. When deployed in a eutrophic river site, the membrane-enclosed sensor was able to detect large diel variations in pCO2. However, biofouling on the membrane could reduce the accuracy of the measurement during long deployments exceeding several days. The overall results suggest that the fast response of the equilibrator systems facilitates capturing large spatial variations in pCO2 during short underway measurements. However, the attendant technical challenges of these systems, such as clogging and desiccant maintenance, have to be addressed carefully to enable their long-term deployment. The membrane-enclosed sensor would be suitable as an alternative tool for long-term continuous measurements if membrane biofouling could be overcome by appropriate antifouling measures such as copper mesh coverings.

  19. Extending electromagnetic methods to map coastal pore water salinities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, Wm. J.; Kruse, S.; Swarzenski, P.

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping pore water salinity based on surface electromagnetic (EM) methods over land and shallow marine water is examined in a coastal wetland on Tampa Bay, Florida. Forward models predict that useful information on seabed conductivity can be obtained through <1.5 m of saline water, using floating EM-31 and EM-34 instruments from Geonics Ltd. The EM-31 functioned as predicted when compared against resistivity soundings and pore water samples and proved valuable for profiling in otherwise inaccessible terrain due to its relatively small size. Experiments with the EM-34 in marine water, however, did not reproduce the theoretical instrument response. The most effective technique for predicting pore water conductivities based on EM data entailed (1) computing formation factors from resistivity surveys and pore water samples at representative sites and (2) combining these formation factors with onshore and offshore EM-31 readings for broader spatial coverage. This method proved successful for imaging zones of elevated pore water conductivities/ salinities associated with mangrove forests, presumably caused by salt water exclusion by mangrove roots. These zones extend 5 to 10 m seaward from mangrove trunks fringing Tampa Bay. Modeling indicates that EM-31 measurements lack the resolution necessary to image the subtle pore water conductivity variations expected in association with diffuse submarine ground water discharge of fresher water in the marine water of Tampa Bay. The technique has potential for locating high-contrast zones and other pore water salinity anomalies in areas not accessible to conventional marine- or land-based resistivity arrays and hence may be useful for studies of coastal-wetland ecosystems. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  20. Modeling as a tool for management of saline soils and irrigation waters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Optimal management of saline soils and irrigation waters requires consideration of many interrelated factors including, climate, water applications and timing, water flow, plant water uptake, soil chemical reactions, plant response to salinity and solution composition, soil hydraulic properties and ...

  1. Saline solutions: the quest for fresh water.

    PubMed Central

    Reuther, C G

    2000-01-01

    Despite steady advances in the technology, desalination remains one of the most expensive ways to produce potable water. But as water scarcity forces communities to find new sources of drinking water, scientists are developing innovations that may soon make desalination a reasonable option for many more communities. The newest approach to desalination is membrane systems, which include reverse osmosis and electrodialysis systems. Current research seeks to make these systems more effective and less likely to produce environmentally hazardous by-products. Many facilities use traditional distillation to desalinate water, and efforts are being made to combine membranes and distillation for more efficient systems. PMID:10656867

  2. Saline solutions: the quest for fresh water.

    PubMed

    Reuther, C G

    2000-02-01

    Despite steady advances in the technology, desalination remains one of the most expensive ways to produce potable water. But as water scarcity forces communities to find new sources of drinking water, scientists are developing innovations that may soon make desalination a reasonable option for many more communities. The newest approach to desalination is membrane systems, which include reverse osmosis and electrodialysis systems. Current research seeks to make these systems more effective and less likely to produce environmentally hazardous by-products. Many facilities use traditional distillation to desalinate water, and efforts are being made to combine membranes and distillation for more efficient systems.

  3. Combined effect of boron and salinity on water transport

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen Martínez-Ballesta, Maria; Bastías, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Boron toxicity is an important disorder that can limit plant growth on soils of arid and semi arid environments throughout the world. Although there are several reports about the combined effect of salinity and boron toxicity on plant growth and yield, there is no consensus about the experimental results. A general antagonistic relationship between boron excess and salinity has been observed, however the mechanisms for this interaction is not clear and several options can be discussed. In addition, there is no information, concerning the interaction between boron toxicity and salinity with respect to water transport and aquaporins function in the plants. We recently documented in the highly boron- and salt-tolerant the ecotype of Zea mays L. amylacea from Lluta valley in Northern Chile that under salt stress, the activity of specific membrane components can be influenced directly by boron, regulating the water uptake and water transport through the functions of certain aquaporin isoforms. PMID:19704850

  4. Removal of phenol from saline water by polyamine chelating resin.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Arisa; Matsui, Akihiro; Tsuji, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    Removal of phenol from saline water was carried out with chelating resin. A polyamine chelating resin, Diaion CR-20, removed phenol compounds selectively from industrial wastewater containing 2% salt. From saline water containing 20 mg/L phenol, 70% of the phenol was removed. After treatment, phenol was eluted from the resin by aqueous NaOH, and the resin could also be regenerated by heating in air. Diaion CR-20 adsorbed phenol even in the presence of FeCl3, indicating that treatment with this resin of wastewater containing metal can remove phenol and metal cations in a single step.

  5. Inland waters and their role in the carbon cycle of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Stackpoole, Sarah M; Butman, David E; Clow, David W; Verdin, Kristine L; Gaglioti, Benjamin V; Genet, Hélène; Striegl, Robert G

    2017-04-04

    The magnitude of Alaska (AK) inland waters carbon (C) fluxes is likely to change in the future due to amplified climate warming impacts on the hydrology and biogeochemical processes in high latitude regions. Although current estimates of major aquatic C fluxes represent an essential baseline against which future change can be compared, a comprehensive assessment for AK has not yet been completed. To address this gap, we combined available datasets and applied consistent methodologies to estimate river lateral C export to the coast, river and lake carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and methane (CH4 ) emissions, and C burial in lakes for the six major hydrologic regions in the state. Estimated total aquatic C flux for AK was 41 Tg C yr(-1) . Major components of this total flux, in Tg C yr(-1) , were 18 for river lateral export, 17 for river CO2 emissions, and 8 for lake CO2 emissions. Lake C burial offset these fluxes by 2 Tg C yr(-1) . River and lake CH4 emissions were 0.03 and 0.10 Tg C yr(-1) , respectively. The Southeast and South - Central regions had the highest temperature, precipitation, terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP), and C yields (fluxes normalized to land area) were 77 and 42 g C m(-2) yr(-1) , respectively. Lake CO2 emissions represented over half of the total aquatic flux from the Southwest (37 g C m(-2) yr(-1) ). The North Slope, Northwest, and Yukon regions had lesser yields (11, 15, and 17 g C m(2) yr(-1) ), but these estimates may be the most vulnerable to future climate change, because of the heightened sensitivity of arctic and boreal ecosystems to intensified warming. Total aquatic C yield for AK was 27 g C m(-2) yr(-1) , which represented 16% of the estimated terrestrial NPP. Freshwater ecosystems represent a significant conduit for C loss, and a more comprehensive view of land-water-atmosphere interactions is necessary to predict future climate change impacts on the Alaskan ecosystem C balance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  6. Inland waters and their role in the carbon cycle of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stackpoole, Sarah M.; Butman, David E.; Clow, David W.; Verdin, Kristine L.; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.; Genet, Hélène; Striegl, Rob

    2017-01-01

    The magnitude of Alaska (AK) inland waters carbon (C) fluxes is likely to change in the future due to amplified climate warming impacts on the hydrology and biogeochemical processes in high latitude regions. Although current estimates of major aquatic C fluxes represent an essential baseline against which future change can be compared, a comprehensive assessment for AK has not yet been completed. To address this gap, we combined available data sets and applied consistent methodologies to estimate river lateral C export to the coast, river and lake carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions, and C burial in lakes for the six major hydrologic regions in the state. Estimated total aquatic C flux for AK was 41 Tg C/yr. Major components of this total flux, in Tg C/yr, were 18 for river lateral export, 17 for river CO2 emissions, and 8 for lake CO2 emissions. Lake C burial offset these fluxes by 2 Tg C/yr. River and lake CH4 emissions were 0.03 and 0.10 Tg C/yr, respectively. The Southeast and South central regions had the highest temperature, precipitation, terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP), and C yields (fluxes normalized to land area) were 77 and 42 g C·m−2·yr−1, respectively. Lake CO2 emissions represented over half of the total aquatic flux from the Southwest (37 g C·m−2·yr−1). The North Slope, Northwest, and Yukon regions had lesser yields (11, 15, and 17 g C·m2·yr−1), but these estimates may be the most vulnerable to future climate change, because of the heightened sensitivity of arctic and boreal ecosystems to intensified warming. Total aquatic C yield for AK was 27 g C·m−2·yr−1, which represented 16% of the estimated terrestrial NPP. Freshwater ecosystems represent a significant conduit for C loss, and a more comprehensive view of land-water-atmosphere interactions is necessary to predict future climate change impacts on the Alaskan ecosystem C balance.

  7. Predicting water quality by relating secchi-disk transparency and chlorophyll a measurements to Landsat satellite imagery for Michigan inland lakes, 2001-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, L.M.; Minnerick, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The State of Michigan has more than 11,000 inland lakes; approximately 3,500 of these lakes are greater than 25 acres. The USGS, in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), has been monitoring the quality of inland lakes in Michigan through the Lake Water Quality Assessment monitoring program. Approximately 100 inland lakes will be sampled per year from 2001 to 2015. Volunteers coordinated by MDEQ started sampling lakes in 1974, and continue to sample to date approximately 250 inland lakes each year through the Cooperative Lakes Monitoring Program (CLMP), Michigan’s volunteer lakes monitoring program. Despite this sampling effort, it is still impossible to physically collect the necessary water-quality measurements for all 3,500 Michigan inland lakes. Therefore, a technique was used by USGS, modeled after Olmanson and others (2001), in cooperation with MDEQ that uses satellite remote sensing to predict water quality in unsampled inland lakes greater than 25 acres. Water-quality characteristics that are associated with water clarity can be predicted for Michigan inland lakes by relating sampled measurements of secchi-disk transparency (SDT) and chlorophyll a concentrations (Chl-a), to satellite imagery. The trophic state index (TSI) which is an indicator of the biological productivity can be calculated based on SDT measurements, Chl-a concentrations, and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations measured near the lake’s surface. Through this process, unsampled inland lakes within the fourteen Landsat satellite scenes encompassing Michigan can be translated into estimated TSI from either predicted SDT or Chl-a (fig. 1).

  8. Runoff quality impacts of dust suppression using saline water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loch, Rob J.; Squires, Helen

    2010-05-01

    In mining and gas operations, dust generation from unsealed roads is a major problem. Commonly, road watering is used to suppress dust, with the lowest water quality available generally being selected for that purpose. Whilst minimising water usage for the site, that practice does create concerns with respect to potential environmental impacts if runoff from the treated roads has significantly elevated salinity. For coal seam gas operations, the water extracted concurrently with the gas contains predominantly sodium bicarbonate. Therefore, where coal seam gas water is sprayed onto roads, there is potential for elevated sodium in runoff to impact on soil adjoining the roads, but there is no information on the rates of dissolution and mobilisation of soluble salt from the surface of roads that have been sprayed with low quality water to reduce dust. Therefore a rainfall simulator study was carried out to investigate rates of mobilisation of sodium bicarbonate from compacted soil surfaces simulating an unsealed road. The study considered effects of the amount of precipitated sodium bicarbonate on the soil surface and variations in rainfall intensity. Because the soil surfaces were compacted, runoff commenced almost immediately following application of rain. For all treatments with applied surface salt, runoff quality data showed a peak in salt concentration in the first flush of runoff, and relatively rapid reduction through time in those initial concentrations. The magnitude and duration of peak concentrations depended on both rainfall rate and the quantity of salt present on the soil surface. The flush of salts in run-off from the roads occurred very early in the run-off event, when none of the surrounding area would have commenced to run off. Consequently, the relatively small volume of run-off produced directly by the road could be expected to predominantly infiltrate in the table drain adjoining the road. The initial flush of saline water would then be leached to

  9. Using density difference to store fresh water in saline subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ginkel, M.; Olsthoorn, Th. N.; des Tombe, B.

    2012-04-01

    The storage of fresh water in the subsurface for later recovery and use (Aquifer Storage and Recovery) is becoming more and more important in the coming decades for seasonal or emergency storage, especially in the light of climate change and increasing population. However, fresh water storage in a saline subsurface poses a challenge: the initially vertical interface between injected fresh and native salt water is unstable and tends to rotate. The injected fresh water tends to float upward on top of native salt water, where it becomes hard or impossible to recover at a later stage. A wide body of literature exists about this buoyancy effect that is caused by the density difference between fresh and salt water. Yet, very few papers focus on solutions to this problem. In this paper we propose a storage principle to overcome this buoyancy problem by actually using the density difference to keep the fresh water in place, by combining salt water extraction and impermeable barriers. This technique seems promising and could solve many local fresh water storage problems. It is especially applicable in shallow water table aquifers for the storage of fresh water below parks and arable land or for seasonal storage of desalinated water. We performed laboratory-scale experiments and numerical modelling to study the dynamic behaviour of a fresh water bubble stored in saline subsurface using the technique of salt water extraction and impermeable barriers; including effects of operation dynamics, groundwater flow, and diffusion, dispersion and density differences.

  10. Identifying the Cause of Toxicity of a Saline Mine Water

    PubMed Central

    van Dam, Rick A.; Harford, Andrew J.; Lunn, Simon A.; Gagnon, Marthe M.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated major ions (or salinity) are recognised as being a key contributor to the toxicity of many mine waste waters but the complex interactions between the major ions and large inter-species variability in response to salinity, make it difficult to relate toxicity to causal factors. This study aimed to determine if the toxicity of a typical saline seepage water was solely due to its major ion constituents; and determine which major ions were the leading contributors to the toxicity. Standardised toxicity tests using two tropical freshwater species Chlorella sp. (alga) and Moinodaphnia macleayi (cladoceran) were used to compare the toxicity of 1) mine and synthetic seepage water; 2) key major ions (e.g. Na, Cl, SO4 and HCO3); 3) synthetic seepage water that were modified by excluding key major ions. For Chlorella sp., the toxicity of the seepage water was not solely due to its major ion concentrations because there were differences in effects caused by the mine seepage and synthetic seepage. However, for M. macleayi this hypothesis was supported because similar effects caused by mine seepage and synthetic seepage. Sulfate was identified as a major ion that could predict the toxicity of the synthetic waters, which might be expected as it was the dominant major ion in the seepage water. However, sulfate was not the primary cause of toxicity in the seepage water and electrical conductivity was a better predictor of effects. Ultimately, the results show that specific major ions do not clearly drive the toxicity of saline seepage waters and the effects are probably due to the electrical conductivity of the mine waste waters. PMID:25180579

  11. Identifying the cause of toxicity of a saline mine water.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Rick A; Harford, Andrew J; Lunn, Simon A; Gagnon, Marthe M

    2014-01-01

    Elevated major ions (or salinity) are recognised as being a key contributor to the toxicity of many mine waste waters but the complex interactions between the major ions and large inter-species variability in response to salinity, make it difficult to relate toxicity to causal factors. This study aimed to determine if the toxicity of a typical saline seepage water was solely due to its major ion constituents; and determine which major ions were the leading contributors to the toxicity. Standardised toxicity tests using two tropical freshwater species Chlorella sp. (alga) and Moinodaphnia macleayi (cladoceran) were used to compare the toxicity of 1) mine and synthetic seepage water; 2) key major ions (e.g. Na, Cl, SO4 and HCO3); 3) synthetic seepage water that were modified by excluding key major ions. For Chlorella sp., the toxicity of the seepage water was not solely due to its major ion concentrations because there were differences in effects caused by the mine seepage and synthetic seepage. However, for M. macleayi this hypothesis was supported because similar effects caused by mine seepage and synthetic seepage. Sulfate was identified as a major ion that could predict the toxicity of the synthetic waters, which might be expected as it was the dominant major ion in the seepage water. However, sulfate was not the primary cause of toxicity in the seepage water and electrical conductivity was a better predictor of effects. Ultimately, the results show that specific major ions do not clearly drive the toxicity of saline seepage waters and the effects are probably due to the electrical conductivity of the mine waste waters.

  12. Modelling Regional Hotspots of Water Pollution Induced by Salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malsy, M.; Floerke, M.

    2014-12-01

    Insufficient water quality is one of the main global topics causing risk to human health, biodiversity, and food security. At this, salinization of water and land resources is widely spread especially in arid to semi-arid climates, where salinization, often induced by irrigation agriculture, is a fundamental aspect of land degradation. High salinity is crucial to water use for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes, and therefore poses a risk to human health and ecosystem status. However, salinization is also an economic problem, in particular in those regions where agriculture makes a significant contribution to the economy and/or where agriculture is mainly based on irrigation. Agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water resulting in lower yields. Hence, not only the quantity of irrigation water is of importance for growing cops but also its quality, which may further reduce the available resources. Thereby a major concern for food production and security persists, as irrigated agriculture accounts for over 30% of the total agricultural production. In this study, the large scale water quality model WorldQual was applied to simulate recent total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to food security. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries, as these are most threatened by water pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use were examined, indicating limitations to crop production. For this purpose, model simulations were conducted for the year 2010 to show the recent status of surface water quality and to identify hotspots and main causes of pollution. Our results show that salinity hotspots mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is by far the dominant sector contributing to water abstractions as

  13. Hydrological Cycle in the Heihe River Basin and Its Implication for Water Resource Management in Inland River Basins (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Cheng, G.; Tian, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, J.; Pan, X.; Ge, Y.; Hu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Inland river basins take about 11.4% of the land area of the world and most of them are distributed over arid regions. Understanding the hydrological cycle of inland river basin is important for water resource management in water scarcity regions. This paper illustrated hydrological cycle of a typical inland river basin in China, the Heihe River Basin (HRB). First, water balance in upper, middle and lower reaches of the HRB was conceptualized by analyzing dominant hydrological processes in different parts of the river basin. Then, we used a modeling approach to study the water cycle in the HRB. In the upper reaches, we used the GBHM-SHAW, a distributed hydrological model with a new frozen soil parameterization. In the middle and lower reaches, we used the GWSiB, a three-dimensionally coupled land surface-groundwater model. Modeling results were compared with water balance observations in different landscapes and cross-validated with other results to ensure the reliability. The results show that the hydrological cycle in HRB has some distinctive characteristics. Mountainous area generates almost all of the runoff for the whole river basin. High-elevation zones have much larger runoff/precipitation ratio. Cryospheric hydrology plays an important role. Although snow melting and glacier runoff take less than 25% of total runoff, these processes regulate inter-annual variation of runoff and thus provide stable water resource for oases downstream. Forest area contributes almost no runoff but it smoothes runoff and reduces floods by storing water in soil and releasing it out slowly. In the middle reaches, artificial hydrological cycle is much more dominated than natural one. River water and groundwater, recharged by runoff from mountainous area, is the water resource to support the agriculture and nurture the riparian ecosystem. Precipitation, approximately 150 mm in average, is only a supplement to agriculture use but sufficient to sustain desert vegetation. Water

  14. Detection of water bodies in Saline County, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, B. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A total of 2,272 water bodies were mapped in Saline County, Kansas in 1972 using ERTS-1 imagery. A topographic map of 1955 shows 1,056 water bodies in the county. The major increase took place in farm ponds. Preliminary comparison of image and maps indicates that water bodies larger than ten acres in area proved consistently detectable. Most water areas between four and ten acres are also detectable, although occasionally image context prevents detection. Water areas less than four acres in extent are sometimes detected, but the number varies greatly depending on image context and the individual interpretor.

  15. The Brown Water Navy in the Mekong Delta: COIN in the Littorals and Inland Waters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Apocalypse Insurgency & Terrorism, 2nd ed. (Washington, DC: Potomac Books, Inc, 2005) 164-187 4 Mark Moyar, Phoenix and the Birds of Prey...Mark. Phoenix and the Birds of Prey, Lincoln, NE: University of(:J Nebraska Press. 1997. 27 The Brown Water Navy in the Mekong Delta: COIN in the...Advisors in Vietnam, Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2000. \\ Moyar , Mark. Phoenix and the Birds of Prey, Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska

  16. Increased salinization of fresh water in the northeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Sujay S.; Groffman, Peter M.; Likens, Gene E.; Belt, Kenneth T.; Stack, William P.; Kelly, Victoria R.; Band, Lawrence E.; Fisher, Gary T.

    2005-01-01

    Chloride concentrations are increasing at a rate that threatens the availability of fresh water in the northeastern United States. Increases in roadways and deicer use are now salinizing fresh waters, degrading habitat for aquatic organisms, and impacting large supplies of drinking water for humans throughout the region. We observed chloride concentrations of up to 25% of the concentration of seawater in streams of Maryland, New York, and New Hampshire during winters, and chloride concentrations remaining up to 100 times greater than unimpacted forest streams during summers. Mean annual chloride concentration increased as a function of impervious surface and exceeded tolerance for freshwater life in suburban and urban watersheds. Our analysis shows that if salinity were to continue to increase at its present rate due to changes in impervious surface coverage and current management practices, many surface waters in the northeastern United States would not be potable for human consumption and would become toxic to freshwater life within the next century. PMID:16157871

  17. Increased salinization of fresh water in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Sujay S; Groffman, Peter M; Likens, Gene E; Belt, Kenneth T; Stack, William P; Kelly, Victoria R; Band, Lawrence E; Fisher, Gary T

    2005-09-20

    Chloride concentrations are increasing at a rate that threatens the availability of fresh water in the northeastern United States. Increases in roadways and deicer use are now salinizing fresh waters, degrading habitat for aquatic organisms, and impacting large supplies of drinking water for humans throughout the region. We observed chloride concentrations of up to 25% of the concentration of seawater in streams of Maryland, New York, and New Hampshire during winters, and chloride concentrations remaining up to 100 times greater than unimpacted forest streams during summers. Mean annual chloride concentration increased as a function of impervious surface and exceeded tolerance for freshwater life in suburban and urban watersheds. Our analysis shows that if salinity were to continue to increase at its present rate due to changes in impervious surface coverage and current management practices, many surface waters in the northeastern United States would not be potable for human consumption and would become toxic to freshwater life within the next century.

  18. Development, calibration, and analysis of a hydrologic and water-quality model of the Delaware Inland Bays watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutierrez-Magness, Angelica L.; Raffensperger, Jeffrey Peter

    2003-01-01

    Excessive nutrients and sediment are among the most significant environmental stressors in the Delaware Inland Bays (Rehoboth, Indian River, and Little Assawoman Bays). Sources of nutrients, sediment, and other contaminants within the Inland Bays watershed include point-source discharges from industries and wastewater-treatment plants, runoff and infiltration to ground water from agricultural fields and poultry operations, effluent from on-site wastewater disposal systems, and atmospheric deposition. To determine the most effective restoration methods for the Inland Bays, it is necessary to understand the relative distribution and contribution of each of the possible sources of nutrients, sediment, and other contaminants. A cooperative study involving the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, the Delaware Geological Survey, and the U.S. Geological Survey was initiated in 2000 to develop a hydrologic and water-quality model of the Delaware Inland Bays watershed that can be used as a water-resources planning and management tool. The model code Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF) was used. The 719-square-kilometer watershed was divided into 45 model segments, and the model was calibrated using streamflow and water-quality data for January 1999 through April 2000 from six U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations within the watershed. Calibration for some parameters was accomplished using PEST, a model-independent parameter estimator. Model parameters were adjusted systematically so that the discrepancies between the simulated values and the corresponding observations were minimized. Modeling results indicate that soil and aquifer permeability, ditching, dominant land-use class, and land-use practices affect the amount of runoff, the mechanism or flow path (surface flow, interflow, or base flow), and the loads of sediment and nutrients. In general, the edge-of-stream total suspended solids yields in the Inland Bays

  19. Classroom measurements of sound speed in fresh/saline water.

    PubMed

    Carman, Jessie C

    2012-03-01

    A tabletop apparatus permitting demonstrations and hands-on student exercises in the measurement of sound speed in water as a function of both temperature and salinity, at atmospheric pressure, is described. By measuring sound speed using a differential technique with a precisely measured path length difference Δx, errors due to uncertainty in original path length are minimized. The apparatus can be used to measure sound speed in freshwater baths of varying temperature and room temperature baths of varying salinities to provide the student a clear picture of sound speed variation along two axes. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America

  20. GPS inland water buoys for precise and high temporal resolution water level and movement monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Heiko; Nghia Hung, Nguyen; Thoss, Heiko; Güntner, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring of river and lake stages is one of the basic issues in understanding catchment hydrology and hydraulic systems. There are numerous techniques available for this, but in case of large water bodies technical as well as financial problems may restrict the use of traditional techniques. Therefore we explored the potential of GPS based altimetry for stage monitoring by developing small and easy to handle buoys with mounted high precision GPS devices. The advantages of the buoys are the freedom of positioning over the whole water body and their quick and easy deployment. The developed devices were tested in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam in two different locations: On the Mekong river where high currents over the flood season occur and in a small lake with hydraulic connections to a major channel with hardly any currents present. The collected GPS data were processed differentially and tested against standard pressure gauge data. The recorded stages proved to be of high quality and a valuable resource for flood monitoring and modeling. In addition to the stage data, the high-precision GPS positioning data could also be used for monitoring the movement of the buoys, from which alternating currents caused by ocean tides and flood waves could be detected, thus providing an additional information on the hydraulic system. We conclude that the developed buoys add well to the existing hydrological monitoring pool and are a goof option for the monitoring in large water bodies where a) traditional methods are technically difficult to deploy or are too costly, and b) where additional information about flow direction is needed.

  1. Inland Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Area Cooperative Educational Services, New Haven, CT. Environmental Education Center.

    This material includes student guide sheets, reference materials, and tape script for the audio-tutorial unit on Inland Wetlands. A set of 35mm slides and an audio tape are used with the material. The material is designed for use with Connecticut schools, but it can be adapted to other localities. The materials emphasize characteristics of inland…

  2. Microplastics pollution in inland freshwaters of China: A case study in urban surface waters of Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenfeng; Ndungu, Anne Wairimu; Li, Zhen; Wang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Microplastics have been considered as an emerging pollutant in the aquatic environment. However, research about microplastic pollution in inland freshwaters of China is insufficient. The present study investigated the levels of microplastics in surface water of 20 urban lakes and urban reaches of the Hanjiang River and Yangtze River of Wuhan, the largest city in central China. Microplastic concentrations ranged from 1660.0±639.1 to 8925±1591n/m(3) for the studied waters, with the highest concentration found in Bei Lake. Microplastic abundance in lakes varied markedly in space, and negatively correlated with the distance from the city center (p<0.001), which confirmed the important role of anthropogenic factors in microplastic distribution. Urban reaches of the Hanjiang River and Yangtze River were found to have relatively lower levels of microplastics than most of the studied lakes. The major type of microplastics among the studied waters was colored plastic, with fiber being the most frequent shape. More than 80% of microplastics in number had a size of <2mm. Polyethylene terephthalate and polypropylene were the dominant polymer-types of microplastics analyzed. This study provided important reference for better understanding microplastic levels in inland freshwaters.

  3. Inland and Near Shore Water Profiles Derived from the High Altitude Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Stoll, Jeremy D.; Cook, William B.; Ondrusek, Michael; Stengel, Eric; Brunt, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) on the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat-2) mission is a six beam, low energy, high repetition rate, 532 nm laser transmitter with photon counting detectors. Although designed primarily for detecting height changes in icecaps, sea ice and vegetation, the polar-orbital satellite will observe global surface water during its designed three year life span, including inland water bodies, coasts, and open oceans. In preparation for the mission, an ICESat-2 prototype or the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), was built and flown on high altitude aircraft experiments over a range of inland and near-shore targets. The purpose was to test the ATLAS concept and to provide a database for developing an algorithm that detects along track surface water height and light penetration under a range of atmospheric and water conditions. The current analysis examines the datasets of three MABEL transects observed from 20 km above ground of coastal and inland waters conducted in 2012 and 2013. Transects ranged from about 2 to 12 km in length and included the middle Chesapeake Bay, the near shore Atlantic coast at Virginia Beach, and Lake Mead. Results indicate MABEL's high capability for retrieving surface water height statistics with a mean height precision of approximately 5-7 cm per 100m segment length. Profiles of attenuated subsurface backscatter, characterized using a Signal to Background Ratio written in Log10 base, or LSBR0, were observed over a range of 1.3 to 9.3 meters depending on water clarity and atmospheric background. Results indicate that observable penetration depth, although primarily dependent on water properties, was greatest when solar background rate was low. Near shore bottom reflectance was detected only at the Lake Mead site down to maximum of 10 m under a clear night sky and low turbidity of approximately 1.6 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU). The overall results suggest

  4. Flooded area characterization and losses estimation for water balance and hydrological functioning over the Niger inland delta, Mali

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Ibrahim; Dominik, Wisser; Abdou, Ali; Ousmane, Seidou; Adama, Mariko; Abel, Afouda

    2015-04-01

    Water availability is an ongoing challenge for West African countries in general and Niger River basin in particular. Niger Inland Delta undergone an annual flood events from the Niger and Bani Rivers. During such events the flooded area can overs a surface of about 40,000 km2 and extends around 350 km in length and 100 km width in Mali. The processes that occur in NID are not fully incorporated in the conceptual development of many hydrological models under Niger Basin runoff. While these processes in NID can have considerable influence on downstream flow regimes due water losses impacting significantly the water availability. Although several studies in this region developed conceptual models to represent hydrological processes in that system. But the models have been criticized for their limitation and simplicity in conception for representing explicitly all the hydrological processes. This paper presents an attempt to assess the hydrological processes by taking into account more physical knowledge of the NID system. This is in view of incorporating wetland processes into an existing hydrological model to improve model simulations on the basin. The approach is mainly water balance based on large units that account for the system over the NID. Digital elevation model (DEM), satellite data, observed climate and hydrological parameters allowed the assessment of spatiotemporal variations of the flooded area, and then the quantification of evaporative and infiltration fluxes. Characterization of the extent of the flooded area is obtained from monthly-scale inflow data and remote sensing derived flood maps within a non-linear regression Model based. The modelization of the spatiotemporal extension of the flooding of the NID show that the flooded areas vary between 25 000 km2 in wet period and 2 000 km2 in dry period. Time series of input water volumes in the Niger Inland delta and of the water losses through the NID show that the percentage of volume of annual water

  5. Inland and Near-Shore Water Profiles Derived from the High-Altitude Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Stoll, Jeremy D.; Cook, William B.; Ondrusek, Michael; Stengel, Eric; Brunt, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) on the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat-2) mission is a six beam, low energy, high repetition rate, 532-nanometer laser transmitter with photon counting detectors. Although designed primarily for detecting height changes in ice caps, sea ice, and vegetation, the polar-orbiting satellite will observe global surface water during its designed three-year life span, including inland waterbodies, coasts, and open oceans. In preparation for the mission, an ICESat-2 prototype, the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), was built and flown on high-altitude aircraft experiments over a range of inland and near-shore targets. The purpose was to test the ATLAS concept and to provide a database for developing an algorithm that detects along track surface water height and light penetration under a range of atmospheric and water conditions. The current analysis examines the data sets of three MABEL transects observed from 20 kilometers above ground of coastal and inland waters conducted in 2012 and 2013. Transects ranged from about 2 to 12 kilometers in length and included the middle Chesapeake Bay, the near-shore Atlantic coast at Virginia Beach, and Lake Mead. Results indicate MABEL's high capability for retrieving surface water height statistics with a mean height precision ofapproximately 5-7 centimeters per 100-meter segment length. Profiles of attenuated subsurface backscatter, characterized using a Signal to Background Ratio written in Log10 base, or LSBR (sub 0), were observed over a range of 1.3 to 9.3 meters, depending on water clarity and atmospheric background. Results indicate that observable penetration depth, although primarily dependent on water properties, was greatest when the solar background rate was low. Near-shore bottom reflectance was detected only at the Lake Mead site down to a maximum of 10 meters under a clear night sky and low turbidity of approximately 1

  6. Can contaminated water be rendered safe for nasal saline irrigations?

    PubMed

    Ordemann, Allison G; Stanford, James K; Sullivan, Donna C; Reed, J Mark

    2017-07-01

    To compare sterile water to three methods of sterilization (carbon filtration, boiling, and ultraviolet [UV] light) for preparation of nasal saline irrigants free of bacterial and amebic contaminants. Bench-top translational research and cost comparison. Sterile water was compared to common sterilization methods. Sterile water was contaminated with known concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Moraxella catarrhalis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumonia, Legionella pneumophila, and Naegleria fowleri. Test samples were subjected to boiling, carbon filtration, or ultraviolet light (UV) and then cultivated on appropriate media. Controls included samples of sterile water (negative control) and untreated test samples (positive control). Carbon filtration reduced but did not eliminate the number of organisms present in test samples. Boiling test samples for 5 minutes and UV light treatment resulted in sterilization of all organisms. Negative (sham contaminated) samples produced no growth, whereas positive (untreated) samples grew numerous organisms as expected. A cost comparison between bottled water and UV water sterilization (with SteriPEN Ultra) became equal in less than 2 years of consistent use. Carbon filtration reduces contamination but does not sterilize water and is thus unsafe for preparation of nasal saline irrigant. Boiling and UV treatment resulted in sterilization and are equivalent to purchased sterile water. Ultraviolet treatment was found to be safe, convenient, and a cost-effective alternative to purchased sterile water. NA Laryngoscope, 127:1513-1519, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Salinity Effects on Iron Speciation in Boreal River Waters.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Simon D; Persson, Per; Kritzberg, Emma S

    2017-09-05

    Previous studies report high and increasing iron (Fe) concentrations in boreal river mouths. This Fe has shown relatively high stability to salinity-induced aggregation in estuaries. The aim of this study was to understand how the speciation of Fe affects stability over salinity gradients. For Fe to remain in suspension interactions with organic matter (OM) are fundamental and these interactions can be divided in two dominant phases: organically complexed Fe, and colloidal Fe (oxy)hydroxides, stabilized by surface interactions with OM. The stability of these two Fe phases was tested using mixing experiments with river water and artificial seawater. Fe speciation of river waters and salinity-induced aggregates was determined by synchrotron-based extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The relative contribution of the two Fe phases varied widely across the sampled rivers. Moreover, we found selective removal of Fe (oxy)hydroxides by aggregation at increasing salinity, while organically complexed Fe was less affected. However, Fe-OM complexes were also found in the aggregates, illustrating that the control of Fe stability is not explained by the prevalence of the respective Fe phases alone. Factors such as colloid size and the chemical composition of the OM may also impact the behavior of Fe species.

  8. Interannual variability in the surface energy budget and evaporation over a large southern inland water in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qianyu; Liu, Heping

    2013-05-01

    Understanding how the surface energy budget and evaporation over inland waters respond to climate change and variability remains limited. Here we report 2 year measurements of the surface energy budget using the eddy covariance method over Ross Barnett Reservoir, Mississippi, USA, for 2008 and 2009. Annual mean sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat fluxes in 2008 were 9.5%, and 10.0% greater than in 2009, respectively. Most of the interannual variations in the surface energy fluxes and meteorological variables primarily occurred in the cool seasons from October to March, which was enhanced by frequent large wind events associated with cold front passages. These large wind events greatly promoted H and LE exchange and produced H and LE pulses that increased variations in H and LE between these two cool seasons. In the warm seasons from April to September, H and LE pulses were also present, which largely increased variations in LE and dampened those in H between the two warm seasons. The H and LE pulses contributed to approximately 50% of the annual H and 28% of the annual LE, although they only covered about 16% of the entire year. The interannual variations in H and LE pulses contributed to about 78% of the interannual variations in H and 40% of those in LE. Our results imply that the increased interannual variability in cold front activities as a result of climate change would amplify interannual variations in the evaporation and the surface energy exchange over inland waters in this region.

  9. Climate change impacts on water salinity and health.

    PubMed

    Vineis, Paolo; Chan, Queenie; Khan, Aneire

    2011-12-01

    It is estimated that 884 million people do not have access to clean drinking water in the world. Increasing salinity of natural drinking water sources has been reported as one of the many problems that affect low-income countries, but one which has not been fully explored. This problem is exacerbated by rising sea-levels, owing to climate change, and other contributing factors, like changes in fresh water flow from rivers and increased shrimp farming along the coastal areas. In some countries, desalination plants are used to partly remove salt and other minerals from water sources, but this is unlikely to be a sustainable option for low-income countries affected by high salinity. Using the example of Bangladesh as a model country, the following research indicates that the problem of salinity can have serious implications with regard to rising rates of hypertension and other public health problems among large sectors of the worldwide population. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Plant Response to Differential Soil Water Content and Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, A. B.; Dara, A.; Kamai, T.; Ngo, A.; Walker, R.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Root-zone soil water content is extremely dynamic, governed by complex and coupled processes such as root uptake, irrigation, evaporation, and leaching. Root uptake of water and nutrients is influenced by these conditions and the processes involved. Plant roots are living and functioning in a dynamic environment that is subjected to extreme changes over relatively short time and small distances. In order to better manage our agricultural resources and cope with increasing constraints of water limitation, environmental concerns and climate change, it is vital to understand plants responses to these changes in their environment. We grew chick pea (Cicer arietinum) plants, in boxes of 30 x 25 x 1 cm dimensions filled with fine sand. Layers of coarse sand (1.5 cm thick) were embedded in the fine-sand media to divide the root growth environment into sections that were hydraulically disconnected from each other. This way, each section could be independently treated with differential levels of water and salinity. The root growth and distribution in the soil was monitored on daily bases using neutron radiography. Daily water uptake was measured by weighing the containers. Changes of soil water content in each section of the containers were calculated from the neutron radiographs. Plants that part of their root system was stressed with drought or salinity showed no change in their daily water uptake rate. The roots in the stressed sections stayed turgid during the stress period and looked healthy in the neutron images. However the uptake rate was severely affected when the soil in the non-stressed section started to dry. The plants were then fully irrigated with water and the water uptake rate recovered to its initial rate shortly after irrigation. The neutron radiographs clearly illustrated the shrinkage and recovery of the roots under stress and the subsequent relief. This cycle was repeated a few times and the same trend could be reproduced. Our results show that plants

  11. Incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in the Vaishali district of Bihar, India: spatial patterns and role of inland water bodies.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Kesari, Shreekant; Chatterjee, Nandini; Pal, Dilip Kumar; Kumar, Vijay; Ranjan, Alok; Das, Pradeep

    2011-05-01

    The role of the distribution of inland water bodies with respect to the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and its dominant vector, Phlebotomous argentipes, has been studied at the regional scale in Bihar, eastern India. The Landsat TM sensor multispectral scanning radiometer, with a spatial resolution of 30 m in the visible, reflective-infrared and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) bands, was used to identify water bodies using the normalized differential pond index (NDPI) calculated as follows: (Green - SWIR I)/(Green + SWIR I). Nearest neighbour and grid square statistics were used to delineate spatial patterns and distribution of the sandfly vector and the disease it transmits. The female P. argentipes sandfly was found to be associated with the distance from open water and particularly abundant near non-perennial river banks (68.4%; P <0.001), while its association with rivers was focused further away from the water source (χ(2) = 26.3; P <0.001). The results also reveal that the distribution of VL is clustered around non-perennial riverbanks, while the pattern is slightly random around the perennial river banks. The grid square technique illustrate that the spatial distribution of the disease has a much stronger correlation with lower density of open waters surfaces as well as with sandfly densities (χ(2) = 26.0; P <0.001). The results of our study suggest that inland water presence poses a risk for VL by offering suitable breeding sites for P. argentipes, a fact that should be taken into account when attempting to control disease transmission.

  12. Hydrogeology, Water Quality, and Distribution and Sources of Salinity in the Floridan Aquifer System, Martin and St. Lucie Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reese, Ronald S.

    2004-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system is considered to be a valuable source for agricultural and municipal water supply in Martin and St. Lucie Counties, despite its brackish water. Increased withdrawals, however, could increase salinity and threaten the quality of withdrawn water. The Floridan aquifer system consists of limestone, dolomitic limestone, and dolomite and is divided into three hydrogeologic units: the Upper Floridan aquifer, a middle confining unit, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. An informal geologic unit at the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer, referred to as the basal Hawthorn/Suwannee unit, is bound above by a marker unit in the Hawthorn Group and at its base by the Ocala Limestone; a map of this unit shows an area where substantial eastward thickening begins near the coast. This change in thickness is used to divide the study area into inland and coastal areas. In the Upper Floridan aquifer, an area of elevated chloride concentration greater than 1,000 milligrams per liter and water temperature greater than 28 degrees Celsius exists in the inland area and trends northwest through north-central Martin County and western St. Lucie County. A structural feature coincides with this area of greater salinity and water temperature; this feature is marked by a previously mapped northwest-trending basement fault and, based on detailed mapping in this study of the structure at the top of the basal Hawthorn/Suwannee unit, an apparent southeast-trending trough. Higher hydraulic head also has been mapped in this northwest-trending area. Another area of high chloride concentration in the Upper Floridan aquifer occurs in the southern part of the coastal area (in eastern Martin County and northeastern Palm Beach County); chloride concentration in this area is more than 2,000 milligrams per liter and is as great as 8,000 milligrams per liter. A dissolved-solids concentration of less than 10,000 milligrams per liter defines the brackish-water zone in the Floridan aquifer

  13. Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) salinity data validation over Malaysia coastal water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reba, M. N. M.; Rosli, A. Z.; Rahim, N. A.

    2014-02-01

    The study of sea surface salinity (SSS) plays an important role in the marine ecosystem, estimation of global ocean circulation and observation of fisheries, aquaculture, coral reef and sea grass habitats. The new challenge of SSS estimation is to exploit the ocean surface brightness temperature (Tb) observed by the Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) onboard the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite that is specifically designed to provide the best retrieval of ocean salinity and soil moisture using the L band of 1.4 GHz radiometer. Tb observed by radiometer is basically a function of the dielectric constant, sea surface temperature (SST), wind speed (U), incidence angle, polarization and SSS. Though, the SSS estimation is an ill-posed inversion problem as the relationship between the Tb and SSS is non-linear function. Objective of this study is to validate the SMOS SSS estimates with the ground-truth over the Malaysia coastal water. The LM iteratively determines the SSS of SMOS by the reduction of the sum of squared errors between Tb SMOS and Tb simulation (using in-situ) based on the updated geophysical triplet in the direction of the minimum of the cost function. The minimum cost function is compared to the desired threshold at each iteration and this recursive least square process updates the SST, U and SSS until the cost function converged. The designed LM's non-linear inversion algorithm simultaneously estimates SST, U and SSS and thus, map of SSS over Malaysia coastal water is produced from the regression model and accuracy assessment between the SMOS and in-situ retrieved SSS. This study found a good agreement in the validation with R square of 0.9 and the RMSE of 0.4. It is concluded that the non-linear inversion method is effective and practical to extract SMOS SSS, U and SST simultaneously.

  14. Functions of biological soil crusts on central European inland dunes: Water repellency and pore clogging influence water infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Thomas; Spröte, Roland; Veste, Maik; Wiehe, Wolfgang; Lange, Philipp; Bens, Oliver; Raab, Thomas; Hüttl, Reinhard F.

    2010-05-01

    Biological soil crusts play a key role for hydrological processes in many open landscapes. They seal and stabilize the topsoil and promote surface run-off. Three crust types were identified on two inland dunes in Brandenburg, North-East Germany: A natural, active dune, located in a former military training area near Lieberose, and an artificial dune, which was constructed in 2001 and which serves as a study area for geo-ecological monitoring of flora and fauna from the forefield of an opencast-mine ("Neuer Lugteich"). Both dunes consisted of Quarternary, carbonate-free, siliceous sandy substrate. Utilization of the mineral substrate at early stages of microbiotic crust development was assessed using chlorophyll concentrations, scanning electron (SEM) and optical microscopy. Water repellency indices, which are an indication of surface polarity and wettability, were measured using the ethanol/water microinfiltrometer method, and steady state water flow was determined on the dry crusts and after 0, 300, 600, 1200 and 1800 seconds of wetting, thus allowing to follow pore clogging through swelling of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Chlorophyll concentrations indicated early stages of crust development at both sites. In crust type 1, dominating sand grains were physically stabilized in their contact zones by accumulated organic matter and by few filamentous cyanobacteria and filamentous green algae. The pore space was defined by the mineral matrix only. In crust type 2, filamentous cyanobacteria and algae partially filled in the matrix pores and enmeshed sand grains. In the dry sample, the pore space was dominated by crust organisms but still micropore channels, which are known to increase water infiltration, were left. Crust type 3 was characterized by intense growth of filamentous and coccoid algae and cyanobacteria, and by few mosses, which covered less than 5% of the surface. Crust organisms completely utilized the substrate and clogged the pores between

  15. Grape Composition under Abiotic Constrains: Water Stress and Salinity.

    PubMed

    Mirás-Avalos, José M; Intrigliolo, Diego S

    2017-01-01

    Water stress and increasing soil salt concentration represent the most common abiotic constrains that exert a negative impact on Mediterranean vineyards performance. However, several studies have proven that deficit irrigation strategies are able to improve grape composition. In contrast, irrigation with saline waters negatively affected yield and grape composition, although the magnitude of these effects depended on the cultivar, rootstock, phenological stage when water was applied, as well as on the salt concentration in the irrigation water. In this context, agronomic practices that minimize these effects on berry composition and, consequently, on wine quality must be achieved. In this paper, we briefly reviewed the main findings obtained regarding the effects of deficit irrigation strategies, as well as irrigation with saline water, on the berry composition of both red and white cultivars, as well as on the final wine. A meta-analysis was performed using published data for red and white varieties; a general liner model accounting for the effects of cultivar, rootstock, and midday stem water potential was able to explain up to 90% of the variability in the dataset, depending on the selected variable. In both red and white cultivars, berry weight, must titratable acidity and pH were fairly well simulated, whereas the goodness-of-fit for wine attributes was better for white cultivars.

  16. Recovering fresh water stored in saline limestone aquifers.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Numerical modeling techniques are used to examine the hydrogeologic, design, and management factors governing the recovery efficiency of subsurface fresh-water storage. The modeling approach permitted many combinations of conditions to be studied. A sensitivity analysis was used that consisted of varying certain parameters while keeping constant as many other parameters or processes as possible. The results show that a loss of recovery efficiency resulted from: 1) processes causing mixing of injected fresh water with native saline water (hydrodynamic dispersion); 2) processes or conditions causing the irreversible displacement of the injected fresh water with respect to the well (buoyancy stratification and background hydraulic gradients); or 3) processes or procedures causing injection and withdrawal flow patterns to be dissimilar (dissimilar injection and withdrawal schedules in multiple-well systems). Other results indicated that recovery efficiency improved considerably during the first several successive cycles, provided that each recovery phase ended whgen the chloride concentration of withdrawn water exceeded established criteria for potability (usually 250 milligrams per liter). Other findings were that fresh water injected into highly permeable or highly saline aquifers would buoy rapidly with a deleterious effect on recovery efficiency. -Author

  17. Estimation of Chlorophyll-a Concentration in Inland, Estuarine, and Coastal Waters using Aircraft and Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, W. J.; Gitelson, A. A.; Berdnikov, S.; Povazhnyy, V.

    2009-12-01

    A three-band model and a two-band model, which use reflectances in the red and near Infrared (NIR) wavebands that match the spectral channels of MODIS and MERIS, were tested for estimating chl-a concentration in turbid and productive inland, estuarine, and coastal waters using remotely sensed aircraft and satellite data. The NIR-red models were first tested with data collected by field spectrometers from inland, estuarine, and coastal water bodies with widely varying biophysical characteristics, from different geographic locations. The models showed a very close and steady relationship with chl-a concentration (r2 > 0.9), effectively accounting for variations in other constituents such as suspended solids and dissolved organic matter. The high accuracy and stability obtained with the field spectrometer data lent to the development of algorithms that can be applied to aircraft and satellite data. When applied to multi-temporal data from the aircraft sensor, AISA, the output from the two-band NIR-red model, with wavebands that match the MERIS spectral channels at 665 nm and 708 nm, had very close relationships with chl-a concentration (r2 > 0.87) for each image. But the slope and offset of the linear relationship varied between the images due to non-uniform atmospheric effects. A relative atmospheric correction of the AISA images resulted in conformity of the slopes and offset. The two-band MODIS NIR-red model and the two-band and three-band MERIS NIR-red models were applied to MODIS and MERIS images. Four different atmospheric correction schemes were tried for MODIS data and two schemes for MERIS data. The two-band and three-band MERIS NIR-red model values, when applied to MERIS images, had a very close and steady relationship with chl-a concentration (r2 > 0.95). Data collected in four different campaigns on Azov Sea and Taganrog Bay in 2008 were used to calibrate and develop MERIS NIR-red algorithms that were validated with data collected in 2009. The two

  18. Very high spatial resolution optical and radar imagery in tracking water level fluctuations of a small inland reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, R. N.; Tormos, T.; Danis, P.-A.

    2015-06-01

    Tracking water level fluctuations in small lakes and reservoirs is important in order to better understand and manage these ecosystems. A geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) method using very high spatial and temporal resolution optical (Pléiades) and radar (COSMO-SkyMed and TerraSAR-X) remote sensing imagery is presented here which (1) tracks water level fluctuations via variations in water surface area and (2) avoids common difficulties found in using single-band radar images for water-land image classification. Results are robust, with over 98% of image surface area correctly classified into land or water, R2 = 0.963 and RMSE = 0.42 m for a total water level fluctuation range of 5.94 m. Multispectral optical imagery is found to be more straightforward in producing results than single-band radar imagery, but the latter crucially increase temporal resolution to the point where fluctuations can be satisfactorily tracked in time. Moreover, an analysis suggests that high and medium spatial resolution imagery is sufficient, in at least some cases, in tracking the water level fluctuations of small inland reservoirs. Finally, limitations of the methodology presented here are briefly discussed along with potential solutions to overcome them.

  19. Inverse modeling of surface-water discharge to achieve restoration salinity performance measures in Florida Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, E.D.; James, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    The use of numerical modeling to evaluate regional water-management practices involves the simulation of various alternative water-delivery scenarios, which typically are designed intuitively rather than analytically. These scenario simulations are used to analyze how specific water-management practices affect factors such as water levels, flows, and salinities. In lieu of testing a variety of scenario simulations in a trial-and-error manner, an optimization technique may be used to more precisely and directly define good water-management alternatives. A numerical model application in the coastal regions of Florida Bay and Everglades National Park (ENP), representing the surface- and ground-water hydrology for the region, is a good example of a tool used to evaluate restoration scenarios. The Southern Inland and Coastal System (SICS) model simulates this area with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic surface-water model and a three-dimensional ground-water model, linked to represent the interaction of the two systems with salinity transport. This coastal wetland environment is of great interest in restoration efforts, and the SICS model is used to analyze the effects of alternative water-management scenarios. The SICS model is run within an inverse modeling program called UCODE. In this application, UCODE adjusts the regulated inflows to ENP while SICS is run iteratively. UCODE creates parameters that define inflow within an allowable range for the SICS model based on SICS model output statistics, with the objective of matching user-defined target salinities that meet ecosystem restoration criteria. Preliminary results obtained using two different parameterization methods illustrate the ability of the model to achieve the goals of adjusting the range and reducing the variance of salinity values in the target area. The salinity variance in the primary zone of interest was reduced from an original value of 0.509 psu2 to values 0.418 psu2 and 0.342 psu2 using different

  20. Batteries for efficient energy extraction from a water salinity difference.

    PubMed

    La Mantia, Fabio; Pasta, Mauro; Deshazer, Heather D; Logan, Bruce E; Cui, Yi

    2011-04-13

    The salinity difference between seawater and river water is a renewable source of enormous entropic energy, but extracting it efficiently as a form of useful energy remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate a device called "mixing entropy battery", which can extract and store it as useful electrochemical energy. The battery, containing a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod electrode, was shown to extract energy from real seawater and river water and can be applied to a variety of salt waters. We demonstrated energy extraction efficiencies of up to 74%. Considering the flow rate of river water into oceans as the limiting factor, the renewable energy production could potentially reach 2 TW, or ∼13% of the current world energy consumption. The mixing entropy battery is simple to fabricate and could contribute significantly to renewable energy in the future.

  1. Fern Spore Longevity in Saline Water: Can Sea Bottom Sediments Maintain a Viable Spore Bank?

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, G. Arjen; During, Heinjo

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater and marine sediments often harbor reservoirs of plant diaspores, from which germination and establishment may occur whenever the sediment falls dry. Therewith, they form valuable records of historical inter- and intraspecific diversity, and are increasingly exploited to facilitate diversity establishment in new or restored nature areas. Yet, while ferns may constitute a considerable part of a vegetation’s diversity and sediments are known to contain fern spores, little is known about their longevity, which may suffer from inundation and - in sea bottoms - salt stress. We tested the potential of ferns to establish from a sea or lake bottom, using experimental studies on spore survival and gametophyte formation, as well as a spore bank analysis on sediments from a former Dutch inland sea. Our experimental results revealed clear differences among species. For Asplenium scolopendrium and Gymnocarpium dryopteris, spore germination was not affected by inundated storage alone, but decreased with rising salt concentrations. In contrast, for Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens germination decreased following inundation, but not in response to salt. Germination rates decreased with time of storage in saline water. Smaller and less viable gametophytes were produced when saline storage lasted for a year. Effects on germination and gametophyte development clearly differed among genotypes of A. scolopendrium. Spore bank analyses detected no viable spores in marine sediment layers. Only two very small gametophytes (identified as Thelypteris palustris via DNA barcoding) emerged from freshwater sediments. Both died before maturation. We conclude that marine, and likely even freshwater sediments, will generally be of little value for long-term storage of fern diversity. The development of any fern vegetation on a former sea floor will depend heavily on the deposition of spores onto the drained land by natural or artificial means of dispersal. PMID:24223951

  2. Fern spore longevity in saline water: can sea bottom sediments maintain a viable spore bank?

    PubMed

    de Groot, G Arjen; During, Heinjo

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater and marine sediments often harbor reservoirs of plant diaspores, from which germination and establishment may occur whenever the sediment falls dry. Therewith, they form valuable records of historical inter- and intraspecific diversity, and are increasingly exploited to facilitate diversity establishment in new or restored nature areas. Yet, while ferns may constitute a considerable part of a vegetation's diversity and sediments are known to contain fern spores, little is known about their longevity, which may suffer from inundation and--in sea bottoms--salt stress. We tested the potential of ferns to establish from a sea or lake bottom, using experimental studies on spore survival and gametophyte formation, as well as a spore bank analysis on sediments from a former Dutch inland sea. Our experimental results revealed clear differences among species. For Asplenium scolopendrium and Gymnocarpium dryopteris, spore germination was not affected by inundated storage alone, but decreased with rising salt concentrations. In contrast, for Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens germination decreased following inundation, but not in response to salt. Germination rates decreased with time of storage in saline water. Smaller and less viable gametophytes were produced when saline storage lasted for a year. Effects on germination and gametophyte development clearly differed among genotypes of A. scolopendrium. Spore bank analyses detected no viable spores in marine sediment layers. Only two very small gametophytes (identified as Thelypteris palustris via DNA barcoding) emerged from freshwater sediments. Both died before maturation. We conclude that marine, and likely even freshwater sediments, will generally be of little value for long-term storage of fern diversity. The development of any fern vegetation on a former sea floor will depend heavily on the deposition of spores onto the drained land by natural or artificial means of dispersal.

  3. Increased salinization of fresh water in the Northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaushal, S.S.; Groffman, P.M.; Likens, G.E.; Belt, K.T.; Stack, W.P.; Kelly, V.R.; Band, L.E.; Fisher, G.T.

    2005-01-01

    Chloride concentrations are increasing at a rate that threatens the availability of fresh water in the northeastern United States. Increases in roadways and deicer use are now salinizing fresh waters, degrading habitat for aquatic organisms, and impacting large supplies of drinking water for humans throughout the region. We observed chloride concentrations of up to 25% of the concentration of seawater in streams of Maryland, New York, and New Hampshire during winters, and chloride concentrations remaining up to 100 times greater than unimpacted forest streams during summers. Mean annual chloride concentration increased as a function of impervious surface and exceeded tolerance for freshwater life in suburban and urban watersheds. Our analysis shows that if salinity were to continue to increase at its present rate due to changes in impervious surface coverage and current management practices, many surface waters in the northeastern United States would not be potable for human consumption and would become toxic to freshwater life within the next century. ?? 2005 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  4. Estimating chlorophyll-a concentration in inland, estuarine and coastal waters: from close range to satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, A. A.; Gurlin, D.; Moses, W. J.; Rundquist, D. C.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this work was to test the performance of a recently developed three-band model and its special case, a two-band model, for the remote estimation of the chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration in turbid productive case 2 waters. We specifically focused on (a) determining the ability of the models to estimate chl-a concentration below 20 mg m-3, typical for estuarine and coastal waters, and (b) assessing the potential of MODIS and MERIS to estimate chl-a concentrations, using red and near-infrared (NIR) bands. Reflectance data were collected in inland, estuarine, and coastal waters by hyperspectral radiometers just beneath the water surface, hyperspectral imaging sensor AISA on board an aircraft, and satellite sensors MODIS and MERIS. Algorithms established using proximal sensing were applied to aircraft and satellite data. The algorithms yielded high accuracy in estimating chl-a concentrations from AISA and MERIS data. The results illustrated the potential of the NIR-Red models to estimate chl-a concentration in turbid productive waters with a high accuracy. Nevertheless, challenges still remain in calibrating the models for their universal application to satellite data. The in situ data collection technique needs to be adapted to maximize the number of stations that can be assessed with a single satellite image. The spatial heterogeneity of the water within a satellite pixel area around each station needs to be accounted for. So are any changes in the bio-physical and bio-optical characteristics of the water at each station during the time elapsed between the satellite overpass and the in situ data collection. Accurate and reliable atmospheric correction of the satellite data is still a major challenge for turbid productive waters. Provided these factors can be effectively accounted for, robustly calibrated algorithms can be developed for real-time estimation of chl-a concentration, which will greatly benefit scientists and natural resource managers in

  5. Investigation of the Thermodynamics of Supercooled Water and Supercooled Saline Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-05

    4--... ...... L EVEL OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH Investigation of the Themodynamics of Supercooled Water and Supercooled Saline Water, rao ysics Di...polar sea water and postulated to be related to ice-like fluctuations in the water. Since sea salt is carried into the atmosphere, supercooled salt water...critical points, the specific heat at constant volume Cv shows no divergence at all for supercooled water. That is, the relations 15 Cp - T ( ) T aP

  6. How is water availability related to the land use and morphology of an inland valley wetland in Kenya?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhme, Beate; Becker, Mathias; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Förch, Gerd

    2016-06-01

    Small inland valley wetlands contribute substantially to the livelihoods of rural communities in East Africa. Their conversion into farmland is driven by water availability. We quantified spatial-temporal dynamics of water availability in a headwater wetland in the humid zone of Kenya. Climatic conditions, soil moisture contents, groundwater levels and discharge data were monitored. A land-use map and a digital elevation model of the valley bottom were created to relate variations in soil moisture to dominant land uses and valley morphology. Upland crops occupied about a third of the wetland area, while approximately a quarter of the wet, central part of the valley bottom was designated for flood-tolerant taro, grown either by itself or in association or in rotation with upland crops. Finally, natural vegetation was found in 3% of the mapped area, mainly in sections with nearpermanent soil saturation. The HBV rainfall-runoff model's overestimation of stream discharge during the long dry season of the hydrological year 2010/2011 can be explained by the strong seasonal impact of water abstraction on the wetland's water balance. Our study vividly demonstrates the necessity of multi-method approaches for assessing the impact of management practices on water availability in valley bottom wetlands in East Africa.

  7. General pattern of the turbid water in the Seto-inland sea extracted from multispectral imageries by the LANDSAT-1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T. (Principal Investigator); Watanabe, K.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Each distribution pattern of turbid water changes with the time in accordance with daily tides, seasonal variation of tides, and occasional rainfall. Two cases of successfully repeated LANDSAT observations for the same sea regions suggested a general pattern of turbid water could be extracted for each region. Photographic and digital processes were used to extract patterns of turbid water separately from the cloud and smog-layer in MSS 4, 5, and 7 imageries. A mosaic of image-masked imageries displays a general pattern of turbid water for almost the entire Seto Inland Sea. No such pattern was extracted for the Aki-Nada south of Hiroshima City where the water is fairly polluted, nor for the Iyo-Nada where the water is generally clearer than in other regions of the Seto Inland Sea.

  8. Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Ramsis B.; Otto, Claus J.; Fitzpatrick, Robert W.

    Salinization is the process whereby the concentration of dissolved salts in water and soil is increased due to natural or human-induced processes. Water is lost through one or any combination of four main mechanisms: evaporation, evapotranspiration, hydrolysis, and leakage between aquifers. Salinity increases from catchment divides to the valley floors and in the direction of groundwater flow. Salinization is explained by two main chemical models developed by the authors: weathering and deposition. These models are in agreement with the weathering and depositional geological processes that have formed soils and overburden in the catchments. Five soil-change processes in arid and semi-arid climates are associated with waterlogging and water. In all represented cases, groundwater is the main geological agent for transmitting, accumulating, and discharging salt. At a small catchment scale in South and Western Australia, water is lost through evapotranspiration and hydrolysis. Saline groundwater flows along the beds of the streams and is accumulated in paleochannels, which act as a salt repository, and finally discharges in lakes, where most of the saline groundwater is concentrated. In the hummocky terrains of the Northern Great Plains Region, Canada and USA, the localized recharge and discharge scenarios cause salinization to occur mainly in depressions, in conjunction with the formation of saline soils and seepages. On a regional scale within closed basins, this process can create playas or saline lakes. In the continental aquifers of the rift basins of Sudan, salinity increases along the groundwater flow path and forms a saline zone at the distal end. The saline zone in each rift forms a closed ridge, which coincides with the closed trough of the groundwater-level map. The saline body or bodies were formed by evaporation coupled with alkaline-earth carbonate precipitation and dissolution of capillary salts. Résumé La salinisation est le processus par lequel la

  9. Salinity of the ground water in western Pinal County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kister, Lester Ray; Hardt, W.F.

    1966-01-01

    The chemical quality of the ground water in western Pinal County is nonuniform areally and stratigraphically. The main areas of highly mineralized water are near Casa Grande and near Coolidge. Striking differences have been noted in the quality of water from different depths in the same well. Water from one well, (D-6-7) 25cdd, showed an increase in chloride content from 248 ppm (parts per million) at 350 feet below the land surface to 6,580 ppm at 375 feet; the concentration of chloride increased to 10,400 ppm at 550 feet below the land surface. This change was accompanied by an increase in the total dissolved solids as indicated by conductivity measurements. The change in water quality can be correlated with sediment types. The upper and lower sand and gravel units seem to yield water of better quality than the intermediate silt and clay unit. In places the silt and clay unit contains zones of gypsum and common table salt. These zones yield water that contains large amounts of the dissolved minerals usually associated with water from playa deposits. Highly mineralized ground water in an area near Casa Grande has moved southward and westward as much as 4 miles. Similar water near Coolidge has moved a lesser distance. Good management practices and proper use of soil amendments have made possible the use of water that is high in salinity and alkali hazard for agricultural purposes in western Pinal County. The fluoride content of the ground water in western Pinal County is usually low; however, water from wells that penetrate either the bedrock or unconsolidated sediments that contain certain volcanic rocks may have as much as 9 ppm of fluoride.

  10. Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Simulation of Surface-Water Flow and Transport to Florida Bay through the Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Eric D.; Wolfert, Melinda A.; Bales, Jerad D.; Goodwin, Carl R.

    2004-01-01

    Successful restoration of the southern Florida ecosystem requires extensive knowledge of the physical characteristics and hydrologic processes controlling water flow and transport of constituents through extremely low-gradient freshwater marshes, shallow mangrove-fringed coastal creeks and tidal embayments, and near-shore marine waters. A sound, physically based numerical model can provide simulations of the differing hydrologic conditions that might result from various ecosystem restoration scenarios. Because hydrology and ecology are closely linked in southern Florida, hydrologic model results also can be used by ecologists to evaluate the degree of ecosystem restoration that could be achieved for various hydrologic conditions. A robust proven model, SWIFT2D, (Surface-Water Integrated Flow and Transport in Two Dimensions), was modified to simulate Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) hydrodynamics and transport conditions. Modifications include improvements to evapotranspiration and rainfall calculation and to the algorithms that describe flow through coastal creeks. Techniques used in this model should be applicable to other similar low-gradient marsh settings in southern Florida and elsewhere. Numerous investigations were conducted within the SICS area of southeastern Everglades National Park and northeastern Florida Bay to provide data and parameter values for model development and testing. The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service supported investigations for quantification of evapotranspiration, vegetative resistance to flow, wind-induced flow, land elevations, vegetation classifications, salinity conditions, exchange of ground and surface waters, and flow and transport in coastal creeks and embayments. The good agreement that was achieved between measured and simulated water levels, flows, and salinities through minimal adjustment of empirical coefficients indicates that hydrologic processes within the SICS area are represented properly

  11. Effects of shallow water table, salinity and frequency of irrigation water on the date palm water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askri, Brahim; Ahmed, Abdelkader T.; Abichou, Tarek; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2014-05-01

    In southern Tunisia oases, waterlogging, salinity, and water shortage represent serious threats to the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. Understanding the interaction between these problems and their effects on root water uptake is fundamental for suggesting possible options of improving land and water productivity. In this study, HYDRUS-1D model was used in a plot of farmland located in the Fatnassa oasis to investigate the effects of waterlogging, salinity, and water shortage on the date palm water use. The model was calibrated and validated using experimental data of sap flow density of a date palm, soil hydraulic properties, water table depth, and amount of irrigation water. The comparison between predicted and observed data for date palm transpiration rates was acceptable indicating that the model could well estimate water consumption of this tree crop. Scenario simulations were performed with different water table depths, and salinities and frequencies of irrigation water. The results show that the impacts of water table depth and irrigation frequency vary according to the season. In summer, high irrigation frequency and shallow groundwater are needed to maintain high water content and low salinity of the root-zone and therefore to increase the date palm transpiration rates. However, these factors have no significant effect in winter. The results also reveal that irrigation water salinity has no significant effect under shallow saline groundwater.

  12. Chemical evolution of saline waters in the Jordan-Dead Sea transform and in adjoining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Peter; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Geyer, Stefan; Flexer, Akiva

    2007-06-01

    -faulting, hydraulic contact is locally established between the Kurnub- and the Judea Groups aquifers facilitating the inter-aquifer flow of the confined Kurnub paleowater into the karstic formations of the Judea Group. Two periods of Neogene brine formation are considered: the post-Messinan inland lagoon resulting in drying up of the Sdom Sea and the evaporation of the Pleistocene Samra Lake, which went further through the stage of Lake Lisan to the present Dead Sea. For the first period, major element hydrochemistry suggests that the saline waters and brines in the Jordan-Dead Sea Arava Valley transform evolved from the gradual evaporation of an accumulating mixture of sea-, ground-, and surface water. Due to the precipitation of carbonates, gypsum, and halite, such an evaporating primary water body was strongly enriched in Mg, Br, and B and shows high molar ratios of Br/Cl, B/Cl, and Mg/Ca but low Na/Cl ratios. The development of the Br/Cl ratio is chemically modelled, showing that indeed brine development is explicable that way. Along with the evaporation brine, evaporites formed which are leached by infiltrating fresh water yielding secondary brines with Na/Cl ratios of 1. When primary brines infiltrated the sub-surface, they were subjected to Mg Ca exchange in limestones (dolomitization) and to chloritization and albitization in basic igneous rocks turning them into Ca-Cl brines. These tertiary brines are omnipresent in the Rift. The brines of the late Lisan and Dead Sea were generated by evaporating drainage waters, which leached halite, gypsum, and carbonates from the soil and from the sub-surface. All these brines are still being flushed out by meteoric water, resulting in saline groundwaters. This flushing is regionally enhanced by intensive groundwater exploitation. In variable proportions, the Neogene and late Lisan Lake and Recent Dead Sea brines have to be considered as the most serious sources of salinization of groundwaters in the Rift. Deep-seated pre-Sdom brines

  13. Adaptive re-tracking algorithm for retrieval of water level variations and wave heights from satellite altimetry data for middle-sized inland water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Lebedev, Sergey; Soustova, Irina; Rybushkina, Galina; Papko, Vladislav; Baidakov, Georgy; Panyutin, Andrey

    One of the recent applications of satellite altimetry originally designed for measurements of the sea level [1] is associated with remote investigation of the water level of inland waters: lakes, rivers, reservoirs [2-7]. The altimetry data re-tracking algorithms developed for open ocean conditions (e.g. Ocean-1,2) [1] often cannot be used in these cases, since the radar return is significantly contaminated by reflection from the land. The problem of minimization of errors in the water level retrieval for inland waters from altimetry measurements can be resolved by re-tracking satellite altimetry data. Recently, special re-tracking algorithms have been actively developed for re-processing altimetry data in the coastal zone when reflection from land strongly affects echo shapes: threshold re-tracking, The other methods of re-tracking (threshold re-tracking, beta-re-tracking, improved threshold re-tracking) were developed in [9-11]. The latest development in this field is PISTACH product [12], in which retracking bases on the classification of typical forms of telemetric waveforms in the coastal zones and inland water bodies. In this paper a novel method of regional adaptive re-tracking based on constructing a theoretical model describing the formation of telemetric waveforms by reflection from the piecewise constant model surface corresponding to the geography of the region is considered. It was proposed in [13, 14], where the algorithm for assessing water level in inland water bodies and in the coastal zone of the ocean with an error of about 10-15 cm was constructed. The algorithm includes four consecutive steps: - constructing a local piecewise model of a reflecting surface in the neighbourhood of the reservoir; - solving a direct problem by calculating the reflected waveforms within the framework of the model; - imposing restrictions and validity criteria for the algorithm based on waveform modelling; - solving the inverse problem by retrieving a tracking point

  14. Complex Effects of Salinity on Water Evaporation From Porous Media.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokri-Kuehni, S. M. S.; Webb, C.; Shokri, N.

    2016-12-01

    Saline water evaporation from porous media is influenced by transport properties of porous media, properties of the evaporating solution and external conditions. In this work, we investigated the effects of salt concentration on the drying behaviour of a porous medium and its surface temperature. Our key focus was about how the precipitated salt forming at the surface of drying porous media influences the evaporation rate. To do so, a series of evaporation experiments were conducted using columns packed with sand particles saturated with NaCl solutions of varying concentrations. The columns were placed on digital balances to record the evaporation dynamics and were exposed to metal halide lamps to boost the evaporation. A FLIR thermal camera was fixed above the sand columns to record the surface temperature. Additional experiments were conducted using sand packs saturated with salty water in the presence of water table at well-defined depths using Mariotte flasks. We could delineate the effects of salt concentration and crust formation on the general dynamics of the evaporation process (at different salt concentrations). Microscopic analysis of precipitated salt at the surface revealed the complex dynamics of salt evolution at the surface and its consequences on the evaporation behaviour. Our results suggest that the presence of porous salt at the surface causes top-supplied creeping of the solution feeding the growth of subsequent precipitation. This causes appearance and disappearance of cold-spots at the surface of porous media brought about by crust formation and preferential water evaporation visualized by the thermal images. This study extends the fundamental understanding of the evaporation of saline water from porous media.

  15. Water recovery from saline streams produced by electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Andrade Becheleni, Emily Mayer; Borba, Ricardo Perobelli; Seckler, Marcelo Martins; Ferreira Rocha, Sônia Denise

    2015-01-01

    Advances in technologies to enable water reuse in industry have been the objective of many research efforts, mainly due to the need to reduce the use of natural resources and due to factors related to their availability. This paper evaluates the crystallization of salts from petrochemical saline waste to achieve zero water discharge by the recovery of water and dissolved salts as a solid mixture. In line with process symbiosis, the recovered water should be suitable for use as cooling water in heat exchangers. Vacuum evaporative crystallization, at the batch scale, was used to remove the salts present in the concentrated stream from reverse electrodialysis of pretreated wastewater by a biological process. The partition of organic compounds in the feed solution between the condensate and the mother liquor was obtained from measurements of the total organic carbon and total nitrogen in the solutions. The solid phases formed experimentally are compared with those predicted by chemical modelling by PHREEQC. The recovered water presented almost 50 times less total dissolved solids than the feed stream (from 2100 to 44 mg/L). Calcium sulphate hydrate, calcium sulphate and sodium chloride were the majority crystalline phases formed, in accordance with the modelling by PHREEQC.

  16. Spinach biomass yield and physiological response to interactive salinity and water stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Critical shortages of fresh water throughout arid regions means that growers must face the choice of applying insufficient fresh water, applying saline water, or consider the option of combined water and salt stress. The best approach to manage drought and salinity is evaluation of the impact of wat...

  17. The use of short rotation willows and poplars for the recycling of saline waste waters

    Treesearch

    Jaconette Mirck; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny; Ioannis Dimitriou; Jill A. Zalesny; Timothy A. Volk; Warren E. Mabee

    2009-01-01

    The production of high-salinity waste waters by landfills and other waste sites causes environmental concerns. This waste water often contains high concentrations of sodium and chloride, which may end up in local ground and surface waters. Vegetation filter systems comprised of willows and poplars can be used for the recycling of saline waste water. These vegetation...

  18. Atmospheric and Adjacency Correction of Landsat-8 Imagery of Inland and Coastal Waters Near AERONET-OC Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassani, Cristiana; Cazzaniga, Ilaria; Manzo, Ciro; Bresciani, Mariano; Braga, Federica; Giardino, Claudia; Schroeder, Thomas; Kratzer, Susanne; Brando, Vittorio

    2016-08-01

    Preliminary results of a new algorithm for the atmospheric correction of OLI imagery acquired over coastal and inland water are presented. The algorithm was based on the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6SV) radiative transfer model and the atmopheric contribution was simulated by using the microphysical properties of the aerosol, their size distribution and refractive index, available from the AERONET stations located in the study area. The SeaDAS software was also applied to the OLI data to compare the results obtained by OLI@CRI algorithm with the standard procedure for atmospheric correction of remotely data. Furthermore, the adjacency effect was removed by the well-known empirical formula as well as a new empirical formula to assess any possible improvement of the atmospheric correction products using the diffuse fraction of the total atmospheric transmission as weight for averaged reflectance removal. To validate the results and assess its accuracy, the above-water data acquired at AERONET- OC sites were used. A coastal area and a lake are considered, where AERONET and AERONET-OC data are available. These sites cover a significant range of both atmospheric (from boreal to tropics) and water quality conditions.

  19. Addressing Emergency Flood Mapping And Monitoring Of Inland Water Bodies With Sentinel 1-2. Expectative And Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesou, Herve; Sarti, Francesco; Tholey, Nadine; Mouratidis, Antonios; Cladillon, Stephen; Huber, Claire; Studer, Mathias; de Fraipont, Paul

    2013-12-01

    The importance of water resources and the escalating frequency and intensity of flood events around the world during the last decades, emphasize the necessity of their timely and cost-effective monitoring by Remote Sensing techniques. The purpose of this paper is to present the current capacity of Earth Observation in detecting and monitoring flooded areas and inland water bodies, by means of different sensors (SAR, optical/IR). This is achieved by using results and experience gained within the International Charter and SAFER GMESS, ... , as well as from other relevant case studies such as ESA MOST Dragon project during the last decade and Take Five Experiment conducted by CNES-CESBIO. Based on this experience, the foreseen improvements that the Sentinel-1 and -2 missions will bring are presented, in the direction of meeting this new set of refined requirements, but also in the context of COPERNICUS. The user requirements for water resource and especially for flood monitoring are very high, with flash-floods being the most demanding case in terms of timely acquisitions of EO data. The Sentinels will be a milestone of the spatial and temporal improvements in Earth observation dedicated to risk management. While Sentinels will insure an efficient routine surveillance mission, VHR satellites like Pleiades will be tasked on demand over smaller high- risk areas.

  20. Spatiotemporal Variation of Dissolved Carbon in Semi-humid/arid Inland Waters: A Case Study from Songnen Plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, K.; Li, L.; Zang, S.; Zhao, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Spatial and seasonal variations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic carbon (DIC) in 34 waters across the semi-humid/arid Songnen Plain, China were examined with 320 samples collected in 2011-2012. Large variations in both the concentration and quality of DOC are revealed, ranging from 0.47 mgL-1 to 720 mgL-1, which is mainly caused by the hydro-climatic condition in the plain. Large variations of DOC and DIC concentrations are observed between open (mean ± sd: 5.6 ± 2.4 mgL-1, 57.4 ± 34.7 mgL-1) and closed lakes (43.3 ± 7.9 mgL-1, 172.9 ± 113.3 mgL-1). Temporally, higher DOC and DIC concentrations are measured for ice-underlying water in winter than ice-free seasons. Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and DOC concentrations are higher after high discharge events with terrigenous sources of CDOM/DOC dominated, while autochthonous sources also contributed to CDOM/DOC concentrations during algal bloom seasons. An interesting result of this study is that the non-outflow conditions for various water catchments had condensed effects on the dissolved carbon, resulting in close relationships between salinity and dissolved carbon parameters, e.g. salinity vs DOC (R2 = 0.83, p < 0.001), DIC (R2 = 0.96, p < 0.0001) using data set collected in 2011. Independent data set collected in May 2012 also confirmed this finding, yielding high correlation for salinity vs DOC (R2 = 0.79, p < 0.001), salinity vs DIC (R2 = 0.91, p < 0.0001), highlighting the potential of quantifying DOC/DIC from salinity measurements for thousand of waters dispersed in the semi-arid Songnen Plain. Indices based on CDOM absorption spectra, e.g. E250:365, DOC specific CDOM absorption (SUVA254) and spectral slope ratio (Sr, S275-295/S350-400), were applied to characterize DOM components and sources. Our results indicate high molecular weight CDOM fractions are more abundant in open waters than closed waters.

  1. Surface-water salinity in the Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, water years 1989 through 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaffrath, Keelin R.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of dissolved solids in water (salinity) can result in numerous and costly issues for agricultural, industrial, and municipal water users. The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-320) authorized planning and construction of salinity-control projects in the Colorado River Basin. One of the first projects was the Lower Gunnison Unit, a project to mitigate salinity in the Lower Gunnison and Uncompahgre River Basins. In cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study to quantify changes in salinity in the Gunnison River Basin. Trends in salinity concentration and load during the period water years (WY) 1989 through 2004 (1989-2004) were determined for 15 selected streamflow-gaging stations in the Gunnison River Basin. Additionally, trends in salinity concentration and load during the period WY1989 through 2007 (1989-2007) were determined for 5 of the 15 sites for which sufficient data were available. Trend results also were used to identify regions in the Lower Gunnison River Basin (downstream from the Gunnison Tunnel) where the largest changes in salinity loads occur. Additional sources of salinity, including residential development (urbanization), changes in land cover, and natural sources, were estimated within the context of the trend results. The trend results and salinity loads estimated from trends testing also were compared to USBR and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) estimates of off-farm and on-farm salinity reduction from salinity-control projects in the basin. Finally, salinity from six additional sites in basins that are not affected by irrigated agriculture or urbanization was monitored from WY 2008 to 2010 to quantify what portion of salinity may be from nonagricultural or natural sources. In the Upper Gunnison area, which refers to Gunnison River Basin above the site located on the Gunnison River below the Gunnison Tunnel, estimated mean annual

  2. Geohydrology and potential for upward movement of saline water in the Cocoa well field, East Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, G.G.; Schiffer, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system, an approximately 2,000-foot thick sequence of Eocene-age limestone and dolomite, is the main source of water supply in central Florida. Hydraulic conductivity is different in strata of different lithology and is the basis for separating the aquifer system into the Upper Floridan aquifer, a middle semi- confining unit, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. The coastal city of Cocoa withdraws about 26 million gallons of water per day from the Upper Floridan aquifer from a well field in east Orange County, about 25 miles inland. About 60 million gallons per day are withdrawn from the Upper Floridan aquifer and 56 million gallons per day from the Lower Floridan aquifer in the Orlando area, about 15 miles west of the Cocoa well field. Wells drilled in the Cocoa well field from 1955-61 yielded water with chloride concentrations ranging from 25-55 milligrams per liter. Soon after the wells were put in service, chloride concentrations increased; therefore, new wells were drilled further inland. Chloride concen- trations in water from many of the new wells also have increased. Possible sources of saline water are lateral movement of relict seawater in the Upper Floridan aquifer from the east, regional upconing of saline water from the Lower Floridan aquifer or underlying older rocks, or localized upward movement of saline water through fractures. Several test wells were drilled to provide information about chloride concentration changes with depth and to monitor changes with time, including a multi-zone well drilled in 1965 (well C) and two wells drilled in the 1990's (wells R and S). Chloride concentrations have increased in the zone pumped by the supply wells (the upper 500 feet of the aquifer) and in the 1,351-1,357-foot deep zone of well C, but not in the two intervening zones. This indicates that the source of saline water is located laterally, rather than vertically, from the pumped zone in the area of well C. The potential for upward movement

  3. Water Budget and Salinity of Walker Lake, western Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, James M.

    1995-01-01

    Walker Lake is one of the rare perennial, terminal lakes in the Great Basin of the western United States. The lake is the terminus for all surface- water and ground-water flow in the Walker River Basin Hydrographic Region that is not consumed by evaporation, sublimation, or transpiration. The concentration of dissolved solids (salts) in the lake-surface altitude depend primarily on the amounts of water entering and evaporation from the lake. Because Walker Lake is a terminal sink--it has no documented surface- or ground-water outflow--dissolved solids that enter it accumulate as the lake water evaporates. Declining lake levels, owing to natural and anthropogenic processes, have resulted in most Great Basin terminal lakes being too saline to support fish. In Nevada, the only terminal lakes that contain fish are Pyramid Lake, Ruby Lake, and Walker Lake. Dissolved-solids concentration in Walker Lake increased from about 2,500 milligrams per liter in 1882 to 13,300 milli- grams per liter in July 1994 (U.S. Geological Survey analysis), as the lake-surface altitude declined from about 4,080 to 3,944 feet above sea level. This dramatic increase in dissolved-solids concentration threatens the Walker Lake ecosystem and the fish that depend on this ecosystem.

  4. Use of saline and recycled water as an alternative irrigation water supply: Chemical and agronomic considerations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Predictions of increased occurrences of drought in the SW U.S. coupled with increasing urban demands for fresh water have resulted in projections of decreased irrigated acreage. However, agriculture can utilize saline, drainage and treated municipal and industrial waste waters for irrigation of many...

  5. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems mod...

  6. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Calcite Reactions with Saline Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, Brian P

    2015-09-02

    Project Description: The general objective of the proposed research is to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of calcite reactions with saline waters over a wide range of saline water composition, pCO2, and modest ranges in T and P. This will be accomplished by studying both reaction rates and solubility from changes in solution chemistry, and making nanoscale observations of calcite precipitate surface morphology and composition at the micro-to-nano-scale to provide an understanding of controlling reaction mechanisms and pathways. The specific objectives necessary to reach the general objective are: a) determination of how pCO2, Ca2+, ionic strength and “foreign” ions influence reaction rates; and b) investigate the influence of these parameters on apparent kinetic solubility from dissolution and precipitation reactions. This information will clearly be central to the construction of reliable reaction-transport models to predict reservoir and formation response to increased CO2 in saline waters. This program was initially collaborative with John Morse at Texas A&M, however his passing shortly after the beginning of this program resulted in abbreviated research time and effort. Summary of Results: Early studies using electron microscopy and spectroscopy indicated that carbonate precipitation from natural seawater (NSW) conditions onto aragonite substrates was mediated by a surface amorphous calcium carbonate layer. It was hypothesized that this ACC layer (observed after < 5days reaction time) was responsible for the abnormal reaction kinetics and also served as a metastable seed layer for growth of epitaxial aragonite. Further studies of the ACC formation mechanism indicated a strong dependence on the Mg concentration in solution. Subsequent studies at shorter times (10 hrs) on calcite substrates and in a wide range of supersaturation conditions did not indicate any ACC layer. Instead, an epitaxial layer by layer

  7. CNES/PISTACH project: an innovative approach to get better measurements over inland water bodies from satellite altimetry. Early results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, F.; Picot, N.; Thibaut, P.; Cazenave, A.; Seyler, F.; Kosuth, P.; Bronner, E.

    2009-04-01

    Athough initally developped for open ocean purposes, the capabilities of satellite radar altimetry for the monitoring of inland water bodies have been largely demonstrated for many years. However, no specific altimetry products have been developed for continental hydrology. As part of Jason-2 project, CNES is currently funding a dedicated study to improve conventional satellite radar altimetry products over coastal areas and continental waters. The PISTACH (Prototype Innovant de Système de Traitement pour les Applications Côtières et l'Hydrologie) project is organized around 3 phases: Phase 1: user needs and structure of coastal/hydrological products Phase 2: Development of new dedicated algorithms: retracking of the waveforms, wet and dry tropospheric corrections, local models or high resolution global models for topography, geoid, land cover classification, land water mask, data editing Phase 3: prototype implementation, validation and operations during Jason-2 CalVal phases The implementation of the prototype was completed in October 2008 while the exploitation of the prototype is ongoing up to September 2009 at least. The products are freely distributed via FTP since November 2008 (ftp://ftpsedr.cls.fr/pub/oceano/pistach/). The input of the prototype is constituted by Jason-2 Level 2 S-IGDR altimeter products, ECMWF meteo fields, as well as several state of the art static auxiliary datasets. The first version of PISTACH products adopts the same format and structure as Jason-2 standard IGDR to facilitate their appropriation and assessment by expert users. However, more simple and easy to-use products are envisaged for a wider dissemination. The project, the prototype and the products will be presented at the meeting. Early results will be used to illustrate and assess the content of the products over several test areas. The PISTACH products could be used for data assimilation, water resources management, water cycle and climate studies at regional to global

  8. Variability in cold front activities modulating cool-season evaporation from a southern inland water in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Heping; Blanken, Peter D.; Weidinger, Tamas; Nordbo, Annika; Vesala, Timo

    2011-04-01

    Understanding seasonal variations in the evaporation of inland waters (e.g., lakes and reservoirs) is important for water resource management as well as the prediction of the hydrological cycles in response to climate change. We analyzed eddy covariance-based evaporation measurements from the Ross Barnett Reservoir (32°26'N, 90°02'W which is always ice-free) in central Mississippi during the cool months (i.e., September-March) of 2007 and 2008, and found that the variability in cold front activities (i.e., passages of cold fronts and cold/dry air masses behind cold fronts) played an important role in modulating the exchange of sensible (H) and latent (λE) heat fluxes. Our analysis showed that 2007's warmer cool season had smaller mean H and λE than 2008's cooler cool season. This implies that the warmer cool season did not accelerate evaporation and heat exchange between the water surface and the atmosphere. Instead, more frequent cold fronts and longer periods of cold/dry air masses behind the cold fronts in 2008 resulted in overall larger H and λE as compared with 2007, this primarily taking the form of sporadic short-term rapid 'pulses' of H and λE losses from the water's surface. These results suggest that future climate-induced changes in frequency of cold fronts and the meteorological properties of the air masses behind cold fronts (e.g., wind speeds, temperature, and humidity), rather than other factors of climate change, would produce significant variations in the water surface's energy fluxes and subsequent evaporation rates.

  9. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.; Suarez, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems modeling framework that accounts for reduced plant water uptake due to root zone salinity. Two explicit, closed-form analytical solutions for the root zone solute concentration profile are obtained, corresponding to two alternative functional forms of the uptake reduction function. The solutions express a general relationship between irrigation water salinity, irrigation rate, crop salt tolerance, crop transpiration, and (using standard approximations) crop yield. Example applications are illustrated, including the calculation of irrigation requirements for obtaining targeted submaximal yields, and the generation of crop-water production functions for varying irrigation waters, irrigation rates, and crops. Model predictions are shown to be mostly consistent with existing models and available experimental data. Yet the new solutions possess advantages over available alternatives, including: (i) the solutions were derived from a complete physical-mathematical description of the system, rather than based on an ad hoc formulation; (ii) the analytical solutions are explicit and can be evaluated without iterative techniques; (iii) the solutions permit consideration of two common functional forms of salinity induced reductions in crop water uptake, rather than being tied to one particular representation; and (iv) the utilized modeling framework is compatible with leading transient-state numerical models.

  10. Sprectroradiometric characteristics of inland water bodies infestated by Oscillatoria rubescens algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo; Maltese, Antonino

    2010-10-01

    In December 2006 blooms of Oscillatoria rubescens were found in the reservoir Prizzi in Sicily. Oscillatoria is a genus of filamentous alga comprising approximately 6 species, between these the O. rubescens is sadly famous since this organism produces microcystins which are powerful hepatotoxins. Firstly found in Europe in 1825 on Geneva lake, recently (2006) those algae has been find out in Pozzillo, Nicoletti e Ancipa reservoirs (Enna Province), as well as in Prizzi (Palermo Province) and Garcia reservoirs (Trapani Province). Toxins produced by those bacteria (usually called microcystine LR-1 and LR-2) are highly toxic since they can activate oncogenes cells causing cancer pathologies on liver and gastrointestinal tract. Even if water treatment plants should ensure the provision of safe drinking water from surface waters contaminated with those toxic algae blooms, the contamination of reservoirs used for civil and agricultural supply highlights human health risks. International literature suggests a threshold value of 0.01 μgl-1 to avoid liver cancer using water coming from contaminated water bodies for a long period. Since O. rubescens activities is strongly related to phosphate and nitrogen compounds as well as to temperature and light transmission within water, the paper presents the comparison between optical properties of the water of an infested reservoir and those of a reservoir characterized by clear water. Field campaigns were carried out in February-March 2008 in order to quantify the spectral transparencies of two water bodies through the calculation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient, measuring underwater downwelling irradiance at different depths as well as water spectral reflectance. Results show that diffuse attenuation coefficient is reduced by approximately 15% reducing light penetration in the water column; coherently reflectance spectral signature generally decreases, exhibiting a characteristic peak around 703 nm not present in

  11. Dissolved Organic In Natural and Polluted Waters: Methodology and Results of Running Control of Chemical Oxygen Demand (cod) For The Inland and Marine Aquatic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melentyev, K. V.; Worontsov, A. M.

    Current control of dissolved organic matter in natural and waste waters is the definition traditionally of chemical oxygen demand (COD) -- one of the basic parameters of quality of water. According to the International Standard (ISO 6060), it requires not less than one hour, while in many cases the operative information about amount of dissolved organic matter in aquatic environments have importance for prevention of an emergency. The standard method is applicable to waters with meaning of COD above 30 mg O2/l and, as the chloride ion prevents, it could be difficult for assessment of organic matter in sea water. Besides it is based on dichromate oxidation of the sum of organic substances in strong acid conditions at the presence of silver and mercury, that resulted in formation toxic pollutants. Till now attempts of automation of the COD definition in aquatic system were limited, basically, to duplication of the technology submitted the above standard (automatic COD analyzers "SERES Co."-- France, or "Tsvet Co." - Russia). The system of ozone-chemiluminescence automatic control of organic matter in water (CS COD) is offered and designed. Its based on the ozone oxidation of these substances in flowing water system and measurement arising from luminescent effects. CS COD works in real time. An instrument uses for reaction the atmospheric air, doesn't require fill of reagents and doesn't make new toxic pollutants. The system was tested in laboratory, and biochemical control of organic matter in water samples gathered from the river Neva and other polluted inland water areas and basins in St. Petersburg region was fulfilled (distilled water was used as "zero" media). The results of systematization of these measurements are presented. The new special ozone generator and flowing reactor for real-time running control of different waters in natural conditions were developed, and several series of large - scale field experiments onboard research ship were provided

  12. Remote Sensing for Inland Water Quality Monitoring: A U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products . All product names and trademarks cited are...schedule. Key parameters affecting water quality in waterbodies are suspended sediments (turbidity), algae (i.e. chlorphylls, carotenoids , etc...surface waters (Ritchie et al. 2003). These include phytoplankton pigments (chlorophylls, carotenoids , phycocyanin, etc.), colored dissolved organic

  13. State and regional water-quality characteristics and trophic conditions of Michigan's inland lakes, 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, L.M.; Minnerick, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality are jointly monitoring selected water-quality constituents of inland lakes through 2015 as part of Michigan’s Lake Water Quality Assessment program. During 2001–2005, 433 lake basins from 364 inland lakes were monitored for baseline water-quality conditions and trophic status. This report summarizes the water-quality characteristics and trophic conditions of those monitored lake basins throughout the State. Regional variation of water quality in lake basins was examined by grouping on the basis of the five Omernik level III ecoregions within Michigan. Concentrations of most constituents measured were significantly different between ecoregions. Less regional variation of phosphorus concentrations was noted between Northern Lakes and Forests (50) and North Central Hardwoods (51) ecoregions during summer possibly because water samples were collected when lake productivity was high; hence the utilization of the limited amount of phosphorus by algae and macrophytes may have resulted in the more uniform concentrations between these two ecoregions. Concentrations of common ions (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate) measured in the spring typically were higher in the Michigan southern Lower Peninsula in the Eastern Corn Belt Plains (55), Southern Michigan/Northern Indiana Drift Plains (56), and Huron/Erie Lake Plains (57) ecoregions. Most ions whose concentrations were less than the minimum reporting levels or were nondetectable were from lakes in the Michigan northern Lower Peninsula and the Upper Peninsula in the Northern Lakes and Forests (50) and North Central Hardwoods (51) ecoregions. Chlorophyll a concentrations followed a similar distribution pattern. Measured properties such as pH and specific conductance (indicative of dissolved solids) also showed a regional relation. The lakes with the lowest pH and specific conductance were generally in the western

  14. Water pollutant fingerprinting tracks recent industrial transfer from coastal to inland China: a case study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Tian, Dajun; Jiang, Songhui; Andersen, Melvin E; He, Genhsjeng; Crabbe, M James C; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhong, Yang; Qu, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, China's developed regions have transferred industries to undeveloped regions. Large numbers of unlicensed or unregistered enterprises are widespread in these undeveloped regions and they are subject to minimal regulation. Current methods for tracing industrial transfers in these areas, based on enterprise registration information or economic surveys, do not work. We have developed an analytical framework combining water fingerprinting and evolutionary analysis to trace the pollution transfer features between water sources. We collected samples in Eastern China (industrial export) and Central China (industrial acceptance) separately from two water systems. Based on the water pollutant fingerprints and evolutionary trees, we traced the pollution transfer associated with industrial transfer between the two areas. The results are consistent with four episodes of industrial transfers over the past decade. Our results also show likely types of the transferred industries - electronics, plastics, and biomedicines - that contribute to the water pollution transfer.

  15. Water pollutant fingerprinting tracks recent industrial transfer from coastal to inland China: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Tian, Dajun; Jiang, Songhui; Andersen, Melvin E.; He, Genhsjeng; Crabbe, M. James C.; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhong, Yang; Qu, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, China’s developed regions have transferred industries to undeveloped regions. Large numbers of unlicensed or unregistered enterprises are widespread in these undeveloped regions and they are subject to minimal regulation. Current methods for tracing industrial transfers in these areas, based on enterprise registration information or economic surveys, do not work. We have developed an analytical framework combining water fingerprinting and evolutionary analysis to trace the pollution transfer features between water sources. We collected samples in Eastern China (industrial export) and Central China (industrial acceptance) separately from two water systems. Based on the water pollutant fingerprints and evolutionary trees, we traced the pollution transfer associated with industrial transfer between the two areas. The results are consistent with four episodes of industrial transfers over the past decade. Our results also show likely types of the transferred industries - electronics, plastics, and biomedicines - that contribute to the water pollution transfer. PMID:23301152

  16. Water pollutant fingerprinting tracks recent industrial transfer from coastal to inland China: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Tian, Dajun; Jiang, Songhui; Andersen, Melvin E.; He, Genhsjeng; Crabbe, M. James C.; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhong, Yang; Qu, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, China's developed regions have transferred industries to undeveloped regions. Large numbers of unlicensed or unregistered enterprises are widespread in these undeveloped regions and they are subject to minimal regulation. Current methods for tracing industrial transfers in these areas, based on enterprise registration information or economic surveys, do not work. We have developed an analytical framework combining water fingerprinting and evolutionary analysis to trace the pollution transfer features between water sources. We collected samples in Eastern China (industrial export) and Central China (industrial acceptance) separately from two water systems. Based on the water pollutant fingerprints and evolutionary trees, we traced the pollution transfer associated with industrial transfer between the two areas. The results are consistent with four episodes of industrial transfers over the past decade. Our results also show likely types of the transferred industries - electronics, plastics, and biomedicines - that contribute to the water pollution transfer.

  17. Advancing Water Quality Monitoring and Hydrologic Optics Studies for Inland Waters through An Individual Particle Analysis Technique in Characterizing Suspended Mineral Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, F.

    2016-02-01

    Light attenuation by suspended particles in aquatic systems is an important physical process regulating underwater light field (important to primary production) and water clarity (thus water quality), as well as the magnitudes and the spectral features of remote-sensing reflectance. Mineral (or inorganic) particles are a key component of the optical regimes of inland waters because of their higher refractive indices as compared with algal and detrital particles, and generally much higher concentrations than in open oceans. A unique individual particle analysis (IPA) technique (scanning electron microscopy interfaced with automated image and X-ray analyses) has been used to provide detailed characterizations (size, shape, and composition) of individual mineral particles collected from diverse freshwater systems in North America, including the Great Lakes and the Finger Lakes of New York. A summary metric, the projected area concentrations of mineral particles, has been demonstrated to strongly regulate some critical water quality parameters, such as turbidity, Secchi depth, and particulate phosphorus concentrations. In addition, IPA results can be used as inputs for theoretical calculations of optical coefficients (e.g., absorption, scattering, and backscattering) of the mineral particle populations (i.e., the inherent optical properties, IOPs). Here we present some highlights from our water quality and optics studies supported by this IPA technique: (1) demonstration of the regulating effects of mineral area concentrations on common water quality metrics, (2) partitioning of the bulk particulate IOPs into contributing components (e.g., algal particles, calcite, clay minerals), (3) pursuit of optical modeling (particulate scattering and backscattering) closure with bulk measurements (promising results documented), (4) development of bio-optical models parameterized on particulate organic carbon content for an inland lake, and (5) advancement of remote

  18. Assessment of the role of remote sensing in the study of inland and coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curfman, H. J.; Oberholtzer, J. D.; Schertler, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Several problems within Great Lakes, coastal, and continental shelf water were selected and organized under the topical headings of Productivity, Sedimentation, Water Dynamics, Eutrophication, and Hazardous Substances. The measurements required in the study of each of the problems were identified. An assessment was made of the present capability and the potential of remote sensing to make these measurements. The relevant remote-sensing technology for each of these classifications was discussed and needed advancements indicated.

  19. Use of OLCI and SLSTR Bands for Atmospheric Correction over Turbid Coastal and Inland Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddick, Kevin; Vanhellement, Quinten

    2015-12-01

    The OLCI sensor has strong heritage from MERIS and some new bands, e.g. 400nm and 1020nm. The SLSTR spectral bands at 1.61μm and 2.25μm may also help improve the OLCI atmospheric correction. At 1020nm the water-leaving radiance is much lower than at shorter wavelengths and the spectral shapes of water and aerosol reflectance over the range 709-1020nm will be quite different, even in the most turbid waters. This band may therefore help improve the aerosol correction in extremely turbid waters. At 1.61μm and 2.25μm water-leaving radiance is negligible even for the most turbid waters. The advantage of these bands for atmospheric correction has been demonstrated previously for MODIS and Landsat-8. Exploiting these new bands will involve many challenges including: low signal:noise for the SWIR bands, SWIR contamination by objects at sea, straylight, calibration, OLCI/SLSTR colocation, etc.

  20. Supporting inland waterway transport on German waterways by operational forecasting services - water-levels, discharges, river ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meißner, Dennis; Klein, Bastian; Ionita, Monica; Hemri, Stephan; Rademacher, Silke

    2017-04-01

    Inland waterway transport (IWT) is an important commercial sector significantly vulnerable to hydrological impacts. River ice and floods limit the availability of the waterway network and may cause considerable damages to waterway infrastructure. Low flows significantly affect IWT's operation efficiency usually several months a year due to the close correlation of (low) water levels / water depths and (high) transport costs. Therefore "navigation-related" hydrological forecasts focussing on the specific requirements of water-bound transport (relevant forecast locations, target parameters, skill characteristics etc.) play a major role in order to mitigate IWT's vulnerability to hydro-meteorological impacts. In light of continuing transport growth within the European Union, hydrological forecasts for the waterways are essential to stimulate the use of the free capacity IWT still offers more consequently. An overview of the current operational and pre-operational forecasting systems for the German waterways predicting water levels, discharges and river ice thickness on various time-scales will be presented. While short-term (deterministic) forecasts have a long tradition in navigation-related forecasting, (probabilistic) forecasting services offering extended lead-times are not yet well-established and are still subject to current research and development activities (e.g. within the EU-projects EUPORIAS and IMPREX). The focus is on improving technical aspects as well as on exploring adequate ways of disseminating and communicating probabilistic forecast information. For the German stretch of the River Rhine, one of the most frequented inland waterways worldwide, the existing deterministic forecast scheme has been extended by ensemble forecasts combined with statistical post-processing modules applying EMOS (Ensemble Model Output Statistics) and ECC (Ensemble Copula Coupling) in order to generate water level predictions up to 10 days and to estimate its predictive

  1. Estimation of water quality parameters of inland and coastal waters with the use of a toolkit for processing of remote sensing data

    SciTech Connect

    Dekker, A.G.; Hoogenboom, H.J.; Rijkeboer, M.

    1997-06-01

    Deriving thematic maps of water quality parameters from a remote sensing image requires a number of processing steps, such as calibration, atmospheric correction, air/water interface correction, and application of water quality algorithms. A prototype software environment has recently been developed that enables the user to perform and control these processing steps. Main parts of this environment are: (i) access to the MODTRAN 3 radiative transfer code for removing atmospheric and air-water interface influences, (ii) a tool for analyzing of algorithms for estimating water quality and (iii) a spectral database, containing apparent and inherent optical properties and associated water quality parameters. The use of the software is illustrated by applying implemented algorithms for estimating chlorophyll to data from a spectral library of Dutch inland waters with CHL ranging from 1 to 500 pg 1{sup -1}. The algorithms currently implemented in the Toolkit software are recommended for optically simple waters, but for optically complex waters development of more advanced retrieval methods is required.

  2. Predicting water quality by relating secchi-disk transparency and chlorophyll a measurements to satellite imagery for Michigan Inland Lakes, August 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, L.M.; Aichele, S.S.; Minnerick, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Inland lakes are an important economic and environmental resource for Michigan. The U.S. Geological Survey and the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality have been cooperatively monitoring the quality of selected lakes in Michigan through the Lake Water Quality Assessment program. Through this program, approximately 730 of Michigan's 11,000 inland lakes will be monitored once during this 15-year study. Targeted lakes will be sampled during spring turnover and again in late summer to characterize water quality. Because more extensive and more frequent sampling is not economically feasible in the Lake Water Quality Assessment program, the U.S. Geological Survey and Michigan Department of Environmental Quality investigate the use of satellite imagery as a means of estimating water quality in unsampled lakes. Satellite imagery has been successfully used in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and elsewhere to compute the trophic state of inland lakes from predicted secchi-disk measurements. Previous attempts of this kind in Michigan resulted in a poorer fit between observed and predicted data than was found for Minnesota or Wisconsin. This study tested whether estimates could be improved by using atmospherically corrected satellite imagery, whether a more appropriate regression model could be obtained for Michigan, and whether chlorophyll a concentrations could be reliably predicted from satellite imagery in order to compute trophic state of inland lakes. Although the atmospheric-correction did not significantly improve estimates of lake-water quality, a new regression equation was identified that consistently yielded better results than an equation obtained from the literature. A stepwise regression was used to determine an equation that accurately predicts chlorophyll a concentrations in northern Lower Michigan.

  3. Novel Algorithms for Retrieval of Hydrology and Ice Regimes of Middle-sized Inland Water Bodies from Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Y. I.; Rybushkina, G. V.; Kuznetsova, A. M.; Baidakov, G. A.; Soustova, I.

    2014-12-01

    A novel method of regional adaptive re-tracking based on constructing a theoretical model describing the formation of telemetric waveforms by reflection from the piecewise constant model surface corresponding to the geography of the region is considered. The algorithm includes four consecutive steps: a) constructing a local piecewise model of a reflecting surface in the neighbourhood of the reservoir; b) solving a direct problem by calculating the reflected waveforms within the framework of the model; c) imposing restrictions and validity criteria for the algorithm based on waveform modelling; d) solving the inverse problem by retrieving a tracking point by the improved threshold algorithm. The results obtained on the basis of standard algorithm and method for adaptive re-tracking at Rybinsk , Gorky, Kuibyshev, Saratov and Volgograd reservoirs and middle-sized lakes of Russia: Chany, Segozero, Hanko, Onego, Beloye are compared to each other and to the field data of hydrological stations in reservoirs and lakes. The possibility of determination of significant wave height (SWH) in the lakes through a two-step adaptive retracking is investigated. Comparing results of retracting of SGDR data and ground measurements shows, that retrieving wave parameters in medium sized water bodies still meets difficulties. The direction of improvement of the existing algorithm is associated with comprehensive use of altimetry data, field studies and numerical modeling of high resolution. A simple method for timing of water freezing and ice break-up in lakes based on analysis of along-track dependencies of brightness temperatures at 18.7 and 34 GHz registered by microwave radiometer of altimetry satellite Jason-2. Comparison with in situ data of Russian Register of hydraulic structures on the example of reservoirs of the Volga River and the Don River confirms ability of the proposed method to determine quantitatively the freezing and break-up times for middle-sized inland water bodies.

  4. Spectral absorption properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and total suspended matter (TSM) of inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kaishan; Liu, Dianwei; Li, Lin; Wang, Zongming; Wang, Yuandong; Jiang, Guangjia

    2010-08-01

    Spectral absorption properties of total suspended matter (TSM) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) are important for the use of the bio-optical model to estimate water quality parameters. This study aims to investigate the variation in the absorption coefficients of TSM and CDOM of inland waters. A total of 92 water samples were collected from Shitoukoumen Reservoir and Songhua Lake in Northeast China, analyzed for TSM and Chl-a, and measured for the absorption coefficient of TSM, CDOM and total pigments using a laboratory spectrophotometer. The absorption coefficient of TSM has been decomposed for phytoplankton and inorganic sediments. The results show that for Shitoukoumen Reservoir, CDOM has strong absorptions with shallow absorption slopes (i.e., the coefficient S in a(λ)=a(λ0)exp[-S(λ- λ0)]) and large absorption at 355 nm; and for Songhua Lake, CDOM follows similar spectral absorption curves but less variation in the S value. The results also show TSM has the average absorption coefficient 5.7 m-1 at 440 nm and 0.93 m-1 at 675 nm, and their concentration is well correlated to TSM with R2 larger than 0.85 at 440 nm over both Songhu Lake and Shitoukoumen Reservoir. In summer, CDOM was mainly terrigenous and had a high proportion of humic acid derived from the decomposition of phytoplankton and there were no obvious difference of S value. The results indicate that inorganic sediments contributed much more absorption than phytoplankton pigments in Shitoukoumen Reservoir than that in Songhua Lake, and there is strong association of TSM concentration to absorption coefficient at 440 nm.

  5. Estuarine, Inland and Coastal Water Quality Monitoring Using Earth Observation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Delu

    2013-01-01

    The quality of water is one of the top issues worldwide. The objective of this project (ID. 5351) is to adapt or develop available algorithms to the high turbid water (extremely high concentration of suspended particulate matter and plankton blooms), and to monitor the suspended matter and associated turbidity/light attenuation and plankton blooms in particular of cyanobacteria and red tides in coastal and lake waters. In this final report, we give the executive status and the achievements of our project. First, we introduce the project objectives, research methods, partners and roles in brief. Second, we give the in-situ data measurements during the period of our project. Third, we present the details of the achievements and final results of our project. Finally, the recommendations and the publications are present in the last sections.

  6. Earth resources technology satellite /ERTS/ data collection and transmission buoys for inland, neritic and oceanic waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, W. S.; Yen, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    As a result of a consortium of several industries and organizations, an economical, versatile, and stable data collection and transmission buoy has been designed, developed, and deployed to gather and transmit water quality data to a ground receiving station at three-minute intervals and to the earth resources technology satellite (ERTS) as it passes over the deployed buoy every 12 hours. The buoy system, designed for both fresh and salt water application, gathers data inclusive of temperature measurement, conductivity, relative acidity, dissolved oxygen, current speed, and direction. The mechanical design philosophy used to determine and satisfy boundary conditions involving stability, ease of deployment, servicing and maintenance, minimal manufacturing costs, and fresh and salt water installation capability is discussed. The development of peripheral handling equipment and anchoring systems is described.

  7. Earth resources technology satellite /ERTS/ data collection and transmission buoys for inland, neritic and oceanic waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, W. S.; Yen, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    As a result of a consortium of several industries and organizations, an economical, versatile, and stable data collection and transmission buoy has been designed, developed, and deployed to gather and transmit water quality data to a ground receiving station at three-minute intervals and to the earth resources technology satellite (ERTS) as it passes over the deployed buoy every 12 hours. The buoy system, designed for both fresh and salt water application, gathers data inclusive of temperature measurement, conductivity, relative acidity, dissolved oxygen, current speed, and direction. The mechanical design philosophy used to determine and satisfy boundary conditions involving stability, ease of deployment, servicing and maintenance, minimal manufacturing costs, and fresh and salt water installation capability is discussed. The development of peripheral handling equipment and anchoring systems is described.

  8. COUPLING HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING WITH FIELD SPECTROMETRY TO MONITOR INLAND WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Visible to near-infrared, airborne hyperspectral data were successfully used to estimate water quality parameters such as chlorophyll a, turbidity and total phosphorus from the Great Miami River, Ohio. During the summer of 1999, spectral data were collected with a hand-held fiel...

  9. COUPLING HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING WITH FIELD SPECTROMETRY TO MONITOR INLAND WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Visible to near-infrared, airborne hyperspectral data were successfully used to estimate water quality parameters such as chlorophyll a, turbidity and total phosphorus from the Great Miami River, Ohio. During the summer of 1999, spectral data were collected with a hand-held fiel...

  10. Radium Adsorption to Iron Bearing Minerals in Variable Salinity Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Kocar, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Radium is a common, naturally occurring radioactive metal found in many subsurface environments. Radium isotopes are a product of natural uranium and thorium decay, and are particularly abundant within groundwaters where minimal flux leads to accumulation within porewaters. Radium has been used as a natural tracer to estimate submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) [1], where the ratios of various radium isotopes are used to estimate total groundwater flux to and from the ocean [2]. Further, it represents a substantial hazard in waste water produced after hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction [3], resulting in a significant risk of environmental release and increased cost for water treatment or disposal. Adsorption to mineral surfaces represents a primary pathway of radium retention within subsurface environments. For SGD studies, it is important to understand adsorption processes to correctly estimate GW fluxes, while in hydraulic fracturing, radium adsorption to aquifer solids will mediate the activities of radium within produced water. While some studies of radium adsorption to various minerals have been performed [4], there is a limited understanding of the surface chemistry of radium adsorption, particularly to iron-bearing minerals such as pyrite, goethite and ferrihydrite. Accordingly, we present the results of sorption experiments of radium to a suite of iron-bearing minerals representative of those found within deep saline and near-surface (freshwater) aquifers, and evaluate impacts of varying salinity solutions through the use of artificial groundwater, seawater, and shale formation brine. Further, we explore the impacts of pyrite oxidation and ferrihydrite transformation to other iron-bearing secondary minerals on the retention of radium. This work lays the groundwork for further study of radium use as a tracer for SGD, as well as understanding mechanisms of radium retention and release from deep aquifer materials following hydraulic fracturing

  11. Improved Monitoring of Bio-Optical Processes in Coastal and Inland Waters Using High Spatial Resolution Channels on SNPP-VIIRS Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-17

    coastal regions and inland waters requires high resolution satellite ocean color feature detection. The Visual Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS...currently utilizes five ocean color M-bands (410,443,486,551,671 nm) and two atmospheric correction M-bands in the near infrared (NIR; 745,862 nm...to produce ocean color products at a resolution of 750-m. VIIRS also has several high resolution (375-m) Imaging (I)-bands, including two bands

  12. Water and salinity stress in grapevines: early and late changes in transcript and metabolite profiles.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Grant R; Ergül, Ali; Grimplet, Jerome; Tillett, Richard L; Tattersall, Elizabeth A R; Bohlman, Marlene C; Vincent, Delphine; Sonderegger, Justin; Evans, Jason; Osborne, Craig; Quilici, David; Schlauch, Karen A; Schooley, David A; Cushman, John C

    2007-04-01

    Grapes are grown in semiarid environments, where drought and salinity are common problems. Microarray transcript profiling, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, and metabolite profiling were used to define genes and metabolic pathways in Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon with shared and divergent responses to a gradually applied and long-term (16 days) water-deficit stress and equivalent salinity stress. In this first-of-a-kind study, distinct differences between water deficit and salinity were revealed. Water deficit caused more rapid and greater inhibition of shoot growth than did salinity at equivalent stem water potentials. One of the earliest responses to water deficit was an increase in the transcript abundance of RuBisCo activase (day 4), but this increase occurred much later in salt-stressed plants (day 12). As water deficit progressed, a greater number of affected transcripts were involved in metabolism, transport, and the biogenesis of cellular components than did salinity. Salinity affected a higher percentage of transcripts involved in transcription, protein synthesis, and protein fate than did water deficit. Metabolite profiling revealed that there were higher concentrations of glucose, malate, and proline in water-deficit-treated plants as compared to salinized plants. The metabolite differences were linked to differences in transcript abundance of many genes involved in energy metabolism and nitrogen assimilation, particularly photosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, and photorespiration. Water-deficit-treated plants appear to have a higher demand than salinized plants to adjust osmotically, detoxify free radicals (reactive oxygen species), and cope with photoinhibition.

  13. Ground truth methods as a part of space mapping of inland water phytopigment dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevyrnogov, A. P.; Sid'Ko, A. F.

    Spectral radiance and reflectance of the Krasnoyarsk reservoir water surface were studied from 1974 until 1989. Spectral brightness coefficient (SBC) curves have been found to record chlorophyll absorption band in the red part of the spectrum lambda = 680 nm and spectral indices of ``yellow matter'' absorption in the short-wave part lambda = 400-500 nm. Blue-green algae SBC curves record phycocyanine absorption peak at lambda_max = 630 mm. The peak is inherent in this type of algae only.

  14. Using a partial least squares (PLS) method for estimating cyanobacterial pigments in eutrophic inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. L.; Li, L.; Tedesco, L.; Wilson, J.; Soyeux, E.

    2009-08-01

    Midwestern lakes and reservoirs are commonly exposed to anthropogenic eutrophication. Cyanobacteria thrive in these nutrient rich-waters and some species pose three threats: 1) taste & odor (drinking), 2) toxins (drinking + recreational) and 3) water treatment process disturbance. Managers for drinking water production are interested in the rapid identification of cyanobacterial blooms to minimize effects caused by harmful cyanobacteria. There is potential to monitor cyanobacteria through the remote sensing of two algal pigments: chlorophyll a (CHL) and phycocyanin (PC). Several empirical methods that develop spectral parameters (e.g., simple band ratio) sensitive to these two pigments and map reflectance to the pigment concentration have been used in a number of investigations using field-based spectroradiometers. This study tests a multivariate analysis approach, partial least squares (PLS) regression, for the estimation of CHL and PC. PLS models were trained with 35 spectra collected from three central Indiana reservoirs during a 2007 field campaign with dual-headed Ocean Optics USB4000 field spectroradiometers (355 - 802 nm, nominal 1.0 nm intervals), and CHL and PC concentrations of the corresponding water samples analyzed at Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis. Validation of these models with 19 remaining spectra show that PLS (CHL R2=0.90, slope=0.91, RMSE=20.61 μg/L PC R2=0.65, slope=1.15, RMSE=23.04. μg/L) performed equally well to the band tuning model based on Gitelson et al. 2005 (CHL: R2=0.75, slope=0.84, RMSE=40.16 μg/L PC: R2=0.59, slope=1.14, RMSE=20.24 μg/L).

  15. Effect of accumulation rate on water stable isotopes of near-surface snow in inland Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshina, Yu; Fujita, Koji; Nakazawa, Fumio; Iizuka, Yoshinori; Miyake, Takayuki; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Kuramoto, Takayuki; Fujita, Shuji; Motoyama, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    changes in water stable isotopes in polar firn were investigated at three sites characterized by different accumulation rates along the East Antarctic ice divide near Dome Fuji. Water stable isotopes, major ion concentrations, and tritium contents of three 2-4 m deep pits were measured at high resolution (2 cm). Temporally, the snow pits cover the past 50 years with snow accumulation rates in the range of 29-41 kg m-2 a-1 around Dome Fuji. Oxygen isotopic profiles in the three pits do not show annual fluctuations, but instead exhibit multiyear cycles. These multiyear cycles are lower in frequency at Dome Fuji as compared with the other two sites. Peaks of water stable isotopes in the multiyear cycles correspond to some ion concentration minima in the pits, although such relationships are not observed in coastal regions. We propose that the extremely low accumulation environment keeps the snow layer at the near surface, which result in postdepositional modifications of isotopic signals by processes such as ventilation and vapor condensation-sublimation. We estimate that oxygen isotopic ratios could be modified by >10‰ and that the original seasonal cycle could be completely overprinted under the accumulation conditions at Dome Fuji. Moreover, stake measurements at Dome Fuji suggest that the large variability in snow accumulation rate is the cause of the multiyear cycles.

  16. Occurrence of priority organic pollutants in Strymon river catchment, Greece: inland, transitional, and coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Litskas, V D; Dosis, I G; Karamanlis, X N; Kamarianos, A P

    2012-09-01

    Twenty-five sampling stations were selected in order to monitor persistent organic pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) in surface water from Kerkini Lake, the Strymon River, its main tributaries and estuary in N. Aegean Sea during January to July, 2008, according to recent European Union (EU) guidelines. The data were divided among the high (January to April) and the low flow season (May to July). Generally, the values for organic pollutants were within the range reported worldwide for surface water. Elevated PAHs concentrations were observed compared with other places in Greece. Anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene exceeded maximum allowable concentration (MAC) of the relative EU guideline. Also, concentrations above MAC were observed for OCs, γ-HCH, and a-endosulfan. Despite the fact that it is banned since 1972, Aldrin was detected during the monitoring season (from limit of detection (LOD) to 15 ng L(-1)). Total PCB concentrations ranged from LOD to 162 ng L(-1). In addition, the load of organic pollutants was estimated in April (high flow) and June (low flow) in selected sampling stations. According to this estimation, napthalene, anthracene, and fluoranthene (PAHs), total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), aldrin, and total PCBs had the highest load. Taking into account the relative EU guidelines concerning the pollutants studied, the water quality in the Strymon River catchment could be characterized as poor, which can lead to negative impacts to its biota.

  17. Monitoring Inland Water Quality Status Using Images from the SPOT-5 Take-5 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dona, Carolina; Sanchez, Juan Manuel; Caselles, Vicente; Camacho, Antonio; Picazo, Antonio; Rochera, Carlos; Galve, Joan Miquel

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work is to develop algorithms to estimate the water quality from SPOT-5 images in three water bodies belonging to the Jucar river basin. Images from the SPOT5 take 5 experiment were used, in the framework of the Sentinel-2 preparatory activities. Based on the spectral matching between both VNIR sensors, SPOT-5 was used to simulate Sentinel-2 products. Several experimental campaigns were carried out concurrent with SPOT-5 overpasses or close in date. Chlorophyll-a concentration [Chl-a], transparency (SD) and total suspended particles concentration [TSS] were measured. Genetic programming models were used to generate nonlinear regression equations between ground measurements and reflectance values from the SPOT-5 spectral bands. Results showed mean errors of ± 8%, ± 5% and ± 10% in the estimation of [Chl-a], SD and [TSS], respectively. These results show the potential of Sentinel-2 to monitor and study the spatio-temporal trend of these water quality parameters.

  18. Carbon Speciation and Anthropogenic Influences in Haitian Rivers and Inland Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markowitz, M.; Paine, J.; McGillis, W. R.; Hsueh, D. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Climate, geography, and land use patterns all contribute to the social, economic, and environmental challenges in Haiti. Water quality remains a predominant issue, and the health of freshwater systems has been linked to the cycling and transformation of carbon. A speciation dominated by carbonates and bicarbonates is conducive to higher alkalinity waters, which is part of an environmental signature in which cholera and other bacteria thrive. Numerous human activities such as deforestation, biomass burning, and agricultural practices have radically changed the abundances of carbon on land and rivers in Haiti. In Haitian small mountainous rivers, carbon speciation is also influenced by the weathering of limestone and other carbonate rocks. Additionally, rain events and natural disturbances such as earthquakes have shown to drastically increase the amount of carbon in rivers and coastal waters. Since 2010, a network of both satellite and autonomous hydrometeorological stations has been deployed to monitor the climate in southwestern Haiti. Additionally, various hydrological parameters from river, reservoir, and coastal sites have been measured during field visits. Research will be continued into the wet season, providing temporal analysis needed for quantifying the abundances and transformations of carbon. Together, data from weather stations and field sites can be contextualized with local land use patterns and other human activities to offer unique insights on the carbon system. Findings may offer new perspectives on the relationships between hydrologic cycles, human health, and environmental sustainability in Haiti.

  19. Measured and Modeled Water Balances For Three Snow Dominated Forested Catchments With Different Canopy Cover In The Inland Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbart, J. A.; Link, T.; Du, E.

    2007-12-01

    There is a need to better understand the dominant components of the catchment water balance in complex vegetated terrain to advance our understanding of basic hydrological processes and develop effective land management practices. A lack of paired or other detailed watershed studies in the inland Pacific Northwest has limited our understanding of this hydroclimatically, biophysically, and topographically complex region. Empirical analyses of long term data sets, and results from detailed investigations were used to assess impacts of contemporary timber harvest practices on the water balance components of the Mica Creek Experimental Watershed (MCEW). Measurements at the MCEW include precipitation, rainfall interception, snow water equivalent, sap flux, soil moisture, and streamflow. Results were applied to annual averages for the 2002 through 2005 water years directly following canopy removal. Of total precipitation (1401 mm/wy), 755 mm, 628 mm, and 475 mm/yr resulted in streamflow from clearcut, partial cut, and fully forested catchments respectively. Study results showed that canopy interception of rain was 17.2 % of rainfall for a full canopy, and 13.3 % for a partial cut (i.e. 50 % harvest) canopy. Canopy interception of snow was calculated as 43 % and 60 % for partial cut and full forest respectively. Based on sap flow measurements, transpiration was calculated to be 1.5 mm/day for approximately 200 days per year, or 300 mm/year. Based on these findings, estimates of evaporation (including sublimation) were 161 mm, 361 mm, and 470 mm/yr, and estimates of transpiration were 148 mm, 221 mm, and 296 mm/yr, for clearcut, partial cut, and fully forested catchments respectively. This suggests that water yield increased 30 % following clearcut harvest, and 20 % following partial cut harvest, and evaporation dropped to nearly 30 % of pre-harvest evaporation following clearcut, and nearly 60 % of pre-harvest evaporation following partial cut harvest. Soil evaporation

  20. CRUCIAL: Cryosat-2 Success over Inland Water and Land: Analyses and Validation of SAR and SARin Full Bit Rate Altimetric Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Philip; Benveniste, Jérôme; Birkinshaw, Stephen; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco

    2016-07-01

    CRUCIAL is an ESA/STSE funded project investigating innovative land and inland water applications from Cryosat-2 with a forward-look component to the future Sentinel-3 and Jason-CS/Sentinel-6 missions. The high along-track sampling of Cryosat-2 in its SAR and SARin modes offer the opportunity to recover high frequency signals over inland waters. A theoretical approach has been developed to process the FBR L1A Doppler beams to form a product using ground cell gridding, beam steering and beam stacking from which inland water heights are derivable from the retracked Cryosat-2 altimetric waveforms. Results of the processing strategy will include a comparison of waveforms and heights from the burst echoes (˜80 m along-track) and from multi-look waveforms (˜320 m along-track). SAR and SARin FBR data are available for the Amazon, Brahmaputra and Mekong for 2011-2015. FBR SAR results will be compared against stage data from the nearest gauge where applicable with heights from Tonle Sap compared against Jason-2 data from the United States Department of Agriculture. A strategy to select the number of multi-looks over rivers will also be presented. Results of FBR SARin processing for the Amazon and Brahmaputra will be presented including comparison of heights from the two antennae, extraction of slope of the ground surface and validation against ground data where appropriate.

  1. Determination of immersion factors for radiance sensors in marine and inland waters: a semi-analytical approach using refractive index approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, Pravin J.; Shanmugam, P.

    2016-05-01

    Underwater radiometers are generally calibrated in air using a standard source. The immersion factors are required for these radiometers to account for the change in the in-water measurements with respect to in-air due to the different refractive index of the medium. The immersion factors previously determined for RAMSES series of commercial radiometers manufactured by TriOS are applicable to clear oceanic waters. In typical inland and turbid productive coastal waters, these experimentally determined immersion factors yield significantly large errors in water-leaving radiances (Lw) and hence remote sensing reflectances (Rrs). To overcome this limitation, a semi-analytical method with based on the refractive index approximation is proposed in this study, with the aim of obtaining reliable Lw and Rrs from RAMSES radiometers for turbid and productive waters within coastal and inland water environments. We also briefly show the variation of pure water immersion factors (Ifw) and newly derived If on Lw and Rrs for clear and turbid waters. The remnant problems other than the immersion factor coefficients such as transmission, air-water and water-air Fresnel's reflectances are also discussed.

  2. Physiological responses to hyper-saline waters in sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna).

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, R J; Cooper, J; Head, D

    2005-12-01

    We examined the ionoregulatory physiology and biochemistry of the teleost sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna), an inhabitant of salt marshes along the gulf coast, during exposure to hyper-saline waters (salinity range 35-95 ppt). Mollies were able to tightly control plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations and tissue water levels up to 65 ppt, but at higher salinities plasma ion levels began to rise and muscle water content dropped. Still, even at the highest salinity (90 ppt) plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) levels were only 32% and 39%, respectively, above levels at 35 ppt. Drinking rates at 60 ppt climbed 35%, while gut Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NAK) activity rose 70% and branchial NAK activity jumped 200%. The relatively small rise in drinking rate, in the face of a more than doubling of the osmotic gradient, suggests that a reduction in branchial water permeability significantly limited water loss and associated salt load. At 80 ppt, a salinity where plasma ion levels just begin to rise, drinking rate rose more rapidly, but gut and gill NAK activity did not, suggesting that mollies employed other pathways (perhaps renal) of salt excretion. At higher salinities, plasma ion levels continued to rise and muscle water content fell slightly indicating the beginnings of internal osmotic disturbances. To evaluate the energetic costs of hyper-salinity on mollies we measured the rate of O(2) consumption and found it rose with salinity, in sharp contrast to virtually all species previously examined. Interestingly, despite higher metabolism, growth was unaffected by hyper-salinity.

  3. Site-specific profiles of estrogenic activity in agricultural areas of California's inland waters.

    PubMed

    Lavado, Ramon; Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E; Floyd, Emily; Kolodziej, Edward P; Snyder, Shane A; Sedlak, David L; Schlenk, Daniel

    2009-12-15

    To evaluate the occurrence and sources of compounds capable of feminizing fish in agriculturally impacted waterways of the Central Valley of California, water samples were extracted and subjected to chemical analyses as well as in vitro and in vivo measurements of vitellogenin in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Among the 16 sites sampled, 6 locations frequently exhibited elevated concentrations of estrogenic substances with 17beta-estradiol equivalents up to 242 ng/L in vitro and 12 microg/kg in vivo. The patterns of activity varied among sites, with two sites showing elevated activity only in vitro, two showing elevated activity only in vivo, and two showing elevated activity in both assays. Sequential elution of solid-phase extraction (SPE) disks followed by bioassay-guided fractionation was used to characterize water samples from the two locations where activity was observed in both bioassays. The highest estrogenic activity was observed in the most nonpolar fractions (80-100% methanol eluent) from the Napa River, while most of the activity in the Sacramento River Delta eluted in the 60% methanol eluent. Quantitative analyses of SPE extracts and additional HPLC fractionation of the SPE extracts by GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS indicated concentrations of steroid hormones, alkylphenol polyethoxylates, and herbicides that were at least 1-3 orders of magnitude below bioassay 17beta-estradiol equivalent calculations. Given the different patterns of activity and chemical properties of the estrogenic compounds, it appears that estrogenic activity in these agriculturally impacted surface waters is attributable to multiple compounds. Further investigation is needed to identify the compounds causing the estrogenic activity and to determine the potential impacts of these compounds on feral fish.

  4. In vitro analysis of inflammatory responses following environmental exposure to pharmaceuticals and inland waters.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Hazem; Salste, Lotta; Karlsson, Patrik; Ivarsson, Per; Jass, Jana; Olsson, Per-Erik

    2009-02-01

    Pharmaceuticals are regularly released into the environment; in particular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antibiotics. Erythromycin, naproxen, furosemide and atenolol are reported to be stable for up to 1 year in the environment, which increases the risk for accumulation. In the present study we have measured the occurrence and concentration of pharmaceuticals in river Viskan (Jössabron) downstream of a sewage treatment plant in Borås, Sweden. Pharmaceuticals and water samples were tested for potential human risk by evaluating inflammatory responses (NF-kappaB and AP-1) using human T24 bladder epithelial cells and Jurkat T-cells. NF-kappaB activity in T24 cells was significantly reduced by all NSAIDs analysed (diclofenac, ketoprofen, naproxen, ibuprophen and dextropropoxyphene), but also by trimethoprim, using environmentally relevant concentrations. NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation was further analysed in response to water samples collected from different locations in Sweden. Dose-dependent down-regulation of AP-1 activity in Jurkat cells was observed at all locations. At two locations (Jössabron and Almenäs) down-regulation of NF-kappaB was observed. In contrast, the NF-kappaB response was potentiated by exposure to water from both locations following activation of NF-kappaB by treatment with heat-killed Escherichia coli. To determine the involvement of pharmaceuticals in the responses, T24 cells were exposed to the pharmaceutical mixture, based on the determined levels at Jössabron. This resulted in reduction of the NF-kappaB response following exposure to the pharmaceutical mixture alone while no potentiation was observed when cells were co-exposed to heat killed E. coli and pharmaceuticals. The obtained results demonstrate that the identified pharmaceuticals affect the inflammatory responses and furthermore indicate the presence of unknown substance(s) with the ability to potentiate inflammatory responses.

  5. Monitoring and predicting eutrophication of Sri Lankan inland waters using ASTER satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahanayaka, D. D. G. L.; Wijeyaratne, M. J. S.; Tonooka, H.; Minato, A.; Ozawa, S.; Perera, B. D. C.

    2014-10-01

    This study focused on determining the past changes and predicting the future trends in eutrophication of the Bolgoda North lake, Sri Lanka using in situ Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) measurements and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data. This Lake is located in a mixed land use area with industries, some agricultural lands, middle income and high income housing, tourist hotels and low income housing. From March to October 2013, water samples from five sampling sites were collected once a month parallel to ASTER overpass and Chl-a, nitrate and phosphate contents of each sample were measured using standard laboratory methods. Cloud-free ASTER scenes over the lake during the 2000-2013 periods were acquired for Chl-a estimation and trend analysis. All ASTER images were atmospherically corrected using FLAASH software and in-situ Chl-a data were regressed with atmospherically corrected three ASTER VNIR band ratios of the same date. The regression equation of the band ratio and Chl-a content with the highest correlation, which was the green/red band ratio was used to develop algorithm for generation of 15-m resolution Chl-a distribution maps. According to the ASTER based Chl-a distribution maps it was evident that eutrophication of this lake has gradually increased from 2008-2011. Results also indicated that there had been significantly high eutrophic conditions throughout the year 2013 in several regions, especially in water stagnant areas and adjacent to freshwater outlets. Field observations showed that this lake is receiving various discharges from factories. Unplanned urbanization and inadequacy of proper facilities in the nearby industries for waste management have resulted in the eutrophication of the water body. If the present trends of waste disposal and unplanned urbanization continue, enormous environmental problems would be resulted in future. Results of the present study showed that information from satellite remote

  6. The effect of drinking water salinity on blood pressure in young adults of coastal Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Talukder, Mohammad Radwanur Rahman; Rutherford, Shannon; Phung, Dung; Islam, Mohammad Zahirul; Chu, Cordia

    2016-07-01

    More than 35 million people in coastal Bangladesh are vulnerable to increasing freshwater salinization. This will continue to affect more people and to a greater extent as climate change projections are realised in this area in the future. However the evidence for health effects of consuming high salinity water is limited. This research examined the association between drinking water salinity and blood pressure in young adults in coastal Bangladesh. We conducted a cross-sectional study during May-June 2014 in a rural coastal sub-district of Bangladesh. Data on blood pressure (BP) and salinity of potable water sources was collected from 253 participants aged 19-25 years. A linear regression method was used to examine the association between water salinity exposure categories and systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) level. Sixty five percent of the study population were exposed to highly saline drinking water above the Bangladesh standard (600 mg/L and above). Multivariable linear regression analyses identified that compared to the low water salinity exposure category (<600 mg/L), those in the high water salinity category (>600 mg/L), had statistically significantly higher SBP (B 3.46, 95% CI 0.75, 6.17; p = 0.01) and DBP (B 2.77, 95% CI 0.31, 5.24; p = 0.03). Our research shows that elevated salinity in drinking water is associated with higher BP in young coastal populations. Blood pressure is an important risk factor of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Given the extent of salinization of freshwater in many low-lying countries including in Bangladesh, and the likely exacerbation related to climate change-induced sea level rise, implementation of preventative strategies through dietary interventions along with promotion of low saline drinking water must be a priority in these settings.

  7. Integrating in situ reflectance with satellite imagery to determine chlorophyll and turbidity for inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Tina

    The overall objective of this study was to use hyperspectral field spectra to find possible spectral regions in which chlorophyll- a and turbidity could be identified to assist in the assessment and monitoring of water quality using satellite remote sensing technology. Using statistical analysis between the mean reflectance values measured with the GER1500 field spectroradiometer across the spectrum and the concentrations of chlorophyll-a (mug/L) and turbidity (NTU) acquired simultaneously, regression analyses were applied to determine the best wavelengths for determining the concentration of these parameters. Each regression model (512 in total) corresponded to a measured wavelength of the GER1500 field spectrometer. The achieved correlations presented as R2 values against wavelengths, indicated the regions with high correlation values, chlorophyll-a , and turbidity. Based on the results from this study and by matching the spectral bands of the field spectroradiometer with those of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite sensor, several suitable spectral regions were determined for monitoring water quality in Kentucky Lake. For chlorophyll- a, the spectral region of 0.45-0.52 mum (TM band 1), and for turbidity the region 0.52-0.60 mum (TM bands 1 and 2) were determined to be suitable wavelengths to determine such data. In this study, the wavelengths of 700 nm and 675 nm from the GER1500 spectroradiometer were found to be the most suitable wavelengths for predicting chlorophyll-a concentrations. Correlation analysis between remotely sensed data and chlorophyll- a data indicated the possibility of mapping chlorophyll- a concentrations accurately. The wavelengths that represented the difference of 770.82nm-742.60nm correlated best to turbidity (R2 = 0.74).

  8. Water and Soil Salinity Mapping for Southern Everglades Using Remote Sensing Techniques and In Situ Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadim, Fahad Khan

    Everglades National Park is a hydro-ecologically significant wetland experiencing salinity ingress over the years. This motivated our study to map water salinity using a spatially weighted optimization model (SWOM); and soil salinity using land cover classes and EC thresholds. SWOM was calibrated and validated at 3-km grids with actual salinity for 1998-2001, and yielded acceptable R2 (0.89-0.92) and RMSE (1.73-1.92 ppt). Afterwards, seasonal water salinity mapping for 1996-97, 2004-05, and 2016 was carried out. For soil salinity mapping, supervised land cover classification was firstly carried out for 1996, 2000, 2006, 2010 and 2015; with the first four providing average accuracies of 82%-94% against existing NLCD classifications. The land cover classes and EC thresholds helped mapping four soil salinity classes namely, the non saline (EC = 0˜2 dS/m), low saline (EC = 2˜4 dS/m), moderate saline (EC = 4˜8 dS/m) and high saline (EC >8 dS/m) areas.

  9. Drinking cholera: salinity levels and palatability of drinking water in coastal Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Grant, Stephen Lawrence; Tamason, Charlotte Crim; Hoque, Bilqis Amin; Jensen, Peter Kjaer Mackie

    2015-04-01

    To measure the salinity levels of common water sources in coastal Bangladesh and explore perceptions of water palatability among the local population to investigate the plausibility of linking cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh with ingestion of saline-rich cholera-infected river water. Hundred participants took part in a taste-testing experiment of water with varying levels of salinity. Salinity measurements were taken of both drinking and non-drinking water sources. Informal group discussions were conducted to gain an in-depth understanding of water sources and water uses. Salinity levels of non-drinking water sources suggest that the conditions for Vibrio cholerae survival exist 7-8 days within the local aquatic environment. However, 96% of participants in the taste-testing experiment reported that they would never drink water with salinity levels that would be conducive to V. cholerae survival. Furthermore, salinity levels of participant's drinking water sources were all well below the levels required for optimal survival of V. cholerae. Respondents explained that they preferred less salty and more aesthetically pleasing drinking water. Theoretically, V. cholerae can survive in the river systems in Bangladesh; however, water sources which have been contaminated with river water are avoided as potential drinking water sources. Furthermore, there are no physical connecting points between the river system and drinking water sources among the study population, indicating that the primary driver for cholera cases in Bangladesh is likely not through the contamination of saline-rich river water into drinking water sources. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Mesoporous Carbon for Capacitive Deionization of Saline Water

    SciTech Connect

    Tsouris, Costas; Mayes, Richard T; Kiggans, Jim; Sharma, Ms. Ketki; Yiacoumi, Sotira; DePaoli, David W; Dai, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembled mesoporous carbon (MC) materials have been synthesized and tested for application in capacitive deionization (CDI) of saline water. MC was prepared by self-assembly of a triblock copolymer with hydrogen-bonded chains via a phenolic resin, such as resorcinol or phloroglucinol in acidic conditions, followed by carbonization and, in some cases, activation by KOH. Carbon synthesized in this way was ground into powder, from which activated MC sheets were produced. In a variation of this process, after the reaction of triblock copolymer with resorcinol or phloroglucinol, the gel that was formed was used to coat a graphite plate and then carbonized. The coated graphite plate in this case was not activated and was tested to serve as current collector during the CDI process. The performance of these MC materials was compared to that of carbon aerogel for salt concentrations ranging between 1000 ppm and 35,000 ppm. Resorcinol-based MC removed up to 15.2 mg salt per gram of carbon, while carbon aerogel removed 5.8 mg salt per gram of carbon. Phloroglucinol-based MC-coated graphite exhibited the highest ion removal capacity at 21 mg of salt per gram of carbon for 35,000 ppm salt concentration.

  11. Intrusion of low-salinity water into the Yellow Sea Interior in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Joon-Ho; Lee, Seok; Pang, Ig-Chan

    2014-12-01

    Abnormally low-salinity water was detected in the surface layer of the central region of the Yellow Sea in August 2012. The presence of such low-salinity water in the Yellow Sea interior has never been reported previously. To understand the origin of this low-salinity water, oceanographic and wind data were analyzed, and the circulation of the surface layer was also examined in the Yellow and East China Seas using a numerical ocean model. The results confirmed that typhoons caused the low-salinity water. Two consecutive typhoons passed from east to west across the East China Sea, around the Changjiang Bank in early August 2012. Strong easterly and southeasterly winds created by the typhoons in the Yellow and East China Seas drove the low-salinity water to the north along the coast of China and northeastward toward the central region of the Yellow Sea, respectively. Usually, the northward drifting of Changjiang Diluted Water along the coast of China ends around the Jiangsu coast, where the drifting is blocked and is turned by the offshore Eulerian residual current. Therefore, the Changjiang Diluted Water does not intrude more into the Yellow Sea interior. However, in 2012, the low-salinity water drifted up to the Shandong Peninsula along the coast of China, and formed massive low-salinity water in the Yellow Sea interior combining with the other low-salinity water extended toward the central region of the Yellow Sea directly from the Changjiang Bank. Thus, the typhoons play a key role in the appearance of abnormally low-salinity water in the Yellow Sea interior and it means that the Yellow Sea ecosystem could be significantly influenced by the Changjiang Diluted Water.

  12. Redfield Ratios in Inland Waters: Higher Biological Control of C:N:P Ratios in Tropical Semi-arid High Water Residence Time Lakes

    PubMed Central

    They, Ng H.; Amado, André M.; Cotner, James B.

    2017-01-01

    The canonical Redfield C:N:P ratio for algal biomass is often not achieved in inland waters due to higher C and N content and more variability when compared to the oceans. This has been attributed to much lower residence times and higher contributions of the watershed to the total organic matter pool of continental ecosystems. In this study we examined the effect of water residence times in low latitude lakes (in a gradient from humid to a semi-arid region) on seston elemental ratios in different size fractions. We used lake water specific conductivity as a proxy for residence time in a region of Eastern Brazil where there is a strong precipitation gradient. The C:P ratios decreased in the seston and bacterial size-fractions and increased in the dissolved fraction with increasing water retention time, suggesting uptake of N and P from the dissolved pool. Bacterial abundance, production and respiration increased in response to increased residence time and intracellular nutrient availability in agreement with the growth rate hypothesis. Our results reinforce the role of microorganisms in shaping the chemical environment in aquatic systems particularly at long water residence times and highlights the importance of this factor in influencing ecological stoichiometry in all aquatic ecosystems. PMID:28848518

  13. Redfield Ratios in Inland Waters: Higher Biological Control of C:N:P Ratios in Tropical Semi-arid High Water Residence Time Lakes.

    PubMed

    They, Ng H; Amado, André M; Cotner, James B

    2017-01-01

    The canonical Redfield C:N:P ratio for algal biomass is often not achieved in inland waters due to higher C and N content and more variability when compared to the oceans. This has been attributed to much lower residence times and higher contributions of the watershed to the total organic matter pool of continental ecosystems. In this study we examined the effect of water residence times in low latitude lakes (in a gradient from humid to a semi-arid region) on seston elemental ratios in different size fractions. We used lake water specific conductivity as a proxy for residence time in a region of Eastern Brazil where there is a strong precipitation gradient. The C:P ratios decreased in the seston and bacterial size-fractions and increased in the dissolved fraction with increasing water retention time, suggesting uptake of N and P from the dissolved pool. Bacterial abundance, production and respiration increased in response to increased residence time and intracellular nutrient availability in agreement with the growth rate hypothesis. Our results reinforce the role of microorganisms in shaping the chemical environment in aquatic systems particularly at long water residence times and highlights the importance of this factor in influencing ecological stoichiometry in all aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Effects of drip irrigation under plastic film with saline water on cotton growth and yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Jin, M.; He, Y.; Zhou, J.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    To study the influence of different irrigation system for drip irrigation under plastic film with saline water on cotton growth and yields, field experiments at key irrigation experiment station of water resources management division in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China were set up consist of different irrigation ratio (5250, 4500, 3750, 3000m3/hm2), different irrigation times (24, 12 and 8 times) and different rotation irrigation modes. The results show that: with the larger irrigation ratio, the cotton growth and yields was also better, and the significant influence on cotton growth and yields for irrigation ratio is between 3750-4500 m3/hm2. When the irrigation ratio is smaller (3000m3/hm2), cotton growth and yields for irrigation times of 8 times are higher, When the irrigation ratio is bigger (4500m3/hm2), cotton growth for irrigation times of 12 times are better and its cotton yields are higher correspondingly. According to the growth of cotton, yields and water productivity, the suitable irrigation system of cotton is the irrigation ratio of 4500-3750 m3/ hm2 and the irrigation times of 18 times for drip irrigation under plastic film with saline water. For different rotation drip irrigation experiments with saline water and fresh water, the cotton yields and irrigation water productivity is higher under the disposal of SF (rotation irrigation in first 6 times with saline water irrigation and then 6 times with fresh water irrigation) compared to FS (rotation irrigation in first 6 times with fresh water and then 6 times with saline water) and SSFA (rotation irrigation with twice saline water and once fresh water) compared to SFA (alternative irrigation with saline water and fresh water). Compared to the different alternate irrigation experiments, the cotton yields and water productivity for pure saline water irrigation is higher. In addition, the trend is the larger the irrigation ratio and the higher the yields. It maybe dues to the low

  15. Developing a semi-analytical algorithm to estimate particulate organic carbon (POC) levels in inland eutrophic turbid water based on MERIS images: A case study of Lake Taihu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Heng; Wang, Yannan; Jin, Qi; Shi, Lei; Li, Yunmei; Wang, Qiao

    2017-10-01

    Particulate organic carbon (POC) plays an important role in the carbon cycle in water due to its biological pump process. In the open ocean, algorithms can accurately estimate the surface POC concentration. However, no suitable POC-estimation algorithm based on MERIS bands is available for inland turbid eutrophic water. A total of 228 field samples were collected from Lake Taihu in different seasons between 2013 and 2015. At each site, the optical parameters and water quality were analyzed. Using in situ data, it was found that POC-estimation algorithms developed for the open ocean and coastal waters using remote sensing reflectance were not suitable for inland turbid eutrophic water. The organic suspended matter (OSM) concentration was found to be the best indicator of the POC concentration, and POC has an exponential relationship with the OSM concentration. Through an analysis of the POC concentration and optical parameters, it was found that the absorption peak of total suspended matter (TSM) at 665 nm was the optimum parameter to estimate POC. As a result, MERIS band 7, MERIS band 10 and MERIS band 12 were used to derive the absorption coefficient of TSM at 665 nm, and then, a semi-analytical algorithm was used to estimate the POC concentration for inland turbid eutrophic water. An accuracy assessment showed that the developed semi-analytical algorithm could be successfully applied with a MAPE of 31.82% and RMSE of 2.68 mg/L. The developed algorithm was successfully applied to a MERIS image, and two full-resolution MERIS images, acquired on August 13, 2010, and December 7, 2010, were used to map the POC spatial distribution in Lake Taihu in summer and winter.

  16. Saline waters in New York State, Long Island, Staten Island and Manhattan, and upstate New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lusczynski, N.J.; Geraghty, J.J.; Asselstine, E.S.; Grossman, I.G.

    1956-01-01

    In connection with studies of the practicability of conversion of saline water to fresh water, the U. S. Geological Survey assembled data on the occurrence, distribution, quantity, and chemical quality of saline waters as of 1955 for a report entitled, "Preliminary survey of the saline water resources of the United States" to be released when completed as a U. S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1374. This report comprises data for New York State. Saline water is defined herein as any mixture of fresh and salt water having more than 1,000 parts per million (ppm) of dissolved solids. In the Nation as a whole there are, of course, all gradations of salinity from 1,000 ppm up to the 30,000 to 35,000 ppm characteristic of sea water, and the even higher salinities of certain natural brines. Sea water, and other water of comparable salinity, will be referred to here as "sea water" or "high-chloride water". This report contains two parts: one for Long Island, Staten Island, and Manhattan, N. Y., and the other for Upstate New York. Figure 1 shows the locations of the places named and important occurrences of saline water in and near Long Island. Tables 1 and 2 list, respectively, well data and chemical analyses for selected wells in Long Island, Staten Island, and Manhattan, N. Y.; tables 3 and 4 list, respectively, well data and chemical analyses for selected wells in Upstate New York. For many samples, only the chloride concentration and not the total dissolved solids has been determined. However, it is safe to assume that the total dissolved solids in natural water are substantially in excess of 1,000 ppm where the chloride is at or nearly at this concentration.

  17. Fate of toxic metals during estuarine mixing of fresh water with saline water.

    PubMed

    Farajnejad, Hamed; Karbassi, Abdolreza; Heidari, Mehdi

    2017-10-04

    Metals are among the most common environmental pollutants, and their presence in high concentration in waters and biota have devastating effects on flora, fauna, and human health. Flocculation process of metals during estuarine mixing can reduce the environmental hazards of metals and also can provide micronutrients to the aquatic system. The present investigation provides a thorough study of eliminating colloidal elements of copper, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc during estuarine mixing of Shalmanrood River water with Caspian Sea water in Iran. The processes of flocculation were carried out in six different salinity regimes (0.45-2.4 ppt). The obtained result is indicative of non-conservative behavior of the studied metals. Higher flocculation resulted in a lower salinity regime. The obtained results indicated that most of the metals were eliminated during the initial mixing of fresh water with sea water at 0.45-0.9 ppt salinity interval. The trend of flocculation rates of elements is as follows: Zn (59.3%) > Pb (47.6%) > Mn (37.5%) > Cu (29.2%) > Ni (27%).The annual average load of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) from Shalmanrood River to Caspian Sea decreases as a result of flocculation process from 9.9, 7.7, 8.9, 5.1, and 23.2 tons per year to 7, 4.8, 6.5, 2.7, and 9.4 tons per year, respectively. According to the cluster analysis, parameters such as temperature, pH, and Eh do not have any impact on flocculation of elements expect for Pb. The only parameter that influences the flocculation of Mn is the salinity. Metal speciation studies that are carried out by Eh-pH software show that the studied metals are present as oxides (Zn, Cu, and Ni) and hydroxides (Mn and Pb).

  18. Indicators: Salinity

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Salinity is the dissolved salt content of a body of water. Excess salinity, due to evaporation, water withdrawal, wastewater discharge, and other sources, is a chemical sterssor that can be toxic for aquatic environments.

  19. Improved capabilities of the Chinese high-resolution remote sensing satellite GF-1 for monitoring suspended particulate matter (SPM) in inland waters: Radiometric and spatial considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Chen, Xiaoling; Tian, Liqiao; Huang, Jue; Feng, Lian

    2015-08-01

    Dominated by high dynamic and small-scale variability, remote sensing of inland or coastal waters is frequently impended by insufficient spatial resolutions from conventional ocean color sensors. With the urgent need and the rapid progress in high-resolution earth observation systems (HR), it is critical to assess the capabilities of HR in inland water monitoring. In this study, the radiometric and spatial performance of the Chinese high-resolution GF-1 Wide Field Imager (WFI) data for water quality monitoring were evaluated in term of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), sensitivity to suspended particulate matter (SPM) variations and spatial depiction ability. The SNR was statistically estimated from variable moving window method, and the radiometric sensitivity was simulated using the Moderate Resolution Atmospheric Transmission (MODTRAN) under varied surface and atmospheric conditions. Results indicated that both the SNR and the radiometric sensitivity of the GF-1 WFI were enhanced by 3-5 times than its predecessor (Chinese HJ-1 CCD) or Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and were comparable to Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) medium-resolution bands (250 and 500 m), which have been extensively applied in inland water environment monitoring. Cross comparisons demonstrated high consistency of the spatial distribution and concentration of SPM maps between GF-1 WFI and Landsat 8 OLI. Furthermore, more than 75% of the spatial variations in high turbid waters were resolved from GF-1 WFI data, whereas the ability dropped to 40% when the spatial resolution was degraded to 250 m (MODIS-like sensors). Overall, GF-1 WFI is extraordinarily promising with an enhanced SNR, an increased spectral sensitivity to SPM variations and an advanced spatial resolution. With the ongoing plans of the successive GF series (2-7), the findings would serve as a reference for forthcoming applications, and are critical

  20. Inland surface waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical load is a “quantitative estimate of the exposure to one or more pollutants below which significant harmful effects on specified sensitive elements of the environment do not occur according to present knowledge”. Critical loads can be either modeled, or calculated empi...

  1. Inland surface waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical load is a “quantitative estimate of the exposure to one or more pollutants below which significant harmful effects on specified sensitive elements of the environment do not occur according to present knowledge”. Critical loads can be either modeled, or calculated empi...

  2. Novel water filtration of saline water in the outermost layer of mangrove roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kiwoong; Seo, Eunseok; Chang, Suk-Kyu; Park, Tae Jung; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-02-01

    The scarcity of fresh water is a global challenge faced at present. Several desalination methods have been suggested to secure fresh water from sea water. However, conventional methods suffer from technical limitations, such as high power consumption, expensive operating costs, and limited system durability. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using halophytes as a novel technology of desalinating high-concentration saline water for long periods. This study investigated the biophysical characteristics of sea water filtration in the roots of the mangrove Rhizophora stylosa from a plant hydrodynamic point of view. R. stylosa can grow even in saline water, and the salt level in its roots is regulated within a certain threshold value through filtration. The root possesses a hierarchical, triple layered pore structure in the epidermis, and most Na+ ions are filtered at the first sublayer of the outermost layer. The high blockage of Na+ ions is attributed to the high surface zeta potential of the first layer. The second layer, which is composed of macroporous structures, also facilitates Na+ ion filtration. This study provides insights into the mechanism underlying water filtration through halophyte roots and serves as a basis for the development of a novel bio-inspired desalination method.

  3. Novel water filtration of saline water in the outermost layer of mangrove roots.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kiwoong; Seo, Eunseok; Chang, Suk-Kyu; Park, Tae Jung; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-02-05

    The scarcity of fresh water is a global challenge faced at present. Several desalination methods have been suggested to secure fresh water from sea water. However, conventional methods suffer from technical limitations, such as high power consumption, expensive operating costs, and limited system durability. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using halophytes as a novel technology of desalinating high-concentration saline water for long periods. This study investigated the biophysical characteristics of sea water filtration in the roots of the mangrove Rhizophora stylosa from a plant hydrodynamic point of view. R. stylosa can grow even in saline water, and the salt level in its roots is regulated within a certain threshold value through filtration. The root possesses a hierarchical, triple layered pore structure in the epidermis, and most Na(+) ions are filtered at the first sublayer of the outermost layer. The high blockage of Na(+) ions is attributed to the high surface zeta potential of the first layer. The second layer, which is composed of macroporous structures, also facilitates Na(+) ion filtration. This study provides insights into the mechanism underlying water filtration through halophyte roots and serves as a basis for the development of a novel bio-inspired desalination method.

  4. Novel water filtration of saline water in the outermost layer of mangrove roots

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kiwoong; Seo, Eunseok; Chang, Suk-Kyu; Park, Tae Jung; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-01-01

    The scarcity of fresh water is a global challenge faced at present. Several desalination methods have been suggested to secure fresh water from sea water. However, conventional methods suffer from technical limitations, such as high power consumption, expensive operating costs, and limited system durability. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using halophytes as a novel technology of desalinating high-concentration saline water for long periods. This study investigated the biophysical characteristics of sea water filtration in the roots of the mangrove Rhizophora stylosa from a plant hydrodynamic point of view. R. stylosa can grow even in saline water, and the salt level in its roots is regulated within a certain threshold value through filtration. The root possesses a hierarchical, triple layered pore structure in the epidermis, and most Na+ ions are filtered at the first sublayer of the outermost layer. The high blockage of Na+ ions is attributed to the high surface zeta potential of the first layer. The second layer, which is composed of macroporous structures, also facilitates Na+ ion filtration. This study provides insights into the mechanism underlying water filtration through halophyte roots and serves as a basis for the development of a novel bio-inspired desalination method. PMID:26846878

  5. New evidence on the economic benefits of controlling salinity in domestic water supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragan, Guy E.; Young, Robert A.; Makela, Carole J.

    2000-04-01

    To study the economic benefits of controlling salinity in residential water supplies, we surveyed households and appliance repair shops along the Arkansas River Basin in Colorado, where salinity ranges from 100 to 3600 mg/L. To avoid a downward bias on estimated appliance lives, we obtained and used data on both ages of in-service appliances and ages at failure of failed appliances. We adapted the accelerated testing method to model the effect of salinity on appliance lives. Dishwashers, water heaters, garbage disposers, water softeners, and evaporative coolers showed statistically significant reductions in service life with increasing salinity. In comparison with the most cited previous study, we found no statistically significant effects for some appliances; for appliances common to both studies our estimates of salinity damages are one third or less as high. These differences may originate from inclusion of in-service appliances or reduced damage due to technological improvements.

  6. RESEARCH: Diversion of the Ganges Water at Farakka and Its Effects on Salinity in Bangladesh

    PubMed

    Mirza

    1998-09-01

    / The Ganges River supplies water to the southwest region of Bangladesh mainly through one of its distributaries-the Gorai River. India commissioned a barrage on the Ganges River at Farakka in April 1975 to divert water and make the Bhagirathi-Hooghly River navigable. The diversion has reduced the dry season discharge of the Ganges and Gorai rivers in Bangladesh. Statistical analyses indicate that the changes in the dry season discharge of these rivers are significant. Reduced discharge in the Gorai River has induced accelerated sedimentation and increased salinity in the southwest region of Bangladesh. Empirical analyses demonstrate the relationship between discharge in the Gorai River and salinity. Analyses also determine the requirement of flow for the Ganges and Gorai rivers to keep salinity at threshold limits. Increased salinity has caused negative effects on agriculture, forestry, industry, and drinking water in the southwest region of Bangladesh.KEY WORDS: Bangladesh; Ganges River; Gorai River; Farakka diversion; Salinity

  7. Salinization of a fresh palaeo-ground water resource by enhanced recharge.

    PubMed

    Leaney, F W; Herczeg, A L; Walker, G R

    2003-01-01

    Deterioration of fresh ground water resources caused by salinization is a growing issue in many arid and semi-arid parts of the world. We discuss here the incipient salinization of a 10(4) km2 area of fresh ground water (<3,000 mg/L) in the semiarid Murray Basin of Australia caused by widespread changes in land use. Ground water 14C concentrations and unsaturated zone Cl soil water inventories indicate that the low salinity ground water originated mainly from palaeo-recharge during wet climatic periods more than 20,000 years ago. However, much of the soil water in the 20 to 60 m thick unsaturated zone throughout the area is generally saline (>15,000 mg/L) because of relatively high evapotranspiration during the predominantly semiarid climate of the last 20,000 years. Widespread clearing of native vegetation over the last 100 years and replacement with crops and pastures leads to enhancement of recharge rates that progressively displace the saline soil-water from the unsaturated zone into the ground water. To quantify the impact of this new hydrologic regime, a one-dimensional model that simulates projected ground water salinities as a function of depth to ground water, recharge rates, and soil water salt inventory was developed. Results from the model suggest that, in some areas, the ground water salinity within the top 10 m of the water table is likely to increase by a factor of 2 to 6 during the next 100 years. Ground water quality will therefore potentially degrade beyond the point of usefulness well before extraction of the ground water exhausts the resource.

  8. Monitoring Inland Storm Surge and Flooding from Hurricane Rita

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, Benton D.; Tollett, Roland W.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.

    2006-01-01

    Pressure transducers (sensors) and high-water marks were used to document the inland water levels related to storm surge generated by Hurricane Rita in southwestern Louisiana and southeastern Texas. On September 22-23, 2005, an experimental monitoring network of sensors was deployed at 33 sites over an area of about 4,000 square miles to record the timing, extent, and magnitude of inland hurricane storm surge and coastal flooding. Sensors were programmed to record date and time, temperature, and barometric or water pressure. Water pressure was corrected for changes in barometric pressure and salinity. Elevation surveys using global-positioning systems and differential levels were used to relate all storm-surge water-level data, reference marks, benchmarks, sensor measuring points, and high-water marks to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). The resulting data indicated that storm-surge water levels over 14 feet above NAVD 88 occurred at three locations, and rates of water-level rise greater than 5 feet per hour occurred at three locations near the Louisiana coast.

  9. Saline water in the Little Arkansas River Basin area, south-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, Robert B.; Kleinschmidt, Melvin K.

    1976-01-01

    Ground water in unconsolidated deposits of Pleistocene age in part of the Little Arkansas River basin has been polluted by the influx of saline water. The source of the saline water generally is oil-field brine that leaked from disposal ponds on the land surface. Locally, pollution by saline water also has been caused by upwelling of oil-field brine injected under pressure into the "lost-circulation zone" of the Lower Permian Wellington Formation and, possibly, by leakage of brine from corroded or improperly cased disposal wells. Anomalously high concentrations of chloride ion in some reaches of the Little Arkansas River probably can be attributed to pollution by municipal wastes rather than from inflow of saline ground water. Hydraulic connection exists between the "lost-circulation zone" and unconsolidated deposits, as evidenced by the continuing development of sinkholes, by the continuing discharge of saline water through springs and seeps along the Arkansas River south of the Little Arkansas River basin and by changes in the chloride concentration in water pumped from wells in the "lost-circulation zone." The hydraulic head in the "lost-circulation zone" is below the base of the unconsolidated deposits, and much below the potentiometric surface of the aquifer in those deposits. Any movement of water, therefore, would be downward from the "fresh-water" aquifer to the saline "lost-circulation zone."

  10. Effects of application timing of saline irrigation water on broccoli production and quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Irrigation with moderately saline water is a necessity in many semi-arid areas of the Mediterranean Basin, and requires adequate irrigation management strategies. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), a crop moderately tolerant to salinity stress, was used to evaluate the effects of the applica...

  11. Evaluation of available saline water resources in New Mexico for the production of microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Lansford, R.; Hernandez, J.; Enis, P.; Truby, D.; Mapel, C.

    1990-08-01

    Researchers evaluated saline water resources in New Mexico for their suitability as sites for large-scale microalgae production facilities. Production of microalgae could provide a renewable source of fuel, chemicals, and food. In addition, making use of the unused saline water resources would increase the economic activity in the state. After analyzing the 15 billion acre-ft of unused saline water resources in the state, scientists narrowed the locations down to six sites with the most potential. With further analysis, they chose the Tularosa Basin in southern New Mexico as the best-suited area for 100-hectare microalgae production facility. 34 refs., 38 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. Soil Salinity Controls on Water and Carbon Cycling by Sunflower Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runkle, B.; Liang, X.; Dracup, J.; Hao, F.; Zeng, A.; Zhang, J.; He, B.; Oki, T.

    2007-12-01

    Agricultural effects on water cycling are of great importance for regional water resources management. These effects vary based on local soil and climate conditions, and are particularly modulated by high soil salinity levels, which stress plant growth and change their water use efficiency. Increasing salinization is predicted under hotter, drier conditions resulting from global climate change and from increased societal pressure on agricultural lands. This increased ionic presence creates a higher soil osmotic pressure that increases the resistance to water flow through the plant. This change also impacts the assimilation of carbon dioxide through the stomatal opening, and so affects rates of both photosynthesis and transpiration. Current agricultural and land-surface models that account for salinity do so in an overly empirical manner that cannot account for changes at different time scales in meteorological conditions. They tend to be ill equipped to examine how changing carbon dioxide levels may modify a plant's response to soil salinity. As a result, we present a new model of soil-vegetation- atmosphere water transfer that explicitly incorporates the role of soil salinity in changing this system's behavior. This model will allow for much greater flexibility in examining how vegetation may change the local water cycle under the joint impacts of both salinity and climate change. This model is supported by field research on the effects of salinity on sunflower plants in a large irrigation district in Inner Mongolia, China. Results presented include the role of salinity in changing stomatal regulation of water use efficiency, sub-canopy changes in leaf pressure, and changes in root activity. Modeling at sub-hourly time scales allows for a more precise understanding of how soil salinity changes the diurnal cycle of plant water use.

  13. Effects of spatial and temporal dynamics of soil water and salinity on new oasis stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Fengxue; Zhang, Yuandong; Pan, Xiaoling; Chu, Yu; Shi, Qingdong; Ye, Qian

    2003-07-01

    Desertification outside the oasis and salinization inside are the main factors threatening the survival of oasis. The severity and extend of desertification and salinization depend on the spatial and temporal dynamics of soil water and salt concentration. A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of soil water and salt concentration on oasis stability near Fukang City, XinJiang, P. R. China. The dynamics of water resources for the region was analyzed using data from 1988 to 1998. Soil water content and salinity, ground water table and salt EC were investigated for months of May to September in 2000 and 2001. Changes of land use in the region were examined from 1987 to 1998 and causes of the changes were explored. There was no salinity difference among oasis, ecotone and sand dune. Ecotone was stable in terms of area and boundary because of the irrigation in the oasis supplied critical water needs for vegetation to the two adjacent systems. There were large salinity differences among oasis, abandoned land and desert grassland. For regions of abandoned land and peripheral desert of oasis, salinization had become a serious problem due to the salt accumulation on the soil surface and root zone from evaporated irrigation water. Because of the same reason, abandoned land increased dramatically from 1987 to 1998 in the lower reaches of Sangonghe River, especially inside of new oasis. Land salinization and second salinization were the major factors that threaten the survival of the oasis. Sound and effective plans for water use with proper irrigation and drainage systems are needed in order to minimize salinization effect and protect stable oasis.

  14. Behavioural salinity preferences of juvenile green sturgeon Acipenser medirostris acclimated to fresh water and full-strength salt water.

    PubMed

    Poletto, J B; Cocherell, D E; Klimley, A P; Cech, J J; Fangue, N A

    2013-02-01

    To quantify the salinity preference of juvenile green sturgeon Acipenser medirostris, two groups of A. medirostris [140 days post hatch (dph); total length (L(T) ) 38.0-52.5 cm] were acclimated to either near fresh water (mean ± s.e. salinity = 3.2 ± 0.6) or full-strength salt water (34.1 ± 1.2) over 8 weeks. Following acclimation, the two groups were divided into experimental and control groups, where experimental A. medirostris from both freshwater and saltwater acclimations were individually introduced (200-220 dph) into a rectangular salinity-preference flume (maximum salinity gradient: 5-33). Control A. medirostris were presented with only their acclimation water (fresh water or salt water) on both sides of the flume. It was demonstrated that A. medirostris acclimated to both salt water and fresh water spent a significantly greater amount of time on the side of the testing area with the highest salinity concentration (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively) while control A. medirostris spent an equal amount of time on each side of the flume. These findings indicate that juvenile A. medirostris are not only capable of detecting salt water within the first year of their lives but perhaps are actively seeking out saline environments as they move through a watershed. Establishing A. medirostris salinity preferences provides a better understanding of the early life history of this threatened species, shedding light on possible outmigration timing.

  15. Application of FTLOADDS to Simulate Flow, Salinity, and Surface-Water Stage in the Southern Everglades, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, John D.; Swain, Eric D.; Wolfert, Melinda A.; Langevin, Christian D.; James, Dawn E.; Telis, Pamela A.

    2007-01-01

    representation of coastal flows. This improvement most likely is due to a more stable numerical representation of the coastal creek outlets. Sensitivity analyses were performed by varying frictional resistance, leakage, barriers to flow, and topography. Changing frictional resistance values in inland areas was shown to improve water-level representation locally, but to have a negligible effect on area-wide values. These changes have only local effects and are not physically based (as are the unchanged values), and thus have limited validity. Sensitivity tests indicate that the overall accuracy of the simulation is diminished if leakage between surface water and ground water is not simulated. The inclusion of a major road as a complete barrier to surface-water flow influenced the local distribution and timing of flow; however, the changes in total flow and individual creekflows were negligible. The model land-surface altitude was lowered by 0.1 meter to determine the sensitivity to topographic variation. This topographic sensitivity test produced mixed results in matching field data. Overall, the representation of stage did not improve definitively. A final calibration utilized the results of the sensitivity analysis to refine the TIME application. To accomplish this calibration, the friction coefficient was reduced at the northern boundary inflow and increased in the southwestern corner of the model, the evapotranspiration function was varied, additional data were used for the ground-water head boundary along the southeast, and the frictional resistance of the primary coastal creek outlet was increased. The calibration improved the match between measured and simulated total flows to Florida Bay and coastal salinities. Agreement also was improved at most of the water-level sites throughout the model domain.

  16. Sorghum response to foliar application of phosphorus and potassium with saline water irrigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing demand for fresh water resources for urban and industrial uses is leading to limited availability of better quality water for crop irrigation. Therefore, crop response to poor quality irrigation water (ex: saline water), and strategies to mitigate the negative effects of poor quality irri...

  17. Salinization and Saline Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g

  18. Estimation of the spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance in inland and coastal waters from hyperspectral remote sensing data: Validation with experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Arthi; Shanmugam, Palanisamy

    2016-07-01

    A semi-analytical model is developed for estimating the spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance (Kd(λ)) in inland and coastal waters. The model works as a function of the inherent optical properties (absorption and backscattering), depth, and solar zenith angle. Results of this model are validated using a large number of in-situ measurements of Kd(λ) in clear oceanic, turbid coastal and productive lagoon waters. To further evaluate its relative performance, Kd(λ) values obtained from this model are compared with results from three existing models. Validation results show that the present model is a better descriptor of Kd(λ) and shows an overall better performance compared to the existing models. The applicability of the present model is further tested on two Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) remote sensing images acquired simultaneously with our field measurements. The Kd(λ) spectra derived from HICO imageries have good agreement with measured data with the mean relative percent error of less than 12% which are well within the benchmark for a validated uncertainty of ±35% endorsed for the remote sensing products in oceanic waters. The model offers potential advantages for predicting changes in spectral and vertical Kd values in a wide variety of waters within inland and coastal environments.

  19. Salinity Impacts of the Indian Ocean Tsunami on Groundwater and Local Water Supply - Lessons Learned from Integrated Research and Support to Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villholth, K. G.; Vithanage, M.; Goswami, R. R.; Jeyakumar, P.; Manamperi, S.

    2008-05-01

    Huge devastation and human tragedy followed the Dec. 26, 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Sri Lanka was one of the hardest hit, with an estimated death toll of 31,000 people. Of immediate concern after the catastrophic event was the destruction of the traditional water supply system based on private shallow open wells in the rural and semi-urban areas of the coastal belt. Practically all wells within the reach of the flooding waves (up to a couple of km's inland) were inundated and filled with saltwater and contaminated with solid matter, pathogens, and other unknown chemicals, leaving the water unfit for drinking. It was estimated early on that the tsunami waves contaminated more than 50,000 wells in coastal Sri Lanka. This initial figure is highly underestimated, however, as the present research found that the total number of affected wells was more in the range of half a million. The total number of people affected by disruption in well water supply could have been in the range of 2.5 million. The present paper summarizes the outcomes and experiences gained from comprehensive research, collaboration and support work in eastern Sri Lanka related to the impact of the tsunami on groundwater, particularly with respect to salinity, and the destruction and rehabilitation of the local water supply systems. The area in focus was characterized by sandy, shallow, unconfined aquifers bounded by seawater and inland brackish lagoons and representative of the hydro-geological, climatic, demographic and land use setting on the east coast of Sri Lanka. Field monitoring investigations in shallow domestic wells showed that the salinity imprint of the tsunami on groundwater and water supply were detectable up to 1.5 years after the event. Field results also indicated that the well cleaning efforts which were quickly resorted to as part of the emergency and remediation activities were not efficient in terms of reducing salinity impacts. Rainfall was the most significant and

  20. Deep Water Compositions From the Los Angeles Basin and the Origin of Formation Water Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boles, J.; Giles, G.; Lockman, D.

    2005-12-01

    Deep basin formation waters represent original depositional waters that have been modified by diagenetic processes at elevated temperatures and pressures. In addition, they may be diluted by meteoric incursion from elevated structural blocks along basin flanks. It has long been thought that deep basin formation waters have salinities greater than sea water due to various processes like clay membrane filtration or other types of water-rock interaction. However, our work and similar studies in the San Joaquin basin show that formation waters in deep basins are more likely to become diluted rather than concentrated in the absence of soluble evaporite deposits that might underlie the basin. The idea of increased salinity with depth arose from studies in which the underpinning of the basin consisted of soluble evaporate deposits such as the Texas Gulf Coast, Illinois, Michigan, and some North Sea areas. There are very few deep formation water analyses from the Los Angeles Basin. Furthermore, very few of the current produced waters from any depth can be considered pristine because of the widespread formation water injection programs and commingling of fluids from different levels. Here, we describe the first analyses from a deep, previously untouched part of the basin that is currently being developed in the Inglewood Oil Field. We have analyzed a suite of formation waters from the mid-Miocene marine Sentous sandstone from sub-sea level depths of 2250 m to 2625 m at temperatures of about 110 to 126°C and pressures of about 27 MPa. The original depositional waters in the Sentous Formation were sea water whereas the sampled waters are diluted by about 20% from sea water and some show as much as 50% dilution. Based on comparison of oxygen and deuterium isotopes between the meteoric water trend and these waters, we conclude that the smectite to illite dehydration reaction is the major cause of dilution to the original formation water. Other notable differences include

  1. Do cool water or physiologic saline compresses enhance resolution of experimentally-induced irritant contact dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Levin, C Y; Maibach, H I

    2001-09-01

    Acute irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is frequently treated with cool water or saline compresses. While presumed effective, little quantitative evaluation documents the treatment's benefit. This study sought to determine the efficacy of both distilled water and physiologic saline compresses on experimentally-induced ICD. 24-h application of both the lipophilic nonanoic acid (NAA) and the hydrophilic sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) were used to induce irritant contact dermatitis in 9 healthy volunteers. Following irritation, compresses were applied 0.5 h 2x daily for 4 consecutive days. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), chromametry and visual scoring were used to quantify results. Cool compresses of both water and saline significantly reduced TEWL and LDF, with no statistically significant difference between the efficacy of the saline or water compresses. Chromametry and visual scoring did not detect a significant effect with either the water or saline compresses. The results suggest an improvement with 2x-daily application of either water or physiologic saline compresses in the treatment of acute ICD, though true clinical benefit will be elucidated through further experimentation. Certainly, the current recommendation regarding the use of cool compresses for treating ICD should not be discarded.

  2. Physiological responses of dwarf coconut seedlings irrigated with saline water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of salt-tolerant plants is an important alternative to cope with the problem of salinity in semi-arid regions. The dwarf coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) has emerged as a salt-tolerant crop once established. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms that may contribute to t...

  3. Plant aquaporins: new perspectives on water and nutrient uptake in saline environment.

    PubMed

    del Martínez-Ballesta, M C; Silva, C; López-Berenguer, C; Cabañero, F J; Carvajal, M

    2006-09-01

    The mechanisms of salt stress and tolerance have been targets for genetic engineering, focusing on ion transport and compartmentation, synthesis of compatible solutes (osmolytes and osmoprotectants) and oxidative protection. In this review, we consider the integrated response to salinity with respect to water uptake, involving aquaporin functionality. Therefore, we have concentrated on how salinity can be alleviated, in part, if a perfect knowledge of water uptake and transport for each particular crop and set of conditions is available.

  4. A Contemporary Assessment of Lateral Fluxes of Organic Carbon in Inland Waters of the USA and Delivery to Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, E. W.; Alexander, R. B.; Smith, R. A.; Shih, J.; Schwarz, G. E.

    2010-12-01

    Organic carbon (OC) is a critical water quality characteristic in surface waters, as it is an important component of the energy balance and food chains in freshwater and estuarine aquatic ecosystems, is significant in the mobilization and transport of contaminants along flow paths, and is associated with the formation of known carcinogens in drinking water supplies. The importance of OC dynamics on water quality has been recognized, but challenges remain in quantitatively addressing processes controlling OC fluxes over broad spatial scales in a hydrological context. Here, we: 1) quantified lateral OC fluxes in rivers, streams, and reservoirs across the nation; 2) partitioned how much organic carbon that is stored in lakes, rivers and streams comes from allochthonous sources (produced in the terrestrial landscape) versus autochthonous sources (produced in-stream by primary production); and 3) estimated the delivery of dissolved and total forms of organic carbon to coastal estuaries and embayments. To accomplish this, we developed national-scale models of organic carbon in U.S. surface waters using the spatially referenced regression on watersheds (SPARROW) technique. This approach uses mechanistic formulations, imposes mass balance constraints, and provides a formal parameter estimation structure to statistically estimate sources and fate of OC in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We make use of a GIS based framework to describe sources of organic matter and characteristics of the landscape that affect its fate and transport, from spatial databases providing characterizations of climate, land cover, primary productivity, topography, soils, geology, and water routing. We calibrated and evaluated the model with statistical estimates of organic carbon loads that were observed at 1,125 monitoring stations across the nation. Our results illustrate spatial patterns and magnitudes OC loadings in rivers and reservoirs, highlighting hot spots and suggesting origins of the

  5. Saline-water intrusion related to well construction in Lee County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boggess, Durward Hoye; Missimer, T.M.; O'Donnell, T. H.

    1977-01-01

    Ground water is the principle source of water supply in Lee County, Florida where an estimated 30,000 wells have been drilled since 1990. These wells ranges in depth from about 10 to 1,240 feet and tap the water table aquifer or one or more of the artesian water-bearing units or zones in the Tamiami Formation, the upper part of the Hawthorn Formation, the lower part of the Hawthorn Formation and the Tampa Limestone and the Suwannee Limestone. Before 1968, nearly all wells were constructed with galvanized or black iron pipe. Many of these wells are sources of saline-water intrusion into freshwater-bearing zones. The water-bearing zones in the lower part of the Hawthorn Formation, Tampa Limestone, and Suwannee Limestone are artesian-they have higher water levels and usually contain water with a higher concentration of dissolved solids than do the aquifers occurring at shallower depths. The water from these deeper aquifers generally range in dissolved solids concentration from about 1,500 to 2,400 mg/L, and in chloride from about 500 to 1,00 mg/L. A maximum chloride concentration of 15,200 mg/L has been determined. Few of the 3,00 wells estimated to have been drilled to these zones contain sufficient casing to prevent upward flow into overlaying water-bearing zones. Because of water-level differentials, upward movement and lateral intrusion of saline water occurs principally into the upper part of the Hawthorn Formation where the chloride concentrations in water unaffected by saline-water intrusion ranges from about 80 to 150 mg/L. Where intrusion from deep artesian zones has occurred, the chloride concentration in water from the upper part of the Hawthorn Formation ranges from about 300 to more than 2,100 mg/L Surface discharges of the saline water from wells tapping the lower part of the Hawthorn Formation and the Suwannee Limestone also had affected the water-table aquifer which normally contains water with 10 to 50 mg/L of chloride. In one area, the chloride

  6. Fluctuations of fresh-saline water interface and of water table induced by sea tides in unconfined aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levanon, Elad; Shalev, Eyal; Yechieli, Yoseph; Gvirtzman, Haim

    2016-10-01

    This study examines effects of tides on fluctuations of the fresh-saline water interface and the groundwater level in unconfined coastal aquifers using a two-dimensional numerical model. The time-lags of the simulated hydraulic heads and salinities fluctuations compared to sea level fluctuations are analyzed using cross-correlation analysis. The results show that both the fresh-saline water interface and the groundwater level are affected harmonically by sea tide fluctuations. However, significantly different time-lags are obtained between the hydraulic head in the deeper and upper parts of the aquifer, and between head and salinity in the fresh-saline water interface. The hydraulic head in the deeper part of the aquifer responses much faster to sea level fluctuations than in the upper part. Surprisingly, a similar difference is detected between the time-lag of the hydraulic head in the fresh-saline water interface and the time-lag of the salinity at the same location. Furthermore, the time-lag of the salinity in the fresh-saline water interface is similar to the time-lag of the water table. We suggest a comprehensive mechanism for tidal influence on the coastal groundwater system, in which two main processes act simultaneously. First, sea tide causes a pressure head wave which propagates into the saturated zone of the aquifer, governed by the diffusivity of the aquifer (Ks/Ss). Second, this pressure head wave is attenuated at the water table due to the unsaturated flow within the capillary fringe which occurs during groundwater level oscillations. Because the tidal forcing acts on the sea-floor boundary and the attenuation of the groundwater level due to capillary effect acts on the groundwater table, two dimensional distributions of time-lag and hydraulic head amplitude are created. The capillary effect in the unsaturated zone plays a key role not only in the water table fluctuations as shown previously, but also on the salinity fluctuations in the fresh-saline

  7. Interaction of a river with an alluvial basin aquifer: Stable isotopes, salinity and water budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastoe, Christopher J.; Hutchison, William R.; Hibbs, Barry J.; Hawley, John; Hogan, James F.

    2010-12-01

    SummaryDetailed sets of tracer data (isotopes, salinity) and the results of MODFLOW modeling of water budgets provide an unprecedented opportunity for comparing modeling with field data in the area where the Rio Grande enters the Hueco Bolson basin of Texas and Chihuahua. Water from the Rio Grande has recharged the Hueco Bolson aquifer to a depth of 300 m below the surface in the El Paso-Ciudad Juárez area, the depth of infiltration corresponding to the depth of ancestral Rio Grande fluvial sediments. Groundwater beneath the river exhibits complex isotope and salinity stratification. Post-dam (post -1916, type A) river water has infiltrated to depths up to 80 m. Pre-dam (type B) river water has infiltrated to 300 m depth near downtown El Paso, and has mixed with, or been displaced further downstream by high-salinity native Hueco Bolson groundwater (type C, present in the basin north of the river). Salinity and isotope boundaries do not correspond precisely. Isotope stratification corresponds to water residence time and (for type C) to degree of evaporation; the highest salinities are associated with the most evaporated water. Modeling of water budgets in the basin fill beneath the river predicts present-day mixing of water types B and C where changing rates of pumping have caused a reversal of groundwater flow direction between El Paso and Ciudad Juárez, and deep recharge of type B water under conditions prevailing in the 1960s.

  8. Environmental controls of energy and trace gas exchanges at the water-air interface: Global synthesis of eddy fluxes over inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, M.; Desai, A. R.; Bohrer, G.; Blanken, P.; Deshmukh, C. S.; Franz, D.; Guérin, F.; Heiskanen, J. J.; Jammet, M.; Jonsson, A.; Karlsson, J.; Koebsch, F.; Liu, H.; Lohila, A.; Lundin, E.; Mammarella, I.; Rutgersson, A.; Sachs, T.; Serça, D.; Spence, C.; Strachan, I. B.; Vesala, T.; Weyhenmeyer, G. A.; Xiao, W.; Glatzel, S.

    2015-12-01

    Current estimates of energy and trace gases from inland waters often rely on limited point in time measurements, therefore, short time variation of fluxes and mechanism controlling the fluxes are particularly understudied. Here we present the results of a global synthesis of eddy fluxes from 29 globally distributed aquatic sites. The objective of this study was to quantify the magnitudes and variation of energy and CO2 fluxes and investigate their responses to environmental controls across half-hourly to monthly time scales. The coupled observations of in-lake physical and biogeochemical parameters with meteorology and eddy covariance fluxes were analyzed using decomposed correlation and wavelength coherence analysis to quantify the critical time scales that are associated with variation of energy and CO2 fluxes, and related drivers. The rates of fluxes were synthesized according to time scale, climate, and water body type. The diurnal cycles of both energy and CO2 fluxes variation were attributed to wind speed, solar radiation cycle, vapor pressure deficit, temperature gradients at water-air interface, and metabolism. Weekly time scales of variations were correlated with synoptic weather patterns. The monthly sums of energy fluxes showed a latitudinal gradient with the maxima observed in mid-latitude waterbodies. We found an inconsistent latitudinal pattern of monthly CO2 fluxes. Instead, we found correlation with proxies of lake productivity suggesting lake-specific characteristics play an important role in controlling flux magnitudes and variation. The results presented here highlight the importance of quantifying short-term variation of energy and trace gases fluxes towards improving the understanding of the water and carbon cycles and linked ecological processes.

  9. Modeling the effects of different irrigation water salinity on soil water movement, uptake and multicomponent solute transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekakis, E. H.; Antonopoulos, V. Z.

    2015-11-01

    Simulation models can be important tools for analyzing and managing irrigation, soil salinization or crop production problems. In this study a mathematical model that describes the water movement and mass transport of individual ions (Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+) and overall soil salinity by means of the soil solution electrical conductivity, is used. The mass transport equations of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ have been incorporated as part of the integrated model WANISIM and the soil salinity was computed as the sum of individual ions. The model was calibrated and validated against field data, collected during a three year experiment in plots of maize, irrigated with three different irrigation water qualities, at Thessaloniki area in Northern Greece. The model was also used to evaluate salinization and sodification hazards by the use of irrigation water with increasing electrical conductivity of 0.8, 3.2 and 6.4 dS m-1, while maintaining a ratio of Ca2+:Mg2+:Na+ equal to 3:3:2. The qualitative and quantitative procedures for results evaluation showed that there was good agreement between the simulated and measured values of the water content, overall salinity and the concentration of individual soluble cations, at two soil layers (0-35 and 35-75 cm). Nutrient uptake was also taken into account. Locally available irrigation water (ECiw = 0.8 dS m-1) did not cause soil salinization or sodification. On the other hand, irrigation water with ECiw equal to 3.2 and 6.4 dS m-1 caused severe soil salinization, but not sodification. The rainfall water during the winter seasons was not sufficient to leach salts below the soil profile of 110 cm. The modified version of model WANISIM is able to predict the effects of irrigation with saline waters on soil and plant growth and it is suitable for irrigation management in areas with scarce and low quality water resources.

  10. Contribution of water chemistry and fish condition to otolith chemistry: comparisons across salinity environments.

    PubMed

    Izzo, C; Doubleday, Z A; Schultz, A G; Woodcock, S H; Gillanders, B M

    2015-06-01

    This study quantified the per cent contribution of water chemistry to otolith chemistry using enriched stable isotopes of strontium ((86) Sr) and barium ((137) Ba). Euryhaline barramundi Lates calcarifer, were reared in marine (salinity 40), estuarine (salinity 20) and freshwater (salinity 0) under different temperature treatments. To calculate the contribution of water to Sr and Ba in otoliths, enriched isotopes in the tank water and otoliths were quantified and fitted to isotope mixing models. Fulton's K and RNA:DNA were also measured to explore the influence of fish condition on sources of element uptake. Water was the predominant source of otolith Sr (between 65 and 99%) and Ba (between 64 and 89%) in all treatments, but contributions varied with temperature (for Ba), or interactively with temperature and salinity (for Sr). Fish condition indices were affected independently by the experimental rearing conditions, as RNA:DNA differed significantly among salinity treatments and Fulton's K was significantly different between temperature treatments. Regression analyses did not detect relations between fish condition and per cent contribution values. General linear models indicated that contributions from water chemistry to otolith chemistry were primarily influenced by temperature and secondly by fish condition, with a relatively minor influence of salinity. These results further the understanding of factors that affect otolith element uptake, highlighting the necessity to consider the influence of environment and fish condition when interpreting otolith element data to reconstruct the environmental histories of fish.

  11. Inland-coastal water interaction: Remote sensing application for shallow-water quality and algal blooms modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melesse, Assefa; Hajigholizadeh, Mohammad; Blakey, Tara

    2017-04-01

    In this study, Landsat 8 and Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWIFS) sensors were used to model the spatiotemporal changes of four water quality parameters: Landsat 8 (turbidity, chlorophyll-a (chl-a), total phosphate, and total nitrogen) and Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWIFS) (algal blooms). The study was conducted in Florda bay, south Florida and model outputs were compared with in-situ observed data. The Landsat 8 based study found that, the predictive models to estimate chl-a and turbidity concentrations, developed through the use of stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR), gave high coefficients of determination in dry season (wet season) (R2 = 0.86(0.66) for chl-a and R2 = 0.84(0.63) for turbidity). Total phosphate and TN were estimated using best-fit multiple linear regression models as a function of Landsat TM and OLI,127 and ground data and showed a high coefficient of determination in dry season (wet season) (R2 = 0.74(0.69) for total phosphate and R2 = 0.82(0.82) for TN). Similarly, the ability of SeaWIFS for chl-a retrieval from optically shallow coastal waters by applying algorithms specific to the pixels' benthic class was evaluated. Benthic class was determined through satellite image-based classification methods. It was found that benthic class based chl-a modeling algorithm was better than the existing regionally-tuned approach. Evaluation of the residuals indicated the potential for further improvement to chl-a estimation through finer characterization of benthic environments. Key words: Landsat, SeaWIFS, water quality, Florida bay, Chl-a, turbidity

  12. Salinity impacts on water solubility and N-octanol/water partition coefficients of selected pesticides and oil constituents.

    PubMed

    Saranjampour, Parichehr; Vebrosky, Emily N; Armbrust, Kevin L

    2017-03-06

    Salinity has been reported to influence the water solubility of organic chemicals entering marine ecosystems. However, there is limited data available on salinity impacts for chemicals potentially entering seawater. Impacts on water solubility would correspondingly impact chemical sorption as well as overall bioavailability and exposure estimates used in the regulatory assessment. Pesticides atrazine, fipronil, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, as well as crude oil constituents dibenzothiophene as well as 3 of its alkyl derivatives all have different polarities and were selected as model compounds to demonstrate the impact of salinity on their solubility and partitioning behavior. The n-octanol/water partition coefficient (KOW ) was measured in both distilled-deionized water as well as artificial seawater (3.2%). All compounds had diminished solubility and increased KOW values in artificial seawater as compared to distilled-deionized water. A linear correlation curve estimated salinity may increase the log KOW value 2.6% per one log unit increase in distilled water (R(2)  = 0.97). Salinity appears to generally decrease the water solubility and increase partitioning potential. Environmental fate estimates based upon these parameters indicate elevated chemical sorption to sediment, overall bioavailability, and toxicity in artificial seawater. These dramatic differences suggest that salinity should be taken into account when conducting exposure estimates for marine organisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of the water salinity on the hydraulic conductivity of fen peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosch, Lennart; Janssen, Manon; Lennartz, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    Coastal peatlands represent an interface between marine and terrestrial ecosystems; their hydrology is affected by salt and fresh water inflow alike. Previous studies on bog peat have shown that pore water salinity can have an impact on the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) of peat because of chemical pore dilation effects. In this ongoing study, we are aiming at quantifying the impact of higher salinities (up to 3.5 %) on Ks of fen peat to get a better understanding of the water and solute exchange between coastal peatlands and the adjacent sea. Two approaches differing in measurement duration employing a constant-head upward-flow permeameter were conducted. At first, Ks was measured at an initial salinity for several hours before the salinity was abruptly increased and the measurement continued. In the second approach, Ks was measured for 15 min at the salt content observed during sampling. Then, samples were completely (de)salinized via diffusion for several days/weeks before a comparison measurement was carried out. The results for degraded fen peats show a decrease of Ks during long-term measurements which does not depend on the water salinity. A slow, diffusion-controlled change in salinity does not modify the overall outcome that the duration of measurements has a stronger impact on Ks than the salinity. Further experiments will show if fen peat soils differing in their state of degradation exhibit a different behavior. A preliminary conclusion is that salinity might have a less important effect on hydraulic properties of fen peat than it was observed for bog peat.

  14. Contemporary changes and links between salinity and the global ocean water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, N. T.; Ponte, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    To understand the ongoing alteration of the Earth's water budget, it is essential to assess the variability of its oceanic constituent as this component supplies more than 75% of the evaporated and precipitated water in the global water cycle. Here we examine the change in the ocean water cycle and the ocean's response to such changes over the contemporary, well-observed period spanning the last two decades. In particular, we focus on recent changes in surface salinity and fluxes of freshwater within the atmosphere-ocean-land-ice system. Using a combination of historical observations and data-constrained ocean estimates we demonstrate that there have been persistent changes (defined as significant trends) in both salinity and the ocean water cycle in many ocean regions, including the subtropical gyres in both hemispheres, low latitudes of the tropical Pacific, the North Atlantic subpolar gyre and the Arctic Ocean. On average, the ocean water cycle has amplified by 5% since 1993, but strong regional variations exist, e.g., up to 11% intensification in the South Pacific contrasting with pattern weakening of -7% in the North Atlantic. An even larger spread in regional variations of the pattern amplification is visible in surface salinity records, ranging between +50% in the Southern Ocean to -40% in the North Atlantic, averaging to less than 1% over the globe. These findings imply a time of emergence of anthropogenic hydrological signals shorter in surface freshwater fluxes than in surface salinity, and point to the importance of ocean circulation and salt transports in shaping patterns of decadal change in surface salinity. The latter is discussed within a closed budget framework by examining the balance between the atmospheric freshwater fluxes and the ocean salt fluxes in regions of salinity extremes, such as salinity maxima in the subtropical gyres and salinity minima in the tropics and high latitudes.

  15. Estimating the saline springs component in the solute and water balance of Lake Kinneret, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmer, Alon; Gal, Gideon

    2003-12-01

    The relatively high salinity of Lake Kinneret, Israel (190-350 ppm Cl -) is a result of the activity of saline springs located at the bottom of the lake. Their subsurface location inhibits direct monitoring of their fluxes. The objective of this work is to characterize the monthly ground water flow and salinity of the unmonitored saline springs over a long-term period, and to find a functional relationship between deriving variables and these monthly discharges. Results of the long-term evaluation of the unmonitored saline springs activity, are intended to help distinguish between two competing models ('gravity driven flow' (GFM) and 'self potential' models), which were proposed as the mechanism of the Lake Kinneret saline springs. The monthly solute and water balance of 32 consecutive years (1968-2001) was calculated, in which the contribution of the saline springs was considered as the residual. Error analyses were conducted for both the water and the solute residuals, and constraints were used to calculate a better, physically based time series representing the unmonitored saline springs activity. The calculated time-series of water and solute discharge from the springs were used to find the functional relationship with the lake level. It was found that there was an increase of water and solute fluxes to the lake at periods of high lake level. We concluded that the results are in agreement with the proposed GFM: high fluxes of ground water to the lake, and high leaching of solute are the result of rainy seasons, which usually cause high lake levels as well.

  16. Testing of a technique for remotely measuring water salinity in an estuarine environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomann, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    An aircraft experiment was flown on November 7, 1973 to test a technique for remote water salinity measurement. Apparent temperatures at 21 cm and 8-14 micron wavelengths were recorded on eight runs over a line along which the salinity varied from 5 to 30%. Boat measurements were used for calibration and accuracy calculations. Overall RMS accuracy over the complete range of salinities was 3.6%. Overall RMS accuracy for salinities greater than 10%, where the technique is more sensitive, was 2.6%. Much of this error is believed to be due to inability to exactly locate boat and aircraft positions. The standard deviation over the eight runs for salinities or = 10% is 1.4%; this error contains a component due to mislocation of the aircraft also. It is believed that operational use of the technique is possible with accuracies of 1-2%.

  17. Annual period temperature and salinity signals of surface waters in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okkonen, Stephen R.; Bélanger, Claude

    2008-07-01

    Temperature and salinity measurements acquired during thermosalinograph surveys conducted throughout Prince William Sound (PWS) between March 2006 and January 2008 are used to identify annual period temperature and salinity signals of surface waters. Mean states and annual period changes in oceanic conditions throughout PWS reflect proximity to glaciated watersheds. Mean temperatures are coolest in northern and western PWS and warmest in southeastern PWS. Annual period temperature amplitude is greatest in western PWS. Mean salinities are lowest in northern and western PWS and highest in central and southeastern PWS. Annual period salinity amplitude is greatest in northern and western PWS. These results represent the most spatially comprehensive descriptions to date of annual period temperature and salinity signals in PWS. The results are applicable as benchmarks for validation of numerical PWS circulation models and as a decision support tool for the use of dispersants in the event of an oil spill.

  18. Water-salinity variations in the Ivishak and Sag River reservoirs at Prudhoe Bay

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, D.D. Warner, H.R. Jr.; Fisher, T.E.

    1997-02-01

    More than 2,000 chloride-concentration measurements made on extracted water from oil-base-mud cores show areal and vertical variations in the salinity of Ivishak and Sag River reservoir brines. This data compares favorably with compositional analyses of produced and extracted water, spontaneous-potential (SP) analyses, and resistivity-log calculations. In calculating water saturations with the Archie equation, it was critical that variations in resident water resistivity be recognized. This paper describes the variations observed and the work done to validate the extent and magnitude of the salinity variations.

  19. Salinity Effects on Water Potential Components and Bulk Elastic Modulus of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. 1

    PubMed Central

    Bolaños, Jorge A.; Longstreth, David J.

    1984-01-01

    Pressure volume curves for Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. (alligator weed) grown in 0 to 400 millimolar NaCl were used to determine water potential (Ψ), osmotic potential (ψs), turgor potential (ψp) and the bulk elastic modulus (ε) of shoots at different tissue water contents. Values of ψs decreased with increasing salinity and tissue Ψ was always lower than rhizosphere Ψ. The relationship between ψp and tissue water content changed because ε increased with salinity. As a result, salt-stressed plants had larger ranges of positive turgor but smaller ranges of tissue water content over which ψp was positive. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a salinity effect on ε in higher plants. These increases in ε with salinity provided a mechanism by which a large difference between plant Ψ and rhizosphere Ψ, the driving force for water uptake, could be produced with relatively little water loss by the plant. A time-course study of response after salinization to 400 millimolar NaCl showed Ψ was constant within 1 day, ψs and ψp continued to change for 2 to 4 days, and ε continued to change for 4 to 12 days. Changes in ε modified the capacity of alligator weed to maintain a positive water balance and consideration of such changes in other species of higher plants should improve our understanding of salt stress. PMID:16663611

  20. Where the waters meet: sharing ideas and experiences between inland and marine realms to promote sustainable fisheries management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooke, Steven J.; Arlinghaus, Robert; Bartley, Devin M.; Beard, T. Douglas; Cowx, Ian G.; Essington, Timothy E.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Taylor, William W.; Watson, Reg

    2014-01-01

    Although inland and marine environments, their fisheries, fishery managers, and the realm-specific management approaches are often different, there are a surprising number of similarities that frequently go unrecognized. We contend that there is much to be gained by greater cross-fertilization and exchange of ideas and strategies between realms and the people who manage them. The purpose of this paper is to provide examples of the potential or demonstrated benefits of working across aquatic boundaries for enhanced sustainable management of the world’s fisheries resources. Examples include the need to (1) engage in habitat management and protection as the foundation for fisheries, (2) rethink institutional arrangements and management for open-access fisheries systems, (3) establish “reference points” and harvest control rules, (4) engage in integrated management approaches, (5) reap conservation benefits from the link to fish as food, and (6) reframe conservation and management of fish to better engage the public and industry. Cross-fertilization and knowledge transfer between realms could be realized using environment-independent curricula and symposia, joint scientific advisory councils for management, integrated development projects, and cross-realm policy dialogue. Given the interdependence of marine and inland fisheries, promoting discussion between the realms has the potential to promote meaningful advances in managing global fisheries.

  1. Simulation of nutrient and sediment concentrations and loads in the Delaware inland bays watershed: Extension of the hydrologic and water-quality model to ungaged segments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutierrez-Magness, Angelica L.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid population increases, agriculture, and industrial practices have been identified as important sources of excessive nutrients and sediments in the Delaware Inland Bays watershed. The amount and effect of excessive nutrients and sediments in the Inland Bays watershed have been well documented by the Delaware Geological Survey, the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Estuary Program, the Delaware Center for Inland Bays, the University of Delaware, and other agencies. This documentation and data previously were used to develop a hydrologic and water-quality model of the Delaware Inland Bays watershed to simulate nutrients and sediment concentrations and loads, and to calibrate the model by comparing concentrations and streamflow data at six stations in the watershed over a limited period of time (October 1998 through April 2000). Although the model predictions of nutrient and sediment concentrations for the calibrated segments were fairly accurate, the predictions for the 28 ungaged segments located near tidal areas, where stream data were not available, were above the range of values measured in the area. The cooperative study established in 2000 by the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, the Delaware Geological Survey, and the U.S. Geological Survey was extended to evaluate the model predictions in ungaged segments and to ensure that the model, developed as a planning and management tool, could accurately predict nutrient and sediment concentrations within the measured range of values in the area. The evaluation of the predictions was limited to the period of calibration (1999) of the 2003 model. To develop estimates on ungaged watersheds, parameter values from calibrated segments are transferred to the ungaged segments; however, accurate predictions are unlikely where parameter transference is subject to error. The unexpected nutrient and

  2. Interannual variability in the surface energy budget over a large southern inland water: an analysis of two-year eddy covariance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Liu, H.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding how the surface energy budget and evaporation over inland waters respond to climate variability is important in fresh water management. Here we report long-term measurements of the surface energy budget using the eddy covariance method over a large inland southern water body of the Ross Barnett Reservoir, Mississippi, U.S.A. for 2008 and 2009. The two-year averaged incoming solar radiation (K↓), net radiation (Rn), sensible heat flux (H), latent heat flux (LE), and energy balance residual (ɛ) were 178.5, 110.6, 15.7, 83.7, and 11.3 W m-2, respectively. The annual cycle of Rn was followed by LE, with maximums occurring in the summer and minimums in the winter. H was small in the summer and large in the winter. The Bowen ratio shows that a relatively large portion of Rn was used to fuel evaporation in the warm season (from April to September) and to power H in the cool season (from October to March). The annual mean H and LE were 9.5% and 10.0% larger in 2008 than 2009, respectively. Most of the interannual variations primarily occurred in the cool season, which was partly due to the H and LE pulses that associated with large wind events caused by synoptic weather activities (e.g., cold front passages). These pulses approximately contributed to 50% of the annual H and 28% of the annual LE. Their interannual variations contributed to 77.8% of the interannual variations in H and 39.8% of those in LE. Compared with higher-latitude large lakes, this southern mid-latitude water body experienced larger evaporative water loss but smaller sensible heat loss into the atmosphere.

  3. Brazilian inland water bio-optical dataset to support carbon budget studies in reservoirs as well as anthropogenic impacts in Amazon floodplain lakes: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, C.; Novo, E.; Ferreira, R.; Carvalho, L.; Cairo, C.; Lopes, F.; Stech, J.; Alcantara, E.

    2015-04-01

    This work presents ongoing efforts and preliminary results for building a dataset that represents the first and most comprehensive bio-optical information available on Brazilian inland waters to support the development of remote sensing algorithms for monitoring aquatic systems. From 2012 to 2014 optical and limnological data was gathered along thirteen field campaigns in five Brazilian reservoirs, in an irrigation and domestic water supply reservoir located in semi-arid northeast of the country and in Amazonian floodplain lakes, thus covering the diversity of Brazilian inland waters. At each site 20 stations, on average, were sampled to acquire profiles of the following optical variables: absorption, attenuation, scattering, and backscattering coefficients and radiances/irradiances spectra above and in-water. Alongside these measurements, water samples were collected for determining concentrations of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Total Dissolved Carbon (TDC) and its organic/inorganic fractions, CDOM absorption, phytoplankton specific absorption [aph*] and Non-Algal Particles absorption [aNAP*]. Preliminary results show that Chl-a concentrations ranged from 0.6 to 243μg/L in reservoirs and 0.90 to 92μg/L in Amazonian lakes, while TSS concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 31mg/L in reservoirs and 0.5 to 162mg/L in Amazonian lakes. In situ beam attenuation coefficients ranged from 1.4 to 16m-1 in reservoirs and 12.5 to 38m-1 in Amazonian lakes, while diffuse attenuation coefficients of downwelling irradiance over the Photosynthetically Active Radiation (Kd(PAR)) extended from 0.35 to 4.5m-1 in reservoirs and 1.69 to 13.30m-1 in Amazonian lakes. Our research group is building this dataset anticipating future demands for algorithm validation regarding OLI/Landsat8 data and ESA Sentinel missions to be launched as of 2015.

  4. Flux of low salinity water from Aniva Bay (Sakhalin Island) to the southern Okhotsk Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguma, Sachiko; Ono, Tsuneo; Watanabe, Yutaka W.; Kasai, Hiromi; Watanabe, Shuichi; Nomura, Daiki; Mitsudera, Humio

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between the low salinity water in the shelf region of the southern Okhotsk Sea which was seasonally sampled (0-200 m), and fluxes of low salinity water from Aniva Bay. To express the source of freshwater mixing in the surface layer, we applied normalized total alkalinity (NTA) and stable isotopes of seawater as chemical tracers. NTA-S diagrams indicate that NTA of low salinity water in the upper 30 m layer just off the Soya Warm Current is clearly higher than in the far offshore region in summer and autumn. Using NTA-S regression lines, we could deduce that the low salinity and high NTA water in the upper layer originates from Aniva Bay. For convenience, we defined this water as the Aniva Surface Water (ASW) with values S < 32, NTA > 2450 μmol kg -1. Formation and transport processes of ASW are discussed using historical data. The interaction between the maximum core of high NTA water on the bottom slope of eastern Aniva Bay and an anticyclonic eddy at the mouth of Aniva Bay are concluded to control ASW formation. Upwelling of the Cold Water Belt water at the tip of Cape Krillion is considered to cause ASW outflow from Aniva Bay.

  5. Olivine dissolution from Indian dunite in saline water.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Amit Kumar; Mehra, Anurag

    2016-11-01

    The rate and mechanism of olivine dissolution was studied using naturally weathered dunite FO98.21(Mg1.884Fe0.391SiO4) from an Indian source, that also contains serpentine mineral lizardite. A series of batch dissolution experiments were carried out to check the influence of temperature (30-75 (∘)C), initial dunite concentration (0.5 and 20 g/L), and salinity (0-35 g/L NaCl) under fixed head space CO2 pressure (P[Formula: see text] = 1 barg) on dunite dissolution. Dissolved Mg, Si, and Fe concentrations were determined by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. End-product solids were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Initially, rates of dissolution of Si and Mg were observed to be in stoichiometric proportion. After 8 h, the dissolution rate was observed to decline. At the end of the experiment (504 h), an amorphous silica-rich layer was observed over the dunite surface. This results in decay of the dissolution rate. The operating conditions (i.e., salinity, temperature, and mineral loading) affect the dissolution kinetics in a very complex manner because of which the observed experimental trends do not exhibit a direct trend.

  6. Biotic variation in coastal water bodies in Sussex, England: Implications for saline lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Chris B.; Vina-Herbon, Cristina; Metcalfe, Daniel J.

    2005-12-01

    Coastal water bodies are a heterogeneous resource typified by high spatial and temporal variability and threatened by anthropogenic impacts. This includes saline lagoons, which support a specialist biota and are a priority habitat for nature conservation. This paper describes the biotic variation in coastal water bodies in Sussex, England, in order to characterise the distinctiveness of the saline lagoon community and elucidate environmental factors that determine its distribution. Twenty-eight coastal water bodies were surveyed for their aquatic flora and invertebrate fauna and a suite of exploratory environmental variables compiled. Ordination and cluster analyses were used to examine patterns in community composition and relate these to environmental parameters. Biotic variation in the coastal water body resource was high. Salinity was the main environmental parameter explaining the regional distribution of taxa; freshwater and saline assemblages were evident and related to sea water ingress. Freshwater sites were indicated by the plant Myriophyllum spicatum and gastropod mollusc Lymnaea peregra, while more saline communities supported marine and brackish water taxa, notably a range of chlorophytic algae and the bivalve mollusc Cerastoderma glaucum. Site community differences were also related to bank slope and parameters describing habitat heterogeneity. A saline lagoon community was discerned within the matrix of biotic variation consisting of specialist lagoonal species with associated typically euryhaline taxa. For fauna, the latter were the molluscs Abra tenuis and Hydrobia ulvae, and the crustaceans Corophium volutator and Palaemonetes varians, and for flora they were the algae Ulva lactuca, Chaetomorpha mediterranea, Cladophora spp. and Enteromorpha intestinalis. One non-native polychaete species, Ficopomatus enigmaticus, also strongly influenced community structure within the lagoonal resource. The community was not well defined as specialist and

  7. Seasonal plant water uptake patterns in the saline southeast Everglades ecotone.

    PubMed

    Ewe, Sharon M L; Sternberg, Leonel da S L; Childers, Daniel L

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the seasonal water use patterns of dominant macrophytes coexisting in the coastal Everglades ecotone. We measured the stable isotope signatures in plant xylem water of Rhizophora mangle, Cladium jamaicense, and Sesuvium portulacastrum during the dry (DS) and wet (WS) seasons in the estuarine ecotone along Taylor River in Everglades National Park, FL, USA. Shallow soilwater and deeper groundwater salinity was also measured to extrapolate the salinity encountered by plants at their rooting zone. Average soil water oxygen isotope ratios (delta(18)O) was enriched (4.8 +/- 0.2 per thousand) in the DS relative to the WS (0.0 +/- 0.1 per thousand), but groundwater delta(18)O remained constant between seasons (DS: 2.2 +/- 0.4 per thousand; WS: 2.1 +/- 0.1 per thousand). There was an inversion in interstitial salinity patterns across the soil profile between seasons. In the DS, shallow water was euhaline [i.e., 43 practical salinity units (PSU)] while groundwater was less saline (18 PSU). In the WS, however, shallow water was fresh (i.e., 0 PSU) but groundwater remained brackish (14 PSU). All plants utilized 100% (shallow) freshwater during the WS, but in the DS R. mangle switched to a soil-groundwater mix (delta 55% groundwater) while C. jamaicense and S. portulacastrum continued to use euhaline shallow water. In the DS, based on delta(18)O data, the roots of R. mangle roots were exposed to salinities of 25.4 +/- 1.4 PSU, less saline than either C. jamaicense (39.1 +/- 2.2 PSU) or S. portulacastrum (38.6 +/- 2.5 PSU). Although the salinity tolerance of C. jamaicense is not known, it is unlikely that long-term exposure to high salinity is conducive to the persistence of this freshwater marsh sedge. This study increases our ecological understanding of how water uptake patterns of individual plants can contribute to ecosystem levels changes, not only in the southeast saline Everglades, but also in estuaries in general in response to

  8. Retrieval of Wet-Tropospheric Path Delay over Coastal and Inland Water Regions using Wide-band Millimeter-Wave Radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch-Lluis, Xavier; Gilliam, Kyle L.; Reising, Steven C.; Tanner, Alan B.; Brown, Shannon T.; Kangaslahti, Pekka

    2013-04-01

    Currently, wet-tropospheric path delay measurements over inland water and coastal areas are extremely sparse. They are generally limited to twice-per-day radiosonde launches and a small number of ground-based GPS or radiometer path delay measurements, as well as radar measurements of phase delay to a small number of fixed targets on the ground. Knowledge of the wet-tropospheric path delay is necessary for next-generation high-resolution altimeters, such as the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, in formulation and planned for launch in 2020. SWOT has two major science objectives. First, the oceanographic objective is to characterize ocean mesoscale and sub-mesoscale circulation with horizontal resolution of 10 km and order of 1 cm height precision. Second, the hydrological objective is to provide global height measurements of inland surface water bodies with area of greater than 250 square meters and flow rate of rivers with width greater than 100 m. Wet-tropospheric path delay retrieval over coastal and inland-water areas is needed to achieve both of these objectives with sufficient height accuracy. In addition, information on total precipitable water vapor under nearly all weather conditions is needed to improve initialization of numerical weather prediction models. Currently, 18-34 GHz microwave radiometers provide wet-path delay corrections for the Jason series of nadir-viewing altimeters. However, these retrievals are limited to open ocean, and land incursion is unacceptable within 40 km of coastlines. The addition of millimeter-wave radiometers (70-170 GHz) is needed to address this problem by providing smaller surface footprint dimensions proportional to wavelength. In this work, we present a prototype algorithm to demonstrate the potential to retrieve wet-tropospheric path delay from brightness temperatures measured by millimeter-wave radiometers using the Brightness Temperature Deflection Ratio (BTDR) method. The BTDR algorithm retrieves wet

  9. Effect of Salinity on Leaf Gas Exchange in Two Populations of a C4 Nonhalophyte 1

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, William D.

    1987-01-01

    Gas exchange measurements were made on plants from two natural populations differing in salt tolerance of Andropogon glomeratus, a C4 nonhalophyte, to examine the effect of salinity on components responsible for differences in photosynthetic capacity. Net CO2 uptake and stomatal conductance decreased with increasing salinity in both populations, but to a greater extent in the inland (nontolerant) population. The intercellular CO2 concentrations increased with increasing salinity in the inland population, but decreased in the marsh (tolerant) population. Water use efficiency decreased as salinity increased in the inland population, and remained unchanged in the marsh population. Carboxylation efficiency decreased and CO2 compensation points increased with increasing salinity in both populations, but to a lesser extent in the marsh population. Carboxylation efficiencies were higher with 2% relative to 21% atmospheric O2 in salt stressed plants, suggesting that a decrease in the carboxylation:oxygenation ratio of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase was partly responsible for the decrease in photosynthetic capacity. Populational differences in photosynthetic capacity were the result of greater salinity-induced changes in carboxylation efficiency in the inland population, and not due to differences in the stomatal limitation to CO2 diffusion. PMID:16665802

  10. A Tiered Approach to Evaluating Salinity Sources in Water at Oil and Gas Production Sites.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Shawn M; Molofsky, Lisa J; Connor, John A; Walker, Kenneth L; Hopkins, Harley; Chakraborty, Ayan

    2017-09-01

    A suspected increase in the salinity of fresh water resources can trigger a site investigation to identify the source(s) of salinity and the extent of any impacts. These investigations can be complicated by the presence of naturally elevated total dissolved solids or chlorides concentrations, multiple potential sources of salinity, and incomplete data and information on both naturally occurring conditions and the characteristics of potential sources. As a result, data evaluation techniques that are effective at one site may not be effective at another. In order to match the complexity of the evaluation effort to the complexity of the specific site, this paper presents a strategic tiered approach that utilizes established techniques for evaluating and identifying the source(s) of salinity in an efficient step-by-step manner. The tiered approach includes: (1) a simple screening process to evaluate whether an impact has occurred and if the source is readily apparent; (2) basic geochemical characterization of the impacted water resource(s) and potential salinity sources coupled with simple visual and statistical data evaluation methods to determine the source(s); and (3) advanced laboratory analyses (e.g., isotopes) and data evaluation methods to identify the source(s) and the extent of salinity impacts where it was not otherwise conclusive. A case study from the U.S. Gulf Coast is presented to illustrate the application of this tiered approach. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  11. The effect of water salinity on wood breakdown in semiarid Mediterranean streams.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Rosa; Asencio, Antonia Dolores; Picón, José María; Del Campo, Rubén; Arce, María Isabel; del Mar Sánchez-Montoya, María; Suárez, María Luisa; Vidal-Abarca, María Rosario

    2016-01-15

    Saline streams occur naturally and they are distributed worldwide, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, but human activities have also increased their number in many parts of the world. Little attention has been paid to assess increasing salt effects on organic matter decomposition. The objectives of this study were to analyse wood breakdown rates and how salinity affects them in 14 streams that exemplify a natural salinity gradient. We also analysed the effect of this gradient on changes in wood chemical composition, fungal biomass and microbial activity. Our results showed low breakdown rates (0.0010-0.0032 d(-1)), but they fell within the same range as those reported in freshwater streams when a similar woody substrate was used. However, salinity had a negative effect on the breakdown rates and fungal biomass along the salinity gradient, and led to noticeable changes in wood composition. Water salinity did not affect microbial activity estimated using hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate. Variation in breakdown rates and fungal biomass across streams was mediated mainly by salinity, and later by stream discharge. Despite the role of fungi in stick breakdown, the potential wood abrasion by salts must be analysed in detail to accurately understand the effect of increasing salinity on organic matter breakdown. Finally, our results indicate that increased salinity worldwide by human activities or by the global warming would imply organic matter breakdown and mineralisation slowing down, even in natural saline streams. However, because many variables are implicated, the final effect of climatic change on organic matter decomposition in streams is difficult to predict.

  12. Evidence for high salinity of Early Cretaceous sea water from the Chesapeake Bay crater.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Ward E; Doughten, Michael W; Coplen, Tyler B; Hunt, Andrew G; Bullen, Thomas D

    2013-11-14

    High-salinity groundwater more than 1,000 metres deep in the Atlantic coastal plain of the USA has been documented in several locations, most recently within the 35-million-year-old Chesapeake Bay impact crater. Suggestions for the origin of increased salinity in the crater have included evaporite dissolution, osmosis and evaporation from heating associated with the bolide impact. Here we present chemical, isotopic and physical evidence that together indicate that groundwater in the Chesapeake crater is remnant Early Cretaceous North Atlantic (ECNA) sea water. We find that the sea water is probably 100-145 million years old and that it has an average salinity of about 70 per mil, which is twice that of modern sea water and consistent with the nearly closed ECNA basin. Previous evidence for temperature and salinity levels of ancient oceans have been estimated indirectly from geochemical, isotopic and palaeontological analyses of solid materials in deep sediment cores. In contrast, our study identifies ancient sea water in situ and provides a direct estimate of its age and salinity. Moreover, we suggest that it is likely that remnants of ECNA sea water persist in deep sediments at many locations along the Atlantic margin.

  13. Evidence for high salinity of Early Cretaceous sea water from the Chesapeake Bay crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Ward E.; Doughten, Michael W.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Bullen, Thomas D.

    2013-11-01

    High-salinity groundwater more than 1,000 metres deep in the Atlantic coastal plain of the USA has been documented in several locations, most recently within the 35-million-year-old Chesapeake Bay impact crater. Suggestions for the origin of increased salinity in the crater have included evaporite dissolution, osmosis and evaporation from heating associated with the bolide impact. Here we present chemical, isotopic and physical evidence that together indicate that groundwater in the Chesapeake crater is remnant Early Cretaceous North Atlantic (ECNA) sea water. We find that the sea water is probably 100-145 million years old and that it has an average salinity of about 70 per mil, which is twice that of modern sea water and consistent with the nearly closed ECNA basin. Previous evidence for temperature and salinity levels of ancient oceans have been estimated indirectly from geochemical, isotopic and palaeontological analyses of solid materials in deep sediment cores. In contrast, our study identifies ancient sea water in situ and provides a direct estimate of its age and salinity. Moreover, we suggest that it is likely that remnants of ECNA sea water persist in deep sediments at many locations along the Atlantic margin.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Ground-Water Salinization in the Arkansas River Corridor, Southwest Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittemore, D. O.; Perkins, S.; Tsou, M.; McElwee, C. D.; Zhan, X.; Young, D. P.

    2001-12-01

    The salinity of ground water in the High Plains aquifer underlying the upper Arkansas River corridor in southwest Kansas has greatly increased during the last few decades. The source of the salinization is infiltration of Arkansas River water along the river channel and in areas irrigated with diverted river water. The saline river water is derived from southeastern Colorado where consumptive losses of water in irrigation systems substantially concentrate dissolved solids in the residual water. Before development of surface- and ground-water resources, the Arkansas River gained flow along nearly all of its length in southwest Kansas. Since the 1970's, ground-water levels have declined in the High Plains aquifer from consumptive use of ground water. The water-level declines have now changed the river to a generally losing rather than gaining system. We simulated ground-water flow in the aquifers underlying 126 miles of the river corridor using MODFLOW integrated with the GIS software ArcView (Tsou and Whittemore, 2001). There are two layers in the model, one for the Quaternary alluvial aquifer and the other for the underlying High Plains aquifer. We prepared a simulation for circa 1940 that represented conditions prior to substantial ground-water development, and simulations for 40 years into the future that were based on holding constant either average water use or average ground-water levels for the 1990's. Streamflows along the river computed from the model results illustrated the flow gains from ground-water discharge for circa 1940 and losses during the 1990's. We modeled the movement of salinity as particle tracks generated by MODPATH based on the MODFLOW solutions. The results indicate that during the next 40 years, saline water will move a substantial distance in the High Plains aquifer on the south side of the central portion of the river valley. The differences between the circa 1940 and 1990's simulations fit the observed data that show large increases in

  15. Soil Salt Distribution and Tomato Response to Saline Water Irrigation under Straw Mulching

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Yaming; Yang, Qian; Wu, Yunyu

    2016-01-01

    To investigate better saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes that scheduling with the compromise among yield (Yt), quality, irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and soil salt residual, an experiment with three irrigation quotas and three salinities of irrigation water was conducted under straw mulching in northern China. The irrigation quota levels were 280 mm (W1), 320 mm (W2) and 360 mm (W3), and the salinity levels were 1.0 dS/m (F), 3.0 dS/m (S1) and 5.0 dS/m (S2). Compared to freshwater, saline water irrigations decreased the maximum leaf area index (LAIm) of tomatoes, and the LAIm presented a decline tendency with higher salinity and lower irrigation quota. The best overall quality of tomato was obtained by S2W1, with the comprehensive quality index of 3.61. A higher salinity and lower irrigation quota resulted in a decrease of individual fruit weight and an increase of the blossom-end rot incidence, finally led to a reduction in the tomato Yt and marketable yield (Ym). After one growth season of tomato, the mass fraction of soil salt in plough layer under S2W1 treatment was the highest, and which presented a decline trend with an increasing irrigation quota. Moreover, compared to W1, soil salts had a tendency to move to the deeper soil layer when using W2 and W3 irrigation quota. According to the calculation results of projection pursuit model, S1W3 was the optimal treatment that possessed the best comprehensive benefit (tomato overall quality, Yt, Ym, IWUE and soil salt residual), and was recommended as the saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes in northern China. PMID:27806098

  16. Soil Salt Distribution and Tomato Response to Saline Water Irrigation under Straw Mulching.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yaming; Yang, Qian; Wu, Yunyu

    2016-01-01

    To investigate better saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes that scheduling with the compromise among yield (Yt), quality, irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and soil salt residual, an experiment with three irrigation quotas and three salinities of irrigation water was conducted under straw mulching in northern China. The irrigation quota levels were 280 mm (W1), 320 mm (W2) and 360 mm (W3), and the salinity levels were 1.0 dS/m (F), 3.0 dS/m (S1) and 5.0 dS/m (S2). Compared to freshwater, saline water irrigations decreased the maximum leaf area index (LAIm) of tomatoes, and the LAIm presented a decline tendency with higher salinity and lower irrigation quota. The best overall quality of tomato was obtained by S2W1, with the comprehensive quality index of 3.61. A higher salinity and lower irrigation quota resulted in a decrease of individual fruit weight and an increase of the blossom-end rot incidence, finally led to a reduction in the tomato Yt and marketable yield (Ym). After one growth season of tomato, the mass fraction of soil salt in plough layer under S2W1 treatment was the highest, and which presented a decline trend with an increasing irrigation quota. Moreover, compared to W1, soil salts had a tendency to move to the deeper soil layer when using W2 and W3 irrigation quota. According to the calculation results of projection pursuit model, S1W3 was the optimal treatment that possessed the best comprehensive benefit (tomato overall quality, Yt, Ym, IWUE and soil salt residual), and was recommended as the saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes in northern China.

  17. A new algorithm for retrieval of tropospheric wet path delay over inland water bodies and coastal zones using Brightness Temperature Deflection Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliam, Kyle L.

    As part of former and current sea-surface altimetry missions, brightness temperatures measured by nadir-viewing 18-34 GHz microwave radiometers are used to determine apparent path delay due to variations in index of refraction caused by changes in the humidity of the troposphere. This tropospheric wet-path delay can be retrieved from these measurements with sufficient accuracy over open oceans. However, in coastal zones and over inland water the highly variable radiometric emission from land surfaces at microwave frequencies has prevented accurate retrieval of wet-path delay using conventional algorithms. To extend wet path delay corrections into the coastal zone (within 25 km of land) and to inland water bodies, a new method is proposed to correct for tropospheric wet-path delay by using higher-frequency radiometer channels from approximately 50-170 GHz to provide sufficiently small fields of view on the surface. A new approach is introduced based on the variability of observations in several millimeter-wave radiometer channels on small spatial scales due to surface emissivity in contrast to the larger-scale variability in atmospheric absorption. The new technique is based on the measurement of deflection ratios among several radiometric bands to estimate the transmissivity of the atmosphere due to water vapor. To this end, the Brightness Temperature Deflection Ratio (BTDR) method is developed starting from a radiative transfer model for a downward-looking microwave radiometer, and is extended to pairs of frequency channels to retrieve the wet path delay. Then a mapping between the wet transmissivity and wet-path delay is performed using atmospheric absorption models. A frequency selection study is presented to determine the suitability of frequency sets for accurate retrieval of tropospheric wet-path delay, and comparisons are made to frequency sets based on currently-available microwave radiometers. Statistical noise analysis results are presented for a number

  18. Development of an advanced eco-hydrologic and biogeochemical coupling model aimed at clarifying the missing role of inland water in the global biogeochemical cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Tadanobu

    2017-04-01

    Recent research showed that inland water including rivers, lakes, and groundwater may play some role in carbon cycling, although its contribution has remained uncertain due to limited amount of reliable data available. In this study, the author developed an advanced model coupling eco-hydrology and biogeochemical cycle (National Integrated Catchment-based Eco-hydrology (NICE)-BGC). This new model incorporates complex coupling of hydrologic-carbon cycle in terrestrial-aquatic linkages and interplay between inorganic and organic carbon during the whole process of carbon cycling. The model could simulate both horizontal transports (export from land to inland water 2.01 ± 1.98 Pg C/yr and transported to ocean 1.13 ± 0.50 Pg C/yr) and vertical fluxes (degassing 0.79 ± 0.38 Pg C/yr, and sediment storage 0.20 ± 0.09 Pg C/yr) in major rivers in good agreement with previous researches, which was an improved estimate of carbon flux from previous studies. The model results also showed global net land flux simulated by NICE-BGC (-1.05 ± 0.62 Pg C/yr) decreased carbon sink a little in comparison with revised Lund-Potsdam-Jena Wetland Hydrology and Methane (-1.79 ± 0.64 Pg C/yr) and previous materials (-2.8 to -1.4 Pg C/yr). This is attributable to CO2 evasion and lateral carbon transport explicitly included in the model, and the result suggests that most previous researches have generally overestimated the accumulation of terrestrial carbon and underestimated the potential for lateral transport. The results further implied difference between inverse techniques and budget estimates suggested can be explained to some extent by a net source from inland water. NICE-BGC would play an important role in reevaluation of greenhouse gas budget of the biosphere, quantification of hot spots, and bridging the gap between top-down and bottom-up approaches to global carbon budget.

  19. Extreme saline water advection into the Don River delta and ice advections into Kerch Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matishov, G. G.

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of such extreme natural phenomena as inflow of saline transformed waters from the Black Sea into the Don River delta, ice drift, and some others, which have been observed in the Sea of Azov in the recent years, is performed. The process and consequences of the ice movement from the Sea of Azov into Kerch Strait under the effect of hurricane-force NE winds is characterized. Data on the salinity and water level changes during the intensive westerly winds are given. The relationship between salinity and water level during episodes of the surges and downsurges is found. Recommendations for organizing the monitoring measures, intended to increase the accuracy of forecasting emergency situations in the Gulf of Taganrog, Sea of Azov, are presented.

  20. Combined effect of boron and salinity on water transport: The role of aquaporins.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen Martínez-Ballesta, Maria; Bastías, Elizabeth; Carvajal, Micaela

    2008-10-01

    Boron toxicity is an important disorder that can limit plant growth on soils of arid and semi arid environments throughout the world. Although there are several reports about the combined effect of salinity and boron toxicity on plant growth and yield, there is no consensus about the experimental results. A general antagonistic relationship between boron excess and salinity has been observed, however the mechanisms for this interaction is not clear and several options can be discussed. In addition, there is no information, concerning the interaction between boron toxicity and salinity with respect to water transport and aquaporins function in the plants. We recently documented in the highly boron- and salt-tolerant the ecotype of Zea mays L. amylacea from Lluta valley in Northern Chile that under salt stress, the activity of specific membrane components can be influenced directly by boron, regulating the water uptake and water transport through the functions of certain aquaporin isoforms.

  1. Landscape scale assessment of soil and water salinization processes in agricultural coastal area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elen Bless, Aplena; Follain, Stéphane; Coiln, François; Crabit, Armand

    2017-04-01

    Soil salinization is among main land degradation process around the globe. It reduces soil quality, disturbs soil function, and has harmful impacts on plant growth that would threaten agricultural sustainability, particularly in coastal areas where mostly susceptible on land degradation because of pressure from anthropogenic activities and at the same time need to preserve soil quality for supporting food production. In this presentation, we present a landscape scale analysis aiming to assess salinization process affecting wine production. This study was carried out at Serignan estuary delta in South of France (Languadoc Roussillon Region, 43˚ 28'N and 3˚ 31'E). It is a sedimentary basin near coastline of Mediterranean Sea. Field survey was design to characterize both space and time variability of soil and water salinity through water electrical conductivity (ECw) and soil 1/5 electrical conductivity (EC1/5). For water measurements, Orb River and groundwater salinity (piezometers) were determined and for soil 1737 samples were randomly collected from different soil depths (20, 50, 80, and 120 cm) between year 2012 and 2016 and measured. In order to connect with agricultural practices observations and interviews with farmers were conducted. We found that some areas combining specific criteria presents higher electrical conductivity: positions with lower elevation (a.s.l), Cambisols (Calcaric) / Fluvisols soil type (WRB) and dominated clay textures. These observations combined with geochemical determination and spatial analysis confirm our first hypothesis of sea salt intrusion as the main driven factor of soil salinity in this region. In this context, identification of salinization process, fine determination of pedological specificities and fine understanding of agricultural practices allowed us to proposed adaptation strategies to restore soil production function. Please fill in your abstract text. Key Words: Salinity, Coastal Agriculture, Landscape, Soil, Water

  2. Impact of saline water sources on hypertension and cardiovascular disease risk in coastal Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Adrian; Hoque, Mohammad; Mathewson, Eleanor; Ahmed, Kazi; Rahman, Moshuir; Vineis, Paolo; Scheelbeek, Pauline

    2016-04-01

    Southern Bangladesh is periodically affected by tropical cyclone induced storm surges. Such events can result in the inundation of large areas of the coastal plain by sea water. Over time these episodic influxes of saline water have led to the build-up of a high of salinities (e.g. > 1,000 mg/l) in the shallow (up to ca. 150 m depth) groundwater. Owing to the highly saline groundwater, local communities have developed alternative surface water sources by constructing artificial drinking water ponds, which collect monsoonal rainwater. These have far greater storage than traditional rainwater harvesting systems, which typically use 40 litre storage containers that are quickly depleted during the dry season. Unfortunately, the ponds can also become salinised during storm surge events, the impacts of which can last for a number of years. A combined hydrological and epidemiological research programme over the past two years has been undertaken to understand the potential health risks associated with these saline water sources, as excessive intake of sodium can lead to hypertension and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (such as stroke and heart attack). An important aspect of the selected research sites was the variety of drinking water sources available. These included the presence of managed aquifer recharge sites where monsoonal rainwater is stored in near-surface (semi-)confined aquifers for abstraction during the dry season. This provided an opportunity for the effects of interventions with lower salinity sources to be assessed. Adjusting for confounding factors such as age, gender and diet, the results show a significant association between salinity and blood pressure. Furthermore, the results also showed such impacts are reversible. In order to evaluate the costs and benefits of such interventions, a water salinity - dose impact model is being developed to assess the effectiveness of alternative drinking water sources, such as enhanced rainwater

  3. Irrigation solutions in open fractures of the lower extremities: evaluation of isotonic saline and distilled water

    PubMed Central

    Olufemi, Olukemi Temiloluwa; Adeyeye, Adeolu Ikechukwu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Open fractures are widely considered as orthopaedic emergencies requiring immediate intervention. The initial management of these injuries usually affects the ultimate outcome because open fractures may be associated with significant morbidity. Wound irrigation forms one of the pivotal principles in the treatment of open fractures. The choice of irrigation fluid has since been a source of debate. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of isotonic saline and distilled water as irrigation solutions in the management of open fractures of the lower extremities. Wound infection and wound healing rates using both solutions were evaluated. Methods: This was a prospective hospital-based study of 109 patients who presented to the Accident and Emergency department with open lower limb fractures. Approval was sought and obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Hospital. Patients were randomized into either the isotonic saline (NS) or the distilled water (DW) group using a simple ballot technique. Twelve patients were lost to follow-up, while 97 patients were available until conclusion of the study. There were 50 patients in the isotonic saline group and 47 patients in the distilled water group. Results: Forty-one (42.3%) of the patients were in the young and economically productive strata of the population. There was a male preponderance with a 1.7:1 male-to-female ratio. The wound infection rate was 34% in the distilled water group and 44% in the isotonic saline group (p = 0.315). The mean time ± SD to wound healing was 2.7 ± 1.5 weeks in the distilled water group and 3.1 ± 1.8 weeks in the isotonic saline group (p = 0.389). Conclusions: It was concluded from this study that the use of distilled water compares favourably with isotonic saline as an irrigation solution in open fractures of the lower extremities. PMID:28134091

  4. Water beetle tolerance to salinity and anionic composition and its relationship to habitat occupancy.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, V; Pallarés, S; Arribas, P; Millán, A; Velasco, J

    2013-10-01

    Water salinity and ionic composition are among the main environmental variables that constrain the fundamental niches of aquatic species, and accordingly, physiological tolerance to these factors constitutes a crucial part of the evolution, ecology, and biogeography of these organisms. The present study experimentally estimated the fundamental saline and anionic niches of adults of two pairs of congeneric saline beetle species that differ in habitat preference (lotic and lentic) in order to test the habitat constraint hypothesis. Osmotic and anionic realised niches were also estimated based on the field occurrences of adult beetle species using Outlying Mean Index analysis and their relationship with experimental tolerances. In the laboratory, all of the studied species showed a threshold response to increased salinity, displaying high survival times when exposed to low and intermediate conductivity levels. These results suggest that these species are not strictly halophilic, but that they are able to regulate both hyperosmotically and hypoosmotically. Anionic water composition had a significant effect on salinity tolerance at conductivity levels near their upper tolerance limits, with decreased species survival at elevated sulphate concentrations. Species occupying lentic habitats demonstrated higher salinity tolerance than their lotic congeners in agreement with the habitat constraint hypothesis. As expected, realised salinity niches were narrower than fundamental niches and corresponded to conditions near the upper tolerance limits of the species. These species are uncommon on freshwater-low conductivity habitats despite the fact that these conditions might be physiologically suitable for the adult life stage. Other factors, such as biotic interactions, could prevent their establishment at low salinities. Differences in the realised anionic niches of congeneric species could be partially explained by the varying habitat availability in the study area. Combining

  5. The Importance of Holding Water: Salinity and Chemosensory Cues Affect Zebrafish Behavior.

    PubMed

    Mahabir, Samantha; Gerlai, Robert

    2017-10-01

    The zebrafish is becoming a popular model organism for studying numerous biological phenomena. Among these are brain function and behavior, including social behavior. Although usually neglected, few studies have already demonstrated that even trivial factors, such as features of the holding water may alter zebrafish behavior. In this study, we employed a 2 × 2 between-subject experimental design, exposing zebrafish to water of either high or low salinity and with chemosensory/olfactory cues of conspecifics either present or absent (while maintaining pH, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia levels constant). We presented moving images of conspecifics to experimental zebrafish and analyzed their behavioral responses using video tracking. We found significant interaction between salinity and olfactory cues. For example, zebrafish exposed to their home tank water (high salinity with chemosensory/olfactory cues present) stayed significantly closer to the bottom of their tank compared with fish exposed to the other water conditions, and fish exposed to water with chemosensory/olfactory cues significantly reduced their turns compared with fish exposed to water without chemosensory/olfactory cues. These differences signify the impact environmental factors, for example, fluctuations in salinity level and presence or absence of chemosensory/olfactory cues, may have on zebrafish behavior. We conclude that maintaining stable environmental conditions and specifying and reporting them precisely are important for reducing error variation and for making results across independent studies more comparable.

  6. Use of D-C resistivity to map saline ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamos, Christina L.; Predmore, Steven K.; Zohdy, Adel A.R.

    1992-01-01

    It has been estimated in previous studies that 23 square miles of the Oxnard aquifer, a member of a multi-layered aquifer system beneath the Oxnard plain in Ventura County, California, has been contaminated as a result of seawater intrusion. To investigate this and other potential sources of saline water, a direct-current resistivity survey was made as an alternative to the costly and time-consuming method of well drilling in the part of the Oxnard plain where ground water is believed to be most affected by seawater. Findings from this survey and water-quality data collected from wells as part of this study suggest that the extent of seawater intrusion is much less than reported. A field inventory of the current monitoring-well network utilized by managing agencies suggests that the integrity of most of the well casings is questionable. Leakage of saline water from an unconfined `perched zone' through these and other failed or corroded well casings is a possible source of increasing chloride concentration in the underlying Oxnard aquifer. Saline water also may be present in fine-grained deposits along the eastern limit of the Oxnard aquifer. Pumping near this area could induce the lateral migration of saline water from these deposits.

  7. Assessing toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium levels relevant to discharge limits of industrial effluents into inland surface waters using common onion, Allium cepa bioassay.

    PubMed

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2015-02-01

    Toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium relevant to established tolerance limits for the discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters was evaluated by Allium cepa bioassay. The roots of A. cepa bulbs exposed to Cu(2+) (3 mg L(-1)) individually or in mixtures with Cd(2+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) or/and Cr(6+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) exhibited the highest growth inhibition, mitotic index depression and nuclear abnormalities. Root tip cells exposed to Cr(6+) or Cd(2+) alone or in mixture displayed significant chromosomal aberrations in comparison to the controls. EC50s for root growth inhibition followed the order Cu(2+) < Cd(2+) < Cr(6+) indicating greater toxicity of copper. The results show that the industrial effluent discharge regulatory limits for these metals need to be reviewed considering potential cyto-genotoxicity to biological systems.

  8. Salinity independent measurement of gas volume fraction in oil/gas/water pipe flows

    PubMed

    Johansen; Jackson

    2000-10-01

    Dual mode densitometry is presented as a novel method of measuring the gas volume fraction in gas/oil/water pipe flows independent of the salinity of the water component. The different response in photoelectric attenuation and Compton scattering to changes in salinity is utilized. The total attenuation coefficient is found through traditional transmission measurements with a detector positioned outside the pipe wall diametrically opposite the source. The scatter response is measured with a second detector positioned somewhere between the source and the transmission detector. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated for homogeneously mixed flows.

  9. New steady-state models for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation waters: Analytical solutions and applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems mode...

  10. New steady-state models for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation waters: Analytical solutions and applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems mod...

  11. Stability of liquid saline water on present day Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorzano, M.-P.; Mateo-Martí, E.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Osuna, S.; Renno, N.

    2009-10-01

    Perchlorate salts (mostly magnesium and sodium perchlorate) have been detected on Mars' arctic soil by the Phoenix lander, furthermore chloride salts have been found on the Meridiani and Gusev sites and on widespread deposits on the southern Martian hemisphere. The presence of these salts on the surface is not only relevant because of their ability to lower the freezing point of water, but also because they can absorb water vapor and form a liquid solution (deliquesce). We show experimentally that small amounts of sodium perchlorate (˜ 1 mg), at Mars atmospheric conditions, spontaneously absorb moisture and melt into a liquid solution growing into ˜ 1 mm liquid spheroids at temperatures as low as 225 K. Also mixtures of water ice and sodium perchlorate melt into a liquid at this temperature. Our results indicate that salty environments make liquid water to be locally and sporadically stable on present day Mars.

  12. USGS Research on Saline Waters Co-Produced with Energy Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The United States energy industry faces the challenge of satisfying our expanding thirst for energy while protecting the environment. This challenge is magnified by the increasing volumes of saline water produced with oil and gas in the Nation's aging petroleum fields. Ultimately, energy-producing companies are responsible for disposing of these waters. USGS research provides basic information, for use by regulators, industry, and the public, about the chemistry of co-produced waters and environmentally acceptable ways of handling them.

  13. Investigations on the physiological controls of water and saline intake in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ralph F; Beltz, Terry G; Thunhorst, Robert L; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2003-08-01

    To examine the behavioral and neural control of body fluid homeostasis, water and saline intake of C57BL/6 mice was monitored under ad libitum conditions, after treatments that induce water or salt intake, and after ablation of the periventricular tissue of the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V). Mice have nocturnal drinking that is most prevalent after the offset and before the onset of lights. When given ad libitum choice, C57BL/6 mice show no preference for saline over water at concentrations up to 0.9% NaCl and a progressive aversion to saline above that concentration. Systemic hypertonic saline, isoproterenol, and polyethylene glycol treatments are dipsogenic; however, systemic ANG II is not. Intracerebroventricular injections of both hypertonic saline and ANG II are dipsogenic, and diuretic treatment followed by a short period of sodium deprivation induces salt intake. After ablation of the AV3V, mice can be nursed to recovery from initial adipsia and, similar to rats, show chronic deficits to dipsogenic treatments. Taken together, the data indicate that mechanisms controlling thirst in response to cellular dehydration in C57BL/6 mice are similar to rats, but there are differences in the efficacy of extracellular dehydration-related mechanisms, especially for systemic ANG II, controlling thirst and salt appetite.

  14. Evidence for deep-water deposition of abyssal Mediterranean evaporites during the Messinian salinity crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christeleit, Elizabeth C.; Brandon, Mark T.; Zhuang, Guangsheng

    2015-10-01

    Scientific drilling of the abyssal evaporites beneath the deepest parts of the Mediterranean basin gave rise to the idea that the Mediterranean sea completely evaporated at the end of the Messinian. Herein, we show, using new organic geochemical data, that those evaporites were deposited beneath a deep-water saline basin, not in a subaerial saltpan, as originally proposed. Abundant fossil organic lipids were extracted from evaporites in Mediterranean Deep Sea Drilling Project cores. The archaeal lipid distribution and new analyses, using the ACE salinity proxy and TEX86 temperature proxy, indicate that surface waters at the time of evaporite deposition had normal marine salinity, ranging from ∼26 to 34 practical salinity units, and temperatures of 25-28 °C. These conditions require a deep-water setting, with a mixed layer with normal marine salinity and an underlying brine layer at gypsum and halite saturation. After correction for isostatic rebound, our results indicate maximum drawdown of ∼2000 m and ∼2900 m relative to modern sea level in the western and eastern Mediterranean basins, respectively. Our results are consistent with previously proposed scenarios for sea level drawdown based on both subaerial and submarine incision and backfilling of the Rhone and Nile rivers, which require Messinian sea level drops of ∼1300 m and ∼200 m, respectively. This study provides new evidence for an old debate and also demonstrates the importance of further scientific drilling and sampling of deeper part of the abyssal Messinian units.

  15. Effects of water salinity on acid-base balance in decapod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Whiteley, N M; Scott, J L; Breeze, S J; McCann, L

    2001-03-01

    Extracellular acid-base balance in decapod crustaceans is influenced by water salinity, although the nature of this relationship is unclear. In euryhaline crabs, a decrease in salinity results in a metabolic alkalosis in the haemolymph and an increase in salinity results in a metabolic acidosis. Alterations in acid-base status by external changes in salinity are thought to be secondary to the adjustments required for ionic and osmotic regulation. In the present study, acid-base adjustments in the haemolymph of Eriocheir sinensis after transfer to 30 % sea water accompanied alterations in muscle pH and [HCO(3)(-)], as an initial acidosis coincided with an alkalosis in the leg muscle. By 48 h transfer, haemolymph pH increased as muscle pH and HCO(3)(-) declined. Haemolymph [Cl(-)] decreased significantly 3 h after transfer to a new steady state but haemolymph [Na(+)] and muscle [Na(+)] and [Cl(-)] remained unchanged. Muscle free amino acid concentration increased twofold 6 h after transfer, followed by a 2.5-fold increase in the haemolymph after 24 h. In contrast, 30 % sea water had no effect on haemolymph acid-base adjustments in the osmoconforming crab, Necora puber, which lacks ion and osmo-regulatory mechansims. Collectively these observations support the view that salinity-induced alterations in acid-base status are caused by adjustments consistent with cell volume regulation.

  16. Temperature and Salinity Long-term Variation Trend of Southern Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, L.; Yu, F.; Guangcheng, S.; Wei, C.

    2016-02-01

    This result discusses the temperature and salinity long-term variation trend of the Southern Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (SYSCWM) and examines the factors and mechanisms that influence SYSCWM, based on hydrographic datasets of the China national standard section and the Korea Oceanographic Data Center. Surface air temperature and meridional wind speed data is used to describe the seasonal situation. The mean temperature and salinity of SYSCWM has different long-term variation trends. West center temperature of SYSCWM is rising, while east center temperature is falling. The salinity of SYSCWM is declining. The mean temperature of SYSCWM relates to the warm water intrusion of Yellow Sea Warm Current, the winter monsoon, and the winter air temperature. The mean salinity of SYSCWM is affected by Yellow Sea Warm Current intrusion and E-P flux. Summer process plays a primary role in the cooling trend of east center temperature of SYSCWM. Decreasing trend of east part of SYSCWM salinity shows that the warm water intrusion from south may get weaker and the circulation of SYSCWM may get weakened. The weakened circulation of SYSCWM may lead to the decreasing trend of the east center of SYSCWM temperature. Higher SST and weakened circulation of SYSCWM could be seen as two main mechanisms of the cooling trend of east center of SYSCWM temperature.

  17. Dependence of CO2-Brine Interfacial Tension on Aquifer Pressure, Temperature and Water Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachu, S.; Bennion, B.

    2007-12-01

    Carbon dioxide storage in deep saline aquifers is a climate-change mitigation strategy that has significant potential in the short-to-medium term. The displacement of formation water by CO2 (drainage) and of CO2 by invading aquifer brine (imbibition) depend on the interfacial tension (IFT) of the CO2-brine system. To provide needed data, an extensive laboratory program was conducted for the measurement of the interfacial tension between CO2 and water or brine covering the ranges of 2 to 27 MPa pressure, 20°C to 125°C temperature, and 0 to 334,000 mg/l water salinity. The laboratory experiments were conducted using the pendant drop method combined with the Laplace solution for the profile of the brine drop in the CO2-rich environment. The analysis of the resulting set of 294 IFT measurements reveals that: 1) for conditions of constant temperature and water salinity, IFT decreases steeply with increasing pressure in the range PPc, with an asymptotic trend towards a constant value for high pressures; 2) for the same conditions of constant pressure and temperature, IFT increases with increasing water salinity, reflecting decreasing CO2 solubility in brine as salinity increases; 3) the dependence of IFT on temperature is more complex, depending on the CO2 phase. For TTc, with an asymptotic trend towards a constant value for high temperatures. These results indicate that, in the case of CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers, the formation water displacement by injected CO2 during the injection phase of CO2 storage and the CO2 displacement by invading brine during the CO2 migration phase depend on the in-situ conditions of pressure, temperature and water salinity through the effects that these primary variables have on the IFT between CO2 and aquifer brine. Since the IFT of

  18. Iodine speciation in coastal and inland bathing waters and seaweeds extracts using a sequential injection standard addition flow-batch method.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes the development of a sequential injection standard addition method for iodine speciation in bathing waters and seaweeds extracts without prior sample treatment. Iodine speciation was obtained by assessing the iodide and iodate content, the two inorganic forms of iodine in waters. For the determination of iodide, an iodide ion selective electrode (ISE) was used. The indirect determination of iodate was based on the spectrophotometric determination of nitrite (Griess reaction). For the iodate measurement, a mixing chamber was employed (flow batch approach) to explore the inherent efficient mixing, essential for the indirect determination of iodate. The application of the standard addition method enabled detection limits of 0.14 µM for iodide and 0.02 µM for iodate, together with the direct introduction of the target water samples, coastal and inland bathing waters. The results obtained were in agreement with those obtained by ICP-MS and a colorimetric reference procedure. Recovery tests also confirmed the accuracy of the developed method which was effectively applied to bathing waters and seaweed extracts.

  19. Tree-Ring Based Climate Scenarios to Inform Decision Making in Water Resource Management: A Case Study From the Inland Empire, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, D.; Tingstad, A.

    2009-12-01

    Water agencies in California are concerned about meeting future demand under climate conditions that are potentially drier than today. Tree-rings can be used to reconstruct past climate which features droughts that were longer and more severe than any dry period during the 20th century for which instrumental data used by water managers are available. This research developed a new technique for modifying tree-ring based precipitation and temperature sequences that can be widely used in water management applications. A pilot study using this new method was done for the Inland Empire Utilities Agency (IEUA) in Southern California. This work employed Robust Decisionmaking to identify near-term management actions that may help mitigate future water shortages over a wide range of uncertainties related to climate, planning, and costs. The results of this work suggest that the current IEUA management plan is vulnerable to extended, high-magnitude droughts in the paleoclimate record as well as situations where management goals are not met. Increasing water banking, recycling, groundwater replenishment, and efficiency in the near-term could reduce the risk of unmet demand and shortage costs in the future.

  20. Evaluating the performance of the newly-launched Landsat 8 sensor in detecting and mapping the spatial configuration of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in inland lakes, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo; Sibanda, Mbulisi; Bangamwabo, Victor; Shoko, Cletah

    2017-08-01

    The remote sensing of freshwater resources is increasingly becoming important, due to increased patterns of water use and the current or projected impacts of climate change and the rapid invasion by lethal water weeds. This study therefore sought to explore the potential of the recently-launched Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS sensor in mapping invasive species in inland lakes. Specifically, the study compares the performance of the newly-launched Landsat 8 sensor, with more advanced sensor design and image acquisition approach to the traditional Landsat-7 ETM+ in detecting and mapping the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) invasive species across Lake Chivero, in Zimbabwe. The analysis of variance test was used to identify windows of spectral separability between water hyacinth and other land cover types. The results showed that portions of the visible (B3), NIR (B4), as well as the shortwave bands (Band 8, 9 and 10) of both Landsat 8 OLI and Landsat 7 ETM, exhibited windows of separability between water hyacinth and other land cover types. It was also observed that on the use of Landsat 8 OLI produced high overall classification accuracy of 72%, when compared Landsat 7 ETM, which yielded lower accuracy of 57%. Water hyacinth had optimal accuracies (i.e. 92%), when compared to other land cover types, based on Landsat 8 OLI data. However, when using Landsat 7 ETM data, classification accuracies of water hyacinth were relatively lower (i.e. 67%), when compared to other land cover types (i.e. water with accuracy of 100%). Spectral curves of the old, intermediate and the young water hyacinth in Lake Chivero based on: (a) Landsat 8 OLI, and (b) Landsat 7 ETM were derived. Overall, the findings of this study underscores the relevance of the new generation multispectral sensors in providing primary data-source required for mapping the spatial distribution, and even configuration of water weeds at lower or no cost over time and space.

  1. Evolutionary process of saline-water intrusion in Holocene and Late Pleistocene groundwater in southern Laizhou Bay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sen; Tang, Zhonghua; Gao, Maosheng; Hou, Guohua

    2017-12-31

    Saline water intrusion is one of the most serious groundwater problems in southern Laizhou Bay. In this study, formation of groundwater with different qualities and saline water intrusion were analyzed using hydrochemical and stable isotopic methods, and the Hydrochemical Facies Evolution Diagram (HFE-Diagram). The results demonstrate that the structure of the sedimentary layer in this area is the dominant controlling factor of groundwater distribution. From the south (land) to the north (sea), the hydrochemical distribution presents a regular changing pattern following the order: HCO3-Na·Mg and HCO3·Cl-Mg·Ca (fresh water), HCO3·Cl-Na·Mg (brackish water), Cl-Na·Mg (saline water), Cl-Na (saline water) and Cl·HCO3-Na (brackish water). Hydrochemical data show that saline water and brine are not the result of evaporation or the concentration of seawater. Brackish water and saline water with low mineralization in Holocene groundwater are formed by the mixing of fresh water and highly mineralized saline water, dissolution of evaporates by meteoric water, and water/salt interaction. And the saline water formed through dissolution of evaporates in Holocene and Late Pleistocene groundwater. Isotopic results reveal that the main recharge of saline water in Holocene groundwater and Late Pleistocene groundwater is a combination of the meteoric water and lateral recharge from rivers. Saline water intrusion was found to follow a wedge-shaped intrusion pattern. Significant variations in Cl(-) and Na(+)indicate saline intrusion in the southern area. The degree of saline water intrusion in Holocene groundwater was found to be more serious than that in Late Pleistocene groundwater. Hydrochemical data and HFE-Diagram show that there is an intrusion process in Holocene groundwater. In this process, it is accepted the fresh water recharge, such as meteoric water and lateral recharge from rivers. In Late Pleistocene groundwater, it presents a simple intrusion process from saline

  2. Tap Water Versus Sterile Normal Saline in Wound Swabbing: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Chan, Mun Che; Cheung, Kin; Leung, Polly

    2016-01-01

    The use of tap water as a wound-cleansing agent is becoming more common in clinical practice, especially in community settings. The aim of this study was to test whether there are differences in wound infection and wound healing rates when wounds are cleansed with tap water or sterile normal saline. Double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Subjects were recruited from the community nursing service of a local hospital in Hong Kong. The target sample included subjects who were aged 18 years or more, and receiving chronic or acute wound care treatment. Subjects were randomly assigned to wound cleansing with tap water (experimental group) or sterile normal saline (control group). Wound assessment was conducted at each home visit, and an assessment of wound size was conducted once a week. The main outcome measures, occurrence of a wound infection and wound healing, were assessed over a period of 6 weeks. Twenty-two subjects (11 subjects in each group) with 30 wounds participated in the study; 16 wounds were managed with tap water cleansing and 14 were randomly allocated to management with the sterile normal saline group. Analysis revealed no significant difference between the experimental and control groups in the proportions of wound infection and wound healing. Study findings indicate that tap water is a safe alternative to sterile normal saline for wound cleansing in a community setting.

  3. New steady-state models for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation waters: Analytical solutions and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.; Suarez, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems modeling framework that accounts for reduced plant water uptake due to root zone salinity. Two new explicit, closed-form analytical solutions for the root zone solute concentration profile are obtained, corresponding to two alternative functional forms of the uptake reduction function. The solutions express a general relationship between irrigation water salinity, irrigation rate, crop salt tolerance, crop transpiration, and (using standard approximations) crop yield. Example applications are illustrated, including the calculation of irrigation requirements for obtaining targeted submaximal yields, and the generation of crop-water production functions for varying irrigation waters, irrigation rates, and crops. Model predictions are shown to be mostly consistent with existing models and available experimental data. Yet the new solutions possess clear advantages over available alternatives, including: (i) the new solutions were derived from a complete physical-mathematical description of the system, rather than based on an ad hoc formulation; (ii) the new analytical solutions are explicit and can be evaluated without iterative techniques; (iii) the solutions permit consideration of two common functional forms of salinity induced reductions in crop water uptake, rather than being tied to one particular representation; and (iv) the utilized modeling framework is compatible with leading transient-state numerical models.

  4. Saline-water contamination in Quaternary deposits and the Poplar River, East Poplar Oil Field, northeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thamke, J.N.; Craigg, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    The extent of saline-water contamination in Quaternary deposits in and near the East Poplar oil field may be as much as 12.4 square miles and appears to be present throughout the entire saturated zone. The saline-water contamination affects 9-60 billion gallons of ground water. Saline- contaminated water moves westward through Quaternary glacial deposits and merges with southward-flowing water in Quaternary alluvium in the Poplar River valley. Saline ground water discharges into the Poplar River, and increases the dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations of the river. The probable source of saline-water contamination in the Quaternary deposits is brine that is a byproduct of the production of crude oil in the East Poplar oil field study area.

  5. Salinity effects on water potential components and bulk elastic modulus of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. ) Griseb

    SciTech Connect

    Bolanos, J.A.; Longstreth, D.J.

    1984-06-01

    Pressure volume curves for Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Grixeb. (alligator weed) grown in 0 to 400 millimolar NaCl were used to determine water potential (PSI), osmotic potential (psi/sub s/), turgor potential (psi/sub p/) and the bulk elastic modulus (element of) of shoots at different tissue water contents. Values of psi decreased with increasing salinity and tissue PSI was always lower than rhizosphere PSI. The relationship between psi/sub p/ and tissue water content changed because element of increased with salinity. As a results, salt-stressed plants had larger ranges of positive turgor but smaller ranges of tissue water content over which psi/sub p/ was positive. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a salinity effect on element of in higher plants. These increases in element of with salinity provided a mechanism by which a large difference between plant PSI and rhizosphere PSI, the driving force for water uptake, could be produced with relatively little water loss by the plant. A time-course study of response after salinization to 400 millimolar NaCl showed PSI was constant with 1 day, psi/sub s/ and psi/sub p/ continued to change for 2 to 4 days, and element of continued to change for 4 to 12 days. Changes in element of modified the capacity of alligator weed to maintain a positive water balance and consideration of such changes in other species of higher plants should improve our understanding of salt stress. 24 references, 6 figures.

  6. Monitoring and Modelling of Salinity Behaviour in Drinking Water Ponds in Southern Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoque, M. A.; Williams, A.; Mathewson, E.; Rahman, A. K. M. M.; Ahmed, K. M.; Scheelbeek, P. F. D.; Vineis, P.; Butler, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Drinking water in southern Bangladesh is provided by a variety of sources including constructed storage ponds, seasonal rainwater and, ubiquitously saline, shallow groundwater. The ponds, the communal reservoirs for harvested rainwater, also tend to be saline, some as high as 2 g/l. Drinking water salinity has several health impacts including high blood pressure associated major risk factor for several cardio-vascular diseases. Two representative drinking water ponds in Dacope Upazila of Khulna District in southwest Bangladesh were monitored over two years for rainfall, evaporation, pond and groundwater level, abstraction, and solute concentration, to better understand the controls on drinking water salinity. Water level monitoring at both ponds shows groundwater levels predominantly below the pond level throughout the year implying a downward gradient. The grain size analysis of the underlying sediments gives an estimated hydraulic conductivity of 3E-8 m/s allowing limited seepage loss. Water balance modelling indicates that the seepage has a relatively minor effect on the pond level and that the bulk of the losses come from the combination of evaporation and abstraction particularly in dry season when precipitation, the only inflow to the pond, is close to zero. Seasonal variation in salinity (electrical conductivities, EC, ranged between 1500 to 3000 μS/cm) has been observed, and are primarily due to dilution from rainfall and concentration from evaporation, except on one occasion when EC reached 16,000 μS/cm due to a breach in the pond levee. This event was analogous to the episodic inundation that occurs from tropical cyclone storm surges and appears to indicate that such events are important for explaining the widespread salinisation of surface water and shallow groundwater bodies in coastal areas. A variety of adaptations (either from practical protection measures) or novel alternative drinking sources (such as aquifer storage and recovery) can be applied

  7. [Soil salinity in greenland irrigated with reclaimed water and risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Pan, Neng; Chen, Wei-Ping; Jiao, Wen-Tao; Zhao, Zhong-Ming; Hou, Zhen-An

    2012-12-01

    Compared to drinking water or groundwater, reclaimed water contains more salts. Therefore, the effects of application of reclaimed water on the soil salinity have received great attentions. To evaluate the potential risks posed by long-term reclaimed water irrigation, we collected surface soil samples from urban green lands and suburban farmlands of Beijing represented different irrigation durations. The electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) in soils were measured subsequently. Both EC1:5 and SAR1.5 from the green land and farmland soils irrigated with reclaimed water were significantly higher than those of control treatments (drinking water or groundwater irrigation). The EC1:5 values increased by 12.4% and 84.2% than control treatments in the greenland and farmland, respectively. The SAR1:5 values increased by 64.5% and 145.8% than control treatments, respectively. No significant differences of both EC1:5 and SAR1:5 were found between of 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layer. A slight decrease of soil porosity was observed. The field investigation suggested there was a high potential of soil salinization under long-term reclaimed water irrigation. Proper management practices should be implemented to minimize the soil salinity accumulation risk when using reclaimed water for irrigation in Beijing.

  8. Evaluation of electromagnetic mapping methods to delineate subsurface saline waters in the Brookhaven oil field, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.D.; Bisdorf, R.; Slack, L.J.; Mazzella, A.

    1997-10-01

    Hydrologic and geophysical studies of saline waters at the Brookhaven oil field (Mississippi) began in 1985. Past and present practices to dispose of brines produced with oil and gas poise an environmental risk to ground water resources, agriculture, and other land uses. At Brookhaven, there is an elevated total chloride content in shallow (<100m) water wells within the field. Background levels of total chloride in the region are around 20 milligrams per liter (mg/L), which is exceptionally fresh water in comparison to other oil producing areas, particularly in the western United States. Contamination in the oil field at some sites is several hundred mg/L chloride as determined from water well samples taken in the mid-1980s. The EPA funded a feasibility study that included a dc resistivity survey which showed low resistivities in one area of known saline water contamination. Detailed electrical geophysical surveys are not possible due to numerous metallic features associated with oil production. In 1988 a helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) survey of the oil field was flown under contract to the USGS as part of an EPA funded research project. An interpreted resistivity map for a depth of 30m showed low resistivities associated with clays, shales, and saline waters near some of the abandoned brine disposal pits. In 1995 water wells were re-sampled and two areas of high changes in chloride content were found. Also in 1995, a new HEM survey was flown and new dc resistivity soundings were made. Comparison of the ground and airborne survey along a profile where there has been a high change in chloride content shows good agreement for interpreted subsurface resistivities. The HEM survey shows greater detail than the ground measurements and suggests there may be local vertical migration of saline waters in areas where there has been a large increase in ground water chloride content.

  9. Metallothionein-like proteins in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus: effect of water salinity and ions.

    PubMed

    De Martinez Gaspar Martins, Camila; Bianchini, Adalto

    2009-03-01

    The effect of water salinity and ions on metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP) concentration was evaluated in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. MTLP concentration was measured in tissues (hepatopancreas and gills) of crabs acclimated to salinity 30 ppt and abruptly subjected to a hypo-osmotic shock (salinity 2 ppt). It was also measured in isolated gills (anterior and posterior) of crabs acclimated to salinity 30 ppt. Gills were perfused with and incubated in an isosmotic saline solution (ISS) or perfused with ISS and incubated in a hypo-osmotic saline solution (HSS). The effect of each single water ion on gill MTLP concentration was also analyzed in isolated and perfused gills through experiments of ion substitution in the incubation medium. In vivo, MTLP concentration was higher in hepatopancreas than in gills, being not affected by the hypo-osmotic shock. However, MTLP concentration in posterior and anterior gills significantly increased after 2 and 24 h of hypo-osmotic shock, respectively. In vitro, it was also increased when anterior and posterior gills were perfused with ISS and incubated in HSS. In isolated and perfused posterior gills, MTLP concentration was inversely correlated with the calcium concentration in the ISS used to incubate gills. Together, these findings indicate that an increased gill MTLP concentration in low salinity is an adaptive response of the blue crab C. sapidus to the hypo-osmotic stress. This response is mediated, at least in part, by the calcium concentration in the gill bath medium. The data also suggest that the trigger for this increase is purely branchial and not systemic.

  10. Surface-water hydrology and salinity of the Anclote River estuary, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Mario

    1990-01-01

    Direct measurements of streamflow, tides, and salinity in the Anclote River Estuary, Florida were made during the period January 1984 through May 1986; historical streamflow was compared to that measured during the study; the influence of well-field pumpage on streamflow was evaluated; and regression relations between salinity, tide, and average daily streamflow were developed. Mean monthly streamflows during the study period generally were lower than the corresponding long-term monthly averages yet representative of flows that typically enter the estuary. The influence of pumpage from individual well fields in or near the basin on streamflow was not statistically significant; the influence of total well-field pumpage, however, was significant at the 5% level. The upstream daily location of 0.44-, 5.0-, 10-, and 18-parts-per-thousand (ppt) salinity was quantified using multiple regression techniques. Streamflow used in the analysis ranged from 2.3 to 263 cu ft/sec, and high tides ranged from 0.25 ft below to 2.76 ft above sea level. Vertical salinity profiles indicated partially to well-mixed conditions throughout the estuary during the study period. Results of the regression analyses show that streamflow has a large effect on the location of the saltwater- freshwater interface (defined as 0.44 ppt salinity) as well as water having a salinity of 5.0 ppt. The location of water having salinities greater than 5.0 ppt is affected increasingly by tide, with a corresponding decrease in effect by streamflow. (USGS)

  11. Preliminary survey of the saline-water resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krieger, Robert A.; Hatchett, J.L.; Poole, J.L.

    1957-01-01

    Basic hydrologic data available in the field offices of the U. S. Geological Survey and reports issued by the Survey furnish evidence that saline water (defined in this report as water containing more than 1,000 parts per million of dissolved solids) is available under diverse geologic and hydrologic conditions throughout the United States.The number of areas in which undeveloped supplies of fresh water are available has diminished considerably with the rapid growth of industries and population in the past decade. Many areas previously considered to have relatively unlimited water resources have reached the point at which water-supply shortages exist or are threatened.

  12. Salinity dependence of vanadium toxicity against the brackish water hydroid Cordylophora caspia.

    PubMed

    Ringelband, U

    2001-01-01

    Vanadium, an abundant metal, enters the environment through natural rock weathering or by combustion of oil products. A third pathway is the leaching of vanadium-rich building materials. Stones made from steel industry residual slags, so-called slag stones, contain rather large amounts of vanadium. The increasing use of these slag stones in riverbank reinforcement has therefore led to increased interest in the toxicity of vanadium to aquatic organisms. The aim of the study was to determine the toxicity of vanadium to the brackish water hydroid Cordylophora caspia and the effect of vanadium on the membrane-bound enzyme Na, K-ATPase at various salinities. EC50 values for population growth inhibition were determined from 1.74 to 7.96 mg x L(-1) vanadium, depending on salinity. The maximum inhibition of population growth by vanadium was observed at low salinities. Correspondingly, maximum Na, K-ATPase inhibition was also measured at low salinities and decreased with increasing salinity. The present study suggests that the observed inhibition of population growth of C. caspia caused by vanadium-contaminated rearing water is due to the vanadium-induced inhibition of phosphatases.

  13. Influence of Microsprinkler Irrigation Amount on Water, Soil, and pH Profiles in a Coastal Saline Soil

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Linlin; Kang, Yaohu; Wan, Shuqin

    2014-01-01

    Microsprinkler irrigation is a potential method to alleviate soil salinization. After conducting a homogeneous, highly saline, clayey, and coastal soil from the Bohai Gulf in northern China in a column experiment, the results show that the depth of the wetting front increased as the water amount applied increased, low-salinity and low-SAR enlarged after irrigation and water redistribution, and the soil pH increased with an increase in irrigation amount. We concluded that a water amount of 207 mm could be used to reclaim the coastal saline soil in northern China. PMID:25147843

  14. Influence of microsprinkler irrigation amount on water, soil, and pH profiles in a coastal saline soil.

    PubMed

    Chu, Linlin; Kang, Yaohu; Wan, Shuqin

    2014-01-01

    Microsprinkler irrigation is a potential method to alleviate soil salinization. After conducting a homogeneous, highly saline, clayey, and coastal soil from the Bohai Gulf in northern China in a column experiment, the results show that the depth of the wetting front increased as the water amount applied increased, low-salinity and low-SAR enlarged after irrigation and water redistribution, and the soil pH increased with an increase in irrigation amount. We concluded that a water amount of 207 mm could be used to reclaim the coastal saline soil in northern China.

  15. Assimilation of satellite altimetry data in hydrological models for improved inland surface water information: Case studies from the "Sentinel-3 Hydrologic Altimetry Processor prototypE" project (SHAPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, J.; Fabry, P. L.; David, G.; Arheimer, B.; Bercher, N.; Roca, M.; Fernandes, J.; Ambrozio, A.; Restano, M.

    2016-12-01

    This communication is about the recently started Sentinel-3 Hydrologic Altimetry Processor prototypE (SHAPE) project, with a focus on the components dealing with assimilation of satellite altimetry data into hydrological models. The SHAPE research and development project started in September 2015, within the Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) programme of the European Space Agency. The objectives of the project are to further develop and assess recent improvement in altimetry data, processing algorithms and methods for assimilation in hydrological models, with the overarching goal to support improved scientific use of altimetry data and improved inland water information. The objective is also to take scientific steps towards a future Inland Water dedicated processor on the Sentinel-3 ground segment. The study focuses on three main variables of interest in hydrology: river stage, river discharge and lake level. The improved altimetry data from the project is used to estimate river stage, river discharge and lake level information in a data assimilation framework using the hydrological dynamic and semi-distributed model HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment). This model has been developed by SMHI and includes data assimilation module based on the Ensemble Kalman filter method. The method will be developed and assessed for a number of case studies with available in situ reference data and satellite altimetry data based on mainly the CryoSat-2 mission on which the new processor will be run. The production of alti-hydro products (water level time series) are improved thanks to the use of water masks. This eases the geo-selection of the CryoSat-2 altimetric measurements since there are acquired from a geodetic orbit and are thus spread along the river course in space and and time. The specific processing of data from this geodetic orbit space-time pattern will be discussed as well as the subsequent possible strategies for data

  16. Assimilation of satellite altimetry data in hydrological models for improved inland surface water information: Case studies from the "Sentinel-3 Hydrologic Altimetry Processor prototypE" project (SHAPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, David; Pimentel, Rafael; Fabry, Pierre; Bercher, Nicolas; Roca, Mónica; Garcia-Mondejar, Albert; Fernandes, Joana; Lázaro, Clara; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2017-04-01

    This communication is about the Sentinel-3 Hydrologic Altimetry Processor prototypE (SHAPE) project, with a focus on the components dealing with assimilation of satellite altimetry data into hydrological models. The SHAPE research and development project started in September 2015, within the Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) programme of the European Space Agency. The objectives of the project are to further develop and assess recent improvement in altimetry data, processing algorithms and methods for assimilation in hydrological models, with the overarching goal to support improved scientific use of altimetry data and improved inland water information. The objective is also to take scientific steps towards a future Inland Water dedicated processor on the Sentinel-3 ground segment. The study focuses on three main variables of interest in hydrology: river stage, river discharge and lake level. The improved altimetry data from the project is used to estimate river stage, river discharge and lake level information in a data assimilation framework using the hydrological dynamic and semi-distributed model HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment). This model has been developed by SMHI and includes data assimilation module based on the Ensemble Kalman filter method. The method will be developed and assessed for a number of case studies with available in situ reference data and satellite altimetry data based on mainly the CryoSat-2 mission on which the new processor will be run; Results will be presented from case studies on the Amazon and Danube rivers and Lake Vänern (Sweden). The production of alti-hydro products (water level time series) are improved thanks to the use of water masks. This eases the geo-selection of the CryoSat-2 altimetric measurements since there are acquired from a geodetic orbit and are thus spread along the river course in space and and time. The specific processing of data from this geodetic orbit space

  17. Investigations of PAA degradation in aqueous solutions: Impacts of water hardness, salinity and DOC

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is used in aquaculture under various conditions for disinfection purposes. However, there is lack of information about its environmental fate. Therefore, the impact of water hardness, salinity, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on PAA-degradation within 5 hours was investigat...

  18. Free water clearance curves during saline, mannitol, glucose and urea diuresis in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Maldonado, Manuel; Opava-Stitzer, Susan

    1978-01-01

    1. Free water clearances were measured during infusion of hypotonic saline, glucose, urea, and mannitol in Brattleboro rats. For each solute the free water clearances were plotted using either V or (CH2O + CNa) as the distal tubular delivery term. 2. In all cases the use of (CH2O + CNa) as distal delivery term yielded a steeper relationship than when V was used. There were no significant differences in the CH2O to V relationship when saline, glucose and mannitol was the solute infused. Urea, however, resulted in a curve with a slope significantly less than that for the other solutes. 3. When CH2O was plotted against (CH2O + CNa) there was still no significant difference between the slopes of the curves during saline or mannitol infusion. Use of this delivery term, however, resulted in a slope during glucose infusion which was significantly greater than that during saline or mannitol infusion. The slope for urea infusion remained lower than that for any other solute. 4. Regardless of the delivery term used, there was no significant difference in the slopes of the curves for awake Wistar and awake Brattleboro rats during mannitol infusion. This indicates that the awake rat is a suitable model for free water clearance studies. 5. The results indicate that NaCl and mannitol are both adequate for free water clearance and that (CH2O + CNa) is a better index of distal delivery than V. PMID:690907

  19. Nebulized Isotonic Saline versus Water following a Laryngeal Desiccation Challenge in Classically Trained Sopranos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Kristine; Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M.; Muntz, Faye; Houtz, Daniel R.; Sauder, Cara; Elstad, Mark; Wright-Costa, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of nebulized isotonic saline (IS) versus sterile water (SW) on self-perceived phonatory effort (PPE) and phonation threshold pressure (PTP) following a surface laryngeal dehydration challenge in classically trained sopranos. Method: In a double-blind, within-subject crossover design, 34 sopranos breathed dry air…

  20. Yield and ion relations of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in response to irrigation with saline waters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa is a major forage crop utilized in arid and semi-arid regions under irrigation; these regions are commonly impacted by saline water and soils. Four commercial non-dormant, purported salt tolerant Alfalfa cultivars 'Salado', 'S&W8421s', 'S&W9720' and 'S&W9215' were grown in 24 outdoor sand ta...

  1. Nebulized Isotonic Saline versus Water following a Laryngeal Desiccation Challenge in Classically Trained Sopranos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Kristine; Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M.; Muntz, Faye; Houtz, Daniel R.; Sauder, Cara; Elstad, Mark; Wright-Costa, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of nebulized isotonic saline (IS) versus sterile water (SW) on self-perceived phonatory effort (PPE) and phonation threshold pressure (PTP) following a surface laryngeal dehydration challenge in classically trained sopranos. Method: In a double-blind, within-subject crossover design, 34 sopranos breathed dry air…

  2. Salinity impact on yield, water use, mineral and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The experimental study was carried out to determine the effects of salinity on water consumption, plant height, fresh and seed yields, biomass production, ion accumulation and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) under greenhouse conditions. The experiment was conducted with a ...

  3. Assessments of carbon and water cycling in multiple agricultural ecosystems in the Inland Pacific Northwest using eddy covariance flux measurements and integrated basin-crop model simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, J.; Maureira, F.; Waldo, S.; O'Keeffe, P.; Pressley, S. N.; Stockle, C. O.; Lamb, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    Local meteorology, crop management practices and site characteristics have important impacts on carbon and water cycling in agricultural ecosystems. This study focuses on carbon and water fluxes measured using eddy covariance (EC) methods and crop simulation models in the Inland Pacific Northwest (IPNW), in association with the Regional Approaches to Climate Change (REACCH) program. The agricultural ecosystem is currently challenged by higher pressure on water resources as a consequence of population growth and increasing exposure to impacts associated with different types of crop managements. In addition, future climate projections for this region show a likely increase in temperature and significant reductions in precipitation that will affect carbon and water dynamics. This new scenario requires an understanding of crop management by assessing efficient ways to face the impacts of climate change at the micrometeorological level, especially in regards to carbon and water flow. We focus on three different crop management sites. One site (LIND) under crop-fallow is situated in a low-rainfall area. The other two sites, one no-till site (CAF-NT) and one conventional tillage site (CAF-CT), are located in an area of high-rainfall with continuous cropping. In this study, we used CropSyst micro-basin model to simulate the responses in carbon and water budgets at each site. Based on the EC processed results for net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2, the CAF-NT site was a carbon sink during 2013 when spring garbanzo was planted; while the paired CAF-CT site, under similar crop rotation and meteorological conditions, was a carbon source during the same period. The LIND site was also a carbon sink where winter wheat was growing during 2013. Model results for CAF-NT showed good agreement with the EC carbon and water flux measurements during 2013. Through comparisons between measurements and modeling results, both short and long term processes that influence carbon and water

  4. Distribution and origin of salinity in the surficial and intermediate aquifer systems, southwestern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmerge, David L.

    2001-01-01

    Chloride concentrations in the surficial and intermediate aquifer systems in southwestern Florida indicate a general trend of increasing salinity coastward and with depth. There are some notable exceptions to this trend. Brackish water is present in the sandstone and mid-Hawthorn aquifers in several inland areas in Lee County. In an area near the coast in Collier County, the lower Tamiami aquifer contains freshwater, with brackish water present farther inland. Saline water is present in the lower Tamiami aquifer along the coast in Collier County, but water is brackish in the underlying mid-Hawthorn and Upper Floridan aquifers. The analyses of major ions, hydrogen and oxygen isotopes, and strontium isotopes indicate the primary sources of salinity are underlying aquifers and the Gulf of Mexico. Based on these data, much of the salinity is from upward leakage of brackish water from underlying aquifers. Discharge as diffuse upward leakage and artesian wells are two possible pathways of saltwater intrusion from underlying aquifers. Artesian wells open to multiple aquifers have been pathways of saltwater intrusion in the sandstone and mid-Hawthorn aquifers in much of Lee County. The source of brackish water in the lower Tamiami and mid-Hawthorn aquifers in Collier County may be natural diffuse leakage from underlying aquifers. The source of the saline water in the lower Tamiami aquifer in Collier County is apparently the Gulf of Mexico; it is unclear however, whether this saline water is residual water from former Pleistocene sea invasions or recent saltwater intrusion.

  5. Comparison of water immersion and saline infusion as a means of inducing volume expansion in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, M.; Pins, D. S.; Arrington, R.; Denunzio, A. G.; Engstrom, R.

    1975-01-01

    The study compares the natriuresis induced by head-out water immersion to that of a standard saline infusion and assesses the relative effectiveness of these two techniques as volume determinants of renal sodium and water handling in humans in a seated posture. The data obtained show that the volume stimulus of immersion is identical to that of standard saline-induced extracellular fluid volume expansion (ECVE) in normal seated subjects. The ability of head-out water immersion to induce a natriuresis without a concomitant increase in total blood volume and with a decrease in body weight suggests that water immersion may be preferred as an investigative tool for assessing the effects of ECVE in man.

  6. Hydrogeologic conditions and saline-water intrusion, Cape Coral, Florida, 1978-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The upper limestone unit of the intermediate aquifer system, locally called the upper Hawthorn aquifer, is the principal source of freshwater for Cape Coral, Florida. The aquifer has been contaminated with saline water by downward intrusion from the surficial aquifer system and by upward intrusion from the Floridan aquifer system. Much of the intrusion has occurred through open wellbores where steel casings are short or where casings have collapsed because of corrosion. Saline-water contamination of the upper limestone unit due to downward intrusion from the surficial aquifer is most severe in the southern and eastern parts of Cape Coral; contamination due to upward intrusion has occurred in many areas throughout Cape Coral. Intrusion is amplified in areas of heavy water withdrawals and large water-level declines. (USGS)

  7. Long-term effect of salinity on plant quality, water relations, photosynthetic parameters and ion distribution in Callistemon citrinus.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, S; Sánchez-Blanco, M J

    2014-07-01

    The effect of saline stress on physiological and morphological parameters in Callistemon citrinus plants was studied to evaluate their adaptability to irrigation with saline water. C. citrinus plants, grown under greenhouse conditions, were subjected to two irrigation treatments lasting 56 weeks: control (0.8 dS·m(-1)) and saline (4 dS·m(-1)). The use of saline water in C. citrinus plants decreased aerial growth, increased the root/shoot ratio and improved the root system (increased root diameter and root density), but flowering and leaf colour were not affected. Salinity caused a decrease in stomatal conductance and evapotranspiration, which may prevent toxic levels being reached in the shoot. Net photosynthesis was reduced in plants subjected to salinity, although this response was evident much later than the decrease in stomatal conductance. Stem water potential was a good indicator of salt stress in C. citrinus. The relative salt tolerance of Callistemon was related to storage of higher levels of Na+ and Cl- in the roots compared with the leaves, especially in the case of Na+, which could have helped to maintain the quality of plants. The results show that saline water (around 4 dS·m(-1)) could be used for growing C. citrinus commercially. However, the cumulative effect of irrigating with saline water for 11 months was a decrease in photosynthesis and intrinsic water use efficiency, meaning that the interaction of the salinity level and the time of exposure to the salt stress should be considered important in this species.

  8. Global Scale Variation in the Salinity Sensitivity of Riverine Macroinvertebrates: Eastern Australia, France, Israel and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kefford, Ben J.; Hickey, Graeme L.; Gasith, Avital; Ben-David, Elad; Dunlop, Jason E.; Palmer, Carolyn G.; Allan, Kaylene; Choy, Satish C.; Piscart, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Salinity is a key abiotic property of inland waters; it has a major influence on biotic communities and is affected by many natural and anthropogenic processes. Salinity of inland waters tends to increase with aridity, and biota of inland waters may have evolved greater salt tolerance in more arid regions. Here we compare the sensitivity of stream macroinvertebrate species to salinity from a relatively wet region in France (Lorraine and Brittany) to that in three relatively arid regions eastern Australia (Victoria, Queensland and Tasmania), South Africa (south-east of the Eastern Cape Province) and Israel using the identical experimental method in all locations. The species whose salinity tolerance was tested, were somewhat more salt tolerant in eastern Australia and South Africa than France, with those in Israel being intermediate. However, by far the greatest source of variation in species sensitivity was between taxonomic groups (Order and Class) and not between the regions. We used a Bayesian statistical model to estimate the species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for salinity in eastern Australia and France adjusting for the assemblages of species in these regions. The assemblage in France was slightly more salinity sensitive than that in eastern Australia. We therefore suggest that regional salinity sensitivity is therefore likely to depend most on the taxonomic composition of respective macroinvertebrate assemblages. On this basis it would be possible to screen rivers globally for risk from salinisation. PMID:22567097

  9. Managing water and salinity with desalination, conveyance, conservation, waste-water treatment and reuse to counteract climate variability in Gaza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, D. E.; Aljuaidi, A. E.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    We include demands for water of different salinity concentrations as input parameters and decision variables in a regional hydro-economic optimization model. This specification includes separate demand functions for saline water. We then use stochastic non-linear programming to jointly identify the benefit maximizing set of infrastructure expansions, operational allocations, and use of different water quality types under climate variability. We present a detailed application for the Gaza Strip. The application considers building desalination and waste-water treatment plants and conveyance pipelines, initiating water conservation and leak reduction programs, plus allocating and transferring water of different qualities among agricultural, industrial, and urban sectors and among districts. Results show how to integrate a mix of supply enhancement, conservation, water quality improvement, and water quality management actions into a portfolio that can economically and efficiently respond to changes and uncertainties in surface and groundwater availability due to climate variability. We also show how to put drawn-down and saline Gaza aquifer water to more sustainable and economical use.

  10. Datasets related to in-land water for limnology and remote sensing applications: distance-to-land, distance-to-water, water-body identifier and lake-centre co-ordinates.

    PubMed

    Carrea, Laura; Embury, Owen; Merchant, Christopher J

    2015-11-01

    Datasets containing information to locate and identify water bodies have been generated from data locating static-water-bodies with resolution of about 300 m (1/360(∘)) recently released by the Land Cover Climate Change Initiative (LC CCI) of the European Space Agency. The LC CCI water-bodies dataset has been obtained from multi-temporal metrics based on time series of the backscattered intensity recorded by ASAR on Envisat between 2005 and 2010. The new derived datasets provide coherently: distance to land, distance to water, water-body identifiers and lake-centre locations. The water-body identifier dataset locates the water bodies assigning the identifiers of the Global Lakes and Wetlands Database (GLWD), and lake centres are defined for in-land waters for which GLWD IDs were determined. The new datasets therefore link recent lake/reservoir/wetlands extent to the GLWD, together with a set of coordinates which locates unambiguously the water bodies in the database. Information on distance-to-land for each water cell and the distance-to-water for each land cell has many potential applications in remote sensing, where the applicability of geophysical retrieval algorithms may be affected by the presence of water or land within a satellite field of view (image pixel). During the generation and validation of the datasets some limitations of the GLWD database and of the LC CCI water-bodies mask have been found. Some examples of the inaccuracies/limitations are presented and discussed. Temporal change in water-body extent is common. Future versions of the LC CCI dataset are planned to represent temporal variation, and this will permit these derived datasets to be updated.

  11. Acclimation of CO2 Assimilation in Cotton Leaves to Water Stress and Salinity 1

    PubMed Central

    Plaut, Zvi; Federman, Evelyn

    1991-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Acala SJ2) plants were exposed to three levels of osmotic or matric potentials. The first was obtained by salt and the latter by withholding irrigation water. Plants were acclimated to the two stress types by reducing the rate of stress development by a factor of 4 to 7. CO2 assimilation was then determined on acclimated and nonacclimated plants. The decrease of CO2 assimilation in salinity-exposed plants was significantly less in acclimated as compared with nonacclimated plants. Such a difference was not found under water stress at ambient CO2 partial pressure. The slopes of net CO2 assimilation versus intercellular CO2 partial pressure, for the initial linear portion of this relationship, were increased in plants acclimated to salinity of −0.3 and −0.6 megapascal but not in nonacclimated plants. In plants acclimated to water stress, this change in slopes was not significant. Leaf osmotic potential was reduced much more in acclimated than in nonacclimated plants, resulting in turgor maintenance even at −0.9 megapascal. In nonacclimated plants, turgor pressure reached zero at approximately −0.5 megapascal. The accumulation of Cl− and Na+ in the salinity-acclimated plants fully accounted for the decrease in leaf osmotic potential. The rise in concentration of organic solutes comprised only 5% of the total increase in solutes in salinity-acclimated and 10 to 20% in water-stress-acclimated plants. This acclimation was interpreted in light of the higher protein content per unit leaf area and the enhanced ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity. At saturating CO2 partial pressure, the declined inhibition in CO2 assimilation of stress-acclimated plants was found for both salinity and water stress. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:16668429

  12. Giant subtidal stromatolites forming in normal salinity waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dill, R.F.; Shinn, E.A.; Jones, A.T.; Kelly, K.; Steinen, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    We report here the discovery of giant lithified subtidal columnar stromatolites (>2 m high) growing in 7-8 m of clear oceanic water in current-swept channels between the Exuma Islands on the eastern Bahama Bank. They grow by trapping ooid and pelletal carbonate sand and synsedimentary precipitation of carbonate cement within a field of giant megaripples. The discovery is important to geologists and biologists because similar organo-sedimentary structures built by a combination of cementation and the trapping of sediment by microbes were the dominant fossil types during the Precambrian. Stromatolites are thought to have been responsible for the production of free oxygen and thus the evolution of animal life1,2. Until the discovery of small lithified subtidal columnar stromatolites in the Bahamas3, the only subtidal marine examples known to be living while undergoing lithification were in the hypersaline waters of Hamelin Pool at Shark Bay, Western Australia4-7. Shark Bay stromatolites range from intertidal to the shallow subtidal with the larger columns reaching 1 m in height. The Shark Bay stromatolites have strongly influenced geological interpretation; by analogy, many ancient stromatolites have been considered to have grown in intertidal and/or hypersaline conditions8, although hypersalinity was not a necessity for growth during the Precambrian because grazing metazoan life had not then evolved. ?? 1986 Nature Publishing Group.

  13. Is China's fifth-largest inland lake to dry-up? Incorporated hydrological and satellite-based methods for forecasting Hulun lake water levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zuansi; Jin, Taoyong; Li, Changyou; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Zhang, Sheng; Ding, Aizhong; Li, Jiancheng

    2016-08-01

    Hulun Lake, China's fifth-largest inland lake, experienced severe declines in water level in the period of 2000-2010. This has prompted concerns whether the lake is drying up gradually. A multi-million US dollar engineering project to construct a water channel to transfer part of the river flow from a nearby river to maintain the water level was completed in August 2010. This study aimed to advance the understanding of the key processes controlling the lake water level variation over the last five decades, as well as investigate the impact of the river transfer engineering project on the water level. A water balance model was developed to investigate the lake water level variations over the last five decades, using hydrological and climatic data as well as satellite-based measurements and results from land surface modelling. The investigation reveals that the severe reduction of river discharge (-364 ± 64 mm/yr, ∼70% of the five-decade average) into the lake was the key factor behind the decline of the lake water level between 2000 and 2010. The decline of river discharge was due to the reduction of total runoff from the lake watershed. This was a result of the reduction of soil moisture due to the decrease of precipitation (-49 ± 45 mm/yr) over this period. The water budget calculation suggests that the groundwater component from the surrounding lake area as well as surface run off from the un-gauged area surrounding the lake contributed ∼ net 210 Mm3/yr (equivalent to ∼ 100 mm/yr) water inflows into the lake. The results also show that the water diversion project did prevent a further water level decline of over 0.5 m by the end of 2012. Overall, the monthly water balance model gave an excellent prediction of the lake water level fluctuation over the last five decades and can be a useful tool to manage lake water resources in the future.

  14. Analysis of water use strategies of the desert riparian forest plant community in inland rivers of two arid regions in northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. N.; Li, W. H.; Zhou, H. H.; Chen, Y. P.; Hao, X. M.; Fu, A. H.; Ma, J. X.

    2014-10-01

    Studies of the water use of the desert riparian forest plant community in arid regions and analyses of the response and adaptive strategies of plants to environmental stress are of great significance to the formulation of effective ecological conservation and restoration strategies. Taking two inland rivers in the arid regions of northwestern China, downstream of the Tarim River and Heihe River Basin as the research target regions, this paper explored the stem water potential, sap flow, root hydraulic lift, and characteristics of plant water sources of the major constructive species in the desert riparian forest, Populus euphratica and Tamarix ramosissima. Specifically, this was accomplished by combining the monitoring of field physiological and ecological indicators, and the analysis of laboratory tests. Then, the water use differences of species in different ecological environments and their ecological significance were analyzed. This study indicated that: (1) in terms of water sources, Populus euphratica and Tamarix ramosissima mainly used deep subsoil water and underground water, but the plant root system in the downstream of the Tarim River was more diversified than that in the downstream of the Heihe River in water absorption, (2) in terms of water distribution, Populus euphratica root possessed hydraulic lift capacity, but Populus euphratica root in the downstream of the Tarim River presented stronger hydraulic lift capacity and more significant ecological effect of water redistribution, (3) in terms of water transport, the plants in the downstream of the Heihe River can adapt to the environment through the current limiting of branch xylem, while plants in the downstream of the Tarim River substantially increased the survival probability of the whole plant by sacrificing weak branches and improving the water acquisition capacity of dominant branches; and (4) in terms of water dissipation, the water use and consumption of Populus euphratica at night exhibited

  15. Holocene changes in eastern equatorial Atlantic salinity as estimated by water isotopologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, G.; Sachs, J. P.; Kawka, O.; Schneider, R. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Holocene tropical North African monsoon evolution was controlled at first order by insolation, but the timing and trends of paleo-records sensitive to precipitation substantially differ upon proxies and locations. Salinity reconstructions based on Ba/Ca and δ18Osw from one marine sediment core recovered from the eastern equatorial Atlantic close to the Niger River mouth integrate rainfall changes over the river catchment located in the northern tropics, and indicate that the region was wetter during the mid-Holocene relative to the present (Weldeab et al., 2007). A closer look those salinity reconstructions which are derived from the same sedimentary sequence however indicates divergent salinity trends as estimated by Ba/Ca and δ18Osw for the late Holocene (Weldeab et al., 2007). In order to refine better the past changes in the regional hydrologic cycle, we have reevaluated salinity records by measuring δD of C37:2 alkenones from the same sedimentary sequence. A smooth, long-term increase of ~10% in δD between 10 and 3 kyr BP is followed by an equivalent but more rapid decrease between 3 kyr BP and core top, where the δD values are slightly lighter than during the early Holocene. Both δ18Osw and alkenone δD suggest a late Holocene sea surface salinity decrease based on the modern relationship between salinity and isotopic composition of seawater, and this result differs from the salinity record derived from Ba/Ca. We apply the method for reconstructing salinity using water isotopologues described in Rohling (2007) and in LeGrande and Schmidt (2011). The new salinity record derived from paired δ18Osw and alkenone δD modifies the salinity trends as estimated by oxygen and deuterium isotopic ratios alone and indicates monotonous salinity increases over the last 7 ka. This result is in better agreement with both the Ba/Ca salinity record and a pollen record from the Lake M'Balang (Cameroon) which reveals a progressive dessication in the region over the

  16. Fresh and saline ground-water zones in the Punjab region, West Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, W.V.

    1968-01-01

    An extensive program of test drilling and water sampling, undertaken by the Water and Soils Investigation Division (WASID) of the West Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) to evaluate hydrologic problems related to waterlogging and soil salinity, has furnished data for the delineation of fresh and saline ground-water zones in the Punjab region of West Pakistan. Fresh ground water containing generally less than 500 ppm (parts per million) of total dissolved solids is found in wide belts paralleling the major rivers and in other areas of ground-water recharge. The fresh groundwater zone of upper (northeastern) Rechna Doab, where annual precipitation in places exceeds 30 inches, is the most extensive of the Punjab region and attains a depth of 1,700 feet or more below land surface near Gujranwala. Fresh ground water adjacent to the Indus River extends locally to depths of about l,500 feet. Saline ground water occurs downgradient from sources of recharge, particularly in the central parts of the interfluvial areas. Also, available data indicate a gradual increase in mineralization with depth and distance from sources of fresh-water recharge. Thus, even extensive fresh-water zones appear to be underlain, at variable depths, by saline ground water in most of the Punjab region. The saline ground waters of the Punjab region do not constitute, however, a distinct salt-water body that can be defined in terms of stratigraphic position, sea-level datum, particular lithology, or by chemical character. The ground waters of the Punjab region are characterized by a gradation from calcium magnesium bicarbonate types, near the sources of recharge, to waters containing a dominant proportion of sodium. Water containing from 500 to 1,000 ppm is commonly of the sodium bicarbonate type, or it may be of the mixed type, having about equal proportions of the common anions (bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate). With increasing mineralization from about 1,000 to 3,000 ppm

  17. Saline sewage treatment and source separation of urine for more sustainable urban water management.

    PubMed

    Ekama, G A; Wilsenach, J A; Chen, G H

    2011-01-01

    While energy consumption and its associated carbon emission should be minimized in wastewater treatment, it has a much lower priority than human and environmental health, which are both closely related to efficient water quality management. So conservation of surface water quality and quantity are more important for sustainable development than green house gas (GHG) emissions per se. In this paper, two urban water management strategies to conserve fresh water quality and quantity are considered: (1) source separation of urine for improved water quality and (2) saline (e.g. sea) water toilet flushing for reduced fresh water consumption in coastal and mining cities. The former holds promise for simpler and shorter sludge age activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (no nitrification and denitrification), nutrient (Mg, K, P) recovery and improved effluent quality (reduced endocrine disruptor and environmental oestrogen concentrations) and the latter for significantly reduced fresh water consumption, sludge production and oxygen demand (through using anaerobic bioprocesses) and hence energy consumption. Combining source separation of urine and saline water toilet flushing can reduce sewer crown corrosion and reduce effluent P concentrations. To realize the advantages of these two approaches will require significant urban water management changes in that both need dual (fresh and saline) water distribution and (yellow and grey/brown) wastewater collection systems. While considerable work is still required to evaluate these new approaches and quantify their advantages and disadvantages, it would appear that the investment for dual water distribution and wastewater collection systems may be worth making to unlock their benefits for more sustainable urban development.

  18. Desalination and reuse of high-salinity shale gas produced water: drivers, technologies, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Devin L; Arias Chavez, Laura H; Ben-Sasson, Moshe; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-09-03

    In the rapidly developing shale gas industry, managing produced water is a major challenge for maintaining the profitability of shale gas extraction while protecting public health and the environment. We review the current state of practice for produced water management across the United States and discuss the interrelated regulatory, infrastructure, and economic drivers for produced water reuse. Within this framework, we examine the Marcellus shale play, a region in the eastern United States where produced water is currently reused without desalination. In the Marcellus region, and in other shale plays worldwide with similar constraints, contraction of current reuse opportunities within the shale gas industry and growing restrictions on produced water disposal will provide strong incentives for produced water desalination for reuse outside the industry. The most challenging scenarios for the selection of desalination for reuse over other management strategies will be those involving high-salinity produced water, which must be desalinated with thermal separation processes. We explore desalination technologies for treatment of high-salinity shale gas produced water, and we critically review mechanical vapor compression (MVC), membrane distillation (MD), and forward osmosis (FO) as the technologies best suited for desalination of high-salinity produced water for reuse outside the shale gas industry. The advantages and challenges of applying MVC, MD, and FO technologies to produced water desalination are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. We find that desalination for reuse of produced water is technically feasible and can be economically relevant. However, because produced water management is primarily an economic decision, expanding desalination for reuse is dependent on process and material improvements to reduce capital and operating costs.

  19. A model of the formation of high-salinity shelf water on polar continental shelves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grumbine, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    This study presents a model of the flow and salinity fields forced by sea-surface salinity flux and wind stress curl and examines the processes that create High-Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW). To investigate the relative effects of wind stress and buoyancy forcing in HSSW production, the polynya freezing rate in the model is varied from 0.0 to 0.30 m/d, and the Ekman pumping derived from the wind stress curl is varied independently from 0.0 to 1.8 x 10 exp 6 m/s. The Ekman pumping was found to control the magnitude of the circulation, while the polynya freezing rate controlled the extent of salinization in the shelf water. The flux of HSSW increases linearly with increasing Ekman pumping above 0.3 x 10 exp -6 m/s. The modeled flux of HSSW and the flux of derived Botttom Water for the present estimates of the forcings (a peak freezing rate of 0.10 m/d and Ekman pumping of 0.2 x 10 exp -6 m/s) agree with the fluxes inferred from physical and chemical observations in the deep Weddel Sea by oceanographic field programs.

  20. Nitrogen fertilization enhances water-use efficiency in a saline environment.

    PubMed

    Martin, Katherine C; Bruhn, Dan; Lovelock, Catherine E; Feller, Ilka C; Evans, John R; Ball, Marilyn C

    2010-03-01

    Effects of salinity and nutrients on carbon gain in relation to water use were studied in the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina, growing along a natural salinity gradient in south-eastern Australia. Tall trees characterized areas of seawater salinities (fringe zone) and stunted trees dominated landward hypersaline areas (scrub zone). Trees were fertilized with nitrogen (+N) or phosphorus (+P) or unfertilized. There was no significant effect of +P on shoot growth, whereas +N enhanced canopy development, particularly in scrub trees. Scrub trees maintained greater CO(2) assimilation per unit water transpired (water-use efficiency, WUE) and had lower nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE; CO(2) assimilation rate per unit leaf nitrogen) than fringe trees. The CO(2) assimilation rates of +N trees were similar to those in other treatments, but were achieved at lower transpiration rates, stomatal conductance and intercellular CO(2) concentrations. Maintaining comparable assimilation rates at lower stomatal conductance requires greater ribulose 1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity, consistent with greater N content per unit leaf area in +N trees. Hence, +N enhanced WUE at the expense of NUE. Instantaneous WUE estimates were supported by less negative foliar delta(13)C values for +N trees and scrub control trees. Thus, nutrient enrichment may alter the structure and function of mangrove forests along salinity gradients.

  1. Effectiveness of oil spill dispersants at low salinities and low water temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Lehtinen, C.M.; Vesala, V-A

    1982-10-01

    The effect of ambient low salinity and low temperature in the Baltic Sea on the effectiveness of dispersants was investigated in the laboratory using a MackayNadeau-Steelman apparatus. Three dispersants were tested on two oils (fresh and weathered crude) at different water temperatures (4, 12, and 15/sup 0/C) and different salinities (3, 7, and 12/sup 0//infinity). The results show a strong dependency on water temperature for all the dispersants tested, although one chemical was less sensitive than the others in this respect. The dispersants showed significant differences between their sensitivity to changes in salinity and in the relationships between effectiveness and dosage. The stability of the dispersion obtained seems to be influenced by both type of oil and water temperature, and some difference between the chemicals could be found also in this respect. The parameters studied strongly affected the performance of the dispersants. It is therefore essential to make a careful choice of dispersants for use in low salinity environments such as the Baltic Sea.

  2. The Determination of Trace Metals in Saline Waters and Biological Tissues Using the Heated Graphite Atomizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segar, D. A.

    1971-01-01

    A selective, volatalization technique utilizing the heated graphite atomizer atomic absorption technique has been developed for the analysis of iron in sea water. A similar technique may be used to determine vanadium, copper, nickel and cobalt in saline waters when their concentrations are higher than those normally encountered'in unpolluted sea waters. A preliminary solvent extraction using ammonium pyrolidine dithiocarbamate and methyl iso-butyl ketone permits the determination of a number of elements including iron, copper, zinc, nickel, cobalt and lead in sea water. The heated graphite atomized technique has also been applied to the determination of a range of trace transition elements in marine plant and animal tissues.

  3. The Determination of Trace Metals in Saline Waters and Biological Tissues Using the Heated Graphite Atomizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segar, D. A.

    1971-01-01

    A selective, volatalization technique utilizing the heated graphite atomizer atomic absorption technique has been developed for the analysis of iron in sea water. A similar technique may be used to determine vanadium, copper, nickel and cobalt in saline waters when their concentrations are higher than those normally encountered'in unpolluted sea waters. A preliminary solvent extraction using ammonium pyrolidine dithiocarbamate and methyl iso-butyl ketone permits the determination of a number of elements including iron, copper, zinc, nickel, cobalt and lead in sea water. The heated graphite atomized technique has also been applied to the determination of a range of trace transition elements in marine plant and animal tissues.

  4. Saline-water bioleaching of chalcopyrite with thermophilic, iron(II)- and sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Watling, Helen R; Collinson, David M; Corbett, Melissa K; Shiers, Denis W; Kaksonen, Anna H; Watkin, Elizabeth L J

    2016-09-01

    The application of thermoacidophiles for chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) bioleaching in hot, acidic, saline solution was investigated as a possible process route for rapid Cu extraction. The study comprised a discussion of protective mechanisms employed for the survival and/or adaptation of thermoacidophiles to osmotic stress, a compilation of chloride tolerances for three genera of thermoacidophiles applied in bioleaching and an experimental study of the activities of three species in a saline bioleaching system. The data showed that the oxidation rates of iron(II) and reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (tetrathionate) were reduced in the presence of chloride levels well below chloride concentrations in seawater, limiting the applicability of these microorganisms in the bioleaching of CuFeS2 in saline water.

  5. Soil and plant responses from land application of saline-sodic waters: Implications of management

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, G.F.; King, L.A.; Ganjegunte, G.K.

    2008-09-15

    Land application of co-produced waters from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) wells is one management option used in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana. Unfortunately the co-produced CBNG waters may be saline and/or sodic. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of irrigation with CBNG waters on soils and plants in the PRB. Soil properties and vegetation responses resulting from 1 to 4 yr of saline sodic water (electrical conductivity (EC) 1.6-4.8 dS m{sup -1} sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), 17-57 mmol L- applications were studied during 2003 and 2004 field seasons on sites (Ustic Torriorthent Haplocambid, Haplargid and Paleargid) representing native range grasslands seeded grass hayfields and alfalfa hayfields. Parameters measured from each irrigated site were compared directly with representative non-irrigated sites. Soil chemical and physical parameters including pH, EC, SAR, exchangeable sodium percent, texture, bulk density, infiltration and Darcy flux rates, were measured at various depth intervals to 120 cm. Mulitple-year applications of saline sodic water produced consistent trends of increased soil EC AND SAR values to depths of 30 cm reduced surface infiltration rates and lowered Darcy flux rates to 120 cm. Significant differences (p {le} 0.05) were determined between irrigated and non-irrigated areas for EC, SAR infiltration rates and Darcy flux (p {le} 0.10) at most sites. Saline sodic CBNG water applications significantly increased native perennial grass biomass production and cover on irrigated as compared with non-irrigated sites; however overall species evenness decreased. Biological effects were variable and complex reflecting site-specific conditions and water and soil management strategies.

  6. Influence of Ambient Current on the Temperature Increasing Rate of Bottom Cold Water in a Shelf Sea: a Case Study of the Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Guo, X.; Takeoka, H.

    2016-02-01

    Based on hydrographic data collected monthly from 1971 to 2000 in the Seto Inland Sea, a semi-enclosed shelf sea in the western Japan, the presence of bottom cold water (BCW) in summer was confirmed in several wide basins (called "Nada" in Japanese) inside the sea. The water temperature inside the BCW shows two types of increasing rates: a constant one from spring to summer in most wide basins but an acceleration from spring to summer in a specific wide basin named Iyo Nada. The causes for different increasing rate in the wide basins were analyzed with a numerical model that is able to reproduce the aforementioned phenomenon. Using model results, we calculated the advection and diffusion of heat for the BCWs in both horizontal and vertical directions. The intensification of horizontal advection of heat in the bottom layer was found to be the major cause for the acceleration of increasing rate of bottom water temperature in the Iyo Nada. Since the horizontal gradient of water temperature inside and outside the BCW does not change greatly from spring to summer, the intensification of horizontal advection of heat is therefore attributed to the intensification of subtidal current in the bottom layer. Numerical experiments show that the gradually intensified estuarine circulation from spring to summer that flows across the BCW in the Iyo Nada is the cause for the acceleration of increasing rate of water temperature inside the BCW. In other wide basins, the bottom estuarine circulation does not encounter the BCW, and therefore does not affect the increasing rate of water temperature inside the BCW. As the presence of BCW is a common phenomenon in stratified shallow waters,the influence of ambient subtidal current on it is likely an important process to understand its seasonal and interannual variations.

  7. Soil salinity: Irrigation practices and effects on crops and ground water. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the effect of saline irrigation waters on crops and groundwater. The salt tolerance of crops, including beans, grains, and citrus fruits, is examined. The salinity of soils, groundwater, and surface water is discussed, and the sources of brackish waters are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. The European land and inland water CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O balance between 2001 and 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Luyassaert, S; Abril, G; Andres, Robert Joseph; Bastviken, D; Bellassen, V; Bergamaschi, P; Bousquet, P; Chevallier, F; Ciais, P.; Dechow, R; Erb, K-H; Etiope, G; Fortems-Cheiney, A; Grassi, G; Hartmann, J; Jung, M.; Lathiere, J; Lohila, A; Mayorga, E; Moosdorf, N; Njakou, D; Otto, J; Papale, D.; Peters, W; Peylin, P; Raymond, Peter A; Rodenbeck, C; Saarnio, S; Schulze, E.-D.; Szopa, S; Thompson, R; Verkerk, P; Vuichard, N; Wang, R; Wattenbach, M; Zaehle, S

    2012-01-01

    Globally, terrestrial ecosystems have absorbed about 30% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions over the period 2000-2007 and inter-hemispheric gradients indicate that a significant fraction of terrestrial carbon sequestration must be north of the Equator. We present a compilation of the CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O balances of Europe following a dual constraint approach in which (1) a land-based balance derived mainly from ecosystem carbon inventories and (2) a land-based balance derived from flux measurements are compared to (3) the atmospheric data-based balance derived from inversions constrained by measurements of atmospheric GHG (greenhouse gas) concentrations. Good agreement between the GHG balances based on fluxes (1294 {+-} 545 Tg C in CO{sub 2}-eq yr{sup -1}), inventories (1299 {+-} 200 Tg C in CO{sub 2}-eq yr{sup -1}) and inversions (1210 {+-} 405 Tg C in CO{sub 2}-eq yr{sup -1}) increases our confidence that the processes underlying the European GHG budget are well understood and reasonably sampled. However, the uncertainty remains large and largely lacks formal estimates. Given that European net land to atmosphere exchanges are determined by a few dominant fluxes, the uncertainty of these key components needs to be formally estimated before efforts could be made to reduce the overall uncertainty. The net land-to-atmosphere flux is a net source for CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, because the anthropogenic emissions by far exceed the biogenic sink strength. The dual-constraint approach confirmed that the European biogenic sink removes as much as 205 {+-} 72 Tg C yr{sup -1} from fossil fuel burning from the atmosphere. However, This C is being sequestered in both terrestrial and inland aquatic ecosystems. If the C-cost for ecosystem management is taken into account, the net uptake of ecosystems is estimated to decrease by 45% but still indicates substantial C-sequestration. However, when the balance is extended from CO{sub 2} towards

  9. The European land and inland water CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O balance between 2001 and 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luyssaert, S.; Abril, G.; Andres, R.; Bastviken, D.; Bellassen, V.; Bergamaschi, P.; Bousquet, P.; Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Corazza, M.; Dechow, R.; Erb, K.-H.; Etiope, G.; Fortems-Cheiney, A.; Grassi, G.; Hartmann, J.; Jung, M.; Lathière, J.; Lohila, A.; Mayorga, E.; Moosdorf, N.; Njakou, D. S.; Otto, J.; Papale, D.; Peters, W.; Peylin, P.; Raymond, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saarnio, S.; Schulze, E.-D.; Szopa, S.; Thompson, R.; Verkerk, P. J.; Vuichard, N.; Wang, R.; Wattenbach, M.; Zaehle, S.

    2012-08-01

    Globally, terrestrial ecosystems have absorbed about 30% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions over the period 2000-2007 and inter-hemispheric gradients indicate that a significant fraction of terrestrial carbon sequestration must be north of the Equator. We present a compilation of the CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O balances of Europe following a dual constraint approach in which (1) a land-based balance derived mainly from ecosystem carbon inventories and (2) a land-based balance derived from flux measurements are compared to (3) the atmospheric data-based balance derived from inversions constrained by measurements of atmospheric GHG (greenhouse gas) concentrations. Good agreement between the GHG balances based on fluxes (1294 ± 545 Tg C in CO2-eq yr-1), inventories (1299 ± 200 Tg C in CO2-eq yr-1) and inversions (1210 ± 405 Tg C in CO2-eq yr-1) increases our confidence that the processes underlying the European GHG budget are well understood and reasonably sampled. However, the uncertainty remains large and largely lacks formal estimates. Given that European net land to atmosphere exchanges are determined by a few dominant fluxes, the uncertainty of these key components needs to be formally estimated before efforts could be made to reduce the overall uncertainty. The net land-to-atmosphere flux is a net source for CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O, because the anthropogenic emissions by far exceed the biogenic sink strength. The dual-constraint approach confirmed that the European biogenic sink removes as much as 205 ± 72 Tg C yr-1 from fossil fuel burning from the atmosphere. However, This C is being sequestered in both terrestrial and inland aquatic ecosystems. If the C-cost for ecosystem management is taken into account, the net uptake of ecosystems is estimated to decrease by 45% but still indicates substantial C-sequestration. However, when the balance is extended from CO2 towards the main GHGs, C-uptake by terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems is offset by emissions of non

  10. Effects of non-uniform root zone salinity on water use, Na+ recirculation, and Na+ and H+ flux in cotton.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangqiang; Luo, Zhen; Dong, Hezhong; Eneji, A Egrinya; Li, Weijiang

    2012-03-01

    A new split-root system was established through grafting to study cotton response to non-uniform salinity. Each root half was treated with either uniform (100/100 mM) or non-uniform NaCl concentrations (0/200 and 50/150 mM). In contrast to uniform control, non-uniform salinity treatment improved plant growth and water use, with more water absorbed from the non- and low salinity side. Non-uniform treatments decreased Na(+) concentrations in leaves. The [Na(+)] in the '0' side roots of the 0/200 treatment was significantly higher than that in either side of the 0/0 control, but greatly decreased when the '0' side phloem was girdled, suggesting that the increased [Na(+)] in the '0' side roots was possibly due to transportation of foliar Na(+) to roots through phloem. Plants under non-uniform salinity extruded more Na(+) from the root than those under uniform salinity. Root Na(+) efflux in the low salinity side was greatly enhanced by the higher salinity side. NaCl-induced Na(+) efflux and H(+) influx were inhibited by amiloride and sodium orthovanadate, suggesting that root Na(+) extrusion was probably due to active Na(+)/H(+) antiport across the plasma membrane. Improved plant growth under non-uniform salinity was thus attributed to increased water use, reduced leaf Na(+) concentration, transport of excessive foliar Na(+) to the low salinity side, and enhanced Na(+) efflux from the low salinity root.

  11. Water levels and salinities of water within the Evangeline Aquifer in an area southwest of Corpus Christi, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rettman, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Specific conductance, indicating the salinity of collected water samples, ranged from 940 micromhos per centimeter to 6,900 micromhos per centimeter. High values of specific conductance may be due to failure of well casings. Well casing failure is suspected in a few other wells also.

  12. Origins and distribution of saline ground waters in the Floridan Aquifer in coastal southwest Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinkampf, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-three ground-water samples from the Floridan aquifer in coastal southwest Florida show that water quality deteriorates to the south and west. The waters grade from a fresh calcium magnesium bicarbonate sulfate type to a very saline sodium magnesium chloride type downgradient. Bromide-chloride and specific conductance ratios indicate that dilution of marine-like ground water is a signigicant mechanism in the evolution of the different water types found. Calcium, magnesium , and bicarbonate concentrations occur within a relatively narrow range and are primarily a function of mineral equilibria. Magnesium and strontium concentration distributions suggest several mineral-water interactions, including aragonite inversion, incongruent solution of magnesium calcite to a lower magnesian form, and dedolomitization. Sulfate concentrations increase downgradient and evince gypsum-anhydrite solution, particularly in the fresher waters. The extent to which each factor affects dissolved specie concentrations is a function of the location of the water in the flow system. (USGS)

  13. Recovery of hydrophobicity of nylon aged by heat and saline water

    SciTech Connect

    Tokoro, Tetsuro; Hackam, R.

    1996-12-31

    The recovery of hydrophobicity of Nylon after aging by long exposure to a stress of saline water at different temperatures is investigated. The hydrophobicity is determined by measuring the contact angle of a droplet of distilled water on Nylon. The aging of Nylon was done by immersing it for up to 336 h in saline water solutions in the range 5.0 {times} 10{sup 5} {micro}S/cm. The aging temperatures were 0 to 98 C. After aging, the specimens were kept in air at room temperature for up to 4,500 h during which the recovery of hydrophobicity and weight changes were measured. Specimens were also kept in high vacuum for 20 h to determine the changes in the contact angle and in the weight with the absence of air.

  14. Study of the water transportation characteristics of marsh saline soil in the Yellow River Delta.

    PubMed

    He, Fuhong; Pan, Yinghua; Tan, Lili; Zhang, Zhenhua; Li, Peng; Liu, Jia; Ji, Shuxin; Qin, Zhaohua; Shao, Hongbo; Song, Xueyan

    2017-01-01

    One-dimensional soil column water infiltration and capillary adsorption water tests were conducted in the laboratory to study the water transportation characteristics of marsh saline soil in the Yellow River Delta, providing a theoretical basis for the improvement, utilization and conservation of marsh saline soil. The results indicated the following: (1) For soils with different vegetation covers, the cumulative infiltration capacity increased with the depth of the soil layers. The initial infiltration rate of soils covered by Suaeda and Tamarix chinensis increased with depth of the soil layers, but that of bare soil decreased with soil depth. (2) The initial rate of capillary rise of soils with different vegetation covers showed an increasing trend from the surface toward the deeper layers, but this pattern with respect to soil depth was relatively weak. (3) The initial rates of capillary rise were lower than the initial infiltration rates, but infiltration rate decreased more rapidly than capillary water adsorption rate. (4) The two-parameter Kostiakov model can very well-simulate the changes in the infiltration and capillary rise rates of wetland saline soil. The model simulated the capillary rise rate better than it simulated the infiltration rate. (5) There were strong linear relationships between accumulative infiltration capacity, wetting front, accumulative capillary adsorbed water volume and capillary height.

  15. Coordinating management of water, salinity and trace elements for cotton under mulched drip irrigation with brackish water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, M.; Chen, W.; Liang, X.

    2016-12-01

    Rational irrigation with brackish water can increase crop production, but irrational use may cause soil salinization. In order to understand the relationships among water, salt, and nutrient (including trace elements) and find rational schemes to manage water, salinity and nutrient in cotton fields, field and pot experiments were conducted in an arid area of southern Xinjiang, northwest China. Field experiments were performed from 2008 to 2015, and involved mulched drip irrigation during the growing season and flood irrigation afterwards. The average cotton yield of seven years varied between 3,575 and 5,095 kg/ha, and the irrigation water productivity between 0.91 and 1.16 kg/m3. With the progress of brackish water irrigation, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Na showed strong aggregation in topsoil at the narrow row, whereas the contents of Ca and K decreased in the order of inter-mulch gap, the wide inter row, and the narrow row. The contents of Cu, Fe, Mn, Ca and K in root soil reduced with cotton growth, whereas Na increased. Although mulched drip irrigation during the growing season resulted in an increase in salinity in the root zone, flood irrigation after harvesting leached the accumulated salts below background levels. Based on experiments a scheme for coordinating management of soil water, salt, and nutrient is proposed, that is, under the planting pattern of one mulch, two drip lines and four rows, the alternative irrigation plus a flood irrigation after harvesting or before seeding was the ideal scheme. Numerical simulations using solute transport model coupled with the root solute uptake based on the experiments and extended by another 20 years, suggest that the mulched drip irrigation using alternatively fresh and brackish water during the growing season and flood irrigation with fresh water after harvesting, is a sustainable irrigation practice that should not lead to soil salinization. Pot experiments with trace elements and different saline water showed

  16. Effects of high salinity from desalination brine on growth, photosynthesis, water relations and osmolyte concentrations of seagrass Posidonia australis.

    PubMed

    Cambridge, M L; Zavala-Perez, A; Cawthray, G R; Mondon, J; Kendrick, G A

    2017-02-15

    Highly saline brines from desalination plants expose seagrass communities to salt stress. We examined effects of raised salinity (46 and 54psu) compared with seawater controls (37psu) over 6weeks on the seagrass, Posidonia australis, growing in tanks with the aim of separating effects of salinity from other potentially deleterious components of brine and determining appropriate bioindicators. Plants survived exposures of 2-4weeks at 54psu, the maximum salinity of brine released from a nearby desalination plant. Salinity significantly reduced maximum quantum yield of PSII (chlorophyll a fluorescence emissions). Leaf water potential (Ψw) and osmotic potential (Ψπ) were more negative at increased salinity, while turgor pressure (Ψp) was unaffected. Leaf concentrations of K(+) and Ca(2+) decreased, whereas concentrations of sugars (mainly sucrose) and amino acids increased. We recommend leaf osmolarity, ion, sugar and amino acid concentrations as bioindicators for salinity effects, associated with brine released in desalination plant outfalls.

  17. Investigation of Lake Water Salinity by Using Four-Band Salinity Algorithm on WorldView-2 Satellite Image for a Saline Industrial Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budakoǧlu, Murat; Karaman, Muhittin; Damla Uça Avcı, Z.; Kumral, Mustafa; Geredeli (Yılmaz), Serpil

    2014-05-01

    Salinity of a lake is an important characteristic since, these are potentially industrial lakes and the degree of salinity can significantly be used for determination of mineral resources and for the production management. In the literature, there are many studies of using satellite data for salinity related lake studies such as determination of salinity distribution and detection of potential freshwater sources in less salt concentrated regions. As the study area Lake Acigol, located in Denizli (Turkey) was selected. With it's saline environment, it's the major sodium sulphate production resource of Turkey. In this study, remote sensing data and data from a field study was used and correlated. Remote sensing is an efficient tool to monitor and analyze lake properties by using it complementary to field data. Worldview-2 satellite data was used in this study which consists of 8 bands. At the same time with the satellite data acquisition, a field study was conducted to collect the salinity values in 17 points of the laker with using YSI 556 Multiparametre for measurements. The values were measured as salinity amount in grams per kilogram solution and obtained as ppt unit. It was observed that the values vary from 34 ppt - 40.1 ppt and the average is 38.056 ppt. In Thalassic serie, the lake was in mixoeuhaline state in the time of issue. As a first step, ATCOR correction was performed on satellite image for atmospheric correction. There were some clouds on the lake field, hence it was decided to continue the study by using the 12 sampling points which were clear on the image. Then, for each sampling point, a spectral value was obtained by calculating the average at a 11*11 neighborhood. The relation between the spectral reflectance values and the salinity was investigated. The 4-band algorithm, which was used for determination of chlorophyll-a distribution in highly turbid coastal environment by Wei (2012) was applied. Salinity α (Λi-1 / Λj-1) * (Λk-1 / Λm-1) (i

  18. Map of the approximate inland extent of saltwater at the base of the Biscayne aquifer in the Model Land Area of Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prinos, Scott T.

    2017-07-11

    The inland extent of saltwater at the base of the Biscayne aquifer in the Model Land Area of Miami-Dade County, Florida, was mapped in 2011. Since that time, the saltwater interface has continued to move inland. The interface is near several active well fields; therefore, an updated approximation of the inland extent of saltwater and an improved understanding of the rate of movement of the saltwater interface are necessary. A geographic information system was used to create a map using the data collected by the organizations that monitor water salinity in this area. An average rate of saltwater interface movement of 140 meters per year was estimated by dividing the distance between two monitoring wells (TPGW-7L and Sec34-MW-02-FS) by the travel time. The travel time was determined by estimating the dates of arrival of the saltwater interface at the wells and computing the difference. This estimate assumes that the interface is traveling east to west between the two monitoring wells. Although monitoring is spatially limited in this area and some of the wells are not ideally designed for salinity monitoring, the monitoring network in this area is improving in spatial distribution and most of the new wells are well designed for salinity monitoring. The approximation of the inland extent of the saltwater interface and the estimated rate of movement of the interface are dependent on existing data. Improved estimates could be obtained by installing uniformly designed monitoring wells in systematic transects extending landward of the advancing saltwater interface.

  19. Gelatin in replacement of bovine heart in feed training of Lophiosilurus alexandri in different water salinities.

    PubMed

    Salaro, Ana Lucia; Oliveira Junior, José C; Lima, Frederico W; Ferraz, Renato B; Pontes, Marcelo D; Campelo, Daniel A V; Zuanon, Jener A S; Luz, Ronald K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate commercial gelatin in the total replacement of bovine heart in feed training of "pacamã" Lophiosilurus alexandri in different water salinities. A completely randomized experimental design, in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, was performed using two types of moist ingredients (bovine heart and gelatin) and three water salinities (0.0; 2.0 and 4.0 g of salt L(-1)) with three replications. Juveniles (2.39 ± 0.08 cm standard length and 0.20 ± 0.03 g of weight) were conditioned to accept commercial diets by the technique of the gradual transition of ingredients. At the end of 36 days no differences were observed to weight gain, length gain and specific growth rate. The feed training efficiency was better (P < 0.05) with the gelatin use, 100.0%. There was a negative effect of salinity on the survival rate and management efficiency in the concentration of 4 g of salt L(-1), with values of 58.6 ± 12.0 % and 58.0 ± 12.0 %, respectively. Lophiosilurus alexandri juveniles could be feed-trained to accept commercial diets with gelatin in the total replacement of bovine heart in freshwater or salinity of 2 g of salt L(-1).

  20. Changing Water and Nitrogen Use Efficiency over Agricultural Lands of the Inland Pacific Northwest During the 21th Century: Implications for Adaptation and Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Malek, K.; Adam, J. C.; Stockle, C. O.; Rajagopalan, K.; Nelson, R.

    2014-12-01

    As water is the primary resource limitation for cropping systems over the inland Pacific Northwest (PNW), water use efficiency impacts regional water availability, crop yields, and net carbon sequestration. Furthermore, nitrogen (N) use efficiency affects the cost of farming and the total N flux to the environment (including leaching to aquatic ecosystems and greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere). Climate change affects water and nitrogen use efficiencies due to the combined effects of warming (reducing snowpack water storage, increasing ET, earlier leaf-on, shortening or lengthening plant growth season, etc.), the CO2 fertilization effects (increasing net primary productivity and leaf-level water and energy use efficiencies for C3 crops), and extreme climate events (drought and flood). Cropland conservation management (rotation, tillage, irrigation, and fertilization) is widely practiced in this region for maintaining high productivity of agricultural lands. To reduce vulnerability to weather extremes and long-term climate change, management regimes will likely need to be adapted for a changing environment. Here, we applied the coupled macro-scale hydrologic and crop growth model (VIC-CropSyst) to study how climate change in the 21st century will change water and nitrogen use efficiencies over the PNW. Simulation experiments with different combinations of management options and climate scenarios are used for attributing effects of climate factors and management options on long-term trends and fluctuations on water and nitrogen use efficiency. Preliminary simulation results indicate that there is a trend of decreasing water and nitrogen use efficiency over the inner PNW domain during the 21th century because of increasing ET, a seasonal shift in water availability, and the intensification of extreme climate events. Effective managements, including no-tillage and conservational tillage and optimized irrigation can eliminate the decrease or even increase water

  1. Assessment of limits and potentials of SWOT data for inland water bodies characterization and monitoring based on simulated data: Application to the Yangtze river complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesou, Herve; Blumstein, Denis; Uribe, Carlos; Cretaux, Jean Francois; Huber, Claire; Daillet, Sylviane; Giraud, Henri; Gennero, Marie-Claude

    2013-04-01

    Capability of altimetry to be a powerful tool for inland water surfaces survey has already been demonstrated. Therefore, the SWOT mission expected for 2020, due to its innovative concept in term of swath and INSAR technology, will provide a major improvement for the understanding of inland water bodies spatial and temporal behaviors allowing a large range of applications in terms of reservoirs monitoring, flood hydraulics as well as drought episode characterizations or wetlands mapping and monitoring. Within the CNES SURFAC SWOT programme, it is proposed to explore the potential and limits of SWOT data for water elevations maps derivation. To succeed in this task, SWOT data will be simulated thank to a JPL-CNES simulator, integrating HR DEM developed from Tandem X data and Pleiades HR tri-stereo set, collection of water masks acquired with a high temporal frequency up to 5 days, HR and VHR land cover masks, historical Altimetric mission measurements and in situ gauge measurements. The Yangzte watershed has been selected due to its unique characteristics and human, economic and biodiversity stakes. Indeed intermediate and lower reaches of the Yangtze can be schematized as 600km long, very narrow, ie 1 to 2km, reservoir, with about 15 to 20 meters of water height dynamic within a year. Yangtze river by itself can be resumed as a 1000 km long river, with a 1 km rived bed. One of interest of the area in term of SWOT mission assessment is the lakes; the two first fresh water bodies of China, Dongting and Poyang lakes, as well as the smaller Anhui province lakes. Dongting and Poyang lakes are connecting with Yangtze and are controlled by its behaviors. These lakes' surfaces vary from dry to wet season respectively from 500 to 2500 km2, and 700 to 3500 km2, with water height variations of about 5 to 12 meters. The Anhui lakes will be the smallest targeted water bodies within the project, with surfaces about 100 km2 and less, with a width of a few kilometers. One

  2. Responses of Baltic Sea Ice and Open-Water Natural Bacterial Communities to Salinity Change

    PubMed Central

    Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Laamanen, Maria; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the responses of Baltic Sea wintertime bacterial communities to changing salinity (5 to 26 practical salinity units), an experimental study was conducted. Bacterial communities of Baltic seawater and sea ice from a coastal site in southwest Finland were used in two batch culture experiments run for 17 or 18 days at 0°C. Bacterial abundance, cell volume, and leucine and thymidine incorporation were measured during the experiments. The bacterial community structure was assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes with sequencing of DGGE bands from initial communities and communities of day 10 or 13 of the experiment. The sea ice-derived bacterial community was metabolically more active than the open-water community at the start of the experiment. Ice-derived bacterial communities were able to adapt to salinity change with smaller effects on physiology and community structure, whereas in the open-water bacterial communities, the bacterial cell volume evolution, bacterial abundance, and community structure responses indicated the presence of salinity stress. The closest relatives for all eight partial 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained were either organisms found in polar sea ice and other cold habitats or those found in summertime Baltic seawater. All sequences except one were associated with the α- and γ-proteobacteria or the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group. The overall physiological and community structure responses were parallel in ice-derived and open-water bacterial assemblages, which points to a linkage between community structure and physiology. These results support previous assumptions of the role of salinity fluctuation as a major selective factor shaping the sea ice bacterial community structure. PMID:16085826

  3. Inland notches micromorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Anna; Ben-Binyamin, Atzmon; Shtober-Zisu, Nurit

    2017-04-01

    Inland notches are well known phenomenon in Israel and can be found mostly along the mountainous backbone, developed in hard limestone or dolomite rocks within the Mediterranean climate zone and up to the desert fringe. LiDAR technology presents an opportunity to study the fine scale rock surface within the notch and its texture patterns. De-trending of the LiDAR reconstructed DEM to a local trend, surface roughness, was achieved by fitting a normalized surface to all measured ground points within the roughness neighborhood. Micro-topography plays an important role for modelling geomorphology dynamics, resulting in improved estimates for micro stream lines network and topographic erosion as well as mineral accumulation or deposition. Clearly, dissolution occurs whenever rock and solvent meet; thus water and moisture's crucial role in the decay of carbonate rocks results in texture and roughness variability. Study aims is to generate high resolution normalized DEM models using a terrestrial LiDAR, redefining the texture and roughness within the notch while assessing weathering processes caused by water. Plan curvature is the second derivative of slope taken perpendicular to its direction. It influences convergence and divergence of flow and it emphasizes the ridges and valleys across the surface. Concaved classified areas were tested against all planar curvature areas to distinguish them as unique areas based on their texture co-occurrence measures (GLCM). Overall negative curvature pixels show poor separability, in both TD and JM separation tests, while classes of curvature degree describe a positive trend showing medium and high concavity as unique areas. Study aims to link classified areas as the basic micro infrastructure for water flow, potential runoff flow and further accumulation of minerals. On the other hand, positive values of Plan curvature present the convexity of rock surface to imply diverging flow, thus describing the watershed line within the micro

  4. "Using Satellite Remote Sensing to Derive Numeric Criteria in Coastal and Inland Waters of the United States"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, T. N.; Schaeffer, B. A.

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic nutrient pollution is a major stressor of aquatic ecosystems around the world. In the United States, states and tribes can adopt numeric water quality values (i.e. criteria) into their water quality management standards to protect aquatic life from eutrophication impacts. However, budget and resource constraints have limited the ability of many states and tribes to collect the water quality monitoring data needed to derive numeric criteria. Over the last few decades, satellite technology has provided water quality measurements on a global scale over long time periods. Water quality managers are finding the data provided by satellite technology useful in managing eutrophication impacts in coastal waters, estuaries, lakes, and reservoirs. In recent years EPA has worked with states and tribes to derive remotely sensed numeric Chl-a criteria for coastal waters with limited field-based data. This approach is now being expanded and used to derive Chl-a criteria in freshwater systems across the United States. This presentation will cover EPA's approach to derive numeric Chl-a criteria using satellite remote sensing, recommendations to improve satellite sensors to expand applications, potential areas of interest, and the challenges of using remote sensing to establish water quality management goals, as well as provide a case in which this approach has been applied.

  5. "Using Satellite Remote Sensing to Derive Numeric Criteria in Coastal and Inland Waters of the United States"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, T. N.; Schaeffer, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic nutrient pollution is a major stressor of aquatic ecosystems around the world. In the United States, states and tribes can adopt numeric water quality values (i.e. criteria) into their water quality management standards to protect aquatic life from eutrophication impacts. However, budget and resource constraints have limited the ability of many states and tribes to collect the water quality monitoring data needed to derive numeric criteria. Over the last few decades, satellite technology has provided water quality measurements on a global scale over long time periods. Water quality managers are finding the data provided by satellite technology useful in managing eutrophication impacts in coastal waters, estuaries, lakes, and reservoirs. In recent years EPA has worked with states and tribes to derive remotely sensed numeric Chl-a criteria for coastal waters with limited field-based data. This approach is now being expanded and used to derive Chl-a criteria in freshwater systems across the United States. This presentation will cover EPA's approach to derive numeric Chl-a criteria using satellite remote sensing, recommendations to improve satellite sensors to expand applications, potential areas of interest, and the challenges of using remote sensing to establish water quality management goals, as well as provide a case in which this approach has been applied.

  6. Land use change and its effects on water quality in typical inland lake of arid area in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hong; Zhou, Xiaode; Guo, Mengjing; Wei, Wu

    2016-07-01

    Land-use change is very important for determining and assessing the influence of human activity on aquatic environment of rivers and lakes. The present work with Bosten River basin as the subject, analyzes features of dynamic land-use change of the basin from 1993 to 2013, in order to study the influence of land-use pattern change on the basin water quality, according to the land-use/land-cover(LUCC) chart from 2000 to 2013 made by ArcGIS and ENVI. It shows cultivated land, wetland and forestland constitute most of Bosten River basin, taking up over 41.7% of the total; from 1993-2000, LUCC of the basin is relatively small, with an increase of cultivated land, residential-industry land, water wetlands by 15.09%-18.33%,most of which are transformed from forestland, grassland and unused land; from 2000-2013, LUCC of the basin is relatively significant, with a continuing and bigger increase of cultivated land and Residential-industry area, most of which are transformed from water wetlands and unused land. Based on analysis of landuse pattern and water quality index, it can be told that water pollution is positively correlated to cultivated land and residential-industry area and negatively correlated to water and grassland. Also, the influence of land-use pattern change on water quality has been discussed, whose finding can serve as the scientific evidence for land-use optimization and water pollution control.

  7. Effects of hypertonic saline infusion and water drinking on atrial peptide.

    PubMed

    Salazar, F J; Granger, J P; Joyce, M L; Burnett, J C; Bove, A A; Romero, J C

    1986-12-01

    This study was undertaken to define the changes in plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) induced by hypertonic saline infusion followed by spontaneous water drinking and to determine whether these changes in ANP are correlated with changes in right atrial pressure (RAP) and plasma levels of vasopressin (AVP). Conscious dogs (n = 5) were infused with hypertonic saline (6%) at a rate of 1.4 ml/min for 4 h. Water was withheld for the first 2 h and administered ad libitum for the final 2 h. Hypertonic saline infusion induced increases (P less than 0.05) in plasma osmolality (posM), pAVP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and RAP (1.9 +/- 0.6 to 3.1 +/- 0.7 mmHg). These changes were accompanied by an increase of pANP (68 +/- 14 to 120 +/- 33 pg/ml, P less than 0.05). Spontaneous water drinking (1,410 +/- 127 ml) returned posM and pAVP to control levels and produced a further and significant increment in RAP (150%) and pANP (100%). During the water-drinking phase MAP was not further altered, and hematocrit decreased by 11.1% (P less than 0.05). A positive linear correlation (P less than 0.001) was found between increases in RAP and pANP. The administration of an AVP vasopressor antagonist in a similar protocol, and before hypertonic saline infusion, inhibited the increase of MAP, but it did not alter the changes of posM, hematocrit, RAP, nor pANP. These results suggest that changes in the release of ANP during increases in posM and after spontaneous water drinking are predominantly controlled by changes in RAP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Scaling Leaves to Fluxes in a Well-Watered Saline Soil Peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runkle, B.; Liang, X.; Dracup, J.; Detto, M.; Baldocchi, D.

    2008-12-01

    This study investigates the role of soil salinity in modifying land surface fluxes in a California Bay-Delta peatlands pasture. It combines leaf gas exchange and soil salinity measurements in a soil-vegetation- atmosphere transfer model to move from the plant scale to the footprint of an eddy covariance tower. The close match between measured and modeled daytime carbon and water fluxes encourages numerical analyses and predictions for assessing the separate and joint effects of various drivers of and responses to climate change. The model examines the role of temperature, carbon dioxide concentration, soil water content, and soil salinity levels on the fundamental fluxes of carbon and water between the surface and the atmosphere. Incorporating both leaf gas exchange parameters and responses to soil salinity in the model are shown to be critical to accurate assessments of the diurnal cycles of the fluxes. Only by incorporating both sets of knowledge into the model are proper estimates of water use efficiency guaranteed. The model and data reveal, through rigorous sensitivity analysis, the resilience of the dominant landscape cover, Lepidium latifolium, to the drivers of and responses to climate change. This research is useful to regional water resources and land management planners, as the landscape is capable of generating very high evapotranspiration rates (up to 5 mm per day). Moreover, this land cover species is considered by the California Department of Agriculture a species of concern due to its ability to expand widely and create dense mono-specific stands that exclude other plants and impact the native ecological and agricultural plant communities. Understanding its response to climate change will be of critical importance in accurately assessing its control.

  9. Reclamation of highly calcareous saline-sodic soil using low quality water and phosphogypsum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharaibeh, M. A.; Rusan, M. J.; Eltaif, N. I.; Shunnar, O. F.

    2014-09-01

    The efficiency of two amendments in reclaiming saline sodic soil using moderately saline (EC) and moderate sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) canal water was investigated. Phosphogypsum (PG) and reagent grade calcium chloride were applied to packed sandy loam soil columns and leached with canal water (SAR = 4, and EC = 2.16 dS m-1). Phosphogypsum was mixed with top soil prior to leaching at application rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 35, 40 Mg ha-1, whereas calcium chloride was dissolved directly in water at equivalent rates of 4.25, 8.5, 12.75, 17.0, 21.25, 29.75, and 34 Mg ha-1, respectively. Both amendments efficiently reduced soil salinity and sodicity. Calcium chloride removed 90 % of the total Na and soluble salts whereas PG removed 79 and 60 %, respectively. Exchangeable sodium percentage was reduced by 90 % in both amendments. Results indicated that during cation exchange reactions most of the sodium was removed when effluent SAR was at maximum. Phosphogypsum has lower total costs than calcium chloride and as an efficient amendment an application of 30 Mg ha-1 and leaching with 4 pore volume (PV) of canal water could be recommended to reclaim the studied soil.

  10. A multicenter comparison of tap water versus sterile saline for wound irrigation.

    PubMed

    Moscati, Ronald M; Mayrose, James; Reardon, Robert F; Janicke, David M; Jehle, Dietrich V

    2007-05-01

    To compare wound infection rates for irrigation with tap water versus sterile saline before closure of wounds in the emergency department. The study was a multicenter, prospective, randomized trial conducted at two Level 1 urban hospitals and a suburban community hospital. Subjects were a convenience sample of adults presenting with acute simple lacerations requiring sutures or staples. Subjects were randomized to irrigation in a sink with tap water or with normal saline using a sterile syringe. Wounds were closed in the standard fashion. Subjects were asked to return to the emergency department for suture removal. Those who did not return were contacted by telephone. Wounds were considered infected if there was early removal of sutures or staples, if there was irrigation and drainage of the wound, or if the subject needed to be placed on antibiotics. Equivalence of the groups was met if there was less than a doubling of the infection rate. A total of 715 subjects were enrolled in the study. Follow-up data were obtained on 634 (88%) of enrolled subjects. Twelve (4%) of the 300 subjects in the tap water group had wound infections, compared with 11 (3.3%) of the 334 subjects in the saline group. The relative risk was 1.21 (95% confidence interval = 0.5 to 2.7). Equivalent rates of wound infection were found using either irrigant. The results of this multicenter trial evaluating tap water as an irrigant agree with those from previous single institution trials.

  11. Brackish Eutrophic Water Treatment by Iris pseudacorus L.-Planted Microcosms: Physiological Responses of Iris pseudacorus L. to Salinity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huilin; Wang, Fen; Ji, Min

    2015-01-01

    Iris pseudacorus L. has been widely used in aquatic ecosystem to remove nutrient and has achieved positive effects. However, little is known regarding the nutrient-removal performance and physiological responses of I. pseudacorus for brackish eutrophic water treatment due to high nutrients combined with certain salinity levels. In this study, I. pseudacorus-planted microcosms were established to evaluate the capacity of I. pseudacorus to remove excessive nutrients from fresh (salinity 0.05%) and brackish (salinity 0.5%) eutrophic waters. The degradation of total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen were not affected by 0.5% salinity; 0.5% salinity promoted the degradation of nitrate nitrogen while severely inhibited the degradation of total phosphorus. Additionally, 0.5% salinity was found to induce stress responses quantified by measuring six physiological indexes. Compared to 0.05% salinity, 0.5% salinity resulted in significant decreases in the chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll contents of I. pseudacorus which closely related to photosynthesis (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the higher proline, malondialdehyde contents and antioxidant enzyme activities were detected in I. pseudacorus exposed to 0.5% salinity, which provided protection against reactive oxygen species. The results highlight that the cellular stress assays are efficient for monitoring the health of I. pseudacorus in salinity shock-associated constructed wetlands.

  12. Development, Testing, and Application of a Coupled Hydrodynamic Surface-Water/Groundwater Model (FTLOADDS) with Heat and Salinity Transport in the Ten Thousand Islands/Picayune Strand Restoration Project Area, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Eric D.; Decker, Jeremy D.

    2009-01-01

    A numerical model application was developed for the coastal area inland of the Ten Thousand Islands (TTI) in southwestern Florida using the Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density-Dependent System (FTLOADDS) model. This model couples a two-dimensional dynamic surface-water model with a three-dimensional groundwater model, and has been applied to several locations in southern Florida. The model application solves equations for salt transport in groundwater and surface water, and also simulates surface-water temperature using a newly enhanced heat transport algorithm. One of the purposes of the TTI application is to simulate hydrologic factors that relate to habitat suitability for the West Indian Manatee. Both salinity and temperature have been shown to be important factors for manatee survival. The inland area of the TTI domain is the location of the Picayune Strand Restoration Project, which is designed to restore predevelopment hydrology through the filling and plugging of canals, construction of spreader channels, and the construction of levees and pump stations. The effects of these changes are simulated to determine their effects on manatee habitat. The TTI application utilizes a large amount of input data for both surface-water and groundwater flow simulations. These data include topography, frictional resistance, atmospheric data including rainfall and air temperature, aquifer properties, and boundary conditions for tidal levels, inflows, groundwater heads, and salinities. Calibration was achieved by adjusting the parameters having the largest uncertainty: surface-water inflows, the surface-water transport dispersion coefficient, and evapotranspiration. A sensitivity analysis did not indicate that further parameter changes would yield an overall improvement in simulation results. The agreement between field data from GPS-tracked manatees and TTI application results demonstrates that the model can predict the salinity and temperature

  13. Effects of water salinity on the correlation scale of Root density and Evapotranspiration fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajeel, Ali; Saeed, Ali; Dragonetti, Giovanna; Comegna, Alessandro; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Coppola, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Spatial pattern and the correlation of different soil and plant parameters were examined in a green bean field experiment carried out at the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari, Italy. The experiment aimed to evaluate the role of local processes of salt accumulation and transport which mainly influences the evapotranspiration (and thus the root uptake) processes under different water salinity levels. The experiment consisted of three transects of 30m length and 4.2 m width, irrigated with three different salinity levels (1dSm-1, 3dSm-1, 6dSm-1). Soil measurements (electrical conductivity and soil water content) were monitored along transects in 24 sites, 1 m apart by using TDR probes and Diviner 2000. Water